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Sample records for medicinal plants psidium

  1. Effects of two medicinal plants Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) and Diospyros mespiliformis L. (Ebenaceae) leaf extracts on rat skeletal muscle cells in primary culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belemtougri, R.G.; Constantin, B.; Cognard, C.; Raymond, G.; Sawadogo, L.

    2006-01-01

    Crude decoction, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of two medicinal plants (Psidium guajava and Diospyros mespiliformis), widely used in the central plateau of Burkina Faso to treat many diseases were evaluated for their antagonistic effects on caffeine induced calcium release from sarcoplasmic reticulum of rat skeletal muscle cells. These different extracts showed a decrease of caffeine induced calcium release in a dose dependent manner. Comparison of the results showed that Psidium guajava leaf extracts are more active than extracts of Diospyros mespiliformis and that crude decoctions show better inhibitory activity. The observed results could explaine their use as antihypertensive and antidiarrhoeal agents in traditional medicine, by inhibiting intracellular calcium release. PMID:16365927

  2. Antibacterial activity of eight medicinal plants against Diarrhoea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The studies involve the phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of leaf extracts eight medicinal plants. The selected plants were Timarindus indica, Guiera senegalensis, Prosopis africana, Deterium microcarpum, Citrus aurantifolia, Psidium guajava, Acacia nilotica and Momordica charantia. Methanolics and ...

  3. Antidiarrhoeal evaluation of some nigerian medicinal plants used bini traditional folk medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obuekwe, I.F.

    2008-01-01

    Four medicinal plants namely; Vernonia amygdalina, Psidium guajava, Chromolaena odorata and Anarcadium occidentale, commonly used for the treatment of diarrhoea in Bini traditional folk medicine in Nigeria were tested against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella aerogenes. The leaf extracts of P guajava and A occidentale completely inhibited the growth of all the organisms tested, while V amygdalina inhibited the growth of K. aerogenes only. Metronidazole was used as the standard antidiarrhoeal drug. Glycosides were found in all the plant extracts. This study, Favours the use of the leaf extracts of A occidentale, P guajava and V amygdalina for the treatment of diarrhoea in Nigeria. (author)

  4. Assessment of two medicinal plants, Psidium guajava L. and Achillea millefolium L., in in vitro and in vivo assays

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    Teixeira Rosangela de Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of medicinal plants by the general population is an old and still widespread practice, which makes studies of their genotoxicity essential. Psidium guajava L. and Achillea millefolium L. are examples of plants commonly used in popular medicine. P. guajava L. is indicated for diarrhea and also as an antiseptic, while A. millefolium L. is indicated as an analgesic, antispasmodic, digestive, diuretic, antiseptic, astringent, emollient, wound healer and hemorrhoid medication. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the infusions of these two plant species on chromosomes and the cell cycle. Leaves from the plants were used to prepare infusions, in the same manner as teas, but at two different concentrations. Allium cepa L. root-tip cells (P. guajava L. - 2.62 and 26.2 mg/mL, and A. millefolium L. - 3.5 and 35.0 mg/mL and Wistar rat bone marrow cells (P. guajava L. - 2.62 and 26.2 mg/100g body weight, and A. millefolium L. - 3.5 and 35.0 mg/100g body weight were used as in vivo plant and animal test systems, respectively. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes (P. guajava L. - 0.262 and 2.62 mg/mL culture medium, and A. millefolium L. - 0.35 and 3.5 mg/mL culture medium were used as in vitro test system. The P. guajava L. infusion at the higher concentration caused a statistically significant inhibition of cellular division in the onion root-tip cells, not observed in onion root-tip cells treated with A. millefolium L. No statistically significant alterations were found, as compared to untreated controls, in either the cell cycle or the number of chromosome alterations, after treatments with either plant, in rat cells or in cultured human lymphocytes. These results regarding the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of these plants provide valuable information about the safety of using them as therapeutic agents.

  5. Effects of Psidium guajava Leaf Infusion on Streptococci viridans

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    Hing Yi Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is recognized as the most important oral burden. It is caused by the formation of lactate acid formed through reaction of bacteria and carbohydrates. Streptococci viridans has been proven as the primary etiologic agents for dental caries. Low accessibility in oral care services leads the Indonesian community to use plants in order to prevent dental caries. One of those plants is Psidium guajava (pink guava. The leaves were suggested to have antimicrobial effects on some gram-positive bacteria. When the organism is resistant to specific substance tested on media, a circular/inhibition zone around a disc containing antimicrobial substance was formed. The purpose of this study was to identify the presence of inhibition zones by infusion of Psidium guajava leaf on Streptococci viridians in vitro. Methods: This laboratory experiment was carried out in September to October 2014 at the Microbiology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. Infusions of Psidium guajava leaf were made into four different concentrations (10%, 25%, 50% and 100%, respectively and the identification of inhibition zones on Streptococci viridans obtained from the laboratory was tested using modified disk diffusion test. Distilled water acted as negative control. The results were then interpreted after 24 hours of incubation. Every procedure was repeated three times. Results: All four concentrations of Psidium guajava leaf infusions have formed inhibition zones on the media, with the highest concentration (100% producing largest average diameter. Conclusions: The infusion of Psidium guajava leaf produces inhibition zones on Streptococci virdans in vitro.

  6. Triterpenoids from Psidium guajava with Biocidal Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, P.; Mandal, A.; Chakraborty, P.; Rasul, M. G.; Chakraborty, Madhumita; Saha, A.

    2010-01-01

    In continuation of our studies on the phytochemical investigation of medicinal plants available in the foothills of Darjeeling and Teri, we report herein the isolation of two triterpenoids betulinic acid and lupeol from the leaf extract of Psidium guajava and their potential antimicrobial and phytotoxic activities. All the structures of the isolated compounds were confirmed by spectral (IR, NMR) analysis and by comparison with the literature reports. PMID:21218065

  7. Sodium metabisulfite–induced polymerization of sickle cell hemoglobin incubated in the extracts of three medicinal plants (Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikezie, Paul Chidoka

    2011-01-01

    Background: The exploitation and utilization of vast varieties of herbal extracts may serve as alternative measures to deter aggregation of deoxygenated sickle cell hemoglobin (deoxyHbS) molecules. Objective: The present in vitro study ascertained the capacity of three medicinal plants, namely, Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa, to alter polymerization of HbS. Materials and Methods: Spectrophotometric method was used to monitor the level of polymerization of hemolysate HbS molecules treated with sodium metabisulfite (Na2 S2 O5) at a regular interval of 30 s for a period of 180 s in the presence of separate aqueous extracts of A. occidentale, P. guajava, and T. catappa. At time intervals of 30 s, the level of polymerization was expressed as percentage of absorbance relative to the control sample at the 180th s. Results: Although extracts of the three medicinal plants caused significant (P guajava exhibited the highest capacity to reduced polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules. Whereas at t > 60 s, extract concentration of 400 mg% of A. occidentale activated polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules by 6.23±1.34, 14.53±1.67, 21.15±1.89, and 24.42±1.09%, 800 mg% of T. catappa at t > 30 s gave values of 2.50±1.93, 5.09±1.96, 10.00±0.99, 15.38±1.33, and 17.31±0.97%. Conclusion: The capacity of the three medicinal plants to interfere with polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules depended on the duration of incubation and concentration of the extracts. PMID:21716622

  8. Analyzing clonal fidelity of micropropagated Psidium guajava L. plants using simple sequence repeat markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micropropagation of Psidium guajava L. (guava) is a viable alternative to currently adopted techniques for large-scale plant propagation of commercial cultivars. Assessment of clonal fidelity in micropropagated plants is the first step towards ensuring genetic uniformity in mass production of planti...

  9. Protective effect of Psidium guajava leaf extract on altered carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haseena Banu Hedayathullah; Shanmugavalli, R; Rajendran, Deepa; Bai, Mookambikai Ramya; Sorimuthu, Subramanian

    2013-12-01

    Psidium guajava is an important plant of high medicinal value and has been used in traditional systems of medicine against various ailments. The antidiabetic effect of the ethanolic extract of Psidium guajava leaves and also its protective effect on altered glucose metabolism was evaluated in streptozotocin (stz)-induced diabetic rat model. Diabetes was induced in rats by means of intraperitoneal injection of 50-mg/kg body weight (b.wt.) of stz. Diabetes-induced rats were randomly divided into two groups. One group of rats was treated with Psidium guajava leaf extract at a dosage of 300-mg/kg b.wt. and the other group of rats was treated with the standard drug glyclazide at a dosage of 5-mg/kg b.wt. for 30 days. The blood glucose levels, plasma insulin, Hb, HbA1c were measured. The effect on the drug on altered glucose metabolizing enzymes were also studied. Treatment with Psidium guajava extract showed a significant reduction in blood glucose and HbA1c levels and a significant increase in plasma insulin levels. The drug also significantly restored the activities of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes. This suggests that the potential antidiabetic effect of the ethanolic extract of the Psidium guajava leaves may be due to the presence of flavonoids and other phenolic components present in the drug.

  10. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants used in Xalpatlahuac, Guerrero, México.

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    Juárez-Vázquez, María del Carmen; Carranza-Álvarez, Candy; Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; González-Alcaraz, Violeta F; Bravo-Acevedo, Eliseo; Chamarro-Tinajero, Felipe Jair; Solano, Eloy

    2013-07-09

    Medicinal plants have been used for centuries for the empirical treatment of many diseases. This study documented the use of plant species in traditional medicine in the municipality of Xalpatlahuac, Guerrero, México. Direct interviews were performed with inhabitants from Xalpatlahuac. The interviews were analyzed with two quantitative tools: (a) the informant consensus factor (ICF) that estimates the level of agreement about which medicinal plants may be used for each category and (b) the relative importance (RI) that determines the extent of potential utilization of each species. A total of 67 plant species with medicinal purposes, belonging to 36 families and used to treat 55 illnesses and 3 cultural filiations were reported by interviewees. Nineteen mixtures with medicinal plants were reported by the interviewers. Mentha piperita was the most used plant for combinations (4 mixtures). The results of the ICF showed that diseases of the respiratory and digestive systems had the greatest agreement. The most versatile species according to their RI are Marrubium vulgare, Mimosa albida and Psidium guajava.. This study demonstrates that plant species play an important role in healing practices and magical-religious rituals among inhabitants from Xalpatlahuac, Guerrero, Mexico. Furthermore, pharmacological, phytochemical and toxicological studies with medicinal flora, including mixtures, are required for the experimental validation of their traditional uses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of antinociceptive activity of aqueous extract of bark of psidium guajava in albino rats and albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, N Chandra; Jayasree, T; Ubedulla, Shaikh; Dixit, Rohit; V S, Manohar; J, Shankar

    2014-09-01

    Psidium guajava is commonly known as guava. Psidium guajava is a medium sized tree belonging to the family Myrtaceae found throughout the tropics. All the parts of the plant, the leaves, followed by the fruits, bark and the roots are used in traditional medicine. The traditional uses of the plant are Antidiarrheal, Antimicrobial Activity, Antimalarial/Antiparasitic Activity, Antitussive and antihyperglycaemic. Leaves are used as Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antinociceptive effects. To evaluate the antinociceptive activity of aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava in albino rats with that of control and standard analgesic drugs aspirin and tramadol. Mechanical (Tail clip method) and thermal (Tail flick method using Analgesiometer), 0.6% solution of acetic acid writhing models of nociception were used to evaluate the extract antinociceptive activity. Six groups of animals, each consists of 10 animals, first one as control, second and third as standard drugs, Aspirin and Tramadol, fourth, fifth and sixth groups as text received the extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/ kg) orally 60 min prior to subjection to the respective test. The results obtained demonstrated that aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava produced significant antinociceptive response in all the mechanical and thermal-induced nociception models. AEPG antinociceptive activity involves activation of the peripheral and central mechanisms.

  12. Psidium guajava: A Single Plant for Multiple Health Problems of Rural Indian Population.

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    Daswani, Poonam G; Gholkar, Manasi S; Birdi, Tannaz J

    2017-01-01

    The rural population in India faces a number of health problems and often has to rely on local remedies. Psidium guajava Linn. (guava), a tropical plant which is used as food and medicine can be used by rural communities due to its several medicinal properties. A literature search was undertaken to gauge the rural health scenario in India and compile the available literature on guava so as to reflect its usage in the treatment of multiple health conditions prevalent in rural communities. Towards this, electronic databases such as Pubmed, Science Direct, google scholar were scanned. Information on clinical trials on guava was obtained from Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Clinicaltrial.gov. The literature survey revealed that guava possesses various medicinal properties which have been reported from across the globe in the form of ethnobotanical/ethnopharmacological surveys, laboratory investigations and clinical trials. Besides documenting the safety of guava, the available literature shows that guava is efficacious against the following conditions which rural communities would encounter. (a) Gastrointestinal infections; (b) Malaria; (c)Respiratory infections; (d) Oral/dental infections; (e) Skin infections; (f) Diabetes; (g) Cardiovascular/hypertension; (h) Cancer; (i) Malnutrition; (j) Women problems; (k) Pain; (l) Fever; (m) Liver problems; (n) Kidney problems. In addition, guava can also be useful for treatment of animals and explored for its commercial applications. In conclusion, popularization of guava, can have multiple applications for rural communities.

  13. Evaluation of Antinociceptive Activity of Aqueous Extract of Bark of Psidium Guajava in Albino Rats and Albino Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasree, T.; Ubedulla, Shaikh; Dixit, Rohit; V S, Manohar; J, Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Psidium guajava is commonly known as guava. Psidium guajava is a medium sized tree belonging to the family Myrtaceae found throughout the tropics. All the parts of the plant, the leaves, followed by the fruits, bark and the roots are used in traditional medicine. The traditional uses of the plant are Antidiarrheal, Antimicrobial Activity, Antimalarial/Antiparasitic Activity, Antitussive and antihyperglycaemic. Leaves are used as Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antinociceptive effects. Aim: To evaluate the antinociceptive activity of aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava in albino rats with that of control and standard analgesic drugs aspirin and tramadol. Materials and Methods: Mechanical (Tail clip method) and thermal (Tail flick method using Analgesiometer), 0.6% solution of acetic acid writhing models of nociception were used to evaluate the extract antinociceptive activity. Six groups of animals, each consists of 10 animals, first one as control, second and third as standard drugs, Aspirin and Tramadol, fourth, fifth and sixth groups as text received the extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/ kg) orally 60 min prior to subjection to the respective test. Results: The results obtained demonstrated that aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava produced significant antinociceptive response in all the mechanical and thermal-induced nociception models. Conclusion: AEPG antinociceptive activity involves activation of the peripheral and central mechanisms. PMID:25386462

  14. Microbial composition of guava (Psidium guajava), hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial composition of guava (Psidium guajava), hibiscus (Hibiscus-rosa sinensis), mango (Mangifera indica) and pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook) ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... The microbial genera isolated from this study showed that, both human and plant pathogens can colonize plants' phyllosphere.

  15. Psidium guajava: A review on its potential as an adjunct in treating periodontal disease

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    Ravi, K.; Divyashree, P.

    2014-01-01

    Plants for thousands of years have been used to enhance health and for medicinal purposes. Psidium guajava is one which has an enormous wealth of medicinal value. It for long has been known for its anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, antimutagenic properties. Despite of its widespread biologic uses there is a dearth of information on its therapeutic effect in the treatment of periodontal disease. Hence, this review is an attempt to highlight the potential of P. guajava in the treatment of periodontal disease. Internet databases PubMed, Google Scholar were searched and the most relevant articles were considered for review. PMID:25125881

  16. Refinement of the karyological aspects of Psidium guineense (Swartz, 1788): a comparison with Psidium guajava (Linnaeus, 1753).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Anelise Machado; Tuler, Amélia Carlos; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Carrijo, Tatiana Tavares; Ferreira, Marcia Flores da Silva; Clarindo, Wellington Ronildo

    2016-01-01

    Euploidy plays an important role in the evolution and diversification of Psidium Linnaeus, 1753. However, few data about the nuclear DNA content, chromosome characterization (morphometry and class) and molecular markers have been reported for this genus. In this context, the present study aims to shed light on the genome of Psidium guineense Swartz, 1788, comparing it with Psidium guajava Linnaeus, 1753. Using flow cytometry, the nuclear 2C value of Psidium guineense was 2C = 1.85 picograms (pg), and the karyotype showed 2n = 4x = 44 chromosomes. Thus, Psidium guineense has four chromosome sets, in accordance with the basic chromosome number of Psidium (x = 11). In addition, karyomorphometric analysis revealed morphologically identical chromosome groups in the karyotype of Psidium guineense. The high transferability of microsatellites (98.6%) further corroborates with phylogenetic relationship between Psidium guajava and Psidium guineense. Based on the data regarding nuclear genome size, karyotype morphometry and molecular markers of Psidium guineense and Psidium guajava (2C = 0.95 pg, 2n = 2x = 22 chromosomes), Psidium guineense is a tetraploid species. These data reveal the role of euploidy in the diversification of the genus Psidium.

  17. Psidium guajava 'Paluma' (the guava plant) as a new bio-indicator of ozone in the tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlan, C.M.; Moraes, R.M.; Bulbovas, P.; Domingos, M.; Salatino, A.; Sanz, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Psidium guajava 'Paluma' saplings were exposed to carbon filtered air (CF), ambient non-filtered air (NF), and ambient non-filtered air + 40 ppb ozone (NF + O 3 ) 8 h per day during two months. The AOT40 values at the end of the experiment were 48, 910 and 12 895 ppb h -1 , respectively for the three treatments. After 5 days of exposure (AOT40 = 1497 ppb h -1 ), interveinal red stippling appeared in plants in the NF + O 3 chamber. In the NF chamber, symptoms were observed only after 40 days of exposure (AOT40 = 880 ppb h -1 ). After 60 days, injured leaves per plant corresponded to 86% in NF + O 3 and 25% in the NF treatment, and the average leaf area injured was 45% in NF + O 3 and 5% in the NF treatment. The extent of leaf area injured (leaf injury index) was explained mainly by the accumulated exposure of ozone (r 2 = 0.91; p < 0.05). - Psidium guajava 'Paluma', a tropical species widely used in Brazilian food industry, is a potential sensitive bio-indicator of ozone

  18. IDENTIFICATION AND AUTHENTICATION OF DRY SAMPLES OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS USING LEAF EPIDERMAL FEATURES AS MARKER

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    Abdullahi Alanamu ABDULRAHAMAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine is the oldest and still the most widely used system of medicine in the world today and they are made exclusively from plants. However, most of these medicines or drugs are adulterated due to lack of proper identification of the plant samples. Method of checking adulteration of drug plants is the main focus of this study. The identification and authentication of dry samples of some medicinal plants were carried out using anatomical features. Twenty-five (25 plants materials were collected in Ibadan and Ilorin, Nigeria. The plants studied include Azardiracta indica, Newboudia leavis, Polyalthia longifolia, Cymbopogon citratus, Anarcardium occidentalis, Nicotiana tobbaccum, Jatropha curcas, Chromoleana odorata, Mangifera indica, Terminalia catappa, Ocimum gratisimum, Morus messosygia, Morinda lucida, Psidium guajava, Vitellaria paradoxa, Annona senegalensis, Vernonia amygdalina, Gliricidium sepium, Ravoulvia vomitora, Telferia occindentalis Citrus aurantifolia, C. limon, C. paradisi and C. sinensis. Leaf epidermal anatomy of these selected plants showed no major variations in stomatal complex types, frequency, size and shape of stomatal cells, epidermal cell wall and trichomes between fresh and dry samples. The variations that occur were between different species but not within species. Leaf epidermal anatomy, therefore, proved to be a significant tool for resolution of taxonomic confusion of dried samples of these plants.

  19. In-vitro antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Current strategies to overcome the global problem of antimicrobial resistance include research in finding new and innovative antimicrobials from plants. This study was carried out to determine the antibacterial activity of plant extracts of Olea africana stem-bark, Psidium guajava leaves, Vernonia amygdalina ...

  20. Root activity studies of guava plants (Psidium Quajava, L) using 32P radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Sahali Mardi; Bajuri Kadmin; Khairuddin, A. Rahim

    1988-01-01

    The study was conducted on two year old guava plants (Psidium guajava L.) grown on Bungor series soil (Typic paleudult) at the UTN Agricultural Experimental Plot, Bangi, Selangor. The active roots of these guava plants were found to be present in abundance at about 100 cm away from the base of the tree at a depth of 10 cm. Fertilizers could be applied in that area. Sampling of every fourth leaf (for young trees) for counting, to represent the 32 P counts in the leaves can be used in future studies. The leaves and branches (green parts) of guava also have a more consistent P contents, as compared to other parts. (author)

  1. SSR markers: a tool for species identification in Psidium (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuler, A C; Carrijo, T T; Nóia, L R; Ferreira, A; Peixoto, A L; da Silva Ferreira, M F

    2015-11-01

    Molecular DNA markers are used for detection of polymorphisms in individuals. As they are independent of developmental stage of the plant and environmental influences, they can be useful tools in taxonomy. The alleles of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers (or microsatellites) are traditionally used to identify taxonomic units. This application demands the laborious and costly delimitation of exclusive alleles in order to avoid homoplasy. Here, we propose a method for identification of species based on the amplification profile of groups of SSR markers obtained by a transferability study. The approach considers that the SSR are conserved among related species. In this context, using Psidium as a model, 141 SSR markers developed for Psidium guajava were transferred to 13 indigenous species of Psidium from the Atlantic Rainforest. Transferability of the markers was high and 28 SSR were conserved in all species. Four SSR groups were defined and they can help in the identification of all 13 Psidium species studied. A group of 31 SSR was genotyped, with one to six alleles each. The H0 varied from 0.0 to 0.46, and PIC from 0.0 to 0.74. Cluster analysis revealed shared alleles among species. The high percentage of SSR transferability found in Psidium evidences the narrow phylogenetic relationship existing among these species since transferability occurs by the preservation of the microsatellites and anchoring regions. The proposed method was useful for distinguishing the species of Psidium, being useful in taxonomic studies.

  2. Relationship between Psidium species (Myrtaceae) by resistance gene analog markers: focus on nematode resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noia, L R; Tuler, A C; Ferreira, A; Ferreira, M F S

    2017-03-16

    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) crop is severely affected by the nematode Meloidogyne enterolobii. Native Psidium species have been reported as sources of resistance against this nematode. Knowledge on the molecular relationship between Psidium species based on plant resistance gene analogs (RGA) can be useful in the genetic breeding of guava for resistance to M. enterolobii. In this study, RGA markers from conserved domains, and structural features of plant R genes, were employed to characterize Psidium species and establish genetic proximity, with a focus on nematode resistance. SSR markers were also applied owing to their neutral nature, thus differing from RGA markers. For this, species reported as sources of resistance to M. enterolobii, such as P. cattleianum and P. friedrichsthalianum, as well as species occurring in the Atlantic Rainforest and susceptible genotypes, were investigated. In 10 evaluated Psidium species, high interspecific genetic variability was verified through RGA and SSR markers, with intraspecific variation in P. guajava higher with SSR, as was expected. Resistant species were clustered by RGA markers, and differential amplicons among genotypes resistant and susceptible to M. enterolobii were identified. Knowledge on the molecular relationships between Psidium species constitutes useful information for breeding of the guava tree, providing direction for hybridization and material for rootstocks. Additionally, the genetic relationship between native species, which have been little studied, and P. guajava were estimated by RGAs, which were confirmed as important markers for genetic diversity related to pathogen resistance.

  3. Refinement of the karyological aspects of Psidium guineense (Swartz, 1788): a comparison with Psidium guajava (Linnaeus, 1753)

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Anelise Machado; Tuler, Am?lia Carlos; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Carrijo, Tatiana Tavares; Ferreira, Marcia Flores da Silva; Clarindo, Wellington Ronildo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Euploidy plays an important role in the evolution and diversification of Psidium Linnaeus, 1753. However, few data about the nuclear DNA content, chromosome characterization (morphometry and class) and molecular markers have been reported for this genus. In this context, the present study aims to shed light on the genome of Psidium guineense Swartz, 1788, comparing it with Psidium guajava Linnaeus, 1753. Using flow cytometry, the nuclear 2C value of Psidium guineense was 2C = 1.85 pi...

  4. Psidium guajava Linn confers gastro protective effects on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston Raja, N R; Sundar, K

    2012-02-01

    The best alternatives to synthetic medicines, available, for the treatment of gastric ulcer disorders, are the natural products found in plants. They are known to exhibit a variety of activities. The present study is aimed at the screening of Psidium (P.) guajava Linn for its gastro protective effect. The methanol extracts of the leaves of P. guajava were tested in three different ulcer models viz. aspirin (ASP), pyloric ligation (PL) and ethanol (EtoH) induced ulcer models in rats. The treatment of P. guajava at varying doses (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) significantly (p guajava may be responsible for the anti-ulcer property exhibited. The results further suggest that P. guajava possess gastro protective as well as ulcer healing properties which might also be due to its anti-secretory properties.

  5. Psidium guajava 'Paluma' (the guava plant) as a new bio-indicator of ozone in the tropics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlan, C.M. [Departamento de Botanica, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 11461, 05422-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: furlancm@yahoo.com.br; Moraes, R.M. [Instituto de Botanica, SMA, CP 4005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Bulbovas, P. [Departamento de Botanica, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 11461, 05422-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Domingos, M. [Instituto de Botanica, SMA, CP 4005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Salatino, A. [Departamento de Botanica, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 11461, 05422-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sanz, M.J. [Fundacion Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterraneo, C/C. Darwin, 14, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain)

    2007-06-15

    Psidium guajava 'Paluma' saplings were exposed to carbon filtered air (CF), ambient non-filtered air (NF), and ambient non-filtered air + 40 ppb ozone (NF + O{sub 3}) 8 h per day during two months. The AOT40 values at the end of the experiment were 48, 910 and 12 895 ppb h{sup -1}, respectively for the three treatments. After 5 days of exposure (AOT40 = 1497 ppb h{sup -1}), interveinal red stippling appeared in plants in the NF + O{sub 3} chamber. In the NF chamber, symptoms were observed only after 40 days of exposure (AOT40 = 880 ppb h{sup -1}). After 60 days, injured leaves per plant corresponded to 86% in NF + O{sub 3} and 25% in the NF treatment, and the average leaf area injured was 45% in NF + O{sub 3} and 5% in the NF treatment. The extent of leaf area injured (leaf injury index) was explained mainly by the accumulated exposure of ozone (r {sup 2} = 0.91; p < 0.05). - Psidium guajava 'Paluma', a tropical species widely used in Brazilian food industry, is a potential sensitive bio-indicator of ozone.

  6. Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using guava ( Psidium guajava) leaf extract and its antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Debadin; Chatterjee, Someswar

    2016-08-01

    Among the various inorganic nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles have received substantial attention in the field of antimicrobial research. For safe and biocompatible use of silver nanoparticles in antimicrobial research, the different biogenic routes are developed to synthesize silver nanoparticles that do not use toxic chemicals. Among those, to synthesize silver nanoparticles, the use of plant part extract becomes an emerging field because plant part acts as reducing as well as capping agent. For large-scale production of antibacterial silver nanoparticles using plant part, the synthesis route should be very simple, rapid, cost-effective and environment friendly based on easy availability and non-toxic nature of plant, stability and antibacterial potential of biosynthesized nanoparticles. In the present study, we report a very simple, rapid, cost-effective and environment friendly route for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using guava ( Psidium guajava) leaf extract as reducing as well as capping agent. This plant has been opted for the present study for its known medicinal properties, and it is easily available in all seasons and everywhere. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles are characterized by UV-Vis and TEM analysis. The average particle size is 40 nm in the range of 10-90 nm. The antibacterial activity of these nanoparticles against Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 741 has been measured by disc diffusion method, agar cup assay and serial dilution turbidity measurement assay. The results show that green synthesized silver nanoparticles, using guava ( Psidium guajava) leaf extract, have a potential to inhibit the growth of bacteria.

  7. Fingerprint profiles of flavonoid compounds from different Psidium guajava leaves and their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Wu, Yanan; Bei, Qi; Shi, Kan; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2017-10-01

    Flavonoids are the main active components in Psidium guajava leaves and have many multi-physiological functions. In this study, the flavonoid compositions were identified in the Psidium guajava leaves samples using a high-performance liquid chromatography with time-of-flight electrospray ionization mass spectrometry method. A high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprint method, combined with chemometrics, was used to perform a quality assessment of the Psidium guajava leaves samples. The eight identified flavonoid compounds including rutin, isoquercitrin, quercetin-3-O-β-d-xylopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-α-l-arabinopyranoside, avicularin, quercitrin, quercetin, and kaempferol were used as the chemical markers. The antioxidant activity of 15 batches of samples was examined using three different methods, and the results revealed the Psidium guajava leaves samples that had higher contents of the flavonoid compounds, glycoside and aglycone, possessed the highest antioxidant capacities. Consequently, a combination of chromatographic fingerprints and chemometric analyses was used for a quality assessment of Psidium guajava leaf tea and its derived products, which can lay the foundation for the development of plant tea resources or other herbs. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. In vivo analgesic activity, toxicity and phytochemical screening of the hydroalcoholic extract from the leaves of Psidium cattleianum Sabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Felipe Queiroz; Mota, Bárbara C F; Leite, Marcel N; Fonseca, Jaciara M S; Oliveira, Dario A; Royo, Vanessa de Andrade; e Silva, Márcio L A; Esperandim, Viviane; Borges, Alexandre; Laurentiz, Rosangela S

    2013-10-28

    Psidium cattleianum Sabine is extensively used in Brazilian traditional medicine to treat several diseases including painful disorders. Aim of the study to investigate the toxicity and the possible analgesic activities of the hydroalcoholic extract from the leaves of Psidium cattleianum Sabine (ELPCS), to support its use in folk medicine. To screen the major phytochemical constituents of this extract and evaluate their antioxidant activity. ELPCS was assessed for its antioxidant activity using the DPPH model. Its analgesic activity was examined using mouse models of acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate paw licking models. The major phytochemical constituents of the extract were screened; their toxicity on LLC-MK2 mammalian cells was evaluated. ELPCS exhibited significant peripheral analgesic activity at doses of 60, 80, 100, 200 and 400mg/kg in mice, but it did not display central analgesic activity and not was toxic to LLC-MK2 cell (LD50>400 µg/mL). The extract exhibited free radical scavenging activity as evidenced by IC50 values (15.9 µg/mL) obtained by the DPPH method. Phytochemical screening detected flavonoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones, and tannins. The results of the experimental studies proved the analgesic activity of ELPCS and supported the traditional use of this plant. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Phenolic composition and medicinal usage of Psidium guajava Linn.: Antifungal activity or inhibition of virulence?

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    Maria F.B. Morais-Braga

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Psidium guajava is a Myrtaceae plant whose medicinal properties are recognized in several locations. The use of teas and tinctures prepared from their leaves has been used to combat infections caused by fungi of the genus Candida. In this study, aqueous extracts of leaves and hydroethanolic were tested to verify the antifungal potential and its chemical composition has been investigated. The microbiological assays were performed by broth microdilution to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and from these the minimum fungicidal concentration was performed (MFC by subculturing on solid media. A cell viability curve was obtained for demonstration of inhibition of fungal growth of strains of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. Tests to check morphological changes by the action of the extracts were performed in microcultive cameras depleted environment at concentrations of MIC/2, MIC and MIC × 2. Extracts analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography demonstrated flavonoids and phenolic acids. The extracts showed fungistatic effect and no fungicide with MIC >8192 μg/mL, MFC above 8192 μg/mL. The IC50 was calculated ranging from 1803.02 to 5623.41 μg/mL. It has been found that the extracts affect the morphological transition capability, preventing the formation of pseudohyphae and hyphae. Teas and tinctures, therefore, have the potential antifungal, by direct contact, causing inhibition of fungal multiplication and its virulence factor, the cell dimorphism, preventing tissue invasion. Further studies are needed to elucidate the biochemical pathways and genes assets involved in these processes.

  10. [Spectroscopic characteristics of novel Psidium meroterpenoids isolated from guava leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wen; Zhu, Xiao-ai; Liu, Xiao-juan; Yie, Shu-min; Zhao, Litchao; Su, Lei; Cao, Yong

    2015-07-01

    Recently, novel Psidium meroterpenoids were reported in the guava leaves. According to careful analysis of the spectral data of literatures, the spectroscopic characteristics and biosynthetic pathway of Psidium meroterpenoids were summarized in this paper. The results showed that Psidium meroterpenoids had distinct spectroscopic features and reasonable biosynthetic routines, however the number order of carbon atoms was not consistent in the reported literatures. It was concluded that Psidium meroterpenoids were the characteristic chemical constituents of Psidium guajava Linn.

  11. Evaluation of antidiarrhoeal effects of Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae aqueous leaf extract in mice

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    H. R.N. Salgado

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    A crude aqueous extract of the leaves of the guava tree, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae, were studied for antidiarrhoeal effects, to place one of its traditional medical uses. The extract induced a decrease in the propulsive movements of the intestinal contents in mice. These findings suggested that an aqueous extract of guava leaves may be used as an effective treatment for non-specific diarrhoea in folk medicine. Keywords: Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae; in vivo test; guava tree; intestinal motility.

  12. High performance thin layer chromatography fingerprint analysis of guava (Psidium guajava) leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, M.; Darusman, L. K.; Rafi, M.

    2017-05-01

    High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint analysis is commonly used for quality control of medicinal plants in term of identification and authentication. In this study, we have been developed HPTLC fingerprint analysis for identification of guava (Psidium guajava) leaves raw material. A mixture of chloroform, acetone, and formic acid in the ratio 10:2:1 was used as the optimum mobile phase in HPTLC silica plate and with 13 bands were detected. As reference marker we chose gallic acid (Rf = 0.21) and catechin (Rf = 0.11). The two compound were detected as pale black bands at 366 nm after derivatization with sulfuric acid 10% v/v (in methanol) reagent. Validation of the method was met within validation criteria, so the developed method could be used for quality control of guava leaves.

  13. Proximate analysis, in vitro organic matter digestibility, and energy content of common guava (Psidium guajava L.) and yellow, strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum Var. lucidum) tree parts and fruits as potential forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Julie Ann Luiz; Arancon, Norman Q; Mathews, Bruce W; Carpenter, James R

    2012-10-24

    The nutrient composition of common guava, Psidium guajava L., and strawberry guava (waiwi), Psidium cattleianum var. lucidum, tree parts and fruits was determined during three seasons for six locations in Hawaii to assess guava as a potential feed for cattle. All guava plant parts were higher (p Guava leaves were higher in fiber and had lower energy densities (p Guava fruits were higher in CP (p guava is low in vitro organic matter digestibility as compared to tropical forage grasses; therefore, it is not recommended as a feedstock for livestock.

  14. In vivo anti-malarial potentials of some plants extracts on ICR-mice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five medicinal plants, Acacia nilotica (Fabaceae), Citrus aurantifolia (Rutaceae), Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae) Carica papaya (Caricaceae), and Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) used for the treatment of malaria/ fever by the Hausa people of Kano-Nigeria were selected based on their traditional claims. These were ...

  15. Psidium guajava L., from ethnobiology to scientific evaluation: Elucidating bioactivity against pathogenic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana B; Carneiro, Joara Nalyda P; Machado, Antonio Júdson T; Dos Santos, Antonia Thassya L; Sales, Débora L; Lima, Luciene F; Figueredo, Fernando G; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas M

    2016-12-24

    The use of popular plants has guided pharmaceutical research aimed at combating pathogenic microorganisms. Psidium guajava L. is a plant of great versatility and it has been used both as food and as a therapeutic agent. Root, bark, leaves, fruits, flowers and seeds are used for medicinal purposes, especially in infusions and decoctions for oral and topical use. P. guajava is utilized in symptomatology treatment related to organ malfunction and of diseases caused by the action of pathogenic and/or opportunistic microorganisms. Many pharmacological studies have been conducted to scientifically assess its therapeutic potential. The aim of the current study is to relate the popular use of this plant and its bioscientific assessment as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of diseases and symptoms caused by the action of protozoa, fungi, bacteria and viruses, and also evaluate the safety for the usage and the interaction with drugs. A bibliographic database the ethnobiology of Psidium guajava (2005-2015) and the pharmacological infections and parasitic diseases (2010-2015). Searches were done in scientific disclosure databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus. P. guajava leaf extracts were scientifically investigated for the treatment of diseases caused by protozoa (leishmaniasis, malaria, giardiasis, amoebiasis and trichomoniasis), fungi (dermatosis, systemic and mucocutaneous diseases), bacteria (respiratory, mucocutaneous and gastrointestinal infections, cholera, gastritis and stomach ulcers, oral and periodontal infections, venereal diseases and urinary infections) and viruses (herpes, influenza, rotavirus disease and AIDS). The toxicity assays indicates the safet for usage. Highlight and elucidate the therapeutic potential and versatility of P. guajava. They also justify using ethnobiology efficiency to guide pharmacological studies. Some limitations can be observed in this kind of study, as the lack for ethnobiological informations and the absence of some

  16. The Eschericia coli Growth Inhibition Activity of Some Fermented Medicinal Plant Leaf Extract from the Karo Highland, North Sumatra

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    NOVIK NURHIDAYAT

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A lot of traditional medicinal plant has antibacterial acitivities. Most of these plants are freshly chewed or grounded and used directly to treat infectious bacterial deseases. However, some practices employ a traditionally spontaneous fermentation on boiled extracted leaf, root or other parts of the plant. This work reports a laboratory stimulated spontaneous fermentation of leaf extracts from selected medicinal plants collected from the Karo Higland. The spontaenous fermentation was stimulated to be carried out by the Acetobacter xylinum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The anti-infectious agent activity was assayed on the Eschericia coli growth inhibition. A complementary non fermented leaf extract was also made and assayed as a comparative measure. Indeed, the fermented leaf extract of bitter bush (Eupatorium pallescens, cacao (Theobroma cacao, avocado (Persia gratissima, passion fruit (Passiflora edulis, cassava (Cassava utillissima, diamond flower (Hedyotis corymbosa, periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus, and gandarusa (Justicia gendarussa have relatively higher anti-E.coli acitivity than those of non fermented ones. However, there were no anti-E.coli activity was detected in both fermented and non fermented leaf extract of the guava (Psidium guajava and common betel (Piper nigrum.

  17. Hojas de Psidium guajava L Psidium guajava L. leaves

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    Rafael Rodríguez Amado

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la especie Psidium guajava L., se utiliza tradicionalmente como antidiarreico. Los pacientes rechazan la tintura 20% en las diarreas por su sabor desagradable. Objetivo: evaluar el estado del arte en la utilidad de los extractos de las hojas de esta especie. Métodos: se realizó una extensa revisión en bases de datos internacionales. Se revisaron las bases HighWire, DOAJ, EBSCO, Scielo, Scopus, Chemical abstract, Medline, PudMed, Pharmaceutical Abstract entre los años 1753 y 2012. Resultados: se reporta la composición química y existen ensayos preclínicos y clínicos que confirman actividad antidiarreica. No se reportan efectos tóxicos. Existen pocas formas farmacéuticas para esta especie. Conclusiones: las hojas de guayaba son inocuas. Hay que realizar más estudios para garantizar la eficacia. Se deben preparar otras variantes terapéuticas para su uso como antidiarreico.Introduction: the s Psidium guajava L. species (guava, is used traditionally as antidiarrheal. The patients reject the 20 % tincture because of its unpleasant flavor. Objective: to evaluate the state of the art in the usefulness of the guava leaf extracts. Methods: an extensive review of the national and international databases such as HighWire, DOAJ, EBSCO, Scielo, Scopus, Chemical abstract, Medline, PudMed Pharmaceutical Abstract from 1753 to 2012. Results: the chemical composition of the guava leaves was reported. There are preclinical and clinical assays that confirm their antidiarrheal effect. No toxic effects were reported. The pharmaceutical forms of this species are limited. Conclusions: the leaves of this plant are innocuous. It is necessary to conduct more studies to guarantee the effectiveness of this species. Other therapeutic variants of this species should be prepared to use them as antidiarrheal agents.

  18. Anti-inflammatory effects of an ethanolic extract of guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Mi; Jeong, Seung-Weon; Cho, Somi K; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Lee, Jong Hyun; Yang, Deok Chun; Kim, Jong-Chan

    2014-06-01

    Plant extracts have been used as a source of medicines for a wide variety of human ailments. Among the numerous traditional medicinal herbs, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), commonly known as guava, has long been used in folk medicines as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of numerous diseases in East Asian and other countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of an ethanolic leaf extract of P. guajava (guava) in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrated that guava leaf extract (GLE) significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 in a dose-dependent manner. GLE suppressed the expression and activity of both inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in part through the downregulation of ERK1/2 activation in RAW264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, GLE exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in 2 different animal models-Freund's complete adjuvant-induced hyperalgesia in the rat and LPS-induced endotoxic shock in mice.

  19. Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holetz, Fabíola Barbiéri; Pessini, Greisiele Lorena; Sanches, Neviton Rogério; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias

    2002-10-01

    Extracts of 13 Brazilian medicinal plants were screened for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts. Of these, 10 plant extracts showed varied levels of antibacterial activity. Piper regnellii presented a good activity against Staphylococus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, a moderate activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a weak activity against Escherichia coli. Punica granatum showed good activity on S. aureus and was inactive against the other standard strains. Eugenia uniflora presented moderate activity on both S. aureus and E. coli. Psidium guajava,Tanacetum vulgare, Arctium lappa, Mikania glomerata, Sambucus canadensis, Plantago major and Erythrina speciosa presented some degree of antibacterial activity. Spilanthes acmella, Lippia alba, and Achillea millefolium were considered inactive. Five of the plant extracts presented compounds with Rf values similar to the antibacterial compounds visible on bioautogram. Of these, three plants belong to the Asteraceae family. This may mean that the same compounds are responsible for the antibacterial activity in these plants. Anticandidal activity was detected in nine plant extracts (P. guajava, E. uniflora, P. granatum, A. lappa, T. vulgare, M. glomerata, L. alba, P. regnellii, and P. major). The results might explain the ethnobotanical use of the studied species for the treatment of various infectious diseases.

  20. Psiguajadials A-K: Unusual Psidium Meroterpenoids as Phosphodiesterase-4 Inhibitors from the Leaves of Psidium guajava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Gui-Hua; Dong, Zhen; Guo, Yan-Qiong; Cheng, Zhong-Bin; Zhou, Chu-Jun; Yin, Sheng

    2017-04-21

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Psidium guajava led to the isolation of 11 new Psidium meroterpenoids, psiguajadials A-K (1-11), along with 17 known ones (12-28). Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and comparison of experimental and calculated ECD. Compounds 1 and 2 represent two unprecedented skeletons of 3,5-diformyl-benzyl phloroglucinol-coupled sesquiterpenoid, while 3 is the first example of Psidium meroterpenoids coupling via an oxepane ring. Putative biosynthetic pathways towards 1 and 2 are proposed. Compounds 1-13 and 16-26 exhibited moderate inhibitory activities against phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4), a drug target for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, with IC 50 values in the range of 1.34-7.26 μM.

  1. Avaliação de acessos de Psidium spp. quanto à resistência a Meloidogyne enterolobii Assessment of Psidium spp. accessions for resistance to Meloidogyne enterolobii

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    Guilherme Bessa Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quarenta e sete acessos de Psidium spp. foram avaliados em casa de vegetação quanto à resistência a M. enterolobii, visando ao desenvolvimento de porta-enxertos e cultivares resistentes. Cinco a sete mudas de cada acesso foram produzidas por propagação vegetativa ou a partir de sementes e, no estádio de quatro pares de folhas, foram submetidas à inoculação com 500 ovos desse nematoide. Cento e trinta e cinco dias após, extraiu-se metade do sistema radicular das plantas (cortado ao longo de seu eixo longitudinal para extração de ovos. As mudas foram replantadas com as raízes restantes e mantidas vivas em casa de vegetação. As contagens de ovos foram feitas em três alíquotas de 1 mL/planta, e multiplicadas por dois para obtenção da população final (Pf. As Pf's de todas as alíquotas foram submetidas a ANOVA, a qual indicou diferenças significativas (pForty-seven accessions of Psidium spp. were evaluated under greenhouse conditions for resistance to M. enterolobii, as part of an effort to develop resistant rootstocks and cultivars. For each accession, five to seven plants were produced from stem cuttings or from true seeds and, at the stage of four pairs of leaves, they were inoculated with 500 nematode eggs. One hundred and thirty-five days later, the plants were removed from the pots and half of root system was processed for extraction of eggs. The plants were replanted with the remaining roots. The egg counts, obtained from three 1 mL aliquots per plant, were multiplied by two to obtain the final nematode population (Pf. The Pf values of all aliquots were submitted to ANOVA, which revealed significant differences among accessions and among plants of the same accession. The plants were classified as resistant or susceptible based on the reproduction factor (RF = Pf/500. All plants of cattley guava (P. cattleyanum (accessions 115 and 116 were resistant (RF <1 to M. enterolobii, while other Psidium spp. presented some plants

  2. Investigation on the effects of guava (Psidium guajava L.) infusions on germination, root tips and meristematic cells of Latuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luber, Jaquelini; Palmieri, Marcel J; Botelho, Carolina M; Rinaldo, Daniel; Andrade-Vieira, Larissa F

    2015-01-01

    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a plant often employed in popular medicine. Recently several studies have alerted about the toxicity of substances present in medicinal plants, which can pose risks to the human health. In this sense, the present work aimed to investigate the phytotoxic, cytotoxic and genotoxic action of three guava varieties - Paluma, Pedro Sato and Roxa ("purple") - on the plant test system Lactuca sativa L. Thus, macro- and microscopic evaluations were carried out for five infusion concentrations (2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0 and 40.0 g.L(-1)) prepared from each variety. Distilled water was used as negative control. Chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis by HPLC-PAD indicated that the chemical composition of the infusion of Roxa is different than that of the infusions of the varieties Paluma and Pedro Sato. It was observed that seed germination and root growth in L. sativa exposed to infusions decreased with increasing infusion concentration, regardless of the tested cultivar. For the mitotic index, no statistical differences were observed. On the other hand, a significant increase in the frequency of cell cycle alterations was verified, especially for the highest concentrations tested. The cytogenotoxic effect was significant. Therefore, guava should not be used indiscriminately in popular medicine.

  3. Investigation on the effects of guava (Psidium guajava L. infusions on germination, root tips and meristematic cells of Latuca sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaquelini Luber

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Guava (Psidium guajava L. is a plant often employed in popular medicine. Recently several studies have alerted about the toxicity of substances present in medicinal plants, which can pose risks to the human health. In this sense, the present work aimed to investigate the phytotoxic, cytotoxic and genotoxic action of three guava varieties - Paluma, Pedro Sato and Roxa ("purple" - on the plant test system Lactuca sativa L. Thus, macro- and microscopic evaluations were carried out for five infusion concentrations (2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0 and 40.0 g.L-1 prepared from each variety. Distilled water was used as negative control. Chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis by HPLC-PAD indicated that the chemical composition of the infusion of Roxa is different than that of the infusions of the varieties Paluma and Pedro Sato. It was observed that seed germination and root growth in L. sativa exposed to infusions decreased with increasing infusion concentration, regardless of the tested cultivar. For the mitotic index, no statistical differences were observed. On the other hand, a significant increase in the frequency of cell cycle alterations was verified, especially for the highest concentrations tested. The cytogenotoxic effect was significant. Therefore, guava should not be used indiscriminately in popular medicine.

  4. Psidium guajava L. and Psidium brownianum Mart ex DC.: Chemical composition and anti - Candida effect in association with fluconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana B; Sales, Débora L; Carneiro, Joara Nalyda P; Machado, Antonio Júdson T; Dos Santos, Antonia Thassya L; de Freitas, Maria Audilene; Martins, Gioconda Morais de A Bezerra; Leite, Nadghia Figueiredo; de Matos, Yedda Maria L S; Tintino, Saulo R; Souza, Djair S L; Menezes, Irwin R A; Ribeiro-Filho, Jaime; Costa, José G M; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2016-06-01

    The therapeutic combinations have been increasingly used against fungal resistance. Natural products have been evaluated in combination with pharmaceutical drugs in the search for new components able to work together in order to neutralize the multiple resistance mechanisms found in yeasts from the genus Candida. The aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts from Psidium brownianum Mart ex DC. and Psidium guajava L. species were evaluated for their potential to change the effect of commercial pharmaceutical drugs against Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis strains. The tests were performed according to the broth microdilution method. Plate readings were carried out by spectrophotometry, and the data generated the cell viability curve and IC50 of the extracts against the yeasts. A chemical analysis of all the extracts was performed for detection and characterization of the secondary metabolites. The total phenols were quantified in gallic acid eq/g of extract (GAE/g) and the phenolic composition of the extracts was determined by HPLC. Fluconazole and all extracts presented high Minimum Inhibitories Concentrations (MICs). However, when associated with the extracts at sub-inhibitory concentrations (MIC/16), fluconazole had its effect potentiated. A synergistic effect was observed in the combination of fluconazole with Psidium brownianum extracts against all Candida strains. However, for Psidium guajava extracts the synergistic effect was produced mainly against the Candida albicans LM77 and Candida tropicalis INCQS 400042 strains. The IC50 values of fluconazole ranged from 19.22 to 68.1 μg/mL when it was used alone, but from 2.2 to 45.4 μg/mL in the presence of the extracts. The qualitative chemical characterization demonstrated the presence of phenols, flavonoids and tannins among the secondary metabolites. The concentration of total phenols ranged from 49.25 to 80.77 GAE/g in the P. brownianum extracts and from 68.06 to 82.18 GAE/g in the P. guajava extracts

  5. Cytotoxicity of 18 Cameroonian medicinal plants against drug sensitive and multi-factorial drug resistant cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaveng, Armelle T; Manekeng, Hermione T; Nguenang, Gaelle S; Dzotam, Joachim K; Kuete, Victor; Efferth, Thomas

    2018-08-10

    Recommendations have been made stating that ethnopharmacological usages such as immune and skin disorders, inflammatory, infectious, parasitic and viral diseases should be taken into account if selecting plants for anticancer screening, since these reflect disease states bearing relevance to cancer or cancer-like symptoms. Cameroonian medicinal plants investigated in this work are traditionally used to treat cancer or ailments with relevance to cancer or cancer-like symptoms. In this study, 21 methanol extracts from 18 Cameroonian medicinal plants were tested in leukemia CCRF-CEM cells, and the best extracts were further tested on a panel of human cancer cell lines, including various multi-drug-resistant (MDR) phenotypes. Mechanistic studies were performed with the three best extracts. Resazurin reduction assay was used to evaluate cytotoxicity and ferroptotic effects of methanol extracts from different plants. Flow cytometry was used to analyze cell cycle, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) of extracts from Curcuma longa rhizomes (CLR), Lycopersicon esculentum leaves (LEL), and Psidium guajava bark (PGB). In a pre-screening of all extracts, 13 out of 21 (61.9%) had IC 50 values below 80 µg/mL. Six of these active extracts displayed IC 50 values below 30 µg/mL: Cola pachycarpa leaves (CPL), Curcuma longa rhizomes (CLR), Lycopersicon esculentum leaves, Persea americana bark (PAB), Physalis peruviana twigs (PPT) and Psidium guajava bark (PGB). The best extracts displayed IC 50 values from 6.25 µg/mL (against HCT116 p53 -/- ) to 10.29 µg/mL (towards breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231-BCRP cells) for CLR, from 9.64 µg/mL (against breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells) to 57.74 µg/mL (against HepG2 cells) for LEL and from 1.29 µg/mL (towards CEM/ADR5000 cells) to 62.64 µg/mL (towards MDA-MB-231 cells) for PGB. CLR and PGB induced apoptosis in CCRF-CEM cells via caspases activation, MMP depletion

  6. Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases

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    Fabíola Barbiéri Holetz

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of 13 Brazilian medicinal plants were screened for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts. Of these, 10 plant extracts showed varied levels of antibacterial activity. Piper regnellii presented a good activity against Staphylococus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, a moderate activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a weak activity against Escherichia coli. Punica granatum showed good activity on S. aureus and was inactive against the other standard strains. Eugenia uniflora presented moderate activity on both S. aureus and E. coli. Psidium guajava,Tanacetum vulgare, Arctium lappa, Mikania glomerata, Sambucus canadensis, Plantago major and Erythrina speciosa presented some degree of antibacterial activity. Spilanthes acmella, Lippia alba, and Achillea millefolium were considered inactive. Five of the plant extracts presented compounds with Rf values similar to the antibacterial compounds visible on bioautogram. Of these, three plants belong to the Asteraceae family. This may mean that the same compounds are responsible for the antibacterial activity in these plants. Anticandidal activity was detected in nine plant extracts (P. guajava, E. uniflora, P. granatum, A. lappa, T. vulgare, M. glomerata, L. alba, P. regnellii, and P. major. The results might explain the ethnobotanical use of the studied species for the treatment of various infectious diseases.

  7. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Psidium Guajava Leaves on Liver Enzymes, Histological Integrity and Hematological Indices in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uboh, Friday E.; Okon, Iniobong E.; Ekong, Moses B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase(AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin and total protein levels, as well as the tissue histological assay are known to be useful in assessing the functional integrity of the liver. Also, assessment of red and white blood cells count, hematocrit and hemoglobin concentrations is useful in determining the effect of some chemical substances on hemotopoietic system. In recent times, reports from medicinal plants research indicate that extracts from some plants are both hepatotoxic and hematotoxic, while others on the other hand are reported to be hepatoprotective and hematopoietic in action. This study considers the effects of aqueous extract of Psidium guajava (P. guajava) leaves on the histology and biochemical indices of liver function as well as hematological indices in rats. Methods In this study, phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract of P. guajava leaves was carried out. Also, male and female rats were administered with 200 mg/kg body weight oral daily doses of aqueous extract of P. guajava leaves for a period of 30 days. At the end of the administration period, the rats were anaesthesized with chloroform vapors and dissected for the collection of blood and liver tissues which were used for the hematopoietic and liver functions investigations. Results Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the plant leaves showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, polyphenols, reducing compounds, saponins and tannins. Liver function tests revealed that the serum ALT, AST and ALP, as well as the concentrations of total protein and albumin in male and female rats were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by the oral administration of the extract. Histopathological study also did not show any adverse alteration in the morphological architecture of the liver tissues in both sexes of the animal model. However, red blood cell counts, hemotocrit and hemoglobin concentrations increased

  8. Genetic characterization of guava (psidium guajava l.) Germplasm in the United States using microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic diversity of thirty five Psidium guajava accessions maintained at the USDA, National Plants Germplasm System, Hilo, HI, was characterized using 20 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Diversity analysis detected a total of 178 alleles ranging from four to 16. The observed mean heterozygosit...

  9. Antioxidant Potential of Different Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Vasanthi P; Parameswari CS

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are the resource of new drug. Most of the modern medicines are produced indirectly from medicinal plants. Plants are directly used as medicines by a majority of cultures around the world. Studying medicinal plants helps to understand plant toxicity and protect human and animals from natural poisons. Medicinal plants are the important sources for pharmaceutical manufacturing. In developing countries, herbal medicines are considered to be readily available, accessible, affordab...

  10. La multiplication végétative du goyavier Psidium guayava L. sous climat soudano sahélien du nord Cameroun

    OpenAIRE

    Hamasselbé, A.

    2005-01-01

    Vegetative Propagation of Guyava Psidium L. Guavaya under Sudano Sahelian Climate in the North Cameroon. Goyava (Psidium guajava L.) is a fruit tree, which is well suited to the climate of north Cameroon. After three years of mass selection at Kismatari fruit tree research station, release into farmers' fields of the high yielding selected plant material was not possible due to lake of multiplication techniques adapted to the agro-climatic conditions of this fruit tree station. Preliminary re...

  11. Medicinal plants of Lorestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahla ahmadi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Collection and determination of medicinal plants in Lorestan province have been carried out for 6 years in the agriculture and natural resources research of center of Lorestan. The aims of this study were collection and identification the medicinal plans that grow in Loretta province, their distribution, habitat, traditional uses, utilized organ, manner of usage, botany specification, local name, Persian name and scientific name. Material and methods: Medicinal plants were collected from different regions by using field and library study for these goals we prepared a list of recorded medicinal plants from Lorestan, identified the local herbal experts. Results: Finally we collected 151 medicinal plant identified that related to 63 families and 90 genuses. The Lamiaceae, Compositae, Legominosae , Liliaceae, Umbelliferae and . Rosaceae are the greatest family in the Lorestan province. Diction: According to the literature 96 medicinal plans were recorded from Lorestan, but during this study we collected and identified 151 medicinal plants in Lorestan province. Comparing with those that recorded from Bushehr 70 sp.(9, Hormozgan 113 sp.(10, Markazi 144 sp. And Kordestan 144 sp(11. We have more diversity but comparing with Zanjan 163 sp.(13, Hamedan 315 sp.(14 And Qazvin 250 sp.(15 We have less diversity in medicinal plants.

  12. La multiplication végétative du goyavier Psidium guayava L. sous climat soudano sahélien du nord Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamasselbé, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetative Propagation of Guyava Psidium L. Guavaya under Sudano Sahelian Climate in the North Cameroon. Goyava (Psidium guajava L. is a fruit tree, which is well suited to the climate of north Cameroon. After three years of mass selection at Kismatari fruit tree research station, release into farmers' fields of the high yielding selected plant material was not possible due to lake of multiplication techniques adapted to the agro-climatic conditions of this fruit tree station. Preliminary results of vegetative propagation trials showed that grafting and aerial layering are not practicable at Kismatari station. Terrestrial layering is the most adapted multiplication technique for a massive production of homogeneous plant material to meet research and farmers' needs.

  13. Medicinal plants used by the people of Nsukka Local Government Area, south-eastern Nigeria for the treatment of malaria: An ethnobotanical survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoh, Uchenna E; Uzor, Philip F; Eze, Chidimma L; Akunne, Theophine C; Onyegbulam, Chukwuma M; Osadebe, Patience O

    2018-05-23

    Malaria is a serious public health problem especially in sub-Saharan African countries such as Nigeria. The causative parasite is increasingly developing resistance to the existing drugs. There is urgent need for alternative and affordable therapy from medicinal plants which have been used by the indigenous people for many years. This study was conducted to document the medicinal plant species traditionally used by the people of Nsukka Local Government Area in south-eastern Nigeria for the treatment of malaria. A total of 213 respondents, represented by women (59.2%) and men (40.8%), were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. The results were analysed and discussed in the context of previously published information on anti-malarial and phytochemical studies of the identified plants. The survey revealed that 50 plant species belonging to 30 botanical families were used in this region for the treatment of malaria. The most cited families were Apocynaceae (13.3%), Annonaceae (10.0%), Asteraceae (10.0%), Lamiaceae (10.0%), Poaceae (10.0%), Rubiaceae (10.0%) and Rutaceae (10.0%). The most cited plant species were Azadirachta indica (11.3%), Mangifera indica (9.1%), Carica papaya (8.5%), Cymbopogon citratus (8.5%) and Psidium guajava (8.5%). The present findings showed that the people of Nsukka use a large variety of plants for the treatment of malaria. The identified plants are currently undergoing screening for anti-malarial, toxicity and chemical studies in our laboratory. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Psidium guajava leaves decrease arthritic symptoms in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanif Nasiatul Baroroh

    2016-04-01

    Psidium guajava leaf extract is effective in decreasing the inflammatory response and arthritic symptoms in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis. Psidium guajava leaves can be developed into an alternative anti-arthritis treatment.

  15. Ethnopharmacological survey about medicinal plants utilized by herbalists and traditional practitioner healers for treatments of diarrhea in the West Bank/Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Nidal Amin; Ayesh, Ola Ibrahim; Anderson, Cynthia

    2016-04-22

    Folk herbal medicine knowledge and its utilization by aboriginal cultures are not only useful for conservation of cultural traditions and biodiversity, but also useful for community healthcare and drug discovery in the present and in the future. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, an ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used for treatment of diarrhea in the West Bank/Palestine was investigated. Information about fifty medicinal plants used for treatment of diarrhea, including the names of plants, parts used, mode and methods of preparation was obtained from 100 traditional healers and herbalists. This research is the first scientific work in the Middle East to collect data about plants used by traditional healers for treatments of diarrhea and their evidence based effects against this disease. The fidelity levels were 97% for Salvia fruticosa, Teucrium polium and Musa paradisiaca, 95% for Camellia sinensis and Aegle marmelos, 79% for Oryza sativa and Solanum tuberosum, 77% for Quercus boissieri, 66% for Psidium guajava, 56% for Anthemis palestina, 54% for Solanum nigrum and 52% for Juglans regia while the highest use and choice values were for S. fruticosa, T. polium and M. paradisiaca as well as the factor of informant's consensus for medicinal plants used for treatment of diarrhea was 0.505.The leaves were the most commonly used parts, followed by fruits, roots and rhizomes, while decoctions and infusions are the preferred methods of preparation. The Palestinian traditional medicine is rich with herbal remedies for treatment of diarrhea in comparison with other countries, but most of these herbal remedies lack standard in-vitro and in-vivo evaluations to establish their antidiarrheal effects. Therefore, the information obtained can serve as a basis for further phytochemical and pharmacological studies to determine their efficacy and safety which might contribute to a better integration of Palestinian traditional medicine into the national health

  16. Morfogenesis Dan Fisiologis Ketuaan Buah Jambu Bangkok (Psidium Guajava L.)

    OpenAIRE

    SUTARNO, H; RASYANI, R

    1987-01-01

    H. SUTARNO & R. RASYANI. 1987. Morphogeneses and physiological maturity of jambu bangkok (Psidium guajava L.) fruits.Berita Biologi 3(7) : 326 - 329. Studies on nVorphogeneses and physiological maturity of jampu bangkok fruits were carried out from grown i plants in Bogor. Fruits developed from oval to round and nerly egg shape with fruit diameter at about 100 - 110 mm for 18 - 25 weeks. Moisture content and softness of fruits increased slowly at the early time of ripening, but respiration ra...

  17. Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  18. Medicinal plant recipes from Kırklareli

    OpenAIRE

    Kültür, Şükran

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: In this study, have been reported different medicinal plant recipesin the Kırklareli region. 15 medicinal plant recipes belonging to 20 families (20wild plant species, 7 cultivated plant species) which were used for different medicinalpurposes by local people have been recorded totally 27 plant species in thearea. Traditional medicinal plant recipes have been mostly used for the traetmentof cough, cold and influenza.Key words: Ethnobotany, Kırklareli, Turkey, medicinal plant.

  19. Effects of medicinal plant extracts on growth of Leishmania (L. amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi Efeito de extratos de plantas medicinais no crescimento de Leishmania (L. amazonensis e Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Shima Luize

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the screening of extracts obtained from 19 species of plants used in Brazilian traditional medicine for treatment of a variety of diseases. The extracts were tested against axenic amastigote and promastigote forms of Leishmania (L. amazonensis, and epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro at a concentration of 100 mg/ml. Baccharis trimera, Cymbopogon citratus, Matricaria chamomilla, Mikania glomerata, Ocimum gratissimum, Piper regnellii, Prunus domestica, Psidium guajava, Sambucus canadensis, Stryphnodendron adstringens, Tanacetum parthenium, and Tanacetum vulgare showed significant effects against one or both parasites, with a percentage of growth inhibition between 49.5 and 99%. The extracts showed no cytotoxic effect on sheep erythrocytes. These medicinal plants may be sources of new compounds that are clinically active against L. amazonensis and T. cruzi.Este estudo descreve a triagem de extratos obtidos de 19 espécies de plantas usadas na medicina tradicional brasileira para o tratamento de várias doenças. Os extratos foram testados contra formas amastigota axênica e promastigota de Leishmania (L. amazonensis, e formas epimastigota de Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro na concentração de 100 mg/ml. Baccharis trimera, Cymbopogon citratus, Matricaria chamomilla, Mikania glomerata, Ocimum gratissimum, Piper regnellii, Prunus domestica, Psidium guajava, Sambucus canadensis, Stryphnodendron adstringens, Tanacetum parthenium, e Tanacetum vulgare apresentaram efeito significante contra um ou ambos parasitas, com a porcentagem de inibição de crescimento entre 49,5 e 99%. Os extratos não mostraram efeito citotóxico em hemácias de carneiro. Essas plantas medicinais podem ser fontes alternativas de novos compostos clinicamente ativos contra L. amazonensis e T. cruzi.

  20. Metal Analysis in Citrus Sinensis Fruit Peel and Psidium Guajava Leaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Anju; Nanda, Arun; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2011-01-01

    The determination of metal traces is very important because they are involved in biological cycles and indicate high toxicity. The objective of the present study is to measure the levels of heavy metals and mineral ions in medicinally important plant species, Citrus sinensis and Psidium guajava. This study investigates the accumulation of Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Aluminum (Al), Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Selenium (Se) and inorganic minerals like Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) in C. sinensis (sweet orange) fruit peel and P. guajava (guava) leaf, to measure the levels of heavy metal contamination. Dried powdered samples of the plants were digested using wet digestion method and elemental determination was done by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation and analysed by student's ‘t’ test. Values are considered significant at P guajava leaves were within the acceptable limits for human consumption. The order of concentration of elements in both the samples showed the following trend: Mg > Ca > Al > Zn > Cu > Cd > Hg = As = Se. The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves was significantly low and below detection limit. The content of toxic metals in tested plant samples was found to be low when compared with the limits prescribed by various authorities (World Health Organization, WHO; International Centre for Materials Research, ICMR; American Public Health Association, APHA). The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves was not detectable and met the appropriate safety standards. In conclusion, the tested plant parts taken in the present study were found to be safe. PMID:21976824

  1. Guadial A and psiguadials C and D, three unusual meroterpenoids from Psidium guajava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Meng; Wang, Ying; Jian, Yu-Qing; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Tang, Qing-Fa; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Sun, Xue-Gang; Lv, Zhi-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2012-10-19

    The first monoterpene-based meroterpenoid (1) and two novel sesquiterpene-based ones (2 and 3) with unprecedented skeletons were isolated from the leaves of Psidium guajava. Their structures with absolute configuration were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic studies. A plausible biosynthetic pathway for all meroterpenoids from the title plant is also proposed. Compounds 2 and 3 showed significant cytotoxicity toward HepG2 and HepG2/ADM cells.

  2. Effect of the aqueous extract of Psidium guajava on erythromycin-induced liver damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambo, N; Garba, S H; Timothy, H

    2009-12-01

    The effect of Psidium guajava extract on erythromycin-induced liver damage in albino rats was investigated using 30 normal rats grouped into six. Group I and II served as the normal and treatment controls that were administered with normal saline and 100 mg/kg body weight of erythromycin stearate daily for 14 days respectively. Rats in group III were administered 450 mg/kg body weight of Psidium guajava only for 7 days while rats in groups IV, V and VI were administered Psidium guajava extract for 7 days and 100mg/kg body weight of erythromycin for 14 days. Histopathological investigation of the liver tissues revealed striking oedema and mild periportal mononuclear cell infiltration of hepatic cords in the liver of rats administered 100 mg/kg of erythromycin stearate and 300/450 mg/kg of Psidium guajava extract. Pretreatment with 150 mg/kg of Psidium guajava extract showed a slight degree of protection against the induced hepatic injury caused by 100 mg/kg of erythromycin stearate. Biochemical analysis of the serum obtained revealed a significant increase in serum levels of hepatic enzymes measured in the groups administered with 100 mg/kg of erythromycin stearate and 300/450 mg/kg of Psidium guajava extract compared to the control groups and those pretreated with 150 mg/kg of Psidium guajava extract. This study has shown that the aqueous extract of psidium guajava leaf possesses hepatoprotective property at lower dose and a hepatotoxic property at higher dose but further studies with prolonged duration is recommended.

  3. Anti-Trypanosoma, anti-Leishmania and cytotoxic activities of natural products from Psidium brownianum Mart. ex DC. and Psidium guajava var. Pomifera analysed by LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Celestina Elba Sobral; da Silva, Ana Raquel Pereira; Gomez, Maria Celeste Vega; Rolóm, Míriam; Coronel, Cathia; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Sousa, Amanda K; Rolim, Larissa A; de Souza, Francisco Hugo Sobral; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo

    2017-12-01

    Neglected diseases are those that are prevalent in developing countries, even with a rich biodiversity. These diseases still persist because of the lack of scientific studies, government negligence or failures of the public health system. This study aims to identify the composition of extracts and fractions from Psidium brownianum and Psidium guajava through LC-MS, to evaluate its in vitro anti-parasitic and cytotoxic activity against Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania brasiliensis and L. infantum epismastigote and promastigote forms, as well as mammalian cells. The results showed the presence of chemical constituents in the two Psidium species as quercetin, myricetin and gallic acid derivatives. The P. brownianum extract and fractions showed low toxicity at all tested concentrations and all samples were effective at the concentration of 1000μg/mL against the parasites, with the extract being the most efficient against the L. infantum promastigote form. The ethanolic extract, and the flavonoid and tannic fractions, from P. guajava showed low toxicity for the fibroblasts. All samples showed effectiveness at the highest concentration tested and the extract was more effective against the promastigote forms tested. The results showed that the species Psidium brownianum and Psidium guajava demonstrated an anti-parasitic activity against the T. cruzi, L. brasiliensis and L. infantum parasite cell lines indicating these species as an alternative therapy given their efficacy in the in vitro assays performed, opening the possibility for new biological studies to further this knowledge through in vivo assays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Research progress of genetic engineering on medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Zhong-qiu; Shen, Ye

    2015-02-01

    The application of genetic engineering technology in modern agriculture shows its outstanding role in dealing with food shortage. Traditional medicinal plant cultivation and collection have also faced with challenges, such as lack of resources, deterioration of environment, germplasm of recession and a series of problems. Genetic engineering can be used to improve the disease resistance, insect resistance, herbicides resistant ability of medicinal plant, also can improve the medicinal plant yield and increase the content of active substances in medicinal plants. Thus, the potent biotechnology can play an important role in protection and large area planting of medicinal plants. In the development of medicinal plant genetic engineering, the safety of transgenic medicinal plants should also be paid attention to. A set of scientific safety evaluation and judgment standard which is suitable for transgenic medicinal plants should be established based on the recognition of the particularity of medicinal plants.

  5. Anthelmintic effect of Psidium guajava and Tagetes erecta on wild-type and Levamisole-resistant Caenorhabditis elegans strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña-Vázquez, Denia M; Mayoral-Peña, Zyanya; Gómez-Sánchez, Maricela; Salazar-Olivo, Luis A; Arellano-Carbajal, Fausto

    2017-04-18

    Psidium guajava and Tagetes erecta have been used traditionally to treat gastrointestinal parasites, but their active metabolites and mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. To evaluate the anthelmintic potential of Psidium guajava and Tagetes erecta extracts on Levamisole-sensitive and Levamisole-resistant strains of the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Aqueous extracts of Psidium guajava (PGE) and Tagetes erecta (TEE) were assayed on locomotion and egg-laying behaviors of the wild-type (N2) and Levamisole-resistant (CB193) strains of Caenorhabditis elegans. Both extracts paralyzed wild-type and Levamisole-resistant nematodes in a dose-dependent manner. In wild-type worms, TEE 25mg/mL induced a 75% paralysis after 8h of treatment and PGE 25mg/mL induced a 100% paralysis after 4h of treatment. PGE exerted a similar paralyzing effect on N2 wild-type and CB193 Levamisole-resistant worms, while TEE only partially paralyzed CB193 worms. TEE 25mg/mL decreased N2 egg-laying by 65% with respect to the untreated control, while PGE did it by 40%. Psidium guajava leaves and Tagetes erecta flower-heads possess hydrosoluble compounds that block the motility of Caenorhabditis elegans by a mechanism different to that of the anthelmintic drug Levamisole. Effects are also observable on oviposition, which was diminished in the wild-type worms. The strong anthelmintic effects in crude extracts of these plants warrants future work to identify their active compounds and to elucidate their molecular mechanisms of action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Medicinal plants with hepatoprotective activity in Iranian folk medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Asadi-Samani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of medicinal combinations in the Iranian traditional medicine which are commonly used as tonic for liver. In this review, we have introduced some medicinal plants that are used mainly for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine, with focus on their hepatoprotective effects particularly against CC14 agent. In this study, online databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct were searched for papers published from January 1970 to December 2013. Search terms consisted of medicinal plants, traditional medicine, folk medicine, hepatoprotective, Iran, liver, therapeutic uses, compounds, antioxidant, CC14, anti-inflammatory, and antihepatotoxic, hepatitis, alone or in combination. Allium hirtifolium Boiss., Apium graveolens L., Cynara scolymus, Berberis vulgaris L., Calendula officinalis, Nigella sativa L., Taraxacum officinale, Tragopogon porrifolius, Prangos ferulacea L., Allium sativum, Marrubium vulgare, Ammi majus L., Citrullus lanatus Thunb, Agrimonia eupatoria L. and Prunus armeniaca L. are some of the medicinal plants that have been used for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine. Out of several leads obtained from plants containing potential hepatoprotective agents, silymarin, β-sitosterol, betalain, neoandrographolide, phyllanthin, andrographolide, curcumin, picroside, hypophyllanthin, kutkoside, and glycyrrhizin have been demonstrated to have potent hepatoprotective properties. Despite encouraging data on possibility of new discoveries in the near future, the evidence on treating viral hepatitis or other chronic liver diseases by herbal medications is not adequate.

  7. Medicinal plants: traditions and study prospects (devoted to the 100th anniversary of establishing the Experimental Station of Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. С. Дем’янюк

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Historical review was done concerning the formation and development of scientific research of the Experimental Station of Medicinal Plants over the period 1916–2016. The main stages of experimenting in the direction of “medicinal plant cultivation’’ in Ukraine were covered. Role and importance of the Experimental Station of Medicinal Plants in the scientific and methodological support of such scientific directions as breeding, seed production, cultivation technologies, pharmacognosy in medicinal plant cultivation were shown. For the needs of the branch, over 100 species of introduced medicinal plants were studied at the Station and agricultu­ral techniques of their growing were developed, in addition, more than 50 varieties of medicinal plants were crea­ted, a number of machines and devices for growing, harves­ting and initial treatment of raw materials and seeds of the most important medicinal plants was designed. Other scientific achievements of the Station were mentioned and promising areas of medicinal plant research in Ukraine were outlined.

  8. Medicinal plant markets and trade in Maputo, Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Mogens Pedersen; Falcâo, Mario P.; Olsen, Carsten Smith

    Medicinal plants and traditional medicine are important to urban and rural livelihoods in Mozambique. This study presents a preliminary investigation of the structure and conduct of medicinal plant markets in Maputo.......Medicinal plants and traditional medicine are important to urban and rural livelihoods in Mozambique. This study presents a preliminary investigation of the structure and conduct of medicinal plant markets in Maputo....

  9. [Review on application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yu-Yao; Guo, Bao-Lin; Cheng, Ming

    2013-09-01

    Plant growth retardants are widely used in cultivation of medicinal plant, but there is still lack of scientific guidance. In order to guide the use of plant growth retardants in medicinal plant cultivation efficiently and reasonably, this paper reviewed the mechanism, function characteristic, plant and soil residue of plant growth retardants, such as chlorocholine chloride, mepiquat chloride, paclobutrazol, unicnazle and succinic acid, and summarized the application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation in recent years, with focus on the effect of growth and yield of the officinal organs and secondary metabolites.

  10. Selery medicinal plants in the Donbas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Yu. Naumov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The performed studies determined the real number of species of medicinal plants in Apiaceae family growing on the Donbass territory. The study of literature and conducted field experiments revealed the presence of 41 species of medicinal plants of the celery family (Apiaceae Lindl., among which 11 cultivated species. There was a brief description of botanical species studied, the typical place of growth, and the presence of biologically active compounds that determine the medicinal properties of the studied taxons. The studied plants have various quantitative and spatial relationship: 6 species are rare and are considered as protected plants, 2 species does not grow in Luhansk, 3 — in the Donetsk region, 4 species are considered to be adventitious for our region. Medicinal plants of the family celery cover a wide range of various diseases due to the large number of various biologically active substances and, primarily, essential fatty oils, flavonoids, vitamins and coumarins. It is worth noting that there no agricultural enterprises specialized on medicinal plants cultivating.

  11. [Development of Plant Metabolomics and Medicinal Plant Genomics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuki

    2018-01-01

     A variety of chemicals produced by plants, often referred to as 'phytochemicals', have been used as medicines, food, fuels and industrial raw materials. Recent advances in the study of genomics and metabolomics in plant science have accelerated our understanding of the mechanisms, regulation and evolution of the biosynthesis of specialized plant products. We can now address such questions as how the metabolomic diversity of plants is originated at the levels of genome, and how we should apply this knowledge to drug discovery, industry and agriculture. Our research group has focused on metabolomics-based functional genomics over the last 15 years and we have developed a new research area called 'Phytochemical Genomics'. In this review, the development of a research platform for plant metabolomics is discussed first, to provide a better understanding of the chemical diversity of plants. Then, representative applications of metabolomics to functional genomics in a model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, are described. The extension of integrated multi-omics analyses to non-model specialized plants, e.g., medicinal plants, is presented, including the identification of novel genes, metabolites and networks for the biosynthesis of flavonoids, alkaloids, sulfur-containing metabolites and terpenoids. Further, functional genomics studies on a variety of medicinal plants is presented. I also discuss future trends in pharmacognosy and related sciences.

  12. Bioensayo General de Letalidad en Artemia Salina, a Las Fracciones del Extracto Etanólico De Psidium Guajava. L y Psidium Guineense. Sw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizbeth Sánchez

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se centró en la evaluación y verificación de la letalidad de las fracciones acetato de etilo, obtenida de los extractos etanólicos de los frutos en estado de madurez, verde y pintón, utilizando la cáscara y pulpa de las especies guayaba (Psidium guajava L y Choba (Psidium guineense Sw. La valoración se llevó a cabo mediante el bioensayo en Artemia salina, a través del cual, se evidencia el siguiente proceso: determinar la concentración letal 50 (CL50 utilizando el medio artificial a Ph 7-8, burbujear con el fin de saturar de oxígeno la solución, controlar la eclosión de los huevos a 25 °C despuésde 48 horas, preparar la solución madre y las de trabajo a concentraciones de 1500, 1000, 500,100, 10 g/ml, control positivo estricnina a 80, 70, 60, 50 g/ml, blanco solvente etanol a 80 g/ml. El ensayo biológico se realizó siguiendo las metodologías propuestas por Gualdrón, R (1994; Cyted (1995;Martínez, C (1999 y McLaughlin, J (1997. Comprobada la letalidad de las fracciones acetato del extracto etanólico de Psidium guajava. L y Psidium guineense. Sw mostró CL50 de 181.4 y 221.30g/ml respectivamente, los resultados se evaluaron según Gautret (2000.

  13. Guava extract (Psidium guajava) alters the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99m*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, P.R.C.; Almeida, M.C.; Bernardo, R.M.; Bernardo, L.C.; Brito, L.C.; Garcia, E.A.C.; Fonseca, A.S.; Bernardo-Filho, M.

    2006-01-01

    Psidium guajava (guava) leaf is a phytotherapic used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal and respiratory disturbances and is used as anti-inflammatory medicine. In nuclear medicine, blood constituents (BC) are labelled with technetium-99m (99mTc) and used to image procedures. However, data have demonstrated that synthetic or natural drugs could modify the labelling of BC with 99mTc. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of guava leaves on the labelling of BC with 99mTc. Blood samples of Wistar rats were incubated with different concentrations of guava extract and labelled with 99mTc after the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) in BC was determined. The results suggest that aqueous guava extract could present antioxidant action and/or alters the membrane structures involved in ion transport into cells, thus decreasing the radiolabelling of BC with 99mTc. The data showed significant (Pguava extract. PMID:16691636

  14. Evaluation of the Cytoprotective and Antioxidant Activity of the Extracts of Eugenia Uniflora Lineau e Psidium Sobraleanum Proença & Landrum Against Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestina E. Sobral-Souza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluation of antioxidant activity has been an important issue considering its importance in human health. Recent studies show that the use of plants in the form of juices or teas as sources of natural antioxidants with low risk can be used as an aid to the treatment of various diseases. Material and Methods: Evaluation of the antioxidant potential in vitro, extracts of Eugenia uniflora and Psidium sobraleanum, as well as the quantification of phenols and flavonoids present in the extracts. Results: Findings showed a better antioxidant activity for the extract of Eugenia uniflora. In the TBARS test with egg phospholipids, extracts presented a reduction in the basal levels in the lipid peroxidation process; and when the Fe2 + extract was inducted, Psidium sobraleanum proved to be more efficient.. Conclusions: These tests proved that the extracts of leaves of the species Eugenia uniflora and Psidium sobraleanum present antioxidant activity which is directly related to phenolic substances produced in its secondary metabolism.

  15. [Plant hydroponics and its application prospect in medicinal plants study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi; Sun, Yu-Zhang

    2007-03-01

    This article introduced the theorem and method of hydroponics. Some examples of studies in agriculture and forestry were presented, the effects of elements, environmental stress and hormones on physiology of medicinal plants by using hydroponics were analyzed. It also introduced the feasibility and advantage of hydroponics in intermediate propagation and allelopathy of medicinal plant. And finally it made the conclusion that the way of hydroponics would be widely used in medicinal plant study.

  16. Patterns and Environmental Determinants of Medicinal Plant : Vascular Plant Ratios in Xinjiang, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bengang; Xiao, Peigen; Qi, Yaodong; Zhang, Zhao; Liu, Haitao; Li, Xiaojin; Wang, Guoping; Terwei, André

    2016-01-01

    With both a full collection of native vascular plant distributions and a full checklist of source plants of the Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), the Uygur Medicine (UM), and the Kazak Medicine (KM) for the Xinjiang region, we defined medicinal plant: vascular plant ratios (simplified as medicinal plant ratios hereafter) as the value of medicinal plant richness divided by vascular plant richness. We aimed to find whether the ratios are constant or change in different environments, which environmental variables determine medicinal plant ratios, and whether the ratios are more influenced by human or by natural environments. Finally, suggestions for medicinal plant conservation were addressed. We found that (1) medicinal plant ratios were not constant, and they were high in the Tarim Basin which was largely covered by desert, while they were relatively low in mountainous areas, especially in the Tianshan Mountains where the general species richness was high; (2) medicinal plant ratios were not significantly influenced by human activities, indicated by human population density distributions, but they were highly correlated with plant species richness and climate, i.e. ratios decreased with plant species richness and MAP, and were related quadratically with MAT; (3) CMM ratio and UM ratio were more influenced by plant richness than by climate, while KM ratio was more influenced by climate. We concluded that the percentages of plants used as medicines were not influenced by distances from human settlements, but were determined by species richness or climate. We suggest that (1), in general, the medicinal plant ratio could be a complementary indicator for medicinal plant conservation planning and (2), for the region of Xinjiang, not only high diversity areas, but also some extreme environments should be considered as compensation for a better protection of medicinal plants. PMID:27391239

  17. Patterns and Environmental Determinants of Medicinal Plant : Vascular Plant Ratios in Xinjiang, Northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Li

    Full Text Available With both a full collection of native vascular plant distributions and a full checklist of source plants of the Chinese Materia Medica (CMM, the Uygur Medicine (UM, and the Kazak Medicine (KM for the Xinjiang region, we defined medicinal plant: vascular plant ratios (simplified as medicinal plant ratios hereafter as the value of medicinal plant richness divided by vascular plant richness. We aimed to find whether the ratios are constant or change in different environments, which environmental variables determine medicinal plant ratios, and whether the ratios are more influenced by human or by natural environments. Finally, suggestions for medicinal plant conservation were addressed. We found that (1 medicinal plant ratios were not constant, and they were high in the Tarim Basin which was largely covered by desert, while they were relatively low in mountainous areas, especially in the Tianshan Mountains where the general species richness was high; (2 medicinal plant ratios were not significantly influenced by human activities, indicated by human population density distributions, but they were highly correlated with plant species richness and climate, i.e. ratios decreased with plant species richness and MAP, and were related quadratically with MAT; (3 CMM ratio and UM ratio were more influenced by plant richness than by climate, while KM ratio was more influenced by climate. We concluded that the percentages of plants used as medicines were not influenced by distances from human settlements, but were determined by species richness or climate. We suggest that (1, in general, the medicinal plant ratio could be a complementary indicator for medicinal plant conservation planning and (2, for the region of Xinjiang, not only high diversity areas, but also some extreme environments should be considered as compensation for a better protection of medicinal plants.

  18. Patterns and Environmental Determinants of Medicinal Plant : Vascular Plant Ratios in Xinjiang, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liping; Zhang, Bengang; Xiao, Peigen; Qi, Yaodong; Zhang, Zhao; Liu, Haitao; Li, Xiaojin; Wang, Guoping; Terwei, André

    2016-01-01

    With both a full collection of native vascular plant distributions and a full checklist of source plants of the Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), the Uygur Medicine (UM), and the Kazak Medicine (KM) for the Xinjiang region, we defined medicinal plant: vascular plant ratios (simplified as medicinal plant ratios hereafter) as the value of medicinal plant richness divided by vascular plant richness. We aimed to find whether the ratios are constant or change in different environments, which environmental variables determine medicinal plant ratios, and whether the ratios are more influenced by human or by natural environments. Finally, suggestions for medicinal plant conservation were addressed. We found that (1) medicinal plant ratios were not constant, and they were high in the Tarim Basin which was largely covered by desert, while they were relatively low in mountainous areas, especially in the Tianshan Mountains where the general species richness was high; (2) medicinal plant ratios were not significantly influenced by human activities, indicated by human population density distributions, but they were highly correlated with plant species richness and climate, i.e. ratios decreased with plant species richness and MAP, and were related quadratically with MAT; (3) CMM ratio and UM ratio were more influenced by plant richness than by climate, while KM ratio was more influenced by climate. We concluded that the percentages of plants used as medicines were not influenced by distances from human settlements, but were determined by species richness or climate. We suggest that (1), in general, the medicinal plant ratio could be a complementary indicator for medicinal plant conservation planning and (2), for the region of Xinjiang, not only high diversity areas, but also some extreme environments should be considered as compensation for a better protection of medicinal plants.

  19. Ethno-Botanical Survey Of Medicinal Plants In The Plant Genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethno-botanical uses and mode of administration of twenty-nine medicinal plants found in the arboretum of the Plant Genetic Resource Centre located at Bunso in the Eastern region of Ghana against some disease conditions are hereby documented. Key words: Ethnobotany, medicinal plants, arboretum, Ghana. Nig.

  20. Medicinal Plants in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Perspective of Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Shahpiri, Zahra; Mehri, Mohammad Reza; Bahramsoltani, Roodabeh; Rezaei, Mahdi; Raeesdana, Azade; Rahimi, Roja

    2018-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are a progressive loss of structure and/or function of neurons. Weak therapeutic response and progressive nature of the diseases, as well as a wide range of side effects caused by conventional therapeutic approaches make patients seek for complementary and alternative medicine. The aim of the present paper is to discuss the neuropharmacological basis of medicinal plants and their principle phytochemicals which have been used in traditional Persian medicine for different types of neurodegenerative diseases. Medicinal plants introduced in traditional Persian medicine perform beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases via various cellular and molecular mechanisms including suppression of apoptosis mediated by an increase in the expression of anti-apoptotic agents (e.g. Bcl-2) as well as a decrease in the expression and activity of proapoptotic proteins (e.g. Bax, caspase 3 and 9). Alleviating inflammatory responses and suppressing the expression and function of pro-inflammatory cytokines like Tumor necrosis factor α and interleukins, as well as improvement in antioxidative performance mediated by superoxide dismutase and catalase, are among other neuroprotective mechanisms of traditional medicinal plants. Modulation of transcription, transduction, intracellular signaling pathways including ERK, p38, and MAPK, with upstream regulatory activity on inflammatory cascades, apoptosis and oxidative stress associated pathways, play an essential role in the preventive and therapeutic potential of the plants in neurodegenerative diseases. Medicinal plants used in traditional Persian medicine along with their related phytochemicals by affecting various neuropharmacological pathways can be considered as future drugs or adjuvant therapies with conventional pharmacotherapeutics; though, further clinical studies are necessary for the confirmation of their safety and efficacy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  1. Proteomic Contributions to Medicinal Plant Research: From Plant Metabolism to Pharmacological Action

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    Akiko Hashiguchi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine is a clinical practice of utilizing medicinal plant derivatives for therapeutic purposes. It has an enduring history worldwide and plays a significant role in the fight against various diseases. Herbal drug combinations often exhibit synergistic therapeutic action compared with single-constituent dosage, and can also enhance the cytotoxicity induced by chemotherapeutic drugs. To explore the mechanism underlying the pharmacological action of herbs, proteomic approaches have been applied to the physiology of medicinal plants and its effects on animals. This review article focuses on the existing proteomics-based medicinal plant research and discusses the following topics: (i plant metabolic pathways that synthesize an array of bioactive compounds; (ii pharmacological action of plants tested using in vivo and in vitro studies; and (iii the application of proteomic approaches to indigenous plants with scarce sequence information. The accumulation of proteomic information in a biological or medicinal context may help in formulating the effective use of medicinal plants.

  2. Efficacy of Andrographis paniculata, Psidium guajava and Piper betle as Prevention on Motile Aeromonad Septicaemia Infection in African Catfish (Clarias sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wahjuningrum

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available An effort to prevent Motile Aeromonad Septicaemia (MAS disease in African catfish (Clarias sp. performed using antibiotic was less safety and expensive ways.  An herbal medicine may be able to be a safety and cheap way to prevent of the MAS disease.  This study was conducted to determine efficacy of herbal medicine combination of sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata, daun jambu (Psidium guajava and daun sirih (Piper betle. Herbal medicines were mixed to diet and fish were fed on the diet containing the herbal medicine for 7 days of rearing.  The dosage of herbal medicine per 100 gram of diet was PI (1.0 g sambiloto, 0.75 g daun jambu and 0.25 g daun sirih, PII (1.0 g sambiloto,  0.50 g daun jambu,  0.50 g daun sirih, and PIII (1.0 g sambiloto, 0.25 g daun jambu, and 0.75 g daun sirih.  On 8th day, fish were injected intramuscularly with 1 ml of Aeromonas hydrophila (105 cfu/ml every 1 kg of fish.  Clinical symptom, feed response, fish weight, number of fish survive and visually changing of internal organs.  The results of study indicated that administration of herbal medicine A. paniculata, P. guajava and P. betle mixed into the diet effectively prevented A. hydrophila infection.  Combination of 1.0 gram A. paniculata, 0.75 gram P. guajava and 0.25 gram P. betle gave higher efficacy against A. hydrophila infection. Keywords: Andrographis paniculata, Psidium guajava, Piper betle, Motile Aeromonad septicaemia, African catfish   ABSTRAK Upaya penanggulangan penyakit MAS (Motil Aeromonad Septicaemia pada ikan lele dumbo (Clarias sp. yang dilakukan menggunakan antibiotik cenderung kurang aman dan mahal. Pencegahan menggunakan obat herbal diharapkan dapat mengatasi masalah tersebut secara aman dan murah.  Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui efektivitas obat herbal kombinasi sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata, daun jambu biji (Psidium guajava dan sirih (Piper betle dengan dosis berbeda yang diberikan melalui pakan selama 7 hari.

  3. Comparative study of the volatile oil content and antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava L. and Psidium cattleianum Sabine leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathy M. Soliman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the hydrodistilled oils of the leaves of Psidium guajava L. (guava leaf and Psidium cattleianum Sabine (strawberry guava was determined by GC/MS analysis to identify their chemotypes. Moreover, in vitro antimicrobial activity of these volatile oils against selected bacteria, yeast, and mycelia fungi was studied. The yield of the volatile oil hydrodistilled from the leaves of P. guajava L. and P. cattleianum Sabine was 1.6 and 2.69 g/kg on fresh weight basis, respectively. Limonene was the major identified hydrocarbon in P. guava leaves’ oil (54.70%, whereas, 1, 8-cineole was the major identified oxygenated monoterpenoid (32.14% in common guava leaves. The foliar oil of P. cattleianum was predominated by the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon; β-caryophyllene representing 28.83% of the total oil make-up. The antibacterial activity of guava leaf oil was more pronounced against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa than that of strawberry guava leaves, while P. cattleianum showed a higher activity against ess. The MIC of the volatile oil of the leaves of P. guajava against S. aureus was 6.75 μg/ml, while that of P. cattleianum exhibited MIC value of 13.01 μg/ml against Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Results demonstrated that the volatile oil of both Psidium species showed different chemotypes. Moreover, the volatile oils of guava and strawberry guava leaves might be good candidates as antimicrobial agents.

  4. A review on the elemental contents of Pakistani medicinal plants: Implications for folk medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad Abdul; Adnan, Muhammad; Begum, Shaheen; Azizullah, Azizullah; Nazir, Ruqia; Iram, Shazia

    2016-07-21

    Substantially, plants produce chemicals such as primary and secondary metabolites, which have significant applications in modern therapy. Indigenous people mostly rely on traditional medicines derived from medicinal plants. These plants have the capacity to absorb a variety of toxic elements. The ingestion of such plants for medicinal purpose can have imperative side effects. Hence, with regard to the toxicological consideration of medicinal plants, an effort has been made to review the elemental contents of ethno medicinally important plants of Pakistan and to highlight the existing gaps in knowledge of the safety and efficacy of traditional herbal medications. Literature related to the elemental contents of ethno medicinal plants was acquired by utilizing electronic databases. We reviewed only macro-elemental and trace elemental contents of 69 medicinal plant taxa, which are traditionally used in Pakistan for the treatment of sundry ailments, including anemia, jaundice, cancer, piles, diarrhea, dysentery, headache, diabetes, asthma, blood purification, sedative and ulcer. A majority of plants showed elemental contents above the permissible levels as recommended by the World health organization (WHO). As an example, the concentrations of Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) were reportedly found higher than the WHO permissible levels in 43 and 42 medicinal plants, respectively. More specifically, the concentrations of Pb (54ppm: Silybum marianum) and Cd (5.25ppm: Artemisia herba-alba) were found highest in the Asteraceae family. The reported medicinal plants contain a higher amount of trace and toxic elements. Intake of these plants as traditional medicines may trigger the accumulation of trace and toxic elements in human bodies, which can cause different types of diseases. Thus, a clear understanding about the nature of toxic substances and factors affecting their concentrations in traditional medicines are essential prerequisites for efficacious herbal therapeutics with

  5. The local knowledge of medicinal plants trader and diversity of medicinal plants in the Kabanjahe traditional market, North Sumatra, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silalahi, Marina; Nisyawati; Walujo, Eko Baroto; Supriatna, Jatna; Mangunwardoyo, Wibowo

    2015-12-04

    Market is the main place for transactions of medicinal plants and traditional ingredients by local community in the Karo regency, North Sumatra, Indonesia. This is the first study to document the local knowledge of traders on and the diversity of the medicinal plants. The investigation was carried out in the Kabanjahe traditional market, in the Karo regency. The research goal was to reveal the local knowledge, diversity and utilization of medicinal plants, which have been traded in the Kabanjahe traditional market, as a basis for conservation efforts. The study was conducted through ethnobotanical approach using market surveys. All traders of medicinal plants were surveyed applying in-depth interviews and participative observations. Data were analyzed qualitatively using descriptive statistics. The diversity of medicinal plants was expressed in term of the Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H'), whereas the similarity among traders was indicated by Jaccard index (Ji). Traders of medicinal plants stored the simplicia of medicinal plants in chest of drawers, plastic baskets, plastic bags, and in the air by suspending them from the the stall ceilings. We recorded 344 species, 217 genera and 90 families of medicinal plants. Those that were sold mostly belong to Zingeberaceae (20 species), Poaceae (19 species), and Asclepiadaceae (17 species), and the species received high consumers demand, mostly belong to Zingiberaceae, Rutaceae, and Asclepidiaceae. Asclepidiaceae was used to treat diseases like cancer and heart problems. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index of medicinal plants at the Kabanjahe traditional market was high (H'= 5.637). The high Jaccard similarity index (Ji>0.56) suggested that the traders were trading similar species of medicinal plants. Kabanjahe traditional market is the center for the sale of of medicinal plants as traditional ingredients. Several species are well known for their pharmacological properties but others, [such as: Dischidia imbricata (Blume

  6. Historical versus contemporary medicinal plant uses in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soelberg, Jens; Asase, A; Akwetey, G

    2015-01-01

    among contemporary medicinal plant uses in Ghana and represent some of the most important Ghanaian medicinal plant species. However, 93 (69%) of the historical uses could not be traced and appears to be discontinued or forgotten. Among the Ga, two medicinal plants species have become rare or locally......ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Three extraordinary, historical documents stemming from observations made in 1697, 1803 and 1817 quote medicinal plant uses among the Fante, Ga and Ashanti people of present-day Ghana, and can be linked to original botanical specimens in European herbaria....... This provides a unique opportunity to gain insight to the historical materia medica of Ghana and compare this to contemporary medicinal plant uses. By critical literary and taxonomic review, the present study (re-)establishes the earliest known history of many important Ghanaian medicinal plants, and assesses...

  7. The anti-adherence effect of Piper betle and Psidium guajava extracts on the adhesion of early settlers in dental plaque to saliva-coated glass surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Fathilah Abdul; Rahim, Zubaidah Haji Abd

    2003-12-01

    The aqueous extracts of Piper betle and Psidium guajava were prepared and tested for their anti-adherence effect on the adhesion of early plaque settlers (Strep. mitis, Strep. sanguinis and Actinomyces sp.). The saliva-coated glass surfaces were used to simulate the pellicle-coated enamel surface in the oral cavity. Our results showed that the anti-adherence activities of Piper betle and Psidium guajava extracts towards the bacteria were different between the bacterial species. Psidium guajava was shown to have a slightly greater anti-adherence effect on Strep. sanguinis by 5.5% and Actinomyces sp. by 10% and a significantly higher effect on Strep. mitis (70%) compared to Piper betle. The three bacterial species are known to be highly hydrophobic, and that hydrophobic bonding seemed to be an important factor in their adherence activities. It is therefore suggested that the plant extracts, in expressing their anti-adherence activities, could have altered the hydrophobic nature of the bonding between the bacteria and the saliva-coated glass surfaces.

  8. Medicinal plants sold at traditional markets in southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinitana, Fani; Rios, Montserrat; Romero-Benavides, Juan Carlos; de la Cruz Rot, Marcelino; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel

    2016-07-05

    The traditional markets in southern Ecuador and within the Andean region are especially important for plant resource trading among local people, even since before Spanish colonization; therefore, ethnobotanical studies are currently necessary and important. These strategic spaces persist for the traditional medicine cultural value reflected in the higher consumption of medicinal plants, which span all socioeconomic levels of rural and urban people. The purpose of this study includes the following: 1) to create a novel list of medicinal plants sold at 33 traditional markets; 2) to establish medicinal plant use agreement amongst vendors with the Factor of Informant Consensus (FIC); and 3) to determine the most sold medicinal plant species using the Fidelity Level (FL). This study focus on traditional markets ethnobotany utilizes the largest sample of medicinal plants market vendors up to date in Ecuador, interviewing them at 33 traditional markets, located within the Loja province. In order to determine the most sold medicinal plants and their ethnobotanical information, structured questionnaires and personal conversations were conducted with 196 medicinal plant vendors, and voucher specimens were created. Agreement among vendors about the therapeutic use of medicinal plants was measured using the FIC, and the most sold medicinal plant species were assessed with the FL. This research registered 160 medicinal plant species, grouped in 126 genera and 57 families that were sold in 33 traditional markets. The uses of medicinal plants in southern Ecuador are related to a long history of traditional medicine health practices that has persisted until today as well as high plant diversity. The 53 therapeutic uses recorded were grouped into 12 medical categories that were adapted from the World Health Organization. Three medical categories shared the highest value for FIC = 0.92, which showed a high level of agreement of market vendors for 57 medicinal plant species sold

  9. Hypolipidemic Effect of Psidium guajava Leaf Extract Against Hepatotoxicity in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, K; Rengarajan, R L; Radhakrishnan, R; Anand, A Vijaya

    2018-01-01

    Plant-based natural extracts cure several diseases in human. However, the extract of Psidium guajava leaf is not yet evaluated on changes of lipid profile in hepatic disease affected rats. The present study was aimed to evaluate the mitigation effect of the ethanolic extract of P. guajava leaf and its isolated quercetin fraction on hepatotoxic rats. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) was injected to rats for hepatic disease induction and silymarin drug was used as positive control to compare plant ethanolic extract. The lipid profiles were assessed in both plasma and liver tissue of diseased and control rats. Levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, phospholipids, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were increased and the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was decreased in CCl 4 -induced hepatotoxic rats. The treatment of P. guajava (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg, bw) and isolated quercetin fraction (20 mg/kg, bw) doses decreased the elevated levels of all these parameters in diseased rats and restored the normal concentration of HDL-C. The results of the present study concluded that the P. guajava leaf and its isolated quercetin fraction can significantly regulate lipid metabolism in CCl 4 -induced hepatotoxic rats and decrease the disease rate. Psidium guajava leaf extract reduces the hepatotoxicity and disease rate in ratsQuercetin fraction of leaf extract significantly regulates lipid profile in hepatic diseased rats. Abbreviations used: CCl 4 : Carbon tetrachloride; FFA: Free fatty acids; HDL-C: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LCAT: Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase; LDL-C: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; PL: Phospholipids; TC: Total cholesterol; TG: Triglycerides; VLDL-C: Very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

  10. Medicinal plants used in the traditional management of diabetes and its sequelae in Central America: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, Peter; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R; Edwards, Sarah E

    2016-05-26

    Globally 387 million people currently have diabetes and it is projected that this condition will be the 7th leading cause of death worldwide by 2030. As of 2012, its total prevalence in Central America (8.5%) was greater than the prevalence in most Latin American countries and the population of this region widely use herbal medicine. The aim of this study is to review the medicinal plants used to treat diabetes and its sequelae in seven Central American countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama. We conducted a literature review and extracted from primary sources the plant use reports in traditional remedies that matched one of the following disease categories: diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, urinary problems, skin diseases and infections, cardiovascular disease, sexual dysfunctions, visual loss, and nerve damage. Use reports were entered in a database and data were analysed in terms of the highest number of use reports for diabetes management and for the different sequelae. We also examined the scientific evidence that might support the local uses of the most reported species. Out of 535 identified species used to manage diabetes and its sequelae, 104 species are used to manage diabetes and we found in vitro and in vivo preclinical experimental evidence of hypoglycaemic effect for 16 of the 20 species reported by at least two sources. However, only seven of these species are reported in more than 3 studies: Momordica charantia L., Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. ex Cass., Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth, Persea americana Mill., Psidium guajava L., Anacardium occidentale L. and Hamelia patens Jacq. Several of the species that are used to manage diabetes in Central America are also used to treat conditions that may arise as its consequence such as kidney disease, urinary problems and skin conditions. This review provides an overview of the medicinal plants used to manage diabetes and its sequelae in Central America and of

  11. [Investigation of ethnic medicinal plants Orobanche, Cistanche and Boschniakia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhen-Fang; Liu, Yong; Wang, Xiao-Qin

    2014-12-01

    In this paper the species of ethnic medicinal plants Orobanche, Cistanche and Boschniakia, and their ethnopharmaceutical uses were comprehensively summarized by field investigation, systematical data analysis and comparison of relevant specimen and references. The results showed that six plants belonging to Orobanche were used as seven kinds of ethnic medicinal plants, two plants attributing Boschniakia were used as ten kinds of ethnic medicinal plants, two plants of Cistanche were used as three ethnic medicinal plants. The same plant was often used as different ethnic medicine in varied ethnic minorities. The effects of the ethnic medicines included yang-tonifying, hemostasis and analgesic activities. Hence, it is necessary to develop the rich plant resource of Orobanche for alleviation of Cistanche resources shortage.

  12. Comparative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants: Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Albino Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpashi, Victor Eshu; Bayim, Bayim Peter-Robins; Obi-Abang, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are best at lowering blood glucose and hyperlipidemia and ameliorating other complications of diabetes mellitus by methods of combined therapy. The results obtained showed 82% decrease in blood glucose concentration after the 10th hour to the fortieth hour. There was significant increase P 0.05 recorded in the glutathione peroxidase activity of E. globulus (100 mg/kg) when compared to the test groups of P. guajava (250 mg/kg) and X. aethiopica (250 mg/kg). Catalase activity showed significant increase P 0.05, there was no significant difference seen between test group and treated groups. Meanwhile, degree of significance was observed in other parameters analysed. The biochemical analysis conducted in this study showed positive result, attesting to facts from previous works. Though these individual plants extracts exhibited significant increase in amelorating diabetes complication and blood glucose control compared to glibenclamide, a synthetic antidiabetic drug. Greater performance was observed in the synergy groups. Therefore, a poly/combined formulation of these plants extracts yielded significant result as well as resolving some other complications associated with diabetics. PMID:25525518

  13. Medicinal plants from Mali: Chemistry and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, Helle; Diallo, Drissa; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2015-12-24

    Mali is one of the countries in West Africa where the health system rely the most on traditional medicine. The healers are mainly using medicinal plants for their treatments. The studies performed being the basis for this review is of importance as they will contribute to sustaining the traditional knowledge. They contribute to evaluate and improve locally produced herbal remedies, and the review gives also an overview of the plant preparations that will have the most potential to be evaluated for new Improved Traditional Medicines. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the studies performed related to medicinal plants from Mali in the period 1995-2015. These studies include ethnopharmacology, chemistry and biological studies of the plants that were chosen based on our interviews with the healers in different regions of Mali, and contribute to sustainable knowledge on the medicinal plants. The Department of Traditional Medicine, Bamako, Mali, is responsible for registering the knowledge of the traditional healers on their use of medicinal plants and also identifying compounds in the plants responsible for the bioactivities claimed. The studies reported aimed at getting information from the healers on the use of medicinal plants, and study the biology and chemistry of selected plants for the purpose of verifying the traditional use of the plants. These studies should form the basis for necessary knowledge for the development of registered Improved Traditional Medicines in Mali. The healers were the ethnopharmacological informants. Questions asked initially were related to wound healing. This was because the immune system is involved when wounds are healed, and additionally the immune system is involved in the majority of the illnesses common in Mali. Based on the results of the interviews the plant material for studies was selected. Studies were performed on the plant parts the healers were using when treating their patients. Conventional chromatographic

  14. Historical versus contemporary medicinal plant uses in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soelberg, J; Asase, A; Akwetey, G; Jäger, A K

    2015-02-03

    Three extraordinary, historical documents stemming from observations made in 1697, 1803 and 1817 quote medicinal plant uses among the Fante, Ga and Ashanti people of present-day Ghana, and can be linked to original botanical specimens in European herbaria. This provides a unique opportunity to gain insight to the historical materia medica of Ghana and compare this to contemporary medicinal plant uses. By critical literary and taxonomic review, the present study (re-)establishes the earliest known history of many important Ghanaian medicinal plants, and assesses the scale of change and loss of medicinal plant knowledge in Ghana over time. The study provides the foundation to reconstruct lost or discontinued Ghanaian plant uses in local or ethnopharmacological contexts. Historical botanical specimens were located in the herbaria of University of Copenhagen Herbarium (C) and British Museum of Natural History (BM). The classification and synonymy of the specimens were updated for the study, and the historical vernacular names and medicinal uses of the plants compared with 20th/21st century literature. The plants of the historical Ga materia medica were (re-)collected to aid in semi-structured interviews. The interviews aimed to document the contemporary uses and names of the plants among the Ga, and to determine to what extent the historical medicinal uses and names are extant. The study identified 100 species in historical medicinal use in Ghana, which could be linked to 134 unique uses and 105 vernacular names in Twi (Ashanti/Fante) and Ga. Most of the plants are common in Ghana. At least 52% of the historical vernacular names appear to still be in use today. Of the specific historical uses, 41 (31%) were traced among contemporary medicinal plant uses in Ghana and represent some of the most important Ghanaian medicinal plant species. However, 93 (69%) of the historical uses could not be traced and appears to be discontinued or forgotten. Among the Ga, two medicinal

  15. Advances on Bioactive Polysaccharides from Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jian-Hua; Jin, Ming-Liang; Morris, Gordon A; Zha, Xue-Qiang; Chen, Han-Qing; Yi, Yang; Li, Jing-En; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Gao, Jie; Nie, Shao-Ping; Shang, Peng; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2016-07-29

    In recent decades, the polysaccharides from the medicinal plants have attracted a lot of attention due to their significant bioactivities, such as anti-tumor activity, antioxidant activity, anticoagulant activity, antidiabetic activity, radioprotection effect, anti-viral activity, hypolipidemic and immunomodulatory activities, which make them suitable for medicinal applications. Previous studies have also shown that medicinal plant polysaccharides are non-toxic and show no side effects. Based on these encouraging observations, most researches have been focusing on the isolation and identification of polysaccharides, as well as their bioactivities. A large number of bioactive polysaccharides with different structural features and biological effects from medicinal plants have been purified and characterized. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the most recent developments in physiochemical, structural features and biological activities of bioactive polysaccharides from a number of important medicinal plants, such as polysaccharides from Astragalus membranaceus, Dendrobium plants, Bupleurum, Cactus fruits, Acanthopanax senticosus, Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, Aloe barbadensis Miller, and Dimocarpus longan Lour. Moreover, the paper has also been focused on the applications of bioactive polysaccharides for medicinal applications. Recent studies have provided evidence that polysaccharides from medicinal plants can play a vital role in bioactivities. The contents and data will serve as a useful reference material for further investigation, production, and application of these polysaccharides in functional foods and therapeutic agents.

  16. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of polysaccharide from Psidium guajava L. fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amutha Gnana Arasi, Michael Antony Samy; Gopal Rao, Manchineela; Bagyalakshmi, Janardanan

    2016-10-01

    This study deals with the optimization of microwave assisted extraction of polysaccharide from Psidium guajava L. fruit using Response surface methodology. To evaluate the effect of three independent variables, Water to plant material ratio, microwave power used for extraction and Irradiation time, central composite design has been employed. The yield is considered as dependent variable. The design model estimated the optimum yield of 6.81677% at 200W microwave power level, 3:1 water to plant material ratio and 20min of irradiation time. Three factors three levels Central composite design coupled with RSM was used to model the extraction process. ANOVA was performed to find the significance of the model. The polysaccharide extracted using microwave assisted extraction process was analyzed using FTIR Spectroscopy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Commercialization of Medicinal Plants in Java Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatius Adi Nugroho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The benefit and transaction cost flow which people earn economically and socially from wild medicinal plant harvesting are addressed in this study. The objectives of this study are three aspects: defining how many users are involved in utilization of medicinal plant raw materials (MPRM, how users describing their perception and motivation and describing benefit and transaction cost which influence users to harvest the plants. Results showed that utilization of medicinal plants in Java is still widely used as commercial products then medical services. There are 41 stakeholders who involved in this study and the highest motivation and perception in production and industrial clusters are economic interest. But stakeholder's perception and motivation in traditional healthcare cluster is social interest. The different motivation and perception in both clusters causing stakeholder who are work in traditional healthcare lack of market information, but they are important if the government will improve the traditional medicine. Recommendation of this study is that medicinal plants need further research and product development which can help to expand the medicinal plant culture area in the natural forest. By this reason, government should develop good political will to increase the medicinal plant resources for public healthcare.

  18. Atividade Antinociceptiva e Antimicrobiana da Casca do Caule de Psidium Cattleyanum Sabine

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    F.Q. ALVARENDA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Psidium cattleyanum Sabine, conhecida como “araçá”, é espécie nativa do Bioma Cerrado brasileiro comumente utilizado, segundo levantamento etnobotânico, como planta medicinal para tratar várias doenças tais como: patologias hepáticas, gástricas, lesões teciduais incluindo processos dolorosos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar a triagem fitoquímica com propósito exploratório, investigar a atividade analgésica e antimicrobiana do extrato hidroalcoólico da casca do caule de Psidium cattleyanum Sabine (ECPCS para apoiar o uso dessa espécie como planta medicinal. Para isso, foram obtidos extratos e frações com solventes orgânicos de polaridade crescente (hexano, diclorometano, acetato de etila e isobutanol avaliando-se o perfil fitoquímico para determinar as principais classes de metabólitos secundários presentes na espécie. Investigou-se a atividade analgésica pelo teste de contorções abdominais em camundongos induzidas pelo ácido acético (0,6%. A Concentração Inibitória Mínina (CIM e Concentração Bactericida Mínima (CBM foram avaliadas através da técnica de microdiluição em caldo contra micro-organismos da microbiota oral. A triagem fitoquímica identificou a presença de taninos, saponinas, flavonoides e terpenos e/ou esteroides. O ECPCS exibiu atividade analgésica periférica nas doses de 200 e 400 mg/kg. O EAC (extrato acetato de casca o EDC (extrato diclorometânico de casca desempenharam melhor ação inibitória sobre o crescimento bacteriano de Estafilococos oralis com CIM 100 e 150 respectivamente. O ECPCS desempenhou ação inibitória sobre o crescimento bacteriano. Os resultados dos estudos experimentais comprovaram a presença de compostos secundários tais como, taninos e flavonoides, o que, provavelmente, pode ser associado à atividade analgésica e ao efeito inibitório sobre os micro-organismos testados com o ECPCS, o que justifica o uso medicinal planta.

  19. Synergism between plant extract and antimicrobial drugs used on Staphylococcus aureus diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Elaine Cristina Betoni

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Searches for substances with antimicrobial activity are frequent, and medicinal plants have been considered interesting by some researchers since they are frequently used in popular medicine as remedies for many infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to verify the synergism between 13 antimicrobial drugs and 8 plant extracts - "guaco" (Mikania glomerata, guava (Psidium guajava, clove (Syzygium aromaticum, garlic (Allium sativum, lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus, ginger (Zingiber officinale, "carqueja" (Baccharis trimera, and mint (Mentha piperita - against Staphylococcus aureus strains, and for this purpose, the disk method was the antimicrobial susceptibility test performed. Petri dishes were prepared with or without dilution of plant extracts at sub-inhibitory concentrations in Mueller-Hinton Agar (MHA, and the inhibitory zones were recorded in millimeters. In vitro anti-Staphylococcus aureus activities of the extracts were confirmed, and synergism was verified for all the extracts; clove, guava, and lemongrass presented the highest synergism rate with antimicrobial drugs, while ginger and garlic showed limited synergistic capacity.

  20. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Psidium guajava [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Psidium guajava 名詞 一般 * * * * グアバ... グアバ グアバ Thesaurus2015 200906092188751413 C LS06/LS72 UNKNOWN_2 Psidium guajava

  1. Relationship between species composition and homegarden size in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taxa such as Musa species, Vernonia amygdalina, Citrus species, Psidium guajava and Terminalia catappa were found to be the common food/medicinal plants as evidenced by their densities in the study sites. The household members cited most of the plants as food; others as medicinal and ornamentals. Miscellaneous ...

  2. India mainstreams medicinal plants | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The program is partly sponsored by IDRC's Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Program in Asia (MAPPA). IDRC has supported medicinal plant research in the region since 1992. Improving quality control. R.B.S. Rawat, CEO of India's National Medicinal Plants Board, said people in Chhattisgarh and other states stand to benefit ...

  3. Transformation of medicinal plants using Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Bandurska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For many years attempts are made to develop efficient methods for transformation of medicinal plants via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. It is a soil bacteria which possess a natural ability to infect plants in places of injures which results in arise of cancerous growths (crown gall. This is possible thanks a transfer of fragment of Ti plasmid into plant cells and stable integration with a plant genome. Efficiency of medicinal plant transformation depends on many factors for example: Agrobacterium strain, methods and procedures of transformation as well as on plant species, type and age of the explants and regeneration conditions. The main goal of plant transformation is to increase the amount of naturally occurring bioactive compounds and the production of biopharmaceuticals. Genetic plant transformation via bacteria of the genus Agrobacterium is a complex process which requires detailed analysis of incorporated transgene expression and occurs only in the case when the plant cell acquires the ability to regenerate. In many cases, the regeneration efficiency observed in medicinal plants are inefficient after applied transformation procedures. To date there have been attempts of genetic transformation by using A. tumefaciens of medicinal plants belonging to the families: Apocynaceae, Araceae, Araliaceae, Asphodelaceae, Asteraceae, Begoniaceae, Crassulaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Linaceae, Papaveraceae, Plantaginaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Solanaceae.

  4. Transformation of medicinal plants using Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandurska, Katarzyna; Berdowska, Agnieszka; Król, Małgorzata

    2016-12-20

    For many years attempts are made to develop efficient methods for transformation of medicinal plants via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. It is a soil bacteria which possess a natural ability to infect plants in places of injures which results in arise of cancerous growths (crown gall). This is possible thanks a transfer of fragment of Ti plasmid into plant cells and stable integration with a plant genome. Efficiency of medicinal plant transformation depends on many factors for example: Agrobacterium strain, methods and procedures of transformation as well as on plant species, type and age of the explants and regeneration conditions. The main goal of plant transformation is to increase the amount of naturally occurring bioactive compounds and the production of biopharmaceuticals. Genetic plant transformation via bacteria of the genus Agrobacterium is a complex process which requires detailed analysis of incorporated transgene expression and occurs only in the case when the plant cell acquires the ability to regenerate. In many cases, the regeneration efficiency observed in medicinal plants are inefficient after applied transformation procedures. To date there have been attempts of genetic transformation by using A. tumefaciens of medicinal plants belonging to the families: Apocynaceae, Araceae, Araliaceae, Asphodelaceae, Asteraceae, Begoniaceae, Crassulaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Linaceae, Papaveraceae, Plantaginaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Solanaceae.

  5. [Chemical constituents of leaves of Psidium guajava].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Meng; Wang, Ying; Jian, Yu-Qing; Sun, Xue-Gang; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2014-03-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the 95% ethanol extract of Psidium guajava. Compounds were separated by using a combination of various chromatographic methods including silica gel, D101 macroporous resin, ODS, Sephadex LH-20 and preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by physicochemical properties and spectral data Eighteen compounds were isolated and identified as (+) -globulol (1), clovane-2beta, 9alpha-diol (2), 2beta-acetoxyclovan-9alpha-ol (3), (+) -caryolane-1 ,9beta-diol (4), ent-T-muurolol (5), clov-2-ene-9alpha-ol (6), isophytol (7), tamarixetin (8), gossypetin (9), quercetin (10), kaempferol (11), guajaverin (12), avicularin (13), chrysin 6-C-glucoside (14), 3'-O-methyl-3, 4-methylenedioxyellagic acid 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (15), p-hydroxy-benzoic acid (16), guavinoside A (17) and guavinoside B (18). Compounds 2-9 and 14-16 were isolated from this plant for the first time. The ethanol extract showed 61.3% inhibition against the proliferation of colon cancer cell line SW480.

  6. MYCOPOPULATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Vrandečić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There has not been a systematic research of medicinal plants mycoflora in Croatia. This paper aims to present the results of preliminary research of mycopopulation of 14 species of medicinal plants. Total of 393 plant parts has been examined and 10 genera of fungi were isolated: Penicillium, Aspergillus, Sordaria, Phoma, Cladosporium, Rhizopus, Stemphillium, Fusarium, Phomopsis and one unidentified genus. Penicillium sp. (from 11 of 14 plant species was isolated from the majority of samples. The plants fungi were isolated from did not show any macroscopically visible symptoms of infection, except plant parts of Lavandula x intermedia and Foeniculum vulgare, from which Phomopsis sp. and Fusarium sp. were isolated

  7. The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köberl, Martina; Schmidt, Ruth; Ramadan, Elshahat M; Bauer, Rudolf; Berg, Gabriele

    2013-12-20

    Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however, the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is (i) to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, (ii) to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and (iii) to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L., and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.) cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants' flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome.

  8. Medicinal plants of the Mapuche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, P J; Manby, J

    1985-03-01

    A list of 136 plants used for medicinal purposes by the Mapuche Amerindians of Chile has been compiled. This is the first such list in English and is important due to the disappearance of Mapuche culture with increasing urbanisation. Some introduced plants have been incorporated into the traditional medicine of the Mapuche since the advent of European settlers but there is also a wealth of information about the uses of many indigenous species.

  9. Medicinal plants, traditional medicine, markets and management in far-west Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, Ripu M; Mahat, Laxmi; Acharya, Ram P; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2013-04-12

    Modern therapeutic medicine is historically based on indigenous therapies and ethnopharmacological uses, which have become recognized tools in the search for new sources of pharmaceuticals. Globalization of herbal medicine along with uncontrolled exploitative practices and lack of concerted conservation efforts, have pushed many of Nepal's medicinal plants to the verge of extinction. Sustainable utilization and management of medicinal plants, based on traditional knowledge, is therefore necessary. After establishing verbal informed consent with participating communities, five field surveys, roughly 20 days in duration, were carried out. In all, 176 schedules were surveyed, and 52 participants were consulted through focus group discussions and informal meetings. Altogether, 24 key informants were surveyed to verify and validate the data. A total of 252 individuals, representing non-timber forest product (NTFP) collectors, cultivators, traders, traditional healers (Baidhya), community members, etc. participated in study. Medicinal plants were free-listed and their vernacular names and folk uses were collected, recorded, and applied to assess agreement among respondents about traditional medicines, markets and management. Within the study area, medicinal herbs were the main ingredients of traditional therapies, and they were considered a main lifeline and frequently were the first choice. About 55% plants were ethnomedicinal, and about 37% of ethnomedicinal plants possessed the highest informant consensus value (0.86-1.00). Use of Cordyceps sinensis as an aphrodisiac, Berberis asiatica for eye problems, Bergenia ciliata for disintegration of calculi, Sapindus mukorossi for dandruff, and Zanthoxylum armatum for toothache were the most frequently mentioned. These species possess potential for pharmacology. Medicinal plants are inseparable from local livelihoods because they have long been collected, consumed, and managed through local customs and knowledge. Management

  10. [Species diversity of ex-situ cultivated Chinese medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Que, Ling; Chi, Xiu-Lian; Zang, Chun-Xin; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Min; Yang, Guang; Jin, An-Qi

    2018-03-01

    Ex-situ conservation is an important means to protect biological genetic resources. Resource protection has received more and more attention with the continuous improvement of the comprehensive utilization of traditional Chinese medicine resources. In this paper, the research and compilation of the species list of ex-situ cultivated medicinal plants in 12 Chinese Academy of Sciences botanic gardens and 19 specialized medicinal botanic gardens in China were carried out. Based on the Species 2000(2017) and other classification databases, species diversity of medicinal plants ex-situ cultivated in these botanical gardens were analyzed. The study found that there were 16 351 higher plant species in our country, belonging to 276 families and 1 936 genera. Of these, 6 949 specieswere medicinal plants, accounting for 50.4% of the total medicinal plants. There were 1 280 medicinal plants were in threatened status, accounting for 19.6% of all threatened species in the Chinese Biodiversity Red List, with ex-situ cultivated proportion of 59.5%. And 3 988 medicinal plants were Chinese endemic species, accounting for 22.5% of all Chinese endemic species, with ex-situ cultivated proportion of 53.3%. This article has reference significance for the management and protection of medicinal plant resources. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  11. Natural occurrence of mycotoxins in medicinal plants: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashiq, Samina; Hussain, Mubbashir; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-05-01

    Medicinal plants are widely used as home remedies and raw materials for the pharmaceutical industries. Herbal remedies are used in the prevention, treatment and cure of disorders and diseases since ancient times. However, use of medicinal herbs may not meet the requirements of quality, safety and efficacy. During harvesting, handling, storage and distribution, medicinal plants are subjected to contamination by various fungi, which may be responsible for spoilage and production of mycotoxins. The increasing consumption of medicinal plants has made their use a public health problem due to the lack of effective surveillance of the use, efficacy, toxicity and quality of these natural products. The increase in use of medicinal plants may lead to an increase in the intake of mycotoxins therefore contamination of medicinal plants with mycotoxins can contribute to adverse human health problems and therefore represents a special hazard. Numerous natural occurrences of mycotoxins in medicinal plants and traditional herbal medicines have been reported from various countries including Spain, China, Germany, India, Turkey and from Middle East as well. This review discusses the important mycotoxins and their natural occurrences in medicinal plants and their products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Medicinal plants: production and biochemical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chunzhao Liu; Zobayed, S.M.A; Murch, S.J.; Saxena, P.K.

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in the area of biotechnology offer some possibility for the development of new technologies for the conservation, characterization and mass production of medicinal plant species, (i.e. in vitro cell culture techniques for the mass production of sterile, consistent, standardized medicinal plant materials). This paper discussed the following subjects - plant tissue culture, de novo shoot organogenesis, de novo root organogenesis, somatic embryogenesis, large scale propagation in bioreactors and discovery of unique biomolecules

  13. Use of medicinal plants by health professionals in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Domínguez, Fabiola; Maldonado-Miranda, Juan José; Castillo-Pérez, Luis Jesús; Carranza-Álvarez, Candy; Solano, Eloy; Isiordia-Espinoza, Mario Alberto; Del Carmen Juárez-Vázquez, María; Zapata-Morales, Juan Ramón; Argueta-Fuertes, Marco Antonio; Ruiz-Padilla, Alan Joel; Solorio-Alvarado, César Rogelio; Rangel-Velázquez, Joceline Estefanía; Ortiz-Andrade, Rolffy; González-Sánchez, Ignacio; Cruz-Jiménez, Gustavo; Orozco-Castellanos, Luis Manuel

    2017-02-23

    The use of medicinal plants in Mexico has been documented since pre-Hispanic times. Nevertheless, the level of use of medicinal plants by health professionals in Mexico remains to be explored. To evaluate the use, acceptance and prescription of medicinal plants by health professionals in 9 of the states of Mexico. Direct and indirect interviews, regarding the use and acceptance of medicinal plants, with health professionals (n=1614), including nurses, physicians, pharmacists, and odontologists from nine states in Mexico were performed from January 2015 to July 2016. The interviews were analyzed with the factor the informant consensus (FIC). The information obtained indicated that 46% of those interviewed feel patients should not use medicinal plants as an alternative therapy. Moreover, 54% of health professionals, and 49% of the physicians have used medicinal plants as an alternative therapy for several diseases. Twenty eight percent of health professionals, and 26% of the physicians, have recommended or prescribed medicinal plants to their patients, whereas 73% of health professionals were in agreement with receiving academic information regarding the use and prescription of medicinal plants. A total of 77 plant species used for medicinal purposes, belonging to 40 botanical families were reported by the interviewed. The results of the FIC showed that the categories of diseases of the digestive system (FIC=0.901) and diseases of the respiratory system (FIC=0.898) had the greatest agreement. This study shows that medicinal plants are used for primary health care in Mexico by health professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [n-Butyl Alcohol-soluble Chemical Constituents of Psidium guajava Leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Wan, Kai-hua; Fu, Hui-zheng; Yan, Qing-wei

    2015-03-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the leaves of Psidium guajava. The chemical constituents were isolated by column chromatography on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and MPLC. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of special analysis. Seven compounds were isolated from n-butyl alcohol fraction, whose structures were elucidated as morin-3-O-α-L-arabopyranoside (1), morin-3-O-α-L-iyxopyranoside (2), 2,6-dihydroxy-4-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-benzophenone (3), casuarictin (4),2,6-dihydroxy-3,5-dimethyl-4-O-(6"-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-benzophenone(5), globulusin A(6), and kaempferol-3-O-β-D-(6"-galloyl) galactopyranoside (7). Compounds 3 and 5 ~ 7 are isolated from this plant for the first time.

  15. People, plants and health: a conceptual framework for assessing changes in medicinal plant consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith-Hall Carsten

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large number of people in both developing and developed countries rely on medicinal plant products to maintain their health or treat illnesses. Available evidence suggests that medicinal plant consumption will remain stable or increase in the short to medium term. Knowledge on what factors determine medicinal plant consumption is, however, scattered across many disciplines, impeding, for example, systematic consideration of plant-based traditional medicine in national health care systems. The aim of the paper is to develop a conceptual framework for understanding medicinal plant consumption dynamics. Consumption is employed in the economic sense: use of medicinal plants by consumers or in the production of other goods. Methods PubMed and Web of Knowledge (formerly Web of Science were searched using a set of medicinal plant key terms (folk/peasant/rural/traditional/ethno/indigenous/CAM/herbal/botanical/phytotherapy; each search terms was combined with terms related to medicinal plant consumption dynamics (medicinal plants/health care/preference/trade/treatment seeking behavior/domestication/sustainability/conservation/urban/migration/climate change/policy/production systems. To eliminate studies not directly focused on medicinal plant consumption, searches were limited by a number of terms (chemistry/clinical/in vitro/antibacterial/dose/molecular/trial/efficacy/antimicrobial/alkaloid/bioactive/inhibit/antibody/purification/antioxidant/DNA/rat/aqueous. A total of 1940 references were identified; manual screening for relevance reduced this to 645 relevant documents. As the conceptual framework emerged inductively, additional targeted literature searches were undertaken on specific factors and link, bringing the final number of references to 737. Results The paper first defines the four main groups of medicinal plant users (1. Hunter-gatherers, 2. Farmers and pastoralists, 3. Urban and peri-urban people, 4. Entrepreneurs and

  16. People, plants and health: a conceptual framework for assessing changes in medicinal plant consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Hall, Carsten; Larsen, Helle Overgaard; Pouliot, Mariève

    2012-11-13

    A large number of people in both developing and developed countries rely on medicinal plant products to maintain their health or treat illnesses. Available evidence suggests that medicinal plant consumption will remain stable or increase in the short to medium term. Knowledge on what factors determine medicinal plant consumption is, however, scattered across many disciplines, impeding, for example, systematic consideration of plant-based traditional medicine in national health care systems. The aim of the paper is to develop a conceptual framework for understanding medicinal plant consumption dynamics. Consumption is employed in the economic sense: use of medicinal plants by consumers or in the production of other goods. PubMed and Web of Knowledge (formerly Web of Science) were searched using a set of medicinal plant key terms (folk/peasant/rural/traditional/ethno/indigenous/CAM/herbal/botanical/phytotherapy); each search terms was combined with terms related to medicinal plant consumption dynamics (medicinal plants/health care/preference/trade/treatment seeking behavior/domestication/sustainability/conservation/urban/migration/climate change/policy/production systems). To eliminate studies not directly focused on medicinal plant consumption, searches were limited by a number of terms (chemistry/clinical/in vitro/antibacterial/dose/molecular/trial/efficacy/antimicrobial/alkaloid/bioactive/inhibit/antibody/purification/antioxidant/DNA/rat/aqueous). A total of 1940 references were identified; manual screening for relevance reduced this to 645 relevant documents. As the conceptual framework emerged inductively, additional targeted literature searches were undertaken on specific factors and link, bringing the final number of references to 737. The paper first defines the four main groups of medicinal plant users (1. Hunter-gatherers, 2. Farmers and pastoralists, 3. Urban and peri-urban people, 4. Entrepreneurs) and the three main types of benefits (consumer, producer

  17. Psidium guajava leaf extract prevents intestinal colonization of Citrobacter rodentium in the mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diarrheal diseases are the second highest cause of mortality of children under 5 years worldwide. There is a continuous search for developing a cost-effective treatment for diarrhea as the present ones are facing challenges. Medicinal plants can be explored further as an alternative treatment for diarrhea. Psidium guajava leaves have been used as an antidiarrheal globally. Citrobacter rodentium, a common mouse pathogen, is known to mimic the pathogenecity of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic E. coli. It can thus present an effective model to study infectious diarrhea. In the present study, the P. guajava leaf extract was tested for its efficacy in treating infectious diarrhea using a C. rodentium mouse model. The mice in the test group (treated with P. guajava leaf extract showed quicker clearance of infection as compared with the control group. The bacterial load in the fecal sample of the mice in the test group was high on Day 4 as compared with that in the control group, suggesting a flush out of the bacteria. In the test group, 6/7 (85.71% mice showed clearance of infection by Day 19. The control group continued to show infection till Day 29. P. guajava leaf extract thus has the potential for use in the treatment of infectious diarrhea.

  18. Psidium guajava leaf extract prevents intestinal colonization of Citrobacter rodentium in the mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pooja; Birdi, Tannaz

    2015-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases are the second highest cause of mortality of children under 5 years worldwide. There is a continuous search for developing a cost-effective treatment for diarrhea as the present ones are facing challenges. Medicinal plants can be explored further as an alternative treatment for diarrhea. Psidium guajava leaves have been used as an antidiarrheal globally. Citrobacter rodentium, a common mouse pathogen, is known to mimic the pathogenecity of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic E. coli. It can thus present an effective model to study infectious diarrhea. In the present study, the P. guajava leaf extract was tested for its efficacy in treating infectious diarrhea using a C. rodentium mouse model. The mice in the test group (treated with P. guajava leaf extract) showed quicker clearance of infection as compared with the control group. The bacterial load in the fecal sample of the mice in the test group was high on Day 4 as compared with that in the control group, suggesting a flush out of the bacteria. In the test group, 6/7 (85.71%) mice showed clearance of infection by Day 19. The control group continued to show infection till Day 29. P. guajava leaf extract thus has the potential for use in the treatment of infectious diarrhea. PMID:25878465

  19. The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina eKöberl

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is i to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, ii to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and iii to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L. and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn. cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants’ flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome.

  20. Ethnopharmacology of Medicinal Plants in Genaveh Port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Moradi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethnopharmacology has been seen as a multidisciplinatary approach for novel drug discovery by providing valuable data about medicinal plants in different cultures. The aim of this ethnopharmacological study was to identify medicinal plants of the Genaveh port in the North of Persian Gulf. Material and Methods: The medical uses of medicinal plants were gathered from 30 local informants by face to face interview. The relative frequency of citation (FRC and cultural importance (CI indices were calculated. Results: A total of 93 medicinal plants belonging to 55 families were identified. Plantago psyllium, Teucrium polium, Peganum harmala, Descuraninia sophia, Cichorium intybus, Achillea erophora DC, Matricarria charmomilla and Citrolus colocynthis had the highest cultural importance indices. Plantago psyllium, Descuraninia sophia and Zataria multiflora had the highest FRC indices. The highest medical uses were for gastrointestinal diseases, gynocological diseases, respiratory disorders, infectious diseases, nature of cool and metabolic disorders, respectively. In addition to the use of these plants to treat diseases as in Iran’s traditional medicine, people in the Genaveh port particularly use Plantago psyllium for drainage of infective boils and abscesses, cough, skin diseases, Teucrium polium for diabetes mellitus, wound washing and sterilizing, Peganum harmala for uterus infections and abdominal cramps, Descuraninia sophia for heart diseases and heatstroke, Cichorium intybus for heatstroke and liver diseases, Achillea eriophora DC for reflex, diabetes mellitus and wound healing, Matricarria charmomilla for seizure and dysmenorrhea, Citrolus colocynthis for hemorrhoid, diabetes mellitus and rheumatism and Zataria multiflora for sedation, abdominal pain and respiratory diseases. Conclusion: There is a vast variety of medicinal plants in Genaveh port. Although most of therapeutic applications of these plants in the Genaveh port are the

  1. Some medicinal plants as natural anticancer agents

    OpenAIRE

    Govind Pandey; S Madhuri

    2009-01-01

    India is the largest producer of medicinal plants and is rightly called the "Botanical garden of the World". The medicinal plants, besides having natural therapeutic values against various diseases, also provide high quality of food and raw materials for livelihood. Considerable works have been done on these plants to treat cancer, and some plant products have been marketed as anticancer drugs, based on the traditional uses and scientific reports. These plants may promote host resistance agai...

  2. Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian medicinal plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phlobatannin and cardic glycoside distribution in ten medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Cleome nutidosperma, Emilia coccinea, Euphorbia heterophylla, Physalis angulata, ...

  3. New gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) associated with Eugenia uniflora and Psidium cattleianum (Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, Valéria C; Nava, Dori E

    2011-01-01

    Two new species and a new genus of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) are described and illustrated. Both species induce leaf galls on Myrtaceae, the former on Eugenia uniflora and the latter on Psidium cattleianum. Duas novas espécies e um novo gênero de insetos galhadores (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) são descritos e ilustrados. Ambas espécies induzem galhas foliares em Myrtaceae, a primeira em Eugenia uniflora e a segunda em Psidium cattleianum.

  4. Anti-gout Potential of Malaysian Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Fazleen I; Abu Bakar, Mohd F; Rahmat, Asmah; Abdullah, Norazlin; Sabran, Siti F; Endrini, Susi

    2018-01-01

    Gout is a type of arthritis that causes painful inflammation in one or more joints. In gout, elevation of uric acid in the blood triggers the formation of crystals, causing joint pain. Malaysia is a mega-biodiversity country that is rich in medicinal plants species. Therefore, its flora might offer promising therapies for gout. This article aims to systematically review the anti-gout potential of Malaysian medicinal plants. Articles on gout published from 2000 to 2017 were identified using PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar with the following keyword search terms: "gout," "medicinal plants," "Malaysia," "epidemiology," " in vitro," and " in vivo ." In this study, 85 plants were identified as possessing anti-gout activity. These plants had higher percentages of xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity (>85%); specifically, the Momordica charantia, Chrysanthemum indicum, Cinnamomum cassia, Kaempferia galanga, Artemisia vulgaris , and Morinda elliptica had the highest values, due to their diverse natural bioactive compounds, which include flavonoids, phenolics, tannin, coumarins, luteolin, and apigenin. This review summarizes the anti-gout potential of Malaysian medicinal plants but the mechanisms, active compounds, pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, and safety of the plants still remain to be elucidated.

  5. An ethnopharmacological study of aromatic Uyghur medicinal plants in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lu; Tian, Shuge; Wen, E; Upur, Halmuart

    2017-12-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was completed in a remote village and surrounding country of Xinjiang, where most Uyghur medicinal plants could be collected. This work clarifies and increases ethnobotanical data. We surveyed and organized aromatic medicinal plants that are commonly used in clinical settings to provide a significant reference for studying new medical activities. In the survey, informants who have traditional knowledge on aromatic Uyghur medicinal plants were interviewed between March 2014 and September 2014. Aromatic medicinal plant species and pertinent information were collected. Some therapeutic methods and modes of preparation of traditional aromatic medicinal plants were found. A total of 86 aromatic medicinal plant species belonging to 36 families were included in our study. We identified 34 plant species introduced from different regions such as Europe, India and Mediterranean areas. Fruits and whole plants were the most commonly used parts of plant, and most aromatic medicinal plants could be applied as medicine and food. We assigned the medicinal plants a use value (UV). Knowing the UV of species is useful in determining the use reliability and pharmacological features of related plants. Xinjiang is an area in which indigenous aromatic medicinal plants are diversely used and has therefore established a sound dimensional medical healthcare treatment system. Some aromatic Uyghur medicinal plants are on the verge of extinction. Hence, further strategies for the conservation of these aromatic medicinal plants should be prioritized.

  6. International congress on aromatic and medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text : In Morocco, medicinal and aromatic plants occupy an important place in the traditional care system of a large number of local people. They are also economically strong potential, but unfortunately they are not valued enough. Indeed, Morocco by its privileged geographical position in the Mediterranean basin and its floristic diversity (with a total of over 4,200 species and subspecies of which over 500 are recognized as medicinal and aromatic plants), is a leading provider of traditional global market. In this context and given the back label of the natural global, group research and studies on Aromatic and Medicinal Plants (GREPAM), the Faculty of Semlalia and University Cadi Ayyad, organize: the International Congress on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants CIPAM 2009. The organization of this conference is part of scientific research developed by the GREPAM. [fr

  7. "Horchata" drink in Southern Ecuador: medicinal plants and people's wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Montserrat; Tinitana, Fani; Jarrín-V, Pablo; Donoso, Natalia; Romero-Benavides, Juan Carlos

    2017-03-09

    The "horchata" is a herbal mixture infusion consumed in Southern Ecuador. It remains unknown how vendors group the plant species to sell them at traditional markets. This research documented the following: 1) a list of medicinal plant species sold for the drink; 2) the culturally important medicinal plant species; 3) the agreement among vendors regarding the medicinal plants species and their therapeutic use; and 4) the groups of medicinal plants sold for the preparation of "horchata." Interviews were made to 185 vendors at 31 traditional markets in Loja province. Bunches of medicinal plants were purchased to identify the species and to prepare voucher specimens. Culturally important medicinal plants species were established with the Fidelity Level (FL) index. Agreement among vendors on the therapeutic use of medicinal plants was measured with the Factor of Informant Consensus (FIC) index. A cluster analysis was made to determine the groups of medicinal plants sold by market vendors to prepare the "horchata" drink. In Loja province, the "horchata" drink is consumed for its therapeutic uses. This study registered 33 families with 58 genera and 71 medicinal plant species, 50 of which are herbs and three are endemic to the Andean highlands of Ecuador. The FL index (46.1-96.3) determined 20 culturally important medicinal plant species. The highest FIC value (1.00) among vendors corresponds to four plant species employed each for a different therapeutic use. The cluster analysis identified a core group of 16 plant species which are essential to the drink and which likely interact to provide wellbeing. The "horchata" is a heritage drink in Loja province. The 71 medicinal plants species registered for this drink is the largest number reported to date, and they have a total of 32 therapeutic uses. The combined results of the FL and FIC indices, the cluster analysis, and the field observations reveal an agreement among vendors on 16 medicinal plant species and their

  8. Recent trends in medicinal plants research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shyur, Lie-fen; Lau, Allan S.Y

    2012-01-01

    .... One type of research explores the value of medicinal plants as traditionally used and studies of these plants have the potential to determine which plants are most potent, optimize dosages and dose...

  9. Contributions of Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) in the area of Medicinal plants/Traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Neeraj; Yadav, Satyapal Singh

    2017-02-02

    Medicinal plants belong to the oldest known health care products that have been used by human beings all over the world and are major components of the formulations used in indigenous system of medicine practiced in many countries. Besides, finding place as health supplements, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, herbal tea etc. there has been a global insurgence of interest, including India, leading to enormous research/activities in the area of medicinal plants. The article is aimed to provide the effort and initiatives of ICMR towards research on medicinal plants and its contributions on consolidation of Indian research on medicinal plants that are very relevant and important in the national context. The various initiatives undertaken by ICMR on research on traditional medicines/medicinal plants in the past are reviewed and documented in this article. The multi-disciplinary, multicentric research initiatives of ICMR have resulted in validation of traditional treatment Kshaarasootra (medicated Ayurvedic thread) for anal fistula, Vijayasar (heart wood of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb.) for diabetes mellitus, encouraging micro- and macrofilaricidal activity of Shakotak (stem bark of Streblus asper Lour.) in experimental studies an iridoid glycosides fraction isolated from root/rhizomes of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. (designated as Picroliv) for viral hepatitis. Other developmental and compilation of research works on Indian medicinal plants have resulted in publications of the thirteen volumes of quality standards, comprising of 449 Indian medicinal plants; three volumes of 90 phytochemical reference standards; fifteen volumes of review monographs on 4167 medicinal plant species; and one publication each on perspectives of Indian medicinal plants for management of liver disorders, lymphatic filariasis and diabetes mellitus (details available at http://www.icmr.nic.in/mpsite). The ICMR efforts assume special significance in the light of multifaceted use of medicinal plants

  10. Use of medicinal plants by people with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Gabrielle Santos Nunes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe the use of medicinal plants in the treatment of high blood pressure for people with hypertension enrolled in the Family Health Program in a city in Pernambuco State. Methods: a descriptive study, whose data were obtained through semi-structured interview script applied to 172 patients. Results: the use of medicinal plants for hypertension control was reported by 39.5%, of which 57.4% used only one medicinal plant. Among the species cited, there was predominant use of chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw.-34.8%]. Conclusion: medicinal plants constitute an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of hypertension. However, there is need for monitoring of handling and listed species.

  11. Anti-gout Potential of Malaysian Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazleen I. Abu Bakar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Gout is a type of arthritis that causes painful inflammation in one or more joints. In gout, elevation of uric acid in the blood triggers the formation of crystals, causing joint pain. Malaysia is a mega-biodiversity country that is rich in medicinal plants species. Therefore, its flora might offer promising therapies for gout. This article aims to systematically review the anti-gout potential of Malaysian medicinal plants. Articles on gout published from 2000 to 2017 were identified using PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar with the following keyword search terms: “gout,” “medicinal plants,” “Malaysia,” “epidemiology,” “in vitro,” and “in vivo.” In this study, 85 plants were identified as possessing anti-gout activity. These plants had higher percentages of xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity (>85%; specifically, the Momordica charantia, Chrysanthemum indicum, Cinnamomum cassia, Kaempferia galanga, Artemisia vulgaris, and Morinda elliptica had the highest values, due to their diverse natural bioactive compounds, which include flavonoids, phenolics, tannin, coumarins, luteolin, and apigenin. This review summarizes the anti-gout potential of Malaysian medicinal plants but the mechanisms, active compounds, pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, and safety of the plants still remain to be elucidated.

  12. Chemical composition of essential oil from Psidium cattleianum var.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rajuc

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... accounting for 61% of the essential oil. The major component was ... recently been increased because of great economic costs of deterioration and ..... Identification of isoflavones in Acca sellowiana and two Psidium species ...

  13. Kenyan medicinal plants used as antivenin: a comparison of plant usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisangau Daniel P

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The success of snake bite healers is vaguely understood in Kenya, partly due to their unknown materia medica and occult-mystical nature of their practice. A comparison is made of plants used in snake bite treatments by two culturally distinct African groups (the Kamba and Luo. Thirty two plants used for snakebite treatment are documented. The majority of the antidotes are prepared from freshly collected plant material – frequently leaves. Though knowledge of snake bite conditions etiological perceptions of the ethnic groups is similar, field ethnobotanical data suggests that plant species used by the two ethnic groups are independently derived. Antivenin medicinal plants effectively illustrate the cultural context of medicine. Randomness or the use of a variety of species in different families appears to be a feature of traditional snake bite treatments. A high degree of informant consensus for the species was observed. The study indicates rural Kenya inhabitants rely on medicinal plants for healthcare.

  14. Use of Medicinal Plants in Monterrey, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Enrique GONZÁLEZ-STUART

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Mexico has a rich tradition in medicinal plant use within its diverse traditional healing practices. Many people have used medicinal herbs to treat a variety of diseases and ailments for many generations. Located in the northeast, Monterrey is Mexico’s third largest city and one of the most industrialized cities in Latin America. In spite of widespread use of modern pharmaceuticals, and the availability of "scientific" or mainstream medicine in this city, many people still rely on traditional healers, as well as the use medicinal plants to combat illness. This study was undertaken in order to obtain information regarding the most popular medicinal plants used in Monterrey, as well as their uses, forms of application, and origin. Thirteen herbal providers voluntarily accepted to be interviewed within 2 of the city’s largest popular herbal marketplaces. A questionnaire written in the Spanish language was provided to all interviewees, regarding their years in business, their source of information or expertise in recommending herbs, as well as the type of herbs employed for the treatment of various diseases or afflictions. Fifty-six medicinal plants belonging to 27 botanical families, mostly sold as crude herbs, were mentioned by the herbal providers as being the most commonly used to treat various ailments.

  15. Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Asthma: A Traditional Persian Medicine Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Behjat; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Emami, Seyed Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    To search major Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) textbooks for medicinal plants used to treat asthma. The conformity of the TPM findings on the anti-asthmatic efficacy of plants with the findings of pharmacological studies was also explored. Major TPM textbooks were hand searched to find medicinal plants used for the treatment of asthma. Scientific names of TPM-suggested plants were determined using botanical databases and were used for a multidatabase electronic search in PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar databases. Then, the antiasthmatic effectiveness of TPM-recommended plants was verified in view of the findings from modern pharmacological investigations. According to the main TPM texts, Adianthum capillus-veneris, Boswellia oleogumresin, Crocus sativus, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Hyssopus officinalis and Ruta graveolens were the most efficacious medicinal plants for the treatment of asthma. This finding was confirmed by pharmacological studies which showed counterbalancing effects of the above-mentioned plants on inflammation, oxidative stress, allergic response, tracheal smooth muscle cell constriction and airway remodeling. The strong ethnobotanical background of plants used in TPM could be a valuable tool to find new anti-asthmatic medications. In this review, TPM-suggested anti-asthmatic plants were found to possess several mechanisms relevant to the treatment of respiratory diseases according to the information retrieved from modern pharmacological studies. This high degree of conformity suggested further proof-of-concept trials to ascertain the role of these plants in the routine management of asthmatic patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. A survey of medicinal plants around upper Songkhla lake, Thailand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of medicinal plants around upper Songkhla lake, Thailand. ... method of preparation, route of administration and properties of plants. ... Keywords: Medicinal plant, Ethnobotany, Traditional medicine, Upper Songkhla Lake, Thailand ...

  17. [Chemical Constituents from Ethyl Acetate Extract of Psidium guajava Leaves (II)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wen; Zhu, Xiao-ai; He, Cui-xia; Chen, Xue-xiang; Ye, Shu-min; Peng, Shan; Cao, Yong

    2015-08-01

    To study the chemical constituents from ethyl acetate extract of Psidium guajava leaves. The constituents were separated and purified by silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and their structures were identified on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data. Eleven compounds were isolated and identified as 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone (1), phytyl-acetate (2), cubenol (3), eucalyptin (4), n-docosanoic acid-p-hydroxy-phenethylol ester (5),8-methyl-5,7- dihydroxy-flavonone (6), 6-methyl-5,7-dihydroxy-flavonone (7), betulinic acid (8), carnosol (9), quercetin (10), and 2,4,6-tirhydroxy- 3,5-dimethyl-diphenylketone-4-O-(6'"-O-galloyl)-β-D-glucoside (11). Compounds 1-9 are isolated from this plant for the first time.

  18. Guajadial: an unusual meroterpenoid from guava leaves Psidium guajava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Long; Hsieh, Kun-Lung; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2007-11-22

    Guajadial (1), a novel caryophyllene-based meroterpenoid, was isolated from the Leaves of Psidium guajava (guava). The structure and relative stereochemistry of guajadial (1) were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. A possible biosynthetic pathway for 1 was proposed.

  19. Antimicrobial activities of medicinal plants used in folklore remedies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In south-western part of Nigeria Psidium guajava and Mangifera indica are commonly used for herbal preparations in the treatment of toothache, gastrointestinal disorders, dynsentery, diarrhoea, sore gums and sore throats. This has, therefore, led to the investigation of the antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of P.

  20. Antibacterial activity of crude extracts of some South African medicinal plants against multidrug resistant etiological agents of diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi-Johnson, Mary A; Obi, Chikwelu L; Samuel, Babatunde B; Eloff, Jacobus N; Okoh, Anthony I

    2017-06-19

    This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of some plants used in folklore medicine to treat diarrhoea in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The acetone extracts of Acacia mearnsii De Wild., Aloe arborescens Mill., A. striata Haw., Cyathula uncinulata (Schrad.) Schinz, Eucomis autumnalis (Mill.) Chitt., E. comosa (Houtt.) Wehrh., Hermbstaedtia odorata (Burch. ex Moq.) T.Cooke, Hydnora africana Thunb, Hypoxis latifolia Wight, Pelargonium sidoides DC, Psidium guajava L and Schizocarphus nervosus (Burch.) van der Merwe were screened against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, multi-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Isangi, S. typhi, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, Shigella flexneri type 1b and Sh. sonnei phase II. A qualitative phytochemical screening of the plants extracts was by thin layer chromatography. Plants extracts were screened for antibacterial activity using serial dilution microplate technique and bioautography. The TLC fingerprint indicated the presence of terpenoids and flavonoids in the herbs. Most of the tested organisms were sensitive to the crude acetone extracts with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.018-2.5 mg/mℓ. Extracts of A. striata, C. uncinulata, E. autumnalis and P. guajava were more active against enteropathogens. S. aureus and Sh. flexneri were the most sensitive isolates to the crude extracts but of significance is the antibacterial activity of A. arborescens and P. guajava against a confirmed extended spectrum betalactamase positive S. enterica serovar Typhimurium. The presence of bioactive compounds and the antibacterial activity of some of the selected herbs against multidrug resistant enteric agents corroborate assertions by traditional healers on their efficacies.

  1. Review on medicinal uses, pharmacological, phytochemistry and immunomodulatory activity of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, M; Hamid, A; Khalil, A; Ghaffar, A; Tayyaba, N; Saeed, A; Ali, M; Naveed, A

    2014-01-01

    Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Researchers have discovered some important compounds from plants. The present work constitutes a review of the medicinal plants whose immunomodulant activity has been proven. We performed PUBMED, EMBASE, Google scholar searches for research papers of medicinal plants having immunomodulant activity. Medicinal plants used by traditional physicians or reported as having immunomodulant activity include Acacia concocinna, Camellia sinensis, Lawsonia inermis Linn, Piper longum Linn, Gelidium amansii, Petroselinum crispum, Plantago major and Allium sativum. Immunomodulant activities of some of these medicinal plants have been investigated. The medicinal plants documented have immunomodulant activity and should be further investigated via clinical trial.

  2. Medicinal plants of the Kamiesberg, Namaqualand, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortje, J M; van Wyk, B-E

    2015-08-02

    Qualitative and quantitative data is presented that gives a new perspective on the traditional medicinal plants of the Khoisan (Khoe-San), one of the most ancient of human cultures. The data is not only of considerable historical and cultural value, but allows for fascinating comparative studies relating to new species records, novel use records and the spatial distribution of traditional plant use knowledge within the Cape Floristic Region. A detailed documentation and quantitative analysis of medicinal plants of the Kamiesberg area (an important Khoisan and Nama cultural centre) and their traditional uses, which have hitherto remained unrecorded. During four study visits to the Kamiesberg, semi-structured and structured interviews were conducted with 24 local inhabitants of the Kamiesberg, mostly of Khoisan decent. In addition to standard methodology, a newly developed Matrix Method was used to quantity medicinal plant knowledge. The Kamiesberg is an important center of extant Nama ethnomedicinal information but the knowledge is rapidly disappearing. Of a total of 101 medicinal plants and 1375 anecdotes, 21 species were recorded for the first time as having traditional medicinal uses and at least 284 medicinal use records were new. The relative importance, popularity and uses of the plants were quantified. The 97 newly documented vernacular names include 23 Nama (Khoekhoegowab) names and an additional 55 new variations of known names. The calculated Ethnobotanical Knowledge Index (EKI) and other indices accurately quantified the level of knowledge and will allow for future local, regional and even global comparisons. The results showed that the Kamiesberg is an important focal point of Khoisan (Nama) traditional knowledge but that the medicinal plants have not yet been systematically recorded in the scientific literature. There are numerous new use records and new species records that are in need of scientific study. Comparative data is now available for broader

  3. From Curanderas to Gas Chromatography: Medicinal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Mary; Lara, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    The Medicinal Plants of the Southwest summer workshop is an inquiry-based learning approach to increase interest and skills in biomedical research. Working in teams, Hispanic and Native American students discover the chemical and biological basis for the medicinal activity of regional plants used by healers. (Contains 4 tables and 1 figure.)

  4. Ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants used by Maonan people in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Liya; Guo, Zhiyong; Huang, Kunhui; Wei, Shanjun; Liu, Bo; Meng, Shaowu; Long, Chunlin

    2015-04-30

    This paper is based on an ethnobotanical investigation that focused on the traditional medicinal plants used by local Maonan people to treat human diseases in Maonan concentration regions. The Maonan people have relied on traditional medicine since ancient times, especially medicinal plants. The aim of this study is to document medicinal plants used by the Maonans and to report the status of medicinal plants and associated traditional knowledge. Ethnobotanical data were collected from June 2012 to September 2014 in Huanjiang Maonan Autonomous County, northern Guangxi, southwest China. In total, 118 knowledgeable informants were interviewed. Following statistically sampling method, eighteen villages from 5 townships were selected to conduct field investigations. Information was collected through the approache of participatory observation, semi-structured interviews, ranking exercises, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, and participatory rural appraisals. A total of 368 medicinal plant species were investigated and documented together with their medicinal uses by the Maonans, most of which were obtained from the wild ecosystems. The plants were used to treat 95 human diseases. Grinding was a widely used method to prepare traditional herbal medicines. There were significant relationships between gender and age, and between gender and informants' knowledge of medicinal plant use. Deforestation for agricultural purposes was identified as the most destructive factor of medicinal plants, followed by drought and over-harvest. The species diversity of medicinal plants used by the Maonans in the study area was very rich. Medicinal plants played a significant role in healing various human disorders in the Maonan communities. However, the conflicts between traditional inheriting system and recent socio-economic changes (and other factors) resulted in the reduction or loss of both medicinal plants and associated indigenous knowledge. Thus, conservation efforts

  5. Brazilian medicinal plants with corroborated anti-inflammatory activities: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Victor Pena; Arruda, Caroline; Abd El-Salam, Mohamed; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp

    2018-12-01

    Inflammatory disorders are common in modern life, and medicinal plants provide an interesting source for new compounds bearing anti-inflammatory properties. In this regard, Brazilian medicinal plants are considered to be a promising supply of such compounds due to their great biodiversity. To undertake a review on Brazilian medicinal plants with corroborated anti-inflammatory activities by selecting data from the literature reporting the efficacy of plants used in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory, including the mechanisms of action of their extracts and isolated compounds. A search in the literature was undertaken by using the following Web tools: Web of Science, SciFinder, Pub-Med and Science Direct. The terms 'anti-inflammatory' and 'Brazilian medicinal plants' were used as keywords in search engine. Tropicos and Reflora websites were used to verify the origin of the plants, and only the native plants of Brazil were included in this review. The publications reporting the use of well-accepted scientific protocols to corroborate the anti-inflammatory activities of Brazilian medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory potential were considered. We selected 70 Brazilian medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory activity. The plants were grouped according to their anti-inflammatory mechanisms of action. The main mechanisms involved inflammatory mediators, such as interleukins (ILs), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cyclooxygenase (COX) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The collected data on Brazilian medicinal plants, in the form of crude extract and/or isolated compounds, showed significant anti-inflammatory activities involving different mechanisms of action, indicating Brazilian plants as an important source of anti-inflammatory compounds.

  6. Medicinal plants used to treat TB in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguta, Joseph Mwanzia; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Addo, Phyllis G A

    2015-06-01

    The current study was designed to document medicinal plant species that are traditionally used to treat tuberculosis (TB) by Ghanaian communities. The medicinal plants used against TB or its signs and symptoms were selected using library and online published data searches. A guided questionnaire interview was also conducted with a botanist involved in plant collection at the Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (CSRPM) at Mampong. Data obtained were entered in Excel and summarized into means and frequencies using SPSS 12.0.1 for windows, and expressed as tables and bar graphs. A total of 15 medicinal plant species distributed between 13 genera and 13 families were documented. The following medicinal plant species were found to be used against TB in Greater Accra and Eastern parts of Ghana: Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Stem bark (Meliaceae), Hygrophila auriculata Heine, whole plant (Acanthaceae), Chenopodium ambrosioides L. leaves (Amaranthaceae), Coix lacryma-jobi L. glumes (Poaceae), Solanum torvum Sw. unripe fruits (Solanaceae), Solanum torvum Sw. leaves (Solanaceae), Bidens pilosa L. whole plant (Asteraceae), Phyllanthus fraternus G.L. Webster leaves (Phyllanthaceae), Dissotis rotundifolia (Sm.) Triana, leaves (Melastomataceae), Cymbopogon giganteus Chiov. Leaves (Poaceae), Cyperus articulatus L. roots (Cyperaceae), Allium sativum L. bulb (Amaryllidaceae), Zingiber officinale Roscoe, rhizomes (Zingiberaceae), Allium cepa L. bulbs (Amaryllidaceae), Allium cepa L. leaves (Amaryllidaceae), Aloe vera var. barbadensis aqueous extract from leaves (Xanthorrhoeaceae), Aloe vera var. barbadensis organic extract from leaves (Xanthorrhoeaceae), Cocos nucifera Linn, water (Arecaceae) and Cocos nucifera Linn. Husk (Arecaceae). The collected plant species could be a source of a new class of drugs against TB. Bioactivity guided fractionation is recommended to identify lead compounds for antimycobacterial activity. The current paper documents for the first time

  7. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of some Mexican medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Bustos, E; Velazquez, C; Garibay-Escobar, A; García, Z; Plascencia-Jatomea, M; Cortez-Rocha, M O; Hernandez-Martínez, J; Robles-Zepeda, R E

    2009-12-01

    In Mexico about 4,000 plant species have some medicinal use. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of six Mexican medicinal plants against fungi and Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methanolic extracts were prepared from the Mexican medicinal plants Amphypteringium adstrigens, Castella tortuosa, Coutarea latiflora, Ibervillea sonorae, Jatropha cuneata, and Selaginella lepidophylla. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the plants were determined by the broth microdilution method and the radial growth inhibition assay, respectively. All Mexican plants tested showed antimicrobial activity. Among the six plant extracts analyzed, J. cuneata showed the highest growth-inhibitory activity against fungi, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (J. cuneata > A. adstrigens > C. latiflora > C. tortuosa > I. sonorae approximately S. lepidophylla). Shigella flexneri and Staphylococcus aureus were the most susceptible bacteria to plant extracts. Complete inhibition of S. flexneri growth was observed with J. cuneata methanolic extract at 90 microg/mL. This plant extract also showed the strongest antifungal activity against Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus niger. Our data suggest that the medicinal plants tested have important antimicrobial properties. This is the first report describing the antimicrobial activities of several of the Mexican medicinal plants used in this study.

  8. The Trade in African Medicinal Plants in Matonge-Ixelles, Brussels (Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Andel, Tinde; Fundiko, Marie-Cakupewa C

    Maintaining cultural identity and preference to treat cultural bound ailments with herbal medicine are motivations for migrants to continue using medicinal plants from their home country after moving to Europe and the USA. As it is generally easier to import exotic food than herbal medicine, migrants often shift to using species that double as food and medicine. This paper focuses on the trade in African medicinal plants in a Congolese neighborhood in Brussels (Belgium). What African medicinal plants are sold in Matonge, where do they come from, and to which extent are they food medicines? Does vendor ethnicity influence the diversity of the herbal medicine sold? We hypothesized that most medicinal plants, traders, and clients in Matonge were of Congolese origin, most plants used medicinally were mainly food crops and that culture-bound illnesses played a prominent role in medicinal plant use. We carried out a market survey in 2014 that involved an inventory of medicinal plants in 19 shops and interviews with 10 clients of African descent, voucher collection and data gathering on vernacular names and uses. We encountered 83 medicinal plant species, of which 71% was primarily used for food. The shredded leaves of Gnetum africanum Welw., Manihot esculenta Crantz, and Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam were among the most frequently sold vegetables with medicinal uses. Cola nuts, shea butter, Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., and Mondia whitei (Hook.f.). Skeels were the main non-food medicines sold. Women's health, aphrodisiacs, and rituals were the most important medicinal applications, but culture-bound ailments did not entirely dominate the plant uses. While most clients in Matonge were Congolese, most vendors and plant species were not. The Pakistanis dominated the food trade, and typical Congolese plants were sometimes replaced by West African species, creating confusion in vernacular names. African-managed shops had significantly more species of medicinal plants in stock than shops

  9. Endophytic actinobacteria of medicinal plants: diversity and bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golinska, Patrycja; Wypij, Magdalena; Agarkar, Gauravi; Rathod, Dnyaneshwar; Dahm, Hanna; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-08-01

    Endophytes are the microorganisms that exist inside the plant tissues without having any negative impact on the host plant. Medicinal plants constitute the huge diversity of endophytic actinobacteria of economical importance. These microbes have huge potential to synthesis of numerous novel compounds that can be exploited in pharmaceutical, agricultural and other industries. It is of prime importance to focus the present research on practical utilization of this microbial group in order to find out the solutions to the problems related to health, environment and agriculture. An extensive characterization of diverse population of endophytic actinobacteria associated with medicinal plants can provide a greater insight into the plant-endophyte interactions and evolution of mutualism. In the present review, we have discussed the diversity of endophytic actinobacteria of from medicinal plants their multiple bioactivities.

  10. Genomics and Evolution in Traditional Medicinal Plants: Road to a Healthier Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Da-Cheng; Xiao, Pei-Gen

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants have long been utilized in traditional medicine and ethnomedicine worldwide. This review presents a glimpse of the current status of and future trends in medicinal plant genomics, evolution, and phylogeny. These dynamic fields are at the intersection of phytochemistry and plant biology and are concerned with the evolution mechanisms and systematics of medicinal plant genomes, origin and evolution of the plant genotype and metabolic phenotype, interaction between medicinal plant genomes and their environment, the correlation between genomic diversity and metabolite diversity, and so on. Use of the emerging high-end genomic technologies can be expanded from crop plants to traditional medicinal plants, in order to expedite medicinal plant breeding and transform them into living factories of medicinal compounds. The utility of molecular phylogeny and phylogenomics in predicting chemodiversity and bioprospecting is also highlighted within the context of natural-product-based drug discovery and development. Representative case studies of medicinal plant genome, phylogeny, and evolution are summarized to exemplify the expansion of knowledge pedigree and the paradigm shift to the omics-based approaches, which update our awareness about plant genome evolution and enable the molecular breeding of medicinal plants and the sustainable utilization of plant pharmaceutical resources.

  11. The medicinal plants of Chepan Mountain (Western Bulgaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahariev, Dimcho

    2015-12-01

    Bulgaria is one of the European countries with the greatest biodiversity, including biodiversity of medicinal plants. The object of this study is Chepan Mountain. It is located in Western Bulgaria and it is part of Balkan Mountain. On the territory of the Chepan Mountain (only 80 km2) we found 344 species of medicinal plants from 237 genera and 83 families. The floristic analysis indicates, that the most of the families and the genera are represented by a small number of inferior taxa. The hemicryptophytes dominate among the life forms with 49.71%. The biological types are represented mainly by perennial herbaceous plants (60.47%). There are 7 types of floristic elements divided in 27 groups. The largest percentage of species are of the European type (58.43%). Among the medicinal plants, there are two Balkan endemic species and 18 relic species. We described 23 species with protection statute. The anthropophytes among the medicinal plants are 220 species (63.95%).

  12. Medicinal plants sold in the markets of Antananarivo, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randriamiharisoa, Maria Nirina; Kuhlman, Alyse R; Jeannoda, Vololoniaina; Rabarison, Harison; Rakotoarivelo, Nivo; Randrianarivony, Tabita; Raktoarivony, Fortunat; Randrianasolo, Armand; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2015-07-28

    This study focuses on the large outdoor markets of the capital of Madagascar, Antananarivo. As the largest metropolitan area in Madagascar with a population of nearly two million, the region has great capacity for consumption of medicinal plant remedies despite numerous pharmacies. Medicinal plant use spans all socioeconomic levels, and the diverse metropolitan population allows us to study a wide variety of people who consume these plants for medical purposes. The purpose of this study is to identify and generate a list of medicinal plants sold in the traditional markets with a focus on those collected in the forests around Antananarivo, get an idea of the quantities of medicinal plants sold in the markets around Antananarivo, and assess the economy of the medicinal plant markets. In order to determine which medicinal plants are most consumed in Antananarivo, ethnobotanical enquiries were conducted in the five main markets of the capital city. Ethnobotanical surveys were conducted with medicinal plant traders, suppliers, harvesters and cultivators, with voucher specimens created from the plants discussed. Trade circuit information was established and the income generated by the trade of some of the species was assessed. The inventory of the Antananarivo markets resulted in a list of 89 commercialized plant species. Ten of the 89 were mentioned by 60-100 % of vendors. Profitability for vendors is high and competitive with other salaried positions within Antananarivo. Transportation costs are also high and therefore lower profitability for other members in the supply chain. The markets of Antananarivo have always played a vital cultural role in the lives of urban Malagasy, but our study shows they also play an economic role not only for urban residents but rural harvesters as well. Continued research and monitoring of the non-timber forest products trade in Antananarivo is needed to better understand the impact of trade on the wild plant populations.

  13. Systematic organization of medicinal plant information: a monograph template proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C.B. Carvalho

    Full Text Available The use of medicinal plants in Brazil is widespread and is supported by public policies; it has the objective of providing the population with safe and effective herbal medicines of adequate quality. An action in these policies is to develop medicinal plant monographs to gather published information and decide which medicinal plants should be financed by the Brazilian government and distributed by the public health system. Currently, the monographs published worldwide do not present unified information regarding medicinal plants, and generally, they do not cover enough requirements for herbal medicine registration. The aim of this study is to develop a monograph model with standardized information not only about botany, agronomy, quality control, safety, and efficacy but also about relating regulatory aspects that support herbal medicine regulation. The development of standardized monographs favors the fast authorization and distribution of herbal medicines in the public system. The model also points out the lacking studies that should be carried out to supplement the necessary regulatory information of medicinal plants.

  14. UPLC/QTOF/MS profiling of two Psidium species and the in-vivo hepatoprotective activity of their nano-formulated liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Fatema R; Abdelbary, Ghada A; Salama, Maha M; Saleh, Dalia O; Fathy, Magda M; Soliman, Fathy M

    2018-03-01

    Liver diseases are major health problem in Egypt influencing lifestyle and economy. The demand for nutraceutical hepatoprotective agents is crucial to ameliorate the side effects of synthetic drugs. The present study aims to evaluate antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of extracts of Psidium guajava L. and Psidium cattleianum Sabine leaves and their nano-formulated liposomes against paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. Secondary metabolites profile of P. guajava and P. cattleianum leaves was investigated using UPLC-PDA-ESI-qTOF-MSn. The nano-liposomes containing Psidium extracts were prepared using thin film hydration method. Biochemical analysis was based on monitoring serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP and total bilirubin. The liver homogenate was used for determination of GSH and MDA. Histopathological alterations were also studied. Metabolic profiling revealed qualitative differences between the two investigated species providing a comprehensive map for the metabolites present in P. guajava and P. cattleianum leaves cultivated in Egypt. The identified metabolites belong to different phytochemical classes; polyphenolics, flavonoids, triterpenes and meroterpenoids. Significant hepatoprotective effects were observed as evident from the decreased levels of AST, ALT, ALP, MDA and total bilirubin as well as restoration of decreased GSH level in the two studied Psidium extracts (250, 500mg/kg b. wt) and their respective nano-liposomes (500mg/kg b. wt), when compared to the diseased group. Nano-liposomes of Psidium guajava leaves (500mg/kg b. wt) greatly restored the normal architecture of the liver in the histopathological study, as regards to standard silymarin. The present study verified the effectiveness of Psidium guajava and Psidium cattleianum leaves extracts and their nano-liposomes in ameliorating the paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Medicinal Plants for Healing Sores and Wounds among the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicinal Plants for Healing Sores and Wounds among the Communities Surrounding Ungoye Forest, Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. ... The focus was on the medicinal plants that grow in the Ungoye forest and around the homesteads. The survey ... Keywords: Traditional medicine, documentation, Ethno-survey, wounds.

  16. Initial Studies on Alkaloids from Lombok Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Bremner

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Initial investigation of medicinal plants from Lombok has resulted in the collection of 100 plant species predicted to have antimicrobial, including antimalarial, properties according to local medicinal uses. These plants represent 49 families and 80 genera; 23% of the plants tested positively for alkaloids. Among the plants testing positive, five have been selected for further investigation involving structure elucidation and antimicrobial testing on the extracted alkaloids. Initial work on structural elucidation of some of the alkaloids is reported briefly.

  17. medicinal plant use of villagers in the mopani district, limpopo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alinah Chauke

    These studies may guide the regulation of herbal medicine industry in South. Africa. Key words: Ethnobotanical, Medicinal plants, Mashishimale village. Introduction. Reviews of literature involving research of medicinal plants suggest that scientists follow more or less the same general strategy to investigate plant materials ...

  18. Medicinal plants in the treatment of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad M. Zlatić

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a review of highly developed medicinal usages of plants in the treatment of cancer. In the last decades, the cancer treatment has been included in this range of plant use, due to plant active substances. Active substances or secondary metabolites are generally known for their widespread application. When it comes to the cancer treatment, these substances affect the uncontrolled cell division. Therefore, the plants which are the source of these substances are proved to be irreplaceable in this field of medicine. This paper deals with some of the most significant plants well known for their multiple aspects of beneficial medicinal influence. The group of the plants described is comprised of the following species: Taxus brevifolia (Taxaceae, Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae, Podophyllum peltatum (Berberidaceae, Camptotheca accuminata (Cornaceae, and Cephalotaxus harringtonia (Cephalotaxaceae. The comprehensive description of the plants in this paper includes the morphological characteristics, the features and the representation of the molecular structures of active substances, the particular influence that these active substances have and the general importance of the substances as seen from the aspect of cancer treatment mostly with reference to the impacts on cell cycle.

  19. Medicinal plants of the family Caryophyllaceae: a review of ethno-medicinal uses and pharmacological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Chandra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Several species of the family Caryophyllaceae are widely used by many ethnic communities as traditional medicine throughout the world. The highest number of plants of the family are used in Chinese traditional medicine. The ethnopharmacologial studies of this family indicate that plants of the family possess anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Other miscellaneous properties reported are ribosome inactivation properties, inhibition of prostatic enlargement in rats, and inhibition of intestinal enzyme carboxyelasterase in rats, cerebro-protective activity, and antiobesity in rats. Few reviews have been published yet, providing information regarding medicinal plants of the family and their biomedical properties. All published reviews have focused either on a particular taxa or a few species. The present review is focused on the traditional medicinal uses of the plants of the family Caryophyllaceae along with phytochemical and pharmacological studies of the family. A study of the literature revealed significant traditional medicinal importance of the family. Major chemical constituents of Caryophyllceae are saponins, Phytoecdysteroids, benzenoids, phenyl propanoids, and nitrogen containing compounds. The most important property of plants of the family is anticancer activity and is shown by the large number of plant species studied. This review of traditional medicinal and pharmacological uses of plants of the family, provide a ground for future research in the family.

  20. Economic importance and GIS mapping of medicinal plants in Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study identified the economic importance of medicinal plants and evaluated with Geographical Information System (GIS) tool to develop spatial maps covering medicinal plants prevalent in Darkesh area, Northern Khorasan, Iran. Then provide the coordinates of the identified area as your results. 10 medicinal plants ...

  1. Antimicrobial activity of Nigerian medicinal plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, Madubuike Umunna; Okoye, Rosemary Chinazam

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is currently one of the major threats facing mankind. The emergence and rapid spread of multi- and pan-drug-resistant organisms (such as vancomycin-, methicillin-, extended-spectrum β-lactam-, carbapenem- and colistin-resistant organisms) has put the world in a dilemma. The health and economic burden associated with AMR on a global scale are dreadful. Available antimicrobials have been misused and are almost ineffective with some of these drugs associated with dangerous side effects in some individuals. Development of new, effective, and safe antimicrobials is one of the ways by which AMR burden can be reduced. The rate at which microorganisms develop AMR mechanisms outpaces the rate at which new antimicrobials are being developed. Medicinal plants are potential sources of new antimicrobial molecules. There is renewed interest in antimicrobial activities of phytochemicals. Nigeria boasts of a huge heritage of medicinal plants and there is avalanche of researches that have been undertaken to screen antimicrobial activities of these plants. Scientific compilation of these studies could provide useful information on the antimicrobial properties of the plants. This information can be useful in the development of new antimicrobial drugs. This paper reviews antimicrobial researches that have been undertaken on Nigerian medicinal plants. PMID:28512606

  2. Comparative Antitussive Effects of Medicinal Plants and Their Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Saeideh; Shakeri, Farzaneh; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2018-01-15

    Context • The cough is a protective reflex, with 2 types, one being more sensitive to mechanical stimulation and the other to chemical stimulation, such as sulfur dioxide, ammonia, citric acid, and capsaicin. Some evidence is available that suppressant therapy is most effective when used for the short-term reduction of coughing. Today, use of herbal drugs is increasing all over the world for various ailments, including to provide antitussive activity. Objective • The study intended to review the antitussive effects of various extracts, some fractions, and some constituents of the studied medicinal plants. Design • Various databases, including the Medline, Science Direct, Scopus, and Google Scholar, were searched for studies published between 1978 and 2015, using the keywords antitussive and cough and the names of various medicinal plants and their constituents. Setting • The study took place in the districts related to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (Mashhad, Iran). Outcome Measures • The antitussive effects of medicinal plants and their constituents were normalized to 50 mg/kg and 1 mg/mL against various cough stimulants and compared. Results • The most potent antitussive effect was observed for Nigella sativa and Linum usitatissimum on coughs induced by sulfur dioxide. Artemisia absinthium showed a higher antitussive effect on cough induced by ammonia compared with the other studied medicinal plants. The antitussive effects of Cuminum cyminum and Glycyrrhiza glabra were more potent on cough induced by citric acid than other medicinal plants. Conclusions • These results suggest the therapeutic potential of the studied medicinal plants as antitussive therapies. However, only a few clinical studies have examined the antitussive effects of medicinal plants, and more clinical studies are needed. The underlying mechanisms of the antitussive effects of medicinal plants should be also examined in further studies.

  3. Report: Studies on antibacterial activity of some traditional medicinal plants used in folk medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israr, Fozia; Hassan, Fouzia; Naqvi, Baqir Shyum; Azhar, Iqbal; Jabeen, Sabahat; Hasan, S M Farid

    2012-07-01

    Ethanolic extracts of eight medicinal plants commonly used in folk medicine were tested for their antibacterial activity against four Gram positive strains (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and, Streptococcus pneumoniae) and six Gram negative strains (Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis. Salmonella typhi para A, Salmonella typhi para B and Shigella dysenteriae) that were obtained from different pathological laboratories located in Karachi, Pakistan. Disc diffusion method was used to analyze antibacterial activity. Out of eight, five medicinal plants showed antibacterial activity against two or more than two microbial species. The most effective antimicrobial plant found to be Punica granatum followed by Curcuma zedoaria Rosc, Grewia asiatica L and Carissa carandas L, Curcuma caesia Roxb respectively. From these results, it is evident that medicinal plants could be used as a potential source of new antibacterial agents.

  4. The application of biotechnology in medicinal plants breeding research in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He-Ping; Li, Jin-Cai; Huang, Lu-Qi; Wang, Dian-Lei; Huang, Peng; Nie, Jiu-Sheng

    2015-07-01

    Breeding is not only an important area of medicinal plants research but also the foundation for the superior varieties acquirement of medicinal plants. The rise of modern biotechnology provides good opportunities and new means for medicinal plants breeding research in China. Biotechnology shows its technical advantages and new development prospects in breeding of new medicinal plants varieties with high and stable yield, good quality, as well as stress-resistance. In this paper, we describe recent advances, problems, and development prospects about the application of modern biotechnology in medicinal plants breeding research in China.

  5. The endemic medicinal plants of Northern Balochistan, Pakistan and their uses in traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Tahira; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Mohammad Tareen, Niaz; Jabeen, Rukhsana; Sultana, Shazia; Zafar, Muhammad; Zain-ul-Abidin, Sheikh

    2015-09-15

    The highlands of Northern Balochistan are the hot spots of medicinal and endemic plant in Pakistan. These plants are still commonly used for medicinal purposes by local people in their daily lives. This study first documented the information about the medicinal uses of endemic species of Balochistan-province Pakistan. A survey was performed using open ended questionnaires, free listening and personal observations with 152 informants (54% female, 46% male). In addition, the use value (MUV), use report (UR), fidelity level (FL), frequency citation (FC), relative frequency citation (RFC), family importance value (FIV) of species were determined and the informant consensus factor (ICF) was calculated for the medicinal plants included in the study. A total of 24 endemic plants belonging to 19 genera and 14 families were used by the local inhabitants to treat 12 categories of various diseases. The most common families of endemic plant species as depicted by its number of species (6 species) and FIV (9.9) was Fabaceae as the dominant family. The endemic plant species comprised perennial herbs (30%), annual herbs (25%), shrubs (29%) and under shrubs (16% each), no endemic tree species was reported in the study area. The highest number of species were used in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases (12 species). The main route of administration is oral injection (62%) while the most frequently used form of external administration of herbal medicine was paste (5.4%) and the most commonly applied methods of preparation are powder (48.2%). Highest use report were calculated for Allium baluchistanicum and Viola makranica, (8 UR each), and least use report were calculated for two species Heliotropium remotiflorum and Tetracme stocksii (1 UR for each). Use values of the recorded plant species have been calculated which showed a highest use value of (0.73) for A. baluchistanicum and (0.56) for Berberis baluchistanica while the lowest UVs were attained for T. stocksii (0

  6. The Significance of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Syal; Dobos, Gustav J.; Rampp, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Indian medicine (ayurveda) is becoming increasingly popular, with many chronic conditions responding to it well. Most patients begin to take conventional medications as soon as their diagnoses are made, so ayurvedic treatments are usually undergone alongside and/or after conventional medical approaches. A detailed knowledge of the action of food, spices, and medicinal plants is needed in order to understand their potential influence fully. While societal use of ayurvedic plants and Indian spices is commonplace, without ill effect, the use of more concentrated products made from single plants, often in the form of teas or tablets, is of more concern. The mechanisms by which polyherbal drugs and their extracts act differ in many respects from the actions of single substances or synthetic drugs. Despite the fact that ayurvedic medicines are based on natural herbal materials, their safety depends on their method of administration, taking into account individuals’ needs and their specific disease conditions. PMID:27707902

  7. Anti-quorum sensing activity of some medicinal plants | Al-Haidari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the other hand, Psidium guajava and Mentha longifolia extracts showed lower QSI activity. These extracts exhibited significant elimination of pyocyanin formation and biofilm development of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14. In addition, they significantly inhibited twitching and swimming motilities of P. aeruginosa PA14.

  8. Medicinal plants used in traditional herbal medicine in the province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The nettle was the medicinal plant employed for more different illness and the chamomile was the one with higher prevalence. We could confirm that the Native Ecuadorians have a vast variety of traditions and popular medicinal practices that have great value and are needed to be researched and studied ...

  9. Medicinal plants for primary dysmenorrhoea: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellow, Janice; Nienhuis, Chantelle

    2018-04-01

    Primary dysmenorrhoea is a common complaint experienced by many females in their reproductive years. The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of various gynaecological conditions is on the increase, despite the limited evidence available regarding efficacy and safety of their use. The aim of this systematic review was to synthesise the most recent evidence relating to the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea with medicinal plants. A thorough database search was conducted using defined search terms, and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published in English between 2008 and 2016, pertaining to the use of medicinal plants (single use) for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea, were assessed. Studies evaluating dysmenorrhoeal pain and associated symptoms as a primary or secondary outcome were considered and assessed by two reviewers independently of each other, using the JADAD scale and the Cochrane risk of bias tool,. 22 RCTs were included in the review; 9 were placebo-controlled trials and 13 were comparative studies to pharmacological treatment or nutritional supplements. Most of the evaluated medicinal plants showed evidence of efficacy in relieving menstrual pain in at least one RCT. The low or unclear quality of the majority of these studies however warrants caution in interpreting these results. This review adds to the knowledge-base on the use of these medicinal plants in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea. Further research is needed before definitive conclusions can be made regarding the efficacy and safety of the use of these medicinal plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Screening of antibacterial potentials of some medicinal plants from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Out of these medicinal plants Caesalpinia bonducella, Gardenia gummifera and ... arabica, Gardenia gummifera and ethanol, methanol extracts of Caesalpinia ... Key words: Antibacterial activity, Melghat, Medicinal Plants, Phytochemical ...

  11. NIGERIAN ETHINOMEDICINE AND MEDICINAL PLANT FLORA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In continuation of the ethobotanical survey of medicinal plants of the Benue Area of Nigeria, thirty plants (belonging to twenty families), which are used as phytomedicines by the natives, were studied. The plants are arranged in alphabetical order of the taxa with their vernacular names in Idoma, Igala and Tiv given.

  12. Toxicity studies of medicinal plants used in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukandou Mounanga, Marlaine; Mewono, Ludovic; Aboughe Angone, Sophie

    2015-11-04

    In sub-Saharan Africa, traditional medicine is widely used in rural and urban areas also. This is essentially due to the prohibitive cost of pharmaceutical-based medicine and the low incomes of a major part of the population. In addition, the efficacies of many of these traditional and plant-based medicines are proven, but the fact remains that certain plants used in traditional medicine have toxic effects. It is in this perspective that we investigated by bibliographic literature on the toxicity of plants used in traditional medicine. It is crucial to gain knowledge on these plant-based medicines prepared and prescribed by practitioners, particularly in terms of toxicity, composition, specific efficacy of disease and to advise practitioners of this alternative medicine on the protection and security of patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. North African Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used in Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Silva, Jorge M; Romane, Abderrahmane; Efferth, Thomas; Salgueiro, Lígia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cancer is a major cause of mortality worldwide with increasing numbers by the years. In North Africa, the number of cancer patients is alarming. Also shocking is that a huge number of cancer patients only have access to traditional medicines due to several factors, e.g., economic difficulties. In fact, medicinal plants are widely used for the treatment of several pathologies, including cancer. Truthfully, herbalists and botanists in North African countries prescribe several plants for cancer treatment. Despite the popularity and the potential of medicinal plants for the treatment of cancer, scientific evidence on their anticancer effects are still scarce for most of the described plants. Objective: Bearing in mind the lack of comprehensive and systematic studies, the aim of this review is to give an overview of studies, namely ethnobotanical surveys and experimental evidence of anticancer effects regarding medicinal plants used in North Africa for cancer therapy. Method: The research was conducted on several popular search engines including PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus and Web of Science. The research focused primarily on English written papers published between the years 2000 and 2016. Results: This review on plants traditionally used by herbalists in North Africa highlights that Morocco and Algeria are the countries with most surveys on the use of medicinal plants in folk medicine. Among the plethora of plants used, Nigella sativa and Trigonella foenum-graecum are the most referred ones by herbalists for the treatment of cancer. Moreover, a plethora of scientific evidence qualifies them as candidates for further drug development. Furthermore, we report on the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Conclusion: Overall, this review highlights the therapeutic potential of some medicinal plants as anticancer agents. The North African flora offers a rich source of medicinal plants for a wide array of diseases, including cancer. The elucidation of

  14. MPD3: a useful medicinal plants database for drug designing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Arooj; Ashfaq, Usman Ali; Ul Qamar, Muhammad Tahir; Anwar, Farooq; Gulzar, Faisal; Ali, Muhammad Amjad; Saari, Nazamid; Pervez, Muhammad Tariq

    2017-06-01

    Medicinal plants are the main natural pools for the discovery and development of new drugs. In the modern era of computer-aided drug designing (CADD), there is need of prompt efforts to design and construct useful database management system that allows proper data storage, retrieval and management with user-friendly interface. An inclusive database having information about classification, activity and ready-to-dock library of medicinal plant's phytochemicals is therefore required to assist the researchers in the field of CADD. The present work was designed to merge activities of phytochemicals from medicinal plants, their targets and literature references into a single comprehensive database named as Medicinal Plants Database for Drug Designing (MPD3). The newly designed online and downloadable MPD3 contains information about more than 5000 phytochemicals from around 1000 medicinal plants with 80 different activities, more than 900 literature references and 200 plus targets. The designed database is deemed to be very useful for the researchers who are engaged in medicinal plants research, CADD and drug discovery/development with ease of operation and increased efficiency. The designed MPD3 is a comprehensive database which provides most of the information related to the medicinal plants at a single platform. MPD3 is freely available at: http://bioinform.info .

  15. Application of plant cell and tissue culture for the production of phytochemicals in medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Bijaya

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 80% of the world inhabitants depend on the medicinal plants in the form of traditional formulations for their primary health care system well as in the treatment of a number of diseases since the ancient time. Many commercially used drugs have come from the information of indigenous knowledge of plants and their folk uses. Linking of the indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants to modern research activities provides a new reliable approach, for the discovery of novel drugs much more effectively than with random collection. Increase in population and increasing demand of plant products along with illegal trade are causing depletion of medicinal plants and many are threatened in natural habitat. Plant tissue culture technique has proved potential alternative for the production of desirable bioactive components from plants, to produce the enough amounts of plant material that is needed and for the conservation of threatened species. Different plant tissue culture systems have been extensively studied to improve and enhance the production of plant chemicals in various medicinal plants.

  16. [Popular medicine: benefits and drawbacks of medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de França, Inácia Sátiro Xavier; de Souza, Jeová Alves; Baptista, Rosilene Santos; Britto, Virgínia Rossana de Sousa

    2008-01-01

    Descriptive study which aims to verify if the herbalist offer the information correct for the use of the medicinal plants; if they give for the customers concerning the possible poisonings or interaction with the allopathic guide and also if there is a criteria for the commercialization of the phytotherapics. A questionnaire was used containing open and closed questions involving aspects of the performance of the herbalists with the phytotherapics. The herbalists know the majority of the medicinal plants, however, there are some gaps concerning the correct indication of these products, of the collateral effect and toxicities. The herbalist lack to better know the principles of the grass, the therapeutically indications active, to guide the users concerning the possible pharmacological interactions or medicaments poisonings and regarding the cleanness, storage, time of useful life and contraindications of the product.

  17. Antibacterial, antioxidant and antitumor properties of Moroccan medicinal plants: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhakim Bouyahya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic and medicinal plants have been traditionally used since antiquity to fight against illnesses. Recently, several researches have focused on the pharmacological properties and various bioactivities of natural products are extracted from medicinal plants, including the properties of antibacterial, antitumor and antioxidant activities. The products of medicinal plants are the secondary metabolites belonging to different compound classes such as essential oils, polyphenols, flavonoids and other phytochemical classes. In Morocco, medicinal plants are the major source of bioactive compounds and the majority of them are used in phytotherapy. The biological potential of various Moroccan medicinal plants attracts a lot of interest in the literature. They include antibacterial, antioxidant and antitumor investigations. In this context, this work aims at discussing antibacterial, antitumor and antioxidant properties of Moroccan medicinal plants.

  18. Analysis by UPLC-MS-QTOF and antifungal activity of guava (Psidium guajava L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Camila Fonseca; Rocha, Janaína Esmeraldo; Nascimento Silva, Maria Karollyna do; de Freitas, Thiago Sampaio; de Sousa, Amanda Karine; Dos Santos, Antônia Thassya Lucas; da Cruz, Rafael Pereira; Ferreira, Maciel Horácio; da Silva, Josefa Carolaine Pereira; Machado, Antonio Judson Targino; Carneiro, Joara Nályda Pereira; Sales, Débora Lima; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Ribeiro, Paulo Riceli Vasconcelos; de Brito, Edy Sousa; Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana Bezerra

    2018-05-08

    Psidium guajava L. is a plant widely used for food and in folk medicine all over the world. Studies have shown that guava leaves have antifungal properties. In this study, Flavonoid and Tannic fractions were tested to investigate their chemical composition and antifungal potential in vitro.21 compounds in the two fractions, presenting a higher content of phenolic compounds. The antifungal assays were performed against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei by microdilution to determine the IC 50 and the cell viability curve. Minimal Fungicidal Concentration(MFC) and the inhibitory effects of the association of the fractions with Fluconazole, as well as the assays used to verify any morphological changes were performed in microculture chambers based on the concentrations from the microdilution. The IC 50 of the isolated fractions and the fractions associated with each other were calculated, varying from 69.29 to 3444.62 μg/mL and the fractions associated with fluconazole varied from 925.56 to 1.57 μg/mL, it was clear that the association of the natural product with the antifungal presented a synergism. The fractions affected pleomorphism capacity and have a potential antifungal activity as they caused fungal inhibition in isolated use, potentiated the action of Fluconazole, reducing its concentration and impeding morphological transition, one of the virulence factors of the genus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. From cumulative cultural transmission to evidence-based medicine: evolution of medicinal plant knowledge in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonti, Marco; Staub, Peter O.; Cabras, Stefano; Castellanos, Maria Eugenia; Casu, Laura

    2015-01-01

    In Mediterranean cultures written records of medicinal plant use have a long tradition. This written record contributed to building a consensus about what was perceived to be an efficacious pharmacopeia. Passed down through millennia, these scripts have transmitted knowledge about plant uses, with high fidelity, to scholars and laypersons alike. Herbal medicine's importance and the long-standing written record call for a better understanding of the mechanisms influencing the transmission of contemporary medicinal plant knowledge. Here we contextualize herbal medicine within evolutionary medicine and cultural evolution. Cumulative knowledge transmission is approached by estimating the causal effect of two seminal scripts about materia medica written by Dioscorides and Galen, two classical Greco-Roman physicians, on today's medicinal plant use in the Southern Italian regions of Campania, Sardinia, and Sicily. Plant-use combinations are treated as transmissible cultural traits (or “memes”), which in analogy to the biological evolution of genetic traits, are subjected to mutation and selection. Our results suggest that until today ancient scripts have exerted a strong influence on the use of herbal medicine. We conclude that the repeated empirical testing and scientific study of health care claims is guiding and shaping the selection of efficacious treatments and evidence-based herbal medicine. PMID:26483686

  20. From cumulative cultural transmission to evidence-based medicine: evolution of medicinal plant knowledge in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonti, Marco; Staub, Peter O; Cabras, Stefano; Castellanos, Maria Eugenia; Casu, Laura

    2015-01-01

    In Mediterranean cultures written records of medicinal plant use have a long tradition. This written record contributed to building a consensus about what was perceived to be an efficacious pharmacopeia. Passed down through millennia, these scripts have transmitted knowledge about plant uses, with high fidelity, to scholars and laypersons alike. Herbal medicine's importance and the long-standing written record call for a better understanding of the mechanisms influencing the transmission of contemporary medicinal plant knowledge. Here we contextualize herbal medicine within evolutionary medicine and cultural evolution. Cumulative knowledge transmission is approached by estimating the causal effect of two seminal scripts about materia medica written by Dioscorides and Galen, two classical Greco-Roman physicians, on today's medicinal plant use in the Southern Italian regions of Campania, Sardinia, and Sicily. Plant-use combinations are treated as transmissible cultural traits (or "memes"), which in analogy to the biological evolution of genetic traits, are subjected to mutation and selection. Our results suggest that until today ancient scripts have exerted a strong influence on the use of herbal medicine. We conclude that the repeated empirical testing and scientific study of health care claims is guiding and shaping the selection of efficacious treatments and evidence-based herbal medicine.

  1. POTENCY OF THE INDONESIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS AS ANTIMALARIAL DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subeki Subeki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Indonesian traditional herbal medicine has been practiced for many centuries in Indonesia to treat malaria diseases. Although modern medicine is becoming increasingly important, herbal medicine is still very popular. In order to select raw material for preparation of safety herbal medicines, forty five medicinal plants have been tested for acute toxicity in mouse at a dose 715 mg/kg body weight. The extracts of Asclepias curassavica leave, Alstonia scholaris leave, Decospermum fruticosum leave, Elaocarpus petiolatus bark, Elaocarpus parvifolius bark, Eurycoma longifolia root, Garcinia rigida bark, Nephelium lappaceum bark, Pentaspodan motleyi leave, Picrasma javanica leave, Phyllanthus niruri whole, Quassia indica leave, Syzygium pycnanthum bark, Tetrasera scandens leave, Cratoxylum glaucum bark, Sandoricum emarginatum bark, Mallotus paniculatus leave, Microcos ovatolanceolata bark, Poikilospermum suaveolens leave, Fibraurea chloroleuea leave, Tetrasera scandens root, and Timonius billitonensis bark showed toxicity with mortality level of 20-100%. The remaining 32 plant extracts were not toxic at dose tested. The toxic plant species should be considered in the preparation of herbal medicines. Of the safety extracts were tested for their antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei in vivo at a dose 715 mg/kg body weight. Extract of Carica papaya leave was most active than other plant extracts with parasitemia 1.13%, while control showed 17.21%. More research is needed to scientifically prove efficacy and to identity antimalarial constituents in the plant extracts. Key words: Indonesian medicinal plant, jamu, toxicity, antimalarial activity, Plasmodium berghei.

  2. PIXE-PIGE analysis of some Indian medicinal plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomita Devi, K.; Nandakumar Sarma, H.

    2010-06-01

    The quantitative estimation of various trace element concentrations in medicinal plants is necessary for determining their effectiveness in treating various diseases and for understanding their pharmacological action. Elemental concentrations of some selected medicinal plants of north east India was measured by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton induced γ-ray emission (PIGE) techniques. PIXE measurements were carried out using 2.4 MeV collimated protons from the 3 MV tandetron accelerator of NCCCM, Hyderabad (India) while the PIGE measurements were carried out using 3 MeV protons from the same accelerator in the same laboratory. Accuracy and precision of the techniques were assured by analyzing certified reference materials in the same experimental conditions. Various elements of biological importance in man's metabolism were found to be present in varying concentrations in the studied medicinal plants and no toxic heavy metals were detected. The concentration of the various elements in the medicinal plants and their role in treating various diseases are discussed.

  3. PIXE-PIGE analysis of some Indian medicinal plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomita Devi, K., E-mail: nomita_k@rediffmail.co [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal 795003 (India); Nandakumar Sarma, H. [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal 795003 (India)

    2010-06-15

    The quantitative estimation of various trace element concentrations in medicinal plants is necessary for determining their effectiveness in treating various diseases and for understanding their pharmacological action. Elemental concentrations of some selected medicinal plants of north east India was measured by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton induced {gamma}-ray emission (PIGE) techniques. PIXE measurements were carried out using 2.4 MeV collimated protons from the 3 MV tandetron accelerator of NCCCM, Hyderabad (India) while the PIGE measurements were carried out using 3 MeV protons from the same accelerator in the same laboratory. Accuracy and precision of the techniques were assured by analyzing certified reference materials in the same experimental conditions. Various elements of biological importance in man's metabolism were found to be present in varying concentrations in the studied medicinal plants and no toxic heavy metals were detected. The concentration of the various elements in the medicinal plants and their role in treating various diseases are discussed.

  4. Review: Biotechnological strategies for conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHENDRA KUMAR RAI

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Rai MK (2010 Review: Biotechnological strategies for conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants. Biodiversitas 11: 157-166. The use of medicinal plants is as old as human civilization. The biotechnological tools play a crucial role in conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants. The rapid depletion of plant genetic diversity has made essential to develop new in situ and ex situ conservation methods. Advances in biotechnology offer new methods for conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants. The present review is focused on biotechnological tools like in vitro culture, micropropagation, mycorrhization, genetic transformation and development of DNA banks. These are imperative and important alternatives for the conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants.

  5. Creation of reference DNA barcode library and authentication of medicinal plant raw drugs used in Ayurvedic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassou, Sophie Lorraine; Nithaniyal, Stalin; Raju, Balaji; Parani, Madasamy

    2016-07-18

    Ayurveda is a system of traditional medicine that originated in ancient India, and it is still in practice. Medicinal plants are the backbone of Ayurveda, which heavily relies on the plant-derived therapeutics. While Ayurveda is becoming more popular in several countries throughout the World, lack of authenticated medicinal plant raw drugs is a growing concern. Our aim was to DNA barcode the medicinal plants that are listed in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (API) to create a reference DNA barcode library, and to use the same to authenticate the raw drugs that are sold in markets. We have DNA barcoded 347 medicinal plants using rbcL marker, and curated rbcL DNA barcodes for 27 medicinal plants from public databases. These sequences were used to create Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India - Reference DNA Barcode Library (API-RDBL). This library was used to authenticate 100 medicinal plant raw drugs, which were in the form of powders (82) and seeds (18). Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India - Reference DNA Barcode Library (API-RDBL) was created with high quality and authentic rbcL barcodes for 374 out of the 395 medicinal plants that are included in the API. The rbcL DNA barcode differentiated 319 species (85 %) with the pairwise divergence ranging between 0.2 and 29.9 %. PCR amplification and DNA sequencing success rate of rbcL marker was 100 % even for the poorly preserved medicinal plant raw drugs that were collected from local markets. DNA barcoding revealed that only 79 % raw drugs were authentic, and the remaining 21 % samples were adulterated. Further, adulteration was found to be much higher with powders (ca. 25 %) when compared to seeds (ca. 5 %). The present study demonstrated the utility of DNA barcoding in authenticating medicinal plant raw drugs, and found that approximately one fifth of the market samples were adulterated. Powdered raw drugs, which are very difficult to be identified by taxonomists as well as common people, seem to be the easy

  6. Karen and Lawa medicinal plant use: uniformity or ethnic divergence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junsongduang, Auemporn; Balslev, Henrik; Inta, Angkhana; Jampeetong, Arunothai; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit

    2014-01-01

    We here tease apart the ethnopharmacological knowledge of plants in two Thai villages to determine to which degree the uses are particular to individual ethnic groups and to which degree they are part of a generalized and uniform set of widespread medicinal plants used over a large geographic range. We compared Karen and Lawa knowledge of medicinal plants in the Mae Cheam watershed of northern Thailand, where both ethnic groups have settled and share ecological conditions for resource extraction. We were interested in documenting the degree to which these two ethnic groups use the same or different medicinal plant species. The use of the same plant species by the two groups was considered a sign of uniform and cross-cultural local knowledge, whereas the use of different medicinal plants by each group was considered a sign of culturally specific local knowledge that developed within each ethnic group. We inventoried the plant species in different habitats around one Karen village and one Lawa village using stratified vegetation plots and using semi-structured questionnaires we interviewed 67 key informants regarding their use of plants for medicine. We then calculated the Fidelity level FL (FL values near 100% for a species indicate that almost all use reports refer to the same way of using the species, whereas low FL values indicate that a species is used for many different purposes) and cultural importance index CI (the sum of the proportion of informants that mention each of the use categories for a given species) to estimate the variation in medicinal plant use. We used Jaccard's Index JI (This index relates the number of shared species to the total number of species) to analyze the similarity of medicinal plant use between the two villages. A total of 103 species of medicinal plant species in 87 genera and 41 families were identified and they were used to cure 35 ailments. The FL of the medicinal plant species varied from 10% to 100%, was different for each

  7. Chemical composition of essential oil of Psidium cattleianum var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the essential oil composition of Psidium cattleianum var. lucidum from South Africa. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and the components were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine the chemical composition of the ...

  8. Medicinal plants used by women in Mecca: urban, Muslim and gendered knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqethami, Afnan; Hawkins, Julie A; Teixidor-Toneu, Irene

    2017-11-17

    This study explores medicinal plant knowledge and use among Muslim women in the city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Ethnobotanical research in the region has focused on rural populations and male herbal healers in cities, and based on these few studies, it is suggested that medicinal plant knowledge may be eroding. Here, we document lay, female knowledge of medicinal plants in an urban centre, interpreting findings in the light of the growing field of urban ethnobotany and gendered knowledge and in an Islamic context. Free-listing, structured and semi-structured interviews were used to document the extent of medicinal plant knowledge among 32 Meccan women. Vernacular names, modes of preparation and application, intended therapeutic use and emic toxicological remarks were recorded. Women were asked where they learnt about medicinal plants and if and when they preferred using medicinal plants over biomedical resources. Prior informed consent was always obtained. We compared the list of medicinal plants used by these Meccan women with medicinal plants previously documented in published literature. One hundred eighteen vernacular names were collected, corresponding to approximately 110 plants, including one algae. Of these, 95 were identified at the species level and 39 (41%) had not been previously cited in Saudi Arabian medicinal plant literature. Almost one half of the plants cited are food and flavouring plants. Meccan women interviewed learn about medicinal plants from their social network, mass media and written sources, and combine biomedical and medicinal plant health care. However, younger women more often prefer biomedical resources and learn from written sources and mass media. The fairly small number of interviews conducted in this study was sufficient to reveal the singular body of medicinal plant knowledge held by women in Mecca and applied to treat common ailments. Plant availability in local shops and markets and inclusion in religious texts seem to shape the

  9. Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used In Mali for Dysmenorrhea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dysmenorrhea is painful menstrual cramps, which negatively impacts the quality of life of a large percentage of the world's female population in reproductive age. The paper reviews the plants used in the Malian traditional medicine for the treatment of dysmenorrhea. Some medicinal plants were effective for treatments of ...

  10. Online Teaching Resources about Medicinal Plants and Ethnobotany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, Kristina M.; Chudler, Eric H.

    2016-01-01

    Classroom exploration of plant-based medicines and ethnobotany is a timely and valuable way to engage students in science. This Feature highlights Internet-based resources to help teachers in primary and secondary classrooms incorporate lessons and activities to teach about plant medicines. These Internet resources include curricula, videos, sites…

  11. Ethnobotanical survey of usage of fresh medicinal plants in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, Yin-Yin; Zareisedehizadeh, Sogand; Seetoh, Wei-Guang; Neo, Soek-Ying; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Koh, Hwee-Ling

    2014-09-29

    The use of medicinal plants in human health has been documented since ancient times and they provide a useful source of new therapeutics. In Singapore, despite the accessibility to modern healthcare, there still exist pockets of the population who choose to use locally grown fresh medicinal plants for health promotion and even therapeutic purposes. However to date, there is no published report of first-hand account of their usage in Singapore. As land is scarce and rapidly used for re-development, such important knowledge may be lost if not properly documented in time. This work safeguards the local folk knowledge, and provides information on common and scarcely reported fresh medicinal plants. The objective of this study is to gather information regarding the usage of fresh medicinal plants in Singapore through face-to-face interviews. Information on demographic data and plant-use methods were collated via face-to-face interviews of 200 fresh medicinal plant users who have used fresh medicinal plants in the last five years. The survey protocol was approved by the National University of Singapore Institutional Review Board and informed consent was obtained from every participant. A total of 414 plants represented by 104 plant species from 44 families were reportedly used by the 200 participants. The five most commonly used plants were Clinacanthus nutans (34 users), Strobilanthes crispus (31 users), Pereskia bleo (25 users), Aloe vera (18 users) and Zingiber officinale (16 users). Leaves were the most commonly used plant part while preparing a decoction was the most common method of preparation. The majority of interviewees used plants for general health purposes and to treat diseases related to the respiratory system and cancer. Our survey has successfully documented the rich wealth of traditional usage and knowledge on 414 fresh medicinal plants grown in Singapore through face-to-face interviews with 200 users. This study will serve as a useful resource for

  12. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in Trinidad

    OpenAIRE

    Clement, Y. N.; Baksh-Comeau, Y. S.; Seaforth, C. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background An ethnobotanical survey was conducted on the Caribbean island of Trinidad to identify medicinal plants commonly used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of medical conditions. Methods A pilot survey was conducted to identify the top ten most common ailments where medicinal plants were used. The results of the foregoing study guided a wider national survey conducted between October 2007 and July 2008. A total of 450 households from 50 rural communities were interviewed using...

  13. Traditional use of medicinal plants by elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rocha Alves Pereira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: identify the traditional use of medicinal plants by the elderly. Methods: exploratory and descriptive study conducted in the Intermunicipal Consortium on Health. Three hundred and fifty-one questionnaires were applied to the elderly to survey socio-demographic information and issues related to plants. Results: the use of plants was reported by 78.4% of the elderly, and these were collected in backyards. The most often cited plants were mint, boldo, fennel, lemongrass and chamomile. Regarding the reason for use, 33.3% participants said that “it’s not harmful to health”, 61.8% usually indicate the use to other people. Most elderly make use of plants in a safe manner, and these are present in the daily lives of these people as a therapeutic method. Conclusion: the elderly make use of medicinal plants as an important therapeutic resource.

  14. Medicinal plant diversity and traditional healing practices in eastern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Nawal; Shrestha, Saugat; Koju, Laxmi; Shrestha, Krishna Kumar; Wang, Zhiheng

    2016-11-04

    The rich floral and ethnic composition of eastern Nepal and the widespread utilization of locally available medicinal plants offer remarkable opportunity for ethnomedicinal research. The present paper aims to explore medicinal plant diversity and use in the remote villages of eastern Nepal. It also aims to evaluate ethnopharmacological significance of the documented use reports and identify species of high indigenous priority. The study was undertaken in four villages located in the Sankhuwasabha district in eastern Nepal. Ethnomedicinal information was collected through structured interviews. The homogeneity of informant's knowledge and the relative importance of documented medicinal plants were validated by informant consensus factor and use value, respectively. Species preference for treatment of particular diseases was evaluated through fidelity level. We reported medicinal properties of 48 species belonging to 33 families and 40 genera, for the treatment of 37 human ailments. The uses of 10 medicinal plants were previously undocumented. The informant consensus factor (F IC ) ranged between 0.38 and 1 with about 50% of values greater than 0.80 and over 75% of values greater than 0.70, indicating moderate to high consensus among the informants on the use of medicinal plants in the region. Swertia chirayita was the most preferred species with significantly high use values, followed by Paris polyphylla and Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora. The remote villages in eastern Nepal possess rich floral and cultural diversity with strong consensus among informants on utilization of plants for local healthcare. The direct pharmacological evidence for medicinal properties of most species indicates high reliability of documented information. Careful and systematic screening of compounds isolated from these plants could possibly provide good opportunity for the discovery of novel medicines to treat life-threatening human diseases. We recommend prioritization of medicinal

  15. Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Hypertrophic Scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Ye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic scar is a complication of wound healing and has a high recurrence rate which can lead to significant abnormity in aesthetics and functions. To date, no ideal treatment method has been established. Meanwhile, the underlying mechanism of hypertrophic scarring has not been clearly defined. Although a large amount of scientific research has been reported on the use of medicinal plants as a natural source of treatment for hypertrophic scarring, it is currently scattered across a wide range of publications. Therefore, a systematic summary and knowledge for future prospects are necessary to facilitate further medicinal plant research for their potential use as antihypertrophic scar agents. A bibliographic investigation was accomplished by focusing on medicinal plants which have been scientifically tested in vitro and/or in vivo and proved as potential agents for the treatment of hypertrophic scars. Although the chemical components and mechanisms of action of medicinal plants with antihypertrophic scarring potential have been investigated, many others remain unknown. More investigations and clinical trials are necessary to make use of these medical plants reasonably and phytotherapy is a promising therapeutic approach against hypertrophic scars.

  16. From cumulative cultural transmission to evidence-based medicine: Evolution of medicinal plant knowledge in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eLeonti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Mediterranean cultures written records of medicinal plant use have a long tradition. This written record contributed to building a consensus about what was perceived to be an efficacious pharmacopoeia. Passed down through millennia, these scripts have transmitted knowledge about plant uses, with high fidelity, to scholars and laypersons alike. Herbal medicine’s importance and the long-standing written record call for a better understanding of the mechanisms influencing the transmission of contemporary medicinal plant knowledge. Here we contextualize herbal medicine within evolutionary medicine and cultural evolution. Cumulative knowledge transmission is approached by estimating the causal effect of two seminal scripts about materia medica written by Dioscorides and Galen, two classical Greco-Roman physicians, on today’s medicinal plant use in the Southern Italian regions of Campania, Sardinia and Sicily. Plant-use combinations are treated as transmissible cultural traits (or memes, which in analogy to the biological evolution of genetic traits, are subjected to mutation and selection. Our results suggest that until today ancient scripts have exerted a strong influence on the use of herbal medicine. We conclude that the repeated empirical testing and scientific study of health care claims is guiding and shaping the selection of efficacious treatments and evidence-based herbal medicine.

  17. Plants and Medicinal Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, D.

    1977-01-01

    This is the first of two articles showing how plants that have been used in folk medicine for many centuries are guiding scientists in the design and preparation of new and potent drugs. Opium and its chemical derivatives are examined at length in this article. (Author/MA)

  18. Structural changes in Psidium guajava 'Paluma' leaves exposed to tropospheric ozone Alterações anatômicas em folhas de Psidium guajava 'Paluma' expostas ao ozônio troposférico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Tresmondi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Psidium guajava 'Paluma' has being tested as an ozone (O3 bioindicator and responds with pigmentation between the veins on the adaxial surface, due to the accumulation of phenolic compounds. These compounds act as non-enzymatic antioxidants that neutralize reactive oxygen species (ROS, formed from O3. This study aimed to evaluate the leaf structure of plants with and without visible symptoms and to establish these symptoms at the cellular level. Beside this we also aimed to detect structural changes that can minimize the effects of the O3 on the plant. The accumulation of phenolic substances, stomatal density and structural changes in P. guajava 'Paluma' leaf tissues exposed during the four seasons of the year were evaluated. The study was conducted at the Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga ( PEFI, which is a park in the city of São Paulo that has high levels of O3. Leaves with symptoms showed, on the adaxial surface, anthocyanin accumulation in the vacuoles of epidermal cells and hypodermis. When the symptoms were more intense this accumulation was observed even in the first three layers of palisade parenchyma. Comparing symptomatic and asymptomatic leaves, there was higher accumulation of phenolic compounds in the symptomatic leaves. Some parenchyma cells adjacent to substomatal chambers showed intrusive growth towards the stomatal pore, promoting its occlusion, which could reduce the entry of O3 in the leaf. The accumulation of anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds, in addition to the occlusion of the chamber, protect the plant against O3 effects. These features and the compact arrangement of the mesophyll contribute to why Psidium guajava 'Paluma' does not present cell death, a symptom usually observed in species sensitive to O3.Psidium guajava 'Paluma' vem sendo testada como bioindicadora de ozônio (O3 e responde com pigmentações, entre as nervuras, na superfície adaxial, decorrente do acúmulo de compostos fenólicos. Tais

  19. Medicinal plants used as excipients in the history in Ghanaian herbal medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiesleben, Sara Holm; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance The present study was carried out to investigate the traditional use, pharmacology and active compounds of four plants commonly used as excipients in herbal medicine in Ghana. Materials and methods A comprehensive literature search was conducted to gain knowledge....... melegueta could act as an antioxidant to preserve herbal preparations. None of the plant excipients had antibacterial activity against the bacteria tested in this study. Compounds with an aromatic or pungent smell had been identified in all the plant excipients. An explanation for the use of the plants...... as excipients could rely on their taste properties. Conclusion The present study suggests that there may be more than one simple explanation for the use of these four plants as excipients. Plausible explanations have been proven to be: (1) a way to increase the effect of the medicine, (2) a way to make...

  20. Antioxidant and antimutagenic potential of Psidium guajava leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahin, Maryam; Ahmad, Iqbal; Aqil, Farrukh

    2017-04-01

    Fruits, vegetables and medicinal herbs rich in phenolics antioxidants contribute toward reduced risk of age-related diseases and cancer. In this study, Psidium guajava leaf extract was fractionated in various organic solvents viz. petroleum ether, benzene, ethyl acetate, ethanl and methanol and tested for their antioxidant and antimutagenic properties. Methanolic fraction showed maximum antioxidant activity comparable to ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) as tested by DPPH free radical scavenging, phosphomolybdenum, FRAP (Fe3 + reducing power) and CUPRAC (cupric ions (Cu 2+ ) reducing ability) assays. The fraction was analyzed for antimutagenic activities against sodium azide (NaN 3 ), methylmethane sulfonate (MMS), 2-aminofluorene (2AF) and benzo(a)pyrene (BP) in Ames Salmonella tester strains. The methanol extracted fraction at 80 μg/ml concentration inhibited above 70% mutagenicity. Further, phytochemical analysis of methanol fraction that was found to be most active revealed the presence of nine major compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This data suggests that guava contains high amount of phenolics responsible for broad-spectrum antimutagenic and antioxidant properties in vitro and could be potential candidates to be explored as modern phytomedicine.

  1. Characterization of ethno-medicinal plant resources of karamar valley Swabi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khalid

    2017-04-01

    Industrial relevance: Medicinal plants are still widely used for the treatment of different ailments in the area of Swabi, therefore survey of medicinal flora should be carried out to explore and bring up-to-date the catalogue of existing natural plant resources of the area especially in agricultural country like Pakistan. Small scale government processing units of agroforestry should be implemented to reduce the overuse and motivate the cultivation of valuable medicinal plants. Majority of the people use various formulations of medicinal plants for different ailments treatment. The phytochemicals greatly varied in medicinal plants and cause a marvelous effect on human illnesses. The objective of the present study was to document the information of folk medicines, its identification, collection of samples, study of its chemical constituents and uses by the local people of District Swabi, Pakistan.

  2. The medicinal plants of Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. DeFilipps

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive compilation is provided of the medicinal plants of the Southeast Asian country of Myanmar (formerly Burma. This contribution, containing 123 families, 367 genera, and 472 species, was compiled from earlier treatments, monographs, books, and pamphlets, with some medicinal uses and preparations translated from Burmese to English. The entry for each species includes the Latin binomial, author(s, common Myanmar and English names, range, medicinal uses and preparations, and additional notes. Of the 472 species, 63 or 13% of them have been assessed for conservation status and are listed in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (IUCN 2017. Two species are listed as Extinct in the Wild, four as Threatened (two Endangered, two Vulnerable, two as Near Threatened, 48 Least Concerned, and seven Data Deficient. Botanic gardens worldwide hold 444 species (94% within their living collections, while 28 species (6% are not found any botanic garden. Preserving the traditional knowledge of Myanmar healers contributes to Target 13 of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation.

  3. Medicinal plants of Usherai valley, Dir, NWFP, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazarat, A.; Shah, J.; Ahmad, S.; Nasir, M.; Jan, A.K.; Skindar

    2010-01-01

    This research is based on the results of an ethno-botanical research conducted in Usherai Valley. The main objective was to enlist the wealth of medicinal plants. In total 50 species, belonging to 32 families of wild herbs, shrubs and trees were found to be used as medicinal plants by the inhabitants in the valley. (author)

  4. Plants and Medicinal Chemistry--2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, D.

    1977-01-01

    Second of a two part article on the influence of plants on medicinal chemistry. This part considers how drugs work, the attempts to develop anaesthetics safer than cocaine, and useful poisons. (Author/SL)

  5. Traditional medicinal plants in Nigeria--remedies or risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awodele, O; Popoola, T D; Amadi, K C; Coker, H A B; Akintonwa, A

    2013-11-25

    Soil pollution due to increasing industrialization is a reality that is taking its toll on mankind today. Considering the population of people that use herbal remedies especially in developing countries and the discharge of industrial waste on surrounding herbal vegetation, it is imperative to determine the heavy metals contamination in some commonly used medicinal plants. Representative samples of five medicinal plants Ageratum conyzoides, Aspilia africana, Alchornea cordifolia, Amaranthus brasiliensis and Chromolaena odorata were collected from Ikpoba-Okha L.G.A, Edo State Nigeria, around a paint company and another set of same plants were collected from a non-polluted source. Dried leaves and roots of collected plants were digested and analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) for the presence of Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni) and Zinc (Zn). Soil samples from polluted and non-polluted areas were also analyzed to ascertain the levels of these heavy metals in the environment. Results show that the concentrations of these heavy metals in the leaves and roots of plants collected from polluted soil were significantly higher than those obtained from unpolluted soil. Correspondingly heavy metal concentrations were significantly higher in polluted than in unpolluted soil samples. As part of continuing effort in the standardization of traditional remedies, environmental contamination control and abatement is evident. The source of medicinal plants/herbs should also be a cause for concern since the toxicity of medicinal plants is sometimes associated with environmental sources of the plants. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Traditional knowledge on medicinal plant of the Karen in northern Thailand: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangjitman, Kornkanok; Wongsawad, Chalobol; Winijchaiyanan, Piyawan; Sukkho, Treetip; Kamwong, Kaweesin; Pongamornkul, Wittaya; Trisonthi, Chusie

    2013-10-28

    We studied traditional medicinal plant knowledge among the Karen in northern Thailand. To compare traditional medicinal knowledge in 14 Karen villages in northern Thailand and determine culturally important medicinal plant species in each Karen village. We interviewed 14 key informants and 438 non-specialist informants about their traditional knowledge of medicinal plants. We tested normality of the data and correlations with distance to the nearest city using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Cluster analysis and cultural importance index (CI) were calculated for the similarity of medicinal plant used and culturally importance medicinal plant species among Karen villages respectively. In total 379 medicinal plant species were used. Number of medicinal plants used positively correlate with distance to the nearest city. Relatively low similarities of medicinal plant species and different CI values for species among the different areas were found. Traditional medicinal plants still play an important role in medicinal practice of the Karen. Local environments, availability of medicinal plant and distance between Karen villages and the nearest city affect the amount of traditional medicinal knowledge in each Karen village. The medicinal plants in this study with high CI values might give some useful leads for further biomedical research. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 23_163 - 169_Mohammed_Psidium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    S analysis. The TLC chromatogram revealed 3, 4 and 6 bands respectiv ... range of medicinal plant parts is used for extrac raw drugs .... plant extracts. RESULT AND DISCUSSION. The result of the thin layer chromatography of the aqueous, ethanolic and chloroform extract of P. guajava is presented in (Table 1). According ...

  8. Ethnopharmacology of Medicinal Plants in the Southwest of Mond Mountain

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Background:Ethnopharmacology has been seen as a multidisciplinary approach for novel drug discovery by providing valuable data about medicinal plants in different cultures. The aim of this ethnopharmacological study was to identify medicinal plants in the Southwest of Mond Mountain in the North of Persian Gulf. MaterialsandMethods:The medical uses of medicinal plants were gathered from 20 local informants by face to face interviews. The relative frequency of citation (FRC) and cultural imp...

  9. Medicinal plants used by Tibetans in Shangri-la, Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chunyan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicinal plants used by the local people in Xizang (Tibet have been investigated since the 1960s. The others out of Xizang, however, have been less understood, although they may be easily and strongly influenced by the various local herbal practices, diverse environments, local religious beliefs and different prevalent types of diseases. In 2006, two ethnobotanical surveys were organized in the county of Shangri-la, Yunnan Province, SW China, to document the traditional medicinal plants used by the Tibetan people. Methods After literature surveying, four local townships were selected to carry out the field investigation. Three local healers were interviewed as key informants. The methods of ethnobotany, anthropology and participatory rural appraisal (PRA were used in the field surveys. Plant taxonomic approach was adopted for voucher specimen identification. Results Sixty-eight medicinal plant species in 64 genera of 40 families were recorded and collected. Among them, 23 species were found to have medicinal values that have not been recorded in any existing Tibetan literatures before, and 31 species were recorded to have traditional prescriptions. Moreover, the traditional preparations of each species and some folk medicinal knowledge were recorded and analyzed. These traditional prescriptions, preparations, new medicinal plants and folk medicinal knowledge and principles were discovered and summarized by local traditional Tibetan healers through times of treatment practices, and were passed down from generation to generation. Conclusion As a part of the cultural diversity of Tibetan community, these traditional medicinal knowledge and experiences may provide data and information basis for the sustainable utilization and development of Tibetan medicine, and may contribute to the local economic development. However, for many reasons, they are disappearing gradually as time goes by. Our study showed that there were abundant

  10. Medicinal plants used by Tibetans in Shangri-la, Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanchun; Dao, Zhiling; Yang, Chunyan; Liu, Yitao; Long, Chunlin

    2009-05-05

    Medicinal plants used by the local people in Xizang (Tibet) have been investigated since the 1960s. The others out of Xizang, however, have been less understood, although they may be easily and strongly influenced by the various local herbal practices, diverse environments, local religious beliefs and different prevalent types of diseases. In 2006, two ethnobotanical surveys were organized in the county of Shangri-la, Yunnan Province, SW China, to document the traditional medicinal plants used by the Tibetan people. After literature surveying, four local townships were selected to carry out the field investigation. Three local healers were interviewed as key informants. The methods of ethnobotany, anthropology and participatory rural appraisal (PRA) were used in the field surveys. Plant taxonomic approach was adopted for voucher specimen identification. Sixty-eight medicinal plant species in 64 genera of 40 families were recorded and collected. Among them, 23 species were found to have medicinal values that have not been recorded in any existing Tibetan literatures before, and 31 species were recorded to have traditional prescriptions. Moreover, the traditional preparations of each species and some folk medicinal knowledge were recorded and analyzed. These traditional prescriptions, preparations, new medicinal plants and folk medicinal knowledge and principles were discovered and summarized by local traditional Tibetan healers through times of treatment practices, and were passed down from generation to generation. As a part of the cultural diversity of Tibetan community, these traditional medicinal knowledge and experiences may provide data and information basis for the sustainable utilization and development of Tibetan medicine, and may contribute to the local economic development. However, for many reasons, they are disappearing gradually as time goes by. Our study showed that there were abundant traditional Tibetan medicinal prescriptions and using methods. It

  11. Appraisal of medicinal plants used in alternative systems of medicines for microbial contamination, physiochemical parameters and heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, F.; Hussain, S.; Mahmood, S.

    2014-01-01

    The safety of herbal products has become a foremost apprehension in public health with their recognition and worldwide market growth and due in part to the widespread assumption that natural implies harmless. The global market of medicinal plants has been growing at a rate of 7-10% annually; capitalizing on the growing awareness of herbal and aromatic plants globally. The present study was conducted to assess the physiochemical parameters, microbial contamination and presence of heavy metals. The 24 medicinal plants were collected from open market places of various cities of Pakistan and tested by employing WHO and AOAC guidelines. Medicinal plants were found polluted with wide variety of potentially pathogenic bacterias. Microbial count and levels of arsenic and mercury in some plants were found elevated. The percentage (%) of physiochemical parameters i.e., foreign organic matter, total ash, acid insoluble ash, alcohol soluble extract, water soluble extract and moisture count of these medicinal plants were found statistically noteworthy. The nonexistence of quality control values for medicinal plants has been one of the key lacunas. Quality assurance system and WHO's guidelines on good agricultural and collection practices be methodically enforced in the medicinal plants supply chain i.e., cultivation, collection and distribution, although it is tricky task. (author)

  12. Antibacterial activities of medicinal plants used in Mexican traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Flores-Vallejo, Rosario Del Carmen; Cardoso-Taketa, Alexandre; Villarreal, María Luisa

    2017-08-17

    We provide an extensive summary of the in vitro antibacterial properties of medicinal plants popularly used in Mexico to treat infections, and we discuss the ethnomedical information that has been published for these species. We carried out a bibliographic investigation by analyzing local and international peer-reviewed papers selected by consulting internationally accepted scientific databases from 1995 to 2014. We provide specific information about the evaluated plant parts, the type of extracts, the tested bacterial strains, and the inhibitory concentrations for each one of the species. We recorded the ethnomedical information for the active species, as well as their popular names and local distribution. Information about the plant compounds that has been identified is included in the manuscript. This review also incorporates an extensive summary of the available toxicological reports on the recorded species, as well as the worldwide registries of plant patents used for treating bacterial infections. In addition, we provide a list with the top plant species with antibacterial activities in this review RESULTS: We documented the in vitro antibacterial activities of 343 plant species pertaining to 92 botanical families against 72 bacterial species, focusing particularly on Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The plant families Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae and Euphorbiaceae included the largest number of active species. Information related to popular uses reveals that the majority of the plants, in addition to treating infections, are used to treat other conditions. The distribution of Mexican plants extended from those that were reported to grow in just one state to those that grow in all 32 Mexican states. From 75 plant species, 225 compounds were identified. Out of the total plant species, only 140 (40.57%) had at least one report about their toxic effects. From 1994 to July 2014 a total of 11

  13. Folk use of medicinal plants in Karst and Gorjanci, Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpert, Mateja; Kreft, Samo

    2017-02-23

    Information on the use of medicinal plants in Karst and Gorjanci is not available in the literature, but collection of plants is still an important and widespread practice in these regions. Karst and Gorjanci are two remote regions in Slovenia that are only 120 km apart but have different climates; one region is close to the Italian border, and the other is near the Croatian border. Our aim was to report and compare the use of medicinal plants in both regions. From October 2013 to September 2014, 25 informants each in Karst and Gorjanci were interviewed during field research. The age of the informants ranged from 33 to 89 years, with an average age of 61 years in Karst and 69 years in Gorjanci. The main question was "Which plants do or did you collect from nature and use?" Plants of medicinal, nutritive, veterinary or cosmetic use were considered. A total of 78 and 82 taxa were reported in Karst and Gorjanci, respectively; 65 taxa were reported in both regions. Approximately 64% of the plants in each region were distinctive for only a few informants (fewer than 7). The remaining plants were considered important, and the majority were mutual to both regions. Few reported plants were typical for just one region. Differences in the use of some common medicinal plants were observed, e.g., Matricaria chamomilla was used mostly for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory infections and sore eyes in Gorjanci but as a calmative in Karst. Altogether, 15 different oral and 15 different topical medicinal preparations were reported. Folk knowledge was found to be influenced by the media, particularly popular books about medicinal plants that were published in the 20th century. The present research documents the folk use of medicinal plants in Karst and Gorjanci, Slovenia. This rapidly changing practice needs to be documented before it disappears or changes.

  14. Diversity of medicinal plants and anthropogenic threats in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diversity of medicinal plants and anthropogenic threats in the Samburu Central Sub-County of Kenya. ... Biodiversity of medicinal plants and effects of human activities on availability of traditional ... There is, therefore need to adopt management strategies that enhance the conservation of these valuable natural resources.

  15. Comparative Study of Heavy Metals in Soil and Selected Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzal Shah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential and nonessential heavy metals like iron (Fe, nickel (Ni, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, copper (Cu, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, and lead (Pb were analyzed in four selected medicinal plants such as Capparis spinosa, Peganum harmala, Rhazya stricta, and Tamarix articulata by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS. These medicinal plants are extensively used as traditional medicine for treatment of various ailments by local physicians in the area from where these plants were collected. The concentration level of heavy metals in the selected plants was found in the decreasing order as Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Ni > Cr > Cd > Pb. The results revealed that the selected medicinal plants accumulate these elements at different concentrations. Monitoring such medicinal plants for heavy metals concentration is of great importance for physicians, health planners, health care professionals, and policymakers in protecting the public from the adverse effects of these heavy metals.

  16. Analysis of vitamin C in selected medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, I.

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin C or ascorbic acid, a very useful constituent of redox mechanism is used in medicine and also added in manufactured food for anti-oxidation. A UV-spectrophotometric method was used for the determination of Vitamin C in 4 different medicinal plants. High amount of Vitamin C 160 mg/100 g was found in Citrulus colcocynthis, followed by Hippophae rhamonides oil 136.1 mg/100g. A relatively low concentration of Vitamin C was recorded in Glycyrhiza glabra 56.2 mg/100g and Withinia somnifera 51.50 mg/100 g. The presence of high concentration of Vitamin C in selected medicinal plants might be responsible for their therapeutic effects and uses in the traditional system of medicine. (author)

  17. Integrated omics analysis of specialized metabolism in medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Amit; Saito, Kazuki; Yamazaki, Mami

    2017-05-01

    Medicinal plants are a rich source of highly diverse specialized metabolites with important pharmacological properties. Until recently, plant biologists were limited in their ability to explore the biosynthetic pathways of these metabolites, mainly due to the scarcity of plant genomics resources. However, recent advances in high-throughput large-scale analytical methods have enabled plant biologists to discover biosynthetic pathways for important plant-based medicinal metabolites. The reduced cost of generating omics datasets and the development of computational tools for their analysis and integration have led to the elucidation of biosynthetic pathways of several bioactive metabolites of plant origin. These discoveries have inspired synthetic biology approaches to develop microbial systems to produce bioactive metabolites originating from plants, an alternative sustainable source of medicinally important chemicals. Since the demand for medicinal compounds are increasing with the world's population, understanding the complete biosynthesis of specialized metabolites becomes important to identify or develop reliable sources in the future. Here, we review the contributions of major omics approaches and their integration to our understanding of the biosynthetic pathways of bioactive metabolites. We briefly discuss different approaches for integrating omics datasets to extract biologically relevant knowledge and the application of omics datasets in the construction and reconstruction of metabolic models. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Survey on supply and demand of medicinal plants in Lorestan province groceries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh Naderi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of activities related to medicinal plant industry lead to maintenance and progress (improvement of society health. Attention to situation of medicinal plants in groceries, diagnosis different species, Value of consumption and supplier regions as most important factors in medicinal plants forum can be used for programming and politics in medicinal industry in our country. So via proper scientific programming we can achieve to better culture of medicinal plants consumption and we can improve health parameters in lorestan province. Materials and methods The research was accomplished with Cross-Sectional study and questionary technique was used for data collection. The questionnaire consist of 3 parts were included questions related to socioeconomic trait, number of medicinal plant and medicinal properties. All of the groceries in the lorestan province were studied as statistical society. Sampling method was availability sample and samples size was 69 groceries. Results Results showed that the numbers of medicinal plants in groceries were about 336 species, mean of sold weight Was 128.48 kg. 94.5% and 5.5% of medicinal plants were supplied from out of Lorestan and Lorestan province respectively. Conclusion Existence of special plains and mountains plentiful running water, high storage of under round water and different Climate in the lorestan province cause a considerable diversity in this province. Whereas the results of this study showed that the most important suppliers of medicinal plants were located out of this province therefore programming in the case of these valuable sources of medicinal plants will be because higher preoccupation and existence of these crops in the groceries of lorestan province, even can export these to other countries.

  19. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Y N; Baksh-Comeau, Y S; Seaforth, C E

    2015-09-15

    An ethnobotanical survey was conducted on the Caribbean island of Trinidad to identify medicinal plants commonly used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of medical conditions. A pilot survey was conducted to identify the top ten most common ailments where medicinal plants were used. The results of the foregoing study guided a wider national survey conducted between October 2007 and July 2008. A total of 450 households from 50 rural communities were interviewed using the TRAMIL (Traditional Medicine in the Islands) questionnaire for data collection. Details of plants, part(s) used, and remedy formulations were elicited from informants and voucher specimens collected for identification at the National Herbarium of Trinidad and Tobago. The TRAMIL methodology set a limit of a plant with 20 % or more citations for any particular ailment as having significant or popular use. At the end of the survey 917 single plant remedies were identified. The majority of species were from the following families; Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Leguminosae, Verbenaceae and Poaceae. Applying the TRAMIL 20 % citation of a plant for popular use as significant, Leonotis nepetifolia (for cough/common cold), Gomphrena globosa (for "stoppage-of-water"), Curcuma longa and Senna occidentalis (for "afterbirth"), Cymbopogon citratus and Neurolaena lobata (for fever), and Citrus limon (for kidney stones) qualified in our study. Those not reaching the TRAMIL 20 % significant (popular) use were Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl, Senna alata (L.) Roxb.and Momordica charantia L. which were widely used as "'cooling/cleanser'" in our survey. Our survey showed significant retention of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in rural Trinidad. More interestingly, a large remnant of medico-cultural concepts such as "cooling/cleanser", "afterbirth", "stoppage-of-water" and "womb infection" persist in the rural population. Although the scientific literature show that some of the cited plants possessed

  20. Quantitative genotoxicity assays for analysis of medicinal plants: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponchiado, Graziela; Adam, Mônica Lucia; Silva, Caroline Dadalt; Soley, Bruna Silva; de Mello-Sampayo, Cristina; Cabrini, Daniela Almeida; Correr, Cassyano Januário; Otuki, Michel Fleith

    2016-02-03

    Medicinal plants are known to contain numerous biologically active compounds, and although they have proven pharmacological properties, they can cause harm, including DNA damage. Review the literature to evaluate the genotoxicity risk of medicinal plants, explore the genotoxicity assays most used and compare these to the current legal requirements. A quantitative systematic review of the literature, using the keywords "medicinal plants", "genotoxicity" and "mutagenicity", was undertakenQ to identify the types of assays most used to assess genotoxicity, and to evaluate the genotoxicity potential of medicinal plant extracts. The database searches retrieved 2289 records, 458 of which met the inclusion criteria. Evaluation of the selected articles showed a total of 24 different assays used for an assessment of medicinal plant extract genotoxicity. More than a quarter of those studies (28.4%) reported positive results for genotoxicity. This review demonstrates that a range of genotoxicity assay methods are used to evaluate the genotoxicity potential of medicinal plant extracts. The most used methods are those recommended by regulatory agencies. However, based on the current findings, in order to conduct a thorough study concerning the possible genotoxic effects of a medicinal plant, we indicate that it is important always to include bacterial and mammalian tests, with at least one in vivo assay. Also, these tests should be capable of detecting outcomes that include mutation induction, clastogenic and aneugenic effects, and structural chromosome abnormalities. In addition, the considerable rate of positive results detected in this analysis further supports the relevance of assessing the genotoxicity potential of medicinal plants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. [Analysis of varieties and standards of Scrophulariaceae plants used in Tibetan medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lan; Mu, Ze-jing; Zhong, Wei-hong; Zhong, Wei-jin; He, Jun-wei; Du, Xiao-lang; Zhong, Guo-yue

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the popular domestic varieties and quality standard of Scrophulariaceae plants used in Tibetan medicine were analyzed. The results showed that there were 11 genera and 99 species (including varieties), as well as 28 medicinal materials varieties of Scrophulariaceae plants were recorded in the relevant literatures. In relevant Tibetan standards arid literatures, there are great differences in varieties, sources, parts, and efficacies of medicinal plant. Among them, about 41.4% (including 41 species) of endemic plants, about 15.2% (including 15 species) of the original plants have medicinal standard legal records, except the medicinal materials of Scrophalaria ningpoensis, Lagotis brevituba, Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora, Veronica eriogyne general, most varieties have not completed quality standard. Consequently it is necessary to reinforce the herbal textual, resources and the use present situation investigation, the effects of the species resources material foundation and biological activity, quality standard, specification the medical terms of the plants, and promote Tibetan medicinal vareties-terminologies-sources such as the criterion and quality standard system for enriching the varieties of Tibetan medicinal materials and Chinese medicinal resources.

  2. The medicinal plants of Frangensko Plateau (Northeastern Bulgaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahariev, Dimcho; Kacheva, Cvetelina

    2015-12-01

    The Frangensko Plateau is located in the northeastern part of Bulgaria and covers an area of 360 km2. On the territory of the plateau there are two protected areas, as well as two areas of the European ecological network NATURA 2000. The study of the medicinal plants on the territory of the Frangensko Plateau is made for the first time. As a result of our research we found 362 species of vascular plants from 242 genera and 80 families. The most of the families and the genera are represented by a small number of inferior taxa. The analysis of their life form indicates that the hemicryptophytes dominate with 39.50%, followed by the phanerophytes (22.10%). The biological types are represented mainly by perennial herbaceous plants (52.21%), annual herbaceous plants (14.09%) and trees (10.50%). There are 8 types of floristic elements divided in 32 groups. The largest percentage of species is of European type (51.93%). Among the medicinal plants, there are two Balkan endemic species, one Bulgarian endemic species and 30 relic species. Thirty four species with protection statute are described. The anthropophytes among the medicinal plants are 242 species (66.85%).

  3. Microbial Load of Some Medicinal Plants Sold in Some Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial Load of Some Medicinal Plants Sold in Some Local Markets in Abeokuta, Nigeria. I MacDonald, S Omonigho, J Erhabor, H Efijuemue. Abstract. Purpose: To evaluate the microbial load on 17 randomly selected plant samples from 60 ethnobotanically collected medicinal plants from five local markets in Abeokuta, ...

  4. Social organization influences the exchange and species richness of medicinal plants in Amazonian homegardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Medicinal plants provide indigenous and peasant communities worldwide with means to meet their healthcare needs. Homegardens often act as medicine cabinets, providing easily accessible medicinal plants for household needs. Social structure and social exchanges have been proposed as factors influencing the species diversity that people maintain in their homegardens. Here, we assess the association between the exchange of medicinal knowledge and plant material and medicinal plant richness in homegardens. Using Tsimane' Amazonian homegardens as a case study, we explore whether social organization shapes exchanges of medicinal plant knowledge and medicinal plant material. We also use network centrality measures to evaluate people's location and performance in medicinal plant knowledge and plant material exchange networks. Our results suggest that social organization, specifically kinship and gender relations, influences medicinal plant exchange patterns significantly. Homegardens total and medicinal plant species richness are related to gardeners' centrality in the networks, whereby people with greater centrality maintain greater plant richness. Thus, together with agroecological conditions, social relations among gardeners and the culturally specific social structure seem to be important determinants of plant richness in homegardens. Understanding which factors pattern general species diversity in tropical homegardens, and medicinal plant diversity in particular, can help policy makers, health providers, and local communities to understand better how to promote and preserve medicinal plants in situ. Biocultural approaches that are also gender sensitive offer a culturally appropriate means to reduce the global and local loss of both biological and cultural diversity.

  5. [Viability of 7 kinds of medicinal plant seeds stored in medium-term gene bank of the National Medicinal Plant Gene Bank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yue; Yang, Cheng-Min; Wei, Jian-He

    2016-05-01

    In order to evaluate seed viability of Platycodon grandiflorum, Schizonepeta tenuifolia, Andrographis paniculat, Codonopsis pilosula, Scutellaria baicalensis, Leonurus japonicus, Rabdosia rubescens, stored in the medium-term gene bank of the National Medicinal Plant Gene Bank for 4 years, we tested seed germination rate of 7 species of medicinal plant and analyzed the change of significance of levels of the germination rate in pre and post store. Seed germination rates of 7 species of medicinal plants were all decreased after 4 years, and the decrease of S. tenuifolia and S. baicalensis germination rates were much smaller than other species. The higher initial germination rate of P. grandiflorum, C. pilosula, R. rubescens seed has the smaller decline of germination rate, but the data of A. paniculata showed the opposite trend. The rate decline of the germination of S. tenuifolia and S. baicalensis was roughly the same in different germination rate interval. The results showed that low temperature storage could effectively prolong the seed longevity, and maintain the seed vigor. Moreover, it is necessary to study on the storage characteristics of the main medicinal plant seeds, and establish the monitoring plan and regeneration standard. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  6. Traditional medicinal plant use in Loja province, Southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2006-10-10

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Loja province, Southern Ecuador.Two hundred fifteen plant species were collected, identified and their vernacular names and traditional uses recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors and members of the public interviewed still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. However, the area represents only an outlier of the larger Northern Peruvian cultural area, where more than 500 species of plants are used medicinally, indicating that in Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost.Most plant species registered are only used medicinally, and only a few species have any other use (construction, fodder, food). The highest number of species is used for the treatment of "magical" (psychosomatic) ailments (39 species), followed by respiratory disorders (34), problems of the urinary tract (28), Fever/Malaria (25), Rheumatism (23) and nervous system problems (20).

  7. Traditional medicinal plants in Ben En National Park, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Sam, Hoang; Baas, P.; Keßler, P.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper surveys the medicinal plants and their traditional use by local people in Ben En National Park, Vietnam. A total of 230 medicinal plant species (belonging to 200 genera and 84 families) is used by local people for treatment of 68 different diseases. These include species that are

  8. Genetic Programming for Medicinal Plant Family Identification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Laksmana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Information about medicinal plants that is available in text documents is generally quite easy to access, however, one needs some efforts to use it. This research was aimed at utilizing crucial information taken from a text document to identify the family of several species of medicinal plants using a heuristic approach, i.e. genetic programming. Each of the species has its unique features. The genetic program puts the characteristics or special features of each family into a tree form. There are a number of processes involved in the investigated method, i.e. data acquisition, booleanization, grouping of training and test data, evaluation, and analysis. The genetic program uses a training process to select the best individual, initializes a generate-rule process to create several individuals and then executes a fitness evaluation. The next procedure is a genetic operation process, which consists of tournament selection to choose the best individual based on a fitness value, the crossover operation and the mutation operation. These operations have the purpose of complementing the individual. The best individual acquired is the expected solution, which is a rule for classifying medicinal plants. This process produced three rules, one for each plant family, displaying a feature structure that distinguishes each of the families from each other. The genetic program then used these rules to identify the medicinal plants, achieving an average accuracy of 86.47%.

  9. Local wisdom of Cikondang village community in the utilization of medicinal plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyani, Y.; Munandar, A.; Nuraeni, E.

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to analyze local wisdom Cikondang community in the use of medicinal plants. This research used qualitative method with emic and ethical approach to explain the relationship of public knowledge about the type and utilization of medicinal plants in the view of science. Determination of respondents conducted by purposive sampling, taken 30% of the total respondent. The data of the knowledge of the use of medicinal plants obtained through interview techniques as many as 39 respondents. Cikondang people know 27 known medicinal plants and commonly used. Zingiberaceae family has a type that is more widely used as a medicinal plant. The most widely used plant part is leaf and medicinal plant processing which mostly done by boiling. The species with the highest value of use is owned by Curcuma longa L. with a value of 4.28, which states important species / priorities, while the species with the lowest SUV value is Aracchis hypogaea L. of 0.15, which states species are less important and can be replaced by other plants.

  10. Prospects and Challenges for Harnessing Opportunities in Medicinal Plants Sector in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harbir Singh

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the medicinal plants sector can be gauged from the fact that herbal medicines serve the healthcare needs of about 80 per cent of the world's population. India, with approximately eight percent of world's biodiversity including plant genetic diversity with medicinal properties, has the potential of becoming a major global player in market for medicinal plants-based herbal formulations and products. However, prior to establishment of Medicinal Plants Board, there was no nodal agency to look into medicinal plants as an economic 'sector' and different organisations dealt with different aspects of medicinal plants without any clear cut focus and coordination. This lack of co-ordination led to critical research gaps relating to socio-economic and policy aspects of medicinal plants. At the same time, absence of formal marketing linkages and effective buy-back arrangements hindered the development of medicinal plants sector. Developing appropriate varieties for cultivation which could ensure uniform quality and continuous supply of raw material for processing industry would not only meet the industry demand but also halt the degradation of natural resource base. To capitalize on expanding opportunities in the international market, we need to focus on scientific methods of cultivation, harvesting, processing, grading, transport, storage, labeling and marketing practices involved in the entire supply chain for medicinal plants. Policy and institutional issues particularly related to co-ordination among various stake holders are one of the major constraints faced by this sector. Species- specific and socio-economic environment specific research would be helpful for identification of an optimal institutional framework to take care of needs of various stakeholders and also cater to social needs without adverse implications for equity and environment.

  11. Threatened medicinal plants of South Africa: Case of the family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Traditional medicine plays a major role in the primary health care of many people living in rural areas. South Africa is a home to over 30,000 species of higher plants and 3,000 of these species have been found to be used in traditional medicine across the country. South African medicinal plants are decreasing ...

  12. Fumigant activity of the Psidium guajava var. pomifera (Myrtaceae) essential oil in Drosophila melanogaster by means of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Antonio Ivanildo; Wallau, Gabriel Luz; Nunes, Mauro Eugenio Medina; Leite, Nadghia Figueiredo; Tintino, Saulo Relison; da Cruz, Litiele Cezar; da Cunha, Francisco Assis Bezerra; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Douglas Melo Coutinho, Henrique; Posser, Thais; Franco, Jeferson Luis

    2014-01-01

    The guava fruit, Psidium guajava var. pomifera (Myrtaceae family), is a native plant from South America. Its leaves and fruits are widely used in popular medicine in tropical and subtropical countries. Drosophila melanogaster has been used as one of the main model organisms in genetic studies since the 1900s. The extensive knowledge about this species makes it one of the most suitable organisms to study many aspects of toxic compound effects. Due to the lack of studies on the effects of the bioactive compounds present in the P. guajava var. pomifera essential oil, we performed a phytochemical characterization by CG-MS and evaluated the toxicity induced by the essential oil in the D. melanogaster insect model. In order to understand the biochemical mechanisms of toxicity, changes on the Nrf2 signaling as well as hallmarks of oxidative stress response were followed in the exposed flies. Our results showed that exposure of insects to the P. guajava oil increased mortality and locomotor deficits in parallel with an oxidative stress response signaling. Therefore, it suggested a bioinsecticidal activity for P. guajava volatile compounds by means of oxidative stress. Further studies are ongoing to identify which oil compounds are responsible for such effect.

  13. Fumigant Activity of the Psidium guajava Var. Pomifera (Myrtaceae) Essential Oil in Drosophila melanogaster by Means of Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Antonio Ivanildo; Wallau, Gabriel Luz; Nunes, Mauro Eugenio Medina; Leite, Nadghia Figueiredo; Tintino, Saulo Relison; da Cruz, Litiele Cezar; da Cunha, Francisco Assis Bezerra; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Douglas Melo Coutinho, Henrique; Posser, Thais

    2014-01-01

    The guava fruit, Psidium guajava var. pomifera (Myrtaceae family), is a native plant from South America. Its leaves and fruits are widely used in popular medicine in tropical and subtropical countries. Drosophila melanogaster has been used as one of the main model organisms in genetic studies since the 1900s. The extensive knowledge about this species makes it one of the most suitable organisms to study many aspects of toxic compound effects. Due to the lack of studies on the effects of the bioactive compounds present in the P. guajava var. pomifera essential oil, we performed a phytochemical characterization by CG-MS and evaluated the toxicity induced by the essential oil in the D. melanogaster insect model. In order to understand the biochemical mechanisms of toxicity, changes on the Nrf2 signaling as well as hallmarks of oxidative stress response were followed in the exposed flies. Our results showed that exposure of insects to the P. guajava oil increased mortality and locomotor deficits in parallel with an oxidative stress response signaling. Therefore, it suggested a bioinsecticidal activity for P. guajava volatile compounds by means of oxidative stress. Further studies are ongoing to identify which oil compounds are responsible for such effect. PMID:25478063

  14. Fumigant Activity of the Psidium guajava Var. Pomifera (Myrtaceae Essential Oil in Drosophila melanogaster by Means of Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ivanildo Pinho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The guava fruit, Psidium guajava var. pomifera (Myrtaceae family, is a native plant from South America. Its leaves and fruits are widely used in popular medicine in tropical and subtropical countries. Drosophila melanogaster has been used as one of the main model organisms in genetic studies since the 1900s. The extensive knowledge about this species makes it one of the most suitable organisms to study many aspects of toxic compound effects. Due to the lack of studies on the effects of the bioactive compounds present in the P. guajava var. pomifera essential oil, we performed a phytochemical characterization by CG-MS and evaluated the toxicity induced by the essential oil in the D. melanogaster insect model. In order to understand the biochemical mechanisms of toxicity, changes on the Nrf2 signaling as well as hallmarks of oxidative stress response were followed in the exposed flies. Our results showed that exposure of insects to the P. guajava oil increased mortality and locomotor deficits in parallel with an oxidative stress response signaling. Therefore, it suggested a bioinsecticidal activity for P. guajava volatile compounds by means of oxidative stress. Further studies are ongoing to identify which oil compounds are responsible for such effect.

  15. Medicinal plants in an urban environment: the medicinal flora of Banares Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussmann Rainer W

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Varanasi is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities of the world, and one of the most important Hindu pilgrimage sites. Despite this importance, very little information exits on the cities flora in general, and medicinal species found within its limit in particular. Traditional medicine plays a large role in Indian society. The presented study attempted to investigate if traditional plant use and availability of important common medicinal plants are maintained in urban environments. The paper presents information on the traditional uses of seventy-two plant species collected form the campus of Banares Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, and highlights the uses of these plants by the local inhabitants.

  16. Correlation between heavy metal contents and antioxidants in medicinal plants grown in mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharia, R.; Dutta, R.K.; Acharya, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2010-01-01

    Full texts: Medicinal plants are widely used as alternate therapeutic agents for various diseases. Three medicinal plants grown in copper mining regions of Khetri in Rajasthan was analyzed for heavy metal contents by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The copper levels were found to be two to three folds higher in these plant leaves as compared to the reported copper levels in the medicinal plants grown in environmentally friendly regions. In our previous study on heavy metals in soil and medicinal plant of Khetri region we have shown bioaccumulation of Cu in the medicinal plants. In addition, the levels of Cr, Fe and Zn were also higher. Antioxidant properties of medicinal plants are one of their major therapeutic functionalities. The role of elevated levels of heavy metals in the medicinal plants was studied with respect to their antioxidant properties. Standard procedures were used for measuring total phenols, flavanoids and DPPH assay of these medicinal plants which were correlated with the heavy metals contents of these plants

  17. Effect of five medicinal plants used in Indian system of medicines on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of five medicinal plants used in Indian system of medicines on immune function in Wistar rats. ... The activity was investigated by phagocytic carbon clearance, antibody titre and delayed type hypersensitivity test. The control group received 0.1% carboxyl methyl cellulose and other groups received the different doses ...

  18. Analysis of antidiarrhoeic effect of plants used in popular medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cybele E. Almeida

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available People customarily use the extracts of plants known to have antidiarrhoeal effects without any scientific base to explain the action of the extract. For this reason, an investigation was undertaken with a view to determining the efficacy of the effects of the brute aqueous extract (BAE of the leaves of Psidium guajava (guava, Stachytarpheta cayenensis (bastard vervain, Polygonum punctatum (water. smartweed, Eugenia uniflora (Brazil or Surinam cherry and Aster squamatus (zé-da-silva on the intestinal transport of water in rats and on the gastrointestinal propulsion in mice. With the exception of the BAE of S. cayenensis, all other BAE's have increased the absorption of water in one or more intestinal portion in relation to the control group. All tested BAE, except that of P. punctatum, reduced the gastrointestinal propulsion in relation to that of the control group. The results indicate that the BAE of the leaves of P. guajava, S. cayenensis, P. punctatum, E. uniflora and A. squamatus have a potential antidiarrhoeic effect to be confirmed by additional investigations in animals infected with enteropathogenic agents.

  19. Analysis of antidiarrhoeic effect of plants used in popular medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Cybele E.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available People customarily use the extracts of plants known to have antidiarrhoeal effects without any scientific base to explain the action of the extract. For this reason, an investigation was undertaken with a view to determining the efficacy of the effects of the brute aqueous extract (BAE of the leaves of Psidium guajava (guava, Stachytarpheta cayenensis (bastard vervain, Polygonum punctatum (water. smartweed, Eugenia uniflora (Brazil or Surinam cherry and Aster squamatus (zé-da-silva on the intestinal transport of water in rats and on the gastrointestinal propulsion in mice. With the exception of the BAE of S. cayenensis, all other BAE's have increased the absorption of water in one or more intestinal portion in relation to the control group. All tested BAE, except that of P. punctatum, reduced the gastrointestinal propulsion in relation to that of the control group. The results indicate that the BAE of the leaves of P. guajava, S. cayenensis, P. punctatum, E. uniflora and A. squamatus have a potential antidiarrhoeic effect to be confirmed by additional investigations in animals infected with enteropathogenic agents.

  20. Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used in Mali for Dysmenorrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Sanogo, Rokia

    2011-01-01

    Dysmenorrhea is painful menstrual cramps, which negatively impacts the quality of life of a large percentage of the world's female population in reproductive age. The paper reviews the plants used in the Malian traditional medicine for the treatment of dysmenorrhea. Some medicinal plants were effective for treatments of dysmenorrhea with minimal side effects. Conventional therapy for dysmenorrhea, which usually includes non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), provides symptomatic reli...

  1. Radioactive properties of medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmedova, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: A complicated cycle of various compounds' synthesis is provided by plants in the process of their development. The synthesized compounds are necessary to maintain the life of all living organisms both in water and on the land. Together with the organic compounds all known natural radionuclides are accumulated by the plants. Many plants possess the ability to accumulate some elements, whose concentration in the plants may be much higher than that in the soils and water sources. It is well known that the plants are basic or initial raw materials for producing numerous food products, as well as medicinal preparations. The radionuclides, accumulated in the plants, may pass to the human organism through the products and drugs, and may become a source of internal radiation. Accumulation of the radionuclides in various human organs above the maximal acceptable concentration (MAC) may lead to various pathologic changes. That is why it is a necessary and urgent problem to carry out investigations of the radioactive properties of the plants (i.e. to determine their radioecological cleanliness) before using the medicinal plant for pharmacological purposes. In the present work we investigated the radioactive processes of kinds of medicinal plants by the method of semi-conductor gamma-spectrometry. Measurements of the gamma-spectra of the plants' leach were carried out with the help of a gamma-spectrometer with a Ge(Li) detector accompanied by a 4096-channel analyzer. Responsive volume of the detector was 40 cm 3 , energy resolution with respect to 1333 keV 60 Co line was 3 keV. In the measured spectra we observed clearly photo-peaks belonging to uranium-238 family: 186 keV 226 Ra; 295, 351 keV 214 Pb; 609, 1120, 1764 keV 214 Bi; and those belonging to thorium - 232 family: 339, 911, 968 keV 2 28 Ac; 583, 2614 keV 208 Te; as well as the photo-peak of the natural radionuclide 40 K with the energy 1460 keV. From the proper gamma-lines, observed in the spectra, we

  2. A meta-analysis of medicinal plants to assess the evidence for toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Sarah; Vieira, Amandio

    2010-01-01

    Toxicity of phytochemicals, plant-based extracts and dietary supplements, and medicinal plants in general, is of medical importance and must be considered in phytotherapy and other plant uses. We show in this report how general database analyses can provide a quantitative assessment of research and evidence related to toxicity of medicinal plants or specific phytochemicals. As examples, several medicinal plants are analyzed for their relation to nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. The results ...

  3. Historical versus contemporary medicinal plant uses in the US Virgin Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soelberg, J; Davis, O; Jäger, A K

    2016-11-04

    Hidden in the documents of the dark past of the trans-Atlantic slavery are gems of ethnomedicinal observations, supported by herbarium specimens, which tell of the traditional medicine of a by-gone slave society in the Caribbean. In the context of the former Danish West Indies (now US Virgin Islands), we identify pre-1900 medicinal plants and their historical uses, and trace their status in the traditional medicine of St. Croix today (2014). By a combined historical and ethnobotanical approach we assess the scale of loss and preservation of traditional medicinal knowledge on St. Croix, and explore the drivers involved in the disappearance of knowledge in the oral tradition of medicine. Names, uses and identities of 18th and 19th century medicinal plant uses in the Danish West Indies were derived from manuscripts and publications of Von Rohr (1757/58), Oldendorp (1777), West (1793), Benzon (1822), Riise (1853), Eggers (1876;1879) and Berg and Eggers (1888). The presence of the plant species in the pre-1900 Danish West Indies was confirmed by review of herbarium specimens in the University of Copenhagen Herbarium (C). The same species were collected on St. Croix in 2014 or their ecological status discussed with local specialists. Semi-structured interviews supported by photographs and specimens were conducted with six medicinal plant specialist on St. Croix, to document and compare contemporary names and uses of the historically used medicinal plants. The historic ethnomedicinal sources revealed 102 medicinal uses of 64 plant species. Thirty-eight (37%) of the pre-1900 medicinal uses were traced in interviews, while sixty-four uses (63%) appear to be forgotten, discontinued or otherwise lost. Thirteen species appear to have entirely lost their status as medicinal plants on St. Croix, while 32 species (50%) have lost uses while retaining or gaining others. While 20% of the lost medicinal plant uses can be explained by biodiversity loss, and others likely have become

  4. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by Sabaots of Mt. Elgon Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, S V; Nyunja, R O; Netondo, G W; Onyango, J C

    2009-10-15

    Though the majority of people in Kenya and at Kopsiro Division in particular, rely on ethnomedicinal plant species to manage human ailments, the indigenous knowledge largely remains undocumented. Therefore, an ethnobotanical study was conducted on medicinal plant species used to manage human ailments at Kopsiro Division Mt. Elgon District Kenya. The objectives were to identify and document plants traditionally used for medicinal therapy by the Sabaots, to find out the method used for preparing and administering the drugs and to find out the conservation practices for the medicinal plants. Observations and semi-structured interviews were used to gather ethnobotanical data. 107 plants belonging to 56 families were identified and reported to be of medicinal value to the locals. Roots (47.3%) were the most frequently used parts of the plant followed by the bark (23.35%) then leaves (22.75%). The whole plant (1.8%), seed (1.2%), fruit (1.2%), sap (1.2%), flower (0.6%) and wood (0.6%) are least used in that order. The study revealed other hitherto undocumented medicinal plant species that may be new records for treating various ailments. Traditional medicine in Kopsiro division offers cheap, accessible and convenient remedy that suits the traditional lifestyle of the local community in comparison to the conventional medicine. Most medicinal plant species reported in this study were found to be under threat and this calls for urgent conservation measures so as to maximize the sustainable use of these vital resources in the study area.

  5. Pharmacological screening of Malian medicinal plants used against epilepsy and convulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikael E; Vestergaard, Henrik T; Hansen, Suzanne L

    2009-01-01

    Several medicinal plants are used in Mali to treat epilepsy and convulsions. So far, no studies have investigated the pharmacological effect of these plants.......Several medicinal plants are used in Mali to treat epilepsy and convulsions. So far, no studies have investigated the pharmacological effect of these plants....

  6. Effects of gamma irradiation on antioxidants of medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jetawattana, Suwimol; Chaichantipyuth, Chaiyo

    2003-06-01

    The antioxidant effect of water extracts from irradiated medicinal plants on inhibition of lipid peroxidation in human plasma was examined. The results presented herein indicate that crude extracts from 29 kinds, 31 extracts, of medicinal plants, irradiated at 10 and 25 kilo gray. showed no significant change in inhibition of lipid peroxidation in plasma induced by gamma irradiation (p<0.05). It also found that extraction yields in some irradiated plants were increased

  7. Effects of gamma irradiation on antioxidants of medicinal plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jetawattana, Suwimol [The irradiation research for agriculture program, Office of Atoms for Peace, BK (Thailand); Chaichantipyuth, Chaiyo [Faculty of Pharmacy, Chulalongkorn University, BK (Thailand)

    2003-06-01

    The antioxidant effect of water extracts from irradiated medicinal plants on inhibition of lipid peroxidation in human plasma was examined. The results presented herein indicate that crude extracts from 29 kinds, 31 extracts, of medicinal plants, irradiated at 10 and 25 kilo gray. showed no significant change in inhibition of lipid peroxidation in plasma induced by gamma irradiation (p<0.05). It also found that extraction yields in some irradiated plants were increased.

  8. Medicinal Plants from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Used as Immunostimulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Vázquez, María del Carmen; Campos-Xolalpa, Nimsi

    2016-01-01

    A literature review was undertaken by analyzing distinguished books, undergraduate and postgraduate theses, and peer-reviewed scientific articles and by consulting worldwide accepted scientific databases, such as SCOPUS, Web of Science, SCIELO, Medline, and Google Scholar. Medicinal plants used as immunostimulants were classified into two categories: (1) plants with pharmacological studies and (2) plants without pharmacological research. Medicinal plants with pharmacological studies of their immunostimulatory properties were subclassified into four groups as follows: (a) plant extracts evaluated for in vitro effects, (b) plant extracts with documented in vivo effects, (c) active compounds tested on in vitro studies, and (d) active compounds assayed in animal models. Pharmacological studies have been conducted on 29 of the plants, including extracts and compounds, whereas 75 plants lack pharmacological studies regarding their immunostimulatory activity. Medicinal plants were experimentally studied in vitro (19 plants) and in vivo (8 plants). A total of 12 compounds isolated from medicinal plants used as immunostimulants have been tested using in vitro (11 compounds) and in vivo (2 compounds) assays. This review clearly indicates the need to perform scientific studies with medicinal flora from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, to obtain new immunostimulatory agents. PMID:27042188

  9. Medicinal Plants from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Used as Immunostimulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Josabad Alonso-Castro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A literature review was undertaken by analyzing distinguished books, undergraduate and postgraduate theses, and peer-reviewed scientific articles and by consulting worldwide accepted scientific databases, such as SCOPUS, Web of Science, SCIELO, Medline, and Google Scholar. Medicinal plants used as immunostimulants were classified into two categories: (1 plants with pharmacological studies and (2 plants without pharmacological research. Medicinal plants with pharmacological studies of their immunostimulatory properties were subclassified into four groups as follows: (a plant extracts evaluated for in vitro effects, (b plant extracts with documented in vivo effects, (c active compounds tested on in vitro studies, and (d active compounds assayed in animal models. Pharmacological studies have been conducted on 29 of the plants, including extracts and compounds, whereas 75 plants lack pharmacological studies regarding their immunostimulatory activity. Medicinal plants were experimentally studied in vitro (19 plants and in vivo (8 plants. A total of 12 compounds isolated from medicinal plants used as immunostimulants have been tested using in vitro (11 compounds and in vivo (2 compounds assays. This review clearly indicates the need to perform scientific studies with medicinal flora from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, to obtain new immunostimulatory agents.

  10. Conserving the Appalachian medicinal plant industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain

    2006-01-01

    An industry based on plants that flourish in the mountains of Appalachia is at a critical crossroads. The medicinal plant industry has relied on the conservation of Appalachian forest resources for more than 300 years. There is growing and widespread concern that many of the species, on which this vibrant and substantial industry depends, are being depleted and...

  11. Medicinal efficacy of plants utilized as temple food in traditional Korean Buddhism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun; Song, Mi-Jang; Potter, Daniel

    2006-03-08

    We investigated the medicinal efficacies of plants used as food in 27 Korean Buddhist temples from 1997 to 2002. We studied 161 species of plants belonging to 135 genera in 65 families. Twenty-one plant parts were utilized as food in 42 different preparations. Approximately 82% of the plants studied had medicinal effects, with a wide range of efficacies (126 types). Of the medicinal plants, 52% were used for digestive problems, circulatory illnesses, and respiratory diseases. These results demonstrate that a high proportion of the food consumed in Korean temples is medicinal, and is used for a wide variety of diseases.

  12. [Diversity and distribution of the threatened medicinal vascular plants in Lancang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xiu-Lian; Yuan, Yi-Kai; Fang, Bo; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Yang, Han-Yu; Zhao, Zhi-Ping; Li, Guo; Fu, Kai-Cong; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2017-11-01

    The rich diversity in medicinal plants provides an important material basic for the development of Traditional Chinese medicine in China. It is important to explore the present situation of medicinal plants within special regions in order to provide scientific instructions for their sustainable protection and exploitation and utilization. In this study, we carried out the field survey according to the guideline of national survey of Chinese material medica resources and the guideline of plant species diversity survey and estimation at county level with the line transect method. With the field surveyed data, we explored the diversity and distribution of the threatened medicinal vascular plants in Lancang. We found that there were 33 species of the threatened medicinal vascular plants in this county. These species were from 23 genera and 17 families, and were composed of one critical endangered, 10 endangered and 22 vulnerable species. They were widely distributed across the whole county and were most concentrated in the town of Nuozhadu, Fazhanhe, Nuofu and Zhutang, which were located in the southeastern, southwestern and western of Lancang, respectively. We also found that the plant species richness followed a unimodal pattern along elevation. In addition, we found that the areas of Nuozhadu Nature Reserve in Lancang only covered six threatened medicinal vascular plants, while most of the regions with high species richness were not well protected. Therefore, we proposed to make more efforts to improve the protection measurements in order to better protect and utilize the medicinal plants in Lancang. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. Psidium guajava L. anti-neoplastic effects: induction of apoptosis and cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempo, P; Doto, A; Miceli, M; Mita, L; Benedetti, R; Nebbioso, A; Veglione, M; Rigano, D; Cioffi, M; Sica, V; Molinari, A M; Altucci, L

    2012-02-01

    Curative properties of medicinal plants such as Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) have often been indicated by epidemiological studies on populations in which these fruits are consumed daily. However, complete characterization of the active principles responsible for this ability has never been performed. Here, we have characterized P. guajava's anti-cancer potential and identified the parts of the fruit involved in its anti-neoplastic action. We studied morphology of our cells, cell cycle characteristics and apoptosis and performed immunostaining, differentiation and western blot analyses. We report that the P. guajava extract exerted anti-cancer control on both haematological and solid neoplasias. P. guajava extract's anti-tumour properties were found to be tightly bound to induction of apoptosis and differentiation. Use of ex vivo myeloid leukaemia blasts corroborated that P. guajava was able to induce cell death but did not exhibit anti-cancer effects on all malignant cells investigated, indicating selective activity against certain types of tumour. Analyses of P. guajava pulp, peel and seeds identified the pulp as being the most relevant component for causing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, whereas peel was responsible for causing cell differentiation. P. guajava itself and its pulp-derived extract were found to induce apoptosis accompanied by caspase activation and p16, p21, Fas ligand (FASL TNF super-family, member 6), Bcl-2-associated agonist of cell death (BAD) and tumour necrosis factor receptor super-family, member 10b (DR5), overexpression. Our findings showed that P. guajava L. extract was able to exert anti-cancer activity on cultures in vitro and ex vivo, supporting the hypothesis of its anti malignant pro-apoptotic modulation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Medicinal plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobo-Herrera, Nadia J; Jacobo-Herrera, Frida E; Zentella-Dehesa, Alejandro; Andrade-Cetto, Adolfo; Heinrich, Michael; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos

    2016-02-17

    Cancer cases numbers are increasing worldwide positioning this disease as the second cause of mortality for both sexes. Medicinal plants have been used in the fight against cancer as the basis for drug discovery and nowadays more than 70% of anticancer drugs have a natural origin. Mexico is regarded for its cultural and biological diversity, which is reflected in the vast traditional knowledge of herbal remedies. In this review we examined herbal remedies employed in colorectal cancer treatment (CRC). The goal of this work was to gather scientific reports of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for CRC treatment. We performed a search on scientific literature databases using as keywords: "colon cancer", "gastric cancer", "cytotoxicity", studies "in vitro and in vivo", in combination with "Mexican medicinal plants" or "Mexican herbal remedies". The selection criteria of cytotoxic activity for extracts or pure compounds was based on the National Cancer Institute of USA recommendations of effective dose 50 (ED50) of ≤20μg/mL and ≤4μg/mL, respectively. In this review we report 25 botanic families and 39 species of plants used for the treatment of colon cancer in Mexico with evidence in studies in vitro and in vivo. Medicinal plants are still a great source of novel chemical structures with antineoplastic potential as it is proven in this work. The selection criteria and activity was narrowed for methodological purposes, nevertheless, drug discovery of natural origin continues to be a highly attractive R&D strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. IoT based Growth Monitoring System of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamet, W.; Irham, N. M.; Sutan, M. S. A.

    2018-05-01

    Growth monitoring of plant is important especially to evaluate the influence of environment or growing condition on its productivity. One way to monitor the plant growth is by measuring the radial growth (i.e., the change of circumference) of certain part of plant such as trunk, branch, and fruit. In this study we develop an internet of things (IoT) based monitoring system of radial growth of plant using a low-cost optoelectronic sensor. The system was applied to monitor radial growth of guava fruits (Psidium guajava L.). The principle of the developed sensor is based on the optoelectronic sensor which detects alternating white and black narrow bar printed on reflective tapes. Reflective tape was installed encircling the fruit. The movement of reflective tapes will follow the radial growth of the fruit so that the infrared sensor on the optoelectronic would response reflective tapes movement. This device is designed to measure object continuously and long-term monitor with minimum maintenance. The data collected by the sensors are then sent to the server and also can be monitored in real-time. Based on field test, at current stage, the developed sensor could measure the radial growth of the fruits with a maximum error 2 mm. In term of data transfer, the success rate of the developed system was 97.54%. The result indicated that the developed system can be used as an effective tool for growth monitoring of plant.

  16. Ethnopharmacological Survey of Medicinal Plants in Albaha Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadh Ali, Nasser A; Al Sokari, Saeed Salah; Gushash, Ahmed; Anwar, Sirajudheen; Al-Karani, Khalid; Al-Khulaidi, Abdulwali

    2017-01-01

    Local natural medicinal resource knowledge is important to define and elaborate usage of herbs, in systematic and organized manner. Until recently, there has been little scientifically written document regarding the traditional uses of medicinal plants in Al Bahah region. This pilot study aims to collect the ethnobotanical information from native populations regarding the benefits of medicinal plants of Al Bahah region, and determine if the traditional usage is scientifically established (proved) from literature. The survey collected data for 39 plant species recorded by informants for their medicinal benefits. The recorded species were distributed among 28 plant families. Leguminosae and Euphorbiaceae were represented each by 3 species, followed by Asteraceae (2 species), Lamiaceae (2 species), Apocynaceae (2 species), and Solanaceae (2 species). All the medicinal plants were reported in their local names. Analysis of ethnopharmacological data was done to obtain percentage of plant families, species, parts of plants used, mode of administration, and preparation types. Total 43 informants were interviewed, maximum number of species were used to cure skin diseases including burns (3), wounds (7), warts (1), Leishmania (7), topical hemostatic (2), followed by gastrointestinal system, rheumatism, respiratory tract problems, diabetes mellitus, anti-snake venom, malaria, and eye inflammation. The study covered Al Bahah city and its outskirts. Ten new ethnobotanical uses were recorded such as antirheumatic and anti-vitiligo uses for Clematis hirsute , leishmaniasis use of Commiphora gileadensis , antigout of Juniperus procera , removing warts for Ficus palmata . 39 plant species from 28 plant families are used for treating more than 20 types of diseases.Maximum number of species (23 species) was used for treating skin diseases (42.6%) including leishmaniasis, wound healing, dermatitis, psoriasis, vitiligo and warts.Ten ethnobotanical uses of 8 studied plants have not

  17. A review on antidepressant effect of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Rabiei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a life-threatening, debilitating, and common disease affecting different segments of community. Chemical and synthetic drugs available to treat this disease cause many adverse effects and may lead to complete recovery in only 50% of patients. At the same time, medicinal plants have been reported to exert optimal pharmacological effects in treating depression in different models. In this review, the relevant articles indexed in the reliable databases PubMed, PubMed central, Scopus and Web of Science were review-ed. The review indicated that most medicinal plants exerted antidepressant effects through synaptic regulation of serotonin, noradrenaline, and dopamine, regulating activity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, reinfor-cing anti-oxidant defense system, and decreasing inflammatory mediators. The medicinal plants and their active compounds can relieve depression through different pathways and hence are considered a new source to produce antidepressants.

  18. Mapuche medicinal plants: Proposition in their propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz Ovalle; Zoia Neira; Patricio Nunez

    2002-01-01

    The Mapuche (native indians from Chile) population is one of the largest populations of native indians left in America (approximately 1 million). As many of the other Native communities, they continuously struggle to maintain their rituals and customs. One of the most valuable customs for the Mapuche is the use of medicinal plants. All these plants are native plants...

  19. A survey of medicinal plants used by kavirajes of chalna area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kavirajes or traditional medicinal practitioners form the primary healthcare providers of the predominantly rural population of Bangladesh. Kavirajes use a variety of medicinal plants for treatment of different ailments. The formulations prepared from medicinal plants vary considerably between Kavirajes of different regions of ...

  20. Health risk due to radionuclides in medicinal plants Western Ghats of Karnataka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laveena, K.B.; Chandra, M.; Kaliprasad, C.S.; Narayana, Y.

    2018-01-01

    Medicinal plants are unique type of natural product requiring special consideration due to their potential impact on human health. The pharmacological properties of the medicinal plants have been attributed to the presence of active chemical constituents which are responsible for important physiological function in living organisms. According to the International Food Safety Authorities Network, plants used as food commonly have 40 K, 232 Th and 238 U and their progenies. It is expected that similarities would be found in plants used for medicinal purposes since plants are the primary pathway of natural radionuclides entering into the human body through the food chain. In many developing countries, pollution is the main causes for the contamination of vegetation with heavy metals, pesticides, or radioactivity. Therefore the medical properties and effectiveness of medicinal plants depend on environmental conditions, which also have a direct influence on their growth in the place of their occurrence and cultivation. So the objective of my study is to study the concentration of radionuclides present in selected medicinal plants and to assess the radiological risk associated with the use of these medicinal plants which has great significance

  1. Medicinal plants in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Maliheh; Shams-Ardakani, Mohammadreza; Foroumadi, Alireza

    2015-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a small, spiral, Gram-negative bacillus that plays a role in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases ranging from asymptomatic gastritis to gastric cancer. Schedule compliance, antibiotic drug resistance, and side-effects of triple or quadruple therapy have led to research for novel candidates from plants. The purpose of this paper is to review the most potent medicinal plants of recently published literature with anti-H. pylori activity. For centuries, herbals have been used by traditional healers around the world to treat various gastrointestinal tract disorders such as dyspepsia, gastritis, and peptic ulcer disease. The mechanism of action by which these botanicals exert their therapeutic properties has not been completely and clearly elucidated. Anti-H. pylori properties may be one of the possible mechanisms by which gastroprotective herbs treat gastrointestinal tract disorders. Electronic databases such as PubMed, Google scholar, EBSCO, and local databases were explored for medicinal plants with anti-H. pylori properties between 1984 and 2013 using key words "medicinal plants" and "Helicobacter pylori" or "anti-Helicobacter pylori". A total of 43 medicinal plant species belonging to 27 families including Amaryllidaceae, Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae, Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Clusiaceae, Chancapiedra, Combretaceae, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Geraniaceae, Lamiaceae, Lauraceae, Lythraceae, Menispermaceae, Myristicaceae, Myrtaceae, Oleaceae, Papaveraceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, and Theaceae were studied as herbs with potent anti-H. pylori effects. Traditional folk medicinal use of some of these plants to treat gastric infections is substantiated by the antibacterial activity of their extracts against H. pylori.

  2. Antibacterial activities of ethanol extracts of Philippine medicinal plants against multidrug-resistant bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetrio L. Valle Jr.

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: P. betle had the greatest potential value against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive multidrug-resistant bacteria. Favorable antagonistic activities were also exhibited by the ethanol extracts of Psidium guajava, Phyllanthus niruri and Ehretia microphylla.

  3. Determination of elements in ayurvedic medicinal plants by AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teerthe, Santoshkumar S.; Kerur, B. R.

    2015-01-01

    India has a rich country for the uses of Ayurvedic medicinal plants for treatment and also the north- Karnataka boasts an unparallel diversity of medicinal plants. The present study attempts to estimate and compare the level of trace and heavy metals in some selected leaves and root samples of Ayurvedic medicinal plants such as Mg, Al, K, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Cd. The samples are collected from different places of North-Karnataka regions and sample solutions prepared as the ratio of 1:25:25+950ml=1000ppm.the trace and heavy elemental concentration was estimated using Atomic Absorption Spectrometric (AAS) Method. The average concentrations of Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn, are ranging from 2ppm to 5250.2ppm and potassium (K) has more concentration as compare to all other. The other elements likes Al, Cr, Cu, and Cd were also estimed and presented in the table. Therefore, these medicinal plants are rich in some essential minerals, especially K, Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn which are essential for human health

  4. Determination of elements in ayurvedic medicinal plants by AAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teerthe, Santoshkumar S.; Kerur, B. R., E-mail: kerurbrk@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga, and Karnataka, India – 585106 (India)

    2015-08-28

    India has a rich country for the uses of Ayurvedic medicinal plants for treatment and also the north- Karnataka boasts an unparallel diversity of medicinal plants. The present study attempts to estimate and compare the level of trace and heavy metals in some selected leaves and root samples of Ayurvedic medicinal plants such as Mg, Al, K, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Cd. The samples are collected from different places of North-Karnataka regions and sample solutions prepared as the ratio of 1:25:25+950ml=1000ppm.the trace and heavy elemental concentration was estimated using Atomic Absorption Spectrometric (AAS) Method. The average concentrations of Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn, are ranging from 2ppm to 5250.2ppm and potassium (K) has more concentration as compare to all other. The other elements likes Al, Cr, Cu, and Cd were also estimed and presented in the table. Therefore, these medicinal plants are rich in some essential minerals, especially K, Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn which are essential for human health.

  5. [The in vitro action of plants on Vibrio cholerae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, J M; Chumpitaz, J; Valencia, E

    1994-01-01

    Natural products of several plants, according to the geographic location, are used by Peruvian people in the popular treatment of diarrhea, with good success. When cholerae cases appeared in Peru, we were interested to know the "in vitro" effect against Vibrio cholerae 01, of these useful plants to treat diarrhea. The following plants were tested: Cichorium intybus, Althaea officinalis, Psorela glandulosa, Geranium maculatum, Punica granatum, Malus sativa, Cydonia oblonga, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Krameria triandria, Tea chinensis, Daucus carota, Persea gratissima, Psidium guayaba and Lippia dulcis. Decoction or infusion of the plants were used in the "in vitro" experiments. The following plants showed no "in vitro" effect against V. cholerae: Cichorium intybus, Althaea officinalis, Psorela glandulosa, Geranium maculatum, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Krameria triandria, Psidium guayaba, Lippia dulcis and Daucus carota. Decoction of Malus sativa and Cydenia oblonga showed bactericidal effect for their acidity and stone avocado (Persea gratissima) a late bactericidal effect. Tea infusión and the decoction of Punica granatum peel, showed the best bactericidal effect and we suggest to use them as to stop cholera spreading.

  6. Effects of medicinal plants on Alzheimer's disease and memory deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Akram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory deficits. Various studies have been carried out to find therapeutic approaches for Alzheimer's disease. However, the proper treatment option is still not available. There is no cure for Alzheimer's disease, but symptomatic treatment may improve the memory and other dementia related problems. Traditional medicine is practiced worldwide as memory enhancer since ancient times. Natural therapy including herbs and medicinal plants has been used in the treatment of memory deficits such as dementia, amnesia, as well as Alzheimer's disease since a long time. Medicinal plants have been used in different systems of medicine, particularly Unani system of medicines and exhibited their powerful roles in the management and cure of memory disorders. Most of herbs and plants have been chemically evaluated and their efficacy has also been proven in clinical trials. However, the underlying mechanisms of actions are still on the way. In this paper, we have reviewed the role of different medicinal plants that play an important role in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and memory deficits using conventional herbal therapy.

  7. Cultural significance of medicinal plant families and species among Quechua farmers in Apillapampa, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evert; Vandebroek, Ina; Sanca, Sabino; Van Damme, Patrick

    2009-02-25

    Medicinal plant use was investigated in Apillapampa, a community of subsistence farmers located in the semi-arid Bolivian Andes. The main objectives were to identify the culturally most significant medicinal plant families and species in Apillapampa. A total of 341 medicinal plant species was inventoried during guided fieldtrips and transect sampling. Data on medicinal uses were obtained from fifteen local Quechua participants, eight of them being traditional healers. Contingency table and binomial analyses of medicinal plants used versus the total number of inventoried species per family showed that Solanaceae is significantly overused in traditional medicine, whereas Poaceae is underused. Also plants with a shrubby habitat are significantly overrepresented in the medicinal plant inventory, which most likely relates to their year-round availability to people as compared to most annual plants that disappear in the dry season. Our ranking of medicinal species according to cultural importance is based upon the Quality Use Agreement Value (QUAV) index we developed. This index takes into account (1) the average number of medicinal uses reported for each plant species by participants; (2) the perceived quality of those medicinal uses; and (3) participant consensus. According to the results, the QUAV index provides an easily derived and valid appraisal of a medicinal plant's cultural significance.

  8. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of natural radionuclides (226Ra and 40K) in selected Thai medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenboonruang, Kiadtisak; Phonchanthuek, Endu; Prasandee, Kamonkhuan

    2018-04-01

    A soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) is an important parameter that could be used to estimate radionuclides levels in medicinal plants. This work reports concentrations of natural radionuclides ( 226 Ra and 40 K) and TFs in six Thai medicinal plants grown in central Thailand using an HPGe gamma ray spectrometer. Either root, leaf, or flower parts of each medicinal plant were selected for use in the investigation according to their practical uses in traditional medicine. The results showed that due to K being essential in plants, 40 K had higher arithmetic means of activity concentrations and geometric means of TFs (geometric standard deviations in parentheses) of 610 ± 260 Bq kg -1 dry weight (DW) and 2.0 (1.4), respectively, than 226 Ra, which had the activity concentrations and TFs of 4.8 ± 2.6 Bq kg -1 DW and 0.17 (1.8), respectively. The results also showed that the leaves of medicinal plants had higher activity concentrations and TFs than root and flower parts, probably due to higher metabolic activities in leaves. Furthermore, there was good agreement between the results from the current work and other similar reports on medicinal plants. The information obtained from this work could strengthen knowledge of natural radionuclides in plants and particularly increase available TF data on Thai medicinal plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Monograph: In vitro efficacy of 30 ethnomedicinal plants used by Indian aborigines against 6 multidrug resistant Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Chandra Sahu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To monitor in vitro antibacterial activities of leaf extracts of 30 common and noncommon plants used by aborigines in Kalahandi district, Odisha, against 6 clinically isolated multidrug resistant (MDR Gram-positive bacteria of 3 genera, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus. Methods: The antibiotic sensitivity patterns of 6 bacterial strains were studied with the diskdiffusion method with 1 7 antibiotics belonging to 8 classes. Monitored plants have ethnomedicinal use and several are used as traditional medicines. Antibacterial properties were studied with the agar-well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of plants were determined by the microbroth-dilution method. Results: Ethanolic plant-extracts had the better antibacterial potencies in comparison to their corresponding aqueous extracts. Plants with most conspicuous antibacterial properties in controlling MDR strains of Gram-positive bacteria were aqueous and ethanolic extracts of plants, Ixora coccinea, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, Polycythaemia rubra, Pongamia pinnata and Syzygium cumini, Carthamus tinctorius, Cucurbita maxima, Murraya koenigii, Leucas aspera, Plumbago indica and Psidium guajava. Ethanolic extracts of most plants had phytochemicals, alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, reducing sugars, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and steroids. Conclusions: These plants could be used further for the isolation of pure compounds to be used as complementary non-microbial antimicrobial medicines.

  10. Traditional medicinal plant use in Loja province, Southern Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Douglas

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Loja province, Southern Ecuador. Two hundred fifteen plant species were collected, identified and their vernacular names and traditional uses recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors and members of the public interviewed still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. However, the area represents only an outlier of the larger Northern Peruvian cultural area, where more than 500 species of plants are used medicinally, indicating that in Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost. Most plant species registered are only used medicinally, and only a few species have any other use (construction, fodder, food. The highest number of species is used for the treatment of "magical" (psychosomatic ailments (39 species, followed by respiratory disorders (34, problems of the urinary tract (28, Fever/Malaria (25, Rheumatism (23 and nervous system problems (20.

  11. Medicinal Plants for Diabetes Treatment During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, Debora Cristina; Leal-Silva, Thais; Soares, Thaigra Sousa; Moraes-Souza, Rafaianne Queiroz; Volpato, Gustavo Tadeu

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome of great importance that affects an increasing number of people every day. In particular, diabetes is a common and important disease during pregnancy and is marked by complications, both fetal and maternal, that increase the risks of morbidity and mortality for diabetic pregnant women and their offspring. Drugs such as insulin and hypoglycemic drugs are given to treat diabetes, but regular exercise and adequate diet have also been indicated. Furthermore, coadjutant therapies such as medicinal plants are popularly used to reduce diabetes-induced hyperglycemia, either within or outside the context of pregnancy. However, studies examining plant use for diabetes treatment are necessary to confirm its possible effects and its safety for the mother and fetus. The objective of this literature review was to conduct a survey of plant species that are utilized worldwide and their stated therapeutic uses. A literature search was performed using the terms "diabetes and pregnancy", which resulted in the identification of 31,272 articles. Of these studies, only 12 (0.0038%) were related to medicinal plants, demonstrating that there has been little investigation into this issue. Of the papers analyzed in this review, half evaluated plant leaves, indicating that these scientific studies attempted to reproduce the preparations commonly used by various populations, i.e., in the form of tea. Additionally, more than 90% of studies utilized experimental animals to evaluate the maternal-fetal safety of medicinal plant substances that may potentially be dangerous for humans. Thus, once confidence levels for plant-derived substances are established based on toxicological analyses and safety is confirmed, it is possible that plants will be used to complement conventional diabetes therapies. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Indigenous plant medicines for health care: treatment of Diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Nisha H; Parikh, Palak K; Kothari, Charmy

    2014-05-01

    Medicinal plants have played an important role in treating and preventing a variety of diseases throughout the world. Metabolic syndrome had become a global epidemic, defined as a cluster of three of five criteria: insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, abdominal obesity, hypertension, low high-density cholesterol, and hypertriglyceridemia. The current review focuses on Indian medicinal plant drugs and plants used in the treatment of diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Though there are various approaches to reduce the ill-effects of diabetes and hyperlipidemia and its secondary complications, plant-based drugs are preferred due to lesser side effects and low cost. The current review focuses on twenty-three medicinal plants used in the treatment of Diabetes mellitus and nine medicinal plants used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. The wealth of knowledge on medicinal plants points to a great potential for research and the discovery of new drugs to fight diseases, including diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Plant biotechnology patents: applications in agriculture and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefferon, Kathleen

    2010-06-01

    Recent advances in agricultural biotechnology have enabled the field of plant biology to move forward in great leaps and bounds. In particular, recent breakthroughs in molecular biology, plant genomics and crop science have brought about a paradigm shift of thought regarding the manner by which plants can be utilized both in agriculture and in medicine. Besides the more well known improvements in agronomic traits of crops such as disease resistance and drought tolerance, plants can now be associated with topics as diverse as biofuel production, phytoremediation, the improvement of nutritional qualities in edible plants, the identification of compounds for medicinal purposes in plants and the use of plants as therapeutic protein production platforms. This diversification of plant science has been accompanied by the great abundance of new patents issued in these fields and, as many of these inventions approach commercial realization, the subsequent increase in agriculturally-based industries. While this review chapter is written primarily for plant scientists who have great interest in the new directions being taken with respect to applications in agricultural biotechnology, those in other disciplines, such as medical researchers, environmental scientists and engineers, may find significant value in reading this article as well. The review attempts to provide an overview of the most recent patents issued for plant biotechnology with respect to both agriculture and medicine. The chapter concludes with the proposal that the combined driving forces of climate change, as well as the ever increasing needs for clean energy and food security will play a pivotal role in leading the direction for applied plant biotechnology research in the future.

  14. The characteristics of the medicinal plants used in the herbal medicine оf type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Kalmykov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: consider the rational combination of the herbs in fytocomplexes applied in the rehabilitation of the type 2 diabetes. Material & Methods: analysis of scientific and methodical literature on the use of herbal medicine in the complex rehabilitation for patients with diabetes. Results: modern views on the necessity and the features of the use of herbal remedies especially in the diabetes type 2 are presented; the main medicinal plants used in this pathology are described. The main attention is paid to the peculiarities of forming up an integrated cure that contains a mixture of several kinds of medicinal plants. The classification of herbal drugs used for diabetes is given. Conclusions: advantages of application of collection of medicinal plants over synthetic drugs in the complex treatment of the type 2 diabetes are proved.

  15. Inulin in Medicinal Plants II : Determination of Inulin in Medicinal Plants by High-Performance Gel Chromatography - Seasonal Variations in Inulin Content

    OpenAIRE

    太田, 長世; 三野, 芳紀; NAGAYO, OTA; YOSHIKI, MINO; 大阪薬科大学; 大阪薬科大学; Osaka College of Pharmacy; Osaka College of Pharmacy

    1980-01-01

    A high-performance gel chromatographic procedure for the analysis of inulin in medicinal plants (0.001% for 1% absorption) was established by combining gel chromatography(TSK-G3000PW with distilled water as a mobile phase) with colorimetry (HCl-resorcin reaction). Quantitative studies on inulin contents in medicinal plants of the Gampanulaceae and Compositae families in various growth stages was performed according to the present method. In general, inulin contents of the underground parts de...

  16. Effect of the aqueous extract of Psidium guajava on erythromycin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Psidium guajava extract on erythromycin-induced liver damage in albino rats was investigated using 30 normal rats grouped into six . Group I and II served as the normal and treatment controls that were administered with normal saline and 100mg/kg body weight of erythromycin stearate daily for 14 days ...

  17. Psidium guajava leaves elicit mild protection on the liver and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ciprofloxacin is a well-known antibiotic used for treating a broad spectrum of diseases of bacterial origin. Although it is well tolerated, results from some studies point to the fact that ciprofloxacin has the potential to be hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic. Psidium guajava is consumed all over the world. In Nigeria, its leaves are ...

  18. Conservation of indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants of Western Himalayan region Rawalakot, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Sajjad; Murtaza, Ghulam; Mehmood, Ansar; Qureshi, Rizwana Aleem

    2017-05-01

    The aim of present was to document indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants traditionally used by inhabitants of Rawalakot Azad Kashmir and to screen selected medicinal plants for their antibacterial potential. Several field surveys were conducted to document indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants through interviews from local inhabitants during 2010-2013. During the study, 58 plant species, belonging to 37 families, were identified and their medicinal uses were recorded. Ethnobotanical data indicates that inhabitants of Rawalakot use medicinal plant mainly for the treatment of stomach, liver and sexual disorders. Usually fresh plant materials were used for medicinal preparations and administrated orally. Among all the species studied, three most frequently used medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Berberis lycium and Zanthoxylum armatum were screened for their antibacterial potential by using disc diffusion method. The crude aqueous, petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts were found to be very active against selected bacterial strains. The present study contributes significantly to the medicinal plant knowledge and shows that medicinal plant knowledge is deteriorating among younger generations. Therefore, further research is needed to document indigenous knowledge, to find conservation status of medicinal plant species and to find antimicrobial compounds for more sophisticated usage of medicinal plants in future.

  19. The role and place of medicinal plants in the strategies for disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicinal plants have been used in healthcare since time immemorial. Studies have been carried out globally to verify their efficacy and some of the findings have led to the production of plant-based medicines. The global market value of medicinal plant products exceeds $100 billion per annum. This paper discusses the ...

  20. A Survey of Major Ethno Medicinal Plants of Kano North, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of medicinal plants was deforestation (43.6%). Many additives like edible oil, honey, butter, porridge, garlic were used in almost 58% of the remedy preparations. In addition, more than one medicinal plant species were used more frequently than the use of single species for medicinal preparations. Keywords: Ethnobotany ...

  1. [Isolation and physiological characteristics of endophytic actinobacteria from medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Huijing; Su, Jing; Yu, Liyan; Zhang, Yuqin

    2013-01-04

    To isolate, incubate and characterize cultivable endophytic antinobacteria from medicinal plants, and analyze the diversity of the endophytic antinobacteria, then explore the novel microbial resources. Ten media were used to isolate endophytic antinobacteria from 37 fresh medicinal plant tissue samples. The optimal cultivation conditions for endophytic antinobacteria were determined by comparison. Based on the morphology of the colonies and cells of the new isolates, we chose 174 isolates to analyze their 16S rRNA gene sequences and the diversity of the medicinal plant endophytic antinobacteria. The physiological characteristics of 27 representative strains were studied using Biolog GEN III MicroPlates, API 50CH and API ZYM kits. In total 940 endophytics affiliated to 47 genera of 30 families were isolated, among which more than 600 actinobacteria belonged to 34 genera and 7 unknown taxa. Good growth of the endophytic antinobacteria on PYG (peptone-yeast-glycerol) medium with pH 7.2 at 28-32 degrees C was observed. Physiological characteristics differences of these isolates related to their phylogenetic relationships. Greater differences were shown among the strains from the same host plants than those from differ,ent plants grown in the same area. There are great diverse endophytic actinobacteria inside the medicinal plants. No direct relationship of the endophytic actinobacteria from medicinal plants with the host plants in the sole carbon source utilization, fermentation of carbon sources to produce acid and the enzyme activities was found, while it seemed that the physiological characteristics of the isolates related to the geographical distribution of their host.

  2. Genetic divergence among Psidium accessions based on biochemical and agronomic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Fernandes Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-nine Psidium accessions collected in six Brazilian states were analyzed by two non-hierarchical clusteringmethods and principal components (PC, to provide orientation for breeding programs. The variables ascorbic acid, b-carotene,lycopene, total phenols, total flavonoids, antioxidant activity, titrable acidity, soluble solids, total soluble sugars, moisture content,lateral and transversal fruit diameter, fruit pulp and seed weighs, and plant fruit number and weight were analyzed. Specific groups were observed for the araçazeiros accessions, by the Tocher and the k-means methods, as well as by the three-dimensionaldispersion of the four PCs. The clustering separated accessions of araçazeiros from the guava. There was no specific grouping interms of States of origin, indicating the absence of barriers in the guava propagation accessions. Analyses suggested the collectionof a greater number of guava germplasm samples from a smaller number of regions and divergent accessions with high nutritionalcompound levels to develop new cultivars.

  3. Control of media browning in micropropagation of guava (Psidium guajava L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Nafees, M.; Ashraf, I.

    2016-01-01

    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a highly valuable fruit of the tropical regions of the world. This species faces browning or blackening of culture medium during In vitro culture due to leaching of phenolic, microbial contagion and tissue recalcitrance. A study therefore designed to evaluate the effects of antioxidants in reduction of phenolic exudation which hampers In vitro regeneration. The nodal explants of the plant were cultured on MS media after pre-soaking in antioxidant solutions of citric acid, ascorbic acid, poly vinyl pyrrolidine (PVP) and charcoal. After culturing explants, the amount of phenolic exude was determined periodically on spectrophotometer at 750 nm absorbance. Phenolic exudation from guava was significantly reduced in nodes treated with charcoal as compared to control and rest of the treatments. Moreover, guava nodes survival percentage was also significantly increased in charcoal treated nodes. It is concluded that pre-soaking in different antioxidants significantly reduced the media browning and thus micro-propagation of guava could be achieved on commercial basis. (author)

  4. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine by the communities of Mount Hermon, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydoun, Safaa; Chalak, Lamis; Dalleh, Helena; Arnold, Nelly

    2015-09-15

    Medicinal plant species in Lebanon are experiencing severe threats because of various environmental conditions, human expansion footprints and recent growing global demand. Organized research and information on indigenous medicinal plants and knowledge have been very limited and little efforts have been invested to develop a complete inventory for native medicinal plants and associated traditional knowledge in the country. Recognized as a key biodiversity area of the Mediterranean Basin, Mount Hermon hosts important richness of medicinal plants that has been traditionally used in treatment of many illnesses since generations. Novel knowledge gathered by the present investigation is important in preserving indigenous knowledge of Mount Hermon community and revitalizing traditional herbal medicines. Ethnopharmacological information was collected by semi-structured interviews with 53 native informants (herbalists, traditional healers, midwives and local adult villagers) in 13 towns and villages surrounding Mount Hermon. The interviews were conducted through guided field visits and discussion groups whilst collecting plants specimens. Taxonomical identification of plant species was based on the determination keys of the "New Flora of Lebanon and Syria" and specimens were deposited at the herbarium of the Research Center for Environment and Development at Beirut Arab University. The results obtained indicate that 124 plant species of Mount flora are still used in traditional medicine by the local communities as an important source of primary health care and treatment of a wide range of different illnesses. These species belonged to 42 families and 102 genera. Compositae (19 species), Labiatae (18 species), Rosaceae (11) and Umbelliferae (11) formed the dominant families. Informants' Consensus Factor (FIC) analysis revealed that among the 14 illness categories used, respiratory (0.94), gastrointestinal and renal (0.93), genital systems (0.92) had the highest FIC values

  5. Ethnomedicinal plants used for digestive system disorders by the Karen of northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangjitman, Kornkanok; Wongsawad, Chalobol; Kamwong, Kaweesin; Sukkho, Treetip; Trisonthi, Chusie

    2015-04-09

    Digestive system disorders have a substantial effect on worldwide morbidity and mortality rates, including in Thailand, where the majority of the rural areas have a lack of proper sanitation and awareness about disease prevention. This has led to the prevalence of different types of digestive diseases. Karen people in Thailand still use medicinal plants as first aid remedies in treating these diseases. Therefore, this study aimed at documenting the plants used to cure and prevent different types of digestive system disorders by Karen people of Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand. Ethnomedicinal data were collected from six key informants and 172 non-specialist informants regarding their traditional knowledge of medicinal plants. Quantitative approaches were used to determine Use Value (UV), Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) and Fidelity Level (FL) values. The study revealed that 36 medicinal plant species belonging to 31 genera and 24 families were used to treat digestive system disorders. The most prevalent plant families were Zingiberaceae (6 species), Euphorbiaceae (4 species) and Fabaceae (4 species). Leaves were the most commonly used plant part accounting for 32.6% of the plants, followed by the bark (18.6%). About 60% of the administrations were given orally by potion (60%) and consumption as food was also indicated (14%). The highest ICF values were recorded for carminative disorders, stomachaches, geographic tongue, constipation, appetite stimulants and food poisoning (1.00 each) indicating the best agreement among the informants knowledge of medicinal plants that were used to treat aliments in these categories. The highest fidelity level values were recorded for Punica granatum (100.00), Psidium guajava (95.45), and Gymnopetalum integrifolium (90.91) showing conformity of knowledge on species with the best healing potential. Medicinal plants still play an important role among Karen culture. The present information on these medicinal plants, which have

  6. Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants in Karangwangi, District of Cianjur, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desak Made Malini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge and usage of plant as medicinal remedy by current generation are not as extensive as previous; therefore, many rural communities with restricted modern medical access still rely on traditional medicine. This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on medicinal plants in Karangwangi Village of Cianjur District, West Java Indonesia. This study aimed to identify plants collected for medical purposes by the local people as well as to document the local names, uses, preparation, and location of these plants. Ethno botanical data was recorded by opting people participation and key informant approach involving semi-structured interviews, group discussions and filling of questionnaires. The results showed a total of 114 medicinal plants belonging to 50 families were identified. Zingiberaceae was the most-frequently cited (nine species, followed by Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Fabaceae (seven species each. The most-used plant parts were leaves (51.8%, followed by stems (22.9% and the most common preparations were decoction, poultice and squeezed. Most of the plants were obtained from the house-yard and total of 30 medicinal uses were recorded. The ethnobotanical result documented in this study showed that this area is rich in medicinal plants and these plants are still commonly used for medicinal purposes among the people in their daily lives. Ethnobotanical heritage should be preserved, however, there is a gradual loss of traditional knowledge about these plants in new generation. Further, the findings can be used as baseline information for further scientific investigation for analyzing phytochemical, pharmaceutical and other biological activities for future drug discovery.

  7. Traditional uses of medicinal plants of uzumlu district, erzincan, turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkmaz, M.

    2015-01-01

    A list of medicinal plants used by local people in uzumlu district and its villages is presented. This study included the first detailed ethnobotanical survey carried out in Erzincan. The study was conducted during spring and summer periods in 2010 and 2011 through face-to-face interview method to determine the local names, used parts, and medicinal usages of the determined plants. The plant samples collected from the study area were pressed, dried, and labeled according to the herbarium techniques, and identified. Totally 64 plant taxa belonging to 53 genera and 29 families were used by local people for different medicinal purposes in the area. The families including the highest number of taxa were Rosaceae (11 species), Asteraceae (6 species) and Lamiaceae (5 species). The species with the highest number of usage as herbal medicine were Urtica dioica, Anthemis cretica subsp. iberica, Petroselinum crispum,Allium cepa, Rheum ribes, Rosa dumalis subsp. boissieri var. boissieri and Vitis vinifera. Fruits and flowers were the most widely used parts of the plants. Decoction was the main method for using, and the primary therapeutic use of herbal remedies was for the respiratory system diseases such as cold, cough, asthma, and bronchitis.This study was the first carried out on 20 plant taxa used as traditional medicine, and the use of 28 taxa were recorded for the first time in Turkey. For maintaining the knowledge on traditional medicine, urgent studies should be carried out for recording before they have been completely lost. (author)

  8. Patterns in medicinal plant knowledge and use in a Maroon village in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van't Klooster, Charlotte; van Andel, Tinde; Reis, Ria

    2016-08-02

    Traditional medicine plays an important role in the primary health care practices of Maroons living in the interior of Suriname. Large numbers of medicinal plants are employed to maintain general health and cure illnesses. Little is known, however, on how knowledge of herbal medicine varies within the community and whether plant use remains important when modern health care becomes available. To document the diversity in medicinal plant knowledge and use in a remote Saramaccan Maroon community and to assess the importance of medicinal plants vis a vis locally available modern healthcare. We hypothesized that ailments which could be treated by the village health center would be less salient in herbal medicine reports. During three months fieldwork in the Saramaccan village of Pikin Slee, ethnobotanical data were collected by means of participant observations, voucher collections and 27 semi-structured interviews and informal discussions with 20 respondents. To test whether knowledge of medicinal plant species was kept within families, we performed a Detrended Correspondence Analysis. In total, 110 medicinal plant species were recorded, with 302 health use reports and 72 uses, mostly related to general health concerns (42%), diseases of the digestive system (10%), musculoskeletal system and fever (each 7%). Bathing was the most important mode of application. Most health use reports related to cure (58%) and health promotion (39%), while disease prevention played a minor role. Traditional medicine not only treated cultural illnesses, but also health concerns that could be treated with locally available modern medicines. Knowledge of medicinal plant species is not strictly kept within families, but also shared with friends. Certain recipes and applications, however, may be specific family knowledge. Medicinal plants play a very important role in the daily lives of the Pikin Slee villagers. Plant use reflects actual health concerns, but as modern medicines are available

  9. Medicinal Plants of the Family Lamiaceae in Pain Therapy: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. Uritu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, numerous side effects of synthetic drugs have lead to using medicinal plants as a reliable source of new therapy. Pain is a global public health problem with a high impact on life quality and a huge economic implication, becoming one of the most important enemies in modern medicine. The medicinal use of plants as analgesic or antinociceptive drugs in traditional therapy is estimated to be about 80% of the world population. The Lamiaceae family, one of the most important herbal families, incorporates a wide variety of plants with biological and medical applications. In this study, the analgesic activity, possible active compounds of Lamiaceae genus, and also the possible mechanism of actions of these plants are presented. The data highlighted in this review paper provide valuable scientific information for the specific implications of Lamiaceae plants in pain modulation that might be used for isolation of potentially active compounds from some of these medicinal plants in future and formulation of commercial therapeutic agents.

  10. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the Maseru district of Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleteng Kose, Lerato; Moteetee, Annah; Van Vuuren, Sandy

    2015-07-21

    Ethnobotanical knowledge in Lesotho is passed on orally from one generation to another. As a result it has not been well documented. Existing publications have relied on previous literature and are limited either in terms of scope or coverage. Furthermore, some of them are out of print. Therefore, there are gaps in the documentation of medicinal plants used in Lesotho. The purpose of the current study is to investigate common ailments in Lesotho's traditional medicine and document plants that are used in treating such ailments. Interviews were conducted in five urban and four rural areas of the capital town of Maseru, by means of questionnaires to elicit information on medicinal plant use to cure common ailments. The informants were 20 males and seven females comprising 15 traditional healers, 11 herbalists and one pharmacist. Reproductive ailments were found to be the most commonly treated, followed by respiratory, degenerative and digestive problems. A list of the 80 plants used for treating the common ailments is given. A total of 44 families is represented, with Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Asphodelaceae and Poaceae families having the highest number of species used for medicinal purposes. The most frequently mentioned medicinal plants in interviews include; Elephantorrhiza elephantina, Pentanisia prunelloides, Hypoxis hermerocallidea, Eriocephalus sp., Salvia runcinata, Scabiosa columbaria, Dicoma anomala, Morella serrata, Xysmalobium undulatum, and Leobordea lanceolata. Due to the high demand of medicinal plants, some species such as L. lanceolata, Tephrosia capensis, E. elephantina, D. anomala and P. prunelloides were reported as over-harvested. In some cases animal products are added to the medicinal plants to enhance their curative abilities. A total of 80 plants were recorded in the study as treating 38 common ailments in the Maseru district of Lesotho. Records of eight medicinal plants and 146 new medicinal uses of 34 plants that were not recorded elsewhere in

  11. Medicinal plants on the territory of the Municipality of Dospat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka Dimitrova-Dyulgerova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study presents data on the species diversity of medicinal plants on the territory of the Municipality of Dospat (Western Rhodopes. 332 species were described, grouped in 75 families. The Asteraceae, Lamiaceae and Rosaceae families were represented by the largest species diversity, perennial herbaceous plants being predominant. There were 72 medicinal plant species of conservation significance, including endemic, rare and protectedspecies.

  12. OCCURRENCE OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI IN SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS OF KERALA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Abraham; Malathy, M.R.

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of mycorrhiza in 40 selected medicinal plants was studied. The percentage of mycorrhizal colonization in each of the plant was calculated. The colonization was found to be very less in four plants and very high in six plants. All others showed a moderate level of colonization. The present work suggests the use of mycorrhiza as a biofertilizer to enhance the growth and yield of medicinal plants. PMID:22557224

  13. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants administered for the treatment of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharvand-Ahmadi, Babak; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Tajeddini, Pegah; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Naghdi, Nasrollah

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is very high in human societies and their prevention and treatment are the most important priority in many countries. Hypertension makes an important contribution to the development of CVDs. This study aimed to collect the ethno-medicinal knowledge of the traditional healers of Shiraz on medicinal plants used in the treatment of hypertension. Ethno-medicinal data were collected from September 2012 to July 2013 through direct interview. Twenty-five healers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires and their traditional ethno-medicinal knowledge was recorded. Questionnaires were included apothecary personal information, plant local name, plant parts used, method of preparation, season of harvest and traditional use. Data collected from surveys and interviews were transferred to Microsoft Excel 2007 and analyzed. Analysis of data showed that, 27 medicinal plants from 22 families are used for the treatment of hypertension. The families with most antihypertensive species were Apiaceae (8%), Rosaceae (8%) and Papaveraceae (8%). The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (36%) followed by fruits (30%), aerial part (17%) and branches (7%). The most frequently used preparation method was decoction (95%). Borago officinalis (51.85%), Berberis vulgaris (51.58%) had the highest frequency of mention. The ethno-medicinal survey of medicinal plants recommended by traditional healers for the treatment of hypertension provides new areas of research on the antihypertensive effect of medicinal plants. In the case of safety and effectiveness, they can be refined and processed to produce natural drugs.

  14. Identification, collection and domestication of medicinal plants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field studies were conducted to investigate the medicinal plants, through identification, collection and domestication of these plants in southeastern, Nigeria. Questionnaire, personal interview and review of available records show that out of forty-three plants about fifteen were undergoing domestication in the course of this ...

  15. [Medicinal plants in cancer patients: current practices and evaluation data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, Matthieu

    2013-05-01

    Many complementary and alternatives medicines are offered to patients with cancer. Among them, herbal medicines have a substantial place. These plants are mainly used to reduce adverse effects of anticancer treatments and for specific anticancer properties. Our review shows that only few clinical data support medicinal plants effectiveness in cancer patients. Arguments rely mainly on usual indications and pharmacological data for minimization of treatments toxicity while for the anticancer properties, on epidemiological and preclinical data. To inform and counsel patients and people around, healthcare professionals need to evaluate benefit-risk balance on evidence-based information. Because the medical decision should be shared with the patient, his beliefs and preferences have to be considered. When no adverse effect or drug interaction is associated with herbal medicine, we state that their use is acceptable. This paper discuss of potential risk and benefit of the most used medicinal plants by cancer patients.

  16. The effect of Piper betle and Psidium guajava extracts on the cell-surface hydrophobicity of selected early settlers of dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Fathilah Abdul; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Rahim, Zubaidah Haji Abd

    2006-06-01

    The adhesion of early settlers of dental plaque to the tooth surface has a role in the initiation of the development of dental plaque. The hydrophobic surface properties of the bacteria cell wall are indirectly responsible for the adhesion of the bacteria cell to the acquired pellicle on the tooth surfaces. In this study, the effect of aqueous extract of two plants (Psidium guajava and Piper betle) on the cell-surface hydro-phobicity of early settlers of dental plaque was determined in vitro. Hexadecane, a hydrocarbon was used to represent the hydrophobic surface of the teeth in the oral cavity. It was found that treatment of the early plaque settlers with 1 mg/ml extract of Psidium guajava reduced the cell-surface hydrophobicity of Strep. sanguinis, Strep. mitis and Actinomyces sp. by 54.1%, 49.9% and 40.6%, respectively. Treatment of these bacteria with the same concentration of Piper betle however, showed a comparatively lesser effect (< 10%). It was also observed that the anti-adhesive effect of the two extracts on the binding of the early plaque settlers to hexadecane is concentration dependent.

  17. New gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) associated with Eugenia uniflora and Psidium cattleianum (Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maia,Valéria C; Nava,Dori E

    2011-01-01

    Two new species and a new genus of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) are described and illustrated. Both species induce leaf galls on Myrtaceae, the former on Eugenia uniflora and the latter on Psidium cattleianum.

  18. A review of plant-based compounds and medicinal plants effective on atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Sedighi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is one of the most important cardiovascular diseases that involve vessels through the development of fatty streaks and plaques. Plant-based compounds can help treat or prevent atherosclerosis through affecting the involved factors. The main purpose of this review article is to investigate and introduce medicinal plants and their potential activities regarding antioxidant properties, effective on lipids level and development of plaque, atherosclerosis, and progression of atherosclerosis as well as the development of cardiovascular disease and ischemia. To search for the relevant articles indexed in Information Sciences Institute, PubMed, Scientific Information Database, IranMedex, and Scopus between 1980 and 2013, with further emphasis on those indexed from 2004 to 2015, we used these search terms: atherosclerosis, antioxidant, cholesterol, inflammation, and the medicinal plants below. Then, the articles with inclusion criteria were used in the final analysis of the findings. Plant-based active compounds, including phenols, flavonoids, and antioxidants, can be effective on atherosclerosis predisposing factors and hence in preventing this disease and associated harmful complications, especially through reducing cholesterol, preventing increase in free radicals, and ultimately decreasing vascular plaque and vascular resistance. Hence, medicinal plants can contribute to treating atherosclerosis and preventing its progression through reducing cholesterolemia, free radicals, inflammation, vascular resistance, and certain enzymes. They, alone or in combination with hypocholesterolemic drugs, can therefore be useful for patients with hyperlipidemia and its complications.

  19. Medicinal Plants, Effective Plant Compounds (Compositions) and their Effects on Stomach Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleebrahim-Dehkordy, Elahe; Nasri, Hamid; Baradaran, Azar; Nasri, Parto; Tamadon, Mohammad Reza; Hedaiaty, Mahrang; Beigrezaei, Sara; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    Medicinal plants have special importance around the world. Further, they have been noticed for nutrition and illness treatment such as preparation of anticancer new drugs. Therefore, a wide range of studies have been done on different plants, and their anticancer effects have been investigated. Nowadays, cancer is the most important factor of death rate in the developed and developing countries. Among them, stomach cancer is one of the most common malignancies around the world. At present, it is recognized as the fourth common cancer and the second factor of death rate due to cancer. So far, there has been wide range of effort for cancer treatment; however, in most cases, the response to the treatment has been very weak and often accompanied improper subsidiary effects. The present problems as a consequence of chemical treatment and radiotherapy and many subsidiary problems created due to their use for patients, and also, the resistance to the current treatment has motivated researchers to apply new medicines with more effect and less toxicity. The secondary metabolisms existent in the plants have an important role in the treatment of several diseases such as cancer. This study was conducted to investigate and collect scientific results for stomach cancer and to clarify the role of medicinal plants and secondary plant compounds on its treatment.

  20. Medicinal Plants Used for Treatment of Diarrhoeal Related Diseases in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizuneh Woldeab

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of relevant antidiarrhoeal medicinal plants based on the fundamental knowledge accumulated by indigenous people of Ethiopia. The review includes an inventory carried out on the phytochemical and pharmacological analysis of plant species used in the treatments of diarrhoeal diseases. This study is based on a review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, theses, proceedings, and reports. A total of 132 medicinal plants used by local people of Ethiopia are reported in the reviewed literature. Herbs (43.6% were the primary source of medicinal plants, followed by trees (27%. Some findings include the predominance of leaf material used (78%, as well as the frequent use of crushing of the plant parts (38% as a mode of preparation. This study demonstrates the importance of traditional medicines in the treatment of basic human ailments such as diarrhoeal diseases in Ethiopia. Baseline information gaps were observed in different regions of Ethiopia. Thus, documentation of the knowledge held by other regions of Ethiopia that have so far received less attention and urban ethnobotany is recommended for future ethnobotanical studies. In addition, phytochemical studies are recommended mainly on frequently utilized medicinal plants for treatment of diarrhoeal diseases which can serve as a basis for future investigation of modern drug development. Although societies in Ethiopia have long used medicinal plants for diarrhoeal diseases treatment, it is also a good practice to perform toxicological tests.

  1. Medicinal Plants Used for Treatment of Diarrhoeal Related Diseases in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldeab, Bizuneh; Regassa, Reta

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a review of relevant antidiarrhoeal medicinal plants based on the fundamental knowledge accumulated by indigenous people of Ethiopia. The review includes an inventory carried out on the phytochemical and pharmacological analysis of plant species used in the treatments of diarrhoeal diseases. This study is based on a review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, theses, proceedings, and reports. A total of 132 medicinal plants used by local people of Ethiopia are reported in the reviewed literature. Herbs (43.6%) were the primary source of medicinal plants, followed by trees (27%). Some findings include the predominance of leaf material used (78%), as well as the frequent use of crushing of the plant parts (38%) as a mode of preparation. This study demonstrates the importance of traditional medicines in the treatment of basic human ailments such as diarrhoeal diseases in Ethiopia. Baseline information gaps were observed in different regions of Ethiopia. Thus, documentation of the knowledge held by other regions of Ethiopia that have so far received less attention and urban ethnobotany is recommended for future ethnobotanical studies. In addition, phytochemical studies are recommended mainly on frequently utilized medicinal plants for treatment of diarrhoeal diseases which can serve as a basis for future investigation of modern drug development. Although societies in Ethiopia have long used medicinal plants for diarrhoeal diseases treatment, it is also a good practice to perform toxicological tests. PMID:29743923

  2. Medicinal plants sold at the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godinez-Caraballo, D.; Volpato, G.

    2008-01-01

    Information regarding medicinal plants sold in the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba, revealed 184 species belonging to 69 vascular plant families. The most important family was Fabaceae s.l. with 13 species, followed by Lamiaceae with 12, and Asteraceae with 8. More than 90 general medicinal

  3. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in villages under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Medicinal plants remain an integral part of the lives of people in rural areas. The aim of this study was to document information about the medicinal plants used by Shangaan people in villages under Jongilanga tribal council, Bushbuckridge municipality, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Materials and ...

  4. A meta-analysis of medicinal plants to assess the evidence for toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sarah; Vieira, Amandio

    2010-06-01

    Toxicity of phytochemicals, plant-based extracts and dietary supplements, and medicinal plants in general, is of medical importance and must be considered in phytotherapy and other plant uses. We show in this report how general database analyses can provide a quantitative assessment of research and evidence related to toxicity of medicinal plants or specific phytochemicals. As examples, several medicinal plants are analyzed for their relation to nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. The results of analyses in different databases are similar, and reveal the two best-established toxic effects among the group of plants that were examined: nephrotoxicity of Aristolochia fangchi and hepatotoxicity of Larrea tridentata.

  5. Medicinal Plant Use and Health Sovereignty: Findings from the Tajik and Afghan Pamirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamkhudoeva, Munira; Ruelle, Morgan; Baumflek, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Medicinal plants are indicators of indigenous knowledge in the context of political volatility and sociocultural and ecological change in the Pamir Mountains of Afghanistan and Tajikistan. Medicinal plants are the primary health care option in this region of Central Asia. The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate that medicinal plants contribute to health security and sovereignty in a time of instability. We illustrate the nutritional as well as medicinal significance of plants in the daily lives of villagers. Based on over a decade and half of research related to resilience and livelihood security, we present plant uses in the context of mountain communities. Villagers identified over 58 cultivated and noncultivated plants and described 310 distinct uses within 63 categories of treatment and prevention. Presence of knowledge about medicinal plants is directly connected to their use. PMID:21258436

  6. Medicinal Plants with Multiple Effects on Cardiovascular Diseases: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhi-Boroujeni, Hojjat; Heidarian, Esfandiar; Rouhi-Boroujeni, Hamid; Deris, Fatemeh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes are the most important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this systematic review article is to introduce the medicinal plants that exert significant clinical effects on hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, and diabetes. In this review article, the international research databases including MEDLINE, Google scholar, EBSCO, Academic Search, Web of Science, SciVerse, Scopus (SCOPUS), EBSCO, Academic Search, Cochrane, Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and a Chinese database (China Network Knowledge Infrastructure [CNKI]) were searched using the key words hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, herbal, obesity, and phytomedicine, matched by MESH, from their respective inceptions up to March, 2016. The plants that were effective on one, two, three, or all of four diseases were determined. The doses, side effects, the most important pharmaceutically effective compounds, the used organs, and important points regarding usage were separately recorded. Also known clinically significant interactions were presented. 1023 articles were found to be about medicinal plants and hypertension, 1912 articles about medicinal plants and hyperlipidemia, 810 articles about medicinal plants and obesity, 1174 articles about medicinal plants and diabetes. Of 144 plants included in the analysis, 83 were found to be effective on hyperlipidemia, 100 on hypertension, 66 on obesity, and 72 on diabetes. 43 plants were found to be effective on two diseases, 14 on three diseases, and 34 on all four diseases. Three plants (Tomato, Cranberry and Pomegranate), in food and therapeutic doses, were found to be used to treat cardiovascular diseases especially in pre-eclampsia and hyperlipidemia in pregnancy. Regarding the findings of this study, we can argue that the medicinal plants, other than monotherapy, can be used as poly-therapy, to treat cardiovascular diseases. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any

  7. Anti-Rheumatic Potential of Pakistani Medicinal Plants: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, M.; Adnan, M.; Murad, W.; Tariq, A.; Bibi, H.; Rahman, H.; Shinwari, Z. K.

    2016-01-01

    Present review aimed to provide a comprehensive documentation of plants used as anti-rheumatic ethnomedicines in Pakistan and to suggest future recommendations. Data on anti-rheumatic plants was collected from published scientific papers, reports and thesis using online searching engines such as Google Scholar PubMed and Science Direct. Five distinct zones in the country were classified on the basis of geography, humidity and rainfall. We used Sorenson similarity index for plants and their parts used between different zones. A total of 137 anti-rheumatic plant species representing 55 families and 104 genera are used in Pakistan. Herbs (87 plants) were the primary source of anti-rheumatic medicinal plants, while leaves (22 % plant species) were the most frequently used part in the preparation of ethnomedicinal recipes. Highest number of 52 medicinal plant species were found in Zone A having high mountains and cold climate where the prevalence of rheumatism was more common. Solanum surattense was found with highest conservation concerns as it was using in 13 different areas against rheumatism. Results of Sorenson index revealed that there is a similarity of plants and its parts uses between different zones. In conclusions, geography and climate have an important role in causing rheumatic disease. Pakistan has a number of anti-rheumatic plants that are used by the local populations through their traditional knowledge. Moreover, inter zonal similarities among plants and its part uses indicate higher pharmacological potency of these medicinal plants. Further, the review will also provide an insight regarding the conservation status of reported plants. (author)

  8. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kinetic studies of alkaline phosphatase extracted from rabbit (Lepus townsendii) liver. Abstract PDF · Vol 10, No 32 (2011) - Articles Sodium metabisulphite induced polymerization of sickle cell haemoglobin incubated in extracts of three medicinal plants (Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava and Terminalia catappa)

  9. Root based responses account for Psidium guajava survival at high nickel concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazihizina, Nadia; Redwan, Mirvat; Taiti, Cosimo; Giordano, Cristiana; Monetti, Emanuela; Masi, Elisa; Azzarello, Elisa; Mancuso, Stefano

    2015-02-01

    The presence of Psidium guajava in polluted environments has been reported in recent studies, suggesting that this species has a high tolerance to the metal stress. The present study aims at a physiological characterization of P. guajava response to high nickel (Ni) concentrations in the root-zone. Three hydroponic experiments were carried out to characterize the effects of toxic Ni concentrations on morphological and physiological parameters of P. guajava, focusing on Ni-induced damages at the root-level and root ion fluxes. With up to 300μM NiSO4 in the root-zone, plant growth was similar to that in control plants, whereas at concentrations higher than 1000μM NiSO4 there was a progressive decline in plant growth and leaf gas exchange parameters; this occurred despite, at all considered concentrations, plants limited Ni(2+) translocation to the shoot, therefore avoiding shoot Ni(2+) toxicity symptoms. Maintenance of plant growth with 300μM Ni(2+) was associated with the ability to retain K(+) in the roots meanwhile 1000 and 3000μM NiSO4 led to substantial K(+) losses. In this study, root responses mirror all plant performances suggesting a direct link between root functionality and Ni(2+) tolerance mechanisms and plant survival. Considering that Ni was mainly accumulated in the root system, the potential use of P. guajava for Ni(2+) phytoextraction in metal-polluted soils is limited; nevertheless, the observed physiological changes indicate a good Ni(2+) tolerance up to 300μM NiSO4 suggesting a potential role for the phytostabilization of polluted soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Cytotoxicity evaluation of sixteen Nigerian medicinal plant extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of our evaluation of plants from the Nigerian ethnobotany,sixteen extracts from fourteen medicinal plants were evaluated for toxicity and inhibition of tumour cell growth using human rhabdomyosarcoma(RD) cell line. The plant samples were extracted by maceration in methanol at room temperature and were ...

  11. Medicinal Plants Used by Traditional Healers in Jordan, the Tafila Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhalim, Abeer; Aburjai, Talal; Hanrahan, Jane; Abdel-Halim, Heba

    2017-01-01

    The reporting of the medicinal plants and their traditional uses is important in order to prevent this knowledge from being lost. The aims of this study were to collect information concerning the traditional use of medicinal plants in the region of Tafila; identify the most important medicinal plants; determine the relative importance of the species surveyed; and calculate the informant consensus factor ( F ic ) in relation to medicinal plant use. Data on the traditional medicinal uses of local plants were collected using qualitative tools. The informant consensus factor ( F ic ) for the category of aliments and the use value (UV) of the plant species were calculated. The survey revealed that 41 plant species are still in use in Tafila for the treatments of various diseases. Problems of the digestive system had the highest F ic values, while Allium cepa L. and Matricaria aurea (Loefl.) Sch. Bip. scored the highest UV. The medicinal plants used by local people of the Tafila area of Jordan their traditional uses were investigated. forty one plant species are still in use in Tafila for the traditional treatment of various diseases. The preservation of this knowledge is important not only for maintaining cultural and traditional resources but also as a resource for the future identification of leads for drug development. The use of Fic and the UV to identify plant species that are consistently used in the treatment of specific ailments assists in narrowing down the search for new effective plant-derived medicines and in validating the use of traditional medicines. Data on the traditional medicinal uses of local plants was collected using qualitative tools. The informant consensus factor (Fic) for category of aliments and the use value (UV) of the plant species were calculated. in the Tafila region, the Fic values are relatively low, indicating a low level of shared knowledge and that a number of different species are used to treat similar disorders. This may be a

  12. Ethnobotanic study of medicinal plants in Urmia city: identification and traditional using of antiparasites plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Bahmani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the native medicinal plants used in parasitic diseases treatment in Urmia. Methods: This study was conducted among 35 Urmia herbalists to identify medicinal plants used in parasitic diseases treatment. We used direct observation and interviews with collected herbarium specimens by native herbs commonly in the treatment of parasitic diseases. Questionnaires were included apothecary personal information and native plants list with information includes plant local name, plant parts used, method of their use and traditional therapies. Herbarium samples listed in the questionnaire collected from the area and were sent to agricultural research centers and Urmia University Faculty of Agriculture for genus and species determination. Results: Thirteen medicinal plants from six families for treatment of diabetes in Urmia were obtained from interviews. Most families have anti diabetic effect was included Asteraceae (36%. The most used was boiling (65%. Conclusions: In view of the findings of this study indicate that plants have the potential to be a parasitic infection so it is necessary ingredients of native plants be studied to demonstrate therapeutic effects and provide field work to evaluate the clinical effects of these herbs and ingredients they claim on parasitic diseases.

  13. PIXE analysis of some anti-diabetic medicinal plants in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olabanji, S.O.; Omobuwajo, O.R.; Adebajo, A.C.; Ceccato, D.; Buoso, M.C.; Moschini, G.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) due to defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both. It is a dangerous disease leading to death of many people in the world. Some of the medicinal plants implicated in the herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria have been reported 1 . Additional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria are presented in this work. These medicinal plants are becoming increasingly important and relevant as herbal drugs due to their use as antioxidants, neutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in combating diabetes. Elemental compositions of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants were determined using PIXE technique. The 1.8 MV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) Legnaro (Padova) Italy was employed for the work. The results show the presence of twenty two elements at various concentrations in the medicinal plants. The leaves of Murraya, P amarus, O. gratissimum, O.subscopodica, P pellucida and the whole plant of B. diffusa, B. pinnalum and C. occidenlalis could be taken as vegetables, food additives, neutraceuticals and supplements in the management of diabetes. [1] S.O. Olabanji, OR Omobuwajo, D. Ceccato, A.C. Adebajo, M.C. Buoso, G. Moschini. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 266 (2008) 2387 - 2390. (author)

  14. PIXE analysis of some anti-diabetic medicinal plants in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olabanji, S.O. [ICTP Fellow on sabbatical leave from Centre for Energy Research and Development, Obafemi Awolowo University, lIe-lfe (Nigeria); Omobuwajo, O.R.; Adebajo, A.C. [Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, lIe-lfe (Nigeria); Ceccato, D. [Dipartmento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); Buoso, M.C.; Moschini, G., E-mail: skayode2002@yahoo.co.uk [lstituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Padova (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) due to defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both. It is a dangerous disease leading to death of many people in the world. Some of the medicinal plants implicated in the herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria have been reported{sup 1}. Additional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria are presented in this work. These medicinal plants are becoming increasingly important and relevant as herbal drugs due to their use as antioxidants, neutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in combating diabetes. Elemental compositions of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants were determined using PIXE technique. The 1.8 MV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) Legnaro (Padova) Italy was employed for the work. The results show the presence of twenty two elements at various concentrations in the medicinal plants. The leaves of Murraya, P amarus, O. gratissimum, O.subscopodica, P pellucida and the whole plant of B. diffusa, B. pinnalum and C. occidenlalis could be taken as vegetables, food additives, neutraceuticals and supplements in the management of diabetes. [1] S.O. Olabanji, OR Omobuwajo, D. Ceccato, A.C. Adebajo, M.C. Buoso, G. Moschini. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 266 (2008) 2387 - 2390. (author)

  15. SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VHADA

    Oromia Regional State, Southwestern Ethiopia to document commonly used medicinal plants used for treatment of common diseases. The study .... surrounding forests of study areas to know its in-situ aimed to use in further research. ..... Publications Office of Jimma University for the financial support. I would like to thank Dr ...

  16. An evidence-based approach to medicinal plants for the treatment of sperm abnormalities in traditional Persian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahvilzadeh, M; Hajimahmoodi, M; Toliyat, T; Karimi, M; Rahimi, R

    2016-10-01

    Infertility is defined as inability of a sexually active couple to conceive after 1 year of regular intercourse without contraception. Male factors account for 20%-50% of cases of infertility. The aim of this study was to review medicinal plants that proposed to improve sperm abnormalities in traditional Persian medicine. For this purpose, PubMed, Scopus, GoogleScholar and Cochrane library were explored for medicinal plants used in traditional Persian medicine for sperm abnormalities to obtain studies giving any evidence for their efficacy and pharmacological mechanisms related to male infertility. Data were collected for the years 1966 to March 2015. For some of them, including Chlorophytum borivilianum, Crocus sativus, Nigella sativa, Sesamum indicum, Tribulus terrestris, Mucuna pruriens and Withania somnifera, more reliable evidence was found. The mechanisms involved in the beneficial effects of medicinal plants in sperm abnormalities are antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-oedematous and venotonic activity as well as containing precursors for sperm production and increasing blood testosterone level. Various phytochemical categories including saponins, phytosterols, carotenoids, oxygenated volatile compounds, phenolic compounds and alkaloids seem to be responsible for these beneficial effects. Further studies are recommended for obtaining more conclusive results about the efficacy and safety of the mentioned medicinal plants. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. use of traditional medicinal plants by people of 'boosat'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JU

    Ethnobotanical information of medicinal plants was obtained from informants by semi-structured interview, observations, group discussions, and guided field walks. RESULTS: Fifty-two medicinal ... Indigenous knowledge systems, can guide.

  18. Ethnopharmacological studies of indigenous medicinal plants in the south of Kerman, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat-Hosseini, Mohammad; Farajpour, Mostafa; Boroomand, Naser; Solaimani-Sardou, Farshad

    2017-03-06

    The aim of this study was to collect and document information concerning the medicinal plants used by indigenous people and traditional healers in the south of Kerman Province, Iran. Overall, 64 informants between the ages of 30 and 89 were interviewed about the modes of application and consumption of medicinal plants in the region. Quantitative analysis was conducted that included informant consensus factor (ICF), use value (UV), relative frequency of citation (RFC) and cultural importance index (CI). In the current study, a total of 115 medicinal plants in 41 families were reported in the south of the Kerman region. Apiaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae (with 14 species each) were the families with the most medicinal plants. The most frequently used plant parts were leaves at 26.17% and aerial parts (23.49%). Decoction (53%), liniment (23%) and infusion (9%) were the most common preparation methods. The highest UVs were obtained from the following medicinal plants: Amygdalus eburnea Spach, Genista tinctoria L., Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand., Fortuynia garcinii (Burm.f.) Shuttlew. and Cerasus mahaleb (L.) Mill. The ICF results indicated that cold-flu and fever were the most common diseases (0.67) in the south of Kerman. Based on the current study, the south of Kerman has many potential medicinal plants, and these plants should be the focus of future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Potential Use of Turkish Medicinal Plants in the Treatment of Various Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulay Ozkan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are sources of health-promoting substances, including phytochemicals and phytoalexins that comprise polyphenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, vitamins A, C, E and several other constituents. Many studies have indicated that medicinal plants have been used to treat human diseases for thousands of years owing to their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Medicinal plants reduce the oxidative stress in cells and prevent cancer, cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, neurodegenerative and digestive system disorders. These potential beneficial effects have been attributed to the presence of bioactive compounds that show antioxidant properties by acting as free radical scavengers or metal chelators, reducing the reactions that produce reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS. Considering the importance of medicinal plants in terms of their beneficial health effects, some of the medicinally important plants grown in Turkey are covered in this review with respect to their antioxidant potential and phytochemical profile.

  20. Potential Use of Turkish Medicinal Plants in the Treatment of Various Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Gulay; Kamiloglu, Senem; Ozdal, Tugba; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra

    2016-02-25

    Medicinal plants are sources of health-promoting substances, including phytochemicals and phytoalexins that comprise polyphenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, vitamins A, C, E and several other constituents. Many studies have indicated that medicinal plants have been used to treat human diseases for thousands of years owing to their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Medicinal plants reduce the oxidative stress in cells and prevent cancer, cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, neurodegenerative and digestive system disorders. These potential beneficial effects have been attributed to the presence of bioactive compounds that show antioxidant properties by acting as free radical scavengers or metal chelators, reducing the reactions that produce reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). Considering the importance of medicinal plants in terms of their beneficial health effects, some of the medicinally important plants grown in Turkey are covered in this review with respect to their antioxidant potential and phytochemical profile.

  1. Antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Persea Americana, an invitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Amith; Kumarachandra, Reshma; Rai, Rajalakshmi; Rao, Satish; Suchetha Kumari; Joshi, Manjunath

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation produce deleterious effects in the living organisms. Rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. Several plants have been screened for their radio protective ability and the hunt for identifying many more safe, nontoxic and effective ones is in progress. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity in hydro alcoholic leaf extract of Psidium guajava (guava) and Persea americana (avocado). The antioxidant assay such as 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) free radical scavenging assay, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay, chelation of iron by plant extract, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), and total antioxidant activity of extract was analyzed using spectrophotometer. Phytochemical screening and HPLC analysis of leaf extracts were also performed. The results indicated that the IC50 value of hydro alcoholic leaf extract of P.guajava and P. americana were 14 μg/ml and 15 μg/ml in ABTS free radical scavenging assay, 4 μg/ml and 2.5 μg/ml in DPPH free radical scavenging assay, 7.2 μg/ml and 8.4 μg/ml in chelation of iron by plant extract, 2 μg/ml and, 4.3 μg/ml in hydroxyl radical scavenging assay and effective concentration(EC50) was 57.80 μg/ml and 87.56 μg/ml in FRAP assay respectively. The results for total antioxidant activity indicated that 242.3 μg/ml of P.guajava and 432.7 μg/ml of P.americana extract was equivalent to 100 μg/ml of standard qurecetin respectively. Qualitative analysis of hydroalcoholic leaf extracts revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponions, terpenoids, and glycosides. HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of flavonoids qurecetin and rutin in leaf extracts on comparison with standard compounds. Our study showed that hydro alcoholic leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Persea americana act as strong antioxidant and free

  2. Pharmacological, ethnopharmacological, and botanical evaluation of subtropical medicinal plants of Lower Kheng region in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangchuk, Phurpa; Yeshi, Karma; Jamphel, Kinga

    2017-12-01

    The Bhutanese Sowa Rigpa medicine (BSM) uses medicinal plants as the bulk ingredients. Our study was to botanically identify subtropical medicinal plants from the Lower Kheng region in Bhutan, transcribe ethnopharmacological uses, and highlight reported pharmacological activities of each plant. We freely listed the medicinal plants used in the BSM literature, current formulations, and the medicinal plants inventory documents. This was followed by a survey and the identification of medicinal plants in the Lower Kheng region. The botanical identification of each medicinal plant was confirmed using The Plant List , eFloras , and TROPICOS . Data mining for reported pharmacological activities was performed using Google Scholar, Scopus, PubMed, and SciFinder Scholar. We identified 61 subtropical plants as the medicinal plants used in BSM. Of these, 17 plants were cultivated as edible plant species, 30 species grow abundantly, 24 species grow in moderate numbers, and only seven species were scarce to find. All these species grow within the altitude range of 100-1800 m above sea level. A total of 19 species were trees, and 13 of them were shrubs. Seeds ranked first in the parts usage category. Goshing Gewog (Block) hosted maximum number of medicinal plants. About 52 species have been pharmacologically studied and only nine species remain unstudied. Lower Kheng region is rich in subtropical medicinal plants and 30 species present immediate economic potential that could benefit BSM, Lower Kheng communities and other Sowa Rigpa practicing organizations.

  3. A study on the indigenous medicinal plants and healing practices in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the indigenous medicinal plants and healing practices in Chittagong Hill tracts (Bangladesh) ... and folk cultural practices as community-based extension and dissemination media to highlight the importance of medicinal plants and ...

  4. Traditional uses of medicinal plants in gastrointestinal disorders in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokaya, Maan B; Uprety, Yadav; Poudel, Ram C; Timsina, Binu; Münzbergová, Zuzana; Asselin, Hugo; Tiwari, Achyut; Shrestha, Shyam S; Sigdel, Shalik R

    2014-12-02

    Gastrointestinal disorders cause morbidity and can lead to mortality, especially in the developing world where sanitation is deficient. A large part of the human population relies on medicinal plants for treating various diseases, including gastrointestinal disorders. The present review summarizes the traditional uses of medicinal plants of Nepal used to treat gastrointestinal disorders, and evaluates their bio-efficacy based on a review of the available phytochemical and pharmacological literature. We searched different electronic databases and libraries for the literature on medicinal plants used in Nepal to treat gastrointestinal disorders. For each species, we also searched the literature for information on conservation status, as well as for phytochemical and pharmacological studies in support of the ethnobotanical information. We used principal component analysis to explore the relation among disorders and plant families, plant life forms, plant parts and preparation modes. We also performed permutation tests to determine if botanical families were used more often than expected considering their availability in the Nepali flora. We documented a total of 947 species belonging to 158 families and 586 genera used to treat gastrointestinal disorders in Nepal. Diarrhea was the disorder treated by the highest number of species (348), followed by stomachache (340) and dysentery (307). Among the reported species, five were endemic to Nepal, whereas 16 orchid species were protected under CITES Appendices II and III. The randomization test showed that species belonging to 14 families were used less often than expected, whereas plants belonging to 25 families were used more often than expected. The PCA scatter plot showed distinct groups of gastrointestinal disorders treated with similar plant life forms, plant parts, and/or preparation modes. We found 763 phytochemical studies on 324 species and 654 pharmacological studies on 269 species. We showed the diversity and

  5. Activity concentration and AACED due to 40K in some selected medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrashekara, K.; Radhakrishna, A.P.; Somashekarappa, H.M.

    2017-01-01

    The activity concentrations in soil and medicinal plants, soil to plant transfer factors (TF), and Average Annual Committed Effective Dose (AACED) of 40 K in prominent medicinal plants of Malnad Kerala were estimated. The range of activity concentrations were 144.15 - 558.99 and 405.87 - 2990.75 Bq kg -1 in soil and medicinal plants respectively. The TF was found to vary from 2.34 to 14.84, whereas AACED varied in the range 2.51 - 18.54 mSv y -1 . The study may help to form the database and safety regulations connected with 40 K activity in medicinal plants. (author)

  6. Gamma amino butyric acid accumulation in medicinal plants without stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Anju

    2014-01-01

    Results and Conclusion: Among the screened medicinal plants, Zingiber officinale and Solanum torvum were found to have GABA. The percentage of GABA present in Z. officinale and S. torvum were found to be 0.0114% and 0.0119%, respectively. The present work confirmed that among the selected CNS active medicinal plants, only two plants contain GABA. We found a negative correlation with plant having CNS activity and accumulation of GABA. The GABA shunt is a conserved pathway in eukaryotes and prokaryotes but, although the role of GABA as a neurotransmitter in mammals is clearly established, its role in plants is still vague.

  7. Medicinal plants of Dagala region in Bhutan: their diversity, distribution, uses and economic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangchuk, Phurpa; Namgay, Kuenga; Gayleg, Karma; Dorji, Yeshi

    2016-06-24

    The traditional g.so-ba-rig-pa hospitals in Bhutan uses more than 100 polyingredient medicines that are manufactured by the Menjong Sorig Pharmaceuticals (MSP). The MSP has been collecting medicinal plants from Lingzhi region for about 48 years and therefore the ecological pressure on these plants have increased. It is MSP's top priority to identify an alternative collection site to ease the problem. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine whether Dagala region could potentially be an alternative collection site for MSP. First the multidisciplinary research team generated a tentative plant list by reviewing a body of ancient g.so-ba-rig-pa literature, current formulations, and the MSP medicinal plants inventory documents. Second, the research team visited the study areas in Dagala region for spot identification of medicinal plants. Third, we confirmed our traditional and botanical identification by crosschecking the descriptions with the series of books on traditional texts, Flora of Bhutan, scientific papers on medicinal plants, and the plant databases. We have identified 100 species of high altitude medicinal plants from Dagala region. Of these, 24 species grow abundantly, 29 species grow in moderate numbers and 47 species were scarce. More than 85 species belonged to the herbaceous life form and 51 of them are used as a whole plant. A total of 68 species grow in between 4000 and 4999 meter above sea level. These 100 medicinal plants represented 39 different families and 80 genera and the maximum number of plants belonged to the family Asteraceae. Of 60 species that are currently used for formulating medicines at MSP, 16 species have economic importance with potential for commercial collection. Out of seven areas covered by the survey, Kipchen hosted maximum number of medicinal plants (21 species). Our survey identified 100 medicinal plants from Dagala region and of these, 16 species has economic potential that could benefit both MSP and Dagala

  8. Contributions of medicinal plants to the Gross National Happiness and Biodiscovery in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangchuk, Phurpa; Tobgay, Tashi

    2015-06-03

    The medicinal plants and the associated Bhutanese traditional medicine (BTM) are protected by the country's constitution and receive both government support and acceptance by the wider public. More than 1000 medicinal plants are described in the BTM but currently collects only 300 species for daily formulations of BTM. These medicinal plants have been one of the drivers of the 'Gross National Happiness (GNH)' and biodiscovery projects in Bhutan. However, no review covering the systematic evaluations of the contributions of medicinal plants and the BTM to the GNH and biodiscovery exist till date. This paper, therefore addresses this information gap. It is based on the review of the existing traditional and scientific literature, government websites and policy documents. The descriptions and discussions of the paper is straightened, authenticated and enhanced by the data collected through the informal discussions with the BTM practitioners and also through the authors' many years of practical observations of the impact of the medicinal plants programs and the BTM practices in Bhutan. This paper found the following: a) the medicinal plants generates income to the farmers elevating their living standard and the economic status, b) it serves as the bulk ingredients of the BTM facilitating the provision of free traditional health care services to the patients, c) helps the conservation of medicinal plants and their pristine environment through recognition of their spiritual, social and economic values, d) preserves the rich BTM cultural heritage, and e) guides the biodiscovery projects based on their ethnobotanical information. The paper also identified the challenges and research gaps, and recommends appropriate strategies that can help secure the sustainable future of the medicinal plants, the BTM and the biodiscovery projects. The medicinal plants play significant role in the country's biodiscovery projects and the internationally renowned development policy of 'Gross

  9. Traditional uses of medicinal plants at Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S.A. Chaves

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: This work had as outcome to deal with the part of the population of Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro those who use the public health system and use alternative medicinal plants for the treatment of illness. Aims: To evaluate the potential medicinal uses of local plants traditionally used in curing/treatment different diseases and illnesses, and contribute as a therapeutic option in the public health system of municipality. Methods: A semi-structured questionnaire was used to measure independent variables and issues related to the consumption of medicinal plants, based on field surveys and direct face to face communication. It was calculated the relative importance index (RI of the medicinal plants used in the community as the number of users that mentioned them and the agreement use. Results: Seventy-three plants (44 families were cited by the population. Species with the highest number of citations (50% were boldo, lemon grass, gorse, lemon balm, breaks stone and air plant, and the leaves over part used in medicinal preparations; it was the tea as the main form of use from the fresh plant. Conclusions: The data suggest that the use of medicinal plants remains an important therapy and wanted by the population, and this would be integrating the knowledge of the practices of traditional medicine to scientific knowledge of these species, replacing the empirical use to the correct use, ensuring secure access to the population. This study is the first ethnopharmacological report in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro.

  10. An ethnopharmacological investigation of medicinal Salvia plants (Lamiaceae in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhui Li

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In China, over 40 species of the genus Salvia have been used as medicinal plants for various diseases, some for thousands of years. Recently, research has focused on the biological activities of Salvia medicinal plants used in traditional chinese medicine (TCM. However, to date a scientific survey of the genus Salvia in China has not been carried out. In this paper, we report the results of 10 field surveys of Salvia medicinal plants collected in 17 provinces including detailed information on their local names, growing environment, distribution and therapeutic effects. We also summarize the results of research on the materia medica, phytochemistry and pharmacology of some of the important Salvia medicinal plants. Our study reveals that 35 Salvia plants have been used in TCM in different regions of China, including 20 species used as Danshen to treat heart diseases, and 15 species used to treat a range of other conditions including gynecological diseases, muscular or skeletal problems, hepatitis, urological diseases, and mouth and eye conditions. It is clear that some species of Salvia L. possess significant pharmacological activity in the context of ethnopharmacological knowledge, especially in the treatment of heart disease. Further studies of the phytochemistry and pharmacology of Salvia species will no doubt improve their medical utilization and contribute to the development of new natural drugs.

  11. Inhibitory effect of Psidium guajava water extract in the development of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Ho; Park, Bong Hwan; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Hwang, Yong Pil; Han, Eun Hee; Jin, Sun Woo; Seo, Jong Kwon; Chung, Young Chul; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2012-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, relapsing, and inflammatory skin disease associated with eczematous symptoms and IgE hyperproduction. Psidium guajava is an important food crop and medicinal plant with anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-allergic activities, supporting its traditional uses. Our previous studies have shown that P. guajava extract inhibits Th2 chemokine expression by suppressing the activation of NF-κB and STAT1 co-stimulated with TNF-α and INF-γ. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of P. guajava water extract (PGW) on 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. Treatment of cream containing PGW onto DNCB-induced AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice ameliorated lesion intensity scores, levels of IgE, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), TNF-α, and IL-4 in serum and ears. In contrast, PGW increased level of the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10. Histological analyses demonstrated decreased thickening of the epidermis/dermis as well as dermal infiltration by inflammatory cells. These results suggest that cream containing PGW may be a potential therapeutic modality for AD and adjunctive agent to control pruritus in AD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. IMPPAT: A curated database of Indian Medicinal Plants, Phytochemistry And Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanraj, Karthikeyan; Karthikeyan, Bagavathy Shanmugam; Vivek-Ananth, R P; Chand, R P Bharath; Aparna, S R; Mangalapandi, Pattulingam; Samal, Areejit

    2018-03-12

    Phytochemicals of medicinal plants encompass a diverse chemical space for drug discovery. India is rich with a flora of indigenous medicinal plants that have been used for centuries in traditional Indian medicine to treat human maladies. A comprehensive online database on the phytochemistry of Indian medicinal plants will enable computational approaches towards natural product based drug discovery. In this direction, we present, IMPPAT, a manually curated database of 1742 Indian Medicinal Plants, 9596 Phytochemicals, And 1124 Therapeutic uses spanning 27074 plant-phytochemical associations and 11514 plant-therapeutic associations. Notably, the curation effort led to a non-redundant in silico library of 9596 phytochemicals with standard chemical identifiers and structure information. Using cheminformatic approaches, we have computed the physicochemical, ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity) and drug-likeliness properties of the IMPPAT phytochemicals. We show that the stereochemical complexity and shape complexity of IMPPAT phytochemicals differ from libraries of commercial compounds or diversity-oriented synthesis compounds while being similar to other libraries of natural products. Within IMPPAT, we have filtered a subset of 960 potential druggable phytochemicals, of which majority have no significant similarity to existing FDA approved drugs, and thus, rendering them as good candidates for prospective drugs. IMPPAT database is openly accessible at: https://cb.imsc.res.in/imppat .

  13. Somatic embryogenesis for efficient micropropagation of guava (Psidium guajava L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Nasim

    2013-01-01

    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is well known for edible fruit, environment friendly pharmaceutical and commercial products for both national and international market. The conventional propagation and in vitro organogenesis do not meet the demand for the good quality planting materials. Somatic embryogenesis for efficient micropropagation of guava (P. guajava L.) has been developed to fill up the gap. Somatic embryogenesis and plantlets regeneration are achieved from 10-week post-anthesis zygotic embryo explants by 8-day inductive treatment with different concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) on MS agar medium containing 5% sucrose. Subsequent development and maturation of somatic embryos occur after 8 days on MS basal medium supplemented with 5% sucrose without plant growth regulator. The process of somatic embryogenesis shows the highest relative efficiency in 8-day treatment of zygotic embryo explants with 1.0 mg L(-1) 2,4-D. High efficiency germination of somatic embryos and plantlet regeneration takes place on half strength semisolid MS medium amended with 3% sucrose within 2 weeks of subculture. Somatic plantlets are grown for additional 2 weeks by subculturing in MS liquid growth medium containing 3% sucrose. Well-grown plantlets from liquid medium have survived very well following 2-4 week hardening process. The protocol of somatic embryogenesis is optimized for high efficiency micropropagation of guava species.

  14. India mainstreams medicinal plants | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-03

    Feb 3, 2011 ... ... India's efforts to develop medicinal plant gathering, processing, and marketing into a ... while protecting indigenous knowledge, some based on age-old texts. ... To date, his department has helped about a million people in ...

  15. The most used medicinal plants by communities in Mahaboboka, Amboronabo, Mikoboka, Southwestern Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randrianarivony, Tabita N; Ramarosandratana, Aro Vonjy; Andriamihajarivo, Tefy H; Rakotoarivony, Fortunat; Jeannoda, Vololoniaina H; Randrianasolo, Armand; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2017-03-09

    This paper reports a study undertaken in three remote communities (Mahaboboka, Amboronabo, Mikoboka), located in Sakaraha, Southwestern Madagascar. Not only villages are far away from sanitary infrastructures and doctors but drugs and consulting fees are unaffordable to villagers. They rely essentially on natural resources for health care as for most of rural areas in Madagascar. This paper aims to document medicinal plants used by communities in Sakaraha and to present the most important plant species used in traditional medicine. Semi - structured interview was conducted within 214 informants in 34 villages of the study area. Different ailments encountered in the site study were classified in various categories. For data analysis, frequency of citation (Fq), Informant Consensus Factor (Fic), Fidelity Level (FL) and Use Value (UV) were assessed to find agreement among informants about the use of plants as remedies. Mann-Whitney, Kruskall-Wallis and Spearman correlation tests were performed to determine use of medicinal plants following social status of informants. A total of 235 medicinal plant species belonging to 198 genera and 75 families were inventoried. The richest families in species used for medicinal purposes were: Fabaceae, Apocynaceae, Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, and Poaceae. Plant species cited by informants were used to treat 76 various ailments classified in 13 categories. Leaves and leafy twigs were the most used plant parts and decoction was the mostly cited way of preparation of these medicinal plants species. In average, local people cited 6.7 ± 6.03 medicinal taxa among them, Cedrelopsis grevei is the most cited medicinal plants (Fq. 0.28). With Cedrelopsis grevei (UV = 0.48), Henonia scoparia (UV = 0.43) are mostly used species. Leonotis nepetifolia (FL = 96%) and Strychnos henningsii (FL = 92%) are plant species claimed by high percentage of informants to treat the Digestive System Disorder. This study

  16. Traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in the Serra de Mariola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in the Serra de Mariola Natural Park, South-eastern Spain. ... This application is useful for the identification of individuals and the selection of species for specific medicinal properties. In the end, knowledge of these useful plants may be interesting to revive the local economy and in ...

  17. A bioactivity versus ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants from Nigeria, west Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifongo, Lydia L; Simoben, Conrad V; Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Babiaka, Smith B; Judson, Philip N

    2014-02-01

    Traditional medicinal practices play a key role in health care systems in countries with developing economies. The aim of this survey was to validate the use of traditional medicine within local Nigerian communities. In this review, we examine the ethnobotanical uses of selected plant species from the Nigerian flora and attempt to correlate the activities of the isolated bioactive principles with known uses of the plant species in African traditional medicine. Thirty-three (33) plant species were identified and about 100 out of the 120 compounds identified with these plants matched with the ethnobotanical uses of the plants.

  18. Anti- Sporothrix spp. activity of medicinal plants

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    Stefanie Bressan Waller

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cases of sporotrichosis in humans and animals without satisfactory clinical response have increased, a warning sign of strains resistant to conventional antifungal agents. The urgent search for alternative therapies was an incentive for research on medicinal plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. properties. A bibliographic survey was performed based on scientific papers about in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of essential oils and extracts of plants in differents solvents against the fungal of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. The study methodology consisted of a literature review in Google Scholar, Science Direct, Pubmed, Bireme and Springer link with papers from 1986 to 2015. We found 141 species of plants that were investigated, of which 100 species were concentrated in 39 botanical families that had confirmed anti-Sporothrix activity. Combretaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae represented the botanical families with the greatest number of plants species with antifungal potential, using different methodologies. However, there are few studies with medicinal plants in experimental infection in animals that prove their activity in the treatment of sporotrichosis. It reinforces the need for further research related to standardization of in vitro methodologies and in vivo studies related to safety and to toxicity potential of these plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. activity.

  19. Molecular DNA identification of medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, N A A; Ahmad, M I; Naim, D M

    2015-12-07

    Plants have been used throughout human history for food and medicine. However, many plants are toxic, and cannot easily be morphologically distinguished from non-toxic plants. DNA identification solves this problem and is widely used. Nonetheless, plant DNA barcode identification faces a number of challenges, and many studies have been conducted to find suitable barcodes. The present study was conducted to test the efficiency of commonly used primers, namely ITS2, rpoC1, and trnH-psbA, in order to find the best DNA barcode markers for the identification of medicinal plants in Malaysia. Fresh leaves from 12 medicinal plants that are commonly used by Malay traditional healers were collected from the Tropical Spice Garden, Pulau Pinang, and subjected to polymerase chain reaction amplification using ITS2, rpoC1, and trnH-psbA DNA markers. We found that trnH-psbA is the best DNA marker for the species-level identification of medicinal plants in Malaysia.

  20. Medicinal Plants Used by Traditional Healers in Sangurur, Elgeyo Marakwet County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigen, Gabriel; Kipkore, Wilson; Wanjohi, Bernard; Haruki, Boniface; Kemboi, Jemutai

    2017-01-01

    Although herbal medical products are still widely used in Kenya, many of the medicinal plants used by traditional medical practitioners (TMPs) have not been documented, despite several challenges that are now threatening the sustainability of the practice. To document the medicinal plants and healing methods used by TMPs in a region of Kenya with several recognized herbalists for potential research. Semi-structured interviews, group discussions, and direct observations were used to collect ethnopharmacological information. The participant's bio-data, clinical conditions treated, methods of treatment, medicinal plants used, methods of preparation and administration, and dosage forms were recorded. A total of 99 medicinal plants and 12 complementary preparations employed in the treatment of 64 medical conditions were identified. The most widely used plant was Rotala tenella which was used to treat nine medicinal conditions; seven each for Aloe tweediae and Dovyalis abyssinica ; and six each for Basella alba and Euclea divinorum . The plants belonged to 55 families with Fabaceae family being the most frequently used (10), followed by Apocynaceae and Solanaceae, each with six species, respectively. We identified plants used to determine the sex of an unborn baby and those used to treat several conditions including anthrax and cerebral malaria and herbs used to detoxify meat from an animal that has died from anthrax. Of special interest was R. tenella which is used to prevent muscle injury. We have documented several plants with potential therapeutic effects. Further research may be conducted to determine their efficacy. The medicinal plants used by traditional healers in a community which still practices herbal medicine in Kenya were documented. A total of 99 medicinal plants and 12 complementary preparations employed in the treatment of 64 medical conditions were identified. Further research may be carried out in order to determine their therapeutic efficacies

  1. Role of medicinal plants on growth performance and immune status in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Elham; Awaad, Amani

    2017-08-01

    Disease outbreaks increase proportionally with increases in intensive aquaculture. Natural products including medicinal plants have been known from thousands of years for treating some human diseases. It is well known that many active compounds are responsible for potential bio-activities. For that reason, there has been considerable interest in the use of medicinal plants in aquaculture with a view to providing safe and eco-friendly compounds for replacing antibiotics and chemical compounds as well as to enhance immune status and control fish diseases. This article describes a wide range of medicinal plants such as herbs, seeds, and spices with different forms such as crude, extracts, mixed and active compounds, used as immunostimulants and resulting in a marked enhancement in the immune system of fish to prevent and control microbial diseases. Moreover, different activity was recorded from plant parts like seeds, roots, flowers and leaves. The mode of action of medicinal plants was stimulation of the cellular and humoral immune response which was monitored through elevation in immune parameters. Various levels of immune stimulation have been shown by medicinal plants at different concentrations through injection or immersion or oral administration. However, it is critically important to determine the optimal dose to enhance the immune system of fish and avoid the risk of immunosuppression. Some medicinal plants have been used to replace the protein in fishmeal as a cheap source of protein and proved to be efficient in this respect. Medicinal plants can act as a growth promoter and immunomodulator at the same time. Further investigations should be carried out to examine the influence of those plants on fish health (including physiological and histological parameters) as a preliminary step for use in large scale in aquaculture. The current review describes the role of medicinal plants and their derivatives on innate and adaptive immune status as well as growth

  2. Ethnoveterinary health management practices using medicinal plants in South Asia - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suroowan, Shanoo; Javeed, Faisal; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad; Noor, Mehwish Jamil; Kayani, Sadaf; Javed, Ali; Mahomoodally, Mohamad Fawzi

    2017-06-01

    Animal rearing is the major occupation of most population of South Asian countries. Due to lack of resources and limited approach to modern medicine, most of the livestock raisers prefer to use plant-based traditional medicine also referred to as ethnoveterinary medicine (EVM). Indeed, the use of medicinal plants in South Asia dates back to several centuries with documented evidences. However, there is currently a dearth of documentation and compilation of use of medicinal plants for animal diseases in this part of the world. This review aims to provide an up-to-date compilation of common medicinal plants used for the treatment and/or management of common animal diseases in South Asian countries. Extensive literature search was conducted online and relevant data was retrieved from well-known scientific databases. A total of 276 plants belonging to 95 families have been documented to be in common use for managing 14 different categories of animal diseases. Solanaceae, Lamiaceae, Fabaceae, and Leguminosae were most common plant families in terms of their plant species used for EVM. Gastric diseases were commonly reported and accounted for 72 species of plants used for its treatment followed by the miscellaneous disorders category and skin diseases comprising of 65 and 39 plant species respectively. Herbs accounted for 46% of the total plant species, followed by trees (33%), and shrubs (18%). The EVM were applied through different routes of administration; oral administration accounted for 72% followed by topical application 27%, while burning of plant parts to create smoke around animals to repel insects was less common (1%). It is anticipated that the present review will stimulate further ethnoveterinary research among livestock disease management practices in South Asia.

  3. Introduction of Medicinal Plants Species with the Most Traditional Usage in Alamut Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahvazi, Maryam; Khalighi-Sigaroodi, Farahnaz; Charkhchiyan, Mohammad Mahdi; Mojab, Faraz; Mozaffarian, Vali-Allah; Zakeri, Hamideh

    2012-01-01

    The ethnobotany of the medicinal plants of Alamut region is important in understanding the cultures and traditions of Alamut people. This study documents 16 medicinal plant species, most commonly used by the indigenous people of Alamut region (Ghazvin Province), northwest, Iran. The botanical name, family name, vernacular name, part used, and the application of the plants have been provided in this paper. Alamut region was divided into different villages with the aid of maps. We recorded traditional knowledge and use of medicinal plants from herbal practitioners and village seniors in Alamut. The plants were gathered from different sites. The fully dried specimens were then mounted on herbarium sheets. We found 16 medicinal plants belonging to 11 families which were traditionally used in Alamut. Finally, we describe traditional usages by the native people in the Alamut region. The obtained results were compared with data on the herb’s clinical effects. A set of voucher specimens were deposited to the Institute of Medicinal Plants Herbarium (IMPH). PMID:24250441

  4. Guapsidial A and Guadials B and C: Three New Meroterpenoids with Unusual Skeletons from the Leaves of Psidium guajava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Yu-Qing; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Chen, Min-Feng; Zhao, Bing-Xin; Wang, Ying; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2015-06-15

    A novel sesquiterpene-based Psidium meroterpenoid, possessing an unusual coupling pattern, and two new monoterpene-based meroterpenoids with unprecedented skeletons were isolated from the leaves of Psidium guajava. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic, X-ray diffraction, and computational methods. The plausible biosynthetic pathway of these meroterpenoids as well as their cytotoxicities toward HepG2 and HepG2/ADM cells were also discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of anti-depressant medicinal plants: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Jeanette; S, Brijesh

    2018-05-16

    Stress renders an individual to experience mental pressure and exhaustion which brings about feelings of anxiety, depression, anger and/or other negative emotions. Depression affects a person's state of mind, behaviour, health and is often associated with suicide. The use of anti-depressant drugs as therapeutic agents is associated with symptoms such as, delayed onset of action, side-effects, drug-drug and dietary interactions, sexual dysfunction, cardiac toxicity, etc. Thus, there is need to target these issues and improve current treatment options. Medicinal plants have long been used in discovering novel treatment strategies and compounds with promising roles in treating various disease conditions. There has been an increase, worldwide, in the use of medicinal plants and herbs for developing nutraceuticals for treatment of depression and other psychiatric disorders. Medicinal plants in their natural forms are valuable as they are rich in various phytochemical compounds. These phytochemical compounds have pharmacological roles in treating various diseases conditions; apart from being widely available in nature and commercially beneficial. The phytochemical compounds in plants are constantly being explored through various experimental studies to determine the molecular basis of how medicinal plants work in relation to drugs and diseases and to develop neutraceuticals for improving conditions. This review summarizes 110 medicinal plants and their phytochemical constituents that have been shown to possess anti-depressant activity. This review also highlights the various mechanisms of anti-depressant action of some of these plants and their plant parts like roots, stem, leaves, flowers, fruit or whole plant; phytochemical compounds showing anti-depressant activity such flavanoids, steroids, saponins, sugars, lectins, alkaloids, etc.; and various anti-depressant screening models used such as tail suspension test, forced swim test, chronic unpredictable stress test

  6. Perceptions of Medicinal Plant Use Amongst the Hispanic Population in the St. Louis Metropolitan Area

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    Kim M. Grafford

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medicinal plant use in the United States has increased as reported by the National Center of Complementary and Integrative Health and U.S. Census Bureau.However, little is known about how many minority groups in the United States use medicinal plants.There is a rise in the Hispanic population; a community with a steep tradition of medicinal plant use, in the U.S., so understanding the perceptions of medicinal plant use is useful to healthcare providers. Methods: A survey was designed to gauge a better understanding of the perceptions of medicinal plant use amongst Latino patients with varying education levels who reside in the St. Louis Metropolitan Area. Survey questions highlighted the perceptions of medicinal plants use, patient communication regarding medicinal plant use with healthcare providers (pharmacists and doctors, and the impact the education level has on medicinal plant use. Results: Surveys were distributed to six different investigational sites around the St. Louis Metropolitan Area from August 2015 to December 2015. Survey respondents identified 45 different plants/herbs that they currently use or had used at some point in their life. Those with higher levels of education had varying opinions on medicinal plant use with their current practices. Conclusion: The participants’ high interest in the use of medicinal plants exemplifies the need for enhanced communication between patients and healthcare professionals about medicinal plant use. However, it was hard to determine whether the participants’ level of education had any direct relationship to this use. Conflict of Interest None   Type: Original Research

  7. Antifungal activities of selected Venda medicinal plants against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-17

    May 17, 2010 ... extracts from 30 plants used by Venda traditional healers for the ... cost of antifungal agents (Debruyne, 1997; Traeder et al., ... the use of medicinal plants is very common based on ... used to determine the activity of the plant extracts against the .... diffusion method: Table 3) as well as the two Candida.

  8. Screening and antibacterial efficacy of selected Indian medicinal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suresh Mickymaray; Mohammad Saleh Al Aboody; Pradipta Kumar Rath; Panneerselvam Annamalai; Thajuddin Nooruddin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of five Indian medicinal plants such as Acalypha indica L.(A. indica), Aerva lanata(L.) Juss. ex Schult.(A. lanata), Clerodendrum inerme(L.) Gaertn., Pergularia daemia(Forsk.) Chiov. and Solanum surattense Burm. f. against opportunistic bacterial pathogens isolated from HIV infected patients for the potential phytoconstituents in plant extracts.Methods: The opportunistic bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli(E. coli),Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and Serratia marcescens from Gramnegative group and Staphylococcus aureus from Gram-positive group were isolated from HIV infected patients. The antibacterial efficacy of ethanolic extracts of selected medicinal plants was carried out by disc diffusion method. The potential phytoconstituents of medicinal plant extracts were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry(GC–MS) analysis.Results: Among the five medicinal plants tested, A. indica and A. lanata showed the significant antibacterial activity. A. indica showed potential activity against Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli. A. lanata significantly exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A total of 19 phytoconstituents were identified in the ethanolic extract of A. indica and A. lanata by GC–MS analysis respectively.Conclusions: The results of the present investigation revealed that A. indica and A. lanata, possessed significant antibacterial activity when compared with the other plant extracts tested. The presence of 3-O-methyl-D-glucose by GC–MS analysis in both A. indica and A. lanata extracts has not been reported elsewhere in the literature and the findings in this study could be the first one to report.

  9. Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species.

  10. Inhibitive effect by Psidium guajava leaf extract on the corrosion of Al-Si-Mg (SSM-HPDC alloy in simulated seawater environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdulwahab

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of Psidium guajava leaf extract as corrosion inhibitor for Al-Si- Mg (SSM-HPDC alloy in 3.5%wt NaCl solution using the gravimetric based-mass loss and potentiodynamic polarization techniques was investigated. The gravimetric based mass loss test was carried out at different inhibitor concentration, time and temperature ranges of 0.1-0.5%v/v, 1-5 hrs and 30-70oC, respectively, the results revealed that Psidium guajava leaf extract in 3.5%wt NaCl solution-aluminium environment decreased the corrosion rate at various concentrations considered. Inhibition efficiency (IE as high as 63.17% at 0.5% v/v Psidium guajava leaf extract addition using the gravimetric method was demonstrated in 3.5%wt NaCl solution. The IE of 90.48% was obtained at 0.5%v/v using the potentiodynamic polarization method. The additions of Psidium guajava leaf extract as corrosion inhibitor in the solution indicate higher potential value, IE and polarization resistance with decrease in current density. The two methods used for assessment of the aluminium alloy corrosion behaviour were in agreement and mixed-type corrosion exists which obeyed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

  11. Probability sampling design in ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Martinez Espinosa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-probability sampling design can be used in ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plants. However, this method does not allow statistical inferences to be made from the data generated. The aim of this paper is to present a probability sampling design that is applicable in ethnobotanical studies of medicinal plants. The sampling design employed in the research titled "Ethnobotanical knowledge of medicinal plants used by traditional communities of Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Chumbo district (NSACD, Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil" was used as a case study. Probability sampling methods (simple random and stratified sampling were used in this study. In order to determine the sample size, the following data were considered: population size (N of 1179 families; confidence coefficient, 95%; sample error (d, 0.05; and a proportion (p, 0.5. The application of this sampling method resulted in a sample size (n of at least 290 families in the district. The present study concludes that probability sampling methods necessarily have to be employed in ethnobotanical studies of medicinal plants, particularly where statistical inferences have to be made using data obtained. This can be achieved by applying different existing probability sampling methods, or better still, a combination of such methods.

  12. [Medicinal plants in France, between pharmacy and herb trade: historical and legislative aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, H

    2015-09-01

    Medicinal plants are registered on the French Pharmacopoeia in its successive editions, the first dated 1818. The edition which is currently in force, the XIth (2012), comprises two plant lists drawn up by a working group of experts belonging to the ANSM: List A (medicinal plants traditionally used [365 plants]) and list B (medicinal plants with the ratio benefit/risk's evaluation negative [123 plants]). Moreover, a list of medicinal plants with non exclusive therapeutic use has been established. This last list is composed of 147 plants which are thus liberated from the pharmaceutical monopoly, in application of decrees n(o) 2008-839 and 2008-841 dated August 22nd 2008. Medicinal plants are a matter, in France, from pharmaceutical monopoly, which means that they can only be dispensed to public in pharmacy, according to article L. 4211-1/5° of the Public Health Code, except however for a certain number of plants "liberated" from this monopoly. Nevertheless, besides officinal pharmacists, herbalists who obtained their diploma as far as 1941, were habilitated to deliver medicinal plants, even non "liberated", on condition that they are not registered on a list of venomous substances nor classified among the stupefacients, according to the article L. 4211-7 of Public Health Code. Concerning plants for herbal teas, which should be differentiated from herbal teas classified among the herbal medicines, they can be delivered in mixtures form, which are considered as officinal preparations, according to the new French Pharmacopoeia monography of August 1st 2013. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Efeito de extratos de plantas utilizadas na medicina popular no crescimento e diferenciação celular de Herpetomonas samuelpessoai (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae cultivada em meio definido Effect of plant extracts used in folk medicine on cell growth and differentiation of Herpetomonas samuelpessoai (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae cultivated in defined medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Barbieri Holetz

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, verificou-se o efeito de 15 plantas medicinais no crescimento e diferenciação celular de Herpetomonas samuelpessoai, um tripanosomatídeo não patogênico utilizado como modelo biológico, que apresenta antígenos semelhantes aos do Trypanosoma cruzi. Extratos brutos (1.000 g/ml ou óleo essencial (250 µg/ml foram adicionados ao meio definido. O crescimento celular foi determinado pela contagem em câmara de Newbauer e a diferenciação celular examinada por microscopia ótica. Ocimum gratissimum, Lippia alba, Piper regnellii, Stryphnodendron adstringens, e Tanacetum vulgare mostraram atividade antiprotozoário, Psidium guajava e Punica granatum menor atividade e Achillea millefolium, Eugenia uniflora, Mikania glomerata, Plantago major, e Spilanthes acmella não apresentaram atividade. Por outro lado, Arctium lappa, Erythrina speciosa, e Sambucus canadensis estimularam o crescimento de H. samuelpessoai e L. alba e S. acmella a diferenciação celular deste flagelado. Estes resultados indicam que plantas medicinais possuem princípios ativos contra H. samuelpessoai, o qual parece ser útil como modelo para seleção de plantas que contém drogas tripanomicidasThis work reports the effect of 15 medicinal plants on cell growth and differentiation of Herpetomonas samuelpessoai, a non-pathogenic trypanosomatid, used as biological model for its similar antigens to Trypanosoma cruzi. Crude extracts (1,000 g/ml or essential oil (250 g/ml were added in a defined medium. Cell growth was estimated by counting in Neubauer’s chamber and cell differentiation was examined by light microscope. Ocimum gratissimum, Lippia alba, Piper regnellii, Stryphnodendron adstringens, and Tanacetum vulgare showed antiprotozoan activity, Psidium guajava and Punica granatum a lower activity and Achillea millefolium, Eugenia uniflora, Mikania glomerata, Plantago major, and Spilanthes acmella had no activity. In contrast, Arctium lappa, Erythrina

  14. Medicinal Plants used during Antenatal Care by Pregnant Women in Eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalumansi, Patricia A; Kamatenesi-Mugisha, Maud; Anywar, Godwin

    2017-12-01

    Plants are commonly used during the antenatal stage in pregnancy to manage different ailments in Africa. In Uganda, both medicinal and food plants are used to handle common pregnancy related conditions. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Iganga district, eastern Uganda. Seven traditional birth attendants (TBA) and 46 mothers were interviewed. Data was collected using structured questionnaires and household interviews. The TBAs were identified using snowball sampling. A total of 33 plant species, belonging to 23 families were documented. Out of these, the pregnant mothers used 45.5 % as both food and medicine. The most frequently used plant life form was herbs (58.8%). The leaves are the most commonly used plant parts (59%). Most of the plants (58.8%) were semi cultivated and were being domesticated in crop fields and home gardens. Most of the plants were used to manage anaemia and for child development and good health among the pregnant women. The pregnant women and TBAs in Namungalwe sub County have diverse knowledge on medicinal and nutri-medicinal plants in the management of common pregnancy related diseases, which can be used to supplement modern antenatal services, inspite of the ban of the activities of TBA. Further research on the bioavailability of nutrients, efficacy and safety of the medicinal plants used by pregnant women should be done.

  15. Endangered, rare and endemic medicinal plants of the Kopetdag

    OpenAIRE

    AKMURADOV ALLAMURAD; SHAIYMOV BABAGULY; HALMEDOV BAZAR; YAKUBOV ATABEG; HALLIYEVA GULYAIYM

    2016-01-01

    The article presents some information of the place of growing of the endangered, rare and endemic medicinal plants of the Kopetdag. A monitoring has been carried out and the bioecological peculiarities, resource characteristics and modern state of the natural population of the most important species have been studied. Some scientifically based ways of protection and introduction into culture have been worked out to preserve the endangered, rare and endemic medicinal plants of the region.

  16. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants in district Mastung of Balochistan province-Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Tahira; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Bakhsh Tareen, Rsool; Mohammad Tareen, Niaz; Jabeen, Rukhsana; Rehman, Saeed-Ur; Sultana, Shazia; Zafar, Muhammad; Yaseen, Ghulam

    2014-11-18

    The aim of this study was to document the medicinal uses of plants in district Mastung of Balochistan province, Pakistan. The ethnobotanical results contain quantitative information on medicinal plants diversity documented for the first time in the area. The information was collected through semi-structured interviews, rapid appraisal approach, open ended questionnaire and personal observations. Results were analyzed using quantitative indices of information consent factor (ICF), fidelity level (FL), use value (UV), frequency citation (FC) and relative frequency citation (RFC). In total of 102 plant species belonging to 47 families were reported for the medicinal purposes. Asteraceae was found to be dominant family in terms of species in the area with 11 species. The whole plant and leaves were noted as most frequently used parts (24%). Decoction (31% with 40 species) was the most commonly used preparation method. Highest ICF value (1) was recorded for antidote category. 100% fidelity level was found for four plant species i.e. Achillea welhemsii, Caralluma tuberculata, Citrullus colocynthis, and Seripidium quettense. The highest use value was reported for the Acroptilon repens (0.5) while highest RFC value was calculated for Berberis balochistanica and Citrullus colocynthis (0.18). Highest use report was calculated for Caralluma tuberculata, Citrullus colocynthis, Malva neglecta and Mentha longifolia with five use reports for each. The area is rich in medicinal plants and these plants are still commonly used for medicinal purposes among the people in their daily lives. However, there is a gradual loss of traditional knowledge about these plants in new generation. This study provides basis for the conservation of the local flora, its use as food and medicine. It also provides various socio-economic dimensions associated with the common people. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Brilliant Green Dye Elimination from Water Using Psidium guajava Leaves and Solanum tuberosum Peels as Adsorbents in Environmentally Benign Way

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    Rabia Rehman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to check the feasibility of Psidium guajava (Guava leaves and peels of Solanum tuberosum (Potato as biosorbents in removal of Brilliant Green (BG in batch mode. Surface analysis of biosorbents was done by FT-IR and quantitatively analyzed by Boehm titration. The removal of dye was confirmed by UV-VIS spectroscopy. Isothermal modeling was studied by using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherms. Various isothermal parameters for adsorption of Brilliant Green such as qm=1.075 mg/g, 1.173 mg/g ΔG°=-3.397, and −2.397 KJ/mol were noted for Solanum tuberosum peels (PP and Psidium guajava leaves (GL, respectively. Similarly pH, moisture content, and various metals were quantitatively analyzed. Results showed that leaves of Psidium guajava were more effective for removal of Brilliant Green.

  18. Studies on ethno medicinal plant diversity in an urban area – a case study

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    Sudipta Biswas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the Ethno-medicinal plants used by the local communities in Santragachhi area, under Howrah Municipal Corporation, ward no. 38, District Howrah, West Bengal, India. An ethno medicinal survey was carried out the use of medicinal plants in Santragachi region. The information was gathered from the local community people using an integrated approach botanical collections, group discussion and interview with questionnaire during 2012-2013. Among 50 informants interviewed, 10 were tribal practitioners. A total of 53 genera and 33 families are documented. In most of case, fresh parts of the plants were used for the preparation of medicine. The results further revealed that the natives of this area are not very much practiced in using the medicinal plants in the treatment of human illness. The study area is delimited by number of wetlands and the people collect the aquatic plants by their habitual knowledge as food resources. But due to expansion of city area, road construction causes loss of plant diversity and random exploitation of natural resources many valuable medicinal plants are at the stage of extinction. The present study documented ethno medicinal plants were mostly used for treatment of various diseases.

  19. Medicinal plants: traditions of yesterday and drugs of tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurib-Fakim, Ameenah

    2006-02-01

    Plants have provided Man with all his needs in terms of shelter, clothing, food, flavours and fragrances as not the least, medicines. Plants have formed the basis of sophisticated traditional medicine systems among which are Ayurvedic, Unani, Chinese amongst others. These systems of medicine have given rise to some important drugs still in use today. Among the lesser-known systems of medicines are the African and Australian, Central and South American amongst others. The search for new molecules, nowadays, has taken a slightly different route where the science of ethnobotany and ethnopharmacognosy are being used as guide to lead the chemist towards different sources and classes of compounds. It is in this context that the flora of the tropics by virtue of its diversity has a significant role to play in being able to provide new leads. Nonetheless the issue of sovereignty and property rights should also be addressed in line with the Convention for Biological Diversity (CBD). This paper highlights the above, provides an overview of the classes of molecules present in plants and gives some examples of the types of molecules and secondary metabolites that have led to the development of these pharmacologically active extracts. The paper also presents some data on the use of plant products in the development of functional foods, addresses the needs for validation of plant extracts and always stressing on safety, efficacy and quality of phyto-medications.

  20. Plants used to treat hyperpigmentation in Iranian traditional medicine: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ghafari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Skin hyperpigmentation is characterized as increased production and accumulation of melanin, which could be aesthetically unfavorable and develops serious skin diseases. There is a need to find new depigmenting agents, since many current natural and synthetic products present undesired side effects. In Iranian traditional medicine (ITM, plants have been used for the treatment of skin diseases such as hyperpigmentation. In this study, topical herbal medicines, for the treatment of hyperpigmentation were searched in ITM references, and their scientific names were identified, using different comprehensive glossaries. Thereafter, depigmenting mechanisms of these genera were reviewed in recent scientific literatures. Seventy-nine plants were made known as herbal remedies for skin hyperpigmentation. Furthermore, modern literatures have shown depigmenting effect of about 40% of these plants or their isolated compounds, with different melanogenesis inhibitory mechanisms with tyrosinase inhibition as the most revealed method. Regarding the new approach to medicinal plants in recent years, a large number of medicinal herbs that were mentioned in ITM references would be good candidates for exploring new herbal medicines for skin hyperpigmentation disorders.

  1. Antimicrobial properties of Honduran medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, D L; Clark, A M; Hufford, C D; Meurer-Grimes, B; Passreiter, C M; Cordero, J; Ibrahimi, O; Okunade, A L

    1998-12-01

    Ninety-two plants used in the traditional pharmacopoeia of the Pech and neighboring Mestizo peoples of central Honduras are reported. The results of in vitro antimicrobial screens showed that 19 of the extracts from medicinal plants revealed signs of antifungal activity while 22 demonstrated a measurable inhibitory effect on one or more bacterial cultures. Bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts from Mikania micrantha, Neurolaena lobata and Piper aduncum produced weak to moderately active isolates. The broad spectrum of activity of the extracts helps to explain the widespread use of these plants for wound healing and other applications.

  2. The Stability of Medicinal Plant microRNAs in the Herb Preparation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wenyan; Melzig, Matthias F

    2018-04-16

    Herbal medicine is now globally accepted as a valid alternative system of pharmaceutical therapies. Various studies around the world have been initiated to develop scientific evidence-based herbal therapies. Recently, the therapeutic potential of medicinal plant derived miRNAs has attracted great attraction. MicroRNAs have been indicated as new bioactive ingredients in medicinal plants. However, the stability of miRNAs during the herbal preparation process and their bioavailability in humans remain unclear. Viscum album L. (European mistletoe) has been widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Our previous study has indicated the therapeutic potential of mistletoe miRNAs by using bioinformatics tools. To evaluate the stability of these miRNAs, various mistletoe extracts that mimic the clinical medicinal use as well as traditional folk medicinal use were prepared. The mistletoe miRNAs including miR166a-3p, miR159a, miR831-5p, val-miR218 and val-miR11 were quantified by stem-loop qRT-PCR. As a result, miRNAs were detectable in the majority of the extracts, indicating that consumption of medicinal plant preparations might introduce miRNAs into mammals. The factors that might cause miRNA degradation include ultrasonic treatment, extreme heat, especially RNase treatment, while to be associated with plant molecules (e.g., proteins, exosomes) might be an efficient way to protect miRNAs against degradation. Our study confirmed the stability of plant derived miRNAs during herb preparations, suggesting the possibility of functionally intact medicinal plant miRNAs in mammals.

  3. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants in the Thar Desert (Sindh) of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Ghulam; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Sultana, Shazia; Suleiman Alharrasi, Ahmed; Hussain, Javid; Zafar, Muhammad; Shafiq-Ur-Rehman

    2015-04-02

    The traditional use of medicinal plants in health-care practices among the rural communities provides the basis for natural drug discovery development. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first quantitative ethnobotanical investigation on the use of medicinal plants in the Thar Desert (Sindh) of Pakistan. In total, 530 local informants and traditional healers were interviewed, using semistructured interviews. Various quantitative indices such as relative frequency of citation (RFC), use value (UV), informant consensus factor (ICF), fidelity level (FL), relative importance (RI), and the Jaccard Index (JI) were applied to the documented data. The traditional medical uses of 87 plant species belonging to 32 families were reported on. Amaranthaceae was the most-frequently cited (nine species), followed by Cucurbitaceae and Euphorbiaceae (six species each). The most dominant life form was herbs (73.56%). The most-used plant parts were leaves, with 65 reports (28.88%), followed by seeds (16%). The common mode of preparation reported was powder (25.75%), with 74% herbal medicines obtained from fresh plant materials. The ethnobotanical result documented in this study provides practical evidence about the use of medicinal plants among the inhabitants of the Thar Desert. Further, the findings revealed that the medicinal plants of the area are a major source of herbal drugs for primary health care used among the rural communities. This survey can be used as baseline information for further scientific investigation to develop new plant-based commercial drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ethnomedicinal, Phytochemical and Ethnopharmacological Aspects of Four Medicinal Plants of Malvaceae Used in Indian Traditional Medicines: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abat, Jasmeet Kaur; Kumar, Sanjay; Mohanty, Aparajita

    2017-10-18

    The ethnomedicinal values of plants form the basis of the herbal drug industry. India has contributed its knowledge of traditional system medicines (Ayurveda and Siddha) to develop herbal medicines with negligible side effects. The World Health Organization has also recognized the benefits of drugs developed from natural products. Abutilon indicum, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Sida acuta and Sida rhombifolia are ethnomedicinal plants of Malvaceae, commonly used in Indian traditional system of medicines. Traditionally these plants were used in the form of extracts/powder/paste by tribal populations of India for treating common ailments like cough and cold, fever, stomach, kidney and liver disorders, pains, inflammations, wounds, etc. The present review is an overview of phytochemistry and ethnopharmacological studies that support many of the traditional ethnomedicinal uses of these plants. Many phytoconstituents have been isolated from the four ethnomedicinal plants and some of them have shown pharmacological activities that have been demonstrated by in vivo and/or in vitro experiments. Ethnomedicinal uses, supported by scientific evidences is essential for ensuring safe and effective utilization of herbal medicines.

  5. Ethnomedicinal, Phytochemical and Ethnopharmacological Aspects of Four Medicinal Plants of Malvaceae Used in Indian Traditional Medicines: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmeet Kaur Abat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The ethnomedicinal values of plants form the basis of the herbal drug industry. India has contributed its knowledge of traditional system medicines (Ayurveda and Siddha to develop herbal medicines with negligible side effects. The World Health Organization has also recognized the benefits of drugs developed from natural products. Abutilon indicum, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Sida acuta and Sida rhombifolia are ethnomedicinal plants of Malvaceae, commonly used in Indian traditional system of medicines. Traditionally these plants were used in the form of extracts/powder/paste by tribal populations of India for treating common ailments like cough and cold, fever, stomach, kidney and liver disorders, pains, inflammations, wounds, etc. The present review is an overview of phytochemistry and ethnopharmacological studies that support many of the traditional ethnomedicinal uses of these plants. Many phytoconstituents have been isolated from the four ethnomedicinal plants and some of them have shown pharmacological activities that have been demonstrated by in vivo and/or in vitro experiments. Ethnomedicinal uses, supported by scientific evidences is essential for ensuring safe and effective utilization of herbal medicines.

  6. Ethnomedicinal, Phytochemical and Ethnopharmacological Aspects of Four Medicinal Plants of Malvaceae Used in Indian Traditional Medicines: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abat, Jasmeet Kaur; Kumar, Sanjay; Mohanty, Aparajita

    2017-01-01

    The ethnomedicinal values of plants form the basis of the herbal drug industry. India has contributed its knowledge of traditional system medicines (Ayurveda and Siddha) to develop herbal medicines with negligible side effects. The World Health Organization has also recognized the benefits of drugs developed from natural products. Abutilon indicum, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Sida acuta and Sida rhombifolia are ethnomedicinal plants of Malvaceae, commonly used in Indian traditional system of medicines. Traditionally these plants were used in the form of extracts/powder/paste by tribal populations of India for treating common ailments like cough and cold, fever, stomach, kidney and liver disorders, pains, inflammations, wounds, etc. The present review is an overview of phytochemistry and ethnopharmacological studies that support many of the traditional ethnomedicinal uses of these plants. Many phytoconstituents have been isolated from the four ethnomedicinal plants and some of them have shown pharmacological activities that have been demonstrated by in vivo and/or in vitro experiments. Ethnomedicinal uses, supported by scientific evidences is essential for ensuring safe and effective utilization of herbal medicines. PMID:29057840

  7. Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants of Chagharzai valley, district Buner, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, N.; Shinwari, Z.K.; Ilyas, M.; Ullah, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants was recorded during summer 2004, in 22 villages of Chagharzai valley, District Buner. The study revealed 141 plant species belonging to 120 genera and 26 families are being used as medicine. The local people know the prospect and nature of the plant utilization, through personal experiences and ancestral prescriptions. The study also revealed that old aged people particularly women posses strong folk love of medicinal plants in comparison to young people. It was concluded that some plants are used singly while many other are used in combination. Similarly few plant species are used for the treatment of a specific disease, while several other have multiple uses. The plants were mainly used as stomachic, anti-allergic, antineuralgia, vermifuge, narcotic, laxative, anti jaundice, emollient, hypnotic, diuretic, digestive, demulcent, carminative, astringent, aphrodisiac, anti-spasmodic, anti-emetic, anti-diabetic, anthelmentic, anodyne and alterative. The present investigation will help in the preservation of indigenous knowledge of the local people, which is depleting day by day. (author)

  8. Medicinal Plants in the Flora of Luhansk Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Yu. Naumov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To establish a resource base of medicinal plants of Donbass, and to develop methods for their balanced use, it is necessary to conduct an inventory and analysis of the spread of wild species, that recently was not carried out in Luhansk and Donetsk region. These circumstances have served as an incentive to carry out special investigations. Test species belong to 403 genus and 108 families. List of vascular plants of Luhansk region has more than 1,200 species. We have established that in the study area, there are 718 species of medicinal plants, representing 60 % of the total flora of the region, covering so much of the taxonomic diversity of Donbass flora. The family of the Asteraceae (105 species, 50 genuses is different in terms of the greatest number of species of medicinal plants and genus family. The families of Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, Apiaceae, Lamiaceae and Poaceae contain more than 40 species, the families of Apiaceae и Rosaceae — over 30 species, Caryophylaceae и Polygonaceae — more than 20 species, a total of 301 species. The remaining 99 families presented a small number of basic taxonomic units. The species Viscum album, Ajuga chia, Salvia nemorosa were found during expeditions. These species have not been previously described for the region.

  9. Phytotoxic studies of medicinal plant species of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilani, S.A.; Adnan, M.; Kikuchi, A.; Fujii, Y.; Shinwari, Z.K.; Kazuo, N.; Watanabe, K.N.

    2010-01-01

    Allelopathic screening of 81 medicinal plant species, collected from North West Frontier Province (NWFP) Pakistan, was carried out to identify significantly higher allelopathic species for future phyto chemical analyses. For this purpose, sandwich method was used to test allelopathic potentials of leaf leachates of these plant species against lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa L.). Two different concentrations of 10 mg and 50 mg of leaf leachates were used in the study. The radicle and hypocotyl growths were measured and compared with control treatments. It was observed that an endemic species Seriphidium kurramense, Andrachne cordifolia and Rhazya stricta were the stronger phyto toxic plants as compared to the other test species. Based on the current screening, three potential medicinal plants are recommended for future bioassay guided isolation of allelochemicals and for genetic diversity studies. It would also be interesting to see correlation between genetic markers and isolated allelochemicals. (author)

  10. Medicinal plants with potential anti-arthritic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Manjusha; Kumar, Vipin; Malhotra, Hitesh; Singh, Surender

    2015-01-01

    Traditional medicinal plants are practiced worldwide for treatment of arthritis especially in developing countries where resources are meager. This review presents the plants profiles inhabiting throughout the world regarding their traditional usage by various tribes/ethnic groups for treatment of arthritis. Bibliographic investigation was carried out by analyzing classical text books and peer reviewed papers, consulting worldwide accepted scientific databases from the last six decades. Plants/their parts/extracts/polyherbal formulations, toxicity studies for arthritis have been included in the review article. The profiles presented also include information about the scientific name, family, dose, methodology along with mechanism of action and toxicity profile. Research status of 20 potential plant species has been discussed. Further, geographical distribution of research, plants distribution according to families has been given in graphical form. 485 plant species belonging to 100 families, traditionally used in arthritis are used. Among 100 plant families, malvaceae constitute 16, leguminasae 7, fabaceae 13, euphorbiaceae 7, compositae 20, araceae 7, solanaceae 12, liliaceae 9, apocynaceae, lauraceae, and rubiaceae 10, and remaining in lesser proportion. It was observed in our study that majority of researches are carried mainly in developing countries like India, China, Korea and Nigeria. This review clearly indicates that list of medicinal plants presented in this review might be useful to researchers as well as practioners. This review can be useful for preliminary screening of potential anti-arthritis plants. Further toxicity profile given in the review can be useful for the researchers for finding the safe dose.

  11. A cross-cultural analysis of Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh (India) medicinal plant use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gairola, Sumeet; Sharma, Jyotsana; Bedi, Yashbir Singh

    2014-09-11

    Jammu & Kashmir (J&K) is a predominantly Himalayan state in the north-western part of India. It has three geographically distinct divisions viz., Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh, which are immensely rich in their biological and cultural diversity. Medicinal plants are an important element of indigenous medical system of the region. The main goal of the present article is to examine the use of ethnomedicinal plants in three divisions of J&K and to discuss cross-cultural consensus on the use of medicinal plants in these divisions. The article also discusses the gaps in the current state of knowledge on ethnomedicinal plants of the region and gives recommendations for the future studies. Scientific literature on ethnomedicinal field studies conducted in J&K state of India available in the journals, edited books and other scientific databases viz., CAB international, DOAJ, Google Scholar, PubMed, Science direct, SciFinder, Scopus and Web of Science were searched. Only field based ethnomedicinal surveys from last four decades up to December 2013 reporting first hand information on the medicinal plants used to treat human health related ailments by indigenous communities of J&K were included in this study. Venn diagram was used to analyze the cross-cultural consensus on the use of ethnomedicinal plants in the three divisions of J&K. A total of 948 plant taxa (923 angiosperms, 12 gymnosperms and 13 pteridophytes) belonging to 129 families, 509 genera, 937 species and 11 varieties have so far been reported to have a traditional medicinal use by indigenous communities of J&K. Asteraceae (60 genera, 132 spp.) was the most frequently used family followed by Fabaceae (32 genera, 50 spp.) and Lamiaceae (27 genera, 55 spp.). 514, 415 and 397 medicinal plants were used in Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh divisions, respectively. Sixty eight plant taxa were used in all the three divisions, whereas 95 plants were common between Ladakh and Jammu, 127 plants between Ladakh and Kashmir, and 216

  12. Health Effects of Psidium guajava L. Leaves: An Overview of the Last Decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-de-Cerio, Elixabet; Verardo, Vito; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2017-04-24

    Today, there is increasing interest in discovering new bioactive compounds derived from ethnomedicine. Preparations of guava ( Psidium guajava L.) leaves have traditionally been used to manage several diseases. The pharmacological research in vitro as well as in vivo has been widely used to demonstrate the potential of the extracts from the leaves for the co-treatment of different ailments with high prevalence worldwide, upholding the traditional medicine in cases such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and parasitic infections. Moreover, the biological activity has been attributed to the bioactive composition of the leaves, to some specific phytochemical subclasses, or even to individual compounds. Phenolic compounds in guava leaves have been credited with regulating blood-glucose levels. Thus, the aim of the present review was to compile results from in vitro and in vivo studies carried out with guava leaves over the last decade, relating the effects to their clinical applications in order to focus further research for finding individual bioactive compounds. Some food applications (guava tea and supplementary feed for aquaculture) and some clinical, in vitro, and in vivo outcomes are also included.

  13. Medicinal and wild food plants of Marmara Island (Balikesir – Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizem Bulut

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal and wild food plants have always played an important role in people’s lives especially in rural areas. Similar situation can be said for islands due to the reason of them being isolated from mainland. This paper reports an ethnobotanical investigations performed in 2009 and 2014 to determine medicinal and wild food plants of Marmara Island. A total of 30 individuals were interviewed (19 men, 11 women. Totally, 22 plants are recorded as used as traditional folk medicine for the region, and nine of these are also used as a source of wild food. Furthermore, 18 taxa are wild sources of nutrition for the area. The plants most commonly used in the region as medicinal remedies were Salvia fruticosa, Hypericum perforatum, Ficus carica, and Mentha spicata. Plants are mostly used for the treatment of abdominal pain, the common cold, and haemorrhoids. The species most commonly used for food are: Salvia fruticosa, Arbutus unedo, Rhus coriaria, and Rubus sanctus. This ethnobotanical study conducted in this island will enable the traditional use of wild plants both as food sources and herbal remedies to be passed on to future generations.

  14. Plant utilization against digestive system disorder in Southern Assam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Prakash Roy; Choudhury, Manabendra Dutta; Ningthoujam, Sanjoy Singh; Mitra, Abhijit; Nath, Deepa; Talukdar, Anupam Das

    2015-12-04

    Being one of the most common types of life threatening diseases in Southern Assam, India, the digestive system disorders (DSD) have gained much attention in recent decades. Traditional beliefs and inadequate income of mass population result in the use of alternative phytotherapies to treat the diseases. The present paper documents the medicinal knowledge and utilization of plants for treatment of digestive system disorders in Southern Assam, India by Disease Consensus Index (DCI). It also determines the most suitable plant species used to treat digestive system disorders in the study area. The study was based on ethnomedicinal field survey covering a period of 1 year from 2014-2015. The ethnomedicinal information was collected by using semi-structured questionnaires from different traditional Bengali people having knowledge on medicinal plants. Collected data were analyzed by calculating DCI. During the survey, 29 informants were interviewed and a total of 49 plants under 46 genera belonging to 33 families were listed. Data analysis revealed that Litsea glutinosa, Momordica charantia, Andrographis paniculata, Lawsonia inermis, Cleome viscosa, Psidium guajava, Ageratum conyzoides, Cuscuta reflexa, Cynodon dactylon and Carica papaya are the most prominent plants among the people of Southern Assam for treating DSD. This explorative survey emphasizes the need to preserve and document the traditional healing practices for managing DSD inviting for more imminent scientific research on the plants to determine their efficacy as well as safety. With the help of statistical analysis (DCI), we propose 10 priority plants for DSD in present work. Systematic pharmacological study with these plants may contribute significant result. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Preliminary survey of radioactivity level in Thai medicinal herb plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranrod, C; Chanyotha, S; Kritsananuwat, R; Ploykrathok, T; Pengvanich, P; Tumnoi, Y; Thumvijit, T; Sriburee, S

    2017-01-01

    In this research, the natural radioactivity concentrations and their respective annual effective dose of the naturally occurring radionuclides 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K in selected medicinal herb plants were investigated. Seven kinds of popular Thai medicinal herb plants had been studied: turmeric, ginger, safflower, moringa, gotu kola, garlic and alexandria senna. The radiological risk associated with the use of these medicinal plants was assessed. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K were determined using the gamma-ray spectrometry technique. The radioactivity concentrations were found to range from less than 0.20 to 6.67 Bqkg -1 for 226 Ra, less than 0.10 to 9.69 Bqkg -1 for 228 Ra, and from 159.42 to 1216.25 Bqkg -1 for 40 K. Gotu kola showed the highest activity concentrations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra, while ginger showed the highest activity concentration of 40 K. The total annual effective dose due to ingestion of these herb plants were found to range from 0.0028 to 0.0097 mSvy -1 with an average value of 0.0060±0.0001 mSvy -1 . The results conclude that the Thai medicinal herb plants samples from this research are considered safe in terms of the radiological hazard. (paper)

  16. Preliminary survey of radioactivity level in Thai medicinal herb plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranrod, C.; Chanyotha, S.; Kritsananuwat, R.; Ploykrathok, T.; Pengvanich, P.; Tumnoi, Y.; Thumvijit, T.; Sriburee, S.

    2017-06-01

    In this research, the natural radioactivity concentrations and their respective annual effective dose of the naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K in selected medicinal herb plants were investigated. Seven kinds of popular Thai medicinal herb plants had been studied: turmeric, ginger, safflower, moringa, gotu kola, garlic and alexandria senna. The radiological risk associated with the use of these medicinal plants was assessed. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K were determined using the gamma-ray spectrometry technique. The radioactivity concentrations were found to range from less than 0.20 to 6.67 Bqkg-1 for 226Ra, less than 0.10 to 9.69 Bqkg-1 for 228Ra, and from 159.42 to 1216.25 Bqkg-1 for 40K. Gotu kola showed the highest activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ra, while ginger showed the highest activity concentration of 40K. The total annual effective dose due to ingestion of these herb plants were found to range from 0.0028 to 0.0097 mSvy-1 with an average value of 0.0060±0.0001 mSvy-1. The results conclude that the Thai medicinal herb plants samples from this research are considered safe in terms of the radiological hazard.

  17. Antibacterial activities of three medicinal plants against some gastro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi, and Shigella ... The antibacterial assay showed that the three plants significantly inhibited all the test ... Bambusa vulgaris, Erigeron floribundus, Fluerya aestuans, medicinal plants ...

  18. Medicinal plants used to control internal and external parasites in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Sanhokwe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of medicinal plants plays a major role in the primary health care of animals in South Africa. A survey was conducted to document medicinal plants used to control parasites in goats in Kwezi and Ntambethemba villages in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Information from 50 farmers and 3 herbalists was obtained through the use of a structured questionnaire, and a snowball sampling technique was used to identify key informants. The obtained data were analysed using PROC FREQ of SAS (2003, and fidelity level values were determined to estimate the healing potential of the mentioned plants. The survey revealed nine plant species belonging to eight families that were used to control parasites in goats. Asphodelaceae (22.22% was the most frequently used plant family. Leaves were the most used plant parts, constituting 60.38%. They were prepared either as infusions or decoctions of single plants or in mixtures. Aloe ferox, Acokanthera oppositifolia and Elephantorrhiza elephantina were the plants having the highest fidelity level for their use to control parasites, each scoring 100%, followed by Albuca setosa (83.33%. The study revealed low knowledge about ethnoveterinary medicine in the study area. It also revealed that information on ethno-veterinary medicine in this area is mostly confined to older people and there is danger that this knowledge can be lost before being passed on to other generations. Therefore, there is an urgent need to document information on these plant species so that the future generation can benefit. Further investigation should be carried out to validate the efficacy and safety of the above-mentioned plants so as to provide cheap alternative ways of controlling parasites. Keywords: ailments; ethno-veterinary practices; small ruminant; traditional medicine

  19. Medicinal plants in Brazil: Pharmacological studies, drug discovery, challenges and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Rafael C; Campos, Maria M; Santos, Adair R S; Calixto, João B

    2016-10-01

    This review article focuses on pre-clinical and clinical studies with some selected Brazilian medicinal plants in different areas of interest, conducted by research groups in Brazil and abroad. It also highlights the Brazilian market of herbal products and the efforts of Brazilian scientists to develop new phytomedicines. This review is divided into three sections. The section I describes the Brazilian large biodiversity and some attempts of Brazilian scientists to assess the pharmacological profile of most plant extracts or isolated active principles. Of note, Brazilian scientists have made a great effort to study the Brazilian biodiversity, especially among the higher plants. In fact, more than 10,000 papers were published on plants in international scientific journals between 2011 and 2013. This first part also discussed the main efforts to develop new medicines from plants, highlighting the Brazilian phytomedicines market. Despite the large Brazilian biodiversity, notably with the higher plants, which comprise over 45,000 species (20-22% of the total worldwide), and the substantial number of scientific publications on medicinal plants, only one phytomedicine is found in the top 20 market products. Indeed, this market is still only worth about 261 million American dollars. This represents less than 5% of the global Brazilian medicine market. The section II of this review focus on the use of Brazilian plant extract and/or active principles for some selected diseases, namely: central nervous systems disorders, pain, immune response and inflammation, respiratory diseases, gastrointestinal tract and metabolic diseases. Finally, section III discusses in more details some selected Brazilian medicinal plants including: Cordia verbenacea, Euphorbia tirucalli, Mandevilla velutina, Phyllanthus spp., Euterpe oleracea, Vitis labrusca, Hypericum caprifoliatum and Hypericum polyanthemum, Maytenus ilicifolia, Protium kleinii and Protium heptaphylium and Trichilia catigua. Most

  20. Identification and assay of the flavonoids in medicinal plants with hepatoprotective action

    OpenAIRE

    Cojocaru-Toma M.

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the identification and assay of the flavonoids in medicinal plants with hepatoprotective action, harvested as a culture at the Cultivation Center of the Medicinal Plants within State University of Medicine and Pharmacy „Nicolae Testemițanu” from the Republic of Moldova, using Pharmacopoeia methods. The flavonoids, found in the examined medicinal product, are responsible for hepatoprotective activity due to antioxidant activity, exhibited by neutralizing free radicals. Th...

  1. Bioactive Compounds from Plants Used in Peruvian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Olga; Perez, Eleucy; Villar, Martha; Flores, Diana; Rojas, Rosario

    2016-03-01

    It is estimated that there are as many as 1400 plant species currently used in traditional Peruvian medicine; however, only a few have undergone scientific investigation. In this paper, we make a review of the botanical, chemical, pharmacological and clinical propierties of the most investigated Peruvian medicinal plants. The plant species selected for this review are: Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon), Croton lechleri (sangre de grado), Uncaria tomentosa/U. guianensis (uña de gato), Lepidium meyenii (maca), Physalis peruviana (aguaymanto), Minthostachys mollis (muña), Notholaena nivea (cuti-cuti), Maytenus macrocarpa (chuchuhuasi), Dracontium loretense (jergon sacha), Gentianella nitida (hercampuri), Plukenetia volubilis (sacha inchi) and Zea mays (maiz morado). For each of these plants, information about their traditional uses and current commercialization is also included.

  2. Natural Antioxidants in Foods and Medicinal Plants: Extraction, Assessment and Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Ya; Meng, Xiao; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-01-05

    Natural antioxidants are widely distributed in food and medicinal plants. These natural antioxidants, especially polyphenols and carotenoids, exhibit a wide range of biological effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, anti-atherosclerosis and anticancer. The effective extraction and proper assessment of antioxidants from food and medicinal plants are crucial to explore the potential antioxidant sources and promote the application in functional foods, pharmaceuticals and food additives. The present paper provides comprehensive information on the green extraction technologies of natural antioxidants, assessment of antioxidant activity at chemical and cellular based levels and their main resources from food and medicinal plants.

  3. Ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants used by Li people in Ledong, Hainan Island, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijuan Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper documents on the uses of traditional medicinal plants used for treating human ailments in three villages of Ledong, a county inhabited by Li ethnic group in the southwest of Hainan Province, China. Semi-structured interviews, key informant interviews and participatory observations were used to collect ethnobotanical data from February to March 2012 and in July 2013. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Thirty native knowledgeable people were interviewed. The Li community uses 50 plant species in 36 families for medicinal purposes. The most common medicinal plant families were Leguminosae (14%, Compositae (6%, and Euphorbiaceae (6%, and the most common preparations methods were decoction (84%, crushing (38%, and poultice (34%. The traditional medicinal plants were mainly used for hemostasis (12.9%, body pains (11.4%, gastrointestinal disorders (11.4%, and trauma (10%. Twenty-four species of medicinal plants (48% have never been reported in the literature of Li medicines. In addition, 22 species (44% have already been studied by researchers and their extracts or compounds were good bio-actives. However, the rapid socio-economic development in the county is the main threat to the conservation of Li medicine and has resulted in the decrease in the abundance and use of medicinal plants and associated traditional knowledge. Other factors accounting for a decrease in the use of Li medicinal plants like loss of plant diversity, change of land use, and threatened traditional knowledge were equally discussed.

  4. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wonang, DL. Vol 2, No 3 (2006) - Articles Studies on the antibacterial activities of Ocimum basilicum and Psidium guajava. Abstract · Vol 2, No 3 (2006) - Articles Phytochemical, toxicological and histo-pathological studies of some medicinal plants in Nigeria Abstract. ISSN: 0794-4713. AJOL African Journals Online.

  5. Historical versus contemporary medicinal plant uses in the US Virgin Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soelberg, Jens; Davis, Olasee; Jäger, Anna K

    2016-01-01

    West Indies (now US Virgin Islands), we identify pre-1900 medicinal plants and their historical uses, and trace their status in the traditional medicine of St. Croix today (2014). By a combined historical and ethnobotanical approach we assess the scale of loss and preservation of traditional medicinal...... knowledge on St. Croix, and explore the drivers involved in the disappearance of knowledge in the oral tradition of medicine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Names, uses and identities of 18th and 19th century medicinal plant uses in the Danish West Indies were derived from manuscripts and publications of Von Rohr...... (1757/58), Oldendorp (1777), West (1793), Benzon (1822), Riise (1853), Eggers (1876;1879) and Berg and Eggers (1888). The presence of the plant species in the pre-1900 Danish West Indies was confirmed by review of herbarium specimens in the University of Copenhagen Herbarium (C). The same species were...

  6. Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, E. Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A.; Saliba, N.; Talhouk, S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25204756

  7. A guide to medicinal plants of Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold Krochmal; Russell S. Walters; Richard M. Doughty

    1969-01-01

    The Medicinal or therapeutic uses of the plants described in this guide are not to be construed in any way as a recommendation by the authors or the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Some of the dried crude drugs, which must be modified considerably before commercial use, can be extremely poisonous when not used properly. Readers are cautioned against using these plant...

  8. Ethnobotanical investigation on medicinal plants in Algoz area (South Kordofan), Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Tahani Osman; Mohamed, Yahya Sulieman; Yagi, Sakina; Ahmed, Reem Hassan; Najeeb, Telal Mohammed; Makhawi, Abdelrafie Mohamed; Khider, Tarig Osman

    2018-04-27

    The inhabitants of western Sudan use traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments due to lack of medical doctors and unaffordable prices of pharmaceutical products. The present study is the first documentation of the traditional plant knowledge on medicinal uses of plants by healers in Algoz (South Kordofan), Sudan. Ethnobotanical data were collected over a period from March to November 2015 using semi-structured interviews with 30 healers (24 male and 6 female) living in the investigated area. Quantitative indices such as use categories, use value (UV) and informant consensus factor (ICF) were intended to evaluate the importance of medicinal plant species. A total of 94 medicinal plants, which belong to 45 families and 81 genera, were recorded in the study area. The most represented families are Leguminosae with 20 species followed by Combretaceae (6 species), Rubiaceae (5 species) and Asteraceae (4 species). The reported species were belonging to herbs (43%), trees (28%), shrubs (22%), climbers (4%) and parasites (3%). Root and stem (21% each) were the most plant parts used. A majority of remedies are administered orally (67%) where infusion (36%) and maceration (32%) are the most used methods. The highest ICF (0.87) was reported for poisonous animal bites followed by urinary system diseases (0.89), blood system disorders (0.88) and gynaecological diseases (0.87). Anastatica hierochuntica, Ctenolepis cerasiformis, Echinops longifolius, Cleome gynandra, Maerua pseudopetalosa, Martynia annua, Oldenlandia uniflora, Opuntia ficus-indica, Solanum dubium, Sonchus cornutus, Tribulus terrestris and Drimia maritima were reported for the first time in this study. The number of medicinal plants reported in this paper reflects evidence that Algoz area had a high diversity of medicinal plants which will continue to play an important role in the healthcare system in the study area.

  9. Pikuni-Blackfeet traditional medicine: Neuroprotective activities of medicinal plants used to treat Parkinson's disease-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rus Jacquet, Aurélie; Tambe, Mitali Arun; Ma, Sin Ying; McCabe, George P; Vest, Jay Hansford C; Rochet, Jean-Christophe

    2017-07-12

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder affecting 5% of the population over the age of 85 years. Current treatments primarily involve dopamine replacement therapy, which leads to temporary relief of motor symptoms but fails to slow the underlying neurodegeneration. Thus, there is a need for safe PD therapies with neuroprotective activity. In this study, we analyzed contemporary herbal medicinal practices used by members of the Pikuni-Blackfeet tribe from Western Montana to treat PD-related symptoms, in an effort to identify medicinal plants that are affordable to traditional communities and accessible to larger populations. The aims of this study were to (i) identify medicinal plants used by the Pikuni-Blackfeet tribe to treat individuals with symptoms related to PD or other CNS disorders, and (ii) characterize a subset of the identified plants in terms of antioxidant and neuroprotective activities in cellular models of PD. Interviews of healers and local people were carried out on the Blackfeet Indian reservation. Plant samples were collected, and water extracts were produced for subsequent analysis. A subset of botanical extracts was tested for the ability to induce activation of the Nrf2-mediated transcriptional response and to protect against neurotoxicity elicited by the PD-related toxins rotenone and paraquat. The ethnopharmacological interviews resulted in the documentation of 26 medicinal plants used to treat various ailments and diseases, including symptoms related to PD. Seven botanical extracts (out of a total of 10 extracts tested) showed activation of Nrf2-mediated transcriptional activity in primary cortical astrocytes. Extracts prepared from Allium sativum cloves, Trifolium pratense flowers, and Amelanchier arborea berries exhibited neuroprotective activity against toxicity elicited by rotenone, whereas only the extracts prepared from Allium sativum and Amelanchier arborea alleviated PQ-induced dopaminergic cell death

  10. The Stability of Medicinal Plant microRNAs in the Herb Preparation Process

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    Wenyan Xie

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine is now globally accepted as a valid alternative system of pharmaceutical therapies. Various studies around the world have been initiated to develop scientific evidence-based herbal therapies. Recently, the therapeutic potential of medicinal plant derived miRNAs has attracted great attraction. MicroRNAs have been indicated as new bioactive ingredients in medicinal plants. However, the stability of miRNAs during the herbal preparation process and their bioavailability in humans remain unclear. Viscum album L. (European mistletoe has been widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Our previous study has indicated the therapeutic potential of mistletoe miRNAs by using bioinformatics tools. To evaluate the stability of these miRNAs, various mistletoe extracts that mimic the clinical medicinal use as well as traditional folk medicinal use were prepared. The mistletoe miRNAs including miR166a-3p, miR159a, miR831-5p, val-miR218 and val-miR11 were quantified by stem-loop qRT-PCR. As a result, miRNAs were detectable in the majority of the extracts, indicating that consumption of medicinal plant preparations might introduce miRNAs into mammals. The factors that might cause miRNA degradation include ultrasonic treatment, extreme heat, especially RNase treatment, while to be associated with plant molecules (e.g., proteins, exosomes might be an efficient way to protect miRNAs against degradation. Our study confirmed the stability of plant derived miRNAs during herb preparations, suggesting the possibility of functionally intact medicinal plant miRNAs in mammals.

  11. Phytochemica: a platform to explore phytochemicals of medicinal plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathania, Shivalika; Ramakrishnan, Sai Mukund; Bagler, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived molecules (PDMs) are known to be a rich source of diverse scaffolds that could serve as the basis for rational drug design. Structured compilation of phytochemicals from traditional medicinal plants can facilitate prospection for novel PDMs and their analogs as therapeutic agents. Atropa belladonna, Catharanthus roseus, Heliotropium indicum, Picrorhiza kurroa and Podophyllum hexandrum are important Himalayan medicinal plants, reported to have immense therapeutic properties against various diseases. We present Phytochemica, a structured compilation of 963 PDMs from these plants, inclusive of their plant part source, chemical classification, IUPAC names, SMILES notations, physicochemical properties and 3-dimensional structures with associated references. Phytochemica is an exhaustive resource of natural molecules facilitating prospection for therapeutic molecules from medicinally important plants. It also offers refined search option to explore the neighbourhood of chemical space against ZINC database to identify analogs of natural molecules at user-defined cut-off. Availability of phytochemical structured dataset may enable their direct use in in silico drug discovery which will hasten the process of lead identification from natural products under proposed hypothesis, and may overcome urgent need for phytomedicines. Compilation and accessibility of indigenous phytochemicals and their derivatives can be a source of considerable advantage to research institutes as well as industries. Database URL: home.iitj.ac.in/∼bagler/webservers/Phytochemica PMID:26255307

  12. Phytochemica: a platform to explore phytochemicals of medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathania, Shivalika; Ramakrishnan, Sai Mukund; Bagler, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived molecules (PDMs) are known to be a rich source of diverse scaffolds that could serve as the basis for rational drug design. Structured compilation of phytochemicals from traditional medicinal plants can facilitate prospection for novel PDMs and their analogs as therapeutic agents. Atropa belladonna, Catharanthus roseus, Heliotropium indicum, Picrorhiza kurroa and Podophyllum hexandrum are important Himalayan medicinal plants, reported to have immense therapeutic properties against various diseases. We present Phytochemica, a structured compilation of 963 PDMs from these plants, inclusive of their plant part source, chemical classification, IUPAC names, SMILES notations, physicochemical properties and 3-dimensional structures with associated references. Phytochemica is an exhaustive resource of natural molecules facilitating prospection for therapeutic molecules from medicinally important plants. It also offers refined search option to explore the neighbourhood of chemical space against ZINC database to identify analogs of natural molecules at user-defined cut-off. Availability of phytochemical structured dataset may enable their direct use in in silico drug discovery which will hasten the process of lead identification from natural products under proposed hypothesis, and may overcome urgent need for phytomedicines. Compilation and accessibility of indigenous phytochemicals and their derivatives can be a source of considerable advantage to research institutes as well as industries. home.iitj.ac.in/∼bagler/webservers/Phytochemica. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. anti-inflammatory activity of selected nigerian medicinal plants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of nineteen plant species from an inventory of Nigerian medicinal plants were screened for activity in two in vitro anti-inflammatory model test systems, inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis and PAF-induced elastase release from neutrophilis. Anacardium occidentale and Acalipha hispida were active in both test ...

  14. Medicinal plants indications from herbal healers for wound treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Willianne Alves do Nascimento

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to identify medicinal plants indicated by commercial herbal healers for wound treatment, in street markets. A descriptive study conducted in a capital city in the northeast of Brazil, through interviews. The results indicate that plant commerce by healers of both genders, aged between 37 to 52 years, from those 69.3% learned about their function with family members. Forty-eight plant species were cited for wound treatment, between those, all participants cited Barbatimão and Mastic. From the plants Sambacaitá, Open Nettle, Yellow Uchi, Corona, Xiquexique, Senna and Pindaíba no properties to prove their indication was found for wound treatment. The stem bark was the most indicated part (96.15%, 81.03% of participants informed that plants should be kept dry for conservation. Studies to clarify the biological activities and collateral effects of medicinal plants are needed, beyond training for healers about indications, prepare, storage/conservation, and expiration date.

  15. Pharmacodynamic Study of Interaction of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Psidium Guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) with Receptor Systems Using Isolated Tissue Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaseth, R K; Kumar, S; Dutta, Shagun; Sehgal, Ratika; Rajora, Preety; Mathur, Rajani

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the interaction of aqueous leaf extract of Psidium guajava with muscarinic, serotonergic and adrenergic receptor system using isolated rat ileum, gastric fundus and trachea, respectively. The concentration-dependent contractile response of aqueous leaf extract of Psidium guajava was parallel and rightward of standard agonists, ACh and 5-HT indicating agonistic activity on muscarinic and serotonergic receptor systems. The inhibition of aqueous leaf extract of Psidium guajava mediated contractions in presence of atropine (10(-7) M) and ketanserin (10(-6) M) confirmed the activity. Relaxant effect of PG (0.2 mg/ml) on carbachol induced pre-contracted rat tracheal chain indicated its agonistic action on adrenergic receptor system. Inhibition (P<0.05) of the action in the presence of propranolol (1 ng/ml) confirmed the activity. It may be concluded that PG possesses agonistic action on muscarinic, serotonergic and adrenergic receptor systems.

  16. Evaluation of biological activities and chemical constituent of storage medicinal plant materials used as a traditional medicine in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishnu Prasad Pandey

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The main aims of the study were to evaluate the phytochemicals, antioxidant, antibacterial and chemical constituents of storage medicinal plant materials used as a traditional medicine in Nepal. Methods: Phytochemical screening, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, antibacterial activities, anti-oxidant assay of the crude extract (water, methanol, n-hexane and acetone were carried out to identify the biological activities and phytonutrients present in the different extract. The chemical constituents present in the crude extract were analyzed using the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC equipped with UV detector. Results: Evaluated medicinal plant materials were found to have diverse phytonutrients. Results revealed that methanol extract of Pakhanved and Jethimadhu have highest total flavonoids and polyphenol content. Among the selected medicinal plant materials Jethimadhu extract revealed the highest antioxidant activities. Furthermore, evaluated medicinal plants extract were found to exert a range of in vitro growth inhibition activity against both gram positive and gram negative species. The highest antibacterial activities were observed in the case of methanol extract, whereas, least activity was observed with the hexane extract. HPLC analysis of the acetone extract of Jethimadhu reveals the presence of diosmetin. Conclusions: Our result revealed that among the five evaluated medicinal plant materials, Jethimadhu extract revealed biological activities and exhibits a higher amount of polyphenol and flavonoid content. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(4.000: 369-377

  17. Lythrum salicaria L.-Underestimated medicinal plant from European traditional medicine. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwowarski, Jakub P; Granica, Sebastian; Kiss, Anna K

    2015-07-21

    Purple loosestrife-Lythrum salicaria L. is a herbaceous perennial plant belonging to the Lythraceae family. It has been used for centuries in European traditional medicine. Despite Lythri herba being a pharmacopoeial plant material (Ph. Eur.), L. salicaria popularity as a medicinal plant has recently declined. The aim of the paper is to recall a traditional and historical use of L. salicaria and juxtapose it with comprehensive view on the current knowledge about its chemical composition and documented biological activities in order to bring back the interest into this valuable plant and indicate reasonable directions of future research and possible applications. Systematic survey of historical and ethnopharmacological literature was carried out using sources of European and American libraries. Pharmacological and phytochemical literature research was performed using Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science and Reaxys databases. The review of historical sources from ancient times till 20th century revealed an outstanding position of L. salicaria in traditional medicine. The main applications indicated were gastrointestinal tract ailments (mainly dysentery and diarrhea) as well as different skin and mucosa affections. The current phytochemical studies have shown that polyphenols (C-glucosidic ellagitannins and C-glucosidic flavonoids) as well as heteropolysaccharides are dominating constituents, which probably determine the observed pharmacological effects. The extracts and some isolated compounds were shown to possess antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activities. The intrinsic literature overview conclusively demonstrates that L. salicaria L. used to be considered as an exceptionally effective remedy in European traditional medicine. Despite its unquestionable important position from unknown reasons its popularity has been weakened during the past few decades. Unfortunately the contemporary pharmacological research is still

  18. Reliance on medicinal plant therapy among cancer patients in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kimberley; Younger, Novie; Aiken, William; Brady-West, Doreen; Delgoda, Rupika

    2017-11-01

    Patients' perspective of their treatment regime plays a vital role in its success. Recognizing the high prevalence of medicinal plant usage among Jamaicans at large, we investigated the engagement of such remedies by cancer patients, with the aim of uncovering self-medicating habits, perceptions and details of utilized plants. A structured, interviewer-based questionnaire was administered to 100 patients attending the oncology and urology clinics at the University Hospital of the West Indies in Kingston, Jamaica. A method of convenience sampling was employed and the data were analyzed using summary statistics and statistical significance tests. A large proportion (n = 80, 80%) of interviewed patients, engaged medicinal plants in their treatment regimes. Such habits were independent of person's education, economic status and were higher among the 55-74 age groups (p Petiveria alliacea L. were the most commonly used plants for treating breast and prostate cancers, respectively. A large proportion of Jamaican cancer patients use medicinal plants in self-medicating practices and their perceptions and habits need to be considered by physicians, in the design of safe and effective care regimes.

  19. Bioactivities of Traditional Medicinal Plants in Alexandria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elansary, Hosam O; Szopa, Agnieszka; Kubica, Paweł; Ekiert, Halina; Ali, Hayssam M; Elshikh, Mohamed S; Abdel-Salam, Eslam M; El-Esawi, Mohamed; El-Ansary, Diaa O

    2018-01-01

    In traditional folklore, medicinal herbs play a vital role in the prevention and treatment of microbial diseases. In the present study, the phenolic profiles of the medicinal plants Asparagus aethiopicus L., Citrullus colocynthis L., Senna alexandrina L., Kalanchoe delagoensis L., Gasteria pillansii L., Cymbopogon citratus , Brassica juncea , and Curcuma longa L. were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detector method. The results revealed rich sources of important compounds such as robinin in the fruits and leaves of A. aethiopicus ; caffeic acid in the tubers of A. aethiopicus and quercitrin in the leaves of G. pillansii . Further, relatively high antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activities were observed in C. colocynthis fruit coat, S. alexandrina pods, and A. aethiopicus leaves, respectively. The relatively higher the bioactivities of plants extracts associated with the phenols in these plants, in particular, the more abundant the phenols. Therefore, it was concluded that the fruit coat of C. colocynthis , pods of S. alexandrina , and leaves of A. aethiopicus might be excellent sources of natural products. These plant extracts also have a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activities that could be used in the pharmaceutical industries and to control diseases.

  20. Bioactivities of Traditional Medicinal Plants in Alexandria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosam O. Elansary

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional folklore, medicinal herbs play a vital role in the prevention and treatment of microbial diseases. In the present study, the phenolic profiles of the medicinal plants Asparagus aethiopicus L., Citrullus colocynthis L., Senna alexandrina L., Kalanchoe delagoensis L., Gasteria pillansii L., Cymbopogon citratus, Brassica juncea, and Curcuma longa L. were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detector method. The results revealed rich sources of important compounds such as robinin in the fruits and leaves of A. aethiopicus; caffeic acid in the tubers of A. aethiopicus and quercitrin in the leaves of G. pillansii. Further, relatively high antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activities were observed in C. colocynthis fruit coat, S. alexandrina pods, and A. aethiopicus leaves, respectively. The relatively higher the bioactivities of plants extracts associated with the phenols in these plants, in particular, the more abundant the phenols. Therefore, it was concluded that the fruit coat of C. colocynthis, pods of S. alexandrina, and leaves of A. aethiopicus might be excellent sources of natural products. These plant extracts also have a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activities that could be used in the pharmaceutical industries and to control diseases.

  1. Bioactivities of Traditional Medicinal Plants in Alexandria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopa, Agnieszka; Kubica, Paweł; Ekiert, Halina; Elshikh, Mohamed S.; Abdel-Salam, Eslam M.; El-Ansary, Diaa O.

    2018-01-01

    In traditional folklore, medicinal herbs play a vital role in the prevention and treatment of microbial diseases. In the present study, the phenolic profiles of the medicinal plants Asparagus aethiopicus L., Citrullus colocynthis L., Senna alexandrina L., Kalanchoe delagoensis L., Gasteria pillansii L., Cymbopogon citratus, Brassica juncea, and Curcuma longa L. were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detector method. The results revealed rich sources of important compounds such as robinin in the fruits and leaves of A. aethiopicus; caffeic acid in the tubers of A. aethiopicus and quercitrin in the leaves of G. pillansii. Further, relatively high antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activities were observed in C. colocynthis fruit coat, S. alexandrina pods, and A. aethiopicus leaves, respectively. The relatively higher the bioactivities of plants extracts associated with the phenols in these plants, in particular, the more abundant the phenols. Therefore, it was concluded that the fruit coat of C. colocynthis, pods of S. alexandrina, and leaves of A. aethiopicus might be excellent sources of natural products. These plant extracts also have a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activities that could be used in the pharmaceutical industries and to control diseases. PMID:29636772

  2. In vitro antimycobacterial and cytotoxic data on medicinal plants used to treat tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Nguta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article contains data on in vitro antimycobacterial activity and cytotoxicity of hydroethanolic crude extracts from five selected medicinal plant species traditionally used to treat tuberculosis in Ghanaian ethnomedicine, see “Medicinal plants used to treat TB in Ghana” [1]. The interpretation and discussion of these data and further extensive insights into drug discovery against tuberculosis from natural products of plant biodiversity can be found in “Antimycobacterial and cytotoxic activity of selected medicinal plant extracts” [2].

  3. Composition of the essential oil from the leaves of tree domestic varieties and one wild variety of the guava plant (Psidium guajava L., Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Karin de Lima

    Full Text Available The compositions of the essential oils from the leaves of three domestic varieties of the guava tree Psidium guajava L. (Paluma, Século XXI and Pedro Sato and of one wild variety were compared. Essential oils were extracted by steam distillation, the components were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry GC-MS, and the apparent concentrations were determined by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. The results demonstrated that the three essential oils contained many common substances with a prevalence of 1,8-cineole, whereas the essential oil of the Paluma variety contained 1,8-cineole (42.68% as the major constituent, as well as α-terpineol (38.68%. The principal components of the essential oil of the Século XXI variety were 1,8-cineole (18.83%, trans-caryophyllene (12.08%, and selin-11-en-4-αol (20.98%, while those of the Pedro Sato variety and of the wild plant were 1,8-cineole (17.68% and (12.83%, caryophyllene oxide (9.34% and (9.09%, and selin-11-en-4-α-ol (21.46% and (22.19%, respectively.

  4. Biological screening of Brazilian medicinal plants

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    Tânia Maria de Almeida Alves

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we screened sixty medicinal plant species from the Brazilian savanna ("cerrado" that could contain useful compounds for the control of tropical diseases. The plant selection was based on existing ethnobotanic information and interviews with local healers. Plant extracts were screened for: (a molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, (b toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina L., (c antifungal activity in the bioautographic assay with Cladosporium sphaerospermum and (d antibacterial activity in the agar diffusion assay against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Forty-two species afforded extracts that showed some degree of activity in one or more of these bioassays.

  5. Determination of Properties of Selected Fresh and Processed Medicinal Plants

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    Shirley G. Cabrera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the chemical properties, bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity and toxicity level of fresh and processed medicinal plants such as corn (Zea mays silk, pancitpancitan (Peperomiapellucida leaves, pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves, and commercially available tea. The toxicity level of the samples was measured using the Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay (BSLA. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. Results showed that in terms of chemical properties there is significant difference between fresh and processed corn silk except in crude fiber content was noted. Based on proximate analyses of fresh and processed medicinal plants specifically in terms of % moisture, %crude protein and % total carbohydrates were also observed. In addition, there is also significant difference on bioactive compound contents such as total flavonoids and total phenolics between fresh and processed corn silk except in total vitamin E (TVE content. Pandan and pancit-pancitan showed significant difference in all bioactive compounds except in total antioxidant content (TAC. Fresh pancit-pancitan has the highest total phenolics content (TPC and TAC, while the fresh and processed corn silk has the lowest TAC and TVE content, respectively. Furthermore, results of BSLA for the three medicinal plants and commercially available tea extract showed after 24 hours exposure significant difference in toxicity level was observed. The percentage mortality increased with an increase in exposure time of the three medicinal plants and tea extract. The results of the study can served as baseline data for further processing and commercialization of these medicinal plants.

  6. Saudi medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman; Manthiri, Rajamohamed Abbas; Abdo, Nasreddien; Al-Duaiji, Fawzi Abdullah; Khan, Haseeb Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Scorpion sting envenoming poses major public health problems. The treatment modalities include antivenoms, chemical antidotes and phytotherapy, with varying degrees of effectiveness and side effects. In this investigation, we reviewed the use of Saudi medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting patients. The relevant literature was collected using the online search engines including Science Direct, Google and PubMed with the help of specific keywords. We also used the printed and online resources at our institutional library to gather the relevant information on the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting patients. A descriptive statistics was used for data compilation and presentation. The results of this survey showed the use of at least 92 medicinal plants with beneficial effects for treating victims of stings of different scorpion species. These commonly used herbs spanned to 37 families whilst different parts of these plants were employed therapeutically for alleviation of envenomation symptoms. The application of leaves (41%) was preferred followed by roots (19%), whole plant (14%) and seeds (9%). The use of latex (4%), stem (3%), flowers (3%) and bark (3%) was also reported. In some cases, tannin (2%), rhizome (1%) and shoot (1%) were also used. In conclusion, herbal medicines are effectively used for the treatment of patients with scorpion envenomation. This type of medication is free from side effects as observed with chemical antidotes or antivenom therapy. It is important to identify the active ingredients of herbal drugs for improving their therapeutic potential in traditional medicine.

  7. Medicinal Plants Density Along an Altitudinal Gradient in and Around Ayubia National Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, A.; Adnan, M.; Begum, S.

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants are an essential source of livelihood for many rural populations and are currently facing several threats of extinction in temperate Himalaya, such as excessive grazing and collection along altitudinal gradients. The present study was designed to investigate the species density of medicinal plants at different mid-altitude levels (2200, 2300, 2400, and 2500 m above the sea level (a.s.l.) between two forest-use types and to examine the possible association between medicinal plant densities and forest-stand structural variables along the altitudinal gradient. Factorial design analysis of variance showed that the densities of all medicinal plants differed significantly between the forest-use types (p<0.00) and elevation (p<0.00). Moreover, a significant interaction (p<0.04) was also observed between the forest-use types and elevation. In the old-growth forest, density of medicinal plants was 290/40 m/sup 2/ at the higher altitude (2500 m a.s.l.), approximately 1.5-fold less than the 475/40 m/sup 2/ density observed at lower altitude (2200 m a.s.l.). However, in derived woodland, density of medicinal plants at higher altitude was approximately 4-fold less than that at the lower altitude. At these altitudinal levels, medicinal plants densities, such as Valeriana jatamansi, were significantly higher under old-growth forest compared to derived woodland, where they were almost nonexistent. A rapid vulnerability assessment has also shown that Valeriana jatamansi and Viola canescens were highly vulnerable species. Litter cover was the influential variable that was most likely related to medicinal plant density. In conclusion, abundance of medicinal plants decreased along mid-altitude levels in both of the forest-use types. However, this decrease was extremely marked in the derived woodland, and this decline may be due to human activity. Hence, these factors must be considered in future studies to suggest protective measures that can be applied along

  8. A Friendly Relationship between Endophytic Fungi and Medicinal Plants: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Min; Chen, Ling; Xin, Hai-Liang; Zheng, Cheng-Jian; Rahman, Khalid; Han, Ting; Qin, Lu-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic fungi or endophytes exist widely inside the healthy tissues of living plants, and are important components of plant micro-ecosystems. Over the long period of evolution, some co-existing endophytes and their host plants have established a special relationship with one and another, which can significantly influence the formation of metabolic products in plants, then affect quality and quantity of crude drugs derived from medicinal plants. This paper will focus on the increasing knowledge of relationships between endophytic fungi and medicinal plants through reviewing of published research data obtained from the last 30 years. The analytical results indicate that the distribution and population structure of endophytes can be considerably affected by factors, such as the genetic background, age, and environmental conditions of their hosts. On the other hand, the endophytic fungi can also confer profound impacts on their host plants by enhancing their growth, increasing their fitness, strengthening their tolerances to abiotic and biotic stresses, and promoting their accumulation of secondary metabolites. All the changes are very important for the production of bioactive components in their hosts. Hence, it is essential to understand such relationships between endophytic fungi and their host medicinal plants. Such knowledge can be well exploited and applied for the production of better and more drugs from medicinal plants. PMID:27375610

  9. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by nomadic peoples in the Algerian steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miara, Mohamed Djamel; Bendif, Hamdi; Ait Hammou, Mohammed; Teixidor-Toneu, Irene

    2018-06-12

    This study is the first ethnobotanical survey focusing on the herbal medicines traditionally used by the nomadic community of the Algerian steppe, identifying new medicinal plants and uses from one of the most characteristic indigenous populations in Algeria. Moreover, the study contributes to the understanding of transmission of medicinal plant knowledge in the Mediterranean basin. This work aims to document the phytotherapeutical knowledge and practice of the nomadic community of the Algerian steppe, and compare it with neighbouring sedentary populations and Mediterranean historical texts. Through this, the study strives to evaluate processes of transmission of knowledge among this population, for whom written sources have been largely unavailable. Ethnobotanical surveys were carried out during two years (2015-2017). In total, 73 informants from nomadic populations were interviewed in several steppe regions including areas in the administrative departments of Tiaret, Saida, Naama, Djelfa and M'sila. Structured interviews about medicinal plant knowledge were combined with guided tours with the informants. Prior informed consent was always obtained. The surveys allowed for the collection of sociodemographic data and traditional knowledge about medicinal plants and their uses. Informant Consensus Factor (F IC ) was calculated to evaluate agreement among informants. Results were compared to existing literature to evaluate similarities between this nomadic medicinal flora, that of neighbouring communities and historical texts and identify new plant citations and uses. Among Algerian nomadic communities, herbal remedies are used mostly by women and elders, who are often illiterate. We identified 97 taxa of medicinal plants belonging to 42 botanical families, importantly Lamiaceae, Asteraceae and Apiaceae, like in neighbouring communities. The most common plant parts and method of preparation are also shared with neighbouring populations. New uses are described for 25

  10. Medicinal plants used as home remedies: a family survey by first year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewani-Rusike, Constance R; Mammen, Marykutty

    2014-01-01

    There is a hierarchical organisation of knowledge in the use of medicinal plants in communities. Medicinal use knowledge starts in the home and is passed on to family members. Next in the hierarchy are neighbours, village elders and finally, traditional healers being the most knowledgeable. For primary health care this hierarchy is actively followed in seeking remedies for ailments. This study was a survey of medicinal plant knowledge from family members of 1(st) year medical students registered at Walter Sisulu University. A total of 206 first year medical students participated in this study in 2010 and 2011. Results revealed 47 species used as home remedies, 32% of which are food plants. Leaves and roots were reported as most commonly used. The top five ailments managed at home were gastrointestinal problems (25 plants), wounds (19 plants), respiratory tract problems (19 plants), infections, including sexually transmitted diseases (19 plants) and pain including headaches (19 plants). Chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, cancer and reproductive ailments also formed a large group of diseases self-managed at home (29 plants). Family members hold knowledge of medicinal plant use. From this study, first year medical students were made aware of the relationship between common ailments and associated home remedies. This study forms a basis for further study of medicinal plants to validate their use as medicinal remedies.

  11. A review on Malaysian medicinal plants having anti-hyperglycemic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kifayatullah Muhammad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of natural products as a source of remedies has long history since ancient times. Currently, medicinal plants are traditional practices for an extensive range of therapeutics and pharmacological activities like hypoglycemic, immunological, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-hepatic, cardiovascular and central nervous effect. In the past, the use of plant based medicines was mainly restricted to developing countries because of insufficient resources, but currently the trend is changed and natural products as a source of medicines are growing rapidly in developed countries. It is confirmed from research articles that nearly about 75%– 80% of the reserved zone inhabitants used natural products for their health remedies. In all, about 250 000–500 000 species of plants exist worldwide and almost 800 plants have been documented for use in folklore systems of medicine. Regarding to this, Malaysia is being accepted as one of the largest biodiversity countries. In Malaysia, 12 000 species of natural products exist and 1200 are documented to have remedial potential against various diseases. In the market, a variety of allopathic drugs are available, but are linked to various side effects. Hence, there is rising interest in the direction to plant based medicines remedies with a basic tactic towards the nature. The anti-diabetic drugs from natural products source in current use and their same way of producing action are preferred mainly due to affordable price, easy availability and minor harmful effect on human beings. Therefore, the aim of the present research work was to review various Malaysian medicinal plants having potential in attenuation of high level of blood glucose. All over the world, diabetes mellitus is claimed to be one of the most common chronic hereditary non-communicable disease, fourth leading cause of mortality in the most developed countries. The disease is also spreading in many developing and newly industrialized nations

  12. Levels of trace elements in medicinal plants with anti-diabetic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, D.K.; Jena, S.

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants with anti-diabetic potential have been characterized by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. Trace elements such as Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr and Pb are found to be present in these studied medicinal plant samples. The concentrations of elements like K and Ca are quantified in percentage level whereas other elements are found to be in parts per million levels. Elemental analysis of ten different medicinal plant samples commonly used for management and cure of diabetes, shows variation in concentrations. These elements either directly or indirectly may play some role to control diabetes. (author)

  13. A Review of Hepatoprotective Plants Used in Saudi Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman K. Al-Asmari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver disease is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality across the world. According to WHO estimates, about 500 million people are living with chronic hepatitis infections resulting in the death of over one million people annually. Medicinal plants serve as a vital source of potentially useful new compounds for the development of effective therapy to combat liver problems. Moreover herbal products have the advantage of better affordability and acceptability, better compatibility with the human body, and minimal side effects and is easier to store. In this review attempt has been made to summarize the scientific data published on hepatoprotective plants used in Saudi Arabian traditional medicine. The information includes medicinal uses of the plants, distribution in Saudi Arabia, ethnopharmacological profile, possible mechanism of action, chemical constituents, and toxicity data. Comprehensive scientific studies on safety and efficacy of these plants can revitalise the treatment of liver diseases.

  14. Ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants in the highlands of Soan Valley, Salt Range, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Sadia; Sultana, Jawairia; Sultana, Humaira; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2014-08-08

    Two thirds of the world's population relies on medicinal plants for centuries for several human pathologies. Present study aimed to identify, catalogue and document the large number of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in Soan Valley, Salt Range, Pakistan. Informal interviews were conducted involving a total of 255 villagers (155 male and 65 female and 35 herbalists) to elicit the knowledge and use of medicinal plants. Local communities possessed knowledge of fifty eight (58) medicinal plant species belonging to thirty five (35) families to treat fifteen ailment categories. Whole plant and leaves were the most frequently used plant parts (24%) followed by seed (14%), root (12%), flower (7%), bulb (6%), fruit (4%), stem (3%), latex and rhizome (2%) and sap and gum (1%). Frequently used growth forms of medicinal plants were wild herbs (63%) followed by cultivated herbs (14%), wild trees (11%), wild shrubs (10%) and wild and cultivated herbs (2%). Preparations were administrated generally through oral and topical routes. Local people were familiar mostly with the species in order to deal common ailments particularly cough, cold, digestive problems, fever, headache, and skin infections. Complex ailments were treated by traditional healers. Justica adhatoda, Olea ferruginea, Amaranthus viridis and Mentha royleana were identified as plants with high use value (UV). This study revealed that the area harbors high diversity of medicinal flora. Despite gradual socio-cultural transformation, local communities still hold ample knowledge of plants and their uses. The reliance on traditional medicines was associated with the lack of modern health care facilities, poverty and the traditional belief of their effectiveness. Medicinal plants play a significant role in management of various human diseases in the study area. A high degree of consensus among the informants was an indicative that plant use and knowledge were still strong, and preservation of this knowledge

  15. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used against human ailments in Gubalafto District, Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekole, Getnet

    2017-10-04

    Traditional medicinal plant species documentation is very crucial in Ethiopia for biodiversity conservation, bioactive chemical extractions and indigenous knowledge retention. Having first observed the inhabitants of Gubalafto District (Northern Ethiopia), the author gathered, recorded, and documented the human traditional medicinal plant species and the associated indigenous knowledge. The study was conducted from February 2013 to January 2015 and used descriptive field survey design. Eighty-four informants were selected from seven study kebeles (sub-districts) in the District through purposive, snowball, and random sampling techniques. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews, guided field walks, demonstrations, and focus group discussions with the help of guided questions. Data were organized and analyzed by descriptive statistics with SPSS version 20 and Microsoft Office Excel 2007. A total of 135 medicinal plant species within 120 genera and 64 families were documented. Among the species, Ocimum lamiifolium and Rhamnus prinoides scored the highest informant citations and fidelity level value, respectively. In the study area, Asteraceae with 8.1% and herbs with 50.4% plant species were the most used sources for their medicinal uses. A total of 65 ailments were identified as being treated by traditional medicinal plants, among which stomachache (abdominal health problems) was frequently reported. Solanum incanum was reported for the treatment of many of the reported diseases. The leaf, fresh parts, and crushed forms of the medicinal plants were the most preferred in remedy preparations. Oral application was the highest reported administration for 110 preparations. A majority of medicinal plant species existed in the wild without any particular conservation effort. Few informants (about 5%) had only brief notes about the traditional medicinal plants. Ninety percent of the respondents have learned indigenous

  16. Chemical Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of fresh leaves of psidium guajava cultivated in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, S.; Ali, S.N.; Tauseef, S.

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro antioxidant activities of the methanol extract of fresh leaves of Psidium guajava cultivated in Pakistan and its different fractions were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. The methanol extract, main ethyl acetate fraction and its polar sub fraction showed high free radical scavenging activity with EC50 11.72, 11.72 and 46.8 micro g/mL respectively. The first two values are comparable with that of reference compound ascorbic acid (EC50 9.4 ?g/mL). The known antioxidants gallic acid (1), methyl ferulate (2) and methyl p-E-coumarate (3) were isolated from the ethyl acetate insoluble fraction. Their structures were identified by mass, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Compounds 2 and 3 are reported for the first time from the genus Psidium. (author)

  17. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the East Sepik province of Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Michael; Kehop, Dickson Andrew; Kinminja, Boniface; Sabak, Malcolm; Wavimbukie, Graham; Barrows, Katherine M; Matainaho, Teatulohi K; Barrows, Louis R; Rai, Prem P

    2015-11-14

    Rapid modernization in the East Sepik (ES) Province of Papua New Guinea (PNG) is resulting in a decrease in individuals knowledgeable in medicinal plant use. Here we report a synthesis and comparison of traditional medicinal plant use from four ethnically distinct locations in the ES Province and furthermore compare them to two other previous reports of traditional plant use from different provinces of PNG. This manuscript is based on an annotated combination of four Traditional Medicines (TM) survey reports generated by University of Papua New Guinea (UPNG) trainees. The surveys utilized a questionnaire titled "Information sheet on traditional herbal preparations and medicinal plants of PNG", administered in the context of the TM survey project which is supported by WHO, US NIH and PNG governmental health care initiatives and funding. Regional and transregional comparison of medicinal plant utilization was facilitated by using existing plant databases: the UPNG TM Database and the PNG Plant Database (PNG Plants) using Bayesian statistical analysis. Medicinal plant use between four distinct dialect study areas in the ES Province of PNG showed that only a small fraction of plants had shared use in each area, however usually utilizing different plant parts, being prepared differently and to treat different medical conditions. Several instances of previously unreported medicinal plants could be located. Medicinally under- and over-utilized plants were found both in the regional reports and in a transregional analysis, thus showing that these medicinal utilization frequencies differ between provinces. Documentation of consistent plant use argues for efficacy and is particularly important since established and effective herbal medicinal interventions are sorely needed in the rural areas of PNG, and unfortunately clinical validation for the same is often lacking. Despite the existence of a large corpus of medical annotation of plants for PNG, previously unknown medical

  18. Medicinal Plant Research Group, School of Pharmacy, College of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicinal Plant Research Group, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi,. P.O. Box 19676-00202, ... of plant used, the dosage form and procedures for preparation and ... by thermal gravimetric methods. In finely.

  19. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants used in Eastern Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrió, Esperança; Vallès, Joan

    2012-06-14

    This paper represents the first large-scale ethnobotanical study in the island of Mallorca, and provides significant information on pharmaceutical plant uses, built up from interviews with native people from this touristic hotspot, demonstrating its ethnopharmacological importance. To collect, analyse and evaluate the ethnobotanical knowledge concerning medicinal plants in a north-eastern Mallorcan area (municipalities of Artà, Capdepera and Son Servera; 298 km2, 31,764 inhabitants). We performed semi-structured interviews with 42 informants (mean age 77; 40% women, 60% men), identified the plant taxa reported and analysed the results, comparing them with those found in the current Mallorcan ethnobotanical information and in other territories. The informants reported data on 121 human medicinal plants representing 64 botanical families. Around 45 medicinal uses reported, concerning 37 species, have not or have very rarely been cited as medicinal. An index of medicinal importance is proposed. All efforts addressed to compiling ethnobotanical information in industrialised or touristised areas such as Eastern Mallorca are still valuable. New possibilities can be explored to give practical value to Mallorcan ethnobotanical data in the frame of considering traditional plant knowledge as part of the islanders’ lifestyle and healthy habits.

  20. Capturing indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants use: Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Understanding the intricate link between humans and the plants use is needed to address some of to-day's socio-economic and health challenges. Materials and Methods: The study focused on plants that have high cultural and medicinal values for the host communities of Old Oyo National Park, Nigeria. Local ...

  1. Ethnomedicinal knowledge and relative importance of indigenous medicinal plants of Cholistan desert, Punjab Province, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nadeem; Mahmood, Adeel; Tahir, S S; Bano, Asghari; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Hassan, Seema; Ashraf, Aisha

    2014-09-11

    Ethnomedicinal studies are significant for the discovery of new crude drugs from indigenous reported medicinal plants. The current study aimed to report the indigenous medicinal knowledge of plants and herbal remedies used as folk medicines in Cholistan desert, Punjab Province, Pakistan. Rapid appraisal approach (RAA), semi-structured interviews, group meetings with herbalists, landowners and local people having awareness about the medicinal action of plants were employed to collect the data. This study reports 70 medicinal plants belonging to 27 families that were disseminated among 60 different genera and Poaceae was the predominant family over others with 13 reported medicinal plants. Among plant parts, leaves were the dominant over others with 26.4% used in herbal preparations followed by the stem (25.2%), fruit (21.5%), flower (16.3%), seed (6.5%), bark and pod (02%). Haloxylon recurvum exhibited the highest use vale (UV) 0.83 while least UV was exhibited by Mollugo cerviana that was 0.16. Important medicinal plants, reported in this study have been screened for phytochemical and pharmaceutical activities in different parts of the globe. It is recommended that reported medicinal plants having potent action for cancer and hepatitis must be screened for pharmacological activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. VALIDATION AND THERAPEUTIC USE OF SUCCULENT PLANT PARTS - OPENING OF A NEW HORIZON OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The history of use of plants for medicinal purposes is very old. In the ancient civilizations, the crude plant parts were mostly used in such purposes. In the ongoing research, solvent extracted parts of the plants are validated for their reported efficacy with an intention to identify the active principles for production of those at a large scale to use them commercially as medicines. This contemporary method may be added with validation of reported medicinal plants at their fresh, succulent form with all the available principles within them. The validated medicinal plants may be used in many purposes after performing studies related with toxicity, dose etc. Organic animal farms may be created by using fresh inputs of the added medicinal plant garden, replacing the inorganic medicines. Commercialization of succulent medicinal plant part extracts may be performed by export oriented agro-medicine business with the assistance of different cooling systems.

  3. Multivariate analysis in a genetic divergence study of Psidium guajava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, A M; Ferreira, M F S; Guilhen, J H S; Ferreira, A

    2014-12-18

    The family Myrtaceae is widespread in the Atlantic Forest and is well-represented in the Espírito Santo State in Brazil. In the genus Psidium of this family, guava (Psidium guajava L.) is the most economically important species. Guava is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries; however, the widespread cultivation of only a small number of guava tree cultivars may cause the genetic vulnerability of this crop, making the search for promising genotypes in natural populations important for breeding programs and conservation. In this study, the genetic diversity of 66 guava trees sampled in the southern region of Espírito Santo and in Caparaó, MG, Brazil were evaluated. A total of 28 morphological descriptors (11 quantitative and 17 multicategorical) and 18 microsatellite markers were used. Principal component, discriminant and cluster analyses, descriptive analyses, and genetic diversity analyses using simple sequence repeats were performed. Discrimination of accessions using molecular markers resulted in clustering of genotypes of the same origin, which was not observed using morphological data. Genetic diversity was detected between and within the localities evaluated, regardless of the methodology used. Genetic differentiation among the populations using morphological and molecular data indicated the importance of the study area for species conservation, genetic erosion estimation, and exploitation in breeding programs.

  4. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used by patients with psoriasis in the West Bank of Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawahna, Ramzi; Jaradat, Nidal Amin

    2017-01-03

    Psoriasis is a frequent skin inflammatory disorder that inflicts millions of patients around the globe. To meet their healthcare needs, patients with psoriasis often seek treatment outside the allopathic paradigm. Use of medicinal plants has emerged as one of the most common and preferred modalities of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The aim of this study was to investigate the use of medicinal plants by patients with psoriasis in the West Bank of Palestine. The current study was a questionnaire based cross-sectional descriptive study on the use of medicinal plants by psoriasis patients in the West Bank of Palestine. A sample of 149 patients with psoriasis who were visiting outpatient clinics responded to the questionnaire in face to face interviews. Medicinal plants were used by 81 (54.4%) patients with psoriasis. Patients used 33 medicinal plants belonging to 26 families. Plants belonging to Lamiaceae and Leguminosae were the most commonly used by the study patients. Aloe vera, Trigonella arabica, Catharanthus roseus and Anthemis cotula were the most frequently used medicinal plants to treat psoriasis. Leaves and fruits were the most commonly used parts by the study patients. Paste was the most commonly used form of preparation. The use of medicinal plants was significantly associated with age and monthly household income of the patients. Enhancement of immunity, improving conventional therapy and reduction of side effects were the most commonly self-reported reasons for using medicinal plants. Patients with psoriasis in Palestine seem to use medicinal plants as a CAM modality to manage their psoriasis. Many medicinal plants were commonly used by patients with psoriasis. More randomized clinical trials are needed to demonstrate safety and efficacy for the majority of these medicinal plants reported to be used by patients with psoriasis in Palestine.

  5. [Computer evaluation of hidden potential of phytochemicals of medicinal plants of the traditional Indian ayurvedic medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagunin, A A; Druzhilovsky, D S; Rudik, A V; Filimonov, D A; Gawande, D; Suresh, K; Goel, R; Poroikov, V V

    2015-01-01

    Applicability of our computer programs PASS and PharmaExpert to prediction of biological activity spectra of rather complex and structurally diverse phytocomponents of medicinal plants, both separately and in combinations has been evaluated. The web-resource on phytochemicals of 50 medicinal plants used in Ayurveda was created for the study of hidden therapeutic potential of Traditional Indian Medicine (TIM) (http://ayurveda.pharmaexpert.ru). It contains information on 50 medicinal plants, their using in TIM and their pharmacology activities, also as 1906 phytocomponents. PASS training set was updated by addition of information about 946 natural compounds; then the training procedure and validation were performed, to estimate the quality of PASS prediction. It was shown that the difference between the average accuracy of prediction obtained in leave-5%-out cross-validation (94,467%) and in leave-one-out cross-validation (94,605%) is very small. These results showed high predictive ability of the program. Results of biological activity spectra prediction for all phytocomponents included in our database are in good correspondence with the experimental data. Additional kinds of biological activity predicted with high probability provide the information about most promising directions of further studies. The analysis of prediction results of sets of phytocomponents in each of 50 medicinal plants was made by PharmaExpert software. Based on this analysis, we found that the combination of phytocomponents from Passiflora incarnata may exhibit nootropic, anticonvulsant and antidepressant effects. Experiments carried out in mice models confirmed the predicted effects of Passiflora incarnata extracts.

  6. Ethnomedicinal Evaluation of Medicinal Plants Used against Gastrointestinal Complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to document ethnomedicinal plants used against gastrointestinal complaints in five selected remote regions of Pakistan and to select potential medicinal plants for further in vitro and in vivo investigation. Data on ethnomedicinal plants and ethnographic profile of respondents was documented using semistructured questionnaires. The present study revealed utilization of 52 medicinal plants for the treatment of different gastrointestinal infections in studied regions. Apiaceae was the most dominant family reported to be used for the treatment of these infections (4 plants. Among all the plant parts fruit (24%, whole plants and leaves (23% each were the most preferred plant parts used by the healers. Dosage of recipe was found to be related with the age of the patient. Highest degree of informant consensus was reported for vomiting, nausea (0.92 each, abdominal pain (0.9, and diarrhea (0.89. Withania coagulans scored highest FL value (86% followed by Mentha longifolia and Melia azadirachta ranked second with FL value (75% each. Young generation was found to possess little traditional knowledge about utilizing plant recipes against these infections. Plants with high Fic and FL values should be subjected for further phytochemical and pharmacological investigation for scientific validation.

  7. Absence of Mutagenicity in Three Nigerian Medicinal Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    of the medicinal plant trade in the region [2]. One of the basic criteria set by World Health. Organization (WHO) for the use of herbs as medicines is that they should be shown to be non-toxic [3,4]. Bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test) was used in this work to evaluate the mutagenic potential of the methanolic extracts ...

  8. Anti-hyperglycemic effect and glucose tolerance of guajava (Psidium guajava L.) leaf ethanol extract in diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanis Musdja, Muhammad; Mahendra, Feizar; Musir, Ahmad

    2017-12-01

    Traditionally guava (Psidium guajava L) leaf is used for treatment of various ailments like diarrhea, wounds, rheumatism, anti-allergy, ant-spasmodic, etc, as folk medicine. The aim of this research is to know the effect of hypoglycemia and glucose tolerance of ethanol extract of guava leaf against male white rat. The guajava leaf was obtained from Balitro Bogor. Preparation of guajava leaf extract was done by cold maceration extraction technique using ethanol 70%. Male albino rats were made into diabetics using the alloxan method. Rats were divided into 6 groups, as a comparative drug for anti-hyperglycemic used glibenclamid and as a comparative drug for glucose tolerance used acarbose. The result of blood glucometer test showed that ethanol extract 70% of guajava leaf had effect as anti-hyperglycemic and glucose tolerance with no significant difference with glibenclamid drug as anti-hyperglycemic and acarbose as glucose tolerance drug.

  9. Analysis of antidiarrhoeic effect of plants used in popular medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cybele E. Almeida

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available People customarily use the extracts of plants known to have antidiarrhoeal effects without any scientific base to explain the action of the extract. For this reason, an investigation was undertaken with a view to determining the efficacy of the effects of the brute aqueous extract (BAE of the leaves of Psidium guajava (guava, Stachytarpheta cayenensis (bastard vervain, Polygonum punctatum (water. smartweed, Eugenia uniflora (Brazil or Surinam cherry and Aster squamatus (zé-da-silva on the intestinal transport of water in rats and on the gastrointestinal propulsion in mice. With the exception of the BAE of S. cayenensis, all other BAE's have increased the absorption of water in one or more intestinal portion in relation to the control group. All tested BAE, except that of P. punctatum, reduced the gastrointestinal propulsion in relation to that of the control group. The results indicate that the BAE of the leaves of P. guajava, S. cayenensis, P. punctatum, E. uniflora and A. squamatus have a potential antidiarrhoeic effect to be confirmed by additional investigations in animals infected with enteropathogenic agents.Para combater a diarréia muitas vezes as pessoas utilizam extratos de plantas conhecidas popularmente como anti-diarréicas, mesmo sem base científica. Em razão disto, verificou-se o efeito do extrato aquoso bruto (EAB das folhas da Psidium guajava (goiabeira, Stachytarpheta cayenensis (gervão, Polygonum punctatum (polígono ou pimenta d'água, Eugenia uniflora (pitangueira e Aster squamatus (zé-da-silva no transporte intestinal de água em ratos e na propulsão gastrointestinal em camundongos. Com exceção do EAB de S. cayenensis, os demais aumentaram a absorção de água em uma ou mais porções do intestino em relação ao grupo-controle. Todos os EAB testados, com exceção do P. punctatum, reduziram o trânsito intestinal em relação ao grupo-controle. Com base nos resultados obtidos conclui-se que os EAB das folhas de P

  10. Prospecting for bioactive constituents from traditional medicinal plants through ethnobotanical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ronghui; Wang, Yuehu; Long, Bo; Kennelly, Edward; Wu, Shibiao; Liu, Bo; Li, Ping; Long, Chunlin

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacologically active constituents from traditional medicinal plants have received great attention as sources of novel agents, pharmaceutical intermediates, and chemical entities for synthetic or semisynthetic drugs due to their potent pharmacological activities, low toxicity, and economic viability. Numerous components have been isolated from traditional medicinal plants, including alkaloids, flavonoids, and terpenoids, and clinical and experimental studies suggested that these components have useful pharmacological properties such as antiinfectious, antioxidative, and antiinflammatory effects. In this review, modern ethnobotanical approaches to explore folk medicinal plants as candidates for drug discovery with the greatest possibility of success are discussed. Determining the bioactive mechanisms and tracing structure-activity relationships will promote the discovery of new drugs and pharmacological agents.

  11. Curative care through administration of plant-derived medicines in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Curative care through administration of plant-derived medicines in Sekhukhune district municipality of Limpopo province, South Africa. ... Sources of medicine were mostly herbs followed by shrubs, trees, creepers and aloe collected from the communal land. The leaves, bark, roots and bulbs were prepared into decoctions ...

  12. Ethnopharmacological survey of plant species used in folk medicine against central nervous system disorders in Togo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantati, Yendube T; Kodjo, K Magloire; Dogbeavou, Koffi S; Vaudry, David; Leprince, Jérôme; Gbeassor, Messanvi

    2016-04-02

    Neurological diseases are rising all around the world. In a developing country such as Togo, although plant-based medicines are the only means, still very little is known regarding the nature and efficiency of medicinal plants used by indigenous people to manage central nervous system (CNS) disorders. This study, an ethnobotanical survey, aimed to report plant species used in traditional medicine (TM) for the management of various CNS disorders in Togo. 52 traditional actors (TA) including 33 traditional healers (TH) and 19 medicinal plant sellers (MPS) were interviewed, using a questionnaire mentioning informants' general data and uses of medicinal plants. The present study reports 44 medicinal plant species distributed into 26 families, mentioning scientific and common local names, plant organs used, preparation method, root of administration and putative applications. It appears that there is a real knowledge on medicinal plants used for traditional treatment of CNS disorders in Togo and that the local flora abounds of potentially neuroactive plants which could be useful for the discovery of antipsychotic or neuroprotective molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants in Ada'a District, East Shewa Zone of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefalew, Alemayehu; Asfaw, Zemede; Kelbessa, Ensermu

    2015-04-02

    An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants was conducted in Ada'a District, Eastern Shewa Zone of Oromia Regional State of Ethiopia. The objective of the study was to identify and document medicinal plants and the associated ethnobotanical/ethnomedicinal knowledge of the local people. Relevant ethnobotanical data focused on medicinal plants and traditional herbal medicines were collected using guided field walk, semi-structured interview and direct field observation. Informant consensus method and group discussion were conducted for crosschecking and verification of the information. Both descriptive statistics and quantitative ethnobotanical methods were used for data analysis. We documented 131 species distributed in 109 genera and 54 families based on local claims of medicinal values. Patients who are using traditional drugs and herbalists collect most of these plants from the wild. The leading plant families that encompass large medicinal species were the Lamiaceae (14 species) followed by Asteraceae (13) and Solanaceae (7). The study reported the existence of a number of medicinal plants, an indication for the presence of plant-based traditional medicinal knowledge transfer that survived through generations. Informants asserted that wild growing medicinal plants are under threat due to increased use pressure coupled with unsuitable harvesting that frequently targets roots and barks for remedy preparations. This calls for urgent and collaborative actions to keep the balance between medicinal plants availability in the wild state and their utilization by the community. Furthermore, the study attempted to prioritize the most efficacious medicinal plants as perceived by the local people for possible pharmacological testing.

  14. Survey on medicinal plants and spices used in Beni-Sueif, Upper Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdelhalim A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to identify medicinal plants and spices used for medicine by the community of Beni-Sueif, Upper Egypt. Methods Ethnobotanical data from local people was collected using direct interviews and a semi-structured questionnaire. Results Forty-eight plant species belonging to twenty-seven families and forty-seven genera were encountered during the study. Their botanical and vernacular names, plant parts used and medicinal uses are given. Results of the study were analyzed using two quantitative tools. The factor informant consensus indicated the agreement in the use of plants and the fidelity level indicated the ratio between the number of informants who independently suggested the use of a species for the same major purpose and the total number of informants who mentioned the plant for any use. The results of the factor informant consensus showed that the cardiovascular category has the greatest agreement, followed by the immunological, gastrointestinal and respiratory categories. The most important species according to their fidelity are: Hibiscus sabdariffa L. for the cardiovascular category; Trigonella foenum-graecum L. for the immunological category; Mentha piperita L. for the gastrointestinal category and Pimpinella anisum L. for the respiratory category. Conclusions Medicinal plants are still used for treatment in Beni-Sueif community despite the availability of prescribed medications. Documentation of this ethnomedicinal knowledge is important. Evaluation of pharmacological activity for the promising medicinal plants is suggested.

  15. Traditional use of medicinal plants in the boreal forest of Canada: review and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uprety Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The boreal forest of Canada is home to several hundred thousands Aboriginal people who have been using medicinal plants in traditional health care systems for thousands of years. This knowledge, transmitted by oral tradition from generation to generation, has been eroding in recent decades due to rapid cultural change. Until now, published reviews about traditional uses of medicinal plants in boreal Canada have focused either on particular Aboriginal groups or on restricted regions. Here, we present a review of traditional uses of medicinal plants by the Aboriginal people of the entire Canadian boreal forest in order to provide comprehensive documentation, identify research gaps, and suggest perspectives for future research. Methods A review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, theses and reports. Results A total of 546 medicinal plant taxa used by the Aboriginal people of the Canadian boreal forest were reported in the reviewed literature. These plants were used to treat 28 disease and disorder categories, with the highest number of species being used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by musculoskeletal disorders. Herbs were the primary source of medicinal plants, followed by shrubs. The medicinal knowledge of Aboriginal peoples of the western Canadian boreal forest has been given considerably less attention by researchers. Canada is lacking comprehensive policy on harvesting, conservation and use of medicinal plants. This could be explained by the illusion of an infinite boreal forest, or by the fact that many boreal medicinal plant species are widely distributed. Conclusion To our knowledge, this review is the most comprehensive to date to reveal the rich traditional medicinal knowledge of Aboriginal peoples of the Canadian boreal forest. Future ethnobotanical research endeavours should focus on documenting the knowledge held by Aboriginal groups that have so far received less attention

  16. [Feasibility study for whole plant medicinal use of Tribulus terrestris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Wang, Chunyu; Han, Meiw; Yang, Limin

    2009-09-01

    The content differences of leaf, plant and fruit of Tribulus terrestris was compared to study the feasibility of whole plant medicinal use. The samples were collected in three typical habitats and six different production areas of T. terrestris. The main medicinal ingredients saponins and flavonoids were determined in root, stem, leaf and fruit during the harvest time. The two ingredients were abounded in leaf and more than 2.61 times as in other parts of the plant. The results showed that there were no differences between the whole plant and the fruit. It should pay more attentions on the collection, preservation and utilization of the leaf of T. terrestris in the harvesting and processing stage. The whole plant for medical use was feasibility based on the content of the ingredients.

  17. Medicinal plants - a potent antibacterial source against bacterial leaf blight (BLB) of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabeen, R.

    2011-01-01

    The antibacterial potential of indigenous medicinal plants as alternative chemical pesticides for controlling bacterial leaf blight (BLB) of rice was investigated. Twenty-five different species of medicinal plants were collected from various sites in Pakistan. Decoctions of all medicinal plant species were screened by the disc plate diffusion method for testing the susceptibility of an aggressive isolate of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo 105). Out of twenty five medicinal plants, Thuja orientalis (cone + leaves), Azadirachta indica (seeds + fruits), Amomum subulatum (fruits), Terminalia chebula (fruits), Terminalia bellirica (fruits), Anethum graveolens (fruits) and Ferula assa-foetida (fruits) decoctions showed significant activity. The efficacy of decoctions from six promising plants were further tested through detached leaf, glasshouse and field assays. A decoction of Terminalia chebula demonstrated the highest effectiveness in terms of regulating BLB in the plants both under laboratory and field conditions. Bioactive fractions of Terminalia chebula were purified, characterized and tentatively identified as allegic acid. (author)

  18. IMPACT OF TRADITIONAL PRACTICES ON MEDICINAL PLANT TRADE IN THE RAINFOREST OF NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbadebo Osemeobo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey was used to assess the impact of traditional practices on trade in traditional plants within the rainforest of Nigeria. A questionnaire survey and market-based observations were used to derive data from 110 stakeholders including: plant collectors, sellers, middlemen and traditional healers. Results of data analyses indicate that: (i plants not suitable for cultural practices were not usually used for traditional medicine. (ii Traditional management of the forests based on open access, restricted access and closed access rights could no longer protect habitats of medicinal plants. (iii Breakdown of management practices in the forests was common because of a twin factor: violators of regulations were not being punished; and there were increasing disputes over land boundaries among communities. (iv Medicinal plants on regular trade were in decline. Stakeholder participation in species rehabilitation in the forests and establishment of ex situ gardens may sustain the medicinal plant trade.

  19. The pharmacological assay as a tool to medicinal plants domestication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montanari Jr., Ilio

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil studies with native medicinal plants are usually performed using non-domesticated plants and as a result the genetic variability of wild species could express different levels of active principles changing their therapeutic effect. Based on that, the aim of this study was to demonstrate that extract of different half- sib families Cordia verbenacea (DC, widely used as medicinal plant in Brazil, have different efficacy in the Total Growth Inhibition (TGI of 5 different human tumor cell lines. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA follow by Tuckey test and a heritability estimation of the plant families was performed. The results showed that TGI are different for each plant family according with each human tumor cell line. For instance, extracts obtained from families 3,11 and 12 were more effective to inhibit the U-251 and Ht-29 cell lines compared to the other families, while extracts obtained from the family 32 was more effective against thethe PC-3 line. The heritability coefficient indicated that plant population selection could promote a genetic improvement related to its active principle and their pharmacological effect and could provide the identification of the best families according to their pharmacological efficacy. In conclusion, this study suggests that the domestication of a wild medicinal plant should be better monitored by its pharmacological effect.

  20. Antimalarial evaluation of selected medicinal plant extracts used in Iranian traditional medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Feiz Haddad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In an attempt to discover new natural active extracts against malaria parasites, the present study evaluated the antiplasmodial properties of selected plants based on Iranian traditional medicine. Materials and Methods: Ten plant species found in Iran were selected and collected based on the available literature about the Iranian traditional medicine. The methanolic extracts of these plants were investigated for in vitro antimalarial properties against chloroquine-sensitive (3D7 and multi-drug resistant (K1 strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Their in vivo activity against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice was also determined. Cytotoxicity tests were carried out using the Raji cells line using the MTT assay. The extracts were phytochemically screened for their active constituents. Results: According to the IC50 and selectivity index (SI values, of the 10 selected plant species, Citrullus colocynthis, Physalis alkekengi, and Solanum nigrum displayed potent in vitro antimalarial activity against both 3D7 and K1 strains with no toxicity (IC50= 2.01-18.67 µg/ml and SI=3.55 to 19.25.  Comparisons between treated and untreated control mice showed that the mentioned plant species reduced parasitemia by 65.08%, 57.97%, and 60.68%, respectively.  The existence of antiplasmodial compounds was detected in these plant extracts. Conclusion: This was the first study to highlight the in vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial effects of             C. colocynthis, P. alkekengi, and S. nigrum in Iran. Future studies can use these findings to design further biological tests to identify the active constituents of the mentioned plant species and clarify their mechanism of action.

  1. In vitro regenerative potentials of the medicinal plant Abutilon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nissar Reshi

    2016-03-23

    Mar 23, 2016 ... Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory, Department of Studies in Botany, University of ... Since the plant has a lot of medicinal importance, it was subjected to culture in vitro. ..... (3%) as compared to the cultures of tomato (van den.

  2. Application of Autofluorescence for Analysis of Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria V. Roshchina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autofluorescence of secondary compounds contained in plant secretory cells may be applied to the analysis of medicinal plants for pharmacy. Emission and prevailing fluorescent pharmaceuticals have been estimated in several models of species such as Salvia officinalis, Berberis vulgaris, Humulus lupulus, and Matricaria chamomilla, by luminescence microscopy, microspectrofluorimetry, and confocal microscopy.

  3. Medicinal plant knowledge and its erosion among the Mien (Yao) in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srithi, Kamonnate; Balslev, Henrik; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit; Srisanga, Prachaya; Trisonthi, Chusie

    2009-06-22

    We studied local knowledge and actual uses of medicinal plants among the Mien in northern Thailand, documenting traditional medical practices and its transfer between generations. With the assumption that discrepancies between knowledge and actual use represent knowledge erosion, we studied whether actual use of medicinal plants corresponded to people's knowledge of such uses. We used local knowledge from four specialist informants as the domain for semi-structured interviews with 34 randomly selected non-specialist informants. We calculated informant consensus, use value, and fidelity level for each species and use category and performed statistical analyses with Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, Pearson correlation coefficient, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, and paired-sample t-tests. We found significant discrepancies between knowledge and actual use of medicinal plants. The number of known and actually used plants increased with increasing informant age and decreased with increasing years of formal education. Medicinal plant knowledge and use in these Mien communities is undergoing inter-generational erosion because of acculturation and interrupted knowledge transmission. Preservation of Mien medicinal plant intellectual heritage requires continued documentation concerning use, conservation, and sustainable management of this resource, which should be publicized to younger Mien.

  4. Diversity of Medicinal Plants among Different Forest-use Types of the Pakistani Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Muhammad; Hölscher, Dirk

    2012-12-01

    Diversity of Medicinal Plants among Different Forest-use Types of the Pakistani Himalaya Medicinal plants collected in Himalayan forests play a vital role in the livelihoods of regional rural societies and are also increasingly recognized at the international level. However, these forests are being heavily transformed by logging. Here we ask how forest transformation influences the diversity and composition of medicinal plants in northwestern Pakistan, where we studied old-growth forests, forests degraded by logging, and regrowth forests. First, an approximate map indicating these forest types was established and then 15 study plots per forest type were randomly selected. We found a total of 59 medicinal plant species consisting of herbs and ferns, most of which occurred in the old-growth forest. Species number was lowest in forest degraded by logging and intermediate in regrowth forest. The most valuable economic species, including six Himalayan endemics, occurred almost exclusively in old-growth forest. Species composition and abundance of forest degraded by logging differed markedly from that of old-growth forest, while regrowth forest was more similar to old-growth forest. The density of medicinal plants positively correlated with tree canopy cover in old-growth forest and negatively in degraded forest, which indicates that species adapted to open conditions dominate in logged forest. Thus, old-growth forests are important as refuge for vulnerable endemics. Forest degraded by logging has the lowest diversity of relatively common medicinal plants. Forest regrowth may foster the reappearance of certain medicinal species valuable to local livelihoods and as such promote acceptance of forest expansion and medicinal plants conservation in the region. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12231-012-9213-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  5. Effects of rare earth elements on growth and metabolism of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhong Zhang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The rare earth elements (REEs are a set of 17 chemical elements. They include the lanthanide series from lanthanum (La to lutetium (Lu, scandium (Sc, and yttrium (Y in the periodic table. Although REEs are used widely in industry and agriculture in China for a long time, there has been increasing interest in application of REEs to medicinal plants in recent years. In this paper, we summarize researches in the past few decades regarding the effects of REEs on the germination of seeds, the growth of roots, total biomass, and the production of its secondary metabolites, as well as their effects on the absorption of minerals and metals by medicinal plants. By compilation and analysis of these data, we found that REEs have promoting effects at low concentrations and negative effects at comparatively high concentrations. However, most studies focused only on a few REEs, i.e., La, cerium (Ce, neodymium (Nd and europium (Eu, and they made main emphasis on their effects on regulation of secondary metabolism in tissue-cultured plants, rather than cultivated medicinal plants. Advanced research should be invested regarding on the effects of REEs on yields of cultivated plants, specifically medicinal plants.

  6. Daun Jambu Biji (Psidium Guajava L.) Sebagai Antikanker Payudara

    OpenAIRE

    Dwitiyanti, Dwitiyanti

    2015-01-01

    Guava Leaves (Psidium Guajava Linn) is a natural substance that is used as an anticancer. In previous studies, have proved that guava leaves contain high levels of quercetin in the amount of 61.71 % can act as an anticancer . This shows that the guava leaves are chemical compounds that have the potential cytotoxic. Hence, this research aimed to determine the cytotoxic effect of 70 % ethanol extract of guava leaves on T47D cells performed in vitro by direct calculation method ( viable cell cou...

  7. Survey and scientific evaluation of medicinal plants used by the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survey and scientific evaluation of medicinal plants used by the Pahan and Teli ... African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines ... the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and using the guided field-walk method.

  8. Medicinal plants used by women from Agnalazaha littoral forest (Southeastern Madagascar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The country of Madagascar is renowned for its high level of biodiversity and endemism, as well as the overwhelming pressures and threats placed on the natural resources by a growing population and climate change. Traditional medicine plays an important role in the daily lives of the Malagasy for various reasons including limited access to healthcare, limited markets and traditional values. The objective of this study was to assess the modern utitilization of the Agnalazaha Forest by the local population in Mahabo-Mananivo, Madagascar, for medicinal plants used by women, and to establish a list of medicinal plants used by women sourced from Agnalazaha Forest. Methods Ethnobotanical studies were conducted over a period of five months in 2010 to determine the diversity of medicinal plants used by women in the commune of Mahabo-Mananivo. In all, 498 people were interviewed, both male and female ranging age from 15 to over 60 years old. Results 152 medicinal plants used by local people were collected during the ethnobotanical studies. Among the recorded species, eight native species are widely used by women. These species are known for their therapeutic properties in treating placental apposition and complications during childbirth as well as tropical illnesses such as malaria, filariasis, and sexual diseases like gonorrhea and syphilis. Conclusions Littoral forests are rare ecosystems that are highly threatened on the island nation of Madagascar. Our investigation into the use of medicinal plants sourced from and around the Agnalazaha Forest by the women of Mahabo-Mananivo reinforces the need for this natural resource as a first line of health care for rural families. PMID:24188563

  9. African medicinal plants and their derivatives: Current efforts towards potential anti-cancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbele, Mzwandile; Hull, Rodney; Dlamini, Zodwa

    2017-10-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide and second only to cardiovascular diseases. Cancer is a challenge in African countries because generally there is limited funding available to deal with the cancer epidemic and awareness and this should be prioritised and all possible resources should be utilized to prevent and treat cancer. The current review reports on the role of African medicinal plants in the treatment of cancer, and also outlines methodologies that can also be used to achieve better outcomes for cancer treatment. This review outlines African medicinal plants, isolated compounds and technologies that can be used to advance cancer research. Chemical structures of isolated compounds have an important role in anti-cancer treatments; new technologies and methods may assist to identify more properties of African medicinal plants and the treatment of cancer. In conclusion, African medicinal plants have shown their potential as enormous resources for novel cytotoxicity compounds. Finally it has been noted that the cytotoxicity depends on the chemical structural arrangements of African medicinal plants compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A comparative study on medicinal plants used in Akha's traditional medicine in China and Thailand, cultural coherence or ecological divergence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inta, A.; Shengji, P.; Balslev, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Aim of the study : The survey aims to study the effect of geographic separation of ethnic groups on local knowledge of medicinal plants used by Akha people in Thailand and China, who were separated 100-120 years ago, to see how different the two geographically distinct but culturally similar groups...... were in this respect. Materials and methods : Interviewing 10 villagers in each of five Akha villages, three in Thailand and two in China, about which plants they used and how they used them. Results : A total of 95 medicinal plants registered in the five villages only 16 were shared between China......, but that when using these new species they have maintained other traditions relating to medicinal plants....

  11. DNA barcoding as a means for identifying medicinal plants of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schori, M.; Showalter, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    DNA barcoding involves the generation of DNA sequencing data from particular genetic regions in an organism and the use of these sequence data to identify or 'barcode' that organism and distinguish it from other species. Here, DNA barcoding is being used to identify several medicinal plants found in Pakistan and distinguished them from other similar species. Several challenges to the successful implementation of plant DNA barcoding are presented and discussed. Despite these challenges, DNA barcoding has the potential to uniquely identify medicinal plants and provide quality control and standardization of the plant material supplied to the pharmaceutical industry. (author)

  12. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in Kilte Awulaelo District, Tigray Region of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Ethiopian people have been dependent on traditional medicine, mainly medicinal plants, from time immemorial for control of human and animal health problems, and they still remain to be largely dependent on the practice. The purpose of the current study was to conduct ethnobotanical study to document medicinal plants used to treat diseases of human and domestic animals in Kilte Awulaelo District in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia. Methods Ethnobotanical data were collected between July and September 2011 through semi-structured interviews, ranking exercises and field observations. For the interviews, 72 knowledgeable informants were sampled using purposive sampling method. For the different ranking exercises, key informants were identified with the help of elders and local administrators from informants that were already involved in the interviews. Results The study revealed 114 medicinal plant species belonging to 100 genera and 53 families. The plants were used to treat 47 human and 19 livestock diseases. Of the species, the majority (74%) were obtained from the wild. Herbs were the most utilized plants, accounting for 44% of the species, followed by shrubs (29%). Leaf was the most commonly used plant part accounting for 42.98% of the plants, followed by roots (25.73%). Preference ranking exercise on selected plants used against abdominal pain indicated the highest preference of people for Solanum marginatum. Direct matrix ranking showed Cordia africana as the most preferred multipurpose plant in the community. Preference ranking of selected scarce medicinal plants indicated Myrica salicifolia as the most scarce species, followed by Boscia salicifolia and Acokanthera schimperi. According to priority ranking, drought was identified as the most destructive factor of medicinal plants, followed by overgrazing and firewood collection. Conclusion Medicinal plants are still playing significant role in the management of various human and livestock diseases in

  13. Social organization influences the exchange and species richness of medicinal plants in amazonian homegardens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; González-Segura, Lara; Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Howard, Patricia L.; Molina, José Luis; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants provide indigenous and peasant communities worldwide with means to meet their healthcare needs. Homegardens often act as medicine cabinets, providing easily accessible medicinal plants for household needs. Social structure and social exchanges have been proposed as factors

  14. Studies on detection and analysis of proteases in leaf extract of medicinally important plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnadurai, Gandhi Shree; Krishnan, Sivakumar; Perumal, Palani

    2018-02-01

    The whole plant or the extracts obtained from them have long been used as medicine to treat various human diseases and disorders. Notably, those plants endowed with protease activity have been traditionally used as the agents for treating tumors, digestion disorders, swelling, blood coagulation, fibrinolysis and also for immune-modulation. Proteases occupy a pivotal position in enzyme based industries. Plant proteases have been increasingly exploited for pharmaceutical, food, leather and textile processing industries. Earlier investigations have focused on the occurrence of proteases in medicinally unimportant plants. Therefore it has been aimed to study the occurrence of proteolytic enzymes from medicinally important plants establish any correlation exists between protease activity and medicinal use of individual plants. Crude extract were obtained from the leaves of 80 different medicinal plants. Tris-HCl buffer was used as the extraction buffer and the supernatants obtained were used for determination of total protein and protease activity using spectrophotometric methods. Qualitative screening for the presence of protease was carried out with agar diffusion method by incorporating the substrate. SDS-PAGE was used to analyse the isoforms of protease and for determination of relative molecular mass. Relatively higher protease activities were observed in the extracts of leaves of Pongamia pinnata (Fabaceae), Wrightia tinctoria (Apocyanaceae) Acalypha indica (Euphorbiaceae), Adhatoda vasica (Acanthaceae) and Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae). No correlation was found between the total protein content and protease activity in individual plant species. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated the presence of multiple forms of protease of higher molecular weight range in several plant species. We found a strong correlation between the protease activity and medicinal application of the plant CONCLUSION: The present study has unequivocally revealed that the leaves of medicinal plants

  15. [Mythology and the medicinal plants of antiquity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, André-Julien

    2003-01-01

    In any civilization, nature is closely bound to the world of divinities. This is clearly seen in the Mediterranean world of Antiquity in every reference to the medicinal plants. Our aim, in this study, was to demonstrate the link between mythology and medicine. Through several centuries of medicinal practice, appears a therapeutic knowledge close to become a science. In spite of many gaps, errors and illusions thus emerges a first attempt to master the art of healing. Is it possible to speculate on a new type of drug research guided from ancient texts? Ethnopharmacology investigating medicinal traditions of the world has already obtained in this field some spectacular findings. At the moment, it would be difficult to predict the future of archeopharmacology but as Paul Valery said: "Present is nothing else than a future nutriment for the past".

  16. Medicinal plants with cholinesterase inhibitory activity: A Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A potential source of AChE and BChE inhibitors is provided by the abundance of plants in nature, and natural products continue to provide useful drugs and templates for the development of other compounds. The present work constitutes a review of the literature on 123 species of medicinal plants that have been tested for ...

  17. Prioritizing of effective factors on development of medicinal plants cultivation using analytic network process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbanali Rassam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available For the overall development of medicinal plants cultivation in Iran, there is a need to identify various effective factors on medicinal plant cultivation. A proper method for identifying the most effective factor on the development of the medicinal plants cultivation is essential. This research conducted in order to prioritizing of the effective criteria for the development of medicinal plant cultivation in North Khorasan province in Iran using Analytical Network Process (ANP method. The multi-criteria decision making (MCDM is suggested to be a viable method for factor selection and the analytic network process (ANP has been used as a tool for MCDM. For this purpose a list of effective factors offered to expert group. Then pair wise comparison questionnaires were distributed between relevant researchers and local producer experts of province to get their opinions about the priority of criteria and sub- criteria. The questionnaires were analyzed using Super Decision software. We illustrated the use of the ANP by ranking main effective factors such as economic, educational-extension services, cultural-social and supportive policies on development of medicinal plants. The main objective of the present study was to develop ANP as a decision making tool for prioritizing factors affecting the development of medicinal plants cultivation. Results showed that the ANP methodology was perfectly suited to tackling the complex interrelations involved in selection factor in this case. Also the results of the process revealed that among the factors, supporting the cultivation of medicinal plants, build the infrastructure for marketing support, having educated farmer and easy access to production input have most impact on the development of medicinal plant cultivation.

  18. PIXE analysis of some Nigerian anti-diabetic medicinal plants (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olabanji, S.O., E-mail: skayode2002@yahoo.co.uk [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Padova (Italy); ICTP Fellow on Sabbatical Leave from Centre for Energy Research and Development, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Adebajo, A. C. [Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Omobuwajo, O. R. [Department of Pharmacognosy and Herbal Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island (Nigeria); Ceccato, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Padova (Italy); Dipartmento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); Buoso, M. C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Padova (Italy); Moschini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Padova (Italy); Dipartmento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy)

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) due to defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both, is a debilitating disease leading to other complications and death of many people in the world. Some of the medicinal plants implicated in the herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria have been reported. Additional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria are presented in this work. These medicinal plants are becoming increasingly important and relevant as herbal drugs due to their use as antioxidants, nutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in combating diabetes. Elemental compositions of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants were determined using PIXE technique. The 1.8 MV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) Legnaro (Padova) Italy was employed for the work. The results show the detection of twenty-one elements which include Mg, P, Ca, K, Mn, Cu, Zn, S, Cr, Co, Ni and V that are implicated in the regulation of insulin and the control of the blood-sugar levels in the human body. The entire plant of Boerhavia diffusa, Securidaca longipedunculata stem, leaves of Peperomia pellucida, Macrosphyra longistyla, Olax subscorpioidea, Phyllanthus muerillanus, Jatropha gossypifolia, Cassia occidentalis, Phyllanthus amarus, and leaf and stem of Murraya koenigii, which have high concentrations of these elements could be recommended as vegetables, nutraceuticals, food additives, supplements and drugs in the control and management of diabetes, if toxicity profiles indicate that they are safe. However, significantly high contents of Al and Si in the entire plant of Bryophyllum pinnatum, and As, Cr, and Cu in Ocimum gratissimum leaf suggest that these plants should be avoided by diabetic patients to prevent complications.

  19. PIXE analysis of some Nigerian anti-diabetic medicinal plants (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olabanji, S.O.; Adebajo, A.C.; Omobuwajo, O.R.; Ceccato, D.; Buoso, M.C.; Moschini, G.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) due to defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both, is a debilitating disease leading to other complications and death of many people in the world. Some of the medicinal plants implicated in the herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria have been reported. Additional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria are presented in this work. These medicinal plants are becoming increasingly important and relevant as herbal drugs due to their use as antioxidants, nutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in combating diabetes. Elemental compositions of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants were determined using PIXE technique. The 1.8 MV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) Legnaro (Padova) Italy was employed for the work. The results show the detection of twenty-one elements which include Mg, P, Ca, K, Mn, Cu, Zn, S, Cr, Co, Ni and V that are implicated in the regulation of insulin and the control of the blood-sugar levels in the human body. The entire plant of Boerhavia diffusa, Securidaca longipedunculata stem, leaves of Peperomia pellucida, Macrosphyra longistyla, Olax subscorpioidea, Phyllanthus muerillanus, Jatropha gossypifolia, Cassia occidentalis, Phyllanthus amarus, and leaf and stem of Murraya koenigii, which have high concentrations of these elements could be recommended as vegetables, nutraceuticals, food additives, supplements and drugs in the control and management of diabetes, if toxicity profiles indicate that they are safe. However, significantly high contents of Al and Si in the entire plant of Bryophyllum pinnatum, and As, Cr, and Cu in Ocimum gratissimum leaf suggest that these plants should be avoided by diabetic patients to prevent complications

  20. A probe into biochemical potential of Aconitum violaceum: A medicinal plant from Himalaya

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    Sidra Sabir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aconitum violaceum Jacq. ex Stapf belonging to family Ranunculaceae is an important medicinal plant of Himalaya regions. Its medicinal potential is due to the presence of pharmacologically active compounds such as At, aconitine, benzoic acid, aconine and flavanoids. This plant has notable antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Traditionally, this plant is used for the treatment of asthma, cough, neuraldisorders, cardiac diseases as well as for curing sciatica and joint pain. Due to remarkable medicinal values and commercialization, this plant is threatened and it is at high risk of extinction. Conservation practices and management techniques should be carried out to protect this important plant from extinction. Recent biotechnological approaches will be quite helpful for its conservation.

  1. Antibacterial activity of five Peruvian medicinal plants against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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    Gabriela Ulloa-Urizar

    2015-11-01

    Conclusions: The results of the present study scientifically validate the inhibitory capacity of the five medicinal plants attributed by their common use in folk medicine and contribute towards the development of new treatment options based on natural products.

  2. Traditional drug therapies from various medicinal plants of central Karakoram National Park, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan

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    Hussain, I.; Ullah, F.

    2011-01-01

    Traditional medicines derived from indigenous plants play an important role in treating infectious diseases. This study examined traditional medicinal uses of indigenous plants and documented different traditional recipes used by local communities to treat different diseases in Baltistan Region. Forty-seven medicinal plants belonging to 22 families were collected. Twenty-one families were angiosperms, one was a pteridophyte (Equisetaceae), and one a gymnosperm (Ephedraceae). Crude extracts of these medicinal plants were used by the local people for treating diseases in a traditional system of medicine. Ranunculaceae, Asteraceae, Polygonaceae and Rosaceae were the most important families, each having five species with medicinal value. The species were found across a wide range of altitudes, from 2000 m to over 4000 m. (author)

  3. Ethnobotanical investigation of traditional medicinal plants commercialized in the markets of Mashhad, Iran

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    Mohammad Sadegh Amiri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: An ethnobotanical survey on the medicinal plant species marketed in Mashhad city, northeastern Iran, was conducted in order to document traditional medicinal knowledge and application of medicinal plants. Materials and Methods: This study was undertaken between 2011 and 2012. The indigenous knowledge of traditional healers used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips. Ethnobotanical data was arranged alphabetically by family name followed by botanical name, vernacular name, part used, folk use, and recipe. Correct identification was made with the help of the various Floras and different herbal literature at the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Herbarium (FUMH. Results: The present investigation reported medicinal information for about 269 species, belonging to 87 vascular plant families and one fungus family. The most important family was Lamiaceae with 26 species, followed by Asteraceae with 23, Fabaceae with 20, and Apiaceae with 19. Herbal medicine uses reported by herbalists was classified into 132 different uses which show significant results to treat a wide spectrum of human ailments. Plants sold at the market were mostly used for digestive system disorders, respiratory problems, urological troubles, nervous system disorders, skin problems, and gynecological ailments. Conclusion: This survey showed that although people in study area have access to modern medical facilities,  a lot of them still continue to depend on medicinal plants for the treatment of healthcare problems. The present paper represents significant ethnobotanical information on medical plants which provides baseline data for future pharmacological and phytochemical studies.

  4. Ethnopharmacological survey of six medicinal plants from Mali, West-Africa

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    Bah Sekou

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An ethnopharmacological survey was carried out to collect information about the use of six medicinal plants in the regions around Siby and Dioila, Mali. The plants investigated were Biopyhtum petersianum, Cola cordifolia, Combretum molle, Opilia celtidifolia, Parkia biglobosa and Ximenia americana. More than 60 medical indications were reported for the use of these plants in traditional medicine. The most frequently reported ailments were malaria (25.6%, different types of pain (14.0% and dermatitis (7.4%. The main forms for preparation were decoction (58.1% and powdered plant material (28.4%. The most frequent used plant parts were leaves (37.7% and stem bark (18.6%. The healers' consensus for the main indications is fairly high for the four plants B. petersianum, C. cordifolia, C. molle and O. celtidifolia, and this supports the traditional use of these plants. However for P. biglobosa and X. americana the healers' consensus is less consistent and it is more difficult to draw conclusions about the most important traditional use of these two plants.

  5. Harnessing the potential clinical use of medicinal plants as anti-diabetic agents

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    Campbell-Tofte JI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Joan IA Campbell-Tofte,1 Per Mølgaard,2 Kaj Winther11Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Frederiksberg University Hospital, Frederiksberg, Denmark; 2Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkAbstract: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder arising from complex interactions between multiple genetic and/or environmental factors. The characteristic high blood sugar levels result from either lack of the hormone insulin (type 1 diabetes, T1D, or because body tissues do not respond to the hormone (type 2 diabetes, T2D. T1D patients currently need exogenous insulin for life, while for T2D patients who do not respond to diet and exercise regimes, oral anti-diabetic drugs (OADs and sometimes insulin are administered to help keep their blood glucose as normal as possible. As neither the administration of insulin nor OADs is curative, many patients develop tissue degenerative processes that result in life-threatening diabetes comorbidities. Several surveys of medicinal plants used