WorldWideScience

Sample records for medicinal plant species

  1. Phytotoxic studies of medicinal plant species of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilani, S.A.; Adnan, M.; Kikuchi, A.; Fujii, Y.; Shinwari, Z.K.; Kazuo, N.; Watanabe, K.N.

    2010-01-01

    Allelopathic screening of 81 medicinal plant species, collected from North West Frontier Province (NWFP) Pakistan, was carried out to identify significantly higher allelopathic species for future phyto chemical analyses. For this purpose, sandwich method was used to test allelopathic potentials of leaf leachates of these plant species against lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa L.). Two different concentrations of 10 mg and 50 mg of leaf leachates were used in the study. The radicle and hypocotyl growths were measured and compared with control treatments. It was observed that an endemic species Seriphidium kurramense, Andrachne cordifolia and Rhazya stricta were the stronger phyto toxic plants as compared to the other test species. Based on the current screening, three potential medicinal plants are recommended for future bioassay guided isolation of allelochemicals and for genetic diversity studies. It would also be interesting to see correlation between genetic markers and isolated allelochemicals. (author)

  2. Social organization influences the exchange and species richness of medicinal plants in Amazonian homegardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Medicinal plants provide indigenous and peasant communities worldwide with means to meet their healthcare needs. Homegardens often act as medicine cabinets, providing easily accessible medicinal plants for household needs. Social structure and social exchanges have been proposed as factors influencing the species diversity that people maintain in their homegardens. Here, we assess the association between the exchange of medicinal knowledge and plant material and medicinal plant richness in homegardens. Using Tsimane' Amazonian homegardens as a case study, we explore whether social organization shapes exchanges of medicinal plant knowledge and medicinal plant material. We also use network centrality measures to evaluate people's location and performance in medicinal plant knowledge and plant material exchange networks. Our results suggest that social organization, specifically kinship and gender relations, influences medicinal plant exchange patterns significantly. Homegardens total and medicinal plant species richness are related to gardeners' centrality in the networks, whereby people with greater centrality maintain greater plant richness. Thus, together with agroecological conditions, social relations among gardeners and the culturally specific social structure seem to be important determinants of plant richness in homegardens. Understanding which factors pattern general species diversity in tropical homegardens, and medicinal plant diversity in particular, can help policy makers, health providers, and local communities to understand better how to promote and preserve medicinal plants in situ. Biocultural approaches that are also gender sensitive offer a culturally appropriate means to reduce the global and local loss of both biological and cultural diversity.

  3. Social organization influences the exchange and species richness of medicinal plants in Amazonian homegardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Díaz-Reviriego

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants provide indigenous and peasant communities worldwide with means to meet their healthcare needs. Homegardens often act as medicine cabinets, providing easily accessible medicinal plants for household needs. Social structure and social exchanges have been proposed as factors influencing the species diversity that people maintain in their homegardens. Here, we assess the association between the exchange of medicinal knowledge and plant material and medicinal plant richness in homegardens. Using Tsimane' Amazonian homegardens as a case study, we explore whether social organization shapes exchanges of medicinal plant knowledge and medicinal plant material. We also use network centrality measures to evaluate people's location and performance in medicinal plant knowledge and plant material exchange networks. Our results suggest that social organization, specifically kinship and gender relations, influences medicinal plant exchange patterns significantly. Homegardens total and medicinal plant species richness are related to gardeners' centrality in the networks, whereby people with greater centrality maintain greater plant richness. Thus, together with agroecological conditions, social relations among gardeners and the culturally specific social structure seem to be important determinants of plant richness in homegardens. Understanding which factors pattern general species diversity in tropical homegardens, and medicinal plant diversity in particular, can help policy makers, health providers, and local communities to understand better how to promote and preserve medicinal plants in situ. Biocultural approaches that are also gender sensitive offer a culturally appropriate means to reduce the global and local loss of both biological and cultural diversity.

  4. Cultural significance of medicinal plant families and species among Quechua farmers in Apillapampa, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evert; Vandebroek, Ina; Sanca, Sabino; Van Damme, Patrick

    2009-02-25

    Medicinal plant use was investigated in Apillapampa, a community of subsistence farmers located in the semi-arid Bolivian Andes. The main objectives were to identify the culturally most significant medicinal plant families and species in Apillapampa. A total of 341 medicinal plant species was inventoried during guided fieldtrips and transect sampling. Data on medicinal uses were obtained from fifteen local Quechua participants, eight of them being traditional healers. Contingency table and binomial analyses of medicinal plants used versus the total number of inventoried species per family showed that Solanaceae is significantly overused in traditional medicine, whereas Poaceae is underused. Also plants with a shrubby habitat are significantly overrepresented in the medicinal plant inventory, which most likely relates to their year-round availability to people as compared to most annual plants that disappear in the dry season. Our ranking of medicinal species according to cultural importance is based upon the Quality Use Agreement Value (QUAV) index we developed. This index takes into account (1) the average number of medicinal uses reported for each plant species by participants; (2) the perceived quality of those medicinal uses; and (3) participant consensus. According to the results, the QUAV index provides an easily derived and valid appraisal of a medicinal plant's cultural significance.

  5. Antimicrobial and toxicological activities of five medicinal plant species from Cameroon Traditional Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases caused by multiresistant microbial strains are on the increase. Fighting these diseases with natural products may be more efficacious. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of methanolic, ethylacetate (EtOAc) and hexanic fractions of five Cameroonian medicinal plants (Piptadeniastum africana, Cissus aralioides, Hileria latifolia, Phyllanthus muellerianus and Gladiolus gregasius) against 10 pathogenic microorganisms of the urogenital and gastrointestinal tracts. Methods The fractions were screened for their chemical composition and in vivo acute toxicity was carried out on the most active extracts in order to assess their inhibitory selectivity. The agar well-diffusion and the micro dilution methods were used for the determination of the inhibition diameters (ID) and Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) respectively on 8 bacterial species including two Gram positive species (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis), and six Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhi) and two fungal isolates (Candida albicans, Candida krusei). The chemical composition was done according to Harbone (1976), the acute toxicity evaluation according to WHO protocol and the hepatic as well as serum parameters measured to assess liver and kidney functions. Results The chemical components of each plant's extract varied according to the solvent used, and they were found to contain alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols, triterpens, sterols, tannins, coumarins, glycosides, cardiac glycosides and reducing sugars. The methanolic and ethylacetate extracts of Phyllanthus muellerianus and Piptadeniastum africana presented the highest antimicrobial activities against all tested microorganisms with ID varying from 8 to 26 mm and MIC from 2.5 to 0.31 mg/ml. The in vivo acute toxicity study carried out on the methanolic extracts of

  6. Use and valuation of native and introduced medicinal plant species in Campo Hermoso and Zetaquira, Boyacá, Colombia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cadena-Gonzalez, Ana Lucia; Sørensen, Marten; Theilade, Ida

    2013-01-01

    Background: Medicinal plant species contribute significantly to folk medicine in Colombia. However, few local studies have investigated whether species used are introduced or native and whether there is a difference in importance of native and introduced medicinal plant species. The aim of the pr...

  7. Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  8. Introduction of Medicinal Plants Species with the Most Traditional Usage in Alamut Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahvazi, Maryam; Khalighi-Sigaroodi, Farahnaz; Charkhchiyan, Mohammad Mahdi; Mojab, Faraz; Mozaffarian, Vali-Allah; Zakeri, Hamideh

    2012-01-01

    The ethnobotany of the medicinal plants of Alamut region is important in understanding the cultures and traditions of Alamut people. This study documents 16 medicinal plant species, most commonly used by the indigenous people of Alamut region (Ghazvin Province), northwest, Iran. The botanical name, family name, vernacular name, part used, and the application of the plants have been provided in this paper. Alamut region was divided into different villages with the aid of maps. We recorded traditional knowledge and use of medicinal plants from herbal practitioners and village seniors in Alamut. The plants were gathered from different sites. The fully dried specimens were then mounted on herbarium sheets. We found 16 medicinal plants belonging to 11 families which were traditionally used in Alamut. Finally, we describe traditional usages by the native people in the Alamut region. The obtained results were compared with data on the herb’s clinical effects. A set of voucher specimens were deposited to the Institute of Medicinal Plants Herbarium (IMPH). PMID:24250441

  9. Plant Resource Availability of Medicinal Fritillaria Species in Traditional Producing Regions in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The genus Fritillaria (Liliaceae comprises of ~140 species of bulbous perennials, which are distributed in the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere. Fritillaria species have attracted much attention because of their commercial value, partly as ornamental plants but principally as a source of material for use in traditional medicine. The use of Fritillaria extracts is well established in some countries in Eastern Europe (e.g., Turkey, and Asia (e.g., China, Japan. In traditional Chinese medicine, the medicinal Fritillaria species is called Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae (BFC, which has been used as a traditional medicine for thousands of years. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are no reports on resource investigation of plants of BFC in the last ten years. In this study, we chose 32 traditional producing regions in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau to perform an investigation on resource availability of BFC. In five sites we did not find any plants of BFC. Results show that the average number of the plants of BFC per quadrat in 26 sites was less than 7, and the average resource density was <22 mg/m2. Habitat types and plant morphology of BFC plants were recorded. Our investigation shows that the area for artificial cultivation of BFC is larger than 400 hm2 and productivity was higher than 180 t. In addition, the total alkaloid contents of samples from cultivated bases and plantations are higher than that from wild fields. This study suggests that the wild populations of BFC are still at the risk of depletion. Artificial cultivation of BFC might be an important way to resolve the current contradiction between resource protection and resource utilization. In addition, identifying the closest European relatives of the Fritillaria species used in traditional medicine may resolve this contradiction.

  10. World-wide every fifth vascular plant species is or was used as medicinal or aromatic plant

    OpenAIRE

    Wittig, Rüdiger; Dingermann, Theo; Sieglstetter, Robert; Xie, Yingzhong; Thiombiano, Adjima; Hahn, Karen

    2015-01-01

    It is common knowledge that plants have been the world-wide most important source of medicines and that they still play this role in developing countries. However, up to now, complete lists of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAP) exist for comparatively few countries. A review of all lists know to the authors reveals the following results: A total of 20.7 % of the plant species analyzed by either publications or own research are or were used as MAP. However, regarding single countries, the dif...

  11. Comparative analysis of diosgenin in Dioscorea species and related medicinal plants by UPLC-DAD-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Tao; Fan, Lan-Lan; Chen, Hong-Li; Zhu, Guo-Yuan; Suen, Hau-Man; Tang, Yi-Na; Zhu, Lin; Chu, Chu; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Chen, Hu-Biao

    2014-08-09

    Dioscorea is a genus of flowering plants, and some Dioscorea species are known and used as a source for the steroidal sapogenin diosgenin. To screen potential resource from Dioscorea species and related medicinal plants for diosgenin extraction, a rapid method to compare the contents of diosgenin in various plants is crucial. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with diode array detection (DAD) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) method was developed for identification and determination of diosgenin in various plants. A comprehensive validation of the developed method was conducted. Twenty-four batches of plant samples from four Dioscorea species, one Smilax species and two Heterosmilax species were analyzed by using the developed method.The present method presented good sensitivity, precision and accuracy. Diosgenin was found in three Dioscorea species and one Heterosmilax species, namely D. zingiberensis, D. septemloba, D. collettii and H. yunnanensis. The method is suitable for the screening of diosgenin resources from plants. D. zingiberensis is an important resource for diosgenin harvesting.

  12. Application of RAPD for molecular characterization of plant species of medicinal value from an arid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, I A; Bakir, M A; Khan, H A; Al Farhan, A H; Al Homaidan, A A; Bahkali, A H; Al Sadoon, M; Shobrak, M

    2010-11-09

    The use of highly discriminatory methods for the identification and characterization of genotypes is essential for plant protection and appropriate use. We utilized the RAPD method for the genetic fingerprinting of 11 plant species of desert origin (seven with known medicinal value). Andrachne telephioides, Zilla spinosa, Caylusea hexagyna, Achillea fragrantissima, Lycium shawii, Moricandia sinaica, Rumex vesicarius, Bassia eriophora, Zygophyllum propinquum subsp migahidii, Withania somnifera, and Sonchus oleraceus were collected from various areas of Saudi Arabia. The five primers used were able to amplify the DNA from all the plant species. The amplified products of the RAPD profiles ranged from 307 to 1772 bp. A total of 164 bands were observed for 11 plant species, using five primers. The number of well-defined and major bands for a single plant species for a single primer ranged from 1 to 10. The highest pair-wise similarities (0.32) were observed between A. fragrantissima and L. shawii, when five primers were combined. The lowest similarities (0) were observed between A. telephioides and Z. spinosa; Z. spinosa and B. eriophora; B. eriophora and Z. propinquum. In conclusion, the RAPD method successfully discriminates among all the plant species, therefore providing an easy and rapid tool for identification, conservation and sustainable use of these plants.

  13. Twinflower (Linnaea borealis L. – plant species of potential medicinal properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiem Barbara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Twinflower (Linnaea borealis L. is a widespread circumboreal plant species belonging to Linnaeaceae family (previously Caprifoliaceae. L. borealis commonly grows in taiga and tundra. In some countries in Europe, including Poland, twinflower is protected as a glacial relict. Chemical composition of this species is not well known, however in folk medicine of Scandinavian countries, L. borealis has a long tradition as a cure for skin diseases and rheumatism. It is suggested that twinflower has potential medicinal properties. The new study on lead secondary metabolites responsible for biological activity are necessary. This short review summarizes very sparse knowledge on twinflower: its biology, distribution, conservation status, chemical constituents, and describes the role of this plant in folk tradition of Scandinavian countries.

  14. Bar-HRM for Authentication of Plant-Based Medicines: Evaluation of Three Medicinal Products Derived from Acanthaceae Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osathanunkul, Maslin; Madesis, Panagiotis; de Boer, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used as a popular alternative to synthetic drugs, both in developed and developing countries. The economic importance of the herbal and natural supplement industry is increasing every year. As the herbal industry grows, consumer safety is one issue that cannot be overlooked. Herbal products in Thai local markets are commonly sold without packaging or labels. Plant powders are stored in large bags or boxes, and therefore buying local herbal products poses a high risk of acquiring counterfeited, substituted and/or adulterated products. Due to these issues, a reliable method to authenticate products is needed. Here DNA barcoding was used in combination with High Resolution Melting analysis (Bar-HRM) to authenticate three medicinal Acanthaceae species (Acanthus ebracteatus, Andrographis paniculata and Rhinacanthus nasutus) commonly used in Thailand. The rbcL barcode was selected for use in primers design for HRM analysis to produce standard melting profiles of the selected species. Melting data from the HRM assay using the designed rbcL primers showed that the three chosen species could be distinguished from each other. HRM curves of all fifteen test samples indicated that three of tested products did not contain the indicated species. Two closely related species (A. paniculata and R. nasutus), which have a high level of morphological similarity, were interchanged with one another in three tested products. Incorrect information on packaging and labels of the tested herbal products was the cause of the results shown here. Morphological similarity among the species of interest also hindered the collection process. The Bar-HRM method developed here proved useful in aiding in the identification and authentication of herbal species in processed samples. In the future, species authentication through Bar-HRM could be used to promote consumer trust, as well as raising the quality of herbal products.

  15. A Review on the Medicinal Plant Dalbergia odorifera Species: Phytochemistry and Biological Activity

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    Son Ninh The

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The crucial medicinal plant Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen species belongs to genus Dalbergia, with interesting secondary metabolites, consisting of main classes of flavonoid, phenol, and sesquiterpene derivatives, as well as several arylbenzofurans, quinones, and fatty acids. Biological studies were carried out on extracts, fractions, and compounds from this species involved in cytotoxic assays; antibacterial, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, antiplatelet, antiosteosarcoma, antiosteoporosis, antiangiogenesis, and prostaglandin biosynthetic enzyme inhibition activities; vasorelaxant activities; alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities; and many other effects. In terms of the valuable resources for natural new drugs development, D. odorifera species are widely used as medicinal drugs in many countries for treatment of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, blood disorders, ischemia, swelling, necrosis, or rheumatic pain. Although natural products from this plant have been increasingly playing an important role in drug discovery programs, there is no supportive evidence to provide a general insight into phytochemical studies on D. odorifera species and biological activities of extracts, fractions, and isolated compounds. To a certain extent, this review deals with an overview of almost naturally occurring compounds from this species, along with extensive coverage of their biological evaluations.

  16. Review-An overview of Pistacia integerrima a medicinal plant species: Ethnobotany, biological activities and phytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Yamin; Zia, Muhammad; Qayyum, Abdul

    2015-05-01

    Pistacia integerrima with a common name crab's claw is an ethnobotanically important tree native to Asia. Traditionally plant parts particularly its galls have been utilized for treatment of cough, asthma, dysentery, liver disorders and for snake bite. Plant mainly contains alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and sterols in different parts including leaf, stem, bark, galls and fruit. A number of terpenoids, sterols and phenolic compounds have been isolated from Pistacia integerrima extracts. Plant has many biological activities including anti-microbial, antioxidant, analgesic, cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity due to its chemical constituents. This review covers its traditional ethnomedicinal uses along with progresses in biological and phytochemical evaluation of this medicinally important plant species and aims to serve as foundation for further exploration and utilization.

  17. Development of transcriptomic resources for interrogating the biosynthesis of monoterpene indole alkaloids in medicinal plant species.

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    Elsa Góngora-Castillo

    Full Text Available The natural diversity of plant metabolism has long been a source for human medicines. One group of plant-derived compounds, the monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs, includes well-documented therapeutic agents used in the treatment of cancer (vinblastine, vincristine, camptothecin, hypertension (reserpine, ajmalicine, malaria (quinine, and as analgesics (7-hydroxymitragynine. Our understanding of the biochemical pathways that synthesize these commercially relevant compounds is incomplete due in part to a lack of molecular, genetic, and genomic resources for the identification of the genes involved in these specialized metabolic pathways. To address these limitations, we generated large-scale transcriptome sequence and expression profiles for three species of Asterids that produce medicinally important MIAs: Camptotheca acuminata, Catharanthus roseus, and Rauvolfia serpentina. Using next generation sequencing technology, we sampled the transcriptomes of these species across a diverse set of developmental tissues, and in the case of C. roseus, in cultured cells and roots following elicitor treatment. Through an iterative assembly process, we generated robust transcriptome assemblies for all three species with a substantial number of the assembled transcripts being full or near-full length. The majority of transcripts had a related sequence in either UniRef100, the Arabidopsis thaliana predicted proteome, or the Pfam protein domain database; however, we also identified transcripts that lacked similarity with entries in either database and thereby lack a known function. Representation of known genes within the MIA biosynthetic pathway was robust. As a diverse set of tissues and treatments were surveyed, expression abundances of transcripts in the three species could be estimated to reveal transcripts associated with development and response to elicitor treatment. Together, these transcriptomes and expression abundance matrices provide a rich resource

  18. Social organization influences the exchange and species richness of medicinal plants in amazonian homegardens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; González-Segura, Lara; Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Howard, Patricia L.; Molina, José Luis; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants provide indigenous and peasant communities worldwide with means to meet their healthcare needs. Homegardens often act as medicine cabinets, providing easily accessible medicinal plants for household needs. Social structure and social exchanges have been proposed as factors

  19. In vitro antimycoplasmal activity of six Jordanian medicinal plants against three Mycoplasma species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Momani, W; Abu-Basha, E; Janakat, S; Nicholas, R A J; Ayling, R D

    2007-10-01

    The in vitro effect of six Jordanian traditional medicine plant methanolic extracts were tested against 32 isolates of Mycoplasma species; Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides LC (6), Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum (8) and M. putrefaciens (18), all isolated from either nasal swabs or milk, from sheep and goats in different regions in Jordan. All Mycoplasma species showed susceptibility to Artemisia herba-alba and Artemisia arborescens with MIC ranges from 3.125-12.5 mg/ml. Allium sativum and Punica grantum showed limited activity against some Mycoplasma isolates. Olea europea and Citrullus colocynthis showed no in vitro activity against any of the Mycoplasma species tested. Artemisia herba-alba and Artemisia arborescens may therefore be useful for the treatment of mycoplasma infections.

  20. Microbial abundance in rhizosphere of medicinal and aromatic plant species in conventional and organic growing systems

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    Adamović Dušan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at comparing the abundance of microorganisms in the rhizosphere of four different medicinal and aromatic plant species (basil, mint, dill and marigold grown under both conventional and organic management on the chernozem soil at the experimental field of Bački Petrovac (Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia. Two sampling terms (June 1 and July 18, 2012 were performed to collect samples for microbiological analyses. The microbial abundance was higher in organic than in conventional system while at the same time significant differences were obtained only with dill rhizosphere. The differences in number of microorganisms belonging to different groups relied upon both plant species and sampling term. Thus, in mint, the recorded number of azotobacters and fungi was significantly higher whereas the number of ammonifiers was significantly lower. The present results indicate that organic growing system affected the abundance of microorganisms in rhizosphere of species investigated, especially in the second term of sampling.

  1. The Effect of Salinity on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Four Medicinal Plant Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Javadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of salinity stress on seed germination and seedling growth of four medicinal plants, Nigella sativa L., Cannabis sativa L., Trigonella foenum graecum and Cynara scolymus L. an experiment was conducted in the botany laboratory of Islamic Azad University, Birjand branch. A completely randomized design (CRD with 3 replications was used as separately for each species. Treatments were consisted of six salinity (NaCl concentrations (0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 dS m-1. The measured traits were root, shoot and seedling length, dry and fresh weight of seedling, germination rate and percent, seed vigor index, seedling water content and root/ shoot ratio. Salinity stress reduced significantly shoot, root and seedling length of the species. Increasing of salinity stress declined dry and fresh weight of Trigonella foenum and Nigella sativa L. and dry weight of Cannabis sativa L.. Seedling water content and root/ shoot ratio of Nigella sativa L. increased in salinity treatments. Increasing of salinity stress declined germination rate and percent in Nigella sativa L., but in other species (Cannabis sativa L., Trigonella foenum graecum and Cynara scolymus only germination rate decreased. Trigonella foenum graecum germinated completely (%100 in all salinity treatments. Increasing of salinity until 16 dS m-1 reduced seed germination of Nigella sativa. Seed germination of Nigella sativa did not occurred in the highest salinity stress (20 dS m-1. Totally the results showed that in the germination stage, Trigonella foenum graecum and Cannabis sativa were relatively tolerate to salinity stress but Nigella sativa L. was the most sensitive one

  2. Plant genetic resources and traditional knowledge on medicinal use of wild shrub and herbaceous plant species in the Etna Regional Park (Eastern Sicily, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; Licata, Mario; Leto, Claudio; Gargano, Maria Letizia; Venturella, Giuseppe; La Bella, Salvatore

    2014-09-11

    This paper illustrates the results of a study carried out in the Etna Regional Park (Eastern Sicily, Italy) concerning the traditional knowledge on medicinal use of wild plant species. It contains the results of a quantitative analysis carried out for the first time. A total of 71 wild species are used for medicinal purposes. Two species, Astracantha sicula (Biv.) Greuter and Trifolium phleoides Willd., are little known as medicinal in the Mediterranean area. The main aim of the study was to understand to what extent current knowledge on the medicinal use of plants is still an element of the culture within the elderly population of the Etna Regional Park. A further aim was to identify species not previously reported as medicinal in the Mediterranean area with a potential agricultural interest. The information was obtained using a semi-structured interview format performed on a sample of 196 people over the age of 60 who were considered experts in rural traditions. The plant uses were compared with other medical-ethnobotanical studies carried out in other areas of Sicily, Italy and various other Mediterranean countries. A number of quantitative indices were also used in order to verify the incidence of the species cited in the study within the culture and traditional medicine. Local communities currently use a total number of 71 wild species (34 families) as remedies for medicinal purposes. Most of the species were used as treatments against metabolic disorders and for general health. The leaves and the aerial parts of plants are the most-used parts of the plant and the most common preparation methods are decoction and direct application of plant parts. Astracantha sicula and Trifolium phleoides have never been documented as a species with medicinal properties in the Mediterranean literature. Only very few medicinal uses are widely known by all the informants and, on many occasions, a specific medicinal use is cited by only very few people. The quantitative analysis

  3. Sustainable harvesting strategy of medicinal plant species in Nepal results of a six-year study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Münzbergová, Z.; Dostálek, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 2 (2017), s. 239-252 ISSN 1211-9520 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : scrophulariiflora pennell hong * population viability analysis * nardostachys-grandiflora dc. * comparative demography * allium-tricoccum * growth rates * models * conservation * dynamics * forest * conservation * elasticity * Himalayan region * medicinal plants * NTFPs * population dynamics * rhubarb * sustainability Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2016

  4. Prunus africana (Hook. f.) Kalkman: the overexploitation of a medicinal plant species and its legal context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodeker, G.; van 't Klooster, C.; Weisbord, E.

    2014-01-01

    The linkage between herbal medicines and the sustainability of medical plants from which they are manufactured is increasingly being understood and receiving attention through international accords and trade labeling systems. However, little attention is paid to the fair trade aspects of this

  5. [Effects of medicinal plant species on gymnasium pupils' cardiac performance under exam stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gukasian, L E; Gevorkian, E S; Minasian, S M; Daian, A V

    2010-01-01

    The use of antistress tea from the medicinal herb species "Treasure of Nature" as a dietary supplement (DS) by pupils in the exam period causes positive changes in their psychophysiological status, reduces the magnitude of sympathoadrenal system tension, and exerts an optimizing effect on the mechanisms responsible for regulation of the cardiovascular system. In this connection, in addition to other DSs, the above species may be recommended for use as a non-specific adaptogen under stress.

  6. Perceived health and medicinal properties of six species of wild edible plants in north-east Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeambey, Zeinab; Johns, Timothy; Talhouk, Salma; Batal, Malek

    2009-10-01

    Wild edible plants (WEP) play the dual role of securing food diversity and promoting health in traditional societies. Current simplified dietary habits contribute to increasing population health risks. Since WEP are integral to the diet of traditional communities, identifying their significance as foods to people provides further evidence to conserve them and promote their consumption. Six species of WEP were identified as integral to the diet of rural Lebanese communities. We investigated their patterns of consumption and knowledge regarding their health and medicinal properties. An ethnobotanical survey, employing a qualitative questionnaire, was conducted among thirty informants. The identified species were Cichorium intybus, Eryngium creticum, Foeniculum vulgare, Malva sylvestris, Thymus syriacus and Gundelia tournifortii. Most informants consumed the six plants as a regular part of their diet. Seasonal variability in consumption was evident. C. intybus was renowned for its digestive and blood strengthening properties. F. vulgare was used as a digestive stimulant. M. sylvestris was distinguished for its anti-inflammatory qualities. T. syriacus was popular for its digestive and anti-poisonous properties. E. creticum was attributed less pronounced health benefits. G. tournifortii was considered a nutritious food. All six species were popular for their edible uses as well as their health and/or medicinal benefits. These properties are supported by scientific evidence. Our results highlight the importance of these plants for local people and support efforts for their conservation. However, we noticed a decline in indigenous knowledge. We encourage efforts to record it for other plants and in other communities.

  7. Medicinal plants of the Mapuche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, P J; Manby, J

    1985-03-01

    A list of 136 plants used for medicinal purposes by the Mapuche Amerindians of Chile has been compiled. This is the first such list in English and is important due to the disappearance of Mapuche culture with increasing urbanisation. Some introduced plants have been incorporated into the traditional medicine of the Mapuche since the advent of European settlers but there is also a wealth of information about the uses of many indigenous species.

  8. DNA barcoding of selected UAE medicinal plant species: a comparative assessment of herbarium and fresh samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enan, Mohamed Rizk; Palakkott, Abdul Rasheed; Ksiksi, Taoufik Saleh

    2017-01-01

    It is commonly difficult to extract and amplify DNA from herbarium samples as they are old and preserved using different compounds. In addition, such samples are subjected to the accumulation of intrinsically produced plant substances over long periods (up to hundreds of years). DNA extraction from desert flora may pause added difficulties as many contain high levels of secondary metabolites. Herbarium samples from the Biology Department (UAE University) plant collection and fresh plant samples, collected from around Al-Ain (UAE), were used in this study. The three barcode loci for the coding genes matK, rbcL and rpoC1-were amplified. Our results showed that T. terresteris , H. robustum , T. pentandrus and Z. qatarense were amplified using all three primers for both fresh and herbaium samples. Both fresh and herbarium samples of C. comosum , however, were not amplified at all, using the three primers. Herbarium samples from A. javanica , C. imbricatum , T. aucherana and Z. simplex were not amplified with any of the three primers. For fresh samples 90, 90 and 80% of the samples were amplified using matK, rbcL and rpoC1, respectively. In short, fresh samples were significantly better amplified than those from herbarium sources, using the three primers. Both fresh and herbarium samples from one species ( C. comosum ), however, were not successfully amplified. It is also concluded that the rbcL regions showed real potentials to distinguish the UAE species under investigation into the appropriate family and genus.

  9. Protective activity of medicinal plants and their isolated compounds against the toxic effects from the venom of Naja (cobra) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Arham; Shahzad, Muhammad; Masci, Paul; Gobe, Glenda C

    2014-11-18

    Various medicinal plants have protective properties against the toxicities of the venom of cobra snake (Naja species). They may be used as local first aid for the treatment of snakebite victims, and can significantly inhibit lethality, cardio-, neuro-, nephro- and myotoxicity, hemorrhage, and respiratory paralysis induced by the cobra snake venom. The plants or their extracts may also complement the benefits of conventional anti-serum treatment. This review provides information on the protective, anti-venom, properties of medicinal plants against snakebites from cobras. In addition, it identifies knowledge gaps and suggests further research opportunities. The literature was searched using databases including Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus and Web of Science. The searches were limited to peer-reviewed journals written in English with the exception of some books and a few articles in foreign languages. The plants possess neutralization properties against different cobra venom enzymes, such as hyaluronidase, acetylcholinesterase, phospholipase A2 and plasma proteases. Different active constituents that show promising activity against the effects of cobra venom include lupeol acetate, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, rediocides A and G, quercertin, aristolochic acid, and curcumin, as well as the broad chemical groups of tannins, glycoproteins, and flavones. The medicinal plants can increase snakebite victim survival time, decrease the severity of toxic signs, enhance diaphragm muscle contraction, block antibody attachment to venom, and inhibit protein destruction. In particular, the cardiovascular system is protected, with inhibition of blood pressure decline and depressed atrial contractility and rate, and prevention of damage to heart and vessels. The designs of experimental studies that show benefits, or otherwise, of use of medicinal plants have some limitations: deficiency in identification and isolation of active constituents responsible for

  10. Antimicrobial Effect of 15 Medicinal Plant Species and their Dependency on Climatic Conditions of Growth in Different Geographical and Ecological Areas of Fars Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Abdollahi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of medicinal plants are variable in different conditions. Here, the antimicrobial effect of 15 medicinal plant species and their dependency on the climatic condition of growth in different geographical and ecological areas of Fars Province were studied. Materials and Methods: In This empirical study, the antimicrobial effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of 15 medicinal plant species was examined against standard bacterial strains comparing to conventional therapeutic antibiotics using disk diffusion assay and serial broth dilution. Results: All Extracts were effective against S.aureus ATCC 25923 growth; also Peganum harmala, Myrtus communis, Mentha pulegium, Mentha spp, and Zataria multiflora extracts were observed to have antimicrobial activity against E.coli ATCC 25922. This antimicrobial activity had partially similar results, comparing to conventional antibioticsConclusion: Medicinal plants produce various amounts of antimicrobial substances under the climatic and ecological conditions of each zone, which must be considered in manufacturing herbal medicines.

  11. [Endemic plants for medicine use in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gang-Qiang; Li, Hai-Tao; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Zhang, Li-Xia; Li, Ya-Jing; Huang, Lu-Qi; Ma, Xiao-Jun

    2017-11-01

    Based on plant species databases, species lists and literature records, general situation of the Chinese medicinal endemic plant (vascular plant) has been systematically summarized, and its quantity and distribution characteristics of Chinese medicinal endemic plants are presented in this paper. The results showed that 3 150 endemic species are Chinese medicinal plants belonging to 785 genera in 153 families, which includes 38 species of 22 genera in 12 families of pteridophyta, 42 species of 14 genera in7 families of gymnosperms, and 3 070 species of 749 genara in 134 families of angiosperms. The top four families involving medicinal endemic species are Asteraceae (218 species), Ranunculaceae (182 species), Labiatae (151 species), and Liliaceae (133 species). The top four provincial administration distributed medicinal endemic species are Sichuan (1 568 species), Yunnan (1 533 species), Guizhou (955 species) and Hubei (930 species).On the regional scale, the most abundant one is the southwest region (2 465 species), followed by the central region (1 226 species) and the northwest region (949 species). Localization characteristics for domestication and artificial cultivation of medicinal endemic species are more prominent due to their narrower and limited distribution areas, indicating it is possible for these species acting as local potential resource for reasonable economic development. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  12. Prioritizing West African medicinal plants for conservation and sustainable extraction studies based on market surveys and species distribution models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Andel, T.R.; Croft, S.; van Loon, E.E.; Quiroz, D.; Towns, A.M.; Raes, N.

    2015-01-01

    Sub-Saharan African human populations rely heavily on wild-harvested medicinal plants for their health. The trade in herbal medicine provides an income for many West African people, but little is known about the effects of commercial extraction on wild plant populations. Detailed distribution maps

  13. Prioritizing West African medicinal plants for conservation and sustainable extraction studies based on market surveys and species distribution models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van T.R.; Croft, S.; Loon, van E.E.; Quiroz Villarreal, D.K.; Towns, A.M.; Raes, N.

    2015-01-01

    Sub-Saharan African human populations rely heavily on wild-harvested medicinal plants for their health. The trade in herbal medicine provides an income for many West African people, but little is known about the effects of commercial extraction on wild plant populations. Detailed distribution maps

  14. Taraxacum officinale and related species-An ethnopharmacological review and its potential as a commercial medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M; Poirrier, P; Chamy, R; Prüfer, D; Schulze-Gronover, C; Jorquera, L; Ruiz, G

    2015-07-01

    Dandelion (Taraxacum spec) is a wild plant that has been used for centuries as a traditional medicine in the relief and treatment of several diseases. This use is due to the presence of sesquiterpenes, saponins, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and sugars, among others, found in the organs of the plant. The aim of this work is to provide a current review of developments and trends in research on the Taraxacum genus, with a focus on traditional uses and pharmacological properties. This should shed light on the potential of this plant as an attractive commercial herbal medicine. Documents were collected, analyzed, and classified for information regarding medical, agronomic, genetic, and biological aspects of the Taraxacum species. This process was based on a thorough search of documents indexed by scientific search engines. Two important periods of research on Taraxacum have been identified: the first, between 1930 and 1950; and the second, from 1990 to today. During the former, agricultural and genetics research on this plant were, due to the shortage of natural rubber, the focus. In contrast, the main drive in Taraxacum research is now the recovery of bioactives and/or applications in medicine. Pharmacology is the main area in which these plants have been tested, thanks in part to its widely known traditional uses; however, there is less than enthusiastic interest in further human clinical trials. In other areas, Taraxacum sports an enormous list of compounds of industrial interest; and while it is true that only a small amount of these compounds is immediately available in Taraxacum organs and makes it relatively commercially unattractive, only scarce efforts have been made to improve yields. Compounding this issue, most studies of its growth and cultivation have been focused mainly on controlling it as a weed detrimental to certain industrial crops. To wit, in spite of all the research carried out, less than 1% of all the species identified so far (>2500) have

  15. Seed Biology of Medicinal Plants (IX) : The Relationship of Corydalis Species Derived by Gel Electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    米田, 該典; 加賀, 順二; 那須, 正夫; KAISUKE, YONEDA; JUNJI, KAGA; MASAO, NASU; 大阪大学薬学部; 大阪大学薬学部; 大阪大学薬学部; Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University; Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University; Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University

    1987-01-01

    The saline soluble protein fraction of seeds of the Corydalis species (Papaveraceae) in Japan was examined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The esterase zymogram suggested that C. pallida, C. pallida var. tenuis, C. heterocarpa var. japonica and C. speciosa, having yellow flowers and no tuber, are closely related to each other. Electrophoresis and SDS-electrophoresis patterns also coincided with the result of the esterase zymogram. They also su...

  16. Plants and Medicinal Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, D.

    1977-01-01

    This is the first of two articles showing how plants that have been used in folk medicine for many centuries are guiding scientists in the design and preparation of new and potent drugs. Opium and its chemical derivatives are examined at length in this article. (Author/MA)

  17. MYCOPOPULATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Vrandečić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There has not been a systematic research of medicinal plants mycoflora in Croatia. This paper aims to present the results of preliminary research of mycopopulation of 14 species of medicinal plants. Total of 393 plant parts has been examined and 10 genera of fungi were isolated: Penicillium, Aspergillus, Sordaria, Phoma, Cladosporium, Rhizopus, Stemphillium, Fusarium, Phomopsis and one unidentified genus. Penicillium sp. (from 11 of 14 plant species was isolated from the majority of samples. The plants fungi were isolated from did not show any macroscopically visible symptoms of infection, except plant parts of Lavandula x intermedia and Foeniculum vulgare, from which Phomopsis sp. and Fusarium sp. were isolated

  18. Essential Oils from Leaves of Medicinal Plants of Brazilian Flora: Chemical Composition and Activity against Candida Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Mendes Ferreira da Costa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The biotechnological potential of medicinal plants from Brazilian Caatinga and the Atlantic Forest has not been extensively studied. Thus, screening programs are important in prospecting for compounds for developing new drugs. The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical composition and to evaluate the anti-Candida activity of essential oils from leaves of Hymenaea courbaril var. courbaril, Myroxylon peruiferum, and Vismia guianensis. Methods: The oils were extracted through hydrodistillation and their chemical compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Antifungal activity against C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, and C. krusei was evaluated by determining the minimal inhibitory (MIC and fungicidal (MFC concentrations. Results: The major compounds of the oils were caryophyllene oxide and trans-caryophyllene for H. courbaril; spathulenol, α-pinene, and caryophyllene oxide for M. peruiferum; and caryophyllene oxide and humulene epoxide II for V. guianensis oil. The oils showed antifungal activity against all the strains tested, and the MIC values ranged between 0.625 and 1.25 μL/mL and MFC from 0.625 to 2.5 μL/mL. Conclusion: The essential oils from the species studied have the potential to be evaluated as clinical applications in the treatment of candidiasis.

  19. Essential Oils from Leaves of Medicinal Plants of Brazilian Flora: Chemical Composition and Activity against Candida Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Maria da Conceição Mendes Ferreira da; Silva, Alexandre Gomes da; Silva, Ana Paula Sant'Anna da; Lima, Vera Lúcia de Menezes; Bezerra-Silva, Patrícia Cristina; Rocha, Suyana Karolyne Lino da; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Correia, Maria Tereza Dos Santos; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Silva, Márcia Vanusa da; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

    2017-05-03

    Background : The biotechnological potential of medicinal plants from Brazilian Caatinga and the Atlantic Forest has not been extensively studied. Thus, screening programs are important in prospecting for compounds for developing new drugs. The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical composition and to evaluate the anti- Candida activity of essential oils from leaves of Hymenaea courbaril var. courbaril , Myroxylon peruiferum , and Vismia guianensis . Methods : The oils were extracted through hydrodistillation and their chemical compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Antifungal activity against C. albicans , C. tropicalis , C. parapsilosis , C. glabrata , and C. krusei was evaluated by determining the minimal inhibitory (MIC) and fungicidal (MFC) concentrations. Results : The major compounds of the oils were caryophyllene oxide and trans -caryophyllene for H. courbaril ; spathulenol, α-pinene, and caryophyllene oxide for M. peruiferum ; and caryophyllene oxide and humulene epoxide II for V. guianensis oil. The oils showed antifungal activity against all the strains tested, and the MIC values ranged between 0.625 and 1.25 μL/mL and MFC from 0.625 to 2.5 μL/mL. Conclusion : The essential oils from the species studied have the potential to be evaluated as clinical applications in the treatment of candidiasis.

  20. Conservation of medicinal and aromatic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šveistytė, Laima

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of medicinal and aromatic plants includes ex situ and in situ methods. The genetic recourses of medicinal and aromatic plants are stored, studied and constantly maintained in the field collections of the Institute of Botany of Nature Research Centre, Kaunas Botanical Garden of Vytautas Magnus University and Aleksandras Stulginskis University of Agriculture. Presently seeds of 214 accessions representing 38 species of medicinal and aromatic plants are stored in a long-term storage in the Plant Gene Bank. The data about national genetic resources are collected and stored in the Central Database of the Plant Gene Bank.

  1. Medicinal plants: production and biochemical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chunzhao Liu; Zobayed, S.M.A; Murch, S.J.; Saxena, P.K.

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in the area of biotechnology offer some possibility for the development of new technologies for the conservation, characterization and mass production of medicinal plant species, (i.e. in vitro cell culture techniques for the mass production of sterile, consistent, standardized medicinal plant materials). This paper discussed the following subjects - plant tissue culture, de novo shoot organogenesis, de novo root organogenesis, somatic embryogenesis, large scale propagation in bioreactors and discovery of unique biomolecules

  2. Selery medicinal plants in the Donbas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Yu. Naumov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The performed studies determined the real number of species of medicinal plants in Apiaceae family growing on the Donbass territory. The study of literature and conducted field experiments revealed the presence of 41 species of medicinal plants of the celery family (Apiaceae Lindl., among which 11 cultivated species. There was a brief description of botanical species studied, the typical place of growth, and the presence of biologically active compounds that determine the medicinal properties of the studied taxons. The studied plants have various quantitative and spatial relationship: 6 species are rare and are considered as protected plants, 2 species does not grow in Luhansk, 3 — in the Donetsk region, 4 species are considered to be adventitious for our region. Medicinal plants of the family celery cover a wide range of various diseases due to the large number of various biologically active substances and, primarily, essential fatty oils, flavonoids, vitamins and coumarins. It is worth noting that there no agricultural enterprises specialized on medicinal plants cultivating.

  3. [Introduction of traditional medicinal plants in Kyrgyzstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Qiang; Huang, Lu-Qi; Xie, Dong-Mei

    2014-02-01

    Kyrgyzstan is a mountainous country in the northeastern part of Central Asia which shares borders to the southeast with China. Due to their extreme environment and climate, there are a diverse range of species of plants. Many of the plants used in Kyrgyz folk medicine have not been studied using modern scientific techniques. This paper introduced the basic situation of medicinal herbs in Kyrgyzstan by comparing the differences traditional use between China and Kyrgyzstan, and looked for traditional medicinal plant research to provide basis for the development and cooperation of China and Kyrgyzstan.

  4. Medicinal plants contain mucilage used in traditional Persian medicine (TPM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Ahmad; Heydarirad, Ghazaleh; Mahdavi Jafari, Jamileh; Ghobadi, Ali; Rezaeizadeh, Hossein; Choopani, Rasool

    2015-04-01

    Conventional therapies using mucilage plants greatly used by practitioners in Iran. The usage of mucilages is rooted in traditional knowledge with a history of more than 4000 years. Scientific assessment of these historical documents could be valuable for finding new potential usage in the current medicine. This study assembled an inventory of mucilage plants considered important therapeutic aids for alleviating the ailments in ancient Persian medicine and compared therapeutic applications of ancient times with current findings of medicinal mucilages in the same plant species. A literature search compiled some main traditional manuscripts of Persian medicine, including the book of AlHavi, Canon of Medicine, Zakhireh-iKharazmshahi, Qarabadine-kabir, Tohfat ol Moemenin, and Makhzan-ol-advieh, and select mucilage plants used in treating the mouth and respiratory system disorders. Also, current investigations on related subjects were considered through a search of the Pub Med and Google Scholar databases. In Iran, the application of medicinal plants contains mucilage date back to ancient times. In mentioned medieval Persian books, 20 medicinal plants containing mucilage were identified. Mucilages have been traditionally used via oral or topical routes for a variety of disorders. According to this study, most of the cited medicinal plant species were used for their mucilaginous, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant effects. A scientific evaluation of these historical documents can give an insight into the ideas of the past and be valuable in finding new data on clinical use of the mucilages that should lead to future opportunities to investigate their potential medicinal use.

  5. Threatened medicinal plants of South Africa: Case of the family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Traditional medicine plays a major role in the primary health care of many people living in rural areas. South Africa is a home to over 30,000 species of higher plants and 3,000 of these species have been found to be used in traditional medicine across the country. South African medicinal plants are decreasing ...

  6. Conserving the Appalachian medicinal plant industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain

    2006-01-01

    An industry based on plants that flourish in the mountains of Appalachia is at a critical crossroads. The medicinal plant industry has relied on the conservation of Appalachian forest resources for more than 300 years. There is growing and widespread concern that many of the species, on which this vibrant and substantial industry depends, are being depleted and...

  7. Turkish folk medicinal plants, Part IV: Gönen (Balikesir).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzlaci, E; Aymaz, P E

    2001-05-01

    Eighty-four folk medicinal plants from Gönen (Turkey) are reported. Among them 73 species are wild and 11 species are cultivated plants. The folk medicinal plants are mostly used for the treatment of hemorrhoids, rheumatism, stomach and kidney ailments.

  8. SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VHADA

    complete refusal to willing to work with all aspects. The major uses of the medicinal plants ranged from pain killer to malaria and cancer treatment. CONCLUSION: This study signals the information and identification of varieties and usage of medicinal plants in the study area. The scientific validity of these remedies, however ...

  9. [Ecological protection of medicinal woody plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiufeng

    2003-09-01

    Medicinal woody plants, especially medicinal tall trees, play a same important role in forest structure, ecological balance and timber production as other tree species in forest, and due to their additional medicinal values overuse of these trees is more intensive than others. Many medicinal materials are destructively obtained from plants such as roots or bark used as medicinal materials. The contradiction between the utilization and protection of medicinal woody plants becomes more and more incisive. In the present paper, based on the analysis of the utilized situation and specialty of medicinal woody plants, the trouble between the plants protection and utilization was observed, the method to solve it and the fundamental research work needs to be developed were discussed. The following aspects of researches were suggested to be conducted: (a) study on the distribution in organs, seasonal and age variations, and correlation with environmental factors of principal medicinal compositions in mature trees to clear the optimum of harvest and cultivation conditions; (b) study on the distribution in organs, seasonal and age variations, and correlation with environmental factors of principal medicinal compositions in saplings, especially the time course of the variation in medicinal compositions and biomass to achieve the optimal tree ages for the balance between biomass and production of medicinal products during saplings development; (c) study on the influence and regulation of environmental factors on medicinal compounds production in woody plants to look for the optimal cultivated conditions for optimizing the accumulation of biomass and medicinal chemicals; (d) further study on the regulatory mechanism of the induced production of main medicinal compositions by ecological factors at protein (key enzyme) and gene level to accumulate fundamental data for the enhancement of quality and quantity, and approach of new accesses to medicinal products using biological

  10. Antioxidant Potential of Different Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Vasanthi P; Parameswari CS

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are the resource of new drug. Most of the modern medicines are produced indirectly from medicinal plants. Plants are directly used as medicines by a majority of cultures around the world. Studying medicinal plants helps to understand plant toxicity and protect human and animals from natural poisons. Medicinal plants are the important sources for pharmaceutical manufacturing. In developing countries, herbal medicines are considered to be readily available, accessible, affordab...

  11. International congress on aromatic and medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text : In Morocco, medicinal and aromatic plants occupy an important place in the traditional care system of a large number of local people. They are also economically strong potential, but unfortunately they are not valued enough. Indeed, Morocco by its privileged geographical position in the Mediterranean basin and its floristic diversity (with a total of over 4,200 species and subspecies of which over 500 are recognized as medicinal and aromatic plants), is a leading provider of traditional global market. In this context and given the back label of the natural global, group research and studies on Aromatic and Medicinal Plants (GREPAM), the Faculty of Semlalia and University Cadi Ayyad, organize: the International Congress on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants CIPAM 2009. The organization of this conference is part of scientific research developed by the GREPAM. [fr

  12. Transformation of medicinal plants using Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandurska, Katarzyna; Berdowska, Agnieszka; Król, Małgorzata

    2016-12-20

    For many years attempts are made to develop efficient methods for transformation of medicinal plants via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. It is a soil bacteria which possess a natural ability to infect plants in places of injures which results in arise of cancerous growths (crown gall). This is possible thanks a transfer of fragment of Ti plasmid into plant cells and stable integration with a plant genome. Efficiency of medicinal plant transformation depends on many factors for example: Agrobacterium strain, methods and procedures of transformation as well as on plant species, type and age of the explants and regeneration conditions. The main goal of plant transformation is to increase the amount of naturally occurring bioactive compounds and the production of biopharmaceuticals. Genetic plant transformation via bacteria of the genus Agrobacterium is a complex process which requires detailed analysis of incorporated transgene expression and occurs only in the case when the plant cell acquires the ability to regenerate. In many cases, the regeneration efficiency observed in medicinal plants are inefficient after applied transformation procedures. To date there have been attempts of genetic transformation by using A. tumefaciens of medicinal plants belonging to the families: Apocynaceae, Araceae, Araliaceae, Asphodelaceae, Asteraceae, Begoniaceae, Crassulaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Linaceae, Papaveraceae, Plantaginaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Solanaceae.

  13. Transformation of medicinal plants using Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Bandurska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For many years attempts are made to develop efficient methods for transformation of medicinal plants via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. It is a soil bacteria which possess a natural ability to infect plants in places of injures which results in arise of cancerous growths (crown gall. This is possible thanks a transfer of fragment of Ti plasmid into plant cells and stable integration with a plant genome. Efficiency of medicinal plant transformation depends on many factors for example: Agrobacterium strain, methods and procedures of transformation as well as on plant species, type and age of the explants and regeneration conditions. The main goal of plant transformation is to increase the amount of naturally occurring bioactive compounds and the production of biopharmaceuticals. Genetic plant transformation via bacteria of the genus Agrobacterium is a complex process which requires detailed analysis of incorporated transgene expression and occurs only in the case when the plant cell acquires the ability to regenerate. In many cases, the regeneration efficiency observed in medicinal plants are inefficient after applied transformation procedures. To date there have been attempts of genetic transformation by using A. tumefaciens of medicinal plants belonging to the families: Apocynaceae, Araceae, Araliaceae, Asphodelaceae, Asteraceae, Begoniaceae, Crassulaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Linaceae, Papaveraceae, Plantaginaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Solanaceae.

  14. Some southern African plant species used to treat helminth infections in ethnoveterinary medicine have excellent antifungal activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamu Mathew

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diseases caused by microorganisms and parasites remain a major challenge globally and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa to man and livestock. Resistance to available antimicrobials and the high cost or unavailability of antimicrobials complicates matters. Many rural people use plants to treat these infections. Because some anthelmintics e.g. benzimidazoles also have good antifungal activity we examined the antifungal activity of extracts of 13 plant species used in southern Africa to treat gastrointestinal helminth infections in livestock and in man. Methods Antifungal activity of acetone leaf extracts was determined by serial microdilution with tetrazolium violet as growth indicator against Aspergillus fumigatus, Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans. These pathogens play an important role in opportunistic infections of immune compromised patients. Cytotoxicity was determined by MTT cellular assay. Therapeutic indices were calculated and selectivity for different pathogens determined. We proposed a method to calculate the relation between microbicidal and microbistatic activities. Total activities for different plant species were calculated. Results On the whole, all 13 extracts had good antifungal activities with MIC values as low as 0.02 mg/mL for extracts of Clausena anisata against Aspergillus fumigatus and 0.04 mg/mL for extracts of Zanthoxylum capense, Clerodendrum glabrum, and Milletia grandis, against A. fumigatus. Clausena anisata extracts had the lowest cytotoxicity (LC50 of 0.17 mg/mL, a reasonable therapeutic index (2.65 against A. fumigatus. It also had selective activity against A. fumigatus, an overall fungicidal activity of 98% and a total activity of 3395 mL/g against A. fumigatus. This means that 1 g of acetone leaf extract can be diluted to 3.4 litres and it would still inhibit the growth. Clerodendrum glabrum, Zanthoxylum capense and Milletia grandis extracts also yielded promising results

  15. Volume, value and floristic diversity of Gabon's medicinal plant markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Towns, A.M.; Quiroz Villarreal, D.K.; Guinee, L.; Boer, H.; Andel, van T.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance - African medicinal plant markets offer insight into commercially important species, salient health concerns in the region, and possible conservation priorities. Still, little quantitative data is available on the trade in herbal medicine in Central Africa. The aim of

  16. Preliminary Study of Plants Used in Ethnoveterinary Medicine in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary Study of Plants Used in Ethnoveterinary Medicine in Tunisia and in Italy. ... African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines ... Results: Thirty-nine plants, representing 22 families, used in Tunisia in ethnoveterinary medicine were reported, and comparisons made with close species used ...

  17. Medicinal plants used for the treatment of jaundice and hepatitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study deals with socio-economic documentation of medicinal plant species against jaundice and hepatitis. A total of 30 plant species belonging to 24 families were reported by local practitioners for the treatment of jaundice and hepatitis. The most important plant species are Adiantum capillus, Boerhaavia ...

  18. Plants and Medicinal Chemistry--2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, D.

    1977-01-01

    Second of a two part article on the influence of plants on medicinal chemistry. This part considers how drugs work, the attempts to develop anaesthetics safer than cocaine, and useful poisons. (Author/SL)

  19. Antifertility activity of medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniyal, Muhammad; Akram, Muhammad

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive summary of medicinal plants used as antifertility agents in females throughout the world by various tribes and ethnic groups. We undertook an extensive bibliographic review by analyzing classical text books and peer reviewed papers, and further consulting well accepted worldwide scientific databases. We performed CENTRAL, Embase, and PubMed searches using terms such as "antifertility", "anti-implantation", "antiovulation", and "antispermatogenic" activity of plants. Plants, including their parts and extracts, that have traditionally been used to facilitate antifertility have been considered as antifertility agents. In this paper, various medicinal plants have been reviewed for thorough studies such as Polygonum hydropiper Linn, Citrus limonum, Piper nigrum Linn, Juniperis communis, Achyanthes aspera, Azadirachta indica, Tinospora cordifolia, and Barleria prionitis. Many of these medicinal plants appear to act through an antizygotic mechanism. This review clearly demonstrates that it is time to expand upon experimental studies to source new potential chemical constituents from medicinal plants; plant extracts and their active constituents should be further investigated for their mechanisms. This review creates a solid foundation upon which to further study the efficacy of plants that are both currently used by women as traditional antifertility medicines, but also could be efficacious as an antifertility agent with additional research and study. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  20. Antifertility activity of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Daniyal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive summary of medicinal plants used as antifertility agents in females throughout the world by various tribes and ethnic groups. We undertook an extensive bibliographic review by analyzing classical text books and peer reviewed papers, and further consulting well accepted worldwide scientific databases. We performed CENTRAL, Embase, and PubMed searches using terms such as “antifertility”, “anti-implantation”, “antiovulation”, and “antispermatogenic” activity of plants. Plants, including their parts and extracts, that have traditionally been used to facilitate antifertility have been considered as antifertility agents. In this paper, various medicinal plants have been reviewed for thorough studies such as Polygonum hydropiper Linn, Citrus limonum, Piper nigrum Linn, Juniperis communis, Achyanthes aspera, Azadirachta indica, Tinospora cordifolia, and Barleria prionitis. Many of these medicinal plants appear to act through an antizygotic mechanism. This review clearly demonstrates that it is time to expand upon experimental studies to source new potential chemical constituents from medicinal plants; plant extracts and their active constituents should be further investigated for their mechanisms. This review creates a solid foundation upon which to further study the efficacy of plants that are both currently used by women as traditional antifertility medicines, but also could be efficacious as an antifertility agent with additional research and study.

  1. Echinacea species of medicinal use

    OpenAIRE

    Leon Sorin MUNTEAN; Dan VARBAN; Sorin MUNTEAN; Mircea TAMAS; Rodica VARBAN

    1998-01-01

    Echinacea species come from North America. Preparations of Echinacea pallida Nutt. and Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench are used in healing many diseases owing to their immunostimulative, antivirus and bacteria, scarifying and anti-inflammatory properties. Echinacea pallida Nutt. displays tap root, linear spear-shaped leaves. Seedling plantation with both species is performed in May and spacing of 50 cm between rows and 30 cm between plants per row. Harvest takes place in the 2-nd year of flowe...

  2. Traditional medicinal plants in Ben En National Park, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Sam, Hoang; Baas, P.; Keßler, P.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper surveys the medicinal plants and their traditional use by local people in Ben En National Park, Vietnam. A total of 230 medicinal plant species (belonging to 200 genera and 84 families) is used by local people for treatment of 68 different diseases. These include species that are

  3. Medicinal plants sold at the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godinez-Caraballo, D.; Volpato, G.

    2008-01-01

    Information regarding medicinal plants sold in the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba, revealed 184 species belonging to 69 vascular plant families. The most important family was Fabaceae s.l. with 13 species, followed by Lamiaceae with 12, and Asteraceae with 8. More than 90 general medicinal

  4. Antibacterial activities of medicinal plants used in Mexican traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Flores-Vallejo, Rosario Del Carmen; Cardoso-Taketa, Alexandre; Villarreal, María Luisa

    2017-08-17

    We provide an extensive summary of the in vitro antibacterial properties of medicinal plants popularly used in Mexico to treat infections, and we discuss the ethnomedical information that has been published for these species. We carried out a bibliographic investigation by analyzing local and international peer-reviewed papers selected by consulting internationally accepted scientific databases from 1995 to 2014. We provide specific information about the evaluated plant parts, the type of extracts, the tested bacterial strains, and the inhibitory concentrations for each one of the species. We recorded the ethnomedical information for the active species, as well as their popular names and local distribution. Information about the plant compounds that has been identified is included in the manuscript. This review also incorporates an extensive summary of the available toxicological reports on the recorded species, as well as the worldwide registries of plant patents used for treating bacterial infections. In addition, we provide a list with the top plant species with antibacterial activities in this review RESULTS: We documented the in vitro antibacterial activities of 343 plant species pertaining to 92 botanical families against 72 bacterial species, focusing particularly on Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The plant families Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae and Euphorbiaceae included the largest number of active species. Information related to popular uses reveals that the majority of the plants, in addition to treating infections, are used to treat other conditions. The distribution of Mexican plants extended from those that were reported to grow in just one state to those that grow in all 32 Mexican states. From 75 plant species, 225 compounds were identified. Out of the total plant species, only 140 (40.57%) had at least one report about their toxic effects. From 1994 to July 2014 a total of 11

  5. Traditional medicine applied by the Saraguro yachakkuna: a preliminary approach to the use of sacred and psychoactive plant species in the southern region of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijos, Chabaco; Cota, Iuliana; González, Silvia

    2014-02-24

    During the colonial period, the indigenous saraguros maintained their traditions, knowledge, and practices to restore and preserve the health of their members. Unfortunately, many of their practices and medicinal resources have not been documented. In this study, we sought to document the traditional healers' (yachakkuna saraguros) knowledge about medicinal and psychoactive plants used in the mesas and in magical-religious rituals. The study was conducted under a technical and scientific cooperation agreement between the Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja (UTPL), the Dirección Provincial de Salud de Loja (DPSL), and the Saraguro Healers Council (Consejo de Sanadores de Saraguro). For the present study, the DPSL and Saraguro Healers Council selected the 10 yachakkuna most recognized for their knowledge and their use of sacred and psychoactive species. Ten interviews with the selected yachakkuna were conducted between 2010 and 2011 to ascertain how the Saraguro traditional healing system is structured and to obtain a record of the sacred and medicinal plant species used to treat supernatural diseases and for psychoactive purposes. The present study describes the traditional health system in the Saraguro indigenous community located in southern Ecuador. It also describes the main empirical methods used to diagnose diseases: direct physical examination of the patient, observation of the patient's urine, documentation of the patient's pulse, limpia, palpation and visionary methods, including supernatural diseases (susto, vaho de agua, mal aire, mal hecho, shuka) and reports of the use of sacred and medicinal psychoactive plants, such as the San Pedro cactus (Echinopsis pachanoi), wandug (Brugmansia spp.), and tobacco (Nicotiana spp.). This study also describes the rituals (limpia, soplada) employed by the Saraguro yachakkuna to treat supernatural diseases. Finally, we report on the main plants used during limpia in the Saraguro community. The current traditional

  6. Study the effect of salinity levels and seed priming on germination and seedling properties of two medicinal plant species from Asteraceae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kafi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil and water sources salinity are important constrains which threat the sustainable agriculture production in Iran. In order to evaluate the effect of different antioxidants and salinity levels on germination and seedling properties of two medicinal species (Cnicus benedictus L., and (Cichorium intybus L., an experiment was conducted using a factorial based on completely randomized design with four replications at Special Crops Laboratory of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. The studied factor for each plant included: seed priming at 4 levels including control (distilled water, ascorbic acid (40 mM, gibberlic acid (75 mg.lit-1 and salicylic acid (1.5 mM, and five salinity levels according to electrical conductivity by adding NaCl to distilled water (control, 5,10,15 and 20 ds.m-1. According to results, pretreatment with salicylic acid improved all of the germination and seedling properties in Cnicus benedictus L. but gibberlic acid could to improved germination and seedling properties in Cichorium intybus L. species. There were strong correlation between germination rate and radical and caulicle length especially on Cichorium intybus species. Generally, seed priming with gibberlic acid and salicylic acid could improve germination and seedling properties of these two species. Both species showed a reliable tolerance to NaCl salinity at germination stage, and germination was 60% compared with control at 20 ds.m-1 treatment.

  7. Study of the inorganic constituents in different species of Casearia medicinal plant collected in distinct regions of the Atlantic Forest, SP State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Celina Izumi

    2006-01-01

    The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has increased significantly in the last years, as has research concerning chemical characterization of these plants. In this study, inorganic constituents were determined in leaves and in extracts from three medicinal plant species of the Casearia genus (C. sylvestris, C. decandra and C. obliqua) collected in distinct regions of the Atlantic Forest, SP. The elemental compositions of the soils in which these plants were grown were also determined. Traditionally, these plants are used due to their antiinflammatory, antiacid, antiseptic and cicatrizing properties. The antiulcer and the antitumor activities of the Casearia genus and its capacity to neutralize snake and bee venoms, have also been scientifically confirmed. The analytical methodology used was neutron activation analysis. Long and short irradiation periods of the samples and the standards were carried out at IPEN's IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. In the leaf K was found at the percentage levels, Ca, Cl, Mg and Na at mg g -1 levels and the elements Br, Fe, Mn, Rb and Zn at the μg g -1 levels. As, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Sb, Sc and Se at the ng g -1 levels. Results obtained in the extracts indicated that the same elements present in the leaves are also found in their extracts. The comparison between the inorganic composition of Casearia sylvestris leaves collected from three different regions of the Atlantic Forest showed that the elemental concentrations in the plants leaves varied depending on the place where they were grown. Different Casearia species cultivated in a same region presented similar elemental compositions. Based on these findings it can be concluded that the studies about the pharmacological effect of Casearia genus plants grown in different types of soil are of great importance. The quality of the obtained results was assured by the analyses of the certified reference materials NIST 1573a Tomato Leaves, NIST 1515 Apple Leaves, INCT-TL-1 Tea

  8. [Investigation of ethnic medicinal plants Orobanche, Cistanche and Boschniakia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhen-Fang; Liu, Yong; Wang, Xiao-Qin

    2014-12-01

    In this paper the species of ethnic medicinal plants Orobanche, Cistanche and Boschniakia, and their ethnopharmaceutical uses were comprehensively summarized by field investigation, systematical data analysis and comparison of relevant specimen and references. The results showed that six plants belonging to Orobanche were used as seven kinds of ethnic medicinal plants, two plants attributing Boschniakia were used as ten kinds of ethnic medicinal plants, two plants of Cistanche were used as three ethnic medicinal plants. The same plant was often used as different ethnic medicine in varied ethnic minorities. The effects of the ethnic medicines included yang-tonifying, hemostasis and analgesic activities. Hence, it is necessary to develop the rich plant resource of Orobanche for alleviation of Cistanche resources shortage.

  9. Anemone medicinal plants: ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Cheng Hao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Ranunculaceae genus Anemone (order Ranunculales, comprising more than 150 species, mostly herbs, has long been used in folk medicine and worldwide ethnomedicine. Various medicinal compounds have been found in Anemone plants, especially triterpenoid saponins, some of which have shown anti-cancer activities. Some Anemone compounds and extracts display immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. More than 50 species have ethnopharmacological uses, which provide clues for modern drug discovery. Anemone compounds exert anticancer and other bioactivities via multiple pathways. However, a comprehensive review of the Anemone medicinal resources is lacking. We here summarize the ethnomedical knowledge and recent progress on the chemical and pharmacological diversity of Anemone medicinal plants, as well as the emerging molecular mechanisms and functions of these medicinal compounds. The phylogenetic relationships of Anemone species were reconstructed based on nuclear ITS and chloroplast markers. The molecular phylogeny is largely congruent with the morphology-based classification. Commonly used medicinal herbs are distributed in each subgenus and section, and chemical and biological studies of more unexplored taxa are warranted. Gene expression profiling and relevant “omics” platforms could reveal differential effects of phytometabolites. Genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics should be highlighted in deciphering novel therapeutic mechanisms and utilities of Anemone phytometabolites.

  10. Ten Medicinal Plants from Burma

    OpenAIRE

    Sesoltani, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this Master thesis, there is an emphasis on scientific studies carried out to find information about the pharmacological effects and phytochemical constituents in 10 selected medicinal plants from Burma. These plants are taken from Burma collection compiled by Arnold Nordal during the period 1957-1961. Information was obtained about ethnomedicinal use, phytochemistry and biological activities of the 10 chosen plants. After a thorough search in different databases, there were...

  11. "Horchata" drink in Southern Ecuador: medicinal plants and people's wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Montserrat; Tinitana, Fani; Jarrín-V, Pablo; Donoso, Natalia; Romero-Benavides, Juan Carlos

    2017-03-09

    The "horchata" is a herbal mixture infusion consumed in Southern Ecuador. It remains unknown how vendors group the plant species to sell them at traditional markets. This research documented the following: 1) a list of medicinal plant species sold for the drink; 2) the culturally important medicinal plant species; 3) the agreement among vendors regarding the medicinal plants species and their therapeutic use; and 4) the groups of medicinal plants sold for the preparation of "horchata." Interviews were made to 185 vendors at 31 traditional markets in Loja province. Bunches of medicinal plants were purchased to identify the species and to prepare voucher specimens. Culturally important medicinal plants species were established with the Fidelity Level (FL) index. Agreement among vendors on the therapeutic use of medicinal plants was measured with the Factor of Informant Consensus (FIC) index. A cluster analysis was made to determine the groups of medicinal plants sold by market vendors to prepare the "horchata" drink. In Loja province, the "horchata" drink is consumed for its therapeutic uses. This study registered 33 families with 58 genera and 71 medicinal plant species, 50 of which are herbs and three are endemic to the Andean highlands of Ecuador. The FL index (46.1-96.3) determined 20 culturally important medicinal plant species. The highest FIC value (1.00) among vendors corresponds to four plant species employed each for a different therapeutic use. The cluster analysis identified a core group of 16 plant species which are essential to the drink and which likely interact to provide wellbeing. The "horchata" is a heritage drink in Loja province. The 71 medicinal plants species registered for this drink is the largest number reported to date, and they have a total of 32 therapeutic uses. The combined results of the FL and FIC indices, the cluster analysis, and the field observations reveal an agreement among vendors on 16 medicinal plant species and their

  12. Initial Studies on Alkaloids from Lombok Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Bremner

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Initial investigation of medicinal plants from Lombok has resulted in the collection of 100 plant species predicted to have antimicrobial, including antimalarial, properties according to local medicinal uses. These plants represent 49 families and 80 genera; 23% of the plants tested positively for alkaloids. Among the plants testing positive, five have been selected for further investigation involving structure elucidation and antimicrobial testing on the extracted alkaloids. Initial work on structural elucidation of some of the alkaloids is reported briefly.

  13. [New records of medicinal plants in Hubei].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dan; Wu, Yu; Xiao, Jia-Wei; Xie, Zheng-Xin; Chen, Yong-Xin; He, Wen-Qi; Zhang, Dai-Gui

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we make a report on new records of medicinal plants in Hubei, which include one newly recorded genera and seven newly recorded species and a newly recorded variety. The newly recorded genera is Anoectochilus and its corresponding species is Anoectochilus roxburghii; These newly recorded species are Euphorbia micractina, Astragalus wulingensis, Blumea megacephala, Potentilla saundersiana, Blumea formosana, Lycoris houdyshelii and Colocasia gigantea ; The newly recorded variety is Neottia puberula var. maculata. Among these species, Anoectochilus roxburghii and N. puberula var. maculata are considered as the second-class protection in our country, A. roxburghii is regarded as Endangered(EN)and Astragalus wulingensis is regarded as Critically Endangered (CN) by IUCN. The report of these newly recorded plants borden the distribution and enrich the plant diversity of Hubei. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  14. Patterns and Environmental Determinants of Medicinal Plant : Vascular Plant Ratios in Xinjiang, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bengang; Xiao, Peigen; Qi, Yaodong; Zhang, Zhao; Liu, Haitao; Li, Xiaojin; Wang, Guoping; Terwei, André

    2016-01-01

    With both a full collection of native vascular plant distributions and a full checklist of source plants of the Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), the Uygur Medicine (UM), and the Kazak Medicine (KM) for the Xinjiang region, we defined medicinal plant: vascular plant ratios (simplified as medicinal plant ratios hereafter) as the value of medicinal plant richness divided by vascular plant richness. We aimed to find whether the ratios are constant or change in different environments, which environmental variables determine medicinal plant ratios, and whether the ratios are more influenced by human or by natural environments. Finally, suggestions for medicinal plant conservation were addressed. We found that (1) medicinal plant ratios were not constant, and they were high in the Tarim Basin which was largely covered by desert, while they were relatively low in mountainous areas, especially in the Tianshan Mountains where the general species richness was high; (2) medicinal plant ratios were not significantly influenced by human activities, indicated by human population density distributions, but they were highly correlated with plant species richness and climate, i.e. ratios decreased with plant species richness and MAP, and were related quadratically with MAT; (3) CMM ratio and UM ratio were more influenced by plant richness than by climate, while KM ratio was more influenced by climate. We concluded that the percentages of plants used as medicines were not influenced by distances from human settlements, but were determined by species richness or climate. We suggest that (1), in general, the medicinal plant ratio could be a complementary indicator for medicinal plant conservation planning and (2), for the region of Xinjiang, not only high diversity areas, but also some extreme environments should be considered as compensation for a better protection of medicinal plants. PMID:27391239

  15. Patterns and Environmental Determinants of Medicinal Plant : Vascular Plant Ratios in Xinjiang, Northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Li

    Full Text Available With both a full collection of native vascular plant distributions and a full checklist of source plants of the Chinese Materia Medica (CMM, the Uygur Medicine (UM, and the Kazak Medicine (KM for the Xinjiang region, we defined medicinal plant: vascular plant ratios (simplified as medicinal plant ratios hereafter as the value of medicinal plant richness divided by vascular plant richness. We aimed to find whether the ratios are constant or change in different environments, which environmental variables determine medicinal plant ratios, and whether the ratios are more influenced by human or by natural environments. Finally, suggestions for medicinal plant conservation were addressed. We found that (1 medicinal plant ratios were not constant, and they were high in the Tarim Basin which was largely covered by desert, while they were relatively low in mountainous areas, especially in the Tianshan Mountains where the general species richness was high; (2 medicinal plant ratios were not significantly influenced by human activities, indicated by human population density distributions, but they were highly correlated with plant species richness and climate, i.e. ratios decreased with plant species richness and MAP, and were related quadratically with MAT; (3 CMM ratio and UM ratio were more influenced by plant richness than by climate, while KM ratio was more influenced by climate. We concluded that the percentages of plants used as medicines were not influenced by distances from human settlements, but were determined by species richness or climate. We suggest that (1, in general, the medicinal plant ratio could be a complementary indicator for medicinal plant conservation planning and (2, for the region of Xinjiang, not only high diversity areas, but also some extreme environments should be considered as compensation for a better protection of medicinal plants.

  16. Medicinal plant diversity in the flora of Saudi Arabia 1: a report on seven plant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Atiqur; Mossa, Jaber S; Al-Said, Mansour S; Al-Yahya, Mohammed A

    2004-03-01

    A preliminary survey on the medicinal plant diversity in the flora of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been made with seven families: Amaranthaceae, Apocynaceae, Capparidaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Labiatae, Polygonaceae and Solanaceae, as an initial study. These families are represented in the flora with 254 species (i.e. 12% of the total species), and individually with 21, 7, 29, 66, 76, 22 and 33 species, respectively. Of these, 86 species, so far investigated, are medicinal, distributed in these seven families as follows: 7, 5, 12, 20, 23, 7 and 12, respectively. The Labiatae have the highest number (23) of medicinal plants among them while maximum medicinal plant diversity within the family has been observed with the Apocynaceae. An enumeration of these 86 medicinal species is presented with the current nomenclature, Arabic names and medicinal uses. This communication aims at emphasizing the importance of setting up conservation priorities, and sustained development of various medicinal plants of Saudi Arabia.

  17. Medicinal Plants with Antiplatelet Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haouari, Mohammed; Rosado, Juan A

    2016-07-01

    Blood platelets play an essential role in the hemostasis and wound-healing processes. However, platelet hyperactivity is associated to the development and the complications of several cardiovascular diseases. In this sense, the search for potent and safer antiplatelet agents is of great interest. This article provides an overview of experimental studies performed on medicinal plants with antiplatelet activity available through literature with particular emphasis on the bioactive constituents, the parts used, and the various platelet signaling pathways modulated by medicinal plants. From this review, it was suggested that medicinal plants with antiplatelet activity mainly belong to the family of Asteraceae, Rutaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Zygophyllaceae, Rhamnaceae, Liliaceae, and Zingiberaceae. The antiplatelet effect is attributed to the presence of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, flavonoids, coumarins, terpenoids, and other substances which correct platelet abnormalities by interfering with different platelet signalization pathways including inhibition of the ADP pathway, suppression of TXA2 formation, reduction of intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, and phosphoinositide breakdown, among others. The identification and/or structure modification of the plant constituents and the understanding of their action mechanisms will be helpful in the development of new antiplatelet agents based on medicinal plants which could contribute to the prevention of thromboembolic-related disorders by inhibiting platelet aggregation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Medicinal plants used to treat malaria in Southern Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maesen, van der L.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    People in Benin who cannot resort to allopathic medicines provided by the pharmaceutical industry use many species of plants to alleviate malaria symptoms. Complicated mixtures of different parts of several plant species are employed orally or as a bathing substance. The inventory of 85 species and

  19. Anti- Sporothrix spp. activity of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Bressan Waller

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cases of sporotrichosis in humans and animals without satisfactory clinical response have increased, a warning sign of strains resistant to conventional antifungal agents. The urgent search for alternative therapies was an incentive for research on medicinal plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. properties. A bibliographic survey was performed based on scientific papers about in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of essential oils and extracts of plants in differents solvents against the fungal of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. The study methodology consisted of a literature review in Google Scholar, Science Direct, Pubmed, Bireme and Springer link with papers from 1986 to 2015. We found 141 species of plants that were investigated, of which 100 species were concentrated in 39 botanical families that had confirmed anti-Sporothrix activity. Combretaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae represented the botanical families with the greatest number of plants species with antifungal potential, using different methodologies. However, there are few studies with medicinal plants in experimental infection in animals that prove their activity in the treatment of sporotrichosis. It reinforces the need for further research related to standardization of in vitro methodologies and in vivo studies related to safety and to toxicity potential of these plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. activity.

  20. Medicinal plants in the treatment of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad M. Zlatić

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a review of highly developed medicinal usages of plants in the treatment of cancer. In the last decades, the cancer treatment has been included in this range of plant use, due to plant active substances. Active substances or secondary metabolites are generally known for their widespread application. When it comes to the cancer treatment, these substances affect the uncontrolled cell division. Therefore, the plants which are the source of these substances are proved to be irreplaceable in this field of medicine. This paper deals with some of the most significant plants well known for their multiple aspects of beneficial medicinal influence. The group of the plants described is comprised of the following species: Taxus brevifolia (Taxaceae, Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae, Podophyllum peltatum (Berberidaceae, Camptotheca accuminata (Cornaceae, and Cephalotaxus harringtonia (Cephalotaxaceae. The comprehensive description of the plants in this paper includes the morphological characteristics, the features and the representation of the molecular structures of active substances, the particular influence that these active substances have and the general importance of the substances as seen from the aspect of cancer treatment mostly with reference to the impacts on cell cycle.

  1. Medicinal plants of Usherai valley, Dir, NWFP, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazarat, A.; Shah, J.; Ahmad, S.; Nasir, M.; Jan, A.K.; Skindar

    2010-01-01

    This research is based on the results of an ethno-botanical research conducted in Usherai Valley. The main objective was to enlist the wealth of medicinal plants. In total 50 species, belonging to 32 families of wild herbs, shrubs and trees were found to be used as medicinal plants by the inhabitants in the valley. (author)

  2. contributions to the study of some medicinal plants of ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many African countries offer a largely untapped source of potentially useful natural products with numerous species waiting to be documented and investigated. Contributions from our laboratory to the phytochemical study of medicinal and other plants of Ethiopia is presented here briefly. Key Words: Medicinal plants, ...

  3. Traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in the Serra de Mariola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in the Serra de Mariola Natural Park, South-eastern Spain. ... This application is useful for the identification of individuals and the selection of species for specific medicinal properties. In the end, knowledge of these useful plants may be interesting to revive the local economy and in ...

  4. Research into microscopic structure and essential oils of endemic medicinal plant species Satureja subspicata Bartl. ex Vis. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulejman Redžić

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we looked into the cells and histological organization of leaves (Saturejae folium as well as a phyto-chemical composition of overground parts (Saturejae herba of endemic species Satureja subspicata Bartl. ex Vis. (Lamiaceae collected during year 2003 on south slopes of mountain Velez in Herzegovina. Microscopic organization was analyzed in wet slides using light microscope. Estimation of stomata index was done according to Ph. Yug. IV. Chemical composition of overground material extracts was determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC using thymol as a reference. In our research we found the following: Leaf structure of the analyzed species Satureja subspicata points at numerous specificities in anatomical and histological sense. In histological sense, leaf is of ventral type, with differentiated upper and lower epidermis and palisade and spongy tissue in between. Stoma index assigned according to Ph. Yug. IV leads to a conclusion that it is the case of diastitic stomata, which is common feature of most species from Lamiaceae family. Comparative qualitative analysis of essential oils in species Satureja subspicata showed similarities with other species from Lamiaceae family such as Thymus L. (thymol. In fact, we found more common substances that are part of the species Satureja montana L. extract, but in different concentrations.

  5. Medicinal plants sold at traditional markets in southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinitana, Fani; Rios, Montserrat; Romero-Benavides, Juan Carlos; de la Cruz Rot, Marcelino; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel

    2016-07-05

    The traditional markets in southern Ecuador and within the Andean region are especially important for plant resource trading among local people, even since before Spanish colonization; therefore, ethnobotanical studies are currently necessary and important. These strategic spaces persist for the traditional medicine cultural value reflected in the higher consumption of medicinal plants, which span all socioeconomic levels of rural and urban people. The purpose of this study includes the following: 1) to create a novel list of medicinal plants sold at 33 traditional markets; 2) to establish medicinal plant use agreement amongst vendors with the Factor of Informant Consensus (FIC); and 3) to determine the most sold medicinal plant species using the Fidelity Level (FL). This study focus on traditional markets ethnobotany utilizes the largest sample of medicinal plants market vendors up to date in Ecuador, interviewing them at 33 traditional markets, located within the Loja province. In order to determine the most sold medicinal plants and their ethnobotanical information, structured questionnaires and personal conversations were conducted with 196 medicinal plant vendors, and voucher specimens were created. Agreement among vendors about the therapeutic use of medicinal plants was measured using the FIC, and the most sold medicinal plant species were assessed with the FL. This research registered 160 medicinal plant species, grouped in 126 genera and 57 families that were sold in 33 traditional markets. The uses of medicinal plants in southern Ecuador are related to a long history of traditional medicine health practices that has persisted until today as well as high plant diversity. The 53 therapeutic uses recorded were grouped into 12 medical categories that were adapted from the World Health Organization. Three medical categories shared the highest value for FIC = 0.92, which showed a high level of agreement of market vendors for 57 medicinal plant species sold

  6. Insecticidal activity of certain medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavela, Roman

    2004-12-01

    The methanol extracts of eight species of medicinal plants were tested for insecticidal activity in third instar larvae of Egyptian cottonworm (Spodoptera littoralis). All extracts showed a certain degree of larval toxicity. The extracts of Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana and Salvia officinalis appeared to be highly toxic. The extracts significantly affected the growth indexes [relative growth rate (RGR), efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD)].

  7. Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian medicinal plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phlobatannin and cardic glycoside distribution in ten medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Cleome nutidosperma, Emilia coccinea, Euphorbia heterophylla, Physalis angulata, ...

  8. Radioactive properties of medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmedova, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: A complicated cycle of various compounds' synthesis is provided by plants in the process of their development. The synthesized compounds are necessary to maintain the life of all living organisms both in water and on the land. Together with the organic compounds all known natural radionuclides are accumulated by the plants. Many plants possess the ability to accumulate some elements, whose concentration in the plants may be much higher than that in the soils and water sources. It is well known that the plants are basic or initial raw materials for producing numerous food products, as well as medicinal preparations. The radionuclides, accumulated in the plants, may pass to the human organism through the products and drugs, and may become a source of internal radiation. Accumulation of the radionuclides in various human organs above the maximal acceptable concentration (MAC) may lead to various pathologic changes. That is why it is a necessary and urgent problem to carry out investigations of the radioactive properties of the plants (i.e. to determine their radioecological cleanliness) before using the medicinal plant for pharmacological purposes. In the present work we investigated the radioactive processes of kinds of medicinal plants by the method of semi-conductor gamma-spectrometry. Measurements of the gamma-spectra of the plants' leach were carried out with the help of a gamma-spectrometer with a Ge(Li) detector accompanied by a 4096-channel analyzer. Responsive volume of the detector was 40 cm 3 , energy resolution with respect to 1333 keV 60 Co line was 3 keV. In the measured spectra we observed clearly photo-peaks belonging to uranium-238 family: 186 keV 226 Ra; 295, 351 keV 214 Pb; 609, 1120, 1764 keV 214 Bi; and those belonging to thorium - 232 family: 339, 911, 968 keV 2 28 Ac; 583, 2614 keV 208 Te; as well as the photo-peak of the natural radionuclide 40 K with the energy 1460 keV. From the proper gamma-lines, observed in the spectra, we

  9. India mainstreams medicinal plants | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-03

    Feb 3, 2011 ... The program is partly sponsored by IDRC's Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Program in Asia (MAPPA). IDRC has supported medicinal plant research in the region since 1992. Improving quality control. R.B.S. Rawat, CEO of India's National Medicinal Plants Board, said people in Chhattisgarh and other ...

  10. Pharmacological, ethnopharmacological, and botanical evaluation of subtropical medicinal plants of Lower Kheng region in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangchuk, Phurpa; Yeshi, Karma; Jamphel, Kinga

    2017-12-01

    The Bhutanese Sowa Rigpa medicine (BSM) uses medicinal plants as the bulk ingredients. Our study was to botanically identify subtropical medicinal plants from the Lower Kheng region in Bhutan, transcribe ethnopharmacological uses, and highlight reported pharmacological activities of each plant. We freely listed the medicinal plants used in the BSM literature, current formulations, and the medicinal plants inventory documents. This was followed by a survey and the identification of medicinal plants in the Lower Kheng region. The botanical identification of each medicinal plant was confirmed using The Plant List , eFloras , and TROPICOS . Data mining for reported pharmacological activities was performed using Google Scholar, Scopus, PubMed, and SciFinder Scholar. We identified 61 subtropical plants as the medicinal plants used in BSM. Of these, 17 plants were cultivated as edible plant species, 30 species grow abundantly, 24 species grow in moderate numbers, and only seven species were scarce to find. All these species grow within the altitude range of 100-1800 m above sea level. A total of 19 species were trees, and 13 of them were shrubs. Seeds ranked first in the parts usage category. Goshing Gewog (Block) hosted maximum number of medicinal plants. About 52 species have been pharmacologically studied and only nine species remain unstudied. Lower Kheng region is rich in subtropical medicinal plants and 30 species present immediate economic potential that could benefit BSM, Lower Kheng communities and other Sowa Rigpa practicing organizations.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of some Iranian medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasemi Pirbalouti Abdollah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The major aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts of eight plant species which are endemic in Iran. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts of eight Iranian traditional plants, including Hypericum scabrum, Myrtus communis, Pistachia atlantica, Arnebia euchroma, Salvia hydrangea, Satureja bachtiarica, Thymus daenensis and Kelussia odoratissima, were investigated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Candida albicans by agar disc diffusion and serial dilution assays. Most of the extracts showed a relatively high antimicrobial activity against all the tested bacteria and fungi. Of the plants studied, the most active extracts were those obtained from the essential oils of M. communis and T. daenensis. The MIC values for active extract and essential oil ranged between 0.039 and 10 mg/ml. It can be said that the extract and essential oil of some medicinal plants could be used as natural antimicrobial agents in food preservation. .

  12. Medicinal Plants for Diabetes Treatment During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, Debora Cristina; Leal-Silva, Thais; Soares, Thaigra Sousa; Moraes-Souza, Rafaianne Queiroz; Volpato, Gustavo Tadeu

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome of great importance that affects an increasing number of people every day. In particular, diabetes is a common and important disease during pregnancy and is marked by complications, both fetal and maternal, that increase the risks of morbidity and mortality for diabetic pregnant women and their offspring. Drugs such as insulin and hypoglycemic drugs are given to treat diabetes, but regular exercise and adequate diet have also been indicated. Furthermore, coadjutant therapies such as medicinal plants are popularly used to reduce diabetes-induced hyperglycemia, either within or outside the context of pregnancy. However, studies examining plant use for diabetes treatment are necessary to confirm its possible effects and its safety for the mother and fetus. The objective of this literature review was to conduct a survey of plant species that are utilized worldwide and their stated therapeutic uses. A literature search was performed using the terms "diabetes and pregnancy", which resulted in the identification of 31,272 articles. Of these studies, only 12 (0.0038%) were related to medicinal plants, demonstrating that there has been little investigation into this issue. Of the papers analyzed in this review, half evaluated plant leaves, indicating that these scientific studies attempted to reproduce the preparations commonly used by various populations, i.e., in the form of tea. Additionally, more than 90% of studies utilized experimental animals to evaluate the maternal-fetal safety of medicinal plant substances that may potentially be dangerous for humans. Thus, once confidence levels for plant-derived substances are established based on toxicological analyses and safety is confirmed, it is possible that plants will be used to complement conventional diabetes therapies. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Aromatic Medicinal Plants from Tajikistan (Central Asia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharopov, Farukh S; Zhang, Hanjing; Wink, Michael; Setzer, William N

    2015-02-17

    Tajikistan is a small country located in Central Asia. The mostly mountainous terrain with a continental, subtropical, and semiarid climate, is characterized by diverse flora. Many people in Tajikistan rely on medicinal plants as their traditional form of medicine to prevent and cure health disorders. Aromatic medicinal plants, in particular, have played an important role for the local people. In this review, we present a summary of the uses of 18 aromatic medicinal plants from Tajikistan and their compositions of secondary metabolites.

  14. Folklore medicinal plants of North Andaman Islands, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, P Rama Chandra; Reddy, C Sudhakar; Raza, S H; Dutt, C B S

    2008-09-01

    The rural folk of North Andaman, India use the traditional medicine for their primary health care. Folklore medicinal uses of 72 interesting medicinal plant species along with botanical name, local name, family, habit, part used, disease for which the drug is administrated, mode of administration are presented. These 72 plant species which provide the crude drugs pertain to 67 genera and 43 families of Magnoliophyta from tropical rainforests. These plants used to cure 40 ailments. Most remedies were taken orally, accounting for 76% of medicinal use. Most of the remedies were reported to have been from trees (55.6%) and herb (22.2%) species. The most widely sought after plant parts in the preparation of remedies in the areas are the stem bark (33.8%) and root (23.9%).

  15. Recent trends in medicinal plants research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shyur, Lie-fen; Lau, Allan S.Y

    2012-01-01

    .... One type of research explores the value of medicinal plants as traditionally used and studies of these plants have the potential to determine which plants are most potent, optimize dosages and dose...

  16. [Fungi isolated from diseased medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T; Matsuhashi, M; Iida, O

    1992-01-01

    One hundred and forty-four fungal isolates were obtained from diseased Paeonia albiflora Pall. var. trichocarpa Bung., Astragalus membranaceus Bung., Lithospermum erythrorhizon Sieb. et Zucc., Ledebouriella seseloides Wolff and Bupleurum falcatum L. which were collected in the test field of Tsukuba Medicinal Plant Research Station, National Institute of Hygienic Sciences. Most of them were identified into 15 genera containing 8 species. Fungal species presumed to be pathogens of the host plants were as follows: Cladosporium paeoniae, Pestalotia paeoniicola, Glomerella cingulata, Hainesia lythri, Guignardia sp. and Alternaria sp. from P. albiflora, Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia spp. and Neocosmospora vasinfecta from A. membranaceus, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from L. erythrorhizon, Rhizoctonia sp., Fusarium spp., Phoma sp. and Pyrenochaeta sp. from L. seseloides, and Fusarium sp., Alternaria alternata, Phyllosticta sp., Phoma sp., Phomopsis sp. and C. gloeosporioides from B. falcatum. Roots of B. falcatum were found to be parasitized by Meloidogyne sp.

  17. Radiation protection by medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra

    2002-01-01

    The development of effective non-toxic radioprotective agents is of considerable interest in the improvement of radiotherapy of cancer and protection against unplanned exposures. The synthetic drugs developed in post-world war II have had serious constrains in clinical applicable due to their toxicity at the optimal protective dose. Search for non-toxic protectors from natural sources have indicated that some of the commonly used medicinal plants and the poly herbal formulation could prove to be valuable sources of clinically useful radioprotectors as their ratio of effective dose to toxic dose is very high

  18. The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina eKöberl

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is i to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, ii to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and iii to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L. and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn. cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants’ flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome.

  19. Traditional knowledge on medicinal plant of the Karen in northern Thailand: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangjitman, Kornkanok; Wongsawad, Chalobol; Winijchaiyanan, Piyawan; Sukkho, Treetip; Kamwong, Kaweesin; Pongamornkul, Wittaya; Trisonthi, Chusie

    2013-10-28

    We studied traditional medicinal plant knowledge among the Karen in northern Thailand. To compare traditional medicinal knowledge in 14 Karen villages in northern Thailand and determine culturally important medicinal plant species in each Karen village. We interviewed 14 key informants and 438 non-specialist informants about their traditional knowledge of medicinal plants. We tested normality of the data and correlations with distance to the nearest city using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Cluster analysis and cultural importance index (CI) were calculated for the similarity of medicinal plant used and culturally importance medicinal plant species among Karen villages respectively. In total 379 medicinal plant species were used. Number of medicinal plants used positively correlate with distance to the nearest city. Relatively low similarities of medicinal plant species and different CI values for species among the different areas were found. Traditional medicinal plants still play an important role in medicinal practice of the Karen. Local environments, availability of medicinal plant and distance between Karen villages and the nearest city affect the amount of traditional medicinal knowledge in each Karen village. The medicinal plants in this study with high CI values might give some useful leads for further biomedical research. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Himalayan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: A Review of their Ethnopharmacology, Volatile Phytochemistry, and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rakesh K; Satyal, Prabodh; Setzer, Wiliam N

    2016-02-19

    Aromatic plants have played key roles in the lives of tribal peoples living in the Himalaya by providing products for both food and medicine. This review presents a summary of aromatic medicinal plants from the Indian Himalaya, Nepal, and Bhutan, focusing on plant species for which volatile compositions have been described. The review summarizes 116 aromatic plant species distributed over 26 families.

  1. Himalayan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: A Review of their Ethnopharmacology, Volatile Phytochemistry, and Biological Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Rakesh K.; Satyal, Prabodh; Setzer, Wiliam N.

    2016-01-01

    Aromatic plants have played key roles in the lives of tribal peoples living in the Himalaya by providing products for both food and medicine. This review presents a summary of aromatic medicinal plants from the Indian Himalaya, Nepal, and Bhutan, focusing on plant species for which volatile compositions have been described. The review summarizes 116 aromatic plant species distributed over 26 families.

  2. An ethnopharmacological study of aromatic Uyghur medicinal plants in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lu; Tian, Shuge; Wen, E; Upur, Halmuart

    2017-12-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was completed in a remote village and surrounding country of Xinjiang, where most Uyghur medicinal plants could be collected. This work clarifies and increases ethnobotanical data. We surveyed and organized aromatic medicinal plants that are commonly used in clinical settings to provide a significant reference for studying new medical activities. In the survey, informants who have traditional knowledge on aromatic Uyghur medicinal plants were interviewed between March 2014 and September 2014. Aromatic medicinal plant species and pertinent information were collected. Some therapeutic methods and modes of preparation of traditional aromatic medicinal plants were found. A total of 86 aromatic medicinal plant species belonging to 36 families were included in our study. We identified 34 plant species introduced from different regions such as Europe, India and Mediterranean areas. Fruits and whole plants were the most commonly used parts of plant, and most aromatic medicinal plants could be applied as medicine and food. We assigned the medicinal plants a use value (UV). Knowing the UV of species is useful in determining the use reliability and pharmacological features of related plants. Xinjiang is an area in which indigenous aromatic medicinal plants are diversely used and has therefore established a sound dimensional medical healthcare treatment system. Some aromatic Uyghur medicinal plants are on the verge of extinction. Hence, further strategies for the conservation of these aromatic medicinal plants should be prioritized.

  3. Screening of crude extracts of twelve medicinal plants and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial activity of extracts of twelve Nigerian medicinal plant species and a “wonder cure” concoction [Epa –Ijebu]; used in traditional medicine for the treatment of tuberculosis and cough were screened for activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from tuberculosis patient sputum and the control strains ...

  4. Medicinal Plants used in Traditional Medicine in Jimma Zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Locally available and widely used medicinal plants would need to be identified and a list compiled as well as propagated to alleviate the risk of extinction due to accelerated urbanization, recurring drought and deforestation. This study was conducted to document locally available medicinal plants and ...

  5. Traditional uses of medicinal plants of uzumlu district, erzincan, turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkmaz, M.

    2015-01-01

    A list of medicinal plants used by local people in uzumlu district and its villages is presented. This study included the first detailed ethnobotanical survey carried out in Erzincan. The study was conducted during spring and summer periods in 2010 and 2011 through face-to-face interview method to determine the local names, used parts, and medicinal usages of the determined plants. The plant samples collected from the study area were pressed, dried, and labeled according to the herbarium techniques, and identified. Totally 64 plant taxa belonging to 53 genera and 29 families were used by local people for different medicinal purposes in the area. The families including the highest number of taxa were Rosaceae (11 species), Asteraceae (6 species) and Lamiaceae (5 species). The species with the highest number of usage as herbal medicine were Urtica dioica, Anthemis cretica subsp. iberica, Petroselinum crispum,Allium cepa, Rheum ribes, Rosa dumalis subsp. boissieri var. boissieri and Vitis vinifera. Fruits and flowers were the most widely used parts of the plants. Decoction was the main method for using, and the primary therapeutic use of herbal remedies was for the respiratory system diseases such as cold, cough, asthma, and bronchitis.This study was the first carried out on 20 plant taxa used as traditional medicine, and the use of 28 taxa were recorded for the first time in Turkey. For maintaining the knowledge on traditional medicine, urgent studies should be carried out for recording before they have been completely lost. (author)

  6. Medicinal plants used in traditional medicine by Oromo people, Ghimbi District, Southwest Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Ethiopia is one of the six centres of biodiversity in the world with several topographies, climatic conditions and various ethnic cultures. Ethnobotanical study is a real and encourageable in rich biological resource areas for medicinal plant identification, documentation, ranking, conservation and sustainable usages. The purpose of this study was to identify the most effective medicinal plants for specific treatment through priority ranking and to assess the status of the transfer of Traditional Botanical Knowledge (TBK) based on age groups and educational levels. Methodology Ethnobotanical data were collected using field observation and semi-structured interview, A total of 30 key informants and 165 community members were interviewed and data on medicinal plant species and associated knowledge were recorded, quantified and verified using several preference ranking methods. Results The study revealed a total of 49 medicinal plant species (belonging to 31 families and 46 genera) used to treat various human ailments, the majority of which 40 (81.6%) species were collected from wild while the rests from home garden. Herbs constituted the largest growth habit (18 species, 37%) followed by trees (16 species, 32%) and shrubs (15 species, 31%). Leaf `17 (35%) is the plant part widely used followed by root 13 (27%), leafy-stem 5 (10%), and seed 6 (12%). Oral administration was the dominant route (63%), followed by dermal route (22%) and nasal (11%). The highest number of plant species being used for infectious (48%) followed by two or more diseases and non-infectious disease. Of five and seven medicinal plants of preference ranking the highest ranks were given first for Croton macrostaychus used for malaria treatment and for Prunus africana as ‘’rare” for immediate collection and use in the traditional treatment. Significantly higher average number of medicinal plants (p medicinal knowledge. This study can be used as a basis for developing management

  7. Some medicinal plants as natural anticancer agents

    OpenAIRE

    Govind Pandey; S Madhuri

    2009-01-01

    India is the largest producer of medicinal plants and is rightly called the "Botanical garden of the World". The medicinal plants, besides having natural therapeutic values against various diseases, also provide high quality of food and raw materials for livelihood. Considerable works have been done on these plants to treat cancer, and some plant products have been marketed as anticancer drugs, based on the traditional uses and scientific reports. These plants may promote host resistance agai...

  8. The local knowledge of medicinal plants trader and diversity of medicinal plants in the Kabanjahe traditional market, North Sumatra, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silalahi, Marina; Nisyawati; Walujo, Eko Baroto; Supriatna, Jatna; Mangunwardoyo, Wibowo

    2015-12-04

    Market is the main place for transactions of medicinal plants and traditional ingredients by local community in the Karo regency, North Sumatra, Indonesia. This is the first study to document the local knowledge of traders on and the diversity of the medicinal plants. The investigation was carried out in the Kabanjahe traditional market, in the Karo regency. The research goal was to reveal the local knowledge, diversity and utilization of medicinal plants, which have been traded in the Kabanjahe traditional market, as a basis for conservation efforts. The study was conducted through ethnobotanical approach using market surveys. All traders of medicinal plants were surveyed applying in-depth interviews and participative observations. Data were analyzed qualitatively using descriptive statistics. The diversity of medicinal plants was expressed in term of the Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H'), whereas the similarity among traders was indicated by Jaccard index (Ji). Traders of medicinal plants stored the simplicia of medicinal plants in chest of drawers, plastic baskets, plastic bags, and in the air by suspending them from the the stall ceilings. We recorded 344 species, 217 genera and 90 families of medicinal plants. Those that were sold mostly belong to Zingeberaceae (20 species), Poaceae (19 species), and Asclepiadaceae (17 species), and the species received high consumers demand, mostly belong to Zingiberaceae, Rutaceae, and Asclepidiaceae. Asclepidiaceae was used to treat diseases like cancer and heart problems. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index of medicinal plants at the Kabanjahe traditional market was high (H'= 5.637). The high Jaccard similarity index (Ji>0.56) suggested that the traders were trading similar species of medicinal plants. Kabanjahe traditional market is the center for the sale of of medicinal plants as traditional ingredients. Several species are well known for their pharmacological properties but others, [such as: Dischidia imbricata (Blume

  9. Use of medicinal plants by people with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Gabrielle Santos Nunes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe the use of medicinal plants in the treatment of high blood pressure for people with hypertension enrolled in the Family Health Program in a city in Pernambuco State. Methods: a descriptive study, whose data were obtained through semi-structured interview script applied to 172 patients. Results: the use of medicinal plants for hypertension control was reported by 39.5%, of which 57.4% used only one medicinal plant. Among the species cited, there was predominant use of chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw.-34.8%]. Conclusion: medicinal plants constitute an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of hypertension. However, there is need for monitoring of handling and listed species.

  10. A Survey of Major Ethno Medicinal Plants of Kano North, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of medicinal plants was deforestation (43.6%). Many additives like edible oil, honey, butter, porridge, garlic were used in almost 58% of the remedy preparations. In addition, more than one medicinal plant species were used more frequently than the use of single species for medicinal preparations. Keywords: Ethnobotany ...

  11. Medicinal plants of the family Caryophyllaceae: a review of ethno-medicinal uses and pharmacological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Chandra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Several species of the family Caryophyllaceae are widely used by many ethnic communities as traditional medicine throughout the world. The highest number of plants of the family are used in Chinese traditional medicine. The ethnopharmacologial studies of this family indicate that plants of the family possess anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Other miscellaneous properties reported are ribosome inactivation properties, inhibition of prostatic enlargement in rats, and inhibition of intestinal enzyme carboxyelasterase in rats, cerebro-protective activity, and antiobesity in rats. Few reviews have been published yet, providing information regarding medicinal plants of the family and their biomedical properties. All published reviews have focused either on a particular taxa or a few species. The present review is focused on the traditional medicinal uses of the plants of the family Caryophyllaceae along with phytochemical and pharmacological studies of the family. A study of the literature revealed significant traditional medicinal importance of the family. Major chemical constituents of Caryophyllceae are saponins, Phytoecdysteroids, benzenoids, phenyl propanoids, and nitrogen containing compounds. The most important property of plants of the family is anticancer activity and is shown by the large number of plant species studied. This review of traditional medicinal and pharmacological uses of plants of the family, provide a ground for future research in the family.

  12. anti-inflammatory activity of selected nigerian medicinal plants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of nineteen plant species from an inventory of Nigerian medicinal plants were screened for activity in two in vitro anti-inflammatory model test systems, inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis and PAF-induced elastase release from neutrophilis. Anacardium occidentale and Acalipha hispida were active in both test ...

  13. Medicinal plants with cholinesterase inhibitory activity: A Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A potential source of AChE and BChE inhibitors is provided by the abundance of plants in nature, and natural products continue to provide useful drugs and templates for the development of other compounds. The present work constitutes a review of the literature on 123 species of medicinal plants that have been tested for ...

  14. Medicinal plants used for the treatment of tuberculosis by Bapedi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The majority (61.9%) are indigenous and the rest are exotics, found near homes as weeds or cultivated in home gardens as ornamentals or food plants. ... The therapeutic claims made on medicinal plants used to treat TB by the Bapedi traditional healers are well supported by literature, with 71.4% of the species having ...

  15. Application of Autofluorescence for Analysis of Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria V. Roshchina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autofluorescence of secondary compounds contained in plant secretory cells may be applied to the analysis of medicinal plants for pharmacy. Emission and prevailing fluorescent pharmaceuticals have been estimated in several models of species such as Salvia officinalis, Berberis vulgaris, Humulus lupulus, and Matricaria chamomilla, by luminescence microscopy, microspectrofluorimetry, and confocal microscopy.

  16. Ethnopharmacological Survey of Medicinal Plants in Albaha Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadh Ali, Nasser A; Al Sokari, Saeed Salah; Gushash, Ahmed; Anwar, Sirajudheen; Al-Karani, Khalid; Al-Khulaidi, Abdulwali

    2017-01-01

    Local natural medicinal resource knowledge is important to define and elaborate usage of herbs, in systematic and organized manner. Until recently, there has been little scientifically written document regarding the traditional uses of medicinal plants in Al Bahah region. This pilot study aims to collect the ethnobotanical information from native populations regarding the benefits of medicinal plants of Al Bahah region, and determine if the traditional usage is scientifically established (proved) from literature. The survey collected data for 39 plant species recorded by informants for their medicinal benefits. The recorded species were distributed among 28 plant families. Leguminosae and Euphorbiaceae were represented each by 3 species, followed by Asteraceae (2 species), Lamiaceae (2 species), Apocynaceae (2 species), and Solanaceae (2 species). All the medicinal plants were reported in their local names. Analysis of ethnopharmacological data was done to obtain percentage of plant families, species, parts of plants used, mode of administration, and preparation types. Total 43 informants were interviewed, maximum number of species were used to cure skin diseases including burns (3), wounds (7), warts (1), Leishmania (7), topical hemostatic (2), followed by gastrointestinal system, rheumatism, respiratory tract problems, diabetes mellitus, anti-snake venom, malaria, and eye inflammation. The study covered Al Bahah city and its outskirts. Ten new ethnobotanical uses were recorded such as antirheumatic and anti-vitiligo uses for Clematis hirsute , leishmaniasis use of Commiphora gileadensis , antigout of Juniperus procera , removing warts for Ficus palmata . 39 plant species from 28 plant families are used for treating more than 20 types of diseases.Maximum number of species (23 species) was used for treating skin diseases (42.6%) including leishmaniasis, wound healing, dermatitis, psoriasis, vitiligo and warts.Ten ethnobotanical uses of 8 studied plants have not

  17. Use of medicinal plants by health professionals in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Domínguez, Fabiola; Maldonado-Miranda, Juan José; Castillo-Pérez, Luis Jesús; Carranza-Álvarez, Candy; Solano, Eloy; Isiordia-Espinoza, Mario Alberto; Del Carmen Juárez-Vázquez, María; Zapata-Morales, Juan Ramón; Argueta-Fuertes, Marco Antonio; Ruiz-Padilla, Alan Joel; Solorio-Alvarado, César Rogelio; Rangel-Velázquez, Joceline Estefanía; Ortiz-Andrade, Rolffy; González-Sánchez, Ignacio; Cruz-Jiménez, Gustavo; Orozco-Castellanos, Luis Manuel

    2017-02-23

    The use of medicinal plants in Mexico has been documented since pre-Hispanic times. Nevertheless, the level of use of medicinal plants by health professionals in Mexico remains to be explored. To evaluate the use, acceptance and prescription of medicinal plants by health professionals in 9 of the states of Mexico. Direct and indirect interviews, regarding the use and acceptance of medicinal plants, with health professionals (n=1614), including nurses, physicians, pharmacists, and odontologists from nine states in Mexico were performed from January 2015 to July 2016. The interviews were analyzed with the factor the informant consensus (FIC). The information obtained indicated that 46% of those interviewed feel patients should not use medicinal plants as an alternative therapy. Moreover, 54% of health professionals, and 49% of the physicians have used medicinal plants as an alternative therapy for several diseases. Twenty eight percent of health professionals, and 26% of the physicians, have recommended or prescribed medicinal plants to their patients, whereas 73% of health professionals were in agreement with receiving academic information regarding the use and prescription of medicinal plants. A total of 77 plant species used for medicinal purposes, belonging to 40 botanical families were reported by the interviewed. The results of the FIC showed that the categories of diseases of the digestive system (FIC=0.901) and diseases of the respiratory system (FIC=0.898) had the greatest agreement. This study shows that medicinal plants are used for primary health care in Mexico by health professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The diversity of food and medicinal plants in the homegardens of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wiener diversity Index, Sørensen's Similarity Coefficient and Clustering technique. About 78% of the houses inspected had homegardens, and food and medicinal plants accounted for 58 (43%) of the total 135 plant species recorded. The food plants ...

  19. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by sabaots of Mt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Though the majority of people in Kenya and at Kopsiro Division in species to manage human ailments, the indigenous knowledge largely remains undocumented. Therefore, an ethnobotanical study was conducted on medicinal plant species used to manage human ailments at Kopsiro Division Mt. Elgon District Kenya.

  20. use of traditional medicinal plants by people of 'boosat'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JU

    preserved and made available for immediate application. Some of the major species used in this method are Senna occidentalis, Bidens pilosa and Andrachne aspera(Table1). Table 1. Families of medicinal plants and number of species used for humans ailments by. People of Boosat sub district, Central East Ethiopia.

  1. Medicinal plants with hepatoprotective activity in Iranian folk medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Asadi-Samani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of medicinal combinations in the Iranian traditional medicine which are commonly used as tonic for liver. In this review, we have introduced some medicinal plants that are used mainly for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine, with focus on their hepatoprotective effects particularly against CC14 agent. In this study, online databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct were searched for papers published from January 1970 to December 2013. Search terms consisted of medicinal plants, traditional medicine, folk medicine, hepatoprotective, Iran, liver, therapeutic uses, compounds, antioxidant, CC14, anti-inflammatory, and antihepatotoxic, hepatitis, alone or in combination. Allium hirtifolium Boiss., Apium graveolens L., Cynara scolymus, Berberis vulgaris L., Calendula officinalis, Nigella sativa L., Taraxacum officinale, Tragopogon porrifolius, Prangos ferulacea L., Allium sativum, Marrubium vulgare, Ammi majus L., Citrullus lanatus Thunb, Agrimonia eupatoria L. and Prunus armeniaca L. are some of the medicinal plants that have been used for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine. Out of several leads obtained from plants containing potential hepatoprotective agents, silymarin, β-sitosterol, betalain, neoandrographolide, phyllanthin, andrographolide, curcumin, picroside, hypophyllanthin, kutkoside, and glycyrrhizin have been demonstrated to have potent hepatoprotective properties. Despite encouraging data on possibility of new discoveries in the near future, the evidence on treating viral hepatitis or other chronic liver diseases by herbal medications is not adequate.

  2. The medicinal plants of Frangensko Plateau (Northeastern Bulgaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahariev, Dimcho; Kacheva, Cvetelina

    2015-12-01

    The Frangensko Plateau is located in the northeastern part of Bulgaria and covers an area of 360 km2. On the territory of the plateau there are two protected areas, as well as two areas of the European ecological network NATURA 2000. The study of the medicinal plants on the territory of the Frangensko Plateau is made for the first time. As a result of our research we found 362 species of vascular plants from 242 genera and 80 families. The most of the families and the genera are represented by a small number of inferior taxa. The analysis of their life form indicates that the hemicryptophytes dominate with 39.50%, followed by the phanerophytes (22.10%). The biological types are represented mainly by perennial herbaceous plants (52.21%), annual herbaceous plants (14.09%) and trees (10.50%). There are 8 types of floristic elements divided in 32 groups. The largest percentage of species is of European type (51.93%). Among the medicinal plants, there are two Balkan endemic species, one Bulgarian endemic species and 30 relic species. Thirty four species with protection statute are described. The anthropophytes among the medicinal plants are 242 species (66.85%).

  3. Traditional medicinal plant use in Loja province, Southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2006-10-10

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Loja province, Southern Ecuador.Two hundred fifteen plant species were collected, identified and their vernacular names and traditional uses recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors and members of the public interviewed still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. However, the area represents only an outlier of the larger Northern Peruvian cultural area, where more than 500 species of plants are used medicinally, indicating that in Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost.Most plant species registered are only used medicinally, and only a few species have any other use (construction, fodder, food). The highest number of species is used for the treatment of "magical" (psychosomatic) ailments (39 species), followed by respiratory disorders (34), problems of the urinary tract (28), Fever/Malaria (25), Rheumatism (23) and nervous system problems (20).

  4. Traditional medicinal plant use in Loja province, Southern Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Douglas

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Loja province, Southern Ecuador. Two hundred fifteen plant species were collected, identified and their vernacular names and traditional uses recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors and members of the public interviewed still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. However, the area represents only an outlier of the larger Northern Peruvian cultural area, where more than 500 species of plants are used medicinally, indicating that in Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost. Most plant species registered are only used medicinally, and only a few species have any other use (construction, fodder, food. The highest number of species is used for the treatment of "magical" (psychosomatic ailments (39 species, followed by respiratory disorders (34, problems of the urinary tract (28, Fever/Malaria (25, Rheumatism (23 and nervous system problems (20.

  5. Kenyan medicinal plants used as antivenin: a comparison of plant usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisangau Daniel P

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The success of snake bite healers is vaguely understood in Kenya, partly due to their unknown materia medica and occult-mystical nature of their practice. A comparison is made of plants used in snake bite treatments by two culturally distinct African groups (the Kamba and Luo. Thirty two plants used for snakebite treatment are documented. The majority of the antidotes are prepared from freshly collected plant material – frequently leaves. Though knowledge of snake bite conditions etiological perceptions of the ethnic groups is similar, field ethnobotanical data suggests that plant species used by the two ethnic groups are independently derived. Antivenin medicinal plants effectively illustrate the cultural context of medicine. Randomness or the use of a variety of species in different families appears to be a feature of traditional snake bite treatments. A high degree of informant consensus for the species was observed. The study indicates rural Kenya inhabitants rely on medicinal plants for healthcare.

  6. The medicinal plants of Chepan Mountain (Western Bulgaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahariev, Dimcho

    2015-12-01

    Bulgaria is one of the European countries with the greatest biodiversity, including biodiversity of medicinal plants. The object of this study is Chepan Mountain. It is located in Western Bulgaria and it is part of Balkan Mountain. On the territory of the Chepan Mountain (only 80 km2) we found 344 species of medicinal plants from 237 genera and 83 families. The floristic analysis indicates, that the most of the families and the genera are represented by a small number of inferior taxa. The hemicryptophytes dominate among the life forms with 49.71%. The biological types are represented mainly by perennial herbaceous plants (60.47%). There are 7 types of floristic elements divided in 27 groups. The largest percentage of species are of the European type (58.43%). Among the medicinal plants, there are two Balkan endemic species and 18 relic species. We described 23 species with protection statute. The anthropophytes among the medicinal plants are 220 species (63.95%).

  7. Medicinal plants popularly used in the villages of Yunt Mountain(Manisa-Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugurlu, Emin; Secmen, Ozcan

    2008-02-01

    A survey carried out during the years 2001-2002 revealed that people who lived in the villages of Yunt Mountain use large number of plants for medicinal purposes. Fifty-four medicinal plants belonging to 32 family were recorded. Among them 41 species were wild and 13 species were cultivated plants.

  8. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants from Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve of Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkayastha, Jubilee; Nath, Subhan C; Islam, M

    2005-01-01

    A survey of medicinal plants used by the ethnic communities of Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve in Northeast India has been reported. Fifty-five plant species belonging to 34 families and 52 different genera were included. For each plant species, botanical name, vernacular name, part(s) used, popular medicinal use, forms of preparation and applications of the herbal remedies are provided.

  9. Medicinal plants sold in the markets of Antananarivo, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randriamiharisoa, Maria Nirina; Kuhlman, Alyse R; Jeannoda, Vololoniaina; Rabarison, Harison; Rakotoarivelo, Nivo; Randrianarivony, Tabita; Raktoarivony, Fortunat; Randrianasolo, Armand; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2015-07-28

    This study focuses on the large outdoor markets of the capital of Madagascar, Antananarivo. As the largest metropolitan area in Madagascar with a population of nearly two million, the region has great capacity for consumption of medicinal plant remedies despite numerous pharmacies. Medicinal plant use spans all socioeconomic levels, and the diverse metropolitan population allows us to study a wide variety of people who consume these plants for medical purposes. The purpose of this study is to identify and generate a list of medicinal plants sold in the traditional markets with a focus on those collected in the forests around Antananarivo, get an idea of the quantities of medicinal plants sold in the markets around Antananarivo, and assess the economy of the medicinal plant markets. In order to determine which medicinal plants are most consumed in Antananarivo, ethnobotanical enquiries were conducted in the five main markets of the capital city. Ethnobotanical surveys were conducted with medicinal plant traders, suppliers, harvesters and cultivators, with voucher specimens created from the plants discussed. Trade circuit information was established and the income generated by the trade of some of the species was assessed. The inventory of the Antananarivo markets resulted in a list of 89 commercialized plant species. Ten of the 89 were mentioned by 60-100 % of vendors. Profitability for vendors is high and competitive with other salaried positions within Antananarivo. Transportation costs are also high and therefore lower profitability for other members in the supply chain. The markets of Antananarivo have always played a vital cultural role in the lives of urban Malagasy, but our study shows they also play an economic role not only for urban residents but rural harvesters as well. Continued research and monitoring of the non-timber forest products trade in Antananarivo is needed to better understand the impact of trade on the wild plant populations.

  10. From Curanderas to Gas Chromatography: Medicinal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Mary; Lara, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    The Medicinal Plants of the Southwest summer workshop is an inquiry-based learning approach to increase interest and skills in biomedical research. Working in teams, Hispanic and Native American students discover the chemical and biological basis for the medicinal activity of regional plants used by healers. (Contains 4 tables and 1 figure.)

  11. IRANIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS AS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Mohaddese Mahboubi

    2013-01-01

    Resistance of human and food spoilage pathogens to antimicrobial agents and the side effects of chemical agents or preservative for human is caused for finding natural new antimicrobial agents, especially among the medicinal plants. This review introduces the methods that are used for antimicrobial evaluations and synergistic activities and the antimicrobial potential of some Iranian medicinal plants.

  12. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of some Mexican medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Bustos, E; Velazquez, C; Garibay-Escobar, A; García, Z; Plascencia-Jatomea, M; Cortez-Rocha, M O; Hernandez-Martínez, J; Robles-Zepeda, R E

    2009-12-01

    In Mexico about 4,000 plant species have some medicinal use. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of six Mexican medicinal plants against fungi and Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methanolic extracts were prepared from the Mexican medicinal plants Amphypteringium adstrigens, Castella tortuosa, Coutarea latiflora, Ibervillea sonorae, Jatropha cuneata, and Selaginella lepidophylla. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the plants were determined by the broth microdilution method and the radial growth inhibition assay, respectively. All Mexican plants tested showed antimicrobial activity. Among the six plant extracts analyzed, J. cuneata showed the highest growth-inhibitory activity against fungi, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (J. cuneata > A. adstrigens > C. latiflora > C. tortuosa > I. sonorae approximately S. lepidophylla). Shigella flexneri and Staphylococcus aureus were the most susceptible bacteria to plant extracts. Complete inhibition of S. flexneri growth was observed with J. cuneata methanolic extract at 90 microg/mL. This plant extract also showed the strongest antifungal activity against Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus niger. Our data suggest that the medicinal plants tested have important antimicrobial properties. This is the first report describing the antimicrobial activities of several of the Mexican medicinal plants used in this study.

  13. Medicinal plant markets and trade in Maputo, Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Mogens Pedersen; Falcâo, Mario P.; Olsen, Carsten Smith

    Medicinal plants and traditional medicine are important to urban and rural livelihoods in Mozambique. This study presents a preliminary investigation of the structure and conduct of medicinal plant markets in Maputo.......Medicinal plants and traditional medicine are important to urban and rural livelihoods in Mozambique. This study presents a preliminary investigation of the structure and conduct of medicinal plant markets in Maputo....

  14. POTENCY OF THE INDONESIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS AS ANTIMALARIAL DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subeki Subeki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Indonesian traditional herbal medicine has been practiced for many centuries in Indonesia to treat malaria diseases. Although modern medicine is becoming increasingly important, herbal medicine is still very popular. In order to select raw material for preparation of safety herbal medicines, forty five medicinal plants have been tested for acute toxicity in mouse at a dose 715 mg/kg body weight. The extracts of Asclepias curassavica leave, Alstonia scholaris leave, Decospermum fruticosum leave, Elaocarpus petiolatus bark, Elaocarpus parvifolius bark, Eurycoma longifolia root, Garcinia rigida bark, Nephelium lappaceum bark, Pentaspodan motleyi leave, Picrasma javanica leave, Phyllanthus niruri whole, Quassia indica leave, Syzygium pycnanthum bark, Tetrasera scandens leave, Cratoxylum glaucum bark, Sandoricum emarginatum bark, Mallotus paniculatus leave, Microcos ovatolanceolata bark, Poikilospermum suaveolens leave, Fibraurea chloroleuea leave, Tetrasera scandens root, and Timonius billitonensis bark showed toxicity with mortality level of 20-100%. The remaining 32 plant extracts were not toxic at dose tested. The toxic plant species should be considered in the preparation of herbal medicines. Of the safety extracts were tested for their antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei in vivo at a dose 715 mg/kg body weight. Extract of Carica papaya leave was most active than other plant extracts with parasitemia 1.13%, while control showed 17.21%. More research is needed to scientifically prove efficacy and to identity antimalarial constituents in the plant extracts. Key words: Indonesian medicinal plant, jamu, toxicity, antimalarial activity, Plasmodium berghei.

  15. The endemic medicinal plants of Northern Balochistan, Pakistan and their uses in traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Tahira; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Mohammad Tareen, Niaz; Jabeen, Rukhsana; Sultana, Shazia; Zafar, Muhammad; Zain-ul-Abidin, Sheikh

    2015-09-15

    The highlands of Northern Balochistan are the hot spots of medicinal and endemic plant in Pakistan. These plants are still commonly used for medicinal purposes by local people in their daily lives. This study first documented the information about the medicinal uses of endemic species of Balochistan-province Pakistan. A survey was performed using open ended questionnaires, free listening and personal observations with 152 informants (54% female, 46% male). In addition, the use value (MUV), use report (UR), fidelity level (FL), frequency citation (FC), relative frequency citation (RFC), family importance value (FIV) of species were determined and the informant consensus factor (ICF) was calculated for the medicinal plants included in the study. A total of 24 endemic plants belonging to 19 genera and 14 families were used by the local inhabitants to treat 12 categories of various diseases. The most common families of endemic plant species as depicted by its number of species (6 species) and FIV (9.9) was Fabaceae as the dominant family. The endemic plant species comprised perennial herbs (30%), annual herbs (25%), shrubs (29%) and under shrubs (16% each), no endemic tree species was reported in the study area. The highest number of species were used in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases (12 species). The main route of administration is oral injection (62%) while the most frequently used form of external administration of herbal medicine was paste (5.4%) and the most commonly applied methods of preparation are powder (48.2%). Highest use report were calculated for Allium baluchistanicum and Viola makranica, (8 UR each), and least use report were calculated for two species Heliotropium remotiflorum and Tetracme stocksii (1 UR for each). Use values of the recorded plant species have been calculated which showed a highest use value of (0.73) for A. baluchistanicum and (0.56) for Berberis baluchistanica while the lowest UVs were attained for T. stocksii (0

  16. Medicinal plants in an urban environment: the medicinal flora of Banares Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussmann Rainer W

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Varanasi is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities of the world, and one of the most important Hindu pilgrimage sites. Despite this importance, very little information exits on the cities flora in general, and medicinal species found within its limit in particular. Traditional medicine plays a large role in Indian society. The presented study attempted to investigate if traditional plant use and availability of important common medicinal plants are maintained in urban environments. The paper presents information on the traditional uses of seventy-two plant species collected form the campus of Banares Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, and highlights the uses of these plants by the local inhabitants.

  17. Some medicinal plants used in Yemeni herbal medicine to treat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This pilot study examined the extent and the type of medicinal plants used for treating malaria. 492 informants were interviewed in 13 villages located on the coastal plain of four provinces. Nineteen plants belonging to fourteen families were recorded each with local names, methods of preparation and parts used.

  18. Medicinally important aromatic plants with radioprotective activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarth, Ravindra M; Samarth, Meenakshi; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa

    2017-11-01

    Aromatic plants are often used as natural medicines because of their remedial and inherent pharmacological properties. Looking into natural resources, particularly products of plant origin, has become an exciting area of research in drug discovery and development. Aromatic plants are mainly exploited for essential oil extraction for applications in industries, for example, in cosmetics, flavoring and fragrance, spices, pesticides, repellents and herbal beverages. Although several medicinal plants have been studied to treat various conventional ailments only a handful studies are available on aromatic plants, especially for radioprotection. Many plant extracts have been reported to contain antioxidants that scavenge free radicals produced due to radiation exposure, thus imparting radioprotective efficacy. The present review focuses on a subset of medicinally important aromatic plants with radioprotective activity.

  19. NIGERIAN ETHINOMEDICINE AND MEDICINAL PLANT FLORA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In continuation of the ethobotanical survey of medicinal plants of the Benue Area of Nigeria, thirty plants (belonging to twenty families), which are used as phytomedicines by the natives, were studied. The plants are arranged in alphabetical order of the taxa with their vernacular names in Idoma, Igala and Tiv given.

  20. Mapuche medicinal plants: Proposition in their propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz Ovalle; Zoia Neira; Patricio Nunez

    2002-01-01

    The Mapuche (native indians from Chile) population is one of the largest populations of native indians left in America (approximately 1 million). As many of the other Native communities, they continuously struggle to maintain their rituals and customs. One of the most valuable customs for the Mapuche is the use of medicinal plants. All these plants are native plants...

  1. Medicinal plants of the Russian Pharmacopoeia; their history and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikov, Alexander N; Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Makarov, Valery G; Wagner, Hildebert; Verpoorte, Rob; Heinrich, Michael

    2014-07-03

    Due to the location of Russia between West and East, Russian phytotherapy has accumulated and adopted approaches that originated in European and Asian traditional medicine. Phytotherapy is an official and separate branch of medicine in Russia; thus, herbal medicinal preparations are considered official medicaments. The aim of the present review is to summarize and critically appraise data concerning plants used in Russian medicine. This review describes the history of herbal medicine in Russia, the current situation and the pharmacological effects of specific plants in the Russian Pharmacopoeia that are not included in the European Pharmacopoeia. Based on the State Pharmacopoeia of the USSR (11(th) edition), we selected plant species that have not yet been adopted in Western and Central Europe (e.g., selected for inclusion in the European Pharmacopoeia) and systematically searched the scientific literature for data using library catalogs, the online service E-library.ru, and databases such as Medline/Pubmed, Scopus, and the Web of Science regarding species, effectiveness, pharmacological effects, and safety. The Russian Federation follows the State Pharmacopoeia of the USSR (11(th) edition), which contains 83 individual plant monographs. Fifty-one of these plants are also found in the European Pharmacopoeia and have been well studied, but 32 plants are found only in the Pharmacopoeia of the USSR. Many articles about these medicinal plants were never translated in English, and much of the information collected by Russian scientists has never been made available to the international community. Such knowledge can be applied in future studies aimed at a safe, evidence-based use of traditional Russian medicinal plants in European and global phytopharmacotherapy as well as for the discovery of novel leads for drug development. The review highlights the therapeutic potential of these Russian phytopharmaceuticals but also highlights cases where concern has been raised

  2. Advances on Bioactive Polysaccharides from Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jian-Hua; Jin, Ming-Liang; Morris, Gordon A; Zha, Xue-Qiang; Chen, Han-Qing; Yi, Yang; Li, Jing-En; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Gao, Jie; Nie, Shao-Ping; Shang, Peng; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2016-07-29

    In recent decades, the polysaccharides from the medicinal plants have attracted a lot of attention due to their significant bioactivities, such as anti-tumor activity, antioxidant activity, anticoagulant activity, antidiabetic activity, radioprotection effect, anti-viral activity, hypolipidemic and immunomodulatory activities, which make them suitable for medicinal applications. Previous studies have also shown that medicinal plant polysaccharides are non-toxic and show no side effects. Based on these encouraging observations, most researches have been focusing on the isolation and identification of polysaccharides, as well as their bioactivities. A large number of bioactive polysaccharides with different structural features and biological effects from medicinal plants have been purified and characterized. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the most recent developments in physiochemical, structural features and biological activities of bioactive polysaccharides from a number of important medicinal plants, such as polysaccharides from Astragalus membranaceus, Dendrobium plants, Bupleurum, Cactus fruits, Acanthopanax senticosus, Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, Aloe barbadensis Miller, and Dimocarpus longan Lour. Moreover, the paper has also been focused on the applications of bioactive polysaccharides for medicinal applications. Recent studies have provided evidence that polysaccharides from medicinal plants can play a vital role in bioactivities. The contents and data will serve as a useful reference material for further investigation, production, and application of these polysaccharides in functional foods and therapeutic agents.

  3. Medicinal Plants in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Perspective of Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Shahpiri, Zahra; Mehri, Mohammad Reza; Bahramsoltani, Roodabeh; Rezaei, Mahdi; Raeesdana, Azade; Rahimi, Roja

    2018-03-05

    Neurodegenerative diseases are a progressive loss of structure and/or function of neurons. Weak therapeutic response and progressive nature of the diseases, as well as wide range of side effects caused by conventional therapeutic approaches, make patients seek for complementary and alternative medicine. The aim of present paper is to discuss the neuropharmacological basis of medicinal plants and their principle phytochemicals which have been used in traditional Persian medicine for different types of neurodegenerative diseases. Medicinal plants introduced in traditional Persian medicine perform beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases via various cellular and molecular mechanisms including suppression of apoptosis mediated by the increase in expression of anti-apoptotic agents (e.g. Bcl-2) as well as the decrease in the expression and activity of pro-apoptotic proteins (e.g. Bax, caspase 3 and 9). Alleviating inflammatory responses and suppressing the expression and function of pro-inflammatory cytokines like Tumor necrosis factor α and interleukins, as well as improvement in antioxidative performance mediated by superoxide dismutase and catalase, are among other neuroprotective mechanisms of traditional medicinal plants. Modulation of transcription, transduction, intracellular signaling pathways including ERK, p38, and MAPK, with upstream regulatory activity on inflammatory cascades, apoptosis and oxidative stress associated pathways, play an essential role in preventive and therapeutic potential of the plants in neurodegenerative diseases. Medicinal plants used in traditional Persian medicine along with their related phytochemicals by affecting various neuropharmacological pathways can be considered as future drugs or adjuvant therapies with conventional pharmacotherapeutics; though, further clinical studies are necessary for confirmation of their safety and efficacy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Conservation of indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants of Western Himalayan region Rawalakot, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Sajjad; Murtaza, Ghulam; Mehmood, Ansar; Qureshi, Rizwana Aleem

    2017-05-01

    The aim of present was to document indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants traditionally used by inhabitants of Rawalakot Azad Kashmir and to screen selected medicinal plants for their antibacterial potential. Several field surveys were conducted to document indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants through interviews from local inhabitants during 2010-2013. During the study, 58 plant species, belonging to 37 families, were identified and their medicinal uses were recorded. Ethnobotanical data indicates that inhabitants of Rawalakot use medicinal plant mainly for the treatment of stomach, liver and sexual disorders. Usually fresh plant materials were used for medicinal preparations and administrated orally. Among all the species studied, three most frequently used medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Berberis lycium and Zanthoxylum armatum were screened for their antibacterial potential by using disc diffusion method. The crude aqueous, petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts were found to be very active against selected bacterial strains. The present study contributes significantly to the medicinal plant knowledge and shows that medicinal plant knowledge is deteriorating among younger generations. Therefore, further research is needed to document indigenous knowledge, to find conservation status of medicinal plant species and to find antimicrobial compounds for more sophisticated usage of medicinal plants in future.

  5. Anti-Rheumatic Potential of Pakistani Medicinal Plants: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, M.; Adnan, M.; Murad, W.; Tariq, A.; Bibi, H.; Rahman, H.; Shinwari, Z. K.

    2016-01-01

    Present review aimed to provide a comprehensive documentation of plants used as anti-rheumatic ethnomedicines in Pakistan and to suggest future recommendations. Data on anti-rheumatic plants was collected from published scientific papers, reports and thesis using online searching engines such as Google Scholar PubMed and Science Direct. Five distinct zones in the country were classified on the basis of geography, humidity and rainfall. We used Sorenson similarity index for plants and their parts used between different zones. A total of 137 anti-rheumatic plant species representing 55 families and 104 genera are used in Pakistan. Herbs (87 plants) were the primary source of anti-rheumatic medicinal plants, while leaves (22 % plant species) were the most frequently used part in the preparation of ethnomedicinal recipes. Highest number of 52 medicinal plant species were found in Zone A having high mountains and cold climate where the prevalence of rheumatism was more common. Solanum surattense was found with highest conservation concerns as it was using in 13 different areas against rheumatism. Results of Sorenson index revealed that there is a similarity of plants and its parts uses between different zones. In conclusions, geography and climate have an important role in causing rheumatic disease. Pakistan has a number of anti-rheumatic plants that are used by the local populations through their traditional knowledge. Moreover, inter zonal similarities among plants and its part uses indicate higher pharmacological potency of these medicinal plants. Further, the review will also provide an insight regarding the conservation status of reported plants. (author)

  6. Ethnopharmacology of Medicinal Plants in Genaveh Port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Moradi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethnopharmacology has been seen as a multidisciplinatary approach for novel drug discovery by providing valuable data about medicinal plants in different cultures. The aim of this ethnopharmacological study was to identify medicinal plants of the Genaveh port in the North of Persian Gulf. Material and Methods: The medical uses of medicinal plants were gathered from 30 local informants by face to face interview. The relative frequency of citation (FRC and cultural importance (CI indices were calculated. Results: A total of 93 medicinal plants belonging to 55 families were identified. Plantago psyllium, Teucrium polium, Peganum harmala, Descuraninia sophia, Cichorium intybus, Achillea erophora DC, Matricarria charmomilla and Citrolus colocynthis had the highest cultural importance indices. Plantago psyllium, Descuraninia sophia and Zataria multiflora had the highest FRC indices. The highest medical uses were for gastrointestinal diseases, gynocological diseases, respiratory disorders, infectious diseases, nature of cool and metabolic disorders, respectively. In addition to the use of these plants to treat diseases as in Iran’s traditional medicine, people in the Genaveh port particularly use Plantago psyllium for drainage of infective boils and abscesses, cough, skin diseases, Teucrium polium for diabetes mellitus, wound washing and sterilizing, Peganum harmala for uterus infections and abdominal cramps, Descuraninia sophia for heart diseases and heatstroke, Cichorium intybus for heatstroke and liver diseases, Achillea eriophora DC for reflex, diabetes mellitus and wound healing, Matricarria charmomilla for seizure and dysmenorrhea, Citrolus colocynthis for hemorrhoid, diabetes mellitus and rheumatism and Zataria multiflora for sedation, abdominal pain and respiratory diseases. Conclusion: There is a vast variety of medicinal plants in Genaveh port. Although most of therapeutic applications of these plants in the Genaveh port are the

  7. A bioactivity versus ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants from Nigeria, west Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifongo, Lydia L; Simoben, Conrad V; Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Babiaka, Smith B; Judson, Philip N

    2014-02-01

    Traditional medicinal practices play a key role in health care systems in countries with developing economies. The aim of this survey was to validate the use of traditional medicine within local Nigerian communities. In this review, we examine the ethnobotanical uses of selected plant species from the Nigerian flora and attempt to correlate the activities of the isolated bioactive principles with known uses of the plant species in African traditional medicine. Thirty-three (33) plant species were identified and about 100 out of the 120 compounds identified with these plants matched with the ethnobotanical uses of the plants.

  8. Activity profiles of fourteen selected medicinal plants from Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fourteen plants used in traditional medicine in the Venda region of South Africa were screened for activity against fifteen bacterial species. Methanol, acetone and hexane extracts and in some cases essential oils were tested using the disc diffusion and the microdilution methods. Most of the extracts were active against at ...

  9. Nigerian Ethnomedicine and Medicinal Plant Flora: Anti - ulcer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aloe vera is an exotic species that is getting naturalized and commercially cultivated in the area. The pieces of information herein are regarded as useful tips for the bioassay-guided isolation of active principles from local medicinal plants. Key Words: Anti-ulcer, folk remedy, secondary metabolites, saponins, tannins

  10. Capturing indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants use: Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty ailments categorized into thirty one treatments and prevention methods were discovered. Kigellia africana, Cassia spp and Alstonia boonei were used for treating common ailments like malaria, dysentery and gonorrhea. Sources of collecting the medicinal plant species and their mode of administration were different.

  11. Medicinal Plants, Containing Cardiac Glycosides and Their Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Ahmetzhanova

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors consider bioecological peculiarities of some species of medicinal plants, containing cardiac glycosides and their distribution. The paper presents the tables, which contain data of the quantitative content of the amount of cardiac glycosides in the aerial and underground parts of some species of the Cruciferous, Buttercups, etc. in different ecological conditions. The article also introduces the specie of foxglove from the family of figwort, which defines the quantitative content of cardiac glycosides, as the leaves of these plants are a source of raw materials, producing cardiac glycosides.

  12. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine by the communities of Mount Hermon, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydoun, Safaa; Chalak, Lamis; Dalleh, Helena; Arnold, Nelly

    2015-09-15

    Medicinal plant species in Lebanon are experiencing severe threats because of various environmental conditions, human expansion footprints and recent growing global demand. Organized research and information on indigenous medicinal plants and knowledge have been very limited and little efforts have been invested to develop a complete inventory for native medicinal plants and associated traditional knowledge in the country. Recognized as a key biodiversity area of the Mediterranean Basin, Mount Hermon hosts important richness of medicinal plants that has been traditionally used in treatment of many illnesses since generations. Novel knowledge gathered by the present investigation is important in preserving indigenous knowledge of Mount Hermon community and revitalizing traditional herbal medicines. Ethnopharmacological information was collected by semi-structured interviews with 53 native informants (herbalists, traditional healers, midwives and local adult villagers) in 13 towns and villages surrounding Mount Hermon. The interviews were conducted through guided field visits and discussion groups whilst collecting plants specimens. Taxonomical identification of plant species was based on the determination keys of the "New Flora of Lebanon and Syria" and specimens were deposited at the herbarium of the Research Center for Environment and Development at Beirut Arab University. The results obtained indicate that 124 plant species of Mount flora are still used in traditional medicine by the local communities as an important source of primary health care and treatment of a wide range of different illnesses. These species belonged to 42 families and 102 genera. Compositae (19 species), Labiatae (18 species), Rosaceae (11) and Umbelliferae (11) formed the dominant families. Informants' Consensus Factor (FIC) analysis revealed that among the 14 illness categories used, respiratory (0.94), gastrointestinal and renal (0.93), genital systems (0.92) had the highest FIC values

  13. Bioactive Compounds from Plants Used in Peruvian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Olga; Perez, Eleucy; Villar, Martha; Flores, Diana; Rojas, Rosario

    2016-03-01

    It is estimated that there are as many as 1400 plant species currently used in traditional Peruvian medicine; however, only a few have undergone scientific investigation. In this paper, we make a review of the botanical, chemical, pharmacological and clinical propierties of the most investigated Peruvian medicinal plants. The plant species selected for this review are: Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon), Croton lechleri (sangre de grado), Uncaria tomentosa/U. guianensis (uña de gato), Lepidium meyenii (maca), Physalis peruviana (aguaymanto), Minthostachys mollis (muña), Notholaena nivea (cuti-cuti), Maytenus macrocarpa (chuchuhuasi), Dracontium loretense (jergon sacha), Gentianella nitida (hercampuri), Plukenetia volubilis (sacha inchi) and Zea mays (maiz morado). For each of these plants, information about their traditional uses and current commercialization is also included.

  14. Medicinal plants used in traditional medicine by Oromo people, Ghimbi District, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, Balcha

    2014-05-08

    Ethiopia is one of the six centres of biodiversity in the world with several topographies, climatic conditions and various ethnic cultures. Ethnobotanical study is a real and encourageable in rich biological resource areas for medicinal plant identification, documentation, ranking, conservation and sustainable usages. The purpose of this study was to identify the most effective medicinal plants for specific treatment through priority ranking and to assess the status of the transfer of Traditional Botanical Knowledge (TBK) based on age groups and educational levels. Ethnobotanical data were collected using field observation and semi-structured interview, A total of 30 key informants and 165 community members were interviewed and data on medicinal plant species and associated knowledge were recorded, quantified and verified using several preference ranking methods. The study revealed a total of 49 medicinal plant species (belonging to 31 families and 46 genera) used to treat various human ailments, the majority of which 40 (81.6%) species were collected from wild while the rests from home garden. Herbs constituted the largest growth habit (18 species, 37%) followed by trees (16 species, 32%) and shrubs (15 species, 31%). Leaf `17 (35%) is the plant part widely used followed by root 13 (27%), leafy-stem 5 (10%), and seed 6 (12%). Oral administration was the dominant route (63%), followed by dermal route (22%) and nasal (11%). The highest number of plant species being used for infectious (48%) followed by two or more diseases and non-infectious disease. Of five and seven medicinal plants of preference ranking the highest ranks were given first for Croton macrostaychus used for malaria treatment and for Prunus africana as ''rare" for immediate collection and use in the traditional treatment. Significantly higher average number of medicinal plants (p institution (14.3 ± 34) and adult age groups (11.6 ± 43). The Ghimbi people possess rich ethno-medicinal

  15. Ethnobotanical survey of usage of fresh medicinal plants in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, Yin-Yin; Zareisedehizadeh, Sogand; Seetoh, Wei-Guang; Neo, Soek-Ying; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Koh, Hwee-Ling

    2014-09-29

    The use of medicinal plants in human health has been documented since ancient times and they provide a useful source of new therapeutics. In Singapore, despite the accessibility to modern healthcare, there still exist pockets of the population who choose to use locally grown fresh medicinal plants for health promotion and even therapeutic purposes. However to date, there is no published report of first-hand account of their usage in Singapore. As land is scarce and rapidly used for re-development, such important knowledge may be lost if not properly documented in time. This work safeguards the local folk knowledge, and provides information on common and scarcely reported fresh medicinal plants. The objective of this study is to gather information regarding the usage of fresh medicinal plants in Singapore through face-to-face interviews. Information on demographic data and plant-use methods were collated via face-to-face interviews of 200 fresh medicinal plant users who have used fresh medicinal plants in the last five years. The survey protocol was approved by the National University of Singapore Institutional Review Board and informed consent was obtained from every participant. A total of 414 plants represented by 104 plant species from 44 families were reportedly used by the 200 participants. The five most commonly used plants were Clinacanthus nutans (34 users), Strobilanthes crispus (31 users), Pereskia bleo (25 users), Aloe vera (18 users) and Zingiber officinale (16 users). Leaves were the most commonly used plant part while preparing a decoction was the most common method of preparation. The majority of interviewees used plants for general health purposes and to treat diseases related to the respiratory system and cancer. Our survey has successfully documented the rich wealth of traditional usage and knowledge on 414 fresh medicinal plants grown in Singapore through face-to-face interviews with 200 users. This study will serve as a useful resource for

  16. Ethnobotanical inventory of medicinal plants used in the Bustillo Province of the Potosi Department, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, E C; Sandi, Y E; Kokoska, L

    2003-06-01

    A survey of medicinal plants used by rural communities in the Bustillo Province of the Potosi Department in Bolivia is reported in this article. Fifty-six plant species belonging to 24 families and 46 different genera were included. Their botanical and vernacular names, plant part used, popular medicinal use, forms of preparation and applications of the herbal remedies are given.

  17. A guide to medicinal plants of Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold Krochmal; Russell S. Walters; Richard M. Doughty

    1969-01-01

    The Medicinal or therapeutic uses of the plants described in this guide are not to be construed in any way as a recommendation by the authors or the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Some of the dried crude drugs, which must be modified considerably before commercial use, can be extremely poisonous when not used properly. Readers are cautioned against using these plant...

  18. Antimalarial properties of South African medicinal plants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pillay, P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available of structure-activity derivatives around these simplified structures is currently under way. CONCLUSIONS The study identified a number of promising South African medicinal plants for further investigation as plant-based antimalarial agents. The overall... as potential sources of antimalarial lead compounds. REFERENCES Clarkson, C., Maharaj, V.J., Crouch, N.R., Grace, O.M., Pillay, P., Matsabisa, M.G., Bhagwandin, N., Smith, P.J., Folb, P.I., 2004. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of medicinal plants native...

  19. Some Medicinal Plants Used in Traditional Medicine in Swaziland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An ethnomedical survey of the Manzini region of Swaziland was carried out. Traditional medical practitioners (TMPs) were interviewed in their homesteads where they practiced traditional medicine. Ethnomedical uses of plants used were collected from the wild with the assistance of the TMPs who gave information on them.

  20. Medicinal Plants: A Public Resource for Metabolomics and Hypothesis Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Syrkin Wurtele

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Specialized compounds from photosynthetic organisms serve as rich resources for drug development. From aspirin to atropine, plant-derived natural products have had a profound impact on human health. Technological advances provide new opportunities to access these natural products in a metabolic context. Here, we describe a database and platform for storing, visualizing and statistically analyzing metabolomics data from fourteen medicinal plant species. The metabolomes and associated transcriptomes (RNAseq for each plant species, gathered from up to twenty tissue/organ samples that have experienced varied growth conditions and developmental histories, were analyzed in parallel. Three case studies illustrate different ways that the data can be integrally used to generate testable hypotheses concerning the biochemistry, phylogeny and natural product diversity of medicinal plants. Deep metabolomics analysis of Camptotheca acuminata exemplifies how such data can be used to inform metabolic understanding of natural product chemical diversity and begin to formulate hypotheses about their biogenesis. Metabolomics data from Prunella vulgaris, a species that contains a wide range of antioxidant, antiviral, tumoricidal and anti-inflammatory constituents, provide a case study of obtaining biosystematic and developmental fingerprint information from metabolite accumulation data in a little studied species. Digitalis purpurea, well known as a source of cardiac glycosides, is used to illustrate how integrating metabolomics and transcriptomics data can lead to identification of candidate genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes in the cardiac glycoside pathway. Medicinal Plant Metabolomics Resource (MPM [1] provides a framework for generating experimentally testable hypotheses about the metabolic networks that lead to the generation of specialized compounds, identifying genes that control their biosynthesis and establishing a basis for modeling metabolism in less

  1. Medicinal plants: a public resource for metabolomics and hypothesis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Chappell, Joe; Jones, A Daniel; Celiz, Mary Dawn; Ransom, Nick; Hur, Manhoi; Rizshsky, Ludmila; Crispin, Matthew; Dixon, Philip; Liu, Jia; P Widrlechner, Mark; Nikolau, Basil J

    2012-11-21

    Specialized compounds from photosynthetic organisms serve as rich resources for drug development. From aspirin to atropine, plant-derived natural products have had a profound impact on human health. Technological advances provide new opportunities to access these natural products in a metabolic context. Here, we describe a database and platform for storing, visualizing and statistically analyzing metabolomics data from fourteen medicinal plant species. The metabolomes and associated transcriptomes (RNAseq) for each plant species, gathered from up to twenty tissue/organ samples that have experienced varied growth conditions and developmental histories, were analyzed in parallel. Three case studies illustrate different ways that the data can be integrally used to generate testable hypotheses concerning the biochemistry, phylogeny and natural product diversity of medicinal plants. Deep metabolomics analysis of Camptotheca acuminata exemplifies how such data can be used to inform metabolic understanding of natural product chemical diversity and begin to formulate hypotheses about their biogenesis. Metabolomics data from Prunella vulgaris, a species that contains a wide range of antioxidant, antiviral, tumoricidal and anti-inflammatory constituents, provide a case study of obtaining biosystematic and developmental fingerprint information from metabolite accumulation data in a little studied species. Digitalis purpurea, well known as a source of cardiac glycosides, is used to illustrate how integrating metabolomics and transcriptomics data can lead to identification of candidate genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes in the cardiac glycoside pathway. Medicinal Plant Metabolomics Resource (MPM) [1] provides a framework for generating experimentally testable hypotheses about the metabolic networks that lead to the generation of specialized compounds, identifying genes that control their biosynthesis and establishing a basis for modeling metabolism in less studied species. The

  2. Antioxidant properties of some medicinal Aristolochiaceae species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... Department of Botany, Plant Tissue Culture Division, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil nadu, India. Accepted 15 ... cosmopolitan distribution, many of them of economic importance due to ... Botanical names, parts used, ailments treated, and preparations of Aristolochiaceae species. Botanical name.

  3. Anti-gout Potential of Malaysian Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazleen I. Abu Bakar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Gout is a type of arthritis that causes painful inflammation in one or more joints. In gout, elevation of uric acid in the blood triggers the formation of crystals, causing joint pain. Malaysia is a mega-biodiversity country that is rich in medicinal plants species. Therefore, its flora might offer promising therapies for gout. This article aims to systematically review the anti-gout potential of Malaysian medicinal plants. Articles on gout published from 2000 to 2017 were identified using PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar with the following keyword search terms: “gout,” “medicinal plants,” “Malaysia,” “epidemiology,” “in vitro,” and “in vivo.” In this study, 85 plants were identified as possessing anti-gout activity. These plants had higher percentages of xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity (>85%; specifically, the Momordica charantia, Chrysanthemum indicum, Cinnamomum cassia, Kaempferia galanga, Artemisia vulgaris, and Morinda elliptica had the highest values, due to their diverse natural bioactive compounds, which include flavonoids, phenolics, tannin, coumarins, luteolin, and apigenin. This review summarizes the anti-gout potential of Malaysian medicinal plants but the mechanisms, active compounds, pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, and safety of the plants still remain to be elucidated.

  4. Developing the medicinal plants sector in northern India: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, Chandra Prakash; Dhyani, Pitamber Prasad; Sajwan, Bikram Singh

    2006-01-01

    The medicinal properties of plant species have made an outstanding contribution in the origin and evolution of many traditional herbal therapies. These traditional knowledge systems have started to disappear with the passage of time due to scarcity of written documents and relatively low income in these traditions. Over the past few years, however, the medicinal plants have regained a wide recognition due to an escalating faith in herbal medicine in view of its lesser side effects compared to allopathic medicine in addition the necessity of meeting the requirements of medicine for an increasing human population. Through the realization of the continuous erosion of traditional knowledge of plants used for medicine in the past and the renewed interest at the present time, a need existed to review this valuable knowledge of medicinal plants with the purpose of developing medicinal plants sectors across the different states in India. Our major objectives therefore were to explore the potential in medicinal plants resources, to understand the challenges and opportunities with the medicinal plants sector, and also to suggest recommendations based upon the present state of knowledge for the establishment and smooth functioning of the medicinal plants sector along with improving the living standards of the underprivileged communities. The review reveals that northern India harbors a rich diversity of valuable medicinal plants, and attempts are being made at different levels for sustainable utilization of this resource in order to develop the medicinal plants sector.

  5. Medicinal plants from Mali: Chemistry and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, Helle; Diallo, Drissa; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2015-12-24

    Mali is one of the countries in West Africa where the health system rely the most on traditional medicine. The healers are mainly using medicinal plants for their treatments. The studies performed being the basis for this review is of importance as they will contribute to sustaining the traditional knowledge. They contribute to evaluate and improve locally produced herbal remedies, and the review gives also an overview of the plant preparations that will have the most potential to be evaluated for new Improved Traditional Medicines. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the studies performed related to medicinal plants from Mali in the period 1995-2015. These studies include ethnopharmacology, chemistry and biological studies of the plants that were chosen based on our interviews with the healers in different regions of Mali, and contribute to sustainable knowledge on the medicinal plants. The Department of Traditional Medicine, Bamako, Mali, is responsible for registering the knowledge of the traditional healers on their use of medicinal plants and also identifying compounds in the plants responsible for the bioactivities claimed. The studies reported aimed at getting information from the healers on the use of medicinal plants, and study the biology and chemistry of selected plants for the purpose of verifying the traditional use of the plants. These studies should form the basis for necessary knowledge for the development of registered Improved Traditional Medicines in Mali. The healers were the ethnopharmacological informants. Questions asked initially were related to wound healing. This was because the immune system is involved when wounds are healed, and additionally the immune system is involved in the majority of the illnesses common in Mali. Based on the results of the interviews the plant material for studies was selected. Studies were performed on the plant parts the healers were using when treating their patients. Conventional chromatographic

  6. Genetic Programming for Medicinal Plant Family Identification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Laksmana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Information about medicinal plants that is available in text documents is generally quite easy to access, however, one needs some efforts to use it. This research was aimed at utilizing crucial information taken from a text document to identify the family of several species of medicinal plants using a heuristic approach, i.e. genetic programming. Each of the species has its unique features. The genetic program puts the characteristics or special features of each family into a tree form. There are a number of processes involved in the investigated method, i.e. data acquisition, booleanization, grouping of training and test data, evaluation, and analysis. The genetic program uses a training process to select the best individual, initializes a generate-rule process to create several individuals and then executes a fitness evaluation. The next procedure is a genetic operation process, which consists of tournament selection to choose the best individual based on a fitness value, the crossover operation and the mutation operation. These operations have the purpose of complementing the individual. The best individual acquired is the expected solution, which is a rule for classifying medicinal plants. This process produced three rules, one for each plant family, displaying a feature structure that distinguishes each of the families from each other. The genetic program then used these rules to identify the medicinal plants, achieving an average accuracy of 86.47%.

  7. Shoot-tip cryopreservation by droplet vitrification of Byrsonima intermedia A. Juss.: a woody tropical and medicinal plant species from Brazilian cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, L C; Paiva, R; Swennen, R; Andre, E; Panis, B

    2013-01-01

    Cryopreservation of plant species is poorly investigated in Brazil. The aim of this study was to cryopreserve Byrsonima intermedia shoot apical meristems through droplet vitrification. A culture medium for shoot-tips growth was established using the Woody Plant Medium supplemented with 2.22 uM 6-benzylaminopurine. Excised shoot-tips were subjected to pre-culture and/or post-culture treatments on Murashige and Skoog medium with 0.3 M sucrose for 24 h prior dehydration on PVS2 at 0°C for 15, 30 or 45 minutes prior to plunging in liquid nitrogen. The effect of 15 days of shoot pre-growth on a high osmotic medium (0.3 M sucrose or 0.21 M sorbitol + 0.09 M sucrose) prior to meristem excision and cryopreservation was also investigated. Pre-culturing shoot-tips on 0.3 M sucrose for 24 h prior to cryopreservation increased the regrowth level after thawing to 90%. Shoot-tips excised from shoots pre-grown on MS + 0.21 M sorbitol + 0.09 M sucrose for 15 days presented a satisfactory regrowth level (67%).

  8. [Issues of large scale tissue culture of medicinal plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Dong-Mei; Yuan, Yuan; Zhan, Zhi-Lai

    2014-09-01

    In order to increase the yield and quality of the medicinal plant and enhance the competitive power of industry of medicinal plant in our country, this paper analyzed the status, problem and countermeasure of the tissue culture of medicinal plant on large scale. Although the biotechnology is one of the most efficient and promising means in production of medicinal plant, it still has problems such as stability of the material, safety of the transgenic medicinal plant and optimization of cultured condition. Establishing perfect evaluation system according to the characteristic of the medicinal plant is the key measures to assure the sustainable development of the tissue culture of medicinal plant on large scale.

  9. Medicinal plants with potential anti-arthritic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Manjusha; Kumar, Vipin; Malhotra, Hitesh; Singh, Surender

    2015-01-01

    Traditional medicinal plants are practiced worldwide for treatment of arthritis especially in developing countries where resources are meager. This review presents the plants profiles inhabiting throughout the world regarding their traditional usage by various tribes/ethnic groups for treatment of arthritis. Bibliographic investigation was carried out by analyzing classical text books and peer reviewed papers, consulting worldwide accepted scientific databases from the last six decades. Plants/their parts/extracts/polyherbal formulations, toxicity studies for arthritis have been included in the review article. The profiles presented also include information about the scientific name, family, dose, methodology along with mechanism of action and toxicity profile. Research status of 20 potential plant species has been discussed. Further, geographical distribution of research, plants distribution according to families has been given in graphical form. 485 plant species belonging to 100 families, traditionally used in arthritis are used. Among 100 plant families, malvaceae constitute 16, leguminasae 7, fabaceae 13, euphorbiaceae 7, compositae 20, araceae 7, solanaceae 12, liliaceae 9, apocynaceae, lauraceae, and rubiaceae 10, and remaining in lesser proportion. It was observed in our study that majority of researches are carried mainly in developing countries like India, China, Korea and Nigeria. This review clearly indicates that list of medicinal plants presented in this review might be useful to researchers as well as practioners. This review can be useful for preliminary screening of potential anti-arthritis plants. Further toxicity profile given in the review can be useful for the researchers for finding the safe dose.

  10. Medicinal plants of the Kamiesberg, Namaqualand, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortje, J M; van Wyk, B-E

    2015-08-02

    Qualitative and quantitative data is presented that gives a new perspective on the traditional medicinal plants of the Khoisan (Khoe-San), one of the most ancient of human cultures. The data is not only of considerable historical and cultural value, but allows for fascinating comparative studies relating to new species records, novel use records and the spatial distribution of traditional plant use knowledge within the Cape Floristic Region. A detailed documentation and quantitative analysis of medicinal plants of the Kamiesberg area (an important Khoisan and Nama cultural centre) and their traditional uses, which have hitherto remained unrecorded. During four study visits to the Kamiesberg, semi-structured and structured interviews were conducted with 24 local inhabitants of the Kamiesberg, mostly of Khoisan decent. In addition to standard methodology, a newly developed Matrix Method was used to quantity medicinal plant knowledge. The Kamiesberg is an important center of extant Nama ethnomedicinal information but the knowledge is rapidly disappearing. Of a total of 101 medicinal plants and 1375 anecdotes, 21 species were recorded for the first time as having traditional medicinal uses and at least 284 medicinal use records were new. The relative importance, popularity and uses of the plants were quantified. The 97 newly documented vernacular names include 23 Nama (Khoekhoegowab) names and an additional 55 new variations of known names. The calculated Ethnobotanical Knowledge Index (EKI) and other indices accurately quantified the level of knowledge and will allow for future local, regional and even global comparisons. The results showed that the Kamiesberg is an important focal point of Khoisan (Nama) traditional knowledge but that the medicinal plants have not yet been systematically recorded in the scientific literature. There are numerous new use records and new species records that are in need of scientific study. Comparative data is now available for broader

  11. Saudi medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting envenomation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Al-Asmari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion sting envenoming poses major public health problems. The treatment modalities include antivenoms, chemical antidotes and phytotherapy, with varying degrees of effectiveness and side effects. In this investigation, we reviewed the use of Saudi medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting patients. The relevant literature was collected using the online search engines including Science Direct, Google and PubMed with the help of specific keywords. We also used the printed and online resources at our institutional library to gather the relevant information on the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting patients. A descriptive statistics was used for data compilation and presentation. The results of this survey showed the use of at least 92 medicinal plants with beneficial effects for treating victims of stings of different scorpion species. These commonly used herbs spanned to 37 families whilst different parts of these plants were employed therapeutically for alleviation of envenomation symptoms. The application of leaves (41% was preferred followed by roots (19%, whole plant (14% and seeds (9%. The use of latex (4%, stem (3%, flowers (3% and bark (3% was also reported. In some cases, tannin (2%, rhizome (1% and shoot (1% were also used. In conclusion, herbal medicines are effectively used for the treatment of patients with scorpion envenomation. This type of medication is free from side effects as observed with chemical antidotes or antivenom therapy. It is important to identify the active ingredients of herbal drugs for improving their therapeutic potential in traditional medicine.

  12. Pharmacognosy of mangrove plants in the system of unani medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Govindasamy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove plants are found to have medicinal values and have been used traditionally by local medical practitioners in worldwide. In nature, more than 65 species of mangrove plants, 18 species are found to be widely used by local medical practitioners in many countries like India, Africa, Southeast Asia, South America, Australia etc. Moreover, etanobotanical records regarding medical use of mangrove plants are very limited and very unique. One to its astringent property, tannin is suitable in the treatment of tonsillitis, pharyngeatis, hemorrhoids. slaik eruion and burns. It is taken internally, to diarrohea and intestinal bleeding. The extracts of barks of Bruguiera sexangula are active against two human tumors, sarcoma 180 and lexis lung carcinoma. Tannin is also used as an antidote for metallic, alkaloidal and sylycosidic poisons with which it forms a soluble precipitate. Stigma sterol has been shown to have slight hyper cholesterolinic effect which exerts no effect on heart or liver in unani medicine.

  13. Application of plant cell and tissue culture for the production of phytochemicals in medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Bijaya

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 80% of the world inhabitants depend on the medicinal plants in the form of traditional formulations for their primary health care system well as in the treatment of a number of diseases since the ancient time. Many commercially used drugs have come from the information of indigenous knowledge of plants and their folk uses. Linking of the indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants to modern research activities provides a new reliable approach, for the discovery of novel drugs much more effectively than with random collection. Increase in population and increasing demand of plant products along with illegal trade are causing depletion of medicinal plants and many are threatened in natural habitat. Plant tissue culture technique has proved potential alternative for the production of desirable bioactive components from plants, to produce the enough amounts of plant material that is needed and for the conservation of threatened species. Different plant tissue culture systems have been extensively studied to improve and enhance the production of plant chemicals in various medicinal plants.

  14. Ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants used by Maonan people in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Liya; Guo, Zhiyong; Huang, Kunhui; Wei, Shanjun; Liu, Bo; Meng, Shaowu; Long, Chunlin

    2015-04-30

    This paper is based on an ethnobotanical investigation that focused on the traditional medicinal plants used by local Maonan people to treat human diseases in Maonan concentration regions. The Maonan people have relied on traditional medicine since ancient times, especially medicinal plants. The aim of this study is to document medicinal plants used by the Maonans and to report the status of medicinal plants and associated traditional knowledge. Ethnobotanical data were collected from June 2012 to September 2014 in Huanjiang Maonan Autonomous County, northern Guangxi, southwest China. In total, 118 knowledgeable informants were interviewed. Following statistically sampling method, eighteen villages from 5 townships were selected to conduct field investigations. Information was collected through the approache of participatory observation, semi-structured interviews, ranking exercises, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, and participatory rural appraisals. A total of 368 medicinal plant species were investigated and documented together with their medicinal uses by the Maonans, most of which were obtained from the wild ecosystems. The plants were used to treat 95 human diseases. Grinding was a widely used method to prepare traditional herbal medicines. There were significant relationships between gender and age, and between gender and informants' knowledge of medicinal plant use. Deforestation for agricultural purposes was identified as the most destructive factor of medicinal plants, followed by drought and over-harvest. The species diversity of medicinal plants used by the Maonans in the study area was very rich. Medicinal plants played a significant role in healing various human disorders in the Maonan communities. However, the conflicts between traditional inheriting system and recent socio-economic changes (and other factors) resulted in the reduction or loss of both medicinal plants and associated indigenous knowledge. Thus, conservation efforts

  15. Medicinal plants, traditional medicine, markets and management in far-west Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, Ripu M; Mahat, Laxmi; Acharya, Ram P; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2013-04-12

    Modern therapeutic medicine is historically based on indigenous therapies and ethnopharmacological uses, which have become recognized tools in the search for new sources of pharmaceuticals. Globalization of herbal medicine along with uncontrolled exploitative practices and lack of concerted conservation efforts, have pushed many of Nepal's medicinal plants to the verge of extinction. Sustainable utilization and management of medicinal plants, based on traditional knowledge, is therefore necessary. After establishing verbal informed consent with participating communities, five field surveys, roughly 20 days in duration, were carried out. In all, 176 schedules were surveyed, and 52 participants were consulted through focus group discussions and informal meetings. Altogether, 24 key informants were surveyed to verify and validate the data. A total of 252 individuals, representing non-timber forest product (NTFP) collectors, cultivators, traders, traditional healers (Baidhya), community members, etc. participated in study. Medicinal plants were free-listed and their vernacular names and folk uses were collected, recorded, and applied to assess agreement among respondents about traditional medicines, markets and management. Within the study area, medicinal herbs were the main ingredients of traditional therapies, and they were considered a main lifeline and frequently were the first choice. About 55% plants were ethnomedicinal, and about 37% of ethnomedicinal plants possessed the highest informant consensus value (0.86-1.00). Use of Cordyceps sinensis as an aphrodisiac, Berberis asiatica for eye problems, Bergenia ciliata for disintegration of calculi, Sapindus mukorossi for dandruff, and Zanthoxylum armatum for toothache were the most frequently mentioned. These species possess potential for pharmacology. Medicinal plants are inseparable from local livelihoods because they have long been collected, consumed, and managed through local customs and knowledge. Management

  16. Medicinal species with gastroprotective activity found in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, José L R; Rodrigues, Oscar R L; de Sousa, Fábio B; Fajemiroye, James O; Galdino, Pablinny M; Florentino, Iziara F; Costa, Elson A

    2015-06-01

    Peptic and/or duodenal ulcers are characterized by diverse acute and chronic ulcerative lesions that commonly arise in any portion of the gastric mucosa that is exposed to the aggressive action of gastric acid. The pathophysiology of peptic ulcers has been attributed to an imbalance between aggressive and protective factors. In Brazil, medicinal plants are commonly used to treat this ailment. A country with great biodiversity, Brazil is considered a rich source of therapeutic products. There have been popular and pharmacological reports on the medicinal relevance of the Brazilian cerrado plant species, including Ananas ananassoides, Celtis iguanaea, Encholirium spectabile, Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Lafoensia pacari, Qualea grandiflora, Qualea parvifora, Mouriri pusa, Solanum lycocarpum, Solanum paniculatum, Serjania erecta, and Vochysia tucanorum, in the treatment of stomach disorders. The aim of the present review was to report on some of the Brazilian cerrado plants that are used in folk medicine because of their gastroprotective potential and to encourage novel studies in the search and preservation of plants with this therapeutic potential. © 2015 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  17. [Development of Plant Metabolomics and Medicinal Plant Genomics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuki

    2018-01-01

     A variety of chemicals produced by plants, often referred to as 'phytochemicals', have been used as medicines, food, fuels and industrial raw materials. Recent advances in the study of genomics and metabolomics in plant science have accelerated our understanding of the mechanisms, regulation and evolution of the biosynthesis of specialized plant products. We can now address such questions as how the metabolomic diversity of plants is originated at the levels of genome, and how we should apply this knowledge to drug discovery, industry and agriculture. Our research group has focused on metabolomics-based functional genomics over the last 15 years and we have developed a new research area called 'Phytochemical Genomics'. In this review, the development of a research platform for plant metabolomics is discussed first, to provide a better understanding of the chemical diversity of plants. Then, representative applications of metabolomics to functional genomics in a model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, are described. The extension of integrated multi-omics analyses to non-model specialized plants, e.g., medicinal plants, is presented, including the identification of novel genes, metabolites and networks for the biosynthesis of flavonoids, alkaloids, sulfur-containing metabolites and terpenoids. Further, functional genomics studies on a variety of medicinal plants is presented. I also discuss future trends in pharmacognosy and related sciences.

  18. Cinnamon: A Multifaceted Medicinal Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Pasupuleti Visweswara; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and Cinnamon cassia), the eternal tree of tropical medicine, belongs to the Lauraceae family. Cinnamon is one of the most important spices used daily by people all over the world. Cinnamon primarily contains vital oils and other derivatives, such as cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, and cinnamate. In addition to being an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, lipid-lowering, and cardiovascular-disease-lowering compound, cinnamon has also been reported to have activities against neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. This review illustrates the pharmacological prospective of cinnamon and its use in daily life. PMID:24817901

  19. Medicinal efficacy of plants utilized as temple food in traditional Korean Buddhism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun; Song, Mi-Jang; Potter, Daniel

    2006-03-08

    We investigated the medicinal efficacies of plants used as food in 27 Korean Buddhist temples from 1997 to 2002. We studied 161 species of plants belonging to 135 genera in 65 families. Twenty-one plant parts were utilized as food in 42 different preparations. Approximately 82% of the plants studied had medicinal effects, with a wide range of efficacies (126 types). Of the medicinal plants, 52% were used for digestive problems, circulatory illnesses, and respiratory diseases. These results demonstrate that a high proportion of the food consumed in Korean temples is medicinal, and is used for a wide variety of diseases.

  20. The Trade in African Medicinal Plants in Matonge-Ixelles, Brussels (Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Andel, Tinde; Fundiko, Marie-Cakupewa C

    Maintaining cultural identity and preference to treat cultural bound ailments with herbal medicine are motivations for migrants to continue using medicinal plants from their home country after moving to Europe and the USA. As it is generally easier to import exotic food than herbal medicine, migrants often shift to using species that double as food and medicine. This paper focuses on the trade in African medicinal plants in a Congolese neighborhood in Brussels (Belgium). What African medicinal plants are sold in Matonge, where do they come from, and to which extent are they food medicines? Does vendor ethnicity influence the diversity of the herbal medicine sold? We hypothesized that most medicinal plants, traders, and clients in Matonge were of Congolese origin, most plants used medicinally were mainly food crops and that culture-bound illnesses played a prominent role in medicinal plant use. We carried out a market survey in 2014 that involved an inventory of medicinal plants in 19 shops and interviews with 10 clients of African descent, voucher collection and data gathering on vernacular names and uses. We encountered 83 medicinal plant species, of which 71% was primarily used for food. The shredded leaves of Gnetum africanum Welw., Manihot esculenta Crantz, and Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam were among the most frequently sold vegetables with medicinal uses. Cola nuts, shea butter, Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., and Mondia whitei (Hook.f.). Skeels were the main non-food medicines sold. Women's health, aphrodisiacs, and rituals were the most important medicinal applications, but culture-bound ailments did not entirely dominate the plant uses. While most clients in Matonge were Congolese, most vendors and plant species were not. The Pakistanis dominated the food trade, and typical Congolese plants were sometimes replaced by West African species, creating confusion in vernacular names. African-managed shops had significantly more species of medicinal plants in stock than shops

  1. [Research progress of genetic engineering on medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Zhong-qiu; Shen, Ye

    2015-02-01

    The application of genetic engineering technology in modern agriculture shows its outstanding role in dealing with food shortage. Traditional medicinal plant cultivation and collection have also faced with challenges, such as lack of resources, deterioration of environment, germplasm of recession and a series of problems. Genetic engineering can be used to improve the disease resistance, insect resistance, herbicides resistant ability of medicinal plant, also can improve the medicinal plant yield and increase the content of active substances in medicinal plants. Thus, the potent biotechnology can play an important role in protection and large area planting of medicinal plants. In the development of medicinal plant genetic engineering, the safety of transgenic medicinal plants should also be paid attention to. A set of scientific safety evaluation and judgment standard which is suitable for transgenic medicinal plants should be established based on the recognition of the particularity of medicinal plants.

  2. Analgesic activity of some Indian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malairajan, P; Geetha Gopalakrishnan; Narasimhan, S; Jessi Kala Veni, K

    2006-07-19

    In the present study of some of the Indian medicinal plants Sida acuta whole plant (Malvaeae), Stylosanthes fruticosa (whole plant) (Papilionaceae), Toona ciliata (heart wood) (Meliaceao), Bougainvilla spectabilis (leaves) (Nyctaginaceae), Ficus glomerata (bark, leaves) (Moraceae) and Polyalthia longifolia (leaves) (Annonaceae). The different plants were used in folklore medicine in the treatment of toothache and strengthening of gums, anthelmintic, kidney diseases, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antihyperglycaemic, antihyperglycaemic and anticancer. The extract was prepared using powdered material with ethanol, concentrated under vacuo and were evaluated for analgesic activity by analgesiometer at three dose level (100, 300 and 500mg/kg). Analgesic activity was significant with Toona ciliata (heart wood) ethanolic extract when compared with other extracts and its activity was confirmed by tail immersion method.

  3. [Popular medicine: benefits and drawbacks of medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de França, Inácia Sátiro Xavier; de Souza, Jeová Alves; Baptista, Rosilene Santos; Britto, Virgínia Rossana de Sousa

    2008-01-01

    Descriptive study which aims to verify if the herbalist offer the information correct for the use of the medicinal plants; if they give for the customers concerning the possible poisonings or interaction with the allopathic guide and also if there is a criteria for the commercialization of the phytotherapics. A questionnaire was used containing open and closed questions involving aspects of the performance of the herbalists with the phytotherapics. The herbalists know the majority of the medicinal plants, however, there are some gaps concerning the correct indication of these products, of the collateral effect and toxicities. The herbalist lack to better know the principles of the grass, the therapeutically indications active, to guide the users concerning the possible pharmacological interactions or medicaments poisonings and regarding the cleanness, storage, time of useful life and contraindications of the product.

  4. [Diversity and distribution of the threatened medicinal vascular plants in Lancang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xiu-Lian; Yuan, Yi-Kai; Fang, Bo; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Yang, Han-Yu; Zhao, Zhi-Ping; Li, Guo; Fu, Kai-Cong; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2017-11-01

    The rich diversity in medicinal plants provides an important material basic for the development of Traditional Chinese medicine in China. It is important to explore the present situation of medicinal plants within special regions in order to provide scientific instructions for their sustainable protection and exploitation and utilization. In this study, we carried out the field survey according to the guideline of national survey of Chinese material medica resources and the guideline of plant species diversity survey and estimation at county level with the line transect method. With the field surveyed data, we explored the diversity and distribution of the threatened medicinal vascular plants in Lancang. We found that there were 33 species of the threatened medicinal vascular plants in this county. These species were from 23 genera and 17 families, and were composed of one critical endangered, 10 endangered and 22 vulnerable species. They were widely distributed across the whole county and were most concentrated in the town of Nuozhadu, Fazhanhe, Nuofu and Zhutang, which were located in the southeastern, southwestern and western of Lancang, respectively. We also found that the plant species richness followed a unimodal pattern along elevation. In addition, we found that the areas of Nuozhadu Nature Reserve in Lancang only covered six threatened medicinal vascular plants, while most of the regions with high species richness were not well protected. Therefore, we proposed to make more efforts to improve the protection measurements in order to better protect and utilize the medicinal plants in Lancang. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  5. Medicinal uses, chemistry and pharmacology of Dillenia species (Dilleniaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabandar, Carla W; Jalil, Juriyati; Ahmat, Norizan; Aladdin, Nor-Ashila

    2017-02-01

    The genus Dillenia is comprised of about 100 species of evergreen and deciduous trees or shrubs of disjunct distribution in the seasonal tropics of Madagascar through South and South East Asia, Malaysia, North Australia, and Fiji. Species from this genus have been widely used in medicinal folklore to treat cancers, wounds, jaundice, fever, cough, diabetes mellitus, and diarrhea as well as hair tonics. The plants of the genus also produce edible fruits and are cultivated as ornamental plants. Flavonoids, triterpenoids, and miscellaneous compounds have been identified in the genus. Their extracts and pure compounds have been reported for their antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, antidiabetes, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, and antiprotozoal activities. Mucilage from their fruits is used in drug formulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Natural Radioactivity of some Medicinal Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhammedov, S.; Tillaeva, Kh.

    2006-01-01

    Natural radioactivity of two medicinal plants was determined. It is found that the radioactivity level of ''2''3''8U, ''2''3''2Th and also 4 ''0K in investigated plants was 0.6* 10 - ''1''2 -3.2* 10 - ''9 Ci/kg. The balance of radioactivity between close daughter and mother isotopes is kept, whereas that between distant mother and daughter nuclides is broken

  7. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Y N; Baksh-Comeau, Y S; Seaforth, C E

    2015-09-15

    An ethnobotanical survey was conducted on the Caribbean island of Trinidad to identify medicinal plants commonly used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of medical conditions. A pilot survey was conducted to identify the top ten most common ailments where medicinal plants were used. The results of the foregoing study guided a wider national survey conducted between October 2007 and July 2008. A total of 450 households from 50 rural communities were interviewed using the TRAMIL (Traditional Medicine in the Islands) questionnaire for data collection. Details of plants, part(s) used, and remedy formulations were elicited from informants and voucher specimens collected for identification at the National Herbarium of Trinidad and Tobago. The TRAMIL methodology set a limit of a plant with 20 % or more citations for any particular ailment as having significant or popular use. At the end of the survey 917 single plant remedies were identified. The majority of species were from the following families; Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Leguminosae, Verbenaceae and Poaceae. Applying the TRAMIL 20 % citation of a plant for popular use as significant, Leonotis nepetifolia (for cough/common cold), Gomphrena globosa (for "stoppage-of-water"), Curcuma longa and Senna occidentalis (for "afterbirth"), Cymbopogon citratus and Neurolaena lobata (for fever), and Citrus limon (for kidney stones) qualified in our study. Those not reaching the TRAMIL 20 % significant (popular) use were Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl, Senna alata (L.) Roxb.and Momordica charantia L. which were widely used as "'cooling/cleanser'" in our survey. Our survey showed significant retention of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in rural Trinidad. More interestingly, a large remnant of medico-cultural concepts such as "cooling/cleanser", "afterbirth", "stoppage-of-water" and "womb infection" persist in the rural population. Although the scientific literature show that some of the cited plants possessed

  8. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Potential of One Hundred Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Waseem; Noreen, Hamsa; Rehman, Shakila; Gul, Shehnaz; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Kamdem, Jean Paul; Zaman, Bakht; da Rocha, Joao B T

    2017-01-01

    Reactive species are produced in biological system because of redox reactions. The imbalance in pro-oxidant and antioxidant homeostasis leads to the production of toxic reactive oxygen and nitrogen species like hydrogen peroxide, organic peroxides, hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anion and nitric oxide. Inactivation of metabolic enzymes, oxidation of biomolecules and cellular damage are some of the prominent characteristics of reactive species. Similarly, oxidative stress has been associated with more than one hundred (100) pathologies such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, pancreatic and liver diseases, joint disorders, cardiac fibrosis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, neurological diseases (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disorder, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease), ageing and cancer etc. The toxicity of reactive species is balanced by the integrated antioxidant systems, which include enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Antioxidant therapies or defenses protect the biological sites by removing or quenching the free radicals (prooxidants). Medicinal plants can not only protect the oxidative damage, but also play a vital role in health maintenance and prevention of chronic degenerative diseases. This review will provide a valuable discussion of one hundred (100) well known medicinal plants, which may add to the optimization of antioxidants rank. Besides, some of the antioxidant evaluation techniques or mechanisms via which medicinal plants act as antioxidants are also described. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Cytotoxicity of Selected Medicinal and Nonmedicinal Plant Extracts to Microbial and Cervical Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary M. Booth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the cytotoxicity of 55 species of plants. Each plant was rated as medicinal, or nonmedicinal based on the existing literature. About 79% of the medicinal plants showed some cytotoxicity, while 75% of the nonmedicinal plants showed bioactivity. It appears that Asteraceae, Labiatae, Pinaceae, and Chenopodiaceae were particularly active against human cervical cancer cells. Based on the literature, only three of the 55 plants have been significantly investigated for cytotoxicity. It is clear that there is much toxicological work yet to be done with both medicinal and nonmedicinal plants.

  10. Infrequent use of medicinal plants from India in snakebite treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manali Sughosh Upasani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Snakes have fascinated humankind for millennia. Snakebites are a serious medical, social, and economic problem that are experienced worldwide; however, they are most serious in tropical and subtropical countries. The reasons for this are 1 the presence of more species of the most dangerous snakes, 2 the inaccessibility of immediate medical treatment, and 3 poor health care. The goal of this study was to collect information concerning rare, less utilized, and less studied medicinal plants. More than 100 plants were found to have potential to be utilized as anti-snake venom across India. Data accumulated from a variety of literature sources revealed useful plant families, the parts of plants used, and how to utilize them. In India, there are over 520 plant species, belonging to approximately 122 families, which could be useful in the management of snakebites. This study was conducted to encourage researchers to create herbal antidotes, which will counteract snake venom. These may prove to be an inexpensive and easily assessable alternative, which would be of immense importance to society. Plants from families such as Acanthaceae, Arecaceae, Apocynaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Asteraceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, Rubiaceae, and Zingiberaceae are the most useful. In India, experts of folklore are using herbs either single or in combination with others. Keywords: Appraise traditional medicinal plants, Ethnomedicine, India, Snake antivenom

  11. ANTIVIRAL EFFECT OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanolic extracts of the different morphological parts of three medicinal plants, Diospyros bateri, Diospyros monbutensis and Sphenocentrum jollyanum were evaluated for their antiviral activities on polio virus Types 1, 2, and 3. The leaf and root extracts of S. jollyanum, the seed extracts of D. monbutensis as well as the ...

  12. Biodiversity of medicinal plants by Minangkabau ethnic in Guguak Sarai, West Sumatera, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairiah, A.; Nisyawati, Silalahi, M.

    2017-07-01

    The research was carried out in Guguak Sarai, West Sumatera, Indonesia. The purpose of this study was to document the diversity of medicinal plants by Minangkabau ethnic base on local knowledge. Data were collected using ethnobotanical approach through open-ended, semi-structured interview and exploration method. The sample consisted of 3 key informants and 94 respondents with provisions age ≥ 30 years old. Data were analyzed qualitatively using descriptive statistics. Total 158 medicinal plants species which belongs to 124 genera and 54 families were reported to be used in against 52 diseases. Among the diseases, gastrointestinal disorders had the highest number of medicinal plants to be used (37 species), skin diseases (36 species), postpartum cures (29 species), urinary tract disorders (26 species) and rheumatism (19 species). Fabaceae (Leguminosae) was the dominant families that used to treat the illness (12 species) followed by Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, Poaceae (10 species) and Asteraceae (9 species).

  13. [Mythology and the medicinal plants of antiquity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, André-Julien

    2003-01-01

    In any civilization, nature is closely bound to the world of divinities. This is clearly seen in the Mediterranean world of Antiquity in every reference to the medicinal plants. Our aim, in this study, was to demonstrate the link between mythology and medicine. Through several centuries of medicinal practice, appears a therapeutic knowledge close to become a science. In spite of many gaps, errors and illusions thus emerges a first attempt to master the art of healing. Is it possible to speculate on a new type of drug research guided from ancient texts? Ethnopharmacology investigating medicinal traditions of the world has already obtained in this field some spectacular findings. At the moment, it would be difficult to predict the future of archeopharmacology but as Paul Valery said: "Present is nothing else than a future nutriment for the past".

  14. [Tissue culture of medicinal plant and abscisic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hui-Yong; Zhu, Hong; Yao, Jian-Xun; Jia, Cai-Feng; Shan, Gao-Wei; Li, Min-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a key role in many physiological processes of plants, and it was also applied to fields of medicinal plant biotechnology. The article presents a review of some recent application of ABA in enhancing the production of secondary metabolites of medicinal plants, improving the in vitro conservation in medicinal plant tissue culture system.

  15. Cryopreservation of medicinal plants: role of melatonin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many useful plant species found in Canada are of conservation concern. In vitro storage and cryopreservation techniques guarantees safety of these species and have potential applications which may result in sustainable agriculture. Shoot tips of in vitro-grown plantlets of American elm, St John’s Wo...

  16. Antimicrobial activity of Nigerian medicinal plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, Madubuike Umunna; Okoye, Rosemary Chinazam

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is currently one of the major threats facing mankind. The emergence and rapid spread of multi- and pan-drug-resistant organisms (such as vancomycin-, methicillin-, extended-spectrum β-lactam-, carbapenem- and colistin-resistant organisms) has put the world in a dilemma. The health and economic burden associated with AMR on a global scale are dreadful. Available antimicrobials have been misused and are almost ineffective with some of these drugs associated with dangerous side effects in some individuals. Development of new, effective, and safe antimicrobials is one of the ways by which AMR burden can be reduced. The rate at which microorganisms develop AMR mechanisms outpaces the rate at which new antimicrobials are being developed. Medicinal plants are potential sources of new antimicrobial molecules. There is renewed interest in antimicrobial activities of phytochemicals. Nigeria boasts of a huge heritage of medicinal plants and there is avalanche of researches that have been undertaken to screen antimicrobial activities of these plants. Scientific compilation of these studies could provide useful information on the antimicrobial properties of the plants. This information can be useful in the development of new antimicrobial drugs. This paper reviews antimicrobial researches that have been undertaken on Nigerian medicinal plants. PMID:28512606

  17. Antimicrobial activity of South African medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vuuren, S F

    2008-10-28

    This paper reviews the antimicrobial research undertaken on South African medicinal plants during the period 1997-2008. Antimicrobial methods (disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), bio-autography) are briefly discussed and an analysis of the publications reviewed indicates that the majority of papers use MIC assays for antimicrobial determination. Antimicrobial investigations on extracts are presented where the most active plants are identified from screening publications. A summary of some bioactive compounds are given with data restricted to papers reporting quantitative antimicrobial activity equivalent to or below 200 microg/ml. Antimicrobial activities on the essential oils of indigenous medicinal aromatic plants are also reviewed. An overview is given on what activities (extracts, compounds and oils) should be considered noteworthy for publication. Studies focusing on geographical ethnobotany, specific pathogenesis, formulation aspects and in vivo investigations are examined. Future recommendations to consider include pathogen selection, interactive studies and dosage administrations.

  18. Analysis of traditional knowledge in medicinal plants used by Yuan in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inta, Angkhana; Trisonthi, Paritat; Trisonthi, Chusie

    2013-08-26

    We studied traditional knowledge of medicinal plants use of the Yuan in northern Thailand, documenting and analysing traditional medical practices and its trend in the younger generations. To providing useful information for appropriate and sustainable management under the urbanization and other developments and use of natural resources in their communities. In addition, traditional medicinal plant used, and knowledge that leads to discovery of new medicines can be promoted. Traditional medicinal plant knowledge of the Yuan in Lamphun province was studied from October 2009 through September 2011 in order to determine the important medicinal plant species and dominant use-categories in 5 villages. In each village, questionnaire interviews about medicinal plants uses were applied to 30 informants (5 informants per each of six stratified age groups). The relative importance of plant species was captured by calculation of use value (UV). Likewise, the dominant use-categories were determined by calculation of the informant agreement ratio (IAR). Correlations between informants' age and number of medicinal plants known by them were determined with the coefficient of determination (R(2)). A total of 93 medicinal plant species in 82 genera and 49 families were recorded in the five villages. The most important species of medicinal plants were Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., Andrographis paniculata Ness, Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M.King and H.Rob., Jatropha podagrica Hook., and Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl. which had UVs of 1.02, 1.01, 0.75, 0.71, and 0.65, respectively. Likewise, the most dominant use-categories were injuries, which accounted for 0.91 of the IAR. The age of informants and medicinal plants reported by each of them were positively correlated (R(2)=0.96, ptraditional medicinal plant knowledge is used for treating basic ailments. However we should be concerned that there is an imminent danger that it will be lost in the near future because their lifestyle was changing

  19. [Prevention of soil deterioration during cultivation of medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lan-ping; Huang, Lu-qi; Jiang, You-xu; Lv, Dong-mei

    2006-05-01

    This paper summarized the aspects of the soil deterioration due to continuous growth of medicinal plants, such as nutrition insufficient, pH variation, harmful salt accumulating, harmful microbe and allelopathic substance increasing, soil physics and chemistry properties variation. And the ways to prevent and rehabilitate the deteriorated soil was indicated, which included anti-adversity species selecting, scientific management such as whorl cropping, nutrient elements supplement, usage of physical methods, nutrient liquid cultivating and VAM inoculating etc.

  20. Analysis of five trace elements in medicinal plants used in ayurvedic medicine to control diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewamanna, R.; Anuraadhi, N.; Fernando, R.K.S.

    2004-12-01

    Analysis of Chromium, Vanadium, Iron, Copper and Zinc known to influence the glucose/ insulin system was carried out in 36 different Ayurvedic medicinal plant species used to control and treat diabetes in Sri Lanka using the Energy Dispersive X ray fuorescence technique. Chromium, which is an essential nutrient in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, was measured in 7 plant species ranging from 13-82 ppm dry ash weight. Polarographic analysis showed that one fourth of the chromium was present in the trivalent state in all seven plant species namely Ficus banghalensis, Ficus racemosa, Musa pradisiaca, Coccinea grandis, Benincasa hispida, Pongamia pinnata and Acacia nilotica. The importance of the other metals in the control of diabetes is also briefly discussed

  1. Plant Secondary Metabolites in some Medicinal Plants of Mongolia Used for Enhancing Animal Health and Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makkar, HPS.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels and activities of a number of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs are known to increase in response to increase in stress. The Mongolian plants considered to possess medicinal properties may contain novel compounds since they are exposed to severe conditions; such plants could become good candidates for modern drug discovery programmes. Information on distribution, palatability to livestock and opinion of local people on their nutritive and medicinal values was compiled for 15 plant materials from 14 plant species considered important for medicinal purposes. These plants were evaluated for nutritive value and PSMs: tannins, saponins, lectins, alkaloids and cyanogens. High levels of tannins were found in roots of Bergenia crassifolia and in leaves of B. crassifolia, Vaccinium vitisidaea and Rheum undulatum. High lectin activity (haemagglutination was present in B. crassifolia roots, and leaves of R. undulatum, Iris lacteal and Thymus gobicus contained weak lectin activity. Tanacetum vulgare, Serratula centauroids, Taraxacum officinale and Delphinum elatum leaves contained saponin activity (haemolysis. Alkaloids and cyanogens were not present in any of the samples. The paper discusses the known medicinal uses of these plants in light of the PSMs levels, and identifies plant samples for future applications in human and livestock health, welfare and safety.

  2. Plant Species Sensitivity Distributions for ozone exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethem, T.M.W.J. van; Azevedo, L.B.; Zelm, R. van; Hayes, F.; Ashmore, M.R.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    This study derived Species Sensitivity Distributions (SSD), representing a cumulative stressor-response distribution based on single-species sensitivity data, for ozone exposure on natural vegetation. SSDs were constructed for three species groups, i.e. trees, annual grassland and perennial grassland species, using species-specific exposure–response data. The SSDs were applied in two ways. First, critical levels were calculated for each species group and compared to current critical levels for ozone exposure. Second, spatially explicit estimates of the potentially affected fraction of plant species in Northwestern Europe were calculated, based on ambient ozone concentrations. We found that the SSD-based critical levels were lower than for the current critical levels for ozone exposure, with conventional critical levels for ozone relating to 8–20% affected plant species. Our study shows that the SSD concept can be successfully applied to both derive critical ozone levels and estimate the potentially affected species fraction of plant communities along specific ozone gradients. -- Highlights: ► Plant Species Sensitivity Distributions were derived for ozone exposure. ► Annual grassland species, as a species assemblage, tend to be most sensitive to ozone. ► Conventional critical levels for ozone relate to 8–20% affected plant species. ► The affected fraction of plant species for current ozone exposure in Northwestern Europe is estimated. -- Species Sensitivity Distributions offer opportunities in ozone risk assessment to both derive critical levels and estimate the affected fraction of a plant community

  3. Medicinal plants of Dagala region in Bhutan: their diversity, distribution, uses and economic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangchuk, Phurpa; Namgay, Kuenga; Gayleg, Karma; Dorji, Yeshi

    2016-06-24

    The traditional g.so-ba-rig-pa hospitals in Bhutan uses more than 100 polyingredient medicines that are manufactured by the Menjong Sorig Pharmaceuticals (MSP). The MSP has been collecting medicinal plants from Lingzhi region for about 48 years and therefore the ecological pressure on these plants have increased. It is MSP's top priority to identify an alternative collection site to ease the problem. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine whether Dagala region could potentially be an alternative collection site for MSP. First the multidisciplinary research team generated a tentative plant list by reviewing a body of ancient g.so-ba-rig-pa literature, current formulations, and the MSP medicinal plants inventory documents. Second, the research team visited the study areas in Dagala region for spot identification of medicinal plants. Third, we confirmed our traditional and botanical identification by crosschecking the descriptions with the series of books on traditional texts, Flora of Bhutan, scientific papers on medicinal plants, and the plant databases. We have identified 100 species of high altitude medicinal plants from Dagala region. Of these, 24 species grow abundantly, 29 species grow in moderate numbers and 47 species were scarce. More than 85 species belonged to the herbaceous life form and 51 of them are used as a whole plant. A total of 68 species grow in between 4000 and 4999 meter above sea level. These 100 medicinal plants represented 39 different families and 80 genera and the maximum number of plants belonged to the family Asteraceae. Of 60 species that are currently used for formulating medicines at MSP, 16 species have economic importance with potential for commercial collection. Out of seven areas covered by the survey, Kipchen hosted maximum number of medicinal plants (21 species). Our survey identified 100 medicinal plants from Dagala region and of these, 16 species has economic potential that could benefit both MSP and Dagala

  4. Ecological status and traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary of Garhwal Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Jahangeer A; Kumar, Munesh; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2013-01-02

    Himalayan forests are the most important source of medicinal plants and with useful species for the local people. Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary (KWLS) is situated in the interior part of the Garhwal Himalayan region. The presented study was carried out in Madhmeshwar area of KWLS for the ecological status of medicinal plants and further focused on the ethnomedicinal uses of these plants in the study area. Ecological information about ethnomedicinal plants were collected using random quadrats in a random sampling technique along an altitudinal gradient in the KWLS. Information on medicinal properties of plants encountered in the present study was generated by questionnaire survey and was also compared with relevant literature. A total of 152 medicinally important plant species were reported, in which 103 were found herbs, 32 shrubs and 17 were tree species which represented 123 genera of 61 families. A total of 18 plant species fell into the rare, endangered (critically endangered) and vulnerable status categories. The present study documented the traditional uses of medicinal plants, their ecological status and importance of these plants in the largest protected area of Garhwal Himalaya. This study can serve as baseline information on medicinal plants and could be helpful to further strengthen the conservation of this important resource.

  5. Ecological status and traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary of Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Himalayan forests are the most important source of medicinal plants and with useful species for the local people. Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary (KWLS) is situated in the interior part of the Garhwal Himalayan region. The presented study was carried out in Madhmeshwar area of KWLS for the ecological status of medicinal plants and further focused on the ethnomedicinal uses of these plants in the study area. Methods Ecological information about ethnomedicinal plants were collected using random quadrats in a random sampling technique along an altitudinal gradient in the KWLS. Information on medicinal properties of plants encountered in the present study was generated by questionnaire survey and was also compared with relevant literature. Results A total of 152 medicinally important plant species were reported, in which 103 were found herbs, 32 shrubs and 17 were tree species which represented 123 genera of 61 families. A total of 18 plant species fell into the rare, endangered (critically endangered) and vulnerable status categories. Conclusion The present study documented the traditional uses of medicinal plants, their ecological status and importance of these plants in the largest protected area of Garhwal Himalaya. This study can serve as baseline information on medicinal plants and could be helpful to further strengthen the conservation of this important resource. PMID:23281594

  6. Traditional uses of some medicinal plants in Malatya (Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetik, Figen; Civelek, Semsettin; Cakilcioglu, Ugur

    2013-03-07

    This study has identified not only the wild plants collected for medical purposes by local people of Malatya Province in the Eastern Anatolia Region, but also the uses and local names of these plants. It tried to provide a source for researchers studying in ethnobotany, pharmacology and chemistry by comparing the information obtained from traditionally used herbs with previous laboratory studies. In Turkey, use of plants for medical purposes has been a tradition. This study aims to identify wild plants collected for medical purposes by the local people of Malatya Province, located in the Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey, and to establish the uses and local names of these plants. A field study had been carried out for a period of approximately 2 years (2010-2011). A questionnaire was administered to the local people, through face-to-face interviews. During this period, 330 vascular plant specimens were collected. Demographic characteristics of participants, names of the local plants, their utilized parts and preparation methods were investigated and recorded. The plant species were collected within the scope of the study; herbarium materials were prepared; and the specimens were entitled. In addition, the relative importance value of the species was determined and informant consensus factor (FIC) was calculated for the medicinal plants included in the study. In the area of research, 132 individuals who had knowledge about plants were interviewed. Mean age of the respondents was 44 years (in 35-73 years range). 108 plants were found to be used for medical purposes before in the literature analysis of the plants used in our study, while 15 plants were found to have no literature records. The most common families are: Asteraceae (21 plants), Lamiaceae (14 plants), and Rosaceae (12 plants). Local people were recorded to use the aerial parts, branches, flowers, fruits, latex, leaves, matured fruits, peduncle, resin, rhizomes, root bark, roots, seeds and style of the

  7. Invasive plant species in hardwood tree plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochelle R. Beasley; Paula M. Pijut

    2010-01-01

    Invasive plants are species that can grow and spread aggressively, mature quickly, and invade an ecosystem causing economic and environmental damage. Invasive plants usually invade disturbed areas, but can also colonize small areas quickly, and may spread and dominate large areas in a few short years. Invasive plant species displace native or desirable forest...

  8. Ecotaxonmic baseline evaluation of the plant species in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The survey of the flora composition of an ecosystem is important in several environmental baseline studies. An ecotaxonomic assessment was carried out in Ase-Ndoni proposed Rivgas Refinery project site in other to find out the plant species of medicinal and other economic values. The investigation was carried out to ...

  9. Assessment of the importance of medicinal plants among communities around Khiat Ngong of southern Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkington, Bethany G; Phiapalath, Phaivanh; Sydara, Kongmany; Somsamouth, Vongtakoune; Goodsmith, Nichole I; Soejarto, D Doel

    2014-07-01

    A field survey was launched to identify medicinal plants growing in the Khiat Ngong wetlands and surrounding forested areas of Pathoumphone District, Champasak Province in southern Laos. In this area, 418 plants representing approximately 250 species, belonging to at least 200 genera in 93 families of vascular plants, are used by traditional healers to treat more than 95 symptoms. A large number of species are used for treating fever. At least 14 plant species have not been previously reported for having medicinal properties. At least 10 have previously been investigated and have shown interesting biological activity by other researchers, signaling promising candidates for income-generating activities.

  10. Contributions of Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) in the area of Medicinal plants/Traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Neeraj; Yadav, Satyapal Singh

    2017-02-02

    Medicinal plants belong to the oldest known health care products that have been used by human beings all over the world and are major components of the formulations used in indigenous system of medicine practiced in many countries. Besides, finding place as health supplements, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, herbal tea etc. there has been a global insurgence of interest, including India, leading to enormous research/activities in the area of medicinal plants. The article is aimed to provide the effort and initiatives of ICMR towards research on medicinal plants and its contributions on consolidation of Indian research on medicinal plants that are very relevant and important in the national context. The various initiatives undertaken by ICMR on research on traditional medicines/medicinal plants in the past are reviewed and documented in this article. The multi-disciplinary, multicentric research initiatives of ICMR have resulted in validation of traditional treatment Kshaarasootra (medicated Ayurvedic thread) for anal fistula, Vijayasar (heart wood of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb.) for diabetes mellitus, encouraging micro- and macrofilaricidal activity of Shakotak (stem bark of Streblus asper Lour.) in experimental studies an iridoid glycosides fraction isolated from root/rhizomes of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. (designated as Picroliv) for viral hepatitis. Other developmental and compilation of research works on Indian medicinal plants have resulted in publications of the thirteen volumes of quality standards, comprising of 449 Indian medicinal plants; three volumes of 90 phytochemical reference standards; fifteen volumes of review monographs on 4167 medicinal plant species; and one publication each on perspectives of Indian medicinal plants for management of liver disorders, lymphatic filariasis and diabetes mellitus (details available at http://www.icmr.nic.in/mpsite). The ICMR efforts assume special significance in the light of multifaceted use of medicinal plants

  11. Do invasive plant species alter soil health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive species may alter soil characteristics or interact with the soil microbial community to yield a competitive advantage. Our objectives were to determine: if invasive plant species alter soil properties important to soil health; and the long-term effects of invasive plant species on soil pro...

  12. MicroRNAs as New Bioactive Components in Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wenyan; Weng, Alexander; Melzig, Matthias F

    2016-08-01

    Herbal medicine has been used to treat diseases for centuries; however, the biological active components and the mechanistic understanding of actions of plant-derived drugs are permanently discussed. MicroRNAs are a class of small, non-coding RNAs that play crucial roles as regulators of gene expression. In recent years, an increasing number of reports showed that microRNAs not only execute biological functions within their original system, they can also be transmited from one species to another, inducing a posttranscriptional repression of protein synthesis in the recipient. This cross-kingdom regulation of microRNAs provides thrilling clues that small RNAs from medicinal plants might act as new bioactive components, interacting with the mammalian system.In this article, we provide an overview of the cross-kingdom communication of plant-derived microRNAs. We summarize the microRNAs identified in medicinal plants, their potential targets in mammals, and discuss several recent studies concerning the therapeutic applications of plant-based microRNAs. Health regulations of herbal microRNAs in mammals are a new concept. Continuing efforts in this area will broaden our understanding of biological actions of herbal remedies, and will open the way for the development of new approaches to prevent or treat human diseases. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Inventory of plants used in traditional medicine in Somalia. IV. Plants of the families Passifloraceae-Zygophyllaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, G; Farah, M H; Claeson, P; Hagos, M; Thulin, M; Hedberg, O; Warfa, A M; Hassan, A O; Elmi, A H; Abdurahman, A D

    1993-01-01

    Thirty-seven plants are listed, which are used by traditional healers in the central and southern parts of Somalia. For each species are listed: the botanical name with synonyms, collection number, vernacular name, medicinal use, preparation of remedy and dosage. Results of a literature survey are also reported including medicinal use, substances isolated and pharmacological effects. Three plants which should have been included in Part I of the series have been added and some corrections to that paper have been made. With these additions the series comprises 180 different plant species, distributed in 59 plant families.

  14. Diversity and distribution of medicinal plants in North Sinai, Egypt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil physical properties in addition to soil salinity and topographic variations are the main driving factors controlling the distribution of medicinal plants in North Sinai. About 60% of medicinal plants are threatened due to intensive collection and other human activities. The threatened medicinal plants including Acacia ...

  15. LESS KNOWN USES OF WEEDS AS MEDICINAL PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sahu, T. R.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper the author presents medicinal or otherwise useful weed species with details of family, vernacular name and its medicinal utility. Information on other general economic importance of medicinal weeds is also described here.

  16. [Analysis of varieties and standards of Scrophulariaceae plants used in Tibetan medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lan; Mu, Ze-jing; Zhong, Wei-hong; Zhong, Wei-jin; He, Jun-wei; Du, Xiao-lang; Zhong, Guo-yue

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the popular domestic varieties and quality standard of Scrophulariaceae plants used in Tibetan medicine were analyzed. The results showed that there were 11 genera and 99 species (including varieties), as well as 28 medicinal materials varieties of Scrophulariaceae plants were recorded in the relevant literatures. In relevant Tibetan standards arid literatures, there are great differences in varieties, sources, parts, and efficacies of medicinal plant. Among them, about 41.4% (including 41 species) of endemic plants, about 15.2% (including 15 species) of the original plants have medicinal standard legal records, except the medicinal materials of Scrophalaria ningpoensis, Lagotis brevituba, Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora, Veronica eriogyne general, most varieties have not completed quality standard. Consequently it is necessary to reinforce the herbal textual, resources and the use present situation investigation, the effects of the species resources material foundation and biological activity, quality standard, specification the medical terms of the plants, and promote Tibetan medicinal vareties-terminologies-sources such as the criterion and quality standard system for enriching the varieties of Tibetan medicinal materials and Chinese medicinal resources.

  17. Structure and histochemistry of medicinal species of Solanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laudineia J. Matias

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies on native medicinal plants strengthen initiatives to preserve the environments where those species naturally occur, many of them already strongly menaced even before their potential to humankind is known. Root and stem barks, leaves, and pericarps samples of Solanum agrarium Sendtn., S. lycocarpum A. St.-Hil., S. palinacanthum Dunal, S. paniculatum L., and S. stipulaceum Roem. & Schult., species that occur in the Cerrado (Brazililan savanna were processed according to common light microscopy techniques for structural analysis, and histochemical tests were performed to locate and identify classes of chemical compounds. The distinctive features identified were low concentration of crystal sand in the root and stem, presence of terpene resin in the root, and absence of hypodermis in the leaf, in S. agrarium; bright spots (group of sclereids in the root, isobilateral mesophyll, thickened cell walls with hemicelluloses and strong aroma in the fruit, in S. lycocarpum; high concentration of crystal sand in the root and stem, oval-shaped limb, presence of isolated crystals in the exocarp, in S. palinacanthum; strong sclerification and rays with great height in the root and stem, in S. paniculatum; and accumulation of soluble protein in the root and stem, presence of conspicuous membranaceous stipules, absence of spiniform trichomes, in S. stipulaceum. This work identifies distinctive structural features, its ecological importance, and determines the distribution of secondary compounds associated with the medicinal properties reported for these species and contributes to the conservation of the natural environments where they occur.

  18. Medicinal plants - a potent antibacterial source against bacterial leaf blight (BLB) of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabeen, R.

    2011-01-01

    The antibacterial potential of indigenous medicinal plants as alternative chemical pesticides for controlling bacterial leaf blight (BLB) of rice was investigated. Twenty-five different species of medicinal plants were collected from various sites in Pakistan. Decoctions of all medicinal plant species were screened by the disc plate diffusion method for testing the susceptibility of an aggressive isolate of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo 105). Out of twenty five medicinal plants, Thuja orientalis (cone + leaves), Azadirachta indica (seeds + fruits), Amomum subulatum (fruits), Terminalia chebula (fruits), Terminalia bellirica (fruits), Anethum graveolens (fruits) and Ferula assa-foetida (fruits) decoctions showed significant activity. The efficacy of decoctions from six promising plants were further tested through detached leaf, glasshouse and field assays. A decoction of Terminalia chebula demonstrated the highest effectiveness in terms of regulating BLB in the plants both under laboratory and field conditions. Bioactive fractions of Terminalia chebula were purified, characterized and tentatively identified as allegic acid. (author)

  19. AN ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN VILLAGES UNDER JONGILANGA TRIBAL COUNCIL, MPUMALANGA, SOUTH AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshikalange, Thilivhali Emmanuel; Mophuting, Boikanyo Calvin; Mahore, James; Winterboer, Stefan; Lall, Namrita

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants remain an integral part of the lives of people in rural areas. The aim of this study was to document information about the medicinal plants used by Shangaan people in villages under Jongilanga tribal council, Bushbuckridge municipality, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire with 15 traditional healers as informants; one of them also served as a field guide during data collection. Results were analysed by using various quantitative indices of information consensus factor (ICF), use report (UR), frequency citation (FC) and relative frequency citation (RFC). The study reported 86 medicinal plants used in villages for the treatment of various ailments, the majority (25 species) of which were used for urino-genital disorders. The Fabaceae family was the most represented family (17 species) of all the medicinal plants recorded in this study. The roots were the most frequently used plant part, accounting for 56% of the plants reported, and decoctions were often used in the preparation of herbal remedies. Respiratory diseases had the highest ICF value recorded among the 8 categories of ailments. The highest use report was reported for Combretum collinum (4), while the FC and RFC values (15) were highest in 12 plant species. The study revealed that medicinal plants are still widely used in rural areas and this documentation can serve as an ethno pharmacological basis for selecting plants with potential pharmaceutical properties.

  20. Ethnobotanic study of medicinal plants in Urmia city: identification and traditional using of antiparasites plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Bahmani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the native medicinal plants used in parasitic diseases treatment in Urmia. Methods: This study was conducted among 35 Urmia herbalists to identify medicinal plants used in parasitic diseases treatment. We used direct observation and interviews with collected herbarium specimens by native herbs commonly in the treatment of parasitic diseases. Questionnaires were included apothecary personal information and native plants list with information includes plant local name, plant parts used, method of their use and traditional therapies. Herbarium samples listed in the questionnaire collected from the area and were sent to agricultural research centers and Urmia University Faculty of Agriculture for genus and species determination. Results: Thirteen medicinal plants from six families for treatment of diabetes in Urmia were obtained from interviews. Most families have anti diabetic effect was included Asteraceae (36%. The most used was boiling (65%. Conclusions: In view of the findings of this study indicate that plants have the potential to be a parasitic infection so it is necessary ingredients of native plants be studied to demonstrate therapeutic effects and provide field work to evaluate the clinical effects of these herbs and ingredients they claim on parasitic diseases.

  1. Bioactivities of Traditional Medicinal Plants in Alexandria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosam O. Elansary

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional folklore, medicinal herbs play a vital role in the prevention and treatment of microbial diseases. In the present study, the phenolic profiles of the medicinal plants Asparagus aethiopicus L., Citrullus colocynthis L., Senna alexandrina L., Kalanchoe delagoensis L., Gasteria pillansii L., Cymbopogon citratus, Brassica juncea, and Curcuma longa L. were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detector method. The results revealed rich sources of important compounds such as robinin in the fruits and leaves of A. aethiopicus; caffeic acid in the tubers of A. aethiopicus and quercitrin in the leaves of G. pillansii. Further, relatively high antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activities were observed in C. colocynthis fruit coat, S. alexandrina pods, and A. aethiopicus leaves, respectively. The relatively higher the bioactivities of plants extracts associated with the phenols in these plants, in particular, the more abundant the phenols. Therefore, it was concluded that the fruit coat of C. colocynthis, pods of S. alexandrina, and leaves of A. aethiopicus might be excellent sources of natural products. These plant extracts also have a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activities that could be used in the pharmaceutical industries and to control diseases.

  2. Bioactivities of Traditional Medicinal Plants in Alexandria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopa, Agnieszka; Kubica, Paweł; Ekiert, Halina; Elshikh, Mohamed S.; Abdel-Salam, Eslam M.; El-Ansary, Diaa O.

    2018-01-01

    In traditional folklore, medicinal herbs play a vital role in the prevention and treatment of microbial diseases. In the present study, the phenolic profiles of the medicinal plants Asparagus aethiopicus L., Citrullus colocynthis L., Senna alexandrina L., Kalanchoe delagoensis L., Gasteria pillansii L., Cymbopogon citratus, Brassica juncea, and Curcuma longa L. were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detector method. The results revealed rich sources of important compounds such as robinin in the fruits and leaves of A. aethiopicus; caffeic acid in the tubers of A. aethiopicus and quercitrin in the leaves of G. pillansii. Further, relatively high antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activities were observed in C. colocynthis fruit coat, S. alexandrina pods, and A. aethiopicus leaves, respectively. The relatively higher the bioactivities of plants extracts associated with the phenols in these plants, in particular, the more abundant the phenols. Therefore, it was concluded that the fruit coat of C. colocynthis, pods of S. alexandrina, and leaves of A. aethiopicus might be excellent sources of natural products. These plant extracts also have a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activities that could be used in the pharmaceutical industries and to control diseases. PMID:29636772

  3. A comparative study on medicinal plants used in Akha's traditional medicine in China and Thailand, cultural coherence or ecological divergence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inta, A.; Shengji, P.; Balslev, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Aim of the study : The survey aims to study the effect of geographic separation of ethnic groups on local knowledge of medicinal plants used by Akha people in Thailand and China, who were separated 100-120 years ago, to see how different the two geographically distinct but culturally similar groups...... were in this respect. Materials and methods : Interviewing 10 villagers in each of five Akha villages, three in Thailand and two in China, about which plants they used and how they used them. Results : A total of 95 medicinal plants registered in the five villages only 16 were shared between China...... and Thailand. Otherwise the use patterns were quite similar with respect to which plant families and plant growth forms were used and also in terms of in which habitats the Akha found their medicinal plants. Conclusions : The moving to a different site has forced the Akha to find a new set of species...

  4. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants of Sirjan in Kerman Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajoei Nasab, F; Khosravi, Ahmad Reza

    2014-05-28

    From ancient time human beings have used different plants, animals and minerals to prevent and treat various diseases. In this respect, plants have been of particular importance. Ethnobotany is the science of reviewing how indigenous people and local tribes have used their regional plants for particular purposes such as treating diseases in the past. The information gathered from such studies can help to improve national health systems and even lead to the discovery of new medicines. Keeping this in mind, in this study a survey of Sirjan area ethnobotany was conducted during 2011-2012. At the beginning, thirteen local people were interviewed about their region׳s medicinal plants and their consumptions. These plants were collected and identified using identification keys. The data collected was analyzed using quantitative value indices FIC, RFC and CI. Many plants collected have medicinal properties and have been used by local people to treat various ailments. Of these plants, nineteen families, 37 genera and 43 species belonged to medicinal plants. Among them, Lamiaceae with 8 species and Malva L. with 3 species were the largest medicinal plant families and genera, respectively. These plants are often used as decoction (28%) and as powder (21%). Also, the fruit of these plants are used most often. Besides being used as medicinal plants, they have other uses such as food, fuel, etc. Malva sylvestris has the largest value of relative frequency of citation and cultural importance indices. The most ailment categories have the highest level of informant agreement (mean FIC=0.92). Despite the semi-desert climate and lack of rich vegetation, many medicinal and economic plants are found in Sirjan region. Uncontrolled harvesting of the medicinal plants such as Bunium persicum, Cuminum cyminum, Zataria multiflora and Satureja bachtiarica in this region by local people has increased the risk of their extinction and calls for a restrict control over their protection by the

  5. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants used in Xalpatlahuac, Guerrero, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Vázquez, María del Carmen; Carranza-Álvarez, Candy; Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; González-Alcaraz, Violeta F; Bravo-Acevedo, Eliseo; Chamarro-Tinajero, Felipe Jair; Solano, Eloy

    2013-07-09

    Medicinal plants have been used for centuries for the empirical treatment of many diseases. This study documented the use of plant species in traditional medicine in the municipality of Xalpatlahuac, Guerrero, México. Direct interviews were performed with inhabitants from Xalpatlahuac. The interviews were analyzed with two quantitative tools: (a) the informant consensus factor (ICF) that estimates the level of agreement about which medicinal plants may be used for each category and (b) the relative importance (RI) that determines the extent of potential utilization of each species. A total of 67 plant species with medicinal purposes, belonging to 36 families and used to treat 55 illnesses and 3 cultural filiations were reported by interviewees. Nineteen mixtures with medicinal plants were reported by the interviewers. Mentha piperita was the most used plant for combinations (4 mixtures). The results of the ICF showed that diseases of the respiratory and digestive systems had the greatest agreement. The most versatile species according to their RI are Marrubium vulgare, Mimosa albida and Psidium guajava.. This study demonstrates that plant species play an important role in healing practices and magical-religious rituals among inhabitants from Xalpatlahuac, Guerrero, Mexico. Furthermore, pharmacological, phytochemical and toxicological studies with medicinal flora, including mixtures, are required for the experimental validation of their traditional uses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The myth of plant species saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Stohlgren; David T. Barnett; Catherine S. Jarnevich; Curtis Flather; John Kartesz

    2008-01-01

    Plant species assemblages, communities or regional floras might be termed saturated when additional immigrant species are unsuccessful at establishing due to competitive exclusion or other inter-specific interactions, or when the immigration of species is off-set by extirpation of species. This is clearly not the case for state, regional or national floras in the USA...

  7. The use of medicinal plants in the trans-Himalayan arid zone of Mustang district, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Shandesh; Chaudhary, Ram P; Quave, Cassandra L; Taylor, Robin S L

    2010-04-06

    This study documents the use of medicinal plants from the Mustang district of the north-central part of Nepal. Traditional botanical medicine is the primary mode of healthcare for most of the population of this district and traditional Tibetan doctors (Amchi) serve as the local medical experts. Field research was conducted in 27 communities of the Mustang district in Nepal from 2005-2007. We sampled 202 interviewees, using random and snowball sampling techniques. After obtaining prior informed consent, we collected data through semi-structured interviews and participant-observation techniques. Voucher specimens of all cited botanic species were deposited at TUCH in Nepal. We recorded the traditional uses of 121 medicinal plant species, belonging to 49 vascular plant and 2 fungal families encompassing 92 genera. These 121 species are employed to treat a total of 116 ailments. We present data on 58 plant species previously unknown for their medicinal uses in the Mustang district. Of the medicinal plants reported, the most common growth form was herbs (73%) followed by shrubs, trees, and climbers. We document that several parts of individual plant species are used as medicine. Plant parts were generally prepared using hot or cold water as the 'solvent', but occasionally remedies were prepared with milk, honey, jaggery, ghee and oil. Amchis recommended different types of medicine including paste, powder, decoction, tablet, pills, infusion, and others through oral, topical, nasal and others routes of administration. The traditional pharmacopoeia of the Mustang district incorporates a myriad of diverse botanical flora. Traditional knowledge of the remedies is passed down through oral traditions and dedicated apprenticeships under the tutelage of senior Amchi. Although medicinal plants still play a pivotal role in the primary healthcare of the local people of Mustang, efforts to ensure the conservation and sustainable use of medicinal species are necessary.

  8. The use of medicinal plants in the trans-himalayan arid zone of Mustang district, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Ram P

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study documents the use of medicinal plants from the Mustang district of the north-central part of Nepal. Traditional botanical medicine is the primary mode of healthcare for most of the population of this district and traditional Tibetan doctors (Amchi serve as the local medical experts. Methods Field research was conducted in 27 communities of the Mustang district in Nepal from 2005-2007. We sampled 202 interviewees, using random and snowball sampling techniques. After obtaining prior informed consent, we collected data through semi-structured interviews and participant-observation techniques. Voucher specimens of all cited botanic species were deposited at TUCH in Nepal. Results We recorded the traditional uses of 121 medicinal plant species, belonging to 49 vascular plant and 2 fungal families encompassing 92 genera. These 121 species are employed to treat a total of 116 ailments. We present data on 58 plant species previously unknown for their medicinal uses in the Mustang district. Of the medicinal plants reported, the most common growth form was herbs (73% followed by shrubs, trees, and climbers. We document that several parts of individual plant species are used as medicine. Plant parts were generally prepared using hot or cold water as the 'solvent', but occasionally remedies were prepared with milk, honey, jaggery, ghee and oil. Amchis recommended different types of medicine including paste, powder, decoction, tablet, pills, infusion, and others through oral, topical, nasal and others routes of administration. Conclusions The traditional pharmacopoeia of the Mustang district incorporates a myriad of diverse botanical flora. Traditional knowledge of the remedies is passed down through oral traditions and dedicated apprenticeships under the tutelage of senior Amchi. Although medicinal plants still play a pivotal role in the primary healthcare of the local people of Mustang, efforts to ensure the conservation and

  9. Medicinal plants indications from herbal healers for wound treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Willianne Alves do Nascimento

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to identify medicinal plants indicated by commercial herbal healers for wound treatment, in street markets. A descriptive study conducted in a capital city in the northeast of Brazil, through interviews. The results indicate that plant commerce by healers of both genders, aged between 37 to 52 years, from those 69.3% learned about their function with family members. Forty-eight plant species were cited for wound treatment, between those, all participants cited Barbatimão and Mastic. From the plants Sambacaitá, Open Nettle, Yellow Uchi, Corona, Xiquexique, Senna and Pindaíba no properties to prove their indication was found for wound treatment. The stem bark was the most indicated part (96.15%, 81.03% of participants informed that plants should be kept dry for conservation. Studies to clarify the biological activities and collateral effects of medicinal plants are needed, beyond training for healers about indications, prepare, storage/conservation, and expiration date.

  10. Aromatic Medicinal Plants of the Lamiaceae Family from Uzbekistan: Ethnopharmacology, Essential Oils Composition, and Biological Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Mamadalieva, Nilufar Z.; Akramov, Davlat Kh.; Ovidi, Elisa; Tiezzi, Antonio; Nahar, Lutfun; Azimova, Shahnoz S.; Sarker, Satyajit D.

    2017-01-01

    Plants of the Lamiaceae family are important ornamental, medicinal, and aromatic plants, many of which produce essential oils that are used in traditional and modern medicine, and in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industry. Various species of the genera Hyssopus, Leonurus, Mentha, Nepeta, Origanum, Perovskia, Phlomis, Salvia, Scutellaria, and Ziziphora are widespread throughout the world, are the most popular plants in Uzbek traditional remedies, and are often used for the treatment ...

  11. A study of medicinal plants used as ethnoveterinary: harnessing potential phytotherapy in Bheri, District Muzaffarabad (Pakistan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil Ahmed, Muhammad; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-15

    Medicinal plants are utilized for handling health care system and in preventing a variety of diseases. A survey was conducted to document the rapidly disappearing traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in union council Bheri, District Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. Questionnaire format was used to collect the medicinal uses of plants. The 180 informants were interviewed from six villages in total, 30 from each village (20 male and 10 female) regarding the ethnoveterinary uses of plants in several ailments. For the reliability of ethnoveterinary knowledge, the informant consensus factor (FIC), and fidelity level (FL) were calculated and the literature cited was surveyed. The medicinal information was gathered from local inhabitants, healers, shepherds and old men and women of different age groups. A total of 24 medicinal plant species used as ethnoveterinary were found belonging to 22 genera and 19 families. The most dominant family was Polygonaceae (3 species) followed by Araceae, Asteraceae, Lamiaceae each with 2 species and remaining families having one species. The important medicinal plant species showed the highest fidelity level (FL) such as: Rumex nepalensis, Primula denticulata, (100%) used for dysuria, red urination, Skimmia laureola (100%), Swertia paniculata (99%), and Angelica glauca (97%), used for ague, cold, shivering, gastric ailments, Melia azedarach (100%), used to reduce intestinal worm load in cattle showing the conformity of knowledge on these species. Highest FIC was recorded for foot and mouth diseases and ectoparasite (1) followed by ague (0.98) and dysuria (0.99) depicting that a few species were used to cure various animals׳ ailments. The findings of the research revealed that merely a few species are used as ethnoveterinary medicine supported by pharmacology study. Due to anthropogenic pressure the extinction of each species from the areas could result in disappearing knowledge regarding century׳s old traditional methods of

  12. Medicinal Plants from Near East for Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Darwish, Mohammad S.; Efferth, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Background: Cancer is one of the major problems affecting public health worldwide. As other cultures, the populations of the Near East rely on medicinal herbs and their preparations to fight cancer. Methods: We compiled data derived from historical ethnopharmacological information as well as in vitro and in vivo results and clinical findings extracted from different literature databases including (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar) during the past two decades. Results: In this survey, we analyzed the huge amount of data available on anticancer ethnopharmacological sources used in the Near East. Medicinal herbs are the most dominant ethnopharmacological formula used among cancer’s patients in the Near East. The data obtained highlight for the first time the most commonly used medicinal plants in the Near East area for cancer treatment illustrating their importance as natural anticancer agents. The literature survey reveals that various Arum species, various Artemisia species, Calotropis procera, Citrullus colocynthis, Nigella sativa, Pulicaria crispa, various Urtica species, Withania somnifera, and others belong to the most frequently used plants among cancer patients in the Near East countries. Molecular modes of action that have been investigated for plant extracts and isolated compounds from Near East include cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction with participation of major player in these processes such as p53 and p21, Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome c release, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, activation of caspases, etc. Conclusion: The ethnopharmacology of the Near East was influenced by Arabic and Islamic medicine and might be promising for developing new natural and safe anticancer agents. Further research is required to elucidate their cellular and molecular mechanisms and to estimate their clinical activity. PMID:29445343

  13. Medicinal Plants from Near East for Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Abu-Darwish

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer is one of the major problems affecting public health worldwide. As other cultures, the populations of the Near East rely on medicinal herbs and their preparations to fight cancer.Methods: We compiled data derived from historical ethnopharmacological information as well as in vitro and in vivo results and clinical findings extracted from different literature databases including (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar during the past two decades.Results: In this survey, we analyzed the huge amount of data available on anticancer ethnopharmacological sources used in the Near East. Medicinal herbs are the most dominant ethnopharmacological formula used among cancer’s patients in the Near East. The data obtained highlight for the first time the most commonly used medicinal plants in the Near East area for cancer treatment illustrating their importance as natural anticancer agents. The literature survey reveals that various Arum species, various Artemisia species, Calotropis procera, Citrullus colocynthis, Nigella sativa, Pulicaria crispa, various Urtica species, Withania somnifera, and others belong to the most frequently used plants among cancer patients in the Near East countries. Molecular modes of action that have been investigated for plant extracts and isolated compounds from Near East include cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction with participation of major player in these processes such as p53 and p21, Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome c release, poly (ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage, activation of caspases, etc.Conclusion: The ethnopharmacology of the Near East was influenced by Arabic and Islamic medicine and might be promising for developing new natural and safe anticancer agents. Further research is required to elucidate their cellular and molecular mechanisms and to estimate their clinical activity.

  14. On cesium-137 contamination of wild medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitriev, S.V.; Fetisov, A.A.; Pertsev, V.A.; Kotov, N.N.; Grinkevich, N.I.; Bakulina, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of sofe utilization of wild pharmaceutic plants is reviewed. The reserves of wild medicinal plants in the southern areas of Kaluga Region are estimated. Coefficients of 137 Cs transport from root zone soil into medicinal plants are calculated. Permissible contamination levels for herbaceous annual and perennial plants range from 4.1 to 14.8 Ci/km 2

  15. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants in Ada'a District, East Shewa Zone of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefalew, Alemayehu; Asfaw, Zemede; Kelbessa, Ensermu

    2015-04-02

    An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants was conducted in Ada'a District, Eastern Shewa Zone of Oromia Regional State of Ethiopia. The objective of the study was to identify and document medicinal plants and the associated ethnobotanical/ethnomedicinal knowledge of the local people. Relevant ethnobotanical data focused on medicinal plants and traditional herbal medicines were collected using guided field walk, semi-structured interview and direct field observation. Informant consensus method and group discussion were conducted for crosschecking and verification of the information. Both descriptive statistics and quantitative ethnobotanical methods were used for data analysis. We documented 131 species distributed in 109 genera and 54 families based on local claims of medicinal values. Patients who are using traditional drugs and herbalists collect most of these plants from the wild. The leading plant families that encompass large medicinal species were the Lamiaceae (14 species) followed by Asteraceae (13) and Solanaceae (7). The study reported the existence of a number of medicinal plants, an indication for the presence of plant-based traditional medicinal knowledge transfer that survived through generations. Informants asserted that wild growing medicinal plants are under threat due to increased use pressure coupled with unsuitable harvesting that frequently targets roots and barks for remedy preparations. This calls for urgent and collaborative actions to keep the balance between medicinal plants availability in the wild state and their utilization by the community. Furthermore, the study attempted to prioritize the most efficacious medicinal plants as perceived by the local people for possible pharmacological testing.

  16. The most used medicinal plants by communities in Mahaboboka, Amboronabo, Mikoboka, Southwestern Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randrianarivony, Tabita N; Ramarosandratana, Aro Vonjy; Andriamihajarivo, Tefy H; Rakotoarivony, Fortunat; Jeannoda, Vololoniaina H; Randrianasolo, Armand; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2017-03-09

    This paper reports a study undertaken in three remote communities (Mahaboboka, Amboronabo, Mikoboka), located in Sakaraha, Southwestern Madagascar. Not only villages are far away from sanitary infrastructures and doctors but drugs and consulting fees are unaffordable to villagers. They rely essentially on natural resources for health care as for most of rural areas in Madagascar. This paper aims to document medicinal plants used by communities in Sakaraha and to present the most important plant species used in traditional medicine. Semi - structured interview was conducted within 214 informants in 34 villages of the study area. Different ailments encountered in the site study were classified in various categories. For data analysis, frequency of citation (Fq), Informant Consensus Factor (Fic), Fidelity Level (FL) and Use Value (UV) were assessed to find agreement among informants about the use of plants as remedies. Mann-Whitney, Kruskall-Wallis and Spearman correlation tests were performed to determine use of medicinal plants following social status of informants. A total of 235 medicinal plant species belonging to 198 genera and 75 families were inventoried. The richest families in species used for medicinal purposes were: Fabaceae, Apocynaceae, Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, and Poaceae. Plant species cited by informants were used to treat 76 various ailments classified in 13 categories. Leaves and leafy twigs were the most used plant parts and decoction was the mostly cited way of preparation of these medicinal plants species. In average, local people cited 6.7 ± 6.03 medicinal taxa among them, Cedrelopsis grevei is the most cited medicinal plants (Fq. 0.28). With Cedrelopsis grevei (UV = 0.48), Henonia scoparia (UV = 0.43) are mostly used species. Leonotis nepetifolia (FL = 96%) and Strychnos henningsii (FL = 92%) are plant species claimed by high percentage of informants to treat the Digestive System Disorder. This study

  17. Medicinal plants used by Tibetans in Shangri-la, Yunnan, China

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    Yang Chunyan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicinal plants used by the local people in Xizang (Tibet have been investigated since the 1960s. The others out of Xizang, however, have been less understood, although they may be easily and strongly influenced by the various local herbal practices, diverse environments, local religious beliefs and different prevalent types of diseases. In 2006, two ethnobotanical surveys were organized in the county of Shangri-la, Yunnan Province, SW China, to document the traditional medicinal plants used by the Tibetan people. Methods After literature surveying, four local townships were selected to carry out the field investigation. Three local healers were interviewed as key informants. The methods of ethnobotany, anthropology and participatory rural appraisal (PRA were used in the field surveys. Plant taxonomic approach was adopted for voucher specimen identification. Results Sixty-eight medicinal plant species in 64 genera of 40 families were recorded and collected. Among them, 23 species were found to have medicinal values that have not been recorded in any existing Tibetan literatures before, and 31 species were recorded to have traditional prescriptions. Moreover, the traditional preparations of each species and some folk medicinal knowledge were recorded and analyzed. These traditional prescriptions, preparations, new medicinal plants and folk medicinal knowledge and principles were discovered and summarized by local traditional Tibetan healers through times of treatment practices, and were passed down from generation to generation. Conclusion As a part of the cultural diversity of Tibetan community, these traditional medicinal knowledge and experiences may provide data and information basis for the sustainable utilization and development of Tibetan medicine, and may contribute to the local economic development. However, for many reasons, they are disappearing gradually as time goes by. Our study showed that there were abundant

  18. Medicinal plants used by Tibetans in Shangri-la, Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanchun; Dao, Zhiling; Yang, Chunyan; Liu, Yitao; Long, Chunlin

    2009-05-05

    Medicinal plants used by the local people in Xizang (Tibet) have been investigated since the 1960s. The others out of Xizang, however, have been less understood, although they may be easily and strongly influenced by the various local herbal practices, diverse environments, local religious beliefs and different prevalent types of diseases. In 2006, two ethnobotanical surveys were organized in the county of Shangri-la, Yunnan Province, SW China, to document the traditional medicinal plants used by the Tibetan people. After literature surveying, four local townships were selected to carry out the field investigation. Three local healers were interviewed as key informants. The methods of ethnobotany, anthropology and participatory rural appraisal (PRA) were used in the field surveys. Plant taxonomic approach was adopted for voucher specimen identification. Sixty-eight medicinal plant species in 64 genera of 40 families were recorded and collected. Among them, 23 species were found to have medicinal values that have not been recorded in any existing Tibetan literatures before, and 31 species were recorded to have traditional prescriptions. Moreover, the traditional preparations of each species and some folk medicinal knowledge were recorded and analyzed. These traditional prescriptions, preparations, new medicinal plants and folk medicinal knowledge and principles were discovered and summarized by local traditional Tibetan healers through times of treatment practices, and were passed down from generation to generation. As a part of the cultural diversity of Tibetan community, these traditional medicinal knowledge and experiences may provide data and information basis for the sustainable utilization and development of Tibetan medicine, and may contribute to the local economic development. However, for many reasons, they are disappearing gradually as time goes by. Our study showed that there were abundant traditional Tibetan medicinal prescriptions and using methods. It

  19. The Invasive Plant Species Education Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Kevin; James, Krista; Carlson, Kitrina; D'Angelo, Jean

    2010-01-01

    To help high school students gain a solid understanding of invasive plant species, university faculty and students from the University of Wisconsin-Stout (UW-Stout) and a local high school teacher worked together to develop the Invasive Plant Species (IPS) Education Guide. The IPS Education Guide includes nine lessons that give students an…

  20. Endangered Species (Plants). LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    This guide is intended for those who wish to study the literature dealing with various aspects of endangered plant species. This document includes the following sections, some of which are bibliographies: (1) "Introductions to the Topic"; (2) "Subject Headings" (for endangered species of plants used by the Library of Congress); (3) "General…

  1. Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts

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    Shaikh J. Uddin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3 and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC50 1.1–1.6 mg mL−1. Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC50 > 2.5 mg mL−1 against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC50 0.2–2.3 mg mL−1 against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC50 0.01–0.08 mg mL−1 against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified.

  2. Effect of medicinal plants on Moraxella cattarhalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, M U; Thajuddin, N

    2011-02-01

    To determine the antimoraxella activity of Ethiopian medicinal plants extracts. Two clinical isolates of Moraxella cattarhalis (M. cattarhalis) with different antibiotic sensitivity pattern were tested to determine their susceptibility to garlic [Allium sativum (A. sativum)], bark of cinnamon [Cinnamomum zeylanicum (C. zeylanicum)], clove [Syzygium aromaticum (S. aromaticum)], and leaves of avocado [Persea americana (P. americana)], rosemary [Rosmarinus officinalis (R. officinalis)] and prickly poppy [Argemone mexicana (A. mexicana)]. Disk diffusion assay and broth dilution method were used to measure zone of inhibition, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of plant extracts against M. cattarhalis. Both the strains of M. cattarhalis exhibited similar sensitivities to the extracts of medicinal plants. Antimoraxella activity was exhibited only by garlic, avocado leaves and cinnamon. Garlic was found to be more antagonistic to M. cattarhalis than cinnamon and avocado. Garlic and avocado leaves have shown similar MIC (30 mg/mL) where as their zone of inhibition (15 and 11 mm, respectively) were different. Garlic, cinnamon and avocado leaves extracts represents alternative source of natural antimicrobial substances for use in clinical practice for the treatment of cases of M. cattarhalis. Further research on the effects of these extracts on M. cattarhalis can be rewarding to pursue in the search for new broad spectrum antimicrobial agents. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Acceptance and use of medicinal plants in family medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei-Bringas, G A; Santillana-Macedo, M A; Romero-Cancio, J A; Romero-Téllez, M B

    1999-01-01

    To explore the degree of usage of therapeutic medical plants among the patients, physicians and health workers in a local Family Medical Care Unit of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS)). A transversal descriptive study was performed. A questionnaire focusing on two variables was designed and validated. It was applied to 60 family physicians, a randomized sample of 130 health workers and another of 264 patients of the Family Mediccal Care Unit. Response percentage was 78%. The study found that 83% of family physicians accept the therapeutic use of herbal medicine; moreover, 75% use it as a therapeutic resource. Among health workers, acceptance and use was 100%, while in patients the level of acceptance was of 92% and of use it was 90%. Differences between groups are significant (p Gordolobo (Gnaphalium sp.), Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus sp., probably E. globulus), spearmint (Mentha sp.), camomile (Matricaria chamomilla) and prickly pear cladodes (the vegetative parts of the prickly pear, Opuntia sp. Probably Opuntia ficus indica). This information agrees with previous reports about Mexico, however, in this case, data were gathered in urban areas where physicians have been trained in the biomedical paradigm of medicine.

  4. DNA barcoding as a means for identifying medicinal plants of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schori, M.; Showalter, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    DNA barcoding involves the generation of DNA sequencing data from particular genetic regions in an organism and the use of these sequence data to identify or 'barcode' that organism and distinguish it from other species. Here, DNA barcoding is being used to identify several medicinal plants found in Pakistan and distinguished them from other similar species. Several challenges to the successful implementation of plant DNA barcoding are presented and discussed. Despite these challenges, DNA barcoding has the potential to uniquely identify medicinal plants and provide quality control and standardization of the plant material supplied to the pharmaceutical industry. (author)

  5. Medicinal wild plant knowledge and gathering patterns in a Mapuche community from North-western Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estomba, Diego; Ladio, Ana; Lozada, Mariana

    2006-01-03

    Medicinal plant use has persisted as a long standing tradition in the Mapuche communities of Southern Argentina and Chile. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in the rural Curruhuinca community located near the mountain city of San Martin de los Andes, Argentina. Semi-structured interviews were carried out on 22 families in order to examine the present use of medicinal plants and their reputed therapeutic effects. Ecological variables, such as distance to the gathering site and biogeographical origin were also analyzed. Our results showed that the Curruhuinca dwellers cited 89 plant species for medicinal purposes, both of native and exotic origin. They know about 47 native plants, of which they use 40, and they know of 42 exotic medicinal plants of which they use 34. A differential pattern was observed given that only native species, relevant for the traditional Mapuche medicine, were collected at more distant gathering sites. The interviewees mentioned 268 plant usages. Those most frequently reported had therapeutic value for treating digestive ailments (33%), as analgesic/anti-inflammatory (25%) and antitusive (13%). Native species were mainly cited as analgesics, and for gynecological, urinary and "cultural syndrome" effects, whereas exotic species were mainly cited for digestive ailments. The total number of medicinal plants known and used by the interviewees was positively correlated with people's age, indicating that this ancient knowledge tends to disappear in the younger generations.

  6. Uses of plants as medicine by Muna People, Sub District Wakarumba, District Muna, Province of Southeast Sulawesi

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    FLORENTINA INDAH WINDADRI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available North Wakarumba is one of subdistrict lies in the north of Buton Island, close to North Buton Nature Reserve. More than one etnic live in this sub district such as Muna as the biggest ethnic. Muna people have unique behavior in the plant using and environment management including protecting forest and its surrounding area. Study on the plant usage as traditional medicinal plant has been done by interviewing local people. The result of the research was got 61 species of medicinal plants, where 6 species of them have never been published at the Index of Indonesian Medicinal Plants. Thirty-eight plants species could be found wildly and 16 of them occur in North Buton Nature Reserve areas. Bark of 10 species reported as after giving birth medicine. Grinding of Epipremnum pinnatum leaves could be used as wound medicine. Leaf of Terminalia catappa could be used as anti diarrhea.

  7. Medicinal plants of Otwal and Ngai Sub Counties in Oyam District, Northern Uganda

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    Acipa Annabel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An ethnobotanical study was carried out in four parishes in the Ngai and Otwal Sub Counties in Oyam district, Northern Uganda, where insurgency has been prevalent for the past 20 years. Documenting medicinal plant species used in treating various health conditions among the local people. Methods Information was obtained from mainly the local population, the traditional healers and other experienced persons through interviews, formal and informal discussions and field excursions. Results Seventy one plant species were reported for use in the treatment of various diseases in the study area. These plant species belongs to 41 families, with Asteraceae being the most represented. Roots were ranked the commonest plant part used. Oral administration was the most frequently used route of administration. A total of 41 different health conditions were reported to be treated by use of medicinal plant species. Thirty nine percent of the recorded plant species were reported for treating stomach related ailments. Conclusion The use of medicinal plants in primary healthcare is still a common practice in Ngai and Otwal Sub Counties. The trust they have is built on the curative outcome properties claimed, poverty and armed conflict that lead to inadequate healthcare facilities. The generation gap caused by the over 20 years of insurgency in the area has brought about knowledge gap on the usage of medicinal plant species between the young and the older generation.

  8. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by the Didayi tribe of Malkangiri district of Orissa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanaik, Chiranjibi; Reddy, C Sudhakar; Murthy, M S R

    2008-01-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was carried out among the ethnic community (Didayi) in Malkangiri district, Orissa. A total of 53 medicinal plant species belonging to 34 families and 52 different species are described under this study.

  9. Traditional use of medicinal plants in the boreal forest of Canada: review and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uprety, Yadav; Asselin, Hugo; Dhakal, Archana; Julien, Nancy

    2012-01-30

    The boreal forest of Canada is home to several hundred thousands Aboriginal people who have been using medicinal plants in traditional health care systems for thousands of years. This knowledge, transmitted by oral tradition from generation to generation, has been eroding in recent decades due to rapid cultural change. Until now, published reviews about traditional uses of medicinal plants in boreal Canada have focused either on particular Aboriginal groups or on restricted regions. Here, we present a review of traditional uses of medicinal plants by the Aboriginal people of the entire Canadian boreal forest in order to provide comprehensive documentation, identify research gaps, and suggest perspectives for future research. A review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, theses and reports. A total of 546 medicinal plant taxa used by the Aboriginal people of the Canadian boreal forest were reported in the reviewed literature. These plants were used to treat 28 disease and disorder categories, with the highest number of species being used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by musculoskeletal disorders. Herbs were the primary source of medicinal plants, followed by shrubs. The medicinal knowledge of Aboriginal peoples of the western Canadian boreal forest has been given considerably less attention by researchers. Canada is lacking comprehensive policy on harvesting, conservation and use of medicinal plants. This could be explained by the illusion of an infinite boreal forest, or by the fact that many boreal medicinal plant species are widely distributed. To our knowledge, this review is the most comprehensive to date to reveal the rich traditional medicinal knowledge of Aboriginal peoples of the Canadian boreal forest. Future ethnobotanical research endeavours should focus on documenting the knowledge held by Aboriginal groups that have so far received less attention, particularly those of the western boreal forest. In addition, several

  10. Radio protective effects of some medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barupal, G.K.

    2012-01-01

    Many plants are known to have beneficial therapeutic effects as noted in the traditional Indian system of medicine, Ayurveda and used since time immemorial for curing diseases. Even today, nearly 70% of the world's population is dependent on plants for handling their health related problems and plants have been utilized successfully for the treatment of free radical-mediated diseases in human such as Rheumatoid arthritis, Atherosclerosis, Cancer, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, aging and several other conditions including inflammatory diseases. Plant extracts eliciting radio protective efficacy contain a plethora of compounds including antioxidants, immunostimulants, cell proliferation stimulators, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agent, some of which may act in isolation as well as in combination with other constituents from the same plants. Glycyrrhiza glabra, Allium sepa, Allium sativum, Aloe arborescens, Amaranthus paniculatus, Curcuma longa, Moringa olefera and Syzygium cumini are some important radio protective plants. Alium sativum has been reported to possess antioxidant antimicrobial, antitumor, antimutagenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Aloe arborescens acts as a cell proliferate, healer and allergy reducer. Amaranthus paniculatus is used for purifying blood and treating scrofulous sores. Curcuma longa is widely used in antitumor and antibacterial activities. Leaf extract of Moringa oleifera is significantly used in nervous debility and healing of wound. Chlorella is well known nutrient dense superfood that contains 60% protein, 18 amino acids (including all the essential amino acids), more than 20 vitamins and minerals. Chlorell has been used to treat cancer and also protect the body from the effects of cancer radiation treatment due to its chlorophyll in abundance level. However they have little attention for their radio protective as well as antioxidant. There is an urgent need to develop newer, more efficient and reliable bioassays

  11. TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN TRIBES OF TRIPURA IN NORTHEAST, INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbarma, Maria; Pala, Nazir A; Kumar, Munesh; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2017-01-01

    The present study was carried out in Mandwi area and its outskirts of Tripura district of tribal areas Autonomous district council to document the available ethno-medicinal plants and their traditional application among Mandwi tribes. Field explorations were carried out during the months of March-June 2013. The ethno-medicinal survey was conducted particularly with Tripuri tribe in Mandai area, with the help of local medicine men, locally known as bhoidho (Tripuri). Data were collected through structure questionnaires and observations during the field visits. In the present study the local population used a total of 51 plant species belonging to 32 families to cure a variety of diseases. Of the 51 plants, 21 were herbs, followed by trees (17) and shrubs (8). Climbers and ferns had reported 2 species for each one grass species was found. Fabaceae was the dominant family with the highest number of species (6) followed by Asteracae (4 species) and Lamiaceae (5 species). Seven other families had 2 species each and 22 families were represented by a single species. In case single diseases, the highest number of plants (7 species) was used for dysentery, followed by body pain (6 species), cough (6 species) and toothache (6 species). The present study concluded that, the Tripuri tribes of the study area possess rich knowledge on the medicinal plants and their utilization. Thus the present study focuses on the documentation of the traditional knowledge of these valuable plants, which could enhance the potential of these medicinal plants to other communities as well and by understanding the importance, other communities can also be helpful for conservation of these resources for further use.

  12. Potential Use of Turkish Medicinal Plants in the Treatment of Various Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Gulay; Kamiloglu, Senem; Ozdal, Tugba; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra

    2016-02-25

    Medicinal plants are sources of health-promoting substances, including phytochemicals and phytoalexins that comprise polyphenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, vitamins A, C, E and several other constituents. Many studies have indicated that medicinal plants have been used to treat human diseases for thousands of years owing to their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Medicinal plants reduce the oxidative stress in cells and prevent cancer, cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, neurodegenerative and digestive system disorders. These potential beneficial effects have been attributed to the presence of bioactive compounds that show antioxidant properties by acting as free radical scavengers or metal chelators, reducing the reactions that produce reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). Considering the importance of medicinal plants in terms of their beneficial health effects, some of the medicinally important plants grown in Turkey are covered in this review with respect to their antioxidant potential and phytochemical profile.

  13. Potential Use of Turkish Medicinal Plants in the Treatment of Various Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulay Ozkan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are sources of health-promoting substances, including phytochemicals and phytoalexins that comprise polyphenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, vitamins A, C, E and several other constituents. Many studies have indicated that medicinal plants have been used to treat human diseases for thousands of years owing to their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Medicinal plants reduce the oxidative stress in cells and prevent cancer, cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, neurodegenerative and digestive system disorders. These potential beneficial effects have been attributed to the presence of bioactive compounds that show antioxidant properties by acting as free radical scavengers or metal chelators, reducing the reactions that produce reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS. Considering the importance of medicinal plants in terms of their beneficial health effects, some of the medicinally important plants grown in Turkey are covered in this review with respect to their antioxidant potential and phytochemical profile.

  14. Antibacterial activity of traditional medicinal plants used by Haudenosaunee peoples of New York State

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    Meyers Ryan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance, as well as the evolution of new strains of disease causing agents, is of great concern to the global health community. Our ability to effectively treat disease is dependent on the development of new pharmaceuticals, and one potential source of novel drugs is traditional medicine. This study explores the antibacterial properties of plants used in Haudenosaunee traditional medicine. We tested the hypothesis that extracts from Haudenosaunee medicinal plants used to treat symptoms often caused by bacterial infection would show antibacterial properties in laboratory assays, and that these extracts would be more effective against moderately virulent bacteria than less virulent bacteria. Methods After identification and harvesting, a total of 57 different aqueous extractions were made from 15 plant species. Nine plant species were used in Haudenosaunee medicines and six plant species, of which three are native to the region and three are introduced, were not used in traditional medicine. Antibacterial activity against mostly avirulent (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus lactis and moderately virulent (Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus microbes was inferred through replicate disc diffusion assays; and observed and statistically predicted MIC values were determined through replicate serial dilution assays. Results Although there was not complete concordance between the traditional use of Haudenosaunee medicinal plants and antibacterial activity, our data support the hypothesis that the selection and use of these plants to treat disease was not random. In particular, four plant species exhibited antimicrobial properties as expected (Achillea millefolium, Ipomoea pandurata, Hieracium pilosella, and Solidago canadensis, with particularly strong effectiveness against S. typhimurium. In addition, extractions from two of the introduced species (Hesperis matronalis and Rosa

  15. Antibacterial activity of traditional medicinal plants used by Haudenosaunee peoples of New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Frank M; Meyers, Ryan

    2010-11-06

    The evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance, as well as the evolution of new strains of disease causing agents, is of great concern to the global health community. Our ability to effectively treat disease is dependent on the development of new pharmaceuticals, and one potential source of novel drugs is traditional medicine. This study explores the antibacterial properties of plants used in Haudenosaunee traditional medicine. We tested the hypothesis that extracts from Haudenosaunee medicinal plants used to treat symptoms often caused by bacterial infection would show antibacterial properties in laboratory assays, and that these extracts would be more effective against moderately virulent bacteria than less virulent bacteria. After identification and harvesting, a total of 57 different aqueous extractions were made from 15 plant species. Nine plant species were used in Haudenosaunee medicines and six plant species, of which three are native to the region and three are introduced, were not used in traditional medicine. Antibacterial activity against mostly avirulent (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus lactis) and moderately virulent (Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus) microbes was inferred through replicate disc diffusion assays; and observed and statistically predicted MIC values were determined through replicate serial dilution assays. Although there was not complete concordance between the traditional use of Haudenosaunee medicinal plants and antibacterial activity, our data support the hypothesis that the selection and use of these plants to treat disease was not random. In particular, four plant species exhibited antimicrobial properties as expected (Achillea millefolium, Ipomoea pandurata, Hieracium pilosella, and Solidago canadensis), with particularly strong effectiveness against S. typhimurium. In addition, extractions from two of the introduced species (Hesperis matronalis and Rosa multiflora) were effective against this pathogen. Our data

  16. [Improvement of diversity, trade and conservation of medicinal and aromatic plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radusiene, Jolita; Janulis, Valdimaras

    2004-01-01

    The significance of medicinal and aromatic plant selection has risen in recent years due to increasing requirements on quality, safety, and efficiency of herbal products. Only selected varieties could guaranty the homogeneity of raw material. The chemical diversity of spontaneous populations is one of the main directions of investigations on medicinal and aromatic plants at the Institute of Botany. The target species under research are following: Origanum vulgare, Thymus spp., Hypericum spp., Achillea millefolium, and Helichrysum arenarium. The analysis of trade figures pointed out that the imported raw material mainly supplies the demands of pharmaceutical industry in Lithuania. The cultivated production covers only 4-6% of the demand for raw material. Wild plant material represents about 29% of total volume used in pharmaceutics. The trade in wild plant species and their resources is regulated by the legislations. In situ and ex situ conservation methods are used to avoid potential danger and existing threats to genetic diversity of medicinal plant species.

  17. Traditional uses of medicinal plants at Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro

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    Douglas S.A. Chaves

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: This work had as outcome to deal with the part of the population of Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro those who use the public health system and use alternative medicinal plants for the treatment of illness. Aims: To evaluate the potential medicinal uses of local plants traditionally used in curing/treatment different diseases and illnesses, and contribute as a therapeutic option in the public health system of municipality. Methods: A semi-structured questionnaire was used to measure independent variables and issues related to the consumption of medicinal plants, based on field surveys and direct face to face communication. It was calculated the relative importance index (RI of the medicinal plants used in the community as the number of users that mentioned them and the agreement use. Results: Seventy-three plants (44 families were cited by the population. Species with the highest number of citations (50% were boldo, lemon grass, gorse, lemon balm, breaks stone and air plant, and the leaves over part used in medicinal preparations; it was the tea as the main form of use from the fresh plant. Conclusions: The data suggest that the use of medicinal plants remains an important therapy and wanted by the population, and this would be integrating the knowledge of the practices of traditional medicine to scientific knowledge of these species, replacing the empirical use to the correct use, ensuring secure access to the population. This study is the first ethnopharmacological report in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro.

  18. Survey on supply and demand of medicinal plants in Lorestan province groceries

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    fatemeh Naderi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of activities related to medicinal plant industry lead to maintenance and progress (improvement of society health. Attention to situation of medicinal plants in groceries, diagnosis different species, Value of consumption and supplier regions as most important factors in medicinal plants forum can be used for programming and politics in medicinal industry in our country. So via proper scientific programming we can achieve to better culture of medicinal plants consumption and we can improve health parameters in lorestan province. Materials and methods The research was accomplished with Cross-Sectional study and questionary technique was used for data collection. The questionnaire consist of 3 parts were included questions related to socioeconomic trait, number of medicinal plant and medicinal properties. All of the groceries in the lorestan province were studied as statistical society. Sampling method was availability sample and samples size was 69 groceries. Results Results showed that the numbers of medicinal plants in groceries were about 336 species, mean of sold weight Was 128.48 kg. 94.5% and 5.5% of medicinal plants were supplied from out of Lorestan and Lorestan province respectively. Conclusion Existence of special plains and mountains plentiful running water, high storage of under round water and different Climate in the lorestan province cause a considerable diversity in this province. Whereas the results of this study showed that the most important suppliers of medicinal plants were located out of this province therefore programming in the case of these valuable sources of medicinal plants will be because higher preoccupation and existence of these crops in the groceries of lorestan province, even can export these to other countries.

  19. Cytotoxicity potentials of eleven Bangladeshi medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, Amina; Rahman, Mahmudur; Haque, Tania; Rahman, Md Mahfizur; Akter, Mahfuja; Akter, Subarna; Jhumur, Afrin

    2014-01-01

    Various forms of cancer are rising all over the world, requiring newer therapy. The quest of anticancer drugs both from natural and synthetic sources is the demand of time. In this study, fourteen extracts of different parts of eleven Bangladeshi medicinal plants which have been traditionally used for the treatment of different types of carcinoma, tumor, leprosy, and diseases associated with cancer were evaluated for their cytotoxicity for the first time. Extraction was conceded using methanol. Phytochemical groups like reducing sugars, tannins, saponins, steroids, gums, flavonoids, and alkaloids were tested using standard chromogenic reagents. Plants were evaluated for cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using Artemia salina comparing with standard anticancer drug vincristine sulphate. All the extracts showed potent to moderate cytotoxicity ranging from LC50 2 to 115 µg/mL. The highest toxicity was shown by Hygrophila spinosa seeds (LC50 = 2.93 µg/mL) and the lowest by Litsea glutinosa leaves (LC50 = 114.71 µg/mL) in comparison with standard vincristine sulphate (LC50 = 2.04 µg/mL). Among the plants, the plants traditionally used in different cancer and microbial treatments showed highest cytotoxicity. The results support their ethnomedicinal uses and require advanced investigation to elucidate responsible compounds as well as their mode of action.

  20. Cytotoxicity Potentials of Eleven Bangladeshi Medicinal Plants

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    Amina Khatun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various forms of cancer are rising all over the world, requiring newer therapy. The quest of anticancer drugs both from natural and synthetic sources is the demand of time. In this study, fourteen extracts of different parts of eleven Bangladeshi medicinal plants which have been traditionally used for the treatment of different types of carcinoma, tumor, leprosy, and diseases associated with cancer were evaluated for their cytotoxicity for the first time. Extraction was conceded using methanol. Phytochemical groups like reducing sugars, tannins, saponins, steroids, gums, flavonoids, and alkaloids were tested using standard chromogenic reagents. Plants were evaluated for cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using Artemia salina comparing with standard anticancer drug vincristine sulphate. All the extracts showed potent to moderate cytotoxicity ranging from LC50 2 to 115 µg/mL. The highest toxicity was shown by Hygrophila spinosa seeds (LC50=2.93 µg/mL and the lowest by Litsea glutinosa leaves (LC50=114.71 µg/mL in comparison with standard vincristine sulphate (LC50=2.04 µg/mL. Among the plants, the plants traditionally used in different cancer and microbial treatments showed highest cytotoxicity. The results support their ethnomedicinal uses and require advanced investigation to elucidate responsible compounds as well as their mode of action.

  1. Leaf venation pattern to recognize austral South American medicinal species of "cow's hoof" (Bauhinia L., Fabaceae

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    Renée H. Fortunato

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The leaves extracts of some species of Bauhinia L. s.l. are consumed to treat diabetes, inflammation, pains and several disorders in traditional medicine in austral South America. Despite its wide use and commercialization, sale is not controlled, and botanical quality of samples is not always adequate because of plant misidentification and adulteration. Here, we characterized leaf vein pattern in nineteen taxa to contribute to the recognition and commercial quality control of plant material commercially available. The vein characters intercostal tertiary and quinternary vein fabric, areole development and shape, free ending veinlet branching and marginal ultimate venation allowed to distinguish the main medicinal species in the region.

  2. Study of the inorganic constituents in different species of Casearia medicinal plant collected in distinct regions of the Atlantic Forest, SP State, Brazil; Estudo sobre os constituintes inorganicos presentes em diferentes especies da planta medicinal do genero Casearia coletadas em regioes distintas da Mata Atlantica, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Celina Izumi

    2006-07-01

    The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has increased significantly in the last years, as has research concerning chemical characterization of these plants. In this study, inorganic constituents were determined in leaves and in extracts from three medicinal plant species of the Casearia genus (C. sylvestris, C. decandra and C. obliqua) collected in distinct regions of the Atlantic Forest, SP. The elemental compositions of the soils in which these plants were grown were also determined. Traditionally, these plants are used due to their antiinflammatory, antiacid, antiseptic and cicatrizing properties. The antiulcer and the antitumor activities of the Casearia genus and its capacity to neutralize snake and bee venoms, have also been scientifically confirmed. The analytical methodology used was neutron activation analysis. Long and short irradiation periods of the samples and the standards were carried out at IPEN's IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. In the leaf K was found at the percentage levels, Ca, Cl, Mg and Na at mg g{sup -1} levels and the elements Br, Fe, Mn, Rb and Zn at the {mu}g g{sup -1} levels. As, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Sb, Sc and Se at the ng g{sup -1} levels. Results obtained in the extracts indicated that the same elements present in the leaves are also found in their extracts. The comparison between the inorganic composition of Casearia sylvestris leaves collected from three different regions of the Atlantic Forest showed that the elemental concentrations in the plants leaves varied depending on the place where they were grown. Different Casearia species cultivated in a same region presented similar elemental compositions. Based on these findings it can be concluded that the studies about the pharmacological effect of Casearia genus plants grown in different types of soil are of great importance. The quality of the obtained results was assured by the analyses of the certified reference materials NIST 1573a Tomato Leaves, NIST 1515 Apple

  3. Ethnobotanical investigation of traditional medicinal plants commercialized in the markets of Mashhad, Iran

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    Mohammad Sadegh Amiri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: An ethnobotanical survey on the medicinal plant species marketed in Mashhad city, northeastern Iran, was conducted in order to document traditional medicinal knowledge and application of medicinal plants. Materials and Methods: This study was undertaken between 2011 and 2012. The indigenous knowledge of traditional healers used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips. Ethnobotanical data was arranged alphabetically by family name followed by botanical name, vernacular name, part used, folk use, and recipe. Correct identification was made with the help of the various Floras and different herbal literature at the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Herbarium (FUMH. Results: The present investigation reported medicinal information for about 269 species, belonging to 87 vascular plant families and one fungus family. The most important family was Lamiaceae with 26 species, followed by Asteraceae with 23, Fabaceae with 20, and Apiaceae with 19. Herbal medicine uses reported by herbalists was classified into 132 different uses which show significant results to treat a wide spectrum of human ailments. Plants sold at the market were mostly used for digestive system disorders, respiratory problems, urological troubles, nervous system disorders, skin problems, and gynecological ailments. Conclusion: This survey showed that although people in study area have access to modern medical facilities,  a lot of them still continue to depend on medicinal plants for the treatment of healthcare problems. The present paper represents significant ethnobotanical information on medical plants which provides baseline data for future pharmacological and phytochemical studies.

  4. Screening of some Cuban medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, M J; Betancourt, J; Alonso-González, N; Jauregui, A

    1996-07-05

    The antimicrobial activities of 23 extracts of 12 Cuban plant species reported in traditional medicine were tested. The agar diffusion method was used to assess the activity against four bacteria and one yeast: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. The results, evaluated as the diameter of the inhibition zone of microbial growth, showed that nine extracts were active against Gram-positive bacteria but only two of these proved to be also active against Gram-negative bacteria. None of the extracts inhibited the growth of the yeast. The most susceptible bacterium was Staphylococcus aureus and the best antibacterial activity was shown by Schinus terebenthifolius.

  5. Medicinal plants used by women in Mecca: urban, Muslim and gendered knowledge.

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    Alqethami, Afnan; Hawkins, Julie A; Teixidor-Toneu, Irene

    2017-11-17

    This study explores medicinal plant knowledge and use among Muslim women in the city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Ethnobotanical research in the region has focused on rural populations and male herbal healers in cities, and based on these few studies, it is suggested that medicinal plant knowledge may be eroding. Here, we document lay, female knowledge of medicinal plants in an urban centre, interpreting findings in the light of the growing field of urban ethnobotany and gendered knowledge and in an Islamic context. Free-listing, structured and semi-structured interviews were used to document the extent of medicinal plant knowledge among 32 Meccan women. Vernacular names, modes of preparation and application, intended therapeutic use and emic toxicological remarks were recorded. Women were asked where they learnt about medicinal plants and if and when they preferred using medicinal plants over biomedical resources. Prior informed consent was always obtained. We compared the list of medicinal plants used by these Meccan women with medicinal plants previously documented in published literature. One hundred eighteen vernacular names were collected, corresponding to approximately 110 plants, including one algae. Of these, 95 were identified at the species level and 39 (41%) had not been previously cited in Saudi Arabian medicinal plant literature. Almost one half of the plants cited are food and flavouring plants. Meccan women interviewed learn about medicinal plants from their social network, mass media and written sources, and combine biomedical and medicinal plant health care. However, younger women more often prefer biomedical resources and learn from written sources and mass media. The fairly small number of interviews conducted in this study was sufficient to reveal the singular body of medicinal plant knowledge held by women in Mecca and applied to treat common ailments. Plant availability in local shops and markets and inclusion in religious texts seem to shape the

  6. Microbial Load of Some Medicinal Plants Sold in Some Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the microbial load on 17 randomly selected plant samples from 60 ethnobotanically collected medicinal plants from five local markets in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Method: The pour plate method was used to cultivate serially diluted portions of the medicinal plant samples investigated.

  7. Anti-inflammatory medicinal plants and the molecular mechanisms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Medicinal plant and plant products have shown tremendous potentials and are used beneficially in the treatment of inflammation and in the management of diseases with significant inflammatory components. Many medicinal plants employed as anti-inflammatory and antiphlogistic remedies lack the ...

  8. Further screening of Venda medicinal plants for activity against HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of medicinal plants for AIDS-related conditions is common in South Africa. In order to establish an antiviral rationale for the use of these plants we screened fractions of the methanol extracts of medicinal plants for activity against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) and integrase (IN). The n-butanol fraction obtained ...

  9. Antimycobacterial activity of some medicinal plants in Niger state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten Nigerian medicinal plants Abrus precatorius, Annona senegalensis, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Crateva adansonii, Detarium microcarpum, Faba spp, Neocarya macrophylla, Ocimum gratissimum, Securidaca longpenduculata and Terminalia avicennioides used by traditional medicine practitioners for the management of ...

  10. Antibacterial activity of five Peruvian medicinal plants against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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    Gabriela Ulloa-Urizar

    2015-11-01

    Conclusions: The results of the present study scientifically validate the inhibitory capacity of the five medicinal plants attributed by their common use in folk medicine and contribute towards the development of new treatment options based on natural products.

  11. Flowering Plants Preferred by Bumblebees (Bombus Latr. in the Botanical Garden of Medicinal Plants in Wrocław

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    Sikora Aneta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to fewer bumblebees in rural areas these days, it is necessary to look for alternative habitats for the active protection of these very important pollinators. The research was carried out in The Botanical Garden of Medicinal Plants, in Wrocław, Poland. In the garden, approximately 2000 plant species were cultivated, of which 185 were visited by bumblebees. Amongst them, 57 plant species were deemed very attractive and were determined to be indicators for 7 bumblebee species. Indicator species for bumblebees ranged between 6 for Bombus pratorum to up to 20 for B. pascuorum. Monarda didyma was an indicator plant to 6 recorded bumblebee species. Other indicator plant species for at least 4 bumblebees species were: Origanum vulgare, Lavandula angustifolia, Rhododendron catawbiense, Phacelia tanacetifolia, and Agastache rugosa. Three bumblebee species were found to forage the most on 11 of the flowering plant species. The biggest group of plants were those which were mostly visited by 1-2 bumblebee species. Amongst all recorded indicator plants, 32% were native species.

  12. [Studies on investigation and utilization of medicinal plant resources for sustainable development in Guizhou, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, T C

    2001-06-01

    To gain a clear idea of the resources of medicinal plants and their pharmaceutical identification in Guizhou, China, and to conserve, develop, and uilize them effectively. Investigation on the spot with a statistical analysis. The technical route is "Investigation and identification-->Conservation and development-->Method, technology and ways for protection, propagation and utilization-->GAP cultivated pilot and assessment of medicinal materials and their products-->Comprehensive evaluation and results". According to the incomplete statistics, there are 3924 varieties of medicinal materials from plants, accounting for 91.47% of the total in Guizhou. Among them there are 275 families, 1384 genera and 2987 species of vascular bundle plants, accounting for 43.1% of all species. There are 200 species of pteridophyta and 2802 spermatophyta. Investigation of wild medicine species has been proceeded, as well as introduction and research of their propagation techniques and production. Guizhou is rich in medicinal plant resources. However, their species and population are reducing progressively. Effective measures must be taken to protect the germ plasma resources and put them into rational uses for the utilization and sustainable development. Rare and endemic medicine species must be introduced for conservation, propagation and realization of GAP pilot cultivation. Resources must be used in an economical way and products must be made with a high technological content.

  13. Medicinal plants used as home remedies: a family survey by first year medical students.

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    Sewani-Rusike, Constance R; Mammen, Marykutty

    2014-01-01

    There is a hierarchical organisation of knowledge in the use of medicinal plants in communities. Medicinal use knowledge starts in the home and is passed on to family members. Next in the hierarchy are neighbours, village elders and finally, traditional healers being the most knowledgeable. For primary health care this hierarchy is actively followed in seeking remedies for ailments. This study was a survey of medicinal plant knowledge from family members of 1(st) year medical students registered at Walter Sisulu University. A total of 206 first year medical students participated in this study in 2010 and 2011. Results revealed 47 species used as home remedies, 32% of which are food plants. Leaves and roots were reported as most commonly used. The top five ailments managed at home were gastrointestinal problems (25 plants), wounds (19 plants), respiratory tract problems (19 plants), infections, including sexually transmitted diseases (19 plants) and pain including headaches (19 plants). Chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, cancer and reproductive ailments also formed a large group of diseases self-managed at home (29 plants). Family members hold knowledge of medicinal plant use. From this study, first year medical students were made aware of the relationship between common ailments and associated home remedies. This study forms a basis for further study of medicinal plants to validate their use as medicinal remedies.

  14. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used against human ailments in Gubalafto District, Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekole, Getnet

    2017-10-04

    Traditional medicinal plant species documentation is very crucial in Ethiopia for biodiversity conservation, bioactive chemical extractions and indigenous knowledge retention. Having first observed the inhabitants of Gubalafto District (Northern Ethiopia), the author gathered, recorded, and documented the human traditional medicinal plant species and the associated indigenous knowledge. The study was conducted from February 2013 to January 2015 and used descriptive field survey design. Eighty-four informants were selected from seven study kebeles (sub-districts) in the District through purposive, snowball, and random sampling techniques. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews, guided field walks, demonstrations, and focus group discussions with the help of guided questions. Data were organized and analyzed by descriptive statistics with SPSS version 20 and Microsoft Office Excel 2007. A total of 135 medicinal plant species within 120 genera and 64 families were documented. Among the species, Ocimum lamiifolium and Rhamnus prinoides scored the highest informant citations and fidelity level value, respectively. In the study area, Asteraceae with 8.1% and herbs with 50.4% plant species were the most used sources for their medicinal uses. A total of 65 ailments were identified as being treated by traditional medicinal plants, among which stomachache (abdominal health problems) was frequently reported. Solanum incanum was reported for the treatment of many of the reported diseases. The leaf, fresh parts, and crushed forms of the medicinal plants were the most preferred in remedy preparations. Oral application was the highest reported administration for 110 preparations. A majority of medicinal plant species existed in the wild without any particular conservation effort. Few informants (about 5%) had only brief notes about the traditional medicinal plants. Ninety percent of the respondents have learned indigenous

  15. Cameroonian medicinal plants: a bioactivity versus ethnobotanical survey and chemotaxonomic classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Lifongo, Lydia Likowo; Mbaze, Luc Meva'a; Ekwelle, Nnange; Owono Owono, Luc C; Megnassan, Eugene; Judson, Philip N; Sippl, Wolfgang; Efange, Simon M N

    2013-06-26

    In Cameroon herbs are traditionally used to meet health care needs and plans are on the way to integrate traditional medicine in the health care system, even though the plans have not been put into action yet. The country however has a rich biodiversity, with ~8,620 plant species, some of which are commonly used in the treatment of several microbial infections and a range of diseases (malaria, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, diabetes and tuberculosis). Our survey consisted in collecting published data from the literature sources, mainly from PhD theses in Cameroonian university libraries and also using the author queries in major natural product and medicinal chemistry journals. The collected data includes plant sources, uses of plant material in traditional medicine, plant families, region of collection of plant material, isolated metabolites and type (e.g. flavonoid, terpenoid, etc.), measured biological activities of isolated compounds, and any comments on significance of isolated metabolites on the chemotaxonomic classification of the plant species. This data was compiled on a excel sheet and analysed. In this study, a literature survey led to the collection of data on 2,700 secondary metabolites, which have been previously isolated or derived from Cameroonian medicinal plants. This represents distinct phytochemicals derived from 312 plant species belonging to 67 plant families. The plant species are investigated in terms of chemical composition with respect to the various plant families. A correlation between the known biological activities of isolated compounds and the ethnobotanical uses of the plants is also attempted. Insight into future direction for natural product search within the Cameroonian forest and Savanna is provided. It can be verified that a phytochemical search of active secondary metabolites, which is inspired by knowledge from the ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants could be very vital in a drug discovery program from plant

  16. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the Masaai people of Losho, Kenya

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    Duncan Mutiso Chalo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: An ethnobotanical survey on the medicinal plant species in Losho, Narok County, Kenya was conducted in order to document traditional medicinal knowledge and application of medicinal plants.Materials and Methods: This study was undertaken between 2012. Information was gathered from traditional practitioners who lived and practised in Losho, Narok County, Kenya using semi-structured questionnaires and personal interviews during field trips. Ethnobotanical data was arranged alphabetically by family name followed by botanical name, vernacular name, part used, folk use, and recipe. Correct identification was made with the help of taxonomist and voucher specimens deposited at the University of Nairobi Herbarium.Results: Twenty six (26 herbalists between the ages 20-69 years (10 men and 16 women were purposively selected and interviewed. The present investigation reported medicinal information for 33 species, belonging to 21 plant families. The most represented plant family was Asteraceae followed by Oleaceae and Rhamnaceae. 36 % of the species were used to manage stomach ache and stomach related ailments while 30% of the plant species were used to treat malaria.Conclusion: This survey showed that although people in study area have access to modern medical facility Losho Dispensary but a lot of them still continue to depend on medicinal plants for the treatment of healthcare problems. The present paper represents significant ethnobotanical information on medical plants which provides baseline data for future pharmacological and phytochemical studies.

  17. Relative importance of indigenous medicinal plants from Layyah district, Punjab Province, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nadeem; Mahmood, Aqeel; Mahmood, Adeel; Tahir, S S; Bano, Asghari; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Hassan, Seema; Ishtiaq, Muhammad

    2014-08-08

    Ethnomedicinal reports are important for the discovery of new crude drugs from reported medicinal plants with high use value. The current study aimed to document the medicinal flora as well as medicinal knowledge of indigenous plants of local communities from Layyah district, Punjab Province, Pakistan. Rapid appraisal approach (RAA), semi-structured interviews, group meetings with herbalists, landowners and local people having awareness about the medicinal action of plants were employed to collect the data. Use values (UV) and frequency of citation (FC) were calculated to check the relative importance of plants. The current ethnomedicinal study reported 125 medicinal plant species diversified from 106 genus belonging to the 43 different families and Poaceae was the predominant family over others with 16 reported medicinal plants. Wild herbaceous plants were the predominant over other life forms while among plant parts, leaves contributed 32% followed by the stem (27%), fruit and flowers (15%). Allium sativum exhibited the highest use vale (UV) 0.92 while the lowest UV was exhibited by Lasiurus scindicus which was 0.15. Local communities of district Layyah still have a strong faith on herbal medicines for basic healthcare needs. Indigenous plants having high UV and FC should be subjected to the detailed phytochemical investigations to explore new natural drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ethnobotany and trade of medicinal plants in the Qaysari Market, Kurdish Autonomous Region, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mati, Evan; de Boer, Hugo

    2011-01-27

    Marketplaces epitomize a region's culture and trade, and can give a rapid insight into traditions and salience of commercialized medicinal products. The Qaysari bazaar, bordering the citadel in Erbil city in the Kurdistan Autonomous Region, Iraq, has 21 herbalist shops trading natural medicinal products, wild-crafted and cultivated from all over the Middle East and Asia Minor. Freelist surveys were conducted with 18 of these herbalists to determine diversity and salience of traded traditional medicinal plants. Interviews were conducted to document use, trade volume, origin, stock and value of the reported species. Plant species were identified using a combination of morphological identification and molecular barcoding using the ITS region. Vouchers were collected for a total of 158 samples, corresponding to 82 species of plants, 5 animal products, 8 types of stones, minerals or chemicals, as well as 16 mixtures of plant products. Consensus Analysis of the herbalist interviews shows strong support for a single culture of herbalist plant use. Most reported plant species are known to have been used since antiquity, and uses are identical or similar to previously documented uses. Herbalists report a steady year-on-year increase in trade due to the economic stability in recent times. A majority (64%) of medicinal plants is imported from outside Iraq, and the data shows that imported plants trade at a higher price than locally-sourced species, and that these species are stocked in higher volumes by the herbalists to ensure a steady supply to consumers. A strong tradition of herbal medicine exists in Kurdistan today exemplified by the diverse and vigorous trade in medicinal plants commercialized from the provinces around Erbil to countries as far away as India, Spain and Libya. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ethnopharmacology of medicinal plants of carrasco, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Renata Kelly Dias; da Silva, Maria Arlene Pessoa; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; Ribeiro, Daiany Alves; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Souza, Marta Maria de Almeida

    2014-11-18

    The goal of this study was to conduct an ethnobotanical survey of medicinal species from the carrasco vegetation of the Araripe National Forest, state of Ceará, Brazil, as well as determining species with bioprospecting potential The ethnobotanical data were collected through semi-structured interviews and a free list. The relative importance of the plants cited was assessed, as well as species that stood out with respect to bodily systems, on the basis of informant consensus. A total of 32 species belonging to 29 genera and 20 families were recorded. Of this total, six species (19%) showed great versatility regarding their uses in regard to up to seven bodily systems. The therapeutic indications were grouped into 14 categories of bodily systems. Circulatory and genitourinary disorders, endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases, and undefined pain or disease showed the greatest consensus between informants. Ximenia americana, Himathantus drasticus, Stryphnodndron rotundifolium, Bowdichia virgilioides, and Hymenaea courbaril were the species warranting more in-depth study, on the basis of versatility and informant consensus on the uses of the species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ecological status of high altitude medicinal plants and their sustainability: Lingshi, Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakey; Dorji, Kinley

    2016-10-11

    Human beings use plants for a multitude of purposes of which a prominent one across the globe is for their medicinal values. Medicinal plants serve as one of the major sources of income for high altitude inhabitants in the Himalaya, particularly in countries like Nepal, and Bhutan. People here harvest huge volumes of medicinal plants indiscriminately, risking their sustainability. This paper attempts to identify some of the priority medicinal plant species harvested in the wild and assess their ecological status for their judicious utilization, and to help provide policy guidance for possible domestication and support strategic conservation frameworks. Out of the 16 priority species identified by the expert group, collectors' perception on ecological status of the priority species differed from survey findings. Chrysosplenium nudicaule (clumps) ranked as most threatened species followed by Corydalis dubia, and Meconopsis simplicifolia. Onosma hookeri, Corydalis crispa and Delphinium glaciale were some of the species ranked as threatened species followed by Halenia elliptica (not in priority list). Percent relative abundance showed irregular pattern of species distribution. High species evenness was recorded among Nardostachys grandiflora, Chrysosplenium nudicaule, Saussurea gossypiphora and Aconitum orochryseum with average species density of 8 plant m -2 . Rhodiola crenulata, and Dactylorhiza hatagirea followed by Meconopsis horridula and Meconopsis simplicifolia were ranked as most threatened species with average species density of 0.4, 0.4, 5.6 and 6.0 plant m -2 , respectively. The most abundant (common) species was Onosma hookeri (plant m -2 ). Species composition and density also differed with vegetation, altitude, slope and its aspects. Priority species identified by expert group were found vulnerable and patchy in distribution. Survey results and collectors' perceptions tally to an extent. Some of the species (Dactylorhiza hatagirea, Rhodiola crenulata

  1. Determination of heavy metals in medicinal plants from the wild and cultivated garden in Wilberforce Island, Niger Delta region, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edebi N. Vaikosen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: Adverse effects from herbal medicines may be partly due to the association of heavy metals with medicinal plants. Aims: To determine residual levels of Ni, Cr, Pb and Cd in nine selected medicinal plant species and the surrounding soils collected from the Faculty of Pharmacy medicinal garden and College of Health Sciences residential quarters, Amassoma, Bayelsa state, Nigeria. Methods: Nine plant species: Jatropha tanjorensis, Ipomoea batatas, Celosia argentea, Zea mays, Colocasia esculenta, Corchorus olitorius, Vernonia amygdalina, Ocimum gratissimum and Talinum triangulare were collected with their surrounding soil samples. The samples were dried and subjected to atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS to determine the heavy metal concentrations. Results: The detection frequencies of heavy metals in medicinal plants were: Cd – 100%, Pb – 11%, Ni – 0% and Cr – 0%. The residential quarter was more contaminated than cultivated medicinal garden. Order of residual concentration in bulk soils was Cr > Cd > Ni > Pb. Bioaccumulation factor ranged from 0 – 25.93 for foliar tissues. Cadmium in plant species ranged from 0.23 to 2.44 µg/g with > 88% exceeding the WHO maximum limit for medicinal plant materials. Conclusions: The heavy metal concentrations in medicinal plants were dependent on the collection sites, plant species and physico-chemical properties of soil. Cd exhibited the greatest bioavailability in the investigated plants and soils. Cd and Pb found in plant foliage were due to uptake from soil and aerial deposition, respectively.

  2. Speciation of Chromium and Vanadium in Medicinal Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, Cr(VI) and V(V) were determined in medicinal plants collected from the farm located between two smelters. Chromium(VI) and vanadium(V) were leached from medicinal plants with 0.1 M Na2CO3 prior their determination by ETAAS. The concentration of Cr(VI) in medicinal plants varied between 3.1 ± 0.5 μg ...

  3. Ethnopharmacology of Medicinal Plants in the Southwest of Mond Mountain

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Background:Ethnopharmacology has been seen as a multidisciplinary approach for novel drug discovery by providing valuable data about medicinal plants in different cultures. The aim of this ethnopharmacological study was to identify medicinal plants in the Southwest of Mond Mountain in the North of Persian Gulf. MaterialsandMethods:The medical uses of medicinal plants were gathered from 20 local informants by face to face interviews. The relative frequency of citation (FRC) and cultural imp...

  4. Speciation of Chromium and Vanadium in Medicinal Plants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICOLAAS

    In this study, Cr(VI) and V(V) were determined in medicinal plants collected from the farm located between two smelters. Chromium(VI) and vanadium(V) were leached from medicinal plants with 0.1 M Na2CO3 prior their determination by ETAAS. The concentration of Cr(VI) in medicinal plants varied between 3.1 ± 0.5 µg ...

  5. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Wayu Tuka District, East Welega Zone of Oromia Regional State, West Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper reports an ethnobotanical study that focused on the traditional medicinal plants used by local communities to treat human and livestock ailments. A cross-sectional study was undertaken from September 2009 to June 2010 in Wayu Tuka District of Oromia Region, Ethiopia. The aim of the study is to document medicinal plants used by local people of the study area and the threats currently affecting medicinal plants. Methods Ethnobotanical data were collected using semi-structured interviews, field observations and group discussion in which 63 (41 men & 22 women) randomly selected informants participated. Of which, 11 (10 male and 1 female) were local healers. Paired comparison method, direct matrix ranking and Informant consensus factors (ICF) were used to analyze the importance of some plant species. Results A total of 126 medicinal plant species, distributed in 108 genera and 56 families, were collected together with their medicinal uses. Of the 126 species of medicinal plants collected from the study area, eighty six (68%) were obtained from the wild whereas thirty three (26%) were from homegardens. The Fabaceae came out as a leading family with 15 medicinal species while the Solanaceae followed with eight species. Seventy eight (62%) of the medicinal plants were reported as being used for treating human ailments, 23 (18.2%) for the treatment of livestock ailments and 25 (20%) for both. The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (43%), followed by roots (18.5%) while crushing, which accounted for (29%) and powdering (28%) were the widely used methods of preparation of traditional herbal medicines. Conclusion The number of reported medicinal plants and their uses by the local people of the District indicate the depth of the local indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants and their application. The documented medicinal plants can serve as a basis for future investigation of modern drug. PMID:24295044

  6. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants in the Thar Desert (Sindh) of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Ghulam; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Sultana, Shazia; Suleiman Alharrasi, Ahmed; Hussain, Javid; Zafar, Muhammad; Shafiq-Ur-Rehman

    2015-04-02

    The traditional use of medicinal plants in health-care practices among the rural communities provides the basis for natural drug discovery development. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first quantitative ethnobotanical investigation on the use of medicinal plants in the Thar Desert (Sindh) of Pakistan. In total, 530 local informants and traditional healers were interviewed, using semistructured interviews. Various quantitative indices such as relative frequency of citation (RFC), use value (UV), informant consensus factor (ICF), fidelity level (FL), relative importance (RI), and the Jaccard Index (JI) were applied to the documented data. The traditional medical uses of 87 plant species belonging to 32 families were reported on. Amaranthaceae was the most-frequently cited (nine species), followed by Cucurbitaceae and Euphorbiaceae (six species each). The most dominant life form was herbs (73.56%). The most-used plant parts were leaves, with 65 reports (28.88%), followed by seeds (16%). The common mode of preparation reported was powder (25.75%), with 74% herbal medicines obtained from fresh plant materials. The ethnobotanical result documented in this study provides practical evidence about the use of medicinal plants among the inhabitants of the Thar Desert. Further, the findings revealed that the medicinal plants of the area are a major source of herbal drugs for primary health care used among the rural communities. This survey can be used as baseline information for further scientific investigation to develop new plant-based commercial drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ethnopharmacological study of medicinal plants used in Rosário da Limeira, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helaine B. de Oliveira

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the popular knowledge on the use of medicinal plants and the contribution in the preservation of medicinal flora, the present work aims to rescue and organize such knowledge on medicinal species and its relation with therapeutic uses, in the city of Rosario de Limeira, MG. Data were collected January to March, 2007. Fifteen informants, all resident in urban and agricultural communities, were asked about their knowledge on medicinal plants. The current survey revealed the use of 66 species belonging to 33 families (Asteraceae with the major number of species, followed by Lamiaceae, Rutaceae, and Bignoniaceae used in the treatment of various diseases. 44,3% of them grow spontaneously and 55,7% are cultivated. The main vegetal part used in the preparation of the phytotherapy was the leaf, and the most common preparation was the infusion. The most used species were: Baccharis trimera, Mentha sp., Plantago major, Chenopodium ambrosioides and Symphytum officinale.

  8. Diversity and characterization of bioactive compounds of endophytic bacteria from medicinal plants

    OpenAIRE

    Akinsanya, Mushafau Adewale

    2017-01-01

    Endophytes are believed to produce a number of beneficial bioactive compounds of pharmacological importance. The aims of this study are to evaluate the diversity and characterize the bioactive compounds of bacterial endophytes from selected local medicinal plants. Eighty-seven species of endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface sterilized tissues of six local medicinal plants of which 29 were isolated from Aloe vera, 15 from Mentha spicata, eight from Ocimum basilicum, 16 from Cymbopogo...

  9. Phytochemical and Biosynthetic Studies of Lignans, with a Focus on Indonesian Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Elfahmi, [No Value

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis phytochemical and biosynthetic studies of lignans are described. The focus is on the Indonesian medicinal plants Phyllanthus niruri and Piper cubeba and on two Linum species, Linum flavum and L. leonii, native to European countries. Both Indonesian plants are used in jamu. Jamu is the Indonesian traditional herbal medicine, practised for many centuries in the Indonesian community to maintain good health and to treat diseases. The manufacturing of jamu is shifting more and more ...

  10. The medicinal properties and phytochemistry of plants of the genus Terminalia (Combretaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cock, I E

    2015-10-01

    Plants of the genus Terminalia are amongst the most widely used plants for traditional medicinal purposes worldwide. Many species are used for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antiviral, antidiarrhoeal, analgesic, antimalarial, antioxidant, antiinflammatory and anticancer activities. Wound healing and cardiovascular effects have also been credited to some species. Many Terminalia species have multiple beneficial effects for multiple diseases and ailments. Indeed, the Indian species Terminalia chebula is known as the king of plants in Ayurveda due to its broad range of medicinal uses. However, apart from the reported ethnopharmacological uses of many Terminalia species, surprisingly few studies have rigorously examined this important genus for their medical properties/mechanisms and phytochemistry. This is likely due to the high tannin content common to many Terminalia species and the perception that these tannins may be responsible for much of their beneficial properties. As the complexities of tannins make them poor candidates for drug design, most interest in Terminalia species has been for their pharmacognostic and nutraceutical value and they have often been overlooked as potentials for drug discovery. However, recent reports have identified many other interesting phytochemicals and demonstrated that these may be responsible for several of the reported bioactivities of the Terminalia species used in traditional medicinal systems. The last decade has seen a large increase in the number of studies into the use of Terminalia species as therapeutic agents. Several species used in Ayurvedic medicine (Terminalia arjuna, Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia catappa, T. chebula) in particular have received much recent attention. Similarly, recent reports have also highlighted the medicinal potential of species from Africa, Australia and the Americas. The aim of this report is to summarise the recent research into the medicinal properties, phytochemistry and

  11. Chemical constituents of selected Sudanese medicinal and aromatic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burham, B.O.

    2007-11-01

    Sudanese medicinal and aromatic plants (Alternanthra repens, Ambrosia maritima, Citrus paradisi, Croton zambesicus, Lepidium sativum, Morettia phillaena, Nauclea latifolia, Plectranthus barbatus, Pluchea dioscorides, and Sphaeranthus suaveolens) were analyzed for their chemical composition, mineral contents and secondary constituents. The concentration of manganese, copper, iron, nickel, lead, zinc and potassium in plant samples was performed using x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The trace elements found in the smallest amount of the investigated plant species are lead, nickel and copper, while high concentration was detected for potassium, iron and manganese. Mn was accumulated with high level in Alternanthra repens species. Potassium was abundant in S. suaveolens and Ambrosia maritima. The values of concentration obtained for all studied elements were compared with published values of reference material, trace elements in Hay (powder) by International Atomic Energy Agency. Phyto chemical analysis of investigated plants was performed for constituents: Flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, amino acids and sugars. The methanolic extracts of P.barbatus, C.paradisi, A.repens, N.latifolia, L. sativum and C. zambesicus are found to contain alkaloids. Results of TLC analysis were shown as R f values for saponins, bitter principles, essential oils, flavonoids and alkaloids. Quantification of flavonoids and tannins showed that flavonoid content was highest in case of Alternanthera repens and Sphaeranthus suavertens, whereas the highest tannin content was in case of Nauclea latifolia and Sphaearanthus suavertens. The results suggest that the user of traditional Sudanese crude drugs should be warned of potential danger of heavy metal poisoning because their concentrations seem to be higher than maximum values allowed by health agencies in several countries. This study has provided some biochemical basis for the ethno medical use of extracts from different candidate

  12. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konning, G H; Agyare, C; Ennison, B

    2004-01-01

    The results of a preliminary antimicrobial screening of the methanol extracts of Aframomum melegueta, Piper guineense, Xylopia aethiopica, Zingiber officinale, medicinal plants of Ghana, are reported.

  13. Ethnoveterinary health management practices using medicinal plants in South Asia - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suroowan, Shanoo; Javeed, Faisal; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad; Noor, Mehwish Jamil; Kayani, Sadaf; Javed, Ali; Mahomoodally, Mohamad Fawzi

    2017-06-01

    Animal rearing is the major occupation of most population of South Asian countries. Due to lack of resources and limited approach to modern medicine, most of the livestock raisers prefer to use plant-based traditional medicine also referred to as ethnoveterinary medicine (EVM). Indeed, the use of medicinal plants in South Asia dates back to several centuries with documented evidences. However, there is currently a dearth of documentation and compilation of use of medicinal plants for animal diseases in this part of the world. This review aims to provide an up-to-date compilation of common medicinal plants used for the treatment and/or management of common animal diseases in South Asian countries. Extensive literature search was conducted online and relevant data was retrieved from well-known scientific databases. A total of 276 plants belonging to 95 families have been documented to be in common use for managing 14 different categories of animal diseases. Solanaceae, Lamiaceae, Fabaceae, and Leguminosae were most common plant families in terms of their plant species used for EVM. Gastric diseases were commonly reported and accounted for 72 species of plants used for its treatment followed by the miscellaneous disorders category and skin diseases comprising of 65 and 39 plant species respectively. Herbs accounted for 46% of the total plant species, followed by trees (33%), and shrubs (18%). The EVM were applied through different routes of administration; oral administration accounted for 72% followed by topical application 27%, while burning of plant parts to create smoke around animals to repel insects was less common (1%). It is anticipated that the present review will stimulate further ethnoveterinary research among livestock disease management practices in South Asia.

  14. Ethnobotany of Montseny biosphere reserve (Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula): plants used in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, M Angels; Vallès, Joan

    2007-03-01

    The present paper deals with plants used in veterinary medicine in Montseny. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out in the Montseny massif, which is situated in north-east Catalonia (Iberian Peninsula), covers 826 km(2) and has a population of 80,000. The information was obtained through 120 ethnobotanical interviews to 180 informants. Out of 584 species reported, 351 are claimed to be used in the health field (human and veterinary medicine), 280 in human and animal food and 236 have another kind of popular use. Medicinal species represent around 16.5% of Montseny's vascular flora. In a previous paper we addressed plant use in human medicine, and the present paper deals with veterinarian uses. As a reflection of the importance of rural life in the region, at least until recent times, a substantial number of medicinal plants (89 species, representing 6% of the flora of the territory and 6.4% of all medicinal use-reports in the region) is used in veterinary medicine. These remedies are mostly for cows, calves, sheep, pigs and horses, and secondarily, to poultry, rabbits and dogs. The main ailments treated are postnatal problems, intestinal troubles, wounds and dermatological problems. In many cases, the use of these remedies in veterinary medicine is fully consistent with their use in human medicine.

  15. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Mexican medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobo-Salcedo, Maria del Rosario; Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Salazar-Olivo, Luis A; Carranza-Alvarez, Candy; González-Espíndola, Luis Angel; Domínguez, Fabiola; Maciel-Torres, Sandra Patricia; García-Lujan, Concepción; González-Martínez, Marisela del Rocio; Gómez-Sánchez, Maricela; Estrada-Castillón, Eduardo; Zapata-Bustos, Rocio; Medellin-Milán, Pedro; García-Carrancá, Alejandro

    2011-12-01

    The antimicrobial effects of the Mexican medicinal plants Guazuma ulmifolia, Justicia spicigera, Opuntia joconostle, O. leucotricha, Parkinsonia aculeata, Phoradendron longifolium, P. serotinum, Psittacanthus calyculatus, Tecoma stans and Teucrium cubense were tested against several human multi-drug resistant pathogens, including three Gram (+) and five Gram (-) bacterial species and three fungal species using the disk-diffusion assay. The cytotoxicity of plant extracts on human cancer cell lines and human normal non-cancerous cells was also evaluated using the MTT assay. Phoradendron longifolium, Teucrium cubense, Opuntia joconostle, Tecoma stans and Guazuma ulmifolia showed potent antimicrobial effects against at least one multidrug-resistant microorganism (inhibition zone > 15 mm). Only Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum extracts exerted active cytotoxic effects on human breast cancer cells (IC50 < or = 30 microg/mL). The results showed that Guazuma ulmifolia produced potent antimicrobial effects against Candida albicans and Acinetobacter lwoffii, whereas Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum exerted the highest toxic effects on MCF-7 and HeLa, respectively, which are human cancer cell lines. These three plant species may be important sources of antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents.

  16. Antifungal potential of Indian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabur, Rajesh; Singh, H; Chhillar, A K; Ali, M; Sharma, G L

    2004-06-01

    Fourteen Indian plants, selected based on their use in respiratory and other disorders in traditional systems of medicine, were analyzed for their potential activity against fungi. The antifungal activity was investigated by disc diffusion, microbroth dilution and percent spore germination inhibition tests against pathogenic Aspergilli. Methanolic extracts of Solanum xanthocarpum and Datura metel inhibited the growth of Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus and A. niger and their in vitro MICs were found to be 1.25-2.50 mg/ml by both microbroth dilution and percent spore germination assays. In disc diffusion assay, a concentration of 0.062 mg/disc of methanol extract of D. metel showed significant activity against Aspergilli. S. xanthocarpum exhibited similar activity at 0.125 mg/disc. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Can dispersal investment explain why tall plant species achieve longer dispersal distances than short plant species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Fiona J; Letten, Andrew D; Tamme, Riin; Edwards, Will; Moles, Angela T

    2018-01-01

    Tall plant species disperse further distances than do short species, within and across dispersal syndromes, yet the driver underpinning this relationship is unclear. The ability of taller plants to invest more in dispersal structures may explain the positive relationship between plant height and dispersal distance. Here, we quantify the cross-species relationships between presence of dispersal structures, dispersal investment plant height and dispersal distance. Plant height, dispersal syndrome and dispersal investment data were collated for 1613 species from the literature, with dispersal distance data collated for 114 species. We find that species with high dispersal investment disperse further than do species with low dispersal investment. Tall species have a greater probability of having dispersal structures on their seeds compared with short species. For species with dispersal structures on their seeds, plant height is very weakly related to dispersal investment. Our results provide the first global confirmation of the dispersal investment-distance hypothesis, and show dispersal investment can be used for predicting species dispersal distances. However, our results and those of previous studies indicate plant height is still the best proxy for estimating species dispersal distances due to it being such a readily available plant trait. © 2017 Landcare Research. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species.

  19. A review of medicinal plants used by the Basotho for treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electronic databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, and ScienceDirect were also used to obtain information on the antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, and phytochemical activities of the medicinal plants. Results and discussion: 57 plant species are utilised for the treatment of various skin ailments with a majority of them ...

  20. Phytochemical and Biosynthetic Studies of Lignans, with a Focus on Indonesian Medicinal Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elfahmi, [No Value

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis phytochemical and biosynthetic studies of lignans are described. The focus is on the Indonesian medicinal plants Phyllanthus niruri and Piper cubeba and on two Linum species, Linum flavum and L. leonii, native to European countries. Both Indonesian plants are used in jamu. Jamu is the

  1. Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, E. Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A.; Saliba, N.; Talhouk, S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25204756

  2. Evaluation of biological activities and chemical constituent of storage medicinal plant materials used as a traditional medicine in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishnu Prasad Pandey

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The main aims of the study were to evaluate the phytochemicals, antioxidant, antibacterial and chemical constituents of storage medicinal plant materials used as a traditional medicine in Nepal. Methods: Phytochemical screening, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, antibacterial activities, anti-oxidant assay of the crude extract (water, methanol, n-hexane and acetone were carried out to identify the biological activities and phytonutrients present in the different extract. The chemical constituents present in the crude extract were analyzed using the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC equipped with UV detector. Results: Evaluated medicinal plant materials were found to have diverse phytonutrients. Results revealed that methanol extract of Pakhanved and Jethimadhu have highest total flavonoids and polyphenol content. Among the selected medicinal plant materials Jethimadhu extract revealed the highest antioxidant activities. Furthermore, evaluated medicinal plants extract were found to exert a range of in vitro growth inhibition activity against both gram positive and gram negative species. The highest antibacterial activities were observed in the case of methanol extract, whereas, least activity was observed with the hexane extract. HPLC analysis of the acetone extract of Jethimadhu reveals the presence of diosmetin. Conclusions: Our result revealed that among the five evaluated medicinal plant materials, Jethimadhu extract revealed biological activities and exhibits a higher amount of polyphenol and flavonoid content. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(4.000: 369-377

  3. Antibacterial, Antifungal and antioxidant activities of some medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazir, Asma; Mehjabeen, -; Jahan, Noor; Sherwani, Sikander Khan; Ahmad, Mansoor

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of medicinal plants. The antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts of three medicinal plants (Swertia chirata, Terminalia bellerica and Zanthoxylum armatum) were tested against Gentamicin (standard drug) on eleven gram positive and seventeen gram negative bacteria by agar well method. It was revealed that seven-gram negative and six gram positive bacterial species were inhibited by these plant extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the extracts were determined by broth micro-dilution method. The significant MIC value of Swertia chirata was 20mg/ml against Serratia marcesens, Zanthoxylum armatum was 10 mg/ml against Aeromonas hydrophila and Terminali bellerica was 20mg/ml against Acinetobacter baumanii as well as Serratia marcesens. Antifungal screening was done for methanolic extracts of these plants by agar well method with the 6 saprophytic, 5 dermatophytic and 6 yeasts. In this case Griseofulvin was used as a standard. All saprophytes and dermatophytes were showed resistance by these plants extracts except Microsporum canis, which was inhibited by Z. armatum and S. chirata extracts. The significant MIC value of Zanthoxylum armatum was 10mg/ml against Microsporum canis and Swertia chirata was 10mg/ml against Candida tropicalis. The anti-oxidant study was performed by DPPH free radical scavenging assay using ascorbic acid as a reference standard. Significant antioxidant activities were observed by Swertia chirata and Zanthoxylum armatum at concentration 200μg/ml was 70% DPPH scavenging activity (EC50=937.5μg/ml) while Terminalia bellerica showed 55.6% DPPH scavenging activity (EC50=100μg/ml). This study has shown that these plants could provide potent antibacterial compounds and may possible preventive agents in ROS related ailments.

  4. Antibacterial activity of eight medicinal plants against Diarrhoea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The studies involve the phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of leaf extracts eight medicinal plants. The selected plants were Timarindus indica, Guiera senegalensis, Prosopis africana, Deterium microcarpum, Citrus aurantifolia, Psidium guajava, Acacia nilotica and Momordica charantia. Methanolics and ...

  5. Effects of tannins and polyphenols of some medicinal plants on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five medicinal plants, Enantia chloranthia, Kigelia africana, Bridelia ferruginea, Trema nitems and Drypetes gossweilerri were screened for phytochemical components. The plants were found to contain tannins, phlobatannins, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, anthranoids, anthraquinones, saponins and polyphenols.

  6. Endophytic and rhizospheric bacterial communities isolated from the medicinal plants Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiellini, Carolina; Maida, Isabel; Emiliani, Giovanni; Mengoni, Alessio; Mocali, Stefano; Fabiani, Arturo; Biffi, Sauro; Maggini, Valentina; Gori, Luigi; Vannacci, Alfredo; Gallo, Eugenia; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fani, Renato

    2014-09-01

    In this work we analyzed the composition and structure of cultivable bacterial communities isolated from the stem/leaf and root compartments of two medicinal plants, Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench and Echinacea angustifolia (DC.) Hell, grown in the same soil, as well as the bacterial community from their rhizospheric soils. Molecular PCR-based techniques were applied to cultivable bacteria isolated from the three compartments of the two plants. The results showed that the two plants and their respective compartments were characterized by different communities, indicating a low degree of strain sharing and a strong selective pressure within plant tissues. Pseudomonas was the most highly represented genus, together with Actinobacteria and Bacillus spp. The presence of distinct bacterial communities in different plant species and among compartments of the same plant species could account for the differences in the medicinal properties of the two plants. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  7. The myth of plant species saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Barnett, David T.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Flather, Curtis; Kartesz, John

    2008-01-01

    Plant species assemblages, communities or regional floras might be termed ‘saturated’ when additional immigrant species are unsuccessful at establishing due to competitive exclusion or other inter-specific interactions, or when the immigration of species is off-set by extirpation of species. This is clearly not the case for state, regional or national floras in the USA where colonization (i.e. invasion by exotic species) exceeds extirpation by roughly a 24 to 1 margin. We report an alarming temporal trend in plant invasions in the Pacific Northwest over the past 100 years whereby counties highest in native species richness appear increasingly invaded over time. Despite the possibility of some increased awareness and reporting of native and exotic plant species in recent decades, historical records show a significant, consistent long-term increase in exotic species (number and frequency) at county, state and regional scales in the Pacific Northwest. Here, as in other regions of the country, colonization rates by exotic species are high and extirpation rates are negligible. The rates of species accumulation in space in multi-scale vegetation plots may provide some clues to the mechanisms of the invasion process from local to national scales.

  8. Unraveling the medicinal potential of South African Aloe species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoo, Stephen O; Aremu, Adeyemi O; Van Staden, Johannes

    2014-04-11

    Aloe species (family: Xanthorrhoeaceae) are widely used in ethnomedicine for treating various ailments. Approximately 125 Aloe taxa are documented as indigenous to South Africa. This review was aimed at critically evaluating the available data on the ethnomedicinal uses, pharmacological activities, safety and conservation status of the documented South African Aloe species. A detailed search using major electronic search engines (such as Google Scholar, Scopus and Scirus) and ethnobotanical literature was undertaken. Search terms used included 'medicinal properties of Aloe species', 'biological activity of South African Aloe species' and 'safety and toxicological evaluation of aloes'. Although Aloe species are widely used as laxatives and for treating wound and skin-related ailments, only about 20% of South African Aloe species have been clearly documented for their medicinal uses. The pharmacological potential including the antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antiplasmodial and anthelmintic activities of some of the species has been established, providing a rationale for their use in traditional medicine. Successful micropropagation protocols have been developed as a conservation strategy, but only for a few species. The highlighted medicinal activities of some Aloe species indicate their therapeutic potential. Nonetheless, further research especially on the understudied species is required to properly document their ethnomedicinal uses and fully explore their pharmacological value. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Medicinal Plants Used by Traditional Healers in Jordan, the Tafila Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhalim, Abeer; Aburjai, Talal; Hanrahan, Jane; Abdel-Halim, Heba

    2017-01-01

    The reporting of the medicinal plants and their traditional uses is important in order to prevent this knowledge from being lost. The aims of this study were to collect information concerning the traditional use of medicinal plants in the region of Tafila; identify the most important medicinal plants; determine the relative importance of the species surveyed; and calculate the informant consensus factor ( F ic ) in relation to medicinal plant use. Data on the traditional medicinal uses of local plants were collected using qualitative tools. The informant consensus factor ( F ic ) for the category of aliments and the use value (UV) of the plant species were calculated. The survey revealed that 41 plant species are still in use in Tafila for the treatments of various diseases. Problems of the digestive system had the highest F ic values, while Allium cepa L. and Matricaria aurea (Loefl.) Sch. Bip. scored the highest UV. The medicinal plants used by local people of the Tafila area of Jordan their traditional uses were investigated. forty one plant species are still in use in Tafila for the traditional treatment of various diseases. The preservation of this knowledge is important not only for maintaining cultural and traditional resources but also as a resource for the future identification of leads for drug development. The use of Fic and the UV to identify plant species that are consistently used in the treatment of specific ailments assists in narrowing down the search for new effective plant-derived medicines and in validating the use of traditional medicines. Data on the traditional medicinal uses of local plants was collected using qualitative tools. The informant consensus factor (Fic) for category of aliments and the use value (UV) of the plant species were calculated. in the Tafila region, the Fic values are relatively low, indicating a low level of shared knowledge and that a number of different species are used to treat similar disorders. This may be a

  10. Cytotoxic potential of selected medicinal plants in northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Thiago B C; Costa, Cinara O D'Sousa; Galvão, Alexandre F C; Bomfim, Larissa M; Rodrigues, Ana Carolina B da C; Mota, Mauricio C S; Dantas, Alex A; Dos Santos, Tiago R; Soares, Milena B P; Bezerra, Daniel P

    2016-07-08

    Great biodiversity is a highlight of Brazilian flora. In contrast, the therapeutic potentialities of most species used in folk medicine remain unknown. Several of these species are commonly used to treat cancer. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic activity of 18 plants from 16 families that are found in the northeast region of Brazil. The following species were studied: Byrsonima sericea DC. (Malpighiaceae), Cupania impressinervia Acev. Rodr. var. (revoluta) Radlk (Sapindaceae), Duranta repens Linn. (Verbenaceae), Helicostylis tomentosa (Poepp. & Endl) Rusby (Moraceae), Himatanthus bracteatus (A.DC.) Woodson (Apocynaceae), Ipomoea purga (Wender.) Hayne (Convolvulaceae), Ixora coccinea Linn. (Rubiaceae), Mabea piriri Aubl. (Euphorbiaceae), Miconia minutiflora (Melastomataceae), Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae), Ocotea glomerata (Nees) Mez (Lauraceae), Ocotea longifolia Kunth (Oreodaphne opifera Mart. Nees) (Lauraceae), Pavonia fruticosa (Mill.) Fawc. & Rendle (Malvaceae), Psychotria capitata Ruiz & Pav. (Rubiaceae), Schefflera morototoni (Aubl.) Maguire, Steyerm. & Frodin (Araliaceae), Solanum paludosum Moric. (Solanaceae), Xylopia frutescens Aubl. (Annonaceae) and Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae). Their dried leaves, stems, flowers or fruits were submitted to different solvent extractions, resulting in 55 extracts. After incubating for 72 h, the cytotoxicity of each extract was tested against tumor cell lines using the alamar blue assay. The B. sericea, D. repens, H. bracteatus, I. purga, I. coccinea, M. piriri, O. longifolia and P. capitata extracts demonstrated the most potent cytotoxic activity. The chloroform soluble fractions of D. repens flowers and the hexane extract of I. coccinea flowers led to the isolation of quercetin and a mixture of α- and β-amyrin, respectively, and quercetin showed moderate cytotoxic activity. The B. sericea, D. repens, H. bracteatus, I. purga, I. coccinea, M. piriri, O. longifolia and P. capitata plants were

  11. PLANTS WITH ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITIES AND THEIR MEDICINAL VALUES

    OpenAIRE

    B. V. Raman; A. Naga Vamsi Krishna; B. Narasimha Rao; M. Pardha Saradhi; M. V. Basaveswara Rao

    2012-01-01

    The anti-diabetic drugs from plants in current clinical use and their similar mechanism of action of herbal components are preferred mainly due to lesser side effects and low cost. So many medicinal plants with anti-diabetic activity related beneficial effects and of herbal drugs used in diabetes is pressurized. The present review focused on the some of the herbal plants and their medicinal uses have shown experimental or clinical anti-diabetic activity. The essential values of some plants ha...

  12. Survey on medicinal plants and spices used in Beni-Sueif, Upper Egypt

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    Mohamed Abdelhalim A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to identify medicinal plants and spices used for medicine by the community of Beni-Sueif, Upper Egypt. Methods Ethnobotanical data from local people was collected using direct interviews and a semi-structured questionnaire. Results Forty-eight plant species belonging to twenty-seven families and forty-seven genera were encountered during the study. Their botanical and vernacular names, plant parts used and medicinal uses are given. Results of the study were analyzed using two quantitative tools. The factor informant consensus indicated the agreement in the use of plants and the fidelity level indicated the ratio between the number of informants who independently suggested the use of a species for the same major purpose and the total number of informants who mentioned the plant for any use. The results of the factor informant consensus showed that the cardiovascular category has the greatest agreement, followed by the immunological, gastrointestinal and respiratory categories. The most important species according to their fidelity are: Hibiscus sabdariffa L. for the cardiovascular category; Trigonella foenum-graecum L. for the immunological category; Mentha piperita L. for the gastrointestinal category and Pimpinella anisum L. for the respiratory category. Conclusions Medicinal plants are still used for treatment in Beni-Sueif community despite the availability of prescribed medications. Documentation of this ethnomedicinal knowledge is important. Evaluation of pharmacological activity for the promising medicinal plants is suggested.

  13. Medicinal Plants Used by Traditional Healers in Sangurur, Elgeyo Marakwet County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigen, Gabriel; Kipkore, Wilson; Wanjohi, Bernard; Haruki, Boniface; Kemboi, Jemutai

    2017-01-01

    Although herbal medical products are still widely used in Kenya, many of the medicinal plants used by traditional medical practitioners (TMPs) have not been documented, despite several challenges that are now threatening the sustainability of the practice. To document the medicinal plants and healing methods used by TMPs in a region of Kenya with several recognized herbalists for potential research. Semi-structured interviews, group discussions, and direct observations were used to collect ethnopharmacological information. The participant's bio-data, clinical conditions treated, methods of treatment, medicinal plants used, methods of preparation and administration, and dosage forms were recorded. A total of 99 medicinal plants and 12 complementary preparations employed in the treatment of 64 medical conditions were identified. The most widely used plant was Rotala tenella which was used to treat nine medicinal conditions; seven each for Aloe tweediae and Dovyalis abyssinica ; and six each for Basella alba and Euclea divinorum . The plants belonged to 55 families with Fabaceae family being the most frequently used (10), followed by Apocynaceae and Solanaceae, each with six species, respectively. We identified plants used to determine the sex of an unborn baby and those used to treat several conditions including anthrax and cerebral malaria and herbs used to detoxify meat from an animal that has died from anthrax. Of special interest was R. tenella which is used to prevent muscle injury. We have documented several plants with potential therapeutic effects. Further research may be conducted to determine their efficacy. The medicinal plants used by traditional healers in a community which still practices herbal medicine in Kenya were documented. A total of 99 medicinal plants and 12 complementary preparations employed in the treatment of 64 medical conditions were identified. Further research may be carried out in order to determine their therapeutic efficacies

  14. Medicinal plants used for hypertension treatment by folk healers in Songkhla province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neamsuvan, Oratai; Komonhiran, Panadda; Boonming, Kamonvadee

    2018-03-25

    Hypertension is the most dominant risk factor for the development of cardiovascular, kidney, and eye diseases. In Thailand, illness and hospitalisation in the modern public health system due to high blood pressure is increasing. However, some Thai people have turned their attention to the use of herbal medicines for healthcare. Therefore, this study aimed (1) to study the folk knowledge of hypertension treatment and (2) to study plant utilisation in the treatment of high blood pressure by Songkhla folk healers. Field surveys and semi-structured interviews about theories of disease, principles of healing, and herbal usage (plant species, parts used, preparation, and application methods) were gathered. The data were analysed by descriptive statistics. The literatures regarding medicinal plants used in any traditional medicine, antihypertension activity, and toxicity was reviewed. Most healers believed that hypertension was caused by the disorder of fire and wind elements in the body. The medicinal plants containing hot and mild tastes, which had the potential for treating problems in the wind element, were applied. A total of 62 species were used for hypertension treatment. Most plants were in the Asteraceae, Piperaceae, Rutaceae, or Zingiberaceae family (4 species each). Herbal medicines were preferred to be prepared by boiling (78%) and consumed by drinking 1 teacup before 3 meals each day (26%). Piper retrofractum and Cleome viscosa had the greatest Frequency of Citation (FC = 6, n = 14). Thirty-seven species have been reported for use in traditional medicine. Twenty-four and 46 species have already been investigated for antihypertension activity and toxicity, respectively. Identifying medicinal plants that have been tested by experienced folk doctors would provide an opportunity for people to choose and consume local herbs that are easy to access in their local area. However, the remaining plants that have not been studied for antihypertension activity and

  15. A review on the elemental contents of Pakistani medicinal plants: Implications for folk medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad Abdul; Adnan, Muhammad; Begum, Shaheen; Azizullah, Azizullah; Nazir, Ruqia; Iram, Shazia

    2016-07-21

    Substantially, plants produce chemicals such as primary and secondary metabolites, which have significant applications in modern therapy. Indigenous people mostly rely on traditional medicines derived from medicinal plants. These plants have the capacity to absorb a variety of toxic elements. The ingestion of such plants for medicinal purpose can have imperative side effects. Hence, with regard to the toxicological consideration of medicinal plants, an effort has been made to review the elemental contents of ethno medicinally important plants of Pakistan and to highlight the existing gaps in knowledge of the safety and efficacy of traditional herbal medications. Literature related to the elemental contents of ethno medicinal plants was acquired by utilizing electronic databases. We reviewed only macro-elemental and trace elemental contents of 69 medicinal plant taxa, which are traditionally used in Pakistan for the treatment of sundry ailments, including anemia, jaundice, cancer, piles, diarrhea, dysentery, headache, diabetes, asthma, blood purification, sedative and ulcer. A majority of plants showed elemental contents above the permissible levels as recommended by the World health organization (WHO). As an example, the concentrations of Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) were reportedly found higher than the WHO permissible levels in 43 and 42 medicinal plants, respectively. More specifically, the concentrations of Pb (54ppm: Silybum marianum) and Cd (5.25ppm: Artemisia herba-alba) were found highest in the Asteraceae family. The reported medicinal plants contain a higher amount of trace and toxic elements. Intake of these plants as traditional medicines may trigger the accumulation of trace and toxic elements in human bodies, which can cause different types of diseases. Thus, a clear understanding about the nature of toxic substances and factors affecting their concentrations in traditional medicines are essential prerequisites for efficacious herbal therapeutics with

  16. The folk-medicinal plants of Kadişehri (Yozgat – Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed İhsan Han

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains significant ethnobotanical information on folk-medicinal plants and their ethnopharmacological uses in Kadışehri. The aim of the study was mainly to collect and identify the plants used therapeutically by the local people, and to make available information about traditional herbal medicine. It was undertaken during the period 2011–2012 and is based on plants collected during field work. Fifty-six plants used in folk-medicine and belonging to 34 families were identified in this study. Of these, 48 species were wild, and 8 species were cultivated plants. The most common families were Rosaceae (12.5%, Lamiaceae (8.9% and Asteraceae (7.1%; and the most common preparations were decoctions (36.7%. In addition, a cultural importance index (CI and use report (UR were calculated for each species. Based on the CI, the most important plants were Cydonia oblonga (0.77, Ecballium elaterium (0.66, Urtica urens (0.66, Vitis vinifera (0.66, Plantago lanceolata (0.65, Plantago major subsp. major (0.65 and Rosa canina (0.62. We found three species of plant (Astragalus noaeanus, Populus ×canescens and Salvia cyanescens which had never before been reported to have medicinal properties.

  17. Brazilian medicinal plants with corroborated anti-inflammatory activities: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Victor Pena; Arruda, Caroline; Abd El-Salam, Mohamed; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp

    2018-12-01

    Inflammatory disorders are common in modern life, and medicinal plants provide an interesting source for new compounds bearing anti-inflammatory properties. In this regard, Brazilian medicinal plants are considered to be a promising supply of such compounds due to their great biodiversity. To undertake a review on Brazilian medicinal plants with corroborated anti-inflammatory activities by selecting data from the literature reporting the efficacy of plants used in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory, including the mechanisms of action of their extracts and isolated compounds. A search in the literature was undertaken by using the following Web tools: Web of Science, SciFinder, Pub-Med and Science Direct. The terms 'anti-inflammatory' and 'Brazilian medicinal plants' were used as keywords in search engine. Tropicos and Reflora websites were used to verify the origin of the plants, and only the native plants of Brazil were included in this review. The publications reporting the use of well-accepted scientific protocols to corroborate the anti-inflammatory activities of Brazilian medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory potential were considered. We selected 70 Brazilian medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory activity. The plants were grouped according to their anti-inflammatory mechanisms of action. The main mechanisms involved inflammatory mediators, such as interleukins (ILs), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cyclooxygenase (COX) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The collected data on Brazilian medicinal plants, in the form of crude extract and/or isolated compounds, showed significant anti-inflammatory activities involving different mechanisms of action, indicating Brazilian plants as an important source of anti-inflammatory compounds.

  18. Evaluation of some Samoan and Peruvian medicinal plants by prostaglandin biosynthesis and rat ear oedema assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, C A; Noreen, Y; Serrano, G; Cox, P A; Perera, P; Bohlin, L

    1997-06-01

    In our ongoing program to find new anti-inflammatory compounds, 58 extracts from 46 different medicinal plant species, used in treatment of inflammatory disorders-38 plants from the traditional medicine of Western Samoa and eight originating from the indigenous medicine of the Shipibo-Conibo tribe of Peruvian Amazonia-ere evaluated. The ability of all extracts to inhibit cyclooxygenase-1 catalysed prostaglandin biosynthesis in vitro was examined. Of the plant species tested 14 showed moderate to strong inhibition; including 11 Samoan and three Peruvian species. Further, 12 Samoan and all eight Peruvian species were investigated on their inhibitory activity of ethyl phenylpropiolate induced rat ear oedema in vivo. Significant activity was shown by 10 of the Samoan and by all eight Peruvian species. An additional evaluation of the most active species was provided through a compilation of existing literature documenting traditional medicinal uses, pharmacological activity and chemical constituents. Several known cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitors were reported to which the observed pharmacological activity can be attributed at least partly. The combination of chemical and pharmacological literature data and our experimental data may help to explain the anti-inflammatory use of these species in indigenous medicine.

  19. Natural occurrence of mycotoxins in medicinal plants: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashiq, Samina; Hussain, Mubbashir; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-05-01

    Medicinal plants are widely used as home remedies and raw materials for the pharmaceutical industries. Herbal remedies are used in the prevention, treatment and cure of disorders and diseases since ancient times. However, use of medicinal herbs may not meet the requirements of quality, safety and efficacy. During harvesting, handling, storage and distribution, medicinal plants are subjected to contamination by various fungi, which may be responsible for spoilage and production of mycotoxins. The increasing consumption of medicinal plants has made their use a public health problem due to the lack of effective surveillance of the use, efficacy, toxicity and quality of these natural products. The increase in use of medicinal plants may lead to an increase in the intake of mycotoxins therefore contamination of medicinal plants with mycotoxins can contribute to adverse human health problems and therefore represents a special hazard. Numerous natural occurrences of mycotoxins in medicinal plants and traditional herbal medicines have been reported from various countries including Spain, China, Germany, India, Turkey and from Middle East as well. This review discusses the important mycotoxins and their natural occurrences in medicinal plants and their products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prospects and Challenges for Harnessing Opportunities in Medicinal Plants Sector in India

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    Harbir Singh

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the medicinal plants sector can be gauged from the fact that herbal medicines serve the healthcare needs of about 80 per cent of the world's population. India, with approximately eight percent of world's biodiversity including plant genetic diversity with medicinal properties, has the potential of becoming a major global player in market for medicinal plants-based herbal formulations and products. However, prior to establishment of Medicinal Plants Board, there was no nodal agency to look into medicinal plants as an economic 'sector' and different organisations dealt with different aspects of medicinal plants without any clear cut focus and coordination. This lack of co-ordination led to critical research gaps relating to socio-economic and policy aspects of medicinal plants. At the same time, absence of formal marketing linkages and effective buy-back arrangements hindered the development of medicinal plants sector. Developing appropriate varieties for cultivation which could ensure uniform quality and continuous supply of raw material for processing industry would not only meet the industry demand but also halt the degradation of natural resource base. To capitalize on expanding opportunities in the international market, we need to focus on scientific methods of cultivation, harvesting, processing, grading, transport, storage, labeling and marketing practices involved in the entire supply chain for medicinal plants. Policy and institutional issues particularly related to co-ordination among various stake holders are one of the major constraints faced by this sector. Species- specific and socio-economic environment specific research would be helpful for identification of an optimal institutional framework to take care of needs of various stakeholders and also cater to social needs without adverse implications for equity and environment.

  1. Contributions of medicinal plants to the Gross National Happiness and Biodiscovery in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangchuk, Phurpa; Tobgay, Tashi

    2015-06-03

    The medicinal plants and the associated Bhutanese traditional medicine (BTM) are protected by the country's constitution and receive both government support and acceptance by the wider public. More than 1000 medicinal plants are described in the BTM but currently collects only 300 species for daily formulations of BTM. These medicinal plants have been one of the drivers of the 'Gross National Happiness (GNH)' and biodiscovery projects in Bhutan. However, no review covering the systematic evaluations of the contributions of medicinal plants and the BTM to the GNH and biodiscovery exist till date. This paper, therefore addresses this information gap. It is based on the review of the existing traditional and scientific literature, government websites and policy documents. The descriptions and discussions of the paper is straightened, authenticated and enhanced by the data collected through the informal discussions with the BTM practitioners and also through the authors' many years of practical observations of the impact of the medicinal plants programs and the BTM practices in Bhutan. This paper found the following: a) the medicinal plants generates income to the farmers elevating their living standard and the economic status, b) it serves as the bulk ingredients of the BTM facilitating the provision of free traditional health care services to the patients, c) helps the conservation of medicinal plants and their pristine environment through recognition of their spiritual, social and economic values, d) preserves the rich BTM cultural heritage, and e) guides the biodiscovery projects based on their ethnobotanical information. The paper also identified the challenges and research gaps, and recommends appropriate strategies that can help secure the sustainable future of the medicinal plants, the BTM and the biodiscovery projects. The medicinal plants play significant role in the country's biodiscovery projects and the internationally renowned development policy of 'Gross

  2. Studies on detection and analysis of proteases in leaf extract of medicinally important plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnadurai, Gandhi Shree; Krishnan, Sivakumar; Perumal, Palani

    2018-02-01

    The whole plant or the extracts obtained from them have long been used as medicine to treat various human diseases and disorders. Notably, those plants endowed with protease activity have been traditionally used as the agents for treating tumors, digestion disorders, swelling, blood coagulation, fibrinolysis and also for immune-modulation. Proteases occupy a pivotal position in enzyme based industries. Plant proteases have been increasingly exploited for pharmaceutical, food, leather and textile processing industries. Earlier investigations have focused on the occurrence of proteases in medicinally unimportant plants. Therefore it has been aimed to study the occurrence of proteolytic enzymes from medicinally important plants establish any correlation exists between protease activity and medicinal use of individual plants. Crude extract were obtained from the leaves of 80 different medicinal plants. Tris-HCl buffer was used as the extraction buffer and the supernatants obtained were used for determination of total protein and protease activity using spectrophotometric methods. Qualitative screening for the presence of protease was carried out with agar diffusion method by incorporating the substrate. SDS-PAGE was used to analyse the isoforms of protease and for determination of relative molecular mass. Relatively higher protease activities were observed in the extracts of leaves of Pongamia pinnata (Fabaceae), Wrightia tinctoria (Apocyanaceae) Acalypha indica (Euphorbiaceae), Adhatoda vasica (Acanthaceae) and Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae). No correlation was found between the total protein content and protease activity in individual plant species. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated the presence of multiple forms of protease of higher molecular weight range in several plant species. We found a strong correlation between the protease activity and medicinal application of the plant CONCLUSION: The present study has unequivocally revealed that the leaves of medicinal plants

  3. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in Terai forest of western Nepal

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    Singh Anant

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nepal Himalayas have been known as a rich source for valuable medicinal plants since Vedic periods. Present work is the documentation of indigenous knowledge on plant utilization as natural remedy by the inhabitants of terai forest in Western Nepal. Methods Study was conducted during 2010–2011 following standard ethnobotanical methods. Data about medicinal uses of plants were collected by questionnaire, personal interview and group discussion with pre identified informants. Voucher specimens were collected with the help of informants, processed into herbarium following standard methods, identified with the help of pertinent floras and taxonomic experts, and submitted in Department of Botany, Butwal Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Nepal for future references. Results During the present study 66 medicinal plant species belonging to 37 families and 60 genera has been documented. These plants were used to treat various diseases and ailments grouped under 11 disease categories, with the highest number of species (41 being used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by dermatological disorders (34. In the study area the informants’ consensus about usages of medicinal plants ranges from 0.93 to 0.97 with an average value of 0.94. Herbs (53% were the primary source of medicine, followed by trees (23%. Curcuma longa (84% and Azadirachta indica (76% are the most frequently and popularly used medicinal plant species in the study area. Acacia catechu, Bacopa monnieri, Bombax ceiba, Drymaria diandra, Rauvolfia serpentina, and Tribulus terrestris are threatened species which needs to be conserved for future use. Conclusions The high degree of consensus among the informants suggests that current use and knowledge are still strong, and thus the preservation of today's knowledge shows good foresight in acting before much has been lost. The connections between plant use and conservation are also important ones, especially as the

  4. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants in district Mastung of Balochistan province-Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Tahira; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Bakhsh Tareen, Rsool; Mohammad Tareen, Niaz; Jabeen, Rukhsana; Rehman, Saeed-Ur; Sultana, Shazia; Zafar, Muhammad; Yaseen, Ghulam

    2014-11-18

    The aim of this study was to document the medicinal uses of plants in district Mastung of Balochistan province, Pakistan. The ethnobotanical results contain quantitative information on medicinal plants diversity documented for the first time in the area. The information was collected through semi-structured interviews, rapid appraisal approach, open ended questionnaire and personal observations. Results were analyzed using quantitative indices of information consent factor (ICF), fidelity level (FL), use value (UV), frequency citation (FC) and relative frequency citation (RFC). In total of 102 plant species belonging to 47 families were reported for the medicinal purposes. Asteraceae was found to be dominant family in terms of species in the area with 11 species. The whole plant and leaves were noted as most frequently used parts (24%). Decoction (31% with 40 species) was the most commonly used preparation method. Highest ICF value (1) was recorded for antidote category. 100% fidelity level was found for four plant species i.e. Achillea welhemsii, Caralluma tuberculata, Citrullus colocynthis, and Seripidium quettense. The highest use value was reported for the Acroptilon repens (0.5) while highest RFC value was calculated for Berberis balochistanica and Citrullus colocynthis (0.18). Highest use report was calculated for Caralluma tuberculata, Citrullus colocynthis, Malva neglecta and Mentha longifolia with five use reports for each. The area is rich in medicinal plants and these plants are still commonly used for medicinal purposes among the people in their daily lives. However, there is a gradual loss of traditional knowledge about these plants in new generation. This study provides basis for the conservation of the local flora, its use as food and medicine. It also provides various socio-economic dimensions associated with the common people. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Diversity of medicinal plants and anthropogenic threats in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Traditional herbal medicine has been a constant source of substances for curing and preventing a variety of ailments. Biodiversity of medicinal plants and effects of human activities on availability of traditional herbal medicine have continuously received just a cursory treatment. This study sought to determine ...

  6. Anti-Streptococcus pyogenes Activity of Selected Medicinal Plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Research Article. Anti-Streptococcus pyogenes Activity of Selected. Medicinal Plant Extracts Used in Thai Traditional Medicine. Surasak Limsuwan1 and Supayang P Voravuthikunchai2*. 1Faculty of Traditional Thai Medicine and Natural Products Research Center of Excellence, 2Department of Microbiology and.

  7. Medicinal plants of the Achuar (Jivaro) of Amazonian Ecuador: ethnobotanical survey and comparison with other Amazonian pharmacopoeias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, Peter

    2015-04-22

    This paper presents the first ethnobotanical survey conducted among the Achuar (Jivaro), indigenous people living in Amazonian Ecuador and Peru. The aims of this study are: (a) to present and discuss Achuar medicinal plant knowledge in the context of the epidemiology of this population (b) to compare the use of Achuar medicinal plants with the uses reported among the Shuar Jivaro and other Amazonian peoples. The author conducted field research in 9 indigenous villages in the region of Morona Santiago and Pastaza in Ecuador. Semi-structured interviews on local illnesses and herbal remedies were carried out with 82 informants and plant specimens were collected and later identified in Quito. A literature research was conducted on the medicinal species reported by Achuar people during this study. The most reported medicinal plants are species used by the Achuar to treat diarrhoea, parasites infection, fractures, wounds, and snakebites. Informants reported the use of 134 medicinal species for a total of 733 recorded use-reports. Of these 134 species, 44 are reported at least 3 times for one or more specific disease condition for a total of 56 uses. These species are considered a core kit of medicinal plants of the Achuar of Ecuador. Most of these medicinal species are widely used in the Amazon rainforest and in many other parts of Latin America. The author documented a core kit of 44 medicinal plants used among the Achuar of Ecuador and found that this core set of medicinal plants reflects local epidemiological concerns and the pharmacopoeias of the Shuar and other Amazonian groups. These findings suggest that inter-group diffusion of medicinal plant knowledge had a prominent role in the acquisition of current Achuar knowledge of medicinal plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Medicinal plants: An invaluable, dwindling resource in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Mack; Aremu, Adeyemi O; Van Staden, Johannes

    2015-11-04

    The use of plant species for different therapeutic/medicinal purposes is well-entrenched in sub-Saharan Africa. To provide a critical and updated review of the enormous medicinal plant heritage in sub-Saharan Africa with regards to the abundance, importance, conservation status and potential means to help sustain their availability for future generations. A comprehensive literature search involving different online databases, books and theses were conducted in order to obtain, collate and synthesize available information on various fundamental aspects pertaining to African medicinal plants. African biodiversity hotspots are endowed with a high level of endemic species with a significant portion possessing medicinal value. Apart from the extensive ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants found in Africa, scientific validation of their biological potential such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties have been recognized. Together with the demand arising from their biological efficacies, other anthropogenic factors are exerting conservation strains of the wild population of these medicinal plants. Even though researchers have acknowledged the importance and value of conserving these medicinal plants, several challenges have hampered these efforts on the Continent as a whole. The rich flora occurring in sub-Saharan Africa suggests enormous potential for discovery of new chemical entity with therapeutic value. However, concerted efforts focused on documenting the conservation status of African medicinal plants are pertinent. Application of different biotechnological techniques is needed to sustain these valuable botanical entities, especially to meet increasing pharmaceutical demand. Most importantly, increased public enlightenment and awareness may help eradicate the prejudice against cultivation of medicinal plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of important medicinal plant species in genus Paeonia based on rDNA-ITS, matK, and rbcL DNA barcode sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W J; Ji, Y; Choi, G; Kang, Y M; Yang, S; Moon, B C

    2016-08-05

    This study was performed to identify and analyze the phylogenetic relationship among four herbaceous species of the genus Paeonia, P. lactiflora, P. japonica, P. veitchii, and P. suffruticosa, using DNA barcodes. These four species, which are commonly used in traditional medicine as Paeoniae Radix and Moutan Radicis Cortex, are pharmaceutically defined in different ways in the national pharmacopoeias in Korea, Japan, and China. To authenticate the different species used in these medicines, we evaluated rDNA-internal transcribed spacers (ITS), matK and rbcL regions, which provide information capable of effectively distinguishing each species from one another. Seventeen samples were collected from different geographic regions in Korea and China, and DNA barcode regions were amplified using universal primers. Comparative analyses of these DNA barcode sequences revealed species-specific nucleotide sequences capable of discriminating the four Paeonia species. Among the entire sequences of three barcodes, marker nucleotides were identified at three positions in P. lactiflora, eleven in P. japonica, five in P. veitchii, and 25 in P. suffruticosa. Phylogenetic analyses also revealed four distinct clusters showing homogeneous clades with high resolution at the species level. The results demonstrate that the analysis of these three DNA barcode sequences is a reliable method for identifying the four Paeonia species and can be used to authenticate Paeoniae Radix and Moutan Radicis Cortex at the species level. Furthermore, based on the assessment of amplicon sizes, inter/intra-specific distances, marker nucleotides, and phylogenetic analysis, rDNA-ITS was the most suitable DNA barcode for identification of these species.

  10. Economic importance and GIS mapping of medicinal plants in Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic importance and GIS mapping of medicinal plants in Iran: A Case study of Darkesh. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... This study identified the economic importance of medicinal plants and evaluated with Geographical Information System (GIS) tool to develop spatial maps covering ...

  11. Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used In Mali for Dysmenorrhea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dysmenorrhea is painful menstrual cramps, which negatively impacts the quality of life of a large percentage of the world's female population in reproductive age. The paper reviews the plants used in the Malian traditional medicine for the treatment of dysmenorrhea. Some medicinal plants were effective for treatments of ...

  12. The antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants used in Meru ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants used in Meru Central District, Kenya. JK Musau, JM Mbaria, DW Gakuya. Abstract. Five medicinal plants used by traditional medical health practitioners (TMP) in Meru central district namely: Piliostigma thonningii, Ajuga remota, Ocimum suave, Erythrina abyssinica and ...

  13. The antibacterial effect of two medicinal plants Inula viscosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms, combining medicinal plants with synthetic medicines against resistant bacteria becomes necessary. In this study, Synergism between plants extracts (methanolic extract, essential oils) of Inula viscosa and Anacyclus valentinus and two commonly used antibiotics: ...

  14. Use of medicinal plants among Ethiopian patients with diabetes: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unhcc

    J. Health Dev. 2017;31(1):18-26]. Key words: medicinal plants, type 2 diabetes, Ethiopia, qualitative research. Introduction. Self-care practice using medicinal plants comprises one of the common ..... This should be followed with 2 eggs or one cup of butter as .... for buda (evil eye) sold in Merkato, which had a very repulsive ...

  15. Medicinal Plant Research Group, School of Pharmacy, College of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicinal Plant Research Group, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi,. P.O. Box 19676-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. The use of traditional and herbal medicines ... may be used alone or in combination with others. The extraction of the plant material may involve soakage, percolation, decoction ...

  16. Screening of the leaves of three Nigerian medicinal plants for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... Key words: Antibacterial activity, medicinal plants, Alstonia boonei, Morinda lucida, Petiveria alliacea, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION. The use of plants as source of medicine in treating disease is an ancient practice. People on all continents have long applied poultrices and imbibed infusions of hundreds, if not ...

  17. Online Teaching Resources about Medicinal Plants and Ethnobotany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, Kristina M.; Chudler, Eric H.

    2016-01-01

    Classroom exploration of plant-based medicines and ethnobotany is a timely and valuable way to engage students in science. This Feature highlights Internet-based resources to help teachers in primary and secondary classrooms incorporate lessons and activities to teach about plant medicines. These Internet resources include curricula, videos, sites…

  18. Indigenous plant-derived medicine used by ordinary community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Research on medical ethnobotany shows that ordinary community members in the rural areas have knowledge of self preventive care which is accomplished through administration of plant medicine to prevent the onset of disease and create a sense of well being. Several medicinal plants and traditional ...

  19. Medicinal Plants Used In The Management Of Malaria Among The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the type of medicinal plants used in the management of malaria in the Yoruba folklore in south western Nigeria. 87 Traditional medicine practitioners (TMP's) were interviewed. Plants available in the regions were considered in the survey and recorded with their local names, parts used, preparation and ...

  20. A survey of medicinal plants around upper Songkhla lake, Thailand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Upper Songkhla Lake, a single lagoon of Thailand, is surrounded by sandy, mangrove, and swamp forests. Many plants growing in these areas have medicinal properties, however they have never been investigated. The aim of this study was to explore medicinal plants from upper Songkhla Lake, Songkhla ...

  1. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in western part of central Taurus Mountains: Aladaglar (Nigde - Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Ebru; Alpınar, Kerim

    2015-05-26

    With this study, we aimed to document traditional uses of medicinal plants in the western part of Aladaglar/Nigde. This study was conducted between 2003 and 2005. The research area was in the western part of the Aladaglar mountains. The settlements in Aladaglar (5 towns and 10 villages) were visited during the field work. The plants collected by the help of medicinal plant users. The plants were identified and voucher specimens prepared. These voucher specimens were kept at the Herbarium of Istanbul University Faculty of Pharmacy (ISTE). We collected the information by means of semi-structured interviews with 170 informants (90 men and 80 women). In addition, the relative importance value of the species was determined and the informant consensus factor (FIC) was calculated for the medicinal plants researched in the study. According to the results of the identification, among 126 plants were used by the inhabitants and 110 species belonging to 40 families were used for medicinal purposes. Most of the medicinal plants used in Aladaglar/Nigde belong to the families Lamiaceae (25 species), Asteraceae (16 species), Apiaceae (7 species), Fabaceae (6 species) and Brassicaceae (5 species). The most commonly used plant species were Hypericum perforatumThymus sipyleus var. sipyleus, Rosa canina, Urtica dioica, Malva neglecta, Thymus leucotrichus, Salix alba, Mentha longifolia, Berberis crataegina, Juniperus oxycedrus, Viscum album subsp. abietis, Allium rotundum and Taraxacum stevenii. The most common preparations were infusion and decoction. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (86%), hemorrhoids (79%), urinary diseases (69%), diabetes (68%) and respiratory diseases (61%). The use of traditional medicine was still widespread among the inhabitants of Aladaglar mountains/Nigde region. Due to the lack of medical facilities in the villages of Aladaglar mountains, local people prefer herbal treatment rather than

  2. In vitro propagation of an endangered medicinal timber species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The over exploitation of African mahogany in tropical forest has threatened the genetic base of this useful timber and medicinal tree species and as such, an experiment was conducted on the in vitro culture of Khaya grandifoliola, an endangered tree species commonly found in the high forest zones of West Africa to explore ...

  3. Screening of Brazilian medicinal plants for antiviral activity against rotavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecílio, Alzira Batista; de Faria, Déborah Behr; Oliveira, Pollyana de Carvalho; Caldas, Sérgio; de Oliveira, Dario Alves; Sobral, Marcos Eduardo Guerra; Duarte, Maria Gorette Resende; Moreira, Carolina Paula de Souza; Silva, Cláudia Gontijo; de Almeida, Vera Lúcia

    2012-06-14

    Brazilian medicinal plants traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhoea were investigated for their in vitro antiviral activity against the simian rotavirus SA11. The ethanolic crude extracts of plants collected in the cerrado of Minas Gerais, Brazil were submitted to phytochemical screening. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was inferred by cellular morphologic alterations. Antiviral activity was assessed by the ability of the extracts to inhibit the cytopathic effect (CPE) of rotavirus on the treated cells. RT-PCR was performed to confirm and/or confront antiviral assay data. The maximum non-toxic concentration ranged from 50 to 500 μg/mL. All extracts were toxic at a concentration of 5000 μg/mL but no extract showed cytotoxicity at 50 μg/mL. The species Byrsonima verbascifolia, Myracrodruon urundeuva, Eugenia dysenterica and Hymenaea courbaril exhibited the strongest in vitro activity against rotavirus. Their extracts prevented the formation of CPE, and RT-PCR analysis detected no amplification of genetic material from rotavirus. Tannins, flavonoids, saponins, coumarins and terpenes were the major classes of natural products found in the leaf extracts that showed antiviral activity. Among the species studied, Byrsonima verbascifolia, Eugenia dysenterica, Hymenaea courbaril and Myracrodruon urundeuva showed potential activity against rotavirus and are worthy of further study. The present study corroborates ethnopharmacological data as a valuable source in the selection of plants with antiviral activity and to some extent validates their traditional uses. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Anti-trypanosomal activity of African medicinal plants: a review update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Mohammed, Aminu; Isah, Murtala Bindawa; Aliyu, Abubakar Babando

    2014-05-28

    African trypanosomiasis is one of the neglected tropical diseases caused by different species of trypanosomes that affect both human and livestock with devastating consequences in the continent. Most of the affected populations commonly use traditional medicinal plants for the treatment of the disease. Consequently, this prompted ethnopharmacological research activities on the anti-trypanosomal activity of a number of these African medicinal plants in order to validate their ethnomedicinal use. Furthermore, such studies could lead to the identification of chemical leads for the development of newer anti-trypanosomal agents from those plants. This review aims to provide updated information on the ethnopharmacological evidence of African medicinal plants with anti-trypanosomal activity. Literature was collected via electronic search (PubMed, Sciencedirect, Medline and Google Scholar) from published articles that report on the in vitro or in vivo anti-trypanosomal activity of plants that were collected from different parts of Africa. African medicinal plants investigated for in vitro and in vivo anti-trypanosomal activity from January 1993 to October 2013 are systematically compiled and all the in vivo studies are critically discussed. A total of 264 plant species belonging to 79 families were investigated for anti-trypanosomal activity. However, only 48 bioactive anti-trypanosomal compounds were successfully isolated in pure forms. Furthermore, some of the plants were investigated for possible ameliorative effects on the trypanosome-induced pathological changes out of which 18 plants were reported to be effective while a few others were not. In spite of interesting preclinical ethnopharmacological evidence for anti-trypanosomal activity, not a single African medicinal plant was investigated in a clinical study. Several African medicinal plants have demonstrated promising anti-trypanosomal effects but the studies on the anti-trypanosomal potentials of these plants are

  5. Ethnopharmacological studies of indigenous medicinal plants in the south of Kerman, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat-Hosseini, Mohammad; Farajpour, Mostafa; Boroomand, Naser; Solaimani-Sardou, Farshad

    2017-03-06

    The aim of this study was to collect and document information concerning the medicinal plants used by indigenous people and traditional healers in the south of Kerman Province, Iran. Overall, 64 informants between the ages of 30 and 89 were interviewed about the modes of application and consumption of medicinal plants in the region. Quantitative analysis was conducted that included informant consensus factor (ICF), use value (UV), relative frequency of citation (RFC) and cultural importance index (CI). In the current study, a total of 115 medicinal plants in 41 families were reported in the south of the Kerman region. Apiaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae (with 14 species each) were the families with the most medicinal plants. The most frequently used plant parts were leaves at 26.17% and aerial parts (23.49%). Decoction (53%), liniment (23%) and infusion (9%) were the most common preparation methods. The highest UVs were obtained from the following medicinal plants: Amygdalus eburnea Spach, Genista tinctoria L., Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand., Fortuynia garcinii (Burm.f.) Shuttlew. and Cerasus mahaleb (L.) Mill. The ICF results indicated that cold-flu and fever were the most common diseases (0.67) in the south of Kerman. Based on the current study, the south of Kerman has many potential medicinal plants, and these plants should be the focus of future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Medicinal plants popularly used in the Brazilian Tropical Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stasi, L C; Oliveira, G P; Carvalhaes, M A; Queiroz, M; Tien, O S; Kakinami, S H; Reis, M S

    2002-02-01

    A survey of medicinal plants used by rural and urban inhabitants of the three cities of the Tropical Atlantic Forest, Region of Vale do Ribeira, State of São Paulo, Brazil was performed by means of 200 interviews with medicinal plant users and extractors and, traditional healers. One hundred fourteen herbal remedies were recorded and the following information reported: Latin, vernacular and English names, plant part used, forms of preparation and application of the herbal remedies, medicinal or food uses, areas of plant collection, economic importance (when available) and other data.

  7. Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants in Karangwangi, District of Cianjur, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desak Made Malini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge and usage of plant as medicinal remedy by current generation are not as extensive as previous; therefore, many rural communities with restricted modern medical access still rely on traditional medicine. This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on medicinal plants in Karangwangi Village of Cianjur District, West Java Indonesia. This study aimed to identify plants collected for medical purposes by the local people as well as to document the local names, uses, preparation, and location of these plants. Ethno botanical data was recorded by opting people participation and key informant approach involving semi-structured interviews, group discussions and filling of questionnaires. The results showed a total of 114 medicinal plants belonging to 50 families were identified. Zingiberaceae was the most-frequently cited (nine species, followed by Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Fabaceae (seven species each. The most-used plant parts were leaves (51.8%, followed by stems (22.9% and the most common preparations were decoction, poultice and squeezed. Most of the plants were obtained from the house-yard and total of 30 medicinal uses were recorded. The ethnobotanical result documented in this study showed that this area is rich in medicinal plants and these plants are still commonly used for medicinal purposes among the people in their daily lives. Ethnobotanical heritage should be preserved, however, there is a gradual loss of traditional knowledge about these plants in new generation. Further, the findings can be used as baseline information for further scientific investigation for analyzing phytochemical, pharmaceutical and other biological activities for future drug discovery.

  8. Medicinal and local food plants in the south of Alava (Basque Country, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcόn, Rocίo; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Priestley, Caroline; Morales, Ramón; Heinrich, Michael

    2015-12-24

    Medicinal and food plants in the Basque Country are an integral part of a fast changing culture. With a distinct tradition and language, this region of Europe provides an important example demonstrating the changing role of local and traditional knowledge in industrial countries. As other Mediterranean regions it preserves a rich heritage of using plants as medicine and food, offering a unique opportunity for studying the medicine food interface in an ethnopharmacological context. Therefore, the key goal of this study has been to contribute to an understanding of local and traditional plant usage, to evaluate their uses as food and medicine as well as to critically assess the role of these plants in the south of the Basque Country contributing to an understanding of how foods and medicines are used. A mixed methods approach, including participant observation; open and semi structured interviews was used. Ethnobotanical field work included 183 people, ages ranged from 24 to 98 years old with a majority being between 70 and 80 years old (mean age 71) from 31 towns of three different regions. The basic interview was a one-to-one meeting, which often included field walking and collection of samples as directed by the informants. 700 voucher specimens (most of them with duplicates) were collected for the data obtained. Using SPSS version 20 the gathered information was processed and the replies of the different informants were subsequently organised in variables like medicine and food plants, part of the plants used, forms of preparations, zones preferred for collecting these plants. The data were analysed based on the frequency of records. This type of approach allows us to understand the way the informant's categorize the species, and how these categories are distributed along the sample. In order to analyse the data three main categories of use were distinguished: Medicine (M), Food (F) and an intermediate Health-Food (H-F). The three categories were divided in 27

  9. Medicinal and local food plants in the south of Alava (Basque Country, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcόn, Rocίo; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Priestley, Caroline; Morales, Ramón; Heinrich, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ethnobotanical relevance Medicinal and food plants in the Basque Country are an integral part of a fast changing culture. With a distinct tradition and language, this region of Europe provides an important example demonstrating the changing role of local and traditional knowledge in industrial countries. As other Mediterranean regions it preserves a rich heritage of using plants as medicine and food, offering a unique opportunity for studying the medicine food interface in an ethnopharmacological context. Therefore, the key goal of this study has been to contribute to an understanding of local and traditional plant usage, to evaluate their uses as food and medicine as well as to critically assess the role of these plants in the south of the Basque Country contributing to an understanding of how foods and medicines are used. Methods A mixed methods approach, including participant observation; open and semi structured interviews was used. Ethnobotanical field work included 183 people, ages ranged from 24 to 98 years old with a majority being between 70 and 80 years old (mean age 71) from 31 towns of three different regions. The basic interview was a one-to-one meeting, which often included field walking and collection of samples as directed by the informants. 700 voucher specimens (most of them with duplicates) were collected for the data obtained. Using SPSS version 20 the gathered information was processed and the replies of the different informants were subsequently organised in variables like medicine and food plants, part of the plants used, forms of preparations, zones preferred for collecting these plants. The data were analysed based on the frequency of records. This type of approach allows us to understand the way the informant’s categorize the species, and how these categories are distributed along the sample. In order to analyse the data three main categories of use were distinguished: Medicine (M), Food (F) and an intermediate Health-Food (H-F). The

  10. Ethnopharmacobotanical study on the medicinal plants used by herbalists in Sulaymaniyah Province, Kurdistan, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hiwa M

    2016-01-28

    Medicinal plants still play an important role in the Kurdish community. Sulaymaniyah Province in South Kurdistan (Iraq) has a great diversity of plants, including medicinal plants, yet very few scattered ethnobotanical studies conducted in Kurdistan are available in the scientific literature. Thus the study of Kurdish ethnobotany may be crucial for understanding local medicinal plant uses and their relationships to surrounding areas. Therefore, the objective of this investigation was to document traditional medicinal plant uses among healers of southern Kurdistan. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted to document traditional knowledge on medicinal plants uses among traditional healers in the Province of Sulaymaniyah during 2014 and 2015. The data were collected by interviewing 45 traditional healers (36 males and 9 females between the ages of 25 and 80 years) who retain traditional knowledge on medicinal plants. Furthermore, the use value (UV) of taxa was determined and informant consensus factor (ICF) was calculated for the medicinal plants included in the study. Further analysis was carried out to compare the field data with the Kurdish ethnobotanical literature. The present study found a total of sixty-six plant species, belonging to sixty-three genera within thirty-four plant families, used to treat ninghty-nine different types of ailments and diseases. The most important family was Lamiaceae (7 species), followed by Apiaceae, Asteraceae, and Fabaceae (6 species each). The most frequently used parts were leaves (46 %), followed by flowers (15 %), and seeds (10 %). The most common preparation method was decoction (68 %), whereas few taxa were consumed as a vegetable (13 %) or ingested in powder form (10 %). The respiratory issues category had the highest ICF value (0.68), followed by inflammations and women's diseases (0.58 and 0.54, respectively). The highest UVs were recorded for the species Zingiber officinale (0.48), Matricaria chamomilla (0

  11. An ethno botanical perspective of traditional medicinal plants from the Khattak tribe of Chonthra Karak, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Khalid; Mashwani, Zia-ur-Rehman; Khan, Mubark Ali; Ullah, Zahid; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2015-05-13

    The present study was carried out with an aim to gather, evaluate and analyze the ethno botanical information of medicinal uses of the plant species possessed by the native Khattak tribe of the Chonthra, district Karak Pakistan. The region with poor documentation of traditional knowledge, preserving the local traditional knowledge, reporting new as well as rarely reported medicinal properties of medicinal plants, to be tested experimentally for validation. The medicinal uses of existing plant species were documented by oral communication with 103 people, all over above 60 years of age, born and residing in Chonthra. Information was gathered by semi-structured interviews with further analysis by indices like Relative frequency citation RFC and Medicinal use value MUV. The study resulted with medicinal information on 66 plants species belonging to 34 families (using against 58 health related problems with 83 different preparations mainly administered orally and topical). The dominant families include Brasicaceae and Limiaceae. Withania coagulans and Pegnum harmala were the plant species quoted 100% by the informants with RFC values 1 each. The MUV were scattered between 1.24 and 0.03. The highest MUV were W. coagulans 1.24, Pegnum harmala 1.18, Fagonia cretica 1.14. This study for the first time include Nepeta lagopsis to the ethnobotanical wealth. This study was an extension to the ethnobotanical research conducted in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Pakistan. The target area being small and less number of plants with limited traditional knowledge can serve basis for further work focusing on rarely or non- reported plant species of pharmacological and phytochemical importance with active metabolite capable of broadening the sources of new drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Historical versus contemporary medicinal plant uses in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soelberg, Jens; Asase, A; Akwetey, G

    2015-01-01

    . This provides a unique opportunity to gain insight to the historical materia medica of Ghana and compare this to contemporary medicinal plant uses. By critical literary and taxonomic review, the present study (re-)establishes the earliest known history of many important Ghanaian medicinal plants, and assesses...... of Copenhagen Herbarium (C) and British Museum of Natural History (BM). The classification and synonymy of the specimens were updated for the study, and the historical vernacular names and medicinal uses of the plants compared with 20th/21st century literature. The plants of the historical Ga materia medica....... The materia medica of the Fante, Ga and Ashanti of Ghana has changed considerably over time. The "forgotten" historical uses warrant further studies to determine the pharmacological activity of these plants. This could provide the foundation for reconstruction of historical medicinal plant uses in evidence...

  13. Medicinal plants in the diet of woolly spider monkeys (Brachyteles arachnoides, E. Geoffroy, 1806 – a bio-rational for the search of new medicines for human use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liége M. Petroni

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aimed to compare the plant food diet of woolly spider monkeys (Brachyteles arachnoides inhabiting Intervales State Park in São Paulo, Brazil, with medicinal plant species used by humans in the surrounding areas of the park. The diet of a group of woolly spider monkeys living in an Atlantic forest area was recorded during 43 months of fieldwork. Fifty-three species (87 food items were recorded. Plant specimens were collected and identified at the University of São Paulo and the Botanical Institute of São Paulo State. Using semi-structured interviews, ethnomedicinal data were also collected from four preselected respondents regarding the human therapeutic value of these plants. The study showed that 24.5% (13/53 of these species are used by residents around the park for medicinal purposes. Of these thirteen, seven species also have validated pharmacological properties, and three are utilized by local residents for similar medicinal purposes. Overlap in the plant food/medicinal diet of woolly spider monkey populations elsewhere were also noted, suggesting potential overlap in their medicinal value for humans and primates. The similarities between the ingestion of plants by primates and their medicinal use by humans provide a bio-rational for the search of bioactive plants in the primate diet. Further detailed investigation of their pharmacological and phytochemical value is warranted.

  14. Phytochemical evaluation and molecular characterization of some important medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varahalarao Vadlapudi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Phytochemical evaluation and molecular characterization of plants is an important task in medicinal botany and drug discovery. In the current study, Ocimum species, Pimenta officinalis and Piper betel were considered as medicinal plants by evaluation of phytochemical composition like phenol content, Flavonoid content, antioxidant content and other activities like antibacterial, antifungal, lethal dosage (LD 50 of the plant extracts. Among the selected plants P. officinalis shown higher medicinal properties and is selected for molecular characterization. Methods: Antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion method and also estimated Total phenols, flavonoids content, Total Antioxidants, Cytotoxic assay on Artemia salina for determining lethal dosage (LD50, matK gene was sequenced by using ABI Prism 3700. Leaf extract of P. officinalis plant is further selected for GC-chromatographic analysis to know its chemical composition. DNA was isolated by different protocols, optimized, and is used for the PCR amplification of trnL-gene which is a universal marker among plants in molecular taxonomy. The trnL-gene is amplified by using PCR. The product obtained from PCR is purified and the sample is used for sequencing so that it can be used for comparative studies. Results: P.offcinalis has shown good antimicrobial activity against all organisms . A. flavus is resistant against O. sanctum (B. Phenolic content (26.5 毺 g/g is found to be rich in P. betel where as flavonoid and Antioxidant content are significant in P. betel. The chromatogram revealed the presence of high concentration of Eugenol in the leaf sample. On submitting to BLASTN, the genetic sequence has found similarity with Pimenta dioica plastid partial matK gene and Ugni molinae trnK gene. MatK did not shown any interactions with trnK or trnL genes. MatK has shown interactions with various genes like ycf5, pclpp, psbh, atph, NDVI, rpoc1, ndha, ndhd, psai. Conclusions: we can

  15. Changing markets - Medicinal plants in the markets of La Paz and El Alto, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Paniagua Zambrana, Narel Y; Moya Huanca, Laura Araseli; Hart, Robbie

    2016-12-04

    Given the importance of local markets as a source of medicinal plants for both healers and the population, literature on market flows and the value of the plant material traded is rather scarce. This stands in contrast to wealth of available information for other components of Bolivian ethnobotany. The present study attempts to remedy this situation by providing a detailed inventory of medicinal plant markets in the La Paz-El Alto metropolitan area, hypothesizing that both species composition, and medicinal applications, have changed considerably over time. From October 2013-October 2015 semi-structured interviews were conducted with 39 plant vendors between October 2013 and October 2015 in the Mercado Rodriguez, Mercado Calle Santa Cruz, Mercado Cohoni, Mercado Cota Cota, and Mercado Seguencoma and Mercado El Alto in order to elucidate more details on plant usage and provenance. The results of the present study were then compared to previous inventories of medicinal plants in La Paz and El Alto studies to elucidate changes over time and impact of interview techniques. In this study we encountered 163 plant species belonging to 127 genera and 58 families. In addition, 17 species could not be identified. This species richness is considerably higher than that reported in previous studies (2005, 129 species of 55 families; 2015, 94 identified species). While the overall distribution of illness categories is in line with older reports the number of species used per application, as well as the applications per species, were much higher in the present study. Overall, informant consensus was relatively low, which might be explained by the large number of new species that have entered the local pharmacopoeia in the last decade, although some species might simply have been missed by previous studies. In course of the present study it became apparent that even well known species might often be replaced by other apparently similar but botanically unrelated species due to

  16. Are Medicinal Plants Polluted with Phthalates?

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    Soodabeh Saeidnia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Phthalic acid esters (PAEs have been employed in polymer materials as a plasticizer to form them more flexible, adhesive, and soluble. These compounds are mainly used in paints, varnishes, personal cares, cosmetics, paper coatings, and adhesives even in bottled waters, shampoo, body deodorant, hairspray, and gels. Phthalates are able to possess remarkable toxic variations depending on their structures. So far, Di-(2-EthylHexyl Phthalate DEHP and Di-n- Butyl Phthalate DBP have been found to cause reproductive and developmental toxicities. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA classified DEHP as probable human carcinogen. To the best of our knowledge, phthalates showed diverse toxicity profiles according to their structures in the liver, kidneys, thyroid, and testes, which are involved in general toxicity. Furthermore, they are introduced as hormonally-active agents, because they can interfere with the endocrine system in human. Incidence of developmental abnormalities (like skeletal malformations and cleft palate, and undescended testes, lowering testes weight and anogenital distance seems increasing via high exposure to phthalate metabolites. Although, increasing the capacity for phthalate free plasticizer productions is the first step to restrict the distribution of these toxic manmade compounds, finding the new ways for phthalate absorption from the soil in agricultural fields may have benefits. Also, evaluation and examination of diverse sources of medicinal and food plants to determine the level of phthalate accumulation in their organs are extremely recommended to avoid creating toxicity particularly in reproductive systems.

  17. Wound Healing Properties of Selected Plants Used in Ethnoveterinary Medicine

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    Amos Marume

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants have arrays of phytoconstituents that have wide ranging biological effects like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties key in wound management. In vivo wound healing properties of ointments made of crude methanolic extracts (10% extract w/w in white soft paraffin of three plant species, Cissus quadrangularis L. (whole aerial plant parts, Adenium multiflorum Klotzsch (whole aerial plant parts and Erythrina abyssinica Lam. Ex DC. (leaves and bark used in ethnoveterinary medicine were evaluated on BALB/c female mice based on wound area changes, regular observations, healing skin's percentage crude protein content and histological examinations. White soft paraffin and 3% oxytetracycline ointment were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Wound area changes over a 15 day period for mice treated with C. quadrangularis and A. multiflorum extract ointments were comparable to those of the positive control (oxytetracycline ointment. Wounds managed with the same extract ointments exhibited high crude protein contents, similar to what was observed on animals treated with the positive control. Histological evaluations revealed that C. quadrangularis had superior wound healing properties with the wound area completely returning to normal skin structure by day 15 of the experiment. E. abyssinica leaf and bark extract ointments exhibited lower wound healing properties though the leaf extract exhibited some modest healing properties.

  18. [The utilization and safety of medicinal plants and crude drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, M

    1998-01-01

    Recently, herbal remedy and health caring food are widely used throughout the generation. These main plant materials have been characterized and classified into 5 categories, by the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW), Japanese Government, in 1971, which include 3 medicine divisions and 2 food divisions. These categories, having only limited number of plants, were quite difficult to classify the newly imported plant materials. In order to solve this problem, each category was updated to include new herbal materials in March 1998. Kampo medicines are Japanese traditional medicines, which has been used for the patients mostly by doctors of western medicine and 3 kinds of Kampo prescription had been reevaluated by the drug reevaluation system of Japan. But, along with the expanding consumption of the Kampo medicines in the clinical treatments, several side effects of the Kampo medicines has recently been reported by the collection of adverse reaction data of MHW, these side effects are important signals for believing the safety of natural drugs. The chapter I is definition of medicinal plant and crude drugs, and chapter II is reported of WHO guidelines for the traditional medicines. Chapter III is 4 section; 1. safety of the medicinal plants and crude drugs is included the poisonous plant and the side effect of Kampo medicines, 2. the pesticide for the crude drugs in Japanese Pharmacopoeia, 3. limited test of contamination of microorganisms, 4. Identification of medicinal plant names. Chapter IV is the definition of drugs and food. The chapter V is the drugs type materials used in young generation for hallucinogenic or sexual purpose. Chapter VI is the stance to research work for the new drugs from plant gene resources in the world.

  19. Effects of gamma irradiation on antioxidants of medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jetawattana, Suwimol; Chaichantipyuth, Chaiyo

    2003-06-01

    The antioxidant effect of water extracts from irradiated medicinal plants on inhibition of lipid peroxidation in human plasma was examined. The results presented herein indicate that crude extracts from 29 kinds, 31 extracts, of medicinal plants, irradiated at 10 and 25 kilo gray. showed no significant change in inhibition of lipid peroxidation in plasma induced by gamma irradiation (p<0.05). It also found that extraction yields in some irradiated plants were increased

  20. MEDICINAL PLANTS OF RAJASTHAN (INDIA) WITH ANTIDIABETIC POTENTIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Batra Shikha; Nagori Badri Prakash; Batra Nikhil

    2011-01-01

    Rajasthan has a rich heritage of traditional system of medicine and many medicinally useful plants are found growing wildly because of vast area and variety of agro-climatic conditions. These plants are being used for the treatment of many human ailments including diabetes. Plants that are specifically employed for the treatment of diabetes are Acacia nilotica, Acacia senegal, Aegle marmelos, Calotropis procera, Capparis deciduas, Cassia auriculata, Cassia sophera, Cayratia trifolia, Cyamopsi...

  1. Antiviral and antimicrobial activities of Colombian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, A; Hudson, J B; Towers, G H

    2001-10-01

    Strong antiviral and antimicrobial activities were detected in methanolic extracts of 24 plants used medicinally in the treatment of skin infections in four different regions of Colombia. Thirteen extracts displayed activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV) whereas none was active against poliovirus. The antiviral activity was indicated by a total inhibition of viral cytopathic effects (CPE) at a non-cytotoxic concentration of the extract. The most potent extract was obtained from Byrsonima verbascifolia (L.) HBK. which showed anti-HSV activity at a concentration as low as 2.5 microg/ml. Antimicrobial screening was conducted using the disc diffusion assay against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis, Mycobacterium phlei, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium and the human pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans. Anti-Candida activity was observed for Piper lanceaefolium HBK. and Juglans neotropica Diels. Twenty-two extracts displayed activity against Gram-positive bacteria whereas none was active against the Gram-negative species. We concluded that these Colombian medicinal plants represent an untapped source of potentially useful antivirals and are worthy of further study.

  2. Medicinal plants with bioprospecting potential used in semi-arid northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartaxo, Sarahbelle Leitte; Souza, Marta Maria de Almeida; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2010-09-15

    Many species of the Caatinga flora are used as medicines in local communities. In recent decades, the knowledge and use of these species has been expanding within this region. We attempted to record the local diversity of medicinal plants used to treat various diseases in a rural community in the state of Ceará, Brazil, and to evaluate the promising medicinal species for bioprospecting studies. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted using free list and semi-structured interviews. To indicate medicinal plants that stood out, the relative importance (RI) of species mentioned by key-informants (20), by general informants in the community (71) and by all informants (91), was analyzed. The group of species that stood out for human body systems based on the informant consensus factor (ICF) was also evaluated. A total of 119 species were recorded that were associated with 92 health problems. Of these species, 100 were cited by key-informants and 86 were cited by general informants. Nineteen species showed a great versatility of use, including the following: Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão, Bauhinia cheilanta (Bong.) Steud., Hymenaea courbaril L., Mentha x villosa Huds., Ziziphus joazeiro Mart., and Ruta graveolens L. Key-informants cited 33 exclusive species, from which nine presented greater relative importance. General informants cited 19 exclusive species, 2 with greatest relative importance. The therapeutic properties were grouped into 16 body system categories. These grouping categories included skin diseases and diseases of the subcutaneous tissue; sensory system (ears) disorders; respiratory disorders; and injuries, poisoning and other external symptoms. The great diversity of medicinal plants used in the community is evident. Some species had both high relative importance and high consensus factors among the informants; these particular species are recommended for bioprospecting studies. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Proteomic Contributions to Medicinal Plant Research: From Plant Metabolism to Pharmacological Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Hashiguchi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine is a clinical practice of utilizing medicinal plant derivatives for therapeutic purposes. It has an enduring history worldwide and plays a significant role in the fight against various diseases. Herbal drug combinations often exhibit synergistic therapeutic action compared with single-constituent dosage, and can also enhance the cytotoxicity induced by chemotherapeutic drugs. To explore the mechanism underlying the pharmacological action of herbs, proteomic approaches have been applied to the physiology of medicinal plants and its effects on animals. This review article focuses on the existing proteomics-based medicinal plant research and discusses the following topics: (i plant metabolic pathways that synthesize an array of bioactive compounds; (ii pharmacological action of plants tested using in vivo and in vitro studies; and (iii the application of proteomic approaches to indigenous plants with scarce sequence information. The accumulation of proteomic information in a biological or medicinal context may help in formulating the effective use of medicinal plants.

  4. Systematic organization of medicinal plant information: a monograph template proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C.B. Carvalho

    Full Text Available The use of medicinal plants in Brazil is widespread and is supported by public policies; it has the objective of providing the population with safe and effective herbal medicines of adequate quality. An action in these policies is to develop medicinal plant monographs to gather published information and decide which medicinal plants should be financed by the Brazilian government and distributed by the public health system. Currently, the monographs published worldwide do not present unified information regarding medicinal plants, and generally, they do not cover enough requirements for herbal medicine registration. The aim of this study is to develop a monograph model with standardized information not only about botany, agronomy, quality control, safety, and efficacy but also about relating regulatory aspects that support herbal medicine regulation. The development of standardized monographs favors the fast authorization and distribution of herbal medicines in the public system. The model also points out the lacking studies that should be carried out to supplement the necessary regulatory information of medicinal plants.

  5. Ensemble habitat mapping of invasive plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Ma, P.; Kumar, S.; Rocca, M.; Morisette, J.T.; Jarnevich, C.S.; Benson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Ensemble species distribution models combine the strengths of several species environmental matching models, while minimizing the weakness of any one model. Ensemble models may be particularly useful in risk analysis of recently arrived, harmful invasive species because species may not yet have spread to all suitable habitats, leaving species-environment relationships difficult to determine. We tested five individual models (logistic regression, boosted regression trees, random forest, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), and maximum entropy model or Maxent) and ensemble modeling for selected nonnative plant species in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks, Wyoming; Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California, and areas of interior Alaska. The models are based on field data provided by the park staffs, combined with topographic, climatic, and vegetation predictors derived from satellite data. For the four invasive plant species tested, ensemble models were the only models that ranked in the top three models for both field validation and test data. Ensemble models may be more robust than individual species-environment matching models for risk analysis. ?? 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Ethno-veterinary survey of medicinal plants in Ruoergai region, Sichuan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xiaofei; Tao, Cuixiang; Miao, Xiaolou; Wang, Dongsheng; Tangmuke; Dawa; Wang, Yu; Yang, Yaoguang; Pan, Hu

    2012-07-13

    In this study we aimed to survey and investigate the medicinal plants which are used to treat the veterinary diseases in Ruoergai region, Sichuan province, China. Meanwhile, the important medicinal plants were collected and identified for the further study. Twenty folk veterinary practitioners from 8 township animal husbandry and veterinary stations in Ruoergai region were investigated and interviewed. The important local medicinal materials, including plants, animals and mineral drugs, were collected by scientific methods and identified by the pharmacognosist of Lanzhou University, China. According to the investigation, only 20 folk veterinary practitioners still used 129 species of traditional medicine to treat the livestock`s diseases. In these medicine, 93 species were native and Ranunculaceae (12, 12.90%), Compositae (11, 11.83%), Papaveraceae (7, 7.53%) were the predominant families. At the same time, herbs (36.56%) are the most widely used part of plant, and respiratory diseases (21.02%) and gastrointestinal diseases (19.89%) were the main animal's diseases in this region. Ethno-veterinary medicine made an extraordinary contribution to the sound development of animal husbandry in Ruoergai. But the inherit, protect and development should be paid more attentions in the future, and the species which have not been studied should be developed priority to find biological activities and new bioactive compounds further. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bioactivity of Malva Sylvestris L., a Medicinal Plant from Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Razavi, Seyed Mehdi; Zarrini, Gholamreza; Molavi, Ghader; Ghasemi, Ghader

    2011-01-01

    Objective(s) Malva sylvestris L. (Malvaceae), an annual plant, has been already commonly used as a medicinal plant in Iran. In the present work, we evaluate some bioactivities of the plant extracts. Materials and Methods The aired-dried plant flowers and leaves were extracted by soxhlet apparatus with n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol. The antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and phytotoxic of the plant extracts were evaluated using disk diffusion method, MTT, and Lettuce assays, respectively. Resu...

  8. Medicinal Plants: A Prospect in Developing Male Fertility Enhancing Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ja’far Luthfi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been a revolutionary breakthrough in the treatment of male sexual dysfunction. Traditional medicine based on a holistic philosophy is quite different with the practice of “western” medicine. Phytochemical substances focus their mechanisms of healing to the root of cause, i.e. the inability of controlling the proper function of the whole body system. Hence, medicinal plants manage sexual dysfunction and male fertility in the frame of sexual dysfunction as a whole entity. Some previous researches prove that the use of medicinal plants have a good impact in the treatment of a variety of male sexual problems. This paper will discuss several important aspects of aphrodisiac plants and preliminary study regarding them in Indonesia. Difficulties inherent to activity guided isolation and the specific requirements of bioassays are also discussed.

  9. Insight into the Presence of Stilbenes in Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used in Croatian Folk Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekinić, Ivana Generalić; Skroza, Danijela; Ljubenkov, Ivica; Katalinić, Višnja

    2016-06-01

    Over the last years, great interest has arisen concerning plant stilbenes, especially resveratrol, which has a whole spectrum of positive biological activities. In this study, we investigated the presence of resveratrol monomers (trans- and cis- form) and naturally occurring derivatives of trans-resveratrol (piceid, astringin and isorhapontin) in phenolic extracts of twenty medicinal plants traditionally used in Croatian folk medicine. The investigated compounds were present in the samples, in free form or as glucosides, and the highest share was found in immortelle, common yarrow and Lamiaceae plants. The obtained results indicate that biological activity of selected medicinal plants can be related to the presence of this valuable group of phytochemicals.

  10. Use of medicinal plants for diabetes in Trinidad and Tobago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mahabir

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Use of herbal remedies from medicinal plants (bush medicines was studied in 622 people with diabetes mellitus attending 17 government health centers on the island of Trinidad, Trinidad and Tobago. Bush medicines were used by 42% of patients surveyed and were used for diabetes by 24%. Bush medicine use was more frequent in Afro-Trinidadians and in those of mixed ethnicity than in Indo-Trinidadians, and was also more prevalent in those with lower educational attainment. Most patients using bush medicines (214/264, or 81% reported gathering the plants themselves, and 107/264 (41% took them more frequently than once a week. Patients taking bush medicines mentioned 103 different plants used in remedies. Among the 12 most frequently mentioned, caraili, aloes, olive-bush, and seed-under-leaf were preferentially used for diabetes. Vervine, chandilay, soursop, fever grass, and orange peel were preferentially used for other indications. Patients who reported burning or numbness in the feet or feelings of tiredness, weakness, giddiness, or dizziness used bush medicines for diabetes more frequently than did patients who reported a range of other diabetes-related symptoms. Insulin-treated patients were less frequent users of bush medicines. It is concluded that bush medicines are taken regularly by many patients with diabetes in Trinidad. Plants most frequently used as remedies for diabetes have recognized hypoglycemic activity. Patients' culture, educational background, type of symptoms, and formal medical treatment may also influence the selection and use of bush medicines.

  11. INVASIVE ALIEN PLANT SPECIES USED FOR THE TREATMENT OF VARIOUS DISEASES IN LIMPOPO PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Maema, Lesibana Peter; Potgieter, Martin; Mahlo, Salome Mamokone

    2016-01-01

    Background: Invasive alien plant species (IAPs) are plants that have migrated from one geographical region to non-native region either intentional or unintentional. The general view of IAPs in environment is regarded as destructive to the ecosystem and they pose threat to native vegetation and species. However, some of these IAPS are utilized by local inhabitants as a substitute for scarce indigenous plants. The aim of the study is to conduct ethnobotanical survey on medicinal usage of invasi...

  12. Medicinal Plants Used for Treatment of Diarrhoeal Related Diseases in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizuneh Woldeab

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of relevant antidiarrhoeal medicinal plants based on the fundamental knowledge accumulated by indigenous people of Ethiopia. The review includes an inventory carried out on the phytochemical and pharmacological analysis of plant species used in the treatments of diarrhoeal diseases. This study is based on a review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, theses, proceedings, and reports. A total of 132 medicinal plants used by local people of Ethiopia are reported in the reviewed literature. Herbs (43.6% were the primary source of medicinal plants, followed by trees (27%. Some findings include the predominance of leaf material used (78%, as well as the frequent use of crushing of the plant parts (38% as a mode of preparation. This study demonstrates the importance of traditional medicines in the treatment of basic human ailments such as diarrhoeal diseases in Ethiopia. Baseline information gaps were observed in different regions of Ethiopia. Thus, documentation of the knowledge held by other regions of Ethiopia that have so far received less attention and urban ethnobotany is recommended for future ethnobotanical studies. In addition, phytochemical studies are recommended mainly on frequently utilized medicinal plants for treatment of diarrhoeal diseases which can serve as a basis for future investigation of modern drug development. Although societies in Ethiopia have long used medicinal plants for diarrhoeal diseases treatment, it is also a good practice to perform toxicological tests.

  13. Pharmacological and Phytochemical Appraisal of Selected Medicinal Plants from Jordan with Claimed Antidiabetic Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Fatma U.; Kasabri, Violet

    2013-01-01

    Plant species have long been regarded as possessing the principal ingredients used in widely disseminated ethnomedical practices. Different surveys showed that medicinal plant species used by the inhabitants of Jordan for the traditional treatment of diabetes are inadequately screened for their therapeutic/preventive potential and phytochemical findings. In this review, traditional herbal medicine pursued indigenously with its methods of preparation and its active constituents are listed. Studies of random screening for selective antidiabetic bioactivity and plausible mechanisms of action of local species, domesticated greens, or wild plants are briefly discussed. Recommended future directives incurring the design and conduct of comprehensive trials are pointed out to validate the usefulness of these active plants or bioactive secondary metabolites either alone or in combination with existing conventional therapies. PMID:24482764

  14. Aromatic Medicinal Plants of the Lamiaceae Family from Uzbekistan: Ethnopharmacology, Essential Oils Composition, and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilufar Z. Mamadalieva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the Lamiaceae family are important ornamental, medicinal, and aromatic plants, many of which produce essential oils that are used in traditional and modern medicine, and in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industry. Various species of the genera Hyssopus, Leonurus, Mentha, Nepeta, Origanum, Perovskia, Phlomis, Salvia, Scutellaria, and Ziziphora are widespread throughout the world, are the most popular plants in Uzbek traditional remedies, and are often used for the treatment of wounds, gastritis, infections, dermatitis, bronchitis, and inflammation. Extensive studies of the chemical components of these plants have led to the identification of many compounds, as well as essentials oils, with medicinal and other commercial values. The purpose of this review is to provide a critical overview of the literature surrounding the traditional uses, ethnopharmacology, biological activities, and essential oils composition of aromatic plants of the family Lamiaceae, from the Uzbek flora.

  15. Aromatic Medicinal Plants of the Lamiaceae Family from Uzbekistan: Ethnopharmacology, Essential Oils Composition, and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamadalieva, Nilufar Z; Akramov, Davlat Kh; Ovidi, Elisa; Tiezzi, Antonio; Nahar, Lutfun; Azimova, Shahnoz S; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2017-02-10

    Plants of the Lamiaceae family are important ornamental, medicinal, and aromatic plants, many of which produce essential oils that are used in traditional and modern medicine, and in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industry. Various species of the genera Hyssopus , Leonurus , Mentha , Nepeta , Origanum , Perovskia , Phlomis , Salvia , Scutellaria, and Ziziphora are widespread throughout the world, are the most popular plants in Uzbek traditional remedies, and are often used for the treatment of wounds, gastritis, infections, dermatitis, bronchitis, and inflammation. Extensive studies of the chemical components of these plants have led to the identification of many compounds, as well as essentials oils, with medicinal and other commercial values. The purpose of this review is to provide a critical overview of the literature surrounding the traditional uses, ethnopharmacology, biological activities, and essential oils composition of aromatic plants of the family Lamiaceae, from the Uzbek flora.

  16. Historical versus contemporary medicinal plant uses in the US Virgin Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soelberg, J; Davis, O; Jäger, A K

    2016-11-04

    Hidden in the documents of the dark past of the trans-Atlantic slavery are gems of ethnomedicinal observations, supported by herbarium specimens, which tell of the traditional medicine of a by-gone slave society in the Caribbean. In the context of the former Danish West Indies (now US Virgin Islands), we identify pre-1900 medicinal plants and their historical uses, and trace their status in the traditional medicine of St. Croix today (2014). By a combined historical and ethnobotanical approach we assess the scale of loss and preservation of traditional medicinal knowledge on St. Croix, and explore the drivers involved in the disappearance of knowledge in the oral tradition of medicine. Names, uses and identities of 18th and 19th century medicinal plant uses in the Danish West Indies were derived from manuscripts and publications of Von Rohr (1757/58), Oldendorp (1777), West (1793), Benzon (1822), Riise (1853), Eggers (1876;1879) and Berg and Eggers (1888). The presence of the plant species in the pre-1900 Danish West Indies was confirmed by review of herbarium specimens in the University of Copenhagen Herbarium (C). The same species were collected on St. Croix in 2014 or their ecological status discussed with local specialists. Semi-structured interviews supported by photographs and specimens were conducted with six medicinal plant specialist on St. Croix, to document and compare contemporary names and uses of the historically used medicinal plants. The historic ethnomedicinal sources revealed 102 medicinal uses of 64 plant species. Thirty-eight (37%) of the pre-1900 medicinal uses were traced in interviews, while sixty-four uses (63%) appear to be forgotten, discontinued or otherwise lost. Thirteen species appear to have entirely lost their status as medicinal plants on St. Croix, while 32 species (50%) have lost uses while retaining or gaining others. While 20% of the lost medicinal plant uses can be explained by biodiversity loss, and others likely have become

  17. MPD3: a useful medicinal plants database for drug designing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Arooj; Ashfaq, Usman Ali; Ul Qamar, Muhammad Tahir; Anwar, Farooq; Gulzar, Faisal; Ali, Muhammad Amjad; Saari, Nazamid; Pervez, Muhammad Tariq

    2017-06-01

    Medicinal plants are the main natural pools for the discovery and development of new drugs. In the modern era of computer-aided drug designing (CADD), there is need of prompt efforts to design and construct useful database management system that allows proper data storage, retrieval and management with user-friendly interface. An inclusive database having information about classification, activity and ready-to-dock library of medicinal plant's phytochemicals is therefore required to assist the researchers in the field of CADD. The present work was designed to merge activities of phytochemicals from medicinal plants, their targets and literature references into a single comprehensive database named as Medicinal Plants Database for Drug Designing (MPD3). The newly designed online and downloadable MPD3 contains information about more than 5000 phytochemicals from around 1000 medicinal plants with 80 different activities, more than 900 literature references and 200 plus targets. The designed database is deemed to be very useful for the researchers who are engaged in medicinal plants research, CADD and drug discovery/development with ease of operation and increased efficiency. The designed MPD3 is a comprehensive database which provides most of the information related to the medicinal plants at a single platform. MPD3 is freely available at: http://bioinform.info .

  18. Phylogenetic exploration of commonly used medicinal plants in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yessoufou, Kowiyou; Daru, Barnabas H; Muasya, Abraham Muthama

    2015-03-01

    The rapid growth rate of human population, along with the public health crisis encountered in many regions, particularly in developing world, creates an urgent need for the discovery of alternative drugs. Because medicinal plants are not distributed randomly across lineages, it has been suggested that phylogeny along with traditional knowledge of plant uses can guide the identification of new medicinally useful plants. In this study, we combined different statistical approaches to test for phylogenetic signal in 33 categories of plant uses in South Africa. Depending on the null models considered, we found evidence for signal in up to 45% of plant use categories, indicating the need for multiple tests combination to maximize the chance of discovering new medicinal plants when applying a phylogenetic comparative approach. Furthermore, although there was no signal in the diversity of medicinal uses-that is, total number of medicinal uses recorded for each plant-our results indicate that taxa that are evolutionarily closely related have significantly more uses than those that are evolutionarily isolated. Our study therefore provides additional support to the body of the literature that advocates for the inclusion of phylogeny in bioscreening medicinal flora for the discovery of alternative medicines. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Commercialization of Medicinal Plants in Java Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatius Adi Nugroho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The benefit and transaction cost flow which people earn economically and socially from wild medicinal plant harvesting are addressed in this study. The objectives of this study are three aspects: defining how many users are involved in utilization of medicinal plant raw materials (MPRM, how users describing their perception and motivation and describing benefit and transaction cost which influence users to harvest the plants. Results showed that utilization of medicinal plants in Java is still widely used as commercial products then medical services. There are 41 stakeholders who involved in this study and the highest motivation and perception in production and industrial clusters are economic interest. But stakeholder's perception and motivation in traditional healthcare cluster is social interest. The different motivation and perception in both clusters causing stakeholder who are work in traditional healthcare lack of market information, but they are important if the government will improve the traditional medicine. Recommendation of this study is that medicinal plants need further research and product development which can help to expand the medicinal plant culture area in the natural forest. By this reason, government should develop good political will to increase the medicinal plant resources for public healthcare.

  20. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by communities of Northern Kordofan region, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Mohamed Hammad Adam

    2015-12-24

    The present study provides significant ethnopharmacological information on plant species used in North Kordofan region, western Sudan. The study was undertaken with an aim to document the medicinal uses of the species known to some Northern Kordofan communities. The study was conducted between 2012 and 2013. The plants were identified and voucher specimens prepared. Information was collected by means of semi-structured interviews with 258 informants (195 men and 63 women). In addition, the use value (UV) of the species was determined and the informant consensus factor (ICF) was calculated for the medicinal plants researched in the study. Further analysis was carried out to compare results with previous studies from the study area and other regions of Sudan. A total of 44 plant species representing 24 families were found to be commonly used in the treatment of 73 different human health problems. The families most represented were Leguminosae (18%), Caesalpiniaceae (9%), Malvaceae (9%), Asclepiadaceae (6.8%) and Combretaceae (6.8%). The highest number of plant species are used against digestive system disorders (23 species) followed by microbial infections (21 species) and dermatology (19 species). Among all the plant parts leaves (20%), roots (19%), fruits and bark (14% each) were the most preferred plant parts used by the informants. There was strong agreement among the informants as to the usages of the plants (informant consensus factor 0.63-0.93). The most important plants on the basis of use-value were Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal, Balanites aegyptiaca, Cassia occidentalis, Cassia senna, Guiera senegalensis and Tamarindus indica. This study has helped to document information that may otherwise be lost to future generations. This is the first ethnobotanical study in which statistical calculations about plants are carried out by means of the ICF and UV methods in the study area. Plants with high ICF and UV values should be subjected for further phytochemical and

  1. Germination and early plant development of ten plant species ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten agronomic plant species were exposed to different concentrations of nano titanium dioxide (nTiO2) or nano cerium oxide (nCeO2) (0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L) to examine potential effects on germination and early seedling development. We modified a standard test protocol developed for soluble chemicals (OPPTS 850.4200) to determine if such an approach might be useful for screening engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and whether there were differences in response across a range of commercially important plant species to two common metal oxide ENMs. Eight of 10 species responded to nTiO2, and 5 species responded to nCeO2. Overall, it appeared that early root growth may be a more sensitive indicator of potential effects from ENM exposure than germination. The observed effects did not always relate to the exposure concentration, indicating that mass-based concentration may not fully explain developmental effects of these two ENMs. The results suggest that nTiO2 and nCeO2 have different effects on early plant growth of agronomic species, which may alter the timing of specific developmental events during their life cycle. In addition, standard germination tests, which are commonly used for toxicity screening of new materials, may not detect the subtle but potentially more important changes associated with early growth and development in terrestrial plants. Engineered nanoparticles (ENMs) have been recognized as valuable components of new technologies and are current

  2. Availability, diversification and versatility explain human selection of introduced plants in Ecuadorian traditional medicine.

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    G Hart

    Full Text Available Globally, a majority of people use plants as a primary source of healthcare and introduced plants are increasingly discussed as medicine. Protecting this resource for human health depends upon understanding which plants are used and how use patterns will change over time. The increasing use of introduced plants in local pharmacopoeia has been explained by their greater abundance or accessibility (availability hypothesis, their ability to cure medical conditions that are not treated by native plants (diversification hypothesis, or as a result of the introduced plants' having many different simultaneous roles (versatility hypothesis. In order to describe the role of introduced plants in Ecuador, and to test these three hypotheses, we asked if introduced plants are over-represented in the Ecuadorian pharmacopoeia, and if their use as medicine is best explained by the introduced plants' greater availability, different therapeutic applications, or greater number of use categories. Drawing on 44,585 plant-use entries, and the checklist of >17,000 species found in Ecuador, we used multi-model inference to test if more introduced plants are used as medicines in Ecuador than expected by chance, and examine the support for each of the three hypotheses above. We find nuanced support for all hypotheses. More introduced plants are utilized than would be expected by chance, which can be explained by geographic distribution, their strong association with cultivation, diversification (except with regard to introduced diseases, and therapeutic versatility, but not versatility of use categories. Introduced plants make a disproportionately high contribution to plant medicine in Ecuador. The strong association of cultivation with introduced medicinal plant use highlights the importance of the maintenance of human-mediated environments such as homegardens and agroforests for the provisioning of healthcare services.

  3. Wild Allium species (Alliaceae used in folk medicine of Tajikistan and Uzbekistan

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    Kurbonova Parvina A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hitherto available sources from literature mentioned several wild growing Allium species as "edible" or "medicinally used" but without any further specification. Methods New data were gained during recent research missions: Allium plants were collected and shown to the local population which was asked for names and usage of these plants. Results Information was collected about current medical applications of sixteen wild species, nine of which belong to different sections of Allium subgenus Melanocrommyum. These plants are used against headache, cold, and stomach problems, and are mostly applied fresh or after boiling. Conclusion Close taxonomic relatives of the common onion were used similar to cultivated onion species, but medical use like garlic was mostly reported for species taxonomically not related to garlic.

  4. Wild Allium species (Alliaceae) used in folk medicine of Tajikistan and Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keusgen, Michael; Fritsch, Reinhard M; Hisoriev, Hikmat; Kurbonova, Parvina A; Khassanov, Furkat O

    2006-01-01

    Background Hitherto available sources from literature mentioned several wild growing Allium species as "edible" or "medicinally used" but without any further specification. Methods New data were gained during recent research missions: Allium plants were collected and shown to the local population which was asked for names and usage of these plants. Results Information was collected about current medical applications of sixteen wild species, nine of which belong to different sections of Allium subgenus Melanocrommyum. These plants are used against headache, cold, and stomach problems, and are mostly applied fresh or after boiling. Conclusion Close taxonomic relatives of the common onion were used similar to cultivated onion species, but medical use like garlic was mostly reported for species taxonomically not related to garlic. PMID:16584547

  5. Medicinal plants of Guinea-Bissau: Therapeutic applications, ethnic diversity and knowledge transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catarino, Luís; Havik, Philip J; Romeiras, Maria M

    2016-05-13

    The rich flora of Guinea-Bissau, and the widespread use of medicinal plants for the treatment of various diseases, constitutes an important local healthcare resource with significant potential for research and development of phytomedicines. The goal of this study is to prepare a comprehensive documentation of Guinea-Bissau's medicinal plants, including their distribution, local vernacular names and their therapeutic and other applications, based upon local notions of disease and illness. Ethnobotanical data was collected by means of field research in Guinea-Bissau, study of herbarium specimens, and a comprehensive review of published works. Relevant data were included from open interviews conducted with healers and from observations in the field during the last two decades. A total of 218 medicinal plants were documented, belonging to 63 families, of which 195 are native. Over half of these species are found in all regions of the country. The medicinal plants are used to treat 18 major diseases categories; the greatest number of species are used to treat intestinal disorders (67 species). More than thirty ethnic groups were identified within the Guinea-Bissau population; 40% of the medicinal plants have been recorded in the country's principal ethnic languages (i.e. Fula and Balanta). This multi-disciplinary, country-wide study identifies a great diversity of plants used by indigenous communities as medicinal, which constitute an important common reservoir of botanical species and therapeutic knowledge. The regional overlap of many indigenous species, the consensual nature of disease groups based upon local perceptions of health conditions, and the relevance of local vernacular including Guinean Creole are key factors specific to the country which enhance the potential for the circulation and transmission of ethno-botanical and therapeutic knowledge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. IDENTIFICATION AND AUTHENTICATION OF DRY SAMPLES OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS USING LEAF EPIDERMAL FEATURES AS MARKER

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    Abdullahi Alanamu ABDULRAHAMAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine is the oldest and still the most widely used system of medicine in the world today and they are made exclusively from plants. However, most of these medicines or drugs are adulterated due to lack of proper identification of the plant samples. Method of checking adulteration of drug plants is the main focus of this study. The identification and authentication of dry samples of some medicinal plants were carried out using anatomical features. Twenty-five (25 plants materials were collected in Ibadan and Ilorin, Nigeria. The plants studied include Azardiracta indica, Newboudia leavis, Polyalthia longifolia, Cymbopogon citratus, Anarcardium occidentalis, Nicotiana tobbaccum, Jatropha curcas, Chromoleana odorata, Mangifera indica, Terminalia catappa, Ocimum gratisimum, Morus messosygia, Morinda lucida, Psidium guajava, Vitellaria paradoxa, Annona senegalensis, Vernonia amygdalina, Gliricidium sepium, Ravoulvia vomitora, Telferia occindentalis Citrus aurantifolia, C. limon, C. paradisi and C. sinensis. Leaf epidermal anatomy of these selected plants showed no major variations in stomatal complex types, frequency, size and shape of stomatal cells, epidermal cell wall and trichomes between fresh and dry samples. The variations that occur were between different species but not within species. Leaf epidermal anatomy, therefore, proved to be a significant tool for resolution of taxonomic confusion of dried samples of these plants.

  7. Update on Medicinal Plants with Potency on Mycobacterium ulcerans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouh Fokou, Patrick Valere; Nyarko, Alexander Kwadwo; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Tchokouaha Yamthe, Lauve Rachel; Ofosuhene, Mark; Boyom, Fabrice Fekam

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans disease has been a serious threat for people living in rural remote areas. Due to poverty or availability of traditional medicine these populations rely on herbal remedies. Currently, data on the anti-Mycobacterium ulcerans activity of plants, so far considered community-based knowledge, have been scientifically confirmed, concomitantly with some medicinal plants used to treat infectious diseases in general. Products derived from plants usually responsible for the biological properties may potentially control Mycobacterium ulcerans disease; numerous studies have aimed to describe the chemical composition of these plant antimicrobials. Thus, the present work provides the first compilation of medicinal plants that demonstrated inhibitory potential on Mycobacterium ulcerans. This work shows that the natural products represent potential alternatives to standard therapies for use as curative medicine for Mycobacterium ulcerans disease.

  8. Update on Medicinal Plants with Potency on Mycobacterium ulcerans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouh Fokou, Patrick Valere; Nyarko, Alexander Kwadwo; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Tchokouaha Yamthe, Lauve Rachel; Ofosuhene, Mark; Boyom, Fabrice Fekam

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans disease has been a serious threat for people living in rural remote areas. Due to poverty or availability of traditional medicine these populations rely on herbal remedies. Currently, data on the anti-Mycobacterium ulcerans activity of plants, so far considered community-based knowledge, have been scientifically confirmed, concomitantly with some medicinal plants used to treat infectious diseases in general. Products derived from plants usually responsible for the biological properties may potentially control Mycobacterium ulcerans disease; numerous studies have aimed to describe the chemical composition of these plant antimicrobials. Thus, the present work provides the first compilation of medicinal plants that demonstrated inhibitory potential on Mycobacterium ulcerans. This work shows that the natural products represent potential alternatives to standard therapies for use as curative medicine for Mycobacterium ulcerans disease. PMID:26779539

  9. Identification, collection and domestication of medicinal plants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field studies were conducted to investigate the medicinal plants, through identification, collection and domestication of these plants in southeastern, Nigeria. Questionnaire, personal interview and review of available records show that out of forty-three plants about fifteen were undergoing domestication in the course of this ...

  10. Antimicrobial nature and use of some medicinal plants in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty eight medicinal plants in Nigeria were screened for their antimicrobial activity. Twenty three (47.91%) of the plants caused over 70% mortality of the test organism which include anopheline and culicine larva. Bacillus spp. and Escherichia coli were shown to be susceptible to the antimicrobial activity of some plants.

  11. Cytotoxicity evaluation of sixteen Nigerian medicinal plant extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of our evaluation of plants from the Nigerian ethnobotany,sixteen extracts from fourteen medicinal plants were evaluated for toxicity and inhibition of tumour cell growth using human rhabdomyosarcoma(RD) cell line. The plant samples were extracted by maceration in methanol at room temperature and were ...

  12. Absence of Mutagenicity in Three Nigerian Medicinal Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Purpose: Bidens pilosa, Cleistopholis paterns, and Tetrapleura tetraptera are plants that are used traditionally for cancer treatment, ... mutation test, suggesting that it is potentially safe to use them as medicinal plant supplements even at high doses. Keywords: ..... produced by plant metabolites of aromatic amines. Toxicol.

  13. The antibacterial and antifungal activity of essential oils extracted from Guatemalan medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew B; Cates, Rex G; Lawrence, Michael; Soria, J Alfonso Fuentes; Espinoza, Luis V; Martinez, Jose Vicente; Arbizú, Dany A

    2015-04-01

    Essential oils are prevalent in many medicinal plants used for oral hygiene and treatment of diseases. Medicinal plant species were extracted to determine the essential oil content. Those producing sufficient oil were screened for activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Candida albicans. Plant samples were collected, frozen, and essential oils were extracted by steam distillation. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined using a tube dilution assay for those species yielding sufficient oil. Fifty-nine of the 141 plant species produced sufficient oil for collection and 12 species not previously reported to produce essential oils were identified. Essential oil extracts from 32 species exhibited activity against one or more microbes. Oils from eight species were highly inhibitory to S. mutans, four species were highly inhibitory to C. albicans, and 19 species yielded MIC values less than the reference drugs. RESULTS suggest that 11 species were highly inhibitory to the microbes tested and merit further investigation. Oils from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae), Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle (Rutaceae), Lippia graveolens Kunth (Verbenaceae), and Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) yielded highly significant or moderate activity against all microbes and have potential as antimicrobial agents. Teas prepared by decoction or infusion are known methods for extracting essential oils. Oils from 11 species were highly active against the microbes tested and merit investigation as to their potential for addressing health-related issues and in oral hygiene.

  14. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants and traditional therapies on Batan Island, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Reika; Ohtani, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-30

    We studied the local knowledge and uses of medicinal plants among the Ivatan people of Batan Island by documenting their traditional practices. To identify the types of medicinal plants used in self-care by the indigenous people of Batan Island, the Philippines and to investigate the extent to which the plants are used. Conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important; thus, this research aims to collect information from local people concerning the use of medicinal plants on Batan Island. A total of 116 informants were interviewed, allowing for calculated informant consensus factors (ICF), use value (UV), and fidelity levels (FL) for each medicinal plant species used to cure various ailments. This helped to establish a consensus on which species are effective for particular ailments, as well as the species' relative importance, and enabled us to understand the extent of the potential utilization of each species. We describe the therapeutic effects of 112 plant species used medicinally against 13 categories of ailments. The highest ICF value (1.00) was cited for diseases of the ear and respiratory system and for use during pregnancy, childbirth and the postnatal period. The maximum FL of 100% was found for Carica papaya, Stachytarpheta jamaicensis, Musa sapientum, and Pedilanthus tithymaloides, used for the treatment of constipation, cuts and wounds, diarrhea, and dislocations and fractures, respectively. The highest UV was for Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (0.67). All plants with high UV were used for exogenous diseases, certain infectious and parasitic diseases, injuries, poisonings and other consequences of external factors, and diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. In addition to its use for endogenous disease and lifestyle-related diseases and illnesses, Moringa oleifera is also used for diseases of the circulatory system, with a UV of 0.57 and Cocos nucifera is used for diseases of the genitourinary system, with a UV

  15. Traditional medicinal plant use in Northern Peru: tracking two thousand years of healing culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2006-11-07

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin. Northern Peru represents the center of the old Central Andean "Health Axis," stretching from Ecuador to Bolivia. The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go at least as far back as the Moche period (AC 100-800). Although about 50% of the plants in use reported in the colonial period have disappeared from the popular pharmacopoeia, the plant knowledge of the population is much more extensive than in other parts of the Andean region. 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes were collected, identified and their vernacular names, traditional uses and applications recorded. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35), Lamiaceae (25), and Solanaceae (21). Euphorbiaceae had twelve species, and Apiaceae and Poaceae 11 species. The highest number of species was used for the treatment of "magical/ritual" ailments (207 species), followed by respiratory disorders (95), problems of the urinary tract (85), infections of female organs (66), liver ailments (61), inflammations (59), stomach problems (51) and rheumatism (45). Most of the plants used (83%) were native to Peru. Fresh plants, often collected wild, were used in two thirds of all cases, and the most common applications included the ingestion of herb decoctions or the application of plant material as poultices.

  16. Cloning of medicinal plants through tissue culture--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, H C; Jain, Madhu; Kidwai, N R

    2007-11-01

    In order to have standardized formulations, the chemical constituents from plants and their parts are required to be uniform both qualitatively and quantitatively. Furthermore, an ever increasing demand of uniform medicinal plants based medicines warrants their mass cloning through plant tissue culture strategy. A good number of medicinal plants have been reported to regenerate in vitro from their various parts, but a critical evaluation of such reports reveals that only a few complete medicinal plants have been regenerated and still fewer have actually been grown in soil, while their micropropagation on a mass scale has rarely been achieved, particularly in those medicinal plants where conventional propagation is inadequate, like, the mass clonal propagation of Dioscorea floribunda leading to its successful field trials. Such facts make it imperative to document the factual position of micropropagation of medicinal plants bringing out the advancements made along with the short falls, in this important area. The present review deals with the futuristic view on the said subject restricted to higher plants.

  17. Ethno-Botanical Survey Of Medicinal Plants In The Plant Genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethno-botanical uses and mode of administration of twenty-nine medicinal plants found in the arboretum of the Plant Genetic Resource Centre located at Bunso in the Eastern region of Ghana against some disease conditions are hereby documented. Key words: Ethnobotany, medicinal plants, arboretum, Ghana. Nig.

  18. Leaf histochemistry analysis of four medicinal species from Cerrado

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    Vinícius C. Kuster

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Chemical components act in plant defense and protection, but many of them are extracted and used medicinally. For Cerrado, active chemical components are used in the treatment of diseases, which strengthens the necessity for pharmacological studies of plants of that environment. The objective was to evaluate the histochemistry of the leaf blade of Byrsonima verbascifolia (L. DC., Malpighiaceae, Campomanesia adamantium (Cambess. O.Berg, Myrtaceae, Roupala montana Aubl., Proteaceae, and Solanum lycocarpum A. St.-Hil., Solanaceae, species that have been reported as producers of secondary metabolites for pharmacological use. The 3rd node leaves (median, intercostal and margin regions were collected, fixed, included in Paraplast® or 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, sectioned in microtome, stained and photographed on microscope. This analysis aimed to find leaf regions which produced chemical compounds. For histochemical tests, intercostal areas were selected from median region leaf of the 3rd node. Samples fresh and newly collected and fixed and embedded in Paraplast® were used. Tests were conducted for lipids, terpenoids, phenolic compounds, alkaloids, sugars and proteins. Alkaloids were observed only in R. montana, as well as the results for phenolic compounds. Flavonoids are present in B. verbascifolia and R. montana. The lipid composition was showed for the chemical compounds of B. verbascifolia and C. adamantium, which proved to be part of the essential oils or resins oils in C. adamantium idioblasts. The chemical compounds of B. verbascifolia, C. adamantium and R. montana are present mainly in idioblasts among the parenchyma and epidermal cells. C. adamantium has secretory cavities, but only with lipid content. The identification of chemical compounds has not been possible in mature leaves of S. lycocarpum.

  19. Antiviral Activity of Some Plants Used in Nepalese Traditional Medicine

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    M. Rajbhandari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extracts of 41 plant species belonging to 27 families used in the traditional medicine in Nepal have been investigated for in vitro antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 and influenza virus A by dye uptake assay in the systems HSV-1/Vero cells and influenza virus A/MDCK cells. The extracts of Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata, Cassiope fastigiata and Thymus linearis showed potent anti-herpes viral activity. The extracts of Allium oreoprasum, Androsace strigilosa, Asparagus filicinus, Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata and Verbascum thapsus exhibited strong anti-influenza viral activity. Only the extracts of A. rivularis and B. ciliata demonstrated remarkable activity against both viruses.

  20. Plant species descriptions show signs of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Michael E; Antonovics, Janis

    2003-11-07

    It is well known that diseases can greatly influence the morphology of plants, but often the incidence of disease is either too rare or the symptoms too obvious for the 'abnormalities' to cause confusion in systematics. However, we have recently come across several misinterpretations of disease-induced traits that may have been perpetuated into modern species inventories. Anther-smut disease (caused by the fungus Microbotryum violaceum) is common in many members of the Caryophyllaceae and related plant families. This disease causes anthers of infected plants to be filled with dark-violet fungal spores rather than pollen. Otherwise, their vegetative morphology is within the normal range of healthy plants. Here, we present the results of a herbarium survey showing that a number of type specimens (on which the species name and original description are based) in the genus Silene from Asia are diseased with anther smut. The primary visible disease symptom, namely the dark-violet anthers, is incorporated into the original species descriptions and some of these descriptions have persisted unchanged into modern floras. This raises the question of whether diseased type specimens have erroneously been given unique species names.

  1. Effects of medicinal plant extracts on gluconeogenesis

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    Andrade-Cetto A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Adolfo Andrade-CettoLaboratorio de Etnofarmacología, Departamento de Biología Celular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Coyoacán, MéxicoAbstract: On a global level, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is the most common endocrine disorder. T2DM is defined as an elevated blood glucose level associated with the absence of or inadequacy in pancreatic insulin secretion. The liver plays a key role in maintaining blood glucose levels during fasting by synthesizing glucose, mainly from lactate and amino acids through a process called gluconeogenesis. Because hepatic glucose production is increased at least twofold in patients with T2DM, targeting this pathway may lead to a blood glucose reduction in these patients. Botanical agents show promise for the development of new compounds to treat T2DM. Important mechanisms of action function via the inhibition of gluconeogenesis can occur in one of five ways: direct enzyme inhibition; through the downregulation of mRNA levels of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-P; through the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, which leads to decreased levels of cAMP response element-binding protein, a key transcription factor for gluconeogenic enzyme phosphorylation; through the expression of the glucokinase gene, which stimulates glucokinase activity and inhibits G-6-P; and through the inhibition of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, which decreases gluconeogenesis and enzymatically inhibits G-6-P and fructose-1,6-diphosphatase.Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, medicinal plants, gluconeogenesis, glucose 6-phosphatase, hepatic glucose production, endocrine disorder, fructose 1,6-diphosphatase

  2. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by somes promising Brazilian medicinal plants

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    CM. Feitosa

    Full Text Available A microplate assay and a thin-layer chromatography (TLC "in situ" assay based on the Ellman assay was used to screen for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Brazilian medicinal plants of families that, according to the literature, have traditional uses that might be connected with acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Eighteen species belonging to Convolvulaceae, Crassulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Rutaceae families were tested. The most active plants were Ipomoea asarifolia (IC50 = 0.12 mg/mL, Jatropha curcas (IC50 = 0.25 mg/mL, Jatropha gossypiifolia (IC50 = 0.05 mg/mL, Kalanchoe brasiliensis (IC50 = 0.16 mg/mL and Senna alata (IC50 = 0.08 mg/mL. The most promising extracts were the Jatropha gossypiifolia and Senna alata species assuming there were compounds with a similar activity to galanthamine, which should contain about 1% of an active compound, or if present at lower levels even more active compounds than galanthamine (IC50 = 0.37 x 10-3 mg/mL should be present.

  3. Phytotherapy of Polish migrants in Misiones, Argentina: legacy and acquired plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawska, Monika; Hilgert, Norma I

    2014-05-14

    Analyzing how and why phytotherapeutical practices survive a migratory process is important for understanding migrant health seeking behaviour and health demand. Contrary to most studies, which focus on migrants from warm climates who settle in European and American cities, this study explores continuations in the herbal pharmacopoeia of Eastern European peasants who settled down in rural subtropical areas of Argentina. The study also explores the pharmacopoeia among the descendants of the first generation born in Argentina. Primary and secondary sources were employed in the study. Data were collected during over 200 interviews (semi-structured, free lists and in-depth) with 94 study participants. Voucher specimens of species mentioned were gathered and identified. Illnesses were reported according to local ethnomedical terminology and classification. Only reports from informants' own experience were included in the analysis. The unit of analysis was a plant use report (plant species × plant part × ailment × informant). The frequency of mentions was calculated for plant parts used and modes of preparation and administration of herbal medicines, and the Informant Diversity Value was also estimated. Secondary information was obtained from ethnobotanical and ethnomedical literature concerning the whole of Poland. A list was made of medicinal plant species known from Poland available in the study area. Then, the similarity between the available species and those used by Polish migrants was evaluated by applying the Simpson index. An exhaustive list of 129 plant species used by the Polish community in Misiones, Argentina, was obtained. Among 37 species known form Poland and available in Misiones, 19 were used by the community. There was low consensus on the treatment of health conditions with legacy plants between Polish migrants and the Polish folk pharmacopoeia. The reasons for the relatively low use of legacy species are explained. More continuation has been

  4. Medicinal plant use of villagers in the Mopani district, Limpopo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant parts used in preparation of remedies by practitioners are roots (51%), stem barks (30%) and leaves (19%). The most preferred methods of administration were boiling (74%) and infusion (12%). About 14 plants species were indicated for treatment of diabetes mellitus, while most plant species were indicated for ...

  5. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used as anthelmintic remedies in Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajin Ba Ndob, Idensi; Mengome, Line Edwige; Bourobou Bourobou, Henri-Paul; Lossangoye Banfora, Yvon; Bivigou, Francis

    2016-09-15

    In this article, we report on an ethnobotanical survey realized at the Peyrie market in Libreville on Gabonese medicinal plants used to treat helminthiasis. While several alerts about cases of resistance to conventional anthelmintic treatments are causing to fear a public and animal health issue, the search for new sources of active compounds becomes an urgent issue. In Gabon like in many developing countries, people regularly turn to traditional medicine in case of physical ailments and/or spiritual healing therapies. To determine which medicinal plants are traditionally used by the populations of Libreville to fight against nematodes, medicinal plant traders were interviewed with standardized questionnaires. The surveys were conducted in the main market of Libreville. Ethnobotanical data such as frequency and percentage of families, species, administrations pathways, modes of preparations and parts of plants used were analyzed and summarized. Thirty-four (34) traders were interviewed belonging to five (5) different ethnic groups. Twenty-four 24 plants used to treat intestinal, cutaneous and ocular helminthiasis were listed. The healers mainly turned towards to ligneous species. The parts of the plant used are mostly leaves and trunk bark. Most of the traditional remedies are prepared directly in water and four (4) principal routes were used for administration namely, oral, rectal, ocular and dermal. This study allowed us to list anthelmintic species which will be subjected to a series of chemical and pharmacological assays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants from Leepa valley, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Aqeel; Mahmood, Adeel; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Malik, Riffat N

    2012-08-30

    Ethnomedicinal studies were conducted first time in the Leepa Valley, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan to document indigenous medicinal knowledge of most common plant species. Pakistan is diverse country by possessing a wide range of climatic and geological condition; this country also has a mammoth diversity of flora. Rapid appraisal approach, semi-structured interviewees, personal observations and field work guided by local informants having sufficient knowledge of indigenous medicinal plants were employed to acquire ethnomedicinal information. In this study 61 medicinal plants belonging to 40 families have been reported through 705 informants (267 females, 393 males and 45 herbal specialists) from 17 sites of Leepa valley. The main sources of herbal medicines were wild herbs (64%) followed by trees (10%), wild shrubs (8%), cultivated herbs (3%), wild and cultivated herbs (3%), wild grasses (3%), climbing wild herbs (2%), prostate wild herbs (2%), spiny shrubs (2%), fungi (2%) and ferns (1%). The most repeatedly used plant parts were leaves (34%) followed by root (16%), seed (10%), shoot (9%), fruit (8%), flower (8%), bark (6%), whole plant (4%) and barriers, tubers, nuts, oil, milky latex (1%). Preparations of medicinal plants were administrated through oral and topical routs. Leepa Valley is wealthy in its indigenous medicinal plants species and the allied traditional knowledge. Indigenous medicines play important role in the local healthcare system. Most of the local community prefers to use the traditional herbal preparation for against ailments. This is the first record of indigenous knowledge from this area and there is dare need for more studies to authenticate traditional plants used in herbal remedies of study area. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Folk use of medicinal plants in Karst and Gorjanci, Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpert, Mateja; Kreft, Samo

    2017-02-23

    Information on the use of medicinal plants in Karst and Gorjanci is not available in the literature, but collection of plants is still an important and widespread practice in these regions. Karst and Gorjanci are two remote regions in Slovenia that are only 120 km apart but have different climates; one region is close to the Italian border, and the other is near the Croatian border. Our aim was to report and compare the use of medicinal plants in both regions. From October 2013 to September 2014, 25 informants each in Karst and Gorjanci were interviewed during field research. The age of the informants ranged from 33 to 89 years, with an average age of 61 years in Karst and 69 years in Gorjanci. The main question was "Which plants do or did you collect from nature and use?" Plants of medicinal, nutritive, veterinary or cosmetic use were considered. A total of 78 and 82 taxa were reported in Karst and Gorjanci, respectively; 65 taxa were reported in both regions. Approximately 64% of the plants in each region were distinctive for only a few informants (fewer than 7). The remaining plants were considered important, and the majority were mutual to both regions. Few reported plants were typical for just one region. Differences in the use of some common medicinal plants were observed, e.g., Matricaria chamomilla was used mostly for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory infections and sore eyes in Gorjanci but as a calmative in Karst. Altogether, 15 different oral and 15 different topical medicinal preparations were reported. Folk knowledge was found to be influenced by the media, particularly popular books about medicinal plants that were published in the 20th century. The present research documents the folk use of medicinal plants in Karst and Gorjanci, Slovenia. This rapidly changing practice needs to be documented before it disappears or changes.

  8. Antibacterial activity of some selected medicinal plants of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Yamin; Nisa, Sobia; Chaudhary, Fayyaz M; Zia, Muhammad

    2011-06-30

    Screening of the ethnobotenical plants is a pre-requisite to evaluate their therapeutic potential and it can lead to the isolation of new bioactive compounds. The crude extracts and fractions of six medicinal important plants (Arisaema flavum, Debregeasia salicifolia, Carissa opaca, Pistacia integerrima, Aesculus indica, and Toona ciliata) were tested against three Gram positive and two Gram negative ATCC bacterial species using the agar well diffusion method. The crude extract of P. integerrima and A. indica were active against all tested bacterial strains (12-23 mm zone of inhibition). Other four plant's crude extracts (Arisaema flavum, Debregeasia salicifolia, Carissa opaca, and Toona ciliata) were active against different bacterial strains. The crude extracts showed varying level of bactericidal activity. The aqueous fractions of A. indica and P. integerrima crude extract showed maximum activity (19.66 and 16 mm, respectively) against B. subtilis, while the chloroform fractions of T. ciliata and D. salicifolia presented good antibacterial activities (13-17 mm zone of inhibition) against all the bacterial cultures tested. The methanol fraction of Pistacia integerrima, chloroform fractions of Debregeasia salicifolia &Toona ciliata and aqueous fraction of Aesculus indica are suitable candidates for the development of novel antibacterial compounds.

  9. Antibacterial activity of some selected medicinal plants of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Fayyaz M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening of the ethnobotenical plants is a pre-requisite to evaluate their therapeutic potential and it can lead to the isolation of new bioactive compounds. Methods The crude extracts and fractions of six medicinal important plants (Arisaema flavum, Debregeasia salicifolia, Carissa opaca, Pistacia integerrima, Aesculus indica, and Toona ciliata were tested against three Gram positive and two Gram negative ATCC bacterial species using the agar well diffusion method. Results The crude extract of P. integerrima and A. indica were active against all tested bacterial strains (12-23 mm zone of inhibition. Other four plant's crude extracts (Arisaema flavum, Debregeasia salicifolia, Carissa opaca, and Toona ciliata were active against different bacterial strains. The crude extracts showed varying level of bactericidal activity. The aqueous fractions of A. indica and P. integerrima crude extract showed maximum activity (19.66 and 16 mm, respectively against B. subtilis, while the chloroform fractions of T. ciliata and D. salicifolia presented good antibacterial activities (13-17 mm zone of inhibition against all the bacterial cultures tested. Conclusion The methanol fraction of Pistacia integerrima, chloroform fractions of Debregeasia salicifolia &Toona ciliata and aqueous fraction of Aesculus indica are suitable candidates for the development of novel antibacterial compounds.

  10. Endophytic actinobacteria of medicinal plants: diversity and bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golinska, Patrycja; Wypij, Magdalena; Agarkar, Gauravi; Rathod, Dnyaneshwar; Dahm, Hanna; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-08-01

    Endophytes are the microorganisms that exist inside the plant tissues without having any negative impact on the host plant. Medicinal plants constitute the huge diversity of endophytic actinobacteria of economical importance. These microbes have huge potential to synthesis of numerous novel compounds that can be exploited in pharmaceutical, agricultural and other industries. It is of prime importance to focus the present research on practical utilization of this microbial group in order to find out the solutions to the problems related to health, environment and agriculture. An extensive characterization of diverse population of endophytic actinobacteria associated with medicinal plants can provide a greater insight into the plant-endophyte interactions and evolution of mutualism. In the present review, we have discussed the diversity of endophytic actinobacteria of from medicinal plants their multiple bioactivities.

  11. [Systems biology applications to explore secondary metabolites in medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Luqi; Gao, Wei; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Ruiting

    2010-01-01

    Secondary metabolites are produced during the growth and development of plants along with the adaptation of outer environment, as a rule they are the main active ingredients in medicinal plants and ensure the quality of crude drugs. Since biogenesis is quite complex, the production and accumulation of secondary metabolites are influenced by various biotic and abiotic factors either from gene or environments, the complexity may affect quality control of crude drugs and utilization of the active ingredients. The thought and approach adopted in systems biology is a powerful tool to explore biology fully, along with the development of modern molecular biology and information biology, omics integration like genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics will bring new opportunities for the study of secondary metabolites of medicinal plant. It has great significance to apply this holistic and systematic method in researches on biosynthetic pathway, signal transduction, ecological environment and metabolic engineering of the formation of the secondary metabolites of medicinal plants, and in building secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene expression and regulation system model, in order to explain the origin of the active ingredients of medicinal plants, formation mechanism of the Chinese herbs, metabolic engineering effecting active ingredients of medicinal plants, and the rational exploitation and utilization of resources of medicinal plants systematically.

  12. Knowledge of Medicinal Plants for Children Diseases in the Environs of District Bannu, Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa (KPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Shaheen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are important treasures for the treatment of different types of diseases. Current study provides significant ethnopharmacological information, both qualitative and quantitative on medical plants related to children disorders from district Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK province of Pakistan. The information gathered was quantitatively analyzed using informant consensus factor, relative frequency of citation and use value method to establish a baseline data for more comprehensive investigations of bioactive compounds of indigenous medicinal plants specifically related to children disorders. To best of our knowledge it is first attempt to document ethno-botanical information of medicinal plants using quantitative approaches. Total of 130 informants were interviewed using questionnaire conducted during 2014–2016 to identify the preparations and uses of the medicinal plants for children diseases treatment. A total of 55 species of flowering plants belonging to 49 genera and 32 families were used as ethno-medicines in the study area. The largest number of specie belong to Leguminosae and Cucurbitaceae families (4 species each followed by Apiaceae, Moraceae, Poaceae, Rosaceae, and Solanaceae (3 species each. In addition leaves and fruits are most used parts (28%, herbs are most used life form (47%, decoction method were used for administration (27%, and oral ingestion was the main used route of application (68.5%. The highest use value was reported for species Momordica charantia and Raphnus sativus (1 for each and highest Informant Consensus Factor was observed for cardiovascular and rheumatic diseases categories (0.5 for each. Most of the species in the present study were used to cure gastrointestinal diseases (39 species. The results of present study revealed the importance of medicinal plant species and their significant role in the health care of the inhabitants in the present area. The people of Bannu own high traditional

  13. Knowledge of Medicinal Plants for Children Diseases in the Environs of District Bannu, Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa (KPK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Shabnam; Abbas, Safdar; Hussain, Javid; Mabood, Fazal; Umair, Muhammad; Ali, Maroof; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad; Farooq, Umar; Khan, Ajmal

    2017-01-01

    Medicinal plants are important treasures for the treatment of different types of diseases. Current study provides significant ethnopharmacological information, both qualitative and quantitative on medical plants related to children disorders from district Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province of Pakistan. The information gathered was quantitatively analyzed using informant consensus factor, relative frequency of citation and use value method to establish a baseline data for more comprehensive investigations of bioactive compounds of indigenous medicinal plants specifically related to children disorders. To best of our knowledge it is first attempt to document ethno-botanical information of medicinal plants using quantitative approaches. Total of 130 informants were interviewed using questionnaire conducted during 2014–2016 to identify the preparations and uses of the medicinal plants for children diseases treatment. A total of 55 species of flowering plants belonging to 49 genera and 32 families were used as ethno-medicines in the study area. The largest number of specie belong to Leguminosae and Cucurbitaceae families (4 species each) followed by Apiaceae, Moraceae, Poaceae, Rosaceae, and Solanaceae (3 species each). In addition leaves and fruits are most used parts (28%), herbs are most used life form (47%), decoction method were used for administration (27%), and oral ingestion was the main used route of application (68.5%). The highest use value was reported for species Momordica charantia and Raphnus sativus (1 for each) and highest Informant Consensus Factor was observed for cardiovascular and rheumatic diseases categories (0.5 for each). Most of the species in the present study were used to cure gastrointestinal diseases (39 species). The results of present study revealed the importance of medicinal plant species and their significant role in the health care of the inhabitants in the present area. The people of Bannu own high traditional knowledge

  14. Ethnoveterinary uses of medicinal plants: a survey of plants used in the ethnoveterinary control of gastro-intestinal parasites of goats in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maphosa, Viola; Masika, Patrick Julius

    2010-06-01

    Conventional drugs have become expensive and therefore unaffordable to resource-limited farmers, causing farmers to seek low cost alternatives, such as use of medicinal plants. In this study, a survey was conducted in order to document information on medicinal plants used by farmers in the control of internal parasites in goats in the Eastern Cape Province. Structured questionnaires and general conversation were used to collect the information from farmers and herbalists. The survey revealed 28 plant species from 20 families that are commonly used in the treatment of gastro-intestinal parasites in goats. The plant family Asphodelaceae was frequent in usage, comprising 21.4% of the plants, and the Aloe was the most utilized species (50%). Leaves were the most frequently used plant parts (45.9%), and decoctions constituted the majority of medicinal preparations (70%). Medicinal plants are generally used in combination with other plants, and/or non-plant substances, but a few plants are used on their own. These medicinal plant remedies are administered orally, mainly by use of bottles and this is done twice in summer at intervals of one month, only once in winter and when need arises thereafter. Some of the mentioned plants have been reported in literature to possess anthelmintic properties, while others possess activities ranging from anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, purgative, anti-edema to immuno-regulation. If their safety and efficacy could be confirmed, these plants could form an alternative cost effective strategy in managing helminthiasis in the province.

  15. [Medicinal plants in cancer patients: current practices and evaluation data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, Matthieu

    2013-05-01

    Many complementary and alternatives medicines are offered to patients with cancer. Among them, herbal medicines have a substantial place. These plants are mainly used to reduce adverse effects of anticancer treatments and for specific anticancer properties. Our review shows that only few clinical data support medicinal plants effectiveness in cancer patients. Arguments rely mainly on usual indications and pharmacological data for minimization of treatments toxicity while for the anticancer properties, on epidemiological and preclinical data. To inform and counsel patients and people around, healthcare professionals need to evaluate benefit-risk balance on evidence-based information. Because the medical decision should be shared with the patient, his beliefs and preferences have to be considered. When no adverse effect or drug interaction is associated with herbal medicine, we state that their use is acceptable. This paper discuss of potential risk and benefit of the most used medicinal plants by cancer patients.

  16. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the Maseru district of Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleteng Kose, Lerato; Moteetee, Annah; Van Vuuren, Sandy

    2015-07-21

    Ethnobotanical knowledge in Lesotho is passed on orally from one generation to another. As a result it has not been well documented. Existing publications have relied on previous literature and are limited either in terms of scope or coverage. Furthermore, some of them are out of print. Therefore, there are gaps in the documentation of medicinal plants used in Lesotho. The purpose of the current study is to investigate common ailments in Lesotho's traditional medicine and document plants that are used in treating such ailments. Interviews were conducted in five urban and four rural areas of the capital town of Maseru, by means of questionnaires to elicit information on medicinal plant use to cure common ailments. The informants were 20 males and seven females comprising 15 traditional healers, 11 herbalists and one pharmacist. Reproductive ailments were found to be the most commonly treated, followed by respiratory, degenerative and digestive problems. A list of the 80 plants used for treating the common ailments is given. A total of 44 families is represented, with Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Asphodelaceae and Poaceae families having the highest number of species used for medicinal purposes. The most frequently mentioned medicinal plants in interviews include; Elephantorrhiza elephantina, Pentanisia prunelloides, Hypoxis hermerocallidea, Eriocephalus sp., Salvia runcinata, Scabiosa columbaria, Dicoma anomala, Morella serrata, Xysmalobium undulatum, and Leobordea lanceolata. Due to the high demand of medicinal plants, some species such as L. lanceolata, Tephrosia capensis, E. elephantina, D. anomala and P. prunelloides were reported as over-harvested. In some cases animal products are added to the medicinal plants to enhance their curative abilities. A total of 80 plants were recorded in the study as treating 38 common ailments in the Maseru district of Lesotho. Records of eight medicinal plants and 146 new medicinal uses of 34 plants that were not recorded elsewhere in

  17. Traditional use of medicinal plants in the boreal forest of Canada: review and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uprety Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The boreal forest of Canada is home to several hundred thousands Aboriginal people who have been using medicinal plants in traditional health care systems for thousands of years. This knowledge, transmitted by oral tradition from generation to generation, has been eroding in recent decades due to rapid cultural change. Until now, published reviews about traditional uses of medicinal plants in boreal Canada have focused either on particular Aboriginal groups or on restricted regions. Here, we present a review of traditional uses of medicinal plants by the Aboriginal people of the entire Canadian boreal forest in order to provide comprehensive documentation, identify research gaps, and suggest perspectives for future research. Methods A review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, theses and reports. Results A total of 546 medicinal plant taxa used by the Aboriginal people of the Canadian boreal forest were reported in the reviewed literature. These plants were used to treat 28 disease and disorder categories, with the highest number of species being used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by musculoskeletal disorders. Herbs were the primary source of medicinal plants, followed by shrubs. The medicinal knowledge of Aboriginal peoples of the western Canadian boreal forest has been given considerably less attention by researchers. Canada is lacking comprehensive policy on harvesting, conservation and use of medicinal plants. This could be explained by the illusion of an infinite boreal forest, or by the fact that many boreal medicinal plant species are widely distributed. Conclusion To our knowledge, this review is the most comprehensive to date to reveal the rich traditional medicinal knowledge of Aboriginal peoples of the Canadian boreal forest. Future ethnobotanical research endeavours should focus on documenting the knowledge held by Aboriginal groups that have so far received less attention

  18. Medicinal plants used for the management of diabetes mellitus in Zaria, Kaduna state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar S. Abubakar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Context: The knowledge of traditional uses of medicinal plants in the management of diabetes mellitus in Zaria is still intact with the traditional medicine practitioners. Aims: To collect, identify and document medicinal plants used traditionally for the management of diabetes mellitus in Zaria city. Methods: Open-ended informal interviews and general conversation were administered to twenty-two (22 traditional medicine practitioners (TMPs and herb sellers. The data collected included the local names of plants, parts used, method of preparations and mode of administration. Results: Twenty-six (26 species of plants belonging to eighteen (18 families were identified. Herbal remedies were mostly prepared from freshly collected plants, while decoction was the main method of preparation. Leaves and stem bark formed the major parts of plants for herbal preparations. Conclusions: The study has documented different traditional practices used for the management of diabetes mellitus in the study area. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of plant species that have not yet been studied and to identify the bioactive compounds responsible for the antidiabetic activity as claimed by the traditional healers.

  19. Molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of Brazilian Cerrado medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, J C B; Silva, I A; Ferreira, H D; Ferri, P H; Santos, S C

    2002-08-01

    Alcoholic extracts of six Brazilian Cerrado medicinal plants were evaluated for their molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate host of schistosomiasis. Stryphnodendron polyphyllum bark extract, rich in condensed tannins, was the most promising as molluscicide.

  20. Potential medicinal plants for CNS disorders: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikas

    2006-12-01

    Although very few drugs are currently approved by regulatory authorities for treating multi-factorial ailments and disorders of cognition such as Alzheimer's disease, certain plant-derived agents, including, for example, galantamine and rivastigmine (a semi-synthetic derivative of physostigmine) are finding an application in modern medicine. However, in Ayurveda, the Indian traditional system of medicine which is more than 5000 years old, selected plants have long been classified as 'medhya rasayanas', from the Sanskrit words 'medhya', meaning intellect or cognition, and 'rasayana', meaning 'rejuvenation'. These plants are used both in herbal and conventional medicine and offer benefits that pharmaceutical drugs lack. In the present article, an attempt has been made to review the most important medicinal plants, including Ginkgo biloba, St John's wort, Kava-kava, Valerian, Bacopa monniera and Convolvulus pluricaulis, which are widely used for their reputed effectiveness in CNS disorders.

  1. Research progress of Tunisian medicinal plants used for acute diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissem Aidi Wannes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of the medicinal plants in treating diabetes is frequent in Africa, especially in Tunisia, and it is ritually transmitted from generation to generation within cultures. Many of Tunisian medicinal plants have been experimentally validated. A comprehensive review was conducted to pile up information from scientific journal articles, including indigenous knowledge researches, about Tunisian medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes. The aim of this review article is to provide the reader with information concerning the importance of Tunisian medicinal plants in the treatment of diabetes and to draw attention of the health professionals and scientists working in the field of pharmacology and therapeutics to develop new drug formulations to cure different kinds of diabetes.

  2. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the management of hypertension in the Maritime region of Togo. Holaly E. Gbekley, Simplice D. Karou, Gnatoulma Katawa, Tchadjobo Tchacondo, Komlan Batawila, Yaovi Ameyapoh, Jacques Simpore ...

  3. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in villages under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in villages under Jongilanga Tribal Council, Mpumalanga, South Africa. Thilivhali Emmanuel Tshikalange, Boikanyo Calvin Mophuting, James Mahore, Stefan Winterboer, Namrita Lall ...

  4. Molecular screening of Chinese medicinal plants for progestogenic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-05-01

    progestogenic properties. Extract of 13 Chinese medicinal plants were analysed for progestogenic and anti-progestogenic activities by using progesterone response element-driven luciferase reporter gene bioassay. MTT assay was ...

  5. Ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants in the highlands of Soan Valley, Salt Range, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Sadia; Sultana, Jawairia; Sultana, Humaira; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2014-08-08

    Two thirds of the world's population relies on medicinal plants for centuries for several human pathologies. Present study aimed to identify, catalogue and document the large number of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in Soan Valley, Salt Range, Pakistan. Informal interviews were conducted involving a total of 255 villagers (155 male and 65 female and 35 herbalists) to elicit the knowledge and use of medicinal plants. Local communities possessed knowledge of fifty eight (58) medicinal plant species belonging to thirty five (35) families to treat fifteen ailment categories. Whole plant and leaves were the most frequently used plant parts (24%) followed by seed (14%), root (12%), flower (7%), bulb (6%), fruit (4%), stem (3%), latex and rhizome (2%) and sap and gum (1%). Frequently used growth forms of medicinal plants were wild herbs (63%) followed by cultivated herbs (14%), wild trees (11%), wild shrubs (10%) and wild and cultivated herbs (2%). Preparations were administrated generally through oral and topical routes. Local people were familiar mostly with the species in order to deal common ailments particularly cough, cold, digestive problems, fever, headache, and skin infections. Complex ailments were treated by traditional healers. Justica adhatoda, Olea ferruginea, Amaranthus viridis and Mentha royleana were identified as plants with high use value (UV). This study revealed that the area harbors high diversity of medicinal flora. Despite gradual socio-cultural transformation, local communities still hold ample knowledge of plants and their uses. The reliance on traditional medicines was associated with the lack of modern health care facilities, poverty and the traditional belief of their effectiveness. Medicinal plants play a significant role in management of various human diseases in the study area. A high degree of consensus among the informants was an indicative that plant use and knowledge were still strong, and preservation of this knowledge

  6. Availability, diversification and versatility explain human selection of introduced plants in Ecuadorian traditional medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaoue, Orou G.; de la Torre, Lucía; Navarrete, Hugo; Muriel, Priscilla; Macía, Manuel J.; Balslev, Henrik; León-Yánez, Susana; Jørgensen, Peter; Duffy, David Cameron

    2017-01-01

    Globally, a majority of people use plants as a primary source of healthcare and introduced plants are increasingly discussed as medicine. Protecting this resource for human health depends upon understanding which plants are used and how use patterns will change over time. The increasing use of introduced plants in local pharmacopoeia has been explained by their greater abundance or accessibility (availability hypothesis), their ability to cure medical conditions that are not treated by native plants (diversification hypothesis), or as a result of the introduced plants’ having many different simultaneous roles (versatility hypothesis). In order to describe the role of introduced plants in Ecuador, and to test these three hypotheses, we asked if introduced plants are over-represented in the Ecuadorian pharmacopoeia, and if their use as medicine is best explained by the introduced plants’ greater availability, different therapeutic applications, or greater number of use categories. Drawing on 44,585 plant-use entries, and the checklist of >17,000 species found in Ecuador, we used multi-model inference to test if more introduced plants are used as medicines in Ecuador than expected by chance, and examine the support for each of the three hypotheses above. We find nuanced support for all hypotheses. More introduced plants are utilized than would be expected by chance, which can be explained by geographic distribution, their strong association with cultivation, diversification (except with regard to introduced diseases), and therapeutic versatility, but not versatility of use categories. Introduced plants make a disproportionately high contribution to plant medicine in Ecuador. The strong association of cultivation with introduced medicinal plant use highlights the importance of the maintenance of human-mediated environments such as homegardens and agroforests for the provisioning of healthcare services. PMID:28886104

  7. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in sacred groves of Kumaon Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harsh; Husain, Tariq; Agnihotri, Priyanka; Pande, P C; Khatoon, Sayyada

    2014-05-28

    International organizations recognize the importance of sacred groves and place them into the context of sustainable development and also emphasize to conserve biodiversity through protection of sacred groves and sties. The significance of medicinal plants from Himalayan region is well known to the world. Therefore, present study was conducted in identified sacred groves of Kumaon Himalaya to investigate and document the utilization of medicinal plants by various local communities and tribal people. The study was conducted during 2008-2011 in four seasons of the year. Information was collected from 70 locals from different sacred groves by using free listing interviews with randomly selected informants and semi-structured questionnaires; plant specimens were collected, identified and deposited at the CSIR-NBRI herbarium (LWG), Lucknow, India. Seven sacred groves viz., Dhwaj, Haat Kali, Hokra, Malay Nath, Nakuleshwar, Narayan Swami Ashram and Patal Bhuvneshwar were identified from the Pithoragarh district of Kumaon Himalaya. 89 medicinal plants belonging to 52 families and 77 genera of which, 2 are lichens, 4 are pteridophytes, 3 are gymnosperms and remaining 80 plant species are angiosperms. 6 plant species are reported with new therapeutic uses for the first time in this paper. Highest informant׳s consensus factor value was found in liver disorder (0.55) and least by body pains (0.23). 55 ethnomedicinal plants are showing 100% fidelity level against various diseases. Sacred groves in Kumaon region of Indian Himalaya are rich sources and best repository of ethno-medicinally important plants with many rare, endangered and threatened species. It is an excellent example of unique traditional way of in situ conservation of different plant species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of allelopathic potential of some selected medicinal species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth of wheat was more enhanced in the aqueous extractions of Gallium aperine and Ageratum conizoides, almost 150% of radicle. But the most inhibitory and retarded effect was observed in case of S. irio, O. corniculata, Rumex dentatus and Parthenium hysterophorus. Key words: Allelopathy, medicinal species, ...

  9. Phytochemical and Anticancer Studies on Ten Medicinal Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten medicinal plants used in Nigerian ethno medicine were subjected to phytochemical and anticancer studies using established standard procedures. The result of the study revealed the presence of phytochemical constituents such as alkaloids, saponins, tannins and flavonoids. Anona muricata, Andrographis paniculata ...

  10. Speciation of Chromium and Vanadium in Medicinal Plants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICOLAAS

    maximum limits is not exceeded through normal consumption of tea infusion. KEYWORDS. Speciation, leaching, medicinal ... smelters make it a suitable case study to assess the effects of smelter emissions on medicinal plants. ... AAnalyst 600 which employs Zeeman-effect background correc- tion system was used for all ...

  11. Documentation on Medicinal Plants Sold in Markets in Abeokuta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To document the medicinal values, local names, method of preparation, dosage forms and parts of common medicinal plants sold in some markets in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Methods: Ethnobotanical data were collected by oral interview and with the aid of a structured questionnaire administered to men, women and ...

  12. Curative care through administration of plant-derived medicines in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Curative care through administration of plant-derived medicines in Sekhukhune district municipality of Limpopo province, South Africa. ... Sources of medicine were mostly herbs followed by shrubs, trees, creepers and aloe collected from the communal land. The leaves, bark, roots and bulbs were prepared into decoctions ...

  13. Medicinal plant potential and profits in Latin America | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-01

    Feb 1, 2011 ... With the support of the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Potvin subsequently headed a project to study how the Emberá use and conserve medicinal plants and traditional medicine. It also addressed the issue of fair compensation for the knowledge of the traditional healers. “The World ...

  14. Plant species evaluated for new crop potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Ninety-two plant species from various regions of the USA were screened for their energy-producing potential. Samples were analysed for oil, polyphenol, hydrocarbon and protein. Oil fractions of some species were analysed for classes of lipid constituents and yields of unsaponifiable matter and fatty acids were determined. Hydrocarbon fractions of some species were analysed for rubber, gutta and waxes. Average MW and MW distribution of rubber and gutta were determined. Complete analytical data for 16 species is presented. Large quantities of oil were obtained from Philadelphus coronarius, Cacalia muhlenbergii, Lindera benzoin and Koelreuteria paniculata. High yields of polyphenols came from Acer ginnala, Cornus obliqua and Salix caprea and maximum yields of hydrocarbon and protein were from Elymus virginicus and Lindera benzoin, respectively.

  15. Comparative Antitussive Effects of Medicinal Plants and Their Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Saeideh; Shakeri, Farzaneh; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2018-01-15

    Context • The cough is a protective reflex, with 2 types, one being more sensitive to mechanical stimulation and the other to chemical stimulation, such as sulfur dioxide, ammonia, citric acid, and capsaicin. Some evidence is available that suppressant therapy is most effective when used for the short-term reduction of coughing. Today, use of herbal drugs is increasing all over the world for various ailments, including to provide antitussive activity. Objective • The study intended to review the antitussive effects of various extracts, some fractions, and some constituents of the studied medicinal plants. Design • Various databases, including the Medline, Science Direct, Scopus, and Google Scholar, were searched for studies published between 1978 and 2015, using the keywords antitussive and cough and the names of various medicinal plants and their constituents. Setting • The study took place in the districts related to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (Mashhad, Iran). Outcome Measures • The antitussive effects of medicinal plants and their constituents were normalized to 50 mg/kg and 1 mg/mL against various cough stimulants and compared. Results • The most potent antitussive effect was observed for Nigella sativa and Linum usitatissimum on coughs induced by sulfur dioxide. Artemisia absinthium showed a higher antitussive effect on cough induced by ammonia compared with the other studied medicinal plants. The antitussive effects of Cuminum cyminum and Glycyrrhiza glabra were more potent on cough induced by citric acid than other medicinal plants. Conclusions • These results suggest the therapeutic potential of the studied medicinal plants as antitussive therapies. However, only a few clinical studies have examined the antitussive effects of medicinal plants, and more clinical studies are needed. The underlying mechanisms of the antitussive effects of medicinal plants should be also examined in further studies.

  16. Medicinal plants profile used by the 3rd District population of Maceió-AL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griz, S A S; Matos-Rocha, T J; Santos, A F; Costa, J G; Mousinho, K C

    2017-11-01

    Herein the use of medicinal plants by the population of the 3rd Sanitary District of Maceió-AL city is reported. Transversal description was conducted from February 2013 to January 2014, with a sample of 116 individuals of both Gender Genders aged over 18 years. The ethnobotanical information interviews ethnobotanical information were obtained through semi - structured questionnaire featuring the use of medicinal plants and social and economical data. Descriptive statistics was applied for quantitative variables as mean and standard deviation and proportions for qualitative variables in the frequency table format. The results showed that 85.34% of the interviewees used plants for medicinal purposes. As the majority of these were (73.28%) females in the age group between 30-60 years of old. Among a total of 45 identified plant species, the highest use frequency were for Boldus Peumus (bilberry), Melissa officinalis (lemon balm), and Mentha piperita (mint). The most widely used plant foliage part was (53.53%) prepared as an infusion (55.5%). The use of medicinal plants in Maceió cityis widespread, highlighting the importance of ethnobotanical knowledge for the study of medicinal plants.

  17. Medicinal plants profile used by the 3rd District population of Maceió-AL

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    S. A. S. Griz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Herein the use of medicinal plants by the population of the 3rd Sanitary District of Maceió-AL city is reported. Transversal description was conducted from February 2013 to January 2014, with a sample of 116 individuals of both Gender Genders aged over 18 years. The ethnobotanical information interviews ethnobotanical information were obtained through semi - structured questionnaire featuring the use of medicinal plants and social and economical data. Descriptive statistics was applied for quantitative variables as mean and standard deviation and proportions for qualitative variables in the frequency table format. The results showed that 85.34% of the interviewees used plants for medicinal purposes. As the majority of these were (73.28% females in the age group between 30-60 years of old. Among a total of 45 identified plant species, the highest use frequency were for Boldus Peumus (bilberry, Melissa officinalis (lemon balm, and Mentha piperita (mint. The most widely used plant foliage part was (53.53% prepared as an infusion (55.5%. The use of medicinal plants in Maceió cityis widespread, highlighting the importance of ethnobotanical knowledge for the study of medicinal plants.

  18. Ecological Research on Endangered Medicinal Plants in Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park

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    SYAMSUL HIDAYAT

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available An ecological research on some endangered medicinal plants in Ranu Pani, Senduro and Pronojiwo Resort, Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park, East Java was conducted on July 2006. Nine study areas were chosen inside the forest of national park and one site at the enclave area (non-forest area, covering a wide range of plant association, abundances, forest and habitat types, and altitudes. A systematic parallel line sampling method using quadrat technique was employed and total area sampled were 1 ha. The total of 13 medicinal plant species were found in quadrats and there were three species i.e. Euchresta horsfieldii (Lesch. Benn., Cinnamomum sintoc Bl., and Alyxia reinwardtii Bl. known as endangered species which seemed to have a tendency for cluster distribution. Instead of being discovered inside the conservation area, an endangered species, Pimpinella pruatjan Molkenb., was found at an agriculture land in the adjacent area. The Shannon-Weaver diversity index was 1.10 with Evenness value of 0.99. Based on contingency table constructed from the sampling result, we found no single association between the endangered medicinal plant species. Habitat, conservation status and potential threats of the four endangered species are also briefly described.

  19. (210)Po and (210)Pb in medicinal plants in the region of Karnataka, Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekara, K; Somashekarappa, H M

    2016-08-01

    The activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides (210)Po and (210)Pb were estimated in some selected medicinal plants and soil samples of coastal Karnataka in India. The mean activity concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb varied in the range of 4.7-42.9 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) and 36.1-124 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) in the soil samples, and 3.3-63.7 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) and 12.0-406 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight), in the medicinal plant samples, respectively. The plants, Ocimum sanctum L. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng had significantly higher activity concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb than other species sampled. In spite of disequilibrium between them, these two radionuclides were well correlated in both soil and medicinal plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Anticandidal activity of medicinal plants and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains of clinical specimens.

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    Bora, Limpon

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the in vitro anticandidal activity of some medicinal plants and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains against Candida species. The antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of five medicinal plants, namely, Cinnamomum porrectum, Lippia nudiflora, Cestrum nocturnum, Trachyspermum ammi, and Sida carpinifolia were studied. The medicinal characteristics of these plants were compared with commercially used antibiotics. The antimicrobial assay was done by agar well diffusion and the broth dilution method. Among the plants used, T. ammi and C. nocturnum were found to be more potent than the others. Twenty P. aeruginosa strains were isolated from various clinical specimens. The total inhibitions obtained were found to be 47%, 38%, and 36% in blood agar, whereas in Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) the inhibitions were 57%, 48%, and 37%, respectively. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants used by local Hoklos people on Hainan Island, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-Lin; Xing, Fu-Wu

    2016-12-24

    The aim of this study is to collect information on the use of medicinal plants by the local Hoklos people on Hainan Island, and compare medicinal traditions in the study area with Li medicines (LM) and traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). Ethnobotanical data were collected by 3 means: semi-structured interviews, personal conversation and guided field trips. There were 27 informants from 9 towns and 14 villages who were visited. Quantitative indices (Informant Consensus Factor - FIC, Use Value - UV, and Fidelity Level - FL) were calculated. In the present study, 264 species from 92 families and 233 genera were recorded, with Compositae (20 species), Leguminosae (19 species), Rubiaceae (12 species) and Gramineae (11 species) as predominate families. Leaves were the most frequently used parts in the preparation of local medicines. The most common preparation method was decoction (452 mentions). The plant with the highest values was Eclipta prostrata (0.46). The 6 plant species with the maximum FL (100%) were Atalantia buxifolia (Poir.) Oliv., Garcinia oblongifolia Champ. ex Benth., Hypericum japonicum Thunb. ex Murray, Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv., Microcos paniculata L., and Psidium guajava L. In addition, 120 investigated human ailments were grouped into 10 categories, within which symptoms and signs (184 mentions), diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue (139 mentions) and diseases of the digestive system (94 mentions) were the most mentioned in our investigation. The informant consensus about using medicinal plants ranged from 0.27 to 0.48, which showed a high level of agreement among the informants on symptoms and signs (0.48) and certain infectious and parasitic diseases (0.43). In comparison with TCM and LM, the results reflected a closer connection between local medicine and TCM. The information reported by Hoklos people is of great value to ethnic medicinal culture. However, this precious medicinal knowledge is at risk of being lost due to rapid

  2. Medicinal plants traditionally used in the northwest of the Basque Country (Biscay and Alava), Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez-Baceta, Gorka; Aceituno-Mata, Laura; Molina, María; Reyes-García, Victoria; Tardío, Javier; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel

    2014-02-27

    Many ethnobotanical studies show that people in industrial countries still rely on their traditional knowledge of medicinal plants for self-treatment, although the trend might not be as common as some decades ago. Given the social and public health implications of ethnopharmacological practices, this survey aims at recording and analysing the medicinal plants used in the folk medicine of the Northwest of the Basque Country focusing on how medicinal plants knowledge and practices evolve. Fieldwork consisted of 265 orally consented semi-structured interviews with 207 informants about medicinal uses of plants. Interviews were conducted between September 2008 and January 2011. Informants were on average 76 years old (minimum 45, maximum 95), being more than half of them (112) men. Data collected were structured in use-reports (UR). Following informants' comments, medicinal use-reports were classified as abandoned-UR, when the informants reported that the use was only practiced in the past, and prevalent-UR, when the informants reported to continue the practice. A total of 2067 UR for 139 species that belong to 58 botanical families were recorded, being the most important families Asteraceae, Liliaceae sensu latu and Urticaceae. Some of the most important species are commonly used in other European areas (e.g., Chamaemelum nobile, Urtica dioica and Chelidonium majus). However, there are also plants commonly used in the area such as Helleborus viridis or Coronopus didymus, that are scarcely used in other areas, and whose record is an original contribution of the local pharmacopeia. It is also the case of remedies such as the use of Plantago leaves against strains in a local remedy called zantiritu. Overall, and for all variables analysed (total UR, medicinal use-categories, drug preparation and administration), the percentage of UR being currently practiced (prevalence ratio) was very low (near 30%) suggesting a strong decay in the use of traditional medicinal plants

  3. Medicinal plants for primary dysmenorrhoea: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellow, Janice; Nienhuis, Chantelle

    2018-04-01

    Primary dysmenorrhoea is a common complaint experienced by many females in their reproductive years. The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of various gynaecological conditions is on the increase, despite the limited evidence available regarding efficacy and safety of their use. The aim of this systematic review was to synthesise the most recent evidence relating to the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea with medicinal plants. A thorough database search was conducted using defined search terms, and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published in English between 2008 and 2016, pertaining to the use of medicinal plants (single use) for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea, were assessed. Studies evaluating dysmenorrhoeal pain and associated symptoms as a primary or secondary outcome were considered and assessed by two reviewers independently of each other, using the JADAD scale and the Cochrane risk of bias tool,. 22 RCTs were included in the review; 9 were placebo-controlled trials and 13 were comparative studies to pharmacological treatment or nutritional supplements. Most of the evaluated medicinal plants showed evidence of efficacy in relieving menstrual pain in at least one RCT. The low or unclear quality of the majority of these studies however warrants caution in interpreting these results. This review adds to the knowledge-base on the use of these medicinal plants in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea. Further research is needed before definitive conclusions can be made regarding the efficacy and safety of the use of these medicinal plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants from Sudhanoti district (AJK), Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishtiaq, Muhammad; Mahmood, Adeel; Maqbool, Mehwish

    2015-06-20

    Ethnobotanical study was aimed to document indigenous medicinal plants along with the ethnopharmacological therapeutic values, and to explore the frequencies and relative importance of reported plants. Objective of this study was to trace out the disease prevalence pattern with help of informant consensus factor. Visual appraisal approach (VAA) and rapid rural appraisal (RRA) methods along with the group meetings and discussions about wide range of topics in an open-ended questionnaire with local people were employed for collection of qualitative ethnomedicinal data. Current study reported 58 medicinal plants belonging to 33 families, where Rosaceae was the predominant family. Berberis lycium dominated among shrubs, which is used to treat liver problems (jaundice). Females and old people were found more allied to the indigenous healthcare system. Conservation threats to valued medicinal plants were detected during course of the study. Local communities of the study area are highly dependent on medicinal plants and reported the best therapeutic results for specific disorders. Urgent attention must be paid on conservation of medicinal flora, comprehensive documentation of indigenous medicinal knowledge and pharmacological/phytochemical validation of reported plants for specific diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Medicinal plants used to control internal and external parasites in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Sanhokwe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of medicinal plants plays a major role in the primary health care of animals in South Africa. A survey was conducted to document medicinal plants used to control parasites in goats in Kwezi and Ntambethemba villages in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Information from 50 farmers and 3 herbalists was obtained through the use of a structured questionnaire, and a snowball sampling technique was used to identify key informants. The obtained data were analysed using PROC FREQ of SAS (2003, and fidelity level values were determined to estimate the healing potential of the mentioned plants. The survey revealed nine plant species belonging to eight families that were used to control parasites in goats. Asphodelaceae (22.22% was the most frequently used plant family. Leaves were the most used plant parts, constituting 60.38%. They were prepared either as infusions or decoctions of single plants or in mixtures. Aloe ferox, Acokanthera oppositifolia and Elephantorrhiza elephantina were the plants having the highest fidelity level for their use to control parasites, each scoring 100%, followed by Albuca setosa (83.33%. The study revealed low knowledge about ethnoveterinary medicine in the study area. It also revealed that information on ethno-veterinary medicine in this area is mostly confined to older people and there is danger that this knowledge can be lost before being passed on to other generations. Therefore, there is an urgent need to document information on these plant species so that the future generation can benefit. Further investigation should be carried out to validate the efficacy and safety of the above-mentioned plants so as to provide cheap alternative ways of controlling parasites. Keywords: ailments; ethno-veterinary practices; small ruminant; traditional medicine

  6. Medicinal plants used to control internal and external parasites in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Sanhokwe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of medicinal plants plays a major role in the primary health care of animals in South Africa. A survey was conducted to document medicinal plants used to control parasites in goats in Kwezi and Ntambethemba villages in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Information from 50 farmers and 3 herbalists was obtained through the use of a structured questionnaire, and a snowball sampling technique was used to identify key informants. The obtained data were analysed using PROC FREQ of SAS (2003, and fidelity level values were determined to estimate the healing potential of the mentioned plants. The survey revealed nine plant species belonging to eight families that were used to control parasites in goats. Asphodelaceae (22.22% was the most frequently used plant family. Leaves were the most used plant parts, constituting 60.38%. They were prepared either as infusions or decoctions of single plants or in mixtures. Aloe ferox, Acokanthera oppositifolia and Elephantorrhiza elephantina were the plants having the highest fidelity level for their use to control parasites, each scoring 100%, followed by Albuca setosa (83.33%. The study revealed low knowledge about ethnoveterinary medicine in the study area. It also revealed that information on ethno-veterinary medicine in this area is mostly confined to older people and there is danger that this knowledge can be lost before being passed on to other generations. Therefore, there is an urgent need to document information on these plant species so that the future generation can benefit. Further investigation should be carried out to validate the efficacy and safety of the above-mentioned plants so as to provide cheap alternative ways of controlling parasites.Keywords: ailments; ethno-veterinary practices; small ruminant; traditional medicine

  7. Diversity and biological activities of endophytic fungi associated with micropropagated medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echinacea is one of the top ten selling medicinal herbs in Europe and United States. Commercially available formulations may contain different plant parts of three species (Echinacea purpurea, E. pallida, and E. angustifolia). Our study evaluates the diversity of microbial community associated with ...

  8. Ethnopharmacology of Medicinal Plants of the Pantanal Region (Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Isanete Geraldini Costa Bieski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional knowledge is an important source of obtaining new phytotherapeutic agents. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants was conducted in Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Chumbo District (NSACD, located in Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil using semi-structured questionnaires and interviews. 376 species of medicinal plants belonging to 285 genera and 102 families were cited. Fabaceae (10.2%, Asteraceae (7.82% and Lamaceae (4.89% families are of greater importance. Species with the greater relative importance were Himatanthus obovatus (1.87, Hibiscus sabdariffa (1.87, Solidago microglossa (1.80, Strychnos pseudoquina (1.73 and Dorstenia brasiliensis, Scoparia dulcis L., and Luehea divaricata (1.50. The informant consensus factor (ICF ranged from 0.13 to 0.78 encompassing 18 disease categories,of which 15 had ICF greater than 0.50, with a predominance of disease categories related to injuries, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes (ICF  =  0.78 having 65 species cited while 20 species were cited for mental and behavioral disorders (ICF  =  0.77. The results show that knowledge about medicinal plants is evenly distributed among the population of NSACD. This population possesses medicinal plants for most disease categories, with the highest concordance for prenatal, mental/behavioral and respiratory problems.

  9. Screening of crude extracts of twelve medicinal plants and “wonder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... 1Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Lagos, Akoka Lagos, Nigeria. 2Nigerian Institute of Medical Research (NIMR), Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria. Accepted 30 July, 2008. The antimicrobial activity of extracts of twelve Nigerian medicinal plant species and a “wonder cure”.

  10. Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants grown in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masadeh, Majed Mohammad; Alkofahi, Ahmad Suleiman; Tumah, Haitham Najeeb; Mhaidat, Nizar Mahmoud; Alzoubi, Karem Hasan

    2013-03-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of 16 Jordanian medicinal plant extracts against four reference bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhi. For that purpose, whole plants were extracted and antimicrobial susceptibility testing and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined. Ethanolic extracts of most medicinal plants exerted a dose-dependent cytotoxiciy against different reference bacteria. Origanum syriaca, Varthemia iphionoides, Psidium guajava, Sarcopoterium spinosa plant extracts were most active against S. aureus (MIC; 70 μg/mL), E. faecalis (MIC; 130 μg/mL), E. coli (MIC; 153 μg/mL), and S. typhi (MIC; 110 μg/mL), respectively. Results indicate that medicinal plants grown in Jordan might be a valuable source of starting materials for the extraction and/or isolation of new antibacterial agents.

  11. Application of the ITS2 Region for Barcoding Medicinal Plants of Selaginellaceae in Pteridophyta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wei; Song, Jingyuan; Cao, Yuan; Sun, Qingwen; Yao, Hui; Wu, Qinan; Chao, Jianguo; Zhou, Juanjuan; Xue, Wenda; Duan, Jinao

    2013-01-01

    Selaginellaceae is a family of nonseed plants with special evolutionary significance. Plants of the family Selaginellaceae are similarly shaped and easily confused, complicating identification via traditional methods. This study explored, for the first time, the use of the DNA barcode ITS2 to identify medicinal plants of the Selaginellaceae family. In our study, 103 samples were collected from the main distribution areas in China; these samples represented 34 species and contained almost all of the medicinal plants of Selaginellaceae. The ITS2 region of the genome was amplified from these samples and sequenced using universal primers and reaction conditions. The success rates of the PCR amplification and sequencing were 100%. There was significant divergence between the interspecific and intraspecific genetic distances of the ITS2 regions, while the presence of a barcoding gap was obvious. Using the BLAST1 and nearest distance methods, our results proved that the ITS2 regions could successfully identify the species of all Selaginellaceae samples examined. In addition, the secondary structures of ITS2 in the helical regions displayed clear differences in stem loop number, size, position, and screw angle among the medicinal plants of Selaginellaceae. Furthermore, cluster analysis using the ITS2 barcode supported the relationship between the species of Selaginellaceae established by traditional morphological methods. The ITS2 barcode can effectively identify medicinal plants of Selaginellaceae. The results provide a scientific basis for the precise identification of plants of the family Selaginellaceae and the reasonable development of these resources. This study may broaden the application of DNA barcoding in the medicinal plant field and benefit phylogenetic investigations.

  12. Application of the ITS2 Region for Barcoding Medicinal Plants of Selaginellaceae in Pteridophyta.

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    Wei Gu

    Full Text Available Selaginellaceae is a family of nonseed plants with special evolutionary significance. Plants of the family Selaginellaceae are similarly shaped and easily confused, complicating identification via traditional methods. This study explored, for the first time, the use of the DNA barcode ITS2 to identify medicinal plants of the Selaginellaceae family.In our study, 103 samples were collected from the main distribution areas in China; these samples represented 34 species and contained almost all of the medicinal plants of Selaginellaceae. The ITS2 region of the genome was amplified from these samples and sequenced using universal primers and reaction conditions. The success rates of the PCR amplification and sequencing were 100%. There was significant divergence between the interspecific and intraspecific genetic distances of the ITS2 regions, while the presence of a barcoding gap was obvious. Using the BLAST1 and nearest distance methods, our results proved that the ITS2 regions could successfully identify the species of all Selaginellaceae samples examined. In addition, the secondary structures of ITS2 in the helical regions displayed clear differences in stem loop number, size, position, and screw angle among the medicinal plants of Selaginellaceae. Furthermore, cluster analysis using the ITS2 barcode supported the relationship between the species of Selaginellaceae established by traditional morphological methods.The ITS2 barcode can effectively identify medicinal plants of Selaginellaceae. The results provide a scientific basis for the precise identification of plants of the family Selaginellaceae and the reasonable development of these resources. This study may broaden the application of DNA barcoding in the medicinal plant field and benefit phylogenetic investigations.

  13. Traditional use of medicinal plants among Kalasha, Ismaeli and Sunni groups in Chitral District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Hassan; Bussmann, Rainer W; Hart, Robbie; de Boer, Hugo J

    2016-07-21

    The traditional use of medicinal plants for the treatment of human and livestock ailments is important to indigenous communities in the northern parts of Pakistan, and considered to be a valuable local biological and sociocultural heritage. The aim of this study was to obtain a detailed inventory of medicinal plant use and preparation among Kalasha, Ismaeli and Sunni groups. Semi-structured group and individual interviews were carried out with men and women of different age groups that identified themselves as being Kalasha, Ismaeli or Sunni. Interviews were followed up by field visits to collect herbarium vouchers and record in greater detail the exact methods of harvesting, preparation and use on medicinal plants. A total of 76 species were recorded for treatment of various diseases. The Kalasha, Ismaili and Sunni ethnic groups have similar medicinal floras, but show striking differences in plant use. Our comparative survey shows that out of all species reported in this study, only 13 species have been reported previously from Chitral District. Indigenous knowledge of folk medicine is intricately linked to local culture, religion and history. Any short study can only scratch the surface of this intricate system, but provide an insight into the critical importance of medicinal plants for local livelihoods and the important role these play in health care systems. There is a great need to assess and properly manage the production potential of medicinal plants to ensure sustainable supply of these species for local use and subsistence trade. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Integrative approach to analyze biodiversity and anti-inflammatory bioactivity of Wedelia medicinal plants.

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    Wen-Ching Lin

    Full Text Available For the development of "medical foods" and/or botanical drugs as defined USA FDA, clear and systemic characterizations of the taxonomy, index phytochemical components, and the functional or medicinal bioactivities of the reputed or candidate medicinal plant are needed. In this study, we used an integrative approach, including macroscopic and microscopic examination, marker gene analysis, and chemical fingerprinting, to authenticate and validate various species/varieties of Wedelia, a reputed medicinal plant that grows naturally and commonly used in Asian countries. The anti-inflammatory bioactivities of Wedelia extracts were then evaluated in a DSS-induced murine colitis model. Different species/varieties of Wedelia exhibited distinguishable morphology and histological structures. Analysis of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS region revealed significant differences among these plants. Chemical profiling of test Wedelia species demonstrated candidate index compounds and distinguishable secondary metabolites, such as caffeic acid derivatives, which may serve as phytochemical markers or index for quality control and identification of specific Wedelia species. In assessing their effect on treating DSS induced-murine colitis, we observed that only the phytoextract from W. chinensis species exhibited significant anti-inflammatory bioactivity on DSS-induced murine colitis among the various Wedelia species commonly found in Taiwan. Our results provide a translational research approach that may serve as a useful reference platform for biotechnological applications of traditional phytomedicines. Our findings indicate that specific Wedelia species warrant further investigation for potential treatment of human inflammatory bowel disease.

  15. Food Plants of 19 butterflies species (Lepidoptera from Loreto, Peru

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    Joel Vásquez Bardales

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the food plants utilized by 19 species of butterflies from Allpahuayo-Mishana Research Center and the Community of San Rafael, Loreto, Peru. We report 23 plant species and one hybrid of angiosperms used by the butterflies. Larval host plants were 21 species and five were adult nectar sources. Two species were both host plant and nectar source: Passiflora coccinea Aubl. and Passiflora edulis Sims. The most frequently used plant families were Solanaceae, Passifloraceae, Fabaceae and Aristolochiaceae.

  16. INVENTORY OF THE INVASIVE ALIE N PLANT SPECIES IN INDONESIA

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    SRI S UDARMIYATI T JITROSOEDIRDJO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of the alien plant species in Indone sia based on the existing references and herbarium specimens concluded that 1936 alien plant species ar e found in Indonesia which belong to 187 families. Field studies should be done to get the complete figur es of alien plant species in Indonesia. Based on the existing figures of the plant species, the invasive alien plant species can be iden tified, followed by studies on the assessment of losses, biology, management and their possible utilizations. Alien plant species are imported to Indonesia for cultivation, collection of the botanical garden, as experimental plants or other curiosities. Aside from plants purposely imported, there are also introduced plant propagules conta-minating imported agricultural products. These alien plant species can be beneficial or have a potential of being invasive. The alien cultivated species consisted of 67% of the total number. More than half of the cultivated plants are ornamental plants. Some of th e species are naturalized or escaped from cultivation and become wild and invasive. Some other natura lized species, adapted well without any problems of invasion. There are 339 species or 17% of the species r ecorded as weeds. The highest record of weeds is found in the family of Poaceae (57 species, follo wed by Asteraceae (53 species and Cyperaceae (35 species. There are 6 families having more than 10 species of weeds: Amaranthaceae, Asteraceae, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Poaceae, and Rubiaceae. Three families have more than 100 species: Asteraceae 162 species, Poaceae 120 species, and Papillionaceae 103 species. Five species of aquatic and 20 species of terrestrial plants considered as important alien plant species in Indonesia were identified and some of their distributions noted

  17. Ethnobotanical study of the medicinal plants from Tlanchinol, Hidalgo, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Cetto, Adolfo

    2009-02-25

    The people in Mexico still depend upon the use of medicinal plants to treat simple health problems, including those who live in regions like Tlanchinol Hidalgo, where it is still possible to find people who speak the pre-Hispanic Nahua language. This area is surrounded by rain forest, which is more or less well conserved, so ethnopharmacological field studies are quite relevant. The cultural knowledge about the use of medicinal plants converge with the richness in the surrounding flora making this region ideal for the selection of traditionally used medicinal plants. To present the results of an ethnopharmacological field survey conducted in the municipality of Tlanchinol Hidalgo, Mexico analyzed with two different quantitative tools, with the aim of selecting the most important species used in traditional medicine. Direct interviews with the people were performed in several short visits to the municipality of Tlanchinol Hidalgo. The plants were collected, and the species were determined. The interviews were analyzed with two quantitative tools. First, the factor informant consensus highlighted the agreement in the use of plants and the fidelity level defined as: the ratio between the number of informants who independently suggested the use of a species for the same major purpose and the total number of informants who mentioned the plant for any use. Furthermore, we analyzed the use-mentions for the plants. The results of the factor informant consensus showed that the gastrointestinal category had the greatest agreement, followed by the respiratory and dermatological categories. The most important species according to their fidelity are: Coleus blumei, Plantago australis and Lippia dulcis for the gastrointestinal category; Borago officinalis, Foeniculum vulgare, and Eucalyptus globulus for the respiratory category; and Ageratum houstonianum and Solanum nigrescens for the dermatological category. As a result of the present study, we recommend the plants listed in

  18. Preliminary assessment of medicinal plants used as antimalarials in the southeastern Venezuelan Amazon

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    Caraballo Alejandro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen species of medicinal plants used in the treatment of malaria in Bolívar State, Venezuela were recorded and they belonged to Compositae, Meliaceae, Anacardiaceae, Bixaceae, Boraginaceae, Caricaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae, Myrtaceae, Phytolaccaceae, Plantaginaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae and Verbenaceae families. Antimalarial plant activities have been linked to a range of compounds including anthroquinones, berberine, flavonoids, limonoids, naphthquinones, sesquiterpenes, quassinoids, indol and quinoline alkaloids.

  19. Traditional medicinal plants in Nigeria--remedies or risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awodele, O; Popoola, T D; Amadi, K C; Coker, H A B; Akintonwa, A

    2013-11-25

    Soil pollution due to increasing industrialization is a reality that is taking its toll on mankind today. Considering the population of people that use herbal remedies especially in developing countries and the discharge of industrial waste on surrounding herbal vegetation, it is imperative to determine the heavy metals contamination in some commonly used medicinal plants. Representative samples of five medicinal plants Ageratum conyzoides, Aspilia africana, Alchornea cordifolia, Amaranthus brasiliensis and Chromolaena odorata were collected from Ikpoba-Okha L.G.A, Edo State Nigeria, around a paint company and another set of same plants were collected from a non-polluted source. Dried leaves and roots of collected plants were digested and analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) for the presence of Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni) and Zinc (Zn). Soil samples from polluted and non-polluted areas were also analyzed to ascertain the levels of these heavy metals in the environment. Results show that the concentrations of these heavy metals in the leaves and roots of plants collected from polluted soil were significantly higher than those obtained from unpolluted soil. Correspondingly heavy metal concentrations were significantly higher in polluted than in unpolluted soil samples. As part of continuing effort in the standardization of traditional remedies, environmental contamination control and abatement is evident. The source of medicinal plants/herbs should also be a cause for concern since the toxicity of medicinal plants is sometimes associated with environmental sources of the plants. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of Amino Acids in Medicinal Plants from Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To analyze the amino acid contents of some plants used in traditional medicine in Southern Sonora, Mexico by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Methods: The plant samples (Jutuki, Zizyphus obtusifolia A.Gray; Jito, Forchammeria watsonii Rose; Barchata, Lycium berlandieri Dunal; Citabaro, ...

  1. Exotic multifaceted medicinal plants of drugs and pharmaceutical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassia alata Linn, Nauclea latifolia, Clerodendron splendens and Bryophyllum pinnatum are some of the Nigerian exotic medicinal plants. These plants not only acts as ornamental but also exhibit antiviral, antifungal, antimalarial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. They are sources of drugs and are used in herbal ...

  2. Integrated omics analysis of specialized metabolism in medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Amit; Saito, Kazuki; Yamazaki, Mami

    2017-05-01

    Medicinal plants are a rich source of highly diverse specialized metabolites with important pharmacological properties. Until recently, plant biologists were limited in their ability to explore the biosynthetic pathways of these metabolites, mainly due to the scarcity of plant genomics resources. However, recent advances in high-throughput large-scale analytical methods have enabled plant biologists to discover biosynthetic pathways for important plant-based medicinal metabolites. The reduced cost of generating omics datasets and the development of computational tools for their analysis and integration have led to the elucidation of biosynthetic pathways of several bioactive metabolites of plant origin. These discoveries have inspired synthetic biology approaches to develop microbial systems to produce bioactive metabolites originating from plants, an alternative sustainable source of medicinally important chemicals. Since the demand for medicinal compounds are increasing with the world's population, understanding the complete biosynthesis of specialized metabolites becomes important to identify or develop reliable sources in the future. Here, we review the contributions of major omics approaches and their integration to our understanding of the biosynthetic pathways of bioactive metabolites. We briefly discuss different approaches for integrating omics datasets to extract biologically relevant knowledge and the application of omics datasets in the construction and reconstruction of metabolic models. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Antimicrobial Activity Of Some Medicinal Plants Used By Herbalists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aqueous extracts from medicinal plants commonly used by herbalists in Mbeere, and Embu districts of Eastern province, Kenya, were tested for their inhibitory activity against three selected strains of bacteria. All the selected plant extracts (infusions: 1.0g sample in 100 ml water) investigated showed activity against ...

  4. Medicinal Plants for Healing Sores and Wounds among the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article is based on a study that aimed at documenting the ethno-knowledge on the usage of plants healing wounds and sores at the rural areas around uNgoye forest as well as document the methods of preparation and dosage forms of medicinal plants used by people around Ungoye forest. The survey was conducted ...

  5. Antibacterial activity of some wild medicinal plants collected from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional medicine has a key role in health care worldwide. Obtaining scientific information about the efficacy and safety of the wild plants grown in western Mediterranean coast of Egypt is one of our research goals. In this study, 10 wild plants namely Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, Blackiella aellen, Arthrocnemon ...

  6. Antibacterial activity of two local medicinal plants, Utazi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... others also showed marked antibacterial activities. The only resistance observed was with Staph. Aureus to the methanolic extracts of both plants. Keywords: antibacterial activities, medicinal plants, gongronema latifolium, ocimium gratissimium. International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences Vol. 1(1) 2005: 36-39 ...

  7. Ethnopharmacology, Chemistry and Biological Properties of Four Malian Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Egil Malterud

    2017-01-01

    The ethnopharmacology, chemistry and pharmacology of four Malian medicinal plants, Biophytum umbraculum, Burkea africana, Lannea velutina and Terminalia macroptera are reviewed. These plants are used by traditional healers against numerous ailments: malaria, gastrointestinal diseases, wounds, sexually transmitted diseases, insect bites and snake bites, etc. The scientific evidence for these uses is, however, limited. From the chemical and pharmacological evidence presented here, it seems poss...

  8. Effects of selected multipurpose, medicinal and aromatic plants on in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of selected multipurpose, medicinal and aromatic plants on the in vitro methane production and microbial diversity. The plants include multi-purpose trees; Pterocarpus santallinoides, Leucaena leucocephala, Albizia lebbek, Albizia saman, Enterolobium cyclocarpum, ...

  9. Folk Medicinal Uses of Verbenaceae Family Plants in Bangladesh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Folk medicinal practitioners form the first tier of primary health-care providers to most of the rural population of Bangladesh. They are known locally as Kavirajes and rely almost solely on oral or topical administration of whole plants or plant parts for treatment of various ailments. Also about 2% of the total population of ...

  10. Direct Detection Of Triterpenoid Saponins In Medicinal Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Direct detection of saponins in medicinal plants using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is reported in this paper. Crude dry plant powders were mixed with potassium bromide (KBr) powder and compressed to a thin pellet for infrared examination. FTIR spectra of the test samples showed –OH, -C=O, C-H, and ...

  11. Antimicrobial Activities of Some Medicinal Plants from Soba-Zaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six medicinal plants commonly used by traditional herbalists for treatment of various microbial infections in soba- Zaria, were collected for a study of their antibacterial activities. The plants studied are: Jacaranda mimosaides (J. mimosaides); Striga hermonthetica (S. hermonthetica); Psidium quajava (P. quajava); ...

  12. Evaluation studies of some medicinal plant extracts and fungicides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alternaria is a polyphagus fungus that occurs frequently on dead and decaying organic material and is responsible for causing leaf spot disease. In Indian subcontinent, there are different varieties of plants showing antimicrobial and other medicinal properties which can be employed in plant disease management to reduce ...

  13. Toxicity, growth regulatory and repellent activities of medicinal plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... medicinal plant extracts on Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidea). Hervé B. D. ... Housefly, Musca domestica, is a major vector for many medical and veterinary pathogenic organisms. The development of ...... isolated from aromatic plants possible mode of action against insect pests. Pest manage. Sci.

  14. Determination of antioxidant property from eight medicinal plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pongsathorn

    2012-06-05

    Jun 5, 2012 ... The evaluation of antioxidant property, total phenolic compounds and pigment content of 8 medicinal plants including: Gynostemma ... pigments, such as chlorophylls and carotenoids are the major candidate for antioxidant ..... mineral concentration of lupins (L. angustifolius). Plant Soil, 237:131-. 142.

  15. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by Kurd tribe in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on pharmaceutical plant uses, where some degree of acculturation exists, so that there is urgency in recording such data. The aim of this work is to catalogue, document, and make known the uses of plants for folk medicine in Dehloran and Abdanan districts, Ilam ...

  16. medicinal plant use of villagers in the mopani district, limpopo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alinah Chauke

    The aim of the study was to compile a list of medicinal plants used by traditional health practitioners for treatment of diabetes