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Sample records for medications basic pharmacology

  1. Teaching Medical Students Basic Neurotransmitter Pharmacology Using Primary Research Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Amy C.; Devonshire, Ian M.; Greenfield, Susan A.; Dommett, Eleanor J.

    2010-01-01

    Teaching pharmacology to medical students has long been seen as a challenge, and one to which a number of innovative approaches have been taken. In this article, we describe and evaluate the use of primary research articles in teaching second-year medical students both in terms of the information learned and the use of the papers themselves. We…

  2. Teaching Medical Students Basic Neurotransmitter Pharmacology Using Primary Research Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Amy C.; Devonshire, Ian M.; Greenfield, Susan A.; Dommett, Eleanor J.

    2010-01-01

    Teaching pharmacology to medical students has long been seen as a challenge, and one to which a number of innovative approaches have been taken. In this article, we describe and evaluate the use of primary research articles in teaching second-year medical students both in terms of the information learned and the use of the papers themselves. We…

  3. Radioimmunoassay in basic and clinical pharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrono, C.; Peskar, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    The subject of the book is the development, validation and application of radioimmunoassay (RIA) techniques for the measurement of a variety of substances in animal and human body fluids. The book discusses methodological and conceptual issues related to the main classes of mediators of drug action and to drugs themselves, as assayed by this particular analytical technique. A number of introductory chapters provide basic information concerning production and characterization of antibodies, labeling techniques, statistical aspects and validation criteria, insight into problems related to the development and validation of RIA for the newly discovered mediator(s). In the following chapters, the emphasis is placed on the technical details relevant to each class of compounds and on specific aspects of their applications to basic and/or clinical pharmacological studies. New developments in this area, such as monoclonal antibodies and non-radioactive labeling techniques, are also covered.

  4. Medical curriculum and pharmacology: An appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haranath, P S R K

    2016-10-01

    Pharmacology was introduced with Western Medical Education in India in 1900s. RN Chopra was the first Professor of Pharmacology along with patient care in School of Tropical Medicine Calcutta. Now Pharmacologists do not have clinical care nor give laboratory services to hospitals. Medical Education advanced in the West in 1960s with more emphasis on Integrated Teaching and Student Self-study and less on didactic lectures. System Based Learning and Problem Based Learning reduced importance of individual subjects. Medical Council of India (MCI) has mandatory regulations with no major changes in the last 5 decades. Universities and Medical institutions have no freedom in teaching programs. In Pharmacology didactic lectures dominate teaching. Practicals started with Dispensing Pharmacy were later replaced with Experimental Pharmacology. At present after restrictions on animals for study practicals are converted to Theoretical Exercises on Prescription writing and Incompatibilities. Students study mostly before examinations with little influence of yearlong teaching. Suggestions in line with Western Countries: Reduce the course of Pharmacology to 6 months. Examinations should be completely Internal with frequent tests by Internal Examiners. MD (Therapeutics) course may be introduced to teach Pharmacology in first semester. MCI rules to be only advisory and not mandatory. Teaching Institutions should form an independent Association and have freedom in teaching programs. A Nonofficial National Board of Medical Examination has to be formed to conduct an Entrance Test for admissions to Medical College and a National test for each graduate before registration.

  5. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology of Glucocorticosteroids

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticosteroids are a product of the adrenal cortex and perform a staggering number of physiological effects essential for life. Their clinical use is largely predicated on their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties, but they also have notable efficacy in the prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting. This article reviews the basic functions of glucocorticoids and their clinical use in dental practice.

  6. A comparison of medical and pharmacy students' knowledge and skills of pharmacology and pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, Carolina J P W; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; de Wildt, Dick J; Custers, Eugene J F M; Ten Cate, Olle Th J; Hazen, Ankie C M; Jansen, Paul A F

    2014-10-01

    Pharmacotherapy might be improved if future pharmacists and physicians receive a joint educational programme in pharmacology and pharmacotherapeutics. This study investigated whether there are differences in the pharmacology and pharmacotherapy knowledge and skills of pharmacy and medical students after their undergraduate training. Differences could serve as a starting point from which to develop joint interdisciplinary educational programmes for better prescribing. In a cross-sectional design, the knowledge and skills of advanced pharmacy and medical students were assessed, using a standardized test with three domains (basic pharmacology knowledge, clinical or applied pharmacology knowledge and pharmacotherapy skills) and eight subdomains (pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, interactions and side-effects, Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification groups, prescribing, prescribing for special groups, drug information, regulations and laws, prescription writing). Four hundred and fifty-one medical and 151 pharmacy students were included between August 2010 and July 2012. The response rate was 81%. Pharmacy students had better knowledge of basic pharmacology than medical students (77.0% vs. 68.2% correct answers; P pharmacology (73.8% vs. 72.2%, P = 0.124, δ = 0.15). Pharmacy students have better knowledge of basic pharmacology, but not of the application of pharmacology knowledge, than medical students, whereas medical students are better at writing prescriptions. Professional differences in knowledge and skills therefore might well stem from their undergraduate education. Knowledge of these differences could be harnessed to develop a joint interdisciplinary education for both students and professionals. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. Pharmacology of Nasal Medications: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, G. F.

    1988-01-01

    The author of this article reviews the pharmacology of nasal medication, focusing on the indications and side-effects. The newer group of non-sedating antihistamines proves to be a useful supplement to disodium cromoglycate and the traditional antihistamines in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. The topical steroids (flunisolide and beclomethasone dipropionate) did not produce a significant incidence of adrenal suppression, mucosal atrophy, or nasal candidiasis. The anticholinergic ipatropiu...

  8. Nadroparin calcium: a review of its basic and clinical pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Ospina-González, Diego Alexander; Universidad de los Andes; Martínez, Jairo Andrés; Universidad de los Andes; Cifuentes, Luis Fernando; Universidad de los Andes

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate critically the evidence on the basic and clinical pharmacology of nadroparin calcium. Data source: We conducted a literature review from October 1985 to September 2010 in the electronic databases: Pubmed, Cochrane, MD Cosult, Medscape, Scielo and Instituto Nacional de Vigilancia de Medicamentos y Alimentos (INVIMA).Study selection: Studies published in English, Spanish or French made in humans and animals for experimentation which reviewed the basic and clinical pharmac...

  9. [The teaching of pharmacology in medical schools: current status and future perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Carranza, Rodolfo; Vidrio, Horacio; Campos-Sepúlveda, Efraín

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacology is a core course in all medical school curricula. In most medical schools, pharmacology is taught during the second year and teaching covers both basic aspects and useful drugs for the treatment of human diseases. It is assumed that relevant pharmacologic knowledge is revisited during the clinical clerkships and that students are adequately trained to prescribe drugs upon graduation. However, for many years it has been noted that pharmacological training is sometimes insufficient and that inadequate and irrational prescription of drugs is a very common problem in clinical settings. Information overload and proliferation of new drugs have been recognized as two of the major contributing factors. To address this issue, many authors have recommended the development of a core curricula in pharmacology which all students would have to complete coupled with a restricted list of drugs. Based on our own teaching experience we have identified what should constitute the core content of pharmacology courses in medical schools and have written a study guide for this discipline. Both documents provide an organizational framework to help second year medical students ascertain what part of the vast knowledge in pharmacology they need to learn. The number of drugs that students have to manage is limited to 168. Our program constitutes the first effort to medicalize the teaching of pharmacology in medical schools. We expect that most medical schools will follow our guidelines as our program is applicable to all curricula modalities.

  10. Pharmacology of heart failure: From basic science to novel therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lother, Achim; Hein, Lutz

    2016-10-01

    Chronic heart failure is one of the leading causes for hospitalization in the United States and Europe, and is accompanied by high mortality. Current pharmacological therapy of chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction is largely based on compounds that inhibit the detrimental action of the adrenergic and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems on the heart. More than one decade after spironolactone, two novel therapeutic principles have been added to the very recently released guidelines on heart failure therapy: the HCN-channel inhibitor ivabradine and the combined angiotensin and neprilysin inhibitor valsartan/sacubitril. New compounds that are in phase II or III clinical evaluation include novel non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, guanylate cyclase activators or myosine activators. A variety of novel candidate targets have been identified and the availability of gene transfer has just begun to accelerate translation from basic science to clinical application. This review provides an overview of current pharmacology and pharmacotherapy in chronic heart failure at three stages: the updated clinical guidelines of the American Heart Association and the European Society of Cardiology, new drugs which are in clinical development, and finally innovative drug targets and their mechanisms in heart failure which are emerging from preclinical studies will be discussed.

  11. Basic sciences curriculum in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RITA REZAEE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traditional methods are generally used for teaching basic science courses at Shiraz Medical School. Such courses are taught during the first and second years of a seven-year medical program. The goal of this study was to analyze teachers and students’ perceptions of basic science teaching in medical education. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at the college of medicine of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Results: Regarding the students’ viewpoints, 71.4% reported that curriculum content in basic sciences was enough and had good relevance. 59.2% of students believed the objectives of basic sciences curriculum were clear. Conclusion: The burden of teaching basic sciences ranges from sustaining interest to clinical relevance. It is expected that medical schools will continuously monitor what works and what does not work with their curricula and make the necessary adaptations as required.

  12. [Basic features of medical liability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niksić, Sasa

    2008-01-01

    Medical liability is one of the most important parts of law that regulates health services. Although there are different types of liability in the field of medicine (criminal responsibility, disciplinary proceedings) civil law liability holds central position. Civil law liability in medicine (medical liability) is probably more important than criminal responsibility and disciplinary proceedings because of the number of cases in comparison to the criminal responsibility and impact of the consequences in comparison to the disciplinary proceedings. Medical liability is governed by a (general) tort law. Therefore medical liability exists only if conditions for civil law liability are met. When considering medical liability it is necessary to emphasize that tortfeasor will not be liable only because victim sustained the damage, but if all conditions for liability are met. Medical liability will arise if actions of physician are not conducted lege artis or in a breach of the duty of care. In some cases of medical liability legal sources are directly applicable (informed consent). General tort law is also applicable on decisions in the respect of the damages.

  13. Neuroimmune pharmacology as a component of pharmacology in medical school curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuh F

    2011-03-01

    An introduction to the discipline of pharmacology is a standard part of the scientific foundation of medical school curricula. Neuroimmune pharmacology is a new subtopic that integrates fundamental concepts of neuroscience, immunology, infectious disease, and pharmacology. The integration of these areas is important to medical training in view of the growing concern over neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive disorders. This article introduces a submodule and concomitant syllabus for inclusion of neuroimmune pharmacology as a component of a pharmacology curriculum. The introductory lectures of neuroimmune pharmacology will concentrate on the role of the immune system in (1) schizophrenia and major depression; (2) neurodegenerative disorders; and (3) drug addiction. Emphasis will be placed on the competencies of critical thinking, problem solving, learning interest, and effectiveness of medical students. Problem-based learning and case study discussions will also be applied.

  14. Measuring the effectiveness of pharmacology teaching in undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Aguilar, Maria Esther; Martinez-Gonzalez, Adrian; Rodriguez, Rodolfo

    2012-03-01

    Information overload and recent curricular changes are viewed as important contributory factors to insufficient pharmacological education of medical students. This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of pharmacology teaching in our medical school. The study subjects were 455 second-year medical students, class of 2010, and 26 pharmacology teachers at the National University of Mexico Medical School. To assess pharmacological knowledge, students were required to take 3 multiple-choice exams (70 questions each) as part of their evaluation in the pharmacology course. A 30-item questionnaire was used to explore the students' opinion on teaching. Pharmacology professors evaluated themselves using a similar questionnaire. Students and teachers rated each statement on a 5-point Likert scale. The groups' exam scores ranged from 54.5% to 90.0% of correct responses, with a mean score of 77.3%. Only 73 (16%) of 455 students obtained an exam score of 90% and higher. Students' evaluations of faculty and professor self-ratings were very high (90% and 96.2%, of the maximal response, respectively). Student and professor ratings were not correlated with exam scores (r = 0.291). Our study shows that knowledge on pharmacology is incomplete in a large proportion of second-year medical students and indicates that there is an urgent need to review undergraduate training in pharmacology. The lack of relationship between the subjective ratings of teacher effectiveness and objective exam scores suggests the use of more demanding measures to assess the effectiveness of teaching.

  15. A BASIC CAMERA UNIT FOR MEDICAL PHOTOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SMIALOWSKI, A; CURRIE, D J

    1964-08-22

    A camera unit suitable for most medical photographic purposes is described. The unit comprises a single-lens reflex camera, an electronic flash unit and supplementary lenses. Simple instructions for use of th's basic unit are presented. The unit is entirely suitable for taking fine-quality photographs of most medical subjects by persons who have had little photographic training.

  16. New Simulation Methods to Facilitate Achieving a Mechanistic Understanding of Basic Pharmacology Principles in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Anita; Lam, Tai Ning; Hunt, C. Anthony

    2008-01-01

    We present a simulation tool to aid the study of basic pharmacology principles. By taking advantage of the properties of agent-based modeling, the tool facilitates taking a mechanistic approach to learning basic concepts, in contrast to the traditional empirical methods. Pharmacodynamics is a particular aspect of pharmacology that can benefit from…

  17. Neuroimmune pharmacology as a sub-discipline of immunology in the medical school curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Guy A

    2011-03-01

    This article provides a description of a proposed sub-module and attendant syllabus for inclusion of neuroimmune pharmacology as a sub-discipline of an immunology course that is offered to medical students during the first year of medical school. Neuroimmune pharmacology is an area of study that integrates fundamental concepts in pharmacology, immunology, neuroscience, and infectious disease. This convergent disciplinary area is of increasing importance to the foundational training of medical students, especially in view of the recognition that a variety of neuropathological processes such as demyelinating disease, drug abuse, and viral encephalitis has an immunological component. A lecture sub-module that addresses this convergent topic is proposed for inclusion as a sub-discipline of an immunology course offered as a component of a Scientific Foundations curriculum that takes place during the first 6 months of medical school. It is proposed to revisit the neuroimmune pharmacology topic area in a more clinical setting during the subsequent 14 months of study when medical students would be presented with an organ system-based curriculum. In this instructional model, basic science teaching faculty would interface with clinical faculty in presenting the topical block material in the context of different organ systems. Discussion of clinical cases related to neuroimmune pharmacology would be integrated into the organ system-based curriculum in order to highlight a translational relevance to medical practice.

  18. [Medical equipment product lines in basic pharmacies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macesková, B; Lipská, J

    2003-07-01

    Medical appliances dispensed in basic type pharmacies for cash or vouchers for medical or orthopedic appliances require expertise of pharmacists and laboratory assistants concerning the assortment, payment, construction of prices, conditions for prescription, ordering, properties, and functions of individual appliances. Using the method of frequency analysis, the analysis of data from five pharmacies within a period of three months (more than 17,000 records) revealed how individual subgroups of medical appliances and their concrete items are represented in both types of dispensation. The method of the semistructured questionnaire (10 respondents) was used to find what problems are encountered in dispensation, and which medical appliances and their subgroups are the sources of the problems. The respondents regard the contemporary level of knowledge concerning medical appliances gained in pregradual studies as insufficient.

  19. PHARMAVIRTUA: Educational Software for Teaching and Learning Basic Pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidalgo-Neto, Antonio Augusto; Alberto, Anael Viana Pinto; Bonavita, André Gustavo Calvano; Bezerra, Rômulo José Soares; Berçot, Felipe Faria; Lopes, Renato Matos; Alves, Luiz Anastacio

    2014-01-01

    Information and communication technologies have become important tools for teaching scientific subjects such as anatomy and histology as well as other, nondescriptive subjects like physiology and pharmacology. Software has been used to facilitate the learning of specific concepts at the cellular and molecular levels in the biological and health…

  20. PHARMAVIRTUA: Educational Software for Teaching and Learning Basic Pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidalgo-Neto, Antonio Augusto; Alberto, Anael Viana Pinto; Bonavita, André Gustavo Calvano; Bezerra, Rômulo José Soares; Berçot, Felipe Faria; Lopes, Renato Matos; Alves, Luiz Anastacio

    2014-01-01

    Information and communication technologies have become important tools for teaching scientific subjects such as anatomy and histology as well as other, nondescriptive subjects like physiology and pharmacology. Software has been used to facilitate the learning of specific concepts at the cellular and molecular levels in the biological and health…

  1. Perception of medical students about pharmacology and scope of improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, A; Datta, P P; Pattanayak, C; Panda, P

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacology is a subject taught in the medical curriculum in India over a period of one and half years along with pathology, microbiology and forensic medicine. The present study was planned to know the opinion of medical students regarding pharmacology and to assess the proposed teaching schedule and methods of teaching pharmacology. The study was conducted in a private medical college in eastern India among the medical undergraduate students in 5th semester. Total 74 students participated in the study. A pre-designed, pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was given to the students and data was collected after one hour. Collected data was compiled, tabulated and analyzed in SPSS (version 16.0). The subject was perceived as interesting and useful by majority of students and most of them were in opinion to integrate pharmacology with the clinical subjects. Lecture in whole class was the most preferred teaching method according to the students and teaching with chalk and board they preferred most. Rational use of medicine, clinical trial, pediatric and geriatric pharmacology are the important topics the students felt to be included in the curriculum. Regular assessment of teaching methods by the students and taking suggestions from the students about improving the teaching method and redesigning the curriculum can help a lot in improving the learning capacity of the medical students and that will give benefit for the society as a whole.

  2. Basic and clinical pharmacology contribution to extend anthelmintic molecules lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanusse, Carlos; Lifschitz, Adrian; Alvarez, Luis

    2015-08-15

    The correct use of pharmacology-based information is critical to design successful strategies for the future of parasite control in livestock animals. Integrated pharmaco-parasitological research approaches have greatly contributed to optimize drug activity. In an attempt to manage drug resistance in helminths of ruminants, combinations of two or more anthelmintics are being used or promoted, based on the fact that individual worms may have a lower degree of resistance to a multiple component formulation, when each chemical has a different mode of action compared to that observed when a single compound is used. However, as emphasized in the current review, the occurrence of potential pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic interactions between drug components highlights the need for deeper and integrated research to identify the advantages or disadvantages associated with the use of combined drug preparations. This review article provides integrated pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic and clinical pharmacology information pertinent to preserve the traditional and modern active ingredients as practical tools for parasite control. Novel pharmacological data on derquantel and monepantel, as representatives of modern anthelmintics for use in livestock, is summarized here. The article also summarizes the pharmaco-parasitological knowledge considered critical to secure and/or extend the lifespan of the recently available novel molecules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effectiveness and student perspective of a pilot effort in team based learning in pharmacology for medical undergraduate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayana K. Hashilkar

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Team-Based Learning is an effective teaching-learning method to teach pharmacology to medical undergraduates. It encourages pre-class preparation, student's participation in small teams and improves their basic knowledge as well as skills of critical thinking. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(4.000: 1413-1416

  4. Undergraduate pharmacology curriculum at an international medical college in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Vasudha; Bhat, Vishal; Shenoy, Ganesh K

    2016-10-01

    Pharmacology is an important aspect of rational therapeutics. There has been a long-standing need for a change in the undergraduate medical curriculum of pharmacology. A review of literature throws up different approaches to improve the curriculum and to provide more importance to conceptualization and relevance to clinical practice. This article describes the undergraduate pharmacology curriculum which is revised to meet the needs of our unique status as an international medical college in India. We highlight how our curriculum prepares the students for future clinical practice by inculcating higher cognitive skills and soft skills. This article also provides a model for program evaluation and also challenges faced by our department while executing the planned curriculum.

  5. Undergraduate pharmacology curriculum at an international medical college in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Vasudha; Bhat, Vishal; Shenoy, Ganesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacology is an important aspect of rational therapeutics. There has been a long-standing need for a change in the undergraduate medical curriculum of pharmacology. A review of literature throws up different approaches to improve the curriculum and to provide more importance to conceptualization and relevance to clinical practice. This article describes the undergraduate pharmacology curriculum which is revised to meet the needs of our unique status as an international medical college in India. We highlight how our curriculum prepares the students for future clinical practice by inculcating higher cognitive skills and soft skills. This article also provides a model for program evaluation and also challenges faced by our department while executing the planned curriculum. PMID:28031601

  6. Basic College-Level Pharmacology: Therapeutic Drug Range Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laipply, Richelle S.

    2000-01-01

    Investigations of scientific concepts using inquiry can be included in the traditional college lecture. This lesson uses the Learning Cycle to demonstrate therapeutic drug range, a basic concept in pharmaceutical science. Students use graphing to discover patterns as a part of data analysis and interpretation of provided investigation data.…

  7. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. XCVIII. Histamine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panula, Pertti; Chazot, Paul L; Cowart, Marlon; Gutzmer, Ralf; Leurs, Rob; Liu, Wai L S; Stark, Holger; Thurmond, Robin L; Haas, Helmut L

    2015-07-01

    Histamine is a developmentally highly conserved autacoid found in most vertebrate tissues. Its physiological functions are mediated by four 7-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (H1R, H2R, H3R, H4R) that are all targets of pharmacological intervention. The receptors display molecular heterogeneity and constitutive activity. H1R antagonists are long known antiallergic and sedating drugs, whereas the H2R was identified in the 1970s and led to the development of H2R-antagonists that revolutionized stomach ulcer treatment. The crystal structure of ligand-bound H1R has rendered it possible to design new ligands with novel properties. The H3R is an autoreceptor and heteroreceptor providing negative feedback on histaminergic and inhibition on other neurons. A block of these actions promotes waking. The H4R occurs on immuncompetent cells and the development of anti-inflammatory drugs is anticipated.

  8. Applied medical image processing a basic course

    CERN Document Server

    Birkfellner, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    A widely used, classroom-tested text, Applied Medical Image Processing: A Basic Course delivers an ideal introduction to image processing in medicine, emphasizing the clinical relevance and special requirements of the field. Avoiding excessive mathematical formalisms, the book presents key principles by implementing algorithms from scratch and using simple MATLAB®/Octave scripts with image data and illustrations on an accompanying CD-ROM or companion website. Organized as a complete textbook, it provides an overview of the physics of medical image processing and discusses image formats and data storage, intensity transforms, filtering of images and applications of the Fourier transform, three-dimensional spatial transforms, volume rendering, image registration, and tomographic reconstruction.

  9. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. XCIV. Adhesion G Protein–Coupled Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Ushkaryov, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    The Adhesion family forms a large branch of the pharmacologically important superfamily of G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs). As Adhesion GPCRs increasingly receive attention from a wide spectrum of biomedical fields, the Adhesion GPCR Consortium, together with the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology Committee on Receptor Nomenclature and Drug Classification, proposes a unified nomenclature for Adhesion GPCRs. The new names have ADGR as common dominator followed by a lett...

  10. Competency-based medical education: An overview and application in pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nilima; Desai, Chetna; Jorwekar, Gokul; Badyal, Dinesh; Singh, Tejinder

    2016-10-01

    Competency-based medical education (CBME) is gaining momentum across the globe. The Medical Council of India has described the basic competencies required of an Indian Medical Graduate and designed a competency-based module on attitudes and communication. Widespread adoption of a competency-based approach would mean a paradigm shift in the current approach to medical education. CBME, hence, needs to be reviewed for its usefulness and limitations in the Indian context. This article describes the rationale of CBME and provides an overview of its components, i.e., competency, entrustable professional activity, and milestones. It elaborates how CBME could be implemented in an institute, in the context of basic sciences in general and pharmacology in particular. The promises and perils of CBME that need to be kept in mind to maximize its gains are described.

  11. Pharmacology education in North American dental schools: the basic science survey series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Medha; Shaw, David H; Pate, Ted D; Lambert, H Wayne

    2013-08-01

    As part of the Basic Science Survey Series (BSSS) for Dentistry, members of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Physiology, Pharmacology, and Therapeutics Section surveyed course directors of basic pharmacology courses in North American dental schools. The survey was designed to assess, among other things, faculty affiliation and experience of course directors, teaching methods, general course content and emphasis, extent of interdisciplinary (shared) instruction, and impact of recent curricular changes. Responses were received from forty-nine of sixty-seven (73.1 percent) U.S. and Canadian dental schools. The findings suggest the following: 1) substantial variation exists in instructional hours, faculty affiliation, placement within curriculum, class size, and interdisciplinary nature of pharmacology courses; 2) pharmacology course content emphasis is similar among schools; 3) the number of contact hours in pharmacology has remained stable over the past three decades; 4) recent curricular changes were often directed towards enhancing the integrative and clinically relevant aspects of pharmacology instruction; and 5) a trend toward innovative content delivery, such as use of computer-assisted instruction applications, is evident. Data, derived from this study, may be useful to pharmacology course directors, curriculum committees, and other dental educators with an interest in integrative and interprofessional education.

  12. Teaching of medical pharmacology: the need to nurture the early development of desired attitudes for safe and rational drug prescribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwee, Matthew C E

    2009-09-01

    Pharmacology, as a basic medical science discipline, provides the scientific basis of therapeutics, i.e. the scientific foundation for safe and rational prescribing of drugs. The public, lay media, and the medical profession have raised serious concerns over the high incidence of errors of drug prescribing which compromise patient safety, including death of some patients, attributed mainly to inadequate teaching of medical pharmacology and, consequently, to medical graduates lacking skills in safe and effective drug prescribing. There is also overwhelming evidence that the pervasive and prevalent doctor-drug industry relationships have a strong influence over the prescribing habits and drug education of doctors. The British Pharmacological Society and American Association of Medical Colleges have crafted some insightful guidelines, including the learning of desired attitudes, for designing a medical pharmacology curriculum aimed at enhancing patient safety. This article will critically review the major issues relating to errors of drug prescribing, including the need to nurture the early development of desired attitudes which foster safe and rational drug prescribing. A simple educational approach, using a task analysis of drug prescribing, is applied to identify desired attitudes which should be incorporated into a basic pharmacology course for medical students in the twenty-first century.

  13. Creating a virtual pharmacology curriculum in a problem-based learning environment: one medical school's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpa, Kelly Dowhower; Vrana, Kent E

    2013-02-01

    Integrating pharmacology education into a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum has proven challenging for many medical schools, including the Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine (Penn State COM). In response to pharmacology content gaps in its PBL-intensive curriculum, Penn State COM in 2003 hired a director of medical pharmacology instruction to oversee efforts to improve the structure of pharmacology education in the absence of a stand-alone course. In this article, the authors describe the ongoing development of the virtual pharmacology curriculum, which weaves pharmacology instruction through the entire medical school curriculum with particular emphasis on the organ-based second year. Pharmacology is taught in a spiraling manner designed to add to and build upon students' knowledge and competency. Key aspects of the virtual curriculum (as of 2011) include clearly stated and behaviorally oriented pharmacology learning objectives, pharmacology study guides that correspond to each PBL case, pharmacology review sessions that feature discussions of United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE)-type questions, and pharmacology questions for each PBL case on course examinations to increase student accountability. The authors report a trend toward improved USMLE Step 1 scores since these initiatives were introduced. Furthermore, graduates' ratings of their pharmacology education have improved on the Medical School Graduation Questionnaire. The authors suggest that the initiatives they describe for enhancing pharmacology medical education are relevant to other medical schools that are also seeking ways to better integrate pharmacology into PBL-based curricula.

  14. Medicalization of pharmacology teaching: an urgent need in the medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Rodolfo; Vidrio, Horacio; Campos-Sepulveda, Efrain

    2009-01-01

    Information overload, proliferation of new drugs and curricular reforms have been recognized as three of the major factors contributing to the insufficient pharmacological education of medical students. To remedy this situation, it has been recommended that a curriculum more selective in knowledge content coupled with a restricted list of drugs be developed. Based on our own teaching experience, common educational objectives, competencies to be achieved, profiles of morbidity and mortality of the Mexican population, and knowledge of the literature, we have identified what should constitute the core content of pharmacology courses in medical schools. Selected themes were grouped in three categories and the number of drugs that undergraduate medical students have to manage is limited to 139. We have developed a concrete, medicine-focused, core pharmacology program dealing with themes and drugs that will best constitute the primary teaching/learning material for undergraduate medical students.

  15. [Medical-legal issues of physical and pharmacological restraint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Durán, Esperanza L; Guija, Julio A; Ortega-Monasterio, Leopoldo

    2014-03-01

    The use of physical and pharmacological restraint is controversial but is currently accepted as inevitable. It is indicated for controlling behavioral disorders and psychomotor agitation that put patients and third parties at risk. Its indication should be medical, and we should opt for the least restrictive measure. Restraints represent a possible infringement of patients' fundamental rights and require understanding and strict respect for the medical-legal precepts by physicians and other practitioners involved in its application. This article reviews the current legal framework, as well as the medical-legal premises and aspects of applying restraints, with the objective of ensuring maximum respect for patients' rights and the appropriate legal safety in the activity of practitioners. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. A concise review of the basic biology and pharmacology of local analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, S; Tennant, M

    2005-12-01

    Local analgesics are the most commonly used group drugs in dental practice. However, due to their frequent use and high margin of safety, often dental practitioners neglect to properly understand the biology and pharmacology of these drugs. This article reviews the basic concepts of pain, pain pathways, the mode of action of local analgesics and factors which affect their usage. Specific details and properties of some currently available solutions are also outlined. A greater understanding of the biology and pharmacology of local anaesthetics will ultimately lead to safer and more effective use in everyday clinical practice.

  17. The pharmacologic and clinical effects of medical cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgelt, Laura M; Franson, Kari L; Nussbaum, Abraham M; Wang, George S

    2013-02-01

    Cannabis, or marijuana, has been used for medicinal purposes for many years. Several types of cannabinoid medicines are available in the United States and Canada. Dronabinol (schedule III), nabilone (schedule II), and nabiximols (not U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved) are cannabis-derived pharmaceuticals. Medical cannabis or medical marijuana, a leafy plant cultivated for the production of its leaves and flowering tops, is a schedule I drug, but patients obtain it through cannabis dispensaries and statewide programs. The effect that cannabinoid compounds have on the cannabinoid receptors (CB(1) and CB(2) ) found in the brain can create varying pharmacologic responses based on formulation and patient characteristics. The cannabinoid Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol has been determined to have the primary psychoactive effects; the effects of several other key cannabinoid compounds have yet to be fully elucidated. Dronabinol and nabilone are indicated for the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and of anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. However, pain and muscle spasms are the most common reasons that medical cannabis is being recommended. Studies of medical cannabis show significant improvement in various types of pain and muscle spasticity. Reported adverse effects are typically not serious, with the most common being dizziness. Safety concerns regarding cannabis include the increased risk of developing schizophrenia with adolescent use, impairments in memory and cognition, accidental pediatric ingestions, and lack of safety packaging for medical cannabis formulations. This article will describe the pharmacology of cannabis, effects of various dosage formulations, therapeutics benefits and risks of cannabis for pain and muscle spasm, and safety concerns of medical cannabis use. © 2013 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  18. A comparison of medical and pharmacy students' knowledge and skills of pharmacology and pharmacotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, Carolina J P W; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; de Wildt, Dick J; Custers, Eugene J F M; Ten Cate, Olle Th J; Hazen, Ankie C M; Jansen, Paul A F

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Pharmacotherapy might be improved if future pharmacists and physicians receive a joint educational programme in pharmacology and pharmacotherapeutics. This study investigated whether there are differences in the pharmacology and pharmacotherapy knowledge and skills of pharmacy and medical

  19. A comparison of medical and pharmacy students' knowledge and skills of pharmacology and pharmacotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, Carolina J P W; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; de Wildt, Dick J; Custers, Eugene J F M; Ten Cate, Olle Th J; Hazen, Ankie C M; Jansen, Paul A F

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Pharmacotherapy might be improved if future pharmacists and physicians receive a joint educational programme in pharmacology and pharmacotherapeutics. This study investigated whether there are differences in the pharmacology and pharmacotherapy knowledge and skills of pharmacy and medical stude

  20. Teaching of pharmacology in Universiti Malaya and the other medical schools in Malaysia- a historical perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si Mui SIM

    2004-01-01

    Traditional pharmacology teaching has focused more on drug instead of therapeutics, such that although pharmacological knowledge is acquired, practical skills in prescribing remain weak. In Malaysia many new medical schools (both public and private) have been set up in the last 12 years due to a change in government policy, resulting in a wide spectrum of medical curricula. Universiti Malaya (UM) being the oldest medical school in Malaysia was deep set in its traditional way of teaching-learning, since its inception in 1962, until a visit from the General Medical Council of the United Kingdom in 1984 triggered off a change of tide. Since then the medical curriculum in UM has undergone two major revisions. The first revised curriculum (1988) aimed to inject more clinical relevance into basic science teaching, through introducing clinical lectures and skills in the paraclinical year.Professional behaviour was also addressed. The second revised curriculum (1998) sought to improve further the integration of knowledge as well as to produce a holistic doctor, viewing the patient as a person instead of a clinical entity. The teaching-learning of pharmacology has gradually moved from factual regurgitation to more clinical reasoning, from lab-based to more patient-oriented approach. As more new medical schools are being set up in Malaysia, exchange of experience in this area of learning will hopefully help us find a happy medium between "the old is best" and "the new is better" type approach so that a pedagogically sound and yet logistically practical curriculum can be found in our local setting, to help produce doctors with good prescribing practice.

  1. Teaching Pharmacology at a Nepalese Medical School: The Student Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar PR, ,

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundKIST Medical College, Lalitpur, Nepal conducts problem-basedpharmacology learning during small-group practical sessions.The present study was carried out to obtain student feedbackregarding the sessions and suggestions for improvement.MethodThe questionnaire-based study was carried out among firstyear medical students during July 2009. Respondents wereenrolled after explaining the aims and objectives of the studyand obtaining written, informed consent. Basic demographicinformation and student agreement with a set of 30statements using a modified Likert-type scale was noted.ResultsSixty-four of the 75 students (86% participated. The mediantotal score was 107 (maximum score 150 and was higheramong males, students from within the Kathmandu valley andself-financing students. The differences were not statisticallysignificant. The suggestions for improvement were improvingthe physical infrastructure of the lab and providing more timefor the practical exercises.ConclusionStudent opinion was favourable. The findings would be ofinterest to medical educators especially in developingcountries.

  2. [Flipped classroom in basic medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merenmies, Jussi; Niemi-Murola, Leila; Pyörälä, Eeva

    2015-01-01

    Medical education is facing changes in order to improve young doctors' competency to respond better to current needs of the patients and the society. Both curriculum content and teaching methods are revised. In addition to vibrant research in academic medical education, teachers are supported by the improved web-based learning environments and novel technical tools. Flipped classroom, a new paradigm that benefits from technical development, provides many opportunities for medical education. This teaching method always consists of two mutually complementary parts. The first part of the learning action takes place independently off classroom with video lectures or other stimuli for learning. The second part takes place in conjunction with the teacher and other students, and requires student group interactions.

  3. Opinions Of The Teachers Of Basic Medical Sciences Of Istanbul Medical Faculty On The Education In Basic Medical Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    ÖNER, Pernur

    2004-01-01

    In the present study which aims to assess the criticisms, opinions and suggestions of 63 teachers of basic medical sciences who teach in the 1st, and 2nd years, questionnaires were evaluated. Since the percentage of participating teachers is 70 %, the reliability of the results obtained are very high. Approximately 80 % of them revealed that, theoretical lessons are required to be presented by interactive education principles. Lecture presentations enriched with advanced technology-based...

  4. Medical Imaging with Ultrasound: Some Basic Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, R.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed are medical applications of ultrasound. The physics of the wave nature of ultrasound including its propagation and production, return by the body, spatial and contrast resolution, attenuation, image formation using pulsed echo ultrasound techniques, measurement of velocity and duplex scanning are described. (YP)

  5. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXVII. Kisspeptin Receptor Nomenclature, Distribution, and Function

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, Helen R.; Maguire, Janet J.; Colledge, William H.; Davenport, Anthony P

    2010-01-01

    Kisspeptins are members of the Arg-Phe amide family of peptides, which have been identified as endogenous ligands for a G-protein-coupled receptor encoded by a gene originally called GPR54 (also known as AXOR12 or hOT7T175). After this pairing, the gene has been renamed KISS1R. The International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology Committee on Receptor Nomenclature and Drug Classification recommends that the official name for the receptor is the kisspeptin receptor to follow the conventi...

  6. Self-perceived readiness of medical interns in performing basic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SIN Yiga

    cFaculty of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa ... complete their basic medical degree.1 This is considered a. 'bridging' .... The procedures practised at undergraduate level indicated.

  7. Basic Training Program for Emergency Medical Technician Ambulance: Course Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucigna, Joseph T.; And Others

    In an effort to upgrade or further develop the skills levels of all individuals involved in the emergency medical care service, this training program was developed for the National Highway Safety Bureau. This specific course is an attempt to organize, conduct, and standardize a basic training course for emergency medical technicians (EMTs). The…

  8. Evaluation of pharmacology teaching-learning methods in a government medical college

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aritra Ghosh

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: This study helps in knowing students' opinion and preferences in curriculum to make it more interesting and aids to modify the undergraduate Pharmacology teaching pattern. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 126-130

  9. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXIII. Nomenclature for the Formyl Peptide Receptor (FPR) Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    YE, RICHARD D.; BOULAY, FRANÇOIS; WANG, JI MING; DAHLGREN, CLAES; GERARD, CRAIG; PARMENTIER, MARC; SERHAN, CHARLES N.; MURPHY, PHILIP M.

    2009-01-01

    Formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) are a small group of seven-transmembrane domain, G protein-coupled receptors that are expressed mainly by mammalian phagocytic leukocytes and are known to be important in host defense and inflammation. The three human FPRs (FPR1, FPR2/ALX, and FPR3) share significant sequence homology and are encoded by clustered genes. Collectively, these receptors bind an extraordinarily numerous and structurally diverse group of agonistic ligands, including N-formyl and nonformyl peptides of different composition, that chemoattract and activate phagocytes. N-formyl peptides, which are encoded in nature only by bacterial and mitochondrial genes and result from obligatory initiation of bacterial and mitochondrial protein synthesis with N-formylmethionine, is the only ligand class common to all three human receptors. Surprisingly, the endogenous anti-inflammatory peptide annexin 1 and its N-terminal fragments also bind human FPR1 and FPR2/ALX, and the anti-inflammatory eicosanoid lipoxin A4 is an agonist at FPR2/ALX. In comparison, fewer agonists have been identified for FPR3, the third member in this receptor family. Structural and functional studies of the FPRs have produced important information for understanding the general pharmacological principles governing all leukocyte chemoattractant receptors. This article aims to provide an overview of the discovery and pharmacological characterization of FPRs, to introduce an International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR)-recommended nomenclature, and to discuss unmet challenges, including the mechanisms used by these receptors to bind diverse ligands and mediate different biological functions. PMID:19498085

  10. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. XCIV. Adhesion G protein-coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Jörg; Aust, Gabriela; Araç, Demet; Engel, Felix B; Formstone, Caroline; Fredriksson, Robert; Hall, Randy A; Harty, Breanne L; Kirchhoff, Christiane; Knapp, Barbara; Krishnan, Arunkumar; Liebscher, Ines; Lin, Hsi-Hsien; Martinelli, David C; Monk, Kelly R; Peeters, Miriam C; Piao, Xianhua; Prömel, Simone; Schöneberg, Torsten; Schwartz, Thue W; Singer, Kathleen; Stacey, Martin; Ushkaryov, Yuri A; Vallon, Mario; Wolfrum, Uwe; Wright, Mathew W; Xu, Lei; Langenhan, Tobias; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2015-01-01

    The Adhesion family forms a large branch of the pharmacologically important superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). As Adhesion GPCRs increasingly receive attention from a wide spectrum of biomedical fields, the Adhesion GPCR Consortium, together with the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology Committee on Receptor Nomenclature and Drug Classification, proposes a unified nomenclature for Adhesion GPCRs. The new names have ADGR as common dominator followed by a letter and a number to denote each subfamily and subtype, respectively. The new names, with old and alternative names within parentheses, are: ADGRA1 (GPR123), ADGRA2 (GPR124), ADGRA3 (GPR125), ADGRB1 (BAI1), ADGRB2 (BAI2), ADGRB3 (BAI3), ADGRC1 (CELSR1), ADGRC2 (CELSR2), ADGRC3 (CELSR3), ADGRD1 (GPR133), ADGRD2 (GPR144), ADGRE1 (EMR1, F4/80), ADGRE2 (EMR2), ADGRE3 (EMR3), ADGRE4 (EMR4), ADGRE5 (CD97), ADGRF1 (GPR110), ADGRF2 (GPR111), ADGRF3 (GPR113), ADGRF4 (GPR115), ADGRF5 (GPR116, Ig-Hepta), ADGRG1 (GPR56), ADGRG2 (GPR64, HE6), ADGRG3 (GPR97), ADGRG4 (GPR112), ADGRG5 (GPR114), ADGRG6 (GPR126), ADGRG7 (GPR128), ADGRL1 (latrophilin-1, CIRL-1, CL1), ADGRL2 (latrophilin-2, CIRL-2, CL2), ADGRL3 (latrophilin-3, CIRL-3, CL3), ADGRL4 (ELTD1, ETL), and ADGRV1 (VLGR1, GPR98). This review covers all major biologic aspects of Adhesion GPCRs, including evolutionary origins, interaction partners, signaling, expression, physiologic functions, and therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  11. Pre-internship Nigerian medical graduates lack basic musculoskeletal competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottidge, Timothy Eyo; Ekrikpo, Udeme; Ifesanya, Adeleke Olusegun; Nnabuko, Richard E; Dim, Edwin Maduakonam; Udoinyang, Clement Inyang

    2012-04-01

    Our aim was to assess the basic musculoskeletal competency of pre-internship graduates from Nigerian medical schools. We administered the Freedman and Bernstein basic musculoskeletal competency examination to 113 pre-internship graduates from seven Nigerian medical schools over a three year period from 2008 to 2010 at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital. Five specialist residents took the examination to test criteria relevance. All graduates failed this test, obtaining scores ranging from 7% to 67%. The duration of the orthopaedic posting, and observation of operative fracture fixation, were not significant determinants of the score. The two final-year specialist residents each had a marginal pass in the examination. Basic musculoskeletal competency among pre-internship Nigerian medical-school graduates is inadequate.

  12. Adequacy of pharmacological information provided in pharmaceutical drug advertisements in African medical journals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshikoya KA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical advertisement of drugs is a means of advocating drug use and their selling but not a substitute for drug formulary to guide physicians in safe prescribing. Objectives: To evaluate drug advertisements in Nigerian and other African medical journals for their adequacy of pharmacological information. Methods: Twenty four issues from each of West African Journal of Medicine (WAJM, East African Medical Journal (EAMJ, South African Medical Journal (SAMJ, Nigerian Medical Practitioner (NMP, Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine (NQJHM and Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal (NPMJ were reviewed. While EAMJ, SAMJ and NMP are published monthly, the WAJM, NQJHM and NPMJ are published quarterly. The monthly journals were reviewed between January 2005 and December 2006, and the quarterly journals between January 2001 and December 2006. The drug information with regards to brand/non-proprietary name, pharmacological data, clinical information, pharmaceutical information and legal aspects was evaluated as per World Health Organisation (WHO criteria. Counts in all categories were collated for each advertiser.Results: Forty one pharmaceutical companies made 192 advertisements. 112 (58.3% of these advertisements were made in the African medical journals. Pfizer (20.3% and Swipha (12.5% topped the list of the advertising companies. Four (2.1% adverts mentioned generic names only, 157 (81.8% mentioned clinical indications. Adults and children dosage (39.6%, use in special situations such as pregnancy and renal or liver problems (36.5%, adverse effects (30.2%, average duration of treatment (26.0%, and potential for interaction with other drugs (18.7% were less discussed. Pharmaceutical information such as available dosage forms and product and package information {summary of the generic and proprietary names, the formulation strength, active ingredient, route of administration, batch number, manufactured and expiry dates, and the

  13. Recall of Theoretical Pharmacology Knowledge by 6th Year Medical Students and Interns of Three Medical Schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to provide some insights into the ability of the sixth year medical students and interns to recall theoretical knowledge of pharmacology. A cross-sectional study was conducted among students who graduated from three different medical schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was distributed to male and female students in 3 different colleges of medicine. The questionnaire included demographic information and ten multiple choice questions (MCQs on basic pharmacology. Out of the 161 students, there were 39 females (24% and 122 males (76%. A total of 36 (22% students studied at a traditional learning school whereas 125 (78% students studied at problem based learning (PBL schools. The students were recruited from three universities: KSU, KSAU-HS, and KFMC-COM. In general, 31 students (19% of the participants scored ≥ 7 out of 10, 77 students (48% of them obtained a correct score of (4–6 out of 10, and 53 students (33% scored less than 4. The study showed no statistically significant difference in recalling pharmacology between traditional school and problem based learning school except for those who prepared for exams. Results suggest that pharmacology is a difficult subject. Reevaluations are needed in the way of teaching pharmacology.

  14. The Medical Interaction Laboratory--Multidiscipline Approach for Presentation of Principles of Physiology and Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jack W.; Sims, Michael H.

    1979-01-01

    An interdisciplinary physiology and pharmacology course presented by the Medical Interaction Laboratory at the University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine provides interaction among faculty, conserves faculty time and animal expense, and presents a coordinated laboratory experience. (BH)

  15. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. XCIV. Adhesion G Protein–Coupled Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aust, Gabriela; Araç, Demet; Engel, Felix B.; Formstone, Caroline; Fredriksson, Robert; Hall, Randy A.; Harty, Breanne L.; Kirchhoff, Christiane; Knapp, Barbara; Krishnan, Arunkumar; Liebscher, Ines; Lin, Hsi-Hsien; Martinelli, David C.; Monk, Kelly R.; Peeters, Miriam C.; Piao, Xianhua; Prömel, Simone; Schöneberg, Torsten; Schwartz, Thue W.; Singer, Kathleen; Stacey, Martin; Ushkaryov, Yuri A.; Vallon, Mario; Wolfrum, Uwe; Wright, Mathew W.; Xu, Lei; Langenhan, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The Adhesion family forms a large branch of the pharmacologically important superfamily of G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs). As Adhesion GPCRs increasingly receive attention from a wide spectrum of biomedical fields, the Adhesion GPCR Consortium, together with the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology Committee on Receptor Nomenclature and Drug Classification, proposes a unified nomenclature for Adhesion GPCRs. The new names have ADGR as common dominator followed by a letter and a number to denote each subfamily and subtype, respectively. The new names, with old and alternative names within parentheses, are: ADGRA1 (GPR123), ADGRA2 (GPR124), ADGRA3 (GPR125), ADGRB1 (BAI1), ADGRB2 (BAI2), ADGRB3 (BAI3), ADGRC1 (CELSR1), ADGRC2 (CELSR2), ADGRC3 (CELSR3), ADGRD1 (GPR133), ADGRD2 (GPR144), ADGRE1 (EMR1, F4/80), ADGRE2 (EMR2), ADGRE3 (EMR3), ADGRE4 (EMR4), ADGRE5 (CD97), ADGRF1 (GPR110), ADGRF2 (GPR111), ADGRF3 (GPR113), ADGRF4 (GPR115), ADGRF5 (GPR116, Ig-Hepta), ADGRG1 (GPR56), ADGRG2 (GPR64, HE6), ADGRG3 (GPR97), ADGRG4 (GPR112), ADGRG5 (GPR114), ADGRG6 (GPR126), ADGRG7 (GPR128), ADGRL1 (latrophilin-1, CIRL-1, CL1), ADGRL2 (latrophilin-2, CIRL-2, CL2), ADGRL3 (latrophilin-3, CIRL-3, CL3), ADGRL4 (ELTD1, ETL), and ADGRV1 (VLGR1, GPR98). This review covers all major biologic aspects of Adhesion GPCRs, including evolutionary origins, interaction partners, signaling, expression, physiologic functions, and therapeutic potential. PMID:25713288

  16. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. XC. multisite pharmacology: recommendations for the nomenclature of receptor allosterism and allosteric ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulos, Arthur; Changeux, Jean-Pierre; Catterall, William A; Fabbro, Doriano; Burris, Thomas P; Cidlowski, John A; Olsen, Richard W; Peters, John A; Neubig, Richard R; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Sexton, Patrick M; Kenakin, Terry P; Ehlert, Frederick J; Spedding, Michael; Langmead, Christopher J

    2014-10-01

    Allosteric interactions play vital roles in metabolic processes and signal transduction and, more recently, have become the focus of numerous pharmacological studies because of the potential for discovering more target-selective chemical probes and therapeutic agents. In addition to classic early studies on enzymes, there are now examples of small molecule allosteric modulators for all superfamilies of receptors encoded by the genome, including ligand- and voltage-gated ion channels, G protein-coupled receptors, nuclear hormone receptors, and receptor tyrosine kinases. As a consequence, a vast array of pharmacologic behaviors has been ascribed to allosteric ligands that can vary in a target-, ligand-, and cell-/tissue-dependent manner. The current article presents an overview of allostery as applied to receptor families and approaches for detecting and validating allosteric interactions and gives recommendations for the nomenclature of allosteric ligands and their properties.

  17. Teaching pharmacology to medical students in an integrated problem-based learning curriculum:an Australian perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Owen L WOODMAN; Agnes E DODDS; Albert G FRAUMAN; Mosepele MOSEPELE

    2004-01-01

    The world-wide move away from the didactic teaching of single disciples to integrated Problem-based Learning (PBL) curricula in medical education has posed challenges for the basic sciences. In this paper we identify two major challenges. The first challenge is the need to describe a core disciplinary curriculum that can be articulated and mapped onto the new structure. We illustrate how the British Pharmacological Society (BPS) Guidelines are used to evaluate the curriculum coverage in the medical course at The University of Melbourne. The second challenge is to ensure that foundational concepts are given adequate emphasis within the new structure, and in particular, that students have the opportunity to pursue these concepts in their self-directed learning. We illustrate one approach to teaching important pharmacological concepts in an integrated curriculum with a case study from the first year curriculum at The University of Melbourne. Finally, we propose the features of an integrated curriculum that facilitates the learning of basic pharmacology in a situation where PBL and integration sets the curriculum framework.

  18. Conception of Pharmacological Knowledge and Needs Amongst Nigerian Medical Students at Lagos State University College of Medicine: Implication for Future Biomedical Science in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaga, Luther Agbonyegbeni; John, Theresa Adebola

    2016-08-30

    In Nigeria, medical students are trained in more didactic environments than their counterparts in researchintensive academic medical centers. Their conception of pharmacology was thus sought. Students who are taking/have takenthe medical pharmacology course completed an 18-question survey within 10min by marking one/more choices fromalternatives. Instructions were: "Dear Participant, Please treat as confidential, give your true view, avoid influences, avoidcrosstalk, return survey promptly." Out of 301 students, 188 (62.46%) participated. Simple statistics showed: 61.3%respondents associated pharmacology with medicine, 24.9% with science, 16.8 % with industry, and 11.1% with government;32.8% want to know clinical pharmacology, 7.1% basic pharmacology, 6.7% pharmacotherapy, and 34.2% want a blend ofall three; 57.8% want to know clinical uses of drugs, 44.8% mechanisms of action, 44.4% side effects, and 31.1% differentdrugs in a group; 45.8% prefer to study lecturers' notes, 26.7% textbooks, 9.8% the Internet, and 2.7% journals; 46.7% usestandard textbooks, 11.5% revision texts, 2.66% advanced texts, and 8.4% no textbook; 40.4% study pharmacology to beable to treat patients, 39.1% to complete the requirements for MBBS degree, 8.9% to know this interesting subject, and 3.1%to make money. Respondents preferring aspects of pharmacology were: 42.7, 16, 16, and 10 (%) respectively for mechanismsof action, pharmacokinetics, side effects, and drug lists. Medical students' conception and need for pharmacology werebased on MBBS degree requirements; they lacked knowledge/interest in pharmacology as a science and may not be thepotential trusts for Africa's future pharmacology.

  19. Compensation of Emergency Medical Technician (EMT)-Basics and Paramedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studnek, Jonathan R

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify factors associated with compensation for Emergency Medical Technician (EMT)-Basics and Paramedics and assess whether these associations have changed over the period 1999-2008. Data obtained from the Longitudinal EMT Attributes and Demographic Study (LEADS) surveys, a mail survey of a random, stratified sample of nationally certified EMT-Basics and Paramedics, were analyzed. For the 1999-2003 period, analyses included all respondents providing Emergency Medical Services (EMS). With the addition of a survey in 2004 about volunteers, it was possible to exclude volunteers from these analyses. Over 60% of EMT-Basics reported being either compensated or noncompensated volunteers in the 2004-2008 period. This was substantially and significantly greater than the proportion of EMT-Paramedic volunteers (EMT-Paramedics earned significantly more than EMT-Basics, with differentials of $11,000-$18,000 over the course of the study. The major source of earnings disparity was type of organization: respondents employed by fire-based EMS agencies reported significantly higher earnings than other respondents, at both the EMT-Basic and EMT-Paramedic levels. Males also earned significantly more than females, with annual earnings differentials ranging from $7,000 to $15,000. There are a number of factors associated with compensation disparities within the EMS profession. These include type of service (ie, fire-based vs. other types of agencies) and gender. The reasons for these disparities warrant further investigation. Studnek JR . Compensation of Emergency Medical Technician (EMT)-Basics and Paramedics. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(Suppl. 1):s87-s95.

  20. [Tyramine and serotonin syndromes. Pharmacological, medical and legal remarks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro-Martínez, Esteban

    2005-01-01

    The tyramine syndrome and the serotonin syndrome are a complex of signs and symptoms that are thought to be largely attributable to drug - drug interactions or drug - food interactions that enhances norepinephrine o serotonin activity. This article reviews: pharmacological basis of those syndromes; clinical features; forbidden foods, drug-drug interactions, and treatment options. Finally a set of legal recommendations are proposed to avoid liability litigations.

  1. [Exploration of research approaches of Chinese medicine's pharmacology based on "imprinting templates" (medical element) of supramolecules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fu-yuan; He, Hong; Deng, Kai-wen; Zhou, Yi-qun; Shi, Ji-lian; Liu, Wen-long; Yang, Yan-tao; Tang, Yu

    2015-11-01

    The paper, based on the previous publication as special impact of Chinese medicine theories on supramolcular chemistry, aims to analyze the natural origination for the Chinese medicine and to explain the special impact of "Qi chromatography" reaction on "imprinting templates" in supramolcular host of human being with Chinese medicine, in order to reveal the CM's properties of "medical element" with "imprinting templates" autonomisation generally took place in natural supramolecules, and also to discover that the CM's pharmacology are satisfied with its own approaches different form western pharmacology. It was decided, for CM's pharmacology guided by CM's theories, to "Qi chromatography" relations between the CM's ingredient groups and the meridian zang-fu viscera. The supramolcular chemistry played an all-through role in procession of making macro-regularities and special presentation on behavior of "Qi chromatography" impulse owning to the matching action of all kinds of ingredients on the meridian zang-fu viscera with similar "imprinting templates". The CM's pharmacology were guided by CM's theories, owing to its interpretation of supramolecular chemistry. The pharmacology was achieved to construct up completely on base of classical chemical single molecular bonds whereas the CM's pharmacology be configured to big building by way of "imprinting templates" as multi-weak bonds among "supramolecular society". CM's pharmacology was supramolcular pharmacology dealt with "molecular society" on the base of western pharmacology, and employed to double research approaches both math-physical quantitative representation on macroscope and qualitative analyses in microscope.

  2. An audit of basic practical skills acquisition of final year medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    year medical students of a Nigerian medical school to basic practical skills. ... Keywords: Acquisition, basic practical skills, medical students .... structured learning and feedback. ... role of practical experience in undergraduate and general.

  3. Clinical Pharmacology in Denmark in 2016 - 40 Years with the Danish Society of Clinical Pharmacology and 20 Years as a Medical Speciality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøsen, Kim; Andersen, Stig Ejdrup; Borregaard, Jeanett

    2016-01-01

    The Danish Society of Clinical Pharmacology was founded in 1976, and mainly thanks to the persistent efforts of the society, clinical pharmacology became an independent medical speciality in Denmark in 1996. Since then, clinical pharmacology has gone from strength to strength. In the Danish...... healthcare system, clinical pharmacology has established itself as an indispensible part of the efforts to promote the rational, safe and economic use of drugs. Clinical pharmacologists are active in drug committees both in hospitals and in the primary sector. All clinical pharmacology centres offer a local...... in the Capital Region. The Department of Clinical Pharmacology at Aarhus University Hospital works closely together with forensic toxicologists and pathologists, covering issues regarding illicit substances, forensic pharmacology, post-mortem toxicology, expert testimony and research. Therapeutic geriatric...

  4. Medical students` perceptions of supporting pharmacology learning in English by key information prepared in Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ياسين, تيم; مروان, حجلة ابو; ريجينالد, سيكويرا

    2017-07-16

    We explored medical students` perceptions of supporting pharmacology self-learning in English by focused materials prepared in Arabic. This study targeted third-year medical students at the Arabian Gulf University in Bahrain (n= 183). During the endocrine and metabolism subunit, which is taught in English, slides containing focused information in Arabic preceded detailed English ones. At the end of the subunit, students` perceptions were explored by a questionnaire and focus group discussions. Most participants reported that this intervention made pharmacology learning easier, improved confidence in drug selection, knowledge of adverse drug reactions, detection of response to medications and occurrence of adverse reactions. Most respondents thought that this intervention would help them during the clinical phase of their study and in communicating drug therapy to patients in Arabic. Supporting pharmacology learning in a foreign language with instructional materials prepared in a native language improved students self-reported learning and satisfaction.

  5. Pharmacological Treatments of Alzheimer’s Disease: Current Medication,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Mowla

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD that is identified by progressive cognitive deficit and behavioral disturbances (BD are the most common form of dementia. As the population is aging, patients with AD are becoming a serious burden for societies. In this study, current medication for cognitive deficit and behavioral disturbances are reviewed. Also the new treatment strategies for cognitive dysfunction and behavioral disturbances are surveyed. Methods: The method employed in this researh was a systematic bibliographic review, in which only the double-blind placebo-controlled studies or the clinically detailed enough open-labeled studies using validated scales were retained. Results: The efficacy of cholinesterase inhibitors (Tacrine, Rivastigmine, Donapezil and Galantamine has been demonstrated in several double blind placebo controlled clinical trials. They have shown a mild efficacy in mild to moderate AD. Memantine, a NMDA antagonist is the only drug that has demonstrated mild efficacy in moderate to severe AD in controlled clinical trial. Clinical trials surveying the efficacy of active and passive immunization against B amyloid protoin has halted due to serious adverse events. Studies of inducing neurogenesis in brain of AD patients are preliminary. Antipsychotics have shown efficacy for controlling BD of AD patients but they are associated with adverse events. Except for carbamazepine, there is not enough evidence for other anticanvulsants to be effective for behavioral disturbances of AD patients. A controlled clinical trial and some open studies have shown the efficacy of citalopram for BD. Further studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of other medications like trazadon, buspiron and beta blockers for BD. Conclusion: Cholinesterase inhibitors have demonstrated disappointing results. Memantine is only mildly effective for cognitive deficit. To date, no amyloid-modifying therapy has yet been successful in phase 3 clinical trials

  6. Sedative medications outside the operating room and the pharmacology of sedatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom G

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is a growing medical demand for suitable sedatives and analgesics to support the ongoing progress in diagnostic procedures and imaging techniques. This review provides an update of the pharmacology of the most commonly used drugs used for these procedures and shortly...

  7. Provision and assessment of pharmacology and pharmacotherapy education across an integrated medical school curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franson, Kari Lanette

    2008-01-01

    The papers presented here detail the approach to provide pharmacology and pharmacotherapy education at the Leiden University Medical Center. First it was decided to use the ability-based education model as the educational method and to have consistent outcomes and assessments throughout the curricul

  8. National Training Course. Emergency Medical Technician. Paramedic. Instructor's Lesson Plans. Module IV. General Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This instructor's lesson plan guide on general pharmacology is one of fifteen modules designed for use in the training of emergency medical technicians (paramedics). Five units of study are presented: (1) the sources of drugs, drug names, solids and liquids, and the different forms in which drugs may be dispersed; (2) the action (effects) of…

  9. CURRENT SCENARIO: KNOWLEDGE OF BASIC LIFE SUPPORT IN MEDICAL COLLEGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmita Chaudhary

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A workshop has been conducted on basic skill of Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR among doctors and nursing staff in medical college. Theoretical aspect was explained through power point presentation whereas practical aspect was demonstrated through skill station. The results were analyzed by using an answer key prepared from BLS manual of American Heart Association (AHA. Out of 117 participants only three participants secured 80-90% marks in pretest whereas rest of secured less than 50% marks .Post workshop assessment was done with same question papers showed 70% candidates securing more than 80%. Hence BLS workshop is essential to improve knowledge and skill of CPR. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 80-82

  10. Basic research on cancer related to radiation associated medical researches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong In; Hwang, Dae Yong; Bang, Ho Yoon [and others

    2000-12-01

    Basic Research on Cancer related to Radiation Associated Medical Researches including 1. Establishment of animal model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis and measurement of angiogenesis, 2. Tissue expression of Tie-1 and Tie-2 in human colorectal cancer, 3. Enhancement of G2/Mphase Cell Fraction by Adenovirus-mediated p53 Gene Transfer in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines, 4. Clinical Characteristics of the patients with Non-B Non-C Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Frequency of HBV, HCV and TTV Viremia in these Patients, 5. Significance of serum iron and ferritin in patients with stomach cancer, 6. Telomerase assay for early detection of lung cancer, 7. Study on the Usefulness of Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 Genotyping for Risk Group of Alcohol-related Cancer Screening, 8. Gene therapy using hepatoma specific promoter, 9. Study on the Influence of DNA repair gene, XRCC1 Genotypes on the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer were performed.

  11. [Medical Officer Ellerman, lecturer in pharmacology and editor of the Nederlandsch Lancet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Patrick P A M; Bolk, Jan H

    2011-01-01

    George Lievin Henri Ellerman (1817-1849) followed his medical-military training at the Military Medical Training College (RKMG) in Utrecht, the Netherlands, from 1835 to 1839, and gained his PhD from Leiden University in 1841. From 1843 to 1849 he was a lecturer in pharmacology at the RKMG. He was one of the first editors of the Nederlandsch Lancet. Together with his fellow board members Donders and Jansen he set this journal on a new course. Due to the new mix of scientific and practice-oriented articles the journal developed into the most important medical scientific journal in the Netherlands; it was however not among the journals that merged to become the Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde [Dutch Journal of Medicine]. In 1846 Ellerman published a Dutch translation of Friedrich Oesterlen's textbook of pharmacology 'Handbuch der Heilmittellehre'. This book was considered to be a complete and lucid survey of pharmacology and a major step towards a more scientific pharmacology. After his death at the age of 32, he was remembered as a good scientist and dedicated, hardworking lecturer.

  12. Study on Subjects of Basic Medical Insurance in Urban Areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wenpei

    2010-01-01

    @@ The legal relationship of medical insurance refers to relationship of rights and obligations among subjects of medical insurance, namely relationship of rights and obligations formed among the insurer, the applicant, the insured and the beneficiary of medical insurance due to payment of medical insurance premiums and management and supervision of medical insurance fund. Only if the range of the insured serving as the subject of rights in such legal relationship, namely the insurant enjoying basic medical insurance, is defined can the legal relationship of basic medical insurance be better adapted to and values and goals of legal system of basic medical insurance be realized.

  13. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXIX. Cannabinoid receptors and their ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertwee, R G; Howlett, A C; Abood, M E

    2010-01-01

    There are at least two types of cannabinoid receptors (CB(1) and CB(2)). Ligands activating these G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) include the phytocannabinoid ¿(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, numerous synthetic compounds, and endogenous compounds known as endocannabinoids. Cannabinoid receptor...... antagonists have also been developed. Some of these ligands activate or block one type of cannabinoid receptor more potently than the other type. This review summarizes current data indicating the extent to which cannabinoid receptor ligands undergo orthosteric or allosteric interactions with non-CB(1), non....../or CB(2) receptors are likely to display significantly different pharmacological profiles. The review also lists some criteria that any novel "CB(3)" cannabinoid receptor or channel should fulfil and concludes that these criteria are not currently met by any non-CB(1), non-CB(2) pharmacological receptor...

  14. Coordinating the undergraduate medical (MBBS basic sciences programme in a Nepalese medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar PR

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available KIST Medical College follows the curriculum of the Institute ofMedicine, Tribhuvan University. The programme aims toproduce socially responsible and competent physicians whoare willing and able to meet the existing and emergingchallenges of the national and international healthcaresystem. The first cohort of undergraduate medical students(MBBS students was admitted in November 2008 and threecohorts including the one admitted in 2008 have beenadmitted at the time of writing. The basic science subjects aretaught in an integrated, organ-system-based manner withcommunity medicine during the first two years. I wasappointed as the MBBS Phase I programme coordinator inSeptember 2008 and in this article I share my experiences ofrunning the basic sciences programme and also offersuggestions for running an efficient academic programme. Themanuscript will be of special interest to readers runningundergraduate medical programmes. The reader canunderstand our experiences in running the programme inadverse circumstances, learning to achieve greater integrationamong basic science, community medicine and clinicaldepartments, obtain information about a communitydiagnosis programme and know about running specialmodules on the medical humanities and pharmaceuticalpromotion.

  15. Effectiveness of student-led objective tutorials in pharmacology teaching to medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Kriti; Hashilkar, Nayana Kamalnayan

    2016-10-01

    Current teaching in pharmacology is passive with less emphasis on clinical application. There is a need to incorporate newer instructional designs into pharmacology. Student-led objective tutorial (SLOT) is one of the novel designs to enhance interest among learners, provide opportunities for group learning, and facilitate self-directed learning. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of SLOTs over conventional tutorials (CTs) in pharmacology and to obtain feedback from the students regarding their perceptions about it. The regular batch of MBBS 2(nd) professional in pharmacology was randomly divided into two groups. Five topics from central nervous system (CNS) were selected. One group received SLOT as the instructional strategy, whereas the other group went through CTs. At the end of the module, a written test was conducted to assess the effectiveness of both strategies. The students provided feedback regarding their experience using a prevalidated questionnaire. The mean scores of both the groups were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U-test. There was no significant difference in the mean scores of the end of the module test. However, the overall passing percentage was significantly higher in the intervention group (P = 0.043). A total of 45.71% students favored it as a future tutorial method and expressed that SLOT enhanced their ability to learn independently. SLOT is an effective teaching-learning method to teach pharmacology to medical undergraduates. It enhances interest among learners and increases the ability to learn independently.

  16. Developing a competency-based medical education curriculum for the core basic medical sciences in an African Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olopade, Funmilayo Eniola; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Raji, Yinusa; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi

    2016-01-01

    The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the "old" curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula successfully. The modifications to the teaching and assessment of the core basic medical science subjects have resulted in improved learning and performance at the final examinations.

  17. Artificial nutrition and bioethics issues: medical therapy or basic assistance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Lesi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Artificial nutrition provides nutrients artificially to those patients who cannot take food by mouth because of their pathological condition. Artificial nutrition is the therapeutical approach in case of protein-energy malnutrition, which is secondary to many conditions which do not allow to take food by mouth. In the last years the use of artificial nutrition has increased, both in hospitals and in the territory, because of the improvement of techniques and of the increasing knowledge of doctors and people and an increasing number of conditions benefit from it. In a temporary or permanent way, artificial nutrition sets important bioethical issues, as it substitutes the function deficit of the gastroenteric system, which is in charge of natural food intake. It is understandable that in human conscience and culture, food and drinking are very strictly related to life more than any other vital function. This concept is stressed by the phrase: ‘‘Give drink to the thirsty and food to the starving’’, that influences the Christian western culture we live in. Materials and methods: The main documents produced by laymen, Italian Catholic Religion institutions, and scientific societies and the medical ethical code have been analyzed with particular attention to whether artificial nutrition should be considered as a medical therapy or as basic assistance, together with the different ethical consequences on its suspension. Conclusions: Even if the doctor is not a specialist of the field and he has to deal with patients subject to artificial nutrition, he must be aware of the bioethical issues that this technique involves, in order to use it in the best way and to develop his own opinion towards it. The review of the documents presented here cannot be considered to be exhaustive, as this topic continuously evolves.

  18. Clinical Pharmacology in Denmark in 2016 - 40 Years with the Danish Society of Clinical Pharmacology and 20 Years as a Medical Speciality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brøsen, Kim; Andersen, Stig Ejdrup; Borregaard, Jeanett; Christensen, Hanne Rolighed; Christensen, Palle Mark; Dalhoff, Kim Peder; Damkier, Per; Hallas, Jesper; Heisterberg, Jens; Jessen, Niels; Jürgens, Gesche; Kampmann, Jens Peter Konnerup; Laursen, Britt Elmedal; Laursen, Torben; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Poulsen, Birgitte Klindt; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen; Andersen, Ljubica Vukelic; Senderovitz, Thomas; Sonne, Jesper

    2016-12-01

    The Danish Society of Clinical Pharmacology was founded in 1976, and mainly thanks to the persistent efforts of the society, clinical pharmacology became an independent medical speciality in Denmark in 1996. Since then, clinical pharmacology has gone from strength to strength. In the Danish healthcare system, clinical pharmacology has established itself as an indispensible part of the efforts to promote the rational, safe and economic use of drugs. Clinical pharmacologists are active in drug committees both in hospitals and in the primary sector. All clinical pharmacology centres offer a local medicines information service. Some centres have established an adverse drug effect manager function. Only one centre offers a therapeutic drug monitoring service. Clinical pharmacologists are responsible for the toxicological advice at the Danish Poison Information Centre at Bispebjerg University Hospital in the Capital Region. The Department of Clinical Pharmacology at Aarhus University Hospital works closely together with forensic toxicologists and pathologists, covering issues regarding illicit substances, forensic pharmacology, post-mortem toxicology, expert testimony and research. Therapeutic geriatric and psychiatric teach-inns for specialist and junior doctors are among the newest initiatives organized by clinical pharmacologists. Clinical pharmacologists work also in the Danish Medicines Agency and in the Danish pharmaceutical industry, and the latter has in particular a great growth potential for creating new jobs and career opportunities for clinical pharmacologists. As of July 2016, the Danish Society of Clinical Pharmacology has 175 members, and 70 of these are specialists in clinical pharmacology corresponding to approximately 2.5 specialists per 1000 doctors (Denmark has in total 28,000 doctors) or approximately 12 specialists per one million inhabitants. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  19. A survey of medical school teachers to identify basic biomedical concepts medical students should understand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson-Saunders, B; Feltovich, P J; Coulson, R L; Steward, D E

    1990-07-01

    Insights from the cognitive sciences indicate a continuing need for physicians to understand conceptual knowledge from the basic sciences, despite recent concerns regarding the increasing amount of information in medicine and the growing emphasis on performance skills. A 1987 survey of selected basic science and clinical teachers in North American medical schools was undertaken to identify basic biomedical concepts that are important in the practice of medicine and to specify how difficult these are for students to learn, apply, or both. Responses from faculty (nominated by their deans to answer the survey) from 82% of the medical schools indicated considerable agreement between the basic science teachers and clinical teachers on the relative importance of a set of biomedical concepts, and showed relatively minor levels of disagreement on how difficult these concepts are. The judgments of these teachers could prove extremely useful in (1) determining concepts that--because of their importance--should receive special attention in curriculum efforts, and (2) determining concepts that--because of their difficulty--need "special handling."

  20. Postgraduate pharmacology curriculum in medical institutions in India: time for need-based appraisal and modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badyal, Dinesh K; Desai, Chetna; Tripathi, Santanu K; Dhaneria, S P; Chandy, Sujith J; Bezbaruah, B K

    2014-01-01

    The need to revise the curriculum for the postgraduate course (M.D.) in Pharmacology has been perceived by the academicians in India since quite some time. The changing professional requirements of the graduating students, the current scenario vis a vis animal experimentation and the emphasis of the Medical Council of India on a competency based curriculum has triggered this felt need. In spite of the fact that most medical institutions and universities in India offer postgraduate courses in pharmacology, the curriculum lacks uniformity with extreme variations observed at some places. This article attempts to analyze the existing curricula in pharmacology in India and suggest modifications that could be recommended to the suitable regulatory bodies for implementation. A revision of objectives in the three domains of learning, development of skills that help develop suitable competencies, adoption of teaching learning methods in addition to the conventional methods, and a rethink on the assessment methods have been recommended. Development and validation of alternatives skill-based modules in lieu of animal experiments are recommended. Additional skills like medical writing and communication skills, professionalism and ethics, multi and inter-disciplinary integration and collaboration and a wider exposure of students to the pharmaceutical, academic, regulatory and research institutions for onsite learning were also recommended to fulfill their future career requirements.

  1. COMPUTER ASSISTED LEARNING: PERCEPTION AND ACCEPTABILITY OF UNDERGRADUATE MEDICAL STUDENTS IN PHARMACOLOGY EXPERIMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Babu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND According to Medical Council of India theory and practical curriculum is very essential for all medical subjects in the under-graduate medical course in India. Animal based experimental pharmacology is still being taught in many institutions in the country, though such a practice has been abandoned at many centers. However, the use of animals in research and experimentation has been debated, defended and protested by both individuals and organizations at various levels. In recent years undergraduate training in pharmacology has been revolutionized with adoptions of new methods of teaching that focus on supportive learning through novel teaching approaches like CAL (Computer Assisted Learning. OBJECTIVE To assess the student’s perception and acceptability of Computer Assisted Learning (CAL as a tool in demonstrating the drug effects in animals and to analyze feedback about advantages and disadvantages of CAL software. METHODS CAL software was used to demonstrate action of drugs in animals. Feedback was taken from students regarding their perception, acceptability, advantages and disadvantages of this tool. RESULTS More than 50% of the students opined that CAL is an effective method of teaching practical aspects of pharmacology; 88.88% of students expressed that lack of interaction with living tissues and animals is the main disadvantage. CONCLUSION Computer Assisted Learning (CAL is an excellent beneficial tool. It enhances the learning experience of the students and it is one of the alternative educational tools to demonstrate the drug effects in animals.

  2. Developing a competency-based medical education curriculum for the core basic medical sciences in an African Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olopade FE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Funmilayo Eniola Olopade,1 Oluwatosin Adekunle Adaramoye,2 Yinusa Raji,3 Abiodun Olubayo Fasola,4 Emiola Oluwabunmi Olapade-Olaopa5 1Department of Anatomy, 2Department of Biochemistry, 3Department of Physiology, 4Department of Oral Pathology, 5Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria Abstract: The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the “old” curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula

  3. RADIATION ACCIDENTS: EXPERIENCE OF MEDICAL PROTECTION AND MODERN STRATEGY OF PHARMACOLOGICAL MAINTENANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Grebenyuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience of medical protection at radiation accidents is analyzed. It is shown, that medicines that have been in the arsenal of medical service during the liquidation of consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident satisfied their predestination in a whole and were rather effective for radiation protection. The modern strategy of pharmacological maintenance based on use of means and methods, allowing to keeping a life, health and professional serviceability of people in conditions of amazing action of a complex of factors of radiation accidents, is submitted.

  4. Review and expectation of integrated curriculum of basic medical sciences of Shanghai Jiao Tong University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-yin NIU; Song YU; Xiao-kui GUO

    2015-01-01

    Since early 1950 s,many domestic and foreign medical schools have carried out the integrated teaching reform of medical education. In our school of basic medical sciences,there have been three types of integrated curriculum reform carried out in history,i. e. horizontally integrated courses,problem-oriented basic medical sciences curriculum, and organ system-based integrated curriculum. This article reviews the experience of these three teaching reforms and the problems encountered and hopes to provide some references for the integration of basic medical sciences curriculum of other medical schools.

  5. 医学留学生的药理学教学探索与实践%Exploration and practice on pharmacology teaching for international medical students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘月丽; 颜时姣; 黄奕弟; 张志远; 陈榕

    2011-01-01

    随着来中国学习医学的留学生逐渐增多,留学生教育已经成为中国医学教育中重要的一部分,海南医学院针对留学生的特点及专业要求,整合基础和临床药理学,采用理论、实验、PBL及专题讨论课的教学形式,进行留学生药理学教学.在两次期末考试及药理学课程群考试中,留学生的一次通过率分别为75%、80%和70%.通过MBBS专业留学生药理学教学,探索医学留学生的药理学教学模式及方法.%With more and more international medical students studying medicine in China,international medical education becomes an important part of Chinese medical education.By integration of basic and clinical pharmacology,the teaching mode of theory,experiment,problem based learning and seminar was applied to the international medical students according to their characteristics and specificity.75%,80% and 70% of the total international medical students respectively passed the two consecutive final exams and one pharmacology group exam.Through the teaching of pharmacology for international medical students major in MBBS,this author aims to explore the teaching mode of pharmacology for the international medical students.

  6. Basic Pharmacological and Structural Evidence for Class A G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Heteromerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Rafael; Martínez-Pinilla, Eva; Lanciego, José L.; Navarro, Gemma

    2016-01-01

    Cell membrane receptors rarely work on isolation, often they form oligomeric complexes with other receptor molecules and they may directly interact with different proteins of the signal transduction machinery. For a variety of reasons, rhodopsin-like class A G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) seem an exception to the general rule of receptor–receptor direct interaction. In fact, controversy surrounds their potential to form homo- hetero-dimers/oligomers with other class A GPCRs; in a sense, the field is going backward instead of forward. This review focuses on the convergent, complementary and telling evidence showing that homo- and heteromers of class A GPCRs exist in transfected cells and, more importantly, in natural sources. It is time to decide between questioning the occurrence of heteromers or, alternatively, facing the vast scientific and technical challenges that class A receptor-dimer/oligomer existence pose to Pharmacology and to Drug Discovery. PMID:27065866

  7. Transition from traditional to innovative teaching in and beyond pharmacology at Ziauddin Medical University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qamaruddin BARAKZAI

    2004-01-01

    Innovative teaching methodologies in different parts of the world are being practiced since last 3 decades. The aim of this review is to report the transition from traditional to innovative self learning process in Ziauddin Medical University, a new medical institute of Pakistan. Various problems encountered have been duly looked after by inducting faculty training programs and regular review sessions in which monitoring of the transition process was duly observed as well as further advancements were also planned. The University being a pioneer has attracted other institutions which have also planned to induct PBL in their curriculum.Vertical and horizontal integration has also inducted better understanding of subjects and fruitful advantages had been accomplished in subjects as pharmacology and pathology. In conclusion, the initial decision of the university to adapt innovative teaching methodologies along with following an integrated curriculum based on PBL and Community Oriented Medical Education system has now made ZMU a Novel institute amongst other medical institutes in the country.

  8. Perceptions and suggestions of second year medical professional students of deemed health university about their teaching and learning process in pharmacology: an analytical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagapati Prabhakar Bhat

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: This study has helped us in knowing the student preferences regarding pharmacology teaching and its outcomes would be helpful in modifying undergraduate pharmacology teaching pattern. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 763-768

  9. Pharmacology podcasts: a qualitative study of non-medical prescribing students' use, perceptions and impact on learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meade, Oonagh; Bowskill, Dianne; Lymn, Joanne S

    2011-01-01

    ... of the usefulness of podcasts as learning tools. This study aimed to explore the experiences of non-medical prescribing students who had access to podcasts of key pharmacology lectures as supplementary learning tools to their existing course materials...

  10. Effectiveness of Revised Pharmacology Record Books as a Teaching-Learning Method for Second Year Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadhar, Reneega

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The goal of teaching medical undergraduates Pharmacology is to form a sound foundation of therapeutics. The pharmacology record books are maintained as a part of the curriculum. The purpose of this study was to obtain feedback of the medical students about the new record adopted in the institution after major revision Materials and Methods This was a questionnaire based study done in a Government Medical College of Kerala in February 2013. The data was analysed using SPSS. The feedback on clinical pharmacology exercises was given positive and negative scores. Results Majority (64.5%) opined that the content in pharmacology record was good. A total of 78.1% completed the record during discussions in practical classes. Majority wrote the records for understanding pharmacology. For 79.8% General Pharmacology exercises were most relevant, 33.8% considered Clinical Pharmacology exercises to be the most thought provoking. Drug use in special groups received the maximum positive score. Conclusion The new improved pharmacology record is an effective teaching-learning method. Inclusion of more clinically oriented exercises has increased the interest of the students in the subject. PMID:26894083

  11. Teaching Physiology in integrated basic medical sciences – sharing experiences from Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradhan AK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Physiology is the basis of the medical profession [1]. Clear understanding of the mechanisms of the body functions always requires a high level of integration, apart from a descriptive approach [2, 3]. I worked as Professor in the Manipal College of Medical Sciences (MCOMS, Pokhara in the year 2009 -2010. Although my stay in Nepal was relatively short period, but the medical education system in Nepal influenced me. In Nepal, a traditional way of teaching pattern which is lecture-based, teacher-centered, discipline-based, examination-driven, and hospital-oriented is followed. Basic sciences and clinical sciences are the two main part of the medical curriculum in Nepal. The Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery degree is a four and half year's program, which is followed by one year internship. A large number of new medical colleges are coming up under Nepal Medical Council guidelines. There is a growing demand of Physicians in Nepal. Currently there are 18 medical colleges under Nepal Medical Council [4]. Manipal College of Medical Sciences is under Kathmandu University, one of the best and leading medical institutes in the country. This medical college is located in Pokhara. Students hailing from Nepal, India, Sri Lanka and other countries attend the four and a half year undergraduate medical (MBBS course. The MBBS course in Nepal is divided into nine semesters. Basic science subjects include Anatomy, Physiology, Biochemistry, Microbiology, Pathology, Pharmacology and Community Medicine which are taught in an integrated manner during the first four semesters (two years period. Community Medicine continues as a part of syllabus till the seventh semester and the clinical subjects like Medicine, Surgery, OBG, Ophthalmology, Orthopedics, Dermatology etc. are taught during the last five semesters of the MBBS course. At present Tribhuvan University (TU, Kathmandu University (KU, BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS and NAMS (National

  12. Undergraduate medical student's perceptions and experiences of m learning in pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmad Mir

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that medical students have a positive attitude toward m learning. M learning will facilitate the learning process without being tied to a physical location. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(6.000: 1254-1259

  13. Mapping for meaning. Using concept maps to integrate clinical and basic sciences in medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, Cijlvia Christina (Sylvia)

    2014-01-01

    Medical curricula are intended to help students to relate clinical and basic science knowledge. Localizing underlying basic science mechanisms allows teacher and students to focus on relevant relations with clinical phenomena. Concept maps are promising for medical education because of the potential

  14. Herbal pharmacology and medical therapy in the People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasagna, L

    1975-12-01

    A scientific delegation visited the People's Republic of China for the purpose of assessing the current status of herbal pharmacology and medicine there. China is attempting to wed traditional and Western medicine so as to take advantage of the potential contributions of both. This wedding seems possible at the empiric level despite theoretical contradictions. Traditional remedies are widely prescribed, but the actual impact of such medication on disease is difficult to assess, because of the failure of the Chinese up until now to evaluate such remedies by modern clinical trial methodology. All Western drugs are readily available in China, and indeed are manufactured for export as well as for use within the country. The current chinese approach to the patient-doctor relation, and some novel ideas with regard to both medical and surgical therapy pose provocative questions for Western physicians.

  15. An upcoming program for medical humanities education in Fudan University's School of Basic Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Cheng, Xunjia

    2017-05-23

    Ideal medical care requires professional skills as well as appropriate communication skills. However, traditional medical education in medical schools mostly emphasizes the former. To remedy this situation, medical humanities education will be incorporated into education for medical students at Fudan University. Comprehensive medical education that includes both medical skills and humanities may greatly improve medical care.

  16. Clinical and basic science teachers' opinions about the required depth of biomedical knowledge for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koens, Franciska; Custers, Eugène J F M; ten Cate, Olle T J

    2006-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether basic scientists and physicians agree on the required depth of biomedical knowledge of medical students at graduation. A selection of basic science and clinical teachers rated the relevance of biomedical topics for students at graduation, illustrated by 80 example items. The items were derived from ten organ systems and designed at four levels: clinical, organ, cellular and molecular. Respondents were asked to identify for each item to what extent recently graduated medical students should have knowledge about it. In addition, they were asked to indicate whether the content of the item should be included in the medical curriculum. Analysis showed that basic scientists and physicians do not diverge at the clinical level. At the organ, cellular and molecular levels however, basic scientists judge that medical students should have more active knowledge. As expected, basic scientists also indicate that more deep level content should be included. Explanations for this phenomenon will be discussed.

  17. Introduction of Basic Dermatologic Ultrasound in Undergraduate Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfageme, F; Cerezo, E; Fernandez, I S; Aguilo, R; Vilas-Sueiro, A; Roustan, G

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: Teaching ultrasound procedures to undergraduates has recently been proposed to improve the quality of medical education. We address the impact of applying standardized dermatologic ultrasound teaching to our undergraduates. Materials and Methods: Medical students were offered an additional theoretical and practical seminar involving hands-on ultrasound dermatologic ultrasound during their mandatory dermatology practical training. The students' theoretical knowledge and dermatologic ultrasoud skills were tested with a multiple choice questionnaire extracted from Level 1 Spanish Society of Ultrasound Dermatologic Ultrasound accreditation exam before and after the course. After the course, the students were asked to answer a course evaluation questionnaire Results: The multiple-choice question scores after the course showed statistically significant improvement (5.82 vs. 8.71%; Pdermatologic and ultrasound knowledge, and indicated that they wanted more sonographic hands-on training in both dermatologic ultrasound and other medical fields. Conclusion: Using both objective and subjective methods, we showed that the introduction of standardized ultrasound training programs in undergraduate medical education can improve both students' understanding of the technique and the quality of medical education in dermatology.

  18. Learning of medical pharmacology via innovation:a personal experience at McMaster and in Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chiu-yin KWAN

    2004-01-01

    Pharmacology in the traditional medical curriculum has been treated as a discrete "preclinical" discipline identifying itself distinctly different from the other preclinical sciences or clinical subjects in knowledge base as well as learning/teaching instructions. It is usually run in series with other pre-clinical courses (eg, anatomy, biochemistry,physiology etc), but in parallel with other paraclinical courses such as pathology, microbiology and community medicine. Clinical pharmacology was only introduced relatively recently designed to overcome the perceived deficiency in "preclinical" pharmacology regarding its therapeutic relevance and application to medicine. In many universities, both preclinical and clinical pharmacology courses co-exist, usually independently offered by two separate, sometimes non-interacting Departments of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology. In this model,pharmacology is generally taught in a teacher-centered, discipline-oriented, and knowledge-based curriculum.Furthermore, pharmacology courses are commonly taught by "expert" teachers, who usually engage in excessiveteaching, often adopt a knowledge-based approach in both instruction and assessment, and frequently evade or ignore clinical relevance. The clinical relevance of the pharmacological sciences is sometimes also taught in a didactic and problem-solving manner, although it is usually case-oriented. In recent years, problem-based medical curricula have emerged, in varying forms, as a platform in which pharmacology is viewed as an integrated component in a holistic approach to medical education. In this problem-based learning (PBL) model, pharmacology is learned in a student-centered environment, based on self-directed, clinically relevant and case-oriented approach,usually in a small-group tutorial format. In PBL, pharmacology is learned in concert with other subject issues relevant to the case-problem in question, such as anatomy, physiology, pathology, microbiology

  19. Teaching Psychology in the Medical School Curriculum: Students' Perceptions of a Basic Science Course in Medical Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, David S.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Basic science courses that emphasize relationships between behavior and health have been developed at several medical schools. Surveys of students who took these courses indicated that they were interested in the psychosocial aspects of medicine. These data deny the stereotype of the medical student who is biased against behavioral science. (CS)

  20. Evaluation of novel methods of assessments in pharmacology to develop new attitudes and skills in Caribbean Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra S. Beedimani

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions: There seems to be obvious improvements in student performance as reflected by a significant increase in mean scores, students pass (%, and students with honors (% probably due to inclusion of problem-solving MCQs in formative and summative assessments in new curriculum compared with declarative MCQs in old curriculum. The student failed (% decreased dramatically, which could be attributed to the changes in teaching content and format brought by curriculum changes in pharmacology. The teaching of pharmacology principles as pathophysiology of drug therapy also seemed to have prepared students better for NBME comprehensive exam and also USMLE Step 1. The clinical pharmacology exercises in small groups as role playing sessions seem to have really improved students' comprehension and retention of the basic sciences knowledge for clinical application based on students' feedback. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(5.000: 860-865

  1. Integrating pharmacology and clinical pharmacology in universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Julia C

    2012-06-01

    Continuing development of safe and effective new medicines is critically important for global health, social prosperity and the economy. The drug discovery-development pipeline depends critically on close partnerships between scientists and clinicians and on educational programmes that ensure that the pharmacological workforce, in its broadest sense, is fit for purpose. Here I consider factors that have influenced the development of basic and clinical pharmacology in UK universities over the past 40 years and discuss ways in which basic pharmacologists, clinical pharmacologists and scientists from different disciplines can work together effectively, while retaining their professional identities and fostering developments in their disciplines. Specifically, I propose the establishment of Institutes of Drug Discovery and Development, whose activities could include development and implementation of a translational pharmacology research strategy, drawing on the collective expertise of the membership and the university as whole; provision of a forum for regular seminars and symposia to promote the discipline, encourage collaboration and develop a cohesive community; provision of a research advisory service, covering, for example, data management, applications for ethics permission, clinical trials design, statistics and regulatory affairs; liaison with potential funders and leadership of major funding bids, including funding for doctoral training; provision of advice on intellectual property protection and the commercialization of research; liaison with corporate partners to facilitate collaboration, knowledge transfer and effective translation; and leadership of undergraduate and postgraduate education in basic and clinical pharmacology and related sciences for medical and science students, including continuing professional development and transferable skills.

  2. Assessment Of Basic Practical Skills In An Undergraduate Medical Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambandam Elango

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health educators and accrediting bodieshave defined objectives and competencies that medicalstudents need to acquire to become a safe doctor. Thereis no report in Malaysia, about the ability of medicalstudents to perform some of the basic surgical skillsbefore entering the houseman ship. The aim of thisstudy is to determine whether the teaching/ learningmethods of practical skills in our undergraduate programhave been effective in imparting the desired level ofcompetencies in these skills.Methods: A list of basic practical skills that studentsshould be competent has been identified. These skillsare taught in a structured way and assessed as part of thecomposite end- of- semester examination. Practicalskills stations form part of an Objective structuredpractical examination (OSPE.Results: The results of 244 students who participated inthree ends of semester examinations were analyzed. Themean score for the practical skills stations were higherthan the mean OSPE (of all 18 stations and overallscore (of the written, practical and clinicalexamination. However the failure rate in the practicalskills stations is higher in most of the stations (7 out of8 stations compared to overall failure rates.Conclusions: In spite of the formal skills training manystudents failed to demonstrate the desired level ofcompetencies in these stations. Assessment of practicalskills as part of overall composite examination may notbe effective in ensuring that all students have achievedthe required level of competency. Practical skills shouldbe assessed through dedicated formative assessments tomake sure that all the students acquire the requiredcompetencies.

  3. Doctor-patient dialogue--basic aspect of medical consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murariu-Brujbu, Isabella Cristina; Macovei, Luana Andreea

    2013-01-01

    Family medicine is the specialty that provides ongoing primary medical care and improves the health status of the individual, of the family and of the community through preventive, educational, therapeutic and rehabilitation measures. The family doctor often makes the interdisciplinary synthesis, in a flexible manner, either alone or in most cases with interdisciplinary consultation. In the latter case, the family doctor initiates the team work and makes the final evaluation by using the longitudinal follow-up of the disease. The doctor-patient encounter represents the "confrontation" with the greatest moral weight, due to the complexity of the values involved, the status of the doctor in a society, and patient's involvement in decision making. The patient is a person who should be treated with respect, honesty, professionalism and loyalty, whatever the clinical status, severity of illness, mental competence or incompetence. A focus, on an international scale, is represented by the characteristics of a good doctor, family physician included, as the latter is the first link in the network of health services. Each model of consultation varies in a more or less subtle way in priorities assignment, and suggests slight differences regarding the role played by doctor and patient in their collaboration. The qualities of a good family physician include not only the strictly professional competences, that also apply to other medical specialties, but also duties, such as, clearly explaining to patients issues concerning their health, informing them about all the possible preventive measures of diseases, making a diagnosis, initiating and supervising a therapy. Medical responsibility lies at the crossroads between medical science and the conscience of the doctor.

  4. Application of basic pharmacology and dispensing practice of antibiotics in accredited drug-dispensing outlets in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minzi OM

    2013-01-01

    , antibiotic sale without prescription and no referral made, for complicated cases, ADDOs performed worse than DLDBs. As many as 30% of DLDBs and 35% of ADDOs dispensed incomplete doses of antibiotics. In both ADDOs and DLDBs, fortified procaine penicillin powder was dispensed as topical application for injuries.Conclusion: There was no statistical difference between ADDOs and DLDBs in the violation of dispensing practice and both ADDOs and DLDBs expressed poor knowledge of the basic pharmacology of antibiotics.Keywords: antibiotic-dispensing practice, duka la dawa baridi, accredited drug-dispensing outlets

  5. Use of learning media by undergraduate medical students in pharmacology: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, Joanna; Kühbeck, Felizian; Berberat, Pascal O; Fischer, Martin R; Engelhardt, Stefan; Sarikas, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquity of the internet and computer-based technologies has an increasing impact on higher education and the way students access information for learning. Moreover, there is a paucity of information about the quantitative and qualitative use of learning media by the current student generation. In this study we systematically analyzed the use of digital and non-digital learning resources by undergraduate medical students. Daily online surveys and semi-structured interviews were conducted with a cohort of 338 third year medical students enrolled in a general pharmacology course. Our data demonstrate a predominant use of digital over non-digital learning resources (69 ± 7% vs. 31 ± 7%; p 300 pages) (10.6 ± 3.3%), internet search (7.9 ± 1.6%) and e-learning cases (7.6 ± 3.0%). When comparing learning media use of teaching vs. pre-exam self-study periods, textbooks were used significantly less during self-study (-55%; p digital learning resources by undergraduate medical students, in particular mobile applications.

  6. Once-daily medications for the pharmacological management of ADHD in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg v Tcheremissine

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Oleg v Tcheremissine1, Lori M Lieving21Department of Psychiatry, Behavioral Health Center – Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC, USA; 2Carolinas College of Health Sciences, Charlotte, NC, USAAbstract: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents. Symptoms of ADHD often persist beyond childhood and present significant challenges to adults. Pharmacotherapy is a first-line treatment option for ADHD across all age groups. The current review’s goals are (a to critically examine the current state of knowledge regarding once-daily formulations of pharmacotherapies for treatment of adults with ADHD and (b to provide clinicians with evidence-based information regarding the safety, efficacy and tolerability of once-daily medications for adult ADHD. The reviewed body of evidence strongly supports the use of pharmacotherapy as a first-line therapeutic option for the treatment of adults with ADHD. The once-daily pharmacological agents are effective therapeutic options for the treatment of adults with ADHD. In the US, based on the available evidence, once-daily medications are currently underutilized in adults with ADHD compared to pediatric population.Keywords: adults, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, once-daily pharmacotherapies

  7. Use of learning media by undergraduate medical students in pharmacology: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Gutmann

    Full Text Available The ubiquity of the internet and computer-based technologies has an increasing impact on higher education and the way students access information for learning. Moreover, there is a paucity of information about the quantitative and qualitative use of learning media by the current student generation. In this study we systematically analyzed the use of digital and non-digital learning resources by undergraduate medical students. Daily online surveys and semi-structured interviews were conducted with a cohort of 338 third year medical students enrolled in a general pharmacology course. Our data demonstrate a predominant use of digital over non-digital learning resources (69 ± 7% vs. 31 ± 7%; p 300 pages (10.6 ± 3.3%, internet search (7.9 ± 1.6% and e-learning cases (7.6 ± 3.0%. When comparing learning media use of teaching vs. pre-exam self-study periods, textbooks were used significantly less during self-study (-55%; p < 0.01, while exam questions (+334%; p < 0.01 and e-learning cases (+176%; p < 0.01 were utilized more. Taken together, our study revealed a high prevalence and acceptance of digital learning resources by undergraduate medical students, in particular mobile applications.

  8. From the podium to the PC: a study on various modalities of lecture delivery within an undergraduate basic pharmacology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Jason W.; McQueeney, Maureen L.

    2011-07-01

    Background. The need to evolve with our ever-changing student bodies has never been as great as it is today, particularly given the advanced technological aptitude of today's students. Purpose This retrospective study evaluates student outcomes as they relate to overall course score and composite quiz and examination scores from a basic pharmacology course taught over three separate semesters using three different lecture delivery modalities: traditional in-class; blended; and online-only. Sample A total of 48 students from a US university's health sciences bachelor degree programme enrolled in one of these three sections between 2009 and 2010. Design and methods A one-way analysis of variance test with Tukey's honestly significant difference post hoc testing was utilized to determine if any statistical difference existed between the studied outcomes for each of the three teaching modalities. A p-value of less than or equal to 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The students enrolled in the online-only course scored statistically significantly higher than their counterparts enrolled on the traditional course for all studied outcomes, and higher than those enrolled on the blended course for most of the studied outcomes. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that students enrolled in the online-only section achieved scores that were statistically significantly higher than their counterparts enrolled in the traditional and blended lecture settings. These findings reveal that students enrolled in an online course may in fact have improved performance compared with traditional lecture methods, given their generational preferences for learning.

  9. Course Guide and Course Coordinator Orientation Program. Basic Training Program for Emergency Medical Technician. Ambulance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap and Associates, Inc., Darien, CT.

    To assist the States in implementing Federal standards for emergency medical services (under the Highway Safety Act of 1966), this guide has been prepared to aid in organizing, conducting, and standardizing a basic training course for emergency medical technicians (EMT's). Part I is a guide for a course designed to develop or upgrade the skill…

  10. Basic Training Program for Emergency Medical Technician: Ambulance Concepts and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucigna, Joseph T.; And Others

    The main objective was to develop and pilot test a basic course for ambulance personnel with emphasis on the medical aspect of training. This included the identification of a medically acceptable text or manual, and determining the prerequisites for selecting students and instructors. Secondary objectives were to outline the requirements for…

  11. Basic Training Course/Emergency Medical Technician (Second Edition). Instructor's Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document containing instructor lesson plans is one of three prepared to update a basic training program for emergency medical technicians (EMTs). (A course guide containing planning and management information and a study guide are available separately.) Material covers all emergency medical techniques currently considered to be within the…

  12. Small group effectiveness during pharmacology learning sessions in a Nepalese medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar PR

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSmall group learning sessions are used in pharmacology atthe KIST Medical College, Lalitpur, Nepal. Feedback aboutstudent behaviours that enhance and hinder small groupeffectiveness was obtained. This will help us improve thesmall group sessions and will also be useful to educatorsusing small groups in other medical schools.MethodThe small groups were self-managing with a group leader,time-keeper, recorder and presenter. Small groupeffectiveness was measured using the Tutorial GroupEffectiveness Instrument (TGEI developed by Singaram andco-authors. The instrument was administered in June 2010and key findings obtained were shared with students andfacilitators. The instrument was administered again inAugust. The mean cognitive, motivational, demotivationaland overall scores were compared among differentcategories of respondents in June and August. Scores werealso compared between June and August 2010.ResultsA total of 89 students participated in the study in June and88 in August 2010. In June, females rated overall groupproductivity higher compared to males. The cognitive andmotivational scores were higher in August 2010 while thedemotivational score was lower.ConclusionThe small group effectiveness was higher in August after theeducational intervention which utilised feedback aboutproblems observed, theoretical considerations of effectivesmall groups and how this information can be applied inpractice.

  13. Structured oral examination in pharmacology for undergraduate medical students: Factors influencing its implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khilnani, Ajeet Kumar; Charan, Jaykaran; Thaddanee, Rekha; Pathak, Rakesh R; Makwana, Sohil; Khilnani, Gurudas

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to understand the process and factors influencing the implementation of structured oral examination (SOE) for undergraduate medical students; in comparison with conventional oral examination (COE) in pharmacology. In a randomized, parallel group study, 123 students of pharmacology were divided into two groups, SOE (n = 63) and COE (n = 60). Students of each group were subdivided into two, and four examiners took viva voce individually. Three sets of questionnaires from autonomic nervous system were prepared, each having 15 items with increasing difficulty levels and were validated by subject experts and pretested. Ten minutes were allotted for each student for each viva. Feedback of students and faculty about the novel method was obtained. SOE yielded significantly lower marks as compared to COE. There were significant inter-examiner variations in marks awarded in SOE and COE. Other factors influencing implementation were difficulty in structuring viva, rigid time limits, lack of flexibility in knowledge content, monotony, and fatigue. The students perceived this format not different from COE but felt that it required in-depth preparation of topic. Faculty opined that SOE led to less drift from main topic and provided uniform coverage of topics in given time. Conducting SOE is a resource-intensive exercise. Despite structuring, inter-examiner variability was not completely eliminated. The students' performance was depended on factors related to examiners such as teaching experience, vernacular language used, and lack of training. Orientation and training of examiners in assessment strategies is necessary. Standardization of questionnaire is necessary before the implementation of SOE for summative assessment.

  14. A Case Based-Shared Teaching Approach in Undergraduate Medical Curriculum: A Way for Integration in Basic and Clinical Sciences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soheil Peiman; Azim Mirzazadeh; Maryam Alizadeh; Sara Mortaz Hejri; Mohammad-Taghi Najafi; Abbas Tafakhori; Farnoosh Larti; Besharat Rahimi; Babak Geraiely; Parichehr Pasbakhsh; Gholamreza Hassanzadeh; Fatemeh Nabavizadeh Rafsanjani; Mohammad Ansari; Seyed Farshad Allameh

    2017-01-01

    ...; Problem based learning; Medical students Introduction There is a growing interest in the connection between basic and clinical sciences in teaching, and learning strategies and the medical schools seek to train medical...

  15. Correlation between Grades in the Medical Basic Science Course and Scores on the Comprehensive Basic Sciences Exam in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Mahboobi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical students in Iran are required to undertake a Basic Sciences Comprehensive Exam (BSCE at the end of their BS course in order to progress to the next stage of medical education. BSCE results are widely used to evaluate medical education programs among different medical universities. The aim of this study is to explore the correlation between BSCE results and students’ mean BS course scores.Methods: A cross-sectional study, using secondary data analysis, was carried out in 2007 in Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences (HUMS in Iran. Data from the 20th BSCE (held in 1998 to the 36th BSCE (held in 2006 was collected. All medical students who took these exams and for whom the mean results of the BS course and the BSCE were available were eligible for inclusion in the study. For each medical student, data were obtained regarding age at the time of participation in BSCE, together with sex, entrance year, zone as categorised by the national quota system, mean BS course scores, BSCE result, duration of BS course (number of semesters and number of failed semesters. Students whose data was not complete were excluded from the study. Data was analysed by using SPSS 15 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA software.Results: 372 students undertook the BSCE during the research study period. Complete data was available for 365 medical students (98.1%. Among the participants, 224 (61.4% were female and 141 (38.6% were male. The mean age at the time of sitting the BSCE was 22.01±1.22. Mean BSCE scores were higher among students who had not previously failed a semester and who also finished the BS course within five semesters. Students with higher BS course scores had higher BSCE scores (P=0.000.Conclusions: Students’ BS course scores were found to correlate to BSCE results. Hence it may be prudent to identify medical students with low BS course scores, in order to provide additional educational support to improve their medical knowledge

  16. Study of effective factors on comprehensive test of basic medical sciences of the medical students of Lorestan university of medical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    parisa namdari

    2010-04-01

    Conclusion: In order to improve and achieve needed changes in medical education and regarding the important role of the courses of basic sciences on the students as future physicians, taking some amendatory steps seem necessary.

  17. Reducing medication errors and increasing patient safety: case studies in clinical pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, David M

    2003-07-01

    Today, reducing medication errors and improving patient safety have become common topics of discussion for the president of the United States, federal and state legislators, the insurance industry, pharmaceutical companies, health care professionals, and patients. But this is not news to clinical pharmacologists. Improving the judicious use of medications and minimizing adverse drug reactions have always been key areas of research and study for those working in clinical pharmacology. However, added to the older terms of adverse drug reactions and rational therapeutics, the now politically correct expression of medication error has emerged. Focusing on the word error has drawn attention to "prevention" and what can be done to minimize mistakes and improve patient safety. Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary has several definitions of error, but the one that seems to be most appropriate in the context of medication errors is "an act that through ingnorance, deficiency, or accident departs from or fails to achieve what should be done." What should be done is generally known as "the five rights": the right drug, right dose, right route, right time, and right patient. One can make an error of omission (failure to act correctly) or an error of commission (acted incorrectly). This article now summarizes what is currently known about medication errors and translates the information into case studies illustrating common scenarios leading to medication errors. Each case is analyzed to provide insight into how the medication error could have been prevented. "System errors" are described, and the application of failure mode effect analysis (FMEA) is presented to determine the part of the "safety net" that failed. Examples of reengineering the system to make it more "error proof" are presented. An error can be prevented. However, the practice of medicine, pharmacy, and nursing in the hospital setting is very complicated, and so many steps occur from "pen to patient" that there

  18. Basic practical skills teaching and learning in undergraduate medical education – a review on methodological evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogel, Daniela

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Practical skills are an essential part of physicians’ daily routine. Nevertheless, medical graduates’ performance of basic skills is often below the expected level. This review aims to identify and summarize teaching approaches of basic practical skills in undergraduate medical education which provide evidence with respect to effective students’ learning of these skills.Methods: Basic practical skills were defined as basic physical examination skills, routine skills which get better with practice, and skills which are also performed by nurses. We searched PubMed with different terms describing these basic practical skills. In total, 3467 identified publications were screened and 205 articles were eventually reviewed for eligibility. Results: 43 studies that included at least one basic practical skill, a comparison of two groups of undergraduate medical students and effects on students’ performance were analyzed. Seven basic practical skills and 15 different teaching methods could be identified. The most consistent results with respect to effective teaching and acquisition of basic practical skills were found for structured skills training, feedback, and self-directed learning. Simulation was effective with specific teaching methods and in several studies no differences in teaching effects were detected between expert or peer instructors. Multimedia instruction, when used in the right setting, also showed beneficial effects for basic practical skills learning.Conclusion: A combination of voluntary or obligatory self-study with multimedia applications like video clips in combination with a structured program including the possibility for individual exercise with personal feedback by peers or teachers might provide a good learning opportunity for basic practical skills.

  19. Flexner revisited: the role and value of the basic sciences in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, Edward P; Chauvin, Sheila; Bonaminio, Giulia; Andrews, Mark; Carroll, Robert G; Pangaro, Louis N

    2010-02-01

    A central tenet of Flexner's report was the fundamental role of science in medical education. Today, there is tension between the time needed to teach an ever-expanding knowledge base in science and the time needed for increased instruction in clinical application and in the behavioral, ethical, and managerial knowledge and skills needed to prepare for clinical experiences. One result has been at least a perceived reduction in time and focus on the foundational sciences. In this context, the International Association of Medical Science Educators initiated a study to address the role and value of the basic sciences in medical education by seeking perspectives from various groups of medical educators to five questions: (1) What are the sciences that constitute the foundation for medical practice? (2) What is the value and role of the foundational sciences in medical education? (3) When and how should these foundational sciences be incorporated into the medical education curriculum? (4) What sciences should be prerequisite to entering the undergraduate medical curriculum? (5) What are examples of the best practices for incorporating the foundational sciences into the medical education curriculum? The results suggest a broad group of experts believes that an understanding of basic science content remains essential to clinical practice and that teaching should be accomplished across the entire undergraduate medical education experience and integrated with clinical applications. Learning the sciences also plays a foundational role in developing discipline and rigor in learners' thinking skills, including logical reasoning, critical appraisal, problem solving, decision making, and creativity.

  20. The opinion of undergraduate medical students on current curriculum and teaching methodology of pharmacology in four medical colleges of India: a questionnaire based study

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj Kumar Saurabh; Jitendra Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Background: The objective of current study was to obtain an opinion from 2nd professional year passed medical students on current curriculum, teaching methodology and importance of pharmacology subject and to identify the area of improvement. Methods: A set questionnaire was distributed among randomly distributed to 2nd year passed 100 undergraduate (UG) students to each of four medical colleges. They were instructed to tick out the best possible option of each question on the basis of the...

  1. Evaluation of impact of teaching clinical pharmacology and rational therapeutics to medical undergraduates and interns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mira K; Panchal, Jigar R; Shah, Samdih; Iyer, Geetha

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To find out the impact of teaching clinical pharmacology and rational therapeutics (CPT) to medical undergraduates (UGs) and interns. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, prospective study was conducted on three UGs batches and interns using two pretested validated structured questionnaires, modified from the work of Tobaiqy et al. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. ANOVA and Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. The value of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 379 UGs and 96 interns participated in this study. Mean knowledge score of interns was significantly reduced as compared to UGs (P < 0.0001). A significant increase in confidence for unsupervised prescribing of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (99%), oral rehydration salt, iron salts was perceived among interns as compared to UGs (P < 0.05). However, 63.5% confessed problems in selection of drugs, drug–drug interactions, prescribing in special patient population. Although they were confident prescribing fixed dose combination for adult patients (89.5%), majority were hesitant to prescribe opioids (77%), steroids (76%), vaccines (75%), and antihypertensives (62%). Conclusion: The theoretical CPT teaching transfers knowledge to UGs; however, it is not retained in internship and does not adequately prepare interns to prescribe safe and rational drugs. PMID:27563589

  2. The Case of Pharmacological Neuroenhancement: Medical, Judicial and Ethical Aspects from a German Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, A G; Northoff, R; Hildt, E

    2015-11-01

    Pharmacological neuroenhancement (PN) describes the use of psychoactive drugs for the purpose of enhancing cognition (e. g., fatigue, concentration, memory etc.) by healthy subjects without medical need. Drugs used for this purpose can be divided into freely available, over-the-counter drugs (e. g., methylxanthines such as caffeine), prescription drugs (e. g., antidementia drugs, methylphenidate) and illicit drugs (e. g., illicit amphetamines). Clinical studies have shown that the aforementioned substances only have limited pro-cognitive effects and have considerable safety risks and side effects.The German judicial perspective shows legal differences between substances (drugs, food, food supplements, fortified food) that can be bought in a supermarket, drugs that can be bought in a pharmacy as over-the-counter- (OTC-) drugs, drugs with or without the need for a prescription and illicit drugs. Supermarket drugs and fortified food can be sold freely and follow the general rules of civil and penal law; regarding acquisition, parents are responsible for their children. OTC drugs require special information about therapy. Regarding prescription drugs, there are legal problems caused by an off-label use and the non-medical purposes of PN drugs. Furthermore, prescription stimulants for PN are governed by the specialized law for narcotics, and their use might be punished. Beyond the general lack of rules for regulation for PN drug use there are specific needs for prevention (e. g., control of the black market, etc.).Possible future policy will depend, among others, on the probability with which effective PN drugs with an acceptable risk-benefit ratio will be available, on individual and societal implications, and on public opinion towards PN. While 4 different general policy scenarios can be identified, it is important to advance a broad societal debate on PN to collect relevant empirical data and to address enhancement-related conceptual issues.

  3. Personal drug selection: problem-based learning in pharmacology: experience from a medical school in Nepal.

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    P Ravi Shankar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: At the Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal, Pharmacology is taught during the first four semesters of the undergraduate medical course. Personal or P-drug selection is an important exercise. The present study was carried out to obtain student opinion about the P-drug learning sessions, the assessment examinations, and on the small group dynamics. METHOD: The practical sessions on P-drug selection are carried out in small groups. Student feedback about the session was obtained using focus group discussions. The focus groups were selected to represent both genders and the three main nationalities, Nepalese, Indians, and Sri Lankans. There were four Nepalese, five Indians, and three Sri Lankans. Within each nationality and gender category the students were randomly selected. The respondents were explained the objectives of the study and were invited to participate. Written informed consent was obtained. The discussion lasted around two hours and was conducted in the afternoon in two groups of six students each. The first author (PRS acted as a facilitator. The responses were recorded and analyzed qualitatively. RESULTS: The overall student opinion was positive. Around 25% (3 respondents of respondents were confused about whether P-drugs were for a disease or a patient. Group consensus was commonly used to give numerical values for the different criteria. The large number of brands created problems in calculating cost. The students wanted more time for the exercise in the examination. Formative assessment during the learning sessions may be considered. The group members usually got along well. Absenteeism was a problem and not all members put in their full effort. The physical working environment should be improved. CONCLUSIONS: Based on what the students say, the sessions on P-drugs should be continued and strengthened. Modifications in the sessions are required. Sessions during the clinical years and internship training

  4. Is basic science disappearing from medicine? The decline of biomedical research in the medical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Benjamin E; Goldenberg, Neil M; Fairn, Gregory D; Kuebler, Wolfgang M; Slutsky, Arthur S; Lee, Warren L

    2016-02-01

    Explosive growth in our understanding of genomics and molecular biology have fueled calls for the pursuit of personalized medicine, the notion of harnessing biologic variability to provide patient-specific care. This vision will necessitate a deep understanding of the underlying pathophysiology in each patient. Medical journals play a pivotal role in the education of trainees and clinicians, yet we suspected that the amount of basic science in the top medical journals has been in decline. We conducted an automated search strategy in PubMed to identify basic science articles and calculated the proportion of articles dealing with basic science in the highest impact journals for 8 different medical specialties from 1994 to 2013. We observed a steep decline (40-60%) in such articles over time in almost all of the journals examined. This rapid decline in basic science from medical journals is likely to affect practitioners' understanding of and interest in the basic mechanisms of disease and therapy. In this Life Sciences Forum, we discuss why this decline may be occurring and what it means for the future of science and medicine. © FASEB.

  5. On Medical Care Interpreting:Basic Requirements and Solutions to Typical Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏晶晶

    2013-01-01

      Based on Pöchhacker, Kadric and Tebble’s theory on interpreting requirements, this paper suggested the basic require⁃ments for medical care interpreters. Through a practical analysis on three typical scenarios, this paper discussed typical problems and their solutions in medical care interpreting, including long instructions, patients asking for advice and unexpected reaction from patients. The research showed that the basic requirements of interpreting are the keys to solving the typical problems and proved the importance of understanding of the barriers in cross-culture communication.

  6. [The evaluation of pharmacological drugs, medical devices, and non-pharmacological or public health interventions: Experimental design limitations. Moving towards new methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeval, M; Carayol, M; Lamy, S; Lepage, B; Lang, T

    2016-12-01

    In the field of health, evidence-based medicine and associated methods like randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have become widely used. RCT has become the gold standard for evaluating causal links between interventions and health results. Originating in pharmacology, this method has been progressively expanded to medical devices, non-pharmacological individual interventions, as well as collective public health interventions. Its use in these domains has led to the formulation of several limits, and it has been called into question as an undisputed gold standard. Some of those limits (e.g. confounding biases and external validity) are common to these four different domains, while others are more specific. This paper describes the different limits, as well as several research avenues. Some are methodological reflections aiming at adapting RCT to the complexity of the tested interventions, and at overcoming some of its limits. Others are alternative methods. The objective is not to remove RCT from the range of evaluation methodologies, but to resituate it within this range. The aim is to encourage choosing between different methods according to the features and the level of the intervention to evaluate, thereby calling for methodological pluralism.

  7. Medical emergencies in the dental surgery. Part 1: Preparation of the office and basic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, Stanley F

    2015-12-01

    Medical emergencies can and do happen in the dental surgery. In the 20- to 30-year practice lifetime of the typical dentist, he/she will encounter between five and seven emergency situations. Being prepared in advance of the emergency increases the likelihood of a successful outcome. PURPOSE OF THE PAPER: To prepare members of the dental office staff to be able to promptly recognize and efficiently manage those medical emergency situations that can occur in the dental office environment. Preparation of the dental office to promptly recognize and efficiently manage medical emergencies is predicated on successful implementation of the following four steps: basic life support for ALL members of the dental office staff; creation of a dental office emergency team; activation of emergency medial services (EMS) when indicated; and basic emergency drugs and equipment. The basic emergency algorithm (P->C->A->B->D) is designed for implementation in all emergency situations. Prompt implementation of the basic emergency management protocol can significantly increase the likelihood of a successful result when medical emergencies occur in the dental office environment.

  8. 78 FR 54731 - Update to the List of Basic Medical Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... posted the following List of Basic Medical Supplies on its Web site: Adhesive, surgical Bandages (all... Canes Cannulae Carts, all Casts Catheters, all Chair, dental Clips, surgical Coils, guidewire Contact..., surgical, dental, or phlebotomy Stools: designed for clinical use Stands: IV, instrument, solution, or...

  9. Basic Training Course/Emergency Medical Technician. (1977 Edition). Student Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Developed to aid students enrolled in an emergency medical technician (EMT) training course, this document accompanies a course guide and a set of instructor lesson plans which update a basic training program for EMTs. The course consists of twenty-five lessons involving a minimum of seventy-one hours of classroom and field training plus ten hours…

  10. The experiences of successful faculty members in medical school in teaching of basic sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Avizhgan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Basic sciences are an important part of education in medical courses, which without it training the competent and efficient physicians is impossible. Given the complexities of teaching and in particular the teaching of basic sciences and its influence of various factors, comprehensive investigate this phenomenon was felt. This study was aimed to explore the underlying factors affecting the teaching based on experiences of successful faculty members of basic sciences in Isfahan medical school. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted using conventional content analysis. The data was collected using purposive sampling and semi-structured interviews with faculty members of basic sciences and group interviews with the students of basic sciences. Results: After analysis the data, the extracted data were divided into three main categories and seven sub- classes, including strengthen the construction of teaching infrastructures (lesson plans, useful and practical educational materials, and continuous curriculum reform, improving the teaching process (facilitating learning and appropriate transfering of content and completing the teaching process (appropriate evaluation tool and continuity assessment. Conclusion: Some positive experiences, such as reducing volume of materials, teaching useful and practical materials, attractive teaching, early clinical exsposure and provide the appropriate educational materials should be considered as a model and to eliminate negative experiences such as teaching of pure basic sciences, drowning in detail, the emphass on memorization, indulge in speech, the multiple choice tests systems and some faculty members were not ready for some of teaching methods should be taken account some items.

  11. IMPACT OF USING COMPUTER ASSISTED LEARNING IN II MBBS PHARMACOLOGY TEACHING - PERCEPTIONS OF STUDENTS IN A MEDICAL COLLEGE

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    Veena

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animal experiments are essential as per II year MBBS practical syllabus for learning basic concepts in Pharmacology. Due to the strict regulations and ethical issues in procurement of animals related to their use, a need was felt to design and develop computer based simulation software as an alternative to animal use. It is a group learning technique used offline or online involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials or through it with teacher. These integrated multimedia software's act as animal simulators provide an environment that closely mimics reality. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to assess the students opinions on the interactive computer assisted learning (CAL in Pharmacology practical experiments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is an observational questionnaire based study. Seventy seven (77 II-year MBBS students at BGSGIMS attended the practical's and filled a survey questionnaire on the outcomes, advantages and disadvantages of the CAL session using a 5-point Likert scale. RESULTS: More than 90% of II MBBS students find that CAL helped them to achieve the learning objectives, enriches and personalizes the learning experience at their own pace within the time slot. CAL helped students recollect and apply theoretical knowledge of drugs in practical session. CONCLUSION: Learning basic concepts in Pharmacology using CAL, animal simulation software as an education tool has been perceived positively by II MBBS students. CAL program coupled with application of theoretical knowledge of drugs to the practical classes helped them to fulfil the learning outcomes.

  12. Program evaluation of an Integrated Basic Science Medical Curriculum in Shiraz Medical School, Using CIPP Evaluation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooholamini, Azadeh; Amini, Mitra; Bazrafkan, Leila; Dehghani, Mohammad Reza; Esmaeilzadeh, Zohreh; Nabeiei, Parisa; Rezaee, Rita; Kojuri, Javad

    2017-07-01

    In recent years curriculum reform and integration was done in many medical schools. The integrated curriculum is a popular concept all over the world. In Shiraz medical school, the reform was initiated by stablishing the horizontal basic science integration model and Early Clinical Exposure (ECE) for undergraduate medical education. The purpose of this study was to provide the required data for the program evaluation of this curriculum for undergraduate medical students, using CIPP program evaluation model. This study is an analytic descriptive and triangulation mixed method study which was carried out in Shiraz Medical School in 2012, based on the views of professors of basic sciences courses and first and second year medical students. The study evaluated the quality of the relationship between basic sciences and clinical courses and the method of presenting such courses based on the Context, Input, Process and Product (CIPP) model. The tools for collecting data, both quantitatively and qualitatively, were some questionnaires, content analysis of portfolios, semi- structured interview and brain storming sessions. For quantitative data analysis, SPSS software, version 14, was used. In the context evaluation by modified DREEM questionnaire, 77.75%of the students believed that this educational system encourages them to actively participate in classes. Course schedule and atmosphere of class were reported suitable by 87.81% and 83.86% of students. In input domain that was measured by a researcher made questionnaire, the facilities for education were acceptable except for shortage of cadavers. In process evaluation, the quality of integrated modules presentation and Early Clinical Exposure (ECE) was good from the students' viewpoint. In product evaluation, students' brain storming, students' portfolio and semi-structured interview with faculties were done, showing some positive aspects of integration and some areas that need improvement. The main advantage of assessing

  13. Determining the Correlation Between Language Scores Obtained by Medical Students in their University Entrance and Comprehensive Medical Basic Sciences Exams

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    Ahmadi M

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Some professors and educators in the field of English language believe that the high grades attained by medical students in their Comprehensive Medical Basic Sciences Exam (CMBSE are mainly a result of the students prior fluency in the language before entering medical colleges; they are of the opinion that these grades are not necessarily a result of the combined effort of the English teachers and students in language courses at the university. This research aims at determining the correlation between the level of fluency in English of medical students prior to university entrance and the grades obtained by them in their CMBSE after 3 terms of language courses at the university. Methods: Seven of the major and smaller universities of medical sciences were selected. The language scores of 2426 students admitted to these universities during the three academic years of 1999 to 2002 in both the National University Entrance Examination (NUEE and the Comprehensive Medical Basic Sciences Exam (CMBSE were obtained from their related universities and from the secretariat of the Council of Medical Basic Sciences Education respectively. The language scores of each student obtained in both NUEE and CMBSE were then matched. The related SPSS software was used to assess the level of correlation between these two groups of language scores for the students of each university, for each academic year and semester and also the overall score for the three years. Results: Overall a positive and moderately significant correlation was found between the NUEE language scores and those of the CMBSE of the students of the universities studied (P<0/001; R=443%. The level of correlation for the various universities studied differed (Max. 69%, min.27%. A comparison of the means of these two groups of scores also confirmed this correlation. Conclusion: students’ grades The NUEE language score was not the only factor affecting the student’s CMBSE

  14. Interconnections of basic science research and product development in medical device design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privitera, Mary Beth; Design, M; Johnson, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between basic science research and product design/development are intertwined. This paper explores the definition of basic science and design as it relates to medical device development. It is intended to serve as a reference for both researchers and device developers to assist in trans-disciplinary collaborative efforts in improving patient care as each are of equal importance. The definition of a medical device is broad and varied. This paper is aimed towards those devices which interact with tissue and are rooted in the tenets of science. Both the scientific method and the design process are compared with similarities and opposites identified. The paper concludes identifying fundamental principles of medical device development and highlights the importance of both entities.

  15. Recruitment and Retention of New Emergency Medical Technician (EMT)-Basics and Paramedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Susan A; Crowe, Remle P; Bentley, Melissa A

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe factors important for the recruitment and retention of Emergency Medical Technician (EMT)-Basics and EMT-Paramedics new to the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) field (defined as two years or less of EMS employment) through an analysis of 10 years of Longitudinal EMT Attributes and Demographic Study (LEADS) data. Data were obtained from 10 years of LEADS surveys (1999-2008). Individuals new to the profession were identified through responses to a survey item. Their responses were analyzed using weights reflecting each individual's probability of selection. Means, proportions, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined and used to identify statistically significant differences. There were few changes in the demographic characteristics of new EMT-Basics and Paramedics across survey years. New EMT-Basics tended to be older and less likely to have a college degree than new EMT-Paramedics. More new EMT-Basics than EMT-Paramedics worked in rural areas and small towns and reported that they were working as a volunteer. There were differences between new EMT-Basics and EMT-Paramedics in several of the reasons for entering the profession and in facets of job satisfaction. The findings provide guidance for recruiters, educators, employers, and governmental EMS policy organizations and will provide better insight into how to attract and retain new entrants to the field. Chapman SA , Crowe RP , Bentley MA . Recruitment and retention of new Emergency Medical Technician (EMT)-Basics and Paramedics. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(Suppl. 1):s70-s86.

  16. Use of prelecture assignment to enhance learning in pharmacology lectures for the 2(nd) year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Marya; Mallick, Ayaz Khurram

    2016-10-01

    Majority of teaching hours allotted by the Medical Council of India in pharmacology are utilized in the form of didactic lecture. Although these lectures are an excellent tool to deliver the information to a large group of students, it usually ends up as a one-sided teaching session with most students being the passive listeners. To make these lectures interesting and effective, we introduced the students to prelecture assignment (PLA) in the form of clinical case before the delivery of the lecture. This prospective educational trial was conducted in the Department of Pharmacology with undergraduate medical students in their 2(nd) year of their professional course. They were divided into two groups of 75 each. Group A was provided the PLA before the lecture. Group B students directly attended the lecture, sans the PLA. Multiple-choice questions-based test was conducted 2 days after the lecture. Students who failed to complete the assignment and were absent from the lecture and test were excluded from the study. Feedback from the students was obtained after the lecture. The scores in the test and responses were compiled and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 21.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results were expressed in percentages and as mean ± standard deviation as applicable. P pharmacology lectures are interactive, interesting, and easy to understand with this tool.

  17. The Impacts of China's Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance on Healthcare Expenditures and Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Gan, Li

    2017-02-01

    At the end of 1998, China launched a government-run mandatory insurance program, the urban employee basic medical insurance (UEBMI), to replace the previous medical insurance system. Using the UEBMI reform in China as a natural experiment, this study identifies variations in patient cost sharing that were imposed by the UEBMI reform and examines their effects on the demand for healthcare services. Using data from the 1991-2006 waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey, we find that increased cost sharing is associated with decreased outpatient medical care utilization and expenditures but not with decreased inpatient care utilization and expenditures. Patients from low-income and middle-income households or with less severe medical conditions are more sensitive to prices. We observe little impact on patient's health, as measured by self-reported health status. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Awareness of basic life support among medical, dental, nursing students and doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanta Chandrasekaran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the awareness of Basic Life Support (BLS among students, doctors and nurses of medical, dental, homeopathy and nursing colleges. A cross-sectional study was conducted by assessing responses to 20 selected basic questions regarding BLS among students, doctors and nurses of medical, dental, homeopathy and nursing colleges. After excluding the incomplete response forms the data was analysed on 1,054 responders. The results were analysed using an answer key prepared with the use of the Advanced Cardiac Life Support manual. Out of 1,054 responders 345 were medical students, 75 were medical interns, 19 were dental students, 59 were dental interns, 105 were homeopathy interns, 319 were nursing students, 72 were doctors, 29 were dentists, 25 were nursing faculty and six were homeopathy doctors. No one among them had complete knowledge of BLS. Only two out of 1054 (0.19% had secured 80 - 89% marks, 10 out of 1054 (0.95% had secured 70 - 79% marks, 40 of 1054 (4.08% had secured 60 - 69% marks and 105 of 1054 (9.96% had secured 50 - 59% marks. A majority of them, that is, 894 (84.82% had secured less than 50% marks. Awareness of BLS among students, doctors and nurses of medical, dental, homeopathy and nursing colleges is very poor.

  19. Impact of China's Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance on Health Care Expenditure and Health Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Huang; Li Gan

    2015-01-01

    At the end of 1998, China launched a government-run mandatory insurance program, the Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI), to replace the previous medical insurance system. Using the UEBMI reform in China as a natural experiment, this study identify variations in patient cost sharing that were imposed by the UEBMI reform and examine their effects on the demand for health-care services. Using data from the 1991-2006 waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey, we find that the inc...

  20. Utilization of case presentations in medical microbiology to enhance relevance of basic science for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Neal R; Stuart, Melissa K; Singh, Vineet K; Sargentini, Neil J

    2012-01-01

    Small-group case presentation exercises (CPs) were created to increase course relevance for medical students taking Medical Microbiology (MM) and Infectious Diseases (ID) METHODS: Each student received a unique paper case and had 10 minutes to review patient history, physical exam data, and laboratory data. Students then had three minutes to orally present their case and defend why they ruled in or out each of the answer choices provided, followed by an additional three minutes to answer questions. Exam scores differed significantly between students who received the traditional lecture-laboratory curriculum (Group I) and students who participated in the CPs (Group II). In MM, median unit exam and final exam scores for Group I students were 84.4% and 77.8%, compared to 86.0% and 82.2% for Group II students (P<0.018; P<0.001; Mann-Whitney Rank Sum Test). Median unit and final ID exam scores for Group I students were 84.0% and 80.0%, compared to 88.0% and 86.7% for Group II students (P<0.001; P<0.001). Students felt that the CPs improved their critical thinking and presentation skills and helped to prepare them as future physicians.

  1. Utilization of case presentations in medical microbiology to enhance relevance of basic science for medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal R. Chamberlain

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background : Small-group case presentation exercises (CPs were created to increase course relevance for medical students taking Medical Microbiology (MM and Infectious Diseases (ID Methods : Each student received a unique paper case and had 10 minutes to review patient history, physical exam data, and laboratory data. Students then had three minutes to orally present their case and defend why they ruled in or out each of the answer choices provided, followed by an additional three minutes to answer questions. Results : Exam scores differed significantly between students who received the traditional lecture-laboratory curriculum (Group I and students who participated in the CPs (Group II. In MM, median unit exam and final exam scores for Group I students were 84.4% and 77.8%, compared to 86.0% and 82.2% for Group II students (P < 0.018; P < 0.001; Mann-Whitney Rank Sum Test. Median unit and final ID exam scores for Group I students were 84.0% and 80.0%, compared to 88.0% and 86.7% for Group II students (P < 0.001; P < 0.001. Conclusion : Students felt that the CPs improved their critical thinking and presentation skills and helped to prepare them as future physicians.

  2. Utilization of case presentations in medical microbiology to enhance relevance of basic science for medical students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Neal R.; Stuart, Melissa K.; Singh, Vineet K.; Sargentini, Neil J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Small-group case presentation exercises (CPs) were created to increase course relevance for medical students taking Medical Microbiology (MM) and Infectious Diseases (ID) Methods Each student received a unique paper case and had 10 minutes to review patient history, physical exam data, and laboratory data. Students then had three minutes to orally present their case and defend why they ruled in or out each of the answer choices provided, followed by an additional three minutes to answer questions. Results Exam scores differed significantly between students who received the traditional lecture-laboratory curriculum (Group I) and students who participated in the CPs (Group II). In MM, median unit exam and final exam scores for Group I students were 84.4% and 77.8%, compared to 86.0% and 82.2% for Group II students (P<0.018; P<0.001; Mann-Whitney Rank Sum Test). Median unit and final ID exam scores for Group I students were 84.0% and 80.0%, compared to 88.0% and 86.7% for Group II students (P<0.001; P<0.001). Conclusion Students felt that the CPs improved their critical thinking and presentation skills and helped to prepare them as future physicians. PMID:22435014

  3. Cognitive-Behavioral and Pharmacologic Interventions for Children's Distress during Painful Medical Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Susan M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Evaluated efficacy of cognitive-behavioral intervention package and low-risk pharmacologic intervention (oral Valium) as compared with minimal treatment-attention control condition, in reducing children leukemia patients' distress during bone marrow aspirations. The cognitive-behavioral therapy reduced behavioral distress, pain ratings and pulse…

  4. A prescription that addresses the decline of basic science education in medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel; Thornton, Christina S; Keough, Michael B; Roberts, Jodie I; Yipp, Bryan; Hollenberg, Morley; Bau, Jason T; Peplowski, Michael A; Beck, Paul L

    2014-10-04

    Over 30 years ago a cry rang out through the proverbial halls of academia; "The clinician scientist is an endangered species." These prophetic words have been reverberated in the ears of every specialty and every general medical organization in deafening tones. Why is the role of the clinician scientist or clinician investigator so important that this phrase has been repeated subsequently in medical and educational journals? Simply put, the clinician scientist bridges the ravine between the ever-growing mountain of scientific knowledge and the demanding patient centered clinical care. Here, we describe the current educational model established by the University of Calgary, Leaders in Medicine Program. Our program seeks to train future physicians and clinician scientists by incorporating training in basic science, translational and clinical research with clinical and medical education in a longitudinal program to students of traditional MD/PhD, MD/MSc or MD/MBA stream as well as interested Doctor of Medicine students.

  5. Medical Students’ View about the Effects of Practical Courses on Learning the General Theoretical Concepts of Basic Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Roshangar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The basic medical sciences section requires 2.5 years in the medical education curriculum. Practical courses complement theoretical knowledge in this period to improve their appreciation. Despite spending lots of disbursement and time, this period’s efficacy is not clearly known. Methods: One hundred thirty-three General Practitioner (GP students have been included in this descriptive cross-sectional study and were asked by questionnaire about the positive impact of practical courses on learning theoretical knowledge. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Result: The agreement in “Practical Head and Neck Anatomy” was 40.91% ± 29.45, in “Practical Trunk Anatomy” was 63.62% ± 2.32 and in “Practical Anatomy of Extremities” was 56.16% ± 2.57. In “Practical Histology”, agreement was 69.50%±2.19; “Practical Biophysics” was 45.97%±2.25, “Practical Physiology” 61.75%±2.17; “Practical Biochemistry” 36.28%±2.42; “Practical Pathology” 59.80%±2.53; “Practical Immunology” 56.25%±26.40; “Practical Microbiology and Virology” 60.39%±2.27 and “Practical Mycology and Parasitology” 68.2%± 2.16.Conclusion: GP students in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences are not optimistic about the applicability of practical courses of basic medical sciences lessons.

  6. Peer-assisted learning: filling the gaps in basic science education for preclinical medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammaraiee, Yezen; Mistry, Ravi D; Lim, Julian; Wittner, Liora; Deepak, Shantal; Lim, Gareth

    2016-09-01

    In contrast to peer-assisted learning (PAL) in clinical training, there is scant literature on the efficacy of PAL during basic medical sciences teaching for preclinical students. A group of senior medical students aimed to design and deliver clinically oriented small-group tutorials after every module in the preclinical curriculum at a United Kingdom medical school. Twenty tutorials were delivered by senior students throughout the year to first- and second-year students. A baseline questionnaire was delivered to inform the development of the program followed by an end-point questionnaire the next year (n = 122). Quizzes were administered before and after five separate tutorials to assess changes in mean student scores. Additionally, each tutorial was evaluated via a questionnaire for participants (n = 949). All five posttutorial quizzes showed a significant improvement in mean student score (P < 0.05). Questionnaires showed students found the program to be relevant and useful for revision purposes and appreciated how tutorials contextualized basic science to clinical medicine. Students appreciated the interactive nature of the sessions and found receiving personalized feedback about their learning and consolidating information with someone familiar with the material to be useful. With the inclusion of the program, students felt there were now an adequate number of tutorials during the year. In conclusion, this study shows that senior medical students can design and deliver a program that adds value to the mostly lecture-based formal preclinical curriculum. We hope that our study can prompt further work to explore the effect of PAL on the teaching of basic sciences during preclinical studies.

  7. Conducting correlation seminars in basic sciences at KIST Medical College, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ravi Shankar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available KIST Medical College is a new medical school in Lalitpur, Nepal. In Nepal, six basic science subjects are taught together in an integrated organ system-based manner with early clinical exposure and community medicine. Correlation seminars are conducted at the end of covering each organ system. The topics are decided by the core academic group (consisting of members from each basic science department, the Department of Community Medicine, the academic director, and the clinical and program coordinators considering the public health importance of the condition and its ability to include learning objectives from a maximum number of subjects. The learning objectives are decided by individual departments and finalized after the meeting of the core group. There are two student coordinators for each seminar and an evaluation group evaluates each seminar and presenter. Correlation seminars help students revise the organ system covered and understand its clinical importance, promote teamwork and organization, and supports active learning. Correlation seminars should be considered as a learning modality by other medical schools.

  8. Comparison of empathy score among medical students in both basic and clinical levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MITRA KHADEMALHOSSEINI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Empathy refers to a personality character that has a great role in communication with others. Thus, proper evaluation and education of empathy in medical students is important for medical education. Because previous studies had suggested that physician’s empathy may reduce with clinical trainings, in this study we decided to measure the empathy score among medical students. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted on medical students in the first to seventh years of their studies at Shiraz medical school (south of Iran in 2010. We designed new Iranian version questionnaire of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy. Sample size was 260 students and the results were analyzed in SPSS, version 11.5 (statistical tests such as descriptive methods, t-test, and ANOVA and p<0.05 was considered as the significant level. Results: The empathy score decreased with increase in the students’ age (p=0.001 and educational level (p=0.030. The overall rate of empathy score in basic science level (65.5±0.84 was more than that in the clinical level (55.5±1.78. The lowest empathy score was seen in the seventh year students (55.51 and the highest was in the first year students (65.50. Female students had higher mean empathy score (65.53 while it was 59.02 in the male students. Conclusion: In general, medical students in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences had low empathy level and this may be a cause for concern; as such we suggest a possible inclusion of courses on empathy in the curriculum.

  9. Assessment of knowledge and perceptions toward generic medicines among basic science undergraduate medical students at Aruba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, P. Ravi; Herz, Burton L.; Dubey, Arun K.; Hassali, Mohamed A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Use of generic medicines is important to reduce rising health-care costs. Proper knowledge and perception of medical students and doctors toward generic medicines are important. Xavier University School of Medicine in Aruba admits students from the United States, Canada, and other countries to the undergraduate medical (MD) program. The present study was conducted to study the knowledge and perception about generic medicines among basic science MD students. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted among first to fifth semester students during February 2015. A previously developed instrument was used. Basic demographic information was collected. Respondent’s agreement with a set of statements was noted using a Likert-type scale. The calculated total score was compared among subgroups of respondents. One sample Kolmogorov–Smirnov test was used to study the normality of distribution, Independent samples t-test to compare the total score for dichotomous variables, and analysis of variance for others were used for statistical analysis. Results: Fifty-six of the 85 students (65.8%) participated. Around 55% of respondents were between 20 and 25 years of age and of American nationality. Only three respondents (5.3%) provided the correct value of the regulatory bioequivalence limits. The mean total score was 43.41 (maximum 60). There was no significant difference in scores among subgroups. Conclusions: There was a significant knowledge gap with regard to the regulatory bioequivalence limits for generic medicines. Respondents’ level of knowledge about other aspects of generic medicines was good but could be improved. Studies among clinical students in the institution and in other Caribbean medical schools are required. Deficiencies were noted and we have strengthened learning about generic medicines during the basic science years. PMID:28031604

  10. Assessment of knowledge and perceptions toward generic medicines among basic science undergraduate medical students at Aruba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, P Ravi; Herz, Burton L; Dubey, Arun K; Hassali, Mohamed A

    2016-10-01

    Use of generic medicines is important to reduce rising health-care costs. Proper knowledge and perception of medical students and doctors toward generic medicines are important. Xavier University School of Medicine in Aruba admits students from the United States, Canada, and other countries to the undergraduate medical (MD) program. The present study was conducted to study the knowledge and perception about generic medicines among basic science MD students. The cross-sectional study was conducted among first to fifth semester students during February 2015. A previously developed instrument was used. Basic demographic information was collected. Respondent's agreement with a set of statements was noted using a Likert-type scale. The calculated total score was compared among subgroups of respondents. One sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to study the normality of distribution, Independent samples t-test to compare the total score for dichotomous variables, and analysis of variance for others were used for statistical analysis. Fifty-six of the 85 students (65.8%) participated. Around 55% of respondents were between 20 and 25 years of age and of American nationality. Only three respondents (5.3%) provided the correct value of the regulatory bioequivalence limits. The mean total score was 43.41 (maximum 60). There was no significant difference in scores among subgroups. There was a significant knowledge gap with regard to the regulatory bioequivalence limits for generic medicines. Respondents' level of knowledge about other aspects of generic medicines was good but could be improved. Studies among clinical students in the institution and in other Caribbean medical schools are required. Deficiencies were noted and we have strengthened learning about generic medicines during the basic science years.

  11. The pharmacological activity of medical herbs after microbiological decontamination by irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarczyk, H. B.; Migdał, W.; K ȩdzia, B.

    2000-03-01

    In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology research on microbiological decontamination of medicinal herbs by irradiation has been carried out since 1996. It was shown that using ionizing radiation (a dose of 10 kGy) can obtain satisfactory results of microbiological decontamination of these products. The content of essential biologically active substances such as essential oils, flavonoids, glycosides, anthocyans, antra-compounds, poliphenoloacids, triterpene saponins, oleanosides and plants mucus did not change significantly after irradiation. Pharmacological activity of medicinal herbs has been found satisfactory after microbiological decontamination by irradiation.

  12. Medical Individualism or Medical Familism? A Critical Analysis of China's New Guidelines for Informed Consent: The Basic Norms of the Documentation of the Medical Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Lin

    2015-08-01

    Modern Western medical individualism has had a significant impact on health care in China. This essay demonstrates the ways in which such Western-style individualism has been explicitly endorsed in China's 2010 directive: The Basic Norms of the Documentation of the Medical Record. The Norms require that the patient himself, rather than a member of his family, sign each informed consent form. This change in clinical practice indicates a shift toward medical individualism in Chinese healthcare legislation. Such individualism, however, is incompatible with the character of Chinese familism that is deeply rooted in the Chinese ethical tradition. It also contradicts family-based patterns of health care in China. Moreover, the requirement for individual informed consent is incompatible with numerous medical regulations promulgated in the past two decades. This essay argues that while Chinese medical legislation should learn from relevant Western ideas, it should not simply copy such practices by importing medical individualism into Chinese health care. Chinese healthcare policy is properly based on Chinese medical familist resources.

  13. Gender bias in medical textbooks : examples from coronary heart disease, depression, alcohol abuse and pharmacology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A.F.; Verdonk, P.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to review the availability and accessibility of gender-specific knowledge in current medical textbooks used in Dutch medical schools. Medicine has been criticised as being gender-biased by assuming male and female bodies to be generally the same. The authors wondered whe

  14. Gender bias in medical textbooks: examples from coronary heart disease, depression, alcohol abuse and pharmacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A.F.; Verdonk, P.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to review the availability and accessibility of gender-specific knowledge in current medical textbooks used in Dutch medical schools. Medicine has been criticised as being gender-biased by assuming male and female bodies to be generally the same. The authors wondered whe

  15. Pre-training evaluation and feedback improve medical students' skills in basic life support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Ma, Er-Li; Liu, Jin; Fang, Li-Qun; Xia, Tian

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation and feedback are two factors that could influence simulation-based medical education and the time when they were delivered contributes their different effects. To investigate the impact of pre-training evaluation and feedback on medical students' performance in basic life support (BLS). Forty 3rd-year undergraduate medical students were randomly divided into two groups, C group (the control) and pre-training evaluation and feedback group (E&F group), each of 20. After BLS theoretical lecture, the C group received 45 min BLS training and the E&F group was individually evaluated (video-taped) in a mock cardiac arrest (pre-training evaluation). Fifteen minutes of group feedback related with the students' BLS performance in pre-training evaluation was given in the E&F group, followed by a 30-min BLS training. After BLS training, both groups were evaluated with one-rescuer BLS skills in a 3-min mock cardiac arrest scenario (post-training evaluation). The score from the post-training evaluation was converted to a percentage and was compared between the two groups. The score from the post-training evaluation was higher in the E&F group (82.9 ± 3.2% vs. 63.9 ± 13.4% in C group). In undergraduate medical students without previous BLS training, pre-training evaluation and feedback improve their performance in followed BLS training.

  16. Recent advances of basic materials to obtain electrospun polymeric nanofibers for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, L. R.; Hristian, L.; Leon, A. L.; Popa, A.

    2016-08-01

    The most important applications of electrospun polymeric nanofibers are by far those from biomedical field. From the biological point of view, almost all the human tissues and organs consist of nanofibroas structures. The examples include the bone, dentine, cartilage, tendons and skin. All these are characterized through different fibrous structures, hierarchically organized at nanometer scale. Electrospinning represents one of the nanotechnologies that permit to obtain such structures for cell cultures, besides other technologies, such as selfassembling and phase separation technologies. The basic materials used to produce electrospun nanofibers can be natural or synthetic, having polymeric, ceramic or composite nature. These materials are selected depending of the nature and structure of the tissue meant to be regenerated, namely: for the regeneration of smooth tissues regeneration one needs to process through electrospinning polymeric basic materials, while in order to obtain the supports for the regeneration of hard tissues one must mainly use ceramic materials or composite structures that permit imbedding the bioactive substances in distinctive zones of the matrix. This work presents recent studies concerning basic materials used to obtain electrospun polymeric nanofibers, and real possibilities to produce and implement these nanofibers in medical bioengineering applications.

  17. Antianxiety medications for the treatment of complex agoraphobia: pharmacological interventions for a behavioral condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perna G

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Giampaolo Perna1-3, Silvia Daccò2, Roberta Menotti2, Daniela Caldirola21Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Maastricht, Maastricht, the Netherlands; 2Department of Clinical Neuroscience, San Benedetto Hospital, Hermanas Hospitalarias, Albese con Cassano, Como, Italy; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Leonard M Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USABackground: Although there are controversial issues (the "American view" and the "European view" regarding the construct and definition of agoraphobia (AG, this syndrome is well recognized and it is a burden in the lives of millions of people worldwide. To better clarify the role of drug therapy in AG, the authors summarized and discussed recent evidence on pharmacological treatments, based on clinical trials available from 2000, with the aim of highlighting pharmacotherapies that may improve this complex syndrome.Methods: A systematic review of the literature regarding the pharmacological treatment of AG was carried out using MEDLINE, EBSCO, and Cochrane databases, with keywords individuated by MeSH research. Only randomized, placebo-controlled studies or comparative clinical trials were included.Results: After selection, 25 studies were included. All the selected studies included patients with AG associated with panic disorder. Effective compounds included selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, selective noradrenergic reuptake inhibitors, and benzodiazepines. Paroxetine, sertraline, citalopram, escitalopram, and clomipramine showed the most consistent results, while fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, and imipramine showed limited efficacy. Preliminary results suggested the potential efficacy of inositol; D-cycloserine showed mixed results for its ability to improve the outcome of exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy

  18. Pharmacological modulation of caspase-8 in thymus-related medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzesi, Nicola; Fierabracci, Alessandra; Thuy, Trinh Thy; Martelli, Maria Paola; Liberati, Anna Marina; Ayroldi, Emira; Riccardi, Carlo; Delfino, Domenico V

    2014-10-01

    The thymus is a lymphoid organ that governs the development of a diverse T-cell repertoire capable of defending against nonself-antigens and avoiding autoimmunity. However, the thymus can also succumb to different diseases. Hypertrophic diseases, such as thymomas, are typically associated with impairment of negative selection, which leads to autoimmune disease, or disruption of positive selection, which results in immunodeficiency. Hypotrophic diseases of the thymus can manifest during acute infections, cancer, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, or with aging. This condition leads to decreased immune function and can be treated by either replacing lost thymic tissue or by preventing thymic tissue death. Studies have demonstrated the critical role of caspase-8 in regulating apoptosis in the thymus. In this review, we discuss how pharmacological activation and inhibition of caspase-8 can be used to treat hypertrophic and hypotrophic diseases of the thymus, respectively, to improve its function.

  19. "Basic Medical Skills" - Evaluation of a primary care oriented course concept within the new medical curriculum in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer, Thomas

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: To increase the practical orientation of medical student education in Germany, we have introduced a new mandatory course into the 3rd study year. This course combines doctor-patient communication training sessions with practical skills such as taking blood, changing dressings, etc. The primary care point of view to these topics was emphasized. The study describes the course and an evaluation of its effects on basic medical skills.Methods: Learning progress was measured using an anonymous self-evaluation questionnaire. Students graded their own competence in each individual course element using a 1-6 point scale (1='excellent' to 6='insufficient'. To objectify the learning process with regards to both practical skills and communicative competence we performed an "Objective Structured Clinical Examination" (OSCE.Results: Complete data are available from 154 of the 193 students participating in the course (average age 23.7 ±2.7 years. With regards to their competence in taking a case history, participants rated themselves with an average score of 3.99 before the course and an improved average score of 2.42 afterwards (P<0.0001. Students gave themselves credit for definite improvement in practical skills as well. Neither gender, age nor earlier medical training had any effect of the self-evaluation. Results of self-reported questionnaires corresponded well with the test results of the OSCE (N=193. Female students had significantly better results in the global rating in the communicative sections of the OSCE test than their male counterparts. Overall, the general evaluation of the course (grade 1.93 and its value for later medical competence (1.97 were very high in comparison to the average values for medical seminars at this university.Conclusion: We found high effects on clinical competence both in self-reported evaluations of the course and in the OSCE. A longitudinal study is under way in order to investigate to what

  20. FLUKA Monte Carlo for Basic Dosimetric Studies of Dual Energy Medical Linear Accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Abdul Haneefa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available General purpose Monte Carlo code for simulation of particle transport is used to study the basic dosimetric parameters like percentage depth dose and dose profiles and compared with the experimental measurements from commercial dual energy medical linear accelerator. Varian Clinac iX medical linear accelerator with dual energy photon beams (6 and 15 MV is simulated using FLUKA. FLAIR is used to visualize and edit the geometry. Experimental measurements are taken for 100 cm source-to-surface (SSD in 50 × 50 × 50 cm3 PTW water phantom using 0.12 cc cylindrical ionization chamber. Percentage depth dose for standard square field sizes and dose profiles for various depths are studied in detail. The analysis was carried out using ROOT (a DATA analysis frame work developed at CERN system. Simulation result shows good agreement in percentage depth dose and beam profiles with the experimental measurements for Varian Clinac iX dual energy medical linear accelerator.

  1. A Plan for the Evaluation of a Project to Develop Basic Medical Sciences Lessons on PLATO IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Les A.; And Others

    A project to introduce PLATO IV computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in medical sciences education for health professionals was implemented at the School of Basic Medical Sciences at the University of Illinois. This paper describes the plan for evaluation of the project. Using a student questionnaire and additional general questions, the…

  2. Motivating medical students to learn basic science concepts using chronic myeloid leukemia as an integration theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Teresinha Olalla Saad

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report on the use of chronic myeloid leukemia as a theme of basic clinical integration for first year medical students to motivate and enable in-depth understanding of the basic sciences of the future physician. Methods: During the past thirteen years we have reviewed and updated the curriculum of the medical school of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas. The main objective of the new curriculum is to teach the students how to learn to learn. Since then, a case of chronic myeloid leukemia has been introduced to first year medical students and discussed in horizontal integration with all themes taught during a molecular and cell biology course. Cell structure and components, protein, chromosomes, gene organization, proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, signaling and so on are all themes approached during this course. At the end of every topic approached, the students prepare in advance the corresponding topic of clinical cases chosen randomly during the class, which are then presented by them. During the final class, a paper regarding mutations in the abl gene that cause resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors is discussed. After each class, three tests are solved in an interactive evaluation. Results: The course has been successful since its beginning, 13 years ago. Great motivation of those who participated in the course was observed. There were less than 20% absences in the classes. At least three (and as many as nine students every year were interested in starting research training in the field of hematology. At the end of each class, an interactive evaluation was performed and more than 70% of the answers were correct in each evaluation. Moreover, for the final evaluation, the students summarized, in a written report, the molecular and therapeutic basis of chronic myeloid leukemia, with scores ranging from 0 to 10. Considering all 13 years, a median of 78% of the class scored above 5 (min 74%-max 85%, and a median of 67

  3. Interactive E-learning module in pharmacology: a pilot project at a rural medical college in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Nitin; Tankhiwale, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    Many medical educators are experimenting with innovative ways of E-learning. E-learning provides opportunities to students for self-directed learning in addition to other advantages. In this study, we designed and evaluated an interactive E-learning module in pharmacology for effectiveness, acceptability and feasibility, with the aim of promoting active learning in this fact-filled subject. A quasi-experimental single-group pre-test/post-test study was conducted with fourth-semester students of the second professionals course (II MBBS), selected using non-probability convenience sampling method. An E-learning module in endocrine pharmacology was designed to comprise three units of interactive PowerPoint presentations. The pre-validated presentations were uploaded on the website according to a predefined schedule and the 42 registered students were encouraged to self-learning using these interactive presentations. Cognitive gain was assessed using an online pre- and post-test for each unit. Students' perceptions were recorded using an online feedback questionnaire on a 5-point Likert scale. Finally, focused group discussion was conducted to further explore students' views on E-learning activity. Significant attrition was observed during the E-learning activity. Of the 42 registered students, only 16 students completed the entire E-learning module. The summed average score of all three units (entire module) was increased significantly from 38.42 % (summed average pre-test score: 11.56/30 ± 2.90) to 66.46 % (summed average post-test score: 19.94/30 ± 6.13). The class-average normalized gain for the entire module was 0.4542 (45.42). The students accepted this E-learning activity well as they perceived it to be innovative, convenient, flexible and useful. The average rating was between 4 (agree) and 5 (strongly agree). The interactive E-learning module in pharmacology was moderately effective and well perceived by the students. The simple, cost-effective and

  4. Medical treatment of cholestatic liver diseases: From pathobiology to pharmacological targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gustav Paumgartner

    2006-01-01

    Bile secretion is dependent on the coordinated functions of a number of hepatobiliary transport systems.Cholestasis may be caused by an impairment of bile secretion, an obstruction of bile flow or a combination of the two. The common consequence of all forms of cholestasis is retention of bile acids and other potentially toxic compounds in the hepatocytes leading to apoptosis or necrosis of hepatocytes and eventually to chronic cholestatic liver disease. In certain cholestatic disorders there is also leakage of bile acids into the peribiliary space causing portal inflammation and fibrosis. The following pharmacological targets for treatment of intrahepatic cholestasis can be identified: stimulation of orthograde biliary secretion and retrograde secretion of bile acids and other toxic cholephils into the systemic circulation for excretion via the kidneys to reduce their retention in the hepatocytes; stimulation of the metabolism of hydrophobic bile acids and other toxic compounds to more hydrophilic, less toxic metabolites;protection of injured cholangiocytes against toxic effects of bile; inhibition of apoptosis caused by elevated levels of cytotoxic bile acids; inhibition of fibrosis caused by leakage of bile acids into the peribiliary space. The clinical results of ursodeoxcholic acid therapy of primary biliary cirrhosis may be regarded as the first success of this strategy.

  5. Phytotherapy in medieval Serbian medicine according to the pharmacological manuscripts of the Chilandar Medical Codex (15-16th centuries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarić, Snežana; Mitrović, Miroslava; Djurdjević, Lola; Kostić, Olga; Gajić, Gordana; Pavlović, Dragana; Pavlović, Pavle

    2011-09-01

    The Chilandar Medical Codex is the most significant and best preserved medieval Serbian manuscript and collects together documents on European medical science from the 12th to 15th centuries. It represents the best-known and most complete example of a large collection of medical manuscripts from the Salerno-Montpellier school, written in the vernacular - something which does not exist among the majority of European nations. This paper presents the section of the Codex that deals with phytotherapy, which is contained within the pharmacological manuscripts. An analysis of their contents shows that out of a total of 167 recorded substances, 135 are of plant origin (81%), 13 animal origin (7.7%) and 19 inorganic (11.3%). The recorded plant species are categorised into 63 families, of which the most frequent are: Apiaceae (8.1%), Lamiaceae (8.1%), Asteraceae (5.9%), Rosaceae (5.9%) and Fabaceae (4.4%). All possible plant parts were used in treatments: the whole plant (6%), underground parts (13.7% - root, rhizome, bulb) and aerial parts (80.3% - stem, leaf, flower, buds, fruit, seeds). Of the plants quoted, the following are mentioned most frequently: Vitis sp. (120), Rosa canina (55), Olea europaea (45), Pistacia lentiscus (25), Saccharum officinarum (23), Artemisia absinthium (16) and Foeniculum vulgare (15). The contents of the pharmacological manuscripts of the Chilandar Medical Codex point to the sound contemporary knowledge of the diversity of plant species, their origins, habitat types, the levels of their healing powers, and when and how to gather them and prepare them, as well as the recommended dose for the treatment of specific illnesses. As these manuscripts contain not only common, lay terms for the plants, but also scientific, botanical ones, we can consider them the precursor to Serbian botany. Based on its contents and the way in which they are presented, it can be viewed not only as the first Serbian pharmacopeia, but first Slavic pharmacopeia, too

  6. Teaching basic haemorheology to medical students by individual and collaborative strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linea Natalie Toksvang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated whether a classic article on haemorheology would lead to better learning when integrated with a collaborative rather than an individual teaching strategy in the undergraduate physiology classroom setting. A total of 88 2nd-year medical students were randomised to solve assignments based on the classic article individually (n=42 or in groups (n=46 during a 45-minute lesson on basic haemorheology. At the end of the lesson, students completed a test and an evaluation form. There were no differences between the two intervention groups with regard to the total test score, but students who had worked in groups rated their own effort during the lesson higher. In the present study, a collaborative teaching strategy did not lead to higher test scores than an individual teaching strategy. However, our findings suggest that students working in groups may feel a greater level of involvement during class.

  7. Benefit distribution of social health insurance: evidence from china's urban resident basic medical insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jay; Tian, Sen; Zhou, Qin; Han, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Equity is one of the essential objectives of the social health insurance. This article evaluates the benefit distribution of the China's Urban Residents' Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI), covering 300 million urban populations. Using the URBMI Household Survey data fielded between 2007 and 2011, we estimate the benefit distribution by the two-part model, and find that the URBMI beneficiaries from lower income groups benefited less than that of higher income groups. In other words, government subsidy that was supposed to promote the universal coverage of health care flew more to the rich. Our study provides new evidence on China's health insurance system reform, and it bears meaningful policy implication for other developing countries facing similar challenges on the way to universal coverage of health insurance. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Laser-driven electron beam and radiation sources for basic, medical and industrial sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    To date active research on laser-driven plasma-based accelerators have achieved great progress on production of high-energy, high-quality electron and photon beams in a compact scale. Such laser plasma accelerators have been envisaged bringing a wide range of applications in basic, medical and industrial sciences. Here inheriting the groundbreaker's review article on "Laser Acceleration and its future" [Toshiki Tajima, (2010)],(1)) we would like to review recent progress of producing such electron beams due to relativistic laser-plasma interactions followed by laser wakefield acceleration and lead to the scaling formulas that are useful to design laser plasma accelerators with controllability of beam energy and charge. Lastly specific examples of such laser-driven electron/photon beam sources are illustrated.

  9. Teaching population health as a basic science at Harvard Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Jonathan A; McMahon, Graham T; Peters, Antoinette; Cadigan, Rebecca; Biddinger, Paul; Simon, Steven R

    2008-04-01

    In 2006-2007, Harvard Medical School implemented a new, required course for first-year medical and dental students entitled Clinical Epidemiology and Population Health. Conceived of as a "basic science" course, its primary goal is to allow students to develop an understanding of caring for individuals and promoting the health of populations as a continuum of strategies, all requiring the engagement of physicians. In the course's first iteration, topical content accessible to first-year students was selected to exemplify physicians' roles in addressing current threats to population health. Methodological areas included domains of clinical epidemiology, decision sciences, population-level prevention and health promotion, physicians' roles in the public health system, and population-level surveillance and intervention strategies. Large-group settings were selectively used to frame the relevance of each topic, and conceptual learning of statistical and epidemiologic methods occurred in conference groups of 24 students. Finally, tutorials of eight students and one or two faculty were used for critical reading of published studies, review of problem sets, and group discussion of population health issues. To help students appreciate the structure and function of the public health system and physicians' role in public health emergencies, the course included a role-playing exercise simulating response to an influenza pandemic. The first iteration of the course was well received, and assessment of students suggested mastery of basic skills. Preclinical courses represent a progressive step in developing a workforce of physicians who embrace their responsibility to improve the health of the population as a whole, as well as the health of the patient in front of them.

  10. Attitude, perception and feedback of second year medical students on teaching-learning methodology and evaluation methods in pharmacology: A questionnaire-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma A Bhosale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess the student′s attitude, perception and feedback on teaching-learning methodology and evaluation methods in pharmacology. Materials and Methods: One hundred and forty second year medical students studying at Smt. Kashibai Navale Medical College, Pune, were selected. They were administered a pre-validated questionnaire containing 22 questions. Suggestions were also asked regarding the qualities of good pharmacology teachers and modification in pharmacology teaching methods. Descriptive statistics were used and results were expressed as percentage. Results: Majority of the students found cardiovascular system (49.25% as the most interesting topic in pharmacology, whereas most of the students opined that cardiovascular system (60.10%, chemotherapy (54.06% and central nervous system (44.15% are going to be the most useful topics in internship. 48.53% students preferred clinical/patient-related pharmacology and 39.13% suggested use of audiovisual-aided lectures. Prescription writing and criticism of prescription were amongst the most useful and interesting in practical pharmacology. Students expressed interest in microteaching and problem-based learning, whereas seminars, demonstrations on manikin and museum studies were mentioned as good adjuvants to routine teaching. Multiple Choice Question (MCQ practice tests and theory viva at the end of a particular system and periodical written tests were mentioned as effective evaluation methods. Students were found to have lot of interest in gathering information on recent advances in pharmacology and suggested to include new drug information along with prototype drugs in a comparative manner. Conclusion: There is a need of conducting few microteaching sessions and more of clinical-oriented problem-based learning with MCQ-based revisions at the end of each class in the pharmacology teaching at undergraduate level.

  11. Number of Published Randomized Controlled Multi Center Trials Testing Pharmacological Interventions or Devices Is Increasing in Both Medical and Surgical Specialties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Anne Kjaergaard; Okholm, Cecilie; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian;

    2014-01-01

    in 1995 to 1,273 in 2010, with a larger share of multicenter studies being performed in Europe and North America. The pharmacological interventions were primarily being tested in medical studies followed by the device tests predominantly in surgical studies. The number of included patients as well...

  12. Geriatric pharmacology and pharmacotherapy education for health professionals and students: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, Carolina J P W; van Hensbergen, Larissa; Jacobs, Lotte; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; de Wildt, Dick J; ten Cate, Olle Th J; Jansen, Paul A F

    2012-11-01

    The rate of medication errors is high, and these errors can cause adverse drug reactions. Elderly individuals are most vulnerable to adverse drug reactions. One cause of medication errors is the lack of drug knowledge on the part of different health professionals. Medical curricula have changed in recent years, resulting in less education in the basic sciences, such as pharmacology. Our study shows that little curricular time is devoted to geriatric pharmacology and that educational programmes in geriatric pharmacology have not been thoroughly evaluated. While interest in pharmacology education has increased recently, this is not the case for geriatric pharmacology education. Education on geriatric pharmacology should have more attention in the curricula of health professionals, given the often complex pharmacotherapy in elderly patients. Educational topics should be related to the known risk factors of medication errors, such as polypharmacy, dose adjustments in organ dysfunction and psychopharmacotherapeutics. Given the reported high rates of medication errors, especially in elderly patients, we hypothesized that current curricula do not devote enough time to the teaching of geriatric pharmacology. This review explores the quantity and nature of geriatric pharmacology education in undergraduate and postgraduate curricula for health professionals. Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO databases were searched (from 1 January 2000 to 11 January 2011), using the terms 'pharmacology' and 'education' in combination. Articles describing content or evaluation of pharmacology education for health professionals were included. Education in general and geriatric pharmacology was compared. Articles on general pharmacology education (252) and geriatric pharmacology education (39) were included. The number of publications on education in general pharmacology, but not geriatric pharmacology, has increased over the last 10 years. Articles on undergraduate and postgraduate education for 12

  13. Educational Status of Dental Basic Science Course and its Correlation with Students' Educational Background in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Mozafar Khazaei; Fatemeh Abasi; Mohammad Rasool Khazaei; Farshad Rahimi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Basic science course plays a pivotal role in the academic achievement of the students. The scientific background and educational performance of the students are also influential in this period. The aim of the present study was to investigate the educational status of dental basic science course in the first three admissions (2009-2011) and its association with students’ educational background in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (KUMS). Methods: In this descriptive cr...

  14. Pharmacological and pharmacokinetic aspects of functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Michael; Bueno, Lionel; de Ponti, Fabrizio; Fioramonti, Jean; Lydiard, R Bruce; Tack, Jan

    2006-04-01

    Medications are commonly used for the treatment of patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders. The general goal of this report is to review the pharmacokinetics and pharmacology of medications used in functional gastrointestinal disorders. Methods included literature review, consensus evaluation of the evidence for each topic assigned originally to 1 or 2 authors, and broader review at a harmonization session as part of the Rome III process. This report reviews the animal models that have been validated for the study of effects of pharmacologic agents on sensation and motility; the preclinical pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology usually required for introduction of novel therapeutic agents; the biomarkers validated for studies of sensation and motility end points with experimental medications in humans; the pharmacogenomics applied to these medications and disorders; and the pharmacology of agents that are applied or have potential for treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders, including psychopharmacologic agents. Clinician and basic investigators involved in the treatment or investigation of functional gastrointestinal disorders or disease models need to have a comprehensive understanding of a vast range of medications. It is anticipated that the interaction between investigators of basic science, basic and applied pharmacology, and clinical trials will lead to better treatment of these disorders.

  15. Pharmacology podcasts: a qualitative study of non-medical prescribing students' use, perceptions and impact on learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Oonagh; Bowskill, Dianne; Lymn, Joanne S

    2011-01-11

    There is growing research on student use of podcasts in academic settings. However, there is little in-depth research focusing on student experience of podcasts, in particular in terms of barriers to, and facilitators of, podcast use and students' perceptions of the usefulness of podcasts as learning tools. This study aimed to explore the experiences of non-medical prescribing students who had access to podcasts of key pharmacology lectures as supplementary learning tools to their existing course materials. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with seven non-medical prescribing students (average age = 43 years), all of whom were nurses, who had access to seven podcasts of key pharmacology lectures. These podcasts took the form of downloadable audio lecture recordings available through the virtual learning environment WebCT. Low, medium and high users of the podcasts took part in the interviews in order to access a variety of student experiences. Interview data was analysed using thematic template analysis to identify key themes surrounding student experience of podcast availability, particularly in relation to barriers to and facilitators of podcast use, and students' experiences of podcasts as a learning tool. Students used podcasts for a variety of reasons such as revisiting lectures, preparing for exams, to clarify or revise specific topics and, to a lesser extent, to catch up on a missed lecture. Barriers to podcast use centred mainly around technological issues. Lack of experience of the technology required to access podcasts proved a barrier for some students. A lack of access to suitable technology was also a reported barrier. Family assistance and I.T. assistance from the university helped facilitate students' use of the podcasts. Students found that using podcasts allowed them to have greater control over their learning and to gauge their learning needs, as well as helping them build their understanding of a complex topic. Students used podcasts for

  16. Pharmacology podcasts: a qualitative study of non-medical prescribing students' use, perceptions and impact on learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lymn Joanne S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing research on student use of podcasts in academic settings. However, there is little in-depth research focusing on student experience of podcasts, in particular in terms of barriers to, and facilitators of, podcast use and students' perceptions of the usefulness of podcasts as learning tools. This study aimed to explore the experiences of non-medical prescribing students who had access to podcasts of key pharmacology lectures as supplementary learning tools to their existing course materials. Methods Semi-structured interviews were carried out with seven non-medical prescribing students (average age = 43 years, all of whom were nurses, who had access to seven podcasts of key pharmacology lectures. These podcasts took the form of downloadable audio lecture recordings available through the virtual learning environment WebCT. Low, medium and high users of the podcasts took part in the interviews in order to access a variety of student experiences. Interview data was analysed using thematic template analysis to identify key themes surrounding student experience of podcast availability, particularly in relation to barriers to and facilitators of podcast use, and students' experiences of podcasts as a learning tool. Results Students used podcasts for a variety of reasons such as revisiting lectures, preparing for exams, to clarify or revise specific topics and, to a lesser extent, to catch up on a missed lecture. Barriers to podcast use centred mainly around technological issues. Lack of experience of the technology required to access podcasts proved a barrier for some students. A lack of access to suitable technology was also a reported barrier. Family assistance and I.T. assistance from the university helped facilitate students' use of the podcasts. Students found that using podcasts allowed them to have greater control over their learning and to gauge their learning needs, as well as helping them build their

  17. Pharmacology podcasts: a qualitative study of non-medical prescribing students' use, perceptions and impact on learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background There is growing research on student use of podcasts in academic settings. However, there is little in-depth research focusing on student experience of podcasts, in particular in terms of barriers to, and facilitators of, podcast use and students' perceptions of the usefulness of podcasts as learning tools. This study aimed to explore the experiences of non-medical prescribing students who had access to podcasts of key pharmacology lectures as supplementary learning tools to their existing course materials. Methods Semi-structured interviews were carried out with seven non-medical prescribing students (average age = 43 years), all of whom were nurses, who had access to seven podcasts of key pharmacology lectures. These podcasts took the form of downloadable audio lecture recordings available through the virtual learning environment WebCT. Low, medium and high users of the podcasts took part in the interviews in order to access a variety of student experiences. Interview data was analysed using thematic template analysis to identify key themes surrounding student experience of podcast availability, particularly in relation to barriers to and facilitators of podcast use, and students' experiences of podcasts as a learning tool. Results Students used podcasts for a variety of reasons such as revisiting lectures, preparing for exams, to clarify or revise specific topics and, to a lesser extent, to catch up on a missed lecture. Barriers to podcast use centred mainly around technological issues. Lack of experience of the technology required to access podcasts proved a barrier for some students. A lack of access to suitable technology was also a reported barrier. Family assistance and I.T. assistance from the university helped facilitate students' use of the podcasts. Students found that using podcasts allowed them to have greater control over their learning and to gauge their learning needs, as well as helping them build their understanding of a complex topic

  18. A Pharmacological and Toxicological Profile of Silver as an Antimicrobial Agent in Medical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan B. G. Lansdown

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver is used widely in wound dressings and medical devices as a broad-spectrum antibiotic. Metallic silver and most inorganic silver compounds ionise in moisture, body fluids, and secretions to release biologically active Ag+. The ion is absorbed into the systemic circulation from the diet and drinking water, by inhalation and through intraparenteral administration. Percutaneous absorption of Ag+ through intact or damaged skin is low. Ag+ binds strongly to metallothionein, albumins, and macroglobulins and is metabolised to all tissues other than the brain and the central nervous system. Silver sulphide or silver selenide precipitates, bound lysosomally in soft tissues, are inert and not associated with an irreversible toxic change. Argyria and argyrosis are the principle effects associated with heavy deposition of insoluble silver precipitates in the dermis and cornea/conjunctiva. Whilst these changes may be profoundly disfiguring and persistent, they are not associated with pathological damage in any tissue. The present paper discusses the mechanisms of absorption and metabolism of silver in the human body, presumed mechanisms of argyria and argyrosis, and the elimination of silver-protein complexes in the bile and urine. Minimum blood silver levels consistent with early signs of argyria or argyrosis are not known. Silver allergy does occur but the extent of the problem is not known. Reference values for silver exposure are discussed.

  19. Evaluation of medical and health economic effectiveness of non-pharmacological secondary prevention of coronary heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greiner, Wolfgang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary heart disease (CHD is a common and potentially fatal malady with a life time prevalence of over 20%. For Germany, the mortality attributable to chronic ischemic heart disease or acute myocardial infarction is estimated at 140,000 deaths per year. An association between prognosis of CHD and lifestyle risk factors has been consistently shown. To positively influence lifestyle risk factors in patients with CHD, non-pharmaceutical secondary prevention strategies are frequently recommended and implemented. Objectives: The aim of this HTA (HTA = Health Technology Assessment is to summarise the current literature on strategies for non-pharmaceutical secondary prevention in patients with CHD and to evaluate their medical effectiveness/efficacy and cost-effectiveness as well as the ethical, social and legal implications. In addition, this report aims to compare the effectiveness and efficacy of different intervention components and to evaluate the generalisability with regard to the German context. Methods: Relevant publications were identified by means of a structured search of databases accessed through the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI. In addition, a manual search of identified reference lists was conducted. The present report includes German and English literature published between January 2003 and September 2008 targeting adults with CHD. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed according to pre-defined quality criteria, based on the criteria of evidence based medicine. Results: Among 9,074 publications 43 medical publications met the inclusion criteria. Overall study quality is satisfactory, but only half the studies report overall mortality or cardiac mortality as an outcome, while the remaining studies report less reliable outcome parameters. The follow-up duration varies between twelve and 120 months. Although overall effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical secondary

  20. Pharmacology and therapeutics education in EU needs harmonisation and modernisation: A cross-sectional survey among 185 medical schools in 27 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, D J; Tichelaar, J; Okorie, M; Bissell, L; Christiaens, T; Likic, R; Mačiulaitis, R; Costa, J; Sanz, E J; Tamba, B I; Maxwell, S R; Richir, M C; van Agtmael, M A

    2017-03-15

    Effective teaching in pharmacology and clinical pharmacology and therapeutics (CPT) is necessary to make medical students competent prescribers. However, the current structure, delivery and assessment of CPT education in the European Union (EU) is unknown. We sent an online questionnaire to teachers with overall responsibility for CPT education in EU medical schools. Questions focused on undergraduate teaching and assessment of CPT, and students' preparedness for prescribing. 185 medical schools (64%) from 27 EU countries responded. Traditional learning methods were mainly used. The majority of respondents did not provide students with the opportunity to practise real-life prescribing and believed that their students were not well prepared for prescribing. There is a marked difference in the quality and quantity of CPT education within and between EU countries, suggesting that there is considerable scope for improvement. A collaborative approach should be adopted to harmonise and modernise the undergraduate CPT education across the EU. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. The Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance: a landmark reform towards universal coverage in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wanchuan; Liu, Gordon G; Chen, Gang

    2009-07-01

    As the latest government effort to reform China's health care system, Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) was piloted in seventy-nine cities during the summer of 2007, following State Council Policy Document 2007 No. 20's guidelines. This study presents the first economic analysis of URBMI, following a national household survey in nine representative Chinese cities. The survey aimed to answer three questions: Who is covered by the plan? Who gains from the plan? Who is most satisfied with the plan? We have found that there is a U-shaped relationship between URBMI participation rate and income. That is, the extremely rich or poor are the most likely to participate. Those with any inpatient treatment last year or with any chronic disease are also more likely to enroll in URBMI, indicating adverse selection into participation. We have also found that in reducing financial barriers to care, URBMI most significantly benefits the poor and those with previous inpatient care. Finally, those participants in the bottom 20% of family incomes are happier with URBMI than are their more affluent counterparts.

  2. Collaborative diagramming during problem based learning in medical education: Do computerized diagrams support basic science knowledge construction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leng, de Bas; Gijlers, Hannie

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To examine how collaborative diagramming affects discussion and knowledge construction when learning complex basic science topics in medical education, including its effectiveness in the reformulation phase of problem-based learning. Methods: Opinions and perceptions of students (n = 70) and

  3. Development and Evaluation of an Integrated Basic Combat/Advanced Individual Training Program for Medical Corpsmen (MOS 91A10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Joseph S.; And Others

    The Human Resources Research Organization undertook this study to determine experimentally the effect of integrating the Basic Combat Training (BCT) and the Advanced Individual Training (AIT) sequence of instruction for conscientious objector (CO) being trained as a Medical Corpsman (MOS 91A10). Other objectives were to develop an improved AIT…

  4. Collaborative diagramming during problem based learning in medical education: Do computerized diagrams support basic science knowledge construction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leng, Bas; Gijlers, Aaltje H.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To examine how collaborative diagramming affects discussion and knowledge construction when learning complex basic science topics in medical education, including its effectiveness in the reformulation phase of problem-based learning. Methods: Opinions and perceptions of students (n = 70) and tu

  5. Changes in Study Strategies of Medical Students between Basic Science Courses and Clerkships Are Associated with Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger, David C.; Hoyt, Amy E.; Chandrasekhar, Arcot J.; McNulty, John A.

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that medical students change their study strategies when transitioning from basic science courses to clerkships, and that their study practices are associated with performance scores. Factor scores for three approaches to studying (construction, rote, and review) generated from student (n = 150) responses to a…

  6. Pharmacology as a foreign language: a preliminary evaluation of podcasting as a supplementary learning tool for non-medical prescribing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Oonagh; Bowskill, Dianne; Lymn, Joanne S

    2009-12-18

    Nurses and other health professionals in the U.K. can gain similar prescribing rights to doctors by undertaking a non-medical prescribing course. Non-medical prescribing students must have a thorough understanding of the pharmacology of prescribing to ensure safe practice. Pharmacology education at this level is complicated by the variation in students' prior subject knowledge of, and anxiety about, the subject. The recent advances in technology, particularly the potential for mobile learning, provide increased opportunities for students to familiarise themselves with lecture materials and hence promote understanding. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate both the subjective (student perception) and objective (student use and exam results) usefulness of podcasts of pharmacology lectures which were provided as an extra learning tool to two cohorts (n = 69) of non-medical prescribing students. The podcasts were made available to students through the virtual learning environment WebCT. Use of podcasts by two successive cohorts of nurse prescribing students (n = 69) was tracked through WebCT. Survey data, which was collected from 44 of these students, investigated patterns of/reasons for podcast use and perceived usefulness of podcasts as a learning tool. Of these 69 students, 64 completed the pharmacology exam. In order to examine any impact of podcasts on student knowledge, their exam results were compared with those of two historical cohorts who did not have access to podcasts (n = 70). WebCT tracking showed that 91% of students accessed at least one podcast. 93% of students used the podcasts to revisit a lecture, 85% used podcasts for revision, and 61% used the podcasts when they had a specific question. Only 22% used the podcasts because they had missed a pharmacology session. Most students (81%) generally listened to the entire podcast rather than specific sections and most (73%) used them while referring to their lecture handouts. The majority of

  7. Pharmacology as a foreign language: A preliminary evaluation of podcasting as a supplementary learning tool for non-medical prescribing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lymn Joanne S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nurses and other health professionals in the U.K. can gain similar prescribing rights to doctors by undertaking a non-medical prescribing course. Non-medical prescribing students must have a thorough understanding of the pharmacology of prescribing to ensure safe practice. Pharmacology education at this level is complicated by the variation in students' prior subject knowledge of, and anxiety about, the subject. The recent advances in technology, particularly the potential for mobile learning, provide increased opportunities for students to familiarise themselves with lecture materials and hence promote understanding. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate both the subjective (student perception and objective (student use and exam results usefulness of podcasts of pharmacology lectures which were provided as an extra learning tool to two cohorts (n = 69 of non-medical prescribing students. Methods The podcasts were made available to students through the virtual learning environment WebCT. Use of podcasts by two successive cohorts of nurse prescribing students (n = 69 was tracked through WebCT. Survey data, which was collected from 44 of these students, investigated patterns of/reasons for podcast use and perceived usefulness of podcasts as a learning tool. Of these 69 students, 64 completed the pharmacology exam. In order to examine any impact of podcasts on student knowledge, their exam results were compared with those of two historical cohorts who did not have access to podcasts (n = 70. Results WebCT tracking showed that 91% of students accessed at least one podcast. 93% of students used the podcasts to revisit a lecture, 85% used podcasts for revision, and 61% used the podcasts when they had a specific question. Only 22% used the podcasts because they had missed a pharmacology session. Most students (81% generally listened to the entire podcast rather than specific sections and most (73% used them while

  8. Sonographic physical diagnosis 101: teaching senior medical students basic ultrasound scanning skills using a compact ultrasound system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angtuaco, Teresita L; Hopkins, Robert H; DuBose, Terry J; Bursac, Zoran; Angtuaco, Michael J; Ferris, Ernest J

    2007-06-01

    This project was designed to test the feasibility of introducing ultrasound to senior medical students as a primary diagnostic tool in the evaluation of patients. Specifically, its aim was to determine if it is possible for medical students untrained in sonography to gain basic competence in performing abdominal ultrasound with limited didactic and hands-on instructions. Registered sonographers provided the students with hands-on instructions on the use of a compact ultrasound system. They were likewise shown how to evaluate specific organs and perform measurements. The results of the student measurements and those obtained by the sonographers were compared. There was close correlation between the results obtained by sonographers and students on both normal and abnormal findings. This supports the concept that medical students can be taught basic ultrasound skills with limited didactic and hands-on instructions with the potential of using these skills in the patient clinics as an adjunct to routine physical diagnosis.

  9. Faculty perception of medical council of India basic course workshop in medical education technologies as faculty development programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Kumar Yadav

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: BCW must be an integral part of the faculty development programme at institute level but its modules should be regularly updated time to time. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 846-849

  10. Case method teaching: an effective approach to integrate the basic and clinical sciences in the preclinical medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, Constance M; Voss, John; Thomas Aretz, H

    2009-09-01

    Recent efforts to identify the essential skills and competencies required for medical practice have resulted in an expansion of the educational outcomes for which medical schools are accountable. Teachers in the preclinical years, formerly focused on the transmission of biomedical principles and factual information, are now charged with presenting discipline-specific concepts with an emphasis on clinical relevance while advancing active learning, critical thinking, communication skills, and other professional competencies. Problem-based learning has been widely introduced to support these educational goals but other, less resource-intensive, discussion methodologies have not been extensively explored. To examine the feasibility of case-method teaching (CMT) during the preclinical curricula to integrate basic science concepts in the management of clinical problems. CMT sessions were conducted with students during the first- and second-year of hybrid curricula at two US medical schools. First- and second-year medical classes of 40-95 students prepared for and actively engaged in single session case discussions and were able to productively apply basic science principles in clinical problem-solving. CMT represents a feasible and resource-conservative pedagogical format to promote critical thinking and to integrate basic science principles during the preclinical curriculum.

  11. 基本医疗权的法律属性刍议%Legal Attribute of Basic Medical Right University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王裔端; 沈春明

    2011-01-01

    Citizens' basic medical right is "Universal Declaration of Human Rights" and international law documents confirm and security of an important right. The main body is its own citizens, compulsory undertaker is the national, and the object is the national positive behavior; It has the natural human rights, democracy and the rule of law. The contents include of distribution of medical resources, the right to health care, emergency treatment of rights and medical informed consent, the right Citizens' basic medical right is legal attribute, is the a component basic human rights.%公民基本医疗权是《世界人权宣言》等国际法文件确认和保障的一项重要权利.其主体是本国公民,义务承担者是国家,客体是国家的积极行为;它具有人权的自然性、民主性和法治性;其内容包括医疗资源的分配权、医疗照顾权、紧急救治权利和医疗知情同意权;公民的基本医疗权是具有法律属性的,是基本人权的一个组成部分.

  12. An International Basic Science and Clinical Research Summer Program for Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramjiawan, Bram; Pierce, Grant N.; Anindo, Mohammad Iffat Kabir; AlKukhun, Abedalrazaq; Alshammari, Abdullah; Chamsi, Ahmad Talal; Abousaleh, Mohannad; Alkhani, Anas; Ganguly, Pallab K.

    2012-01-01

    An important part of training the next generation of physicians is ensuring that they are exposed to the integral role that research plays in improving medical treatment. However, medical students often do not have sufficient time to be trained to carry out any projects in biomedical and clinical research. Many medical students also fail to…

  13. What basic clinical procedures should be mastered by junior clerkship students? Experience at a single medical school in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konje ET

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Eveline T Konje,1,2 Rodrick Kabangila,2,3 Mange Manyama,2,4 Jacqueline M van Wyk2,5 1Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences, Mwanza, Tanzania; 2Medical Education Fellowship, Southern Africa FAIMER Regional Institute – SAFRI, Cape Town, South Africa; 3Department of Internal Medicine, 4Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences, Mwanza, Tanzania; 5Department of Clinical and Professional Education, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa Background: Clinical training in most medical schools, including the Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences (CUHAS, is offered in the form of junior and senior rotations. During these clinical rotations, students are expected to acquire and master the basic procedural skills. However, students’ learning process should be evaluated for quality improvement. Objectives: This study was conducted to identify the basic medical procedural skills that third-year medical students should acquire and master and determine the level of students’ exposure on these procedures at the end of junior rotation in internal medicine. Identification of the gap between clinicians’ opinions, skills practiced by students, and third-year students’ curriculum in the medical department at CUHAS was also done. Methods: The descriptive cross-sectional study was used to collect data through a self-administered, structured questionnaire from clinicians in medicine. A review of logbooks was considered to determine level of students’ exposure, and a document analysis was done using existing medical curriculum. Results: The response of 71% (n=22 was obtained. Clinicians agreed on basic procedures that students should perform independently (ie, Foley catheter insertion, venipuncture, and intravenous drip insertion. Clinicians thought

  14. Rui-Yuan Sun, Qing-shan Zheng. New Concepts of Mathematical Pharmacology. Beijing: People's Medical Publishing House; 2004. 686 pages, RMB 43.00 (≈$5.19, paperback) ISBN.7-117-06110-3/R*6111

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓晖

    2007-01-01

    @@ Contemporary pharmacological research has two pronounced trends: one trend is from the "macro" to the "micro". The frontier of medical research is on the cellular, molecular, and genetic level, which allow people to access the pharmacological arcanum more and more exactly.

  15. Evaluation of doctors' performance as facilitators in basic medical science lecture classes in a new Malaysian medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail S

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Salwani Ismail,1 Abdus Salam,2 Ahmed G Alattraqchi,1 Lakshmi Annamalai,1 Annamalai Chockalingam,1 Wan Putri Elena,3 Nor Iza A Rahman,1 Abdullahi Rabiu Abubakar,1 Mainul Haque1 1Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia; 2Department of Medical Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 3School of Health Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia Background: Didactic lecture is the oldest and most commonly used method of teaching. In addition, it is considered one of the most efficient ways to disseminate theories, ideas, and facts. Many critics feel that lectures are an obsolete method to use when students need to perform hands-on activities, which is an everyday need in the study of medicine. This study evaluates students' perceptions regarding lecture quality in a new medical school. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted of the medical students of Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin. The study population was 468 preclinical medical students from years 1 and 2 of academic year 2012–2013. Data were collected using a validated instrument. There were six different sections of questions using a 5-point Likert scale. The data were then compiled and analyzed, using SPSS version 20. Results: The response rate was 73%. Among 341 respondents, 30% were male and 70% were female. Eighty-five percent of respondents agree or strongly agree that the lectures had met the criteria with regard to organization of lecture materials. Similarly, 97% of students agree or strongly agree that lecturers maintained adequate voices and gestures. Conclusion: Medical students are quite satisfied with the lecture classes and the lectures. However, further research is required to identify student-centered teaching and learning methods to promote active learning. Keywords: lecture, effectiveness, evaluation, undergraduate medical

  16. PRESENTING CLINICAL-PHARMACOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS - A PROBLEM-BASED APPROACH FOR CHOOSING AND PRESCRIBING DRUGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEVRIES, TPGM

    1993-01-01

    As a guide to the rational choice and prescribing of drugs a normative (ideal) problem-solving model has been developed. This model combines medical problem solving and decision analysis, practical medical aspects, and pharmacological facts and basic principles. It consists of a set of actions or st

  17. Effectiveness of basic clinical skills training programmes : a cross-sectional comparison of four medical schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remmen, R; Scherpbier, A; van der Vleuten, C; Denekens, J; Derese, A; Hermann, [No Value; Hoogenboom, R; Kramer, A; Van Rossum, H; Van Royen, P; Bossaert, L

    Objective Training in physical diagnostic skills is an important part of undergraduate medical education. The objective of this study was to study the outcome of skills training at four medical schools. Context At the time of the study, three schools had a traditional lecture-based curriculum and

  18. Effectiveness of basic clinical skills training programmes : a cross-sectional comparison of four medical schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remmen, R; Scherpbier, A; van der Vleuten, C; Denekens, J; Derese, A; Hermann, [No Value; Hoogenboom, R; Kramer, A; Van Rossum, H; Van Royen, P; Bossaert, L

    2001-01-01

    Objective Training in physical diagnostic skills is an important part of undergraduate medical education. The objective of this study was to study the outcome of skills training at four medical schools. Context At the time of the study, three schools had a traditional lecture-based curriculum and on

  19. Medical theses as part of the scientific training in basic medical and dental education: experiences from Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takkinen Hanna-Mari

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teaching the principles of scientific research in a comprehensive way is important at medical and dental schools. In many countries medical and dental training is not complete until the candidate has presented a diploma thesis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nature, quality, publication pattern and visibility of Finnish medical diploma theses. Methods A total of 256 diploma theses presented at the University of Oulu from 2001 to 2003 were analysed. Using a standardised questionnaire, we extracted several characteristics from each thesis. We used the name of the student to assess whether the thesis resulted in a scientific publication indexed in medical article databases. The number of citations received by each published thesis was also recorded. Results A high proportion of the theses (69.5% were essentially statistical in character, often combined with an extensive literature review or the development of a laboratory method. Most of them were supervised by clinical departments (55.9%. Only 61 theses (23.8% had been published in indexed scientific journals. Theses in the fields of biomedicine and diagnostics were published in more widely cited journals. The median number of citations received per year was 2.7 and the range from 0 to 14.7. Conclusion The theses were seldom written according to the principles of scientific communication and the proportion of actually published was small. The visibility of these theses and their dissemination to the scientific community should be improved.

  20. Medical theses as part of the scientific training in basic medical and dental education: experiences from Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Pentti; Sipilä, Kirsi; Takkinen, Hanna-Mari; Renko, Marjo; Risteli, Leila

    2007-12-05

    Teaching the principles of scientific research in a comprehensive way is important at medical and dental schools. In many countries medical and dental training is not complete until the candidate has presented a diploma thesis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nature, quality, publication pattern and visibility of Finnish medical diploma theses. A total of 256 diploma theses presented at the University of Oulu from 2001 to 2003 were analysed. Using a standardised questionnaire, we extracted several characteristics from each thesis. We used the name of the student to assess whether the thesis resulted in a scientific publication indexed in medical article databases. The number of citations received by each published thesis was also recorded. A high proportion of the theses (69.5%) were essentially statistical in character, often combined with an extensive literature review or the development of a laboratory method. Most of them were supervised by clinical departments (55.9%). Only 61 theses (23.8%) had been published in indexed scientific journals. Theses in the fields of biomedicine and diagnostics were published in more widely cited journals. The median number of citations received per year was 2.7 and the range from 0 to 14.7. The theses were seldom written according to the principles of scientific communication and the proportion of actually published was small. The visibility of these theses and their dissemination to the scientific community should be improved.

  1. Principles of safety pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugsley, M K; Authier, S; Curtis, M J

    2008-08-01

    Safety Pharmacology is a rapidly developing discipline that uses the basic principles of pharmacology in a regulatory-driven process to generate data to inform risk/benefit assessment. The aim of Safety Pharmacology is to characterize the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) relationship of a drug's adverse effects using continuously evolving methodology. Unlike toxicology, Safety Pharmacology includes within its remit a regulatory requirement to predict the risk of rare lethal events. This gives Safety Pharmacology its unique character. The key issues for Safety Pharmacology are detection of an adverse effect liability, projection of the data into safety margin calculation and finally clinical safety monitoring. This article sets out to explain the drivers for Safety Pharmacology so that the wider pharmacology community is better placed to understand the discipline. It concludes with a summary of principles that may help inform future resolution of unmet needs (especially establishing model validation for accurate risk assessment). Subsequent articles in this issue of the journal address specific aspects of Safety Pharmacology to explore the issues of model choice, the burden of proof and to highlight areas of intensive activity (such as testing for drug-induced rare event liability, and the challenge of testing the safety of so-called biologics (antibodies, gene therapy and so on.).

  2. Effects of drug pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties, characteristics of medication use, and relevant pharmacological interventions on fall risk in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Y

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ying Chen,1 Ling-Ling Zhu,2 Quan Zhou3 1Liaison Office of Geriatric VIP Patients, 2First Geriatric VIP Ward, Division of Nursing, 3Department of Pharmacy, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China Background: Falls among the elderly are an issue internationally and a public health problem that brings substantial economic and quality-of-life burdens to individuals and society. Falls prevention is an important measure of nursing quality and patient safety. Numerous studies have evaluated the association of medication use with fall risk in elderly patients. However, an up-to-date review has not been available to summarize the multifaceted pharmaceutical concerns in the prevention of medication-related falls. Materials and methods: Relevant literature was identified by performing searches in PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library, covering the period until February 2014. We included studies that described an association between medications and falls, and effects of drug pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties, characteristics of medication use, and pharmacological interventions on fall risk in elderly patients. The full text of each included article was critically reviewed, and data interpretation was performed. Results: Fall-risk-increasing drugs (FRIDs include central nervous system-acting agents, cough preparations, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-Alzheimer’s agents, antiplatelet agents, calcium antagonists, diuretics, α-blockers, digoxin, hypoglycemic drugs, neurotoxic chemotherapeutic agents, nasal preparations, and antiglaucoma ophthalmic preparations. The degree of medication-related fall risk was dependent on one or some of the following factors: drug pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties (eg, elimination half-life, metabolic pathway, genetic polymorphism, risk rating of medications despite belonging to the same therapeutic class and

  3. Basic and Advanced Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling With Applications in the Medical and Behavioral Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sik-Yum

    2012-01-01

    This book provides clear instructions to researchers on how to apply Structural Equation Models (SEMs) for analyzing the inter relationships between observed and latent variables. Basic and Advanced Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling introduces basic and advanced SEMs for analyzing various kinds of complex data, such as ordered and unordered categorical data, multilevel data, mixture data, longitudinal data, highly non-normal data, as well as some of their combinations. In addition, Bayesian semiparametric SEMs to capture the true distribution of explanatory latent variables are introduce

  4. Pharmacological Effects of Mangiferin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Zhi-quan; DENG Jia-gang; YAN Li

    2011-01-01

    Mango leaves have been widely used in the clinical practice for thousands of years in traditional Chinese medicine.Mangiferin,an effective constituent in the mango leaves,has multiple pharmacological actions involved in some basic pathological processes,such as inflammation,oxidative injury,tumor growth,micro-organism infections,metabolic regulations,and immunological regulations.The pharmacological effects of mangiferin from some published data are reviewed in this article.

  5. From basic science to future medical options for treatment of ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask-Madsen, J

    1997-01-01

    effects. Future medical options for treatment of UC aim at removing perpetuating antigens, blocking entry of inflammatory cells by manipulating adhesion molecules, targeting soluble mediators of inflammation by blocking proinflammatory molecules or by preserving endogenous suppressive molecules...

  6. Student Failures on First-Year Medical Basic Science Courses and the USMLE Step 1: A Retrospective Study over a 20-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, E. Robert; Garrett, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Correlates of achievement in the basic science years in medical school and on the Step 1 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE®), (Step 1) in relation to preadmission variables have been the subject of considerable study. Preadmissions variables such as the undergraduate grade point average (uGPA) and Medical College Admission…

  7. Teachers' Drug Reference: A Guide to Medical Conditions and Drugs Commonly Used in School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agins, Alan P.

    This book provides a guide to approximately 175 drugs used with children. An introduction precedes the three major sections of the guide. Section 1 provides an overview of pharmacology and therapeutics in chapters on the basics of pharmacology, the language of pharmacology and therapeutics, compliance, side effects, and medications in school.…

  8. Parent & Educators' Drug Reference: A Guide to Common Medical Conditions & Drugs Used in School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agins, Alan P.

    This book provides a guide to more than 180 drugs used for children. An introduction precedes the four major sections of the guide. Section 1 provides an overview of pharmacology and therapeutics in chapters on the basics of pharmacology, the language of pharmacology and therapeutics, compliance, side effects, medications in school, and drug…

  9. A Collaborative Project to Bridging the Gap between Basic and Clinical Teachers: The Opinion of Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Sentí

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The organization of medical curricula with a clear distinction between basic and clinical subjects makes it difficult for teachers to collaborate and teach students in an integrated way. We designed a new subject, Integrated Medicine, to overcome such limitations. Here, we describe the evaluation of the first three years of running the experience, as well as the opinion of the first group of students in their sixth year. Three cohorts of first-year medical students (n=158 and eight teachers, as well as a group of students of sixth year (n=41, participated in the experiment. Students worked following the problem-based learning approach. Their satisfaction, their subjective improvement of content knowledge in basic and clinical fields, and their belief about the accomplishment of educational objectives were evaluated. The results showed a high level of satisfaction, increased content knowledge, and improvement in solving problems, searching for relevant information, team working, and oral and written communication skills. Students of sixth year agreed that the subject helped them to better understand the clinical manifestations of disease, the diagnosis process, and therapeutic approaches. In conclusion, experiences such as Integrated Medicine may enhance the integration of knowledge by the joint work of basic and clinical teachers.

  10. Basic list of veterinary medical serials, third edition: using a decision matrix to update the core list of veterinary journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugaz, Ana G; Boyd, C. Trenton; Croft, Vicki F; Carrigan, Esther E; Anderson, Katherine M

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This paper presents the methods and results of a study designed to produce the third edition of the “Basic List of Veterinary Medical Serials,” which was established by the Veterinary Medical Libraries Section in 1976 and last updated in 1986. Methods: A set of 238 titles were evaluated using a decision matrix in order to systematically assign points for both objective and subjective criteria and determine an overall score for each journal. Criteria included: coverage in four major indexes, scholarly impact rank as tracked in two sources, identification as a recommended journal in preparing for specialty board examinations, and a veterinary librarian survey rating. Results: Of the 238 titles considered, a minimum scoring threshold determined the 123 (52%) journals that constituted the final list. The 36 subject categories represented on the list include general and specialty disciplines in veterinary medicine. A ranked list of journals and a list by subject category were produced. Conclusion: Serials appearing on the third edition of the “Basic List of Veterinary Medical Serials” met expanded objective measures of quality and impact as well as subjective perceptions of value by both librarians and veterinary practitioners. PMID:20936066

  11. Survey of medical student preference for simulation models for basic dermatologic surgery skills: simulation platforms in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Chad C; Marquart, Jason D; Nicholas, Luke L; Sperling, Leonard C; Meyerle, Jon H

    2014-04-01

    The authors investigated the use of simulator platforms in fourth-year medical student education. To evaluate which simulation platform students preferred for learning dermatologic procedures and to assess the effectiveness of the exercise in terms of the change in confidence that the students had performing dermatologic procedures. After medical students were instructed on how to perform a punch biopsy and then assisted in executing the task, they were surveyed to determine their preferred simulation platform and simulator properties. Students were surveyed at the beginning and completion of the teaching block. One hundred fifty-seven students completed the skills laboratory, and 78 completed the preference questionnaire. Of the 11 surveyed categories, students preferred the pig foot in eight categories. Seventy students responded to a surgical skills questionnaire that assessed their overall confidence in planning and executing the procedure before and after the skills laboratory. The students had a statistically significant increase in confidence in dermatologic procedural skills as a result of the activity. Preference data show that the pig foot model is preferred for teaching dermatologic surgical skills. These results re-affirm that the pig foot model is an effective, low-cost solution for training. © 2014 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Comparison between Training Models to Teach Veterinary Medical Students Basic Laparoscopic Surgery Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Ohad; Michelotti, Kurt; Schmidt, Peggy; Lagman, Minette; Fahie, Maria; Griffon, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two different laparoscopic training models in preparing veterinary students to perform basic laparoscopic skills. Sixteen first- and second-year veterinary students were randomly assigned to a box trainer (Group B) or tablet trainer (Group T). Training and assessment for both groups included two tasks, "peg transfer" and "pattern cutting," derived from the well-validated McGill University Inanimate System for Training and Evaluation of Laparoscopic Skills. Confidence levels were compared by evaluating pre- and post-training questionnaires. Performance of laparoscopic tasks was scored pre- and post-training using a rubric for precision and speed. Results revealed a significant improvement in student confidence for basic laparoscopic skills (p<.05) and significantly higher scores for both groups in both laparoscopic tasks (p<.05). No significant differences were found between the groups regarding their assessment of the video quality, lighting, and simplicity of setup (p=.34, p=.15, and p=.43, respectively). In conclusion, the low-cost tablet trainer and the more expensive box trainer were similarly effective in preparing pre-clinical veterinary students to perform basic laparoscopic skills on a model.

  13. Changing educational needs of psychologists: do we need more medical knowledge, basic science and more psychological science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belar, Cynthia D

    2008-03-01

    Psychologists of the 21st century must be highly skilled and versatile to function effectively in academic health centers (AHCs). Thus, the current paper focuses on the training psychologists receive to prepare them for their diverse roles in AHCs. The paper is framed around the question: Do we need more medical knowledge, basic science and more psychological science? posed to the author by the conference organizers of the 3rd National Association of Psychologists in Academic Health Centers (APAHC) Conference and is based on the perspective of the author.

  14. Study on Reform of Basic Pharmacology Teaching in Local Applied Undergraduate College%应用型本科院校基础药理学教学改革探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟伟; 史建俊

    2016-01-01

    Starting from the demand of society for applied talents, on the basis of analyzing the current situation of basic pharmacology teaching for pharmaceutical engineering in applied undergraduate colleges, the exploration of basic pharmacology theory teaching was done in optimizing of the teaching content, reformation of the teaching method, improvement of the curriculum evaluation system and other aspects to promote cultivation of students' innovation ability and the practical application ability.%从社会对应用型人才的需求出发,在分析当前应用型本科院校制药工程专业基础药理学教学现状的基础上,对基础药理学理论教学进行了优化教学内容、改革课堂教学方法、完善课程考核制度等方面的探索,促进了学生创新能力和专业实践应用能力的培养.

  15. Educational Status of Dental Basic Science Course and its Correlation with Students' Educational Background in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozafar Khazaei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Basic science course plays a pivotal role in the academic achievement of the students. The scientific background and educational performance of the students are also influential in this period. The aim of the present study was to investigate the educational status of dental basic science course in the first three admissions (2009-2011 and its association with students’ educational background in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (KUMS. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, all dental students admitted to school of dentistry in 2009-2011 years were included. The students’ academic background (scores, grade point average, score of comprehensive basic sciences examination (CBSE were recorded. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and independent t-test. Results: Kermanshah dental students admitted to university in 2009-2011 were mostly female (59.2%, belonged to regions 2 and 3 (81.6% of university entrance exam, had sciences diploma (89.8% and their grade point average of diploma was nearly 18. There was a significant difference between the three groups of students admitted to university in Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics, Arabic, English language and Theology lessones of entrane exam (P<0.05. The students’ failure rate was 1.5% in university coureses. They all (100% passed CBSE and were ranked second nationally in the year. There was no significant difference between male and female students in terms of age, diploma grade point average, grade point average of basic sciences and score of CBSE. Conclusion: Basic science courses of dentistry in Kermanshah enjoyed a rather constant status and students had a good academic level in these courses.

  16. The Analysis of Learning Styles and Their Relationship to Academic Achievement in Medical Students of Basic Sciences Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ghaffari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Learning style is an individual’s preferred method of encountering information in specific situations in order to acquire knowledge, skills and attitudes through study or experience. Students and Planers’ awareness of learning styles facilitate the teaching process, increases satisfaction and makes the future choices easier. This study aimed to examine different learning styles and their relation to academic achievement in medical students of basic sciences program at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: In this descriptive – analytical study, the sample consisted of all medical students of basic sciences program at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in 2011-2012. The data was collected through a questionnaire which included respondents’ demographic information and overall grade point average (GPA as well as Kolb standard questions on learning styles. Results: 4.3%, 47.8%, 44.9% and 2.9% of students preferred diverger, assimilator, converger and accommodator learning styles, respectively. Mean overall GPA of students who preferred diverger learning styles was 14.990.39±. Students who prefer assimilator, converger and accommodator learning styles had mean overall GPAs of 14.940.56±, 15.080.58± and 14.830.29± respectively. The findings showed no significant relationship between students’ learning academic achievement and their learning styles (p = 0.689. Conclusion: There was no significant relationship between Students’ academic achievement and their learning styles. Furthermore, the majorit of the students preferred accommodator and converger learning styles. Consequently, adopting interactive teaching methods, using tutorials, running simulation programs, launching laboratory activities and encouraging students to think and analyze problems and issues can be greatly effective in prolonging their learning lifecycle.

  17. A manifesto for clinical pharmacology from principles to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Jeffrey K

    2010-07-01

    1. This is a manifesto for UK clinical pharmacology. 2. A clinical pharmacologist is a medically qualified practitioner who teaches, does research, frames policy, and gives information and advice about the actions and proper uses of medicines in humans and implements that knowledge in clinical practice. Those without medical qualifications who practise some aspect of clinical pharmacology could be described as, say, 'applied pharmacologists'. 3. Clinical pharmacology is operationally defined as a translational discipline in terms of the basic tools of human pharmacology (e.g. receptor pharmacology) and applied pharmacology (e.g. pharmacokinetics) and how they are used in drug discovery and development and in solving practical therapeutic problems in individuals and populations. 4. Clinical pharmacologists are employed by universities, health-care services, private organizations (such as drug companies), and regulatory agencies. They are mentors and teachers, teaching laboratory science, clinical science, and all aspects of practical drug therapy as underpinned by the science of pharmacology; they write and edit didactic and reference texts; researchers, covering research described by the operational definition; clinicians, practising general medicine, clinical toxicology, other medical specialties, and general practice; policy makers, framing local, national, and international medicines policy, including formularies, licensing of medicines and prescribing policies. 5. The future of clinical pharmacology depends on the expansion and maintenance of a central core of practitioners (employed by universities or health-care services), training clinical pharmacologists to practise in universities, health-care services, private organizations, and regulatory agencies, and training other clinicians in the principles and practice of clinical pharmacology.

  18. Let Basic Medical Insurance Reach Every Citizen——A showcase city in east China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN CHUN'AN

    2007-01-01

    @@ EDITOR'S NOTE: On July 24, 2007, Premier Wen Jiabao announced at a meeting in Beijing that China is working hard to build a comprehensive,government-financed system of medical insurance that covers all citizens in cities. What does this mean for the average Chinese? What is being done to build this projected system? We hope that the report printed here may answer these questions.

  19. Awareness, Attitude, and Knowledge of Basic Life Support among Medical, Dental, and Nursing Faculties and Students in the University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangamesh, N C; Vidya, K C; Pathi, Jugajyoti; Singh, Arpita

    2017-01-01

    To assess the awareness, attitude, and knowledge about basic life support (BLS) among medical, dental, and nursing students and faculties and the proposal of BLS skills in the academic curriculum of undergraduate (UG) course. Recognition, prevention, and effective management of life-threatening emergencies are the responsibility of health-care professionals. These situations can be successfully managed by proper knowledge and training of the BLS skills. These life-saving maneuvers can be given through the structured resuscitation programs, which are lacking in the academic curriculum. A questionnaire study consisting of 20 questions was conducted among 659 participants in the Kalinga Institute of Dental Sciences, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, KIIT University. Medical junior residents, BDS faculties, interns, nursing faculties, and 3(rd)-year and final-year UG students from both medical and dental colleges were chosen. The statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS software version 20.0 (Armonk, NY:IBM Corp). After collecting the data, the values were statistically analyzed and tabulated. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney U-test. The results with P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Our participants were aware of BLS, showed positive attitude toward it, whereas the knowledge about BLS was lacking, with the statistically significant P value. By introducing BLS regularly in the academic curriculum and by routine hands on workshops, all the health-care providers should be well versed with the BLS skills for effectively managing the life-threatening emergencies.

  20. Interactive videodisc and compact disc-interactive for ophthalmic basic science and continuing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folberg, R; Dickinson, L K; Christiansen, R A; Huntley, J S; Lind, D G

    1993-06-01

    The authors designed and implemented a complete curriculum in ophthalmic pathology using IBM- and Macintosh-based interactive videodisc (IVD) technology. They also redesigned a portion of this curriculum for a new television-based platform, compact disc-interactive (CD-I). The following issues were addressed: curriculum design, instructional design, the assembly of illustrations and the ownership of such materials, the generation of computer-based medical art and animation, and programming. The issue of academic credit for faculty participating in this effort also was considered. The computer-based IVD program provides the following features: (1) rapid access to thousands of high-quality illustrations with the option of superimposing graphic labels and text directly over pictures; (2) the ability to view enlargements of photographs; (3) an online glossary to view definition of terms coupled with high-quality photographs; and (4) a dynamic introduction to pathophysiology using interactive animation sequences. The authors were able to incorporate the same interactive features into the CD-I version. High-quality medical illustrations can be used effectively on the CD-I platform. Computer-based multimedia workstations are relatively expensive for personal use but may be useful if the equipment can be shared in a learning center or library. Compared with interactive computer-based solutions, consumer-oriented television-based technology such as CD-I is a relatively inexpensive vehicle for providing continuing medical education programs intended for use in the individual practitioner's office or home.

  1. The influence of regional basic science campuses on medical students' choice of specialty and practice location: a historical cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brokaw James J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indiana University School of Medicine (IUSM employs eight regional basic science campuses, where half of the students complete their first two years of medical school. The other half complete all four years at the main campus in Indianapolis. The authors tested the hypothesis that training at regional campuses influences IUSM students to pursue primary care careers near the regional campuses they attended. Methods Medical school records for 2,487 graduates (classes of 1988–1997 were matched to the 2003 American Medical Association Physician Masterfile to identify the medical specialty and practice location of each graduate. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess the effect of regional campus attendance on students' choice of medical specialty and practice location, while simultaneously adjusting for several covariates thought to affect these career outcomes. Results Compared to Indianapolis students, those who attended a regional campus were somewhat more likely to be white, have parents with middle class occupations, and score slightly lower on the Medical College Admission Test. Any such differences were adjusted for in the regression models, which predicted that four of the regional campuses were significantly more likely than Indianapolis to produce family practitioners, and that five of the regional campuses were significantly more likely than the others to have former students practicing in the region. When analyzed collectively, attendance at any regional campus was a significant predictor of a primary care practice located outside the Indianapolis metropolitan area. Conclusion Attending a regional campus for preclinical training appears to increase the likelihood of practicing primary care medicine in local communities.

  2. The pharmacology of psilocybin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passie, Torsten; Seifert, Juergen; Schneider, Udo; Emrich, Hinderk M

    2002-10-01

    Psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine) is the major psychoactive alkaloid of some species of mushrooms distributed worldwide. These mushrooms represent a growing problem regarding hallucinogenic drug abuse. Despite its experimental medical use in the 1960s, only very few pharmacological data about psilocybin were known until recently. Because of its still growing capacity for abuse and the widely dispersed data this review presents all the available pharmacological data about psilocybin.

  3. Pharmacology of Periodontal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    k 7RD-A157 116 PHARMRCOLOGY’ OF PERIODONTAL DISEASE(U) UNIVERSITY OF i/ I HEALTH SCIENCES/CHICAGO MEDICAL SCHOOL DEPT OF I PHARMACOLOGY S F HOFF 24...Region Bethesda, MD 20814-5044 • .RE: Annual Letter Report , ONR Contract #N00014-84-K-0562 "Pharmacology of Periodontal Disease" Dear Capt. Hancock...Annual Letter Report ONR Contract #N00014-84-K-0562 1,! t "Pharmacology of Periodontal Disease" f Steven F. Hoff, Ph.D. (Principal Investigator) A

  4. Survey of basic medical researchers on the awareness of animal experimental designs and reporting standards in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia-ke; Wu, Wen-jing; Liu, Hong-yan; Kou, Cheng-kun; Liu, Na; Zhao, Lulu

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the awareness and use of the Systematic Review Center for Laboratory Animal Experimentation’s (SYRCLE) risk-of-bias tool, the Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) reporting guidelines, and Gold Standard Publication Checklist (GSPC) in China in basic medical researchers of animal experimental studies. Methods A national questionnaire-based survey targeting basic medical researchers was carried in China to investigate the basic information and awareness of SYRCLE’s risk of bias tool, ARRIVE guidelines, GSPC, and animal experimental bias risk control factors. The EpiData3.1 software was used for data entry, and Microsoft Excel 2013 was used for statistical analysis in this study. The number of cases (n) and percentage (%) of classified information were statistically described, and the comparison between groups (i.e., current students vs. research staff) was performed using chi-square test. Results A total of 298 questionnaires were distributed, and 272 responses were received, which included 266 valid questionnaires (from 118 current students and 148 research staff). Among the 266 survey participants, only 15.8% was aware of the SYRCLE’s risk of bias tool, with significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.003), and the awareness rates of ARRIVE guidelines and GSPC were only 9.4% and 9.0%, respectively; 58.6% survey participants believed that the reports of animal experimental studies in Chinese literature were inadequate, with significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.004). In addition, only approximately 1/3 of the survey participants had read systematic reviews and meta-analysis reports of animal experimental studies; only 16/266 (6.0%) had carried out/participated in and 11/266 (4.1%) had published systematic reviews/meta-analysis of animal experimental studies. Conclusions The awareness and use rates of SYRCLE’s risk-of-bias tool, the ARRIVE guidelines, and the GSPC were low among Chinese

  5. Pharmacology of “Four speaking” Teaching Design in Adult higher Medical Education%成人高等医学教育药理学“四讲”教学设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许爱华

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the teaching quality of adult higher medical education, the author uses the “four teaching” design in the teaching method of Pharmacology. The “four teaching” design are explained in detail the general pharmacology section, focus on the pharmacological mechanism, compared on the similarities and differences between knowledge of Pharmacology, brielfy explain the pharmacological knowledge.%为了进一步提高成人高等医学教育教学质量,笔者在药理学教学方法方面采用了“四讲”教学设计,即药理总论详细讲,作用机制重点讲,异同归类对比讲,易懂内容概括讲,取得了很好的效果。

  6. [Proper patient counseling, recommended nutrition, specific medication. The basics of irritable bowel syndrome therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliegner-Baia, M; Keller, J; Layer, P

    2002-10-17

    In the treatment of the irritable bowel syndrome, it is important to qualify unrealistic expectations with regard to treatment, at an early stage. The therapeutic spectrum encompasses establishment of good rapport between physician and patient, modification of life style, provision of good patient information, reassurance, coping strategies, and temporal restraints on medication. Depending on the leading symptoms, the latter may range from laxatives to probiotics, anticholinergics or spasmolytics, prokinetic and anti-diarrheal agents, to 5-HT3/HT4 receptor antagonists. In individual patients with frequently recurrent or permanent pain, the use of tricyclic antidepressants may be considered. Painkillers should be reserved for patients in whom other therapeutic strategies have failed.

  7. Implementation of the WHO-6-step method in the medical curriculum to improve pharmacology knowledge and pharmacotherapy skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, Carolina J P W; Segers, Wieke S; de Wildt, Dick J; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; Keijsers, L.G.M.T.; Jansen, Paul A F

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The only validated tool for pharmacotherapy education for medical students is the 6-step method of the World Health Organization. It has proven effective in experimental studies with short term interventions. The generalizability of this effect after implementation in a contextual-rich medical

  8. Implementation of the WHO-6-step method in the medical curriculum to improve pharmacology knowledge and pharmacotherapy skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, Carolina J P W; Segers, Wieke S.; De Wildt, Dick J.; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; Keijsers, Loes; Jansen, Paul A F

    2015-01-01

    Aim The only validated tool for pharmacotherapy education for medical students is the 6-step method of the World Health Organization. It has proven effective in experimental studies with short term interventions. The generalizability of this effect after implementation in a contextual-rich medical c

  9. Teaching the basics of redox biology to medical and graduate students: Oxidants, antioxidants and disease mechanisms☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanaraman, Balaraman

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a succinct but limited overview of the protective and deleterious effects of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in a clinical context. Reactive oxygen species include superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, single oxygen and lipid peroxides. Reactive nitrogen species include species derived from nitric oxide. This review gives a brief overview of the reaction chemistry of these species, the role of various enzymes involved in the generation and detoxification of these species in disease mechanisms and drug toxicity and the protective role of dietary antioxidants. I hope that the graphical review will be helpful for teaching both the first year medical and graduate students in the U.S. and abroad the fundamentals of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in redox biology and clinical medicine. PMID:24024158

  10. Gastrointestinal Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saps, Miguel; Miranda, Adrian

    2017-02-25

    There is little evidence for most of the medications currently used to treat functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPDs) in children. Not only are there very few clinical trials, but also most have significant variability in the methods used and outcomes measured. Thus, the decision on the most appropriate pharmacological treatment is frequently based on adult studies or empirical data. In children, peppermint oil, trimebutine, and drotaverine have shown significant benefit compared with placebo, each of them in a single randomized clinical trial. A small study found that cyproheptadine was beneficial in the treatment of FAPDs in children. There are conflicting data regarding amitriptyline. While one small study found a significant benefit in quality of life compared with placebo, a large multicenter study found no benefit compared with placebo. The antidepressant, citalopram, failed to meet the primary outcomes in intention-to-treat and per-protocol analysis. Rifaximin has been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of adults with IBS. Those findings differ from studies in children where no benefit was found compared to placebo. To date, there are no placebo-controlled trials published on the use of linaclotide or lubiprostone in children. Alpha 2 delta ligands such as gabapentin and pregabalin are sometimes used in the care of this group of children, but no clinical trials are available in children with FAPDs. Similarly, novel drugs that have been approved for the care of irritable bowel with diarrhea in adults such as eluxadoline have yet to be studied in children.

  11. Basic steps in establishing effective small group teaching sessions in medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub

    2013-07-01

    Small-group teaching and learning has achieved an admirable position in medical education and has become more popular as a means of encouraging the students in their studies and enhance the process of deep learning. The main characteristics of small group teaching are active involvement of the learners in entire learning cycle and well defined task orientation with achievable specific aims and objectives in a given time period. The essential components in the development of an ideal small group teaching and learning sessions are preliminary considerations at departmental and institutional level including educational strategies, group composition, physical environment, existing resources, diagnosis of the needs, formulation of the objectives and suitable teaching outline. Small group teaching increases the student interest, teamwork ability, retention of knowledge and skills, enhance transfer of concepts to innovative issues, and improve the self-directed learning. It develops self-motivation, investigating the issues, allows the student to test their thinking and higher-order activities. It also facilitates an adult style of learning, acceptance of personal responsibility for own progress. Moreover, it enhances student-faculty and peer-peer interaction, improves communication skills and provides opportunity to share the responsibility and clarify the points of bafflement.

  12. 2013 Pharmacology Risk SRP Status Review Comments to Chief Scientist. The Risk of Clinically Relevant Unpredicted Effects of Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    On December 5, 2013, the Pharmacology Risk SRP, participants from the JSC, HQ, the NSBRI, and NRESS participated in a WebEx/teleconference. The purpose of the call (as stated in the Statement of Task) was to allow the SRP members to: 1. Receive an update by the HRP Chief Scientist or Deputy Chief Scientist on the status of NASA's current and future exploration plans and the impact these will have on the HRP. 2. Receive an update on any changes within the HRP since the 2012 SRP meeting. 3. Receive an update by the Element or Project Scientist(s) on progress since the 2012 SRP meeting. 4. Participate in a discussion with the HRP Chief Scientist, Deputy Chief Scientist, and the Element regarding possible topics to be addressed at the next SRP meeting.

  13. Application of a Static Fluorescence-based Cytometer (the CellScan in Basic Cytometric Studies, Clinical Pharmacology, Oncology and Clinical Immunology

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    Michal Harel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The CellScan apparatus is a laser scanning cytometer enabling repetitive fluorescence intensity (FI and polarization (FP measurements in living cells, as a means of monitoring lymphocyte activation. The CellScan may serve as a tool for diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE as well as other autoimmune diseases by monitoring FP changes in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs following exposure to autoantigenic stimuli. Changes in FI and FP in atherosclerotic patients' PBLs following exposure to various stimuli have established the role of the immune system in atherosclerotic disease. The CellScan has been evaluated as a diagnostic tool for drug-allergy, based on FP reduction in PBLs following incubation with allergenic drugs. FI and FP changes in cancer cells have been found to be well correlated with the cytotoxic effect of anti-neoplastic drugs. In conclusion, the CellScan has a variety of applications in cell biology, immunology, cancer research and clinical pharmacology.

  14. Contextualizing the relevance of basic sciences: small-group simulation with debrief for first- and second-year medical students in an integrated curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Samara B; Brenner, Judith; Cassara, Michael; Kwiatkowski, Thomas; Willey, Joanne M

    2017-01-01

    There has been a call for increased integration of basic and clinical sciences during preclinical years of undergraduate medical education. Despite the recognition that clinical simulation is an effective pedagogical tool, little has been reported on its use to demonstrate the relevance of basic science principles to the practice of clinical medicine. We hypothesized that simulation with an integrated science and clinical debrief used with early learners would illustrate the importance of basic science principles in clinical diagnosis and management of patients. Small groups of first- and second-year medical students were engaged in a high-fidelity simulation followed by a comprehensive debrief facilitated by a basic scientist and clinician. Surveys including anchored and open-ended questions were distributed at the conclusion of each experience. The majority of the students agreed that simulation followed by an integrated debrief illustrated the clinical relevance of basic sciences (mean ± standard deviation: 93.8% ± 2.9% of first-year medical students; 96.7% ± 3.5% of second-year medical students) and its importance in patient care (92.8% of first-year medical students; 90.4% of second-year medical students). In a thematic analysis of open-ended responses, students felt that these experiences provided opportunities for direct application of scientific knowledge to diagnosis and treatment, improving student knowledge, simulating real-world experience, and developing clinical reasoning, all of which specifically helped them understand the clinical relevance of basic sciences. Small-group simulation followed by a debrief that integrates basic and clinical sciences is an effective means of demonstrating the relationship between scientific fundamentals and patient care for early learners. As more medical schools embrace integrated curricula and seek opportunities for integration, our model is a novel approach that can be utilized.

  15. Contextualizing the relevance of basic sciences: small-group simulation with debrief for first- and second-year medical students in an integrated curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Samara B; Brenner, Judith; Cassara, Michael; Kwiatkowski, Thomas; Willey, Joanne M

    2017-01-01

    Aim There has been a call for increased integration of basic and clinical sciences during preclinical years of undergraduate medical education. Despite the recognition that clinical simulation is an effective pedagogical tool, little has been reported on its use to demonstrate the relevance of basic science principles to the practice of clinical medicine. We hypothesized that simulation with an integrated science and clinical debrief used with early learners would illustrate the importance of basic science principles in clinical diagnosis and management of patients. Methods Small groups of first- and second-year medical students were engaged in a high-fidelity simulation followed by a comprehensive debrief facilitated by a basic scientist and clinician. Surveys including anchored and open-ended questions were distributed at the conclusion of each experience. Results The majority of the students agreed that simulation followed by an integrated debrief illustrated the clinical relevance of basic sciences (mean ± standard deviation: 93.8% ± 2.9% of first-year medical students; 96.7% ± 3.5% of second-year medical students) and its importance in patient care (92.8% of first-year medical students; 90.4% of second-year medical students). In a thematic analysis of open-ended responses, students felt that these experiences provided opportunities for direct application of scientific knowledge to diagnosis and treatment, improving student knowledge, simulating real-world experience, and developing clinical reasoning, all of which specifically helped them understand the clinical relevance of basic sciences. Conclusion Small-group simulation followed by a debrief that integrates basic and clinical sciences is an effective means of demonstrating the relationship between scientific fundamentals and patient care for early learners. As more medical schools embrace integrated curricula and seek opportunities for integration, our model is a novel approach that can be utilized

  16. The Potential Use of Intrauterine Insemination as a Basic Option for Infertility: A Review for Technology-Limited Medical Settings

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    Abdelrahman M. Abdelkader

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. There is an asymmetric allocation of technology and other resources for infertility services. Intrauterine insemination (IUI is a process of placing washed spermatozoa transcervically into the uterine cavity for treatment of infertility. This is a review of literature for the potential use of IUI as a basic infertility treatment in technology-limited settings. Study design. Review of articles on treatment of infertility using IUI. Results. Aspects regarding the use of IUI are reviewed, including ovarian stimulation, semen parameters associated with good outcomes, methods of sperm preparation, timing of IUI, and number of inseminations. Implications of the finding in light of the needs of low-technology medical settings are summarized. Conclusion. The reviewed evidence suggests that IUI is less expensive, less invasive, and comparably effective for selected patients as a first-line treatment for couples with unexplained or male factor infertility. Those couples may be offered three to six IUI cycles in technology-limited settings.

  17. Changes in blood pressure classification, blood pressure goals and pharmacological treatment of essential hypertension in medical guidelines from 2003 to 2013

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    Tam Minh Tran

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss differences in pharmacological treatment through a period of 10 years from 2003 to 2013. Hypertension treatment faces many challenges because of patients' unawareness and adherence, clinical inertia, as well as rapid availability of new medical literature and trials. Since 2003, JNC 7 was published at nearly the same time with ESC/ESH Guidelines and WHO/ISH Statement on management of hypertension [1–3]. However, these guidelines are not homogenous in pharmacological therapy approach. Moreover, during the 10 years since 2003, many new large trials, data, and updated guidelines have resolved some main controversial problems in blood pressure (BP goals in separate risk-categorized patients, levels of BP for initial antihypertensive therapy, choice of drugs in monotherapy, indication for drug combinations, and preferred combinations for special cases. The latest updated guidelines on hypertension treatment, 2013 ESC/ESH Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension, not only contain significant changes in the abovementioned problems, but also raise some new questions for the future research [4].

  18. Pharmacology exercise for undergraduate: MLNMC model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh C. Chaurasia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacology is the backbone of clinical discipline of medical science. In the computer era of advancement, paraclinical teachings become more technical and clinical oriented. Regarding to undergraduate practical’s the animal experimentation and dispensing pharmacy are only exercises. But these are matter of critics due to their non-utility in future. Student’s apathy and non-interest are hidden factor to perform such boring experiments. Meanwhile the old-dated exercises have no potential to tone-up adequate clinical skills in future study instead of wastage of time and money. Killing of innocent animals is crucial and should be socially discouraged. Thus Pharmacology practical are matter of debate in current scenario. Being attachment with past sentiment of traditional dispensing pharmacy and animal experimentations, they are difficult to delete completely. The present article highlights some of our efforts in undergraduate exercises. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(4.000: 495-497

  19. Animal laboratory, interactive and computer based learning, in enhancing basic concepts in physiology: an outlook of 481 undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Najla; Khawar, Shireen; Qutab, Miraa; Ayub, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory exercises are intended to illustrate concepts and add an active learning component to courses. Since 1980s, there has been a decline in animal laboratories in medical physiology courses. Other cost-effective non-aninmal alternatives are being sought. The present study was designed to find out the students' opinion regarding the animal versus computer lab and whether innovative teaching methodologies helped students achieve their goals. Opinions of 481 female in medical students of 2nd and 3rd year MBBS were included in the study. A questionnaire based on animal/computer based experiments and new teaching methodologies in physiology was voluntarily filled in by the students. Majority of students immensely benefited from both the animal lab and other teaching methodologies. Although computer based learning is considered effective in helping students acquire basic concepts, there is evidence that some students acquire a more thorough understanding of the material through more advanced and challenging experience of an animal laboratory. The fact that such labs as well various teaching methods offer distinct educational advantages should be taken into account when courses are designed.

  20. Attitude of medical students towards the use of audio visual aids during didactic lectures in pharmacology in a medical college of central India

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    Mehul Agrawal

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: In our study we found that students preferred mixture of audio visual aids over other teaching methods. Teachers should consider the suggestions given by the students while preparing their lectures. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(2.000: 416-422

  1. Professional fulfillment and parenting work-life balance in female physicians in Basic Sciences and medical research: a nationwide cross-sectional survey of all 80 medical schools in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yuka; Uka, Takanori; Marui, Eiji

    2017-09-15

    In Japan, the field of Basic Sciences encompasses clinical, academic, and translational research, as well as the teaching of medical sciences, with both an MD and PhD typically required. In this study, it was hypothesized that the characteristics of a Basic Sciences career path could offer the professional advancement and personal fulfillment that many female medical doctors would find advantageous. Moreover, encouraging interest in Basic Sciences could help stem shortages that Japan is experiencing in medical fields, as noted in the three principal contributing factors: premature resignation of female clinicians, an imbalance of female physicians engaged in research, and a shortage of medical doctors in the Basic Sciences. This study examines the professional and personal fulfillment expressed by Japanese female medical doctors who hold positions in Basic Sciences. Topics include career advancement, interest in medical research, and greater flexibility for parenting. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was distributed at all 80 medical schools in Japan, directed to 228 female medical doctors whose academic rank was assistant professor or higher in departments of Basic Sciences in 2012. Chi-square tests and the binary logistic regression model were used to investigate the impact of parenthood on career satisfaction, academic rank, salary, etc. The survey response rate of female physicians in Basic Sciences was 54.0%. Regardless of parental status, one in three respondents cited research interest as their rationale for entering Basic Sciences, well over twice other motivations. A majority had clinical experience, with clinical duties maintained part-time by about half of respondents and particularly parents. Only one third expressed afterthoughts about relinquishing full-time clinical practice, with physicians who were parents expressing stronger regrets. Parental status had little effect on academic rank and income within the Basic Sciences, CONCLUSION

  2. Pharmacological management of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Amanda; Apovian, Caroline M

    2017-04-28

    Current management of obesity includes three main arms: behavioral modification, pharmacologic therapy, and bariatric surgery. Decades prior, the only pharmacological agents available to treat obesity were approved only for short-term use (≤ 12 weeks) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, in the last several years, the FDA has approved several medications for longer term treatment of obesity. This highlights the important progression that we, as a society, better appreciate now the chronicity and complexity of obesity as a disease. Also, availability of more medication options gives healthcare providers more possibilities to consider in the management of obesity. Medications for obesity can be simply categorized as FDA approved short-term use (diethylproprion, phendimetrazine, benzphetamine, and phentermine) and long-term use (orlistat, phentermine/topiramate ER, lorcaserin, naltrexone/bupropion ER and liraglutide). Additionally, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is commonly seen in patients with obesity and necessitates consideration of pharmacological options that do not hinder patients' weight loss. Finally, weight-centric prescribing is also an important component to pharmacological management of obesity. It warrants that healthcare providers thoroughly review their patients' medication lists to determine if any of these agents could be contributing to weight gain.

  3. PhTX-II a Basic Myotoxic Phospholipase A2 from Porthidium hyoprora Snake Venom, Pharmacological Characterization and Amino Acid Sequence by Mass Spectrometry

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    Salomón Huancahuire-Vega

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A monomeric basic PLA2 (PhTX-II of 14149.08 Da molecular weight was purified to homogeneity from Porthidium hyoprora venom. Amino acid sequence by in tandem mass spectrometry revealed that PhTX-II belongs to Asp49 PLA2 enzyme class and displays conserved domains as the catalytic network, Ca2+-binding loop and the hydrophobic channel of access to the catalytic site, reflected in the high catalytic activity displayed by the enzyme. Moreover, PhTX-II PLA2 showed an allosteric behavior and its enzymatic activity was dependent on Ca2+. Examination of PhTX-II PLA2 by CD spectroscopy indicated a high content of alpha-helical structures, similar to the known structure of secreted phospholipase IIA group suggesting a similar folding. PhTX-II PLA2 causes neuromuscular blockade in avian neuromuscular preparations with a significant direct action on skeletal muscle function, as well as, induced local edema and myotoxicity, in mice. The treatment of PhTX-II by BPB resulted in complete loss of their catalytic activity that was accompanied by loss of their edematogenic effect. On the other hand, enzymatic activity of PhTX-II contributes to this neuromuscular blockade and local myotoxicity is dependent not only on enzymatic activity. These results show that PhTX-II is a myotoxic Asp49 PLA2 that contributes with toxic actions caused by P. hyoprora venom.

  4. Pharmacological interventions for adolescents and adults with ADHD: stimulant and nonstimulant medications and misuse of prescription stimulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyandt, Lisa L; Oster, Danielle R; Marraccini, Marisa E; Gudmundsdottir, Bergljot Gyda; Munro, Bailey A; Zavras, Brynheld Martinez; Kuhar, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that cause functional impairment. Recent research indicates that symptoms persist into adulthood in the majority of cases, with prevalence estimates of approximately 5% in the school age population and 2.5%-4% in the adult population. Although students with ADHD are at greater risk for academic underachievement and psychosocial problems, increasing numbers of students with ADHD are graduating from high school and pursuing higher education. Stimulant medications are considered the first line of pharmacotherapy for individuals with ADHD, including college students. Although preliminary evidence indicates that prescription stimulants are safe and effective for college students with ADHD when used as prescribed, very few controlled studies have been conducted concerning the efficacy of prescription stimulants with college students. In addition, misuse of prescription stimulants has become a serious problem on college campuses across the US and has been recently documented in other countries as well. The purpose of the present systematic review was to investigate the efficacy of prescription stimulants for adolescents and young adults with ADHD and the nonmedical use and misuse of prescription stimulants. Results revealed that both prostimulant and stimulant medications, including lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, methylphenidate, amphetamines, and mixed-amphetamine salts, are effective at reducing ADHD symptoms in adolescents and adults with ADHD. Findings also suggest that individuals with ADHD may have higher rates of stimulant misuse than individuals without the disorder, and characteristics such as sex, race, use of illicit drugs, and academic performance are associated with misuse of stimulant medications. Results also indicate that individuals both with and without ADHD are more likely to misuse short-acting agents

  5. A study of the academic performance of medical students in the comprehensive examination of the basic sciences according to the indices of emotional intelligence and educational status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslehi, Mohsen; Samouei, Rahele; Tayebani, Tayebeh; Kolahduz, Sima

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considering the increasing importance of emotional intelligence (EI) in different aspects of life, such as academic achievement, the present survey is aimed to predict academic performance of medical students in the comprehensive examination of the basic sciences, according to the indices of emotional intelligence and educational status. Materials and Methods: The present survey is a descriptive, analytical, and cross-sectional study performed on the medical students of Isfahan, Tehran, and Mashhad Universities of Medical Sciences. Sampling the universities was performed randomly after which selecting the students was done, taking into consideration the limitation in their numbers. Based on the inclusion criteria, all the medical students, entrance of 2005, who had attended the comprehensive basic sciences examination in 2008, entered the study. The data collection tools included an Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (standardized in Isfahan), the average score of the first to fifth semesters, total average of each of the five semesters, and the grade of the comprehensive basic sciences examination. The data were analyzed through stepwise regression coefficient by SPSS software version 15. Results: The results indicated that the indicators of independence from an emotional intelligence test and average scores of the first and third academic semesters were significant in predicting the students’ academic performance in the comprehensive basic sciences examination. Conclusion: According to the obtained results, the average scores of students, especially in the earlier semesters, as well as the indicators of independence and the self-esteem rate of students can influence their success in the comprehensive basic sciences examination. PMID:26430693

  6. Healthspan Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mahtab

    2015-12-01

    The main goal of this paper is to present the case for shifting the focus of research on aging and anti-aging from lifespan pharmacology to what I like to call healthspan pharmacology, in which the desired outcome is the extension of healthy years of life rather than lifespan alone. Lifespan could be influenced by both genetic and epigenetic factors, but a long lifespan may not be a good indicator of an optimal healthspan. Without improving healthspan, prolonging longevity would have enormous negative socioeconomic outcomes for humans. Therefore, the goal of aging and anti-aging research should be to add healthy years to life and not merely to increase the chronological age. This article summarizes and compares two categories of pharmacologically induced lifespan extension studies in animal model systems from the last two decades-those reporting the effects of pharmacological interventions on lifespan extension alone versus others that include their effects on both lifespan and healthspan in the analysis. The conclusion is that the extrapolation of pharmacological results from animal studies to humans is likely to be more relevant when both lifespan and healthspan extension properties of pharmacological intervention are taken into account.

  7. Development of the Basic Knowledge Assessment Tool for Medical-Surgical Nursing (MED-SURG BKAT) © and implications for in-service educators and managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Jean

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND OF THE PROBLEM: Medical-surgical nursing is now the largest specialty in acute care, and needs an objective measure of basic knowledge necessary to provide safe care to patients. The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations noted that healthcare organizations have in the past relied on education and experience to support competence, but an increasing number are seeking objective measures of a nurse's knowledge that is required for safe practice. The American Nurses Association adds that safe practice is both a professional and a moral responsibility. A review of the literature failed to locate a standardized test of basic knowledge in medical-surgical nursing. In-service educators and managers need such a test to facilitate orientation programs, and as a way to safely decrease the length of orientation for new employees with previous experience in medical-surgical nursing. The purpose of the study was to develop a valid and reliable test to measure basic knowledge in medical-surgical nursing. The Basic Knowledge Assessment Tool for Medical-Surgical nursing was developed with support for its validity and reliability. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Mindfulness and pharmacological prophylaxis after withdrawal from medication overuse in patients with Chronic Migraine: an effectiveness trial with a one-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazzi, Licia; Sansone, Emanuela; Raggi, Alberto; D'Amico, Domenico; De Giorgio, Andrea; Leonardi, Matilde; De Torres, Laura; Salgado-García, Francisco; Andrasik, Frank

    2017-12-01

    Chronic Migraine (CM) is a disabling condition, worsened when associated with Medication Overuse (MO). Mindfulness is an emerging technique, effective in different pain conditions, but it has yet to be explored for CM-MO. We report the results of a study assessing a one-year course of patients' status, with the hypothesis that the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based approach would be similar to that of conventional prophylactic treatments. Patients with CM-MO (code 1.3 and 8.2 of the International Classification of Headache Disorders-3Beta) completed a withdrawal program in a day hospital setting. After withdrawal, patients were either treated with Prophylactic Medications (Med-Group), or participated in a Mindfulness-based Training (MT-Group). MT consisted of 6 weekly sessions of guided mindfulness, with patients invited to practice 7-10 min per day. Headache diaries, the headache impact test (HIT-6), the migraine disability assessment (MIDAS), state and trait anxiety (STAI Y1-Y2), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were administered before withdrawal and at each follow-up (3, 6, 12 after withdrawal) to patients from both groups. Outcome variables were analyzed in separate two-way mixed ANOVAs (Group: Mindfulness vs. Pharmacology x Time: Baseline, 3-, 6-, vs. 12-month follow-up). A total of 44 patients participated in the study, with the average age being 44.5, average headache frequency/month was 20.5, and average monthly medication intake was 18.4 pills. Data revealed a similar improvement over time in both groups for Headache Frequency (approximately 6-8 days reduction), use of Medication (approximately 7 intakes reduction), MIDAS, HIT-6 (but only for the MED-Group), and BDI; no changes on state and trait anxiety were found. Both groups revealed significant and equivalent improvement with respect to what has become a classical endpoint in this area of research, i.e. 50% or more reduction of headaches compared to baseline, and the majority of patients in

  9. Assessment of scientific thinking in basic science questions in the Iranian Fourth National Olympiad for medical sciences students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Ghojazadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Regarding to the importance of students Olympiads, and the need for evaluation of quality of questions, the aim of this study was to analyze questions (indices of difficulty coefficient and discrimination coefficient of Fourth Olympiad examination among Iranian medical sciences students in the area of scientific thinking in basic science. Methods: This study was descriptive-analytical study and was conducted in 2013 in the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (Tabriz, Iran. The individual phase of this period, comprised from four phase and six parts included: designing conceptual map (CM (three part designing CM, summarizing CM, and designing three questions, hypothesis generating, selecting variables, and analyzing the findings. Data analyzed using descriptive statistics and statistical tests in SPSS for Windows. Results: According to difficulty coefficient of selecting variable (82% and making hypothesis was the easiest part (46%. And according to discriminate coefficient, analyzing the findings had the highest discriminate coefficient (83%, and selecting materials had the lowest discriminate coefficient (34%. Difficulty coefficient of the test was estimated about 63%, and discriminate coefficient was 66%. The results of Spearman correlation coefficient test showed that the correlation between scores related to designing CM with generating hypothesis equals to 85%, with selecting variable was 36% and with analyzing the results equals to 71%. Conclusion: Based on the result of this study, it is necessary for a designer of test to focus on selecting variable part of the test for improvement of quality and validity of the test. Furthermore, regarding to effectiveness of CM, it seems logical to pay more attention to their use.

  10. Pharmacological interventions for adolescents and adults with ADHD: stimulant and nonstimulant medications and misuse of prescription stimulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weyandt LL

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lisa L Weyandt, Danielle R Oster, Marisa E Marraccini, Bergljot Gyda Gudmundsdottir, Bailey A Munro, Brynheld Martinez Zavras, Ben Kuhar Department of Psychology, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USA Abstract: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that cause functional impairment. Recent research indicates that symptoms persist into adulthood in the majority of cases, with prevalence estimates of approximately 5% in the school age population and 2.5%–4% in the adult population. Although students with ADHD are at greater risk for academic underachievement and psychosocial problems, increasing numbers of students with ADHD are graduating from high school and pursuing higher education. Stimulant medications are considered the first line of pharmacotherapy for individuals with ADHD, including college students. Although preliminary evidence indicates that prescription stimulants are safe and effective for college students with ADHD when used as prescribed, very few controlled studies have been conducted concerning the efficacy of prescription stimulants with college students. In addition, misuse of prescription stimulants has become a serious problem on college campuses across the US and has been recently documented in other countries as well. The purpose of the present systematic review was to investigate the efficacy of prescription stimulants for adolescents and young adults with ADHD and the nonmedical use and misuse of prescription stimulants. Results revealed that both prostimulant and stimulant medications, including lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, methylphenidate, amphetamines, and mixed-amphetamine salts, are effective at reducing ADHD symptoms in adolescents and adults with ADHD. Findings also suggest that individuals with ADHD may have higher rates of stimulant misuse than individuals without the disorder, and

  11. Contextualizing the relevance of basic sciences: small-group simulation with debrief for first- and second-year medical students in an integrated curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginzburg SB

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Samara B Ginzburg,1 Judith Brenner,1 Michael Cassara,2 Thomas Kwiatkowski,1 Joanne M Willey,1 1Department of Science Education, Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine, Hempstead, 2Department of Emergency Medicine, Northwell Health, Great Neck, NY, USA Aim: There has been a call for increased integration of basic and clinical sciences during ­preclinical years of undergraduate medical education. Despite the recognition that clinical simulation is an effective pedagogical tool, little has been reported on its use to demonstrate the relevance of basic science principles to the practice of clinical medicine. We hypothesized that simulation with an integrated science and clinical debrief used with early learners would illustrate the importance of basic science principles in clinical diagnosis and management of patients.  Methods: Small groups of first -and second-year medical students were engaged in a high-fidelity simulation followed by a comprehensive debrief facilitated by a basic scientist and clinician. Surveys including anchored and open-ended questions were distributed at the conclusion of each experience.  Results: The majority of the students agreed that simulation followed by an integrated debrief illustrated the clinical relevance of basic sciences (mean ± standard deviation: 93.8% ± 2.9% of first-year medical students; 96.7% ± 3.5% of second-year medical students and its importance in patient care (92.8% of first-year medical students; 90.4% of second-year medical students. In a thematic analysis of open-ended responses, students felt that these experiences provided opportunities for direct application of scientific knowledge to diagnosis and treatment, improving student knowledge, simulating real-world experience, and developing clinical reasoning, all of which specifically helped them understand the clinical relevance of basic sciences.  Conclusion: Small-group simulation followed by a debrief that integrates basic and clinical

  12. Citation Analysis of Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences in ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, and Google Scholar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarifmahmoudi, Leili; Kianifar, Hamid Reza; Sadeghi, Ramin

    2013-10-01

    Citation tracking is an important method to analyze the scientific impact of journal articles and can be done through Scopus (SC), Google Scholar (GS), or ISI web of knowledge (WOS). In the current study, we analyzed the citations to 2011-2012 articles of Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences (IJBMS) in these three resources. The relevant data from SC, GS, and WOS official websites. Total number of citations, their overlap and unique citations of these three recourses were evaluated. WOS and SC covered 100% and GS covered 97% of the IJBMS items. Totally, 37 articles were cited at least once in one of the studied resources. Total number of citations were 20, 30, and 59 in WOS, SC, and GS respectively. Forty citations of GS, 6 citation of SC, and 2 citations of WOS were unique. Every scientific resource has its own inaccuracies in providing citation analysis information. Citation analysis studies are better to be done each year to correct any inaccuracy as soon as possible. IJBMS has gained considerable scientific attention from wide range of high impact journals and through citation tracking method; this visibility can be traced more thoroughly.

  13. Collaborative diagramming during problem based learning in medical education: Do computerized diagrams support basic science knowledge construction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leng, Bas; Gijlers, Hannie

    2015-05-01

    To examine how collaborative diagramming affects discussion and knowledge construction when learning complex basic science topics in medical education, including its effectiveness in the reformulation phase of problem-based learning. Opinions and perceptions of students (n = 70) and tutors (n = 4) who used collaborative diagramming in tutorial groups were collected with a questionnaire and focus group discussions. A framework derived from the analysis of discourse in computer-supported collaborative leaning was used to construct the questionnaire. Video observations were used during the focus group discussions. Both students and tutors felt that collaborative diagramming positively affected discussion and knowledge construction. Students particularly appreciated that diagrams helped them to structure knowledge, to develop an overview of topics, and stimulated them to find relationships between topics. Tutors emphasized that diagramming increased interaction and enhanced the focus and detail of the discussion. Favourable conditions were the following: working with a shared whiteboard, using a diagram format that facilitated distribution, and applying half filled-in diagrams for non-content expert tutors and\\or for heterogeneous groups with low achieving students. The empirical findings in this study support the findings of earlier more descriptive studies that diagramming in a collaborative setting is valuable for learning complex knowledge in medicine.

  14. Pharmacology and drug distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, L.R.; Weatherall, T.J.

    1979-08-01

    An overview of the pharmacology of drugs in the treatment of cancer is presented. The discussion begins with the simplest relationship of drugs and particles to one another then proceeds to demonstrate the interrelationship in a biologic system to produce a chemobiodynamic response. The basic principles of pharmacokinetics are reviewed and their correlation with investigational and standard drug therapies is discussed. Voids in the consideration of interactions between chemotherapy and radiotherapy are discussed.

  15. [Yes to research, no to utilization? Medical, pharmacological and toxicological utilization of human embryonic stem cells from an ethical point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, H

    2008-09-01

    In exceptional cases, the German Stem Cell Act allows research on human embryonic stem cells. However, it does not allow the implementation of the research results if this in turn requires the use of further embryonic stem cell lines. It has, in the meantime, transpired that such research results could be of concrete use. Thus, in the distant future, it could be used in the clinical treatment of patients. Already in the nearer future the use of human embryonic stem cell lines can be envisaged for both the development and testing of medicines as well as in the field of toxicology. To this end, research concerning embryo toxicity and neurotoxicity is ground-breaking. The toxicological and pharmacological use of human embryonic stem cell lines should serve the protection of human health as well as the safe and reliable use of medicines. In addition, animal experiments could be reduced, which is desirable from a point of view of animal protection ethics. Since research on human embryonic stem cell lines is actually permitted in Germany, the use of the respective research results should be allowed all the more. This follows from the basic human right to health protection and health care. Legal ambiguities, which still exist in this respect, should be removed.

  16. Basic airway skills acquisition using the American College of Surgeons/Association for Surgical Education medical student simulation-based surgical skills curriculum: Initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratore, Sydne; Kim, Michael; Olasky, Jaisa; Campbell, Andre; Acton, Robert

    2017-02-01

    The ACS/ASE Medical Student Simulation-Based Skills Curriculum was developed to standardize medical student training. This study aims to evaluate the feasibility and validity of implementing the basic airway curriculum. This single-center, prospective study of medical students participating in the basic airway module from 12/2014-3/2016 consisted of didactics, small-group practice, and testing in a simulated clinical scenario. Proficiency was determined by a checklist of skills (1-15), global score (1-5), and letter grade (NR-needs review, PS-proficient in simulation scenario, CP-proficient in clinical scenario). A proportion of students completed pre/post-test surveys regarding experience, satisfaction, comfort, and self-perceived proficiency. Over 16 months, 240 students were enrolled with 98% deemed proficient in a simulated or clinical scenario. Pre/post-test surveys (n = 126) indicated improvement in self-perceived proficiency by 99% of learners. All students felt moderately to very comfortable performing basic airway skills and 94% had moderate to considerable satisfaction after completing the module. The ACS/ASE Surgical Skills Curriculum is a feasible and effective way to teach medical students basic airway skills using simulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Discussion on Basic Principles of Digital Medical Archives%浅议医疗档案数字化的基本原则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾晶

    2015-01-01

    From the point of the medical records,medical archives digitizing is also the inevitable development trend of medical archives. This paper mainly discusses the digital medical archives basic principles to be followed,hoping to provide valuable reference for the realization of the digital medical archives.%从医疗档案角度而言,医疗档案实现数字化是医疗档案的必然发展趋势。本文重点探讨了医疗档案数字化需遵循的基本原则,以此为医疗档案数字化的实现提供具有价值的参考凭据。

  18. 卫生基本法的价值定位:医疗正义%Value of the Basic Health Law : Medical Justice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李筱永

    2011-01-01

    The value of the basic health law should stand on medical justice. The substance of justice mainly expresses freedom, equality, order and other targets of value. From the perspective of freedom, the medical justice means recognizing and respecting the citizens' health right; from the perspective of equality, the medical justice is to rationally allocate the medical resources, which ensures that the bottom line of citizen health right can be basically achieved; from the perspective of order, the medical justice equals strengthening the government's responsibility in order to improve the medical order.%卫生基本法的价值定位应该是医疗正义.正义的实质内容主要表现为自由、平等、秩序等价值目标.从自由角度来理解医疗正义,就是要承认和尊重公民的健康权;从平等角度来理解医疗正义,就是要合理地配置医疗资源,以确保每个公民的健康权底线内容能得以基本实现;从秩序的角度来理解医疗正义,就是要强化政府责任,以期完善医疗秩序.

  19. Teaching basic life support to school children using medical students and teachers in a 'peer-training' model--results of the 'ABC for life' programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, P; Connolly, M; Laverty, L; McGrath, P; Connolly, D; McCluskey, D R

    2007-10-01

    The 'ABC for life' programme was designed to facilitate the wider dissemination of basic life support (BLS) skills and knowledge in the population. A previous study demonstrated that using this programme 10-12-year olds are capable of performing and retaining these vital skills when taught by medical students. There are approximately 25,000 year 7 school children in 900 primary schools in Northern Ireland. By using a pyramidal teaching approach involving medical students and teachers, there is the potential to train BLS to all of these children each year. To assess the effectiveness of a programme of CPR instruction using a three-tier training model in which medical students instruct primary school teachers who then teach school children. School children and teachers in the Western Education and Library Board in Northern Ireland. A course of instruction in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)--the 'ABC for life' programme--specifically designed to teach 10-12-year-old children basic life support skills. Medical students taught teachers from the Western Education and Library Board area of Northern Ireland how to teach basic life support skills to year 7 pupils in their schools. Pupils were given a 22-point questionnaire to assess knowledge of basic life support immediately before and after a teacher led training session. Children instructed in cardiopulmonary resuscitation using this three-tier training had a significantly improved score following training (57.2% and 77.7%, respectively, pteachers, previously trained by medical students, can teach BLS effectively to 10-12-year-old children using the 'ABC for life' programme.

  20. The enduring legacy of Alfred Gilman senior (1908-1984) to pharmacology and clinical medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Ronald P

    2016-09-28

    Alfred Gilman was best known for his co-authorship with Louis Goodman of the seminal textbook on pharmacology The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics in 1941. The book made the discipline of pharmacology relevant to clinical medicine by providing a link between the basic medical sciences and the practice of medicine. Gilman was also instrumental in establishing the use of chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer and made important contributions in areas related to renal function, acid-base balance, and diuretics. During the 1960s, he created a first rate department at the newly formed Albert Einstein College of Medicine. A superb lecturer, he commented incisively on issues related to pharmacology, therapeutics, and pathophysiology. Dr Gilman also provided a key link between academia and the pharmaceutical industry by serving as a consultant to several drug firms. The legacy of Alfred Gilman senior was continued by his son, Alfred Goodman Gilman, who became a Nobel Laureate. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. A Faculty Development Program can result in an improvement of the quality and output in medical education, basic sciences and clinical research and patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, Peter Erich

    2009-07-01

    The Carl Gustav Carus Faculty of Medicine, University of Technology Dresden, Germany, was founded in 1993 after the reunification of Germany. In 1999, a reform process of medical education was started together with Harvard Medical International.The traditional teacher- and discipline-centred curriculum was displaced by a student-centred, interdisciplinary and integrative curriculum, which has been named Dresden Integrative Patient/Problem-Oriented Learning (DIPOL). The reform process was accompanied and supported by a parallel-ongoing Faculty Development Program. In 2004, a Quality Management Program in medical education was implemented, and in 2005 medical education received DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 certification. Quality Management Program and DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 certification were/are unique for the 34 medical schools in Germany.The students play a very important strategic role in all processes. They are members in all committees like the Faculty Board, the Board of Study Affairs (with equal representation) and the ongoing audits in the Quality Management Program. The Faculty Development program, including a reform in medical education, the establishment of the Quality Management program and the certification, resulted in an improvement of the quality and output of medical education and was accompanied in an improvement of the quality and output of basic sciences and clinical research and interdisciplinary patient care.

  2. The pharmacology game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batscha, Catherine

    2002-09-01

    This article gives instructions for designing a visually attractive, entertaining, faculty-led computer game for pharmacology review in a nursing education program. The game uses Microsoft PowerPoint, a presentation program that is inexpensive, easy to master, and widely available. Instructions for using Visual Basic for Applications to customize the game are included to allow tracking questions asked and the score of groups playing the game. The game can be easily adapted to material by specific nursing programs with access to PowerPoint.

  3. [Pharmacological treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola Manchola, Enrique; Álaba Trueba, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic degenerative and inflammatory process leading to synapticdysfunction and neuronal death. A review about the pharmacological treatment alternatives is made: acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI), a nutritional supplement (Souvenaid) and Ginkgo biloba. A special emphasis on Ginkgo biloba due to the controversy about its use and the approval by the European Medicines Agency is made. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. CFTR pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegarra-Moran, Olga; Galietta, Luis J V

    2017-01-01

    CFTR protein is an ion channel regulated by cAMP-dependent phosphorylation and expressed in many types of epithelial cells. CFTR-mediated chloride and bicarbonate secretion play an important role in the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. Pharmacological modulators of CFTR represent promising drugs for a variety of diseases. In particular, correctors and potentiators may restore the activity of CFTR in cystic fibrosis patients. Potentiators are also potentially useful to improve mucociliary clearance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. On the other hand, CFTR inhibitors may be useful to block fluid and electrolyte loss in secretory diarrhea and slow down the progression of polycystic kidney disease.

  5. A Pharmacological Primer of Biased Agonism

    OpenAIRE

    Andresen, Bradley T.

    2011-01-01

    Biased agonism is one of the fastest growing topics in G protein-coupled receptor pharmacology; moreover, biased agonists are used in the clinic today: carvedilol (Coreg®) is a biased agonist of beta-adrenergic receptors. However, there is a general lack of understanding of biased agonism when compared to traditional pharmacological terminology. Therefore, this review is designed to provide a basic introduction to classical pharmacology as well as G protein-coupled receptor signal transductio...

  6. Research and academic education in medical sexology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchera, A; Jannini, E A; Lenzi, A

    2003-01-01

    Advances in sexual pharmacology have stimulated the development of new analytical instruments in the management of sexual dysfunction, with increasing research in the area of basic mechanisms of human sexual response. However, the public is greatly interested and eager for new discoveries and pharmacological treatments to enhance sexual performance and relationships, and cure common sexual dysfunctions and symptoms. The need for sexology--in this case, a new "medical" sexology--to utilize scientific tools and be taught in medical schools is therefore evident.

  7. Overview of safety pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goineau, Sonia; Lemaire, Martine; Froget, Guillaume

    2013-12-02

    Safety pharmacology entails the assessment of the potential risks of novel pharmaceuticals for human use. As detailed in the ICH S7A guidelines, safety pharmacology for drug discovery involves a core battery of studies on three vital systems: central nervous (CNS), cardiovascular (CV), and respiratory. Primary CNS studies are aimed at defining compound effects on general behavior, locomotion, neuromuscular coordination, seizure threshold, and vigilance. The primary CV test battery includes an evaluation of proarrhythmic risk using in vitro tests (hERG channel and Purkinje fiber assays) and in vivo measurements in conscious animals via telemetry. Comprehensive cardiac risk assessment also includes full hemodynamic evaluation in a large, anesthetized animal. Basic respiratory function can be examined in conscious animals using whole-body plethysmography. This allows for an assessment of whether the sensitivity to respiratory-depressant effects can be enhanced by exposure to increased CO2 . Other safety pharmacology topics detailed in this unit are the timing of such studies, ethical and animal welfare issues, and statistical evaluation.

  8. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sport for You Shyness About the Body Basics Library KidsHealth > For Teens > About the Body Basics Library Print A A A Did you ever wonder ... system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ...

  9. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness About the Body Basics Library KidsHealth > For Teens > About the Body Basics Library A A A Did you ever wonder what ... system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ...

  10. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Emergency Medical Technology--Basic (Program CIP: 51.0904). Emergency Medical Technology--Paramedic (Program CIP: 51.0904). Postsecondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which is intended for use by community and junior colleges throughout Mississippi, contains curriculum frameworks for the course sequences in the emergency medical technology (EMT) programs cluster. Presented in the introductory section are a description of the program and suggested course sequence. Section I lists baseline…

  11. 医学伦理学之“医德基本原则”说课设计%The basic principle of medical ethics of medical ethicspractice design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉环; 彭立华; 张茜; 白吉可

    2014-01-01

    To analysis the basic principle of“medical ethics”practice in the design of the processing of teaching material, teaching methods and learning. the teaching design and teaching reflection is discussed,how to use modern education theory and psychology sociology theory to guide the teaching of medical ethics of medical undergraduates section design,in order to improve the teaching quality.%就“医德基本原则”说课设计中教材的处理、教法和学情分析,通过教学过程设计和教学反思等环节探讨了如何利用现代教育学理论和心理社会学理论来指导医学本科生的医学伦理学章节教学设计,以期提高教学质量。

  12. Pharmacology Portal: An Open Database for Clinical Pharmacologic Laboratory Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen Bjånes, Tormod; Mjåset Hjertø, Espen; Lønne, Lars; Aronsen, Lena; Andsnes Berg, Jon; Bergan, Stein; Otto Berg-Hansen, Grim; Bernard, Jean-Paul; Larsen Burns, Margrete; Toralf Fosen, Jan; Frost, Joachim; Hilberg, Thor; Krabseth, Hege-Merete; Kvan, Elena; Narum, Sigrid; Austgulen Westin, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    More than 50 Norwegian public and private laboratories provide one or more analyses for therapeutic drug monitoring or testing for drugs of abuse. Practices differ among laboratories, and analytical repertoires can change rapidly as new substances become available for analysis. The Pharmacology Portal was developed to provide an overview of these activities and to standardize the practices and terminology among laboratories. The Pharmacology Portal is a modern dynamic web database comprising all available analyses within therapeutic drug monitoring and testing for drugs of abuse in Norway. Content can be retrieved by using the search engine or by scrolling through substance lists. The core content is a substance registry updated by a national editorial board of experts within the field of clinical pharmacology. This ensures quality and consistency regarding substance terminologies and classification. All laboratories publish their own repertoires in a user-friendly workflow, adding laboratory-specific details to the core information in the substance registry. The user management system ensures that laboratories are restricted from editing content in the database core or in repertoires within other laboratory subpages. The portal is for nonprofit use, and has been fully funded by the Norwegian Medical Association, the Norwegian Society of Clinical Pharmacology, and the 8 largest pharmacologic institutions in Norway. The database server runs an open-source content management system that ensures flexibility with respect to further development projects, including the potential expansion of the Pharmacology Portal to other countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Agents Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS Medications Probiotics and Antibiotics Pharmacologic, or drug, therapy is best used in ... Agents Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS Medications Probiotics and ... Treatments Understanding Stress Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Relaxation ...

  14. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Agents Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS Medications Probiotics and Antibiotics Pharmacologic, or drug, therapy is best used in ... Agents Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS Medications Probiotics and Antibiotics Psychological Treatments Understanding Stress Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Relaxation ...

  15. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Agents Antidiarrheal Agents Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS Medications Probiotics and Antibiotics Pharmacologic, or drug, therapy is best ... Agents Antidiarrheal Agents Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS Medications ... Psychological Treatments Understanding Stress Cognitive Behavioral ...

  16. Basic Investigation on Medical Ultrasonic Echo Image Compression by JPEG2000 - Availability of Wavelet Transform and ROI Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    be approved in the near future. The main features of JPEG2000 are use of wavelet transform and ROI (Region of Interest) method. It is expected that... wavelet transform is more effective than Fourier transform for ultrasonic echo signal/image processing. Furthermore, ROI method seems to be appropriate...compression method of medical images. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of wavelet transform compared with DCT (JPEG) and

  17. Basic concepts and issues: a primer on distribution and sales representative agreements in the medical device and durable medical equipment industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, Heiko E; Kolls, Raymond C

    2006-01-01

    Counsel for a manufacturer of medical devices or durable medical equipment must have working knowledge of various legal disciplines to draft contracts with intermediaries (sales representatives and distributors) for the marketing and sale of the manufacturer's products. If the manufacturer wishes to sell its products abroad, counsel must become familiar with the laws and business practices of the target country, and methods of gaining access to the foreign market. This Article gives readers an overview of the applicable legal principles, under U.S. and foreign laws, in the areas of agency, contracts, healthcare regulation, consumer protection, intellectual property protection, and dealer protection. To aid counsel in drafting intermediary agreements, specific contractual terms and issues are explored in depth, including: appointment clauses, performance provisions, provisions concerning pricing and payment, protective clauses (shielding the manufacturer from liability), term and termination provisions, independent contractor clauses, export control clauses, recordkeeping and audit provisions, choice of law clauses, and dispute resolution clauses.

  18. Use of the NBME Comprehensive Basic Science Examination as a progress test in the preclerkship curriculum of a new medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Teresa R; Khalil, Mohammed K; Peppler, Richard D; Davey, Diane D; Kibble, Jonathan D

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, we describe the innovative use of the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Comprehensive Basic Science Examination (CBSE) as a progress test during the preclerkship medical curriculum. The main aim of this study was to provide external validation of internally developed multiple-choice assessments in a new medical school. The CBSE is a practice exam for the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 and is purchased directly from the NBME. We administered the CBSE five times during the first 2 yr of medical school. Student scores were compared with scores on newly created internal summative exams and to the USMLE Step 1. Significant correlations were observed between almost all our internal exams and CBSE scores over time as well as with USMLE Step 1 scores. The strength of correlations of internal exams to the CBSE and USMLE Step 1 broadly increased over time during the curriculum. Student scores on courses that have strong emphasis on physiology and pathophysiology correlated particularly well with USMLE Step 1 scores. Student progress, as measured by the CBSE, was found to be linear across time, and test performance fell behind the anticipated level by the end of the formal curriculum. These findings are discussed with respect to student learning behaviors. In conclusion, the CBSE was found to have good utility as a progress test and provided external validation of our new internally developed multiple-choice assessments. The data also provide performance benchmarks both for our future students to formatively assess their own progress and for other medical schools to compare learning progression patterns in different curricular models.

  19. The Dutch vision of clinical pharmacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellens, J H M; Grouls, R; Guchelaar, H J; Touw, D J; Rongen, G A; de Boer, A; Van Bortel, L M

    Recent position papers addressing the profession of clinical pharmacology have expressed concerns about the decline of interest in the field among clinicians and medical educators in the United Kingdom and other Western countries, whether clinical pharmacology is actually therapeutics, and whether

  20. Space Pharmacology

    CERN Document Server

    Wotring, Virginia E

    2012-01-01

    “Space Pharmacology” is a review of the current knowledge regarding the use of pharmaceuticals during spaceflights. It is a comprehensive review of the literature, addressing each area of pharmacokinetics and each major physiological system in turn. Every section begins with a topic overview, and is followed by a discussion of published data from spaceflight, and from ground experiments meant to model the spaceflight situation. Includes a discussion looking forward to the new medical challenges we are likely to face on longer duration exploration missions. This book is a snapshot of our current knowledge that also highlights areas of unknown.

  1. [Basic study to establish medication safety culture with patient-commitment style in community pharmacy: An examination from meeting reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Mitsuko; Okuda, Noriko; Kosaka, Naohiro; Takahashi, Nobuaki; Matsuura, Masayoshi; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Yamada, Rika

    2007-12-01

    Our group conducted a Medication Safety Culture Building Drive, enlisting the cooperation of pharmacy patients to clarify obstacles and verify the effect of the measures implemented. Pharmacists at 38 community pharmacies instituted a 3-month trial period of rigorous prescription confirmation by checking filled prescriptions against the accompanying drug information (DI) in the presence of patients at pharmacy counters, whenever prescription drugs were dispensed. During the first month, 29 pharmacies reported carrying out the program with the rate of patient coverage was over 50%; while 8 others reported that rate of patient coverage was less than 50%. Factors standing in the way of checking filled prescriptions with the patients could be characterized as "physical conditions," "prescription content," or "patient attributes." The measures devised to counter these obstacles all fell within the categories of "education of patients and pharmacists," "advance arrangements made in preparation for checking," "methods of checking and nature of items checked," "checking procedure," and "DI literature." After three month, 34 pharmacies reported that the effort had been effective. During the three months, the average implementation rate (patient coverage rate) was improved from 92.5% in April to 96.5% in June (ppatients' and pharmacists' awareness regarding dispensing error prevention, 2) Increase in patients' interest in, and understanding of, their own prescription medications, 3) Increase in patients' understanding about the efforts and in number of patients cooperating with the effort.

  2. ImaSim, a software tool for basic education of medical x-ray imaging in radiotherapy and radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    guillaume elandry

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: X-ray imaging is an important part of medicine and plays a crucial role in radiotherapy. Education in this field is mostly limited to textbook teaching due to equipment restrictions. A novel simulation tool, ImaSim, for teaching the fundamentals of the x-ray imaging process based on ray-tracing is presented in this work. ImaSim is used interactively via a graphical user interface (GUI.Materials and methods: The software package covers the main x-ray based medical modalities: planar kilo voltage (kV, planar (portal mega voltage (MV, fan beam computed tomography (CT and cone beam CT (CBCT imaging. The user can modify the photon source, object to be imaged and imaging setup with three-dimensional editors. Objects are currently obtained by combining blocks with variable shapes. The imaging of three-dimensional voxelized geometries is currently not implemented, but can be added in a later release. The program follows a ray-tracing approach, ignoring photon scatter in its current implementation. Simulations of a phantom CT scan were generated in ImaSim and were compared to measured data in terms of CT number accuracy. Spatial variations in the photon fluence and mean energy from an x-ray tube caused by the heel effect were estimated from ImaSim and Monte Carlo simulations and compared.Results: In this paper we describe ImaSim and provide two examples of its capabilities. CT numbers were found to agree within 36 Hounsfield Units (HU for bone, which corresponds to a 2% attenuation coefficient difference. ImaSim reproduced the heel effect reasonably well when compared to Monte Carlo simulations. Discussion: An x-ray imaging simulation tool is made available for teaching and research purposes. ImaSim provides a means to facilitate the teaching of medical x-ray imaging.

  3. ImaSim, a software tool for basic education of medical x-ray imaging in radiotherapy and radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Guillaume; deBlois, François; Verhaegen, Frank

    2013-11-01

    Introduction: X-ray imaging is an important part of medicine and plays a crucial role in radiotherapy. Education in this field is mostly limited to textbook teaching due to equipment restrictions. A novel simulation tool, ImaSim, for teaching the fundamentals of the x-ray imaging process based on ray-tracing is presented in this work. ImaSim is used interactively via a graphical user interface (GUI). Materials and methods: The software package covers the main x-ray based medical modalities: planar kilo voltage (kV), planar (portal) mega voltage (MV), fan beam computed tomography (CT) and cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging. The user can modify the photon source, object to be imaged and imaging setup with three-dimensional editors. Objects are currently obtained by combining blocks with variable shapes. The imaging of three-dimensional voxelized geometries is currently not implemented, but can be added in a later release. The program follows a ray-tracing approach, ignoring photon scatter in its current implementation. Simulations of a phantom CT scan were generated in ImaSim and were compared to measured data in terms of CT number accuracy. Spatial variations in the photon fluence and mean energy from an x-ray tube caused by the heel effect were estimated from ImaSim and Monte Carlo simulations and compared. Results: In this paper we describe ImaSim and provide two examples of its capabilities. CT numbers were found to agree within 36 Hounsfield Units (HU) for bone, which corresponds to a 2% attenuation coefficient difference. ImaSim reproduced the heel effect reasonably well when compared to Monte Carlo simulations. Discussion: An x-ray imaging simulation tool is made available for teaching and research purposes. ImaSim provides a means to facilitate the teaching of medical x-ray imaging.

  4. Thinking about thinking and emotion: the metacognitive approach to the medical humanities that integrates the humanities with the basic and clinical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichbaum, Quentin G

    2014-01-01

    Medical knowledge in recent decades has grown prodigiously and has outstripped the capacity of the human brain to absorb and understand it all. This burgeoning of knowledge has created a dilemma for medical educators. We can no longer expect students to continue memorizing this large body of increasingly complex knowledge. Instead, our efforts should be redirected at developing in students a competency as flexible thinkers and agile learners so they can adeptly deal with new knowledge, complexity, and uncertainty in a rapidly changing world. Such a competency would entail not only cognitive but also emotional skills essential for the holistic development of their professional identity. This article will argue that metacognition--“thinking about thinking (and emotion)”--offers the most viable path toward developing this competency. The overwhelming volume of medical knowledge has driven some medical schools to reduce the time allocated in their curricula to the “soft-option” humanities as they tend to consider them an expendable “luxury.” Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, has moved away from the traditional conception of the medical humanities as “the arts,” composed of art, music, and literature, toward an approach that integrates the humanities with the basic and clinical sciences, based on metacognition. This metacognitive approach to the humanities, described in this article, has three goals: 1) to develop students as flexible thinkers and agile learners and to provide them with essential cognitive and emotional skills for navigating medical complexity and uncertainty; 2) to elicit in students empathy and tolerance by making them aware of the immense diversity in human cognition (and emotion); and 3) to integrate the humanities with the basic and clinical sciences. Through this metacognitive approach, students come to understand their patterns of cognition and emotions, and in the group setting, they learn to mindfully

  5. Achievement motivation analysis and evaluation at basic medical education stage%基础医学教育阶段学生成就动机分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席艳; 席广正

    2012-01-01

    目的 考察基础医学院学生成就动机水平及其影响因素.方法 运用成就动机量表和开放问卷对基础医学院223名学生进行成就动机水平评估,采用多元线性回归分析评价多种影响因素在追求成功和避免失败两个维度上对成就动机的影响.结果 70.4%的基础医学院学生在成就动机水平方面尚有提升空间,多元因素对Ms和Mf都有线性回归关系(RMs=0.644,RM(f)=0.898).其中学业评价、学习态度显著影响基础医学院学生追求成功的动机(P<0.001);成绩评价、学习目标显著影响基础医学院学生避免失败的动机(P<0.001).结论 成就动机研究与运用可对基础医学院教学有促进作用.%Objective To explore college students'achievement motivation level at basic medical education stage and its influencing factors.Method Achievement motivation scale and open questionnaire were applied in 223 college students at basic medical education stage.The effect of multiple influential factors on achievement motivation was analyzed from the perspectives of pursing for success and avoiding errors by multiple linear regression.Results The results showed that 70.4% students had low achievement motivation level.Multiple factors had linear regression relation with Ms and Mf(RMs=0.644,RMf=0.898).Academic self assessment and learning attitude can increase the motivation for success significantly(P<0.001).Performance evaluation and learning objective can significantly increase the motivation for avoiding errors(P<0.001).Conclusion The study and application of achievement motivation can improve education quality at basic medical education stage.

  6. Pharmacological treatment of vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hain, Timothy C; Uddin, Mohammed

    2003-01-01

    This review discusses the physiology and pharmacological treatment of vertigo and related disorders. Classes of medications useful in the treatment of vertigo include anticholinergics, antihistamines, benzodiazepines, calcium channel antagonists and dopamine receptor antagonists. These medications often have multiple actions. They may modify the intensity of symptoms (e.g. vestibular suppressants) or they may affect the underlying disease process (e.g. calcium channel antagonists in the case of vestibular migraine). Most of these agents, particularly those that are sedating, also have a potential to modulate the rate of compensation for vestibular damage. This consideration has become more relevant in recent years, as vestibular rehabilitation physical therapy is now often recommended in an attempt to promote compensation. Accordingly, therapy of vertigo is optimised when the prescriber has detailed knowledge of the pharmacology of medications being administered as well as the precise actions being sought. There are four broad causes of vertigo, for which specific regimens of drug therapy can be tailored. Otological vertigo includes disorders of the inner ear such as Ménière's disease, vestibular neuritis, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) and bilateral vestibular paresis. In both Ménière's disease and vestibular neuritis, vestibular suppressants such as anticholinergics and benzodiazepines are used. In Ménière's disease, salt restriction and diuretics are used in an attempt to prevent flare-ups. In vestibular neuritis, only brief use of vestibular suppressants is now recommended. Drug treatments are not presently recommended for BPPV and bilateral vestibular paresis, but physical therapy treatment can be very useful in both. Central vertigo includes entities such as vertigo associated with migraine and certain strokes. Prophylactic agents (L-channel calcium channel antagonists, tricyclic antidepressants, beta-blockers) are the mainstay of treatment

  7. Basic Theory and Theory System of Medical Classic of Yellow Emperor%《黄帝内经》的基础理论与理论体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马卫东

    2012-01-01

    《黄帝内经》作为中国古代医学的奠基之作,内容十分丰富,并已形成了较为完备的基础理论和理论体系.《内经》的基础理论可以概括为:以阴阳五行学说为理论基础,天地人一体而人为自然界一部分;人体是一个有机整体而五脏为六腑、五体、五官、九窍、四肢、百骸中心的医学理论.而《内经》的理论体系,依其内容可概括为三大组成部分,共九个主要学说.即:生理卫生部分的藏象学说、经络学说、养生运气学说;病因病理部分的病因学说、病机学说、病证学说;辨证施治部分的诊法学说、治则学说、针刺学说.《内经》理论体系的博大精深,在于上述三大组成部分的九个主要学说有其严密的内在逻辑关系.%As the foundation's work of the medical science in ancient China, the Medical Classic of Yellow Emperor had rich content and formed a set of relatively complete basic theory and theory system. The basic theory of Medical Classic of Yellow Emperor can be summarized as: taking the Yin-Yang and five elements philosophy as the basic theory; believing that the Sky, the Ground and the Human being forming a whole and the Human being was one of the parts of the nature; regarding the human body as an organic whole and claiming that the five internal organs were the rulers of the six hollow organs, the five body constituents, the five sense organs, the nine orifices, the four limbs and the hundred human bones. According to its content, the theory system of Medical Classic of Yellow Emperor can be summed up in three major parts and nine main theories: the part of the physiological health consists of the viscera-state doctrine, the Meridian theory and the wellness and breathing exercising theory; the part of the etiology and pathology consists of the cause of disease theory, the pathogenesis theory and the sickness syndrome theory; the part of the differentiation treatment consists of the

  8. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video Welcome. Brain Basics ... brain may play a role in disorders like schizophrenia or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) . Glutamate —the ...

  9. The translational science training program at NIH: Introducing early career researchers to the science and operation of translation of basic research to medical interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, C Taylor; Sittampalam, G Sitta; Wang, Philip Y; Ryan, Philip E

    2017-01-02

    Translational science is an emerging field that holds great promise to accelerate the development of novel medical interventions. As the field grows, so does the demand for highly trained biomedical scientists to fill the positions that are being created. Many graduate and postdoctorate training programs do not provide their trainees with sufficient education to take advantage of this growing employment sector. To help better prepare the trainees at the National Institutes of Health for possible careers in translation, we have created the Translational Science Training Program (TSTP). The TSTP is an intensive 2- to 3-day training program that introduces NIH postdoctoral trainees and graduate students to the science and operation of turning basic research discoveries into a medical therapeutic, device or diagnostic, and also exposes them to the variety of career options in translational science. Through a combination of classroom teaching from practicing experts in the various disciplines of translation and small group interactions with pre-clinical development teams, participants in the TSTP gain knowledge that will aid them in obtaining a career in translational science and building a network to make the transition to the field. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(1):13-24, 2017. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  10. Awareness about basic life support and emergency medical services and its associated factors among students in a tertiary care hospital in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshatha Rao Aroor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The knowledge and skills about the basic life support (BLS and the advanced life support are the most important determining factors of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR success rates. Objectives: To determine the level of awareness on BLS and skills among undergraduate and postgraduate students of medical and dental profession, as well as nursing students and interns in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in South India. The awareness level on BLS and factors associated which include age, sex, level of training (undergraduate, internship, and postgraduate groups, course of study (nursing, dental, and medical groups, and previous exposure to BLS were assessed by using a structured questionnaire. The association of these variables with awareness level was assessed by independent t test, analysis of variance, and linear regression analysis. Results: Among 520 study subjects, 229 were students, 171 were interns, and 120 were postgraduate students. The overall mean score of awareness was 4.16 ± 1.40 (score range: 0-10. Age, sex, level of training, course of study, and previous exposure to BLS were significantly associated with awareness level in univariate analysis (P < 0.05. Linear regression model also showed that all the above variables were significantly associated with awareness level (P < 0.05. About 322 (61.9% subjects attributed lack of awareness about BLS to lack of available professional training. About 479 (92.1% responded that BLS training should be a part of medical curriculum. Conclusion: Awareness level on BLS is below average indicating the importance of professional training at all levels in a tertiary care health institution.

  11. [Pharmacologic treatment of Asperger syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Satoru

    2007-03-01

    Asperger syndrome is associated with various dysfunctional and problematic behaviors, in addition to the core features of communication and social skills dysfunction that define these conditions. Although there is currently no pharmacologic cure for the core features of Asperger syndrome. This article discusses the various medications for the behavioral symptoms of Asperger syndrome, which include hyperactivity, aggression, tantrums, self-injury, depression, obsession and so on. Methylphenidate, SSRIs, atypical antipsychotics and mood stabilizer were introduced.

  12. A SURVEY ON METHODS OF UNDERGRADUATE PHARMACOLOGY TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHANBABU AMBERKAR, LALIT MOHAN, MEENA KUMARI, BAIRY K.L

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of pharmacology to choose and prescribe drugs is a major challenge encountered by medical practitioners. A number of initiatives have been carried out to improve the teaching of pharmacology and applied therapeutics.Material & methods-A survey was conducted on medical students,pursuing pharmacology at Kasturba Medical College,Manipal,during the month of August 2010,to obtain information regarding students attitude towards Pharmacology. Result-Two hundred and fourteen students participated.The total median score was 56 (maximum score 80.Majority of them suggested to have more problem based learning than didactic lectures and to have integrated teaching with other clinical subjects. Suggestions to improve pharmacology teaching were noted.Conclusion-The findings of the study would be of interest to medical educators in modifying undergraduate pharmacology teaching programme

  13. Finding Biomedical Information. A Learning Module for Medical Technology Students on the Basics of the Use of Medical Literature in the Shiffman Medical Library, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Barton B.; Rizzo, Joseph F.

    This self-instructional library workbook was used in a series of workshops--sponsored by the Medical Technology Department in Wayne State University's College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Professions--in order to reduce attrition by increasing the probability of success for academically high-risk students in the professional medical technology…

  14. 高职护理专业基础医学课程整合教学实践%Study on the effects of integrated teaching of Basic Medical Curriculum in high vocational nursing education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾春娟; 陈莹桦; 杨智昉; 包辉英; 徐静; 吴国忠

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To establish a new curriculum model according to the frame of human organ system which was integrated with the knowledge points of human anatomy, histology and embryology, physiology, pathology and pharmacology. Methods:The features of the nursing specialty were referred when the teaching syllabus, teaching materials and the curriculum of Basic Medical Sciences were carried out. Both new and traditional curriculums were launched in 6 classes at the same grade, and the effects of the two methods were compared one year later. Results:The students' evaluation on the teaching material readability, attraction and support of the experiments to proving the theory was significantly improved;comparing with the normal class, the difference had the statistical signiifcance (P﹤0.05). Conclusion:The recombination and integration of basic medical knowledge is beneifcial to the close connection of nursing vocational education and nursing work, and to the students' comprehensive learning abilities.%目的:将传统医学教学中的人体解剖学、组织胚胎学、生理学、病理学和药理学课程,以人体器官系统为框架进行重组整合开展教学,以使医学基础教学更贴近护理岗位的工作需求。方法:结合护理岗位工作需求,制定相关教学大纲,编写教材,开设《综合医学基础》课程。在同一年级的6个教学班分别进行《综合医学基础》教学和普通班教学。一年后通过问卷调查的形式,让学生对两种教学方法进行评价并比较。结果:学生对教材知识排列重组后的可读性、吸引度、实验验证理论的支撑度等方面评价较高,与普通班相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:将医学基础知识重新排列整合,在护理专业学生中实施教学,有利于护理职业教育与护理工作岗位紧密结合,有利于学生综合学习能力的提高。

  15. Basic concepts of medical genetics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammad Saad Zaghloul Salem

    2012-04-20

    Apr 20, 2012 ... protein or a non-mRNA molecule responsible for mediating that particular biological .... The process of gene transcription and synthesis of the mes- senger RNA .... and several transcription factors and RNA polymerase II have been shown to be mod- .... The molecular mechanics of eukaryotic translation.

  16. Application of the basic constructs of social cognitive theory for predicting mental health in student of Bushehr University Medical Sciences 2012-13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makyea Jamali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: mental health is one of the health assessment topics in different communities which plays an important role in ensuring the dynamism and efficiency, especially in the students. Thus, the aim of this study is to application of basic constructs of social cognitive theory for predicting mental health in student of Bushehr University Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This cross– sectional study was conducted with using a systematic random sampling method in 428 students of Bushehr University Medical Sciences in 2012-13. Information was collected by using five standard questionnaires including academic self efficacy, academic stress, multidimensional social support, student outcome expectancy and Quality of life (SF-36 scales. After data collection, all data was analyzed by SPSS statistical software with using Pearson correlation coefficient test and multiple linear regressions. Results: In this study, mental health had a significant correlation with social support (P =0.000, r=0.37, academic stress (P= 0.000, r= -0.45 and academic self-efficacy (P =0.000 , r =0. 24. In the liner regression model, predictor factors of mental health were faculty type and curriculum counseling and noncurriculum counseling evaluation variables and self efficacy (P=0.031, B= 1.49, academic stress (P=0.000, B=- 4.35, and social support constructs (P=0.000, B =4.77. Also, gender, mother's education and father's job had indirect effects to mental health through social support and acceptance quota and curriculum counseling evaluation had indirect effects to mental health through self efficacy. Conclusion: Utilization of strategies to increase self- efficacy, creating social support environment and also stress reduction particularly with organization of curriculum and non-curriculum counseling sessions can promote mental health in students.

  17. 泰州市加快基本医疗保险制度整合研究%To Speed up the Integration of the Basic Medical Insurance System in Taizhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦金芝; 潘时常; 周春林

    2014-01-01

    After more than three years of the reform, the basic medical insurance system in China has been rapid development, however, system is divided into, split between urban and rural areas, management of separation, scattered resources, and other issues still restricted the fairness of the basic medical insurance system. How to inte-grate the existing employee medical insurance, medical residents, new rural cooperative medical system for the ba-sic medical insurance system for urban and rural residents of unity, through in-depth study on the integration of the basic medical insurance system of Taizhou, put forward a series of valuable suggestions, such as strengthen the top-level design, improve the system of medical insurance relationship transfer and build an integrated manage-ment system.%经过三年多的新医改,我国基本医疗保障制度得到快速发展,但是,制度分设、城乡分割、管理分离、资源分散等问题仍制约着基本医疗保险制度的公平性。如何将现有的职工医保、居民医保、新农合整合为统一的城乡居民基本医疗保险制度,文章通过对泰州市基本医疗保险制度整合的深入研究,提出了加强制度的顶层设计、完善医保关系转移制度、构建一体化的管理体制等一系列对策建议。

  18. Decoupling of the minority PhD talent pool and assistant professor hiring in medical school basic science departments in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Kenneth D; Basson, Jacob; Xierali, Imam M; Broniatowski, David A

    2016-11-17

    Faculty diversity is a longstanding challenge in the US. However, we lack a quantitative and systemic understanding of how the career transitions into assistant professor positions of PhD scientists from underrepresented minority (URM) and well-represented (WR) racial/ethnic backgrounds compare. Between 1980 and 2013, the number of PhD graduates from URM backgrounds increased by a factor of 9.3, compared with a 2.6-fold increase in the number of PhD graduates from WR groups. However, the number of scientists from URM backgrounds hired as assistant professors in medical school basic science departments was not related to the number of potential candidates (R(2)=0.12, p>0.07), whereas there was a strong correlation between these two numbers for scientists from WR backgrounds (R(2)=0.48, pprofessors and posited no hiring discrimination. Simulations show that, given current transition rates of scientists from URM backgrounds to faculty positions, faculty diversity would not increase significantly through the year 2080 even in the context of an exponential growth in the population of PhD graduates from URM backgrounds, or significant increases in the number of faculty positions. Instead, the simulations showed that diversity increased as more postdoctoral candidates from URM backgrounds transitioned onto the market and were hired.

  19. [Psychomotor skills assessment in basic procedures of laparoscopic surgery in undergraduate medical students at the School of Medicine of the University of Colima].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Díaz-Chávez, Emilio; Medina-Chávez, José Luís; Martínez-Lira, Rafael; Millán-Guerrero, Rebeca; Vázquez-Jiménez, Clemente; Trujillo-Hernández, Benjamín

    2014-01-01

    The changes in recent decades in the training of medical student seem to agree that the educational model for professional skills is most appropriate. The virtual simulator translates skills acquired the operating room, in the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Colima noticed the need to prepare the students of pregrade transferring surgical trainees' skills in basic laparoscopic activities that require a simple cognitive effort. The hypothesis in this study was to evaluate the acquisition of skills in laparoscopic simulator in students of pregrade. Educational research, analytical comparison, which was conducted within the activities of the program of Problem Based Learning in the program of Education and Surgical Technique, Faculty of Medicine of the University of Colima. All participants in the simulator achieved a significantly better during the task one after three repetitions (p= 0.001). The evaluation of final students calcification, we observed significant differences in means being lower during the initial assessment (8.60 ± 0.76) compared to the end (8.96 ± 0.58) p= 0.001. The acquisition of skills in the simulator is longer but at the end is better than the acquisition of skills from the traditional method, showing that leads to the acquisition of skills that promote the transfer of skills to the surgical environment.

  20. Legal Regulation on Continuation of Migrant Workers the Basic Medical Insurance Right%农民工基本医疗保障权转移接续的法律规制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健

    2016-01-01

    随着基本医疗保障制度的深入实施,农民工基本医疗保障权的转移接续越发凸显。农民工基本医疗保险的复杂性,统筹层次较低,各地经济的不平衡发展,信息化网络建设的滞后,严重束缚和制约了农民工基本医疗保障权的转移接续。有关农民工基本医疗保障权转移接续规定的不足,农民工就业顺畅移转的迫切需求,催生了农民工基本医疗保障权转移接续的尽快建立。全面深入分析了长三角部分地区、深圳、镇江、欧盟地区关于农民工基本医疗保险的做法,在此基础上,从逐步提高统筹层次,建立信息化系统,协调不同医疗保险制度等三种途径,提出相应的解决措施。%With the deepening of the implementation of the basic medical insurance system,the transfer of migrant workers in the basic medical insurance continuation rights has become more prominent. Such factors including the complexity of migrant workers basic medical insurance,the low overall level,uneven development across the economy,information network construction lag severely constrain and restrict the transfer of migrant workers in the basic medical insurance continuation rights. The lack of basic medical care related to migrant workers the right to transfer and continuation provisions of the urgent needs of a smooth transfer of employment of migrant workers promote the basic medical insurance of migrant workers the right to transfer and continuation of the establishment as quickly as possible. On this basis,the overall level gradually increase,the establishment of information systems,coordination of three ways different medical insurance systems and propose appropriate solutions,trying to establish the basic medical insur-ance of migrant workers the right to transfer and continuation of the legal system as soon as possible.

  1. Asthma Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Asthma Basics KidsHealth > For Parents > Asthma Basics A A ... Asthma Categories en español Asma: aspectos fundamentales About Asthma Asthma is a common lung condition in kids ...

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the brain ... specialized for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes ...

  3. Anti-aging pharmacology: Promises and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiserman, Alexander M; Lushchak, Oleh V; Koliada, Alexander K

    2016-11-01

    Life expectancy has grown dramatically in modern times. This increase, however, is not accompanied by the same increase in healthspan. Efforts to extend healthspan through pharmacological agents targeting aging-related pathological changes are now in the spotlight of geroscience, the main idea of which is that delaying of aging is far more effective than preventing the particular chronic disorders. Currently, anti-aging pharmacology is a rapidly developing discipline. It is a preventive field of health care, as opposed to conventional medicine which focuses on treating symptoms rather than root causes of illness. A number of pharmacological agents targeting basic aging pathways (i.e., calorie restriction mimetics, autophagy inducers, senolytics etc.) are now under investigation. This review summarizes the literature related to advances, perspectives and challenges in the field of anti-aging pharmacology.

  4. The tendency of medical electrical equipment - IEC 60601-2-54: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of x-ray equipment for radiography and radioscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Young Hoon; Kim, Jung Min [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Radiologic Science School of Health and Environmental Science College of Health Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Medical electrical equipment - Part 1: General requirement for basic safety and essential performance of MFDS was revised as 3th edition and Medical electrical equipment Part 2-54: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of X-ray equipment will be expected to be announced as notification. Therefore this technical report was written to introduce provision of the particular requirements, replacement, addition, amendment. The purpose of this particular requirements is to secure requirements for basic safety and essential performance of X-ray equipment for radiography and radioscopy. X-ray high voltage generator, mechanical protective device, protection against radiation is included in this particular requirements. Medical electrical equipment - Part 1, Part 1-2, Part 1-3 is applied to this particular requirements. If the requirements is announced as notification, It is expected to widen understanding for basic safety and essential performance of X-ray equipment for radiography and radioscopy and play a part to internationalize of medical equipment.

  5. 基本医疗保险并轨问题探讨--以广东省为例%Study on the Integration Problem of the Basic Medical Insurance System---Taking Guangdong as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    初可佳

    2015-01-01

    It is a tendency that Urban Employee Medical Insurance, Urban Residents Medical Insurance and New Rural Co -operative Medical Sys-tem merge."Three-in-One"become the future trend of the development of the basic medical insurance .Even through the exploration of basic medical insurance system achieves initial effects , but it is always with many problems .Fragmentation of the basic medical insurance system has be-come a major obstacle to the development of basic medical insurance , urban and rural areas due to the breaking of the household registration system split into dual structure, has become the focal point of the medical insurance system .Successful experience in the application of the PPP model in Zhanjiang and benefits such as Germany, Japan, the integration of national health insurance, medical insurance system in Guangdong Province, provides a typical development direction .The author gives the extraction of basic medical insurance in question , and puts forward some suggestions.%在基本医疗保险并轨的探索中,取得成就的同时也产生了诸多问题,基本医疗保险制度的碎片化已成为基本医疗保险发展的最大阻碍,打破城乡由于户籍制度所割裂成的二元结构,逐渐成为医疗保险并轨的着力点。湛江PPP模式的应用以及德国、日本等福利国家医疗保险一体化的成功经验,为广东省医疗保险并轨提供了典型的发展方向,笔者在此对基本医疗保险中出现的问题给予提炼,并提出了建议。

  6. [Pneumology and Sports: An Outpatient Endurance Training with Sports Medical Guidance as an Effective Non-pharmacological Therapy in Pneumology - a Feasibility Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammenwerth, W; Crolow, C; Wurps, H; Schultz, Th; Krüll, M; Ukas, K; Schönfeld, N; Blum, T G; Bauer, T T

    2016-05-01

    In the process of medical rehabilitation muscular endurance training is the main focus. Unfortunately, outpatient rehabilitation opportunities are limited and specialized pulmonary exercise groups ("lung sport groups") rarely available. Therefore we developed an outpatient endurance sports program for patients with respiratory diseases and evaluated its effectiveness. In this feasibility study 31 patients (50 ± 15 years) with diverse respiratory diseases were included. By professional functional exercise testing (incl. CPET and lactate measurement according to the standards of DGP and DGSP) the patients optimal training zone was determined and an individualized 12 week lasting aerobic endurance training with ≥ 3 sessions of 20 - 60 min/week realized. After completion of the exercise training program a significant improvement in dyspnoea (Borg-Scale: 65.7 ± 12.2 vs. 62.2 ± 12.6, p = 0.013), body constitution (BMI: 25.7 ± 3.3 vs. 24.3 ± 3.2 kg/m(2), p = 0.018; portion of body fat: 24.8 ± 5.8 vs. 23.8 ± 6.4 %, p = 0.043) as well as physical capacity (VO2 at 4 mmol/l Laktat: 24.2 ± 6.9 vs. 26.5 ± 7.6 ml/min/kg, p physical quality of life (quality of life questionnaire SF-36: physical score + 9.7 points, mental score + 4.5 points). The evaluated exercise program can easily be trained by the patient in a self-dependent setting and was seen to be an effective sports medical treatment in patients with diverse pulmonary diseases. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Discussion on improving medical insurance administrative system in China in view of analyzing "Basic Medical Insurance Service Contract"%从"基本医疗保险服务合同"角度探讨完善和健全我国医疗保险管理体制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张述萍; 袁江帆

    2011-01-01

    通过对现阶段我国基本医疗服务合同的特点和性质进行归纳和总结,分析现阶段我国基本医疗保险制度法律关系的特点,我国医疗服务合同的特点、性质及其关系,提出完善和健全我国基本医疗保险管理体制的框架和没想.%Based on the analysis of the characters of current basic medical service contract, the characters of law in current basic medical insurance service contract and medical service contract were analyzed and summarized.Framework and thoughts of improving basic medical insurance administrative system in China were discussed.

  8. Basic sciences: an alternative career?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, R

    2013-01-01

    Career selection is a crucial and a complex process which is also true for the medical profession. In the context of our country, due to the limited opportunity and proper guidance, migration of medical graduates to foreign countries is increasing. Though, clinical subjects have a huge attraction, basic science field has failed to impress our medical graduates. In current scenario, basic science field seems to be a dumping site for the incompetent as the candidates who have failed trying their luck elsewhere stumble upon basic science careers though it is not true for all. Moreover, a very few medical graduates are interested in developing their career as a basic scientist. Therefore, to motivate today's young medical graduates, there is a need of a good mentor along with a proper career guidance which can help them to understand the basic science field as an alternative career.

  9. Pharmacologic approaches to the treatment of cocaine dependence.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, W. A.; Gold, M. S.

    1990-01-01

    When pharmacologic agents are considered in the treatment of cocaine addiction, the objective of such treatment--sustained abstinence--must be considered. Medication and medical approaches have been disappointing in the treatment of cocaine overdose. The central neurobiologic mechanism(s) involved in cocaine toxicity are poorly understood. Without a cocaine antagonist, pharmacologic approaches have been less than promising in preventing relapse. Various psychoactive medications have been trie...

  10. Pharmacology practice and South Africa physiotherapists - part two needs analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Unger

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A national survey of pharmaceutical practice by South African physiotherapists was conducted. In this second paper, the needs relating to administration, storage and prescription of medicines are discussed. Seventy percent of respondents reported a need to legally administer and 58% reported a need to store certain medicines. More than 60% of respondents were in favour of the expansion of the scope of physiotherapy practice to include prescription of a limited range of medications after training and within certain areas of specialization or clinical competence. It is recommended that a basic pharmacology module be part of the undergraduate curriculum with the option to expand or update knowledge and skills via CPD activities and through specialization and that legislation be revised to accommodate these suggestions.

  11. Basic electrotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Ashen, R A

    2013-01-01

    BASIC Electrotechnology discusses the applications of Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) in engineering, particularly in solving electrotechnology-related problems. The book is comprised of six chapters that cover several topics relevant to BASIC and electrotechnology. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to BASIC, and Chapter 2 talks about the use of complex numbers in a.c. circuit analysis. Chapter 3 covers linear circuit analysis with d.c. and sinusoidal a.c. supplies. The book also discusses the elementary magnetic circuit theory. The theory and performance of two windi

  12. The emerging role of MD Pharmacology postgraduate in pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratishtha Banga Chaudhari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Patient-benefit is a shared goal of the pharmaceutical company and the treating doctor. At the same time, the pharmaceutical company- in order to recur its R and D costs has to balance patient centricity with making profits. Consequently, the commercial benefits from prescription of a product and education about optimal use of product both become the responsibilities of same organization. This often leads to allegations of bias by the regulators. We are in an era where regulatory bodies closely monitor the promotional method of drugs, the validity of information being communicated, to what audience the information is shared, who all can share the information from the companys end. Thus the pharmaceutical companies split the two functions and allocated a set of medical professionals for handling the scientific interactions. The larger objective of the pharmaceutical company is optimum product utilization via educating the potential prescribers about efficacy and safety data of the product, and not just generates sales. Medical affairs serves as a link of pharmaceutical company who intends to develop a peer-to-peer relationship with HCP, through-out the life-cycle of product and provides a scientific interface of the prescribing clinicians and the pharmaceutical industry. Medical affairs role encompasses scientific, informational, communications and interpersonal activities. This article emphasizes on the evolving role of medical affairs in the pharmaceutical industry so as to provide a clear idea to the pharmacology post graduates. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(6.000: 2706-2711

  13. Explore of strengthening education on professional ethics in basic medical curriculum%医学专业基础课教学中加强职业道德教育的探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李夏春; 杨红卫; 陆永利

    2013-01-01

    医学生的职业道德素质直接影响医生的职业道德水平。为探讨在专业基础课程中加强对医学生的职业道德的培养的方法,本院教师在生理学及病理生理学教学中,采取结合相关专业知识组织医学生讨论医学伦理学原则,用医界德材兼备的楷模鼓励医学生树立钻研医学难题的志向,加强医学生职业道德自我评估等措施,促进了医学生职业道德和专业技能的平衡发展。%To explore the methods of strengthening professional ethics in basic medical curriculum, since the professional ethics of medical students affect their professional ethics in medical work. In physiology and pathophysiology class, medical ethics were introduced combining the extent of basic medium curriculum, encouraged student working medical science difficulties with the example of forefathers in medicine, and strengthened auto-evaluation of professional ethics of students. These methods promoted the balance development of professional ethics and medical skills.

  14. [Methodology of preparing a list of educational objectives: example of application to pharmacology. Groupe Objectifs Pédagogiques de L'Association des Enseignants de Pharmacologie].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissel, J P; Autret, E; Bechtel, P; Bourin, M; Funk-Brentano, C; Lièvre, M; Paintaud, G; Pons, G

    1996-01-01

    Using a structured approach to categorize pharmacological knowledge and a systemic analysis of prescribing practice, we identified the knowledge needed to optimally prescribe and manage treatments with drugs. The approach consisted in finding the branched chains of knowledge beginning with each operation required to solve each problem which arises in prescribing and managing drugs at the most elementary level. This elementary knowledge is then transformed into educational objectives. The next step is to share the educational objectives between basic medical training, continuing medical education and acquisition of therapeutic knowledge. The method could be applied in other medical teaching domains.

  15. Pharmacology for the Psychotherapist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Myron Michael

    This book covers those areas of pharmacology that are of importance and interest to the psychotherapist. The 1st chapter introduces the various types of drugs. The 2nd chapter presents an overview of pharmacology and its principles. The 3rd chapter reviews aspects of the human body of importance to understanding the workings of psychotropic drugs.…

  16. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... referred her to a psychiatrist, a type of medical doctor who is an expert on mental disorders. Other medical professionals who can diagnose mental disorders are psychologists ...

  17. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... role in mental disorders and the effects of medications. Some, but not all mutations and epigenetic changes ... than normal levels of serotonin. The types of medications most commonly prescribed to treat depression act by ...

  18. Lucky guess or knowledge: a cross-sectional study using the Bland and Altman analysis to compare confidence-based testing of pharmacological knowledge in 3rd and 5th year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmeyer, Daniela; Matthes, Jan; Herzig, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    Multiple-choice-questions are common in medical examinations, but guessing biases assessment results. Confidence-based-testing (CBT) integrates indicated confidence levels. It has been suggested that correctness of and confidence in an answer together indicate knowledge levels thus determining the quality of a resulting decision. We used a CBT approach to investigate whether decision quality improves during undergraduate medical education. 3rd- and 5th-year students attended formative multiple-choice exams on pharmacological issues. Students were asked to indicate their confidence in a given answer. Correctness of answers was scored binary (1-correct; 0-wrong) and confidence levels were transformed to an ordinal scale (guess: 0; rather unsure: 0.33; rather sure: 0.66; very sure: 1). 5th-year students gave more correct answers (73 ± 16 vs. 49 ± 13 %, p confident regarding the correctness of their answers (0.61 ± 0.18 vs. 0.46 ± 0.13, p students (r = 0.81 vs. r = 0.52), but agreement of confidence and correctness ('centration') was lower. By combining the Bland-and-Altman approach with categories of decision-quality we found that 5th-year students were more likely to be 'well-informed' (41 vs. 5 %), while more 3rd-students were 'uninformed' (24 vs. 76 %). Despite a good correlation of exam results and confidence in given answers increased knowledge might be accompanied by a more critical view at the own abilities. Combining the statistical Bland-and-Altman analysis with a theoretical approach to decision-quality, more advanced students are expected to apply correct beliefs, while their younger fellows are rather at risk to hesitate or to act amiss.

  19. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain How different parts of the brain communicate and work with each other How changes in the brain ...

  20. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah ... having trouble coping with the stresses in her life. She began to think of suicide because she ...

  1. Pharmacological and clinical properties of curcumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Christopher S Beevers¹, Shile Huang²¹Department of Pharmacology, Ross University School of Medicine, Picard-Portsmouth, Commonwealth of Dominica; ²Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA, USAAbstract: The polyphenol natural product curcumin has been the subject of numerous studies over the past decades, which have identified and characterized the compound's pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and clinical pharmacological properties. In in vitro and in vivo model systems, curcumin displays potent pharmacological effects, by targeting many critical cellular factors, through a diverse array of mechanisms of action. Despite this tremendous molecular versatility, however, the clinical application of curcumin remains limited due to poor pharmacokinetic characteristics in human beings. The current trend is to develop and utilize unique delivery systems, chemical derivatives, and chemical analogs to circumvent these pharmacological obstacles, in order to optimize the conditions for curcumin as a chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent in diseases such as cancer, diabetes, obesity, Alzheimer's disease, and inflammatory disorders. The present work seeks to review recent studies in the basic pharmacological principles and potential clinical applications of curcumin.Keywords: curcumin, pharmacological properties, signal transduction, cellular targets, cancer, inflammation

  2. Pharmacological Treatment Effects on Eye Movement Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, James L.; Lencer, Rebekka; Bishop, Jeffrey R.; Keedy, Sarah; Sweeney, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing use of eye movement paradigms to assess the functional integrity of brain systems involved in sensorimotor and cognitive processing in clinical disorders requires greater attention to effects of pharmacological treatments on these systems. This is needed to better differentiate disease and medication effects in clinical samples, to…

  3. Development of innovative teaching materials: clinical pharmacology problem-solving (CPPS) units: comparison with patient-oriented problem-solving units and problem-based learning--a 10-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathers, Claire M; Smith, Cedric M

    2002-05-01

    The First Teaching Clinic in Clinical Pharmacology, sponsored by the American College of Clinical Pharmacology in September 1992, was designed for the preparation and development of new clinical pharmacology problem-solving (CPPS) units. CPPS units are case histories that illustrate pertinent principles in clinical pharmacology. Each unit consists of the following sections: introduction, learning objectives, pretest, four clinical pharmacology scenarios, posttest, answers to pre- and posttest questions, and selected references. The clinical pharmacology content of the CPPS units place greater emphasis on clinical information, drug selection, and risk/benefit analyses, and thus they complement the basic pharmacology presented in the patient-oriented problem-solving (POPS) units. In general, the CPPS units are intended for use by students more advanced in clinical pharmacology than first- and second-year medical students. The CPPS unit "Clinical Pharmacology of Antiepileptic Drug Use: Clinical Pearls about the Perils of Patty" was developed for use by third- and fourth-year medical students doing rotations in neurology or clinical pharmacology; advanced pharmacy students; residents in neurology, pediatrics, internal medicine, and family practice; fellows in clinical pharmacology, and those taking the board examination in clinical pharmacology. The CPPS unit titled "Geriatric Clinical Psychopharmacology" was written for third- and fourth-year medical students; residents in psychiatry, family practice, and internal medicine;fellows in clinical pharmacology; and those studying for boards in clinical pharmacology. The CPPS unit "Anisocoria and Glaucoma" was written for more advanced students of clinical pharmacology. The CPPS unit titled "Antiepileptic Drugs" was intended for second-year medical students. The second teaching clinic was held in November 1993 and focused on the development and editing of the CPPS units and their evaluations by faculty and students from

  4. Basic hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, P D

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Hydraulics aims to help students both to become proficient in the BASIC programming language by actually using the language in an important field of engineering and to use computing as a means of mastering the subject of hydraulics. The book begins with a summary of the technique of computing in BASIC together with comments and listing of the main commands and statements. Subsequent chapters introduce the fundamental concepts and appropriate governing equations. Topics covered include principles of fluid mechanics; flow in pipes, pipe networks and open channels; hydraulic machinery;

  5. 基本医疗服务的内涵及其外延的界定探讨%Discussions on the definition of connotation and extension of basic medical services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宁; 张宗久; 陶红兵; 高光明; 舒琴; 范晶; 沈晓; 熊光练; 夏冕

    2014-01-01

    基本医疗卫生服务中基本公共卫生服务范围已有比较明确的界定,而基本医疗服务却缺乏明确的范围.本研究从基本医疗服务的内涵、界定原则以及内容出发,系统分析和比较了国内外基本医疗服务的研究进展,综合考虑各种界定方法的特点,认为从病种角度对基本医疗服务进行界定更具现实性和可操作性,更有利于我国覆盖城乡的基本医疗卫生制度的建立和医改政策的落实.故此提出基于病种角度,按病种范围和相应的保障目录界定基本医疗服务外延的思路,为基本医疗服务的界定及其实现路径提供依据.%The basic public health services have been defined rather clearly,yet there is not yet a clear boundary for basic medical services.Based on the definition of connotation of basic medical services,this paper systematically analyzed and compared the researches on basic medical services at home and abroad.This study proposed to define such services by diseases as it is more practical and feasible,a practice conducive to building an urban and rural network of basic medical services in China and success of the health reform.The authors recommended to define the extensional boundaries of such services according to defined diseases and the related list of guarantees,for the purpose of providing a theoretical basis for the definition and realization path of basic medical services.

  6. Pharmacological modeling and biostatistical analysis of a new drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revathi Ananthakrishnan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Revathi Ananthakrishnan1, Philimon Gona21Cambridge, MA, USA; 2Boston University, Mathematics and Statistics Department, 111 Cummington St, Boston, MA-02215, USAAbstract: Clinical research and clinical trials of experimental drugs to treat human diseases have gained greater importance in recent years. Phase I–IV clinical trials offer patients the opportunity to gain access to a new, more efficacious and safer medication to alleviate or cure their disease. There are potential side effects of every new drug; however, such trials and studies are crucial for drug development and testing in humans. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA regulated process of evaluating a new drug for treating a particular disease in humans is long, rigorous, and includes the stages starting from preclinical research through the entire human clinical trials process. This review synthesizes results from the above stages and describes the entire mechanism of the clinical study of a new drug for human disease. It emphasizes the associated mathematical modeling and statistical analyses, and bridges pharmacological modeling and biostatistics in clinical research and also provides a basic theoretical overview to biomedical experimentalists. The modern trend in clinical research involves a unified approach among several biomedical subspecialties and it is hoped that even more integrated studies of new drugs will continue to be carried out, leading to novel drugs that are highly effective in curing the associated condition.Keywords: PK/PD pharmacological modeling, biostatistical analyses of clinical trials data, clinical trials, phases of clinical trials, types and designs of clinical trials

  7. Advancing pharmacometrics and systems pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, S A; Terzic, A

    2012-11-01

    Pharmacometrics and systems pharmacology are emerging as principal quantitative sciences within drug development and experimental therapeutics. In recognition of the importance of pharmacometrics and systems pharmacology to the discipline of clinical pharmacology, the American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics (ASCPT), in collaboration with Nature Publishing Group and Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, has established CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology to inform the field and shape the discipline.

  8. Let's 'play' with molecular pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Supriyo; Pradhan, Richeek; Sengupta, Gairik; Das, Manisha; Chatterjee, Manojit; Roy, Ranendra Kumar; Chatterjee, Suparna

    2015-01-01

    Understanding concepts of molecular mechanisms of drug action involves sequential visualization of physiological processes and drug effects, a task that can be difficult at an undergraduate level. Role-play is a teaching-learning methodology whereby active participation of students as well as clear visualization of the phenomenon is used to convey complex physiological concepts. However, its use in teaching drug action, a process that demands understanding of a second level of complexity over the physiological process, has not been investigated. We hypothesized that role-play can be an effective and well accepted method for teaching molecular pharmacology. In an observational study, students were guided to perform a role-play on a selected topic involving drug activity. Students' gain in knowledge was assessed comparing validated pre- and post-test questionnaires as well as class average normalized gain. The acceptance of role-play among undergraduate medical students was evaluated by Likert scale analysis and thematic analysis of their open-ended written responses. Significant improvement in knowledge (P pharmacology in undergraduate medical curricula.

  9. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... the basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  10. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... effectively coordinate the billions of cells in the body, the results can affect many aspects of life. ... messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell organelles. ...

  11. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  12. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle- ... harder for Sarah to recover normally from her low mood. It's important to remember that everyone gets " ...

  13. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... the basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  14. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  15. Basic Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittek, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.

  16. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... blues" from time to time. In contrast, major depression is a serious disorder that lasts for weeks. ...

  17. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental illnesses. Brain Basics will introduce you ... of DNA. Sometimes this copying process is imperfect, leading to a gene mutation that causes the gene ...

  18. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  19. Brain Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  20. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot ... How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the ...

  1. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... blues" from time to time. In contrast, major depression is a serious disorder that lasts for weeks. ...

  2. SARS Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Resources Related Links Clinician Registry Travelers' Health SARS Basics Fact Sheet Language: English Español (Spanish) Format: ... 3 pages] SARS [3 pages] SARS [3 pages] SARS? Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral ...

  3. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of ... but sometimes give rise to disabilities or diseases. neural circuit —A network of neurons and their interconnections. ...

  4. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... healthy people, and how normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental illnesses. Brain ... system. These cells are highly specialized for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic ...

  5. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Events About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  6. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  7. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the ... inside contents of the cell from its surrounding environment and controls what enters and leaves the cell, ...

  8. Evolution of Policy Thoughts on Basic Medical Insurance:Analysis on the Practice of Zhejiang Province%基本医疗保险的政策思维演进--结合浙江实践的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅鸿翔

    2014-01-01

    与中国经济体制改革和社会建设发展相适应,基本医保在二十年间经历了巨大变化。依据中国共产党第十四次全会以来历次全会报告,基本医保从经济制度属性转而强化社会制度属性。回顾分析其间政策思维的演进脉络,有助于更好把握十八届三中全会提出的治理理念对未来基本医保的政策思维的要求。%Accompanying with the reform of economic system and the development of social construction, basic medical insurance has experienced great change during the past twenty years in China. It has been transformed from economic system to social system according to the series reports of the 14th-18th session of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. The author reviewed the evolution of policy thoughts on basic medical insurance and tried to grasp the demand of the concept of governance proposed in the third plenary session of the eighteenth Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on basic medical policy making in the future.

  9. Neuroimmune pharmacology from a neuroscience perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrop, Nicole A; Northrup, Nicole A; Yamamoto, Bryan K

    2011-03-01

    The focus of this commentary is to describe how neuroscience, immunology, and pharmacology intersect and how interdisciplinary research involving these areas has expanded knowledge in the area of neuroscience, in particular. Examples are presented to illustrate that the brain can react to the peripheral immune system and possesses immune function and that resident immune molecules play a role in normal brain physiology. In addition, evidence is presented that the brain immune system plays an important role in mediating neurodegenerative diseases, the aging process, and neurodevelopment and synaptic plasticity. The identification of these mechanisms has been facilitated by pharmacological studies and has opened new possibilities for pharmacotherapeutic approaches to the treatment of brain disorders. The emerging field of neuroimmune pharmacology exemplifies this interdisciplinary approach and has facilitated the study of basic cellular and molecular events and disease states and opens avenues for novel therapies.

  10. Pharmacological Management of Atrial Fibrillation: One, None, One Hundred Thousand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Lucà

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes the available evidence regarding the efficacy of medications used for acute management of AF, rhythm and ventricular rate control, and stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation and focuses on the current pharmacological agents.

  11. An Endocrine Pharmacology Course for the Clinically-Oriented Pharmacy Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahwan, Ralf G.

    1976-01-01

    In view of trends in clinical pharmacy education, the role of the traditional basic sciences has to be reassessed. An endocrine pharmacology course comprised of 49 clock-hours and open for professional undergraduate and graduate credit is described that blends basic and applied pharmacology. (LBH)

  12. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Sarah's doctor referred her to a psychiatrist, a type of medical doctor who is an expert on mental disorders. Other medical professionals who can diagnose mental disorders are psychologists or clinical social workers. The psychiatrist asked Sarah and her husband ...

  13. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  14. 中国医疗卫生事业效益分析之系列研究——2010年基层医疗卫生事业之效益分析%A Series of Research on China's Medical and Health Services Benefit Analysis:The Benefit Analysis on 2010 Basic Medical and Health Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 顾俊

    2012-01-01

    The paper makes a research on the development of 2010 basic medical and health services. Basic medical and health institutions mainly distributed in the countryside, mainly are public, non-profit, plays good social responsibility and social benefits, ensure the basic-level health personnel team stability, strengthen assets, cost accounting, cost expenditure management, and improve the utilization rate of assets.%研究2010年基层医疗卫生事业发展,基层医疗卫生机构主要分布在农村,以公立、非营利为主,承担发挥良好社会职责和社会效益,确保基层卫生人员的队伍及稳定性,加强资产、成本核算、成本支出的管理,提高资产利用率.

  15. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... ACC has many different roles, from controlling blood pressure and heart rate to responding when we sense ... and her husband questions about Sarah's symptoms and family medical history. Epigenetic changes from stress or early- ...

  16. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... all. She was happily married and successful in business. Then, after a serious setback at work, she ... and her husband questions about Sarah's symptoms and family medical history. Epigenetic changes from stress or early- ...

  17. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... specific protein. Scientists believe epigenetics play a major role in mental disorders and the effects of medications. ... feeling regions of the brain may play a role in disorders like schizophrenia or attention deficit hyperactivity ...

  18. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... people with depression often have lower than normal levels of serotonin. The types of medications most commonly ... for anxiety disorders like phobias or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) . Prefrontal cortex (PFC) —Seat of the ...

  19. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... and her husband questions about Sarah's symptoms and family medical history. Epigenetic changes from stress or early- ... and techniques are giving scientists a more detailed understanding of the brain than ever before. Brain Imaging ...

  20. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... many different roles, from controlling blood pressure and heart rate to responding when we sense a mistake, ... her a prescription for a type of antidepressant medication called a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). SSRIs ...

  1. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... in her life. She began to think of suicide because she felt like things weren't going ... symptoms and family medical history. Epigenetic changes from stress or early-life experiences may have made it ...

  2. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... people with depression often have lower than normal levels of serotonin. The types of medications most commonly ... all. She was happily married and successful in business. Then, after a serious setback at work, she ...

  3. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot ... husband questions about Sarah's symptoms and family medical history. Epigenetic changes from stress or early-life experiences ...

  4. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Genes and the Environment There are many different types of cells in the body. We say that ... have lower than normal levels of serotonin. The types of medications most commonly prescribed to treat depression ...

  5. Hygiene Basics

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    ... be a sign of a medical condition, like polycystic ovary syndrome . If you're a girl who is worried about hair growth, talk to your ... Causes Bad Breath? Myths About Acne Feeling Fresh Athlete's Foot Why Do I Get ...

  6. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... PFC are involved in using short-term or "working" memory and in retrieving long-term memories. This area ... neuron —A nerve cell that is the basic, working unit of the brain and nervous ... serotonin —A neurotransmitter that regulates many functions, including ...

  7. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit ... final destination. Chemical signals from other cells guide neurons in forming various brain structures. Neighboring neurons make connections with each other ...

  8. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Join A Study News & Events News & Events Home Science News Events Multimedia Social Media Press Resources Newsletters NIMH News Feeds About Us About Us Home About the Director Advisory Boards and Groups Strategic ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes ...

  9. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System Heart and Circulatory System Immune ...

  10. Ethanol Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  11. A study of the problems between basic insurance organizations and teaching hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences as viewed by the staff of income hospitals and representative of the insurer’s organization in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Najibi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Iran health insurance is a significant tool in healthcare costs, financing health care and equal access to health services for people. Problems between hospitals and insurance organizations impose extra cost to the patient, leading to financial losses they will infringe upon the rights of patients. This study aimed to determine the issues between hospitals and basic insurance organizations and proposed practical solutions to solve problems in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Method:This research was a qualitative study (content analysis, which was conducted in 2013. The research population consisted of teaching hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences; Purposeful sampling was used and continued until data saturation. The representative of the insurers and staff of income hospitals were asked questions using a semi-structured interview. In this study, we used NVIVO for data analysis. Results: The results of this study showed that the most common problems between basic insurance organizations and teaching hospitals include the lack of prompt payment of hospital bills and imposing deduction on the hospitals. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it seems that cooperation between hospitals and insurance organizations could be improved by timely payment of hospital bills and codifying appropriate rules and regulations by basic insurance organizations and, on the other hand, with timely completion of bills and training of hospital staff by the hospital authorities.

  12. Conotoxins: Structure, Therapeutic Potential and Pharmacological Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Rafia; Karim, Sajjad; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Wilson, Cornelia M; Mirza, Zeenat

    2016-01-01

    Cone snails, also known as marine gastropods, from Conus genus produce in their venom a diverse range of small pharmacologically active structured peptides called conotoxins. The cone snail venoms are widely unexplored arsenal of toxins with therapeutic and pharmacological potential, making them a treasure trove of ligands and peptidic drug leads. Conotoxins are small disulfide bonded peptides, which act as remarkable selective inhibitors and modulators of ion channels (calcium, sodium, potassium), nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, noradrenaline transporters, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, and neurotensin receptors. They are highly potent and specific against several neuronal targets making them valuable as research tools, drug leads and even therapeutics. In this review, we discuss their gene superfamily classification, nomenclature, post-translational modification, structural framework, pharmacology and medical applications of the active conopeptides. We aim to give an overview of their structure and therapeutic potential. Understanding these aspects of conopeptides will help in designing more specific peptidic analogues.

  13. Pharmacological treatment of adult ADHD in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retz, Wolfgang; Retz-Junginger, Petra; Thome, Johannes; Rösler, Michael

    2011-09-01

    It is now widely accepted that ADHD is a frequent chronic condition with a lifelong perspective. Adult ADHD is a reliable and valid diagnosis. The disorder and the co-morbid conditions can place a severe burden on the patients, their families and their partners, requiring adequate treatment. A systematic literature search was conducted to review the available pharmacological treatment options for adults with ADHD in European countries. Supported by meta-analyses, stimulant medication is the first-line pharmacological therapy for adult ADHD. However, from a European perspective the pharmacological treatment options are very limited and only a minority of adults with ADHD in European countries receives adequate treatment. With reference to the epidemiological data, it seems very likely that the number of people with ADHD in Europe seeking multimodal treatment including pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, coaching or other therapeutic services will increase profoundly during the coming years.

  14. Differences in medication knowledge and risk of errors between graduating nursing students and working registered nurses: comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nurses experience insufficient medication knowledge; particularly in drug dose calculations, but also in drug management and pharmacology. The weak knowledge could be a result of deficiencies in the basic nursing education, or lack of continuing maintenance training during working years. The aim of this study was to compare the medication knowledge, certainty and risk of error between graduating bachelor students in nursing and experienced registered nurses. Methods: Bac...

  15. Pharmacologic management of overactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sum Lam

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Sum Lam1,2, Olga Hilas1,31St. John’s University, College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Professions, Department of Clinical Pharmacy Practice, Queens, New York, USA; 2Division of Geriatric Medicine, Winthrop University Hospital, Mineola, New York, USA; 3Department of Pharmacy, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Cornell Medical Center, New York, New York, USAAbstract: Overactive bladder (OAB is a prevalent and costly condition that can affect any age group. Typical symptoms include urinary urgency, frequency, incontinence and nocturia. OAB occurs as a result of abnormal contractions of the bladder detrusor muscle caused by the stimulation of certain muscarinic receptors. Therefore, antimuscarinic agents have long been considered the mainstay of pharmacologic treatment for OAB. Currently, there are five such agents approved for the management of OAB in the United States: oxybutynin, tolterodine, trospium, solifenacin and darifenacin. This article summarizes the efficacy, contraindications, precautions, dosing and common side effects of these agents. All available clinical trials on trospium, solifenacin and darifenacin were reviewed to determine its place in therapy.Keywords: overactive bladder, urinary incontinence, pharmacologic management, antimuscarinic agents, anticholinergics

  16. The pharmacological tables of Rhazes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with the 22nd volume of Muḥammad ibn Zakarīyāʾ al-Rāzīʾs (Rhazes, d. 313/925) medical encyclopedia al-Ḥāwī fī l-ṭibb. Volume twenty-two is dedicated to pharmacology and pharmacological tables, and introduced by a short treatise in which Rhazes explains his unusual choice of tabular design and terminological arrangement. Following upon a brief bio-bibliographical survey and forming the core of this article, Rhazesʾ introductory treatise is re-edited here in the original Arabic and further made accessible through an annotated English translation. Edition and translation, in turn, are followed by a detailed study of both the treatise and the tables, including explanatory diagrams, statistical evaluations, a source-critical analysis, and some observations regarding the tradition of synoptic tables in Arabic pharmaceutical literature — thus gradually emerges the conceptual originality of Rhazesʾ implementation, and new light is thrown on his broad linguistic interests and abilities. The article concludes with an excursion into the realm of Persian-Chinese intellectual exchange, suggesting the possibility of a stimulus to Rhazesʾ imagination from a remote and otherwise mostly hidden corner.

  17. Developmental Orientation of Commercial Health Insurance under the Perspective ;of Basic Medical Insurance%基本医疗保险视角下的商业健康保险发展定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董曙辉

    2015-01-01

    我国商业健康保险发展总体滞后,造成广大人民群众的医疗需求过度依赖基本医保。基本医保资源的有限性、配置的不合理性和经办管理机制的缺失,与人民群众日益增长的医疗需求的矛盾越来越突出。加快商业健康保险的发展,让更多的供给、更优的配置、更好的服务由商业健康保险提供,是走出现行基本医保运行困境,构建新型多层次医疗保障体系的必由之路。%The commercial health insurance of China is under development, which causes the problems of medical care needs excessively relying on the basic medical insurance. The contradiction between the problems in health insurance system, such as limitation in medical insurance resources, irrational allocation of the resources and the lack of management mechanism, and the growing health care demands has been increasingly prominent. Accelerating the development of commercial health insurance, so that more supplies, better allocations and better services can be provided by commercial health insurance, is the only way to make the basic medical insurance walking away from the current predicament, and to build new multi-level medical security system.

  18. An evaluation of pharmacology curricula in Australian science and health-related degree programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Hilary; Hinton, Tina; Bullock, Shane; Babey, Anna-Marie; Davis, Elizabeth; Fernandes, Lynette; Hart, Joanne; Musgrave, Ian; Ziogas, James

    2013-11-19

    Pharmacology is a biomedical discipline taught in basic science and professional degree programs. In order to provide information that would facilitate pharmacology curricula to be refined and developed, and approaches to teaching to be updated, a national survey was undertaken in Australia that investigated pharmacology course content, teaching and summative assessment methods. Twenty-two institutions participated in a purpose-built online questionnaire, which enabled an evaluation of 147 courses taught in 10 different degrees. To enable comparison, degrees were grouped into four major degree programs, namely science, pharmacy, medicine and nursing. The pharmacology content was then classified into 16 lecture themes, with 2-21 lecture topics identified per theme. The resultant data were analysed for similarities and differences in pharmacology curricula across the degree programs. While all lecture themes were taught across degree programs, curriculum content differed with respect to the breadth and hours of coverage. Overall, lecture themes were taught most broadly in medicine and with greatest coverage in pharmacy. Reflecting a more traditional approach, lectures were a dominant teaching method (at least 90% of courses). Sixty-three percent of science courses provided practical classes but such sessions occurred much less frequently in other degree programs, while tutorials were much more common in pharmacy degree programs (70%). Notably, problem-based learning was common across medical programs. Considerable diversity was found in the types of summative assessment tasks employed. In science courses the most common form of in-semester assessment was practical reports, whereas in other programs pen-and-paper quizzes predominated. End-of-semester assessment contributed 50-80% to overall assessment across degree programs. The similarity in lecture themes taught across the four different degree programs shows that common knowledge- and competency-based learning

  19. Pharmacovigilance studies on the basic knowledge, practice and attitude among the second year MBBS students of Jawaharlal Nehru institute of medical sciences, Porompat, Manipur, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varkung Valte

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: If there is good communication and reports; most of the ADRs are avoidable and plays a pivotal role in minimising the ADRs. Drugs must be prescribed rationally and poly pharmacy should be discouraged and avoided as much as possible. To avoid the ADRs, pharmacovigilance is a matter of great concern for the health care providers and for the general mass too. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 820-822

  20. Wavelet basics

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Y T

    1995-01-01

    Since the study of wavelets is a relatively new area, much of the research coming from mathematicians, most of the literature uses terminology, concepts and proofs that may, at times, be difficult and intimidating for the engineer. Wavelet Basics has therefore been written as an introductory book for scientists and engineers. The mathematical presentation has been kept simple, the concepts being presented in elaborate detail in a terminology that engineers will find familiar. Difficult ideas are illustrated with examples which will also aid in the development of an intuitive insight. Chapter 1 reviews the basics of signal transformation and discusses the concepts of duals and frames. Chapter 2 introduces the wavelet transform, contrasts it with the short-time Fourier transform and clarifies the names of the different types of wavelet transforms. Chapter 3 links multiresolution analysis, orthonormal wavelets and the design of digital filters. Chapter 4 gives a tour d'horizon of topics of current interest: wave...

  1. Tri-partite complex for axonal transport drug delivery achieves pharmacological effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederickson Martyn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Targeted delivery of pharmaceutical agents into selected populations of CNS (Central Nervous System neurons is an extremely compelling goal. Currently, systemic methods are generally used for delivery of pain medications, anti-virals for treatment of dermatomal infections, anti-spasmodics, and neuroprotectants. Systemic side effects or undesirable effects on parts of the CNS that are not involved in the pathology limit efficacy and limit clinical utility for many classes of pharmaceuticals. Axonal transport from the periphery offers a possible selective route, but there has been little progress towards design of agents that can accomplish targeted delivery via this intraneural route. To achieve this goal, we developed a tripartite molecular construction concept involving an axonal transport facilitator molecule, a polymer linker, and a large number of drug molecules conjugated to the linker, then sought to evaluate its neurobiology and pharmacological behavior. Results We developed chemical synthesis methodologies for assembling these tripartite complexes using a variety of axonal transport facilitators including nerve growth factor, wheat germ agglutinin, and synthetic facilitators derived from phage display work. Loading of up to 100 drug molecules per complex was achieved. Conjugation methods were used that allowed the drugs to be released in active form inside the cell body after transport. Intramuscular and intradermal injection proved effective for introducing pharmacologically effective doses into selected populations of CNS neurons. Pharmacological efficacy with gabapentin in a paw withdrawal latency model revealed a ten fold increase in half life and a 300 fold decrease in necessary dose relative to systemic administration for gabapentin when the drug was delivered by axonal transport using the tripartite vehicle. Conclusion Specific targeting of selected subpopulations of CNS neurons for drug delivery by axonal

  2. Investigational pharmacology for low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash K Bhandary

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Avinash K Bhandary1 , Gary P Chimes2, Gerard A Malanga3 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 3New Jersey Sports Medicine Institute; Overlook Hospital; Mountainside Hospital; Rehabilitation Medicine and Electrodiagnosis, St Michael’s Medical Center; Horizon Healthcare Worker’s Compensation Services, Blue Cross and Blue Shield Worker’s Compensation, Summit, NJ, USAStudy design: Review and reinterpretation of existing literature.Objective: This review article summarizes the anatomy and pathogenesis of disease processes that contribute to low back pain, and discusses key issues in existing therapies for chronic low back pain. The article also explains the scientific rationale for investigational pharmacology and highlights emerging compounds in late development.Results/conclusion: While the diverse and complex nature of chronic low back pain continues to challenge clinicians, a growing understanding of chronic low back pain on a cellular level has refined our approach to managing chronic low back pain with pharmacology. Many emerging therapies with improved safety profiles are currently in the research pipeline and will contribute to a multimodal therapeutic algorithm in the near future. With the heterogeneity of the patient population suffering from chronic low back pain, the clinical challenge will be accurately stratifying the optimal pharmacologic approach for each patient.Keywords: low back pain, investigational, pharmacology, drugs

  3. 基层医疗卫生机构基本药物制度实施现况调查分析%Investigation of Essential Medicine System Implementation in Basic Medical and Health Institutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许永建; 任建萍; 高启胜; 陈晖; 李静; 颜丹丹; 卫萍

    2012-01-01

    目的 对某县基层医疗卫生机构基本药物制度实施现况进行调查研究,为基本药物制度的推进提供借鉴.方法 对某县19家基层医疗卫生机构进行问卷调查,并对相关负责人进行非结构式访谈.结果 基本药物制度实施后药品销售额下降、门急诊人次增加,次均门诊费、次均住院费等下降,政府对机构的补偿逐渐加大.结论 基本药物制度实施后,基层医疗卫生机构要加大对国家基本药物的配备和使用,医生要转变用药观念,政府要制定出一套对机构合理补偿的措施.%Objective To provide references for the implementation of essential medicines system through investigating the implementation of essential medicines system of the basic medical and health institutions. Methods Investigating 19 basic medical and health institutions by questionnaire, and making unstructured interview to persons in charge. Results After the implementation of essential medicines system, the sales of medicines have declined, outpatient visits and e-mergency patients have increased, the average cost of outpatient and hospitalization have declined, and the compensation from government have increased. Conclusion More essential medicines should be equipped by the basic medical and health institutions, conception of using medicines be changed, and appropriate compensation measures be established by the government.

  4. 基层医疗卫生机构用药信息公开制度分析%System Analysis on the Open Access to the Medication Use Information in Basic Health Institutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊玉琦; 张新平

    2012-01-01

    目的:收集我国与用药有关的政策与法规,检索3省、市相关网站中与用药有关的信息,从政策法规与地方实践两方面比较分析基层医疗机构用药信息公开制度现状.方法:文献法.结果:3省、市基层医疗卫生机构用药信息公开法律体系不健全,信息公开主体、公开对象和公开方式不完善,缺乏处方点评等信息的公布.结论:应建立更明确的基层医疗卫生机构用药信息公开制度,明确信息公开主体和对象,加强对信息公开方式的研究.%Objective:To analyze the knowledge about the open access to the medication use information in basic health institutions of the three provinces(Shanghai,Jiangxi ,Shanxi )based on collected policies and regulations and local practice research method. Methods;The method of historical documents. Results; There are problems in legal systems of the open access to the medication use information in basic health institutions in the three provinces such as subjects, objects, ways and the comment of prescription information. Conclusion:It's necessary to improve legal systems about using medication in basic heath institutions and make clear the open subjects, objects, and ways.

  5. Naloxone Administration for Suspected Opioid Overdose: An Expanded Scope of Practice by a Basic Life Support Collegiate-Based Emergency Medical Services Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Ryan M.; Dickinson, Laura; Ng, Nicholas D.; DeGeorge, Lindsey M.; Nable, Jose V.

    2017-01-01

    Opioid abuse is a growing and significant public health concern in the United States. Naloxone is an opioid antagonist that can rapidly reverse the respiratory depression associated with opioid toxicity. Georgetown University's collegiate-based emergency medical services (EMS) agency recently adopted a protocol, allowing providers to administer…

  6. The Translational Science Training Program at NIH: Introducing Early Career Researchers to the Science and Operation of Translation of Basic Research to Medical Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, C. Taylor; Sittampalam, G. Sitta; Wang, Philip Y.; Ryan, Philip E.

    2017-01-01

    Translational science is an emerging field that holds great promise to accelerate the development of novel medical interventions. As the field grows, so does the demand for highly trained biomedical scientists to fill the positions that are being created. Many graduate and postdoctorate training programs do not provide their trainees with…

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). SSRIs are the most common type of medication used to treat depression. SSRIs boost the amount of serotonin in the brain and help reduce symptoms of depression. Sarah also has several follow-up visits scheduled with the psychiatrist to check how ...

  8. Developmental paediatric anaesthetic pharmacology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing

    2015-01-01

    Safe and effective drug therapy in neonates, infants and children require detailed knowledge about the ontogeny of drug disposition and action as well how these interact with genetics and co-morbidity of children. Recent advances in developmental pharmacology in children follow the increased...

  9. Social pharmacology: expanding horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Rituparna; Alloza, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    In the current modern and global society, social changes are in constant evolution due to scientific progress (technology, culture, customs, and hygiene) and produce the freedom in individuals to take decisions by themselves or with their doctors toward drug consumption. In the arena of marketed drug products which includes society, individual, administration, and pharmaceutical industry, the young discipline emerged is social pharmacology or sociopharmacology. This science arises from clinical pharmacology, and deals with different parameters, which are important in creating knowledge on marketed drugs. However, the scope of "social pharmacology" is not covered by the so-called "Phase IV" alone, but it is the science that handles the postmarketing knowledge of drugs. The social pharmacology studies the "life cycle" of any marketed pharmaceutical product in the social terrain, and evaluates the effects of the real environment under circumstances totally different in the drug development process. Therefore, there are far-reaching horizons, plural, and shared predictions among health professionals and other, for beneficial use of a drug, toward maximizing the benefits of therapy, while minimizing negative social consequences.

  10. Social Pharmacology: Expanding horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rituparna Maiti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current modern and global society, social changes are in constant evolution due to scientific progress (technology, culture, customs, and hygiene and produce the freedom in individuals to take decisions by themselves or with their doctors toward drug consumption. In the arena of marketed drug products which includes society, individual, administration, and pharmaceutical industry, the young discipline emerged is social pharmacology or sociopharmacology. This science arises from clinical pharmacology, and deals with different parameters, which are important in creating knowledge on marketed drugs. However, the scope of "social pharmacology" is not covered by the so-called "Phase IV" alone, but it is the science that handles the postmarketing knowledge of drugs. The social pharmacology studies the "life cycle" of any marketed pharmaceutical product in the social terrain, and evaluates the effects of the real environment under circumstances totally different in the drug development process. Therefore, there are far-reaching horizons, plural, and shared predictions among health professionals and other, for beneficial use of a drug, toward maximizing the benefits of therapy, while minimizing negative social consequences.

  11. Pharmacological management of sepsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    Systemic sepsis continues to be the most-difficult management problem in caring for the combat casualty. The complications of sepsis pervade all areas of injury to soldiers in the field, whether it is mechanical (missiles), thermal (burns), chemical, biological, or radiation injury. With the advent of tactical nuclear weapons, the problem of sepsis will be much higher in future wars than has previously been experienced through the world. The purpose of this chapter is a) to review the data suggesting pharmacological agents that may benefit the septic patient, and b) to emphasize the adjunctive therapies that should be explored in clinical trials. The pharmacological management of sepsis remains controversial. Most of the drugs utilized clinically treat the symptoms of the disease and are not necessarily directed at fundamental mechanisms that are known to be present in sepsis. A broad data base is emerging, indicating that NSAID should be used in human clinical trials. Prostaglandins are sensitive indicators of cellular injury and may be mediators for a number of vasoactive chemicals. Opiate antagonists and calcium channel blockers require more in-depth data; however, recent studies generate excitement for their potential use in the critically ill patient. Pharmacological effects of antibiotics, in concert with other drugs, suggest an entirely new approach to pharmacological treatment in sepsis. There is no doubt that new treatment modalities or adjunctive therapies must be utilized to alter the poor prognosis of severe sepsis that we have observed in the past 4 decades.

  12. Pharmacology Isotoma Longiflorum

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Sánchez, César Guillermo; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the pharmacology of Isotoma longiflorum plant campanuláceas the family, native to Peru. Was extracted from this plant a crystalline active ingredient. Se ha estudiado la farmacología de la Isotoma longiflorum planta de la familia de las campanuláceas, nativas del Perú. Se extrajo de esta planta un principio activo cristalino.

  13. Clinical pharmacology in Russia-historical development and current state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorodnikova Goryachkina, Ksenia; Burbello, Aleksandra; Sychev, Dmitry; Frolov, Maxim; Kukes, Vladimir; Petrov, Vladimir

    2015-02-01

    Clinical pharmacology in Russia has long history and is currently active, but rather unrecognized internationally. It is governmentally approved as a teaching/scientific specialty since 1983 and as a medical specialty since 1997. Courses of clinical pharmacology are included in the undergraduate curricula in the 5th and/or 6th year of education at all medical schools in the Russian Federation. Postgraduate education includes initial specialization in internal medicine with further residency in clinical pharmacology. Governmental legislation recommends that every healthcare institution has either a department or a single position of clinical pharmacologist. Major routine duties include information about and monitoring of medication use, consultations in difficult clinical situations, pharmacogenetic counseling, therapeutic drug monitoring, pharmacovigilance, and participation in drug and therapeutics (formulary) committees. There are official experts in clinical pharmacology in Russia responsible for coordinating relevant legislative issues. The chief expert clinical pharmacologist represents the discipline directly at the Ministry of Health. Research in clinical pharmacology in Russia is extensive and variable, but only some of it is published internationally. Russia is a participant of international societies of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics and collaboration is actively ongoing. There are still certain problems related to the development of the discipline in Russia-some healthcare institutions do not see the need for clinical pharmacology. However, the number of clinical pharmacologists in Russia is increasing as well as their role in physicians' education, national healthcare, and research.

  14. Regression Basics

    CERN Document Server

    Kahane, Leo H

    2007-01-01

    Using a friendly, nontechnical approach, the Second Edition of Regression Basics introduces readers to the fundamentals of regression. Accessible to anyone with an introductory statistics background, this book builds from a simple two-variable model to a model of greater complexity. Author Leo H. Kahane weaves four engaging examples throughout the text to illustrate not only the techniques of regression but also how this empirical tool can be applied in creative ways to consider a broad array of topics. New to the Second Edition Offers greater coverage of simple panel-data estimation:

  15. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  16. 基层医院医疗骨干人才职业规划指导%Career Planning Guidance of Medical Talents in Basic Level Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高燕玉; 卢红建

    2015-01-01

    Competition in medical market is the talent competition.The hospital should focus on the reali-zation of the ideal of medical talents when developing.The article mainly analyzed the influencing factors of employees'career planning, made career planning guidance to medical talents, constructed effective platform for the core talents to achieve career goals, made the selection, training, employment, incentive policies and measures to achieve a dual win of hospital comprehensive benefits and employee career development.%医疗市场的竞争就是人才的竞争,医院在注重发展的同时,要关注医疗骨干人才职业理想的实现。本文分析影响医疗骨干人才职业规划的因素,对医疗骨干人才进行职业规划指导,构建核心人才实现职业目标的有效平台,制定人才选拔、培养、任用、激励的政策措施,实现医院综合效益和员工职业发展的共赢。

  17. CHINA HEALTH INSURANCE%The Role of Social Security Agency in Serious Illness Insurance--Based on the Practice of Integrated Design and Operation of Basic Medical Insurance and Serious Illness Insurance in Jining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪志强; 曹颖

    2016-01-01

    济宁市大病保险与基本医疗保险实行“六统一”:政策统一设计、信息系统统一开发、医保费统一征缴、医疗费用统一支付、医疗服务统一监管、医保服务统一经办,极大提升了大病保险的运行效率和质量。大病保险和基本医疗保险采取以社保经办机构为主的一体化管理方式,有助于减少基本医疗保险和大病保险的重复投入,节约运行成本,提升监管效率,有助于从就医诊疗行为的源头进行医疗行为监控,最大程度降低不合理医疗费用。%In Jining, the Serious Illness Insurance and Basic Medical Insurance are operated by “Six-unifi ed”model, i.e., unified policy design, unified information system development, unified premium collection, unified medical service payment, unifi ed medical service supervision, and unifi ed medical insurance handling. As a result, it has greatly improved the operational efficiency and quality of serious illness insurance. By taking the model of integrated management by social insurance agencies, it can help reducing repeated investment in insurance, saving operation cost, and improving supervision efficiency, and can conduct monitoring on medical service behavior at the very beginning and reduce unreasonable medical cost to a great extent.

  18. History of clinical pharmacy and clinical pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R R

    1981-04-01

    The purpose of the Symposium on Clinical Pharmacy and Clinical Pharmacology is to describe the present and future functional roles of clinical pharmacists and clinical pharmacologists in drug research, professional education, and patient care. Clinical pharmacy is a relatively new professional discipline, being only about 15 years old. This new breed of pharmacists is patient rather than drug product oriented. The discipline arose out of dissatisfaction with old practice norms and the pressing need for a health professional with a comprehensive knowledge of the therapeutic use of drugs. The clinical pharmacy movement began at the University of Michigan in the early 1960s, but much of the pioneering work was done by David Burkholder, Paul Parker, and Charles Walton at the University of Kentucky in the latter part of the 1960s. Clinical pharmacology is a professional discipline that combines basic pharmacology and clinical medicine. Its development began in the early 1950s, primarily as a result of the efforts of Harry Gold. It has had a slower growth than clinical pharmacy but it has made many important contributions to our knowledge of human pharmacology and the rational use of drugs.

  19. The Basic Thought of Developing Social Capital Held in Medical Institutions from the Perspective of Medical Reform%医改视角下社会办医发展的基本思路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小园; 尹爱田

    2014-01-01

    Non-profit medical institutions are the main body, for-profit medical institutions are the complement, the public medical institutions are the leading and non-public medical institutions develop together are the principles of developing the health service system in China. Since deepening medical reform, social capital held in medical institutions has been actively encouraged and supported. Medical institutions held by social capital should adhere to the public nature of the medical and health, choose reasonable mode of development, improve the level of service, innovate management system, build a team and its own brand and achieve sustainable development.%非营利性医疗机构为主体、营利性医疗机构为补充,公立医疗机构为主导、非公立医疗机构共同发展是我国建设健全医疗服务体系所坚持的原则。深化医改以来,国家提出要积极鼓励和支持社会资本举办医疗机构,社会办医疗机构要坚持医疗卫生的公益性质,合理选择发展模式、提高服务水平、创新管理制度、打造人才团队和自己品牌,实现可持续发展。

  20. 析建立公平统一的全民基本医疗保障制度的必要性%On the Necessity of Establishing a Fair and Unified National Basic Medical Insurance System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅达成; 周瑶

    2014-01-01

    改革开放以后,我国按照行政性文件逐步确立的城镇职工基本医疗保险制度、新型农村合作医疗制度、城镇居民基本医疗保险制度和城乡医疗救助制度,实际上仍然沿袭了计划经济时期城乡分割和群体分割的制度安排,阻碍了公民城乡流动和跨行业流动,不利于市场经济的发展。令人遗憾的是作为顶层设计的《中华人民共和国社会保险法》不仅没有对这种不合理的基本医疗保障制度提出整合的手段和方式,而且还进一步肯定了原有的制度安排。尽管我国低收入人口数量庞大、城乡分割长期存在、地区经济发展不平衡、国家财力有限,建立统一的全民基本医疗保障制度难度极大,但在倡导改革开放成果共享和高速城镇化、工业化的今天,建立由政府主导的公平统一的社会医疗保险制度仍然十分必要,这也符合最近召开的中共十八届三中全会精神。%After the reform and opening up, basic medical insurance system for urban workers, new type of rural cooperative medical care system, basic medical treatment insurance system of for urban residents, urban and rural medical assistance system have been gradually established in accordance with the administrative file in Chi-na, but these systems actually follow urban and rural division and group division system arrangement in the planned economy period, which prevents citizens from flowing between urban and rural areas and cross industries, and is not conducive to the development of market economy as well. Unfortunately, integration means and ways are not proposed aiming at the unreasonable basic medical security system in Social Insurance Law of the People's Republic of China, which is as the top-level design, on the contrary, it further affirms the original institutional ar-rangements. Despite the existing problems such as, a large number of low-income population in our country, long

  1. [Advances in research of chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of common used spices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chao-nan; Zhu, Yuan; Xu, Xi-ming; Yu, Jiang-nan

    2014-11-01

    Spices have enjoyed a long history and a worldwide application. Of particular interest is the pharmaceutical value of spices in addition to its basic seasoning function in cooking. Concretely, equipped with complex chemical compositions, spices are of significant importance in pharmacologic actions, like antioxidant, antibacterial, antitumor, as well as therapeutical effects in gastrointestinal disorders and cardiovascular disease. Although increasing evidences in support of its distinct role in the medical field has recently reported, little information is available for substantive, thorough and sophisticated researches on its chemical constituents and pharmacological activities, especially mechanism of these actions. Therefore, in popular wave of studies directed at a single spice, this review presents systematic studies on the chemical constituents and pharmacological activities associated with common used spices, together with current typical individual studies on functional mechanism, in order to pave the way for the exploitation and development of new medicines derived from the chemical compounds of spice (such as, piperine, curcumin, geniposide, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, linalool, estragole, perillaldehyde, syringic acid, crocin).

  2. 基础医学专业发展现状及人才培养的思考%Development of major of basic medical science and reflection on the talents cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛红; 刘晔; 钱睿哲

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the cultivation of basic medical science talents, the paper introduced and summarized the background, characteristics and development trends (expand of the team, de-crease of the schooling and increase of the interdisciplinary course) of basic medical science major. Three cultivation models of this major in China were introduced and discussed in the article.%阐述基础医学专业的设置背景,概括该专业高、精、尖的特点和队伍壮大、学制减短、交叉学科课程增多的发展趋势。介绍八年本-博连读与七年本-硕连读的长学制、四或五年制的研究型本科、临床基础上的“基础强化班”3种国内该专业的主要培养模式,并展开探讨。

  3. The exploration on improving basic clinical skills of long-term medical students%提高长学制医学生临床基本技能的探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚旭霞; 蔡巧玲; 黄蕾; 李元玲; 杨文卓

    2010-01-01

    In order to improve the basic clinical skills of long-term medical students, the main teaching factors influencing the students' clinical skills were analyzed. Besides, the integrated course about basic clinical skills training was established and practiced. It is showed that this course enhanced the clinical skills of medical students by increasing the social humanism courses, integrating the teaching contents of clinical skills, strengthening the doctor-patient communication skills training and using various teaching methods.%本文分析了影响医学生临床技能的主要因素,构建了临床基本技能整合课程,从增设医学生人文社会类课程、整合临床技能的教学内容、加强医患沟通技巧训练、采用多种教学方法等方面进行了探索,一定程度上提高了医学生的临床技能水平.

  4. Teaching of Computer Basic Course and Cultivation of Computational Thinking in Medical School%医学院校计算机基础教学与计算思维培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余远波; 陈明锐

    2012-01-01

    In the paper, the significance of cultivating students' computational thinking via basic computer course was highlighted and the problems existing in current teaching method were analyzed. Based on teaching goal, assessment tool, and teaching content of basic computer course, the correlation between computational thinking and understanding of medical science were discussed, and how to culture " computational thinking" of medical student were explored, all of which provide a new model for improving computational thinking capability of student.%介绍了医学院校大学计算机基础课程培养学生计算思维的重要性,分析了教学中存在的问题,然后从教学目标的设定、考核手段、教学内容、教学方法等方面分析计算思维与医学的联系,并阐述如何培养医学生“计算思维”的方式与方法,为医学院校大学计算机基础教育提供了一种以提高学生计算思维能力为目标的新型模式.

  5. Theoretical Discussion of Coordinated Fund Management of Basic Public Health and Basic Medical Services Based on the Principle of Labour Voucher%基于工分制原理的基本公共卫生与基本医疗服务经费统筹管理的理论探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 张韬; 王洪兴; 厉勤; 李幼子

    2016-01-01

    While the coordinated management of fund for basic public health and basic medical services provides an opportunity for the integration of content and resources of basic public health and basic medical services,the principle of labour voucher creates technical conditions for this opportunity:the principle of labour voucher has resolved the financial accounting issues,eliminating the following problems of community health services;the building of the mechanism of funds allocation by the principle of labor voucher could ensure the transparency of information and is conducive to the establishment of performance appraisal system for community health service settings and their staffs,effectively guiding supply - side behavior;the fund allocation mechanism could also guide residents′ health seeking behavior indirectly through the supply side,and promote residents and medical staffs to improve their health and save fund together by price leverage and reward allocation. The study is still at theoretical stage,thus the feasibility of the research result needs to be further tested.%基本公共卫生和基本医疗服务经费的统筹管理,为基本公共卫生和基本医疗服务内容整合和资源整合提供了契机,而工分制原理则为这种契机创造了技术条件:工分制原理首先解决了经费核算问题,为社区卫生服务机构解决了后顾之忧;通过工分制原理构建经费分配机制,保证了信息透明性,有利于社区卫生服务机构绩效考核和机构内员工绩效考核机制的建立,从而有效引导供方行为;基于工分制原理构建的经费分配机制,可以通过供方间接引导居民就医行为,也可以通过价格杠杆和分配奖励促使居民与医务人员一起为提高自身健康水平和节约经费努力。本研究尚处于理论阶段,研究成果的可行性还有待实践的检验。

  6. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options for depression and depressive symptoms in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania S. Grigoriou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a mental disorder with a high prevalence among patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD. It is reported that depression afflicts approximately 20-30% of this patient population, being associated, amongst other, with high mortality rate, low adherence to medication and low perceived quality of life. There is a variety of medications known to be effective for the treatment of depression but due to poor adherence to treatment as well as due to the high need for medications addressing other ESRD comorbidities, depression often remains untreated. According to the literature, depression is under-diagnosed and undertreated in the majority of the patients with chronic kidney disease. In the current review the main pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches and research outcomes for the management of depressive symptoms in hemodialysis patients are discussed.

  7. Non-pharmacological treatment of chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Afton L; Williams, David A

    2011-04-01

    Individuals with chronic widespread pain, including those with fibromyalgia, pose a particular challenge to treatment, given the modest effectiveness of pharmacological agents for this condition. The growing consensus indicates that the best approach to treatment involves the combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. Several non-pharmacological interventions, particularly exercise and cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), have garnered good evidence of effectiveness as stand-alone, adjunctive treatments for patients with chronic pain. In this article, evidenced-based, non-pharmacological management techniques for chronic widespread pain are described by using two broad categories, exercise and CBT. The evidence for decreasing pain, improving functioning and changing secondary symptoms is highlighted. Lastly, the methods by which exercise and CBT can be combined for a multi-component approach, which is consistent with the current evidence-based guidelines of several American and European medical societies, are addressed.

  8. The Quality of Healthcare Service Delivery in Nigeria: An Assessment of the Availability of Some Basic Medical Devices/Equipment in the Primary Health Care Centres in Delta State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omuta GED

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ordinarily, accessibility implies locational proximity. However, this study limits its use to the quality of what is accessed. There is, therefore, service-delivery inaccessibility, when health care seekers can only access poor quality service, because of the poor quality of the equipment at the disposal of primary health care centres. Service-delivery equipment are, therefore, surrogate indicators of the quality of the health care services that are geographically accessible. Methodology: Both qualitative and quantitative approaches of investigation were deployed, using structured questionnaires and focus group discussions/key informant interviews, respectively. It covered nine local government areas, three each from the senatorial districts. The paper discusses three basic medical devices/equipment that determine the quality of services delivered by PHCs, namely available and functioning general purpose equipment; most commonly used methods of sterilization; and availability of different types of laboratory tests. The quantitative data were cleaned up, processed and analysed, using the SPSS 10.0. Results: There were variations in the availability of devices and equipment. Syringes/needles and stethoscopes were available in more than three-quarters of the centres, while less than ten (10 per cent had microscopes. About 15 per cent of the centres either had no methods of sterilization at all or used ‘inappropriate’ ones. In spite of the prevalence of malaria, only 28.89 per centres could test for the parasite. Conclusion: The quality of services were perceived as poor because the basic medical devices and equipment were either lacking or inadequate. Policy implication is that government should increase resource allocation to the PHC subsector to procure the basic facilities for efficient service delivery.

  9. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Gynecological Aspects of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptom Diary Testing in IBS Changes You Should Not Ignore if ... IBS Medications Probiotics and Antibiotics Pharmacologic, or drug, therapy is best used in irritable bowel syndrome ( ...

  10. Atrial Fibrillation Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is usually treating the abnormal heart rhythm with medications to restore the heart rhythm to normal (also known as chemical/pharmacological cardioversion). Significant side effects may occur, and your healthcare provider will most ...

  11. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Newer IBS Medications Probiotics and Antibiotics Pharmacologic, or drug, therapy is best used in irritable bowel syndrome ( ... limited by prescription only. It might be a drug or a supplement; manufactured or "natural." It might ...

  12. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Month IBS Awareness Month Tips of the Day Art of IBS Gallery ... IBS Medications Probiotics and Antibiotics Pharmacologic, or drug, therapy is best used in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) ...

  13. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Newer IBS Medications Probiotics and Antibiotics Pharmacologic, or drug, therapy is best used in irritable bowel syndrome ( ... limited by prescription only. It might be a drug or a supplement; manufactured or "natural." It might ...

  14. Social pharmacology: expanding horizons

    OpenAIRE

    Rituparna Maiti; José Luis Alloza

    2014-01-01

    In the current modern and global society, social changes are in constant evolution due to scientific progress (technology, culture, customs, and hygiene) and produce the freedom in individuals to take decisions by themselves or with their doctors toward drug consumption. In the arena of marketed drug products which includes society, individual, administration, and pharmaceutical industry, the young discipline emerged is social pharmacology or sociopharmacology. This science arises from clinic...

  15. Social Pharmacology: Expanding horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Rituparna; Alloza, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    In the current modern and global society, social changes are in constant evolution due to scientific progress (technology, culture, customs, and hygiene) and produce the freedom in individuals to take decisions by themselves or with their doctors toward drug consumption. In the arena of marketed drug products which includes society, individual, administration, and pharmaceutical industry, the young discipline emerged is social pharmacology or sociopharmacology. This science arises from clinical pharmacology, and deals with different parameters, which are important in creating knowledge on marketed drugs. However, the scope of “social pharmacology” is not covered by the so-called “Phase IV” alone, but it is the science that handles the postmarketing knowledge of drugs. The social pharmacology studies the “life cycle” of any marketed pharmaceutical product in the social terrain, and evaluates the effects of the real environment under circumstances totally different in the drug development process. Therefore, there are far-reaching horizons, plural, and shared predictions among health professionals and other, for beneficial use of a drug, toward maximizing the benefits of therapy, while minimizing negative social consequences. PMID:24987168

  16. Pharmacological interactions of vasoconstrictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Guardia, Javier; Cutando, Antonio; Calvo-Guirado, José Luis

    2009-01-01

    This article is the first of a series on pharmacological interactions involving medicaments commonly prescribed and/or used in odontology: vasoconstrictors in local anaesthetics and anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial analgesics. The necessity for the odontologist to be aware of adverse reactions as a result of the pharmacological interactions is due to the increase in medicament consumption by the general population. There is a demographic change with greater life expectancy and patients have increased chronic health problems and therefore have increased medicament intake. The presence of adrenaline (epinephrine) and other vasoconstrictors in local odontological anaesthetics is beneficial in relation to the duration and depth of anaesthesia and reduces bleeding and systemic toxicity of the local anaesthetic. However, it might produce pharmacological interactions between the injected vasoconstrictors and the local anaesthetic and adrenergic medicament administered exogenically which the odontologist should be aware of, especially because of the risk of consequent adverse reactions. Therefore the importance of conducting a detailed clinical history of the general state of health and include all medicaments, legal as well as illegal, taken by the patient.

  17. Risk Factors in the Pediatric Ward Recognized by Students Before Pediatric Nursing Practice -Basic Data for Medical Safety Education Based on Student's Learning Readiness-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirowatari, Kanako; Nakamura, Emi

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to extract the risk factors recognized by students before pediatric nursing practice in order to conduct medical safety education based on student's learning readiness. Third-year nursing students of A nursing college used the P-mSHELL model to find the risk factors in a simulated pediatric hospital room, and the researchers analyzed the contents. The students recognized four categories of risk factors: "burden on the family", "characteristics of the infant", "characteristics of children with disease", and "the family's cognition and understanding". There were three categories of risk factors related to "the environment": "environment that can cause a dangerous action", "unsafe environment", and "sickroom as a living space". There were four categories of risk factors related to "the student": "students' own physical/mental condition", "anxiety caused by pediatric nursing practice", "learning process in nursing practice" and "students' understanding of pediatric nursing". The students recognized that there were various risk factors in the child, the family, and the environment, and, by the P-mSHELL model, they recognized that they themselves could become a risk factor. Based on the risk factors that students extracted, teachers should think about what kind of preparation is necessary for students in pediatric nursing practice, and it is important to conduct medical safety education.

  18. Inflation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-03-01

    inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  19. Inflation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-03-01

    inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  20. Pharmacological interventions for phantom limb pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jun; LIAN Yan-hong; XIE Kang-jie; CAI Shu-nü

    2013-01-01

    Objective To review the mechanisms and current clinical application of pharmacological interventions for phantom limb pain.Data sources Both Chinese and English language literatures were searched using MEDLINE (1982-2011),Pubmed (1982-2011) and the Index of Chinese Language Literature (1982-2011).Study selection Data from published articles about pharmacological management of phantom limb pain in recent domestic and foreign literature were selected.Data extraction Data were mainly extracted from 96 articles which are listed in the reference section of this review.Results By reviewing the mechanisms and current clinical application of pharmacological interventions for phantom limb pain,including anticonvulsants,antidepressants,local anaesthetics,N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists,non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs,tramadol,opioids,calcitonin,capsaicin,beta-adrenergic blockers,clonidine,muscle relaxants,and emerging drugs,we examined the efficacy and safety of these medications,outlined the limitations and future directions.Conclusions Although there is lack of evidence-based consensus guidelines for the pharmacological management of phantom limb pain,we recommend tricyclic antidepressants,gabapentin,tramadol,opioids,local anaesthetics and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists as the rational options for the treatment of phantom limb pain.

  1. ERT basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butters, M. [MBC Energy and Environment, Ottawa, ON (Canada)]|[National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    ERT is an economic instrument which helps power companies achieve emission reduction compliance cost-effectively. This paper presents the basics of ERT with reference to trading concepts, types of systems and types of emissions. The paper also describes the state of the Canadian energy market regarding greenhouse gases (GHG), nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide and volatile organic compounds. The association between ERT and district energy is also explained. By 2010, the global market for GHG trading is expected to be worth $10 billion to $3 trillion U.S. Canada has committed to reducing its GHG to 6 per cent below 1990 levels by 2012, but currently emits 705 Mt per year. This is expected to increase to 770 Mt by 2010. Therefore, in order to meet its commitment, GHGs will have to be reduced 200 Mt per year. Canada is currently considering ratifying the Kyoto agreement and a trading system is being developed. There are several abatement technologies currently under consideration for district energy systems, including adding scrubbers, improving efficiency, and fuel switching. The marginal cost of abatement was also discussed. tabs., figs.

  2. The BPS Diploma in Advanced Pharmacology: a training opportunity for clinical pharmacologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Judith M

    2007-04-01

    Coinciding with its 75th anniversary, the British Pharmacological Society (BPS) has launched a Diploma in Advanced Pharmacology (BPS Dip Pharmacol). This award is open to clinical and non-clinical scientists and those in related occupations. The Diploma is designed to appeal to those who want to further their pharmacological knowledge or gain an appreciation of basic and clinical aspects of the subject through participation in an advanced programme of non-clinical and clinical pharmacological study. The Diploma is unique in the UK. It provides not only a mechanism for continuing and updating education in basic pharmacology, clinical pharmacology, and therapeutics, but also a range of networking opportunities for non-clinical and clinical scientists in industry and academia.

  3. Research on cognition of basic methods of scientific research design in medical postgraduates of 2011%医学硕士研究生基本科研设计方法认知现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳芳; 马修强; 吴美京; 陆健; 孟虹; 郭晓晶; 许金芳; 贺佳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the current situation of postgraduates knowledge about medical research design and optimize the curriculum setting of research design.Methods An investigation was carried out in the postgraduates of 2011 using questionnaires in a medical university..The questionnaire ineluded basic information of participants and cognition of basic methods of research design.Results A total of 473 postgraduates participated in the investigation.Among them,311 systematically learned medical statistics before enrollment,and 275 ( 58.14% ) once participated in scientific researches.Most of them ( >80% ) knew about the 10 basic methods of research design listed in the questionnaire,but only a few of them were familiar with them,and some even didn't know about the methods.Conclusion We should pay attention to the culture of scientific research thought in statistical design,strengthen the practice of research design teaching,and the curriculum of research design should be led into undergraduate course.%目的 了解医学硕士研究生科研设计方法知识掌握情况,优化《科研设计》课程设置.方法 以某医学高校2011级硕士研究生为对象进行问卷调查,内容包括调查对象基本情况和基本科研设计方法认知情况.结果 共有473位硕士研究生参加调查,其中有311人(68.05%)入学前系统地学习过医学统计学课程,275人(58.14%)曾参加过科学研究.对于问卷中的10种常见科研设计方法,大多数研究生(>80%)只是了解,熟悉者很少,有的甚至不知道.结论 在教学中要注重学生统计设计方面的科研思维培养,加强科研设计实践教学训练,并建议将科研设计课程引入本科生教学中.

  4. [Diagnosis and pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment of fibromyalgia. Compendium of the best evidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P; Gentile, M J; Helfenstein, M; Jannaut, M J; Liendo, V; Ríos, C; Vidal Neira, L; Messina, O D

    2011-04-01

    Chronic generalized musculoskeletal pain is one of the most common reasons for consultation in daily medical practice, and it poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Fibromyalgia is one of the so-called central sensitization syndromes, mainly characterized by generalized pain in the musculoskeletal system. Fibromyalgia diagnosis is basically clinical, and it should be considered whenever patients complain of generalized pain. Patients with chronic inflammatory diseases may also suffer from fibromyalgia, and this condition may be the reason for the pain they complain of in medical consultations. The aim of this review paper has been to provide our readers with a summary of the best available evidence about this disease based upon an updated review of scientific literature on fibromyalgia aspects, such as its diagnostic criteria, pathophysiology, clinical profile and differential diagnosis, followed by an ample systematic review of its pharmacological and non-pharmacological aspects. This systematic review analyses the multidisciplinary aspects in which sufficient evidence was found in the two strongest types of clinical research design, 1) controlled clinical trials and 2) systematic reviews or meta-analysis. This review was developed by a group of Latin American specialists from several countries, recognized as a group of experts in fibromyalgia study.

  5. Basic genetics for dermatologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthu Sendhil Kumaran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past few decades, advances in the field of molecular genetics have enriched us in understanding the pathogenesis of diseases, their identification, and appropriate therapeutic interventions. In the last 20 years, genetic basis of more than 350 monogenic skin diseases have been elucidated and is counting. The widespread use of molecular genetics as a tool in diagnosis is not practiced routinely due to genetic heterogenicity, limited access and low sensitivity. In this review, we have presented the very basics of genetics so as to enable dermatologists to have working understanding of medical genetics.

  6. Pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leucht, S; Heres, S; Kissling, W; Davis, J M

    2013-05-01

    We present the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia based on a simple algorithm that starts with the most important decisions starting from the choice of an antipsychotic drug for an acutely ill patient and ends with maintenance treatment. It represents experts opinions, a formal guideline development process was not followed. Concerning acute treatment we present recommendations for the choice of drug in acutely patients, the treatment of agitated patients, persistent depression, negative symptoms and treatment resistance. Concerning maintenance treatment with antipsychotics we discuss indication, choice of drug, continuous versus intermittent treatment, duration of relapse prevention and dose.

  7. Pharmacological Profile of Quinoxalinone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Ramli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinoxalinone and its derivatives are used in organic synthesis for building natural and designed synthetic compounds and they have been frequently utilized as suitable skeletons for the design of biologically active compound. This review covers updated information on the most active quinoxalinone derivatives that have been reported to show considerable pharmacological actions such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antiviral, antitumor, and antitubercular activity. It can act as an important tool for chemists to develop newer quinoxalinone derivatives that may prove to be better agents in terms of efficacy and safety.

  8. Analytical pharmacology: the impact of numbers on pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenakin, Terry; Christopoulos, Arthur

    2011-04-01

    Analytical pharmacology strives to compare pharmacological data to detailed quantitative models. The most famous tool in this regard is the Black/Leff operational model, which can be used to quantify agonism in a test system and predict it in any other system. Here we give examples of how and where analytical pharmacology has been used to classify drugs and predict mechanism of action in pharmacology. We argue for the importance of analytical pharmacology in drug classification and in prediction of drug mechanisms of action. Although some of the specifics of Black's models have been updated to account for new developments, the principles of analytical pharmacology should shape drug discovery for many years to come.

  9. 医用电子直线加速器基本原理与职业防护%Basic principles and occupational protection of medical linear accelerators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀文; 张永寿; 郑庆海; 汪鹏飞; 李岩; 宋天一

    2012-01-01

    目的:医用电子直线加速器是目前最常用的放射治疗设备,医用电子直线加速器在肿瘤放射治疗中起主导作用,并取得了相当可观的疗效。分析医用电子直线加速器在正常工作条件下、异常情况下的辐射危害,保证对放射工作人员不会产生确定性效应,发生的随机性效应概率能够控制在可接受的水平。方法:通过制定并全面落实、严格的操作规程和规章制度,强化工作人员安全意识以及配备完善、有效的防护设施,以避免或降低事故照射发生的概率。加速器工作场所进风、排风口的位置设计要合理,风机功率须符合要求。加速器及其工作场所应具有良好的屏蔽设计和多重监控、联锁系统,以保障正常运行的安全。结果:医用电子直线加速器感生放射性辐射水平与加速器的能量、剂量和停机后间隔时间等因素有关。放射性工作人员在医用加速器正常工作条件下受照剂量较低。结论:医用电子直线加速器在正常工作条件下,对放射性工作人员不会产生确定性效应,发生的随机性效应概率能够控制在可接受的水平。%Objective:To investigate the risk of medical linear accelerator for technicians during normal operation to set a standard for protection of its radiation.Methods:In the treatment of cancer,it has made considerable efficacy in radiation therapy,playing a leading role.And it is one of the important equipments to treat cancer.Medical linear accelerator in the normal working conditions will not produce deterministic radiation effects to the staff,and the probability of occurrence of stochastic effects can be controlled at an acceptable level.Results:The radiation level of the device was related to its energy,dosage and intervals of stopping it.The technicians received low dose of radiation during the operation.Conclusion:During normal operation,the device can not exert definite effects

  10. Investigation the Basic and Cultural Causes of Comorbidity of Major Depression and Obsession in Patient Referring to Clinics and Medical Centers in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GH Nikpour

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The diagnosis of the disease from another disease for the patient and the therapist is very important and it happens in the diagnostic process.  When the disease has more than one disorder axis, we face with multiple diagnose or comorbidity. So, the research investigated underlying factors of comorbidity of OCD and major depression and cultural factors resulting the incidence of comorbidity of OCD and major depression.  Methods: 300 patients were selected by targeted sampling from the patients referred to clinics and medical centers of psychology and psychiatry in Tehran, and responded to the questionnaire made by researcher for diagnosis of cultural factors of comorbidity of OCD and major depression, and Klinjer’s TCI test that measures natural elements and secretary personality. The data were analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results: The results showed that the lack of flexibility, perfection-seeking of parents and giving extreme importance to cleanliness have impact on the incidence of comorbidity of these disorders without interaction of these variables with other variables,. Also, in part of cultural factors (extreme importance to hygiene and cleanliness and (intransigence and violence of the parents, and in the part of character and nature (persistence and perfection-seeking of parents were predicted by regression model. Conclusion: This study suggests that in the incidence of comorbidity of OCD and major depression, two cultural factors including the extreme importance of hygiene and cleanliness and perfection-seeking of parents interacting with an underlying of persistence leads to the comorbidity of this disorder.

  11. The presence of comorbidity in Tourette syndrome increases the need for pharmacological treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debes, Nanette M M M; Hjalgrim, Helle; Skov, Liselotte

    2009-01-01

    to a better insight into the common practice in Scandinavia. Furthermore, we wanted to elaborate the influence of the presence of comorbidities and of the severity of tics on pharmacological treatment. We have examined the frequency, art, and reason for pharmacological treatment in a Danish clinical cohort...... of 314 children with Tourette syndrome. In total, 60.5% of the children once had received pharmacological treatment. Mostly, the treatment was started because of tics or ADHD. If ADHD or obsessive-compulsive disorder were present, more children received pharmacological treatment and more different agents...... were tried. The children who received pharmacological treatment had more severe tics than those without medication....

  12. 三大基本医疗保障制度保障能力差异分析%Analysis of the Differences of Ability Among Three Basic Medical Insurance Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张研; 张耀光; 张亮

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Through the funding and payment,service using of residents in the 3 basic medical security systems,to clear the specific differences among security systems.Methods:Comparing funding and payment from 2004 to 2010 in 3 security systems;Based on the Report of National Health Services Survey,comparing the different in the service using by the least coefficient proportion.Results:The funding level of Basic Medical Insurance of Urban Employees (BMIUE) is 10 times over than NRCM,the compensation expense of NRCM is inadequate 1/10 compared with BMIUE.The ratio of residents in using outpatient and hospital service in BMIUE is 2.71 times and 1.80 times,1.77 times and 1.42 times,the depth in using hospital services of residents in BMIUE 2.15 times and 3.42 times,compared with BMIUR (Basic Medical Insurance of Urban Residents) and NRCM.Conclusion:Different security systems safeguard residents in service through system division,and service for differences can't crowd equivalence with the differences of characteristics.Basic medical insurance system exists unfairness in financing compensation and services using.%目的:通过三大基本医疗保障制度的筹资支付以及保障群体的服务利用,明确三大基本医疗保障制度间保障能力的具体差异.方法:对比2004-2010年三大保障制度间的筹资支付;基于第四次卫生服务调查,利用最小系数比例法对比不同保障群体间的服务利用.结果:城镇职工基本医疗保险筹资水平是新农合的10倍以上,新农合补偿费用不足城镇职工基本医疗保险补偿的1/10.城镇职工基本医疗保险保障的居民门诊和住院服务利用的人群范围是城镇居民基本医疗保险的2.71倍和1.80倍,是新农合的1.77倍和1.42倍,在住院服务深度上分别为其2.15倍、3.42倍.结论:不同保障制度通过制度分割将保障居民区别对待,服务获取差异性不能与其人群特征的差异性对等,基本医疗保障制度在筹资

  13. Pharmacologic Treatments for Binge-Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Susan L

    2017-01-01

    Binge-eating disorder (BED) is the most common eating disorder and is associated with poor physical and mental health outcomes. Psychological and behavioral interventions have been a mainstay of treatment for BED, but as understanding of this disorder has grown, pharmacologic agents have become promising treatment options for some patients. At this time, only one drug-the stimulant prodrug lisdexamfetamine-is approved for the treatment of BED. Numerous classes of medications including antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and antiobesity drugs have been explored as off-label treatments for BED with variable success. Although not all patients with BED may be suitable candidates for pharmacotherapy, all patients should be considered for and educated about pharmacologic treatment options. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  14. Epigenetics and pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanska, Barbara; MacEwan, David J

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of gene regulation have shown there to be much more regulation of the genome than first thought, through epigenetic mechanisms. These epigenetic mechanisms are systems that have evolved to either switch off gene activity altogether, or fine-tune any existing genetic activation. Such systems are present in all genes and include chromatin modifications and remodelling, DNA methylation (such as CpG island methylation rates) and histone covalent modifications (e.g. acetylation, methylation), RNA interference by short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). These systems regulate genomic activity ‘beyond’ simple transcriptional factor inducer or repressor function of genes to generate mRNA. Epigenetic regulation of gene activity has been shown to be important in maintaining normal phenotypic activity of cells, as well as having a role in development and diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's. Newer classes of drugs regulate epigenetic mechanisms to counteract disease states in humans. The reports in this issue describe some advances in epigenetic understanding that relate to human disease, and our ability to control these mechanisms by pharmacological means. Increasingly the importance of epigenetics is being uncovered – it is pharmacology that will have to keep pace. PMID:25966315

  15. [Pharmacological treatment of hyperinflation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillier, P; Roche, N

    2009-06-01

    Introduction Lung hyperinflation leads to breathlessness, limitation in exercise capacity and tolerance, and impaired quality of life. Thus, it is important to target this key and characteristic feature of COPD. Current knowledge Available pharmacological approaches rely mainly on bronchodilators, in particular beta2 agonists and anticholinergic agents. These treatments act through the reduction of expiratory airflow limitation. However, changes in classical indices of airflow obstruction do not accurately predict effects on hyperinflation and symptoms. The decrease in operating lung volumes (as reflected by inspiratory capacity or functional residual capacity) at rest and during exercise is one of the mechanisms by which these treatments improve quality of life and maybe also decrease the impact of exacerbations. The effect of beta2 agonists on hyperinflation might be amplified by concurrent treatment with inhaled corticosteroids. Perspectives The effect of new treatments targeting airways inflammation on hyperinflation remains to be explored. Conclusions Measuring the reduction in the degree of lung hyperinflation allows a better understanding of the symptomatic effect of COPD pharmacological treatments.

  16. Discussion on reforming computer basic courses in medical colleges and universities under the background of SPOC%SPOC背景下中医药院校计算机基础课程改革方案探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭凤英; 王苹; 韩爱庆; 黄友良; 翟兴; 刘仁权

    2016-01-01

    By way of questionnaire, interview and literature research, this paper studied the computer application demand among health field staff, computer basic teaching conditions and teaching modes in medical colleges. Thus, it is proposed to establish“basic computer”SPOC course on campus. Reform program can be carried out from aspects of teaching method, teaching process, teaching concept and examination method.%通过问卷调查、访谈和文献研究等方法,对卫生领域人员对计算机应用需求情况、当前各高校计算机基础教学情况和当前的教育教学模式做了分析研究,提出建立计算机基础校内小规模私密在线课程(SPOC),并从教学方法、教学过程、教学理念、考核办法构建全方位计算机基础课程改革方案。

  17. 城市社区基本医疗安全隐患原因分析与干预%Analysis and intervention of potential security problems of basic medical care in urban community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄再生; 曾翠; 李伟; 李兆强

    2013-01-01

    Objective To Investigate and analyze the causes of potential security problems in urban community at present, and formulate corresponding measures, effectively reduce the occurrence of community medical adverse events and disputes. Methods 100 Shenzhen Community Health Service Center(the community) were selected randomly, and 5 medical personnel of the community health service center management department (Community Health Department) were selected from the community health centers, including center responsible person, community engineers, nurses, pharmacists, technicians), and they were conducted a questionnaire survey, and 10 community health centers were selected at a random, by field survey and related personnel of in-depth talk. The results of questionnaires were collected, and analyzed the main factors affecting the community basic medical security, in order to make corresponding measures. Results Intervention measures could effectively reduce the occurrence of potential security problems of medical care, and reduce the incidence of medical adverse event. Conclusion It can effectively reduce the community basic medical security risks, and improve the satisfaction of community residents, by implementating the management system, improving the level of medical personnel and the hospital environment with equipped with the necessary emergency equipment to improve the first-aid skills.%目的调查、分析目前城市社区医疗安全隐患的原因,并制定相应的干预措施,有效减少社区医疗不良事件与纠纷的发生。方法随机抽取深圳市100家社区健康服务中心(简称社康),对其社康中心的管理部门(社康部)和所抽取的社康中心中任意选取5名医务人员(包括中心负责人、社区医师、护士、药剂人员、医技人员)进行问卷调查,任意选取其中的10家社康中心进行实地考察和相关人员的深入言谈。将调查问卷结果进行整理,分析出影响社

  18. Pharmacological Issues for Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotring, Virginia E.

    2010-01-01

    Medication-induced side effects, called untoward effects by pharmacologists, can be a problem with any medication. Few therapies are perfectly specific for the desired physiological activity; rather they act on multiple biological targets and result in multiple physiological effects. There are several strategies that are employed to prevent, alleviate or counteract medication-induced side effects. The administered dose may be optimized to the lowest possible amount that provides the desired therapeutic effect, with the expectation that untoward effects will be minimized by a lower dose. Empirical trials of different therapies for a particular medical problem may be used in the hopes of finding a drug with minimal side effects for a particular patient, or at least of finding a set of side effects that the patient considers tolerable. If these two strategies have been exhausted, it may be possible to administer another medication to block or ameliorate side effects. A recent search of published scientific literature has revealed that there are medications used in spaceflight that seem to be associated with a significant number of reports of untoward effects. To prevent future medical problems and to improve the well-being and productivity of crew members, it would be best to eliminate (or at least reduce) untoward effects. Reports from the literature will be examined, with the aim of identifying a strategy for reducing untoward effects.

  19. Medical Microbiology: Deficits and Remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabridge, Michael G.

    1974-01-01

    Microbiology is a typical medical science in which basic information can have direct application. Yet, surveys and questionnaires of recent medical school graduates indicate a serious lack of retentiion in regard to basic biological science. (Author)

  20. Medical Microbiology: Deficits and Remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabridge, Michael G.

    1974-01-01

    Microbiology is a typical medical science in which basic information can have direct application. Yet, surveys and questionnaires of recent medical school graduates indicate a serious lack of retentiion in regard to basic biological science. (Author)

  1. Cough: neurophysiology, methods of research, pharmacological therapy and phonoaudiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balbani, Aracy Pereira Silveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The cough is the more common respiratory symptom in children and adults. Objective: To present a revision on the neurophysiology and the methods for study of the consequence of the cough, as well as the pharmacotherapy and phonoaudiology therapy of the cough, based on the works published between 2005 and 2010 and indexed in the bases Medline, Lilacs and Library Cochrane under them to keywords "cough" or "anti-cough". Synthesis of the data: The consequence of the cough involves activation of receiving multiples becomes vacant in the aerial ways and of neural projections of the nucleus of the solitary treatment for other structures of the central nervous system. Experimental techniques allow studying the consequence of the cough to the cellular and molecular level to develop new anti-cough agents. It does not have evidences of that anti-cough exempt of medical lapsing they have superior effectiveness to the one of placebo for the relief of the cough. The phonoaudiology therapy can benefit patients with refractory chronic cough to the pharmacological treatment, over all when paradoxical movement of the vocal folds coexists. Final Comments: The boarding to multidiscipline has basic paper in the etiological diagnosis and treatment of the cough. The otolaryngologist must inform the patients on the risks of the anti-cough of free sales in order to prevent adverse poisonings and effect, especially in children.

  2. Hurdles in Basic Science Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina J. Perry

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past century there have been incredible advances in the field of medical research, but what hinders translation of this knowledge into effective treatment for human disease? There is an increasing focus on the failure of many research breakthroughs to be translated through the clinical trial process and into medical practice. In this mini review, we will consider some of the reasons that findings in basic medical research fail to become translated through clinical trials and into basic medical practices. We focus in particular on the way that human disease is modeled, the understanding we have of how our targets behave in vivo, and also some of the issues surrounding reproducibility of basic research findings. We will also look at some of the ways that have been proposed for overcoming these issues. It appears that there needs to be a cultural shift in the way we fund, publish and recognize quality control in scientific research. Although this is a daunting proposition, we hope that with increasing awareness and focus on research translation and the hurdles that impede it, the field of medical research will continue to inform and improve medical practice across the world.

  3. Pharmacological undertreatment of coronary risk factors in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlehoff, Ole; Skov, Lone; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar;

    2012-01-01

    with psoriasis. OBJECTIVE: To examine the pharmacological treatment of coronary risk factors in patients with severe psoriasis treated with biologic agents in a real-world setting. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Medical history of patients with severe psoriasis treated with biologic agents in the time period 2007......-09 was retrieved from a Danish nationwide registry (DERMBIO). Individual-level linkage of nationwide administrative registries of hospitalizations, concomitant medications, and socioeconomic status was performed to gain insights into the use of pharmacological treatment. A total of 693 patients (mean age 46.1 ± 12...

  4. Geriatric pharmacology and pharmacotherapy education for health professionals and students: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, Carolina J P W; van Hensbergen, Larissa; Jacobs, Lotte; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; de Wildt, Dick J; ten Cate, Olle Th J; Jansen, Paul A F

    2012-01-01

    AIMS Given the reported high rates of medication errors, especially in elderly patients, we hypothesized that current curricula do not devote enough time to the teaching of geriatric pharmacology. This review explores the quantity and nature of geriatric pharmacology education in undergraduate and postgraduate curricula for health professionals. METHODS Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO databases were searched (from 1 January 2000 to 11 January 2011), using the terms ‘pharmacology’ and ‘education’ in combination. Articles describing content or evaluation of pharmacology education for health professionals were included. Education in general and geriatric pharmacology was compared. RESULTS Articles on general pharmacology education (252) and geriatric pharmacology education (39) were included. The number of publications on education in general pharmacology, but not geriatric pharmacology, has increased over the last 10 years. Articles on undergraduate and postgraduate education for 12 different health disciplines were identified. A median of 24 h (from 15 min to 4956 h) devoted to pharmacology education and 2 h (1–935 h) devoted to geriatric pharmacology were reported. Of the articles on education in geriatric pharmacology, 61.5% evaluated the teaching provided, mostly student satisfaction with the course. The strength of findings was low. Similar educational interventions were not identified, and evaluation studies were not replicated. CONCLUSIONS Recently, interest in pharmacology education has increased, possibly because of the high rate of medication errors and the recognized importance of evidence-based medical education. Nevertheless, courses on geriatric pharmacology have not been evaluated thoroughly and none can be recommended for use in training programmes. Suggestions for improvements in education in general and geriatric pharmacology are given. PMID:22416832

  5. Nutritional and medical applications of spirulina microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S M; Khosravi-Darani, K; Mozafari, M R

    2013-06-01

    Spirulina spp. and its processing products are employed in agriculture, food industry, pharmaceutics, perfumery and medicine. Spirulina has several pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial (including antiviral and antibacterial), anticancer, metalloprotective (prevention of heavy-metal poisoning against Cd, Pb, Fe, Hg), as well as immunostimulant and antioxidant effects due to its rich content of protein, polysaccharide, lipid, essential amino and fatty acids, dietary minerals and vitamins. This article serves as an overview, introducing the basic biochemical composition of this algae and moves to its medical applications. For each application the basic description of disease, mechanism of damage, particular content of Spirulina spp. for treatment, in vivo and/or in vitro usage, factors associated with therapeutic role, problems encountered and advantages are given.

  6. Pharmacologic treatment of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Mark T; Curatolo, Paolo

    2004-03-01

    Autism is a chronic and lifelong pervasive developmental disorder for which there is yet no effective cure, and medical management remains a major challenge for clinicians. In spite of the possible similarities with conditions that have an established pharmacotherapy, and despite improvements in some associated "problematic behaviors" following the use of available medications, effective medical treatment for the core symptoms involving language and social cognition remains elusive. The purpose of the present article is to review current biologic knowledge about autism in an attempt to correlate clinical trials with known mechanisms of disease. In addition, the need for controlled studies and for the creation of homogeneous subgroups of patients based on clinical and genetic characteristics is emphasized. The application of molecular genetic investigations and pharmacogenetics in the diagnostic work-up of autistic patients can lead to more effective individualized medical care.

  7. [Pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Pierre

    2013-03-01

    Decades of practice in psychiatriy and hundreds of clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of antipsychotics on symptoms of schizophrenia. Recently, the knowledge acquired from non-interventional studies have supplemented the information needed in daily practice by raising the issue of efficiency by incorporating not only the effectiveness and safety of treatment but also its acceptability by the patient. Adherence to antipsychotic treatment has become the key issue of the prognosis. The pharmacological management of patients with an acute episode of schizophrenia requires rapid therapeutic decisions to treat a patient who is likely to be sometimes unhelpful and agitated. The choice of treatment will have a significant impact on the prevention of psychotic relapses, on the overall prognosis and on the quality of life of the patient. In many countries of the recommendations and treatment algorithms for the management of acute psychosis were distributed, considering factors specific to the patient and his environment, his mental characteristics and local care setting.

  8. Pharmacology of fenofibrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, M J

    1987-11-27

    This discussion outlines the major aspects of the human pharmacology of fenofibrate, a hypolipidemic agent. In view of its short half-life, efficient absorption, and elimination, fenofibrate would not appear to accumulate in either plasma or tissues. It is extensively absorbed only in the presence of food and is transported through the bloodstream by albumin. Fenofibrate is taken up by both the liver and kidney. Except for a small percentage (about 5 percent) reduced at the ketone moiety before conjugation, most drug is excreted as a conjugate in the urine. Less than 20 percent is excreted through the bile. In normal persons, at steady state with usual doses of 100 mg three times daily, the plasma half-life approximates 30 hours. Because fenofibrate is not dialyzable, it has a markedly prolonged half life in patients with renal failure and should not be used.

  9. Pharmacology of antiplatelet agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Kiran; Franzese, Christopher J; Gesheff, Martin G; Lev, Eli I; Pandya, Shachi; Bliden, Kevin P; Tantry, Udaya S; Gurbel, Paul A

    2013-12-01

    Pharmacotherapies with agents that inhibit platelet function have proven to be effective in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes, and in the prevention of complications during and after percutaneous coronary intervention. Because of multiple synergetic pathways of platelet activation and their close interplay with coagulation, current treatment strategies are based not only on platelet inhibition, but also on the attenuation of procoagulant activity, inhibition of thrombin generation, and enhancement of clot dissolution. Current strategies can be broadly categorized as anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents, and fibrinolytics. This review focuses on the pharmacology of current antiplatelet therapy primarily targeting the inhibition of the enzyme cyclooxygenase 1, the P2Y12 receptor, the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor, and protease-activated receptor 1.

  10. Emergency medicine: beyond the basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, S F

    1997-07-01

    Medical emergencies can arise in the dental office. Preparedness for these emergencies is predicated on an ability to rapidly recognize a problem and to effectively institute prompt and proper management. In all emergency situations, management is based on implementation of basic life support, as needed. The author describes the appropriate management of two common emergency situations: allergy and chest pain.

  11. [Specialist pharmacist training from the viewpoint of sports pharmacology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasashi, Kumiko

    2012-01-01

    When athletes consult sports outpatient or orthopedic clinics it is possible to undergo drug treatment with the medical staff having prior knowledge of that patient being an athlete. However, if athletes seek any other diagnosis and treatment as an ordinary patient, the possibility of medical staff realizing the potential for imposing a doping issue on the athlete is extremely low. As a result, if the athlete fails to provide medical staff with information regarding anti-doping regulations when receiving clinical treatment, drug treatment administered as part of medical practices could be viewed as doping, resulting in the athlete being disciplined. In order to avoid this, pharmacist should participate in training in order to be able to provide information for anti-doping purposes. It is my personal opinion that knowledge regarding anti-doping is something that should be shared by all pharmacists, as pharmacists are educated in the fields of pharmacology and pharmacokinetics during the pharmacy education process, and sports pharmacology is a part of this. However, in order for pharmacists to understand sports pharmacology, it is necessary to provide education not only on the benefits and adverse effects of pharmaceutical products, but also on the concept of banned substances. It can be considered one of the pharmacist's duties to protect athletes who purchase drugs at a pharmacy or consult medical institutions as patients. With this, I would like to propose considering the potential for introducing sports pharmacology to pharmaceutical education, and specialist pharmacist training in the sports spectrum.

  12. Medication wrong-route administrations in relation to medical prescriptions

    OpenAIRE

    GIMENES, Fernanda Raphael Escobar; Marques, Tatiane Cristina; Teixeira,Thalyta Cardoso Alux; MOTA, Maria Lurdemiler Sabóia; Silva,Ana Elisa Bauer de Camargo; Cassiani, Silvia Helena De Bortoli

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the influence of medical prescriptions' writing on the occurrence of medication errors in the medical wards of five Brazilian hospitals. This descriptive study used data obtained from a multicenter study conducted in 2005. The population was composed of 1,425 medication errors and the sample included 92 routes through which medication was wrongly administered. The pharmacological classes most frequently involved in errors were cardiovascular agents (31.5%), medication that...

  13. Pharmacology of sexually compulsive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codispoti, Victoria L

    2008-12-01

    was 37%, which included psychological and medical modes of treatment. Which treatments will reduce recidivism rates in sex offenders is extremely difficult to conclude. Some treatment effects are determined from small studies; however, recidivism rates may be based on different criteria. Larger studies tend to be published more frequently than small studies, negative results may be less likely to be reported in published studies, and differences in mandatory versus voluntary treatment may occur. Clearly more high-quality outcome studies are needed to determine which treatments work best for which individuals. One size is unlikely to fit all. However, pharmacologic intervention, although not always the perfect choice, has improved and will continue to advance the treatment of paraphilic, nonparaphilic, and compulsive sexual behaviors.

  14. Treatment of traumatised refugees with basic body awareness therapy versus mixed physical activity as add-on treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordbrandt, Maja Sticker; Carlsson, Jessica; Lindberg, Laura Glahder

    2015-01-01

    on this topic. METHODS/DESIGN: This study will include approximately 310 patients, randomised into three groups. All three groups receive psychiatric treatment as usual for the duration of 6-7 months, consisting of consultations with a medical doctor including pharmacological treatment and manual......-based Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. The first group only receives treatment as usual while the second and the third groups receive either Basic-Body Awareness Therapy or mixed physical activity as add-on treatments. Each physical activity is provided for an individual 1-hour consultation per week...

  15. Nuclear medicine. Basic knowledge and clinical applications. 7. rev. and enl. ed.; Nuklearmedizin. Basiswissen und klinische Anwendung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schicha, Harald [Universitaetsklinikum Koeln (Germany). Medizinisches Versorgungszentrum II; Schober, Otmar [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2013-11-01

    The book on basic knowledge and clinical applications of nuclear medicine covers the following issues: The first general part: principles of nuclear medicine; physical fundamentals; radiopharmaceutical chemistry; measuring techniques: gamma detectors, gamma spectrometry, gamma camera, SPECT, PET, PET/CT, PET/NMR, image processing and communication; nuclear medical examinations: metabolic and pharmacological kinetics, scintigraphic methods, criteria for the use; quality assurance; dosimetry and radiation protection, radiation risks and patients exposure, benefit-risk considerations. The second part covers endocrine organs, carcinomas, skeleton and bone joints, inflammations, lymph system, cardiovascular system, lungs, central nervous system, kidneys and urinary system, gastrointestinal tract, other scintigraphic examinations.

  16. To Explore the Co-ordination Method of Basic Health Service and Basic Medical as a Whole in Primary Health Institu-tions---the Introduction of the Method base on Labour Voucher Priciple%基层医疗机构内基本公共卫生服务与基本医疗统筹办法探索--一种基于工分制原理的解决方式介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张韬; 龚幼龙; 王洪兴

    2014-01-01

    To explore the expenditure calculation and settlement of the basic medical service and basic public health service in primary health care institutions. By comparing the performance appraisal methods characteristics of basic public health services between China and foreign countries,to analyze its advantages and disadvantages. The difficulty in the performance as-sessment of basic public health service in China is how to approve the value of the service project. Based on the view of basic health care and basic public health services' integrated management,and try to put forward " labour voucher" performance ap-praisal principle to guide its expenditure calculation and settlement of in primary health care institutions.%本文从基本医疗和基本公共卫生服务统筹管理角度出发,尝试提出“工分制”绩效考核原理,指导基层医疗机构经费测算与结算。通过比较国内外基本公共卫生服务绩效考核方法特点,分析优势及不足,得出我国基层公共卫生绩效考核难点在于对服务项目价值的核定,从而制约其经费测算与结算。

  17. Recent Pharmacology Studies on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotring, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    The environment on the International Space Station (ISS) includes a variety of potential stressors including the absence of Earth's gravity, elevated exposure to radiation, confined living and working quarters, a heavy workload, and high public visibility. The effects of this extreme environment on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and even on stored medication doses, are not yet understood. Dr. Wotring will discuss recent analyses of medication doses that experienced long duration storage on the ISS and a recent retrospective examination of medication use during long-duration spaceflights. She will also describe new pharmacology experiments that are scheduled for upcoming ISS missions. Dr. Virginia E. Wotring is a Senior Scientist in the Division of Space Life Sciences in the Universities Space Research Association, and Pharmacology Discipline Lead at NASA's Johnson Space Center, Human Heath and Countermeasures Division. She received her doctorate in Pharmacological and Physiological Science from Saint Louis University after earning a B.S. in Chemistry at Florida State University. She has published multiple studies on ligand gated ion channels in the brain and spinal cord. Her research experience includes drug mechanisms of action, drug receptor structure/function relationships and gene & protein expression. She joined USRA (and spaceflight research) in 2009. In 2012, her book reviewing pharmacology in spaceflight was published by Springer: Space Pharmacology, Space Development Series.

  18. PHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF CITRUS FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Tomar *, Mridula Mall and Pragya Rai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the pharmacological importance of citrus fruits. Citrus fruits are used for various pharmacological importance. According to literature the citrus fruit possess anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective properties.

  19. Medicalized weapons & modern war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    "Medicalized" weapons--those that rely on advances in neuroscience, physiology, and pharmacology--offer the prospect of reducing casualties and protecting civilians. They could be especially useful in modern asymmetric wars in which conventional states are pitted against guerrilla or insurgent forces. But may physicians and other medical workers participate in their development?

  20. Centralized cancer pain cognition situation in basic medical staff from China%我国西南地区基层医务人员癌痛认知现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婧; 王静; 贾钰铭; 雷开键; 张瑶; 江健; 郭菁菁; 贾凤琴

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解我国西南地区基层医务人员的癌痛认知状况,为提高基层癌痛控制水平提供依据。方法:选择我国西南地区四川省宜宾市宜宾县横江镇及所辖部分村级医务人员,进行集中式癌痛问卷调查并进行癌痛知识宣教。结果:横江镇医务人员认为仅有17%(8/46)的癌痛患者得到治疗;70%(32/46)医务人员不注重对患者进行癌痛治疗宣教;64%(40/46)医务人员对规范癌痛控制知识不了解;87%(40/46)医务人员认为麻醉止痛药不能满足患者需要;70%(32/46)的医务人员要求增加癌痛培训次数。结论:横江镇医务人员癌痛认知状况较差,需要更多适应基层的癌痛知识培训,建议将癌痛控制纳入社区慢性病肿瘤的具体管理之中。%Objective:To understand the recognition status of cancer pain in basic medical staff from small towns to provide the basis for the improvement of cancer pain management in these areas. Methods:The medical staff of Hengjiang Town and subordinate villages was selected. The study area is situated in southwest China. Centralized questionnaires regarding cancer pain were collected and analyzed. A program and education of cancer pain were provided for these medical workers. Results: The medical staff from Hengjiang asserted that only 17%of cancer pain patients receive treatments. Approximately 70%of the medical staff did not consider the popularization and explanation of cancer pain treatment in their patients. Approximately 64%of the medical staff was not familiar with standardized cancer pain control, 87%did not believe that narcotics could suffice the need of patients, and 44%did not participate in the training for cancer pain control. Conclusion: The medical staff in Hengjiang possesses less knowledge on the importance of cancer pain. Hence, further training is necessary. The specific management of cancer pain as a part of community chronic diseases is

  1. Medical Holography for Basic Anatomy Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    training methods. The leaps in simulation based training are evident in the flight simulation realm, evolving from the Link flight simulator in World War...The handouts were stapled together in a booklet to ensure that the control group experienced the content one view at a time. Figure 2: Four views of...some food for thought. Instructional Science, 38(2), 105-134. Denisyuk, Y. N. (1962, December). Photographic reconstruction of the optical

  2. Pharmacology of taurine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oja, Simo S; Saransaari, Pirjo

    2007-01-01

    Taurine has a number of physiological functions, e.g., in cell volume regulation and inhibitory neuromodulation. Taurine and its derivatives have also been tested as potential pharmacological agents in many pathological states. We endeavor here to review the present status of this investigation. Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is a simple sulfur-containing amino acid present in virtually all cells throughout the animal kingdom. In particular, it is enriched in electrically excitable tissues such as brain, retina, heart and skeletal muscles. In the central nervous system, taurine has been implicated in two major phenomena; in cell volume regulation [1-3] and in inhibitory neuromodulation or neurotransmission [4-7]. Its function as a neurotransmitter implies the existence of specific taurine receptors and the neuromodulatory role, an interference with functions of other transmitter systems. There is scant evidence to corroborate the first assumption, but ample for the latter. In other tissues taurine has also been thought to act as an antioxidant in cell protection and to have beneficial effects on cardiovascular functions. These taurine properties are only partially explored so far but taurine and many of its derivatives have been tested as potential pharmaceutical agents in a number of pathological states.

  3. [Pharmacological treatment of obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomis Barbará, R

    2004-01-01

    The pharmacological treatment of obesity should be considered when cannot be achieved a 10% weight loss with diet therapy and physical activity. The drugs effective in obesity treatment may act by different mechanisms such as reduction in food intake, inhibition of fat absorption, increase of thermogenesis and stimulation of adipocyte apoptosis. At present, we only have two marketed drugs for obesity treatment. Sibutramine is an inhibitor of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonina reuptake which inhibits food intake and increases thermogenesis. Sibutramine administration for a year can induce a weight loss of 4-7%. Its main side effects are hypertension, headache, insomnia and constipation. Orlistat is an inhibitor of pancreatic lipase which is able to block the absorption of 30% of ingested fat. Its administration induces weight loss and reduction of ulterior weight regain. Also, this drug improves hypertension dyslipdaemia and helps to prevent diabetes in 52% of cases when administered over four years. The increase in frequency of stools and interference with vitamin absorption are its main side effects. Glucagon-like peptide 1, which increases insulin sensitivity and satiety, adiponectin and PPAR-gamma agonists which reduce insulin resistance and modulates adipocyte generation are the basis for future therapeutic approaches of obesity. Phosphatase inhibitors induce PPAR-gamma phosphorylation and UCP-1 expression leading to an increase in thermogenesis and reduction in appetite.

  4. Pharmacological research in neonatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotta, Andrea; Braguglia, Annabella; Salvatori, Guglielmo

    2011-10-01

    In neonatology unit 40 to 80% of the drugs are used as off-label or unlicensed, particularly in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), where it has been described that in a single patient up to 60 parenteral drugs can be administered. The course of a drug inside the organism can be defined in 4 different phases: absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination; for each of these phases the newborn infant has different characteristics than child and adult. In the last years much more attention has been put in pharmacological research specific for the neonatal age and a good trial design should take into account the following points: (1) to define the pediatric disease in terms of natural history, prevalence, severity, treatment and impact of the new drug; (2) to avoid the "try and error" method based on the adult dose corrected for weight or age; (3) to use adapted methodologies (pharmacokinetics); (4) to avoid small clinical trials (limited number of patients), the use of Randomized Controlled Trials rather than observational studies; (5) to consider ethics providing clear information and reducing pain and stress to the baby and its family.

  5. [Pharmacological effects of hordenine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, H J; Strathmann, W

    1995-06-01

    Hordenine is an ingredient of some plants which are used as feed for animals, i.e. in sprouting barley. After ingestion of such feed hordenine may be detected in blood or urine of horses which in case of racing horses may be the facts of using prohibited compounds. Results of some experiments in pharmacological models show that hordenine is an indirectly acting adrenergic drug. It liberates norepinephrine from stores. In isolated organs and those structures with reduced epinephrine contents the hordenine-effect is only very poor. Experiments in intact animals (rats, dogs) show that hordenine has a positive inotropic effect upon the heart, increases systolic and diastolic blood pressure, peripheral blood flow volume, inhibits gut movements but has no effect upon the psychomotorical behaviour of mice. All effects are short and only possible after high doses which are not to be expected after ingestion of hordenine containing feed for horses. A measurable increase of the performance of racing horses is quite improbable.

  6. The pharmacology of salmeterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M

    1990-01-01

    The pharmacology of salmeterol hydroxynaphthoate (SALM) has been investigated in respiratory tissues in vitro and in animal models in vivo. In guinea pig trachea and human bronchial smooth muscle, SALM was more potent than isoprenaline (ISO), salbutamol (SALB), and clenbuterol (CLEN). The duration of action was greater than 7 h, whereas that for ISO, SALB, and CLEN was 2, 11, and 45 min, respectively. The sustained activity of SALM was reversed by sotalol, but was reestablished when the beta-blocker was removed. SALM was greater than 3000-fold weaker than ISO in cardiac tissues, indicating high beta 2-adrenoceptor selectivity. In the conscious guinea pig, aerosolized SALM, SALB, and CLEN caused dose-related bronchodilatation. The activity of SALM persisted for at least 6 h, compared with less than 2 h for SALB and CLEN. SALM is also a potent inhibitor of mediator release from human lung, this effect being sustained for up to 20 hours. In guinea pig airways in vivo, SALM inhibited histamine-induced plasma protein extravasation for approximately 8 h. Salmeterol is a potent and selective beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist with a unique profile of action. It induces persistent bronchodilatation, sustained suppression of mediator release, and long-lasting inhibition of edema formation. This combination of properties may represent an important new advance in the treatment of bronchial asthma.

  7. Traditional herbal medicine, pharmacology and complementary alternative medicine (CAM): a preface to this special issue on herbal drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chiu-Yin KWAN

    2000-01-01

    @@In China, our ancient human civilization has long used plants and other natural products, and their extracts for both healing and poisoning. The understanding of interactions between drugs and living systems was acquired via generations of knowledge accumulation based on empirical observations. This form of healing, also well documented to exist in many other cultural civilizations via a long historical experimentation, has eventually evolved itself from an art form into a scientific modality, now known as pharmacology. This recognition of a formal discipline of medicine occurred only about a century ago following the declaration of Flexner Report in the North America in 1910. The report proclaimed that the practice of medicine should be based on scientific evidence rather than empiricism. The emergence of synthetic organic chemistry facilitating the discovery of new healing chemicals and the rapid development of physiological and biochemical sciences (often dependent on pharmacological tools) have further solidified pharmacology as a mainstream basic medical science. For long decades since the Flexner's report, the empirically based folk medicine has rapidly been replaced by the scientifically based medicine, which is often referred to as the mainstream medicine (and thus becomes a traditional/conventional medicine itself).

  8. The training process of basic life support skills for primary medical staff%基层医务人员初级急救技术的培训流程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文娟; 刘励军; 徐波

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study was to carry on an universal training for the primary medical staff , assess training effectiveness , and optimize the training process .Methods In accordance with the pre-designed training process , an universal training was carried on for the primary medical staff in Suzhou.By means of analyzing the results of training , we tried to optimize the training process .Results ①There were a total of 2612 persons, who took part in the training , including 1442 doctors or nurses from township hospitals , and 1170 persons from the medical services of village .The male was accounted for 1425/2612 (54.6%), and the female accounted for 1187/2612 (45.4%) of the total number .The number of countryside doctors aged over 60 years old was 419 , accounting for 16%of this population of medical staff .②The percentage of medical staff from township hospitals and medical services of village mastering CPR were 62.0% and 59.3% respectively.However, 96.1% of medical staff from township hospitals had no knowledge about non -invasive and invasive mechanical ventilation , while 95.3%of them knew nothing about electrical defibrillation .Meanwhile, 96.2% of medical staff from medical service of village had no idea about automated external defibrillation ( AED) .③The results of training on non -invasive and invasive mechanical ventilation , electrical defibrillation and AED , showed no significant difference between before and after training (P>0.05), but the training of others skills made the significant improvement (P<0.05).Conclusion ①The training of basic life support skills can overall improve the first aid level of medical staff from primary medical establishments .②In this study, the training process could be optimized:AED should be handled for medical staff of primary level by the mean of special training , for present , electrical defibrillation , non-invasive and invasive mechanical ventilation are not included in universal training .%目的:

  9. Pharmacological Management of Bipolar Disorder in a Youth with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelBello, Melissa P.; Correll, Christoph U.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Carlson, Harold E.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, four clinicians respond to the following case vignette: A 12-year-old girl with insulin-dependent diabetes presents for treatment of her newly diagnosed bipolar disorder. How would you address the bipolar disorder pharmacologically, and how would the presence of diabetes affect your selection of medication and clinical management?

  10. Attitudes toward pharmacological cognitive enhancement-a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelle, K.J.; Faulmüller, N.S.; Caviola, L.; Hewstone, M.

    2014-01-01

    A primary means for the augmentation of cognitive brain functions is "pharmacological cognitive enhancement" (PCE). The term usually refers to the off-label use of medical substances to improve mental performance in healthy individuals. With the final aim to advance the normative debate taking place

  11. A pharmacological approach to first aid treatment for snakebite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, Megan E; Thomas, Paul A; Dosen, Peter J; Isbister, Geoffrey K; O'Leary, Margaret A; Whyte, Ian M; McFadden, Sally A; van Helden, Dirk F

    2011-06-26

    Snake venom toxins first transit the lymphatic system before entering the bloodstream. Ointment containing a nitric oxide donor, which impedes the intrinsic lymphatic pump, prolonged lymph transit time in rats and humans and also increased rat survival time after injection of venom. This pharmacological approach should give snakebite victims more time to obtain medical care and antivenom treatment.

  12. The pharmacology of regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, George J; Saul, Justin M; Furth, Mark E; Andersson, Karl-Erik

    2013-07-01

    Regenerative medicine is a rapidly evolving multidisciplinary, translational research enterprise whose explicit purpose is to advance technologies for the repair and replacement of damaged cells, tissues, and organs. Scientific progress in the field has been steady and expectations for its robust clinical application continue to rise. The major thesis of this review is that the pharmacological sciences will contribute critically to the accelerated translational progress and clinical utility of regenerative medicine technologies. In 2007, we coined the phrase "regenerative pharmacology" to describe the enormous possibilities that could occur at the interface between pharmacology, regenerative medicine, and tissue engineering. The operational definition of regenerative pharmacology is "the application of pharmacological sciences to accelerate, optimize, and characterize (either in vitro or in vivo) the development, maturation, and function of bioengineered and regenerating tissues." As such, regenerative pharmacology seeks to cure disease through restoration of tissue/organ function. This strategy is distinct from standard pharmacotherapy, which is often limited to the amelioration of symptoms. Our goal here is to get pharmacologists more involved in this field of research by exposing them to the tools, opportunities, challenges, and interdisciplinary expertise that will be required to ensure awareness and galvanize involvement. To this end, we illustrate ways in which the pharmacological sciences can drive future innovations in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering and thus help to revolutionize the discovery of curative therapeutics. Hopefully, the broad foundational knowledge provided herein will spark sustained conversations among experts in diverse fields of scientific research to the benefit of all.

  13. HT-ATTENDING: Critiquing the Pharmacologic Management of Essential Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Perry L.; Black, Henry R.

    1983-01-01

    HT-ATTENDING is a computer system being developed to critique a physician's approach to the pharmacologic management of essential hypertension. The concept of having a computer critique a physician's plan of management (Medical Plan-Analysis) has already been implemented in ATTENDING, a system whose domain is anesthesia management. HT-ATTENDING extends this approach to a new medical domain. HT-ATTENDING's goal is 1) to assist a physician in formulating his approach to the hypertensive patient...

  14. Mitochondrial biogenesis: pharmacological approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Organelle biogenesis is concomitant to organelle inheritance during cell division. It is necessary that organelles double their size and divide to give rise to two identical daughter cells. Mitochondrial biogenesis occurs by growth and division of pre-existing organelles and is temporally coordinated with cell cycle events [1]. However, mitochondrial biogenesis is not only produced in association with cell division. It can be produced in response to an oxidative stimulus, to an increase in the energy requirements of the cells, to exercise training, to electrical stimulation, to hormones, during development, in certain mitochondrial diseases, etc. [2]. Mitochondrial biogenesis is therefore defined as the process via which cells increase their individual mitochondrial mass [3]. Recent discoveries have raised attention to mitochondrial biogenesis as a potential target to treat diseases which up to date do not have an efficient cure. Mitochondria, as the major ROS producer and the major antioxidant producer exert a crucial role within the cell mediating processes such as apoptosis, detoxification, Ca2+ buffering, etc. This pivotal role makes mitochondria a potential target to treat a great variety of diseases. Mitochondrial biogenesis can be pharmacologically manipulated. This issue tries to cover a number of approaches to treat several diseases through triggering mitochondrial biogenesis. It contains recent discoveries in this novel field, focusing on advanced mitochondrial therapies to chronic and degenerative diseases, mitochondrial diseases, lifespan extension, mitohormesis, intracellular signaling, new pharmacological targets and natural therapies. It contributes to the field by covering and gathering the scarcely reported pharmacological approaches in the novel and promising field of mitochondrial biogenesis. There are several diseases that have a mitochondrial origin such as chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) and the Kearns- Sayre syndrome (KSS

  15. Developing an interactive microsimulation method in pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Angela S; Graves, Barbara A; Gullette, Donna; Edwards, Rebecca

    2010-07-01

    Pharmacology decision making requires clinical judgment. The authors created interactive microsimulation applying drug information to varying patients' situations. The theory-based microsimulation requires situational analysis for each scenario. The microsimulation uses an interactive format that allows the participant to navigate through three separate virtual clients' situations. Correct clinical decisions are rewarded by sounds and by video footage of the patient improving. Conversely, incorrect choices show video footage of the patient decompensating. This micro-simulation was developed to help students learn from the consequences of incorrect medication decision making in the virtual world without harming patients. The feedback of watching an incorrect decision on a patient helps students associate cause and effect on patient outcomes. The microsimulation reinforces the ease with which medication errors can occur and the extent of possible sequalae. The development process used to incorporate the technology in the nursing curriculum is discussed.

  16. Pharmacological Needs of Nurses: Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Nazari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives : This study was carried out to determine the most commonly used drugs in health centers. By identifying common medications, pharmacological educational needs of nurses gets clear and officials can provide nurses specific relevant training about common drugs. Material and Methods: In this descriptive report, the hospitals’ pharmacies were asked to name ten of the most widely used drugs in the past 6 months. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS 13 software using descriptive tests. Results: Gastrointestinal drugs and antibiotics in all centers and oxytocin in obstetrics and gynecological centers were the most commonly used drugs. Conclusion: Due to the important and dangerous side-effects of these common medications, renewing nurses’ information in this field is required. ​

  17. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in FDA’s Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Wash hands. It seems basic, but not everyone ... Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics ...

  18. PERCEPTION OF PHARMACOLOGY TEACHING METHODS AMONG SECOND YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS TOWARDS BETTER LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmanabha Thiruganahalli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Student’s feedback is an excellent indicator for the success of any teaching methodology followed in a department. Problembased learning (PBL is a well-established method for facilitating the learning of basic science concepts in the context of real cases. AIM This study is aimed to evaluate the perception of second year MBBS students towards teaching methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS Second year medical students were requested to fill the 8 questionnaires which were used to evaluate the student’s preference on PBL (Problem Based Learning vs. LBL (Literature Based Learning methods after obtaining Institutional Ethics Committee (IEC permission. The data was expressed in percentages using Microsoft excel. RESULTS Out of 100 MBBS II students; 37% were aware of PBL; 58% students were interested towards PBL; and 49%, 65%, 53% and 21% opined better understanding, analytical approach, syllabus covered and present lecture practices with respect to PBL method respectively. 53% preferred concurrent use of both LBL and PBL for better clarification. CONCLUSION The present study has enlightened us to know the students’ preference regarding pharmacology teaching and preferred PBL over LBL & both methods to go side by side. It is definitely helpful in resetting the undergraduate pharmacology teaching patterns involving the traditional literature methods into more productive problem simulated cases.

  19. The Operation of the Overall Pooling Fund of Basic Medical Insurance for Fujian Urban Employees%福建省城镇职工医保统筹基金运行分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉水; 阚小冬; 官孝熙; 陈新榕

    2014-01-01

    通过对参保人数变化、基金收支情况及累计结余、个人账户的情况分析,探讨了福建省职工医保统筹基金运行现状,并深入分析医保统筹基金平衡的相关因素,从基金收入、支出、管理三方面提出保持医保统筹基金平稳运行的建议。%By the analysis of the change of insured number, fund revenues and expenditures, accumulated balances and personal account, we discuss the operation status of the overall pooling fund of basic medical insurance for Fujian urban employees, and further analyze the relevant factors inlfuencing the balance of pooling fund. Then, we suggest from three areas, i.e., fund income, expenditure, and management to keep the overall pooling fund run smoothly.

  20. Actuarial Evaluation of the Financial Operation Situation of China's Basic Medical Insurance System%中国基本医疗保险制度财务运行状况的精算评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾益; 任超然; 李媛媛

    2012-01-01

    人口老龄化的加剧可能会恶化我国城镇职工医疗保险制度的财务状况。文章在相关参数假设的基础上通过精算模型评估发现,虽然城镇职工医疗保险个人账户累计余额逐年增加,但是在2025年统筹基金将会收不抵支,收支差为-102.11亿元,这一差值还会逐年扩大,至2033年累计结余会使用完毕。针对以上状况,文章在评估了几种改善统筹基金财务状况的政策方案后发现,个人账户与统筹基金合并能将收不抵支和出现赤字的年份推迟到2034年和2046年,这一方案优于其他方案。%The increasing population aging may worsen the financial sit uation of China's urban resident basic medical insurance system. Based on the hypothesis of related parameters and the actuarial evaluation models, this paper finds that the accumulated amount of the urban resident medical sav ings accounts increases year by year, but the income of the pooling fund will not balance the expense in 2025; the gap between income and expenditure is -10. 211 billion yuan and as the gap will gradually widen, the accumulated amount of the pooling fund will be used up in 2033. After evaluating some policy options of improving the financial status of the pooling fund, this pa per shows that the integration of individual medical savings accounts and pooling fund can postpone the time of income over expenditure until 2034 and the time of deficit until 2046, so it is better than other policy options.

  1. Electronic imaging fundamentals: basic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizy, K N

    1983-01-01

    Introduction of the computer into the field of medical imaging, as typified by the extensive use of digital subtraction angiography (DSA), created an important need for a basic understanding of the principles of digital imaging. This paper reviews these fundamental principles, starting with the definition of images and the interaction of these images with television display systems, then continuing with a detailed description of the way in which imaging systems are specified. This work defines the basic terms and concepts that will be used throughout the contents of this issue.

  2. Pharmacological versus non-pharmacological approaches to managing challenging behaviours for people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tony; Hungerford, Catherine; Cleary, Michelle

    2014-02-01

    When people with dementia demonstrate challenging behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, the levels of stress experienced by their carers increases. Furthermore, there is an increased likelihood that the person will be prematurely admitted to a residential care facility. The adverse side-effects that have been associated with the use of antipsychotic medications in older people with dementia have given rise to a renewed emphasis on the use of non-pharmacological approaches to manage challenging behaviours. This article describes the approaches taken by the multi-disciplinary team of a Dementia Behaviour Management Advisory Service in Australia to support people with dementia who have challenging behaviours by using non-pharmacological interventions.

  3. Process Pharmacology: A Pharmacological Data Science Approach to Drug Development and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultsch, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    A novel functional‐genomics based concept of pharmacology that uses artificial intelligence techniques for mining and knowledge discovery in “big data” providing comprehensive information about the drugs’ targets and their functional genomics is proposed. In “process pharmacology”, drugs are associated with biological processes. This puts the disease, regarded as alterations in the activity in one or several cellular processes, in the focus of drug therapy. In this setting, the molecular drug targets are merely intermediates. The identification of drugs for therapeutic or repurposing is based on similarities in the high‐dimensional space of the biological processes that a drug influences. Applying this principle to data associated with lymphoblastic leukemia identified a short list of candidate drugs, including one that was recently proposed as novel rescue medication for lymphocytic leukemia. The pharmacological data science approach provides successful selections of drug candidates within development and repurposing tasks. PMID:27069773

  4. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donate Experts \\ The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 Spinal ... Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing ...

  5. 我国药械组合产品的申报流程、基本情况介绍及器械部分申报资料要求%Submission Procedure and Basic Situation of Combination Products Andrequirements of Medical Devices for Drug-medical Device in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田佳鑫; 杨晓冬; 邓洁

    2016-01-01

    本文介绍了我国药械组合产品的定义和属性界定、申报流程,归纳了我国目前含药医疗器械的主要类型,并结合药械组合产品的技术审评情况,总结了药械组合产品中器械部分的申报资料的基本要求,希望为相关产品的研发和生产单位提供帮助。%This paper brielfy introduces the deifnition, the atribution and the submission procedure of Combination products, and concludes the main types of drug-medical device in our country at present, and summarizes the basic requirements of medical devices for drug-medical device according to the technical evaluation situation, hoping it wil provide help for the company of research and development of the related products.

  6. NASA 2010 Pharmacology Evidence Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the Institute of Medicine reviewed NASA's Human Research Program Evidence in assessing the Pharmacology risk identified in NASA's Human Research Program Requirements Document (PRD). Since this review there was a major reorganization of the Pharmacology discipline within the HRP, as well as a re-evaluation of the Pharmacology evidence. This panel is being asked to review the latest version of the Pharmacology Evidence Report. Specifically, this panel will: (1) Appraise the descriptions of the human health-related risk in the HRP PRD. (2) Assess the relevance and comprehensiveness of the evidence in identifying potential threats to long-term space missions. (3) Assess the associated gaps in knowledge and identify additional areas for research as necessary.

  7. [Pharmacological treatment of chronic pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willimann, Patrick

    2011-09-01

    The pharmacological treatment of chronic pain differs from acute pain management. In chronic non-cancer pain patients pharmacological treatment is only one element of an interdisciplinary approach. Not pain reduction only but gain in physical and social functioning is mandatory for continuation of therapy. The developpement of a strategy is the most important and difficult step toward an individual and sustained pharmacological pain treatment. Simple practical guidelines can help to find an individual therapeutic straight. Outcome parameters have to be determined. Check-ups for discontinuation of the therapy have to be done periodically. Exact documentation of effect and side effects prevents ungrateful and potential dangerous treatments. The WHO ladder remains the cornerstone of pharmacological pain treatment. Further analgesics as antidepressants and anticonvulsants are important in treatment of neuropathic or mixed pain states. Special considerations have to be done in opioid treatment of non-cancer pain regarding the lack of evidence in long term outcome and possible side effects and risks.

  8. Pharmacological Activities of Hypnea musciformis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revd Dr Olaleye

    Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Karachi. University .... brief training period (2 or 3 trials), to ensure their ability to walk across a ..... Geographic and genetic variation in feeding preference for chemically ...

  9. Fuzzy pharmacology: theory and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproule, Beth A; Naranjo, Claudio A; Türksen, I Burhan

    2002-09-01

    Fuzzy pharmacology is a term coined to represent the application of fuzzy logic and fuzzy set theory to pharmacological problems. Fuzzy logic is the science of reasoning, thinking and inference that recognizes and uses the real world phenomenon that everything is a matter of degree. It is an extension of binary logic that is able to deal with complex systems because it does not require crisp definitions and distinctions for the system components. In pharmacology, fuzzy modeling has been used for the mechanical control of drug delivery in surgical settings, and work has begun evaluating its use in other pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic applications. Fuzzy pharmacology is an emerging field that, based on these initial explorations, warrants further investigation.

  10. [Non-pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis: myth or reality?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlak, Tonko; Aljinović, Jure

    2014-01-01

    Non-pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis is a mandatory part of all algorithms and recommendations for dealing with this disease. However, the belief that pharmacological therapy is much more superior to treating osteoporosis than non-pharmacological treatment is still common in the medical community. The probable reason is that pharmacological treatment can be measured and statistically analyzed, and that's why the abundance of data from controlled randomized trials, meta-analyses and systematic reviews are available. Non-pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis is not so much represented in evidence based medicine (EBM) because there are a lot of different exercise protocols, different machines with different setups for applying the same models of physical therapy. So the main problem are inclusion criteria in meta-analyses or systematic reviews of patients whose data is collected using different protocols. Non-pharmacological treatment ofosteoporosis: myth or reality? Maybe we did not answer this question in fullness, but by analyzing data from the scientifically relevant data bases we can conclude that non-pharmacological treatment is an important factor in prevention of osteoporosis and part of all treatment protocols available today--almost as equally significant as pharmacological treatment. Cochrane library database and PEDro database provide EBM information that can help to identify the best types of ex- ercises and physical procedures for bone mineral density and prevention of falls. The best result in non-pharmaco- logical treatment of osteoporosis showed a combination of exercise programs that include muscle strengthening exercises, aerobic exercises, exercises with progressive resistance increase, and high-impact exercises. As for individual exercises, a non-weight-bearing high force exercise showed small but statistically significant increase in bone mineral density in femoral neck, in some scientific papers. Exercises for balance and

  11. Pharmacology and toxicology of sensitizers: mechanism studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauth, A.M.

    1984-08-01

    Nitroimidazoles are being studied extensively as hypoxic cell radiosensitizers. Besides their ability to selectively sensitize hypoxic cells to radiation, which depends on the parent compound, nitroimidazoles have a variety of other effects in vitro, in vivo and clinically which appear to require reductive metabolism. As a first step to suggesting possible mechanisms for these other biological effects, a summary has been made of the known oxidative and reductive products of the two most widely studied radiosensitizers, metronidazole and misonidazole. As a second step to suggesting possible mechanisms for these biological effects, it is important to view the problem in terms of the in vivo situation where distribution and sites of metabolism of the drug and its reduction products will be important factors. Combining basic information about the reduction chemistry of nitroimidazoles with knowledge about the pharmacology of drugs and their reduced products should allow a better assessment of mechanism of action as well as a better implementation of these drugs clinically.

  12. Nuclear medicine physics the basics

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    For decades this classic reference has been the book to review to master the complexities of nuclear-medicine physics. Part of the renowned The Basics series of medical physics books, Nuclear Medicine Physics has become an essential resource for radiology residents and practitioners, nuclear cardiologists, medical physicists, and radiologic technologists. This thoroughly revised Seventh Edition retains all the features that have made The Basics series a reliable and trusted partner for board review and reference. This handy manual contains key points at the end of each chapter that help to underscore principal concepts. You'll also find review questions at the end of each chapter—with detailed answers at the end of the book—to help you master the material. This edition includes useful appendices that elaborate on specific topics, such as physical characteristics of radionuclides and CGS and SI Units.

  13. Positron emission tomography basic sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, D W; Valk, P E; Maisey, M N

    2003-01-01

    Essential for students, science and medical graduates who want to understand the basic science of Positron Emission Tomography (PET), this book describes the physics, chemistry, technology and overview of the clinical uses behind the science of PET and the imaging techniques it uses. In recent years, PET has moved from high-end research imaging tool used by the highly specialized to an essential component of clinical evaluation in the clinic, especially in cancer management. Previously being the realm of scientists, this book explains PET instrumentation, radiochemistry, PET data acquisition and image formation, integration of structural and functional images, radiation dosimetry and protection, and applications in dedicated areas such as drug development, oncology, and gene expression imaging. The technologist, the science, engineering or chemistry graduate seeking further detailed information about PET, or the medical advanced trainee wishing to gain insight into the basic science of PET will find this book...

  14. Pharmacology Risk Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    It seems very likely that the actions of administered drugs on crewmembers during spaceflight are different than they are on Earth, but even after more than 40 years of spaceflight experience, the answers to most questions about medication use during missions remain unanswered. Use of medications with insufficient knowledge about their actual activities may result in inadequate treatment and may even reduce performance and well-being in particular circumstances. There is evidence that this has already occurred during and immediately after spaceflights. The spaceflight pharmaceutical activity knowledge base must be improved to enable flight surgeons and crewmembers to make better decisions about using pharmaceuticals inflight. The spaceflight environment induces changes in human physiology, and these changes have been the subject of much study over the past few decades. These studies are confounded by the small number of potential subjects, as well by the inability to separate the different stressors of spaceflight (radiation exposure from microgravity, for example). In every physiological system, the details of spaceflight-induced physiological changes are not well understood. Despite this fact, crewmembers are treated with pharmaceuticals to reduce or prevent medical problems, with insufficient information as to drug function on their altered physiological systems. There are two major concerns about pharmaceutical use in the unusual environment of spaceflight. The actions of pharmaceuticals on physiology altered by a spaceflight environment are currently assumed to be the same as the actions in terrestrial use. This has yet to be established. The wide range of physiological systems altered by spaceflight and the degree of change experienced in some of them make it very likely that alterations in pharmaceutical action will be seen. As the duration of missions lengthens to include more distant exploration, it becomes more likely that problems will be encountered

  15. Investigation on academic emotions in curriculum of basic subjects by medical freshmen in a coastal medical university%某沿海医科大学临床医学一年级学生基础医学课程学业情绪调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小平; 黄子杰; 李跃平

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the main composition and influential factors of academic emotions in curriculum of basic subjects in a coastal medical university. Methods The first stage was presurvey and literature. 46 emotion adjectives were collected, and the word similarity was calculated too. Then the similarity was used to build matrix in order to make hierarchical clustering analysis; 230 medical freshmen were sampled by randomly cluster sampling, and they were surveyed with a self-administered questionnaire to inquire about their academic emotions in curriculum of basic subjects.Results The result of hierarchical clustering analysis was 46 adjectives divided into four classes which integrated for 33 first. The main composition of medical freshmen academic emotions in curriculum of basic subjects were: happy, curious,satisfaction, enriching, love, relax, calm, interest, anxiety, depression, tension, boredom, depressing, confnsion. In all, the main emotion of Systemic Anatomy was positive-high arousal; the main emotion of Histolytic Embryology was negative-high arousal; the main emotion of Cell Biology was positive-low arousal. Conclusions The method of hierarchical clustering analysis demonstrates good effect on sorting academic emotions in curriculum of basic subjects. There are some differences among different academic emotions in curriculum of basic subjects.%目的 探索某沿海医科大学临床医学一年级学生基础医学课程学业情绪主要构成及其影响因?方法 2010年4~5月,第一阶段通过预调查和查阅文献,收集到46个常见学业情绪形容词,计算词语相似度,利用相似性系数构建距离矩阵进行聚类分析;第二阶段通过整群随机抽样,抽取某医科大学临床医学一年级学生230人,使用自填式问卷,调查其基础医学课程学业情绪.结果 系统聚类分析结果将46个形容词先整合为33个后分为4类;临床医学一年级学生基础医学课程学业情绪主要构成为

  16. 从新医改中看面向基层医学生的机遇与挑战%The Opportunities and Challenges in the New Health Care Reform for the Medical Students at Basic Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊义

    2012-01-01

    The new health care reform has advocated strengthening the governments responsibility, strengthening grass - roots, and guiding the general treatment to primary health care sectors. These policies have brought a-bout some good opportunities for the medical students at basic level to develop their careers. At the same time,the target of the new health care reform, that is to relieve and even resolve the difficulty and costliness in medical treatment, has also brought about some large challenges for them. They have to make various efforts to be competent in this era mission. The opportunities come from the pursuit for social justice of people in the condition of the continuous development of the economy and society. The challenges mainly come from the individual moral requirement of the overall career under the technological progress. A good combination of the two forms the ethical basis for the success of the career.%新医改中的“强化政府责任”、“强基层”、“引导一般诊疗下沉基层”等政策为面向基层医学生的事业发展带来良好机遇.同时,新医改的目标,缓解乃至解决“看病难,看病贵”问题,对面向基层医学生也提出了很大挑战.他们需要通过多方面努力才能胜任这一时代使命.机遇来自人们在经济社会不断发展的基础上对社会伦理,即公正的追求,挑战主要源于技术进步前提下整体事业对个体道德,即善的要求.二者契合构成事业成功的伦理基础.

  17. 综合实验在护理学基础实验教学中的应用%Comprehensive Experiment Teaching Model in Medical Nursing in Basic Nursing Experimental Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of Comprehensive Experiment teaching model on Medical Nursing teaching in Basic nursing experimental teaching. Methods Ninety vocational nursing students enrolled in 2013 were randomly divided into experimental group (n=42)and control group (n=45). Comprehensive Experiment teaching model was used in the experimental group,the teaching methods included clinical case teaching with simple standardized patients,problem-based learning teaching and situational simulation teaching et al. The conventional teaching methods were conducted in the control group. The teaching effects were evaluated by exams,clinical skills performance evaluation,and a questionnaire survey. Results The average score of clinical skills performance evaluation)(=3.62,<0.01)of experimental group were better than those of control group. And the nursing students in the experimental group gave a high evaluation about the teaching effect with the teaching methods. Conclusion Application of Comprehensive Experiment teaching model in Medical Nursing can improve the exam scores and improve the learning satisfaction .%目的:探讨综合实验教学模式在护理学基础实验教学中的应用与效果。方法将2013级本科护理专业学生87名随机分为试验组42和对照组45,试验组采用综合实验教学模式,即将以病例教学法、以问题为导向的教学法、情境教学法等多种教学方法综合应用;对照组采用传统的教学方法。采用临床综合技能评价及问卷调查的方法分析教学效果。结果试验组临床综合技能评价(=3.62,<0.01)显著优于对照组,试验组学生对各项教学效果评价较好。结论运用综合实验教学模式进行护理学基础教学有利于提高学生的临床综合技能及学生对教学效果的满意度。

  18. 医学课件制作中界面设计的基本要求%Study on the basic requirements of interface design in making medical multimedia courseware JIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金龙山; 郑善子

    2009-01-01

    目的 调查学生能够接受的医学课件的界面设计,提出适于大课教学的课件制作中界面设计的基本要求.方法 以"屏幕背景颜色、文字颜色和字号、行距、插入图像大小和数目等"为内容,设计多种形式的课件界面并提供给学生,让学生选择最满意的课件界面.结果 屏幕背景颜色最佳是白色或浅蓝色,选白色背景时搭配蓝色文字,选浅蓝色背景时搭配白色文字;字号选32号左右,最小不应小于28号;插入图像时,一张图片大小应放大至整屏的1/4以上;诸多字体中最好选择黑体或宋体,且均加粗效果更佳;行距设置为1.2~1.4,不应小于1.0,不宜大于1.5.结论 医学课件界面设计的规范化有助于多媒体教学质量的提高.%Objective To investigate the interface design of medical courseware accepted by most students,and generate the basic requests of courseware making.Methods The eourseware interface designed varied in background color,character color and size,figure size inserted.Some examples were given to the students and the best design was chosen by them.Resuits It showed that the best background color was white or slightly blue,blue character matching white background,or white characters matching blue background.The best character size should be above 32 and the minimum character size should be over 28. The inserted figure or picture size should over 1/4 in squares:The character should be"hei''or"song"style and in bold style.The logo space range between the character lines should be 1.2~1.4,it should not less than 1.0 or over 1.5.Conclusions Medical muhimedia making must be regular to improve the teaching effect.

  19. The Pharmacology of Visceral Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anthony C; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    Visceral pain describes pain emanating from the internal thoracic, pelvic, or abdominal organs. Unlike somatic pain, visceral pain is generally vague, poorly localized, and characterized by hypersensitivity to a stimulus such as organ distension. While current therapeutics provides some relief from somatic pain, drugs used for treatment of chronic visceral pain are typically less efficacious and limited by multiple adverse side effects. Thus, the treatment of visceral pain represents a major unmet medical need. Further, more basic research into the physiology and pathophysiology of visceral pain is needed to provide novel targets for future drug development. In concert with chronic visceral pain, there is a high comorbidity with stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. The mechanisms linking visceral pain with these overlapping comorbidities remain to be elucidated. However, persistent stress facilitates pain perception and sensitizes pain pathways, leading to a feed-forward cycle promoting chronic visceral pain disorders. We will focus on stress-induced exacerbation of chronic visceral pain and provide supporting evidence that centrally acting drugs targeting the pain and stress-responsive brain regions may represent a valid target for the development of novel and effective therapeutics. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Discussion about the training strategy of first-year postgraduates in basic medical science%基础医学硕士新生培养策略探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 王庚; 单智焱; 孙瑞珍; 吴嫣爽; 胡静; 武玢; 张玥; 雷蕾

    2015-01-01

    基础医学发展离不开硕士研究生的工作,但在其培养过程中,尤其是研究生新生阶段,会出现学习盲目、动手能力差、自律性差等问题。针对这些问题,学校应当开展公共技术平台课、热门科研课题讲座等;导师应多与学生沟通、进行“一对一”责任制和给予学生物质精神奖励等;并指导学生应有明确的实验目的、实验计划并学会“学习”。%The development of basic medical science is inseparable from the training of postgraduate students, but there are a variety of problems for postgraduates in the course of training, especially during the first year, such as learning without an aim and poor hands-on ability and self-discipline. To solve these problems,schools should conduct public technology platform courses and seminars about hot research topic;instructors should increase their communication with postgraduate students, carry out one-on-one responsibility system and give students material and spiritual rewards;and postgraduate students should be directed to have a precise purpose, make a train-ing plan and learn to study.