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Sample records for medical radiodiagnostic irradiation

  1. Estimation of effective collective doses to population of Balti city with health risk assessment by means of medical radiodiagnostic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chislari, V.

    2009-01-01

    In this work the equivalent of effective collective dose, average annual of radio diagnostic researches in medicine for one habitant Belti city during 2006-2008 and a tendency was exposed to multiplying a dose due to multiplying the number of radiological researches was calculated. As compared to indexes for Republic of Moldova annual equivalent of effective dose is increased in 3 times. A potential risk of a medical radiation makes in 2006 - 7 cases of cancer, in 2007 - 8 cases and in 2009 - 9 cases. (author)

  2. Radiation protection in dental radiodiagnostic. La radioprotection en chirurgie dentaire (radiodiagnostic)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellerin, Y

    1976-01-01

    Medical irradiation, and mostly radiodiagnostic is, at present time, the most important artificial source of irradiation. Reasons of this importance are reviewed for dental radiodiagnostic and different solutions to decrease it, are considered. French regulations concerning standardization of dental X-ray equipment and agreement of installations are reported. Radiological practice associated with this equipment in accordance with radiation protection regulations are examined.

  3. Total irradiation due to radiodiagnostic procedures in France, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagnani, F.; Maccia, C.; Benedittini, M.; Lefaure, C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper recalls the main concepts of dosimetry which are useful when assessing the collective dose to the patient from medical X-ray examinations. It describes the general protocol which has been followed in measuring dose associated to each x-ray exam (antropomorphic Rando phantom, in vivo measurement) and gives some results about the variations of parameters such as the mAs, the kVp and the fluoroscopy screening time. As far as the gonadal dose and the effective dose equivalent are concerned a first evaluation is given per type of examination carried out in France in 1982 [fr

  4. Methodology of high dose research in medical radiodiagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barboza, Adriana E.; Martins, Cintia P. de S.

    2013-01-01

    This work has as main purpose to study occupational exposure in diagnostic radiology in medical cases of high doses recorded in 2011 at the national level . These doses were recorded by monitoring individual of the occupationally exposed individuals (OEI's). This monitoring of the doses received by ionizing radiation has as main objective to ensure that the principle of dose limitation is respected. In this study it were evaluated doses of 372 OEI's radiology in different Brazilian states. Doses were extracted from the database of Sector Management Doses of the Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry - IRD/CNEN-RJ, Brazil. The information from the database provide reports of doses from several states, which allows to quantify statistically, showing those with the highest doses in four areas: dose greater than or equal to 20 mSv apron and chest and dose greater than or equal to 100 mSv apron and chest. The identification of these states allows the respective Sanitary Surveillance (VISA), be aware of the events and make plans to reduce them. This study clarified the required procedures when there is a record of high dose emphasizing the importance of using protective radiological equipment, dosimeter and provide a safety environment work by maintaining work equipment. Proposes the ongoing training of professionals, emphasizing the relevance of the concepts of radiation protection and the use of the questionnaire with their investigative systematic sequence, which will allow quickly and efficiently the success the investigations

  5. Importance of Radiology among the Spanish medical journal dealing with radiodiagnostics: analysis of their production between 1984 and 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, M.; Saez, J.M.; Garcia-Medina, V.

    1997-01-01

    We present a bibliometric analysis of the publications of the journal Radiologia between 1984 and 1993 to contribute to the study of radiodiagnostics reporting in Spain and to determine the importance of Radiologia as a source of information on this subject. We have used the database of the Spanish Medical Index (Indice Medico Espanol, IME) and the journal itself, analyzing the volume, course and distribution of publications on radiodiagnostic procedures. The journal Radiologia publishes 20.1% of the articles dealing with radiology and radiation therapy in Spain. The total number of works was 1,344, that of authors was 2,580 and that of signatures was 6.173, presenting an exponential growth with doubling times of 83.3, 8.5 and 7.4 years, respectively. The analysis shows that the journal's production not only increases over time, but also increments the proportion it contributes to the Spanish medical press as a whole. Radiologia is the most representative journal, in terms of volume of the scientific activity reported in the field of radiodiagnostics in Spain, and its production tends to adapt to the model established for other firmly consolidated scientific and medical disciplines. It alone constitutes the core of the medical journals devoted to radiology and its mean index of circulation according to the IME is 85.79/%. (Author) 34 refs

  6. U Y 108 standard regulation standard of the radiological safety for medical and dental radiodiagnostic practice: approve for the Industry Energy and Mining Ministry 28/6/2002 Resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Guarantee and effective control in Medical and Dental Radiodiagnostic for avoid unnecessary exposition in public and workers as well limit the possibility of accidents and the patient dose was the minimal necessary

  7. Radiodiagnostics of kidneys and urinary passages - exposure to irradiation in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, J.

    1979-01-01

    By means of thermoluminescencedosimetry the irradiation dose for the gonads was measured with LiF dosimeters in children who where subjected to infusion urograms or micturitioncystourethrograms. The dose to which the male patients were exposed was measured near the scrotum at the thigh; the dose received by the female patients was measured in the rectum. (DG) [de

  8. Course on Radiological Protection and Quality Assurance in Medical Radiodiagnostic Practices (4th Ed.) : Tel educational through Internet on Health Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, M.; Chico, P.; Armero, D.; Saura Iniesta, A. M.; Fernandez, H.; Vicente, V.

    2006-01-01

    The creation of an interdepartmental project subsidised by the Spanish Ministry of Education has made possible the elaboration of a series of specific didactic materials on Radiological Protection and Quality Assurance in Medical Radiodiagnostic Practices, which has led to the publication of a specific manual and practical notebook. As a consequence, this material now constitutes the working base for those professionals exposed to ionising radiation who are following the first Tel educational continuous formation course in Spanish via the Internet on this subject. (Author)

  9. Study of operational conditions in medical radiodiagnostic services - ionizing radiation surveillance program in Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldred, Marta Aurelia; Eduardo, Maria Bernardete de Paula; Carvalho, Marisa Lima

    1996-01-01

    A radiation surveillance program was created in Sao Paulo State (Brazil) in 1994 to identify the risks in health care services. A total number of 259 centres were visited and 411 radiodiagnostic rooms were inspected. During the survey an 'inspection form' of 32 items was filled in. Analysis of the answers classified 24% of services as high risk, 22% of rooms showed irregular installations, 25% of X-ray equipment presented problems and 22% of personnel used inadequate procedures. Additional and regular surveys were programmed for the services considered of high risk in order to reduce it

  10. U Y 108 standard regulation standard of the radiological safety for medical and dental radiodiagnostic practice: approve for the Industry Energy and Mining Ministry 28/6/2002 Resolution; Norma UY 108 Norma reguladora de seguridad radiologica para la practica de radiodiagnostico medico y odontologico: Aprobada por Resolucion del Ministro de Industria Energia y Mineria del 28/6/2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-28

    Guarantee and effective control in Medical and Dental Radiodiagnostic for avoid unnecessary exposition in public and workers as well limit the possibility of accidents and the patient dose was the minimal necessary.

  11. Evaluation of radiodiagnostic services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yacovenco, Alejandro; Infantosi, A.F.C.; Tauhata, L.

    1996-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of radiodiagnostic services is presented. Aspects such as legal responsibility, protection equipment, working conditions, personnel training, patients assistance are considered in a question's formulary. The results are briefly presented. The role of a quality control program is emphasized

  12. Radiation Load of Children by Chest Radiodiagnostic Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodemova, D.; Vladar, M.; Ranogajec-Komor, M.; Horvathova, M.

    1998-01-01

    Radiodiagnostic examinations of children present particular importance from the radiation hygiene point of view. The estimation of the radiation load of pediatric patient is not easy, because of the lack of information about organ weighting factors for various ages of patients, as well as due to the differences in applied X-ray examination parameters. In the district of Slovak Republic, in which also the working Nuclear Power Plant Jaslovske Bohunice is included, efforts were done to estimate the radiation load of children to 15 years by chest radiodiagnostic examinations. The data of entrance surface doses were collected using measurements with TLD for 100 patients divided in 5 age categories at six radiodiagnostic departments. The calculations of the total absorbed dose were performed using the measured ESD values (entrance surface dose in mGy) integrated over the X-ray beam area, the conversion factors between the imparted energy and the dose-area product and the known irradiation parameters (kV, HVL, mass, etc.). The analysis of the obtained absorbed doses (E a ) as a function of age for chest PA radiodiagnostic examinations has shown, that the investigated Slovak radiodiagnostic centres use rather lower voltage techniques and the entrance surface doses are much higher than the proposed value of European Communities. (author)

  13. Dutch radiodiagnostics viewed internationally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valois, J.C. de

    1990-01-01

    Dutch radiodiagnostics viewed internationally. - A quantitative description of diagnostic radiology is given in terms of radiological density (the number of radiological examinations per 1000 inhibitants), consumptions of roentgen film and contrast media. The data concerning examinations were recorded by a yearly inquiry system addressing all Dutch radiologists. The consumption of film and contrast media were derived from the data banks of the industries. In comparing these data with the data for Western Europe, Japan and the United States it is remarkable that diagnostic radiology scores lowest in regard to density, film consumption and use of contrast media. Only in the use of 35 mm cinefilm (coronary angiography) is The Netherlands number 2 on the list preceded by the United States. As a consequence radiation exposure of the population caused by diagnostic radiology is low in The Netherlands. Although the technical condition of the equipment is good due to regular and preventive service the life-span of the radiological equipment is gradually increasing beyond the limits of the normal economic depreciation. Growing arrears are found in the application of new technology: ultrasound, computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The substitution of high osmolar contrast media by low osmolar media is also laggin gbehind. (author). 10 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tab

  14. Cancer following medical irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Several generalizations about radiation carcinogenesis can be made: (1) a single exposure is sufficient to elevate cancer incidence many years later; (2) radiation-induced cancer cannot be distinguished from naturally occurring cancer, i.e., there is no unique radiogenic cancer; (3) all cancers appear to be increased after irradiation with the exception of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and possibly Hodgkin's disease, cervical cancer, and a few others; (4) the breast, thyroid, and bone marrow appear especially radiosensitive; (5) leukemia is the most prominent radiogenic tumor and shows a wave-like pattern of excess incidence over time, and the excess begins within two to four years, peaks about six to eight years, and decreases to normal levels about 25 years later; (6) solid tumors have a minimum latent period of about ten years, and for several cancers, the temporal pattern of incidence appears to follow the natural incidence, i.e., the cancers do not occur before the ages normally associated with increased incidence, implying that age-dependent factors influence the expression of disease; (7) age at exposure is perhaps the most important host factor influencing subsequent cancer risk; (8) the percentage increase in cancer incidence per rad is not the same for all cancers, i.e., some cancers of high natural incidence, e.g., colon, have low relative risks and some cancers of low natural incidence, e.g., thyroid, have high relative risks; (9) dose-effect curves are often linear, but curvilinearity is also observed and is possibly associated with the need for two ionizing events for transformation to occur at low doses, the influence of cell sterilization at moderate doses, the likelihood of wasted dose at high doses, and/or the influence of factors that effect the expression of disease

  15. Methodology of high dose research in medical radiodiagnostic; Metodologia de investigacao de doses elevadas em radiodiagnostico medico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barboza, Adriana E.; Martins, Cintia P. de S., E-mail: ird@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-11-01

    This work has as main purpose to study occupational exposure in diagnostic radiology in medical cases of high doses recorded in 2011 at the national level . These doses were recorded by monitoring individual of the occupationally exposed individuals (OEI's). This monitoring of the doses received by ionizing radiation has as main objective to ensure that the principle of dose limitation is respected. In this study it were evaluated doses of 372 OEI's radiology in different Brazilian states. Doses were extracted from the database of Sector Management Doses of the Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry - IRD/CNEN-RJ, Brazil. The information from the database provide reports of doses from several states, which allows to quantify statistically, showing those with the highest doses in four areas: dose greater than or equal to 20 mSv apron and chest and dose greater than or equal to 100 mSv apron and chest. The identification of these states allows the respective Sanitary Surveillance (VISA), be aware of the events and make plans to reduce them. This study clarified the required procedures when there is a record of high dose emphasizing the importance of using protective radiological equipment, dosimeter and provide a safety environment work by maintaining work equipment. Proposes the ongoing training of professionals, emphasizing the relevance of the concepts of radiation protection and the use of the questionnaire with their investigative systematic sequence, which will allow quickly and efficiently the success the investigations.

  16. Medical irradiation in 10 episodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordoliani, Y.S.; Kalifa, G.; Lefaure, Ch.; Lochard, J.

    2000-01-01

    Illustrated by strip cartoons, this publication recalls the historical development in the field of X rays and their medical use, explains the risks associated with the use of radioactive rays and therefore that a the use of a radiography is not always required. It indicates and comments the share of medical irradiation in the whole radioactive exposure, and the adopted precaution principle. It outlines that risks are more important for embryos, foetuses, babies and young children, outlines the best practices in the field of radiography. It presents the various radionuclides present in the human body and their medical use or application, evokes other available techniques used to view inside the body (echography, magnetic resonance imaging), the use of radiological technical for medical purposes on healthy people and as curative means. The progress associated with the introduction of digital processing is evoked

  17. Postal audit in dental radiodiagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, L.; Kroutilikova, D.

    2001-01-01

    According to Czech laws dental intraoral X-ray machines are classified as s imple sources of ionizing radiation . Consequently , their use is licensed on condition that an adequate quality assurance program is realized. In general, the programme is based on acceptance tests, status tests and constancy tests. The particular methods are specified in the recommendation [1] published by State Office for Nuclear Safety .Both the acceptance and status tests involve in situ measurements to control parameters of the X-ray machine and the developing process. Only persons who were licensed for such handling can do these measurements. The yearly status tests are very detailed and several years ' experience showed it might be advantageous to have a simpler method additionally available for purposes of the state supervision. Such a method is supposed as a postal audit. It should be simple enough to make the operation of the state supervision more effective but it also should provide sufficient information on radiation protection of the patients. Besides it should enable to prolong the period for the status tests ultimately .As for the postal audit, a small package containing a proper dosimetric set would be sent directly to the dentist who would treat it according to instructions. This paper describes such method that was developed in the National Radiation Protection Institute (NRPI) and results of pilot study that was carried out to test the method. The described method will be a helpful tool for the operation of the state supervision in the dental radiodiagnostics. The method will be implemented into the existing system of controls from 2002. Due to its simplicity and a quite rich content of information allows to check a big amount of the dental workplaces at once. It is supposed that one half of all Czech X-ray units will be checked in this way every year performed on state costs. It means 175 audits per month approximately. In this way, the operation of the quality

  18. Accelerators for forming cationic technetium complexes useful as radiodiagnostic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tweedle, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to compositions for making cationic radiodiagnostic agents and, in particular, to accelerator compounds for labelling such cationic radiodiagnostic agents, kits for preparing such 99m Tc-labelled cationic radiodiagnostic agents with technetium, and methods for labelling such cationic radiodiagnostic agents with technetium

  19. Integral quality programs for radiodiagnostics Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alastuey, F.; Barranco, C.; Marco, R.; Perez, C.; Sanchez, J.; Pardo, J.; Madrid, G.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the work entitled ''Integral Quality Programs for Radiodiagnostics Services'' is to present the experience accumulated over the past 10 years by the Radiodiagnostics Service of C.M.E. Ramon y Cajal in Zaragoza. The term ''integral quality'' will be defined conceptually in order to differentiate it from the classical quality control which refers exclusively to the control of radiology equipment. The problem will be reviewed from the historical point of view and a basic, homologated model, contrasted on the basis of the work of these 10 years, is proposed mainly to serve as the backbone for the working system in a Radiodiagnostics Service. (Author) 46 ref

  20. Actual trends in patients dose reduction in radiodiagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodemova, D.; Gomola, I.; Horvathova, M.

    2001-01-01

    In our contribution we tried to survey the entrance surface doses, as well as dose area product measurements by studying 3 types of radiodiagnostic examinations (mammography, chest examination of children and fluoroscopy). The analysis of the obtained data and their comparison with reference values of European Union has demonstrated the significant role of radiation protection dosimetry as an integral part of quality assurance strategy in radiology. Optimisation in radiodiagnostic requires fulfilling the following criteria: - patient doses to be in accordance with accepted diagnostic practice; - patient doses to be as low as reasonably practicable in order to achieve the required diagnostic results; - professionals clinically and physically directing medical exposures to be familiar with typical doses, methods of measurements and means of dose reduction. One of the basic requirements for continuous quality improvement is the repeating cycle of patient dose measurements for determining the level of risk associated with particular radiological examination at given radiodiagnostic department. Beside the undeniable positive influence of Quality Assurance (QA) procedures possible negative effects should be avoided. The danger exist that the development of new techniques is slowed down by standardising all procedures and wide agreement in implementing of required modifications. Reaching of a consensus of a certain procedure became therefore a labour intensive and time-consuming process. (authors)

  1. A Method of Postal Audit in Dental Radiodiagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroutilikova, D.; Novak, L.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The National Radiation Protection Institute (NRPI) develops a new method for independent control of radiodiagnostic dental intraoral units for purposes of state supervision. The method is aimed to check not only basic dosimetric characteristics of the unit, but also conditions of developing process used by dentists. It is considered as a postal audit. The dosimetric part of the method includes irradiation of a radiographic film along with an attached TLD in order to check Ka output, field size and exposition reproducibility. The developing process is checked by means of dental films and a standardised dental phantom. The dentist is asked to develop a dental film irradiated under reference conditions by NRPI, and on the other hand to irradiate his own dental film using the phantom, that will be developed later by NRPI. Comparison of both the dental films provides information about developing process quality. It also indicates a relation between applied Ka and developing process at the place. The method is supposed to simplify the state supervision operation in the field of dental radiodiagnostics. (author)

  2. Technetium-99m labeled radiodiagnostic agents and method of preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinski, V.J.; Wilczewski, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A method of preparing improved technetium-99m labeled radiodiagnostic agents by reducing technetium-99m with stannous tartrate is described. Such radiodiagnostic agents are useful in scintigraphic examinations of the bone and lung

  3. Course on Radiological Protection and Quality Assurance in Medical Radiodiagnostic Practices (4th Ed.) : Tel educational through Internet on Health Science; Curso de Proteccion Radiologica y garantia de calidad en radiodiagnostico (4Ed): teleensenanza a traves de Internet en ciencias de la salud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, M.; Chico, P.; Armero, D.; Saura Iniesta, A. M.; Fernandez, H.; Vicente, V.

    2006-07-01

    The creation of an interdepartmental project subsidised by the Spanish Ministry of Education has made possible the elaboration of a series of specific didactic materials on Radiological Protection and Quality Assurance in Medical Radiodiagnostic Practices, which has led to the publication of a specific manual and practical notebook. As a consequence, this material now constitutes the working base for those professionals exposed to ionising radiation who are following the first Tel educational continuous formation course in Spanish via the Internet on this subject. (Author)

  4. Estimation of risks from medical irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, B.R.R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discuss various concepts of quantifying risks from medical irradiation. The expected individual risk from specific medical examination can be derived by estimation the dose-equivalent in different organs and tissues and apply the risk factors recommended for these tissues. A more practical way is to estimate or measure the energy imparted which has been found to correlate quite well with the total risk derived by summing up the risks for the involved tissues. The effective dose-equivalent concept can be used to derive the collective effective dose-equivalent in a population in order to compare the contribution from medical exposure with the contribution from other sources of irradiation in the society. In many countries it is thus shown that medical exposures gives the largest man-made contribution to the population dose

  5. Some aspects of radioprotection assurance in radiodiagnostic service activity from Chisinau municipality in 2006-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosca, A.; Stanchevici, V.; Balanel, V.; Danga, V.

    2007-01-01

    Together with the accordance of specialized medical assistance, the population of Chisinau municipality needs the accordance of general radiodiagnostic and interventional qualitative assistance. The permanent multi-institutional supervision offers partial optimization of radioprotection in the Republic Medical and Sanitary Institutions (PMSI) of Chisinau municipality. The qualitative optimization of radioprotection in PMSI of Chisinau municipality can be assured while being supplied with the operation radio diagnostic equipment. (authors)

  6. Radiodiagnostic measurements radiation load of children by chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodemova, D.; Vladar, M.; Ranogajec, M.; Horvathova, M

    1998-01-01

    In the district of Slovak Republic we have tried to estimate the radiation load of children to 15 years by chest radiodiagnostic examinations. Our data were collected using measurements with TLD for 100 patients divided in 5 age categories at six radiodiagnostic departments. The analysis of obtained absorbed doses as a function of age for chest radiodiagnostic examinations has shown, that the investigated Slovak radiodiagnostic centres use rather lower voltage techniques and the entrance surface doses are much higher than the proposed value of European Communities. (authors)

  7. The irradiation of volunteers in medical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, S.

    1976-01-01

    Attempts to produce guidelines for use in medical research involving the irradiation of volunteers are surveyed. The recommendations of the British Institute of Radiology (Irradiation of Human Subjects for Medical Research, Bull. Brit. Radiology, 1975, vol.1, no.2, 4) are summarized. These recommendations, based on a preliminary working document produced by the World Health Organization, are considered in three parts, the selection of subjects, the categorisation and the approval of research projects. The importance of freely given and informed consent is emphasized. The suggested four categories of project are classified by the amount of total body radiation to be received by the subject in each project, and the necessary assessment and prior approval procedures are related to this classification. The imposition of a lifetime exposure limit is compared with occupational exposures which are assessed on an annual basis, and the ICRP's 'planned special exposures'. Repeated irradiation of the same subject, although permissible within the recommended limits, may create difficulties. The total lifetime accumulated dose may not always be immediately available if the subject has worked in a number of different establishments. The possibility of compiling an approved list of procedures to reduce some of the anticipated delays in processing applications is discussed. (author)

  8. Medical waste irradiation study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, R.J.; Stein, J. [North Star Research Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nygard, J. [Advance Bio-Control (United States)

    1998-07-25

    The North Star Research Corporation Medical Waste project is described in this report, with details of design, construction, operation, and results to date. The project began with preliminary design of the accelerator. The initial design was for a single accelerator chamber with a vacuum tube cavity driver built into the chamber itself, rather than using a commercial tube separate from the RF accelerator. The authors believed that this would provide more adjustability and permit better coupling to be obtained. They did not have sufficient success with that approach, and finally completed the project using a DC accelerator with a unique new scanning system to irradiate the waste.

  9. Medical waste irradiation study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, R.J.; Stein, J.; Nygard, J.

    1998-01-01

    The North Star Research Corporation Medical Waste project is described in this report, with details of design, construction, operation, and results to date. The project began with preliminary design of the accelerator. The initial design was for a single accelerator chamber with a vacuum tube cavity driver built into the chamber itself, rather than using a commercial tube separate from the RF accelerator. The authors believed that this would provide more adjustability and permit better coupling to be obtained. They did not have sufficient success with that approach, and finally completed the project using a DC accelerator with a unique new scanning system to irradiate the waste

  10. Quality assurance for radiodiagnostic equipment in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotelo, Elena D.

    2001-01-01

    Since Uruguay did not have an study on X-ray equipment, students of Radiation Protection course (RP) made this field work throughout the country. The objective is to obtain information on the number and kind of X-ray radiodiagnostic equipment. Some of the results are: there are 666 radiodiagnostic equipment. The ratio of population to equipment is 4.515 to 1 in the capital and the mean rate in the rest of the country is 4.383 to one, with a minimum of 1.707 and a maximum of 8.220. The Public Health Ministry (MSP) and the Instituciones de Asistencia Medica Colectiva (a kind of private heath assurance) (IAMC) have less equipment in the capital than in the rest of the country. The 37% of the capital population receives assistance through the IAMC , with a 42.5 % of the equipment. Uruguay except the capital has 18 districts and 17 computed tomography equipment, from which only 3 belong to the MSP. Five districts do not have any. In Montevideo, there are 11.500 females over forty years of age per X-ray mammography equipment, and this relation in the rest of the country is 13.900. There are 21 X-ray Interventional radiology equipment, 16 of them are in the capital. Is from relating the radiodiagnostic equipment, the population and the procedures, that quality assistance indicators emerge. This owns high importance on the way to create a RP National Programme. (author)

  11. Proposed radiological protection rules for patients in radiodiagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yacovenco, A.; Souza, A.C.A.; Ferreira, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    Faced with the increasing exposure of the population to ionizing radiations and the need to respect users' rights, political and scientific efforts have been undertaken in order to improve image quality in radiodiagnostics and reduce risks to patients. In Brazil, in the past 20 years, a low rate of investment in this area and inadequate health policies have lead to diagnostic radiology services of poor quality. For their part, scientific societies, professional associations and the Ministry of Health have issued federal and state norms which require the control of physical parameters of the radiological equipment. Consequently, there is a need to create a National Reference Laboratory to oversee, inspect and evaluate the implementation of such norms. Another topic addressed in this article is the professional profile of the Medical Physics Specialist. (author)

  12. Pregnancy and medical irradiation. ICRP-84

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    A translation to Spanish of the ICRP document number 84. The exposure to ionising radiation of pregnant patients and radiation workers is a relevant subject in radiation protection, concerning not only the prevention but also the estimation of the associated risks. Great anxiety and unnecessary termination of pregnancies may be the consequences of the lack of correlation between the perception of risks by the pregnant woman and the involved professionals and their real magnitude. The International Commission on Radiation Protection has edited in 2000 the document ICRP 84 'Pregnancy and Medical Irradiation', addressed to medical and sanitary personnel. This document has been written as a practical guide which describes the effects of prenatal exposure to ionising radiation , the dose-thresholds and their relationship with the gestational age. It includes occupationally exposed women, patients undergoing medical procedures and public members. Most of diagnostic procedures properly done do not imply induction of deterministic effects in embryo/fetus. Therapeutical procedures could be associated with significant risks of deterministic effects. Childhood cancer induction is an stochastic effect without threshold and every 'in utero' exposure will increase their probability. With the aim of facilitating the diffusion of this document in the Ibero-American community , the Argentine Society of Radiation Protection (SAR) and the Spanish Society of Radiation Protection (SEPR) have worked together to producing a spanish version of ICRP84 , that is now presented in this publication, authorized by the ICRP

  13. Digital radiography in general radiodiagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecoiffier, J.; Tonnelier, M.; Guinet, C.; Baudron, J.; Rene, E.; Zabiolle, L.; Quemeneur, P.

    1981-01-01

    The authors work on the possibilities of improve the radiological image. The basis of digitalisation is followed since the optical image to electrical image and also to the digitalisation. They expose the possibilities of this digitalisation regarding the medical use: new semeiology, better utilization of the information, lowering the doses, regarding the technology, new apparatus, better utilization [fr

  14. Biological risks of medical irradiations: Medical physics monograph 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullerton, G.D.; Kopp, D.T.; Waggener, R.G.; Webster, E.W.

    1980-01-01

    This book is the fifth in a series of monographs by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and is a compendium of papers presented at an AAPM regional symposium conducted in San Antonio in July 1980. The book is divided into three sections: (1) biological fundamentals of ionizing radiation, (2) risk evaluation and reduction in three principle radiologic subspecialties (diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiation therapy), and (3) medical-legal implications. The first section includes a historical review of radiation biology, including a discussion of somatic and genetic effects and statistical approaches to risk estimates. The section on risk evaluation and reduction includes a good review of the units of exposure and activity including the international (SI) system employing the gray, becquerel, and seivert that respectively replace the rad, Curie, and rem. The unavoidable problem of legal responsibility and liability is the subject of the third, and last, section of the monograph. A chapter summarizing the legal history of medical irradiation also includes a glossary of pertinent legal terms. Recent court decisions that impact upon the clinical use of radiation are presented and discussed as well as proposed changes in federal guidelines that could have a large impact on the practice of medicine in general and radiology in particular

  15. A national survey of radiodiagnostic services in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penaherrera S, P.; Echeverria T, F.; Buitron S, S.; Yela de Chacon, L.

    1979-11-01

    The Ecuadorian Atomic Energy Commission elaborated a Radiation Protection Regulation for Ecuador. In order to implement it, a national survey of radiodiagnostic services was implemented with the following objectives: a) Statistics of Radiodiagnostic services related to geography and population ulation density, b) To establish general patterns for X-Ray control and calibration, c) Evaluation of the professional and technical work in this field. (Author)

  16. Radiodiagnostic complexes employing fluorine-containing tin reducing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, B.K.; Kubik, V.M.

    1977-01-01

    Radiodiagnostic agents for use in mammalian bodies comprising a radiocomplex which is the reaction product of Tc99m-pertechnetate ion, a diagnostic ligand and a tin (II) reducing agent selected from the group consisting of SnF 2 , MSnF 3 , MSn 2 F 5 and mixtures thereof, wherein M is NH 4 , Na, K, Li, Rb or Cs. Radiocomplex precursor compositions and methods of making the radiocomplex and radiodiagnostic agents are described

  17. Economic analysis of radiodiagnostic equipment use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochetova, G.P.; Turaev, R.N.

    1984-01-01

    The method for calculating costs for performing radiotdiagnostic investigation is suggested, analysis of structure of these costs and their dependence on output and working in shifts is given. As example the calculation of costs for performing radiodiagnostic investigations on gamma cameras with a computer and without it and on a scanner using fabricated radiopharmaceuticals and short-lived radionuclides. The developed technique for costs calculation for radiodignostic investigation permits to determine the cost of performing any investigation in changing values of any cost components. The analysis of the cost stucture for the investigation and dependence on apparatus capacity permit to contemplate the methods of reducing costs and raising apparatus use efficiency. One of these methods is transition to double-shift work of scintigraphic rooms equipped in the first place by gamma-cameras with computers

  18. Technetium 99-m labeled radio-diagnostic agents employing stannous tartrate and method of preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinski, V.J.; Wilczewski, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    A method of preparing improved technetium-99m labeled radiodiagnostic agents by reducing technetium-99m with stannous tartrate. Such radiodiagnostic agents are useful in scintigraphic examinations of the bone and lung. 31 claims, no drawings

  19. Patient dose reference values for explorations of radiodiagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vano, E.; Gonzalez, L.; Moran, P.; Calzado, A.; Delgado, V.; Ruiz, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Among the results of the research programs developed in the European Community dealing with radiological protection, dose estimation and quality control in radiodiagnostics, the preparation of a document on Quality criteria for radiodiagnostic images is worthy of note. This document proposes criteria for image quality and patient dose reference values for explorations of thorax, cranium, lumbar region, pelvis, urinary tract and breast. Said reference values, while indicative, are merely an average approximation, from which the radiodiagnostic services of each area may differ significantly, as can be deduced from a EC-coordinated project. With this in mind, and following a strategy applied in the EC to establish said reference values, in this report, provisional reference values, specific for Spain, are proposed for simple examinations (those analyzed by the group of EC experts, among others) and complex probes (intravenous urography, opaque enema and esophagogastroduodenal enema). (author)

  20. Design experiences for medical irradiation field at the musashi reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Otohiko

    1994-01-01

    The design of the medical irradiation field at the Musashi reactor was carried out from 1974 to 1975, about 20 years ago. Various numerical analyses have been carried out recently, and it is astonishing to find out that the performance close to the optimum as a 100 kW reactor has been obtained. The reason for this is that the design was carried out by dividing into the stationary part and the moving part, and as for the moving part, the structure was determined by repeating trial and error and experiments. In this paper, the comparison of the analysis carried out later with the experimental data and the change of the absorbed dose at the time of medical irradiation accompanying the change of neutron energy spectra are reported. As the characteristics of the medical irradiation field at the Musashi reactor, the neutron energy spectra and the absorbed dose and mean medical irradiation time are shown. As the problems in boron neutron capture therapy, the neutron fluence required for the therapy, the way of thinking on background dose, and the problem of determining the irradiation time are discussed. The features of epithermal neutron beam are explained. (K.I.)

  1. Measurement of dose to skin using TLD of several radiodiagnostic studies in San Jose, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, P.

    1998-01-01

    It is quantified the radiation doses on skin for several radiodiagnostic studies in patients of the Calderon Guardia Hospital in San Jose, Costa Rica at the period October 1997-September 1998 using thermoluminescent dosemeters TLD 100. The crystals receive the decoction standard procedures and they are arranged at the middle of the irradiation field. For a total of 973 radiodiagnostic studies it was found that the dose on skin in mGy are: 2.09 for thorax AP/AP, 5.33 for thorax LAT, 5.35 for skull AP/PA, 2.98 for skull LAT, 10.74 for abdomen, hips and pelvis, 6.20 for spines AP, 9.35 for spines LAT, 11.48 for lumbar columns AP, 29.99 for lumbar columns LAT and 6.87 for intravenous skin diagrams (first plate ap). It is produced thus the first reference bank for the national hospitals, which is compared with the orientation levels of doses for IAEA. Recommendations to diminish the collective doses through quality control programs are discussed, taking as goal to have got radiographs of excellent diagnostic quality, but with the less possible doses. (Author)

  2. Gamma irradiation for food preservation and sterilization of medical supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Abid Husain; Mohammad Said Kadis

    1981-01-01

    A new technology in food preservation by using gamma irradiation was introduced and its advantages over a number of conventional processes were discussed. The new technique is also applicable in the sterilization of medical supplies. It is relatively simple and does not require very highly skilled manpower

  3. Medical irradiation of children. Beware of too fast conclusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisse, H.; Sirinelli, D.; Adamsbaum, C.; Chateil, J.F.; Claudon, M.; Geoffray, A.; Petit, P.; Rausin, L.; Panuel, M.

    2004-01-01

    The publication in january 2004 in the British medical journal of the article of P. Hall and coll. 'Effect of low doses of ionizing irradiation in infancy on cognitive function in adulthood: Swedish population based cohort study, has been noticed by the Radiation protection group of the French speaking society of pediatrics imaging. The authors evaluate the psycho-motor development of less eighteen months years old children and irradiated between 1930 and 1959 for a face angioma. They study for each dose of irradiation ( from 0 to 250 m Gy) the level of school attendance and their results to the psycho-motor tests made during conscription medical examination. They noticed a diminution of 50% of the access success rate to university for the children having received an irradiation dose of 250 mG. No effect is noticed under the irradiation dose of 100 mGy. In their conclusions the authors compare these irradiation doses to these ones delivered in brain scanner examination. These results seem overestimated compared with the work made on fetuses ( publication 84 of ICRP) then the fetus is considered as more sensitive to ionizing radiations than the infant. The dose of 120 mGy is found in the literature and now the dose delivered in pediatrics are in the area of 0 and 100 mGy where no effect has been revealed in the cohort of irradiated children. The article does not include the principle of justification that is used nowadays and the replacement by the trans fontanel echography has allowed to reduce the number of brain scanner, used only for limited cases where the benefit is superior the the risk of irradiation. (N.C.)

  4. Improvement of radiation protection conditions during radiodiagnostic investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.V.; Livshits, R.E.; Lev, M.Ya.; Zakharenko, Yu.S.; Kal'nitskij, S.A.; Nechiporuk, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    Thermoluminescence dosimeters were used to estimate individual doses of radiation received by personnel of radiodiagnostic laboratories. The experiment, which lasted 3 months, showed that although the average levels of radiation did not exceed the permissible values, in some cases the personnel could receive an annual dose close to the maximum permissible one. A number of arrangements to improve radiation safety were proposed

  5. Technetium-99m labeled radiodiagnostic agents and method of preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A method of preparing improved technetium-99m labelled radiodiagnostic agents by reducing sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate with stannous tartrate is given. Human serum albumine (HSA) and 1-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-disodiumphosphonate (HEDSPA), which are useful in scintigraphic examinations of the lung and bone, were labelled in this way

  6. Quality Control Program for radiodiagnostic equipment on the Department of Antioquia, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran, Camilo; Viloria, Carolina; Puerta, Anselmo; Morales, Javier; Martinez, Piedad

    2008-01-01

    The Health Sectional Direction of Antioquia DSSA and the National University of Colombia campus Medellin have been formalizing inter-administrative agreements to realize Quality Control Studies on the institutions of medical radiodiagnostics of the department. In the first phase of the project on 2006, quality control studies were completed on 40 conventional and 31 mammography equipment, in the second phase by the end of 2006, 21 fluoroscopy, interventionism and C arms equipment were also studied; the third phase, finished by the end of 2007, counted with 50 conventional equipment. The tests proposed on the ARCAL XLIX IAEA protocol, tests on the installations, on the generator, on the image systems and the patient dosimetry were performed. From the evaluations on the installations, reports with relevant recommendations to be considerate and implemented to perform a better use of own resources on each institution were elaborated. On this paper, current results, impact on the participating institutions and the benefits from the applications that these kinds of practices bring to the institutions are presented. Finally, the necessity to advance towards clear politics in order to impulse the implementation of quality assurance programs in radiodiagnostic institutions, looking to improve the quality of diagnostic images with patient benefits, higher trust on technical conditions of equipment for a better and adequate diagnose, as well as to advance on processes seeking the optimization of radiological protection on the patient and the personnel occupationally exposed, is presented. (author)

  7. TLD personnel dosimetry and its relationship with the radiodiagnostic training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, E.; Franco E, J.G.; Gaona C, E.

    2002-01-01

    The personnel dosimetry and the training in radiological protection in radiodiagnostic in Mexico before 1997 were almost nonexistent except few services of public and private radiology, we can to say that the personnel dosimetry and the obligatory training was born in the year 1997, together with the present Mexican Official Standards in radiology. This study has the purpose to make an evaluation of the personnel dosimetry of 110 radiology services distributed in the Mexican Republic for the year 2001 and to estimate the annual and bimonthly mean doses, as well as its trust intervals and its relationships with the personnel training in radiological protection by means of a sampling that was realized in two stages (1997 and 2000) in the metropolitan area of Mexico City. The results show that the received doses by the medical and technical personnel in the participating radiology services are in the 0.03 mSv and 0.94 mSv interval and the mean is 0.25 mSv. The estimated annual personnel dose would be in the 0.18 mSv to 5.64 mSv interval, which are values very lower to the annual dose limit that is 50 mSv and its magnitude is similar to the effective annual dose by natural background radiation. In the first stage in training was found that there is not a significant difference in the response frequencies among the medical and technical personnel with a p < 0.05. The 52% of the occupational exposure personnel of radiology uses dosemeter, but only 17% of them know the dose reports. the 15.8% of personnel considers that dosemeter protects against radiation and only 16.5% knows the annual maximum permissible dose for stochastic effects. The second stage, the results shown that there is a significant difference in the response of frequencies among medical and technical personnel, the same results which are obtained for members and non members of a professional association with a p < 0.05. The 38% has personnel dosimetry, the 19% knows the principles of radiological

  8. Method of preparation of technetium-99m labelled radio-diagnostic agents and a stable non radio-active carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A method of preparing improved technetium-99m labeled radiodiagnostic agents is described by reducing technetium-99m with stannous tartrate. Such radiodiagnostic agents are useful in scintigraphic examinations of the bone and lung

  9. New irradiation facilities at the Australian national medical cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parcell, S.K.; Arnott, D.W.; Conard, E.M.

    1999-01-01

    Two new irradiation facilities have been developed at the National Medical Cyclotron for radionuclide production. The first relocates PET irradiations from the cyclotron vault to a dedicated PET beam room, to improve accessibility and reduce radiation exposures associated with target maintenance. This new facility consists of a beam line to transport 16-30 MeV proton beams from the cyclotron to 1 of 8 PET targets mounted on a target rack. The target rack has increased the number of targets available for production and experimentation. The second is a completely independent solid target irradiation facility for SPECT. This facility consists of a beam line to transport 26-30 MeV proton beams from the cyclotron to a dedicated beam room containing one solid target station. A new pneumatic target transfer system was also developed to transport the solid target to and from the existing chemistry hot cells. The beam line and target components are operated under the control of a dedicated PLC with a PC based user interface. The development and some technical aspects of these new irradiation facilities are discussed here. (author)

  10. Medical irradiation in 10 episodes; L'irradiation medicale en 10 episodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordoliani, Y.S. [Hopital du Val-de-Grace, Service Radiologie, 75 - Paris (France); Kalifa, G. [Hopital Saint-Vincent-de-Paul, Service Radiologie, 75 - Paris (France); Lefaure, Ch.; Lochard, J. [Centre d' Etude sur l' Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2000-07-01

    Illustrated by strip cartoons, this publication recalls the historical development in the field of X rays and their medical use, explains the risks associated with the use of radioactive rays and therefore that a the use of a radiography is not always required. It indicates and comments the share of medical irradiation in the whole radioactive exposure, and the adopted precaution principle. It outlines that risks are more important for embryos, foetuses, babies and young children, outlines the best practices in the field of radiography. It presents the various radionuclides present in the human body and their medical use or application, evokes other available techniques used to view inside the body (echography, magnetic resonance imaging), the use of radiological technical for medical purposes on healthy people and as curative means. The progress associated with the introduction of digital processing is evoked

  11. Optimisation need of dental radiodiagnostic procedures: results of effective dose evaluation from Rando phantom measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borio, R.; Chiocchini, S.; Cicioni, R.; Degli Esposti, P.; Rongoni, A.; Sabatini, P.; Saetta, D.M.S.; Regi, L.; Caprino, G.

    1994-01-01

    Radiological examinations of different types are needed in dental practice both to make a correct diagnosis and to carry out an adequate therapy. Particularly in orthodentic practices, because of the youth of the majority of the patients, an assessment of the detriment to health (through the effective dose equivalent) caused by medical diagnostic exposure to ionising radiation is needed to make decisions about the optimisation of dental radiodiagnostic procedures. Experimental data from measurements on a Rando phantom were collected for the radiological examinations required for dental and for orthodontic practices (with and without protective apron and collar). The results show the effectiveness of the leaded apron and collar in all the examinations carried out, particularly in reducing thyroid dose. (author)

  12. Radiodiagnostic system combining scintillation GKS-2 γ camera and SAORI-01 computerized unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikov, S.D.; Mishchenko, S.V.; Chuprov, P.V.

    1986-01-01

    A medical radiodiagnostic system prising the GKS-2 scintillation gamma chamber and the on-line data processing system is described. The gamma chamber consists of a detector, a two-channel control console, a microprocessor system for correction of distortions,system of photographic recording of images from an oscilloscopic display, a digital display-monitor and 6 accessiory collimators with trucks. GKS-2 has the increased spatial resolution, fast response and image homogeneity. Application of GKS-2 together with the SAORI-01 specialized on-line system,comprising the measuring computerized system, the colour-graphic display controller the polarizer photographic recording device for scanning image from the display screen and a system of base software, expands substantially diagnostic possibilities of equipment

  13. Synthetic study of reactor irradiation for medical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Shigehiro; Furuhashi, Akira; Kanda, Keiji; Sumita, Kenji; Kakihana, Hidetake.

    1978-01-01

    This report is described on the results of the study on the reactor irradiation for medical use shared by the Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tokyo, and other seventeen facilities. Boron neutron-capturing therapy developed in Japan is extremely significant treating method for tumors by destroying tumor cells of encephaloma, etc. selectively. This is the synthetic study for promoting the above therapeutic method. Two existing reactors were reconstructed into the thermal neutron reactors for boron neutron-capturing therapy. The various preparatory and physical researches were made with the reconstruction, and the therapy was tried on eleven cases. Further experiments were made on the following points: (1) To promote treatment on encephaloma by boron neutron-capturing therapy. (2) To develop its application to malignant tumors other than encephaloma. (3) Animal irradiation experiments. (4) The basic experiments on the cellular level. (5) The study of remote controlled anesthesia. (6) To control irradiated dose. (7) To improve boron compounds. (8) To condense radioisotopes. (Kobatake, H.)

  14. Simulation of medical irradiation and X-ray detector signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreisler, Bjoern

    2010-02-08

    This thesis aims for an improved understanding of medical irradiation. Two major parts are investigated: the beam shaping components of a medical linear accelerator, i.e. the source of the radiation, and the signal generation inside semiconductor sensors, i.e. the detection of the radiation. The direct measurement of the spatial and spectral particle distribution in the irradiation beam is not possible with state of the art detectors due to the high particle flux. The development of new advanced detectors is the goal of the first part of this thesis. The focus is set on the signal generation inside the sensor volume of a semiconductor detector. Incoming particles interact with the sensor material and generate clouds of electron hole pairs. These pairs get separated by an applied bias voltage. The motion of the charge clouds is simulated with a finite element programme taking into account the drift and diffusion. Mirror charges are induced on the electrodes which move due to the motion of the charge cloud. The motion of the induced mirror charges leads to the signal that is detected. The transient calculation of the signals is based on Ramo's theorem. The efficient adjoint formulation of the induction solution is adjusted to doped materials, as for example the electric bias field and hence the motion of the charge cloud is changing with the doping level. The effect of the doping of the material on the signal shape is shown together with influences of different voltages and pixel geometries. Smaller pixels and higher bias voltages can lead to shorter signals which is preferable for high flux measurements. Possible count rate improvements are limited by electric break through, high dark current across the sensor layer and charge sharing. Another option to shorten the signals is the use of steering grid electrodes which modify the electric and the weighting field. This results in shorter signals and thus in a higher possible rate. The detailed Monte

  15. Simulation of medical irradiation and X-ray detector signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreisler, Bjoern

    2010-01-01

    This thesis aims for an improved understanding of medical irradiation. Two major parts are investigated: the beam shaping components of a medical linear accelerator, i.e. the source of the radiation, and the signal generation inside semiconductor sensors, i.e. the detection of the radiation. The direct measurement of the spatial and spectral particle distribution in the irradiation beam is not possible with state of the art detectors due to the high particle flux. The development of new advanced detectors is the goal of the first part of this thesis. The focus is set on the signal generation inside the sensor volume of a semiconductor detector. Incoming particles interact with the sensor material and generate clouds of electron hole pairs. These pairs get separated by an applied bias voltage. The motion of the charge clouds is simulated with a finite element programme taking into account the drift and diffusion. Mirror charges are induced on the electrodes which move due to the motion of the charge cloud. The motion of the induced mirror charges leads to the signal that is detected. The transient calculation of the signals is based on Ramo's theorem. The efficient adjoint formulation of the induction solution is adjusted to doped materials, as for example the electric bias field and hence the motion of the charge cloud is changing with the doping level. The effect of the doping of the material on the signal shape is shown together with influences of different voltages and pixel geometries. Smaller pixels and higher bias voltages can lead to shorter signals which is preferable for high flux measurements. Possible count rate improvements are limited by electric break through, high dark current across the sensor layer and charge sharing. Another option to shorten the signals is the use of steering grid electrodes which modify the electric and the weighting field. This results in shorter signals and thus in a higher possible rate. The detailed Monte-Carlo simulation of

  16. Implementation of the qualities of radiodiagnostic: mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacífico, L. C.; Magalhães, L. A. G.; Peixoto, J. G. P.; Fernandes, E.

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the expanded uncertainty of the mammographic calibration process and present the result of the internal audit performed at the Laboratory of Radiological Sciences (LCR). The qualities of the mammographic beans that are references in the LCR, comprises two irradiation conditions: no-attenuated beam and attenuated beam. Both had satisfactory results, with an expanded uncertainty equals 2,1%. The internal audit was performed, and the degree of accordance with the ISO/IEC 17025 was evaluated. The result of the internal audit was satisfactory. We conclude that LCR can perform calibrations on mammography qualities for end users.

  17. Radiodiagnostic measurements radiation load of children by chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodemova, D.; Vladar, M.; Ranogajec, M.; Horvathova, M

    1998-01-01

    With the aim of optimisation of the radiographic examinations in paediatric radiology the entrance surface doses measured by chest examinations, as the most frequent procedure for children in Slovakia were surveyed. In this paper the results of measurements and calculations of doses obtained by paediatric patients with ages ranging from newborn to 15 years, who undergone chest radiodiagnostic examinations during the year 1996 are presented.. The obtained results are compared with dose assessment procedures based on total absorbed dose calculations using the published conversion factors between energy impaired to the patient and and entrance surface doses integrated over the beam area

  18. Occupational exposure in radiodiagnostics in Cuba from 1991 to 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez, D.G.; Guevara, C.R.; Larrinaga, E.F.; Calzado, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The results of the study of occupational exposure in radiodiagnostics during the period 1991-1994 is presented. This period follows the last report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Study of Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). The study has been done according to the recommendations of UNSCEAR. A sharp reduction has been observed in a number of workers exposed to measurable levels after 1991. The repercussions on these results of the new allowable dose limit for the occupational exposition is discussed

  19. Local radiodiagnostics standards - the way to make fortune?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borek, P.

    2009-01-01

    An issue of local radiodiagnostics standards (LRS), the must for all workplaces practising x- ray diagnostics, has reached a next level of its life. While between 2004 and 2007 many workplaces were refusing introduction of LRS mainly due to the non-existence of the so called national radiodiagnostics standards (NRS) in 2008 some of these workplaces change their point of view and instead of waiting for publication of the NRS in the bulletin of the Ministry of Health they begin to work on their LRS not only to comply with the requirements of paragraph 63 para 1 regulation No. 307 /2002 Coll., on radiation protection. Some workplaces decided to cope with LRS by outscoring. The VF ,a.s. company is probably the first on the market with LRS tailored to fit the practice of the X-ray workplaces. The VF company takes the opportunity to deliver a presentation that covers its experience with supplying of LRS depicting the whole range of work a supplier may offer to the X-ray workplace. At the end of the presentation the question whether it is possible to make fortune on LRS is discussed. (author)

  20. Local radiodiagnostics standards - the way to make fortune?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borek, P.

    2008-01-01

    An issue of local radiodiagnostics standards (LRS), the must for all workplaces practising x- ray diagnostics, has reached a next level of its life. While between 2004 and 2007 many workplaces were refusing introduction of LRS mainly due to the non-existence of the so called national radiodiagnostics standards (NRS) in 2008 some of these workplaces change their point of view and instead of waiting for publication of the NRS in the bulletin of the Ministry of Health they begin to work on their LRS not only to comply with the requirements of paragraph 63 para 1 regulation No. 307 /2002 Coll., on radiation protection. Some workplaces decided to cope with LRS by outscoring. The VF ,a.s. company is probably the first on the market with LRS tailored to fit the practice of the X-ray workplaces. The VF company takes the opportunity to deliver a presentation that covers its experience with supplying of LRS depicting the whole range of work a supplier may offer to the X-ray workplace. At the end of the presentation the question whether it is possible to make fortune on LRS will be discussed. (full paper) (authors)

  1. Medical irradiation technique saves lives of victims of Lima inferno

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Nearly 400 people died when fire swept through a crowded market place in the old centre of Lima, Peru, as the city readied for New Year's Eve, 2001. Yet the lives of more than 60 severely burned people were saved because Peru belongs to a programme, initiated and supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), that permits developing countries to maintain their own tissue banks. 'Tissue grafts are routine treatment in developed countries, said Qian Jihui, Deputy Director General and head of the IAEA Department of Technical Cooperation. 'This programme is saving lives and improving significantly the quality of lives for patients in developing countries.' More than 1600 radiation sterilized tissue packs were provided by Peru's atomic energy institute to eight Lima hospitals and clinics, where nurses and doctors battled to help the fire victims, many of them poor market traders. Peru and six other countries in the IAEA Latin America programme offer patients irradiated sterile human skin and bone from 37 tissue banks for transplant use. IAEA support of tissue banking began in 1983, since when the agency has contributed US $5,313,335 to the programme, resulting in the establishment of 66 tissue banks in the Asia Pacific region, seven in Africa, while the number is growing. Tissue grafts increase the odds for burn patients' survival by reducing the risk of infection. They are also used to treat victims of leprosy. A bone transplant can save a limb. The IAEA has helped develop a system - used in 28 countries - that disinfects tissue grafts in the final package with ionising radiation without damaging them, dramatically lowering the risk of contamination. Now medical authorities in the United States are considering adoption of similar irradiation techniques, following a number of cases of contamination of medical tissue used for transplant. The issue will be among items to be discussed in Vienna, December 2-4, at IAEA headquarters, at a meeting of

  2. Questionnaire survey and technical guideline of blood irradiation on medical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Mitsuhiro; Hasegawa, Hironori; Okumura, Masahiko; Sonoda, Tatsuo; Osada, Koji.

    1997-01-01

    We know that transfusion-associated graft versus host disease (TA-GVHD) is a serious side effect associated with blood transfusion and the onset is independent on the immunological conditions of patients. We have only prophylactic treatment against TA-GVHD. The most reliable method is to irradiate the blood for transfusion. In Japanese medical facilities, however, the risk of TA-GVHD is poorly understood and actual conditions of the blood irradiation are unclear. We sent a questionnaire to randomly selected 426 medical facilities in Japan, which had the department of radiology, to investigate the actual conditions of blood irradiation for transfusion and the problems on the irradiation dose measurement of the external apparatus for blood irradiation. The questionnaire involved 19 questions about the blood irradiation for transfusion. The survey took place for one month (June 1-June 30, 1995). Replies were obtained from a total of 306 medical facilities (72%). The results showed that blood irradiation was done by several methods in the 75% of the medical facilities, and the external irradiation apparatus was used in 83%. Some problems were shown, including irradiation period, cost of the irradiation, the operating procedure of the apparatus, requested number of the irradiation, and the request after usual hours. There was no significant problem on the irradiation dose, irradiation method, etc. We also sent a questionnaire to 74 facilities of the Red Cross Blood Center, in which the frequency of blood irradiation have increased since May, 1976. The X-ray apparatus as the external irradiation apparatus has practical advantages; lower cost, compact and out of the legal control on the ionizing radiation, however, it has some problems on the uniformity of the absorption dose when a single X-ray tube-type apparatus is used. We discuss about the possible onset of TA-GVHD or other accidents by the incorrect irradiation of the blood preparations. (K.H.)

  3. Justification and quality control in radiodiagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalen, A. van

    1989-01-01

    The role of the radiodiagnostician in justification of x-ray examination is discussed. Under the final responsibility of the radio-diagnostician the more common examinations are performed by laboratory assistants. A justification judgement before by the radio-diagnostician does not take place. In case of complicated examinations often previous consultation between radio-diagnostician and clinician is necessary. The fast development of new techniques like CT, echography and MRI has as result that the modern radio-diagnostician develops more and more into a imaging-specialist. In the consultation with the clinician he advises about the optimal diagnostics for a certain patient, taking optimally into account the risks of x-radiation. The justifying role of the radio-diagnostician depends further upon the relation with the requiring physician. In general the inter-collegial consultation is assumed to be sufficient within the hospitals, however the feedback to general practitioners seems to be improvable in some cases. With regard to quality assurance it is remarked that the quality of the examination may not be endangered by a too strong emphasis upon radiation reduction. Aspects like education level, protocol learning, dose limits, degressive tariffs, information-transfer, radiation passport, analysis between 'blue' ton, centralization of x-ray examination and quality of apparatus, are discussed. From the Government primarily a constraint setting policy is expected, in which rule-giving with respect to quality of education and apparatus is highly important. A stimulation of inter-collegial consulting may be expected, in particular in financial sense. A permission policy has to be managed, which ensures centralization of apparatus and centrally performance of x-ray examination as much as possible. Finally warning is given for the effects of excessive fear for radiation which causes refraining of medical necessary examination. The various risk have to be weighed up

  4. ICRP Publication 84 of the ICRP. Pregnancy and medical irradiation; ICRP publication 84 de la CIPR. Grossesse et irradiation medicale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In this volume, the ICRP answers questions relative to medical irradiation of pregnant women, that without responses could lead to unappropriated behaviours. It gives the circumstances for a women to be irradiated, the radiation doses delivered by the radiological procedures for a diagnosis and for a therapy. The risks for the fetus and the woman are tackled, their part in the general risks of the pregnancy and the information to give to the future mother. (N.C.)

  5. Procedure for the preparation of a radiodiagnostic agent for skeletal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budsky, F.; Kopecky, P.; Prokop, J.

    1997-01-01

    The procedure for the preparation of a radiodiagnostic agent based on an aminomethylphosphonic acid and 99m Tc is as follows: One mol of high-purity diethylenetriamine trihydrochloride, which is obtained by precipitating diethylenetriamine in methanol with azeotropic hydrochloric acid, and 5.3 mol of orthophosphoric acid are dissolved in 2 mol of azeotropic hydrochloric acid at 100-110 degC and reacted with a 34%-36% formaldehyde solution (5.6 mol) at the same temperature for a minimum of 60 min. The mixture is purified by repeated extraction with pentanol at 50 degC and evaporated to dryness. The residue is suspended in isopropanol and the suspension is evaporated to dryness again. The residue is boiled consecutively with dimethylformamide and with glacial acetic acid, dissolved in water, and precipitated with methanol to obtain diethylenetriamino-N,N,N',N',N''-pentakis(methylenephosphonic) acid (DTPMP). This product is filtered out, rinsed with methanol, and dried over sulfuric acid at 3 kPa for 3-5 days. The medical form is prepared by dissolving calcium carbonate in 0.1-1M aqueous DTPMP so that the two chemicals are in the molar ratio 1:1, and the solution is neutralized with sodium hydroxide so that the hydroxide-to-DTPMP molar ratio is 3:1. To the solution, freed from dissolved oxygen, a solution of tin dichloride in dilute hydrochloric acid is added so that the tin-to-DTPMP molar ratio is 1:10 to 2:10. Sodium hydroxide is added in order to exactly neutralize the hydrochloric acid, and the solution is subjected to sterile filtration and filled in vials. Each vial will contain 15-25 μmol DTPMP. The medical form is a lyophilisate of the monocalcium-trisodium salt of diethyleneamino-N,N,N',N',N''-pentakis(methylenephosphonic) salt and its complex with divalent tin. The radiodiagnostic agent is prepared by dissolving in the vial the eluate from a 99m Tc generator (0.25-5 ml) at activities of 250-2500 MBq. The Tc complex so obtained will be stable for a minimum

  6. Rotatostereoradiography; a new radiodiagnostic method; Development of a new three-dimensional radiodiagnostic device and evaluation in neurosurgical clinics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottomo, Michinori [Aomori Rosai Hospital, Hachinohe (Japan); Basugi, Norihiko; Handa, Hajime; Taniguchi, Takashi; Iwabuchi, Takashi; Kosaka, Mitsuo

    1991-02-01

    The rotatostereoradiographic device uses an x-ray tube coupled with an image intensifier rotating through a 180deg arc in 2.25 seconds. The rapidly rotating x-ray tube allows 180deg -arc angiograms to be obtained with a single injection of contrast medium. Subtracted fluoroscopic angiograms can be viewed immediately after injection of the contrast medium with digital recording. These three-dimensional images are displayed on side-by-side monitors stereoscopically. The mortality and morbidity of subarachnoid hemorrhage can only be greatly reduced by surgical treatment of unruptured aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations detected by a wide survey of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Such a wide survey would be possible utilizing intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography via the ascending aorta and this new three-dimensional radiodiagnostic method. A fluoroscopic device must be used to allow easier manipulation of the catheter from the axillary or brachial artery. (author).

  7. PIGMI: a design report for Pion Generator for Medical Irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansborough, L.D.

    1981-09-01

    PIGMI (Pion Generator for Medical Irradiations) is an integrated linear accelerator (linac) system developed under the auspices of the National Cancer Institute for specific application to cancer treatment in a hospital environment. In its full configuration, PIGMI is a proton linac that is far smaller, less expensive, and more reliable than previous machines that produce pions. Subsets of PIGMI technology can be used with equal advantage to generate beams of other particles (such as neutrons, protons, or heavy ions) that may be of interest for radiotherapy, radioisotope production, or other applications. The dramatic performance and cost advantages of this new breed of acceleraor result from a number of improvements. In the low-energy portion of the machine, a new type of low-energy linac (the radio-frequency quadrupole[RFQ]) produces an exceptionally good quality beam, and uses a very simple 30-kV injector. In the second part of the machine (the drift-tube linac [DTL]), high accelerating gradients are now achievable with consequent reductions in machine length. Another new structure (the disk and washer [DAW]) will be used in the third and final section of the accelerator; this portion will also be relatively short and require few power amplifiers. The entire machine is designed for ease of operation and high reliability. The pion-production machine, discussed in this report, accelerates a 100-μA average proton-beam current to 650 MeV; use of an efficient pion-collection channel would result in an average pion flux of over 100 rad/min in a volume of about 1 l. Pion-channel design is not treated in this report. Accelerator construction cost is estimated at $10 million (1980 dollars); site preparation and treatment facility costs would bring the cost of a complete facility to an estimated $25 million

  8. Medical irradiation of children. Beware of too fast conclusion; Irradiation medicale de l'enfant. Attention aux conclusions hatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisse, H. [Institut Curie, Dept. d' Imagerie, 75 - Paris (France); Sirinelli, D. [Hopital Clocheville, Service de Radiologie et Echographie, 37 - Tours (France); Adamsbaum, C. [Hopital Saint-Vincent-de-Paul, Service de Radiologie, 75 - Paris (France); Chateil, J.F. [Hopital Pellegrin, Unite de Radiopediatrie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Claudon, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Nancy-Hopital Brabois Enfants, Service de Radiologie, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Geoffray, A. [Fondation Lenval, Service de Radiologie, 06 - Nice (France); Petit, P. [Hopital de la Timone, Service de Radiologie, 13 - Marseille (France); Rausin, L. [Centre Hospitalier Regional de la Citadelle, Service de Radiologie, Liege (Belgium); Panuel, M. [Hopital Nord, Service de Radiologie, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2004-10-01

    The publication in january 2004 in the British medical journal of the article of P. Hall and coll. 'Effect of low doses of ionizing irradiation in infancy on cognitive function in adulthood: Swedish population based cohort study, has been noticed by the Radiation protection group of the French speaking society of pediatrics imaging. The authors evaluate the psycho-motor development of less eighteen months years old children and irradiated between 1930 and 1959 for a face angioma. They study for each dose of irradiation ( from 0 to 250 m Gy) the level of school attendance and their results to the psycho-motor tests made during conscription medical examination. They noticed a diminution of 50% of the access success rate to university for the children having received an irradiation dose of 250 mG. No effect is noticed under the irradiation dose of 100 mGy. In their conclusions the authors compare these irradiation doses to these ones delivered in brain scanner examination. These results seem overestimated compared with the work made on fetuses ( publication 84 of ICRP) then the fetus is considered as more sensitive to ionizing radiations than the infant. The dose of 120 mGy is found in the literature and now the dose delivered in pediatrics are in the area of 0 and 100 mGy where no effect has been revealed in the cohort of irradiated children. The article does not include the principle of justification that is used nowadays and the replacement by the trans fontanel echography has allowed to reduce the number of brain scanner, used only for limited cases where the benefit is superior the the risk of irradiation. (N.C.)

  9. Exposure of the Swiss population by radiodiagnostics: 2013 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Coultre, Regis; Champendal, Melanie; Bize, Julie; Ryckx, Nick; Aroua, Abbas; Verdun, Francis R.; Wittwer, David; Trueb, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, a nationwide investigation was conducted in Switzerland to establish the population's exposure from medical X rays. A hybrid approach was used combining the Raddose database accessible on-line by the participating practices and the Swiss medical pricing system for hospitals. This study revealed that the average annual number of examinations is 1.2 per inhabitant, and the associated annual effective dose is 1.4 mSv. It also showed that computed tomography is the most irradiating modality and that it delivers 70 % of the total dose. The annual effective dose per inhabitant registered a 17 % increase in 5 y and is comparable with what was recently reported in neighbouring countries. (authors)

  10. Radiodiagnostics for carcinoma of the pancreas and chronic pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagt, E.J. van der.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish which methods in radiodiagnosis are the most effective in demonstrating the presence of a pancreatic carcinoma or chronic pancreatitis. A second purpose is to evaluate which methods can be used to plan treatment of the patient. The different methods of radiodiagnosis that have been used and are being used to demonstrate disease of the pancreas are described, and their possible applications are reviewed. From this review a scheme is devised for the radiodiagnostic investigation of pancreatic disease. The results of each method of investigation are evaluated for those patients who were investigated in the University Hospital Groningen and compared with those published in the literature. On the basis of the results a final scheme for the diagnostic process is outlined. Ultrasonography and endoscopic pancreaticocholangiography are the prime methods of radiological investigation. Arteriography is an essential method in the assessment of the curative operability. It is established that computerized tomography is of little value after a good ultrasonogram, both for the primary diagnosis and the assessment of the possibility for operative treatment. (Auth.)

  11. Software for an automated processing system for radioisotope information from multichannel radiodiagnostic instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenin, P.E.; Meier, V.P.

    1985-01-01

    The SAORI-01 system for the automated processing of radioisotope information is designed for the collection, processing, and representation of information coming from gamma chambers and multichannel radiodiagnostic instruments (MRI) and is basically oriented toward the radiodiagnostic laboratories of major multidisciplinary hospitals and scientific-research institutes. The functional characteristics of the basic software are discussed, and permits performance of the following functions: collection of information regarding MRI; processing and representation of recorded information; storage of patient files on magnetic carriers; and writing of special processing programs in the FORTRAN and BASIC high-level language

  12. The evaluation of the irradiation of medical team in critical X-ray diagnostic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovic, S; Pavlovic, R [Inst. of Nuclear Science Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Radiation and Environmental Protection Lab.; Boreli, F [Fac. of Electrical Engineering, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1996-12-31

    A good realized assessment of the irradiation for any exposed group of population serves as the base for the radiation protection measures (emergency radiation preparedness, radiation protection optimization etc.). This is especially important, by the radiation protection point of view, in contrast X-ray diagnostic techniques - angiographies. This paper presents the way for the realization of the medical team irradiation assessment, based on originally derived simple equations for the scattered radiation field around patient. (author) 1 fig., 3 figs.

  13. Preparates for the production of technetium 99m radiodiagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Dunker, M.; Greb, W.

    1984-01-01

    The preparates serve the production of Tc 99m radiodiagnostics for the scintiscanning of bones or calcareous tumors, muscle tissue or arterial sclerosis. They consist of mixtures of a carboxy phosphonic acid and/or carboxy phosphonate or its water-soluble salts, as well as 1-5 wt.% of a Sn(II), Fe(II) or Cr(II) salt. The mixture has a pH value of 3 to 9. The preparates are in particular of phosphons-ethane-1,2-dicarbonic acid (mixture of di/trisodium slat of 2:1) and SnCl2; 1-phosphons-propane-1,2-dicarbonic acid (di/tri-sodium salt 2:1) and chromium (II) chloride; 2-phosphons-butane-1,2,4-tricarbonic acid (trisodium salt) and iron(II) sulphate; 1-phosphons-propane-1,2-dicarbonic acid (di/tri-sodium salt 2:1) and Sn(II) chloride; 1-phosphons-propane-1,2-dicarbonic acid (di/tri-sodium salt 2:1) and 2-phosphono-butane-1,2,4-tricarbonic acid (trisodium salt) and Fe(II) sulphate; or phosphons-ethane-1,2-dicarbonic acid (di/tri-sodium salt 2:1) and Sn(II) Cl2 and Fe(II) sulphate. They may be produced as solution or dragee. The Sn(II), Fe(II) and Cr(II) salts serve as reducing agent for the eluated pertechnetate 99m. Glucose or NaCl may be used as filler. (orig./PW)

  14. Spectrometric methods used in the calibration of radiodiagnostic measuring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, W [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Recently a set of parameters for checking the quality of radiation for use in diagnostic radiology was established at the calibration facility of Nederlands Meetinstituut (NMI). The establishment of the radiation quality required re-evaluation of the correction factors for the primary air-kerma standards. Free-air ionisation chambers require several correction factors to measure air-kerma according to its definition. These correction factors were calculated for the NMi free-air chamber by Monte Carlo simulations for monoenergetic photons in the energy range from 10 keV to 320 keV. The actual correction factors follow from weighting these mono-energetic correction factors with the air-kerma spectrum of the photon beam. This paper describes the determination of the photon spectra of the X-ray qualities used for the calibration of dosimetric instruments used in radiodiagnostics. The detector used for these measurements is a planar HPGe-detector, placed in the direct beam of the X-ray machine. To convert the measured pulse height spectrum to the actual photon spectrum corrections must be made for fluorescent photon escape, single and multiple compton scattering inside the detector, and detector efficiency. From the calculated photon spectra a number of parameters of the X-ray beam can be calculated. The calculated first and second half value layer in aluminum and copper are compared with the measured values of these parameters to validate the method of spectrum reconstruction. Moreover the spectrum measurements offer the possibility to calibrate the X-ray generator in terms of maximum high voltage. The maximum photon energy in the spectrum is used as a standard for calibration of kVp-meters.

  15. Preparates for the production of technetium 99m radiodiagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Dunker, M.; Greb, W.

    1977-01-01

    The preparates serve the production of Tc 99m radiodiagnostics for the scintiscanning of bones or calcareous tumors, muscle tissue or arterial sclerosis. They consist of mixtures of a carboxy phosphonic acid and/or carboxy phosphonate or its water-soluble salts, as well as 1-5 wt.% of a Sn(II), Fe(II) or Cr(II) salt. The mixture has a pH valve of 3 to 9. The preparates are in particular of phosphons-ethane-1,2-dicarbonic acid (mixture of di/trisodium slat of 2:1) an SnCl 2 ; 1-phosphons-propane-1,2-dicarbonic acid (di/tri-sodiium salt 2:1) and chromium (II) chloride; 2- phosphons-butane-1,2,4-tricarbonic acid (trisodium salt) and iron(II) sulphate; 1-phosphons-propane-1,2-dicarbonic acid (di/tri-sodium salt 2:1) and Sn(II) chloride; 1-phosphons-propane-1,2-dicarbonic acid (di/tri-sodium salt 2:1) and 2-phosphono-butane-1,2,4-tricarbonic acid (trisodium salt) and F(II) sulphate; or phosphons-ethane-1,2-dicarbonic acid (di/tri-sodium salt 2:1) and Sn(II) Cl 2 and Fe(II) sulphate. They many be produced as solution or dragee. The Sn(II), Fe(II) and Cr(II) salts serve as reducing agent for the eluated pertechnetate 99m. Glucose or NaCl may be used as filler. (DG) 891 HP [de

  16. Sterilization validation for medical compresses at IRASM multipurpose irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandru, Mioara; Ene, Mihaela

    2007-01-01

    In Romania, IRASM Radiation Processing Center is the unique supplier of radiation sterilization services-industrial scale (ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 13485:2003 certified). Its Laboratory of Microbiological Testing is the sole third party competent laboratory (GLPractice License, ISO 17025 certification in progress) for pharmaceutics and medical devices as well. We here refer to medical compresses as a distinct category of sterile products, made from different kind of hydrophilic materials (cotton, non-woven, polyurethane foam) with or without an impregnated ointment base (paraffin, plant extracts). These products are included in the class of medical devices, but for the sterilization validation, from microbiological point of view, there are important differences in testing method compared to the common medical devices (syringes, catheters, etc). In this paper, we present some results and practical solutions chosen to perform a sterilization validation, compliant with ISO 11137: 2006

  17. Study on irradiation sterilization of medical gauze pad by incremental dosage method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Qing; Huang Min; Deng Wenmin; Wu Ling; Wang Yan; Gao Peng; Du Xiaoying; Xie Yan

    2011-01-01

    To explore the sterilization dose setting method for medical products, the irradiation sterilization dose for medical products was set according to the method 2A of international standard ISO11137 Part 2. The verification dose for medical gauze pad by was set by incremental dose method and with a series of formula. Then the sterilization dose for an SAL of 10 -6 was established by completing the verification dose experiment. The final sterilization dose for medical gauze pad was decided to be 29.7 kGy. This study gives reference for the setting irradiation sterilization dose for medical products which need to adopt the method 2A of international standard ISO11137 Part 2. (authors)

  18. Medical aspects of the treatment of irradiated persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpaij, W.J.M.

    1976-01-01

    The possibilities of a medical assistance of patients after a nuclear accident and also the specific demands that supposes such an assistance, are discussed. On the basis of literary subjects, prevention as well as diagnostic and treatment are examined. It appears that such a medical assistance program cannot be drafted in detail beforehand, but must be fixed on the basis of the accidental situation. (author)

  19. Course: general radiodiagnostics. Qualification to hand x-ray facilities with diagnostics purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CIEMAT. Instituto de Estudios de la Energia.

    1993-01-01

    This book contains 13 lectures in order to teach personnel of x-ray facilities. The topics are: 1) Interaction photon-matter. 2) Characteristics of x-ray equipments. 3) Ionizing radiation detection. 4) Quality control of x-ray facilities. 5) Radiation effects of ionizing radiations. 6) Radiation protection. 7) Quality control of radiodiagnostic facilities. 81) Spanish legislation

  20. Technetium-99m labeled radiodiagnostic agents for liver and bone marrow scanning and method of preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinski, V.J.; Peacock, F.R.

    1977-01-01

    An improved technetium-99m labeled colloid and method of preparation comprising reducing technetium-99m with stannous oxalate and stabilizing with sodium phytate are described. This radiodiagnostic agent is useful in the scintigraphic examination of the reticuloendothelial system, particularly the liver. In addition, by autoclaving this product with saline, it becomes a superior bone marrow scanning agent

  1. Medical irradiation, radioactive waste and misinformation. A press release from the French Academy of Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The, G. de; Tubiana, M.

    2002-01-01

    The Academy of Medicine, worried by the problems that poses for public opinion the medical irradiation, the radioactive wastes and some erroneous information that these subjects give rise to, considers useful to give an advice based on objective data. (N.C.)

  2. The implementation of modern digital technology in x-ray medical diagnosis in Republic of Moldova - a stringent necessity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosca, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    The study includes analyses of current technical state of radiodiagnostic equipment from the Public Medico-Sanitary Institution of Ministry of Health of Republic of Moldova (IMSP MS RM). The traditional radiodiagnostic apparatuses were morally and physically outrun at 96,6% (in regional MSPI - 93,5%), inclusive the dental one - 92,0% (in raional MSPI - 97,2%), X-Ray exam -100%, mobile - 84,1% etc. The exploitation of the traditional radiodiagnostic apparatuses with high degree of physical and moral wear essentially diminished the quality of profile investigation, creates premises for diagnostic error perpetrating, increase the collective ionizing irradiation of population etc. In recent years the subvention of MSPI HM RM with digital radiodiagnostic equipment was started. This process is very hard unfold because of grave socio-economic crises in Republic of Moldova. Despite these obstacles the subvention of MSPI HM RM with digital equipment represents a stringent necessity and a time request.

  3. Application of Irradiation. Application to polymer processing, exhaust gas treatment, sterilization of medical instruments and food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawai, Takeshi; Sawai, Teruko

    2000-03-01

    Many fields such as industry, agriculture, medical treatment and environment use radiation. This report explained some examples of irradiation applications. Radiation source is {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray. Polymer industry use radiation for radiation curing (thermally stable polymer), tire, expanded polymer, radiation induced graft copolymerization and electron beam curing. On environmental conservation, radiation is used for elimination of NOx and SOx in exhaust combustion gas. In the medical treatment, radiation is applied to sterilization of medical instruments, that occupied about 50% volume, and blood for transfusion, which is only one method to prevent GVHD after transfusion. On agriculture, irradiation to spice, dry vegetable, frozen kitchen, potato and garlic are carried out in 30 countries. However, potato is only a kind food in Japan. Radiation breeding and pest control are put in practice. (S.Y.)

  4. Principal sources of irradiation of the Bulgarian population and the place and importance of medical irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilev, G.

    1983-01-01

    From information relating to numbers of various types of diagnostic medical X-ray procedures annually performed over the period 1962-1981 and mean radiation doses thereby delivered to various organs, estimates were derived of mean annual effective dose equivalents to the Bulgarian population; they were found to have risen from 0.5 msv per capita for 1962 to 1.35 msv per capita for 1981. Also, taking into account information on population age distributions, genetically and leukemogenically significant doses were calculated and found to have increased from 0.3 and 0.45 msv per capita for 1962 to 0.96 and 1.15 msv per capita for 1981, respectively. Analysis of collective gonad dose equivalents for 1981 indicated medical applications and diagnostic X-rays in particular to be responsible for the bulk radiation exposure in excess of background. As of 1981, the absolute level of risk incurred through radiological diagnosis was estimated at 240 lethal cases (146 fatal malignant tumors and leukoses, and 94 severe genetic effects). The death rate from malignancies for this period being of the order of 13.5 x 10 3 cases, the additional 146 cases constitute less than 1% of spontaneous deaths. (authors)

  5. Testing objects in Computerized Axial Tomography. Contributions to the Spanish Protocol on quality control in radiodiagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaescusa, J.I.; Campayo, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    In the provisional version of the Spanish Protocol about the technical aspects of Quality Control in Radiodiagnostic,SEFM-SEPR 1993, it is dedicated a section to Computerized Axial tomography, establishing a total of eleven technical parameters of the equipment for examination. The present work describes the practical use of the Protocol using various types of Test Object. The authors also propose new tests that should be considered in the final version of the Spanish Protocol. (Author)

  6. Distribution of microorganisms in medical devices and their inactivation effects by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao

    1986-01-01

    Radiation treatment is getting important position for sterilizing medical devices and for packaging films of foods. Recently, survey of bioburden is an important technique for evaluation of sterility doses for medical devices. However, many studies have been done mainly on the irradiation effects of spore-forming bacteria in medical devices. In this study, radiation sensitivity of spore-forming bacteria and fungi were examined after the survey on distribution of microorganisms in several kinds of medical devices. The main contaminant in disposable syringes, needles and conical flasks were consisted of Bacillus, with lesser amount of Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, Peptococcaceae and fungi as positive of 5 - 60 % in the medical devices which cultivated in thioglycolate broth. Bacillus group were identified as B. pumilus, B. sphaericus, B. coagulans, B. megaterium and etc. Fungi were isolated a lesser amounts compared with spore-forming bacteria and identified as Blastomyces, Penicillium, Haplosporangium, Euricoa and Audeobasidium. Peptococaceae were not isolated after irradiation with a dose of 0.1 Mrad even the samples were contaminated with high percentage. The D 10 values of dryed endospores of Bacillus-isolates which attached to the filter paper with pepton-glycerin were obtained to be 0.11 - 0.19 Mrad. The D 10 values of many isolates of fungi in dry condition were obtained below 0.08 Mrad. However, the isolate of Aureobasidium is radiation-resistant, and it's D 10 values was obtained as 0.28 Mrad under aerobic and anaerobic dry condition. (author)

  7. Design of small-animal thermal neutron irradiation facility at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.B.

    1996-01-01

    The broad beam facility (BBF) at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) can provide a thermal neutron beam with flux intensity and quality comparable to the beam currently used for research on neutron capture therapy using cell-culture and small-animal irradiations. Monte Carlo computations were made, first, to compare with the dosimetric measurements at the existing BBF and, second, to calculate the neutron and gamma fluxes and doses expected at the proposed BBF. Multiple cell cultures or small animals could be irradiated simultaneously at the so-modified BBF under conditions similar to or better than those individual animals irradiated at the existing thermal neutron irradiation Facility (TNIF) of the BMRR. The flux intensity of the collimated thermal neutron beam at the proposed BBF would be 1.7 x 10 10 n/cm 2 ·s at 3-MW reactor power, the same as at the TNIF. However, the proposed collimated beam would have much lower gamma (0.89 x 10 -11 cGy·cm 2 /n th ) and fast neutron (0.58 x 10 -11 cGy·cm 2 /n th ) contaminations, 64 and 19% of those at the TNIF, respectively. The feasibility of remodeling the facility is discussed

  8. Medical irradiation and the use of the ''effective dose equivalent'' concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, B.R.R.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the use of the effective dose for all kinds of medical irradiation. In order to estimate the 'somatic effective dose' the weighting factors recommended by ICRP 26 have been separated into those for somatic effects and for genetic effects. Calculation of the effective dose in diagnostic radiology procedures must consider the various technical parameters which determine the absorbed dose in the various organs, i.e. beam quality, typical entrance dose and the number of films of each view. Knowledge about these parameters is not always well established and therefore the effective dose estimates are very uncertain. The average dose absorbed by various organs in the case of administration of radionuclides to the body depends to a much higher degree on biological parameters than in the case of external irradiation. In contrast to the variability and lack of reliability of biological data, the physical methods for internal dose calculation are quite elaborate. However, these methods have to be extended to involve the target dose from the radioactivity distributed within the remaining parts of the body. An attempt was made to estimate the somatic effective dose for the most common diagnostic X-ray and nuclear medicine procedures. This would make it possible to compare the risk of X-ray and nuclear medicine techniques on a more equitable basis. The collective effective dose from medical irradiation is estimated for various countries on the basis of reported statistical data. (H.K.)

  9. Radiation protection of personnel during paediatric radiodiagnostic examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchard, C [Saint Mary' s Hospital, Manchester (UK)

    1980-07-01

    Practical experience in paediatric radiography is reported. Keeping young children immobile during irradiation is found to be the major problem and various solutions to this are discussed in detail especially with respect to the radiation dose received by both the patient and also the radiographer. The problem of X-raying newborn babies in incubators is also discussed. It is concluded that by using suitable lead rubber shielding, the child can be physically restrained by the radiographer without significant radiation dosage being incurred.

  10. EPR spectra induced by gamma-irradiation of some dry medical herbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanov, N. D.; Lagunov, O.; Dimov, K.

    2009-04-01

    The radiation-induced EPR spectra in some medical herbs are reported. The samples studied are: (i) leaves of nettle, common balm, peppermint and thyme; (ii) stalks of common balm, thyme, milfoil, yarrow and marigold; (iii) blossoms of yarrow and marigold; (iv) blossoms and leaves of hawthorn and tutsan; and (v) roots of common valerian, nettle, elecampane (black and white), restharrows and carlina. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak anisotropic singlet EPR line with effective g-value of 2.0050±0.0002. The radiation-induced spectra fall into three groups. EPR spectra of irradiated blossoms of yarrow and marigold, stalks of common balm, thyme, tutsan and yarrow as well as roots of common valerian, nettle and elecampane (black and white) show "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum typical for irradiated plants. It is characterized by one intense central line with g=2.0050±0.0005 and two weak satellite lines situated ca. 30 G left and right to it. EPR spectra of gamma-irradiated restharrows and carlina are complex. They may be represented by one triplet corresponding to the "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum, one relatively intense singlet, situated in the center of the spectrum, and five weak additional satellite lines left and right to the center. The last spectrum was assigned as "carbohydrate-like" type. Only one intense EPR singlet with g=2.0048±0.0005 was recorded after irradiation of leaves of nettle and common balm. The lifetime of the radiation-induced EPR spectra was followed for a period of 3 months.

  11. EPR spectra induced by gamma-irradiation of some dry medical herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yordanov, N.D.; Lagunov, O.; Dimov, K.

    2009-01-01

    The radiation-induced EPR spectra in some medical herbs are reported. The samples studied are: (i) leaves of nettle, common balm, peppermint and thyme; (ii) stalks of common balm, thyme, milfoil, yarrow and marigold; (iii) blossoms of yarrow and marigold; (iv) blossoms and leaves of hawthorn and tutsan; and (v) roots of common valerian, nettle, elecampane (black and white), restharrows and carlina. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak anisotropic singlet EPR line with effective g-value of 2.0050±0.0002. The radiation-induced spectra fall into three groups. EPR spectra of irradiated blossoms of yarrow and marigold, stalks of common balm, thyme, tutsan and yarrow as well as roots of common valerian, nettle and elecampane (black and white) show 'cellulose-like' EPR spectrum typical for irradiated plants. It is characterized by one intense central line with g=2.0050±0.0005 and two weak satellite lines situated ca. 30 G left and right to it. EPR spectra of gamma-irradiated restharrows and carlina are complex. They may be represented by one triplet corresponding to the 'cellulose-like' EPR spectrum, one relatively intense singlet, situated in the center of the spectrum, and five weak additional satellite lines left and right to the center. The last spectrum was assigned as 'carbohydrate-like' type. Only one intense EPR singlet with g=2.0048±0.0005 was recorded after irradiation of leaves of nettle and common balm. The lifetime of the radiation-induced EPR spectra was followed for a period of 3 months

  12. EPR spectra induced by gamma-irradiation of some dry medical herbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yordanov, N.D. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)], E-mail: ndyepr@bas.bg; Lagunov, O. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Dimov, K. [Institute of Cryobiology and Food technology, 1162 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2009-04-15

    The radiation-induced EPR spectra in some medical herbs are reported. The samples studied are: (i) leaves of nettle, common balm, peppermint and thyme; (ii) stalks of common balm, thyme, milfoil, yarrow and marigold; (iii) blossoms of yarrow and marigold; (iv) blossoms and leaves of hawthorn and tutsan; and (v) roots of common valerian, nettle, elecampane (black and white), restharrows and carlina. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak anisotropic singlet EPR line with effective g-value of 2.0050{+-}0.0002. The radiation-induced spectra fall into three groups. EPR spectra of irradiated blossoms of yarrow and marigold, stalks of common balm, thyme, tutsan and yarrow as well as roots of common valerian, nettle and elecampane (black and white) show 'cellulose-like' EPR spectrum typical for irradiated plants. It is characterized by one intense central line with g=2.0050{+-}0.0005 and two weak satellite lines situated ca. 30 G left and right to it. EPR spectra of gamma-irradiated restharrows and carlina are complex. They may be represented by one triplet corresponding to the 'cellulose-like' EPR spectrum, one relatively intense singlet, situated in the center of the spectrum, and five weak additional satellite lines left and right to the center. The last spectrum was assigned as 'carbohydrate-like' type. Only one intense EPR singlet with g=2.0048{+-}0.0005 was recorded after irradiation of leaves of nettle and common balm. The lifetime of the radiation-induced EPR spectra was followed for a period of 3 months.

  13. Code of practice for the design and safe operation of non-medical irradiation facilities (1988)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This Code establishes requirements for the design and operation of irradiation facilities which use X-rays, electrons or gamma radiation for non-medical purposes such as the sterilisation of therapeutic goods. These requirements aim to ensure that exposure of workers and members of the public to ionizing and non-ionizing radiation as well as to noxious gases and radioactive contamination of the environment and facilities are controlled through the design of engineering safety features, approved administrative controls and appropriate radiation monitoring [fr

  14. Radiation protection of personnel during paediatric radiodiagnostic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchard, C.

    1980-01-01

    Practical experience in paediatric radiography is reported. Keeping young children immobile during irradiation is found to be the major problem and various solutions to this are discussed in detail especially with respect to the radiation dose received by both the patient and also the radiographer. The problem of X-raying newborn babies in incubators are also discussed. It is concluded that by using suitable lead rubber shielding, the child can be physically restrained by the radiographer without significant radiation dosage being incurred. (U.K.)

  15. Measurement of dose to skin using TLD of several radiodiagnostic studies in San Jose, Costa Rica; Medicion de dosis a piel utilizando TLD de varios estudios radiodiagnosticos en San Jose, Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, P. [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada, Escuela de Fisica, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose (Costa Rica)

    1998-12-31

    It is quantified the radiation doses on skin for several radiodiagnostic studies in patients of the Calderon Guardia Hospital in San Jose, Costa Rica at the period October 1997-September 1998 using thermoluminescent dosemeters TLD 100. The crystals receive the decoction standard procedures and they are arranged at the middle of the irradiation field. For a total of 973 radiodiagnostic studies it was found that the dose on skin in mGy are: 2.09 for thorax AP/AP, 5.33 for thorax LAT, 5.35 for skull AP/PA, 2.98 for skull LAT, 10.74 for abdomen, hips and pelvis, 6.20 for spines AP, 9.35 for spines LAT, 11.48 for lumbar columns AP, 29.99 for lumbar columns LAT and 6.87 for intravenous skin diagrams (first plate ap). It is produced thus the first reference bank for the national hospitals, which is compared with the orientation levels of doses for IAEA. Recommendations to diminish the collective doses through quality control programs are discussed, taking as goal to have got radiographs of excellent diagnostic quality, but with the less possible doses. (Author)

  16. Medical irradiation, radioactive waste and misinformation. A press release from the French Academy of Medicine; Irradiation medicale, dechets, desinformation: un avis de l'Academie de medecine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The, G. de; Tubiana, M

    2002-07-01

    The Academy of Medicine, worried by the problems that poses for public opinion the medical irradiation, the radioactive wastes and some erroneous information that these subjects give rise to, considers useful to give an advice based on objective data. (N.C.)

  17. Thermoluminescent dosimetry in the radiodiagnostic area of the INNSZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azorin V, J.C.; Azorin N, J.; Rivera M, T.

    1998-01-01

    During the year 1997 the Secretaria de Salud through the Direccion de Riesgos Radiologicos published the Mexican Official Standard about the medical diagnostic using X-rays in the Diario Oficial de la Federacion. They are of obligatory observance for all hospitals and radiological rooms which have medical diagnostic with X-ray equipment in the country. These standards were emitted with the purpose improve the conditions as for safety and radiological protection it is referred employing this type of ionizing radiation emitter equipment. Also it is presented the evaluation results about conditions existing about in thirteen X-ray medical diagnostic rooms in the Instituto Nacional de la Nutricion with the purpose of providing the radiological protection means toward the occupationally exposure personnel. It was realized measurements of each one of the blinding barriers for the X-ray equipment and it was suggested the appointments arrangement. (Author)

  18. Ionizing radiation hazards and its protection in a radiodiagnostic department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, R.P.; Rai, S.D.

    1977-01-01

    After mentioning the contribution to gonadal dose from natural background and man-made radiation sources including those used in medical radiology, methods for minimising the radiation dose to the patients and staff in x-ray diagnostic department are discussed in brief. (M.G.B.)

  19. The influence of electron-beam irradiation on the chemical and the structural properties of medical-grade polyurethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sukyoung; Lee, Soonhyouk

    2015-07-01

    Thermo plastic polyurethane (TPU) provides excellent bio-compatibility, flexibility and good irradiation resistance; however, extremely high irradiation doses can alter the structure and the function of macromolecules, resulting in oxidation, chain scission and cross-linking. In this study, the effects of e-beam irradiation on the medical-grade thermo plastic polyurethane were studied. Changes in the chain length and their distribution, as well as changes in the molecular structure were studied. The GPC (gel permeation chromatography) results show that the oxidative decomposition is followed by a decrease in the molecular mass and an increase in polydispersity. This indicates a very inhomogeneous degradation, which is a consequence of the specific course and of the intensity of oxidative degradation. This was confirmed by means of mechanical property measurements. Overall, this study demonstrated that medical-grade TPU was affected by radiation exposure, particularly at high irradiation doses.

  20. Optical fiber sensors for image formation in radiodiagnostic - preliminary essays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Cesar C. de; Werneck, Marcelo M.

    1998-01-01

    This work describes preliminary experiments that will bring subsidies to analyze the capability to implement a system able to capture radiological images with new sensor system, comprised by FOs scanning process and I-CCD camera. These experiments have the main objective to analyze the optical response from FOs bundle, with several typos of scintillators associated with them, when it is submitted to medical x-rays exposition. (author)

  1. The Text of the Project Agreement between the Agency and Mexico regarding Arrangements for the Transfer of Radiodiagnostic Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-09-28

    The text of the Project Agreement between the Agency and the Government of Mexico Regarding Arrangements for the Transfer of Radiodiagnostic Equipment is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 18 August 1967.

  2. The Text of the Project Agreement between the Agency and Mexico regarding Arrangements for the Transfer of Radiodiagnostic Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The text of the Project Agreement between the Agency and the Government of Mexico Regarding Arrangements for the Transfer of Radiodiagnostic Equipment is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 18 August 1967

  3. Implantation of the metrological base for dosimetry of X-ray beams used in radiodiagnostic at Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Teogenes A. da; Oliveira, Paulo Marcio C. de; Baptista Neto, Annibal T.; Soares, Carlos Manoel de A.; Nogueira, Maria do S.; Pereira, Elton G.; Squair, Peterson L.; Alonso, Thessa C.

    2009-01-01

    Viewing the reliability on the X, beta and gamma radiations, the Center for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN) has invested in the implantation of a metrological infrastructure to attend the necessities of the radiodiagnostic area with X-rays. This work describes the strategy and the more relevant technical and scientific results

  4. Feasibility studies on the potential of employing electron beam machine for non-medical products irradiation in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Aiasah Hashim; Sarada Idris

    2012-01-01

    In Malaysia, two 10 MeV irradiators were installed by private companies as part of in-house manufacturing or as third party sterilization service provider. At the same time, the 3 MeV EPS 3000 machine at Nuclear Malaysia is providing irradiation services for various purposes and products. With the current increase in demand in automotive manufacturing for better quality harnesses and components, the irradiation service at Nuclear Malaysia had to provide extended time to cope with the requests. This paper looks at the potential of setting up a commercial irradiation facility to cater for non-medical products such as automotive wires and tubing, food, fruits, cosmetic and semiconductors. Intensive interviews with related industries were carried out throughout Malaysia to evaluate the potential of installing electron beam machine for commercial irradiation. The results show that a majority of non-medical industries are not aware of the irradiation service provided by Nuclear Malaysia, although many understand the need for it. A multipurpose irradiator is desired in order to optimize the usage since a single dedicated machine may be too costly to sustain. (author)

  5. Pregnancy and medical irradiation. ICRP-84; Embarazo e irradiacion medica. ICRP-84

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    A translation to Spanish of the ICRP document number 84. The exposure to ionising radiation of pregnant patients and radiation workers is a relevant subject in radiation protection, concerning not only the prevention but also the estimation of the associated risks. Great anxiety and unnecessary termination of pregnancies may be the consequences of the lack of correlation between the perception of risks by the pregnant woman and the involved professionals and their real magnitude. The International Commission on Radiation Protection has edited in 2000 the document ICRP 84 'Pregnancy and Medical Irradiation', addressed to medical and sanitary personnel. This document has been written as a practical guide which describes the effects of prenatal exposure to ionising radiation , the dose-thresholds and their relationship with the gestational age. It includes occupationally exposed women, patients undergoing medical procedures and public members. Most of diagnostic procedures properly done do not imply induction of deterministic effects in embryo/fetus. Therapeutical procedures could be associated with significant risks of deterministic effects. Childhood cancer induction is an stochastic effect without threshold and every 'in utero' exposure will increase their probability. With the aim of facilitating the diffusion of this document in the Ibero-American community , the Argentine Society of Radiation Protection (SAR) and the Spanish Society of Radiation Protection (SEPR) have worked together to producing a spanish version of ICRP84 , that is now presented in this publication, authorized by the ICRP.

  6. Evaluation of the shielding of a room for radiodiagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla R, Z. P.; Acuna D, E.; Escareno J, E.; Vega C, H. R.

    2011-10-01

    The X-ray discovery by Roentgen in 1895 and its application in diagnosis was a breakthrough in medicine. Worldwide, X-ray technique is one of the most widely used procedures in medical diagnosis. At the Mental Health Hospital of Calera Zacatecas a room has been designed as radiology room, however there is not a record of shielding characteristics. In order to determine the features of X-ray equipment that the room can host, in this work a series of calculations were carried out. Calculations were based upon the NCRP 151 recommendations and fulfilling the requirements given in the Mexican standard NOM-229-SSA1-2002. From the actual room conditions this can host a X-ray equipment without fluoroscopy, with a workload of 80 ma-min/week, with 125 k Vp as maximum operating voltage. From the actual conditions a set of recommendations, for better protection of radiation workers and public are also given. (Author)

  7. Spontaneous radiopathological evolution and after medical treatment in two models of localized irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefaix, J.L.; Daburon, F.; Tricaud, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Pathophysiological evolution of a 192 Ir γ-rays radio-induced muscular lesion was studied in experimental models developed in pigs and rabbits to simulate accidents which occurred among humans. Cutaneous and muscular radionecrosts started from early epithelial, microvascular and vascular lesions and late muscular and connective tissue lesions. Our therapeutic studies in pigs showed the interest of an early surgical treatment a minima. In rabbits, the association of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (flurbiprofene) and haemorrheological agent (trimetazidine) among 10 other medical treatments, given for 8 weeks after an irradiation of a 80 Gy dose at the skin surface, involved a dose reduction factor of 2, with regards to the evolution of the skin injuries and the deep muscular fibronecrotic process. Tabs

  8. Medical irradiation risk assessment based on the data of radiation-hygienic passportization in the regions of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ju. Golikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is aimed at methodology development for collective risk assessment of medical irradiation, basing on results of radiation-hygienic passportization in the Russian Federation regions, i.e. using values of collective effective doses for big groups of medical technologies: photoroentgenography, roentgenography, roentgenoscopy, and computer tomography. Use of the effective dose concept for medical irradiation risk definition involves a number of essential restrictions. Age and sex of the employees and of general population (effective dose concept has been developed for these groups of people may essentially differ from those in patients. Lifelong risk of stochastic effects occurrence in children is 2-3 times higher than the rating values used in effective dose concept, while for elderly people (about 60 years at irradiation time it’s 4-5 times lower. The article suggests the algorithm of effective doses values correcting factors assessment for consideration of dependence of radiogenic cancer risk factors on age and sex. This enables to assess more correctly collective risk of radiology and nuclear medicine imaging. Since patients tend to be elderly and their risk factor is below the rating used in the effective dose concept, the values of these correcting factors for most radiology and nuclear medicine imaging are below one. Thus, in most cases, the effective dose concept leads to conservative assessment of medical irradiation collective risk.

  9. Preparates for the production of sup(99m)technetium radiodiagnostics specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Dunker, M.; Greb, W.

    1977-01-01

    The preparations serve to produce sup(99m) Tc radiodiagnostics specimens to be used for scintigraphy of bones and calcereous deposits in tumors or muscle tissue. They consists of a mixture of the trisodium salt of the cyclohexane-hexacarbon acid and SnCl 2 , Cr(II) chloride, or Sn(II) Cl 2 and Fe(II) sulfate. The admixture of Sn(II), Fe(II), or Cr(II) salts serve for reduction of the eluted sup(99m) pertechnate. They amount to a fraction of 1-5 W/O of the total composition of the preparation. Their pH lies between 5 and 9. The pharmacologically harmless water-soluble salts of the cyclo hexane-hexacarbon acid may also be pharmaceutically applied. As filters glucose and/or NCl may be used. (DG) 891 HP [de

  10. Evaluation of the use of personal protective equipment in radiodiagnostic services in Sergipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Lucas R. dos; Oliveira, Celso A.; Silva, Fabio A.R.; Souza, Divanizia N.

    2008-01-01

    The theme ionizing radiation is frequently associated with danger. Therefore this subject induces to think about accessories to personal protection. These accessories can contain metal heavy (as example, lead) so that we have an efficient protection. Our analysis was done with the main objective of evidence that is not enough the radiodiagnostic services have personal protective equipment to disposal to the radiology technicians have an efficient protection, because the procedures with ionizing radiation will be safe only with the use accomplish of the security procedures and of adequate use and storing of personal protective equipment. In our analysis the accessories in question were the lead rubber X-ray protection aprons and thyroid gland protectors. We have tested these accessories through of a similar methodology utilized to checking the half-value layer of the X-ray units. It was investigated also the importance given to use of these accessories by the radiology technicians. (author)

  11. Consequences and problems which arose from the application of the Spanish laws about quality criteria in radiodiagnostic, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy from the point of view of radiophysicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Vitoria, A.; Fernandez Gonzalez, B.; Marti Climent, J.; Perez Calatayud, J.

    2001-01-01

    New laws about quality criteria in radiodiagnostic, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy have been recently issued in Spain, concerning radiological protection to patients in each of these medical specialities. The present work deals briefly with the needs, consequences and problems arising in these three fields from their being put into effect, from the point of view of radiophysicists. In the diagnostic area the main difficulties arise from organization aspects to carry out the Quality Control programme in a fluid way. In nuclear medicine, the most difficult task is related to the dose estimation in each patient treated with radiopharmaceuticals. In radiotherapy, difficulties are connected with the specified tests to establish the initial reference state of the equipment as well as those for the quality control programme. In particular, in brachytherapy the main problem comes from the compulsory calibration in standard laboratories of the detectors used to measure the air kerma rate free in air for all types of employed sources. In this paper, these and other difficulties are discussed, as well as some actions taken in order to solve them. (author)

  12. Rheological analysis of irradiated crosslinkable and scissionable polymers used for medical devices under different radiation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satti, A. J.; Ressia, J. A.; Cerrada, M. L.; Andreucetti, N. A.; Vallés, E. M.

    2018-03-01

    The effects on different synthetic polymers of distinct types of radiation, gamma rays and electron beam, under different atmospheres are followed by changes in their viscoelastic behavior. Taking into account the two main radioinduced reactions, crosslinking and scissioning of polymeric chains, liquid polydimethylsiloxane has been used as example of crosslinkable polymer and semi crystalline polypropylene as example of scissionable polymer. Propylene - 1-hexene copolymers have been also evaluated, and the effects of both reactions were clearly noticed. Accordingly, samples of those aforementioned polymers have been irradiated with 60Co gamma irradiation in air and under vacuum, and also with electron beam, at similar doses. Sinusoidal dynamic oscillation experiments showed a significant increase in branching and crosslinking reactions when specimens are irradiated under vacuum, while scissioning reactions were observed for the different polymers when irradiation takes place under air with either gamma irradiation or electron beam.

  13. The pharmacological activity of medical herbs after microbiological decontamination by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owczarczyk, H.B.; Migdal, W.; Kedzia, B.

    2000-01-01

    In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology research on microbiological decontamination of medicinal herbs by irradiation has been carried out since 1996. It was shown that using ionizing radiation (a dose of 10 kGy) can obtain satisfactory results of microbiological decontamination of these products. The content of essential biologically active substances such as essential oils, flavonoids, glycosides, anthocyans, antra-compounds, poliphenoloacids, triterpene saponins, oleanosides and plants mucus did not change significantly after irradiation. Pharmacological activity of medicinal herbs has been found satisfactory after microbiological decontamination by irradiation

  14. The pharmacological activity of medical herbs after microbiological decontamination by irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarczyk, H. B.; Migdał, W.; K ȩdzia, B.

    2000-03-01

    In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology research on microbiological decontamination of medicinal herbs by irradiation has been carried out since 1996. It was shown that using ionizing radiation (a dose of 10 kGy) can obtain satisfactory results of microbiological decontamination of these products. The content of essential biologically active substances such as essential oils, flavonoids, glycosides, anthocyans, antra-compounds, poliphenoloacids, triterpene saponins, oleanosides and plants mucus did not change significantly after irradiation. Pharmacological activity of medicinal herbs has been found satisfactory after microbiological decontamination by irradiation.

  15. ISO 9000 standards and their application in a radiodiagnostics department: methods of implementation and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bello, E.; Iraola, B.; Pagola, C.; Olano, J. G.

    2000-01-01

    To present our experience in the implementation of a standardized quality assurance system in the Radiodiagnostics Services at two hospitals of the health care network of the Basque Country Autonomous Community: the Bidasoa County Hospitals in Hondarribia, belonging to the Basque Health Service-Osakidetza, and the Maria Cristina Red Cross Hospital in San Sebastian. The first stage of this project, the ultimate purpose of which is to achieve the certification of the quality system, consisted in the detailed study of the ISO 9002 Standard, applicable to the activities of a Radiological Diagnostics Services. Following the analysis of the requirements described in the 20 sections that comprise this standard, the second stage focused on its adaptation to clinical and managerial use in our services. This involved their general revision and, as a consequence, the development-update of our Procedure and Protocol Guidelines, which constituted the core of the documental support of the so-called Quality Guidelines. This third stage, overlapping the preceding one, included the progressive implementation of the document-based conclusions, generating the corresponding records of the activities carried out. Having successfully undergone an audit for certification in which the auditors observed total compliance with the different activities as defined in the documents comprising the Quality Guidelines, both of the above mentioned services obtained the corresponding certificate issued by two different properly accredited organizations (AENOR and DET NORSKE veritas, respectively). (Author) 25 refs

  16. Mapping of isoexposure curves for evaluation of equivalent environmental doses for radiodiagnostic mobile equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacelar, Alexandre; Andrade, Jose Rodrigo Mendes; Fischer, Andreia Caroline Fischer da Silveira; Accurso, Andre; Hoff, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    This paper generates iso exposure curves in areas where the mobile radiodiagnostic equipment are used for evaluation of iso kerma map and the environment equivalent dose (H * (d)). It was used a Shimadzu mobile equipment and two Siemens, with non anthropomorphic scatter. The exposure was measured in a mesh of 4.20 x 4.20 square meter in steps of 30 cm, at half height from the scatterer. The calculation of H * (d) were estimated for a worker present in all the procedures in a period of 11 months, being considered 3.55 m As/examination and 44.5 procedures/month (adult UTI) and 3.16 m As/examination and 20.1 procedure/month (pediatric UTI), and 3.16 m As/examination and 20.1 procedure/month (pediatric UTI). It was observed that there exist points where the H * (d) was over the limit established for the free area inside the radius of 30 cm from the central beam of radiation in the case of pediatric UTI and 60 cm for adult UTI. The points localized 2.1 m from the center presented values lower than 25% of those limit

  17. Formation and elution of toxic compounds from sterilized medical products: toxic compound formation from irradiated products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shintani, Hideharu

    1996-01-01

    No formation of MDA was observed in chain-extended thermoplastic polyurethane (PU) when sterilized by autoclave or γ-ray irradiation. No formation of MDA was observed in nonchain-extended thermoplastic PU when sterilized by γ-ray irradiation. Less than 1 ppm MDA was produced in nonchain-extended thermoplastic PU sterilized by autoclave sterilization. Autoclave sterilization did not produce MDA in thermosetting PU potting material. MDA formation in potting material was promoted by γ-irradiation and increased with increasing irradiation at a quadratic equation of regression. MDA formation at 100 kGy irradiation is a few ppm and < 1 ppm at 25kGy irradiation, therefore the potential risk to human recipients was not significant. The elution of compounds other than MDA from potting material was more problematic. Solvent extracts from potting material presented mutagenicity in the absence of metabolic activity. MDA presented mutagenicity in the presence of metabolic activity, therefore MDA was not the mutagenic trigger. The chemical and biological characteristics of the specific mutagens required to identify in a further study. Negative promotion of MDA formation and a less presence of mutagen in autoclave sterilized potting material indicated that autoclave sterilization was preferable. (Author)

  18. National survey on prophylactic cranial irradiation: differences in practice patterns between medical and radiation oncologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cmelak, Anthony J.; Choy, Hak; Shyr, Yu; Mohr, Peter; Glantz, Michael J.; Johnson, David H.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in the treatment of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients remains controversial in the oncology community because of its potential for long-term toxicity and unproven survival benefit in randomized trials. A national survey of 9176 oncologists was conducted to characterize the use of PCI with regard to physician demographics, patient characteristics, and oncologists' beliefs. Methods: Data was collected via a questionnaire letter survey. Biographical data, treatment patterns, and clinical impressions were analyzed by the generalized linear model and generalized estimating equations method. Results: There were 1231 responders overall (13.4% of those surveyed), including 628 (51%) radiation oncologists (RO), 587 (48%) medical oncologists (MO), 8 (0.6%) surgical oncologists, and 8 (0.6%) from other oncology subspecialties. Of respondents, 74% overall recommend PCI in limited-stage patients, including 65% of MO and 82% RO (p = 0.001). Of responders who recommend PCI in limited-stage patients, 67% do so only after complete response to initial therapy. Only 30% of respondents recommend PCI for extensive-stage SCLC patients (p = 0.001), and 94% of these recommend PCI only when those patients have a complete response after initial therapy. Interestingly, 38% of responding MO feel that PCI improves survival of limited-stage patients, but only 11% believe PCI improves quality of life. Of the RO, 48% believe PCI improves survival in limited-stage SCLC, and 36% feel PCI improves quality of life (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). MO responders believe PCI causes late neurological sequelae more often than do RO responders (95% vs. 84%, p < 0.05), with impaired memory (37%), chronic fatigue (19%), and loss of motivation (13%) as most commonly seen side effects. Only 1.5% overall, however, routinely obtain neuropsychiatric testing in PCI patients, and 42% overall never obtain them. Conclusion: Results confirm that oncologic

  19. Development of lesions resulting from acute localised irradiation in the pig: trials for medical and surgical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daburon, F.; Lefaix, J.L.; Remy, J.; Bolnot, D.; Guilbaud, J.

    1986-01-01

    Medical and surgical treatments were tested on pigs on which the thigh has been irradiated locally with single doses of 30, 40, 64 or 84 Gy (2 cm depth-dose) from an Ir 192 source. The association of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory compounds (flurbiprofen, niflumic acid) and platelet anti-aggregants (bencyclane, pyridinol carbamate) (i) decreased the local thermal reaction evaluated by microwave thermography, (ii) slowed down the chronological evolution of the lesions by several days, in a way comparable to a decrease in the dose, and (iii) limited to a certain extent the development of the lesion, especially the fibrotic extension when scarring was seen, i.e. after 30-40 Gy. Early surgery of irradiated tissues with doses higher than 25-30 Gy appeared to be well tolerated with regard to both immediate healing and the evolution of late fibrosis. (author)

  20. In vitro gamma irradiation Medical Center of leukemic cells in mice, rats, and guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, L.; Dreyfuss, Y.; Ehrenreich, T.; Feldman, D.; Limbert, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    In vitro gamma irradiation of virus-induced (Gross) mouse leukemia cells at doses of 350 to 1600 rads (1 rad = 0.01 gray) had no effect on their ability to induce leukemia, usually within 2 weeks, after transplantation into syngeneic mice. However, when cells irradiated at doses of 2000-20,000 rads were transplanted, they induced leukemia after a latency period exceeding 2.5 months, similar to the results observed in mice inoculated with filtered mouse leukemia extracts. Similar results were also obtained after irradiation of leukemic cells derived from rats in which leukemia had been induced by rat-adapted mouse leukemia virus. Apparently, gamma irradiation at a dose of, or exceeding, 2000 rads, inhibits the ability of mouse and rat leukemic cells to induce leukemia after transplantation into syngeneic hosts; however, it does not inactivate the virus carried by such cells nor prevent it from inducing leukemia. [In previous experiments, doses of more than 4,500,000 rads were needed to inactivate the passage A (Gross) leukemia virus carried in either mouse or rat leukemic cells.] In vitro gamma irradiation of L2C guinea pig leukemic cells at doses of 750 to 2500 rads had no apparent effect on their ability to induce leukemia after transplantation into strain 2 guinea pigs. However, irradiation at doses of 3250 to 20,000 rads inactivated their ability to do so. The morphology of mouse, rat, and guinea pig leukemic cells and the virus particles present in such cells was not affected by irradiation at doses of 20,000 rads

  1. Digital substraction angiography (DSA) in a universal radiodiagnostic room with a novel multi-pulse high-frequency generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellegast, H.H.; Kloss, R.; Mayr, H.; Ammann, E.; Kuehnel, W.; Siemens A.G., Erlangen

    1985-01-01

    Application of digital subtraction angiography in a universal radiodiagnostic room can be implemented rapidly and reliably. The number of examinations could be increased without negative effects to conventional operations in this room. At optimum radiation hygiene and high-degree operational safety, the multipulse high-frequency generator with its DSA parameter automatic system guarantees a reproducibly good image quality equalling that of a special DSA facility. In this way, the examination room constitutes an economic solution for small-sized hospitals without any special angiography room, too. (orig.) [de

  2. Structure modification and medical application of the natural products by proton beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D. W.; Park, J. K.; Kang, J. E.; Shin, S. C.; Ahn, J. H.; Lee, E. S. [Dongguk University, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    This study was performed for the investigation of changes of constituent contents of Korean ginseng (Panax genseng C.A. Meyer) after proton beam irradiation (Beam energy from MC-50 cyclotron : 36.5MeV) with beam range of 500 - 10000Gy

  3. Structure modification and medical application of the natural products by proton beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. W.; Park, J. K.; Kang, J. E.; Shin, S. C.; Ahn, J. H.; Lee, E. S.

    2008-04-01

    This study was performed for the investigation of changes of constituent contents of Korean ginseng (Panax genseng C.A. Meyer) after proton beam irradiation (Beam energy from MC-50 cyclotron : 36.5MeV) with beam range of 500 - 10000Gy

  4. Establishment of radiation qualities for radiodiagnostics in LCR/UERJ according to IEC 61267 and TRS 457

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, D.B. da; Magalhaes, L.A.G.; Estrada, J.J.S.; Pires, E.J.; David, M.G.; Ferreira, N.M.P.D.

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this work is to establish the radiation qualities of the Laboratório de Ciências Radiológicas (LCR) conventional X-ray equipment for calibrations in radiodiagnostics according to the recommendations of IEC 61267 and TRS 457. Tests were conducted to evaluate the homogeneity of the radiation field, high voltage applied to the X-ray tube, scattering, half-value layers (HVL) and homogeneity coefficients. The results obtained that characterize the radiation field, satisfy the conditions required by TRS 457. Invasive high voltage measures presented results compatible with the requirements of this standard. The HVL measures showed that for the first HVL the tolerance limits of IEC 61267, and the values for the homogeneity coefficients were within the limits established. The quality tests performed in this work were highly satisfactory in meeting the standard requirements. Thus, the main goal was achieved, and the methodology can be used by other similar X-ray systems. - Highlights: • Establishment the radiation qualities for X-ray calibrations in radiodiagnostics. • Comparison to kV between invasive and noninvasive method. • Determination of additional filtrations suggested by IEC 61267. • Determination of the radiation scattered by the experimental setup as TRS 457. • Determination of HVLs as TRS 457.

  5. Problematic of the implantation of quality control in the radiodiagnostic service of a hospital with more than 5000 beds with a urgency service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castell, A.; Lizuain, M.C.; Cinos, C.; Linero, D.

    1992-01-01

    The quality control of the x-ray equipment is not normal in the Hospitals. This technique has very difficulties. In this report we show the methodology in order to implant the quality control in radiodiagnostic service : data acquisition and format of communication

  6. Report on Workshop 'Radiation protection of the 'consumer' of medical irradiation applications'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geus, W.W.A.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Main division Radioactivity and Applications of Radiation of the Dutch Department of Welfare, Public Health and Culture has organized a 'workshop' on the protection of the patient ( or consumer) in medical applications of radiation. The EG guideline of september 3rd 1984 'In behalf of assessment of fundamental measures with regard to radiation protection of persons who are examined or treated medically' and the advice of the National Council for Public Health brought out thereabout in april 1988, served as background of the contributions and discussions presented in this collection. (H.W.). Refs.; figs.; tabs

  7. The effect of utilising age and sex dependent factors for calculating detriment from medical irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettler, F.A.; Davis, M.; Moseley, R.D.; Kelsey, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Proposals have been made for a quantity that can be used to estimate possible detriment from medical radiology better than the ICRP's collective effective dose equivalent. One such approach utilises age and sex dependent 'weighting' factors. The magnitude of the effect obtained by utilising such factors when applied to an actual population has not been previously assessed. When age and sex dependent weighting factors are applied to diagnostic medical radiology for all hospital examinations conducted in the United States in 1980, estimates of detriment are reduced by one-third. (author)

  8. Radiation hazards from medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beekman, Z.M.

    1981-01-01

    An introduction is presented on the radiation hazards connected with biomedical radiography and nuclear medicine. The frequency of radiodiagnostic efforts was rather high in the Netherlands. This was reduced considerably by abolishing the thorax screening of the population. About diagnostic nuclear medicine less can be said because far fewer numerical data are available. An exposition of genetically and somatically significant doses and how to compute them is given. The drawing up of a profit versus risk evaluation for medical applications of ionizing radiations is recommended. (Auth.)

  9. TLD personnel dosimetry and its relationship with the radiodiagnostic training; Dosimetria personal TLD y su relacion con la capacitacion en radiodiagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaona, E.; Franco E, J.G. [DEHA, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gaona C, E. [Universidad Tecnologica de Mexico, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    The personnel dosimetry and the training in radiological protection in radiodiagnostic in Mexico before 1997 were almost nonexistent except few services of public and private radiology, we can to say that the personnel dosimetry and the obligatory training was born in the year 1997, together with the present Mexican Official Standards in radiology. This study has the purpose to make an evaluation of the personnel dosimetry of 110 radiology services distributed in the Mexican Republic for the year 2001 and to estimate the annual and bimonthly mean doses, as well as its trust intervals and its relationships with the personnel training in radiological protection by means of a sampling that was realized in two stages (1997 and 2000) in the metropolitan area of Mexico City. The results show that the received doses by the medical and technical personnel in the participating radiology services are in the 0.03 mSv and 0.94 mSv interval and the mean is 0.25 mSv. The estimated annual personnel dose would be in the 0.18 mSv to 5.64 mSv interval, which are values very lower to the annual dose limit that is 50 mSv and its magnitude is similar to the effective annual dose by natural background radiation. In the first stage in training was found that there is not a significant difference in the response frequencies among the medical and technical personnel with a p < 0.05. The 52% of the occupational exposure personnel of radiology uses dosemeter, but only 17% of them know the dose reports. the 15.8% of personnel considers that dosemeter protects against radiation and only 16.5% knows the annual maximum permissible dose for stochastic effects. The second stage, the results shown that there is a significant difference in the response of frequencies among medical and technical personnel, the same results which are obtained for members and non members of a professional association with a p < 0.05. The 38% has personnel dosimetry, the 19% knows the principles of radiological

  10. Measurement of irradiation doses secondary to bedside radiographs in a medical intensive care unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boles, J M; Boussert, F; Manens, J P; Le Cam, B; Bellet, M; Garre, M

    1987-01-01

    The authors prospectively studied the radiation doses to radio-sensitive organs secondary to bedside radiographs in intensive care patients and in a control phantom. Dosimeters were taped on different organs during each bedside X-ray. The mean radiation doses, expressed in 10(-5) Gy (m-rad), for an ''average patient'' who was hospitalized 9 days and had 6 chest X-rays were respectively: 292 to the sternal bone marrow; 239 to the thyroid gland; 3 to the testes; 1 to the ovaries; 605 to the eye for 2 maxillary sinus X-rays. No diffused irradiation was measured during a 2-month period in the intensive care unit nor on dosimeters worn by four nurses.

  11. Morbidity rate of nervous system among medical personnel occupationally exposed to chronic low dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonkova, A.

    1987-01-01

    The morbidity rate of the nervous system among 1190 subjects, medical personnel, working with sources and environment of ionizing radiation was studied by the personal analysis of the diseases, written down in the personal out-patient department cards as well as of a control group of 870 medical workers of various other specialities. The morbidity rate of the nervous system among the medical personnel, exposed to chronic occupational radiation effect, was established not to be higher than that of the other medical workers - 38.0 and 40.3% respectively. Neuroses and peripheral nervous diseases have the greatest relative share in the structure of morbidity rate of the nervous system in both groups examined, with no statistical significance in the differences of the indices. The significantly higher incidence of autonome dystonias, established among the personnel from the X-ray departments and consulting rooms could be discussed in connection with the great relative share of the subjects from that group with a length of service over 15 years and had received the possible maximum cumulative equivalent doses. 3 tabs., 21 refs

  12. The comparison of doses and risks from radon, medical and accidental irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukovskij, M.V.; Yarmoshenko, I.V.; Bayankin, S.N.

    1998-01-01

    The following radiation hazards to the population of the region of Sverdlovsk are compared: the hazard from the exposure to indoor radon in dwellings; the consequences of the radiation accident at the 'Mayak' nuclear power plant in 1957; radioactive contamination by thorium enrichment tails; medical diagnostic exposure. It is concluded that radon and its daughters constitute the most significant radiation hazard. (A.K.)

  13. Medical management of patients overexposed to irradiation in acute and subacute accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genyao, Ye; Guilin, Wang; Shimin, Huang; Xiyuan, Cheng; Bingzhi, Mao; Yingqi, Li [North Taiping Road Hospital, Beijing, BJ (China)

    1991-11-01

    The authors summarize the experiences in the medical management of 7 radiation accidents resulting in 5 cases of acute radiation sickness, 3 cases of subacute radiation sickness and 8 cases of overexposed persons with estimated physical doses below 1 Gy in the past 5 years. The therapeutic measures including the application of antiradiation drugs such as estriol and herbal medicine '208', measures to improve the microcirculation and transfusion of fetal liver cells, etc., were emphasized in the treatment of acute radiation sickness. For subacute radiation sickness, large doses of stanozolum (18 mg/d) in combination with 654-2 (60 mg/d) were administered as the principal therapeutic agents. The advances in the medical management of acute accidentally overexposed cases in China are briefly reviewed and discussed.

  14. Choice of the irradiation dose for the sterilization of medical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochkarev, V.V.; Pavlov, E.P.; Sedov, V.V.; Khrushchev, V.G.; Tushov, Eh.G.; Konyaev, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    The principles for selecting the appropriate dose for the radiation sterilization of medical products are set forth, taking into account the initial contamination of the product, the radiation senstivity of contaminants and the required level of reliability of sterilization. The initial contamination level of certain preparations (glucose and radiopharmaceuticals) is established and the radiation sensitivity of the isolated contaminants is determined in terms of Dio indices. Of the microorganisms isolated the most common were staphylococci, streptococci, Gram-negative bacteria, Aspergilli, Penicillia and yeast fungi. Spore-forming types of microorganisms were isolated with a frequency of the order of 10 -2 . The radiation sensitivity in terms of D 10 was established for more than 3000 strains of microorganisms. For 75-85% of the strains the D 10 indices gave 10-40 krad and for 0.2-1% more than 100 krad. The experimental data were subjected to computer analysis which confirmed the adequacy of the techniques used to determine radiosensitivity. The authors then calculated by computer the radiation sterilizing doses for different degrees of initial contamination of the products with reliability coefficients of 10 6 and 10 8 . For sterilizing radiopharmaceuticals and glucose solutions these doses are 0.8-1 Mrad. Verification experiments show that these doses give reliable sterilization of the medical products concerned. (author)

  15. Guidelines for industrial radiation sterilization of disposable medical products (Cobalt-60 gamma irradiation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This IAEA document is aimed at providing necessary guidance on standards and criteria and assistance to Member States, particularly developing countries, in their attempts to properly set up facilities for industrial radiation sterilization of duly-manufactured medical products by exposure to Co-60 gamma radiation. The contents of the guidelines have therefore been designed, as far as practicable, to reflect the practices and procedures currently employed in the processing of the majority of the radiation-sterilized medical products being produced worldwide. Consequently, this document has attempted to present to its users, for information and for action, all the relevant features of the standard criteria as are currently in existence under the auspices of the various authoritative national and/or regional Codes or Guides. The potential user(s) from Member States are expected to freely decide which of the various standards as enumerated in the Guidelines document should be considered for inclusion or exclusion either partially or totally in the context of the formulation of their own nationally-acceptable guidelines. Refs and tabs

  16. Medical management of irradiated patients in a radiation accident in Jining, Shandong province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ai Huisheng; Yu Changlin; Qiao Jianhui; Zhang Shi; Guo Mei; Zhang Xignag; Wang Danhong; Sun Qiyun; Niu Wenkai; Li Guang; Yao Bo; Zhou Zhenshan; Luo Weidong; Liu Sugang; He Yaozhong; Chen Jiankui; Li Xiaobing; Hu Kaixun; Chen Ying; Wu Ke; Yang Guoshan; Liu Ying

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the experience of diagnosis and treatment from the extremely severe bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness and intestinal form of acute radiation sickness. Methods: A nuclear accident occurred in China on October 21st, 2004. Two individuals were accidentally irradiated by a 60 Co source. The two patients were estimated at more than 20-25 Gy and 9-15 Gy of γ-rays exposures, respectively, and were diagnosed as the intestinal form of acute radiation sickness (patient A) and the extremely severe bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness (patient B), respectively. After urgent preparative regimen based on low- dose fludarabine, antilymphocyte globulin and cyclophosphamide, the two patients received HLA-haploidentical (patient A) or HLA-identical (patient B) peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT), respectively. Cyclosporin A combined mycophenolate mofetil regimen was used for the prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from donor were injected to bone marrow of patient A additionally. Results: Both peripheral blood and bone marrow examinations showed hemopoietic recovery after PBSCT. Neither of the two patients showed obvious clinical signs specific to GVHD. Patient A died of septicemia and multi-organ failure on the 33rd day after exposure, while patient B died of multi-organ failure with predominant heart failure on the 75th day after exposure. Conclusions: Chromosome analysis of bone marrow and peripheral blood, and electron spin resonance measurement of tooth enamel play a very important role in diagnosis of the very high dose radiation disease. It is possible and feasible to treat acute radiation sickness using HLA-haploidentical or HLA-identical PBSCT. The death of patients is mainly due to infection and multi-organ failure. (authors)

  17. SU-F-T-213: Commissioning Results of the Prototype Active Scanning Irradiation System of Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C; Seduk, J; Yang, T [Korea Institute of Radiological And Medical Sciences, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: A prototype actives scanning beam delivery system was designed, manufactured and installed as a part of the Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator Project. The prototype system includes the most components for steering, modulating, detecting incident beam to patient. The system was installed in MC-50 cyclotron beam line and tested to extract the normal operation conditions. Methods: The commissioning process was completed by using 45 MeV of proton beam. To measure the beam position accuracy along the scanning magnet power supply current, 25 different spots were scanning and measured. The scanning results on GaF film were compared with the irradiation plan. Also, the beam size variation and the intensity reduction using range shifter were measured and analyzed. The results will be used for creating a conversion factors for asymmetric behavior of scanning magnets and a dose compensation factor for longitudinal direction. Results: The results show asymmetry operations on both scanning × and y magnet. In case of scanning magnet × operation, the current to position conversion factors were measured 1.69 mm/A for positive direction and 1.74 mm/A for negative direction. The scanning magnet y operation shows 1.38mm/A and 1.48 mm/A for both directions. The size of incoming beam which was 18 mm as sigma becomes larger up to 55 mm as sigma while using 10 mm of the range shifter plate. As the beam size becomes large, the maximum intensity of the was decreased. In case of using 10 mm of range shifter, the maximum intensity was only 52% compared with no range shifter insertion. Conclusion: For the appropriate operation of the prototype active scanning system, the commissioning process were performed to measure the beam characteristics variation. The obtained results would be applied on the irradiation planning software for more precise dose delivery using the active scanning system.

  18. Recommendations of the publication ICRP-84: pregnancy and medical irradiation for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojkind, Roberto H.

    2001-01-01

    The malignant diseases in the pregnant women are relatively not much frequent, and some of these cases can be applied radiotherapy for the tumours treatment. The doses involved in the radio therapeutics procedures can produce a significant foetal damage, and the patient or worker has the right to know the magnitude and the potential effects that can be results of the radiotherapy exposure. The publication ICRP-84 of the International Commission of Radiological Protection approaches specific aspect of the individual justification of the medical exposure of the patient pregnant woman, and recommends work procedures for the dose optimization that will receive the fetus. In this communication is commented the content of the radiotherapy section of the mentioned publication

  19. Practice specific model regulations: Radiation safety of non-medical irradiation facilities. Interim report for comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    the infrastructure aimed at achieving its maximum efficiency, and extensively covers performance regulations. The BSS cover the application of ionizing radiation for all practices and interventions and are, therefore, basic and general in nature. Users must apply these basic requirements to their own particular practices. In this context, the preamble of the BSS states that: 'The Regulatory Authority may need to provide guidance on how certain regulatory requirements are to be fulfilled for various practices, for example in regulatory guideline documents.' There are certain requirements that, when applied to specific practices, can be fulfilled through virtually only one practical solution. In these cases, the regulatory authority would use a 'shall' statement for this solution. To meet other requirements, there may be more than one option. In these cases the regulatory authority would usually indicate the recommended option with a 'should' statement, which implies that licensees may choose another alternative provided that the level of safety is equivalent. This distinction has been maintained in this 'model regulations' for irradiation facilities in order to facilitate the decision of regulatory authorities on the degree of obligation

  20. Evaluation of radiodiagnostic equipment in the city of Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passos, Robson S.; Khoury, Helen J.; Antonino, Paulo D.; Hazin, Clovis A.

    1996-01-01

    The preliminary results of a survey aiming to determine the working conditions of X-ray units operating in hospitals and clinics in the city of Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil) are presented. The results show the discrepancy between the light field and X-ray field - from 1 to 2% in 78% of the equipment tested. The results also show that there is only a fair accuracy regarding to kilo voltage and irradiation time. The discrepancy between the pre-set time and the actual irradiation time was higher than 10% in 84.6% of the cases

  1. Creation of a plant for gamma-sterilization of the medical equipment and irradiation of industrial materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltceva, F.; Petukhov, V.; Chekushin, A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the project. To create a powerful irradiation devices allowing to fulfill the irradiation of large-sized objects with dozes up to 4 Rad, and caring out the irradiation technologies by using of it. The basic tasks of the project and sequence of fulfillment. The realization of irradiating technologies is possible at WWR-K research reactor that is located near of Almaty . At the reactor complex, there are the means for creation powerful irradiating devices, and quite qualified personnel having the experience of works with radioactive materials is available. All of it allows, both for the staff and for the population living nearby, to have the radiation safety during of caring out of the work with the use of high intensive radioactive sources. Technical problems. The creation of plant has the following stages: - fulfilling of the calculation and design work; - caring out of mechanical works on manufacturing the irradiating devices, cartridges for irradiating sources and a hermetic tank for irradiated objects; - installation of devices, fulfilling of the tests; - purchasing or manufacturing of radioactive sources (-10-60); - loading of the sources into devices, and realization of measurements of the fields of gamma field inside the container; - making up the working instruction; - training of the personnel

  2. Methods for decreasing population doses due to medical use of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of radiation safety of population as regard to irradiation of a great contingents of people due to diagnosis procedures, carried out using X-ray and radiological methods of examination, is considered. It is shown, that prevention from excessive irradiation of population due to X-ray radiodiagnostic procedures is possible by realization the complex of activities, including legislative, organizational, technical and other measures. Human exposure doses in diagnosis most not exceed permissible ones, established on the basis of cost-benefit criterion. The necessity of the maximum limitation of exposure of pregnant women and children is emphasized

  3. Final results of the DOPOES project. Estimation of doses to populations in Spain as a result Medical Radiodiagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, a specific agreement was signed between the Nuclear Safety Council and the University Malaga for carrying out a survey of used radiology procedures in the Spanish sanitary centers, its frequency and doses received by patients. (Author)

  4. Thermoluminescence dosimetry applied to quality assurance in radiotherapy, brachytherapy and radiodiagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinello, G [Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire, Creteil (France). Dept. Inter-Hospitalier de Cancerologie

    1996-08-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry is very interesting for in vivo measurements because TL detectors have the advantages of being very sensitive under a very small volume and do not meet to be connected to an electrometer with an unwieldy cable. The principle of the method being briefly recalled, criteria of choice of a TL material according to the applications to be performed are given. It is shown that to be used for in vivo measurements, TL material should have the same response at room and patient temperatures and be equivalent to soft tissue, lungs or bones for the energy ranges encountered in practice. Theoretical data are provided in order to facilitate the user`s choice. The different heating processes (linear or isothermal heating kinetics, hot gas, etc.) and light detection systems of TL readers are also presented. TL manual and automatic readers commercially available in 1994, and the emission temperature and wavelength the dosimetric peaks of usual TL materials are presented in two tables, respectively. Then the principal properties of TL dosimeters to be used for in vivo measurements and their practical consequences are summarized: signal stability after irradiation, intrinsic precision, sensitivity, response with dose, dose-rate, mass and energy. At last some examples of applications as different as total body and skin irradiations, brachytherapy, diagnostic radiology and quality assurance purposes are given. (author). 35 refs, 6 figs, 4 tabs.

  5. Statistical behavior of high doses in medical radiodiagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barboza, Adriana Elisa

    2014-01-01

    This work has as main purpose statistically estimating occupational exposure in medical diagnostic radiology in cases of high doses recorded in 2011 at national level. For statistical survey of this study, doses of 372 IOE's diagnostic radiology in different Brazilian states were evaluated. Data were extracted from the work of monograph (Research Methodology Of High Doses In Medical Radiodiagnostic) that contains the database's information Sector Management doses of IRD/CNEN-RJ, Brazil. The identification of these states allows the Sanitary Surveillance (VISA) responsible, becomes aware of events and work with programs to reduce these events. (author)

  6. Web server for the administrative and technical documentation of the radiodiagnostic facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, M; Campayo, J. M; Guardia, V. [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU, Sorolla Center, Local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain); Mayo, P., E-mail: m.soto@lainsa.co [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Sorolla Center, Local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    Nowadays Radiological Protection Technical Unit of LAINSA as part of Grupo Dominguis, has assigned radiological security tasks in a high number of medical X-ray facilities. It is recognised by the Nuclear Security Council as a specialist in the assessment of protection against the radiological risks associated with medical, industrial and nuclear activities. It is also authorised as an external personal dosimetry centre. Concretely medical X-ray facilities generate big amount of information because of national regulatory authority to assure the good functioning of it. This information is formed by administrative procedures for the regulatory authority in industrial and public health area, periodic quality controls of the radiographic equipment s, radiological verification in different locations to measure the radioactivity levels, certificates of employees training to work with radioactivity, dosimetric registrations of professional exposure employees and medical aptitude documents for their job, etc. In this paper it is presented a net server application to manage this information in an effective way by web. In this server each facility has an online net space with private key access and where there are all the administrative documents and nuclear security reports of the facility. Moreover, the client who is responsible of the radiological security of the centre, can have at any moment all this information, minimizing delay times and optimizing the information store support in electronic format. The objective is that this information can be updated for consulting, modifying or checking at anytime quickly and safety. All this information has to be accessible for the interested medical facility, for the Radiological Protection Technical Unit which has been contracted by the facility to do the assessment in radiological protection and for the regulatory authority in nuclear security to guarantee well-practice in medical and nuclear activities. (Author)

  7. MYDOZE: Application Web for management and optimisation of doses to patients in tests radiodiagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peinado Zamora, A. B.; Laguna Lobato, M. A.; Gil Agudo, A.; Zapata Jimenez, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    The service of Radiofisica y Proteccion Radiologica del Hospital general Universitario de Ciudad Real, carried out a study whose objective is to optimize the dose to patients undergoing diagnostic scans with ionizing radiation. To address this task, is required a software tool that facilitates on the one hand the acquisition of dosimetric data acquired digital equipment and the other interface of exploitation of this data for statistics and analysis of these. the computer tool to develop should allow storing parameters with information demographic and dose of the patient in medical scans thanks to called DICOM medical image standard. (Author)

  8. Blood irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandy, Mammen

    1998-01-01

    Viable lymphocytes are present in blood and cellular blood components used for transfusion. If the patient who receives a blood transfusion is immunocompetent these lymphocytes are destroyed immediately. However if the patient is immunodefficient or immunosuppressed the transfused lymphocytes survive, recognize the recipient as foreign and react producing a devastating and most often fatal syndrome of transfusion graft versus host disease [T-GVHD]. Even immunocompetent individuals can develop T-GVHD if the donor is a first degree relative since like the Trojan horse the transfused lymphocytes escape detection by the recipient's immune system, multiply and attack recipient tissues. T-GVHD can be prevented by irradiating the blood and different centers use doses ranging from 1.5 to 4.5 Gy. All transfusions where the donor is a first degree relative and transfusions to neonates, immunosuppressed patients and bone marrow transplant recipients need to be irradiated. Commercial irradiators specifically designed for irradiation of blood and cellular blood components are available: however they are expensive. India needs to have blood irradiation facilities available in all large tertiary institutions where immunosuppressed patients are treated. The Atomic Energy Commission of India needs to develop a blood irradiator which meets international standards for use in tertiary medical institutions in the country. (author)

  9. Use of synchrotron medical microbeam irradiation to investigate radiation-induced bystander and abscopal effects in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Palomo, Cristian; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Laissue, Jean; Vukmirovic, Dusan; Blattmann, Hans; Seymour, Colin; Schültke, Elisabeth; Mothersill, Carmel

    2015-09-01

    The question of whether bystander and abscopal effects are the same is unclear. Our experimental system enables us to address this question by allowing irradiated organisms to partner with unexposed individuals. Organs from both animals and appropriate sham and scatter dose controls are tested for expression of several endpoints such as calcium flux, role of 5HT, reporter assay cell death and proteomic profile. The results show that membrane related functions of calcium and 5HT are critical for true bystander effect expression. Our original inter-animal experiments used fish species whole body irradiated with low doses of X-rays, which prevented us from addressing the abscopal effect question. Data which are much more relevant in radiotherapy are now available for rats which received high dose local irradiation to the implanted right brain glioma. The data were generated using quasi-parallel microbeams at the biomedical beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble France. This means we can directly compare abscopal and "true" bystander effects in a rodent tumour model. Analysis of right brain hemisphere, left brain and urinary bladder in the directly irradiated animals and their unirradiated partners strongly suggests that bystander effects (in partner animals) are not the same as abscopal effects (in the irradiated animal). Furthermore, the presence of a tumour in the right brain alters the magnitude of both abscopal and bystander effects in the tissues from the directly irradiated animal and in the unirradiated partners which did not contain tumours, meaning the type of signal was different. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Transformation of medical grade silicone rubber under Nd:YAG and excimer laser irradiation: First step towards a new miniaturized nerve electrode fabrication process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupas-Bruzek, C.; Robbe, O.; Addad, A.; Turrell, S.; Derozier, D.

    2009-01-01

    Medical grade silicone rubber, poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a widely used biomaterial. Like for many polymers, its surface can be modified in order to change one or several of its properties which further allow this surface to be functionalized. Laser-induced surface modification of PDMS under ambient conditions is an easy and powerful method for the surface modification of PDMS without altering its bulk properties. In particular, we profit from both UV laser inducing surface modification and of UV laser micromachining to develop a first part of a new process aiming at increasing the number of contacts and tracks within the same electrode surface to improve the nerve selectivity of implantable self sizing spiral cuff electrodes. The second and last part of the process is to further immerse the engraved electrode in an autocatalytic Pt bath leading in a selective Pt metallization of the laser irradiated tracks and contacts and thus to a functionalized PDMS surface. In the present work, we describe the different physical and chemical transformations of a medical grade PDMS as a function of the UV laser and of the irradiation conditions used. We show that the ablation depths, chemical composition, structure and morphology vary with (i) the laser wavelength (using an excimer laser at 248 nm and a frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser at 266 nm), (ii) the conditions of irradiation and (iii) the pulse duration. These different modified properties are expected to have a strong influence on the nucleation and growth rates of platinum which govern the adhesion and the thickness of the Pt layer on the electrodes and thus the DC resistance of tracks.

  11. Combined application of ultrasound and of radiodiagnostic methods in diagnosis of posterior dislocation of the lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preisova, J.; Vlkova, E.; Svacinova, J.; Papouskova, D.

    1990-01-01

    A case study is presented of a patient with opaque media of the left eye for seclusion and occlusion of the pupil. The cause of the unilateral chronic uveitis was visualized using ultrasound in A mode. It was found that the calcified lens was dislocated into the vitreous body and fixed to the posterior wall of the eye. The finding was confirmed by a negative X-ray picture and positive CT finding of a small foreign body with high density. The dislocation of the lens occurred after a blow on the left eye during boxing 15 years before the patient sought medical assistance for pain in the practically blind eyeball. (author). 4 figs., 9 refs

  12. Studies of blood irradiator application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenhong; Lu Yangqiao

    2004-01-01

    Transfusion is an important means for medical treatment, but it has many syndromes such as transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease, it's occurrence rate of 5% and above 90% death-rate. Now many experts think the only proven method is using blood irradiator to prevent this disease. It can make lymphocyte of blood product inactive, so that it can not attack human body. Therefore, using irradiation blood is a trend, and blood irradiator may play an important role in medical field. This article summarized study of blood irradiator application, including the meaning of blood irradiation, selection of the dose for blood irradiation and so on

  13. Management of radiodiagnostic equipment: Implementation of self-maintenance project of the conventional x-ray equipment of Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho - HUCFF-UFRJ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couto, N.F. do; Azevedo, A.C.P.; Koch, H.A.

    2001-01-01

    The project aims the implantation of a management program, for the maintenance of the conventional X-ray equipment at HUCFF. It has been implemented through the training of the electronic technicians who work at the Hospital. Essential courses were organized such as: Basics of Radioprotection, Radiographs Techniques, and Maintenance of equipment of X-Rays. Equipment: a library with the schemes of the equipment is being assembled in collaboration with UNICAMP. In order to manage the process, a software was created using the tools of the total quality for control of the maintenance. Preliminary tests: the equipment and their working conditions were evaluated, as well as the level of the employees' satisfaction with their use. The creation of a new routine for maintenance seeks to assist the demands of the new legislation in Brazil 5, and also reduce the costs to improve the quality of the images in the Radiodiagnostic Service. (author)

  14. Statistical behavior of high doses in medical radiodiagnosis; Comportamento estatistico das altas doses em radiodiagnostico medico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barboza, Adriana Elisa, E-mail: adrianaebarboza@gmail.com, E-mail: elisa@bolsista.ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This work has as main purpose statistically estimating occupational exposure in medical diagnostic radiology in cases of high doses recorded in 2011 at national level. For statistical survey of this study, doses of 372 IOE's diagnostic radiology in different Brazilian states were evaluated. Data were extracted from the work of monograph (Research Methodology Of High Doses In Medical Radiodiagnostic) that contains the database's information Sector Management doses of IRD/CNEN-RJ, Brazil. The identification of these states allows the Sanitary Surveillance (VISA) responsible, becomes aware of events and work with programs to reduce these events. (author)

  15. Role of ultraviolet irradiation and oxidative stress in cataract formation-medical prevention by nutritional antioxidants and metabolic agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Shambhu D; Kovtun, Svitlana; Hegde, Kavita R

    2011-07-01

    Cataract is a significant cause of visual disability with relatively high incidence. It has been proposed that such high incidence is related to oxidative stress induced by continued intraocular penetration of light and consequent photochemical generation of reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide and singlet oxygen and their derivatization to other oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical. The latter two can also interact to generate singlet oxygen by Haber-Weiss reaction. It has been proposed that in addition to the endogenous enzymatic antioxidant enzymes, the process can be inhibited by many nutritional and metabolic oxyradical scavengers, such as ascorbate, vitamin E, pyruvate, and xanthine alkaloids, such as caffeine. Initial verification of the hypothesis has been done primarily by rat and mouse lens organ culture studies under ambient as well as ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation and determining the effect of such irradiation on its physiology in terms of its efficiency of active membrane transport activity and the levels of certain metabolites such as glutathione and adenosine triphosphate as well as in terms of apoptotic cell death. In vivo studies on the possible prevention of oxidative stress and cataract formation have been conducted by administering pyruvate and caffeine orally in drinking water and by their topical application using diabetic and galactosemic animal models. Photosensitized damage to lens caused by exposure to visible light and UVA has been found to be significantly prevented by ascorbate and pyruvate. Caffeine has been found be effective against UVA and UVB. Oral or topical application of pyruvate has been found to inhibit the formation of cataracts induced by diabetes and galactosemia. Caffeine has also been found to inhibit cataract induced by sodium selenite and high levels of galactose. Studies with diabetes are in progress. Various in vitro and in vivo studies summarized in this review strongly support the

  16. Radiodiagnostics of maxillary osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemova, J.; Jenca, A.; Hanusinova, V.; Danko, J.; Ondrasovicova, J.

    2006-01-01

    Osteomyelitis is defined as an inflammation or infection in bone tissues - cancellous bone, bone marrow, bone compacta and periosteum due to invasion of infection from surrounding tissues. Maxillary osteomyelitis is less common disease than osteomyelitis of mandible. This can be explained by anatomical structure of maxilla which is mainly composed of sinuses and thin bone lamellae. Such a structure allows rapid propagation of the infection to the surface. There have been examined and treated 70 patients with osteomyelitis of facial bones within past 15 years at Department of stomatology and maxillo-facial surgery of P.J. Safarik University in Kosice. Only four cases were diagnosed as maxillary osteomyelitis. The aim of this study was to mention the differences in anatomy and symptoms of acute and chronic stage of maxillary osteomyelitis and to give a detailed radiographic picture of this affliction. (authors)

  17. Alara and radiodiagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vano, E.; Gonzalez, L.; Wall, B.F.

    1989-01-01

    Specific items of diagnostic radiology facing the application to the ALARA approach are described, there differentiating among workers and patients. The convenience of assessing monetary values for the person. Sv in both cases is emphasized. The paper analyses some of the different steps to be considered in the optimization of diagnostic radiology installations, namely, rooms design and equipment selection, possibly modifications in installations currently working, requesting of radiological examinations, performing examinations and information exploitation. Some practical matters related to workers and patients are discussed, quoting several specific examples of optimization. The paper suggests, as conclusion, some practical guidelines of the stages to be covered along with the application of the ALARA approach

  18. Quality control of radiodiagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Diaz, M.; Castaneda Arronte, M.J.; Matorras Galan, P.; Diaz-Caneja Rodriguez, N.; Gutierrez Diaz Velarde, I.

    1993-01-01

    Since May 1990, a program of quality control of diagnostic X-ray equipment is underway in the University Hospital Marques de Valdecilla. This includes the design and application of measuring specifications and procedures corresponding to the different parameters of the equipment. The specified values are presented, as are those obtained for geometric and exposition parameters using the equipment. The specifications for the geometric parameters are fulfilled in an large proportion (between 52 and 86%) of the units, and the rest can easily be adjusted. However, 85% of the units can be made to operate with a field larger than that of the screen of the image monitor and approximately half of them can operate at a shorter focus-to-patient distance than that specified. With respect to the exposition parameters, in general, these units do not fulfill the specifications and their behavior is not uniform. The results obtained indicate that the equipment studied could be made to comply with the proposed specifications if a Maintenance Program were initiated in coordination with that of Quality Control. (Author)

  19. On the study of proton-irradiated Tellurium targets relevant for production of medical radioisotopes 123I and 124I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imam Kambali; Hari Suryanto; Daya Agung Sarwono; Cahyana Amiruddin

    2014-01-01

    The energy loss distribution and range of energetic proton beams in tellurium (Te) target have been simulated using the Stopping and Range of Ion in Matter (SRIM 2013) codes. The calculated data of the proton's range were then used to determine the optimum thickness of Te targets for future production of 123 I and 124 I from 123 Te(p,n) 123 I, 124 Te(p,n) 124 I and 124 Te(p,2n) 123 I nuclear reactions using the BATAN's Cs-30 cyclotron. It was found that for an incidence angle of 0° with respect to the target normal, the optimum thickness of 123 Te and 124 Te targets for 123 I production should be 644 µm and 1.8 mm respectively, whereas a 649 µm thick 124 Te target would be Required for 124 I production. In addition, the thickness should be decreased with increasing incidence angle. The EOB yield could theoretically reach up to 13.62 Ci of 123 I at proton energy of 22 Me V and beam current of 30 µA if the 124 Te is irradiated over a period of 3 hours. The theoretical EOB yield is comparable to the experimental data with accuracy within 10%. (author)

  20. Industrial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirling, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    Production lines for rubber gloves would not appear to have much in common with particle physics laboratories, but they both use accelerators. Electron beam irradiation is often used in industry to improve the quality of manufactured goods or to reduce production cost. Products range from computer disks, shrink packaging, tyres, cables, and plastics to hot water pipes. Some products, such as medical goods, cosmetics and certain foodstuffs, are sterilized in this way. In electron beam irradiation, electrons penetrate materials creating showers of low energy electrons. After many collisions these electrons have the correct energy to create chemically active sites. They may either break molecular bonds or activate a site which promotes a new chemical linkage. This industrial irradiation can be exploited in three ways: breaking down a biological molecule usually renders it useless and kills the organism; breaking an organic molecule can change its toxicity or function; and crosslinking a polymer can strengthen it. In addition to traditional gamma irradiation using isotopes, industrial irradiation uses three accelerator configurations, each type defining an energy range, and consequently the electron penetration depth. For energies up to 750 kV, the accelerator consists of a DC potential applied to a simple wire anode and the electrons extracted through a slot in a coaxially mounted cylindrical cathode. In the 1-5 MeV range, the Cockcroft-Walton or Dynamitron( R ) accelerators are normally used. To achieve the high potentials in these DC accelerators, insulating SF6 gas and large dimension vessels separate the anode and cathode; proprietary techniques distinguish the various commercial models available. Above 5 MeV, the size of DC accelerators render them impractical, and more compact radiofrequency-driven linear accelerators are used. Irradiation electron beams are actually 'sprayed' over the product using a magnetic deflection system. Lower energy beams of

  1. Is medical linac suitable for high-precision stereotactic irradiation? Investigations in geometrical accuracies of gantry and couch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunieda, Etsuo; Kitamura, Masayuki; Kawaguchi, Osamu; Shigematsu, Naoyuki; Ando, Yutaka; Kubo, Atsushi; Ohira, Takayuki; Tonai, Takenori; Kawase, Takeshi.

    1998-01-01

    Linac-based radiosurgery has many advantages over the gamma knife, including low initial cost and no need of source replacement. On the other hand, most of the medical linacs currently in use were not originally designed to be applied for radiosurgery, and, therefore, careful quality assurance programs are required. In the gantry-head of a linac, a small CCD video camera is mounted in a position optically identical to that of the x-ray source. The video signal from the camera was digitalized to be evaluated for geometrical errors. A metal ball fixed to the stereotactic base frame via XYZ-sliding rods was used as a simulated target. Displacements of the target from the isocenter were measured during rotation of the gantry. Displacements in the gantry-rotation plane were satisfactorily small, while those perpendicular to it were maximal at gantry position angles of 0deg and 180deg. This error might be caused by gravitational vending of the heavy gantry head. Although other major errors of the linac were within one millimeter, the center of coach rotation around the isocenter did not coincide with the center of gantry rotation, probably owing to gravitational vending. Special care should be taken when very small collimators are employed. (author)

  2. The medical management of high risk individuals. Experiences with persons exposed to chronic internal irradiation; Ueber den aerztlichen Umgang mit Hochrisikopersonen. Erfahrungen bei Personen mit chronischer interner Strahlenexposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaick, G. van; Delorme, S. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, E010 - Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    The medical management and counseling of persons at high risk due to exposure to chemicals or radiation or due to personal disposition, present an additional challenge for physicians and especially radiologists involved. This article is based on own experiences with patients who had been exposed to Thorotrast. They had been injected with the contrast medium Thorotrast, which was in use world-wide until around 1950. Thorotrast caused a chronic alpha irradiation mainly of the liver (up to 0.4 Gy/a), spleen (1.2 Gy/a) and bone marrow (0.1 Gy/a). For the Thorotrast patients and their physicians the most worrying problem was the risk of primary malignant liver tumors which occurred in more than 20% of the exposed persons, i.e. 100 times more frequently than in a non-exposed control group. The medical and especially radiological experiences with the management of these patients summarize a general aspect of the problem and can be referred to when managing other high risk groups. (orig.) [German] Die aerztliche Fuehrung von Personen, die noch nicht erkrankt sind, aber ein deutlich hoeheres Risiko fuer bestimmte Tumorerkrankungen aufgrund exogener oder endogener Ursachen haben, stellt den Arzt und speziell den diagnostischen Radiologen vor neue Herausforderungen. Dem Beitrag zugrunde liegen die Erfahrungen bei der Betreuung und Beratung so genannter Thorotrastpatienten, d. h. Personen, die nach lange zurueckliegender (vor 1950) intravasaler Injektion eines weltweit eingesetzten Roentgenkontrastmittels zeitlebens einer Alphastrahlung v. a. der Leber (bis 0,4 Gy/a), der Milz (1,2 Gy/a) und des Knochenmarks (0,1 Gy/a) ausgesetzt waren. Fuer die Thorotrastpatienten und die Aerzte stand im Vordergrund die Sorge der Entstehung primaerer, maligner Lebertumoren, die bei mehr als 20% der Betroffenen und damit im Vergleich zu einer Kontrollgruppe 100-fach haeufiger auftraten. Die allgemeinen aerztlichen und speziell radiologischen Erfahrungen sind grundsaetzlicher Art und lassen

  3. Economics of gamma irradiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Toshio

    1980-01-01

    The gamma-ray irradiation business started at the Takasaki Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The irradiation facilities were constructed thereafter at various sites. The facilities must accept various types of irradiation, and must be constructed as multi-purpose facilities. The cost of irradiation consists of the cost of gamma sources, construction expense, personnel expense, management expense, and bank interest. Most of the expenses are considered to be fixed expense, and the amount of irradiation treatment decides the original costs of work. The relation between the irradiation dose and the construction expense shows the larger facility is more economical. The increase of amount of treatment reduces the original cost. The utilization efficiency becomes important when the amount of treatment and the source intensity exceed some values. The principal subjects of gamma-ray irradiation business are the sterilization of medical tools and foods for aseptic animals, the improvement of quality of plastic goods, and the irradiation of foods. Among them, the most important subject is the sterilization of medical tools. The cost of gamma irradiation per m 3 in still more expensive than that by ethylene oxide gas sterilization. However, the demand of gamma-ray irradiation is increasing. For the improvement of quality of plastic goods, electron irradiation is more favourable than the gamma irradiation. In near future, the economical balance of gamma irradiation can be achieved. (Kato, T.)

  4. Approval of devices and facilities using ionizing radiations for medical purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This Order made by the Ministers of Health and Social Security, Agriculture and Labour amends a previous Decree of 23 April 1969 in particular concerning the classification of medical or dental radiodiagnostic devices subject to approval. The technical conditions to be complied with for such devices and facilities have also been amended. Finally, it is provided that, as regards facilities with heavy equipment subject to licensing (Act of 31 December 1970), approval is subject to compliance with the licensing conditions and is requested together with the application for a licence. (NEA) [fr

  5. Medical physics: past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostylev, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    History of the medical physics is briefly described, assessment of its present status in the world and in Russia is performed, its prospects are discussed. It was shown that the first period of interrelation of medicine and physics (18-19 centuries) was characterized by active study of mechanical, thermal physical, electrical, optical, acoustic phenomena in human body and by creation of corresponding devices. The second period (the end of 19 - the middle of 20 century) is connected with the discoveries of X-rays and radioactivity, development of the theory of atomic structure, atomic nuclei, electromagnetic radiations. The second half of the 20 century is notable for the development and wide practical application of radionuclide gamma apparatuses, electron and proton accelerators, radiodiagnostic gamma cameras, X-ray computerized tomographs, single photon emission radionuclide tomographs, magnetic resonance tomographs, magnetotherapy, laser, ultrasonic and other techniques and devices. It is marked that in future the efficiency and quality of medicophysical technologies will advance [ru

  6. Risk of low-doses in radiodiagnosis; Risque des faibles doses en radiodiagnostic. Mythes, reglementation et rationalite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordoliani, Y.S.; Sarrazin, J.L.; Le Frian, G.; Soulie, D.; Leveque, C. [Hopital d`Instruction des Armees du Val-de-Grace, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    The effect of low doses of X-rays is inferred from the indubitable effects of high doses in human carcinogenesis, Genetic and teratogenic effects are mainly inferred from animal experimentation because clinical surveys of irradiated pregnant women have failed to demonstrate such consequences in the children, except for mental retardation after Japanese atomic bombing. Since no evidence of carcinogenic effect has been produced by epidemiological studies for doses lower than 500 mSv. the estimation of the risk due to low doses has been extrapolated from the linear relation between dose and cancers at high doses. Such an extrapolation gives a maximal risk which is falsely used as a probability of cancer. The actual risk lies between zero and this maximal number, and many epidemiologic surveys in people receiving doses much higher than the mean level of background irradiation failed to demonstrate higher rate of cancer. The explanation of this fact, which is supported by the most recent biological data, is the efficacy of the DNA repair system at low level of exposure to ionizing radiations. We expose the principles of regulation of radioprotection for workers, and give estimations of the doses delivered to the patients and the personnel by diagnostic investigations, by comparing these doses with those of natural irradiation. Practical aspect for conventional and computed radiology are exposed for patients and workers. (authors)

  7. TU-F-CAMPUS-T-01: Dose and Energy Spectra From Neutron Induced Radioactivity in Medical Linear Accelerators Following High Energy Total Body Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keehan, S; Taylor, M; Franich, R; Smith, R; Dunn, L; Kron, T

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the risk posed by neutron induced activation of components in medical linear accelerators (linacs) following the delivery of high monitor unit 18 MV photon beams such as used in TBI. Methods: Gamma spectroscopy was used to identify radioisotopes produced in components of a Varian 21EX and an Elekta Synergy following delivery of photon beams. Dose and risk estimates for TBI were assessed using dose deliveries from an actual patient treatment. A 1 litre spherical ion chamber (PTW, Germany) has been used to measure the dose at the beam exit window and at the total body irradiation (TBI) treatment couch following large and small field beams with long beam-on times. Measurements were also made outside of the closed jaws to quantify the benefit of the attenuation provided by the jaws. Results: The radioisotopes produced in the linac head have been identified as 187 W, 56 Mn, 24 Na and 28 Al, which have half-lives from between 2.3 min to 24 hours. The dose at the beam exit window following an 18 MV 2197 MU TBI beam delivery was 12.6 µSv in ten minutes. The dose rate at the TBI treatment couch 4.8 m away is a factor of ten lower. For a typical TBI delivered in six fractions each consisting of four beams and an annual patient load of 24, the annual dose estimate for a staff member at the treatment couch for ten minutes is 750 µSv. This can be further reduced by a factor of about twelve if the jaws are closed before entering the room, resulting in a dose estimate of 65 µSv. Conclusion: The dose resulting from the activation products for a representative TBI workload at our clinic of 24 patients per year is 750 µSv, which can be further reduced to 65 µSv by closing the jaws

  8. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soothill, R.

    1987-01-01

    The issue of food irradiation has become important in Australia and overseas. This article discusses the results of the Australian Consumers' Association's (ACA) Inquiry into food irradiation, commissioned by the Federal Government. Issues discussed include: what is food irradiation; why irradiate food; how much food is consumer rights; and national regulations

  9. Measurements of dose distribution in thyroids, gonads, crystalline and other organs, for radio-diagnostics with computorized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    An evaluation of radiation doses in organs, from radiologic examinations by computorized tomography was done, comparing with theoretic data obtained by Monte Carlo method. The measurements were done with help of a 'Rando Alderson Phantom' exposed to irradiation coming from a 0450 AS and E Pfizer Tomographic. The cases under study were the head and abdomen examinations. The dose assessment was done by using mini TLD's of LiF. The calculated dose equivalents were obtained by using the Monte Carlo method applied to a mathematical antropomorphic phantom, simulating the same experimental arrangements. The results were compared with the experimental one. (E.G.) [pt

  10. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindqvist, H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is a review of food irradiation and lists plants for food irradiation in the world. Possible applications for irradiation are discussed, and changes induced in food from radiation, nutritional as well as organoleptic, are reviewed. Possible toxicological risks with irradiated food and risks from alternative methods for treatment are also brought up. Ways to analyze weather food has been irradiated or not are presented. 8 refs

  11. Thermoluminescent dosimetry in the radiodiagnostic area of the INNSZ; Dosimetria termoluminiscente en el area de radiodiagnostico del INNSZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azorin V, J.C.; Azorin N, J.; Rivera M, T. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    During the year 1997 the Secretaria de Salud through the Direccion de Riesgos Radiologicos published the Mexican Official Standard about the medical diagnostic using X-rays in the Diario Oficial de la Federacion. They are of obligatory observance for all hospitals and radiological rooms which have medical diagnostic with X-ray equipment in the country. These standards were emitted with the purpose improve the conditions as for safety and radiological protection it is referred employing this type of ionizing radiation emitter equipment. Also it is presented the evaluation results about conditions existing about in thirteen X-ray medical diagnostic rooms in the Instituto Nacional de la Nutricion with the purpose of providing the radiological protection means toward the occupationally exposure personnel. It was realized measurements of each one of the blinding barriers for the X-ray equipment and it was suggested the appointments arrangement. (Author)

  12. Thermoluminescent dosimetry in the radiodiagnostic area of the INNSZ; Dosimetria termoluminiscente en el area de radiodiagnostico del INNSZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azorin V, J C; Azorin N, J; Rivera M, T [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-12-31

    During the year 1997 the Secretaria de Salud through the Direccion de Riesgos Radiologicos published the Mexican Official Standard about the medical diagnostic using X-rays in the Diario Oficial de la Federacion. They are of obligatory observance for all hospitals and radiological rooms which have medical diagnostic with X-ray equipment in the country. These standards were emitted with the purpose improve the conditions as for safety and radiological protection it is referred employing this type of ionizing radiation emitter equipment. Also it is presented the evaluation results about conditions existing about in thirteen X-ray medical diagnostic rooms in the Instituto Nacional de la Nutricion with the purpose of providing the radiological protection means toward the occupationally exposure personnel. It was realized measurements of each one of the blinding barriers for the X-ray equipment and it was suggested the appointments arrangement. (Author)

  13. NF EN ISO 11137-1, July 2006. Sterilization of health care products - Irradiation - Part 1: Requirements for development, validation and routine control of a sterilization process for medical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This part of the ISO 11137 standard specifies requirements for the development, validation and routine control of a radiation sterilization process for medical devices. Although the scope of this part of the ISO 11137 standard is limited to medical devices, it specifies requirements and provides guidance that may be applicable to other products and equipment. This part of the international standard covers radiation processes employing irradiators using the radionuclide 60 Co or 137 Cs, a beam from an electron generator or a beam from an X-ray generator. This part of the international standard does not: - specify requirements for development, validation and routine control of a process for inactivating the causative agents of spongiform encephalopathies such as scrapie, bovine spongiform encephalopathy and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease; - detail specified requirements for designating a medical device as sterile; - specify a quality management system for the control of all stages of production of medical devices; - specify requirements for occupational safety associated with the design and operation of irradiation facilities; - specify requirements for the sterilization of used or reprocessed devices

  14. Simulation of X-ray irradiation on human hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaya, Fabiola; Montoya, Modesto

    2001-01-01

    Using the Monte Carlo code MCNP we simulate a human hand X-rays irradiation with radiodiagnostic energies to find the better range energy to make radiographs with the lowest dose and an optimal contrast. We calculate bone doses by considering a soft tissue - water - and calcium bone hand, which is irradiated with a million of X-rays photons from a punctual source. These photons are directed inside a conic angle on the hand. Afterwards, we simulate elements which normally compose bones (C, H, O, N, Mg, P, Ca, and S). We estimate bone dose considering: a) bone material (water, calcium and bone tissue); b) bone thickness (0.01; 0.1; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 and 3.0 cm); and c) source-hand distance (30, 50, 70 and 90 cm). We calculate photon transmission percent through soft tissue and bone tissue and the statistics from the number of photons that reach the radiographic film after passing through soft tissue or bone tissue for our geometric configuration. We found that we can obtain a good image contrast by using X-rays with energies in the range of 20 to 40 keV. (author)

  15. Food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenewald, T

    1985-01-01

    Food irradiation has become a matter of topical interest also in the Federal Republic of Germany following applications for exemptions concerning irradiation tests of spices. After risks to human health by irradiation doses up to a level sufficient for product pasteurization were excluded, irradiation now offers a method suitable primarily for the disinfestation of fruit and decontamination of frozen and dried food. Codex Alimentarius standards which refer also to supervision and dosimetry have been established; they should be adopted as national law. However, in the majority of cases where individual countries including EC member-countries so far permitted food irradiation, these standards were not yet used. Approved irradiation technique for industrial use is available. Several industrial food irradiation plants, partly working also on a contractual basis, are already in operation in various countries. Consumer response still is largely unknown; since irradiated food is labelled, consumption of irradiated food will be decided upon by consumers.

  16. Evaluation of doses from radiodiagnostic procedures performed in veterinary medicine and assessing of the doses of secondary radiation in the medical staff and animal owners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veneziani, Glauco Rogerio

    2012-01-01

    The primary goal in veterinary radiography is to produce radiographs of diagnostic quality on the first attempt. This goal serves three purposes: (1) to decrease radiation exposure to the patient and veterinary personnel; (2) to decrease the cost of the study for the client; and (3) to produce diagnostic data for rapid interpretation and treatment of the patient. This work aimed to determine the doses in dogs submitted to chest and abdomen X rays using the technique of thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry. The radiation doses were assessed using thermoluminescent dosimeters of calcium sulphate doped with dysprosium (CaSO 4 :Dy) and lithium fluoride doped with magnesium and titanium (LiF:Mg,Ti). The obtained results indicate that is extremely important the assessment of radiation doses involved in veterinary diagnostic radiology procedures, to evaluate the delivered doses to the animals, to be used as a parameter in the individual monitoring of pet's owners, who assist the animal positioning, and to protect occupationally exposed workers at the Veterinary Radiology Clinics. (author)

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on mechanical and thermal properties of DGEBA/cycloaliphatic amine networks with potential for medical applications; Efeito da irradiacao gama nas propriedades mecanicas e termicas de redes DGEBA/amina cicloalifatica com potencial para aplicacoes medicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Juliana C.; Silva, Glaura G., E-mail: glaura@qui.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mendes, Marcio W. Duarte; Bressiani, Ana H.; Bressiani, Jose C. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Garcia, Filiberto Gonzalez [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Two epoxy polymers based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA), cured with piperidine (Pip) and 4,4'-diamino-3,3'-dimethyldicyclohexylmethane (3DCM), were characterized before and after treatment with γ irradiation. The changes in the mechanical and thermal properties were studied by elastic modulus, glass transition temperature and degradation temperature measurements. A dose of 50 kGy of irradiation caused subtle variations in properties such as rigidity and stability, which are relevant from the fundamental point of view. The variations do not imply on negative impact when considering the stage of sterilization during the use of these systems as a biomaterial in the medical area. (author)

  18. Publication rate of radiodiagnostics specialists in Spain: bibliometric analysis based on publications in the journal Radiologia from 1984 to 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, M.; Saez, J.M.; Garcia-Medina, V.

    1997-01-01

    To analyze the yield of authors who have published articles in Radiologia between 1984 and 1993 according to known measurements of productivity, to identify those who are most productive, to analyze their productivity in Spanish and foreign journals and to calculate their approximate impact in Spain. The sources for our search were the IME and Medline databases, the journal Radiologia itself (vols. 26 to 35) and the Index of Citations of Medical Literature by Spanish Authors (Indice Medico Espanol nos. 107, 110, 113 and 116). A total of 2,580 authors participated in the 1.344 publications appearing the in journal: of these, 57% published a single article, while six authors (0.23%) were involved in the preparation of over 19 publications. The most productive authors also publish in other Spanish and foreign journals, and the impact of their works in Radiologia is similar to that of their overall impact in other journals. The productivity of authors of Spanish medical literature is similar to that of other medical journals, although there are too many authors whose index of productivity is low or moderate, a fact that is attributable to their collaboration in publications. Of those having a great volume of productivity, 61% also publish in other journals, and nearly 27% submit articles to foreign journals. With the tools available at present, it is not possible to evaluate the impact of the authors themselves, an aspect that requires specific studies. (Author) 26 refs

  19. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tomotaro; Aoki, Shohei

    1976-01-01

    Definition and significance of food irradiation were described. The details of its development and present state were also described. The effect of the irradiation on Irish potatoes, onions, wiener sausages, kamaboko (boiled fish-paste), and mandarin oranges was evaluated; and healthiness of food irradiation was discussed. Studies of the irradiation equipment for Irish potatoes in a large-sized container, and the silo-typed irradiation equipment for rice and wheat were mentioned. Shihoro RI center in Hokkaido which was put to practical use for the irradiation of Irish potatoes was introduced. The state of permission of food irradiation in foreign countries in 1975 was introduced. As a view of the food irradiation in the future, its utilization for the prevention of epidemics due to imported foods was mentioned. (Serizawa, K.)

  20. Sterilization by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes Frias, L.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1980 the National Institute of Nuclear Research counts with an Industrial Gamma Irradiator, for the sterilization of raw materials and finished products. Through several means has been promoted the use of this technology as alternative to conventional methods of sterilization as well as steam treatment and ethylene oxide. As a result of the made promotion this irradiator has come to its saturation limit being the sterilization irradiation one of the main services that National Institute of Nuclear Research offers to producer enterprises of disposable materials of medical use also of raw materials for the elaboration of cosmetic products and pharmaceuticals as well as dehydrated foods. It is presented the trend to the sterilization service by irradiation showed by the compilation data in a survey made by potential customers. (Author)

  1. Gamma irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonet, G.

    1986-09-01

    Fiability of devices set around reactors depends on material resistance under irradiation noticeably joints, insulators, which belongs to composition of technical, safety or physical incasurement devices. The irradiated fuel elements, during their desactivation in a pool, are an interesting gamma irradiation device to simulate damages created in a nuclear environment. The existing facility at Osiris allows to generate an homogeneous rate dose in an important volume. The control of the element distances to irradiation box allows to control this dose rate [fr

  2. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The article explains what radiation does to food to preserve it. Food irradiation is of economic importance to Canada because Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is the leading world supplier of industrial irradiators. Progress is being made towards changing regulations which have restricted the irradiation of food in the United States and Canada. Examples are given of applications in other countries. Opposition to food irradiation by antinuclear groups is addressed

  3. Long-term results of high-dose conformal radiotherapy for patients with medically inoperable T1-3N0 non-small-cell lung cancer: Is low incidence of regional failure due to incidental nodal irradiation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ming; Hayman, James A.; Haken, Randall K. ten; Tatro, Daniel; Fernando, Shaneli; Kong, F.-M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To report the results of high-dose conformal irradiation and examine incidental nodal irradiation and nodal failure in patients with inoperable early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: This analysis included patients with inoperable CT-staged T1-3N0M0 NSCLC treated on our prospective dose-escalation trial. Patients were treated with radiation alone (total dose, 63-102.9 Gy in 2.1-Gy daily fractions) with a three-dimensional conformal technique without intentional nodal irradiation. Bilateral highest mediastinal and upper/lower paratracheal, prevascular and retrotracheal, sub- and para-aortic, subcarinal, paraesophageal, and ipsilateral hilar regions were delineated individually. Nodal failure and doses of incidental irradiation were studied. Results: The potential median follow-up was 104 months. For patients who completed protocol treatment, median survival was 31 months. The actuarial overall survival rate was 86%, 61%, 43%, and 21% and the cause-specific survival rate was 89%, 70%, 53%, and 35% at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years, respectively. Weight loss (p = 0.008) and radiation dose in Gy (p = 0.013) were significantly associated with overall survival. In only 22% and 13% of patients examined did ipsilateral hilar and paratracheal (and subaortic for left-sided tumor) nodal regions receive a dose of ≥40 Gy, respectively. Less than 10% of all other nodal regions received a dose of ≥40 Gy. No patients failed initially at nodal sites. Conclusions: Radiation dose is positively associated with overall survival in patients with medically inoperable T1-3N0 NSCLC, though long-term results remain poor. The nodal failure rate is low and does not seem to be due to high-dose incidental irradiation

  4. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyers, M.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of food irradiation are outlined. The interaction of irradiation with matter is then discussed with special reference to the major constituents of foods. The application of chemical analysis in the evaluation of the wholesomeness of irradiated foods is summarized [af

  5. Centurion -- a revolutionary irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, Dan; Perrins, Robert

    2000-01-01

    The facility characteristics for irradiation of red meat and poultry differ significantly from those of medical disposables. This paper presents the results of the market requirement definition which resulted in an innovative conceptual design. The process and the 'state of the art tools' used to bring this abstract idea into a proof of concept are presented. (author)

  6. Reverse indentation size effects in gamma irradiated blood compatible blend films of chitosan-poly (vinyl alcohol) for possible medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisen, D.S. [Department of Post Graduate Studies and Research in Physics, Rani Durgawati University, Jabalpur, M.P. 482002 (India); Bhatt, Rinkesh [Department of Physics, Global Engineering College, Jabalpur, M.P. 482001 (India); Bajpai, A.K., E-mail: akbmrl@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, Bose Memorial Research Lab., Govt. Auto. Model Science College, Jabalpur 482002, M.P. (India); Bajpai, R. [Department of Post Graduate Studies and Research in Physics, Rani Durgawati University, Jabalpur, M.P. 482002 (India); Katare, R. [Department of Physics, Government Model Science College, Jabalpur, M.P. 482001 (India)

    2017-02-01

    In the present work binary blends of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and chitosan (CS) were prepared by solution cast method and characterized by analytical methods like FTIR, XRD and SEM for seeking structural and morphological information. The blends were exposed to gamma radiation and evaluated for their improved mechanical strength. It was found that the tensile strength and microhardness increased after irradiation of CS-PVA films. Plastic effect due to absorption of water molecules and scissoring effect due to gamma irradiation were found to decrease the softness or increase the microhardness of the blends. Improved mechanical properties were attributed to intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen bonds and adhesive nature of the blends also. The blends were also investigated for water intake behavior and in vitro blood compatibility property on the basis of certain in vitro tests like protein adsorption, haemolysis and blood clot formation on the un-irradiated and irradiated blend samples. The increased % swelling with time could be assigned to the fact that increasing water content facilitates the phase separation process within the blend which results in advancement in interstitial nano-void spaces which are occupied by water molecules. The blood compatibility results showed that when the amount of CS was varied from 0.5% to 2%, the amount of blood clot and percent haemolysis decreased while the protein adsorption increased with increasing CS content of the blend films. - Highlights: • Fully crosslinked blends of PVA and chitosan have been prepared. • Blends were irradiated with gamma radiations to enhance blood compatibility. • Mechanical properties were evaluated and effect of irradiation was examined. • The blood compatibility of blends was also determined.

  7. Reverse indentation size effects in gamma irradiated blood compatible blend films of chitosan-poly (vinyl alcohol) for possible medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisen, D.S.; Bhatt, Rinkesh; Bajpai, A.K.; Bajpai, R.; Katare, R.

    2017-01-01

    In the present work binary blends of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and chitosan (CS) were prepared by solution cast method and characterized by analytical methods like FTIR, XRD and SEM for seeking structural and morphological information. The blends were exposed to gamma radiation and evaluated for their improved mechanical strength. It was found that the tensile strength and microhardness increased after irradiation of CS-PVA films. Plastic effect due to absorption of water molecules and scissoring effect due to gamma irradiation were found to decrease the softness or increase the microhardness of the blends. Improved mechanical properties were attributed to intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen bonds and adhesive nature of the blends also. The blends were also investigated for water intake behavior and in vitro blood compatibility property on the basis of certain in vitro tests like protein adsorption, haemolysis and blood clot formation on the un-irradiated and irradiated blend samples. The increased % swelling with time could be assigned to the fact that increasing water content facilitates the phase separation process within the blend which results in advancement in interstitial nano-void spaces which are occupied by water molecules. The blood compatibility results showed that when the amount of CS was varied from 0.5% to 2%, the amount of blood clot and percent haemolysis decreased while the protein adsorption increased with increasing CS content of the blend films. - Highlights: • Fully crosslinked blends of PVA and chitosan have been prepared. • Blends were irradiated with gamma radiations to enhance blood compatibility. • Mechanical properties were evaluated and effect of irradiation was examined. • The blood compatibility of blends was also determined.

  8. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macklin, M.

    1987-01-01

    The Queensland Government has given its support the establishment of a food irradiation plant in Queensland. The decision to press ahead with a food irradiation plant is astonishing given that there are two independent inquiries being carried out into food irradiation - a Parliamentary Committee inquiry and an inquiry by the Australian Consumers Association, both of which have still to table their Reports. It is fair to assume from the Queensland Government's response to date, therefore, that the Government will proceed with its food irradiation proposals regardless of the outcomes of the various federal inquiries. The reasons for the Australian Democrats' opposition to food irradiation which are also those of concerned citizens are outlined

  9. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchacek, V.

    1989-01-01

    The ranges of doses used for food irradiation and their effect on the processed foods are outlined. The wholesomeness of irradiated foods is discussed. The present food irradiation technology development in the world is described. A review of the irradiated foods permitted for public consumption, the purposes of food irradiaton, the doses used and a review of the commercial-scale food irradiators are tabulated. The history and the present state of food processing in Czechoslovakia are described. (author). 1 fig., 3 tabs., 13 refs

  10. Irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrington, Hugh

    1988-06-01

    This special edition of 'Food Manufacture' presents papers on the following aspects of the use of irradiation in the food industry:- 1) an outline view of current technology and its potential. 2) Safety and wholesomeness of irradiated and non-irradiated foods. 3) A review of the known effects of irradiation on packaging. 4) The problems of regulating the use of irradiation and consumer protection against abuse. 5) The detection problem - current procedures. 6) Description of the Gammaster BV plant in Holland. 7) World outline review. 8) Current and future commercial activities in Europe. (U.K.)

  11. Commercial implementation of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welt, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent positive developments in regulatory matters involving food irradiation appear to be opening the door to commercial implementation of the technology. Experience gained over five years in operating multi-purpose food irradiation facilities in the United States have demonstrated the technical and economic feasibility of the radiation preservation of food for a wide variety of purposes. Public education regarding food irradiation has been intensified especially with the growing favorable involvement of food trade associations, the USDA, and the American Medical Association. After 41 years of development effort, food irradiation will become a commercial reality in 1985. (author)

  12. Evaluation of the shielding of a room for radiodiagnostic; Evaluacion del blindaje de una sala para radiodiagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla R, Z. P. [Servicios de Salud de Zacatecas, Hospital de Especialidades en Salud Mental, Prolongacion 5 de mayo 1702-Sur, Parque Industrial, 98500 Calera de Victor Rosales, Zacatecas (Mexico); Acuna D, E.; Escareno J, E.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2011-10-15

    The X-ray discovery by Roentgen in 1895 and its application in diagnosis was a breakthrough in medicine. Worldwide, X-ray technique is one of the most widely used procedures in medical diagnosis. At the Mental Health Hospital of Calera Zacatecas a room has been designed as radiology room, however there is not a record of shielding characteristics. In order to determine the features of X-ray equipment that the room can host, in this work a series of calculations were carried out. Calculations were based upon the NCRP 151 recommendations and fulfilling the requirements given in the Mexican standard NOM-229-SSA1-2002. From the actual room conditions this can host a X-ray equipment without fluoroscopy, with a workload of 80 ma-min/week, with 125 k Vp as maximum operating voltage. From the actual conditions a set of recommendations, for better protection of radiation workers and public are also given. (Author)

  13. Analysis of factors correlating with medical radiological examination frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnen, A.; Jaervinen, H.; Bly, R.; Olerud, H.; Vassilieva, J.; Vogiatzi, S.; Shannoun, F.

    2015-01-01

    The European Commission (EC) funded project Dose Datamed 2 (DDM2) had two objectives: to collect available data on patient doses from the radiodiagnostic procedures (X-ray and nuclear medicine) in Europe, and to facilitate the implementation of the Radiation Protection 154 Guidelines (RP154). Besides the collection of frequency and dose data, two questionnaires were issued to gather information about medical radiological imaging. This article analyses a possible correlation between the collected frequency data, selected variables from the results of the detailed questionnaire and national economic data. Based on a 35 countries dataset, there is no correlation between the gross domestic product (GDP) and the total number of X-ray examinations in a country. However, there is a significant correlation ( p < 0.01) between the GDP and the overall CT examination frequency. High income countries perform more CT examinations per inhabitant. That suggests that planar X-ray examinations are replaced by CT examinations. (authors)

  14. Gamma irradiation service in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liceaga C, G.; Martinez A, L.; Mendez T, D.; Ortiz A, G.; Olvera G, R.

    1997-01-01

    In 1980 it was installed in Mexico, on the National Institute of Nuclear Research, an irradiator model J S-6500 of a canadian manufacture. Actually, this is the greatest plant in the Mexican Republic that offers a gamma irradiation process at commercial level to diverse industries. However, seeing that the demand for sterilize those products were not so much as the irradiation capacity it was opted by the incursion in other types of products. During 17 years had been irradiated a great variety of products grouped of the following form: dehydrated foods, disposable products for medical use, cosmetics, medicaments, various. Nowadays the capacity of the irradiator is saturated virtue of it is operated the 24 hours during the 365 days of the year and only its operation is suspended by the preventive and corrective maintenance. However, the fresh food market does not be attended since this irradiator was designed for doses greater than 10 kGy (1.0 Mrad)

  15. The environmental impact of irradiation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, N; Langley, R; Reuter, G

    1998-01-01

    The radiation sterilization of disposable medical devices and other medical products brings major benefits to mankind. Furthermore there are potential opportunities to use the irradiation process to significantly improve our environment. Careful examination of the environmental impact of both electron beam and gamma irradiators confirms that these major benefits are not achieved at any significant environmental cost

  16. Economics of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstadt, P.; Steeves, C.; Beaulieu, D.

    1993-01-01

    The number of products being radiation processed worldwide is constantly increasing and today includes such diverse items as medical disposables, fruits and vegetables, spices, meats, seafoods and waste products. This range of products to be processed has resulted in a wide range of irradiator designs and capital and operating cost requirements. This paper discusses the economics of low dose food irradiation applications and the effects of various parameters on unit processing costs. It provides a model for calculating specific unit processing costs by correlating known capital costs with annual operating costs and annual throughputs. It is intended to provide the reader with a general knowledge of how unit processing costs are derived. (author)

  17. Foodstuff irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Report written on behalf of the Danish Food Institute summarizes national and international rules and developments within food irradiation technology, chemical changes in irradiated foodstuffs, microbiological and health-related aspects of irradiation and finally technological prospects of this conservation form. Food irradiatin has not been hitherto applied in Denmark. Radiation sources and secondary radiation doses in processed food are characterized. Chemical changes due to irradiation are compared to those due to p.ex. food heating. Toxicological and microbiological tests and their results give no unequivocal answer to the problem whether a foodstuff has been irradiated. The most likely application fields in Denmark are for low radiation dosis inhibition of germination, riping delay and insecticide. Medium dosis (1-10 kGy) can reduce bacteria number while high dosis (10-50 kGy) will enable total elimination of microorganisms and viruses. Food irradiation can be acceptable as technological possibility with reservation, that further studies follow. (EG)

  18. Hemibody irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schen, B.C.; Mella, O.; Dahl, O.

    1992-01-01

    In a large number of cancer patients, extensive skeletal metastases or myelomatosis induce vast suffering, such as intolerable pain and local complications of neoplastic bone destruction. Analgetic drugs frequently do not yield sufficient palliation. Irradiation of local fields often has to be repeated, because of tumour growth outside previously irradiated volumes. Wide field irradiation of the lower or upper half of the body causes significant relief of pain in most patients. Adequate pretreatment handling of patients, method of irradiation, and follow-up are of importance to reduce side effects, and are described as they are carried out at the Department of Oncology, Haukeland Hospital, Norway. 16 refs., 2 figs

  19. The Birmingham Irradiation Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Dervan, P; Hodgson, P; Marin-Reyes, H; Wilson, J

    2013-01-01

    At the end of 2012 the proton irradiation facility at the CERN PS [1] will shut down for two years. With this in mind, we have been developing a new ATLAS scanning facility at the University of Birmingham Medical Physics cyclotron. With proton beams of energy approximately 30 MeV, fluences corresponding to those of the upgraded Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) can be reached conveniently. The facility can be used to irradiate silicon sensors, optical components and mechanical structures (e.g. carbon fibre sandwiches) for the LHC upgrade programme. Irradiations of silicon sensors can be carried out in a temperature controlled cold box that can be scanned through the beam. The facility is described in detail along with the first tests carried out with mini (1 x 1 cm^2 ) silicon sensors.

  20. The Birmingham Irradiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dervan, P.; French, R.; Hodgson, P.; Marin-Reyes, H.; Wilson, J.

    2013-01-01

    At the end of 2012 the proton irradiation facility at the CERN PS will shut down for two years. With this in mind, we have been developing a new ATLAS scanning facility at the University of Birmingham Medical Physics cyclotron. With proton beams of energy approximately 30 MeV, fluences corresponding to those of the upgraded Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) can be reached conveniently. The facility can be used to irradiate silicon sensors, optical components and mechanical structures (e.g. carbon fibre sandwiches) for the LHC upgrade programme. Irradiations of silicon sensors can be carried out in a temperature controlled cold box that can be scanned through the beam. The facility is described in detail along with the first tests carried out with mini (1×1 cm 2 ) silicon sensors

  1. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercader, J.P.; Emily Leong

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses the need for effective and efficient technologies in improving the food handling system. It defines the basic premises for the development of food handling. The application of food irradiation technology is briefly discussed. The paper points out key considerations for the adoption of food irradiation technology in the ASEAN region (author)

  2. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Akira

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews researches, commentaries, and conference and public records of food irradiation, published mainly during the period 1987-1989, focusing on the current conditions of food irradiation that may pose not only scientific or technologic problems but also political issues or consumerism. Approximately 50 kinds of food, although not enough to fill economic benefit, are now permitted for food irradiation in the world. Consumerism is pointed out as the major factor that precludes the feasibility of food irradiation in the world. In the United States, irradiation is feasible only for spices. Food irradiation has already been feasible in France, Hollands, Belgium, and the Soviet Union; has under consideration in the Great Britain, and has been rejected in the West Germany. Although the feasibility of food irradiation is projected to increase gradually in the future, commercial success or failure depends on the final selection of consumers. In this respect, the role of education and public information are stressed. Meat radicidation and recent progress in the method for detecting irradiated food are referred to. (N.K.) 128 refs

  3. Irradiation proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Akira

    1977-01-01

    Literatures on late rectal injuries are discussed, referring to two patients with uterine cervical cancer in whom irradiation proctitis occurred after telecobalt irradiation following uterine extirpation. To one patients, a total of 5000 rads was irradiated, dividing into 250 rads at one time, and after 3 months, irradiation with a total of 2000 rads, dividing into 200 rads at one time, was further given. In another one patient, two parallel opposing portal irradiation with a total of 6000 rads was given. About a year after the irradiation, rectal injuries and cystitis, accompanying with hemorrhage, were found in both of the patients. Rectal amputation and proctotoreusis were performed. Cystitis was treated by cystic irradiation in the urological department. Pathohistological studies of the rectal specimen revealed atrophic mucosa, and dilatation of the blood vessels and edema in the colonic submucosa. Incidence of this disease, term when the disease occurs, irradiation dose, type of the disease, treatment and prevention are described on the basis of the literatures. (Kanao, N.)

  4. Irradiation proctitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, A [Osaka Kita Tsishin Hospital (Japan)

    1977-06-01

    Literatures on late rectal injuries are discussed, referring to two patients with uterine cervical cancer in whom irradiation proctitis occurred after telecobalt irradiation following uterine extirpation. To one patients, a total of 5000 rads was irradiated, dividing into 250 rads at one time, and after 3 months, irradiation with a total of 2000 rads, dividing into 200 rads at one time, was further given. In another one patient, two parallel opposing portal irradiation with a total of 6000 rads was given. About a year after the irradiation, rectal injuries and cystitis, accompanying with hemorrhage, were found in both of the patients. Rectal amputation and proctotoreusis were performed. Cystitis was treated by cystic irradiation in the urological department. Pathohistological studies of the rectal specimen revealed atrophic mucosa, and dilatation of the blood vessels and edema in the colonic submucosa. Incidence of this disease, term when the disease occurs, irradiation dose, type of the disease, treatment and prevention are described on the basis of the literatures.

  5. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Kikuchi, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    Food irradiation can have a number of beneficial effects, including prevention of sprouting; control of insects, parasites, pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, moulds and yeasts; and sterilization, which enables commodities to be stored for long periods. It is most unlikely that all these potential applications will prove commercially acceptable; the extend to which such acceptance is eventually achieved will be determined by practical and economic considerations. A review of the available scientific literature indicates that food irradiation is a thoroughly tested food technology. Safety studies have so far shown no deleterious effects. Irradiation will help to ensure a safer and more plentiful food supply by extending shelf-life and by inactivating pests and pathogens. As long as requirement for good manufacturing practice are implemented, food irradiation is safe and effective. Possible risks of food irradiation are not basically different from those resulting from misuse of other processing methods, such as canning, freezing and pasteurization. (author)

  6. Irradiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, L.M

    2000-07-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization.

  7. Irradiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization

  8. Procedure for preparation of a Ausup(195m) containing liquid, procedure for the execution of a radiodiagnostic examination, and a radioisotope generator for generating a Ausup(195m) containing liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A procedure is described for the preparation of an Ausup(195m) containing fluid by adsorbing the parent isotope Hgsup(195m) onto an adsorption material and then eluting the radioactive daughter isotope Ausup(195m). The packing materials for the chromatographic column are silica gel, porous and massive glass beads. The adsorption materials for Hg 195 are hydrated manganese dioxide, silver, and zinc, cadmium, silver or zirconium sulfides. The procedure for depositing these materials in the packing material is outlined and the most suitable eluting fluid for each adsorption material is presented. The procedure has applications in the execution of a radiodiagnostic examination using an Ausup(195m) labelled fluid. (C.F.)

  9. Origin of irradiations by ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metivier, H.

    1998-01-01

    Irradiations by ionizing radiations proceed from two main sources: the natural radiations from the environment and the sources of 'human' origin, i.e. linked with modern technology. In most countries the irradiation by natural sources remains the most important. The irradiations for medical purposes comes in second position and depends on the degree of technological evolution of the country, and in the last position are the irradiations linked with nuclear industry. The inventory of these irradiations is regularly updated by the Scientific Committee of the United Nations for the study of ionizing radiation effects (UNSCEAR). In France the mean individual irradiation due to natural radioactivity is of 2 mSv per year of efficient dose and can vary with a factor 3 from one region to the other. Irradiation of medical diagnosis origin is of about 1 mSv per year. This paper presents successively: the natural irradiation sources (cosmic radiation, cosmic rays and cosmogenic radionuclides, the Earth's radiations, primary radionuclides and radon), the natural sources modified by the technology (extraction industries, fossil fuels and phosphated ores, aerial transports and space activities, consumer products), the irradiation sources of technological origin (nuclear weapons, electric power production, major accidents, occupational irradiations), and the medical irradiations (diagnosis techniques, radiology, nuclear medicine and therapeutic uses). (J.S.)

  10. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, M.

    1989-01-01

    This popular-level article emphasizes that the ultimate health effects of irradiated food products are unknown. They may include vitamin loss, contamination of food by botulism bacteria, mutations in bacteria, increased production of aflatoxins, changes in food, carcinogenesis from unknown causes, presence of miscellaneous harmful chemicals, and the lack of a way of for a consumer to detect irradiated food. It is claimed that the nuclear industry is applying pressure on the Canadian government to relax labeling requirements on packages of irradiated food in order to find a market for its otherwise unnecessary products

  11. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luecher, O.

    1979-01-01

    Limitations of existing preserving methods and possibilities of improved food preservation by application of nuclear energy are explained. The latest state-of-the-art in irradiation technology in individual countries is described and corresponding recommendations of FAO, WHO and IAEA specialists are presented. The Sulzer irradiation equipment for potato sprout blocking is described, the same equipment being suitable also for the treatment of onions, garlic, rice, maize and other cereals. Systems with a higher power degree are needed for fodder preserving irradiation. (author)

  12. Dose Distribution of Gamma Irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung Woo; Shin, Sang Hun; Son, Ki Hong; Lee, Chang Yeol; Kim, Kum Bae; Jung, Hai Jo; Ji, Young Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Gamma irradiator using Cs-137 have been widely utilized to the irradiation of cell, blood, and animal, and the dose measurement and education. The Gamma cell 3000 Elan (Nordion International, Kanata, Ontario, Canada) irradiator was installed in 2003 with Cs-137 and dose rate of 3.2 Gy/min. And the BioBeam 8000 (Gamma-Service Medical GmbH, Leipzig, Germany) irradiator was installed in 2008 with Cs-137 and dose rate of 3.5 Gy/min. Our purpose was to evaluate the practical dosimetric problems associated with inhomogeneous dose distribution within the irradiated volume in open air state using glass dosimeter and Gafchromic EBT film dosimeter for routine Gamma irradiator dosimetry applications at the KIRAMS and the measurements were compared with each other. In addition, an user guideline for useful utilization of the device based on practical dosimetry will be prepared. The measurement results of uniformity of delivered dose within the device showed variation more than 14% between middle point and the lowest position at central axis. Therefore, to maintain dose variation within 10%, the criteria of useful dose distribution, for research radiation effects, the irradiated specimen located at central axis of the container should be placed within 30 mm from top and bottom surface, respectively. In addition, for measurements using the film, the variations of dose distribution were more then 50% for the case of less than 10 second irradiation, mostly within 20% for the case of more than 20 second irradiation, respectively. Therefore, the irradiation experiments using the BioBeam 8000 irradiator are recommended to be used for specimen required at least more than 20 second irradiation time.

  13. Design of Shanghai irradiation center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Fugen; Lu Zhongwen; Xue Xiangrong; Yao Zewu; Du Bende; Xu Zhicheng; Du Kangsen

    1988-01-01

    Shanghai Irradiation Center, situated in westrn suburb of Shanghai, was completed in August, 1986. At present, a 6.55 x 10 15 Bq 60 Co source has been loaded, though the designed activity of maximum loading is 18.5 x 10 10 Bq. the center is designed mainly for irradiation preservation of food and sterilization of medical devices and tools. Its processing ability is 10 t/h for potatoes

  14. Medical exposures. Annex G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Annex examines medical irradiation of the human body done in the course of diagnostic x ray procedures, in diagnostic nuclear medicine by internally administered radionuclides, and in radiation therapy. Doses to patients from various medical procedures have been assessed, both in order to follow trends and to make it possible to see which procedures are most significant with regard to possible radiation risks. This Annex also presents data on the distribution of doses among irradiated persons.

  15. Quality index in medical radiology; Indice de qualidade em radiologia medica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travassos, Paulo Cesar B.; Magalhaes, Luis Alexandre Goncalves; Drexler, Gunter G.; Almeida, Carlos E. de, E-mail: luisalexandregm@hotmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (IBRAG/UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biologia. Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas; Navarro, Marcus V. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da Bahia (IFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    In the literature there are articles with methods for the calculation of potential risk in medical radiodiagnostics institutions: Evaluation Model for Potential Risk (MARP). These articles present results based on documental evaluation of the institutions, but they suggest that quantitative data from the equipment's quality assurance can be included. This article proposes an evaluation of medical radiology institutions with a variation of the Potential Risk model, which considers, besides the administrative factors, quantitative results from equipment's quality assurance: the quality index. Results of the application of this proposition in 42 institutions are presented, with 52 evaluated conventional X-Ray equipment, located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (author)

  16. Statistical analysis of the irradiation process of various products in the industrial irradiator JS-6500

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naquid G, C.

    2003-01-01

    In this work the methodology for the control of the irradiation service applied to disposable products of medical use, foods, medications, cosmetics and several to different dose in the Gamma Irradiation Plant, with radiation of Cobalt 60, by means of the Graphs of Quality Control by Variables. These they are used to check if the irradiation process has been carried out appropriately, or well, if the variations surpass the established limits in the one that influences some another factor. (Author)

  17. Lack of appetite for food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tacey, Elisabeth

    1989-01-01

    The British government has approved food irradiation in Britain on a much wider scale than has taken place previously. The implications for one of the companies currently offering a gamma irradiation service are explored. Irradiation is by a large Cobalt 60 source. Currently the customers are medical, cosmetic and packaging firms. It does not yet have the facilities necessary for large-scale food irradiation, nor does it expect a huge demand for food irradiation as customer resistance is strong. However some dry spices and herbs may be treated next year. (UK)

  18. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paganini, M.C.

    1991-06-01

    Food treatment by means of ionizing energy, or irradiation, is an innovative method for its preservation. In order to treat important volumes of food, it is necessary to have industrial irradiation installations. The effect of radiations on food is analyzed in the present special work and a calculus scheme for an Irradiation Plant is proposed, discussing different aspects related to its project and design: ionizing radiation sources, adequate civil work, security and auxiliary systems to the installations, dosimetric methods and financing evaluation methods of the project. Finally, the conceptual design and calculus of an irradiation industrial plant of tubercles is made, based on the actual needs of a specific agricultural zone of our country. (Author) [es

  19. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Food preservation by irradiation is one part of Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace program that is enjoying renewed interest. Classified as a food additive by the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1958 instead of a processing technique, irradiation lost public acceptance. Experiments have not been done to prove that there are no health hazards from gamma radiation, but there are new pressures to get Food and Drug Administration approval for testing in order to make commercial use of some radioactive wastes. Irradiation causes chemical reactions and nutritional changes, including the destruction of several vitamins, as well as the production of radiolytic products not normally found in food that could have adverse effects. The author concludes that, lacking epidemiological evidence, willing buyers should be able to purchase irradiated food as long as it is properly labeled

  20. Fruit irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Food spoilage is a common problem when marketing agricultural products. Promising results have already been obtained on a number of food irradiating applications. A process is described in this paper where irradiation of sub-tropical fruits, especially mangoes and papayas, combined with conventional heat treatment results in effective insect and fungal control, delays ripening and greatly improves the quality of fruit at both export and internal markets

  1. [Radiodiagnostic methods for dental anomalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternovoĭ, S K; Serova, N S; Ivanova, D V

    2012-01-01

    To determine the capacities of radiologic studies in the examination of patients with dental anomalies. One hundred and twenty patients with dental anomalies were examined. Conventional X-ray and high-technology radiology techniques (multislice spiral computed tomography (MSSCT) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)) were used. Orthopantomography is the most common method for radiologic examination of patients with dental anomalies. However, X-ray procedures do not provide complete information on the position and status of an abnormal tooth, which is required to define further patient management tactics. While planning the management, MSSCT and CBCT were performed in 56 (46.7%) and 64 (53.3%) patients, respectively. In addition, 72 (60.0%) patients in whom orthodontic treatment had been recommended at the first stage underwent MSSCT or CBCT following 7 months. CBCT showed that 4 (3.3%) patients had dental ankylosis previously undiagnosed by MSSCT. The high-technology radiology techniques could assess the position of a tooth in relation to its important anatomic structures and identify the comorbidity that keeps from being treated. MSSCT and CBCT can make in full measure the topical diagnosis of abnormal teeth and hence choose an optimal algorithm for comprehensive treatment of patients.

  2. Tissue irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in-vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood-carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170

  3. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author)

  4. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Processing of food with low levels of radiation has the potential to contribute to reducing both spoilage of food during storage - a particular problem in developing countries - and the high incidence of food-borne disease currently seen in all countries. Approval has been granted for the treatment of more than 30 products with radiation in over 30 countries but, in general, governments have been slow to authorize the use of this new technique. One reason for this slowness is a lack of understanding of what food irradiation entails. This book aims to increase understanding by providing information on the process of food irradiation in simple, non-technical language. It describes the effects that irradiation has on food, and the plant and equipment that are necessary to carry it out safely. The legislation and control mechanisms required to ensure the safety of food irradiation facilities are also discussed. Education is seen as the key to gaining the confidence of the consumers in the safety of irradiated food, and to promoting understanding of the benefits that irradiation can provide. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab [de

  5. Implementation of a radiation protection framework for medical and dental X-ray diagnostic services in Minas Gerais/Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Teogenes A. da; Pereira, Elton G.; Nogueira, Maria do S.; Ferreira, Hudson R.; Alonso, Thessa C.; Castro, Jose G.L. de; Andrade, Mauricio C.; Joana, Georgia S.; Oliveira, Mauricio de; Cezar, Adriana C. Z.

    2008-01-01

    The Brazilian Sanitary Vigilance Agency is the regulatory authority for radiation protection and quality control of all practices with X-rays for diagnostic purpose. In 1998, the technical regulation 'Guidelines for Radiation Protection in Medical and Dental Radiodiagnostic' was issued by the government that reflected the most updated policy recommended by the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation. To accomplish the objective of improving radiation protection conditions in the state of Minas Gerais, the Development Centre of Nuclear Technology (CDTN) and the Superintendence of Sanitary Vigilance (SVS) signed a formal cooperation agreement that included: an accreditation process for radiation protection professionals, a follow-up program of the services provided by those professionals, technical support from CDTN for audits carried out by SVS and training of SVS inspectors. Actions to improve and assure metrological reliability of the radiation measurements and special attention to mammography services were done. This paper provides details and results of the radiation protection framework for X-ray radiodiagnostic services in Minas Gerais; the success of the adopted model suggests that it can be used as a basic model to other regions. (author)

  6. Development of data base on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Kume, Tamikazu; Hashimoto, Shoji; Izumi, Fumio.

    1995-12-01

    For the exact understanding on food irradiation in Japan, it is important to provide information of food irradiation to consumers, industries and government offices. However, many of information on food irradiation are only restricted in a few experts or institutes relating to this field. For this reason, data base of food irradiation has been completed together with the systems necessary for input the data using computer. In this data base, about 630 data with full reports were inputted in computer in the field of wholesomeness studies, irradiation effects on food, radiation engineering, detection methods of irradiated food and Q and A of food irradiation for easy understanding. Many of these data are inputted by Japanese language. Some English reports on wholesomeness studies are also included which were mainly obtained from international projects of food irradiation. Many of data on food irradiation are responsible in the fields of food science, dietetics, microbiology, radiation biology, molecular biology, medical science, agricultural science, radiation chemistry, radiation engineering and so on. Data base of food irradiation contains many useful data which can apply to many other fields of radiation processing not only on food irradiation but also on sterilization of medical equipments, upgrading of agricultural wastes and others. (author)

  7. Development of data base on food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Kume, Tamikazu; Hashimoto, Shoji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Izumi, Fumio

    1995-12-01

    For the exact understanding on food irradiation in Japan, it is important to provide information of food irradiation to consumers, industries and government offices. However, many of information on food irradiation are only restricted in a few experts or institutes relating to this field. For this reason, data base of food irradiation has been completed together with the systems necessary for input the data using computer. In this data base, about 630 data with full reports were inputted in computer in the field of wholesomeness studies, irradiation effects on food, radiation engineering, detection methods of irradiated food and Q and A of food irradiation for easy understanding. Many of these data are inputted by Japanese language. Some English reports on wholesomeness studies are also included which were mainly obtained from international projects of food irradiation. Many of data on food irradiation are responsible in the fields of food science, dietetics, microbiology, radiation biology, molecular biology, medical science, agricultural science, radiation chemistry, radiation engineering and so on. Data base of food irradiation contains many useful data which can apply to many other fields of radiation processing not only on food irradiation but also on sterilization of medical equipments, upgrading of agricultural wastes and others. (author).

  8. Differential diagnosis of neuroses and vegetative dystonias among medical personnel exposed to chronic effect of occupational low dose irradiation. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonkova, A.

    1987-01-01

    An ttempt to differentiate the importance of radiation factor in the origination of functional changes in nervous activity is made. Clinical methods are applied to 456 madical workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation as well as to a control group of 300 medical workers. 100 subjects from each group have been investigated by inquiry psychological methods. No dependence is established between the incidence of neurasthenic neuroses and the duration of service, the cumulative equivalent doses respectively, being within the range of 25 mSv - 1.6 Sv. Asthenic states of the nervous system, not included in the clinical picture of neuroses and other diseases, have not been diagnosed. The significantly higher incidence of vegetative dystonias among the female medical personnel, working with sources and environment of ionizing radiation with a length of service over 15 years, is discussed in causal relationship with the radiation factor. 4 tabs., 15 refs

  9. Irradiation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Toshimitsu.

    1989-01-01

    In an irradiation device for irradiating radiation rays such as electron beams to pharmaceuticals, etc., since the distribution of scanned electron rays was not monitored, the electron beam intensity could be determined only indirectly and irradiation reliability was not satisfactory. In view of the above, a plurality of monitor wires emitting secondary electrons are disposed in the scanning direction near a beam take-out window of a scanning duct, signals from the monitor wires are inputted into a display device such as a cathode ray tube, as well as signals from the monitor wires at the central portion are inputted into counting rate meters to measure the radiation dose as well. Since secondary electrons are emitted when electron beams pass through the monitor wires and the intensity thereof is in proportion with the intensity of incident electron beams, the distribution of the radiation dose can be monitored by measuring the intensity of the emitted secondary electrons. Further, uneven irradiation, etc. can also be monitored to make the radiation of irradiation rays reliable. (N.H.)

  10. Profitability of irradiation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos R, M.E.; Gonzalez F, C.; Liceaga C, G.; Ortiz A, G.

    1997-01-01

    In any industrial process it is seek an attractive profit from the contractor and the social points of view. The use of the irradiation technology in foods allows keep their hygienically, which aid to food supply without risks for health, an increment of new markets and a losses reduction. In other products -cosmetics or disposable for medical use- which are sterilized by irradiation, this process allows their secure use by the consumers. The investment cost of an irradiation plant depends mainly of the plant size and the radioactive material reload that principally is Cobalt 60, these two parameters are in function of the type of products for irradiation and the selected doses. In this work it is presented the economic calculus and the financial costs for different products and capacities of plants. In general terms is determined an adequate utility that indicates that this process is profitable. According to the economic and commercial conditions in the country were considered two types of credits for the financing of this projects. One utilizing International credit resources and other with national sources. (Author)

  11. Food irradiation - a Northern Ireland dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurray, C.H.; Stevenson, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    Irradiation is a technology which has been exploited in a wide variety of industries ranging from sterilization of medical products and polymer modification to applications with respect to food. Whilst food irradiation has recently become a controversial subject, the process has been studied for many years. Many products could be irradiated to advantage and these need to be thoroughly investigated before final recommendations can be made as to the commercial feasibility and suitability of the processing technology in the Northern Ireland context

  12. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beishon, J.

    1991-01-01

    Food irradiation has been the subject of concern and controversy for many years. The advantages of food irradiation include the reduction or elimination of dangerous bacterial organisms, the control of pests and insects which destroy certain foods, the extension of the shelf-life of many products, for example fruit, and its ability to treat products such as seafood which may be eaten raw. It can also replace existing methods of treatment which are believed to have hazardous side-effects. However, after examining the evidence produced by the proponents of food irradiation, the author questions whether it has any major contribution to make to the problems of foodborne diseases or world food shortages. More acceptable solutions, he suggests, may be found in educating food handlers to ensure that hygienic conditions prevail in the production, storage and serving of food. (author)

  13. Vinca irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eymery, R.

    1976-10-01

    The development programme of the VINCA radiosterilisation centre involves plans for an irradiator capable of working in several ways. Discontinuous operation. The irradiator is loaded for a certain period then runs automatically until the moment of unloading. This method is suitable as long as the treatment capacity is relatively small. Continuous operation with permanent batch loading and unloading carried out either manually or automatically (by means of equipment to be installed later). Otherwise the design of the apparatus is highly conventional. The source is a vertical panel submersible in a pool. The conveyor is of the 'bucket' type, with 4 tiers to each bucket. The batches pass successively through all possible irradiation positions. Transfert into and out of the cell take place through a maze, which also provides access to the cell when the sources are in storage at the bottom of the pool [fr

  14. Investigation of the effect of some irradiation parameters on the response of various types of dosimeters to electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farah, K.; Kuntz, F.; Kadri, O.; Ghedira, L.

    2004-01-01

    Several undyed and dyed polymer films are commercially available for dosimetry in intense radiation fields, especially for radiation processing of food and sterilisation of medical devices. The effects of temperature during irradiation and post-irradiation stability, on the response of these dosimeters are of importance to operators of irradiation facilities. The present study investigates the effects of temperature during irradiation by 2.2 MeV electrons beam accelerator and post irradiation storage on the response of several types of dosimeter films. All dosimeters showed a significant effect of temperature during irradiation and post-irradiation storage

  15. Investigation of the effect of some irradiation parameters on the response of various types of dosimeters to electron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farah, K. E-mail: k.farah@cnstn.rnrt.tn; Kuntz, F.; Kadri, O.; Ghedira, L

    2004-10-01

    Several undyed and dyed polymer films are commercially available for dosimetry in intense radiation fields, especially for radiation processing of food and sterilisation of medical devices. The effects of temperature during irradiation and post-irradiation stability, on the response of these dosimeters are of importance to operators of irradiation facilities. The present study investigates the effects of temperature during irradiation by 2.2 MeV electrons beam accelerator and post irradiation storage on the response of several types of dosimeter films. All dosimeters showed a significant effect of temperature during irradiation and post-irradiation storage.

  16. Irradiance gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, G.J.; Heckbert, P.S.; Technische Hogeschool Delft

    1992-04-01

    A new method for improving the accuracy of a diffuse interreflection calculation is introduced in a ray tracing context. The information from a hemispherical sampling of the luminous environment is interpreted in a new way to predict the change in irradiance as a function of position and surface orientation. The additional computation involved is modest and the benefit is substantial. An improved interpolation of irradiance resulting from the gradient calculation produces smoother, more accurate renderings. This result is achieved through better utilization of ray samples rather than additional samples or alternate sampling strategies. Thus, the technique is applicable to a variety of global illumination algorithms that use hemicubes or Monte Carlo sampling techniques

  17. Knowledge on Irradiation, Medical Imaging Prescriptions, and Clinical Imaging Referral Guidelines among Physicians in a Sub-Saharan African Country (Cameroon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moifo, Boniface; Tene, Ulrich; Moulion Tapouh, Jean Roger; Samba Ngano, Odette; Tchemtchoua Youta, Justine; Simo, Augustin; Gonsu Fotsin, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Clinical imaging guidelines (CIGs) are suitable tools to enhance justification of imaging procedures. To assess physicians' knowledge on irradiation, their self-perception of imaging prescriptions, and the use of CIGs. A questionnaire of 21 items was self-administered between July and August 2016 to 155 referring physicians working in seven university-affiliated hospitals in Yaoundé and Douala (Cameroon). This pretested questionnaire based on imaging referral practices, the use and the need of CIGs, knowledge on radiation doses of 11 specific radiologic procedures, and knowledge of injurious effects of radiation was completed in the presence of the investigator. Scores were allocated for each question. 155 questionnaires were completed out of 180 administered (86.1%). Participants were 90 (58%) females, 63 (40.64%) specialists, 53 (34.20%) residents/interns, and 39 (25.16%) general practitioners. The average professional experience was 7.4 years (1-25 years). The mean knowledge score was 11.5/59 with no influence of sex, years of experience, and professional category. CIGs users' score was better than nonusers (means 14.2 versus 10.6; p imaging exams. Seventy-eight (50.3%) participants have knowledge on CIGs and half of them made use of them. "Impact on diagnosis" was the highest justification criteria follow by "impact on treatment decision." Unjustified requests were mainly for "patient expectation or will" or for "research motivations." 96% of interviewees believed that making available national CIGs will improve justification. Most physicians did not have appropriate awareness about radiation doses for routine imaging procedures. A small number of physicians have knowledge on CIGs but they believe that making available CIGs will improve justification of imaging procedures. Continuous trainings on radiation protection and implementation of national CIGs are therefore recommended.

  18. Time to come clean on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, Ian.

    1986-01-01

    Early adoption of the National Health and Medical Research Council's guidelines on food irradiation in Australia is unlikely without widespread public education. The issues involved in food irradiation are discussed including the implications of United States and WHO guidelines, and the reaction of consumer groups

  19. ion irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swift heavy ions interact predominantly through inelastic scattering while traversing any polymer medium and produce excited/ionized atoms. Here samples of the polycarbonate Makrofol of approximate thickness 20 m, spin coated on GaAs substrate were irradiated with 50 MeV Li ion (+3 charge state). Build-in ...

  20. Recommendations of the publication ICRP-84: pregnancy and medical irradiation for radiotherapy; Recomendaciones de la publicacion ICRP-84: embarazo e irradiacion medica para radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojkind, Roberto H [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2001-07-01

    The malignant diseases in the pregnant women are relatively not much frequent, and some of these cases can be applied radiotherapy for the tumours treatment. The doses involved in the radio therapeutics procedures can produce a significant foetal damage, and the patient or worker has the right to know the magnitude and the potential effects that can be results of the radiotherapy exposure. The publication ICRP-84 of the International Commission of Radiological Protection approaches specific aspect of the individual justification of the medical exposure of the patient pregnant woman, and recommends work procedures for the dose optimization that will receive the fetus. In this communication is commented the content of the radiotherapy section of the mentioned publication.

  1. Knowledge on Irradiation, Medical Imaging Prescriptions, and Clinical Imaging Referral Guidelines among Physicians in a Sub-Saharan African Country (Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boniface Moifo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Clinical imaging guidelines (CIGs are suitable tools to enhance justification of imaging procedures. Objective. To assess physicians’ knowledge on irradiation, their self-perception of imaging prescriptions, and the use of CIGs. Materials and Methods. A questionnaire of 21 items was self-administered between July and August 2016 to 155 referring physicians working in seven university-affiliated hospitals in Yaoundé and Douala (Cameroon. This pretested questionnaire based on imaging referral practices, the use and the need of CIGs, knowledge on radiation doses of 11 specific radiologic procedures, and knowledge of injurious effects of radiation was completed in the presence of the investigator. Scores were allocated for each question. Results. 155 questionnaires were completed out of 180 administered (86.1%. Participants were 90 (58% females, 63 (40.64% specialists, 53 (34.20% residents/interns, and 39 (25.16% general practitioners. The average professional experience was 7.4 years (1–25 years. The mean knowledge score was 11.5/59 with no influence of sex, years of experience, and professional category. CIGs users’ score was better than nonusers (means 14.2 versus 10.6; p<0.01. 80% of physicians (124/155 underrated radiation doses of routine imaging exams. Seventy-eight (50.3% participants have knowledge on CIGs and half of them made use of them. “Impact on diagnosis” was the highest justification criteria follow by “impact on treatment decision.” Unjustified requests were mainly for “patient expectation or will” or for “research motivations.” 96% of interviewees believed that making available national CIGs will improve justification. Conclusion. Most physicians did not have appropriate awareness about radiation doses for routine imaging procedures. A small number of physicians have knowledge on CIGs but they believe that making available CIGs will improve justification of imaging procedures. Continuous

  2. Fish irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, J.; Tengumnuay, C.; Juangbhanich, C.

    1970-01-01

    Chub-mackerel was chosen for the study because they are the most common fish in Thailand. Preliminary investigations were conducted to determine the maximum radiation dose of gamma-rays by organoleptic tests. The samples were subjected to radiation at various doses up to 4 Mrad. Many experiments were conducted using other kinds of fish. The results showed that 1 Mrad would be the maximum acceptable dose for fish. Later, the influence of the radiation dose from 0.1-1 Mrad was studied in order to find the optimum acceptable dose for preservation of fish without off-flavour. For this purpose, the Hedonic scale was used. It was found that 0.2 and 0.5 Mrad gave the best result on Chub mackerel. The determinations of optimum dose, organoleptic, microbiological and trimethylamine content changes were done. The results showed that Chub mackerel irradiated at 0.2, 0.5 and 1 Mrad stored at 3 0 C for 71 days were still acceptable, on the contrary the untreated samples were found unacceptable at 14 days. The trimethylamine increment was significantly higher in the untreated samples. At 15 days storage, trimethylamine in the non-irradiated Chub-mackerel was about 10 times higher than the irradiated ones. At 51 and 79 days storage, about 13 times higher in the control samples than the irradiated samples except 0.1 Mrad. Only 2 times higher was found for the 0.1 Mrad. The microbiological results showed that the irradiation above 0.2 Mrad gave favorable extension of shelf-life of fish

  3. Ovarian irradiation in recurrent endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochbati, L.; Chaari, N.; Besbes, M.; Maalej, M.; Neji, K.; Ben Amara, F.; Ben Romdhane, N.K.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a case of a young woman with a history of an aplastic anaemia in which pelvic radiotherapy was used successfully in the management of a recurrent and inoperable endometriosis. The use of therapeutic pelvic or ovarian irradiation in endometriosis may be considered, when surgical and medical treatments have been exhausted and have failed. (authors)

  4. Chapter 2: Irradiators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    The chapter 2 presents the subjects: 1) gamma irradiators which includes: Category-I gamma irradiators (self-contained); Category-II gamma irradiators (panoramic and dry storage); Category-III gamma irradiators (self-contained in water); Category-IV gamma irradiators (panoramic and wet storage); source rack for Category-IV gamma irradiators; product transport system for Category-IV gamma irradiators; radiation shield for gamma irradiators; 2) accelerators which includes: Category-I Accelerators (shielded irradiator); Category-II Accelerators (irradiator inside a shielded room); Irradiation application examples.

  5. NF EN ISO 11137-1, July 2006. Sterilization of health care products - Irradiation - Part 1: Requirements for development, validation and routine control of a sterilization process for medical devices; NF EN ISO 11137-1, Juillet 2006. Sterilisation des produits de sante - Irradiation - Partie 1: exigences relatives a la mise au point, a la validation et au controle de routine d'un procede de sterilisation pour les dispositifs medicaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This part of the ISO 11137 standard specifies requirements for the development, validation and routine control of a radiation sterilization process for medical devices. Although the scope of this part of the ISO 11137 standard is limited to medical devices, it specifies requirements and provides guidance that may be applicable to other products and equipment. This part of the international standard covers radiation processes employing irradiators using the radionuclide {sup 60}Co or {sup 137}Cs, a beam from an electron generator or a beam from an X-ray generator. This part of the international standard does not: - specify requirements for development, validation and routine control of a process for inactivating the causative agents of spongiform encephalopathies such as scrapie, bovine spongiform encephalopathy and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease; - detail specified requirements for designating a medical device as sterile; - specify a quality management system for the control of all stages of production of medical devices; - specify requirements for occupational safety associated with the design and operation of irradiation facilities; - specify requirements for the sterilization of used or reprocessed devices.

  6. Unjustified prenatal radiation exposure in medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas Herrera, J.; Lamadrid, A.I.; Garcia Lima, O.; Diaz Bernal, E.; Freixas, V.; Lopez Bejerano, G.; Sanchez, R.

    2001-01-01

    The exposure to the radiation ionising of pregnant women, frequently constitutes motive of preoccupation for the expectant mother and the medical professionals taken the responsibility with its attention. The protection of the embryo-fetus against the ionising radiation is of singular importance due to its special vulnerability to this agent. On the other hand the diagnosis or treatment with radiations ionising beneficial for the expectant mother, are only indirectly for the embryo-fetus that is exposed to a hazard without perceiving anything. The present paper presents the experience obtained in the clinical and dosimetric evaluation from twenty-one pregnant patients subjected to diverse radiodiagnostic procedures or nuclear medicine during the years 1999-2000. The obtained results evidence that 24% of the patients was subjected to procedures of nuclear medicine with diagnostic purposes. While the period of pregnancy of the patients ranged between 4 and 12 weeks, it could be concluded that in all the cases the doses received by the patients in the whole body did not exceed 2 mSv. When conjugating the period of pregnancy of the patients with the doses received, there is no evidence of significant risk for the embryo-fetus. Paradoxically the physicians of assistance suggested to their patients in all the cases to carry out the interruption of the pregnancy, demonstrating with this decision ignorance on the biological effects of the ionizing radiations during the prenatal exposures. (author)

  7. Food irradiation: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Rosanna M.

    1984-01-01

    Recent regulatory and commercial activity regarding food irradiation is highlighted. The effects of irradiation, used to kill insects and microorganisms which cause food spoilage, are discussed. Special attention is given to the current regulatory status of food irradiation in the USA; proposed FDA regulation regarding the use of irradiation; pending irradiation legislation in the US Congress; and industrial applications of irradiation

  8. Microbiological decontamination of some herbs by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.

    1996-01-01

    The research work on the microbiological decontamination of the medical herbs by electron beam was carried out. The seven samples of the herbs granules were irradiated at the doses 3, 6 and 10 kGy. It has been shown, that D10 values are varied in several samples after irradiation. Additional, research work, by gas chromatographic method, on the composition volatile oils (salvia, orange, peppermint and anise), after irradiation at the dose 4.4 and 8.8 kGy was carried out. It was not significant differences in the compositions between control and irradiated oils. (author). 12 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beerens, H [Lille-1 Univ., 59 - Villeneuve-d' Ascq (France); Saint-Lebe, L

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of food treatment by cobalt 60 or caesium 137 gamma radiation are reviewed. One of the main applications of irradiation on foodstuffs lies in its ability to kill micro-organisms, lethal doses being all the lower as the organism concerned is more complex. The effect on parasites is also spectacular. Doses of 200 to 300 krad are recommended to destroy all parasites with no survival period and no resistance phenomenon has ever been observed. The action of gamma radiation on macromolecules was also investigated, the bactericide treatment giving rise to side effects by transformation of food components. Three examples were studied: starch, nucleic acids and a whole food, the egg. The organoleptic aspect of irradiation was examined for different treated foods, then the physical transformations of unpasteurized, heat-pasteurized and radio-pasteurized eggs were compared. The report ends with a brief analysis of the toxicity and conditions of application of the treatment.

  10. Irradiation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ransohoff, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Carriers, after being loaded with product to be irradiated, are transported by an input-output conveyor system into an irradiation chamber where they are received in a horizontal arrangement on racks which may support different sizes and numbers of carriers. The racks are moved by a chamber conveyor system in an endless rectangular path about a radiation source. Packers shift the carriers on the racks to maintain nearest proximity to the radiation source. The carriers are shifted in position on each rack during successive rack cycles to produce even radiation exposure. The carriers may be loaded singly onto successive racks during a first cycle of movement thereof about the source, with loading of additional carriers, and/or unloading of carriers, onto each rack occurring on subsequent rack cycles of movement

  11. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1997-01-01

    Food can be provided with extra beneficial properties by physical processing. These benefits include a reduced possibility of food poisoning, or an increased life of the food. We are familiar with pasteurisation of milk, drying of vegetables, and canning of fruit. These physical processes work because the food absorbs energy during treatment which brings about the changes needed. The energy absorbed in these examples is heat energy. Food irradiation is a less familiar process. It produces similar benefits to other processes and it can sometimes be applied with additional advantages over conventional processing. For example, because irradiation causes little heating, foods may look and taste more natural. Also, treatment can take place with the food in its final plastic wrappers, reducing the risk of re-contamination. (author). 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerens, H.; Saint-Lebe, L.

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of food treatment by cobalt 60 or caesium 137 gamma radiation are reviewed. One of the main applications of irradiation on foodstuffs lies in its ability to kill micro-organisms, lethal doses being all the lower as the organism concerned is more complex. The effect on parasites is also spectacular. Doses of 200 to 300 krad are recommended to destroy all parasites with no survival period and no resistance phenomenon has ever been observed. The action of gamma radiation on macromolecules was also investigated, the bactericide treatment giving rise to side effects by transformation of food components. Three examples were studied: starch, nucleic acids and a whole food, the egg. The organoleptic aspect of irradiation was examined for different treated foods, then the physical transformations of unpasteurized, heat-pasteurized and radio-pasteurized eggs were compared. The report ends with a brief analysis of the toxicity and conditions of application of the treatment [fr

  13. Endolymphatic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, M.M.; Ianhez, L.E.; Sabbaga, E.

    1982-01-01

    The authors analysed the clinical evolution and the result of renal transplantation some years after irradiation in 24 patients (group I) who received endolymphatic 131 I as a pre-transplantation immunesuppresive measure. The control group (group II) consisted of 24 non-irradiated patients comparable to group I in age, sex, primary disease, type of donor and immunesuppressive therapy. Significant differences were observed between the two groups regarding such factors a incidence and reversibility of rejection crises in the first 60 post-transplantation days, loss of kidney due to rejection, and dosage of azathioprine. The authors conclude that this method, besides being harmless, has prolonged immunesuppressive action, its administration being advised for receptores of cadaver kidneys, mainly those who show positive cross-match against HLA antigens for painel. (Author) [pt

  14. Mapping of isoexposure curves for evaluation of equivalent environmental doses for radiodiagnostic mobile equipment; Mapeamento de curvas de isoexposicao para avaliacao de equivalente de dose ambiente para equipamentos moveis de radiodiagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacelar, Alexandre, E-mail: abacelar@hcpa.ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Setor de Fisica Medica e Radioprotecao; Andrade, Jose Rodrigo Mendes, E-mail: jose.andrade@santacasa.tche.b [Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericordia de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Servico de Atencao a Saude e Qualidade de Vida; Fischer, Andreia Caroline Fischer da Silveira; Accurso, Andre; Hoff, Gabriela, E-mail: andreia.silveira.001@acad.pucrs.b, E-mail: andre.accurso@acad.pucrs.b [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC/RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Grupo de Experimentacao e Simulacao Computacional em Fisica Medica

    2011-10-26

    This paper generates iso exposure curves in areas where the mobile radiodiagnostic equipment are used for evaluation of iso kerma map and the environment equivalent dose (H{sup *}(d)). It was used a Shimadzu mobile equipment and two Siemens, with non anthropomorphic scatter. The exposure was measured in a mesh of 4.20 x 4.20 square meter in steps of 30 cm, at half height from the scatterer. The calculation of H{sup *}(d) were estimated for a worker present in all the procedures in a period of 11 months, being considered 3.55 m As/examination and 44.5 procedures/month (adult UTI) and 3.16 m As/examination and 20.1 procedure/month (pediatric UTI), and 3.16 m As/examination and 20.1 procedure/month (pediatric UTI). It was observed that there exist points where the H{sup *}(d) was over the limit established for the free area inside the radius of 30 cm from the central beam of radiation in the case of pediatric UTI and 60 cm for adult UTI. The points localized 2.1 m from the center presented values lower than 25% of those limit

  15. ISO 9000 standards and their application in a radiodiagnostics department: methods of implementation and evaluation; Normas ISO 9000 y su aplicacion en un Servicio de Radiodiagnostico. Metodologia de implantacion y seguimiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bello, E.; Iraola, B. [Hospital Comarcal del Bidasoa (Spain); Pagola, C. [Hospital Aranzazu. San Sebastian (Spain); Olano, J. G. [Hospital M. Cristina. San Sebastian (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    To present our experience in the implementation of a standardized quality assurance system in the Radiodiagnostics Services at two hospitals of the health care network of the Basque Country Autonomous Community: the Bidasoa County Hospitals in Hondarribia, belonging to the Basque Health Service-Osakidetza, and the Maria Cristina Red Cross Hospital in San Sebastian. The first stage of this project, the ultimate purpose of which is to achieve the certification of the quality system, consisted in the detailed study of the ISO 9002 Standard, applicable to the activities of a Radiological Diagnostics Services. Following the analysis of the requirements described in the 20 sections that comprise this standard, the second stage focused on its adaptation to clinical and managerial use in our services. This involved their general revision and, as a consequence, the development-update of our Procedure and Protocol Guidelines, which constituted the core of the documental support of the so-called Quality Guidelines. This third stage, overlapping the preceding one, included the progressive implementation of the document-based conclusions, generating the corresponding records of the activities carried out. Having successfully undergone an audit for certification in which the auditors observed total compliance with the different activities as defined in the documents comprising the Quality Guidelines, both of the above mentioned services obtained the corresponding certificate issued by two different properly accredited organizations (AENOR and DET NORSKE veritas, respectively). (Author) 25 refs.

  16. Validation of gamma irradiator controls for quality and regulatory compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, R.B.; Pinteric, F.J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Since 1978 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has had both the legal authority and the current good manufacturing practice (CGMP) regulations in progress to require irradiator owners who process medical devices to produce evidence of Irradiation Process Validation. One of the key components of Irradiation Process Validation is the validation of the irradiator controls. However it is only recently that FDA audits have focussed on this component of the process validation. (author)

  17. View point of medical exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akahane, Keiichi

    2008-01-01

    This text contains the following subjects. (1) Introduction, (2) Progress of medical examinations by radiation, (2-1) Decision of applying radiation, (2-2) Irradiation method, (2-3) Irradiation dose, (3) Exposure at medical examinations by radiation, (3-1) Dose to express the exposure, (3-2) Dose at medical exposure, (4) Types of medical examinations by radiation, (4-1) Radiation diagnosis, (4-2) Radiation therapy, (4-3) Nuclear medicine, (5) Radiation effects, (5-1) Types of radiation effect, (5-2) Effects of medical exposure, (6) Present status of medical examination by radiation, (6-1) Actual status of medical exposure, (6-2) Medical examinations by radiation in Japan, (7) Assessment of medical exposure, (7-1) Exposure dose, (7-2) Papers on radiation risk, and (7-3) Radiation protection. (K.Y.)

  18. Practical design of gamma irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Sen-ichi

    1976-01-01

    In this report, it is intended to describe mainly the multi-purpose irradiation facilities which carry out the consigned irradiation for the sterilization of medical apparatuses, which is most of the demand of gamma irradiation in Japan. Gamma irradiation criterion is summed up to that ''Apply the specified dose properly and uniformly to product cases and be economic.'' Though the establishment of the design standard for irradiation facilities is not easy and is not solve simply, the factors to be considered in the design are as follows: (1) mechanism safety, (2) multipurpose irradiation structure, (3) irradiation criteria and practice, (4) efficiency of radiation source utilization and related problems, and (5) economical merit. Irradiation facilities are generally itemized as follows: irradiation equipments, radiation source-storing facility, package carrier, radiation source-driving equipments, facilities for safety and operational management and others. Examples and their characteristics are reported for the facilities of Japan Radio-isotope Irradiation Cooperative Association and Radie Industries Ltd. Expenses for construction, processing and radiation sources are shown on the basis of a few references, and the cost trially calculated under a certain presumptive condition is given. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  19. Epidemiological study on patient exposure to medical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitabatake, Takashi

    1975-01-01

    Several aspects of radiation risk were studied: 1) epidemiology, 2) X-ray mass surveys, 3) factors related to patients dose, 4) clinical judgment and the indications for X-ray examination, 5) abdominal X-rays of women of child bearing age, 6) irradiation of the fetus, and 7) radiotherapy for benign disease. The survey results showed that 1) frequent fluoroscopic examinations may be related to late induction of leukemia, 2) radiation risk in X-ray mass surveys can be reduced by solving some technical problems and general problems of mass screening, 3) patients with high benefit health insurance tend to receive more X-rays than patients with low benefit insurance, 4) of 2000 patients on whom gastrointestinal tract X-ray examinations were requested, no necessity for the examination was recognized in 10% of the cases, 5) only about half of the female patients of child bearing age were checked for menstrual cycle at the time of an X-ray study, 6) radiodiagnostic histories of 1485 pregnant women showed that 22% were X-rayed at any time during the gestation period, with an over age dose of 61 mrad (a dose which would correspond to introduction of 19.5 excess leukemias in children under the age of 10 years), and 7) about 10% of the patients in radiotherapy departments are being treated for benign diseases. (Evans, J.)

  20. Epidemiological study on patient exposure to medical radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitabatake, T [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1975-04-01

    Several aspects of radiation risk were studied: 1) epidemiology, 2) X-ray mass surveys, 3) factors related to patients dose, 4) clinical judgment and the indications for X-ray examination, 5) abdominal X-rays of women of child bearing age, 6) irradiation of the fetus, and 7) radiotherapy for benign disease. The survey results showed that 1) frequent fluoroscopic examinations may be related to late induction of leukemia, 2) radiation risk in X-ray mass surveys can be reduced by solving some technical problems and general problems of mass screening, 3) patients with high benefit health insurance tend to receive more X-rays than patients with low benefit insurance, 4) of 2000 patients on whom gastrointestinal tract X-ray examinations were requested, no necessity for the examination was recognized in 10% of the cases, 5) only about half of the female patients of child bearing age were checked for menstrual cycle at the time of an X-ray study, 6) radiodiagnostic histories of 1485 pregnant women showed that 22% were X-rayed at any time during the gestation period, with an over age dose of 61 mrad (a dose which would correspond to introduction of 19.5 excess leukemias in children under the age of 10 years), and 7) about 10% of the patients in radiotherapy departments are being treated for benign diseases. (Evans, J.).

  1. MYDOZE: Application Web for management and optimisation of doses to patients in tests radiodiagnostics; MYDOZE: Aplicacion Web para gestion y optimizacion de dosis a pacientes en pruebas radiodiagnosticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peinado Zamora, A. B.; Laguna Lobato, M. A.; Gil Agudo, A.; Zapata Jimenez, J. C.

    2013-07-01

    The service of Radiofisica y Proteccion Radiologica del Hospital general Universitario de Ciudad Real, carried out a study whose objective is to optimize the dose to patients undergoing diagnostic scans with ionizing radiation. To address this task, is required a software tool that facilitates on the one hand the acquisition of dosimetric data acquired digital equipment and the other interface of exploitation of this data for statistics and analysis of these. the computer tool to develop should allow storing parameters with information demographic and dose of the patient in medical scans thanks to called DICOM medical image standard. (Author)

  2. Biology of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    The author presents his arguments for food scientists and biologists that the hazards of food irradiation outweigh the benefits. The subject is discussed in the following sections: introduction (units, mutagenesis, seed viability), history of food irradiation, effects of irradiation on organoleptic qualities of staple foods, radiolytic products and selective destruction of nutrients, production of microbial toxins in stored irradiated foods and loss of quality in wheat, deleterious consequences of eating irradiated foods, misrepresentation of the facts about food irradiation. (author)

  3. Late neoplastic changes following medical irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchison, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    New additions since 1968 to the literature on radiation carcinogenesis in man support the earlier conclusion of an approximately linear increase in cancer incidence in a broad intermediate dose range for most sites of cancer. Questions are raised regarding the nature of the dose-response relation at very low and at very high dose exposures. Analyses of some data on exposure to radiation from internal deposits of radioactive material suggest that the dose-response curve at low and intermediate ranges is concave up, implying a smaller effect per unit exposure at very low doses than at intermediate ranges. Data on exposure to the very high but anatomically limited doses of radiation used in cancer therapy give conflicting results, suggesting in one report a continuation of the linear relation into the high-dose range. Other reports suggest a lesser effect per unit dose at high doses than at intermediate doses. Extensive laboratory studies of exposure of experimental animals indicate that over broad dose ranges, exceptions to simple linear relations are the rule, and that factors of dose rate and fractionation also affect the dose-response relation

  4. Education of medical radiation physicists in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cechak, T.; Dvorak, P.; Musilek, L.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper courses in new specialization in Medical Radiation Physics, now renamed as Dosimetry and Ionising Radiation Application realized on Czech Technical University in Prague (CTU) are described. The Department of Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation offers graduate study leading to the Ing. degree (M. S.) in Radiological Physics, bachelor study leading to the Bachelor in Radiological Technique. The Department offers furthermore graduate study leading to the Ing. degree (M. S.) in Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation and bachelor study leading to the Bachelor in Radiation Protection and Environment, traditionally . The curriculum of the Radiological Physics combines theoretical, experimental and applied radiological science courses. After graduation, students are prepared for employment as radiological physics in the departments of radiotherapy , radiodiagnostics and nuclear medicine or many continues studies leading to the PhD. In addition to pre-graduate education, CTU also intends to apply for Ministry ,of Health certification for special courses in medical physics aimed at graduates from other mathematics- and physics-based programs who wish to be employed as MPs in hospitals. This will be possible in the near future, when the new legislation becomes valid and the Institute for Postgraduate Education loses its monopoly on postgraduate education in health care. (authors)

  5. Food irradiation: Gamma processing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunstadt, P [MDS Nordion International, 447 March Road. Kanata, Ontario, K2K148 (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    The number of products being radiation processed is constantly increasing and today include such diverse items as medical disposable, fruits and vegetables, bulk spices, meats, sea foods and waste effluents. Not only do the products differ but also many products, even those within the same groupings, require different minimum and maximum radiation doses. These variations create many different requirements in the irradiator design. The design of Cobalt-60 radiation processing facilities is well established for a number of commercial applications. Installations in over 40 countries, with some in operation since the early 1960s, are testimony to the fact that irradiator design, manufacture, installation and operation is a well established technology. However, in order to design gamma irradiators for the preservation of foods one must recognize those parameters typical to the food irradiation process as well as those systems and methods already well established in the food industry. This paper discusses the basic design concepts for gamma food irradiators. They are most efficient when designed to handle a limited product density range at an established dose. Safety of Cobalt-60 transport, safe facility operation principles and the effect of various processing parameters on economics, will also be discussed. (Author)

  6. Food irradiation: Gamma processing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstadt, P.

    1997-01-01

    The number of products being radiation processed is constantly increasing and today include such diverse items as medical disposable, fruits and vegetables, bulk spices, meats, sea foods and waste effluents. Not only do the products differ but also many products, even those within the same groupings, require different minimum and maximum radiation doses. These variations create many different requirements in the irradiator design. The design of Cobalt-60 radiation processing facilities is well established for a number of commercial applications. Installations in over 40 countries, with some in operation since the early 1960s, are testimony to the fact that irradiator design, manufacture, installation and operation is a well established technology. However, in order to design gamma irradiators for the preservation of foods one must recognize those parameters typical to the food irradiation process as well as those systems and methods already well established in the food industry. This paper discusses the basic design concepts for gamma food irradiators. They are most efficient when designed to handle a limited product density range at an established dose. Safety of Cobalt-60 transport, safe facility operation principles and the effect of various processing parameters on economics, will also be discussed. (Author)

  7. Food irradiation: Gamma processing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunstadt, P. [MDS Nordion International, 447 March Road. Kanata, Ontario, K2K148 (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The number of products being radiation processed is constantly increasing and today include such diverse items as medical disposable, fruits and vegetables, bulk spices, meats, sea foods and waste effluents. Not only do the products differ but also many products, even those within the same groupings, require different minimum and maximum radiation doses. These variations create many different requirements in the irradiator design. The design of Cobalt-60 radiation processing facilities is well established for a number of commercial applications. Installations in over 40 countries, with some in operation since the early 1960s, are testimony to the fact that irradiator design, manufacture, installation and operation is a well established technology. However, in order to design gamma irradiators for the preservation of foods one must recognize those parameters typical to the food irradiation process as well as those systems and methods already well established in the food industry. This paper discusses the basic design concepts for gamma food irradiators. They are most efficient when designed to handle a limited product density range at an established dose. Safety of Cobalt-60 transport, safe facility operation principles and the effect of various processing parameters on economics, will also be discussed. (Author)

  8. Low cost technology for the rapid and safe in-house (hospital-based) preparation of dual - radiotherapeutic (Rx) and radiodiagnostic (Dx) - dosage forms of high specific activity 131I-mIBG for clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noronha, O.P.D.; Sonawane, G.A.; Samuel, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Radioiodinated mIBG is finding increasing utility in nuclear medicine. However, its widespread use in developing countries is precluded by logistic constraints owing to the relative instability of the labelled molecule with respect to time and temp., and high costs. This prompted us to develop a low cost in-house batch process technology that could be used for the small-scale preparation of 131 I-mIBG even in a less equipped hospital-based radiopharmacy. The production of large amounts of 131 I-mIBG for clinical use requires sophisticated infrastructure (a scarce resource) to contain / safeguard against internal and external radiation exposures. We have indigenously designed a semi-automated, self-shielded, remote-controlled and safe microplant + process assemblies using easily accessible and cheap inputs, and developed the complete technology for the rapid and safe production of dual dosage forms of 131 I-mIBG, a radiotherapeutic (R x ) single dosage form of high activity along with 1-3 low activity radiodiagnostics (D x ) as multidosage forms. The radioiodide exchange reaction was effected in the solid / melt phase at 190 deg. C in 1.0 h. The radiolabelling yield was ∼80.0-86.0%, and the radiochemical purity > 99.5% and specific activity of R x /D x =900-1300/60-800 MBq ( x dosage forms at 3 weeks. The dosage forms (especially R x ) were only made against firm patient appointment(s). Thus far we have prepared 14 R x (49.0 GBq) and 70 + 14 batches (43.43 GBq) of (∼150 nos.) D x forms, and used them in 14 and > 1100 patients respectively. (author)

  9. EPR investigation of some gamma-irradiated medicines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksieva, Katerina; Yordanov, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The results of EPR studies on three medical tablets – Galanthamine, Cytisine and Tribulus terrestris before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. Before irradiation Galanthamine and Cytisine tablets are EPR silent, whereas Tribulus terrestris show a broad singlet line with g factor 2.2084±0.002. The same spectrum is recorded after irradiation. After gamma-sterilization, however, Galanthamine and Cytisine tablets exhibit a typical EPR spectrum due to gamma induced free radicals in lactose used as an excipient. These stable free radicals can be used for identification of radiation processing for a long time after it. Key words: medical tablets, gamma-irradiation, EPR

  10. Alternative collimator for CdTe (model XR-100T), when it is used for a direct measurements of radiodiagnostic spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, C.; Guevara, M.V. Manso; Milian, F. Mas; Garcia, F.

    2014-01-01

    The spectrum simulation is a powerful instrument of great practical and pedagogical usefulness, because it helps to understand the technical and the instrumental limits of parameters in optimized measurements of magnitudes of interest in physics. Monte Carlo models, based on particle and radiation transport, provide easy and flexible tools for simulating complex geometries and materials. Particularly, MCNPX code is used to compare, manipulate, and quantify simulated and measured spectra. The purpose of this work is to use this tool set to estimate the characteristics of a collimation device, avoiding permanent and temporary damages into the diode-pin detector, during direct measurements of the Bremsstrahlung's spectrum, which was generated from diagnosis tubes with medical purpose. The simulations were made with a maximum voltage of 150 kVp, and typical charges used in radiological protocols in the medical area. Also, differential high pulse spectra, simulated and measured with a CdTe Detector, are reported. (author)

  11. Optical fiber sensors for image formation in radiodiagnostic - preliminary essays; Sensores a fibra optica para formacao de imagens em radiodiagnostico - ensaios preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Cesar C. de; Werneck, Marcelo M. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Biomedica

    1998-07-01

    This work describes preliminary experiments that will bring subsidies to analyze the capability to implement a system able to capture radiological images with new sensor system, comprised by FOs scanning process and I-CCD camera. These experiments have the main objective to analyze the optical response from FOs bundle, with several typos of scintillators associated with them, when it is submitted to medical x-rays exposition. (author)

  12. Startup of the Whiteshell irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, J.W.; Stanley, F.W.

    1989-01-01

    Recently, a 10-MeV, 1-kW electron linear accelerator was installed in a specially designed irradiation facility at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment. The facility was designed for radiation applications research in the development of new radiation processes up to the pilot scale level. The accelerator is of advanced design. Automatic startup via computer control makes it compatible with industrial processing. It has been operated successfully as a fully integrated electron irradiator for a number of applications including curing of plastics and composites, sterilization of medical disposables and animal feed irradiation. We report here on our experience during the first six months of operation. (orig.)

  13. Startup of the whiteshell irradiation facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, J. W.; Stanley, F. W.

    1989-04-01

    Recently, a 10-MeV, 1-kW electron linear accelerator was installed in a specially designed irradiation facility at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment. The facility was designed for radiation applications research in the development of new radiation processes up to the pilot scale level. The accelerator is of advanced design. Automatic startup via computer control makes it compatible with industrial processing. It has been operated successfully as a fully integrated electron irradiator for a number of applications including curing of plastics and composites, sterilization of medical disposables and animal feed irradiation. We report here on our experience during the first six months of operation.

  14. Irradiation Facilities at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Gkotse, Blerina; Carbonez, Pierre; Danzeca, Salvatore; Fabich, Adrian; Garcia, Alia, Ruben; Glaser, Maurice; Gorine, Georgi; Jaekel, Martin, Richard; Mateu,Suau, Isidre; Pezzullo, Giuseppe; Pozzi, Fabio; Ravotti, Federico; Silari, Marco; Tali, Maris

    2017-01-01

    CERN provides unique irradiation facilities for applications in many scientific fields. This paper summarizes the facilities currently operating for proton, gamma, mixed-field and electron irradiations, including their main usage, characteristics and information about their operation. The new CERN irradiation facilities database is also presented. This includes not only CERN facilities but also irradiation facilities available worldwide.

  15. Perspective on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsome, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    A brief review summarizes current scientific information on the safety and efficacy of irradiation processing of foods. Attention is focused on: specifics of the irradiation process and its effectiveness in food preservation; the historical development of food irradiation technology in the US; the response of the Institute of Food Technologists to proposed FDA guidelines for food irradiation; the potential uses of irradiation in the US food industry; and the findings of the absence of toxins and of unaltered nutrient density (except possibly for fats) in irradiated foods. The misconceptions of consumers concerning perceived hazards associated with food irradiation, as related to consumer acceptance, also are addressed

  16. Research on food irradiation in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmy, N.; Maha, M.; Chosdu, R.

    1986-01-01

    Studies on various aspects of food irradiation have been done in Indonesia since 1968, mainly at the Centre for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation, National Atomic Energy Agency of Indonesia. Three irradiation facilities available at the Centre are gamma cell-220, panoramic batch irradiator, and latex irradiator with the present source capacities of about 1.1, 40, and 163.8 kCi Co-60, respectively. In this paper, the present status of research and development on irradiation is presented, covering (1) spices and medicinal plants, (2) rice, wheat flour and coffee bean, (3) fish and fishery products, (4) animal feed, and (5) ongoing projects including fresh fruits, cacao beans, and cashew nut. The Sub-Committee for the Control of Irradiation of Food and Medical Products, set up in August 1984, has prepared the draft of recommendations regarding the regulation for application of food irradiation in Indonedia and the draft of Regulation for the Control of and Trade in Irradiated Food and Traditional Drug to be issued by the government. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. Status of food irradiation in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, O.K.

    1996-01-01

    Research on food irradiation in Brazil started in 1968 at the Center of Nuclear Energy for Agriculture (CENA), Piracicaba, Sao Paulo. At the Institute of Nuclear and Energy Research (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, research on detection of irradiated foods is in progress. In 1973, the Brazilian government established a regulation about food irradiation. Nowadays, the products authorized to be irradiated are: rice, poultry, fish and fish products, potatoes, onions, avocados, persimmons, pineapples, wheat flour, maize, beans, spices, tomatoes, guavas, oranges, lemons, strawberries, mangoes, melons and papayas. The other recommended products to be approved in the future are: acerolas, apples, beans (dose > 1 kGy), beef, blueberries, cherries, cheeses, coffee, figs, fresh guaranas, garlics, grapefruits, grapes, mushrooms, nuts and pork. Today, there is only one commercial facility for irradiation services in the country, the Empresa Brasileira de Radiacoes Ltda. (EMBRARAD). This company operates a Nordion JS-7500 irradiator, with a present activity of about 1,000 kCi, designed for sterilizing medical devices. It also irradiates spices, dried foods, gemstones, cosmetics, wood and raw materials for pharmaceuticals. The plant operates 24 hours a day and the spices and dried foods represent 15% of the business. Powder of guarana seeds is irradiated also for exportation. There are two other commercial facilities for radiation sterilization in Brazil, operating exclusively for their own production. (J.P.N.)

  18. Current status of food irradiation in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2007-01-01

    With respect to the safety of irradiated food, the Korean government has accepted in principle the recommendations of international organization (FAO, WHO, IAEA, CAC, etc) as well as the national-based evaluations. Gamma radiation from Co-60 is now authorized to be used for food irradiation of 26 food items (or classes). Two multipurpose gamma-irradiation facilities (Greenpia Tech. Inc. since 1987; SOYA Co. Ltd. since 2002) are now operating for the treatments of selected food items as well as medical supplies. At present, labeled-irradiated products are not yet being marketed at the consumer level. As an alternative process of chemical fumigants, however, irradiation is being partially utilized for the microbial decontamination and pest control of dried spices, vegetable ingredients, etc. for their use in processed foods as minor ingredients. Commercial applications of food irradiation, though small in number, have been steady ever since. This article introduces the commercial progress in food irradiation technology in Korea in terms of research activities, legislation, commercialization, and the control of irradiated foods. (author)

  19. Electron beam irradiating device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, K

    1969-12-20

    The efficiency of an electron beam irradiating device is heightened by improving the irradiation atmosphere and the method of cooling the irradiation window. An irradiation chamber one side of which incorporates the irradiation windows provided at the lower end of the scanner is surrounded by a suitable cooling system such as a coolant piping network so as to cool the interior of the chamber which is provided with circulating means at each corner to circulate and thus cool an inert gas charged therewithin. The inert gas, chosen from a group of such gases which will not deleteriously react with the irradiating equipment, forms a flowing stream across the irradiation window to effect its cooling and does not contaminate the vacuum exhaust system or oxidize the filament when penetrating the equipment through any holes which the foil at the irradiation window may incur during the irradiating procedure.

  20. Hair dosimetry following neutron irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebaron-Jacobs, L; Gaillard-Lecanu, E; Briot, F; Distinguin, S; Boisson, P; Exmelin, L; Racine, Y; Berard, P; Flüry-Herard, A; Miele, A; Fottorino, R

    2007-05-01

    Use of hair as a biological dosimeter of neutron exposure was proposed a few years ago. To date, the (32)S(n,p)(32)P reaction in hair with a threshold of 2.5 MeV is the best choice to determine the fast neutron dose using body activation. This information is essential with regards to the heterogeneity of the neutron transfer to the organism. This is a very important parameter for individual dose reconstruction from the surface to the deeper tissues. This evaluation is essential to the adapted management of irradiated victims by specialized medical staff. Comparison exercises between clinical biochemistry laboratories from French sites (the CEA and COGEMA) and from the IRSN were carried out to validate the measurement of (32)P activity in hair and to improve the techniques used to perform this examination. Hair was placed on a phantom and was irradiated at different doses in the SILENE reactor (Valduc, France). Different parameters were tested: variation of hair type, minimum weight of hair sample, hair wash before measurement, delivery period of results, and different irradiation configurations. The results obtained in these comparison exercises by the different laboratories showed an excellent correlation. This allowed the assessment of a dose-activity relationship and confirmed the feasibility and the interest of (32)P measurement in hair following fast neutron irradiation.

  1. Radiation facilities and irradiation technology for food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunaga, Hiromi

    2005-01-01

    Progress made during these 30 years in the field of radiation treatment of food is reviewed by describing features of the process including elementary processes, quality control of the products and the dosimetric techniques widely employed. The Co-60 gamma-ray irradiation facilities to be used for radiation-sterilization of medical supplies and food preservation are presented. For electron beam irradiation, accelerators for processing with the energy from 0.3 to 10 MeV are generally employed. The electron-guns, the method of acceleration such as rectification, types of acceleration as Cockcroft-Walton, dynamitron, or linear acceleration and X-ray producing facility, with various countermeasures for safety management, are briefly explained. The concepts of dose and traceability are given. The dosimeters including reference dosimeter and routine ones with validation are explained. (S. Ohno)

  2. Irradiation of goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, G.

    1992-01-01

    The necessary dose and the dosage limits to be observed depend on the kind of product and the purpose of irradiation. Product density and density distribution, product dimensions, but also packaging, transport and storage conditions are specific parameters influencing the conditions of irradiation. The kind of irradiation plant - electron accelerator or gamma plant - , its capacity, transport system and geometric arrangement of the radiation field are factors influencing the irradiation conditions as well. This is exemplified by the irradiation of 3 different products, onions, deep-frozen chicken and high-protein feed. Feasibilities and limits of the irradiation technology are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  3. Safety evaluation on irradiated food ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports double-blind observations of volunteers who took 35 kinds of irradiated foods as their main diet for 90 days. The subjects consisted of 70 medical students and 8 staff members in the Shanghai Medical University. They were randomly divided into two groups. One group was supplied with irradiated foods, the other acted as controls eating the same food but non-irradiated. The 35 kinds of irradiated foods were grain, meat products, vegetables, fruits, dried fruits etc. The absorbed dose of irradiation from the processed foods varied from 0.1 to 8.0 kGy. The irradiated foods made up 60.3% of the total food intake by weight. Observations during 90 days indicated that the subjects were all pleased with their diets and no adverse effects on their health were seen. Clinical and laboratory examinations included routine blood and urine tests, blood biochemical examinations, hepatic and renal function tests, endocrinological assays, cellular immunity tests, and mutagenetic studies (such as the incidence of polyploid cells, chromosomal structural aberration, rates of sister chromatid-exchanges, micronuclei test, urine Ames' test). These studies showed that the ingestion of these foods are safe for humans

  4. Radiation protection in medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacc, R.A.; Rubiolo, J.; Herrero, F.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The goal of this paper is to identify the areas in which radiation protection is actually needed and the relative importance of protection measures. A correlation between the different medical applications of the ionizing radiations and the associated risks, mainly due to ignorance, has been a constant throughout the history of mankind. At the beginning, the accidents were originated in research nuclear laboratories working on the atomic bomb, while the incidents occurred in medical areas because of virtual ignorance of the harmful effects on humans. The 60's were characterized by the oil fever, which produced innumerable accidents due to the practice of industrial radiography; in the 70's the use of radiations on medical applications was intensified, to such and extent that a new type of victim appeared: the patient. Unfortunately, during 80's and 90's the number of accidents in different medical practices has increased, projecting the occurred in Zaragoza (Spain) on 1990 with a linear accelerator for radiotherapy treatments. In some developed countries, foreseeing the probability of producing biological effects as a result of different radiology practices, more strict security rules are adopted to guarantee the application of the three principles of the radioprotection: justification, optimization and limitation of individual dose. In this way, in the U.S.A., the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organization (JCAHO), favors a vigilance politics in the different departments of Radiodiagnostic and Nuclear Medicine to secure an effective management in security, communications and quality control, in which the medical physicists play an important role. One of the requirements for example is to attach the value of entrance exposition dose in the radiological diagnostic report. So, the doses in the different organs are compared with the tabulated doses. Basically, a quality control programme is designed to minimize the risks for patients

  5. Local graft irradiation in renal transplant rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Masashi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Itoh, Hisao

    1990-01-01

    From 1977 to 1988, of 142 renal transplantations, seven recipients (4.9%) received local graft irradiation following rejective reaction refractory to antirejection medical managements. Concurrent with the administration of pulsed high dose methylprednisolone and other antirejection medical managements, the graft was irradiated with a total dose of 6.0 Gy-150 cGy per fraction every other day at the midplane of the graft using two opposing portals of 4MX Linac. The fields were defined by palpation and echography. All patients had improvements in serum creatinine on the 10th day after beginning the irradiation. Four patients with peripheral lymphocytosis during the irradiation combined with pulsed high dose methylprednisolone improved in renal functions. On the other hand, out of 3 patients with lymphcytopenic changes, in two the transplanted graft was removed due to deteriorations, and the other patient is currently suffering from chronic rejection. Local graft irradiation can be useful in maintaining a rejective graft and reversing its functions in some patients whose rejective reaction failed to respond to the antirejection medical managements. (author)

  6. Human subjects and experimental irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, R.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years the public has expressed concern about the use of human subjects in scientific research. Some professional institutions have adopted codes of practice to guide them in this matter. At the University of New South Wales, where human subjects are used in teaching and research programmes, a committee ensures that high ethical standards are maintained. As the volunteer subjects do not gain any benefit themselves from the procedures, their level of risk is kept low. One type of procedure in which risk is becoming quantifiable, is the irradiation of human subjects. To assist peer review groups, the ICRP, WHO and the National Health and Medical Research Council have enunciated principles which should be followed in the irradiation of human volunteer subjects. In general the role of the Committee is advisory to protect the rights of the investigator, the subject, and the institution. Some of the inherent problems are discussed

  7. Facts about food irradiation: Food irradiation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet gives the cost of a typical food irradiation facility (US $1 million to US $3 million) and of the food irradiation process (US $10-15 per tonne for low-dose applications; US $100-250 per tonne for high-dose applications). These treatments also bring consumer benefits in terms of availability, storage life and improved hygiene. 2 refs

  8. Food irradiation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiang

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the author discussed the recent situation of food irradiation in China, its history, facilities, clearance, commercialization, and with emphasis on market testing and public acceptance of irradiated food. (author)

  9. Food irradiation in the Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Yook, Hong-Sun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2001-01-01

    There has been substantial progress in the application gamma radiation for food and medical products in Korea since the establishment of the commercial irradiation facility by Agricultural Products Distribution Corporation in 1987. The Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare in consultation with the Committee of Food Sanitation Deliberation and the Korean FDA accorded clearances of irradiation processing of a number of food products ranging from health foods, condiments and raw materials for food processing in 1987 followed by amendment in 1995. Gamma radiation from Co-60 was allowed for food processing with labeling requirement and restriction on re-irradiation. Annual irradiation processing of foods stands at about 2,000 metric tons. Authorisation to use irradiation for red meats and meat products is under consideration. A large number of business enterprises are utilizing the irradiation facility. A new multi-purpose commercial Co-60 irradiation plant is in the process of establishment in the country as a private company venture. In order to remove consumers' misunderstanding, a number of consumer education programmes have been implemented successfully with improvement of public perception. (author)

  10. Food irradiation in the Republic of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Yook, Hong-Sun; Lee, Ju-Woon [Food Irradiation Research Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusung, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-05-01

    There has been substantial progress in the application gamma radiation for food and medical products in Korea since the establishment of the commercial irradiation facility by Agricultural Products Distribution Corporation in 1987. The Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare in consultation with the Committee of Food Sanitation Deliberation and the Korean FDA accorded clearances of irradiation processing of a number of food products ranging from health foods, condiments and raw materials for food processing in 1987 followed by amendment in 1995. Gamma radiation from Co-60 was allowed for food processing with labeling requirement and restriction on re-irradiation. Annual irradiation processing of foods stands at about 2,000 metric tons. Authorisation to use irradiation for red meats and meat products is under consideration. A large number of business enterprises are utilizing the irradiation facility. A new multi-purpose commercial Co-60 irradiation plant is in the process of establishment in the country as a private company venture. In order to remove consumers' misunderstanding, a number of consumer education programmes have been implemented successfully with improvement of public perception. (author)

  11. Dosimetry for Crystals Irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Lecomte, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Before shipment to CMS, all PbWO4 crystals produced in China are irradiated there with 60 Co , in order to insure that the induced absorption coefficient is within specifications. Acceptance tests at CERNand at ENEA also include irradiation with gamma rays from 60 Co sources. There were initially discrepancies in quoted doses and doserates as well as in induced absorption coefficients. The present work resolves the discrepancies in irradiation measurements and defines common dosimetry methods for consistency checks between irradiation facilities.

  12. Irradiation and flavor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reineccius, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    Flavor will not be a significant factor in determining the success of irradiated foods entering the U.S. market. The initial applications will use low levels of irradiation that may well result in products with flavor superior to that of products from alternative processing techniques (thermal treatment or chemical fumigation). The success of shelf-stable foods produced via irradiation may be much more dependent upon our ability to deal with the flavor aspects of high levels of irradiation

  13. Food irradiation makes progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooij, J. van

    1984-01-01

    In the past fifteen years, food irradiation processing policies and programmes have been developed both by a number of individual countries, and through projects supported by FAO, IAEA and WHO. These aim at achieving general acceptance and practical implementation of food irradiation through rigorous investigations of its wholesomeness, technological and economic feasibility, and efforts to achieve the unimpeded movement of irradiated foods in international trade. Food irradiation processing has many uses

  14. Irradiation by microtron- a new concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soni, H.C.; Bhawalkar, D.D.

    1998-01-01

    The Centre for Advanced Technology has developed and fabricated three microtrons for various purposes. Based on the experience gained during the design, fabrication, operation and maintenance of these microtrons; a compact 10 MeV, 1.0 kW microtron based industrial unit has been designed for sterilization of medical products and irradiation of food items with a throughput of 1.8 kGy - ton/h. The unit is simple, cheap and has local shielding making it semi-portable. The paper discusses the new concept of irradiation by using microtron and describes the salient features of the irradiation unit. An economic analysis of radioactive processing of medical products and food items with this unit is presented. (author)

  15. Containers in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolumen, S.; Espinosa, R.

    1997-01-01

    The preservation of food by irradiation is promising technology which increases industrial application. Packaging of irradiated foods is an integral part of the process. Judicious selection of the package material for successful trade is essential. In this paper is presented a brief review of important aspects of packaging in food irradiation [es

  16. Ten years' operation of an irradiation unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Icre, Pierre

    1979-01-01

    The Ionizing Radiation Application Center is equipped with an electron linear accelerator for diversified applications. Power of the electron beam is 7.5 kW and energy is 6 MeV. Main activity is radiosterilization of disposable medical and surgical materials. Remaining activity is irradiation of plastic especially grafting and cross-linking of polyethylene [fr

  17. Irradiation of foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeberg, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Foodstuffs are irradiated to make them keep better. The ionizing radiation is not so strong as to cause radioactivity in the foodstuffs. At least so far, irradiation has not gained acceptance among consumers, although it has been shown to be a completely safe method of preservation. Irradiation causes only slight chemical changes in food. What irradiation does, however, is to damage living organisms, such as bacteria, DNA and proteins, thereby making the food keep longer. Irradiation can be detected from the food afterwards; thus it can be controlled effectively. (orig.)

  18. Contribution to the study of the leukemia potential of radiation used in radio-diagnostic in children: statistical study of the main radiological examinations according to age and sex (1963); Contribution a l'etude du pouvoir leukemogene des radiations utilisees en radiodiagnostic chez l'enfant: etude statistique des principaux examens radiologiques suivant l'age et le sexe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larcher, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-06-15

    With a view to discovering whether low irradiation doses are liable to increase the incidence of leukemia or cancer amongst people exposed to this risk, an enquiry, has been undertaken into the distribution according to age and to sex of 13,596 important radiological examinations carried out in radio-pediatric departments from 1953 to 1961, a population structure study essential for choosing the group studied and the comparison group. This survey will be used as the basis for the constitution of a population whose pathology will be examined with great care. The main conclusion resulting from this enquiry is that the frequency of digestive and urinary examinations is very high in babies of under one year old and higher in boys than in girls. (author) [French] Dans le but de determiner si les faibles doses d'irradiations sont susceptibles d'augmenter le taux de leucemies ou de cancer dans les populations exposees a ce risque, une enquete a ete faite sur la repartition par age et par sexe de 13596 examens radiologiques importants effectues dans des services de radiopediatrie de 1953 a 1961, elude de la structure de la population necessaire pour choisir le groupe etudie et le groupe temoin. Ce releve sert de base a la constitution d'une population dont la pathologie sera recherchee avec soin. De cette enquete, il ressort essentiellement que la frequence des examens digestifs et urinaires est tres elevee chez les nourrissons ages de moins d'un an, et plus elevee chez les garcons que chez les filles. (auteur)

  19. Contribution to the study of the leukemia potential of radiation used in radio-diagnostic in children: statistical study of the main radiological examinations according to age and sex (1963); Contribution a l'etude du pouvoir leukemogene des radiations utilisees en radiodiagnostic chez l'enfant: etude statistique des principaux examens radiologiques suivant l'age et le sexe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larcher, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-06-15

    With a view to discovering whether low irradiation doses are liable to increase the incidence of leukemia or cancer amongst people exposed to this risk, an enquiry, has been undertaken into the distribution according to age and to sex of 13,596 important radiological examinations carried out in radio-pediatric departments from 1953 to 1961, a population structure study essential for choosing the group studied and the comparison group. This survey will be used as the basis for the constitution of a population whose pathology will be examined with great care. The main conclusion resulting from this enquiry is that the frequency of digestive and urinary examinations is very high in babies of under one year old and higher in boys than in girls. (author) [French] Dans le but de determiner si les faibles doses d'irradiations sont susceptibles d'augmenter le taux de leucemies ou de cancer dans les populations exposees a ce risque, une enquete a ete faite sur la repartition par age et par sexe de 13596 examens radiologiques importants effectues dans des services de radiopediatrie de 1953 a 1961, elude de la structure de la population necessaire pour choisir le groupe etudie et le groupe temoin. Ce releve sert de base a la constitution d'une population dont la pathologie sera recherchee avec soin. De cette enquete, il ressort essentiellement que la frequence des examens digestifs et urinaires est tres elevee chez les nourrissons ages de moins d'un an, et plus elevee chez les garcons que chez les filles. (auteur)

  20. Development of irradiation technique on degradation residue of pesticide veterinary drugs and mycotoxins in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jiang; Huang Min; Chen Hao; Wu Ling; Gao Peng; Wang Yan; Lei Qing

    2011-01-01

    Irradiation technology is a new processing technology, It was widely used in food, medicines and medical supplies, chemical and other industries. In this paper, illustrated their applications in the degradation of pesticides, veterinary drugs and mycotoxins aspects residual pollution in food. Analysis of residual contaminants in food irradiation control study limitations and look forward to the prospect of food irradiation technology. (authors)

  1. Radiation safety in 'install and operate type' irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, D.K.; Kohli, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    Install and operate type irradiator has been designed to carry out radiation processing of various food products as well as medical products. It is a category 1 type batch irradiator. This paper brings out the radiation safety aspects of this irradiator. Comparison has been made with conveyor type category IV irradiators, which are more common in use for commercial purposes. The design has many features that make it a very safe, convenient and economical method for processing of all items that are permitted and amenable for gamma radiation processing. (author)

  2. Stillbirths and male irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boice, John D. Jr. [International Epidemiology Institute, Rockville, MD (United States)]. E-mail: boicej@compuserve.com; Robison, Leslie L. [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Mertens, Ann [University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Stovall, Marilyn; Green, Daniel M.; Mulvihill, John J.; ); Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, OK (US))

    2000-09-01

    Little (1999) recently reviewed the evidence that paternal preconception irradiation in the Sellafield workforce (Parker et al 1999) and among Japanese atomic bomb survivors (Otake et al 1990) might be associated with an increased risk of stillbirth. He concluded that the association reported for radiation workers was statistically incompatible with the absence of an association seen among the exposed Japanese parents. These studies and analyses illustrate the considerable difficulty in assessing stillbirths conceived by men exposed to ionising radiation at work. For example, occupational doses may not be sufficiently large to result in a detectable effect and maternal factors that are associated with stillbirths and important to adjust for may not be available. These papers also bring to focus a relevant but not well-studied public health issue, namely, what are the reproductive risks for men and women exposed to potential mutagens? We wish to emphasise here the theoretical and practical advantages of addressing this issue in persons not with low dose occupational or acute atomic bomb exposures, but with higher dose medical experiences; in particular, in survivors of cancers of childhood, adolescents, and young adulthood (Blatt 1999, Bryne et al 1998, Sankila et al 1998, Green et al 1997, Hawkins and Stevens 1996). Letter-to-the-editor.

  3. Future of U.S. cobalt irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clouser, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    An examination of future cobalt needs requires us to review our base business, customer trends, technology trends, and people, the human aspect of our business. I am approaching this discussion from the perspective of a contract supplier of gamma irradiation services in the United States. The base business is comprised primarily of the sterilization of medical devices followed by containers, labware, food products, and other items. Since the core business is serving the medical industry, trends observed within medical device manufacturers can impact our growth and the type of services needed to support that industry. (author)

  4. Preoperative irradiation of hypernephroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbar, D.

    1982-01-01

    Since 1969, preoperative irradiation of hypernephiroid carcinoma has been a routine measure at the Steglitz medical clinic: It consists in the application of a focal dose of 30 Gy, fractionated into doses of 2.5 Gy, as Betatron pendulum irradiation (42 MeV photons) covering the para-aortic lymph nodes. After a treatment-free interval of 3 weeks, radical nephrectomy is carried through. Of 178 patients, 47 were in tumor stage I, 15 in stage II, 83 in stage III and 33 in stage IV. In 99 patients the treatment dated back longer than 5 years; the survival rate was 52%. 67% of the patients had survived longer than 3 years. Operation lethality was 3%. The preoperative irradiation pursues the following aims: 1. Devitalization of potentially proliferating cells in the tumor periphery, and thus prevention of displaced tumor cells growing on and postoperative local recidivations; 2. Shrinking of the tumor, facilitating the surgical intervention. In a third of the cases a measurable alteration of the tumor was confirmed by X-ray. The low operation lethality of 3% is attributed to this. (orig./MG) [de

  5. Minimizing material damage using low temperature irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craven, E.; Hasanain, F.; Winters, M.

    2012-01-01

    Scientific advancements in healthcare driven both by technological breakthroughs and an aging and increasingly obese population have lead to a changing medical device market. Complex products and devices are being developed to meet the demands of leading edge medical procedures. Specialized materials in these medical devices, including pharmaceuticals and biologics as well as exotic polymers present a challenge for radiation sterilization as many of these components cannot withstand conventional irradiation methods. The irradiation of materials at dry ice temperatures has emerged as a technique that can be used to decrease the radiation sensitivity of materials. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of low temperature irradiation on a variety of polymer materials, and over a range of temperatures from 0 °C down to −80 °C. The effectiveness of microbial kill is also investigated under each of these conditions. The results of the study show that the effect of low temperature irradiation is material dependent and can alter the balance between crosslinking and chain scission of the polymer. Low temperatures also increase the dose required to achieve an equivalent microbiological kill, therefore dose setting exercises must be performed under the environmental conditions of use. - Highlights: ► A study is performed to quantify low temperature irradiation effects on polymer materials and BIs. ► Low temperature irradiation alters the balance of cross-linking and chain scissoning in polymers. ► Low temperatures provide radioprotection for BIs. ► Benefits of low temperatures are application specific and must be considered when dose setting.

  6. Minimizing material damage using low temperature irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, E.; Hasanain, F.; Winters, M.

    2012-08-01

    Scientific advancements in healthcare driven both by technological breakthroughs and an aging and increasingly obese population have lead to a changing medical device market. Complex products and devices are being developed to meet the demands of leading edge medical procedures. Specialized materials in these medical devices, including pharmaceuticals and biologics as well as exotic polymers present a challenge for radiation sterilization as many of these components cannot withstand conventional irradiation methods. The irradiation of materials at dry ice temperatures has emerged as a technique that can be used to decrease the radiation sensitivity of materials. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of low temperature irradiation on a variety of polymer materials, and over a range of temperatures from 0 °C down to -80 °C. The effectiveness of microbial kill is also investigated under each of these conditions. The results of the study show that the effect of low temperature irradiation is material dependent and can alter the balance between crosslinking and chain scission of the polymer. Low temperatures also increase the dose required to achieve an equivalent microbiological kill, therefore dose setting exercises must be performed under the environmental conditions of use.

  7. Sensory properties of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plestenjak, A.

    1997-01-01

    Food irradiation is a simple and effective preservation technique. The changes caused by irradiation depend on composition of food, on the absorbed dose, the water content and temperature during and after irradiation. In this paper the changes of food components caused by irradiation, doses for various food irradiation treatments, foods and countries where the irradiation is allowed, and sensory properties of irradiated food are reviewed

  8. Radiation sterilization of medical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurshid, S.J.; Hussain, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation sterilization is the best method of sterilization, essentially for single use medical and surgical products. Pakistan has established a commercial gamma irradiation plant for this purpose. This article overviews the advantages and benefits of radiation sterilization to stimulate the interest of industrialists and the users in this technology. This technology can give a better medical care in the country and the growing demand can only be met by bulk sterilization. The radiation sterilized medical products can also compete well with the products sterilized by other methods in the international market, gamma sterilization is accepted internationally and if adopted it can boost our export of medical products. (author)

  9. Sapphire capillary interstitial irradiators for laser medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikunova, I. A.; Dolganova, I. N.; Dubyanskaya, E. N.; Mukhina, E. E.; Zaytsev, K. I.; Kurlov, V. N.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate instruments for laser radiation delivery based on sapphire capillary needles. Such sapphire irradiators (introducers) can be used for various medical applications, such as photodynamic therapy, laser hyperthermia, laser interstitial thermal therapy, and ablation of tumors of various organs. Unique properties of sapphire allow for effective redistribution of the heat, generated in biological tissues during their exposure to laser radiation. This leads to homogeneous distribution of the laser irradiation around the needle, and lower possibility of formation of the overheating focuses, as well as the following non-transparent thrombi.

  10. Irradiation - who needs it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoular, C.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the public's attitudes to the irradiation of food to ensure it is bacteria free and to prolong shelf-life are considered. The need to label irradiated food and to educate the public about its implications are emphasised. The opinions of the large food retailers who maintain that high standards in food processing, hygiene and refrigeration eliminate the need for food irradiation are discussed. (UK)

  11. Identification of irradiated chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegelberg, A.; Heide, L.; Boegl, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Frozen chicken and chicken parts were irradiated at a dose of 5 kGy with Co-60. The irradiated chicken and chicken parts were identified by determination of three radiation-induced hydrocarbons from the lipid fraction. Isolation was carried out by high-vacuum distillation with a cold-finger apparatus. The detection of the hydrocarbons was possible in all irradiated samples by gaschromatography/mass spectrometry. (orig.) [de

  12. Food irradiation - now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basson, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Food irradiation technology in South Africa is about to take its rightful place next to existing food preservation methods in protecting food supplies. This is as a result of several factors, the most important of which is the decision by the Department of Health and Population Development to introduce compulsory labelling of food irradiation. The factors influencing food irradiation technology in South Africa are discussed

  13. Development of blood irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This project is designed to improve the techniques of blood irradiation through the development of improved and portable blood irradiators. A portable blood irradiator, consisting of a vitreous carbon body and thulium-170 radiation source, was attached to dogs via a carotid-jugular shunt, and its effects on the immune system measured. The device has demonstrated both significant suppression of circulating lymphocytes and prolonged retention of skin allografts

  14. Evolution of the Regular monitoring of workers using ionizing radiations in medical field in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biau, A.; Valero, M.; Dubuquoy, E.; Crescini, D.

    2002-01-01

    Among the 260000 workers surveyed by individual monitoring dosimetry in France, about 140000 work in medical field, in Radiodiagnostic. Radiotherapy or Nuclear Medicine. For the twenty last years the global exposure of these workers has decreased continuously like the number of doses over the regular limits of 50 millisieverts per year or even 20 millisieverts which will be included in the new regulations according to the European Directive 96/29 of 13 may 1996. To reinforce this evolution to lower exposures (ALARA) the french regulations have been completed in 1998 and 1999. These new regular prescriptions consist essentially in. - possibility of using another system of passive dosimetry than firm dosimeter (TLD, OSL, RPL...) - obligation of active dosimeter (real time reading) associated with the passive dosimeter for the workers affected in controlled area. - gathering of all the dosimetric results on a data base called SISERI accessible by computer only to the health physicians and the competent person specially authorized. This work is showing from statistical data on the levels of exposure in medical field: - which are the working conditions for which the two system of dosimetry are really necessary - how to delimit the controlled area on realistic basic rather than theoretical assumptions - how the data base SISERI is actually functioning and how it will evaluate from now to 2003. Finally, we propose a schedule to define the different forms of survey for internal and external risks of exposure and to select the best type of monitoring according to the working conditions. (Author)

  15. Irradiation of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, B.; Danielsson-Tham, M.L.; Hoel, C.

    1983-01-01

    A committee has on instructions from the swedish government made an inquiry into the possible effects on health and working environment from irradition of food. In this report, a review is presented on the known positiv and negative effects of food irradiation Costs, availabilty, shelf life and quality of irradiated food are also discussed. According to the report, the production of radiolysis products during irradiation is not easily evaluated. The health risks from irradiation of spices are estimated to be lower than the risks associated with the ethenoxid treatment presently used. (L.E.)

  16. Gamma irradiation devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeldiak, Gabor; Stenger, Vilmos.

    1983-01-01

    The main parameters and the preparation procedures of the gamma radiation sources frequently applied for irradiation purposes are discussed. In addition to 60 Co and 137 Cs sources also the nuclear power plants offer further opportunities: spent fuel elements and products of certain (n,γ) reactions can serve as irradiation sources. Laboratory scale equipments, pilot plant facilities for batch or continuous operation, continuous industrial irradiators and special multipurpose, mobile and panorama type facilities are reviewed including those in Canada, USA, India, the Soviet Union, Hungary, UK, Japan and Australia. For irradiator design the source geometry dependence of the spatial distribution of dose rates can be calculated. (V.N.)

  17. Immunocytoadherence and sublethal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaumariage, M.L.; Hiesche, K.; Revesz, L.; Haot, J.

    1975-01-01

    In sublethally irradiated CBA mice, the relative and absolute numbers of spontaneous rosette forming cells against sheep erythrocytes are markedly decreased in bone marrow. The decrease of the absolute number of spontaneous RFC is also important in the spleen in spite of an increase of the RFC relative number above the normal values between the 8th and 12th day after irradiation. The graft of normal bone marrow cells immediately after irradiation or the shielding of a medullary area during irradiation promotes the recovery of the immunocytoadherence capacity of the bone marrow cells but not of the spleen cells [fr

  18. Fluorescence of irradiated hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulis, I.G.; Evdokimenko, V.M.; Lapkovskij, M.P.; Petrov, P.T.; Gulis, I.M.; Markevich, S.V.

    1977-01-01

    A visible fluorescence has been found out in γ-irradiated aqueous of carbohydrates. Two bands have been distinguished in fluorescence spectra of the irradiated solution of dextran: a short-wave band lambdasub(max)=140 nm (where lambda is a wave length) at lambdasub(β)=380 nm and a long-wave band with lambdasub(max)=540 nm at lambdasub(β)=430 nm. A similar form of the spectrum has been obtained for irradiated solutions of starch, amylopectin, lowmolecular glucose. It has been concluded that a macromolecule of polysaccharides includes fluorescent centres. A relation between fluorescence and α-oxiketon groups formed under irradiation has been pointed out

  19. Planning of irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caha, A; Krystof, V [Vyzkumny Ustav Klinicke a Experimentalni Onkologie, Brno (Czechoslovakia)

    1979-07-01

    The principles are discussed of the planning of irradiation, ie., the use of the various methods of location of a pathological focus and the possibility of semiautomatic transmission of the obtained data on a two-dimensional or spatial model. An efficient equipment is proposed for large irradiation centres which should cooperate with smaller irradiation departments for which also a range of apparatus is proposed. Irradiation planning currently applied at the Research Institute of Clinical and Experimental Oncology in Brno is described. In conclusion, some of the construction principles of semi-automatic operation of radiotherapy departments are discussed.

  20. Radiodiagnostic aspects of non-puerperal mastitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overhagen, H. van; Zonderland, H.M.; Lameris, J.S.

    1988-09-01

    The term non-puerperal mastitis describes a number of inflammatory diseases which can develop in a non-lactating breast. The clinical diagnosis NPM can be very difficult. However, mammography combined with ultrasound examination may lead to the correct diagnosis. In the mammogram a poorly marginated area of increased density can be seen, in case of an abscess there is a more circumscribed lesion. On ultrasound examination there is a well-circumscribed or ill-defined echo-poor lesion. The through transmission is not descreased and septa are frequently observed. If the radiological features correlate with the results of aspiration and cytological examination, the diagnosis NPM can be made and surgical intervention can be avoided. We describe the value of mammography and ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of non-puerperal mastitis in a group of six patients.

  1. Radiodiagnostic aspects of non-puerperal mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overhagen, H. van; Zonderland, H.M.; Lameris, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The term non-puerperal mastitis describes a number of inflammatory diseases which can develop in a non-lactating breast. The clinical diagnosis NPM can be very difficult. However, mammography combined with ultrasound examination may lead to the correct diagnosis. In the mammogram a poorly marginated area of increased density can be seen, in case of an abscess there is a more circumscribed lesion. On ultrasound examination there is a well-circumscribed or ill-defined echo-poor lesion. The through transmission is not descreased and septa are frequently observed. If the radiological features correlate with the results of aspiration and cytological examination, the diagnosis NPM can be made and surgical intervention can be avoided. We describe the value of mammography and ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of non-puerperal mastitis in a group of six patients. (orig.) [de

  2. Traumatological radiodiagnostics. 2. rev. and enlarged ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birzle, H.; Bergleiter, R.; Kuner, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    Traumatology accounts for a major part of diagnostic radiography. Correct application and assessment of imaging methods when examining freshly injured patients is of paramount importance and requires a good deal of experience. To this end, the book displays more than 1000 individual pictures. A brief text introduces to the peculiarities of the body region concerned. Typical injury mechanisms and available diagnostic methods are demonstrated including their advantages and disadvantages. This is followed by a comprehensive collection of pictures which also contains CT's and sonographs. With 530 figs [de

  3. Implementation of the qualities of radiodiagnostic: mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacífico, Leonardo; Magalhães, Luís A.G.; Fernandes, Elisabeth; Peixoto, José Guilherme P.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the expanded uncertainty and present the result of the internal audit performed at the Laboratory of Radiological Sciences (LCR). The qualities of the mammographic bundles that are references in the LCR calibrations had their uncertainties and conformities with the standard evaluated. The expanded uncertainty was 1.40%, and the result of the internal audit was satisfactory. We conclude that LCR can perform calibrations on mammography qualities for end users. (author)

  4. Implementation of the qualities of radiodiagnostic: mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacífico, Leonardo; Magalhães, Luís A.G.; Fernandes, Elisabeth, E-mail: leonardocpacifico@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil); Peixoto, José Guilherme P. [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the expanded uncertainty and present the result of the internal audit performed at the Laboratory of Radiological Sciences (LCR). The qualities of the mammographic bundles that are references in the LCR calibrations had their uncertainties and conformities with the standard evaluated. The expanded uncertainty was 1.40%, and the result of the internal audit was satisfactory. We conclude that LCR can perform calibrations on mammography qualities for end users. (author)

  5. Pregnancy and work in radiodiagnostic services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignacio da Silva, Lilian G.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the radiation protection is to avoid deterministic effects and to reduce the probability of occurrence of stochastic ones. Radiation Protection Programs controls working conditions and take into account the situation of the pregnant woman who works with ionizing radiation. Although the law in Uruguay forbids the work with ionizing radiation to pregnant women, does not have penalties for the employer who does not fulfill these regulations. Pregnancy is a natural state on the life of any women. However, in Uruguay this becomes a problematic situation not only for the worker but also for the employer. In addition to the absence of uncontrolled conditions, there are psychological aspects involved. When analyzing the pregnant radiation worker situation in other countries and comparing it with our reality, it comes out the necessity to implement a National Program of Radiation Protection. (author)

  6. Radiodiagnostics of the temporomandibular joint of disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrasovicova, J.; Jenca, A.

    2008-01-01

    Temporomandibularis disorders have a multifactorial etiology with very variable clinical symptoms. On the X-ray image can see the configuration of the joint structures correctly or TMJ disorders ( luxation, subluxation, arthrosis). (authors)

  7. Working conditions of a radiodiagnostic room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikirdin, Eh.G.

    1983-01-01

    The concept of ''operating load'' of an X-ray diagnostic room is explained. The concept includes the calculation of the Week's maximum exposure calculation and monitoring of stationary radiation shielding, measurements of exposure dose rate at working places. In this case the substitution of the actual repeated short-time regime of emitter operation for the calculated continuous regime is performed. The data on the ''operating load'' of X-ray diagnostic room are presented taking into account the method of X-ray investigation

  8. Food irradiation: fiction and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (IGCFI), sponsored by World Health Organization (WHO), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), with the intention to provide to governments, especially those of developing countries, scientifically correct information about food irradiation, decided to organize a file and questions of general public interest. The document is composed by descriptive files related with the actual situation and future prospective, technical and scientific terms, food irradiation and the radioactivity, chemical transformations in irradiated food, genetic studies, microbiological safety of irradiated food, irradiation and harmlessness, irradiation and additives, packing, irradiation facilities control, process control, irradiation costs and benefits as well as consumers reaction

  9. Ovarian irradiation in recurrent endometriosis; Irradiation ovarienne pour endometriose refractaire inoperable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochbati, L.; Chaari, N.; Besbes, M.; Maalej, M. [Institut Salah-Azaiz, Service de Radiotherapie Carcinologique Tunis (Tunisia); Neji, K.; Ben Amara, F. [Centre de Maternite et de Neonatologie de Tunis, Service B (Tunisia); Ben Romdhane, N.K. [Hopital La-Rabta, Service d' Hematologie, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2005-09-15

    We describe a case of a young woman with a history of an aplastic anaemia in which pelvic radiotherapy was used successfully in the management of a recurrent and inoperable endometriosis. The use of therapeutic pelvic or ovarian irradiation in endometriosis may be considered, when surgical and medical treatments have been exhausted and have failed. (authors)

  10. Facts about food irradiation: Chemical changes in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet addresses the safety of irradiated food. The irradiation process produces very little chemical change in food, and laboratory experiments have shown no harmful effects in animals fed with irradiated milk powder. 3 refs

  11. Modelling property changes in graphite irradiated at changing irradiation temperature

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kok, S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method is proposed to predict the irradiation induced property changes in nuclear; graphite, including the effect of a change in irradiation temperature. The currently used method; to account for changes in irradiation temperature, the scaled...

  12. Current status of irradiation facilities in JRR-3 and JRR-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Naohiko; Wada, Shigeru; Sasajima, Fumio; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi

    2006-01-01

    The Department of Research Reactor has operated two research reactors, JRR-3 and JRR-4. These reactors were constructed in the Tokai Research Establishment. Many researchers and engineers use these joint-use facilities. JRR-3 is a light water moderated and cooled, pool type research reactor using low-enriched silicide fuel. JRR-3's maximum thermal power is 20MW. JRR-3 has nine vertical irradiation holes for RI production, nuclear fuels and materials irradiation at reactor core area. JRR-3 has many kinds of irradiation holes in a heavy water tank around the reactor core. These are two hydraulic rabbit irradiation facilities, two pneumatic rabbit irradiation facilities, one activation analysis irradiation facilities, one uniform irradiation facility, one rotating irradiation facility and one capsule irradiation facility. JRR-3 has nine horizontal experimental holes, that are used by many kinds of neutron beam experimental facilities using these holes. JRR-4 is a light water moderated and cooled, swimming pool type research reactor using low-enriched silicide fuel. JRR-4's maximum thermal power is 3.5MW. JRR-4 has five vertical irradiation tubes at reactor core area, three capsule irradiation facilities, one hydraulic rabbit irradiation facility, and one pneumatic rabbit irradiation facility. JRR-4 has a neutron beam hole, and it has used neutron beam experiments, irradiations for activation analysis and medical neutron irradiations. (author)

  13. Development of an informative system on aspects of radiological protection in the medical practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez B, G.M.; Martinez G, A.; Gonzalez R, N.; Hernandez A, R.; Valdes R, M.; Cardenas H, J.; Zaldivar H, W.; Diaz B, M.; Machado T, A.

    2006-01-01

    Today in day is difficult to imagine the development of the medical practices in the diagnosis and treatment of diverse illnesses without the use of the ionizing radiations. In spite of the diffusion and application of these practices, the patients and the public in general don't have full conscience of like the procedures are carried out and the risks that these involve. For it diverse international and national organizations in the last years recommend to include in the programs of radiological protection, all the information that should be given to the patients and the one public that attend as users to the medical institutions to undergo to procedures that imply the use of the ionizing radiations. In Cuba a growing and quick tendency exists to the introduction of nuclear techniques for medical ends, however paradoxically the relative aspects to the communication to the patients and the public in general about the risks of the procedures to that they will be subjected and in consequence on the measures to minimize them is not adequate. Keeping in mind the above-mentioned, specialists of national centers linked to the control and consultant ship in the topics of radiological protection in the medical practices that use ionizing radiations, they worked in the country in the design of an information system that should contribute to elevate the population's culture before the mentioned aspects. The present work describes the structure of this system in function of the different medical attention levels of our national health system. Additionally it exposes the development of a package of varied informative and training tools among those that are folding, posters, guides, instructions, CD Show that its approach general and specific aspects of the uses and risks of medical practices in nuclear medicine, radiodiagnostic and radiotherapy directed so much to health professionals, patients as public in general. (Author)

  14. Economics feasibility of food irradiation in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khateeb, M.A.; El-Fouly, M.Z.

    2000-01-01

    The number of products being radiation processed worldwide is constantly increasing and today includes such diverse items as medical disposable, fruits and vegetables, spices, meats, sea foods and waste products. Their range of products being processed has resulted in a wide range of irradiator designs and capital and operating cost requirements. The paper discusses the economics of food irradiation applications and the effects of various parameters on unit processing costs. The food under investigation were smoked fish, spices and dried vegetables. It provides a model for calculating specific unit processing costs by correlating know capital costs with annual operation costs and annual throughputs. It is intended to provide the investors with a general knowledge of how unit processing costs are derived, and enough information to assist in the choice of the irradiator model best suited for specific needs

  15. Irradiation of foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugyaki, L.

    1977-01-01

    The author studies the criteria for the harmlessness of irradiation as a food-preservation process. The glucose and proteins of bacto-tryptone, irradiated at 5 Mrads, do not increase the Escherichia Coli C 600 lysogenous bacteriophages, compared to the induction produced by direct irradiation of the strain or to the exposition to nitrogenous yperite. The possible mutagenic effect is therefore different. Wheat flour freshly irradiated at 5 Mrads shows physico-chemical changes. When given to mice as 50% of their ration, it leads to a higher incidence of tumours and a greater number of meiotic chromosome alteration (besides some discreet physio-pathological changes in fertility and longevity). Immunoelectrophoresis in agar or agarose gel does not allow any detection of irradiation of meat, fish or eggs. A vertical electrophoresis in starch gel can lead to a differentiation between frozen or chilled meat and the one that is irradiated at 0.5 or 5 Mrads, but the same thing can't be said for fish or eggs. Lastly an irradiated mushroom shows every sign of freshness but, when planted in a suitable medium, its cuttings do not present any cell proliferation which could give a rapid and simple method of detecting the irradiation. (G.C.)

  16. Materials modified by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Application of radiation in pharmaceutical sciences and cosmetology, polymer materials, food industry, environment, health camre products and packing production is described. Nano-technology is described more detailed, because it is less known as irradiation using technology. Economic influence of the irradiation on the materials value addition is shown

  17. Special irradiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colomez, Gerard; Veyrat, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    Irradiation trials conducted on materials-testing reactors should provide a better understanding of the phenomena which characterize the working and evolution in time of electricity-generating nuclear reactors. The authors begin by outlining the objectives behind experimental irradiation (applied to the various nuclear chains) and then describe the special techniques deployed to achieve these objectives [fr

  18. Food irradiation: the facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Tony; Lang, Tim

    1987-01-01

    The London Food Commission summarizes its concerns about the use of food irradiation in the U.K. resulting from its working group surveys of general public opinion, trading standard officers and the food industry in the U.K., and from experience in countries already permitting irradiation to a variety of foods. (U.K.)

  19. Progress in food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The volume contains reports from 19 countries on the state of the project in the field of food irradiation (fruit, vegetables, meat, spices) by means of gamma rays. The tests ran up to 1982. Microbiological radiosensitivity and mutagenicity tests provide a yard stick for irradiation efficiency.

  20. Food irradiation: the facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, M.

    1990-01-01

    The author explains in simple question and answer form what is entailed in the irradiation of food and attempts to dispel some of the anxieties surrounding the process. Benefits and limitations, controls, labelling safety, and tests for the detection of the use irradiation in food preparation are some of the topics dealt with in outline. (author)

  1. Perspective on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Recent US Food and Drug Administration approval of irradiation treatment for fruit, vegetables and pork has stimulated considerable discussion in the popular press on the safety and efficacy of irradiation processing of food. This perspective is designed to summarize the current scientific information available on this issue

  2. Food Irradiation in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, T.

    1981-09-15

    Since 1967 research activities on food irradiation in Japan have been carried out under the National Food Irradiation Programme by the Japanese Atomic Energy Commission. The programme has been concentrated on the technological and economical feasibility and wholesomeness testings of seven irradiated food items of economic importance to the country, i.e. potatoes, onions, wheat, rice, 'kamaboko' (fish-paste products), 'Vienna' sausages and mandarin oranges. By now most studies, including wholesomeness testings of these irradiated food items, have been completed. In Japan, all foods or food additives for sale are regulated by the Food Sanitation Law enforced in 1947. Based on studies made by the national programme, irradiated potatoes were given 'unconditional acceptance' for human consumption in 1972. At present, irradiated potatoes are the only food item which has so far been approved by the Minister of Health and Welfare. Unless the Minister of Health and Welfare has declared that items are not harmful to human health on obtaining comments from the Food Sanitation Investigation Council, no irradiated food can be processed or sold. In addition, the import of irradiated foodstuffs other than potatoes from foreign countries is prohibited by law.

  3. Post irradiation conical keratosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestey, J.P.; Hunter, J.A.A.; Mallet, R.B.; Rodger, A.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have recently seen 3 patients affected by a widespread eruption of minute keratoses confined to areas of irradiated skin with clinical and histologial features of which they have been unable to find previous literary descriptions. A fourth patient with similar clinical and histopathological features occurring after exposure only to actinic irradiation is described. (author)

  4. Post irradiation conical keratosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestey, J.P.; Hunter, J.A.A. (Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh (UK)); Mallet, R.B. (Westminster Hospital, London (UK)); Rodger, A. (Western General Hospital, Edinburgh (UK))

    1989-03-01

    The authors have recently seen 3 patients affected by a widespread eruption of minute keratoses confined to areas of irradiated skin with clinical and histologial features of which they have been unable to find previous literary descriptions. A fourth patient with similar clinical and histopathological features occurring after exposure only to actinic irradiation is described. (author).

  5. Irradiation damage in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quere, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Most superconductors are quite sensitive to irradiation defects. Critical temperatures may be depressed, critical currents may be increased, by irradiation, but other behaviours may be encountered. In compounds, the sublattice in which defects are created is of significant importance. 24 refs

  6. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labots, H.; Huis in 't Veld, G.J.P.; Verrips, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    After a review of several methods for the preservation of food and the routes of food infections, the following chapters are devoted to the preservation by irradiation. Applications and legal aspects of food irradiation are described. Special reference is made to the international situation. (Auth.)

  7. Food irradiation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    A brief review is given of the control and monitoring of food irradiation with particular emphasis on the UK situation. After describing legal aspects, various applications of food irradiation in different countries are listed. Other topics discussed include code of practice for general control for both gamma radiation and electron beam facilities, dose specification, depth dose distribution and dosimetry. (U.K.)

  8. Uniformly irradiated polymer film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    Irradiated film having substantial uniformity in the radiation dosage profile is produced by irradiating the film within a trough having lateral deflection blocks disposed adjacent the film edges for deflecting electrons toward the surface of the trough bottom for further deflecting the electrons toward the film edge

  9. Irradiation Creep in Graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William

    2014-03-13

    An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of irradiation creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of irradiation creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the irradiation-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be irradiated to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for irradiation creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.

  10. Irradiation of goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunt, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Mechanical handling apparatus is adapted to handle goods, such as boxed fruit, during a process of irradiation, in palletized form. Palletized goods are loaded onto wheeled vehicles in a loading zone. Four vehicles are wheeled on a track into an irradiation zone via a door in a concrete shield. The vehicles are arranged in orthogonal relationship around a source of square section. Turntables are positioned at corners of the square shaped rail truck around the source selectively to turn the vehicles to align then with track sections. Mechanical manipulating devices are positioned in the track sections opposed to sides of the source. During irradiation, the vehicles and their palletized goods are cylically moved toward the source to offer first sides of the goods for irradiation and are retraced from the source and are pivoted through 90 0 to persent succeeding sides of the goods for irradiation

  11. Irradiation of packaged food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcast, D.

    1990-01-01

    Food irradiation is used to improve the safety of food by killing insects and microorganisms, to inhibit sprouting in crops such as onions and potatoes and to control ripening in agricultural produce. In order to prevent re-infestation and re-contamination it is essential that the food is suitably packed. Consequently, the packaging material is irradiated whilst in contact with the food, and it is important that the material is resistant to radiation-induced changes. In this paper the nature of the irradiation process is reviewed briefly, together with the known effects of irradiation on packaging materials and their implications for the effective application of food irradiation. Recent research carried out at the Leatherhead Food RA on the possibility of taint transfer into food is described. (author)

  12. Issues in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, S.

    1987-04-01

    This discussion paper has two goals: first, to raise public awareness of food irradiation, an emerging technology in which Canada has the potential to build a new industry, mainly oriented to promising overseas markets; and second, to help build consensus among government and private sector decision makers about what has to be done to realize the domestic and export potential. The following pages discuss the potential of food irradiation; indicate how food is irradiated; outline the uses of food irradiation; examine questions of the safety of the equipment and both the safety and nutritional value of irradiated food; look at international commercial developments; assess the current and emerging domestic scene; and finally, draw some conclusions and offer suggestions for action

  13. Extracorporeal irradiation -Physicist perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayaprabhu, N.; Saravanan, K.S.; Gunaseelan; Vivekanandam, S.; Reddy, K.S.; Parthasarathy; Mourougan, S.; Elangovan, K.

    2008-01-01

    Extracorporeal irradiation (ECI) involves irradiation of body tissues, particularly malignant bones of the extremities, outside the body. This involves en bloc resection of the tumour, extracorporeal irradiation of the bone segment with a single dose of 50 Gy or more, and reimplantation of the irradiated bone with fixation devices. Bone tumours like Ewing's Sarcoma, Chondrosarcoma and Oesteosarcoma; in the involved sites like femur, tibia, humerus, ilium and sacrum can be treated with ECI. The reimplanted bone simply acts as a framework for appositional bone growth from surrounding healthy bones. The conventional indications for postoperative irradiation are still applied. The major advantages of ECI are the precise anatomic fit of the reimplanted bone segment, preservation of joint mobility and its potential in avoiding the growth discrepancy commonly seen in prosthetic replacement. The use of ECI was first described in 1968 and practiced in Australia since 1996. In our center, we have completed six ECIs

  14. Development of breast cancer irradiation technique for BNCT at JRR-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Takemi; Horiguchi, Hironori; Arai, Masaji; Yanagie, Hironobu

    2014-06-01

    In the Department of Research Reactor and Tandem Accelerator, developments of irradiation technique with application enlargement for breast cancer on BNCT have been performed in the second medium term plans. We compiled this report about the technological development to solve several problems with the irradiation of breast cancer in the medical irradiation facility of JRR-4. In the present study, design fabrication of a collimator for breast cancer, dose evaluation analysis by clinical model, investigation of dose enhancement at deeper region and investigation of fixing method for breast cancer irradiation were studied. By these evaluation results, we verified that the developed breast cancer irradiation technique can be applied to BNCT medical irradiation of JRR-4. These results are expected to be able to contribute to breast cancer irradiation techniques of other reactor-based BNCT and future accelerator-based BNCT. (author)

  15. Operating experience with gamma ray irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, F.M.; Ouwerkerk, T.

    1980-01-01

    The experience of Atomic Energy of Canada, Limited (AECL) with radioisotopes dates back to the mid-1940s when radium was marketed for medical purposes. Cobalt-60 came on the scene in 1949 and within a few years a thriving business in cancer teletherapy machines and research irradiators was developed. AECL's first full-scale cobalt-60 gamma ray sterilizer for medical products was installed in 1964. AECL now has over 50 plants and 30 million curies in service around the world. Sixteen years of design experience in cobalt-60 sources, radiation shielding, safety interlock systems, and source pass mechanisms have made gamma irradiators safe, reliable, and easy to operate. This proven technology is being applied in promising new fields such as sludge treatment and food preservation. Cesium-137 is expected to be extensively utilized as the gamma radiation source for these applications

  16. Abortion - medical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion ... A medical, or nonsurgical, abortion can be done within 7 weeks from the first day of the woman's last ...

  17. Immunological detection of modified DNA bases in irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.H.H.; Tyreman, A.L.; Deeble, D.J.; Jones, M.; Smith, C.J.; Christiansen, J.F.; Beaumont, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    Ionising radiation is fatal to all known life forms given sufficient exposure in terms of dose and duration. This property has been used beneficially to sterilise a range of materials, particularly medical products where the removal of all contaminating organisms is deemed essential. Irradiation has long been used to sterilise food for consumption by certain categories of patients. The method is attractive because all potentially contaminating organisms can be removed by one simple treatment. Irradiation also slows down or stops certain processes such as sprouting. There are, however, disadvantages to irradiating food. It is not only DNA that is affected as alterations in lipid and protein components of the food may lead to a loss of quality. Although irradiation will kill bacteria it will probably not affect any toxin produced by those bacteria prior to treatment. Irradiation achieves its effects by damaging molecules, particularly nucleic acids. Consequently, if any of the damage to nucleic acids could be shown to by by a process unique to irradiation, and the products of this unique process could be measured, then there is the basis for a detection system. Furthermore, if the damage could be shown to be proportional to the dose of radiation received then the dose could also be quantified. Legislation, therefore, requires that assays be developed for use in different countries, those which totally ban irradiated food, those which require irradiated food to be labelled and those which have selective laws relating to specific foods and specific levels of irradiation. (author)

  18. Validation of gamma irradiator controls for quality and regulatory compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, R.B.; Pinteric, F.J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Since 1978 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has had both the legal authority and the Current Good Manufacturing Practice (CGMP) regulations in place to require irradiator owners who process medical devices to produce evidence of Irradiation Process Validation. One of the key components of Irradiation Process Validation is the validation of the irradiator controls. However, it is only recently that FDA audits have focused on this component of the process validation. What is Irradiator Control System Validation? What constitutes evidence of control? How do owners obtain evidence? What is the irradiator supplier's role in validation? How does the ISO 9000 Quality Standard relate to the FDA's CGMP requirement for evidence of Control System Validation? This paper presents answers to these questions based on the recent experiences of Nordion's engineering and product management staff who have worked with several US-based irradiator owners. This topic - Validation of Irradiator Controls - is a significant regulatory compliance and operations issues within the irradiator suppliers' and users' community. (author)

  19. Using Gamma Irradiation to Modify Properties of Polysaccharides (Guar Gum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, H.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation processing of material is one of most recent technology used in modification of material properties. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of gamma irradiation on the Polysaccharides Viscosity and Molecular Weight, as definition of Guar Gum. Its series of glactomanene (glactos + manose). (1-2-,3). Guar Gum powder was the main material and Co-60 irradiator facility as main technique. For gamma–ray source of required doses, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kGy. Viscosity of the aqueous suspensions of irradiated Guar Gum at different concentrations (0.1–0.5%) was measured, also it measured for solutions made of irradiated powder. Results used to calculate the difference occur in molecular weight, in order to determine the irradiation effect in the material. The monitored rheological parameters showed (non-Newtonian Behavior) of the samples which processed by gamma irradiation. The decrease tendency of the viscosity by irradiation of samples under study (different concentrations) and compared with control also for irradiated powder decrease of the concentration as well has been noticed. From results evaluation concluded that the viscosity values for all studied concentrations decreased by irradiation. This aspect suggests a depolymerization phenomenon of the aqueous Guar Gum solutions. This study contributes to the knowledge of the viscoelastic properties of Guar Gum as powder or aqueous solution, with application for food, agriculture, medical products, Petroleum and construction. (author)

  20. The status of food irradiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivinski, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Irradiation is a mature technology for many uses, such as medical product sterilization, crosslinking of plastics, application of coatings, stabilization of natural and synthetic rubbers prior to vulcanization, and in plant genetics. It also has many potential applications in the food and agriculture industries, especially in the postharvest activities associated with processing, storing, and distribution and in utilization and consumption. The safety of food irradiation has been thoroughly studied and established by distinguished scientists of international stature and unimpeachable credentials. Approximately 30 countries permit food irradiation and it is commercially used in 21. Parasites are of serious concern since their impact on human health and economic productivity is significant, especially in developing countries with sanitation and food control problems. Parasites in meat and fish can be rendered sterile or inactivated with irradiation, and the potential for improved human health is significant. The second area for immediate use of irradiation is in meeting plant quarantine requirements. The benefits described above and the approval of the scientific community are moving the technology toward greater utilization

  1. Effects of irradiation on platelet function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock, G.; Adams, G.A.; Labow, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    Current medical practice involves the irradiation of blood components, including platelet concentrates, before their administration to patients with severe immunosuppression. The authors studied the effect of irradiation on in vitro platelet function and the leaching of plasticizers from the bag, both immediately and after 5 days of storage. The platelet count, white cell count, pH, glucose, lactate, platelet aggregation and release reaction, and serotonin uptake were not altered by the irradiation of random-donor or apheresis units with 2000 rads carried out at 0 and 24 hours and 5 days after collection. The leaching of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate from the plastic bags followed by the conversion to mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate was not increased by irradiation. Therefore, it is possible to irradiate platelet concentrates on the day of collection and subsequently store them for at least 5 days while maintaining in vitro function. This procedure could have considerable benefit for blood banks involved in the provision of many platelet products

  2. Paternity after irradiation for testicular cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossa, S.D.; Almaas, B.; Jetne, V.; Bjerkedal, T.; Norske Radiumhospital, Oslo. Dept. of Medical Physics; Norwegian Council for Science and the Humanities, Oslo)

    1986-01-01

    According to the Medical Birth Registry (MBR) of Norway, 69 of about 430 patients irradiated for testicular cancer (stage I+II) during 1966-1978 fathered at least one child after radiation therapy (median observation time 136 months, range 36-191 months). A total of 95 children were born. Between 10 and 122 months elapsed between discontinuation of irradiation and the birth of the first child born after radiation therapy. Though the total doses to the abdominal irradiation field were higher in patients irradiated by a linear accelerator (1971-1978), than in those treated by a betatron (1966-1970), the gonadal doses were generally lower in the former group due to better gonadal shielding. In the children, the sex ratio and the median weight and length at birth were comparable to those values seen in a control group from the MBR. No increased frequency of malformations was observed. It is concluded that modern radiation therapy techniques allow post-irradiation fathership in a significant number of patients without risk of neonatal problems or malformations in the children. (orig.)

  3. Irradiation-Induced Nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birtcher, R.C.; Ewing, R.C.; Matzke, Hj.; Meldrum, A.; Newcomer, P.P.; Wang, L.M.; Wang, S.X.; Weber, W.J.

    1999-08-09

    This paper summarizes the results of the studies of the irradiation-induced formation of nanostructures, where the injected interstitials from the source of irradiation are not major components of the nanophase. This phenomena has been observed by in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in a number of intermetallic compounds and ceramics during high-energy electron or ion irradiations when the ions completely penetrate through the specimen. Beginning with single crystals, electron or ion irradiation in a certain temperature range may result in nanostructures composed of amorphous domains and nanocrystals with either the original composition and crystal structure or new nanophases formed by decomposition of the target material. The phenomenon has also been observed in natural materials which have suffered irradiation from the decay of constituent radioactive elements and in nuclear reactor fuels which have been irradiated by fission neutrons and other fission products. The mechanisms involved in the process of this nanophase formation are discussed in terms of the evolution of displacement cascades, radiation-induced defect accumulation, radiation-induced segregation and phase decomposition, as well as the competition between irradiation-induced amorphization and recrystallization.

  4. Food irradiation 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narvaiz, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Food irradiation principles; its main applications, advantages and limitations; wholesomeness, present activities at Ezeiza Atomic Centre; research coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency; capacity building; and some aspects on national and international regulations, standards and commercialization are briefly described. At present 56 countries authorize the consumption of varied irradiated foods; trade is performed in 32 countries, with about 200 irradiation facilities. Argentina pioneered nuclear energy knowledge and applications in Latin America, food irradiation included. A steady growth of food industrial volumes treated in two gamma facilities can be observed. Food industry and producers show interest towards new facilities construction. However, a 15 years standstill in incorporating new approvals in the Argentine Alimentary Code, in spite of consecutive request performed either by CNEA or some food industries restricts, a wider industrial implementation, which constitute a drawback to future regional commercialization in areas such as MERCOSUR, where Brazil since 2000 freely authorize food irradiation. Besides, important chances in international trade with developed countries will be missed, like the high fresh fruits and vegetables requirements United States has in counter-season, leading to convenient sale prices. The Argentine food irradiation facilities have been designed and built in the country. Argentina produces Cobalt-60. These capacities, unusual in the world and particularly in Latin America, should be protected and enhanced. Being the irradiation facilities scarce and concentrated nearby Buenos Aires city, the possibilities of commercial application and even research and development are strongly limited for most of the country regions. (author) [es

  5. Late renal function after upper abdominal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Monica M.; Willett, Christopher G.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: This study assesses the late renal function and complications following upper abdominal irradiation. Methods and Materials: Eighty-six adult patients were identified who were treated with curative intent to the upper abdomen, received greater than 50% unilateral kidney irradiation to doses of at least 26 Gy, and survived for 1 year or more. Following treatment, the clinical course, blood pressure, addition of anti-hypertensive medications, serum creatinine and creatinine clearance were determined. Creatinine clearance was calculated by the formula: creatinine clearance equals [(140 - age) x (weight in kilograms)] / (72 x serum creatinine), which has a close correlation to creatinine clearances measured by 24 hour urine measurement. The percent change in creatinine clearance from pre-treatment values was analyzed. Mean follow-up was 6.7 years. Seventeen patients were followed for 11 or more years. Results: Of the 16 patients with pre-radiotherapy hypertension, eight required an increase in the number of medications for control and eight required no change in medication. Twenty-one patients developed hypertension in follow-up, 15 of whom required no medication. One patient developed malignant hypertension on the basis of renal artery stenosis. Acute or chronic renal failure was not observed in any patient. The serum creatinine for all 86 patients prior to irradiation was below 2 mg/100 ml; in follow-up it rose to between 2-3 mg/100 ml in five patients. On univariate analysis, older patient age, female sex, pre-existing hypertension and initially abnormal renal function (creatinine clearance <90mg/ml) were significantly correlated with later poor creatinine clearance (<50 mg/ml). Conclusions: After significant unilateral kidney irradiation, patients demonstrated a laboratory trend to increased creatinine and decreased creatinine clearance. With long-term follow-up, these physiologic changes did not appear to translate into a clinically relevant alteration in

  6. Irradiated food for immunocompromised people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narvaiz, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Immune-compromise is a condition in which the natural defenses against diseases are dimished; several situations can be cited as examples, including mis nourishment, pregnancy, young and old age. This enhances the probability of suffering microbial diseases, caused by food borne pathogens. Traditionally, immune-suppressed patients in hospitals were isolated from the environment, being their food sterilized by different treatments, including irradiation. At present the medical opinion differs from this approach due to the costs and specialized requirements, uncertainties about the clinical benefits, and psychological convenience. So, the tendency nowadays seems to move, when the patient's condition allows it, from 'sterile diets' to 'low microbe diets' (or 'clean diets'). At the National Atomic Energy Commission, Argentina, under Coordinated Research Programmes of the Food and Environmental Preservation Section, International Atomic Energy Agency, in which 14 countries participated, treatments at pasteurizing doses were studied to widen the meals availability for vulnerable persons, to include some products usually considered as 'high risk' , but nutritionally or psychologically adequate. In a first experience, nutritionists working at the corresponding Service in a Buenos Aires hospital elaborated diets suitable for patients with different immune-compromise degrees, and advised on the interesting meal types to be studied. In a second experience, advanced nutrition students of the Entre Rios University performed a sensory evaluation in which 44 immune- compromised patients at the Jose de San Martin Clinical School Hospital, Buenos Aires, tasted a whole irradiated lunch composed of meals usually forbidden due to high microbial risk, though highly desired. The patients evaluated this lunch with high scores and showed enthusiastic towards the irradiation treatment. This preservation treatment could not only be useful to supply hospitals but also supermarkets. (author)

  7. Alaskan Commodities Irradiation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarling, J.P.; Swanson, R.B.; Logan, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    The ninety-ninth US Congress commissioned a six-state food irradiation research and development program to evaluate the commercial potential of this technology. Hawaii, Washington, Iowa, Oklahoma and Florida as well as Alaska have participated in the national program; various food products including fishery products, red meats, tropical and citrus fruits and vegetables have been studied. The purpose of the Alaskan study was to review and evaluate those factors related to the technical and economic feasibility of an irradiator in Alaska. This options analysis study will serve as a basis for determining the state's further involvement in the development of food irradiation technology. 40 refs., 50 figs., 53 tabs

  8. Irradiation of UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevanovic, M.

    1965-10-01

    Based on the review of the available literature concerned with UO 2 irradiation, this paper describes and explains the phenomena initiated by irradiation of the UO 2 fuel in a reactor dependent on the burnup level and temperature. A comprehensive review of UO 2 radiation damage studies is given as a broad research program. This part includes the abilities of our reactor as well as needed elements for such study. The third part includes the definitions of the specific power, burnup level and temperature in the center of the fuel element needed for planning and performing the irradiation. Methods for calculating these parameters are included [sr

  9. Analysis of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.

    1991-01-01

    Foods, e.g. chicken, shrimps, frog legs, spices, different dried vegetables, potatoes and fruits are legally irradiated in many countries and are probably also exported into countries, which do not permit irradiation of any food. Therefore all countries need analytical methods to determine whether food has been irradiated or not. Up to now, two physical (ESR-spectroscopy and thermoluminescence) and two chemical methods (o-tyrosine and volatile compounds) are available for routine analysis. Several results of the application of these four mentioned methods on different foods are presented and a short outlook on other methods (chemiluminescence, DNA-changes, biological assays, viscometric method and photostimulated luminescence) will be given. (author)

  10. Irradiation and pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouraqui, A; Creuzillet, C; Barrat, J [Hopital Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France)

    1985-04-21

    Every single person is exposed to natural (7 rads) or artificail (7.25 rads) irradiation throughout life. To which must be added, for many, irradiation from radiological examinations, which may cause malformations, genetic defects or cancer. The management of irradiated pregnant women depends on the dose received and on the age of pregnancy and requires, when the patient is seen, close co-operation between genetician, radiologist and gynaecologist. A radiological examination may be irreplaceable for diagnostic purposes, but the benefits to be expected from it should not lead to problems, particularly human problems, that are extremely difficult to solve. Non-urgent X-ray examinations should be performed outside pregnancy.

  11. Intercomparison of graphite irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hering, H; Perio, P; Seguin, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    While fast neutrons only are effective in damaging graphite, results of irradiations are more or less universally expressed in terms of thermal neutron fluxes. This paper attempts to correlate irradiations made in different reactors, i.e., in fluxes of different spectral compositions. Those attempts are based on comparison of 1) bulk length change and volume expansion, and 2) crystalline properties (e.g., lattice parameter C, magnetic susceptibility, stored energy, etc.). The methods used by various authors for determining the lattice constants of irradiated graphite are discussed. (author)

  12. Total lymphoid irradiation for treatment of intractable cardiac allograft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, S.A.; Strober, S.; Hoppe, R.T.; Stinson, E.B.

    1991-01-01

    The ability of postoperative total lymphoid irradiation to reverse otherwise intractable cardiac allograft rejection was examined in a group of 10 patients in whom conventional rejection therapy (including pulsed steroids and monoclonal or polyclonal anti-T-cell antibody therapy) had failed to provide sustained freedom from rejection. Follow-up periods range from 73 to 1119 days since the start of total lymphoid irradiation. No patient died or sustained serious morbidity because of the irradiation. Three patients have had no further rejection (follow-up periods, 105 to 365 days). Two patients died--one in cardiogenic shock during the course of total lymphoid irradiation, the other with recurrent rejection caused by noncompliance with his medical regimen. Total lymphoid irradiation appears to be a safe and a moderately effective immunosuppressive modality for 'salvage' therapy of cardiac allograft rejection unresponsive to conventional therapy

  13. Facts about food irradiation: Irradiated foods and the consumer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet discusses market testing of irradiate food, consumer response to irradiated products has always been positive, and in some countries commercial quantities of some irradiated food items have been sold on a regular basis. Consumers have shown no reluctance to buy irradiated food products. 4 refs

  14. Thyroid gland irradiations and thyroid cancers; Critical bibliographic journal; Irradiations de la thyroide et cancers thyroidiens. Revue bibliographique critique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitauxa, F. [CHI Le Raincy-Montfermeil, Faculte X. Bichat, Lab. de Biophysique, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 93 - Le Raincy-Montfermeil (France)

    2007-07-15

    The large increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer among children who were mainly less than five years old at the time of the Chernobyl accident is still a major concern for endocrinologists and nuclear medicine physicians. Epidemiological studies have focused solely on iodine-131. However, past knowledge on thyroid irradiation (medical use of iodine-131, radioactive fallout on Marshall islands and the Nevada and Hanford site releases) as well as number of recent works (about low-dose irradiation) raise question on the role of other factors. It is here shown that post-Chernobyl thyroid irradiation is complex and that all factors (iodine-131, but also short lived isotopes of iodine and external irradiation) should be considered. Finally, one needs to think about some of the present medical uses of iodine-131 and especially to the treatment of hyperthyroidism in young subjects. (author)

  15. General purpose nuclear irradiation chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Fadzlin Hasbullah; Nuurul Iffah Che Omar; Nahrul Khair Alang Md Rashid; Jaafar Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear technology has found a great need for use in medicine, industry, and research. Smoke detectors in our homes, medical treatments and new varieties of plants by irradiating its seeds are just a few examples of the benefits of nuclear technology. Portable neutron source such as Californium-252, available at Industrial Technology Division (BTI/ PAT), Malaysian Nuclear Agency, has a 2.645 year half-life. However, 252 Cf is known to emit gamma radiation from the source. Thus, this chamber aims to provide a proper gamma shielding for samples to distinguish the use of mixed neutron with gamma-rays or pure neutron radiation. The chamber is compatible to be used with other portable neutron sources such as 241 Am-Be as well as the reactor TRIGA PUSPATI for higher neutron dose. This chamber was designed through a collaborative effort of Kulliyyah Engineering, IIUM with the Industrial Technology Division (BTI) team, Malaysian Nuclear Agency. (Author)

  16. Hypopituitarism after irradiation in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wara, W.M.; Richards, G.E.; Grumbach, M.M.; Kaplan, S.L.; Sheline, G.E.; Conte, F.A.

    1977-01-01

    Nine children were referred to the University of California Medical Center, San Francisco, for growth evaluation. Each had received conventional radiation doses to the head for tumors not involving the hypothalamus or pituitary, and demonstrated clinical and laboratory evidence of hormonal deficiencies several years after treatment. Six had significant height retardation. Growth hormone deficiency was documented in all by lack of response to provocative insulin, arginine, and/or L-dopa stimulation. ACTH function was evaluated by plasma cortisol response to insulin hypoglycemia in 7; one had a subnormal response. Plasma gonadotropins were measured after lutenizing hormone releasing factor (LRF) in 7 patients; only one had an abnormal response for age and stage of sexual maturation. Foresight in treatment planning and careful follow-up of patients receiving irradiation to the head is critical, since hypothalamic-pituitary deficiencies which may occur insidiously over many years, can largely be compensated

  17. Radiation safety for operators of gamma irradiation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    These notes have been prepared by the UK Panel for Gamma and Electron Irradiation with advice from the HSE (Technology Division and Factory and Agricultural Inspectorate) to assist operators of Gamma irradiation plants to comply with the requirements of the Ionising Radiations Regulations (IRR 1985), and other relevant regulations (see below). The process is currently used for the sterilisation of medical devices and in the treatment of plastics materials etc. The Government has proposed that the process should also be permitted for the treatment of foodstuffs, and these notes will also be relevant to any irradiation plants which may be used in the UK for this purpose. (author)

  18. Experiences in the evaluation of prenatal unjustified exposure during the medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas Herrera, Juan; Lopez Bejerano, Gladys M.; Gonzalez, Alina Martinez

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The exposure to the radiation ionising of pregnant women frequently constitutes motive of preoccupation for the expectant mother and the medical professionals taken the responsibility with its attention. The protection of the embryo-fetus against the radiations ionising is of singular importance due to its special vulnerability, to this agent. On the other hand the diagnosis or treatment with radiations ionising beneficial for the expectant mother, are only indirectly it for the embryo-fetus that is exposed to a hazard without perceiving anything. The present paper exposes the experience obtained in the clinical and dosimetric evaluation from twenty-one patient subjected 'gestantes' to diverse radiodiagnostic procedures or nuclear medicine, during the years 1999 - 2007. The obtained results evidence that 30% of the patients was subjected to procedures of nuclear medicine with purposes diagnoses or therapeutic. While the period of pregnancy of the patients oscillated between 4 and 13 weeks. It could be concluded that in all the cases the doses received by the patients in the whole body didn't overcome the 2 mSv. When conjugating the period of pregnancy of the patients with the doses received don't have any evidences of significant risks for the embryo-fetus. (author)

  19. Packing for food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, A G [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee approved the use of radiation treatment of foods. Nowadays food packaging are mostly made of plastics, natural or synthetic, therefore effect of irradiation on these materials is crucial for packing engineering for food irradiation technology. By selecting the right polymer materials for food packaging it can be ensured that the critical elements of material and product performance are not compromised. When packaging materials are in contact with food at the time of irradiation that regulatory approvals sometimes apply. The review of the R-and-D and technical papers regarding material selection, testing and approval is presented in the report. The most information come from the USA where this subject is well elaborated, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reports are reviewed as well. The report can be useful for scientists and food irradiation plants operators. (author)

  20. Packing for food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee approved the use of radiation treatment of foods. Nowadays food packaging are mostly made of plastics, natural or synthetic, therefore effect of irradiation on these materials is crucial for packing engineering for food irradiation technology. By selecting the right polymer materials for food packaging it can be ensured that the critical elements of material and product performance are not compromised. When packaging materials are in contact with food at the time of irradiation that regulatory approvals sometimes apply. The review of the R-and-D and technical papers regarding material selection, testing and approval is presented in the report. The most information come from the USA where this subject is well elaborated, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reports are reviewed as well. The report can be useful for scientists and food irradiation plants operators. (author)

  1. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oztasiran, I.

    1984-01-01

    Irradiation is a physical process for treating food and as such it is comparable to other processing techniques such as heating or freezing foods for preservation. The energy level used in food irradiation is always below that producing radioactivity in the treated food, hence this aspect can be totally excluded in wholesomeness evaluations. Water is readily ionized and may be the primary source of ionization in foods with secondary effects on other molecules, possibly more a result of water ionization than of direct hits. In the presence of oxygen, highly reactive compounds may be produced, such as H, H 3 0+ and H 2 O 2 . Radiation at the energy flux levels used for food (<2 MeV) does not induce radioactivity. Food irradiation applications are already technically and economically feasible and that food so treated is suitable for consumption. Food irradiation techniques can play an important role for an improved preservation, storage and distribution of food products. (author)

  2. Alloys under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.; Bellon, P.; Soisson, F.

    1997-01-01

    During the last two decades, some effort has been devoted to establishing a phenomenology for alloys under irradiation. Theoretically, the effects of the defect supersaturation, sustained defect fluxes and ballistic mixing on solid solubility under irradiation can now be formulated in a unified manner, at least for the most simple cases: coherent phase transformations and nearest-neighbor ballistic jumps. Even under such restrictive conditions, several intriguing features documented experimentally can be rationalized, sometimes in a quantitative manner and simple qualitative rules for alloy stability as a function of irradiation conditions can be formulated. A quasi-thermodynamic formalism can be proposed for alloys under irradiation. However, this point of view has limits illustrated by recent computer simulations. (orig.)

  3. Food irradiation in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henon, Y.M.

    1995-01-01

    Food irradiation already has a long history of hopes and disappointments. Nowhere in the world it plays the role that it should have, including in the much needed prevention of foodborne diseases. Irradiated food sold well wherever consumers were given a chance to buy them. Differences between national regulations do not allow the international trade of irradiated foods. While in many countries food irradiation is still illegal, in most others it is regulated as a food additive and based on the knowledge of the sixties. Until 1980, wholesomeness was the big issue. Then the ''prerequisite'' became detection methods. Large amounts of money have been spent to design and validate tests which, in fact, aim at enforcing unjustified restrictions on the use of the process. In spite of all the difficulties, it is believed that the efforts of various UN organizations and a growing legitimate demand for food safety should in the end lead to recognition and acceptance. (Author)

  4. Economics of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deitch, J.

    1982-01-01

    This article examines the cost competitiveness of the food irradiation process. An analysis of the principal factors--the product, physical plant, irradiation source, and financing--that impact on cost is made. Equations are developed and used to calculate the size of the source for planned product throughput, efficiency factors, power requirements, and operating costs of sources, radionuclides, and accelerators. Methods of financing and capital investment are discussed. A series of tables show cost breakdowns of sources, buildings, equipment, and essential support facilities for both a cobalt-60 and a 10-MeV electron accelerator facility. Additional tables present irradiation costs as functions of a number of parameters--power input, source size, dose, and hours of annual operation. The use of the numbers in the tables are explained by examples of calculations of the irradiation costs for disinfestation of grains and radicidation of feed

  5. Food irradiation now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    From the start the Netherlands has made an important contribution to the irradiation of food through microbiological and toxicological research as well as through the setting-up of a pilot plant by the government and through the practical application of 'Gammaster' on a commercial basis. The proceedings of this tenth anniversary symposium of 'Gammaster' present all aspects of food irradiation and will undoubtedly help to remove the many misunderstandings. They offer information and indicate to the potential user a method that can make an important contribution to the prevention of decay and spoilage of foodstuffs and to the exclusion of food-borne infections and food poisoning in man. The book includes 8 contributions and 4 panel discussions in the field of microbiology; technology; legal aspects; and consumer aspects of food irradiation. As an appendix, the report 'Wholesomeness of irradiated food' of a joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee has been added. (orig./G.J.P.)

  6. Food irradiation and packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcast, David

    1988-01-01

    This outline review was written for 'Food Manufacture'. It deals with the known effects of irradiation on current packaging materials (glass, cellulosics, organic polymers and metals), and their implications for the effective application of the process. (U.K.)

  7. Application of irradiated wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, I.; Kozima, K.; Suzuki, S.; Tada, S.; Torisu, S.; Veno, K.

    1984-01-01

    Rubber insulated wires are still useful for internal wiring in motor vehicles and electrical equipment because of flexibility and toughness. Irradiated cross-linked rubber materials have been successfully introduced for use with fusible link wire and helically coiled cord

  8. The ARBOR irradiation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, C. E-mail: claus.petersen@imf.fzk.de; Shamardin, V.; Fedoseev, A.; Shimansky, G.; Efimov, V.; Rensman, J

    2002-12-01

    The irradiation project 'ARBOR', for 'Associated Reactor Irradiation in BOR 60', includes 150 mini-tensile/low cycle fatigue specimens and 150 mini-Charpy (KLST) specimens of nine different RAFM steels. Specimens began irradiation on 22 November 2000 in an specially designed irradiation rig in BOR 60, in a fast neutron flux (>0.1 MeV) of 1.8x10{sup 15} n/cm{sup 2} s and with direct sodium cooling at a temperature less than 340 deg. C. Tensile, low cycle fatigue and Charpy specimens of the following materials are included: EUROFER 97, F82H mod., OPTIFER IVc, EUROFER 97 with different boron contents, ODS-EUROFER 97, as well as EUROFER 97 electron-beam welded and reference bulk material, from NRG, Petten.

  9. The ARBOR irradiation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, C.; Shamardin, V.; Fedoseev, A.; Shimansky, G.; Efimov, V.; Rensman, J.

    2002-01-01

    The irradiation project 'ARBOR', for 'Associated Reactor Irradiation in BOR 60', includes 150 mini-tensile/low cycle fatigue specimens and 150 mini-Charpy (KLST) specimens of nine different RAFM steels. Specimens began irradiation on 22 November 2000 in an specially designed irradiation rig in BOR 60, in a fast neutron flux (>0.1 MeV) of 1.8x10 15 n/cm 2 s and with direct sodium cooling at a temperature less than 340 deg. C. Tensile, low cycle fatigue and Charpy specimens of the following materials are included: EUROFER 97, F82H mod., OPTIFER IVc, EUROFER 97 with different boron contents, ODS-EUROFER 97, as well as EUROFER 97 electron-beam welded and reference bulk material, from NRG, Petten

  10. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, A.C.; Beyers, M.

    1976-01-01

    Irradiation can be used to eliminate harmful bacteria in frozen products without thawing them. It can also replace chemicals or extended cold storage as a means of killing insect pests in export commodities

  11. A commercial gamma-ray irradiation plant in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, K.; Sugimoto, S.

    1977-01-01

    In 1973, a commercial gamma-ray irradiation plant was constructed in Takasaki, about 100 km north of Tokyo. The plant has been used for both production of irradiated commercial products and irradiation services. The irradiation services are being made available for sterilization of both medical appliances such as disposable medical syringes, catheters, surgical sutures, and sterilization of feed stuffs for animals. Treatment of plastic materials and colouring of both crystals and glass wares are also undertaken. This facility can accommodate 600 kCi of 60 Co and has a monthly treating capacity of 12,000 packages ( a standard carton of 340 mm x 400 mm x 500 mm) at an irradiation dose of 1 Mrad/hr. A receiving port for packages is on the second floor and the outlet of the irradiated packages on the first floor, with three lines of connecting loop conveyors between them, and the irradiation compartment in the center section. The space arrangement of the facility is well designed and gravity can be utilized for the transportation of the packages. Polymer impregnated coral is put on the market for ornamental building material on an order contract basis. (author)

  12. Commercial gamma-ray irradiation plant in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, K; Sugimoto, S [Radia Industry Co. Ltd., Gunma (Japan)

    1977-01-01

    In 1973, a commercial gamma-ray irradiation plant was constructed in Takasaki, about 100 km north of Tokyo. The plant has been used for both production of irradiated commercial products and irradiation services. The irradiation services are being made available for sterilization of both medical appliances such as disposable medical syringes, catheters, surgical sutures, and sterilization of feed stuffs for animals. Treatment of plastic materials and colouring of both crystals and glass wares are also undertaken. This facility can accommodate 600 kCi of /sup 60/Co and has a monthly treating capacity of 12,000 packages ( a standard carton of 340 mm x 400 mm x 500 mm) at an irradiation dose of 1 Mrad/hr. A receiving port for packages is on the second floor and the outlet of the irradiated packages on the first floor, with three lines of connecting loop conveyors between them, and the irradiation compartment in the center section. The space arrangement of the facility is well designed and gravity can be utilized for the transportation of the packages. Polymer impregnated coral is put on the market for ornamental building material on an order contract basis.

  13. Detection of irradiated spice in blend of irradiated and un-irradiated spices using thermoluminescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Michiko; Yamazaki, Masao; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Todoriki, Setsuko; Miyahara, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    Five blended spice sample were prepared by mixing irradiated and un-irradiated black pepper and paprika at different ratios. Blended black pepper containing 2%(w/w) of 5.4 kGy-irradiated black pepper showed no maximum at glow1. Irradiated black pepper samples, mixed to 5 or 10%(w/w), were identified as 'irradiated' or 'partially irradiated' or 'un-irradiated'. All samples with un-irradiated pepper up to 20%(w/w) were identified as irradiated'. In the case 5.0 kGy-irradiated paprika were mixed with un-irradiated paprika up to 5%(w/w), all samples were identified as irradiated'. The glow1 curves of samples, including irradiated paprika at 0.2%(w/w) or higher, exhibited a maximum between 150 and 250degC. The results suggest the existence of different critical mixing ratio for the detection of irradiation among each spices. Temperature range for integration of the TL glow intensity were compared between 70-400degC and approximate 150-250degC, and revealed that the latter temperature range was determined based on the measurement of TLD100. Although TL glow ratio in 150-250degC was lower than that of 70-400degC range, identification of irradiation was not affected. Treatment of un-irradiated black pepper and paprika with ultraviolet rays had no effect on the detection of irradiation. (author)

  14. Food irradiation: progress in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, B.K.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: food irradiation regulatory situation in Canada; non-regulatory developments (poultry irradiation; fish irradiation; Government willingness to fund industry initiated projects; Government willingness to establish food irradiation research and pilot plant facilities; food industry interest is increasing significantly; Canadian Consumers Association positive response; the emergence of new consulting and entrepreneurial firms). (U.K.)

  15. Prospects for food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcast, David

    1990-01-01

    Recent legislation will permit the introduction of food irradiation in the UK. This development has been met with protests from consumer groups, and some wariness among retailers. David Kilcast, of the Leatherhead Food Research Association, explains the basic principles and applications of food irradiation, and argues that a test marketing campaign should be initiated. The consumer, he says, will have the final say in the matter. (author)

  16. Irradiation of chilled lamb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1985-04-01

    Chilled, vacuum-packed New Zealand lamb loins have been irradiated at doses between 1-8 kGy. The report outlines the methods used and provides dosimetry details. An appendix summarises the results of a taste trial conducted on the irradiated meat by the Meat Industry Research Institute of New Zealand. This showed that, even at 1 kGy, detectable flavours were induced by the radiation treatment

  17. Food irradiation in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Ghazali Hj Abd Rahman.

    1985-01-01

    Food irradiation has recently been visited as a technology that can contribute to the solution of problems associated with food preservation of Malaysia's agriculture produce and products thereby improving the economic status of the rural sector. However, the history of food irradiation in Malaysia is very recent. Research carried out on food irradiation only began in 1974 as a result of the installation of a 60 Co facility (initially 10,000 Ci) at the National University of Malaysia. Since its installation several studies have been carried out pertaining to the food irradiation. Presently its development has been slow. Research in this area has been confined to laboratory scale and purely academic. This limitation is due to a number of reasons, among others are: a) limited number of facilities; b) lack of expertise to conduct its research; c) other preservation methods can be improved with lower capital output. An important step towards its development was made when Malaysia actively participated in the RCA/IAEA food irradiation project, viz. the irradiation of pepper which was carried out at the National University of Malaysia in the 80's. As a result of this venture, research and development activities in food irradiation have been geared toward semi-plot scale with the view ot commercialization in the future. In 1982, a group of researchers was formed to conduct feasibility studies using irradiation techniques in trying to overcome several problems associated with our local paddy and rice. Another group is being organized by the National University of Malaysia to look into the problems associated with the preservation of frozen shrimps. (author)

  18. AGC-2 Irradiation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrbaugh, David Thomas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Windes, William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Swank, W. David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be a helium-cooled, very high temperature reactor (VHTR) with a large graphite core. In past applications, graphite has been used effectively as a structural and moderator material in both research and commercial high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) designs.[ , ] Nuclear graphite H 451, used previously in the United States for nuclear reactor graphite components, is no longer available. New nuclear graphites have been developed and are considered suitable candidates for the new NGNP reactor design. To support the design and licensing of NGNP core components within a commercial reactor, a complete properties database must be developed for these current grades of graphite. Quantitative data on in service material performance are required for the physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of each graphite grade with a specific emphasis on data related to the life limiting effects of irradiation creep on key physical properties of the NGNP candidate graphites. Based on experience with previous graphite core components, the phenomenon of irradiation induced creep within the graphite has been shown to be critical to the total useful lifetime of graphite components. Irradiation induced creep occurs under the simultaneous application of high temperatures, neutron irradiation, and applied stresses within the graphite components. Significant internal stresses within the graphite components can result from a second phenomenon—irradiation induced dimensional change. In this case, the graphite physically changes i.e., first shrinking and then expanding with increasing neutron dose. This disparity in material volume change can induce significant internal stresses within graphite components. Irradiation induced creep relaxes these large internal stresses, thus reducing the risk of crack formation and component failure. Obviously, higher irradiation creep levels tend to relieve more internal stress, thus allowing the

  19. Fully portable blood irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    A fully portable blood irradiator was developed using the beta emitter thulium-170 as the radiation source and vitreous carbon as the body of the irradiator, matrix for isotope encapsulation, and blood interface material. These units were placed in exteriorized arteriovenous shunts in goats, sheep, and dogs and the effects on circulating lymphocytes and on skin allograft retention times measured. The present work extends these studies by establishing baseline data for skin graft rejection times in untreated animals

  20. Food irradiation: global aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinning, G.

    1988-01-01

    As a commercial activity, food irradiation is twenty years old, but is backed by nearly eighty years of research on gamma irradiation and sixty years knowledge of application of the technology to food. An overview is given of the global boom and then the hiatus in its legislative and commercial applications. It is emphasised that in Australia, the overseas experience provides a number of models for proceeding further for food manufacturers, consumers and Government. 13 refs

  1. Nuclear and atomic spectroscopy group. Dosimetry in medical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, M.

    1990-01-01

    The main activities of radiation physics on the sector of atomic spectroscopy and x-ray fluorescence analysis in the Faculty of Mathematics, Astronomy and Physics (University of Cordoba, Argentina),are presented, including dosimetric studies in radiodiagnostic: dosimetric determination using Monte Carlo method; distortion effect study on PET image and lasers in medicine. (C.G.C.)

  2. IAEA and food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, Sueo

    1995-01-01

    IAEA was founded in 1957. 122 countries take part in it. It is operated with the yearly ordinary budget of about 20 billion yen and the technical cooperation budget of about 6 billion yen and by 2200 personnel. Its two important roles are the promotion of the peaceful utilization of atomic energy and the prevention of nuclear proliferation. The activities of IAEA are shown. The cooperation with developing countries and the international research cooperation program are the important activities. The securing of foods is an urgent subject, and the utilization of radiation and isotopes has been promoted, aiming at sustaining agriculture. The necessity of food irradiation is explained, and at present, commercial food irradiation is carried out in 28 countries including Japan. The irradiation less than 10 kGy does not cause poisonous effect in any food, according to JECFI. The new international agreement is expected to be useful for promoting the international trade of irradiated foods. The international cooperation for the spread of food irradiation and the public acceptance of food irradiation are reported. (K.I.)

  3. Food irradiation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi

    1995-01-01

    The basic research on food irradiation in Japan was begun around 1955 by universities and national laboratories. In 1967, food irradiation was designated to the specific general research on atomic energy, and the national project on large scale was continued until 1983. As the result, the treatment of germination prevention for potatoes was approved by the Ministry of Health and Welfare in 1972. The Co-60 gamma ray irradiation facility of Shihoro Agricultural Cooperative is famous as the facility that succeeded in the practical use of food irradiation for the first time in the world. But the practical use of food irradiation stagnates and the research activities were reduced in Japan due to the circumstances thereafter. The effect of radiation to foods and living things is explained. The features of the radiation treatment of foods are small temperature rise, large transmissivity, no residue, the small loss of nutrition and large quantity, continuous treatment. The safety of irradiated foods is explained. The subjects for hereafter are discussed. (K.I.)

  4. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen

  5. Irradiating strand material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, J.R.; Brown, M.J.; Loan, L.D.

    1975-01-01

    Conductors covered with insulation which is to be irradiated are passed between two groups of coaxial sheaves mounted rotatably individually. Successive sections of the conductors are advanced past the window of one accelerator head, around the associated sheave or sheaves, and then past the window of another accelerator head. The accelerators face in substantially opposite directions and are staggered along the paths of the conductors to avoid any substantial overlap of the electron beams associated therewith. The windows extend vertically to encompass all the generally horizontal passes of the conductors as between the two groups of sheaves. Preferably, conductors are strung-up between the sheaves in a modified figure eight pattern. The pattern is a figure eight modified to intermittently include a pass between the sheaves which is parallel to a line joining the axes of the two groups of sheaves. This reverses the direction of travel of the conductors and optimizes the uniformity of exposure of the cross sectional area of the insulation of the conductors to irradiation. The use of a figure eight path for the conductors causes the successive sections of the conductor to turn about the longitudinal axes thereof as they are advanced around the sheaves. In this way the insulation is more uniformly irradiated. In a preferred embodiment, twisted conductor pairs may be irradiated. The twist accentuates the longitudinal turning of the conductor pair. The irradiation of twisted pairs achieves obvious manufacturing economies while avoiding the necessity of having to twist irradiation cross-linked conductors

  6. Irradiation sequels of retinoblastomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benk, V.; Habrand, J.L.; Bloch Michel, E.; Soussaline, M.; Sarrazin, D.

    1993-01-01

    From 1975 to 1985, 34 children with a non-metastatic retinoblastoma were irradiated at the Institut Gustave-Roussy. After enucleation, 19 bilateral tumors were irradiated by two lateral opposed fields and 15 unilateral tumors by one lateral and anterior field, in the case of optic nerve being histologically positive. Dose was 45 Gy, 1.8 Gy per fraction. The 10-year-survival rate for unilateral and bilateral retinoblastomas was 79%. Long term sequels were available for 25 patients: 88% retained one functional eye. Three children with bilateral retinoblastomas developed a cataract in the residual eye between 2 and 5 years after irradiation, none with unilateral tumor. Nine patients (36%), seven with unilateral and two with bilateral tumor developed a cosmetical problem that required multiple surgical rehabilitation between 3 and 14 years after irradiation. Nine children (36%), five with unilateral and four with bilateral tumors developed growth hormone deficit between 2 and 8 years after irradiation that required hormone replacement. Their pituitary gland received 22 to 40 Gy. No osteosarcoma occurred in this population. Among long-term sequels, following irradiation for retinoblastoma, cosmetical deformities represent disabling sequels that could justify new approaches in radiotherapy, as protontherapy combined with 3-D-treatment planning

  7. food irradiation: activities and potentialities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doellstaedt, R.; Huebner, G.

    1985-01-01

    After the acceptance of food irradiation up to an overall average dose of 10 kGy recommended by the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food in October 1980, the G.D.R. started a programme for the development of techniques for food irradiation. A special onion irradiator was designed and built as a pilot plant for studying technological and economic parameters of the irradiation of onions. (author)

  8. Detection methods for irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyakova, A.; Tsvetkova, E.; Nikolova, R.

    2005-01-01

    In connection with the ongoing world application of irradiation as a technology in Food industry for increasing food safety, it became a need for methods of identification of irradiation. It was required to control international trade of irradiated foods, because of the certain that legally imposed food laws are not violated; supervise correct labeling; avoid multiple irradiation. Physical, chemical and biological methods for detection of irradiated foods as well principle that are based, are introducing in this summary

  9. Blood irradiation: Rationale and technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.C.

    1990-01-01

    Upon request by the local American Red Cross, the Savannah Regional Center for Cancer Care irradiates whole blood or blood components to prevent post-transfusion graft-versus-host reaction in patients who have severely depressed immune systems. The rationale for blood irradiation, the total absorbed dose, the type of patients who require irradiated blood, and the regulations that apply to irradiated blood are presented. A method of irradiating blood using a linear accelerator is described

  10. Irradiated produce reaches Midwest market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pszczola, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    In March 1992, the Chicago-area store gave its shoppers a choice between purchasing irradiated and nonirradiated fruits. The irradiated fruits were treated at Vindicator Inc., the first U.S. food irradiation facility (starting up on January 10, 1992). The plant, located in Mulberry, Fla., then shipped the fruits in trucks to the store where they were displayed under a hand-lettered sign describing the irradiated fruits and showing the irradiation logo

  11. Statistical analysis of the irradiation process of various products in the industrial irradiator JS-6500; Analisis estadistico del proceso de irradiacion de productos varios en el irradiador industrial JS-6500

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naquid G, C [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In this work the methodology for the control of the irradiation service applied to disposable products of medical use, foods, medications, cosmetics and several to different dose in the Gamma Irradiation Plant, with radiation of Cobalt 60, by means of the Graphs of Quality Control by Variables. These they are used to check if the irradiation process has been carried out appropriately, or well, if the variations surpass the established limits in the one that influences some another factor. (Author)

  12. Transportation of medical isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, D.L.

    1997-11-19

    A Draft Technical Information Document (HNF-1855) is being prepared to evaluate proposed interim tritium and medical isotope production at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). This assessment examines the potential health and safety impacts of transportation operations associated with the production of medical isotopes. Incident-free and accidental impacts are assessed using bounding source terms for the shipment of nonradiological target materials to the Hanford Site, the shipment of irradiated targets from the FFTF to the 325 Building, and the shipment of medical isotope products from the 325 Building to medical distributors. The health and safety consequences to workers and the public from the incident-free transportation of targets and isotope products would be within acceptable levels. For transportation accidents, risks to works and the public also would be within acceptable levels. This assessment is based on best information available at this time. As the medical isotope program matures, this analysis will be revised, if necessary, to support development of a final revision to the Technical Information Document.

  13. Transportation of medical isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    A Draft Technical Information Document (HNF-1855) is being prepared to evaluate proposed interim tritium and medical isotope production at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). This assessment examines the potential health and safety impacts of transportation operations associated with the production of medical isotopes. Incident-free and accidental impacts are assessed using bounding source terms for the shipment of nonradiological target materials to the Hanford Site, the shipment of irradiated targets from the FFTF to the 325 Building, and the shipment of medical isotope products from the 325 Building to medical distributors. The health and safety consequences to workers and the public from the incident-free transportation of targets and isotope products would be within acceptable levels. For transportation accidents, risks to works and the public also would be within acceptable levels. This assessment is based on best information available at this time. As the medical isotope program matures, this analysis will be revised, if necessary, to support development of a final revision to the Technical Information Document

  14. Medical exposure and the effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, Chio

    2011-01-01

    Radiation gives cracks to genes. The influence is divided into deterministic effect with a threshold value, and the stochastic effect (tumor and genetic effect) which increases according to the exposure amount. Although we are put to various non-artificial radiations, which we cannot be avoided, on the earth, the contamination by artificial radiation can be defended. Artificial radioactive exposure includes medical exposure and non-medical exposure for example by nuclear power plant. As to medical examinations using radiation, the inquiry about the radiation exposure is increasing after the occurrence of the first nuclear power plant disaster of Fukushima. While concern about non-medical radioactive exposure increases, the uneasiness to medical irradiation is also increasing. The dose limit by artificial radioactive exposure other than medical exposure is set up in order to prevent the influence on the health. While the dose limit of the public exposure is set to the lower value than the total dose of non-artificial exposure concerning of a safety margin for all people, the dose limit of medical exposure is not defined, since it is thought that medical irradiation has a benefit for those who receive irradiation. Making an effort to decrease the radiation dose in performing the best medical treatment is the responsibility with which we are burdened. (author)

  15. Experiences of irradiation of species in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandowo, Nazly Hilmy; Maha, Munsiah

    1985-01-01

    Research activities on food irradiation have been conducted in Indonesia since 1968 with the main emphasis on the development of suitable post-harvest treatment for the conservation and quality improvement of food commodities intended for either domestic consumption or for export. There are three cobalt-60 irradiation facilities with the present source capacity of 1 k Ci, 30 k Ci and 157 k Ci at the Centre for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation-National Atomic Energy Agency, where research is being carried out. These food items selected to be studied have been based on their economic significance, production volume and problems encountered. For irradiation of spices, research activities have been focused on inhibition of sprouting, disinfestation of insects, microbial reduction, elimination of pathogenic microbes and physico-chemical studies. The preservation of spices by irradiation should be combined with a suitable method of packaging and to avoid re infestation and recontamination. Studies on packaging material and inter country transportation have also been carried out to support commercial application. Studies on the extent of damage on spices and medical plants have been carried out on local commercial spices, namely nutmeg, black pepper, white pepper, maces, coriander, cardamom, fennel, ginger, turmeric, red pepper, and cinnamon. Results of the studies are presented in the paper. An inter country shipment trial between Jakarta and Wageningen (Holland) of irradiated spices has been carried out on whole nutmeg and whole pepper packed in polypropylene bags (with and without inner lining) and tin containers. The trial results showed that an irradiation dose of 5 kGy was sufficient to disinfest and decontaminate properly packed spices

  16. Teeth and irradiation: dental care and treatment of osteoradionecrosis after irradiation in head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thariat, J.; Ortholan, C.; Thariat, J.; Darcourt, V.; Poissonnet, G.; Dassonville, O.; Marcy, P.Y.; Bozec, A.; Ortholan, C.; Santini, J.; Thariat, J.; Mones, E. de; Darcourt, V.; Poissonnet, G.; Dassonville, O.; Bozec, A.; Santini, J.; Marcy, P.Y.; Guevara, N.; Bensadoun, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Pre-irradiation dental care depends on teeth health, fields and dose of irradiation, compliance to fluorides, cessation of tobacco and psycho-social cofactors. Dental care aims at preventing complications and preserving the quality of life (eating, speech, and aesthetics). The role of hyperbaric oxygen therapy for the prevention of osteoradionecrosis after teeth removal on the mandible in areas receiving 50 Gy or more is still controversial. Medical treatments may be sufficient for early stages of osteoradionecrosis (antibiotics, pain killers, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as well as clodronate, vitamin E, pentoxifylline). However, reconstructive surgery should not be delayed in advanced stages of osteoradionecrosis. New irradiation techniques are changing dose distributions and therefore require close collaboration between odonto-stomatologists and radiation oncologists to define the best dental care. (authors)

  17. Longevity of irradiated burros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushbaugh, C.C.; Brown, D.G.; Frome, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    During the course of external radiation exposures of burros to establish a dose-response curve for acute mortality after total irradiation, some of the animals at the three lowest exposures to gamma photons survived. These groups of 10, 9, and 10 burros were exposed to 320, 425, and 545 R, respectively. There were 10 unirradiated controls. In 1953, 20 burros were exposed to 375 R (gamma) in 25-R/week increments without acute mortality and were added to the life-span study. In 1957, 33 burros were exposed to mixed neutron-gamma radiation from nuclear weapons, and 14 controls were added. The total number of irradiated burros in the study was increased to 88 by the addition of 6 animals irradiated with 180 rads of neutron and gamma radiation (4:1) in a Godiva-type reactor in 1959. In this experiment two acute deaths occurred which were not included in the analysis. In the first 4 years after the single gamma exposures, there were deaths from pancytopenia and thrombocytopenia, obviously related to radiation-induced bone-marrow damage. After that period, however, deaths were from common equine diseases; no death has resulted from a malignant neoplasm. Of the original 112 burros, 15 survive (10 irradiated and 5 controls). Survival curves determined for unirradiated and neutron-gamma- and gamma-irradiated burros showed significant differences. The mean survival times were: controls, 28 years; gamma irradiation only, 26 years; and neutron-gamma irradiation, 23 years. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. Positive ion irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braby, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Many questions about the mechanisms of the response of cells to ionizing radiation can best be investigated using monoenergetic heavy charged particle beams. Questions of the role of different types of damage in the LET effect, for example, are being answered by comparing repair kinetics for damage induced by electrons with that produced by helium ions. However, as the models become more sophicated, the differences between models can be detected only with more precise measurements, or by combining high- and low-LET irradiations in split-dose experiments. The design of the authors present cell irradiation beam line has limited the authors to irradiating cells in a partial vacuum. A new way to mount the dishes and bring the beam to the cells was required. Several means of irradiating cells in mylar-bottom dishes have been used at other laboratories. For example at the RARAF Facility, the dual ion experiments are done with the dish bottom serving as the beam exit window but the cells are in a partial vacuum to prevent breaking the window. These researchers have chosen instead to use the dish bottom as the beam window and to irradiate the entire dish in a single exposure. A special, very fast pumping system will be installed at the end of the beam line. This system will make it possible to irradiate cells within two minutes of installing them in the irradiation chamber. In this way, the interaction of electron and ion-induced damage in Chlamydomonas can be studied with time between doses as short as 5 minutes

  19. Medical tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggat, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Medical tourism is a burgeoning industry in our region. It involves patients travelling outside of their home country for medical treatment. This article provides an outline of the current research around medical tourism, especially its impact on Australians. Patients are increasingly seeking a variety of medical treatments abroad, particularly those involving cosmetic surgery and dental treatment, often in countries in South-East Asia. Adverse events may occur during medical treatment abroad, which raises medico-legal and insurance issues, as well as concerns regarding follow-up of patients. General practitioners need to be prepared to offer advice, including travel health advice, to patients seeking medical treatment abroad.

  20. Gamma Irradiation does not Cause Carcinogenesis of Irradiated Herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thongphasuk, Jarunee; Thongphasuk, Piyanuch; Eamsiri, Jarurut; Pongpat, Suchada

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Microbial contamination of medicinal herbs can be effectively reduced by gamma irradiation. Since irradiation may cause carcinogenicity of the irradiated herbs, the objective of this research is to study the effect of gamma irradiation (10 and 25 kGy) from cobalt-60 on carcinogenicity. The herbs studied were Pueraria candollei Grah., Curcuma longa Linn. Zingiber montanum, Senna alexandrina P. Miller, Eurycoma Longifolia Jack, Gymnostema pentaphylum Makino, Ginkgo biloba, Houttuynia cordata T., Andrographis paniculata, Thunbergia laurifolia L., Garcinia atroviridis G., and Cinnamomum verum J.S.Presl. The results showed that gamma irradiation at the dose of 10 and 25 kGy did not cause carcinogenicity of the irradiated herbs

  1. Dosimetry characterization of the Tunisian Cobalt-60 gamma irradiation pilot plant for the irradiation of the mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettaieb, Nasreddine; Farah, Kaled; Kadri, Omrane; Jerbi, Taieb; Gharbi, Foued; Manai, Kais

    2005-01-01

    Cobalt-60 gamma irradiation pilot plant has been put into operation in 1999 at the National Center for nuclear scinces and technologies, Sidi-Thabet, Tunisia. An initial characterization of this pilot was performed to determine the overall performance of the irradiator in delivering absorbed dose to a product prior to routine processing, in particular sterilisation of medical devices and food irradiation. A new irradiation holder was recently installed; it was designed especially for the irradiation of pupae of the Meditterranean fruit fly. It consists of four turn plates which makes it possible to rotate the canisters holding the pupae within the radiation field. The axis of ratation is vertical and parallel to the source pencils. Prior to routine irradiation using the new irradiation holder, validation procedures are necessary to establish conditions of the irradiation within the specification. In the course of these procedures, detailed dose mapping on a vertical plane in the middel of the canister of insect pupae with bulk density of 0.446 g /cm3 was carried out for two irradiation configurations : fixed plates and turned plates. GafChromic dosimeter calibrated against Alanine / ESR dosimetry system was used for the dose measurements. The maximum and minimum dose locations were determined and the dose uniformity ratio calculated and discussed. Detailed analyses of the isodose curves and histogram of the frequency distribution of absorbed dose were also given. Transit dose and dose rate in the reference position inside the canister were measured using Fricke dosimeters. The results of measurements of absorbed dose and dose distribution in insect pupae do not show any significant difference in the dose uniformity ratio (U=Dmax / Dmin) between the two irradiation configurations. At the same time we observed with turned plates configuration an improvement of the homogeneity of the absorbed dose distribution in the insect pupae showed by the increasing of the pipae

  2. Physical engineering and medical physics on boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori

    2011-01-01

    The contents of physical engineering and medical physics that support boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) can be roughly classified to the four items, (1) neutron irradiation system, (2) development and improvement of dose assessment techniques, (3) development and improvement of dose planning system, and (4) quality assurance and quality control. This paper introduces the BNCT at Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, with a focus on the basic physics of BNCT, thermal neutron irradiation and epithermal neutron irradiation, heavy water neutron irradiation facilities of KUR, and medical irradiation system of KUR. It also introduces the world's first BNCT clinical cyclotron irradiation system (C-BENS) of Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, BNCT dose assessment techniques, dose planning system, and quality assurance and quality control. (A.O.)

  3. Basic principles of medical aid in cases of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, E.; Mikhajlov, M.A.; Bliznakov, V.

    1979-01-01

    A model scheme has been presented of medical aid organization in emergency cases of irradiation. The tasks of medical service have been pointed out in connection with evacuation stages, bulk of medical aid depending on the natur of radiation damages, first aid and some general principles of radiation sickness treatment. (author)

  4. Public understanding for medical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Seongyeol

    1994-01-01

    Main sources of radiation exposure are radiography for the diagnosis of disease and radiation therapy to kill cancer cells, which are using X-ray generators or radioisotopes. The radiation of medical purpose irradiates intentionally to the patients. Another example of intentional exposure is occupational workers who are handling radiological equipment. The patients receive radiation more than the dose exposed to the occupational workers, but there is no doubt for the secondary radiation hazard. Although the epidemiologic studies represents that even low dose irradiation can cause epidemiologic studies represents that even low dose irradiation can cause cancer or congenital anomaly in human as a late effect, the risk is negligible, particularly when it is compared with the incidence of same disease in general population

  5. Interstitial irradiation for craniopharyngioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlas, O.; Bayindir, C.; Can, M.

    2000-01-01

    The results of interstitial irradiation treatment for craniopharyngioma in two patients with six year follow-ups are presented. Stereotactic interstitial irradiation with iodine-125 sources as sole therapy was employed in two adult patients who refused surgical resection. The diagnoses were confirmed by stereotactic biopsy. The first tumour which underwent interstitial irradiation was solid and 4 cm in diameter, and the second, 2.7 cm in diameter, had both cystic and solid components. The implanted iodine-125 seeds delivered 67 Gy and 60 Gy to tumour periphery at the rate of 12 and 14 cGy/h, respectively, were removed at the end of designated radiation periods. Tumour shrinkage and central hypo density, first observed 3 months after irradiation, continued until one tumour shrank to less than 1 cm at 12 months, and the other disappeared completely at 24 months. In both cases functional integrity was restored, and neither radiation induced toxicity nor recurrence has occurred six years after treatment. The results in these two cases suggest that solid craniopharyngiomas are sensitive to interstitial irradiation. (author)

  6. Post-irradiation diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meerwaldt, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    In radiotherapy of pelvic cancers, the X-ray dose to be delivered to the tumour is limited by the tolerance of healthy surrounding tissue. In recent years, a number of serious complications of irradiation of pelvic organs were encountered. Modern radiotherapy necessitates the acceptance of a calculated risk of complications in order to achieve a better cure rate. To calculate these risks, one has to know the radiation dose-effect relationship of normal tissues. Of the normal tissues most at risk when treating pelvic tumours only the bowel is studied. In the literature regarding post-irradiation bowel complications, severe and mild complications are often mixed. In the present investigation the author concentrated on the group of patients with relatively mild symptoms. He studied the incidence and course of post-irradiation diarrhea in 196 patients treated for carcinoma of the uterine cervix or endometrium. The aims of the present study were: 1) to determine the incidence, course and prognostic significance of post-irradiation diarrhea; 2) to assess the influence of radiotherapy factors; 3) to study the relation of bile acid metabolism to post-irradiation diarrhea; 4) to investigate whether local factors (reservoir function) were primarily responsible. (Auth.)

  7. Medical Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... org Close Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT) Medical Management Although there’s no cure for CMT, there are ... individualized physical therapy program. For more on medical management of CMT, see Surgery Sometimes, Bracing Often, Caution ...

  8. Medical Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine philosophical stances underpinning medical identity and assess the conceptual relationship between physician, medical practice and culture. Argument: Medical identity is about the ideals and moral positions that physicians take when justifying themselves. Medical identity...... hedonistic versus sentimentalist approaches to medical identity. The sociocultural philosophical analysis of medical identity can shed light on what it means conceptually for a physician to harbor beliefs associated with him/her being taken to be an autonomous professional. It is important because it touches...... on the meaning of being a compassionate, good and skilled physician, making its relevance to person-centered medicine self-evident. Conclusion: Medical identity should be analyzed with reference to literature, philosophy and medical practice in order for the physician to exercise a reflective position...

  9. [Medical negligence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipper, St G

    2016-06-01

    Medical negligence is a matter of growing public interest. This review outlines various aspects of medical negligence: epidemiology, taxonomy, and the risks, causes, psychology, management and prevention of errors.

  10. Medical Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as medical books, journals, magazines, pharma or biotech marketing, films, online video, exhibits, posters, wall charts, educational ... of the health career profession with strong communication skills, medical illustrators work closely with clients to interpret ...

  11. Application of the Voxeldose software for dosimetric evaluation on the thyroid during thorax-AP irradiation considering the peak voltages (k Vp) most used in diagnostic X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, I.F.; Vieira, J.W.; Leal Neto, V.

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of the absorbed dose distribution can be obtained through a computational model of exposures (ECM), being one the main difficulties at the specific dosimetric evaluation such as the radiodiagnostic, coupling the Monte Carlo computer code, developed for general use, to a anthropomorphic model. This problem can be solved by the software used in this paper, the VoxelDose, and it consists of an algorithm for X-ray diagnostic sources with the Monte Carlo EGS4 code coupled to the voxel anthropomorphic phantoms MAX (Male Adult voXel) and FAX (Female Adult voXel). The graphic interface allows the user to insert the mos common exams parameters, and to execute the simulation, obtaining conversion coefficients and the estimative of the deposited energy on organs/tissues radio sensible during the routine procedures. The data obtained were organized into graphics showing the thyroid equivalent dose, which is a radio sensible with 20 g mass and a weight factor of 5 %, compared with the effective dose during an irradiation of thorax-AP

  12. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, M.

    1978-01-01

    In November, 1977, an International Symposium on Food Preservation by Irradiation was held at Wageningen, the Netherlands. About 200 participants attended the Symposium which was organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization; a reflection of the active interest which is being shown in food irradiation processing, particularly among developing countries. The 75 papers presented provided an excellent review of the current status of food irradiation on a wide range of different topics, and the Symposium also afforded the valuable opportunity for informal discussion among the participants and for developing personal contacts. A brief survey of the salient aspects discussed during the course of the meeting are reported on. (orig.) [de

  13. Food irradiation - general aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, F.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes research and development experience in food irradiation followed by commercial utilisation of multi-purpose plants. The main design objectives should be high efficiency and uniform dose. Particular care must be given to dosimetry and the use of plastic dosimeters is described. Capital outlay for a 1 MCi Cobalt 60 irradiator is estimated to be 2.5 million dollars giving a unit processing cost of 0.566 dollars/ft 3 of throughput for 8000 hour/year use at a dose of 25 kGy. (2.5 Mrad). The sale of irradiated food for human consumption in Britain is not yet permitted but it is expected that enabling legislation will be introduced towards the end of 1985

  14. Energy and food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynjolfsson, A.

    1978-01-01

    The energy used in food systems in the US amounts to about 16.5% of total US energy. An analysis has been made of the energy used in the many steps of the food-irradiation process. It is found that irradiation pasteurization uses only 21kJ/kg and radappertization 157kJ/kg, which is much less than the energy used in the other food processes. A comparison has also been made with other methods of preserving, distributing and preparing the meat for servings. It is found that the food irradiation can save significant amounts of energy. In the case of heat-sterilized and radiation-sterilized meats the largest fraction of the energy is used in the packaging, while in the frozen meats the largest energy consumption is by refrigeration in the distribution channels and in the home. (author)

  15. Precipitates in irradiated Zircaloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H.M.

    1985-10-01

    Precipitates in high-burnup (>20 MWd/kg U) Zircaloy spent-fuel cladding discharged from commercial boiling- and pressurized-water reactors have been characterized by TEM-HVEM. Three classes of primary precipitates were observed in the irradiated Zircaloys: Zr 3 O (2 to 6 nm), cubic-ZrO 2 (greater than or equal to 10 nm), and delta-hydride (35 to 100 nm). The former two precipitations appears to be irradiation induced in nature. Zr(Fe/sub x/Cr/sub 1-x/) 2 and Zr 2 (Fe/sub x/Ni/sub 1-x/) intermetallics, which are the primary precipitates in unirradiated Zircaloys, were largely dissolved after the high burnup. It seems, therefore, that the influence of the size and distribution of the intermetallics on the corrosion behavior may be quite different for the irradiated Zircaloys

  16. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrachina, M.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of food irradiation is to extend shelf-life of food commodities by delaying fruit ripening, inhibition of vegetable sprouting, desinfestation of grains and seeds, and in general by controlling microbial or parasitic food-transmitted infections. It was stated by the 1980 Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee that food irradiated up to 10 kGy does not pose any human health or nutritional problems. Following this recommendation, irradiation programmes are being developed at a good pace in several countries. It is hoped that commercial drawbacks now existing, such as psychological apprehension of consumers to radiation-treated products and innovative inertia to changes of the food chain, will be removed through appropriate information schemes and legislative advancement. (author)

  17. Irradiation of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGregor, J.; Stanbrook, I.; Shersby, M.

    1989-01-01

    The House of Commons was asked to support the Government's intention to allow the use of the irradiation of foodstuffs under conditions that will fully safeguard the interests of the consumer. The Government, it was stated, regards this process as a useful additional way to ensure food safety. The effect of the radiation in killing bacteria will enhance safety standards in poultry meat, in some shell-fish and in herbs and spices. The problem of informing the public when the food has been irradiated, especially as there is no test to detect the irradiation, was raised. The subject was debated for an hour and a half and is reported verbatim. The main point raised was over whether the method gave safer food as not all bacteria were killed in the process. The motion was carried. (U.K.)

  18. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooij, J. van

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-five years of development work on the preservation of food by irradiation have shown that this technology has the potential to reduce post-harvest losses and to produce safe foods. The technological feasibility has been established but general acceptance of food irradiation by national regulatory bodies and consumers requires attention. The positive aspects of food preservation by irradiation include: the food keeps its freshness and its physical state, agents which cause spoilage (bacteria, etc.) are eliminated, recontamination does not take place, provided packaging materials are impermeable to bacteria and insects. It inhibits sprouting of root crops, kills insects and parasites, inactivates bacteria, spores and moulds, delays ripening of fruit, improves the technological properties of food. It makes foods biologically safe, allows the production of shelf-stable foods and is excellent for quarantine treatment, and generally improves food hygiene. The dose ranges needed for effective treatment are given

  19. Irradiation dose of cosmonauts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makra, Zs.

    1978-01-01

    The results obtained by determining the irradiation dose during the spaceflights of Apollo as well as the Sojouz-3 and Sojouz-9 spacecrafts have been compared in the form of tables. In case of Apollo astronauts the irradiation dose was determined by two methods and its sources were also pointed out, in tables. During Sojouz spacetravels the cosmonauts were exposed to a negligible dose. In spite of this fact the radiation danger is considerable. The small irradiation doses noticed so far are due to the fact that during the spaceflights there was no big proturberance. However, during the future long-range spacetravels a better radiation shielding than the one used up to now will be necessary. (P.J.)

  20. Development of a quality system for a contract irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siyakus, G.

    2002-01-01

    The use of Industrial Irradiation Systems, in order to process medical supplies and food commodities, has almost 50 years experiences in the world. The food irradiation process has been approved by more than 40 countries around the world and it has been endorsed or supported by numerous national and international organizations and professional groups. Today, radiation sterilization of medical supplies is the most preferred technology in almost every developed country. Other applications: such as waste and flue gas treatment, polymer processing are also put into practice in wider range than before. Higher capital cost compared to the operation cost, the nature of continuous decay of the radiation sources used to obtain gamma rays, obligate the owners of gamma facilities to operate systems based on the 24 hours a day and 7 days per week. On the other hand, higher throughput capacity and economical brake point for profitability, force irradiation companies to offer service for the varied products of the companies. Industrial irradiation facilities providing services for varied companies by irradiating different kind of commodities so called contract irradiator or multipurpose irradiator and most of the irradiation facilities, particularly gamma irradiators running in different locations of the World, operates as contract irradiators. The radiation facilities are considered as a part of the manufacturing process, and must conform to the pertinent general Code of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) which has been declared by the principal producer. Customers of these facilities may have petitions, such as irradiation temperature, dose rate, minimal and maximal doses; storage conditions before and after irradiation. Design parameters related to the dose rate, product size, density and weight, irradiation and storage temperatures are the main limitations. Varied process conditions can be easily applied in the laboratory may set forth difficulties in industrial processes

  1. Flux studies on ion microporous membrane for the use of medical filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hongying; Huang Zhengde

    2002-01-01

    The influences of the irradiating condition (divergent and perpendicular irradiation) and hole shapes (cylinder and cone holes) on the flux are studied for ion microporous membrane. The results show that divergent irradiation and cone hole both can improve the flux of ion microporous membrane for the use of medical filtration

  2. Facts about food irradiation: Nutritional quality of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet briefly considers the nutritional value of irradiated foods. Micronutrients, especially vitamins, are sensitive to any food processing method, but irradiation does not cause any special nutritional problems in food. 4 refs

  3. Ban irradiation of food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashim, Hatijah bt; Gnanamuthu, E

    1986-12-31

    Irradiation of food has been promoted as a new technology in the preservation of food. Several countries have already introduced the technology for selected food items. However, there remain several questions that have yet to be answered. Foremost is the question of its safety. Proponents have argued that it is safe. Others cast doubts on these studies and the interpretations of their results. Second is the question of the nutritive value of the food that is irradiated. These and many other questions related to safety will be discussed in this paper

  4. Irradiated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, R.; Tesh, J.M.

    1982-11-01

    Groups of 40 male and 40 female CD rats were fed powdered rodent diet containing 25% (w/w) of either non-irradiated, irradiated or fumigated cocoa beans. The diets were supplemented with certain essential dietary constituents designed to satisfy normal nutritional requirements. An additional 40 male and 40 female rats received basal rodent diet alone (ground) and acted as an untreated control. After 70 days of treatment, 15 male and 15 female rats from each group were used to assess reproductive function of the F 0 animals and growth and development of the F 1 offspring up to weaning; the remaining animals were killed after 91 days of treatment. (orig.)

  5. Fuel or irradiation subassembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seim, O.S.; Hutter, E.

    1975-01-01

    A subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which incorporates a loose bundle of fuel or irradiation pins enclosed within an inner tube which in turn is enclosed within an outer coolant tube and includes a locking comb consisting of a head extending through one side of the inner sleeve and a plurality of teeth which extend through the other side of the inner sleeve while engaging annular undercut portions in the bottom portion of the fuel or irradiation pins to prevent movement of the pins

  6. Canadian Irradiation Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    The Canadian Irradiation Centre is a non-profit cooperative project between Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Radiochemical Company and Universite du Quebec, Institut Armand-Frappier, Centre for Applied Research in Food Science. The Centre's objectives are to develop, demonstrate and promote Canada's radiation processing technology and its applications by conducting applied research; training technical, professional and scientific personnel; educating industry and government; demonstrating operational and scientific procedures; developing processing procedures and standards, and performing product and market acceptance trials. This pamphlet outlines the history of radoation technology and the services offered by the Canadian Irradiation Centre

  7. Gamma irradiation of spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saputra, T S; Harsoyo,; Sudarman, H [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre

    1982-07-01

    An experiment has been done to determine the effect of irradiation and reduction of moisture content on the keeping quality of commercial spices, i.e. nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), black and white pepper (Piper ningrum). The results showed that a dose of 5 kGy could reduce the microbial load of spices as much as 2-4 log cycles for the total plate count and 1-3 log cycles for the total mould and yeast counts. The microbial reduction due to the irradiation treatment was found to be lower in more humid products. Prolonged storage enhanced the microbial reduction.

  8. Microstructure of irradiated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, I.M.

    1995-01-01

    The focus of the symposium was on the changes produced in the microstructure of metals, ceramics, and semiconductors by irradiation with energetic particles. the symposium brought together those working in the different material systems, which revealed that there are a remarkable number of similarities in the irradiation-produced microstructures in the different classes of materials. Experimental, computational and theoretical contributions were intermixed in all of the sessions. This provided an opportunity for these groups, which should interact, to do so. Separate abstracts were prepared for 58 papers in this book

  9. Irradiation of dehydrated vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esterhuyse, A; Esterhuizen, T.

    1985-01-01

    The reason for radurization was to decreased the microbial count of dehydrated vegetables. The average absorbed irradiation dose range between 2kGy and 15kGy. The product catagories include a) Green vegetables b) White vegetables c) Powders of a) and b). The microbiological aspects were: Declining curves for the different products of T.P.C., Coliforms, E. Coli, Stap. areus, Yeast + Mold at different doses. The organoleptical aspects were: change in taste, flavour, texture, colour and moisture. The aim is the marketing of irradiated dehydrated vegetables national and international basis

  10. Ban irradiation of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, Hatijah bt; Gnanamuthu, E.

    1985-01-01

    Irradiation of food has been promoted as a new technology in the preservation of food. Several countries have already introduced the technology for selected food items. However, there remain several questions that have yet to be answered. Foremost is the question of its safety. Proponents have argued that it is safe. Others cast doubts on these studies and the interpretations of their results. Second is the question of the nutritive value of the food that is irradiated. These and many other questions related to safety will be discussed in this paper

  11. Consumer opinions in Argentina on food irradiation: irradiated onions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curzio, O.A.; Croci, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Two surveys were carried out in Buenos Aires of consumer attitudes towards irradiated onions [no data given]. The first investigated the general level of consumer knowledge concerning food irradiation, whilst the second (which covered consumers who had actually bought irradiated onions) examined reasons for purchase and consumer satisfaction. Results reveal that more than 90% of consumers surveyed had a very limited knowledge of food irradiation

  12. [Medical technology and medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Mallek, D; Biersack, H-J; Mull, R; Wilhelm, K; Heinz, B; Mellert, F

    2010-08-01

    The education of medical professionals is divided into medical studies, postgraduate training leading to the qualification as a specialist, and continuing professional development. During education, all scientific knowledge and practical skills are to be acquired, which enable the physician to practice responsibly in a specialized medical area. In the present article, relevant curricula are analyzed regarding the consideration of medical device-related topics, as the clinical application of medical technology has reached a central position in modern patient care. Due to the enormous scientific and technical progress, this area has become as important as pharmacotherapy. Our evaluation shows that medical device-related topics are currently underrepresented in the course of medical education and training and should be given greater consideration in all areas of medical education. Possible solutions are presented.

  13. Review of events at large pool-type irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trager, E.A. Jr.

    1989-03-01

    Large pool-type gamma irradiators are used in applications such as the ''cold'' sterilization of medical and pharmaceutical supplies, and recent changes in federal regulations make it possible they will be used extensively in the preservation of foodstuffs. Because of this possible large increase in the use of irradiators, the Office of Nuclear Materials Safety and Safeguards was interested in knowing what events had occurred at irradiators. The event data would be used as background in developing new regulations on irradiators. Therefore, AEOD began a study of the operating experience at large, wet source storage gamma irradiators. The scope of the study was to assess all available operating information on large (≥ 250,000 curie), pool-type irradiators licensed by both the NRC and the Agreement States, and events at foreign facilities. The study found that about 0.12 events have been reported per irradiator-year. Most of these events were precursor events, in that there was no evidence of damage to the radioactive sources or degradation in the level of safety of the facility. Events with more significant impacts had a reported frequency of about 0.01 event per irradiator-year. However, the actual rate of occurrence of events of concern to the staff may be higher because there are few specific reporting requirements for events at irradiators. It is suggested that during development of a regulation for large pool-type irradiators consideration be given to specifying requirements for: reporting breakdowns in access control systems; periodic inspection of the source movement and suspension system; systems to detect source leakage and product contamination; allowable pool leakage; and feedback of information on operational events involving safety-important systems

  14. Medical physics 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunde, E.

    1982-01-01

    This volume continues the series of congress publications with which the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Medizinische Physik has been completely documenting its annual meetings for some years. The meeting was aimed to show the complexity not only of the scientific specialty medical physics but also of the practical activities of medical physicists, or at least give some idea of it. The conference was centred on the following points: Possibilities of optimization and methods for re-examination of techniques used in X-ray diagnostics, nuclear diagnostics and ultrasonographic diagnostics; bases of dosimetry in practical radiotherapy, especially with a view to the plans to make gauging of therapeutical dosemeters compulsory; current state of neutron therapy and dosimetry; safety and constancy of irradiation devices in operation; planning and equipment of modern radiotherapy departments. Furthermore topics from medical optics and nuclearbiological research were dealt with. Reports were given on the clinical use of whole-body counters. Climatology and surgical research were marginally dealt with in two synoptical papers. Short reports on work currently under way completed the subject groups given and allowed insight into further topical fields of work of medical physicists in science and practice. Finally, the question of education received particular interest. (orig./MG) [de

  15. Mechanical and irradiation properties of zirconium alloys irradiated in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Oh Hyun; Eom, Kyong Bo; Kim, Jae Ik; Suh, Jung Min; Jeon, Kyeong Lak

    2011-01-01

    These experimental studies are carried out to build a database for analyzing fuel performance in nuclear power plants. In particular, this study focuses on the mechanical and irradiation properties of three kinds of zirconium alloy (Alloy A, Alloy B and Alloy C) irradiated in the HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor), one of the leading multipurpose research reactors in the world. Yield strength and ultimate tensile strength were measured to determine the mechanical properties before and after irradiation, while irradiation growth was measured for the irradiation properties. The samples for irradiation testing are classified by texture. For the irradiation condition, all samples were wrapped into the capsule (07M-13N) and irradiated in the HANARO for about 100 days (E > 1.0 MeV, 1.1 10 21 n/cm 2 ). These tests and results indicate that the mechanical properties of zirconium alloys are similar whether unirradiated or irradiated. Alloy B has shown the highest yield strength and tensile strength properties compared to other alloys in irradiated condition. Even though each of the zirconium alloys has a different alloying content, this content does not seem to affect the mechanical properties under an unirradiated condition and low fluence. And all the alloys have shown the tendency to increase in yield strength and ultimate tensile strength. Transverse specimens of each of the zirconium alloys have a slightly lower irradiation growth tendency than longitudinal specimens. However, for clear analysis of texture effects, further testing under higher irradiation conditions is needed

  16. Radiological accidents in Peru: 1977-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vizcardo L, C.; Espinoza Z, M.

    1999-10-01

    A brief history of twenty four events of real and suspected overexposure to ionizing radiation's reported to IPEN during 1977-1988 period are presented. Thirty-seven persons were involved being twelve really overexposed. Nine of them showed clinically detectable injuries (deterministic effects). The events occurred in different kinds of irradiation facilities or laboratories in Peru, mainly related with the use of radiodiagnostics and gamma radiography equipment. Patients were derived to the radiosanitary medicine service of IPEN were medical examinations and laboratory prescriptions were made. It was possible to perform cytogenetical analysis in eighteen patients. Additional data and comments on six cases of prenatal irradiation reported to this service are presented. (authors)

  17. A fresh method of DNA transformation to the seeds irradiated by Co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-29

    Jun 29, 2011 ... To find out a simpler method that can directly transfer the aim gene into plant ... Key words: DNA transformation, irradiated seeds, purple medic, salt screening. ..... characterization of a maize mitochondrial plasmid-like DNA.

  18. The effect of irradiation by ultraviolet light on ureido-pyrimidinone based biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollet, B.B.; Nakano, Y.; Magusin, P.C.M.M.; Spiering, A.J.H.; Vekemans, J.A.J.M.; Dankers, P.Y.W.; Meijer, E.W.

    2016-01-01

    Supramolecular polymers based on ureido-pyrimidinone (UPy) represent a promising class of biocompatible materials for medical applications. Here, the chemical modification effect of UV irradiation, used to sterilize these materials, is studied. Besides anticipated crosslinking effects, UV

  19. Medical management of radiation accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-12-31

    The film gives advice on actions to be taken in case of a radiation accident. It addresses involving external irradiation of the whole and partial body, very localized exposure, uptake of radioiodine, inhalation of transuranium elements and a wound of a finger. The film is intended to illustrate the Agency`s Safety Series No. 47 entitled ``Manual on Early Medical Treatment of Possible Radiation Injury`` published in 1978

  20. Progress in food irradiation: Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merino, F G

    1978-12-01

    Durability and tolerability of several vegetable sorts such as potatoes, onions, and garlick after irradiation with gamma radiation are investigated. In questioning the consumers, a positive attitude of the consumers towards irradiated products was noted.

  1. Food irradiation and consumer values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhn, C.M.; Schutz, H.G.; Sommer, R.

    1988-01-01

    A mail survey technique was used to determine if value hierarchy, locus of control, innovativeness, and demographic parameters could distinguish between subjects expressing different levels of concern and willingness to buy irradiated food. Concern toward irradiated food was lower than concern for other food safety issues, probably because many expressed uncertainty regarding irradiation. Those ranking the value “an ecologically balanced world” expressed the greatest irradiation concern. Factors which could predict high irradiation concern were being highly concerned about the use of chemical sprays on food, completing more formal education and being female; those believing that life was controlled by luck were less concerned. Irradiation concern was a principal factor determining willingness to buy irradiated foods. Innovative consumers were more likely to try irradiated foods than noninnovative. Implications for consumer education are presented

  2. Progress in food irradiation: Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merino, F.G.

    1978-01-01

    Durability and tolerability of several vegetable sorts such as potatoes, onions, and garlick after irradiation with gamma radiation are investigated. In questioning the consumers, a positive attitude of the consumers towards irradiated products was noted. (AJ) [de

  3. Regulatory aspect of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison Aziz

    1985-01-01

    Interest in the process of food irradiation is reviewed once again internationally. Although food irradiation has been thoroughly investigated, global acceptance is still lacking. Factors which impede the progress of the technology are discussed here. (author)

  4. Minutes of the workshop on bases of in-pile irradiation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    The Workshop on Bases of In-pile Irradiation Tests was held on January 29th and 30th, 1997 at the Ibarakiken Sangyo Kaikan in Mito, Ibaraki. The purpose is to discuss upgrading an in-pile irradiation test, promoting the utilization of the research and testing reactors and also activating the research potential of JAERI transversely. Main topics are the role and future plan of the research and testing reactors, a challenge to an advanced irradiation test, development of peripheral techniques for irradiation tests and future trends of the in-pile irradiation test in the 21st century. It was mainly pointed out that the in-pile irradiation test based on an analytical method using interpolation and extrapolation procedures met a turning point and that the upgrading of the irradiation and testing method should be indispensable for regaining the latest frontiers of an irradiation study using the research and testing reactors. The new concepts were also proposed on the irradiation correlation and modeling for the design of innovative materials. It was also recognized the key issues of the irradiation study in future should be an advanced irradiation testing method which can combine various types of irradiation field and control the irradiation conditions freely. In the next century in which large accelerator or new neutron source competes with research and testing reactors for neutron irradiation tests, themes of research using in-pile irradiation tests will be upgrading of the light water reactor, development of fusion reactor, basic research, biological and medical research, radioisotope production and semiconductors manufacturing, etc. It was also concluded the research and testing reactors will keep their main role in neutron irradiation research in future. This report briefly summarizes the content of 16 presentations and the discussion. The result of the questionnaires on the utilization of research and testing reactors to the participants is also attached. (J.P.N.)

  5. Innovations to increase throughput of the multipurpose irradiation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabalfin, Estelita G; Lanuza, Luvimina G; Maningas, Aurelio L; Solomon, Haydee M [Irradiation Services Unit, Nuclear Services and Training Division, Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon City (Philippines)

    1998-07-01

    With the installation and operation of the PNRI [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute] multipurpose irradiation facility, several local industries are now aware of, and in fact using gamma radiation for sterilization or decontamination of medical and pharmaceutical products, packaging materials and for food preservation. However, the multipurpose irradiation facility has limited capacity and capability, since this was designed as a pilot scale irradiator for research and development. To meet the increasing demand of gamma irradiation service, a new product handling system was locally designed, fabricated and installed. Performance, in terms of total loading and more importantly, radiation dose distribution of the new product handling system, was evaluated. An increase in product throughput was realized effectively with the new product handling system. (Author)

  6. Innovations to increase throughput of the multipurpose irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabalfin, Estelita G.; Lanuza, Luvimina G.; Maningas, Aurelio L.; Solomon, Haydee M.

    1998-01-01

    With the installation and operation of the PNRI [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute] multipurpose irradiation facility, several local industries are now aware of, and in fact using gamma radiation for sterilization or decontamination of medical and pharmaceutical products, packaging materials and for food preservation. However, the multipurpose irradiation facility has limited capacity and capability, since this was designed as a pilot scale irradiator for research and development. To meet the increasing demand of gamma irradiation service, a new product handling system was locally designed, fabricated and installed. Performance, in terms of total loading and more importantly, radiation dose distribution of the new product handling system, was evaluated. An increase in product throughput was realized effectively with the new product handling system. (Author)

  7. Longevity of irradiated burros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushbaugh, C.C.; Brown, D.G.; Frome, E.L.

    1984-01-01

    The unique radioresistance of burros has resulted in a large-animal life-span study that began in 1951. During the course of radiation exposures, some animals at three low exposures to gamma photons survived (10, 10, and 9 exposed to 320, 425, and 545 R, respectively). In 1953, 20 burros exposed to 375 R (gamma) in 25-R/wk increments were added to this life-span study. In 1957, 33 burros exposed to mixed neutron-gamma radiation from nuclear weapons were added. Six burros exposed to 180 rads of neutron and gamma radiation (4:1) in a ''Godiva-type'' reactor were added in 1959 along with 22 controls. In the first 4 years after the single gamma exposures (320-545 R), there were deaths from pancytopenia and thrombocytopenia). Afterward, however, all deaths have been attributable to common equine diseases; none from malignancies. Today, 20 of the original 112 burros in these studies survive (13 irradiated and 7 controls). Survival curves determined for unirradiated and neutron-gamma and gamma-only irradiated burros show significant differences. Median survival time: controls, 28 yrs; gamma irradiation, 26 yrs; neutron-gamma irradiation, 23 yrs. A Weibull probability analysis predicts maximum life-span to be 42 yrs

  8. Irradiated fuel bundle counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.; Todd, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    The design of a prototype safeguards instrument for determining the number of irradiated fuel assemblies leaving an on-power refueled reactor is described. Design details include radiation detection techniques, data processing and display, unattended operation capabilities and data security methods. Development and operating history of the bundle counter is reported. (U.S.)

  9. Irradiated fuel bundle counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.; Todd, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    The design of a prototype safeguards instrument for determining the number of irradiated fuel assemblies leaving an on-power refueled reactor is described. Design details include radiation detection techniques, data processing and display, unattended operation capabilities and data security methods. Development and operating history of the bundle counter is reported

  10. CERN IRRADIATION FACILITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, Fabio; Garcia Alia, Ruben; Brugger, Markus; Carbonez, Pierre; Danzeca, Salvatore; Gkotse, Blerina; Richard Jaekel, Martin; Ravotti, Federico; Silari, Marco; Tali, Maris

    2017-09-28

    CERN provides unique irradiation facilities for applications in dosimetry, metrology, intercomparison of radiation protection devices, benchmark of Monte Carlo codes and radiation damage studies to electronics. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Starch degradation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruzinec, J.; Hola, O.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of high energy irradiation on various starch samples was studied. The radiation dose varied between 43 and 200.9 kGy. The viscosity of starch samples were determined by Hoeppler's method. The percentual solubility of the matter in dry starch was evaluated. The viscosity and solubility values are presented. (author) 14 refs

  12. Irradiation of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delincee, H.; Ehlermann, D.; Gruenewald, T.; Harmuth-Hoene, A.E.; Muenzner, R.

    1978-01-01

    The present issue of the bibliographic series contains 227 items. The main headings of the content are basics of food irradiation, applications at low dose levels, applications at higher dose levels, effects on foods and on components of foods, and microbiology. (MG) [de

  13. Irradiated uranium reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal, I.

    1961-12-01

    Task concerned with reprocessing of irradiated uranium covered the following activities: implementing the method and constructing the cell for uranium dissolving; implementing the procedure for extraction of uranium, plutonium and fission products from radioactive uranium solutions; studying the possibilities for using inorganic ion exchangers and adsorbers for separation of U, Pu and fission products

  14. NSUF Irradiated Materials Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, James Irvin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Nuclear Science User Facilities has been in the process of establishing an innovative Irradiated Materials Library concept for maximizing the value of previous and on-going materials and nuclear fuels irradiation test campaigns, including utilization of real-world components retrieved from current and decommissioned reactors. When the ATR national scientific user facility was established in 2007 one of the goals of the program was to establish a library of irradiated samples for users to access and conduct research through competitively reviewed proposal process. As part of the initial effort, staff at the user facility identified legacy materials from previous programs that are still being stored in laboratories and hot-cell facilities at the INL. In addition other materials of interest were identified that are being stored outside the INL that the current owners have volunteered to enter into the library. Finally, over the course of the last several years, the ATR NSUF has irradiated more than 3500 specimens as part of NSUF competitively awarded research projects. The Logistics of managing this large inventory of highly radioactive poses unique challenges. This document will describe materials in the library, outline the policy for accessing these materials and put forth a strategy for making new additions to the library as well as establishing guidelines for minimum pedigree needed to be included in the library to limit the amount of material stored indefinitely without identified value.

  15. Process for irradiation of polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, George.

    1983-01-01

    Irradiation of polyethylene affects its processabiltiy in the fabrication of products and affects the properties of products already fabricated. The present invention relates to a process for the irradiation of polyethylene, and especially to a process for the irradiation of homopolymers of ethylene and copolymers of ethylene and higher α-olefins, in the form of granules, with low levels of electron or gamma irradiation in the presence of an atomsphere of steam

  16. Sewage sludge irradiation with electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauber, M.

    1976-01-01

    The disinfection of sewage sludge by irradiation has been discussed very intensively in the last few months. Powerful electron accelerators are now available and the main features of the irradiation of sewage sludge with fast electrons are discussed and the design parameters of such installations described. AEG-Telefunken is building an irradiation plant with a 1.5 MeV, 25 mA electron accelerator, to study the main features of electron irradiation of sewage sludge. (author)

  17. Potato irradiation technology in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takehisa, M.

    1981-01-01

    After the National research program on potato irradiation, the public consumption of potatoes irradiated to a maximum of 15 krad was authorized by the Ministry of Welfare. Shihoro Agricultural Cooperative Association, one of the largest potato producers in Japan with an annual production of 200,000 tons, intended an application of the irradiation to their potato storage system. This paper describes the technological background of the potato irradiation facility and operational experience. (author)

  18. Proceedings of neutron irradiation technical meeting on BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    The 'Neutron Irradiation Technical Meeting for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)' was held on March 13, 2000 at Tokai Research Establishment. The Meeting is aimed to introduce the neutron beam facility for medical irradiation at JRR-4 to Japanese researchers widely, as well as providing an opportunity for young researchers, engineers, medical representatives such surgeons and doctors of pharmacology to present their research activities and to exchange valuable information. JAERI researcher presented the performance and the irradiation technology in the JRR-4 neutron beam facility, while external researchers made various and beneficial presentations containing such accelerator-based BNCT, spectrum-shifter, biological effect, pharmacological development and so on. In this meeting, a special lecture titled 'The Dawn of BNCT and Its Development.' was given by MD, Prof. Takashi Minobe, an executive director of Japan Foundation for Emergency Medicine. The 11 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  19. Proceedings of neutron irradiation technical meeting on BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    The 'Neutron Irradiation Technical Meeting for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)' was held on March 13, 2000 at Tokai Research Establishment. The Meeting is aimed to introduce the neutron beam facility for medical irradiation at JRR-4 to Japanese researchers widely, as well as providing an opportunity for young researchers, engineers, medical representatives such surgeons and doctors of pharmacology to present their research activities and to exchange valuable information. JAERI researcher presented the performance and the irradiation technology in the JRR-4 neutron beam facility, while external researchers made various and beneficial presentations containing such accelerator-based BNCT, spectrum-shifter, biological effect, pharmacological development and so on. In this meeting, a special lecture titled 'The Dawn of BNCT and Its Development.' was given by MD, Prof. Takashi Minobe, an executive director of Japan Foundation for Emergency Medicine. The 11 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  20. Proceedings of the Seminar 'Irradiation Technologies and the IRASM Facility'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponta, Corneliu Catalin; Moise, Ioan Valentin

    1999-01-01

    The seminar devoted to 'Irradiation Technologies and the IRASM Facility' aimed at debating the principal problems related to one of the most important project ever developed in Romania, at the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, in collaboration with IAEA. IRASM (an acronym for Multiple Purpose Irradiation Facility) is using initially a 60 Co of 100 kCi irradiation source (to be replaced after an promotional stage by a 2 MCi Co source). It is designed to irradiate a materials volume of about 35,000 m 3 /year. Health, agriculture, food industry and materials industry are the most targeted customers. It will be used for sterilization of medical materials and pharmaceuticals products, peat and seed (and other agricultural products) decontamination and sterilization, experimental irradiation of food products, irradiation of composite plastics and other industrial products, etc. The seminar was a first meeting of Romanian specialists in radiation processing with potential users of these technologies as well as with decision making persons working with national governmental and regulation authorities. Twelve communications were presented as a basis for discussion. These were: 1. IRASM - a technical assistance IAEA project and the prospects for technological irradiation in Romania (Serban Dobrescu); 2. IRASM facility - goal, present stage, perspectives (Corneliu C. Ponta); 3. Nuclear safeguards and radioprotection at IRASM (Ioan Valentin Moise); 4. Nuclear safeguard policy for IRASM (Mariana Irimia, Gabriela Vladescu, Ion Cristian); 5. Technological dosimetry at IRASM (Rodica Macrin, Rodica Moraru, Nicolae Valcov); 6. Quality assurance in building and exploiting IRASM (Ioana Domsa); 7. Current status of irradiation technologies in IFIN-HH (Mitica Dragusin); 8. Chemical-pharmaceutical, cosmetic and medical product sterilization (Paul Adrian, Eleonora Gheorghiu); 9. The concept of sterilization and the sterilization testing (Ileana Petcu

  1. Food irradiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    1999-01-01

    Trade in food and agricultural products is important to all countries, the economies of many developing countries would be significantly improved if they were able to export more food and agricultural products. Unfortunately, many products can not be traded because they are infested with, or hosts to, harmful pests, contaminated with microorganisms, or spoil quickly. Foods contaminated with microorganisms cause economic losses, widespread illness and death. Several technologies and products have been developed to resolve problems in trading food and to improve food safety, but none can provide all the solutions. Irradiation is an effective technology to resolve technical problems in trade of many food and agricultural products, either as a stand- alone technology or in combination with others. As a disinfestation treatment it allows different levels of quarantine security to be targeted and it is one of few methods to control internal pests. The ability of irradiation virtually to eliminate key pathogenic organisms from meat, poultry, and spices is an important public health advantage. In addition to controlling pests and eliminating harmful bacteria, irradiation also extends the storage life of many foods. In the laboratories of Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, many research projects were completed on the effects of gamma irradiation to the storage life of chicken meat, anchovy, Turkish fermented sausage, dried and fresh fruits and vegetables and also research projects were conducted on the effects of gamma irradiation on microorganisms (Salmonella, Campylo-bacteria, E.coli and S.aureus in white and red meat) and parasites (food-borne, trichostrongylus spp. and Nematodes spp.)

  2. Market trials of irradiated chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, John A.; Olson, Dennis G.

    1998-01-01

    The potential market for irradiated chicken breasts was investigated using a mail survey and a retail trial. Results from the mail survey suggested a significantly higher level of acceptability of irradiated chicken than did the retail trial. A subsequent market experiment involving actual purchases showed levels of acceptability similar to that of the mail survey when similar information about food irradiation was provided

  3. EPR measurements in irradiated polyacetylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hola, O.; Foeldesova, M.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of γ-irradiation on the paramagnetic properties of polyacetylene, and the dependence of the EPR spectra on the radiation dose in samples of irradiated polyacetylene were studied. The measurements show that no essential changes of the spin mobility occurred during irradiation. (author) 3 refs.; 2 figs

  4. Onion irradiation - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, G.

    1988-01-01

    The irradiation of onions (Allium cepa L.) serves to prevent sprouting associated with long-term storage or transport and storage of onions in climatic conditions which stimulate sprouting. JECFI the Joint Expert Committee for Food Irradiation of FAO/IAEA/WHO, recommended the application of an irradiation dose of up to 150 Gy for sprout inhibition with onions. (author)

  5. Food irradiation: Activities and potentialities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doellstaedt, R.; Huebner, G.

    After the acceptance of food irradiation up to an overall average dose of 10 kGy recommended by the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food in October 1980, the G.D.R. started a programme for the development of techniques for food irradiation. A special onion irradiator was designed and built as a pilot plant for studying technological and economic parameters of the irradiation of onions. The new principle of bulk-cargo irradiation allows the integration of this technology into the usual harvest technology for onions on the way from field to storage. Scientific and applied research work has been carried out in the past 3 yr on the irradiation of spices, potatoes, eviscerated chicken, animal feeds, fodder yeast, drugs and vaccines. In connection with the irradiation of eviscerated chicken, fodder yeast and animal feeds the basis of an antisalmonella programme has been discussed. Germ-count-reduced spices were employed for the production of test charges of preserves and tinned products. The results have led to the decision to design and build a new multipurpose irradiator for food irradiation. In order to cover the legal aspects of food irradiation the Ministry of Health issued regulations concerning the recommendation of irradiated food in the G.D.R.

  6. Canadian perspectives on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstadt, P.

    1988-01-01

    Canada has been in the forefront of irradiation technology for some 30 years. Nearly 90 of the 140 irradiators used worldwide are Canadian-built, yet Canadian food processors have been very slow to use the technology. The food irradiation regulatory situation in Canada, the factors that influence it, and some significant non-regulatory developments are reviewed. (author)

  7. Five cases of squamous cell carcinoma induced by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omoto, Kayo; Tani, Tasaburo; Nagata, Hiroyuki; Kohda, Mamoru; Ueki, Hiroaki

    1985-01-01

    Five cases of squamous cell carcinoma (skin) induced by irradiation are reported. Three cases had been given radiotherapy for benign skin disorders, tinea pedis, lichen Vidal, and dermatitis papillaris capillitis. The other two cases were medical doctors who had developed carcinoma as the result of advanced radiodermatitis. (author)

  8. Present status of radiation application on irradiation service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Presently, it is in operation 6 gamma-ray facilities and 5 electron beam (EB) facilities for an irradiation service. New gamma-ray facility is under construction, and will be worked in August this year. These facilities are generally employed for crosslinking and decomposition of polymers, graft polymerization, improvement of semiconductor properties, sterilization of medical devices, laboratory-animals feed, packing materials and biotechnological devices. As for being feature one of EB facilities is employed only for improvement of polymers and semiconductors. Approximately 91% of gamma-ray sterilization of medical devices is processed in house, and 5 facilities are working in 4 firms. Other two firms have 4 EB facilities for sterilization. Therefore, the degree of dependence of irradiation service is low in the sterilization of medical devices. About 50% of medical devices are still sterilized by ethylene oxide gas (EOG). However, a part of laws has been amended successively from 5 years ago, and the regulation of EOG handling became harsh. Therefore, EOG sterilization will be gradually displaced in radiation sterilization. On the other hand, demand for sterilization of the packing materials has increased significantly, and various kinds of packing materials in food industry are sterilized by both gamma-rays and EB. Currently, novel PMMA dosimeter was developed and named Radix W. The dosimeter allows measurement of doses from 1 kGy to 150 kGy without influence of dose rates and irradiation temperature. The activities of irradiation service probably will continue to increase over future. (author)

  9. Recovery of uranium from an irradiated solid target after removal of molybdenum-99 produced from the irradiated target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Sean Douglas; May, Iain; Copping, Roy; Dale, Gregory Edward

    2017-10-17

    A process for minimizing waste and maximizing utilization of uranium involves recovering uranium from an irradiated solid target after separating the medical isotope product, molybdenum-99, produced from the irradiated target. The process includes irradiating a solid target comprising uranium to produce fission products comprising molybdenum-99, and thereafter dissolving the target and conditioning the solution to prepare an aqueous nitric acid solution containing irradiated uranium. The acidic solution is then contacted with a solid sorbent whereby molybdenum-99 remains adsorbed to the sorbent for subsequent recovery. The uranium passes through the sorbent. The concentrations of acid and uranium are then adjusted to concentrations suitable for crystallization of uranyl nitrate hydrates. After inducing the crystallization, the uranyl nitrate hydrates are separated from a supernatant. The process results in the purification of uranyl nitrate hydrates from fission products and other contaminants. The uranium is therefore available for reuse, storage, or disposal.

  10. TU-H-CAMPUS-TeP2-02: FLASH Irradiation Improves the Therapeutic Index Following GI Tract Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueler, E; Trovati, S; King, G; Lartey, F; Rafat, M; Loo, B; Maxim, P

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate and characterize the radiobiological effectiveness of very high dose rate radiotherapy (FLASH) compared to conventional irradiation in an in vivo model. Methods: The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with doses ranging between 10 and 18 Gy using a custom stereotactic jig. A Varian Clinac 21EX was modified to allow dose rates ranging from 0.05 to 240 Gy/s at the position of the mirror. With the gantry at 180 degrees, the jig holding the individual animals was placed above the mirror to take advantage of the reduced source to target distance. Mice were irradiated with 20MeV electrons. Following irradiation, the mice were monitored twice daily for morbidity and daily for weight changes. Results: Mice irradiated with FLASH irradiation had lower weight loss compared to the mice receiving conventional irradiation. Following FLASH irradiation, a maximum weight loss of ∼20% was observed at day 6 with subsequent recovery, while following conventional irradiation, higher weight losses was observed with fewer instances of recovery. Concerning survival, all mice in the conventionally irradiated groups had a 100% mortality in the range of 15.5–18 Gy, while the mice irradiated with FLASH irradiation had a 100% survival in the same range. Conclusion: These results have demonstrated proof of principle that FLASH irradiations have a dramatic impact on the overall survival of mice following GI tract irradiations. If the increase in the therapeutic window can be validated and understood, this would revolutionize the field of radiation oncology and lead to increased cure rates with reduced side effects following treatment, resulting in increased quality of life for cancer survivors. Funding: DoD, Award#:W81XWH-14-1-0014, Weston Havens Foundation, Bio-X (Stanford University), the Office of the Dean of the Medical School, the Office of the Provost (Stanford University), and the Swedish Childhood Cancer Foundation; BL and PM are

  11. TU-H-CAMPUS-TeP2-02: FLASH Irradiation Improves the Therapeutic Index Following GI Tract Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, E; Trovati, S; King, G; Lartey, F; Rafat, M; Loo, B; Maxim, P [Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate and characterize the radiobiological effectiveness of very high dose rate radiotherapy (FLASH) compared to conventional irradiation in an in vivo model. Methods: The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with doses ranging between 10 and 18 Gy using a custom stereotactic jig. A Varian Clinac 21EX was modified to allow dose rates ranging from 0.05 to 240 Gy/s at the position of the mirror. With the gantry at 180 degrees, the jig holding the individual animals was placed above the mirror to take advantage of the reduced source to target distance. Mice were irradiated with 20MeV electrons. Following irradiation, the mice were monitored twice daily for morbidity and daily for weight changes. Results: Mice irradiated with FLASH irradiation had lower weight loss compared to the mice receiving conventional irradiation. Following FLASH irradiation, a maximum weight loss of ∼20% was observed at day 6 with subsequent recovery, while following conventional irradiation, higher weight losses was observed with fewer instances of recovery. Concerning survival, all mice in the conventionally irradiated groups had a 100% mortality in the range of 15.5–18 Gy, while the mice irradiated with FLASH irradiation had a 100% survival in the same range. Conclusion: These results have demonstrated proof of principle that FLASH irradiations have a dramatic impact on the overall survival of mice following GI tract irradiations. If the increase in the therapeutic window can be validated and understood, this would revolutionize the field of radiation oncology and lead to increased cure rates with reduced side effects following treatment, resulting in increased quality of life for cancer survivors. Funding: DoD, Award#:W81XWH-14-1-0014, Weston Havens Foundation, Bio-X (Stanford University), the Office of the Dean of the Medical School, the Office of the Provost (Stanford University), and the Swedish Childhood Cancer Foundation; BL and PM are

  12. Flux and energy deposition distribution studies inside the irradiation room of the portuguese 60Co irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portugal, Luis; Oliveira, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In December 2003 the irradiator of the Portuguese 60 Co irradiation facility, UTR, was replenished. Eighteen new sources were loaded and the older ones (156) were rearranged. The result was an irradiator with about 10.2 P Bq of total activity. The active area of the irradiator has also increased. Now it uses twenty five of the thirty tubes of the source rack, nine more than in the previous geometry. This facility was designed mainly for sterilisation of medical devices. However it is also used for the irradiation of other products such as cork stoppers, plastics and a limited number of food and feed. The purpose of this work is to perform dosimetric studies inside the irradiation room of a 60 Co irradiation facility, particularly, the flux and energy deposition distributions. The MCNPX code was used for the simulation of the facility. The track average mesh tally capabilities of MCNPX were used to plot the photon flux and energy deposition distributions. This tool provides a fast way for flux and energy deposition mapping. The absorbed dose distribution near the walls of the irradiation room was also calculated. Instead of using meshtallys as before, the average absorbed dose inside boxes lined with the walls was determined and afterwards a plot of its distribution was made. The absorbed dose rates obtained ranged from 5 to 500 Gy.h -1 depending on material being irradiated in process and the location on the wall. These positions can be useful for fixed irradiation purposes. Both dosimetric studies were done considering two different materials being irradiated in the process: cork stoppers and water, materials with quite different densities (0.102 and 1 g.cm-3, respectively). These studies showed some important characteristics of the radiation fields inside the irradiation room, namely its spatial heterogeneity. Tunnelling and shadow effects were enhanced when the product boxes increases its density. Besides a deeper dosimetric understanding of the

  13. The potential and problems of bulk irradiation in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singson, C.C.

    1976-01-01

    Radiation as a processing tool has been adopted in the U.S. and other developed countries. Radiation processing of products on a commercial scale is feasible in the Philippines. A multi-purpose irradiation facility can provide the following services: 1) sterilization of medical and other products; 2) readily available supply of adequately sterilized disposables; 3) pasteurization of food and disinfestation of grains, tobacco, and lumber; 4) improvement in the quality of plywood, veneer and electric cable products; 5) treatment of effluents of leather, mining and textile industries; and 6) development of packaging materials and new chemicals. The Philippines has approximately 750 government and private hospitals with a total bed capacity of 45,000. Those hospitals require numerous sterile medical supplies for daily use and most of these medical products and devices are made of heat-sensitive thermoplastics which cannot be steam sterilized, thus radiation sterilization could be used instead. Some medical products that can be subjected to radiation sterilization are: 1) plastic administration sets; 2) disposable syringes and needles; 3) plastic containers and packaging materials; 4) talcum powder; 5) absorbent cotton; 6) sutures; and 7) other products such as catheters, gloves, petri dishes, etc. Food irradiation as a technique of food preservation utilizes ionizing radiation from large radiation sources. Irradiation can extend the market life of fresh fruits such as bananas, papayas and mangoes by controlling the rate of ripening. Vegetable crops like onion, ginger and garlic can also be irradiated to extend their shelf life. A dose of 15-50 Kr can control weevil and beetles infestation of grains and other seeds during the post harvest storage. Still there are problems existing, the public acceptance of irradiated food and the non existence of international trade of irradiated food

  14. Post irradiation test report of irradiated DUPIC simulated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Myung Seung; Jung, I. H.; Moon, J. S. and others

    2001-12-01

    The post-irradiation examination of irradiated DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) simulated fuel in HANARO was performed at IMEF (Irradiated Material Examination Facility) in KAERI during 6 months from October 1999 to March 2000. The objectives of this post-irradiation test are i) the integrity of the capsule to be used for DUPIC fuel, ii) ensuring the irradiation requirements of DUPIC fuel at HANARO, iii) performance verification in-core behavior at HANARO of DUPIC simulated fuel, iv) establishing and improvement the data base for DUPIC fuel performance verification codes, and v) establishing the irradiation procedure in HANARO for DUPIC fuel. The post-irradiation examination performed are γ-scanning, profilometry, density, hardness, observation the microstructure and fission product distribution by optical microscope and electron probe microanalyser (EPMA)

  15. Medical marijuana.

    OpenAIRE

    Marmor, J B

    1998-01-01

    Although many clinical studies suggest the medical utility of marijuana for some conditions, the scientific evidence is weak. Many patients in California are self-medicating with marijuana, and physicians need data to assess the risks and benefits. The only reasonable solution to this problem is to encourage research on the medical effects of marijuana. The current regulatory system should be modified to remove barriers to clinical research with marijuana. The NIH panel has identified several...

  16. Pelvic fractures following irradiation for endometrial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konski, Andre; Sowers, Maryfran

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence and etiologic factors of pelvic fractures following radiation therapy for endometrial carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Tumor registry and radiation oncology records of patients treated for endometrial carcinoma at The Toledo Hospital between April 1989, and December 1992, were reviewed. Patients identified as having pelvic fractures without the presence of metastatic disease underwent total body mineral density measurement with dual x-ray densitometry. Results: Two of 75 patients (2.7%) were found to have pelvic fractures an average of 29 months from the completion of postoperative irradiation. One patient, who received preoperative irradiation, was also identified as having developed a fracture of the pelvis and was included in the analysis. All patients were treated prone with 10-15 MV photons in four fields daily. All three fracture patients received 45 Gy external beam radiation therapy. The two postoperative patients each received a single vaginal brachytherapy application delivering 20 Gy to 0.5 cm deep to the vaginal mucosa with a vaginal cylinder containing 30 mgRaeq 137 Cs. The preoperative patient received a single brachytherapy application with tandem and colpostats delivering 20 Gy to point A. Only one of the three fracture patients had the entire pubis included in the field of external beam treatment. One patient was taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication, one patient thyroid hormone replacement, and one patient was taking both types of medication. Conclusion: The etiology of pelvic fractures after irradiation is multifactorial. A complete medication history should be obtained, and care should be exercised in positioning the radiation fields to avoid inclusion of the entire pubis prior to the initiation of the radiation treatment

  17. Commercial food irradiation in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemhorst, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    Dutch research showed great interest in the potential of food irradiation at an early stage. The positive research results and the potential applications for industry encouraged the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries to construct a Pilot Plant for Food Irradiation. In 1967 the Pilot Plant for Food Irradiation in Wageningen came into operation. The objectives of the plant were: research into applications of irradiation technology in the food industry and agricultural industry; testing irradiated products and test marketing; information transfer to the public. (author)

  18. The return of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerton, K.

    1992-01-01

    In discussing the need for food irradiation the author examines the problems that arise in processing foods of different kinds: spices, meat, fruits and vegetables. It is demonstrated that the relatively low dose of radiation required to eliminate the reproductive capacity of the pest can be tolerated by most fruits and vegetables without damage. Moreover the safety of irradiated food is acknowledged by major national and international food organizations and committees. The author agreed that when food irradiation has been approved by a country, consumers should be able to choose between irradiated and non-irradiated food. To enable the choice, clear and unambiguous labelling must be enforced. 13 refs., 1 tab., ills

  19. Alanine EPR dosimetry of therapeutic irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugay, O.; Bartchuk, V.; Kolesnik, S.; Mazin, M.; Gaponenko, H.

    1999-01-01

    The high-dose alanine EPR dosimetry is a very precise method in the dose range 1-100 kGy. The system is used generally as the standard high-dose transfer dosimetry in many laboratories. This is comparatively expensive technique so it is important to use it as a more universal dosimetry system also in the middle and low dose ranges. The problems of the middle-dose alanine dosimetry are discussed and the solution of several problems is proposed. The alanine EPR dosimetry has been applied to the dose measurements of medical irradiators in the Kiev City Oncology Center. (author)

  20. Genetic effects of low-level irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    Recent estimates of the genetic effects of radiation by two widely recognized committees (BEIR III and UNSCEAR 1977) are based to a large extent on data collected in mice using either the specific-locus method or the approach of empirically determining the nature and extent of radiation-induced genetic damage to the skeleton. Both committees made use of doubling-dose and direct methods of estimating genetic hazard. Their estimates can be applied to assessments of risk resulting from medical irradiation in terms both of risk to the population at large and to the individual