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Sample records for medical language system

  1. Ontology development for unified traditional Chinese medical language system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuezhong; Wu, Zhaohui; Yin, Aining; Wu, Lancheng; Fan, Weiyu; Zhang, Ruen

    2004-09-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as a complete knowledge system researches into human health conditions via a different approach compared to orthodox medicine. We are developing a unified traditional Chinese medical language system (UTCMLS) through an ontology approach that will support TCM language knowledge storage, concept-based information retrieval and information integration. UTCMLS is a huge knowledge project, which is a broad collaboration of 16 distributed groups, most of them with no prior experience of formal ontology development. Therefore, the cooperative and comprehensive ontology engineering is crucial. We use Protégé 2000 for ontology development of concepts and relationships that represent the domain and that will permit storage of TCM knowledge. This paper focuses on the methodology, design and development of ontology for UTCMLS.

  2. [Big data, medical language and biomedical terminology systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Stefan; López-García, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    A variety of rich terminology systems, such as thesauri, classifications, nomenclatures and ontologies support information and knowledge processing in health care and biomedical research. Nevertheless, human language, manifested as individually written texts, persists as the primary carrier of information, in the description of disease courses or treatment episodes in electronic medical records, and in the description of biomedical research in scientific publications. In the context of the discussion about big data in biomedicine, we hypothesize that the abstraction of the individuality of natural language utterances into structured and semantically normalized information facilitates the use of statistical data analytics to distil new knowledge out of textual data from biomedical research and clinical routine. Computerized human language technologies are constantly evolving and are increasingly ready to annotate narratives with codes from biomedical terminology. However, this depends heavily on linguistic and terminological resources. The creation and maintenance of such resources is labor-intensive. Nevertheless, it is sensible to assume that big data methods can be used to support this process. Examples include the learning of hierarchical relationships, the grouping of synonymous terms into concepts and the disambiguation of homonyms. Although clear evidence is still lacking, the combination of natural language technologies, semantic resources, and big data analytics is promising.

  3. Medical computing in the 1980s. Operating system and programming language issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenes, R A

    1983-06-01

    Operating systems and programming languages differ widely in their suitability for particular applications. The diversity of medical computing needs demands a diversity of solutions. Compounding this diversity if the decentralization caused by evolution of local computing systems for local needs. Relevant current trends in computing include increased emphasis on decentralization, growing capabilities for interconnection of diverse systems, and development of common data base and file server capabilities. In addition, standardization and hardware in dependence of operating systems, as well as programming languages and development of programmerless systems, continue to widen application opportunities.

  4. Multiple-Language Translation System Focusing on Long-distance Medical and Outpatient Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rena Aierken

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For people living in the countryside, an effective long-distance medical and health service is very important. People living in western China, especially, require convenient communication in their native language with doctors working in a modern city. To address this problem, a multiple-language translation system for long-distance medical and outpatient services is discussed. This system initially provides a table containing basic information including disease names and symptoms for different medical classifications, and then translates the sentences selected from the table automatically using a machine translation system. Finally, a PDF file is created for the doctor and the patient. In this paper, the system construction and evaluation of the machine translation are introduced.

  5. A Domain Specific Language for Performance Evaluation of Medical Imaging Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Freek; Remke, Anne Katharina Ingrid; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Turau, Volker; Kwiatkowska, Marta; Mangharam, Rahul; Weyer, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    We propose iDSL, a domain specific language and toolbox for performance evaluation of Medical Imaging Systems. iDSL provides transformations to MoDeST models, which are in turn converted into UPPAAL and discrete-event MODES models. This enables automated performance evaluation by means of model

  6. Automatic lexicon acquisition for a medical cross-language information retrieval system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markó, Kornél; Schulz, Stefan; Hahn, Udo

    2005-01-01

    We present a method for the automated acquisition of a multilingual medical lexicon (for Spanish and Swedish) to be used within the framework of a medical cross-language text retrieval system. We incorporate seed lexicons and parallel corpora derived from the UMLS Metathesaurus. The seed lexicons for Spanish and Swedish are automatically generated from (previously manually constructed) Portuguese, German and English sources. Lexical and semantic hypotheses are then validated making iterative use of co-occurrence patterns of hypothesized translation synonyms in the parallel corpora.

  7. [Medical and surgical language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensi-Pérez, Josep; Villalba-Ferrer, Francisco; Roig-Vila, José V

    2008-07-01

    Medical language contains many faults. One of them is the use of cultured and elegant words without knowing its proper significance. A second error is the recourse to using foreign words or phrases (foreignisms), particularly Anglicisms, both in their original spelling (raw foreignisms) and Hispanicised (adapted word); an overlapping mode of foreignism are so-called "calques" or loan translations. Thirdly, there is the use of words that do not exist in Spanish, palabros. Finally, the words are not correctly pronounced. In this article some examples of these errors are demonstrated and it is directed towards the appropriate use of language.

  8. A tool for sharing annotated research data: the "Category 0" UMLS (Unified Medical Language System vocabularies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berman Jules J

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large biomedical data sets have become increasingly important resources for medical researchers. Modern biomedical data sets are annotated with standard terms to describe the data and to support data linking between databases. The largest curated listing of biomedical terms is the the National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS. The UMLS contains more than 2 million biomedical terms collected from nearly 100 medical vocabularies. Many of the vocabularies contained in the UMLS carry restrictions on their use, making it impossible to share or distribute UMLS-annotated research data. However, a subset of the UMLS vocabularies, designated Category 0 by UMLS, can be used to annotate and share data sets without violating the UMLS License Agreement. Methods The UMLS Category 0 vocabularies can be extracted from the parent UMLS metathesaurus using a Perl script supplied with this article. There are 43 Category 0 vocabularies that can be used freely for research purposes without violating the UMLS License Agreement. Among the Category 0 vocabularies are: MESH (Medical Subject Headings, NCBI (National Center for Bioinformatics Taxonomy and ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases-9-Clinical Modifiers. Results The extraction file containing all Category 0 terms and concepts is 72,581,138 bytes in length and contains 1,029,161 terms. The UMLS Metathesaurus MRCON file (January, 2003 is 151,048,493 bytes in length and contains 2,146,899 terms. Therefore the Category 0 vocabularies, in aggregate, are about half the size of the UMLS metathesaurus. A large publicly available listing of 567,921 different medical phrases were automatically coded using the full UMLS metatathesaurus and the Category 0 vocabularies. There were 545,321 phrases with one or more matches against UMLS terms while 468,785 phrases had one or more matches against the Category 0 terms. This indicates that when the two vocabularies are

  9. Medical Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kent A.

    1986-01-01

    Description of information services from the National Library of Medicine (NLM) highlights a new system for retrieving information from NLM's databases (GRATEFUL MED); a formal Regional Medical Library Network; DOCLINE; the Unified Medical Language System; and Integrated Academic Information Management Systems. Research and development and the…

  10. Restructuring an EHR system and the Medical Markup Language (MML) standard to improve interoperability by archetype technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shinji; Kume, Naoto; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    In 2001, we developed an EHR system for regional healthcare information inter-exchange and to provide individual patient data to patients. This system was adopted in three regions in Japan. We also developed a Medical Markup Language (MML) standard for inter- and intra-hospital communications. The system was built on a legacy platform, however, and had not been appropriately maintained or updated to meet clinical requirements. To improve future maintenance costs, we reconstructed the EHR system using archetype technology on the Ruby on Rails platform, and generated MML equivalent forms from archetypes. The system was deployed as a cloud-based system for preliminary use as a regional EHR. The system now has the capability to catch up with new requirements, maintaining semantic interoperability with archetype technology. It is also more flexible than the legacy EHR system.

  11. Performance evaluation of unified medical language system®'s synonyms expansion to query PubMed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffon Nicolas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PubMed is the main access to medical literature on the Internet. In order to enhance the performance of its information retrieval tools, primarily non-indexed citations, the authors propose a method: expanding users' queries using Unified Medical Language System' (UMLS synonyms i.e. all the terms gathered under one unique Concept Unique Identifier. Methods This method was evaluated using queries constructed to emphasize the differences between this new method and the current PubMed automatic term mapping. Four experts assessed citation relevance. Results Using UMLS, we were able to retrieve new citations in 45.5% of queries, which implies a small increase in recall. The new strategy led to a heterogeneous 23.7% mean increase in non-indexed citation retrieved. Of these, 82% have been published less than 4 months earlier. The overall mean precision was 48.4% but differed according to the evaluators, ranging from 36.7% to 88.1% (Inter rater agreement was poor: kappa = 0.34. Conclusions This study highlights the need for specific search tools for each type of user and use-cases. The proposed strategy may be useful to retrieve recent scientific advancement.

  12. System programming languages

    OpenAIRE

    ŠMIT, MATEJ

    2016-01-01

    Most operating systems are written in the C programming language. Similar is with system software, for example, device drivers, compilers, debuggers, disk checkers, etc. Recently some new programming languages emerged, which are supposed to be suitable for system programming. In this thesis we present programming languages D, Go, Nim and Rust. We defined the criteria which are important for deciding whether programming language is suitable for system programming. We examine programming langua...

  13. Language Sound Systems and Second Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaer, Peter M.

    A language typology based on common errors made in pronunciation of English by speakers of other languages is presented and discussed. The classification system was developed from the concept of interlanguage, the intermediate step between a language learner's native and target languages, and the notion that interference in learning a new language…

  14. [Specific features of written medical English language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorica, Antić

    2010-01-01

    Medical language is a special language used by experts in mutual communication. One of the characteristics of medical discourse community is writing research papers in English. When writing a research paper, it is necessary to apply appropriate rules based on the IMRAD structure. This structure has its own clearly defined style which is clear, precise, exact and objective. This style of writing reflects the characteristics of medical language. The most frequent problems that doctors encounter in this context predominantly refer to linguistic elements of English. Namely, a very common dilemma is related to the use of English tenses in specific parts of the IMRAD structure. Another problem is the use of specific expressions for introducing a research, presenting results and methods used, developing discussion and stating conclusions. This work aims to point out the specific style and structure of medical research papers in English with an outline of the linguistic elements used in this context.

  15. Cognitive Medical Multiagent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna Iantovics

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of efficient and flexible agent-based medical diagnosis systems represents a recent research direction. Medical multiagent systems may improve the efficiency of traditionally developed medical computational systems, like the medical expert systems. In our previous researches, a novel cooperative medical diagnosis multiagent system called CMDS (Contract Net Based Medical Diagnosis System was proposed. CMDS system can solve flexibly a large variety of medical diagnosis problems. This paper analyses the increased intelligence of the CMDS system, which motivates its use for different medical problem’s solving.

  16. Annotation methods to develop and evaluate an expert system based on natural language processing in electronic medical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicquel, Quentin; Tvardik, Nastassia; Bouvry, Côme; Kergourlay, Ivan; Bittar, André; Segond, Frédérique; Darmoni, Stefan; Metzger, Marie-Hélène

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the SYNODOS collaborative project was to develop a generic IT solution, combining a medical terminology server, a semantic analyser and a knowledge base. The goal of the project was to generate meaningful epidemiological data for various medical domains from the textual content of French medical records. In the context of this project, we built a care pathway oriented conceptual model and corresponding annotation method to develop and evaluate an expert system's knowledge base. The annotation method is based on a semi-automatic process, using a software application (MedIndex). This application exchanges with a cross-lingual multi-termino-ontology portal. The annotator selects the most appropriate medical code proposed for the medical concept in question by the multi-termino-ontology portal and temporally labels the medical concept according to the course of the medical event. This choice of conceptual model and annotation method aims to create a generic database of facts for the secondary use of electronic health records data.

  17. Medical problem and document model for natural language understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meystre, Stephanie; Haug, Peter J

    2003-01-01

    We are developing tools to help maintain a complete, accurate and timely problem list within a general purpose Electronic Medical Record system. As a part of this project, we have designed a system to automatically retrieve medical problems from free-text documents. Here we describe an information model based on XML (eXtensible Markup Language) and compliant with the CDA (Clinical Document Architecture). This model is used to ease the exchange of clinical data between the Natural Language Understanding application that retrieves potential problems from narrative document, and the problem list management application.

  18. Decision table languages and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Metzner, John R

    1977-01-01

    ACM Monograph Series: Decision Table Languages and Systems focuses on linguistic examination of decision tables and survey of the features of existing decision table languages and systems. The book first offers information on semiotics, programming language features, and generalization. Discussions focus on semantic broadening, outer language enrichments, generalization of syntax, limitations, implementation improvements, syntactic and semantic features, decision table syntax, semantics of decision table languages, and decision table programming languages. The text then elaborates on design im

  19. The French language virtual medical university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, A; Benhamou, A C; Spector, M; Bonnin, A; Debry, C

    2004-01-01

    The work program of the French Language Virtual Medical University started about 2 years ago, and entered into a real active phase of development and implementation in 2002. Various national programs and organizational initiatives should accelerate and facilitate further appropriation of modem pedagogical approaches by knowledge providers and all users of the FSVMU, so as to advance on the way of virtual education. The French Language Virtual Medical University under the auspices of both the National Conference of Deans of Medical Schools and the International Conference of Deans of French-Speaking Medical Schools has been developed to create a major Internet portal for French-speaking distance medical learning and teaching. This construct should be representative of all medical schools in France and French-speaking countries. Contents will also be translated into English, Spanish and Arabic. All medical disciplines with their various levels of teaching are to be included. Cross-related fields are also going to be present in order to offer full range programs. The latter are intended to provide both initial and continuing education for medical students as well as all other categories of health professionals and medical and scientific research workers. To develop the appropriate technology and make such a portal, on one hand correspond to the specific educational requirements and proper training for health professionals, and on the other hand provide a general access to e-learning in all schools of medicine; in keeping with such goals, the following approaches should be stressed upon. To build a virtual space where individual patients, their families, patient associations as well as the general public, can obtain medical information of good quality for the purposes of both education and prevention. Providing such categories with reliable and validated sources of information, and offering an ethical basis for the increasing practice of e-medicine, represent in today

  20. Mission Medical Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Joe, John C.; Follansbee, Nicole M.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the Mission Medical Information System (MMIS). The topics include: 1) What is MMIS?; 2) MMIS Goals; 3) Terrestrial Health Information Technology Vision; 4) NASA Health Information Technology Needs; 5) Mission Medical Information System Components; 6) Electronic Medical Record; 7) Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH); 8) Methods; and 9) Data Submission Agreement (example).

  1. The medical system in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drislane, Frank W; Akpalu, Albert; Wegdam, Harry H J

    2014-09-01

    Ghana is a developing country in West Africa with a population of about 25 million. Medical illnesses in Ghana overlap with those in developed countries, but infection, trauma, and women's health problems are much more prominent. Medical practice in rural Africa faces extremely limited resources, a multiplicity of languages (hundreds in Ghana), and presentation of severe illnesses at later stages than seen elsewhere. Despite these limitations, Ghana has established a relatively successful national medical insurance system, and the quality of medical practice is high, at least where it is available. Ghana also has a well-established and sophisticated administrative structure for the supervision of medical education and accreditation, but it has proven very difficult to extend medical training to rural areas, where health care facilities are particularly short of personnel. Physicians are sorely needed in rural areas, but there are few because of the working conditions and financial limitations. Hospital wards and clinics are crowded; time per patient is limited. This article details some of the differences between medical practice in Ghana and that in wealthier countries and how it functions with very limited resources. It also introduces the medical education and training system in Ghana. The following article describes an attempt to establish and maintain a residency training program in General Medicine in a rural area of Ghana.

  2. Hierarchical Concept Indexing of Full-Text Documents in the Unified Medical Language System Information Sources Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Lawrence W.; Nardini, Holly K. Grossetta; Aronson, Alan R.; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

    1999-01-01

    Describes methods for applying natural-language processing for automatic concept-based indexing of full text and methods for exploiting the structure and hierarchy of full-text documents to a large collection of full-text documents drawn from the Health Services/Technology Assessment Text database at the National Library of Medicine. Examines how…

  3. Medical imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangioni, John V

    2013-06-25

    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and diagnostic or functional images. The system may be portable, and may include adapters for connecting various light sources and cameras in open surgical environments or laparascopic or endoscopic environments. A user interface provides control over the functionality of the integrated imaging system. In one embodiment, the system provides a tool for surgical pathology.

  4. Using Machine Learning and Natural Language Processing Algorithms to Automate the Evaluation of Clinical Decision Support in Electronic Medical Record Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlosek, Donald A; Ferrett, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    As the number of clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) incorporated into electronic medical records (EMRs) increases, so does the need to evaluate their effectiveness. The use of medical record review and similar manual methods for evaluating decision rules is laborious and inefficient. The authors use machine learning and Natural Language Processing (NLP) algorithms to accurately evaluate a clinical decision support rule through an EMR system, and they compare it against manual evaluation. Modeled after the EMR system EPIC at Maine Medical Center, we developed a dummy data set containing physician notes in free text for 3,621 artificial patients records undergoing a head computed tomography (CT) scan for mild traumatic brain injury after the incorporation of an electronic best practice approach. We validated the accuracy of the Best Practice Advisories (BPA) using three machine learning algorithms-C-Support Vector Classification (SVC), Decision Tree Classifier (DecisionTreeClassifier), k-nearest neighbors classifier (KNeighborsClassifier)-by comparing their accuracy for adjudicating the occurrence of a mild traumatic brain injury against manual review. We then used the best of the three algorithms to evaluate the effectiveness of the BPA, and we compared the algorithm's evaluation of the BPA to that of manual review. The electronic best practice approach was found to have a sensitivity of 98.8 percent (96.83-100.0), specificity of 10.3 percent, PPV = 7.3 percent, and NPV = 99.2 percent when reviewed manually by abstractors. Though all the machine learning algorithms were observed to have a high level of prediction, the SVC displayed the highest with a sensitivity 93.33 percent (92.49-98.84), specificity of 97.62 percent (96.53-98.38), PPV = 50.00, NPV = 99.83. The SVC algorithm was observed to have a sensitivity of 97.9 percent (94.7-99.86), specificity 10.30 percent, PPV 7.25 percent, and NPV 99.2 percent for evaluating the best practice approach, after

  5. Development of Markup Language for Medical Record Charting: A Charting Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Won-Mo; Chae, Younbyoung; Jang, Bo-Hyoung

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays a lot of trials for collecting electronic medical records (EMRs) exist. However, structuring data format for EMR is an especially labour-intensive task for practitioners. Here we propose a new mark-up language for medical record charting (called Charting Language), which borrows useful properties from programming languages. Thus, with Charting Language, the text data described in dynamic situation can be easily used to extract information.

  6. Medical Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The MD Image System, a true-color image processing system that serves as a diagnostic aid and tool for storage and distribution of images, was developed by Medical Image Management Systems, Huntsville, AL, as a "spinoff from a spinoff." The original spinoff, Geostar 8800, developed by Crystal Image Technologies, Huntsville, incorporates advanced UNIX versions of ELAS (developed by NASA's Earth Resources Laboratory for analysis of Landsat images) for general purpose image processing. The MD Image System is an application of this technology to a medical system that aids in the diagnosis of cancer, and can accept, store and analyze images from other sources such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

  7. Personalized Medical Alert System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Suarez Coloma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The continuous increasing needs in telemedicine and healthcare, accentuate the need of well-adapted medical alert systems. Such alert systems may be used by a variety of patients and medical actors, and should allow monitoring a wide range of medical variables. This paper proposes Tempas, a personalized temporal alert system. It facilitates customized alert configuration by using linguistic trends. The trend detection algorithm is based on data normalization, time series segmentation, and segment classification. It improves state of the art by treating irregular and regular time series in an appropriate way, thanks to the introduction of an observation variable valid time. Alert detection is enriched with quality and applicability measures. They allow a personalized tuning of the system to help reducing false negatives and false positives alerts.

  8. Twelve tips for effective body language for medical educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Andrew J; Freed, Jason; Ricotta, Daniel; Farris, Grace; Smith, C Christopher

    2017-09-01

    A significant proportion of human communication is nonverbal. Although the fields of business and psychology have significant literature on effectively using body language in a variety of situations, there is limited literature on effective body language for medical educators. To provide 12 tips to highlight effective body language strategies and techniques for medical educators. The tips provided are based on our experiences and reflections as clinician-educators and the available literature. The 12 tips presented offer specific strategies to engage learners, balance learner participation, and bring energy and passion to teaching. Medical educators seeking to maximize their effectiveness would benefit from an understanding of how body language affects a learning environment and how body language techniques can be used to engage audiences, maintain attention, control challenging learners, and convey passion for a topic. Understanding and using body language effectively is an important instructional skill.

  9. Exploration Medical System Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, D. A.; Watkins, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exploration class missions will present significant new challenges and hazards to the health of the astronauts. Regardless of the intended destination, beyond low Earth orbit a greater degree of crew autonomy will be required to diagnose medical conditions, develop treatment plans, and implement procedures due to limited communications with ground-based personnel. SCOPE: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will act as a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate to crew and ground personnel that an end-to-end medical system can assist clinician and non-clinician crew members in optimizing medical care delivery and data management during an exploration mission. Challenges facing exploration mission medical care include limited resources, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and potential rendering of medical care by non-clinicians. This system demonstrates the integration of medical devices and informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making and can be designed to assist crewmembers in nominal, non-emergent situations and in emergent situations when they may be suffering from performance decrements due to environmental, physiological or other factors. PROJECT OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a. Reduce or eliminate the time required of an on-orbit crew and ground personnel to access, transfer, and manipulate medical data. b. Demonstrate that the on-orbit crew has the ability to access medical data/information via an intuitive and crew-friendly solution to aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c. Develop a common data management framework that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all activities pertaining to crew health and life sciences. d. Ensure crew access to medical data during periods of restricted ground communication. e. Develop a common data management framework that

  10. Type System in Programming Languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋慧; 林东; 等

    2001-01-01

    Type system provides a precise description of a programming language,This is a prerequisite for the implementation and use of language.It also conducts mechanical and transparent type-checking on programs to prevent the occurrence of execution error during the running of programs.So,it can be said that,on the one hand.type system works as a formal tool to do mathematical analysis of language;on the other hand,it is a formal method for rigorously and precisely designing and implementing language.In this paper,some basic concepts of type system are discussed first.And then,the implementation of a graph-rewriting-based functional language-SClean's type system is given in details,It is hoped that the proposed method of using and implementing type system is of practical usefulness.

  11. Epsilon. A System Description Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten

    This paper discusses the use of Petri nets as a semantic tool in the design of languages and in the construction and analysis of system descriptions. The topics treated are: -- Languages based on nets. -- The problem of time in nets. -- Nets and related models. -- Nets and formal semantics. -- Pa...

  12. Unified Medical Language System (UMLS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The UMLS integrates and distributes key terminology, classification and coding standards, and associated resources to promote creation of more effective and...

  13. Type System in Programming Languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hui; ZHANG Xingyuan; LIN Dong; XIE Xiren

    2001-01-01

    Type system provides a precise description of a programming lan guage. This is a prerequisite for the implementation and use of language. It also conducts mechanical and transparent type-checking on programs to prevent the oc currence of execution error during the running of programs. So, it can be said that, on the one hand, type system works as a formal tool to do mathematical analysis of language; on the other hand, it is a formal method for rigorously and precisely designing and implementing language. In this paper, some basic concepts of type system are discussed first. And then, the implementation of a graph-rewriting-based functional language - SClean's type system is given in details. It is hoped that the proposed method of using and implementing type system is of practical usefulness.

  14. A MEDICAL APPROACH TO LANGUAGE DELAY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Speech, writing, art and body and sign language are all methods of communica- tion. Because ... a child to speak by the age of 2 years should be taken seriously. Language prob- ..... vowels /u/ by 15 months of age. Failure to produce ...

  15. Semantic annotation for concept-based cross-language medical information retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Martin; Ripplinger, Bärbel; Vintar, Spela; Buitelaar, Paul; Raileanu, Diana; Sacaleanu, Bogdan

    2002-12-04

    We present a framework for concept-based cross-language information retrieval in the medical domain, which is under development in the MUCHMORE project. Our approach is based on using the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) as the primary source of semantic data. Documents and queries are annotated with multiple layers of linguistic information. Linguistic processing includes part-of-speech tagging, morphological analysis, phrase recognition and the identification of medical terms and semantic relations between them. The paper describes experiments in monolingual and cross-language document retrieval, performed on a corpus of medical abstracts. Results show that linguistic processing, especially lemmatization and compound analysis for German, is a crucial step in achieving a good baseline performance. On the other hand, they show that semantic information, specifically the combined use of concepts and relations, increases the performance in monolingual and cross-language retrieval.

  16. Exploration Medical System Technical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, K.; Middour, C.; Cerro, J.; Burba, T.; Hanson, A.; Reilly, J.; Mindock, J.

    2017-01-01

    The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element systems engineering goals include defining the technical system needed to implement exploration medical capabilities for Mars. This past year, scenarios captured in the medical system concept of operations laid the foundation for systems engineering technical development work. The systems engineering team analyzed scenario content to identify interactions between the medical system, crewmembers, the exploration vehicle, and the ground system. This enabled the definition of functions the medical system must provide and interfaces to crewmembers and other systems. These analyses additionally lead to the development of a conceptual medical system architecture. The work supports the ExMC community-wide understanding of the functional exploration needs to be met by the medical system, the subsequent development of medical system requirements, and the system verification and validation approach utilizing terrestrial analogs and precursor exploration missions.

  17. A MEDICAL APPROACH TO LANGUAGE DELAY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Language prob- lems interfere with a child's ability to communicate effectively, both in the expres- ... embodied in different specialists, making a team approach appropriate. Doctors need to ..... Management of expressive ... A modified teaching.

  18. Patient empowerment by increasing the understanding of medical language for lay users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topac, V; Stoicu-Tivadar, V

    2013-01-01

    Patient empowerment is important in order to increase the quality of medical care and the life quality of the patients. An important obstacle for empowering patients is the language barrier the lay patient encounter when accessing medical information. To design and develop a service that will help increase the understanding of medical language for lay persons. The service identifies and explains medical terminology from a given text by annotating the terms in the original text with the definition. It is based on an original terminology interpretation engine that uses a fuzzy matching dictionary. The service was implemented in two projects: a) into the server of a tele-care system (TELEASIS) with the purpose of adapting medical text assigned by medical personnel for the assisted patients. b) Into a dedicated web site that can adapt the medical language from raw text or from existing web pages. The output of the service was evaluated by a group of persons, and the results indicate that such a system can increase the understanding of medical texts. Several design decisions were driven from the evaluation, and are being considered for future development. Other tests measuring accuracy and time performance for the fuzzy terminology recognition have been performed. Test results revealed good performance for accuracy and excellent results regarding time performance. The current version of the service increases the accessibility of medical language by explaining terminology with a good accuracy, while allowing the user to easily identify errors, in order to reduce the risk of incorrect terminology recognition.

  19. Language as an evolutionary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighton, Henry; Smith, Kenny; Kirby, Simon

    2005-09-01

    John Maynard Smith and Eörs Szathmáry argued that human language signified the eighth major transition in evolution: human language marked a new form of information transmission from one generation to another [Maynard Smith J, Szathmáry E. The major transitions in evolution. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press; 1995]. According to this view language codes cultural information and as such forms the basis for the evolution of complexity in human culture. In this article we develop the theory that language also codes information in another sense: languages code information on their own structure. As a result, languages themselves provide information that influences their own survival. To understand the consequences of this theory we discuss recent computational models of linguistic evolution. Linguistic evolution is the process by which languages themselves evolve. This article draws together this recent work on linguistic evolution and highlights the significance of this process in understanding the evolution of linguistic complexity. Our conclusions are that: (1) the process of linguistic transmission constitutes the basis for an evolutionary system, and (2), that this evolutionary system is only superficially comparable to the process of biological evolution.

  20. Medical language proficiency: A discussion of interprofessional language competencies and potential for patient risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Melodie

    2016-02-01

    In increasingly multilingual healthcare environments worldwide, ensuring accurate, effective communication is requisite. Language proficiency is essential, particularly medical language proficiency. Medical language is a universal construct in healthcare, the shared language of health and allied health professions. It is highly evolved, career-specific, technical and cultural-bound-a language for specific purposes. Its function differs significantly from that of a standard language. Proficiency requires at minimum, a common understanding of discipline-specific jargon, abstracts, euphemisms, abbreviations; acronyms. An optimal medical language situation demands a level of competency beyond the superficial wherein one can convey or interpret deeper meanings, distinguish themes, voice opinion, and follow directions precisely. It necessitates the use of clarity, and the ability to understand both lay and formal language-characteristics not essential to standard language. Proficiency influences professional discourse and can have the potential to positively or negatively affect patient outcomes. While risks have been identified when there is language discordance between care provider and patient, almost nothing has been said about this within care teams themselves. This article will do so in anticipation that care providers, regulators, employers, and researchers will acknowledge potential language-based communication barriers and work towards resolutions. This is predicated on the fact that the growing interest in language and communication in healthcare today appears to be rested in globalization and increasingly linguistically diverse patient populations. Consideration of the linguistically diverse healthcare workforce is absent. An argument will be posited that if potential risks to patient safety exist and there are potentials for disengagement from care by patients when health providers do not speak their languages then logically these language-based issues can

  1. Medical ultrasound systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Jeff; Kremkau, Frederick

    2011-08-06

    Medical ultrasound imaging has advanced dramatically since its introduction only a few decades ago. This paper provides a short historical background, and then briefly describes many of the system features and concepts required in a modern commercial ultrasound system. The topics addressed include array beam formation, steering and focusing; array and matrix transducers; echo image formation; tissue harmonic imaging; speckle reduction through frequency and spatial compounding, and image processing; tissue aberration; Doppler flow detection; and system architectures. It then describes some of the more practical aspects of ultrasound system design necessary to be taken into account for today's marketplace. It finally discusses the recent explosion of portable and handheld devices and their potential to expand the clinical footprint of ultrasound into regions of the world where medical care is practically non-existent. Throughout the article reference is made to ways in which ultrasound imaging has benefited from advances in the commercial electronics industry. It is meant to be an overview of the field as an introduction to other more detailed papers in this special issue.

  2. Formal languages in dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Troll, G

    1993-01-01

    We treat here the interrelation between formal languages and those dynamical systems that can be described by cellular automata (CA). There is a well-known injective map which identifies any CA-invariant subshift with a central formal language. However, in the special case of a symbolic dynamics, i.e. where the CA is just the shift map, one gets a stronger result: the identification map can be extended to a functor between the categories of symbolic dynamics and formal languages. This functor additionally maps topological conjugacies between subshifts to empty-string-limited generalized sequential machines between languages. If the periodic points form a dense set, a case which arises in a commonly used notion of chaotic dynamics, then an even more natural map to assign a formal language to a subshift is offered. This map extends to a functor, too. The Chomsky hierarchy measuring the complexity of formal languages can be transferred via either of these functors from formal languages to symbolic dynamics and p...

  3. The Language of the Bilingual Medical Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Brian; And Others

    A study investigated translation problems arising in physician-patient interviews conducted in two languages with the help of an interpreter. Subjects were four adult native speakers of Gujarati, aged 42-70, whose physician interviews were videotape-recorded and translated, and the discourse was analyzed. Patients spoke in Gujarati, and the…

  4. Language theory and expert systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilio Agodi

    1988-11-01

    Full Text Available Some remarks on the problem of knowledge representation and processing, as recognized in connection with the use of computers in the scientific research work, emphasizes the relevance of these problems for the studies on both the theory of languages and the expert system. A consideration of the common traits in the recent history of these studies, with reference to the use of computers on texts in natural language motivates the introduction of set theoretic and algebraic methods, suitable for applications in the analysis and in the automatic treatment of languages, based on the concept of model sets and on relational structures suggested from the connections between syntax and semantics evidenced in some example of sub-languages corresponding to theories of different classes of physical phenomena. Some details of these methods are evidenced, which have already successfully used or whose applications appears suggestive of interesting development.

  5. Formal verification of medical monitoring software using Z language: a representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babamir, Seyed Morteza; Borhani, Mehdi

    2012-08-01

    Medical monitoring systems are useful aids assisting physicians in keeping patients under constant surveillance; however, taking sound decision by the systems is a physician concern. As a result, verification of the systems behavior in monitoring patients is a matter of significant. The patient monitoring is undertaken by software in modern medical systems; so, software verification of modern medial systems have been noticed. Such verification can be achieved by the Formal Languages having mathematical foundations. Among others, the Z language is a suitable formal language has been used to formal verification of systems. This study aims to present a constructive method to verify a representative sample of a medical system by which the system is visually specified and formally verified against patient constraints stated in Z Language. Exploiting our past experience in formal modeling Continuous Infusion Insulin Pump (CIIP), we think of the CIIP system as a representative sample of medical systems in proposing our present study. The system is responsible for monitoring diabetic's blood sugar.

  6. Medical education in a foreign language and history-taking in the native language in Lebanon - a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi Raad, Vanda; Raad, Kareem; Daaboul, Yazan; Korjian, Serge; Asmar, Nadia; Jammal, Mouin; Aoun Bahous, Sola

    2016-11-22

    With the adoption of the English language in medical education, a gap in clinical communication may develop in countries where the native language is different from the language of medical education. This study investigates the association between medical education in a foreign language and students' confidence in their history-taking skills in their native language. This cross-sectional study consisted of a 17-question survey among medical students in clinical clerkships of Lebanese medical schools. The relationship between the language of medical education and confidence in conducting a medical history in Arabic (the native language) was evaluated (n = 457). The majority (88.5%) of students whose native language was Arabic were confident they could conduct a medical history in Arabic. Among participants enrolled in the first clinical year, high confidence in Arabic history-taking was independently associated with Arabic being the native language and with conducting medical history in Arabic either in the pre-clinical years or during extracurricular activities. Among students in their second clinical year, however, these factors were not associated with confidence levels. Despite having their medical education in a foreign language, the majority of students in Lebanese medical schools are confident in conducting a medical history in their native language.

  7. The Control System Modeling Language

    CERN Document Server

    Zagar, K; Sekoranja, M; Tkacik, G; Vodovnik, A; Zagar, Klemen; Plesko, Mark; Sekoranja, Matej; Tkacik, Gasper; Vodovnik, Anze

    2001-01-01

    The well-known Unified Modeling Language (UML) describes software entities, such as interfaces, classes, operations and attributes, as well as relationships among them, e.g. inheritance, containment and dependency. The power of UML lies in Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools such as Rational Rose, which are also capable of generating software structures from visual object definitions and relations. UML also allows add-ons that define specific structures and patterns in order to steer and automate the design process. We have developed an add-on called Control System Modeling Language (CSML). It introduces entities and relationships that we know from control systems, such as "property" representing a single controllable point/channel, or an "event" specifying that a device is capable of notifying its clients through events. Entities can also possess CSML-specific characteristics, such as physical units and valid ranges for input parameters. CSML is independent of any specific language or technology...

  8. Quality system for Medical laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Raj K.C.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available According to William Edwards Deming “Good quality does not necessarily mean high quality. Instead it means a predicable degree of uniformity and dependability at low cost with a quality suited to the market.” Whereas according to famous engineer and management consultant Joseph M. Juran quality is “fitness for purpose”. It should meet the customers’ expectations and requirements, should be cost effective.ISO began in 1926 as the International Federation of the National Standardizing Associations (ISA. The name, "ISO" was derived from the Greek word "isos" meaning "equal". (The relation to standards is that if two objects meet the same standard, they should be equal. This name eliminates any confusion that could result from the translation of "International Organization for Standardization" into different languages which would lead to different acronyms.In health sector, quality plays pivotal role, as it is directly related to patient’s care. Earlier time, health service was simple, quite safe but ineffective. Now health care system is an organizational system with more complex processes to deliver care. Medical laboratory service is an integral part in patient’s management system. So, for everyone involved in the treatment of the patient, the accuracy, reliability and safety of those services must be the primary concerns. Accreditation is a significant enabler of quality, thereby delivering confidence to healthcare providers, clinicians, the medical laboratories and the patients themselves.ISO announced meeting in Philadelphia to form a technical committee to develop a new standard for medical laboratory quality. It took 7 years for the creation of a new Quality standard for medical laboratories. It was named as “ISO 15189” and was first published in 2003. The ISO has released three versions of the standard. The first two were released in 2003 and 2007. In 2012, a revised and updated version of the standard, ISO 15189

  9. Advanced Languages for Systems Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    these are too numerous to list here. Edoardo Biagioni . Post-doctoral researcher. System networking and kernel design and imple- mentation. Kenneth Cline...John Backus, John H. Williams, and Edward L. Wimmers. The programming language FL. In Turner [131], pages 219-247. [12] Edoardo Biagioni , Nicholas

  10. Proper use of medical language: Main problems and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre-Benavent, R; Valderrama Zurián, J C; Bueno-Cañigral, F J

    2015-10-01

    Medical language should be characterized by its precision, emotional neutrality and stability. The effective communication of results of scientific studies depends on compliance with current standards of drafting and style; texts with defects can hinder interest in the findings. In this study, we discuss some of the most common problems and errors in medical language, including the abuse of abbreviations and foreign words, the use of improper words, syntax errors and solecisms, the most common errors in titles and the abuse of capital letters and the gerund. Investigators have effective tools for dealing with these problems, such as quality texts, critical dictionaries of questions and difficulties with the Spanish language and various drafting and style manuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  11. P systems generating iso-plcture languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subbaiah Annadurai; Thiyagarajan Kalyani; Vincent Rajkumar Dare; Durairaj Gnanaraj Thomas

    2008-01-01

    P systems generating rectangular arrays and hexagonal arrays have been studied in the literature,bringing together the two areas of theoretical computer science,namely membrane computing and picture languages.Recently,a new class of picture languages called the class of iso-picture languages generating interesting picture languages has been introduced.In this paper,we develop a class of tissue-like P systems with active membranes as a generative device for iso-picture languages.

  12. Medical Certification System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Provides automated risk-based decision making capability in support of medical certification and clearances processing associated fees and supporting surveillance of...

  13. Astronomical Instrumentation System Markup Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbaum, Jesse M.

    2016-05-01

    The Astronomical Instrumentation System Markup Language (AISML) is an Extensible Markup Language (XML) based file format for maintaining and exchanging information about astronomical instrumentation. The factors behind the need for an AISML are first discussed followed by the reasons why XML was chosen as the format. Next it's shown how XML also provides the framework for a more precise definition of an astronomical instrument and how these instruments can be combined to form an Astronomical Instrumentation System (AIS). AISML files for several instruments as well as one for a sample AIS are provided. The files demonstrate how AISML can be utilized for various tasks from web page generation and programming interface to instrument maintenance and quality management. The advantages of widespread adoption of AISML are discussed.

  14. [Medical applications of systems biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demongeot, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    We illustrate in this review some applications of systems biology in the medical and biological areas. After a brief summary of time scales experienced by medical -observations and of the general scheme of dynamic systems, we describe how some techniques underlying the complex systems theory can be applied to model medical issues in immunology, medical genetics, developmental morphogenesis, biochemistry, epidemiology, telemedecine and multiple platforms of expertise. In concluding, we will discuss the issue of "clinomics" coupling clinical and -omics data in a unique patient-specific file.

  15. Exploration Medical System Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, D. A.; McGrath, T. L.; Reyna, B.; Watkins, S. D.

    2011-01-01

    A near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) mission will present significant new challenges including hazards to crew health created by exploring a beyond low earth orbit destination, traversing the terrain of asteroid surfaces, and the effects of variable gravity environments. Limited communications with ground-based personnel for diagnosis and consultation of medical events require increased crew autonomy when diagnosing conditions, creating treatment plans, and executing procedures. Scope: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will be a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to show an end-to-end medical system assisting the Crew Medical Officers (CMO) in optimizing medical care delivery and medical data management during a mission. NEA medical care challenges include resource and resupply constraints limiting the extent to which medical conditions can be treated, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and rendering of medical care by a non-clinician. The system demonstrates the integration of medical technologies and medical informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making. Project Objectives: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a) Reduce and possibly eliminate the time required for a crewmember and ground personnel to manage medical data from one application to another. b) Demonstrate crewmember's ability to access medical data/information via a software solution to assist/aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c) Develop a common data management architecture that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all crew health and life sciences activities. d) Develop a common data management architecture that allows for scalability, extensibility, and interoperability of data sources and data users. e) Lower total cost of ownership for development and sustainment of peripheral hardware and software that use EMSD for data management f) Provide

  16. Interrelationship between learning English language and students' medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosavljević, Natasa

    2008-01-01

    Medical students and researchers need to learn English, not only because it is the means of teaching and learning, but also because its knowledge is necessary in their research activities. The objective of this study was to determine the importance of the study of English language learning for student medical education. The investigation was carried out among students of the Medical Faculty of Nis in 2006. The investigation included 312 students of all years of study and departments and was conducted using a questionnaire. Average rate in writing skill was 4.64 +/- 0.6, in speaking skill 4.62 +/- 0.6, while the students of the College of Nursing showed significantly lower average value. The average value of learning the foreign language was: writing (3.161 +/- .09); speaking (3.27 +/- 1.1); reading (3.84 +/- 1.0) and understanding (3.85 +/- 1.1). The students of the College of Nursing showed significantly lower grades in comparison to the other three Departments. The comparison analysis was done in order to determine the relation of writing and speaking skills in mother tongue and foreign language. As for the English language, the relation of writing and speaking skills was very strong (Pearson C = 0.641, p speaking skills in the mother tongue and in English were significantly positively associated with students' satisfaction with their social and economic status, while satisfaction with achievements at the Faculty was associated only with the ability of verbal expression in the mother tongue. The students' satisfaction with their social and economic status was mostly associated with good oral skills in English, which indicates that good knowledge of a foreign language is of great influence on the status of an individual in a society.

  17. Speech Recognition System Architecture for Gujarati Language

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jinal H Tailor; Dipti B Shah

    2016-01-01

    .... To achieve good accuracy and efficiency of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) system for Indian Gujarati language is challenging task due to its morphology, language barriers, different dialects, and unavailability of resources...

  18. Abusive head trauma in Spanish language medical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, M Townsend; Szyld, Edgardo; Darden, Paul M

    2016-08-01

    Anecdotal experiences raise concerns that abusive head trauma (AHT) is significantly underdiagnosed and perhaps poorly recognized in Latin American settings. With increasing interest in international collaboration in pediatrics, differences in perspectives regarding complex diagnoses should be explored to facilitate a productive exchange of knowledge and ideas. The purpose of this study was to describe the medical literature pertaining to AHT available to physicians who read only in Spanish. In this review, LILACS, SciELO (major Spanish language databases) and Pubmed were searched with appropriate terms and filters in English, Spanish, and Portuguese for Spanish language articles on AHT. Identified articles' reference lists were then examined for possible additional articles on AHT. All relevant articles were sorted by country and examined for article type and content. Thirty-four unique articles were located for review from 8 of 21 countries. Most of the articles identified were case reports, case series, or educational, and there were no studies regarding overall incidence or prevalence of AHT. Some scientific information contained in the articles varied considerably from that in the English language literature in the areas of etiology and preventive strategies. This survey highlights that the Spanish language literature regarding AHT is sparse and variable. This must be considered when working collaboratively in a global setting. Additionally, identification of this gap presents an opportunity for education and information exchange among global medical communities.

  19. Turkish Medical Information System and Medical Librarianship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huriye Çolaklar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey, medical information is supported at state level according to national policies. However, although the history of medical libraries in Turkey goes back to the 13th century in Anatolia, modern medical library applications adopted since the 1950s have not received much state support. In the past thirteen years a few medical libraries joined forces under ÜNAK (the Association of University and Research Librarians to contribute to the organization and development of Turkish Medical Information through the establishment of a "Medical Working Group" in 2000.

  20. Toward a shared language for competency-based medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander, Robert; Frank, Jason R; Carraccio, Carol; Sherbino, Jonathan; Ross, Shelley; Snell, Linda

    2017-06-01

    The paradigm shift brought about by the advent of competency-based medical education (CBME) can be characterized as an adaptive change. Currently, its development and implementation suffer from the lack of a lingua franca. A shared language is needed to support collaboration and dissemination across the world community of medical educators. The International CBME Collaborators held a second summit in 2013 to explore this and other contemporary CBME issues. We present the resulting International CBME Collaborator's glossary of CBME terms. Particular attention is given to the terms competency, entrustable professional activity (EPA), and milestone and their interrelationships. Medical education scholars and enthusiasts of the competency-based approach are encouraged to adopt these terms and definitions, although no doubt the vocabulary of CBME will continue to evolve.

  1. An iconic language for the graphical representation of medical concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venot Alain

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many medication errors are encountered in drug prescriptions, which would not occur if practitioners could remember the drug properties. They can refer to drug monographs to find these properties, however drug monographs are long and tedious to read during consultation. We propose a two-step approach for facilitating access to drug monographs. The first step, presented here, is the design of a graphical language, called VCM. Methods The VCM graphical language was designed using a small number of graphical primitives and combinatory rules. VCM was evaluated over 11 volunteer general practitioners to assess if the language is easy to learn, to understand and to use. Evaluators were asked to register their VCM training time, to indicate the meaning of VCM icons and sentences, and to answer clinical questions related to randomly generated drug monograph-like documents, supplied in text or VCM format. Results VCM can represent the various signs, diseases, physiological states, life habits, drugs and tests described in drug monographs. Grammatical rules make it possible to generate many icons by combining a small number of primitives and reusing simple icons to build more complex ones. Icons can be organized into simple sentences to express drug recommendations. Evaluation showed that VCM was learnt in 2 to 7 hours, that physicians understood 89% of the tested VCM icons, and that they answered correctly to 94% of questions using VCM (versus 88% using text, p = 0.003 and 1.8 times faster (p Conclusion VCM can be learnt in a few hours and appears to be easy to read. It can now be used in a second step: the design of graphical interfaces facilitating access to drug monographs. It could also be used for broader applications, including the design of interfaces for consulting other types of medical document or medical data, or, very simply, to enrich medical texts.

  2. ENTROPY AND NEGENTROPY SIGNS IN LANGUAGE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Михайловна Некипелова

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to research of entropy in language. Complexity of the description of entropy is connected with that it is not a material factor of development of language, because language is not real, but the imaginable category, existing only in humans thinking. For this reason the modern researches devoted to studying and calculating of entropy are concentrated on the speech and text material. For understanding of the idea of entropy of language (not of its speech expression it is necessary to investigate the entropy of structure of objective language, not sets of subjective languages, i.e. language as model. The research has showed that in system of a natural language signs of entropy are such language phenomena as synonimy, polysemanticism, language redundancy, variability of forms, loyalty and flexibility of rules, existence of styles. These signs are detected in comparison with signs of absolutely systematized language system, acting as a hypothesis.  Entropy of such system is reduced to zero. The negentropy as negative entropy is opposed to entropy. Negentropy markers are homonymy, absence of a synonimy, invariancy, strict rules of language, monostyle. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-58

  3. Medical Information Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterescu, S.; Hipkins, K. R.; Friedman, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    On-line interactive information processing system easily and rapidly handles all aspects of data management related to patient care. General purpose system is flexible enough to be applied to other data management situations found in areas such as occupational safety data, judicial information, or personnel records.

  4. Alzheimer's disease and language impairments: social intervention and medical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimova, Blanka; Maresova, Petra; Valis, Martin; Hort, Jakub; Kuca, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    Communication is very important for people to be successfully integrated into social environment and make and maintain relationship. Particularly, language difficulties lead to social exclusion of the people affected with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and contribute to a significant decrease in the quality of their life and also have a big impact on their family members who in most cases become their caregivers who need to communicate with their loved ones in order to meet their needs. Therefore, the goal of this study is to describe language impairments in the individual phases of AD and discuss their improvement with respect to AD on the basis of literature review. The authors of this article use traditional research methods in order to achieve the goal set mentioned earlier. First, a method of literature review of available sources describing language impairments in the individual phases of AD is exploited. Second, to show how informal caregivers and relevant drugs can successfully intervene in the improvement of these language impairments, a method of comparison of different research studies exploring such social intervention and medical treatment is used.

  5. Breaking the language barrier: machine assisted diagnosis using the medical speech translator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starlander, Marianne; Bouillon, Pierrette; Rayner, Manny; Chatzichrisafis, Nikos; Hockey, Beth Ann; Isahara, Hitoshi; Kanzaki, Kyoko; Nakao, Yukie; Santaholma, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe and evaluate an Open Source medical speech translation system (MedSLT) intended for safety-critical applications. The aim of this system is to eliminate the language barriers in emergency situation. It translates spoken questions from English into French, Japanese and Finnish in three medical subdomains (headache, chest pain and abdominal pain), using a vocabulary of about 250-400 words per sub-domain. The architecture is a compromise between fixed-phrase translation on one hand and complex linguistically-based systems on the other. Recognition is guided by a Context Free Grammar Language Model compiled from a general unification grammar, automatically specialised for the domain. We present an evaluation of this initial prototype that shows the advantages of this grammar-based approach for this particular translation task in term of both reliability and use.

  6. Medical-Information-Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterescu, Sidney; Friedman, Carl A.; Frankowski, James W.

    1989-01-01

    Medical Information Management System (MIMS) computer program interactive, general-purpose software system for storage and retrieval of information. Offers immediate assistance where manipulation of large data bases required. User quickly and efficiently extracts, displays, and analyzes data. Used in management of medical data and handling all aspects of data related to care of patients. Other applications include management of data on occupational safety in public and private sectors, handling judicial information, systemizing purchasing and procurement systems, and analyses of cost structures of organizations. Written in Microsoft FORTRAN 77.

  7. Tele-medical imaging conference system based on the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Heung-Kook; Park, Se-Myung; Kang, Jae-Hyo; Kim, Sang-Kyoon; Choi, Hang-Mook

    2002-06-01

    In this paper, a medical imaging conference system is presented, which is carried out in the Web environment using the distributed object technique, CORBA. Independent of platforms and different developing languages, the CORBA-based medical imaging conference system is very powerful for system development, extension and maintenance. With this Web client/server, one could easily execute a medical imaging conference using Applets on the Web. The Java language, which is object-oriented and independent of platforms, has the advantage of free usage wherever the Web browser is. By using the proposed system, we envisage being able to open a tele-conference using medical images, e.g. CT, MRI, X-ray etc., easily and effectively among remote hospitals.

  8. Language Is an Adaptive System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈兆东

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides several insights into the nature of language,some of which are quite an eye-opener for me.For example,a viewpoint is presented in the paper that language acquisition is a sampling problem,which is an indicator that first and second language acquisition are similar in nature.The only difference between native speakers and L2 learners is that

  9. Language barriers: use of regular medical doctors by Canada's official language minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwakongnwi, Emmanuel; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Musto, Richard; King-Shier, Kathryn M; Quan, Hude

    2012-12-01

    To assess use of regular medical doctors (RMDs), as well as awareness and use of telephone health lines or telehealth services, by official language minorities (OLMs) in Canada. Analysis of data from the 2006 postcensal survey on the vitality of OLMs. Canada. In total, 7691 English speakers in Quebec and 12 376 French speakers outside Quebec, grouped into those who experienced language barriers and those with no language barriers. Health services utilization (HSU) by the presence of language barriers; HSU measures included having an RMD, use of an RMD's services, and awareness of and use of telephone health lines or telehealth services. Multivariable models examined the associations between HSU and language barriers. After adjusting for age and sex, English speakers residing in Quebec with limited proficiency in French were less likely to have RMDs (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.66, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.87) and to use the services of their RMDs (AOR 0.65, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.86), but were more likely to be aware of the existence of (AOR 1.50, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.93) and to use (AOR 1.43, 95% CI 0.97 to 2.11) telephone health lines or telehealth services. This pattern of having and using RMDs and telehealth services was not observed for French speakers residing outside of Quebec. Overall we found variation in HSU among the language barrier populations, with lower use observed in Quebec. Age older than 45 years, male sex, being married or in common-law relationships, and higher income were associated with having RMDs for OLMs.

  10. Language issues: an important professional practice dimension for Australian International Medical Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Pam; Henderson, David; Holewa, Hamish

    2013-01-01

    Issues associated with speech and language have been noted in the international literature as an important aspect of the process of integration for Australian International Medical Graduates (IMGs). This paper makes a contribution through the presentation of a sub-set of findings on the factors associated with speech and language practices for IMGs, taken from a qualitative study which examined the IMGs' experience of integration into the Australian healthcare system. A purposive sample of 30 IMGs were interviewed via telephone. Participants were asked to share their experience with communicating in English with patients and other health professionals in the context of the Australian healthcare system. The taped interviews were transcribed verbatim and then coded and thematically analysed. The findings indicate that the months following the point of entry into a medical position are a critical time for the majority of IMGs in terms of difficulties with communicating in English. A range of suggestions to improve speech and language skills for IMGs is provided. The findings emphasize the importance of speech and language skills and the serious implications of this issue for the clinical practice of IMGs.

  11. Language barriers and professional identity: A qualitative interview study of newly employed international medical doctors and Norwegian colleagues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjeggestad, Erik; Gerwing, Jennifer; Gulbrandsen, Pål

    2017-08-01

    To explore how language barriers influence communication and collaboration between newly-employed international medical doctors and Norwegian health personnel. Interviews were conducted with 16 doctors who had recently started working in Norway and 12 Norwegian born health personnel who had extensive experience working with international medical doctors. Analyses were consistent with principles of systematic text condensation. All participants experienced that language barriers caused difficulties in their everyday collaboration. Furthermore, the participants' descriptions of "language barriers" encompassed a wide range of topics, including semantics (e.g., specialized professional vocabulary, system knowledge), pragmatics (e.g., using language in doctor-patient and interprofessional interactions), and specific culturally sensitive topics. All participants described that language barriers provoked uncertainty about a doctor's competence. Newly employed international medical doctors and their colleagues are concerned by ineffective communication due to language barriers. Experiences of language barriers threaten professional identity as a competent and effective doctor. Newly employed doctors who are non-native speakers could benefit from support in understanding and handling the array of barriers related to language. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Extensible Markup Language Data Mining System Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李炜; 宋瀚涛

    2003-01-01

    The existing data mining methods are mostly focused on relational databases and structured data, but not on complex structured data (like in extensible markup language(XML)). By converting XML document type description to the relational semantic recording XML data relations, and using an XML data mining language, the XML data mining system presents a strategy to mine information on XML.

  13. 77 FR 5734 - New Medical Criteria for Evaluating Language and Speech Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Part 404 RIN 0960-AG21 New Medical Criteria for Evaluating Language and Speech Disorders... considering whether to propose new rules for evaluating language and speech disorders. The new rules would apply to disability claims involving language and speech disorders in adults and children under titles...

  14. Impact factor trends for general medical journals: non-English-language journals are lagging behind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Siri; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The impact factor (IF) is a common citation metric used for evaluating and comparing scientific journals within a certain field. Previous studies have shown that IFs are increasing. However, rates may depend on journal publication language. The aim of this study was to determine IF values...... and trends for general medical journals, comparing non-English-language with English-language journals....

  15. Medical Signbank as a Model for Sign Language Planning? A Review of Community Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Jemina; Major, George; Ferrara, Lindsay; Johnston, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews a sign language planning project conducted in Australia with deaf Auslan users. The Medical Signbank project utilised a cooperative language planning process to engage with the Deaf community and sign language interpreters to develop an online interactive resource of health-related signs, in order to address a gap in the health…

  16. 21 CFR 801.16 - Medical devices; Spanish-language version of certain required statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices; Spanish-language version of....16 Medical devices; Spanish-language version of certain required statements. If devices restricted to prescription use only are labeled solely in Spanish for distribution in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico...

  17. Language Based Techniques for Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henrik

    on the π calculus fragment of BioAmbients. In both cases the analyses compute very precise estimates of the temporal structure of the underlying pathways; hence they are applicable across a family of widely used bio-ware languages that descend from Milner’s Calculus of Communicating Systems. The presented...... calculi have similarly been used for the study of bio-chemical reactive systems. In this dissertation it is argued that techniques rooted in the theory and practice of programming languages, language based techniques if you will, constitute a strong basis for the investigation of models of biological...

  18. Two Interpretive Systems for Natural Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    It is proposed that humans have available to them two systems for interpreting natural language. One system is familiar from formal semantics. It is a type based system that pairs a syntactic form with its interpretation using grammatical rules of composition. This system delivers both plausible and implausible meanings. The other proposed system…

  19. INFORMATION SUPPORT SYSTEM OF MEDICAL SYSTEM RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Martsenyuk

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions. The complex qualitative behavior of diseases models depending on parameters and controllers was observed in our investigation even without considering probabilistic nature of the majority of quantities and parameters of information models. KEY WORDS: data mining, system analysis, medical research, decision making

  20. MIMS - MEDICAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowski, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    MIMS, Medical Information Management System is an interactive, general purpose information storage and retrieval system. It was first designed to be used in medical data management, and can be used to handle all aspects of data related to patient care. Other areas of application for MIMS include: managing occupational safety data in the public and private sectors; handling judicial information where speed and accuracy are high priorities; systemizing purchasing and procurement systems; and analyzing organizational cost structures. Because of its free format design, MIMS can offer immediate assistance where manipulation of large data bases is required. File structures, data categories, field lengths and formats, including alphabetic and/or numeric, are all user defined. The user can quickly and efficiently extract, display, and analyze the data. Three means of extracting data are provided: certain short items of information, such as social security numbers, can be used to uniquely identify each record for quick access; records can be selected which match conditions defined by the user; and specific categories of data can be selected. Data may be displayed and analyzed in several ways which include: generating tabular information assembled from comparison of all the records on the system; generating statistical information on numeric data such as means, standard deviations and standard errors; and displaying formatted listings of output data. The MIMS program is written in Microsoft FORTRAN-77. It was designed to operate on IBM Personal Computers and compatibles running under PC or MS DOS 2.00 or higher. MIMS was developed in 1987.

  1. MIMS - MEDICAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowski, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    MIMS, Medical Information Management System is an interactive, general purpose information storage and retrieval system. It was first designed to be used in medical data management, and can be used to handle all aspects of data related to patient care. Other areas of application for MIMS include: managing occupational safety data in the public and private sectors; handling judicial information where speed and accuracy are high priorities; systemizing purchasing and procurement systems; and analyzing organizational cost structures. Because of its free format design, MIMS can offer immediate assistance where manipulation of large data bases is required. File structures, data categories, field lengths and formats, including alphabetic and/or numeric, are all user defined. The user can quickly and efficiently extract, display, and analyze the data. Three means of extracting data are provided: certain short items of information, such as social security numbers, can be used to uniquely identify each record for quick access; records can be selected which match conditions defined by the user; and specific categories of data can be selected. Data may be displayed and analyzed in several ways which include: generating tabular information assembled from comparison of all the records on the system; generating statistical information on numeric data such as means, standard deviations and standard errors; and displaying formatted listings of output data. The MIMS program is written in Microsoft FORTRAN-77. It was designed to operate on IBM Personal Computers and compatibles running under PC or MS DOS 2.00 or higher. MIMS was developed in 1987.

  2. [The structure of the medical and pharmaceutical terminology in the Romanian language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaişer, M

    1999-01-01

    When we analyse diachronically the Romanian medical and pharmaceutical terminology, we can say that it represents a lexical ensemble characterized by heterogeneousness. It has its own dynamics due to the specific character of the terms. New lexical elements have been added permanently in the twentieth century to the corpus of medical terms established in the last century. Another characteristic of the medical terminology in our century is its international tendency. The great number of international words--among which those of Latin, Greek and, more recent, English origin--make it easier to decode the message for the specialists speaking different languages. The great number of words of this type emphasize the scholarly, artificial character of the vocabulary. A well-represented class, from the point of view of its number, are the neologism of Latin-Romantic origin, terms that have been adapted phonetically and morphologically to the system of the Romanian language. The linguistic facts we find in the specialty texts (in the XIX and XX centuries) confirm our belief that, as a whole, the medical terminology is a linguistic field in a continuous process of modeling, and mainly that is open to be renewed.

  3. Determining the Correlation Between Language Scores Obtained by Medical Students in their University Entrance and Comprehensive Medical Basic Sciences Exams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi M

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Some professors and educators in the field of English language believe that the high grades attained by medical students in their Comprehensive Medical Basic Sciences Exam (CMBSE are mainly a result of the students prior fluency in the language before entering medical colleges; they are of the opinion that these grades are not necessarily a result of the combined effort of the English teachers and students in language courses at the university. This research aims at determining the correlation between the level of fluency in English of medical students prior to university entrance and the grades obtained by them in their CMBSE after 3 terms of language courses at the university. Methods: Seven of the major and smaller universities of medical sciences were selected. The language scores of 2426 students admitted to these universities during the three academic years of 1999 to 2002 in both the National University Entrance Examination (NUEE and the Comprehensive Medical Basic Sciences Exam (CMBSE were obtained from their related universities and from the secretariat of the Council of Medical Basic Sciences Education respectively. The language scores of each student obtained in both NUEE and CMBSE were then matched. The related SPSS software was used to assess the level of correlation between these two groups of language scores for the students of each university, for each academic year and semester and also the overall score for the three years. Results: Overall a positive and moderately significant correlation was found between the NUEE language scores and those of the CMBSE of the students of the universities studied (P<0/001; R=443%. The level of correlation for the various universities studied differed (Max. 69%, min.27%. A comparison of the means of these two groups of scores also confirmed this correlation. Conclusion: students’ grades The NUEE language score was not the only factor affecting the student’s CMBSE

  4. Exploring Perception and Use of Everyday Language and Medical Terminology among International Medical Graduates in a Medical ESP Course in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Maria R.

    2011-01-01

    Language and communication skills are among the greatest challenges that non-native-English speaking international medical graduates (IMGs) face in English medical consultations. Especially when patients use unfamiliar everyday expressions or attach different meanings to medical terminology, the communicative burden on doctor-patient communication…

  5. Moving beyond the language barrier: the communication strategies used by international medical graduates in intercultural medical encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Parul; Krieger, Janice L

    2011-07-01

    To understand the communication strategies international medical graduates use in medical interactions to overcome language and cultural barriers. In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 international physicians completing their residency training in internal medicine in a large hospital in Midwestern Ohio. The interview explored (a) barriers participants encountered while communicating with their patients regarding language, affect, and culture, and (b) communication convergence strategies used to make the interaction meaningful. International physicians use multiple convergence strategies when interacting with their patients to account for the intercultural and intergroup differences, including repeating information, changing speaking styles, and using non-verbal communication. Understanding barriers to communication faced by international physicians and recognizing accommodation strategies they employ in the interaction could help in training of future international doctors who come to the U.S. to practice medicine. Early intervention could reduce the time international physicians spend navigating through the system and trying to learn by experimenting with different strategies which will allow these physicians to devote more time to patient care. We recommend developing a training manual that is instructive of the socio-cultural practices of the region where international physician will start practicing medicine. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Natural Language Processing Based Instrument for Classification of Free Text Medical Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manana Khachidze

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the Ministry of Labor, Health and Social Affairs of Georgia a new health management system has to be introduced in the nearest future. In this context arises the problem of structuring and classifying documents containing all the history of medical services provided. The present work introduces the instrument for classification of medical records based on the Georgian language. It is the first attempt of such classification of the Georgian language based medical records. On the whole 24.855 examination records have been studied. The documents were classified into three main groups (ultrasonography, endoscopy, and X-ray and 13 subgroups using two well-known methods: Support Vector Machine (SVM and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN. The results obtained demonstrated that both machine learning methods performed successfully, with a little supremacy of SVM. In the process of classification a “shrink” method, based on features selection, was introduced and applied. At the first stage of classification the results of the “shrink” case were better; however, on the second stage of classification into subclasses 23% of all documents could not be linked to only one definite individual subclass (liver or binary system due to common features characterizing these subclasses. The overall results of the study were successful.

  7. 76 FR 8637 - Medical Devices; Medical Device Data Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... whether APACHE Medical Systems or Apgar scores would be considered a clinical decision support system... does not address whether APACHE or Apgar Scoring would be considered clinical decision support systems. FDA expects that systems such as APACHE decision support systems and software-based Apgar...

  8. The medical simulation markup language - simplifying the biomechanical modeling workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwelack, Stefan; Stoll, Markus; Schalck, Sebastian; Schoch, Nicolai; Dillmann, Rüdiger; Bendl, Rolf; Heuveline, Vincent; Speidel, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Modeling and simulation of the human body by means of continuum mechanics has become an important tool in diagnostics, computer-assisted interventions and training. This modeling approach seeks to construct patient-specific biomechanical models from tomographic data. Usually many different tools such as segmentation and meshing algorithms are involved in this workflow. In this paper we present a generalized and flexible description for biomechanical models. The unique feature of the new modeling language is that it not only describes the final biomechanical simulation, but also the workflow how the biomechanical model is constructed from tomographic data. In this way, the MSML can act as a middleware between all tools used in the modeling pipeline. The MSML thus greatly facilitates the prototyping of medical simulation workflows for clinical and research purposes. In this paper, we not only detail the XML-based modeling scheme, but also present a concrete implementation. Different examples highlight the flexibility, robustness and ease-of-use of the approach.

  9. VIRTUAL INSTRUMENT SYSTEM SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE DESCRIPTION LANGUAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In software engineering, an architecture description language (ADL) is intended to aid designers in defining software architectures in terms of abstractions that they find useful, and in making a smooth transi- tion to code. Based on ADL, the concept and models of the Virtual instrunent system Software architecture Description Language (VSDL) is provided in this paper. The VSDL put forward provides a new method for vir- tual instrunent system's application design and development by describing the virtual instrument system soft- ware architecture effectively. In this paper, the model description、component description and line description are analyzed in detail, and the structure language based on the model is also provided. VSDL provides a smooth interface to graphic software platform, and has been applied to many virtual instrument systems' inte- gration and already yielded good results both in technology and economy.

  10. Language as an information system: redundancy and optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Mikhaylovna Nekipelova; Elvira Galievna Zarifullina

    2015-01-01

    The paper is devoted to research of the language system as an information system. The distinguishing feature of any natural living language system is redundant of elements of its structure. Redundancy, broken terms of universality peculiar to artificial information systems, makes language mobile in time and in space. It should be marked out informational redundancy of two types: language redundancy, when information overlay of language units within the system occurs and speech redundancy when...

  11. Introducing Sign Language Systems to Parents of Young Deaf Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Barbara Walsh

    1987-01-01

    The three major sign language systems (American Sign Language, Pidgin Sign English, and Manual English) are compared in table form. A brief description of each language highlights salient points that parents of deaf children need to understand. (DB)

  12. Languages and P Systems: Recent Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Paun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Languages appeared from the very beginning in membrane computing, by their length sets or directly as sets of strings. We briefly recall here this relationship, with some details about certain recent developments. In particular, we discuss the possibility to associate a control word with a computation in a P system. An improvement of a result concerning the control words of spiking neural P systems is given: regular languages can be obtained as control words of such systems with only four neurons (and with usual extended rules: no more spikes are produced than consumed. Several research topics are pointed out.

  13. Medical Robots: Current Systems and Research Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Beasley, Ryan A.

    2012-01-01

    First used medically in 1985, robots now make an impact in laparoscopy, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, emergency response, and various other medical disciplines. This paper provides a review of medical robot history and surveys the capabilities of current medical robot systems, primarily focusing on commercially available systems while covering a few prominent research projects. By examining robotic systems across time and disciplines, trends are discernible that imply future capabilities ...

  14. Language as an information system: redundancy and optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Mikhaylovna Nekipelova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to research of the language system as an information system. The distinguishing feature of any natural living language system is redundant of elements of its structure. Redundancy, broken terms of universality peculiar to artificial information systems, makes language mobile in time and in space. It should be marked out informational redundancy of two types: language redundancy, when information overlay of language units within the system occurs and speech redundancy when condense of information into syntagmatic level occurs. Language redundancy is potential and speech redundancy is actual. In general, it should be noted that the language redundancy is necessary for language: complicating the relationships between language units, language redundancy creates in language situation of choice, leading to a disorder of language system, increasing of entropy and, as a result, the appearing of the information that can be accepted or cannot be by language system. Language redundancy is one of the reasons for growth of information in language. In addition, the information redundancy in language is one of the factors of language system development.

  15. STMML. A markup language for scientific, technical and medical publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Murray-Rust

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available STMML is an XML-based markup language covering many generic aspects of scientific information. It has been developed as a re-usable core for more specific markup languages. It supports data structures, data types, metadata, scientific units and some basic components of scientific narrative. The central means of adding semantic information is through dictionaries. The specification is through an XML Schema which can be used to validate STMML documents or fragments. Many examples of the language are given.

  16. When Latin gets sick: mocking medical language in macaronic poetry

    OpenAIRE

    Demo, Šime

    2013-01-01

    Macaronic poetry is a curious cultural phenomenon, having originated in classical antiquity and taken its standard form in the 15th century in northern Italy. Its basic feature is mixing of linguistic varieties for a humorous effect. In this paper, connections between macaronic poetry and the language of medicine have been observed at three levels. Firstly, starting with the idea of language as a living organism, in particular Latin (Renaissance language par excellence), its illness, from ...

  17. Overcoming terminology barrier using Web resources for cross-language medical information retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Hsiang; Lin, Ray Shih-Jui; Chan, Yi-Che; Chen, Kuan-Hsi

    2006-01-01

    A number of authoritative medical websites, such as PubMed and MedlinePlus, provide consumers with the most up-to-date health information. However, non-English speakers often encounter not only language barriers (from other languages to English) but also terminology barriers (from laypersons inverted exclamation mark| terms to professional medical terms) when retrieving information from these websites. Our previous work address language barriers by developing a multilingual medical thesaurus, Chinese-English MeSH, while this study presents an approach to overcome terminology barriers based on Web resources. Two techniques were utilized in our approach: monolingual concept mapping using approximate string matching and crosslingual concept mapping using Web resources. The evaluation shows that our approach can significantly improve the performance on MeSH concept mapping and cross-language medical information retrieval.

  18. Medical dictionaries for patient encoding systems: a methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovis, C; Baud, R; Rassinoux, A M; Michel, P A; Scherrer, J R

    1998-01-01

    Medical language is highly compositional and makes extensive use of common roots, especially Latino-Greek roots. Besides words devoted to common sense, medical language presents some typical characteristics, especially on morphological and semantic aspects of word formation. Morphological decomposition and identification precedes semantic analysis. It is only when these two prerequisites are fulfilled that an attempt to grasp the meaning of a whole expression is made possible. The main aim of the proposed approach is that of coping with 'the lack of coverage of the medical lexical knowledge', in order to help physicians find the correct international classification for diseases (ICD) codes for a written diagnosis. The proposed methodology allows the development of a powerful dynamic dictionary dedicated to natural language processing in the field of diagnoses and narrative procedures. It describes the design of an analyser that can profit from a dictionary. The methods used have proved to be efficient for various classifications, s well as for multiple languages, as the system presently supports French, German, English and Dutch for ICD-9 and ICD-10 classifications.

  19. Medical Signbank: Bringing Deaf People and Linguists Together in the Process of Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Trevor; Napier, Jemina

    2010-01-01

    In this article we describe an Australian project in which linguists, signed language interpreters, medical and health care professionals, and members of the Deaf community use the technology of the Internet to facilitate cooperative language development. A web-based, interactive multimedia lexicon, an encyclopedic dictionary, and a database of…

  20. Medical Robots: Current Systems and Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan A. Beasley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available First used medically in 1985, robots now make an impact in laparoscopy, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, emergency response, and various other medical disciplines. This paper provides a review of medical robot history and surveys the capabilities of current medical robot systems, primarily focusing on commercially available systems while covering a few prominent research projects. By examining robotic systems across time and disciplines, trends are discernible that imply future capabilities of medical robots, for example, increased usage of intraoperative images, improved robot arm design, and haptic feedback to guide the surgeon.

  1. Numeral systems in Alor-Pantar languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schapper, Antoinette; Klamer, Marian

    2014-01-01

    This chapter presents an in-depth analysis of numeral forms and systems in the Alor-Pantar (AP) languages. The AP family reflects a typologically rare combination of mono-morphemic ‘six’ with quinary forms for numerals ‘seven’ to ‘nine’, a pattern which we reconstruct to go back to proto-AP. We focu

  2. Language Networks as Complex Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Max Kueiming; Ou, Sheue-Jen

    2008-01-01

    Starting in the late eighties, with a growing discontent with analytical methods in science and the growing power of computers, researchers began to study complex systems such as living organisms, evolution of genes, biological systems, brain neural networks, epidemics, ecology, economy, social networks, etc. In the early nineties, the research…

  3. Language comprehension warps the mirror neuron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarr, Noah; Ferguson, Ryan; Glenberg, Arthur M

    2013-01-01

    Is the mirror neuron system (MNS) used in language understanding? According to embodied accounts of language comprehension, understanding sentences describing actions makes use of neural mechanisms of action control, including the MNS. Consequently, repeatedly comprehending sentences describing similar actions should induce adaptation of the MNS thereby warping its use in other cognitive processes such as action recognition and prediction. To test this prediction, participants read blocks of multiple sentences where each sentence in the block described transfer of objects in a direction away or toward the reader. Following each block, adaptation was measured by having participants predict the end-point of videotaped actions. The adapting sentences disrupted prediction of actions in the same direction, but (a) only for videos of biological motion, and (b) only when the effector implied by the language (e.g., the hand) matched the videos. These findings are signatures of the MNS.

  4. Determining the reasons for medication prescriptions in the EHR using knowledge and natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Salmasian, Hojjat; Harpaz, Rave; Chase, Herbert; Friedman, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of medication indications is significant for automatic applications aimed at improving patient safety, such as computerized physician order entry and clinical decision support systems. The Electronic Health Record (EHR) contains pertinent information related to patient safety such as information related to appropriate prescribing. However, the reasons for medication prescriptions are usually not explicitly documented in the patient record. This paper describes a method that determines the reasons for medication uses based on information occurring in outpatient notes. The method utilizes drug-indication knowledge that we acquired, and natural language processing. Evaluation showed the method obtained a sensitivity of 62.8%, specificity of 93.9%, precision of 90% and F-measure of 73.9%. This pilot study demonstrated that linking external drug indication knowledge to the EHR for determining the reasons for medication use was promising, but also revealed some challenges. Future work will focus on increasing the accuracy and coverage of the indication knowledge and evaluating its performance using a much larger set of drugs frequently used in the outpatient population.

  5. [Design and implementation of medical instrument standard information retrieval system based on APS.NET].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kaijun

    2010-07-01

    This paper Analys the design goals of Medical Instrumentation standard information retrieval system. Based on the B /S structure,we established a medical instrumentation standard retrieval system with ASP.NET C # programming language, IIS f Web server, SQL Server 2000 database, in the. NET environment. The paper also Introduces the system structure, retrieval system modules, system development environment and detailed design of the system.

  6. Towards Environment-Independent Spoken Language Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Towards Environment-Independent Spoken Language Systems Alejandro Acero and Richard M. Stern Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering...applications of spectral subtraction and spectral equaliza- tion for speech recognition systems include the work of Van Compemolle [5] and Stem and Acero [12... Acero and Stem [1] proposed an approach to environment normalization in the cepstral domain, going beyond the noise stripping problem. In this paper we

  7. An expert system for natural language processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, John F.

    1988-01-01

    A solution to the natural language processing problem that uses a rule based system, written in OPS5, to replace the traditional parsing method is proposed. The advantage to using a rule based system are explored. Specifically, the extensibility of a rule based solution is discussed as well as the value of maintaining rules that function independently. Finally, the power of using semantics to supplement the syntactic analysis of a sentence is considered.

  8. Language Functions and Medical Communication: The Human Body as Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantz, Deirdre; Marenzi, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a field experiment in medical English with first-year medical students at the University of Pavia, Northern Italy. Working in groups of 8-10, the students were asked to produce a corpus of medical texts in English demonstrating how the human body is itself a meaningful text (Baldry and Thibault 2006: Ch. 1).…

  9. Medical Archive Recording System (MARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Tajvidi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In this talk, one of the most efficient, and reliable integrated tools for CD/DVD production workflow, called Medical Archive Recording System (MARS by ETIAM Company, France, which is a leader in multimedia connectivity for healthcare in Europe, is going to be introduced. "nThis tool is used to record all patient studies, route the studies to printers and PACS automatically, print key images and associated reports and log all study production for automated post processing/archiving. Its benefits vary from multi-departmental system to highly customizability, IHE compliancy, high productivity, inclusion of workflow manager and web interface."nAn automated user-friendly DICOM viewer is in-cluded in this tool, which is used to display reports and key image. It also allows comparing several stu-dies on several discs."nThe viewer supports all DICOM objects including compressed images such as JPEG, JPEG 2000, RLE etc. and video added-value non-image DICOM ob-jects."nThe ETIAM MARS is offered in two versions: MARS 15d for medium productions and MARS 20d for medium to large productions. Some of the new features that are added are supports for Windows Vista, support of new DICOM objects (enhanced CT, MR, XA, Encapsulated PDF ... IHE PDI update, creation of object keys for key images; importing non-standard reports form files and many other features."nThe tool enables users to create, verify and index CDs and DVDs by simply sending studies from any DICOM node.

  10. Properties of language networks and language systems. Comment on "Approaching human language with complex networks" by Cong and Liu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuiyuan; Xu, Chunshan

    2014-12-01

    Language is generally considered a defining feature of human beings, a key medium for interpersonal communication, a fundamental tool for human thinking and an important vehicle for culture transmission. For the anthropoids to evolve into human being, the emergence of linguistic system is a vital step. Then, how can language serve functions so complicated and so important? To answer this question, it is necessary to probe into a central topic in linguistics: the structure of language, which has been inevitably involved in various fields of linguistic research-the functions of languages, the evolution of languages, the typology of languages, etc.

  11. Terminological Creation and Language Shift in Malaysia's Legal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Terminology is a central theme of debate about language shift in Malaysia's judicial system--sometimes seen as the last bastion of the colonial language. Advocates of more Malay in courtroom argument and professional practice often point to the Institute of Language and Literature's creation of thousands of terms to equip the national language for…

  12. Programming language impact on the development of distributed systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghosh, Debasish; Sheehy, Justin; Thorup, Kresten Krab; Vinoski, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Programming languages have long impacted the development of distributed systems. While much middleware and distributed systems code continues to be developed today using mainstream languages such as Java and C++...

  13. A Rule Based System for Speech Language Context Understanding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Imran Sarwar Bajwa; Muhammad Abbas Choudhary

    2006-01-01

    Speech or Natural language contents are major tools of communication. This research paper presents a natural language processing based automated system for understanding speech language text. A new rule based model has been presented for analyzing the natural languages and extracting the relative meanings from the given text. User writes the natural language text in simple English in a few paragraphs and the designed system has a sound ability of analyzing the given script by the user. After composite analysis and extraction of associated information, the designed system gives particular meanings to an assortment of speech language text on the basis of its context. The designed system uses standard speech language rules that are clearly defined for all speech languages as English,Urdu, Chinese, Arabic, French, etc. The designed system provides a quick and reliable way to comprehend speech language context and generate respective meanings.

  14. Medical 3D thermography system

    OpenAIRE

    GRUBIŠIĆ, IVAN

    2011-01-01

    Infrared (IR) thermography determines the surface temperature of an object or human body using thermal IR measurement camera. It is an imaging technology which is contactless and completely non-invasive. These propertiesmake IR thermography a useful method of analysis that is used in various industrial applications to detect, monitor and predict irregularities in many fields from engineering to medical and biological observations. This paper presents a conceptual model of Medical 3D Thermo...

  15. Language barriers in medical education and attitudes towards Arabization of medicine: student and staff perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbour, S M; Dewedar, S A; Kandil, S K

    2012-12-04

    Students and staff perspectives on language barriers in medical education in Egypt and their attitude towards Arabization of the medical curriculum were explored in a questionnaire survey of 400 medical students and 150 staff members. Many students (56.3%) did not consider learning medicine in English an obstacle, and 44.5% of staff considered it an obstacle only in the 1st year of medical school. Many other barriers to learning other than language were mentioned. However, 44.8% of students translated English terms to Arabic to facilitate studying and 70.6% of students in their clinical study years would prefer to learn patient history-taking in Arabic. While Arabization in general was strongly declined, teaching in Arabic language was suggested as appropriate in some specialties.

  16. Processing abstract language modulates motor system activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenberg, Arthur M; Sato, Marc; Cattaneo, Luigi; Riggio, Lucia; Palumbo, Daniele; Buccino, Giovanni

    2008-06-01

    Embodiment theory proposes that neural systems for perception and action are also engaged during language comprehension. Previous neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies have only been able to demonstrate modulation of action systems during comprehension of concrete language. We provide neurophysiological evidence for modulation of motor system activity during the comprehension of both concrete and abstract language. In Experiment 1, when the described direction of object transfer or information transfer (e.g., away from the reader to another) matched the literal direction of a hand movement used to make a response, speed of responding was faster than when the two directions mismatched (an action-sentence compatibility effect). In Experiment 2, we used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to study changes in the corticospinal motor pathways to hand muscles while reading the same sentences. Relative to sentences that do not describe transfer, there is greater modulation of activity in the hand muscles when reading sentences describing transfer of both concrete objects and abstract information. These findings are discussed in relation to the human mirror neuron system.

  17. Putting the Plain into Pain Language in English for Medical Purposes: Learner Inquiry into Patients' Online Descriptive Accounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastina, Anna Franca

    2016-01-01

    The need to teach medical students plain language for their future engagement in pain communication can no longer be underestimated. Pain education has traditionally neglected the teaching of pain language, yet patients' descriptive accounts have been acknowledged as the standard in medical care. English for Medical Purposes (EMP) can make its…

  18. 25 tips for working through language and cultural barriers in your medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Laura Sachs

    2009-01-01

    The language and cultural barriers facing medical patients with limited English language proficiency pose tremendous challenges and risks. Moreover, medical practices today are more likely than ever to employ individuals whose first language is not English or who do not possess native-like knowledge of American culture. Knowing how to work through the language and cultural barriers you are likely to encounter in your medical practice has become increasingly more important. This article is written by a practice management consultant who has graduate-level linguistics training and second-language teaching credentials and experience. It offers 25 practical tips to help you communicate more effectively with individuals who are outside of your native culture and language. These include easy-to-implement tips about English language pronunciation, grammar, and word choice. This article also suggests what you can do personally to bridge the cultural divide with your patients and co-workers. Finally, this article includes a case study of one Virginia practice in which cultural differences interfered with the practice's smooth operation. It explains how the practice eventually worked through and overcame this cultural obstacle.

  19. Arabic Natural Language Processing System Code Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Adelphi, MD 20783-1197 This technical note provides a brief description of a Java library for Arabic natural language processing ( NLP ) containing code...for training and applying the Arabic NLP system described in the paper "A Cross-Task Flexible Transition Model for Arabic Tokenization, Affix...processing, NLP , Java, code 14 Stephen C. Tratz (301) 394-2305Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified UU ii Contents 1. Introduction 1 2. File Overview 1 3

  20. Systems Engineering for Space Exploration Medical Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindock, Jennifer; Reilly, Jeffrey; Urbina, Michelle; Hailey, Melinda; Rubin, David; Reyes, David; Hanson, Andrea; Burba, Tyler; McGuire, Kerry; Cerro, Jeffrey; Middour, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Human exploration missions to beyond low Earth orbit destinations such as Mars will present significant new challenges to crew health management during a mission compared to current low Earth orbit operations. For the medical system, lack of consumable resupply, evacuation opportunities, and real-time ground support are key drivers toward greater autonomy. Recognition of the limited mission and vehicle resources available to carry out exploration missions motivates the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element's approach to enabling the necessary autonomy. The Element's work must integrate with the overall exploration mission and vehicle design efforts to successfully provide exploration medical capabilities. ExMC is applying systems engineering principles and practices to accomplish its integrative goals. This paper discusses the structured and integrative approach that is guiding the medical system technical development. Assumptions for the required levels of care on exploration missions, medical system guiding principles, and a Concept of Operations are early products that capture and clarify stakeholder expectations. Mobel-Based Systems Engineering techniques are then applied to define medical system behavior and architecture. Interfaces to other flight and ground systems, and within the medical system are identified and defined. Initial requirements and traceability are established, which sets the stage for identification of future technology development needs. An early approach for verification and validation, taking advantage of terrestrial and near-Earth exploration system analogs, is also defined to further guide system planning and development.

  1. Systems Engineering for Space Exploration Medical Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindock, Jennifer; Reilly, Jeffrey; Rubin, David; Urbina, Michelle; Hailey, Melinda; Hanson, Andrea; Burba, Tyler; McGuire, Kerry; Cerro, Jeffrey; Middour, Chris; hide

    2017-01-01

    Human exploration missions that reach destinations beyond low Earth orbit, such as Mars, will present significant new challenges to crew health management. For the medical system, lack of consumable resupply, evacuation opportunities, and real-time ground support are key drivers toward greater autonomy. Recognition of the limited mission and vehicle resources available to carry out exploration missions motivates the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element's approach to enabling the necessary autonomy. The Element's work must integrate with the overall exploration mission and vehicle design efforts to successfully provide exploration medical capabilities. ExMC is applying systems engineering principles and practices to accomplish its goals. This paper discusses the structured and integrative approach that is guiding the medical system technical development. Assumptions for the required levels of care on exploration missions, medical system goals, and a Concept of Operations are early products that capture and clarify stakeholder expectations. Model-Based Systems Engineering techniques are then applied to define medical system behavior and architecture. Interfaces to other flight and ground systems, and within the medical system are identified and defined. Initial requirements and traceability are established, which sets the stage for identification of future technology development needs. An early approach for verification and validation, taking advantage of terrestrial and near-Earth exploration system analogs, is also defined to further guide system planning and development.

  2. Language Proficiency Testing and the Expatriate Medical Practitioner in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamwendo, Gregory H.

    2008-01-01

    According to the Medical Council of Malawi, one of the conditions for a licence to be granted to an individual who wants to practise medicine in Malawi is the practitioner's ability to speak and write English fluently. This means that the expatriate medical practitioner is not required by law to demonstrate fluency in Chichewa (the national…

  3. ENTROPY OF LANGUAGE SYSTEM AS MAIN DEVELOPMENT INDICATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Михайловна Некипелова

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to the research of language system entropy. It is one of the main concept of synergetics and synergy. Entropy can be applied to description of language processes and detection of functioning and development features of language. Bilateral representation of entropy is caused by dichotomy of language and speech and it is feature of transference of entropy concept to linguistics area. Entropy can be representing by language entropy and speech entropy. These concepts are interdependent and interconnected, but not coinciding phenomena. Entropy existence is caused by language nature and it abilities to express all thoughts of native speakers. Entropy of natural language aspires to infinity. But language system never becomes language chaos, because negentropy counteracts entropy. Negentropy is negative entropy and it is measure of language system organization. Negentropy makes language by universal means of communication, which is cleared to all native speakers. Negentropy stabilizes system, but on the contrary entropy destabilizes system and staticizes changes in it. It process results in language development. Entropy of natural language will be never equal to zero, because zero indicator will be testify about impossibility of further development of language. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-12-4

  4. Conceptual Drivers for an Exploration Medical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonsen, Erik; Hanson, Andrea; Shah, Ronak; Reed, Rebekah; Canga, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Interplanetary spaceflight, such as NASA's proposed three-year mission to Mars, provides unique and novel challenges when compared with human spaceflight to date. Extended distance and multi-year missions introduce new elements of operational complexity and additional risk. These elements include: inability to resupply medications and consumables, inability to evacuate injured or ill crew, uncharted psychosocial conditions, and communication delays that create a requirement for some level of autonomous medical capability. Because of these unique challenges, the approaches used in prior programs have limited application to a Mars mission. On a Mars mission, resource limitations will significantly constrain available medical capabilities, and require a paradigm shift in the approach to medical system design and risk mitigation for crew health. To respond to this need for a new paradigm, the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element is assessing each Mars mission phase-transit, surface stay, rendezvous, extravehicular activity, and return-to identify and prioritize medical needs for the journey beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). ExMC is addressing both planned medical operations, and unplanned contingency medical operations that meld clinical needs and research needs into a single system. This assessment is being used to derive a gap analysis and studies to support meaningful medical capabilities trades. These trades, in turn, allow the exploration medical system design to proceed from both a mission centric and ethics-based approach, and to manage the risks associated with the medical limitations inherent in an exploration class mission. This paper outlines the conceptual drivers used to derive medical system and vehicle needs from an integrated vision of how medical care will be provided within this paradigm. Keywords: (Max 6 keywords: exploration, medicine, spaceflight, Mars, research, NASA)

  5. Patient information exchange guideline MERIT-9 using medical markup language MML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, M; Ohe, K; Yoshihara, H; Ando, Y; Kawamata, F; Hishiki, T; Ohashi, K; Sakusabe, T; Tani, S; Akiyama, M

    1998-01-01

    To realize clinical data exchange between healthcare providers, there must be many standards in many layers. Terms and codes should be standardized, syntax to wrap the data must be mutually parsable, then transfer protocol or exchange media should be agreed. Among many standards for the syntax, HL7 and DICOM are most successful. However, everything could not be handled by HL7 solely. DICOM is good for radiology images, but, other clinical images are already handled by other "lighter" data formats like JPEG, TIFF. So, it is not realistic to use only one standard for every area of clinical information. For description of medical records, especially for narrative information, we created SGML DTD for medical information, called MML (Medical Markup Language). It is already implemented in more than 10 healthcare providers in Japan. As it is a hierarchical description of information, it is easily used as a basis of object request brokering. It is again not realistic to use MML solely for clinical information in various level of detail. Therefore, we proposed a guide-line for use of available medical standards to facilitate clinical information exchange between healthcare providers. It is called MERIT-9 (MEdical Records, Images, Texts,--Information eXchange). A typical use is HL7 files, DICOM files, referred from an MML file in a patient record, as external entities. Both MML and MERIT-9 are research projects of Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare, and the purpose is to facilitate clinical data exchanges. They are becoming to be used in technical specifications for new hospital information systems in Japan.

  6. Communication and Language in Niklas Luhmann's Systems-Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Maurer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the function and reality of language in Niklas Luhmann's systems theory. How can one interpret the systems-theoretical assumption that language is based on communication? Luhmann describes language as a dynamic media/form relationship, which is able to couple the social and psychological system. This structural coupling, which constructs consciousness and language as two autonomous systems, raises problems if one defines language from a cognitive point of view. This article discusses these problems and aims to develop assumptions and questions within the systems-theoretical approach.

  7. Laying the groundwork for enterprise-wide medical language processing services: architecture and process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Elizabeth S; Maloney, Francine L; Shilmayster, Eugene; Goldberg, Howard S

    2009-11-14

    A systematic and standard process for capturing information within free-text clinical documents could facilitate opportunities for improving quality and safety of patient care, enhancing decision support, and advancing data warehousing across an enterprise setting. At Partners HealthCare System, the Medical Language Processing (MLP) services project was initiated to establish a component-based architectural model and processes to facilitate putting MLP functionality into production for enterprise consumption, promote sharing of components, and encourage reuse. Key objectives included exploring the use of an open-source framework called the Unstructured Information Management Architecture (UIMA) and leveraging existing MLP-related efforts, terminology, and document standards. This paper describes early experiences in defining the infrastructure and standards for extracting, encoding, and structuring clinical observations from a variety of clinical documents to serve enterprise-wide needs.

  8. Attacks on lexical natural language steganography systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskiran, Cuneyt M.; Topkara, Umut; Topkara, Mercan; Delp, Edward J.

    2006-02-01

    Text data forms the largest bulk of digital data that people encounter and exchange daily. For this reason the potential usage of text data as a covert channel for secret communication is an imminent concern. Even though information hiding into natural language text has started to attract great interest, there has been no study on attacks against these applications. In this paper we examine the robustness of lexical steganography systems.In this paper we used a universal steganalysis method based on language models and support vector machines to differentiate sentences modified by a lexical steganography algorithm from unmodified sentences. The experimental accuracy of our method on classification of steganographically modified sentences was 84.9%. On classification of isolated sentences we obtained a high recall rate whereas the precision was low.

  9. A Dynamic Systems Theory approach to second language acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bot, K.; Lowie, W.M.; Verspoor, M.H.

    In this article it is argued that language can be seen as a dynamic system, i.e. a set of variables that interact over time, and that language development can be seen as a dynamic process. Language development shows some of the core characteristics of dynamic systems: sensitive dependence on initial

  10. A Dynamic Systems Theory approach to second language acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bot, K.; Lowie, W.M.; Verspoor, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    In this article it is argued that language can be seen as a dynamic system, i.e. a set of variables that interact over time, and that language development can be seen as a dynamic process. Language development shows some of the core characteristics of dynamic systems: sensitive dependence on initial

  11. Transfer Effects in Learning a Second Language Grammatical Gender System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourin, Laura; Stowe, Laurie A.; de Haan, Ger J.

    2006-01-01

    In this article second language (L2) knowledge of Dutch grammatical gender is investigated. Adult speakers of German, English and a Romance language (French, Italian or Spanish) were investigated to explore the role of transfer in learning the Dutch grammatical gender system. In the first language (L1) systems, German is the most similar to Dutch…

  12. Cross-Language System Evaluation: The CLEF Campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Carol; Braschler, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Describes the goals of the CLEF (Cross-Language Evaluation Forum) series of evaluation campaigns for information retrieval systems operating on European languages. Examines the difficulties of organizing an activity which aims at an objective evaluation of systems running on and over a number of different languages. (Author/LRW)

  13. Domain-Specific Languages for Enterprise Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Bahr, Patrick; Henglein, Fritz;

    2014-01-01

    The process-oriented event-driven transaction systems (POETS) architecture introduced by Henglein et al. is a novel software architecture for enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. POETS employs a pragmatic separation between (i) transactional data, that is, what has happened; (ii) reports......, that is, what can be derived from the transactional data; and (iii) contracts, that is, which transactions are expected in the future. Moreover, POETS applies domain-specific languages (DSLs) for specifying reports and contracts, in order to enable succinct declarative specifications as well as rapid...

  14. Text To Speech System for Telugu Language

    OpenAIRE

    Siva kumar, M; E. Prakash Babu

    2014-01-01

    Telugu is one of the oldest languages in India. This paper describes the development of Telugu Text-to-Speech System (TTS).In Telugu TTS the input is Telugu text in Unicode. The voices are sampled from real recorded speech. The objective of a text to speech system is to convert an arbitrary text into its corresponding spoken waveform. Speech synthesis is a process of building machinery that can generate human-like speech from any text input to imitate human speakers. Text proc...

  15. Detecting inpatient falls by using natural language processing of electronic medical records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyabe Shin-ichi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incident reporting is the most common method for detecting adverse events in a hospital. However, under-reporting or non-reporting and delay in submission of reports are problems that prevent early detection of serious adverse events. The aim of this study was to determine whether it is possible to promptly detect serious injuries after inpatient falls by using a natural language processing method and to determine which data source is the most suitable for this purpose. Methods We tried to detect adverse events from narrative text data of electronic medical records by using a natural language processing method. We made syntactic category decision rules to detect inpatient falls from text data in electronic medical records. We compared how often the true fall events were recorded in various sources of data including progress notes, discharge summaries, image order entries and incident reports. We applied the rules to these data sources and compared F-measures to detect falls between these data sources with reference to the results of a manual chart review. The lag time between event occurrence and data submission and the degree of injury were compared. Results We made 170 syntactic rules to detect inpatient falls by using a natural language processing method. Information on true fall events was most frequently recorded in progress notes (100%, incident reports (65.0% and image order entries (12.5%. However, F-measure to detect falls using the rules was poor when using progress notes (0.12 and discharge summaries (0.24 compared with that when using incident reports (1.00 and image order entries (0.91. Since the results suggested that incident reports and image order entries were possible data sources for prompt detection of serious falls, we focused on a comparison of falls found by incident reports and image order entries. Injury caused by falls found by image order entries was significantly more severe than falls detected by

  16. An overview of the Opus language and runtime system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Piyush; Haines, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    We have recently introduced a new language, called Opus, which provides a set of Fortran language extensions that allow for integrated support of task and data parallelism. lt also provides shared data abstractions (SDA's) as a method for communication and synchronization among these tasks. In this paper, we first provide a brief description of the language features and then focus on both the language-dependent and language-independent parts of the runtime system that support the language. The language-independent portion of the runtime system supports lightweight threads across multiple address spaces, and is built upon existing lightweight thread and communication systems. The language-dependent portion of the runtime system supports conditional invocation of SDA methods and distributed SDA argument handling.

  17. Text To Speech System for Telugu Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Siva Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Telugu is one of the oldest languages in India. This paper describes the development of Telugu Text-to-Speech System (TTS.In Telugu TTS the input is Telugu text in Unicode. The voices are sampled from real recorded speech. The objective of a text to speech system is to convert an arbitrary text into its corresponding spoken waveform. Speech synthesis is a process of building machinery that can generate human-like speech from any text input to imitate human speakers. Text processing and speech generation are two main components of a text to speech system. To build a natural sounding speech synthesis system, it is essential that text processing component produce an appropriate sequence of phonemic units. Generation of sequence of phonetic units for a given standard word is referred to as letter to phoneme rule or text to phoneme rule. The complexity of these rules and their derivation depends upon the nature of the language. The quality of a speech synthesizer is judged by its closeness to the natural human voice and understandability. In this paper we described an approach to build a Telugu TTS system using concatenative synthesis method with syllable as a basic unit of concatenation.

  18. Natural Language Processing Versus Content-Based Image Analysis for Medical Document Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Névéol, Aurélie; Deserno, Thomas M; Darmoni, Stéfan J; Güld, Mark Oliver; Aronson, Alan R

    2008-09-18

    One of the most significant recent advances in health information systems has been the shift from paper to electronic documents. While research on automatic text and image processing has taken separate paths, there is a growing need for joint efforts, particularly for electronic health records and biomedical literature databases. This work aims at comparing text-based versus image-based access to multimodal medical documents using state-of-the-art methods of processing text and image components. A collection of 180 medical documents containing an image accompanied by a short text describing it was divided into training and test sets. Content-based image analysis and natural language processing techniques are applied individually and combined for multimodal document analysis. The evaluation consists of an indexing task and a retrieval task based on the "gold standard" codes manually assigned to corpus documents. The performance of text-based and image-based access, as well as combined document features, is compared. Image analysis proves more adequate for both the indexing and retrieval of the images. In the indexing task, multimodal analysis outperforms both independent image and text analysis. This experiment shows that text describing images can be usefully analyzed in the framework of a hybrid text/image retrieval system.

  19. Investigating the Performance of Second Language Medical Students on Lengthy Clinical Vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Mark R; Ling, Yu; Grabovsky, Irina

    2016-10-19

    This study evaluated the extent to which medical students with limited English-language experience are differentially impacted by the additional reading load of test items consisting of long clinical vignettes. Participants included 25,012 examinees who completed Step 2 of the U.S. Medical Licensing Examination®. Test items were categorized into five levels based on the number of words per item, and examinee scores at each level were evaluated as a function of English-language experience (English as a second language [ESL] status and scores on a test of English-speaking proficiency). The longest items were more difficult than the shortest items across all examinee groups, and examinees with more English-language experience scored higher than those with less experience across all five levels of word count. The effect of primary interest-the interaction of word count with English-language experience-was statistically significant, indicating that score declines for longer items were larger for examinees with less English-language experience; however, the magnitude of this interaction effect was barely detectable (η(2) = .0004, p language experience was small but worthy of continued monitoring.

  20. Teaching medical English to foreign-language doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, C H; Meijer, F

    1980-09-01

    Acquisition of an advanced medical degree beyond licensure and specialization is advantageous and encouraged in Swedish medical education. Since a thesis and a number of published works, usually in English are required, there is considerable interest in medical writing by doctors and medical scientists. A voluntary course in 'Biomedical Authorship' which included presentation of oral reports was offered by the Karolinska Institutes' Medical Faculty. This course was intended to prepare participants for their thesis work and for presentations at scientific congresses. The course revealed that the principle difficulty was not in English skills which were rather good, but in the students' inexperience in critically rereading what they had written and making suitable revisions. A case study method was used so that students acquired experience in critically reading and correcting their own work and that of others. An instructor who understood the evolution of academic Swedish was of considerable help in explaining some of the 'Swenglishisms' that arose during the course. The oral presentation portion, which used videotapes of students, showed the students as lacking experience in basic public speaking and as frequently being apprehensive. This was much improved by taped poetry readings, scientific reports and slide shows. This Swedish experience should apply to teaching biomedical writing in the other Scandinavian countries and in Northern Europe.

  1. Robust Medical Isotope Production System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Steven Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimpland, Robert Herbert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The success of this theoretical undertaking provided confidence that the behavior of new and evolving designs of fissile solution systems may be accurately estimated. Scaled up versions of SUPO, subcritical acceleratordriven systems, and other evolutionary designs have been examined.

  2. Robust Medical Isotope Production System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Steven Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimpland, Robert Herbert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The success of this theoretical undertaking provided confidence that the behavior of new and evolving designs of fissile solution systems may be accurately estimated. Scaled up versions of SUPO, subcritical acceleratordriven systems, and other evolutionary designs have been examined.

  3. Regional medical campuses: a new classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheifetz, Craig E; McOwen, Katherine S; Gagne, Pierre; Wong, Jennifer L

    2014-08-01

    There is burgeoning belief that regional medical campuses (RMCs) are a significant part of the narrative about medical education and the health care workforce in the United States and Canada. Although RMCs are not new, in the recent years of medical education enrollment expansion, they have seen their numbers increase. Class expansion explains the rapid growth of RMCs in the past 10 years, but it does not adequately describe their function. Often, RMCs have missions that differ from their main campus, especially in the areas of rural and community medicine. The absence of an easy-to-use classification system has led to a lack of current research about RMCs as evidenced by the small number of articles in the current literature. The authors describe the process of the Group on Regional Medical Campuses used to develop attributes of a campus separate from the main campus that constitute a "classification" of a campus as an RMC. The system is broken into four models-basic science, clinical, longitudinal, and combined-and is linked to Liaison Committee on Medical Education standards. It is applicable to all schools and can be applied by any medical school dean or medical education researcher. The classification system paves the way for stakeholders to agree on a denominator of RMCs and conduct future research about their impact on medical education.

  4. One Language, Two Number-Word Systems and Many Problems: Numerical Cognition in the Czech Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pixner, S.; Zuber, J.; Hermanova, V.; Kaufmann, L.; Nuerk, H.-C.; Moeller, K.

    2011-01-01

    Comparing numerical performance between different languages does not only mean comparing different number-word systems, but also implies a comparison of differences regarding culture or educational systems. The Czech language provides the remarkable opportunity to disentangle this confound as there exist two different number-word systems within…

  5. Chemotherapy as language: sound symbolism in cancer medication names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Gregory A; Glinert, Lewis H

    2008-04-01

    The concept of sound symbolism proposes that even the tiniest sounds comprising a word may suggest the qualities of the object which that word represents. Cancer-related medication names, which are likely to be charged with emotional meaning for patients, might be expected to contain such sound-symbolic associations. We analyzed the sounds in the names of 60 frequently-used cancer-related medications, focusing on the medications' trade names as well as the names (trade or generic) commonly used in the clinic. We assessed the frequency of common voiced consonants (/b/, /d/, /g/, /v/, /z/; thought to be associated with slowness and heaviness) and voiceless consonants (/p/, /t/, /k/, /f/, /s/; thought to be associated with fastness and lightness), and compared them to what would be expected in standard American English using a reference dataset. A Fisher's exact test for independence showed the chemotherapy consonantal frequencies to be significantly different from standard English (p=0.009 for trade; p<0.001 for "common usage"). For the trade names, the majority of the voiceless consonants were significantly increased compared to standard English; this effect was more pronounced with the "common usage" names (for the group, O/E=1.62; 95% CI [1.37, 1.89]). Hormonal and targeted therapy trade names showed the greatest frequency of voiceless consonants (for the group, O/E=1.76; 95% CI [1.20, 2.49]). Our results suggest that taken together, the names of chemotherapy medications contain an increased frequency of certain sounds associated with lightness, smallness and fastness. This finding raises important questions about the possible role of the names of medications in the experiences of cancer patients and providers.

  6. Confidentiality and Security in Medical Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Papanaga

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Behind the technologies Medical System contains different types of information including patient information also. The patient data is classified as confidential and is one of the patient rights based on World Health Organization declaration. There are several compromises in solutions selection based on hardware and software requirements, performance, usability, portability. This article presents the investigation results and proposes the secured solution principles for the medical system that deal with patient data.

  7. The Concept of Body Language in the Medical Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsley, Isabella; Woodhead, Sophie; Micallef, Claranne; Agius, Mark

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we wish to argue that the human body is an instrument of communication that can be used by the individual. This can be shown by the use of phenomenology, as described by Husserl, and that indeed empathy, as described by phenomenology, can be seen as a link enabling two human bodies/persons to communicate. We then wish to show from neuroscience that empathy can itself be seen as a bodily function. We then will describe how the doctor-patient relationship in the consultation is an extremely important type of communication between two persons, and how teaching of consultation skills has developed. We will show that, once consultation skills teaching was established, then study of body language became an essential part of this teaching, as soon as the technology was developed, and finally we will demonstrate that it is now possible to confirm by observational and controlled trials that appropriate use of body language does indeed enhance the effectiveness of the consultation, including, we would suggest, by appropriate communication of empathy and understanding.

  8. Universal Reading Processes Are Modulated by Language and Writing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Charles A.; Harris, Lindsay N.

    2013-01-01

    The connections among language, writing system, and reading are part of what confronts a child in learning to read. We examine these connections in addressing how reading processes adapt to the variety of written language and how writing adapts to language. The first adaptation (reading to writing), as evidenced in behavioral and neuroscience…

  9. Universal Reading Processes Are Modulated by Language and Writing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Charles A.; Harris, Lindsay N.

    2013-01-01

    The connections among language, writing system, and reading are part of what confronts a child in learning to read. We examine these connections in addressing how reading processes adapt to the variety of written language and how writing adapts to language. The first adaptation (reading to writing), as evidenced in behavioral and neuroscience…

  10. Examining Evaluation System of an English Language Program in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si-hong, Li

    2007-01-01

    In the field of EFL, effective language evaluation is receiving more and more attention. However, in many Chinese EFL situations, the evaluation of language development is still considered to be product-oriented. It is the purpose of this article to examine an evaluation system of an English language program offered by a university in Yunnan…

  11. Transfer effects in learning a second language grammatical gender system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabourin, L; Stowe, LA; de Haan, GJ

    2006-01-01

    In this article second language (L2) knowledge of Dutch grammatical gender is investigated. Adult speakers of German, English and a Romance language (French, Italian or Spanish) were investigated to explore the role of transfer in learning the Dutch grammatical gender system. In the first language (

  12. Transfer effects in learning a second language grammatical gender system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabourin, Laura; Stowe, Laurie A; de Haan, Ger J

    In this article second language (L2) knowledge of Dutch grammatical gender is investigated. Adult speakers of German, English and a Romance language (French, Italian or Spanish) were investigated to explore the role of transfer in learning the Dutch grammatical gender system. In the first language

  13. The Catalan Language in the Educational System of Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siguan, Miquel

    1991-01-01

    Reviews the history of Catalonia, its language policy, and strategies/methods by which the Catalan language was introduced into the educational system (e.g., by educating the teaching staff, using Catalan in instruction and educational administration, developing Catalan-language teaching materials, and developing immersion programs in Catalan for…

  14. What language is your doctor speaking? Facing the problems of translating medical documents into English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mićović Dragoslava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available What is translation - a craft, an art, a profession or a job? Although one of the oldest human activities, translation has not still been fully defined, and it is still young in terms of an academic discipline. The paper defines the difference between translation and interpreting and then attempts to find the answer to the question what characteristics, knowledge and skills a translator must have, particularly the one involved in court translation, and where his/her place in the communication process (both written and oral communication is. When translating medical documentation, a translator is set within a medical language environment as an intermediary between two doctors (in other words, two professionals in the process of communication which would be impossible without him, since it is conducted in two different languages. The paper also gives an insight into types of medical documentation and who they are intended for. It gives practical examples of the problems faced in the course of translation of certain types of medical documentation (hospital discharge papers, diagnoses, case reports,.... Is it possible to make this kind of communication between professionals (doctors standardized, which would subsequently make their translation easier? Although great efforts are made in Serbia regarding medical language and medical terminology, the conclusion is that specific problems encountered by translators can hardly be overcome using only dictionaries and translation manuals.

  15. [What language is your doctor speaking? Facing the problems of translating medical documents into English].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mićović, Dragoslava

    2013-01-01

    What is translation--a craft, an art, a profession or a job? Although one of the oldest human activities, translation has not still been fully defined, and it is still young in terms of an academic discipline. The paper defines the difference between translation and interpreting and then attempts to find the answer to the question what characteristics, knowledge and skills a translator must have, particularly the one involved in court translation, and where his/her place in the communication process (both written and oral communication) is. When translating medical documentation, a translator is set within a medical language environment as an intermediary between two doctors (in other words, two professionals) in the process of communication which would be impossible without him, since it is conducted in two different languages. The paper also gives an insight into types of medical documentation and who they are intended for. It gives practical examples of the problems faced in the course of translation of certain types of medical documentation (hospital discharge papers, diagnoses, case reports,...). Is it possible to make this kind of communication between professionals (doctors) standardized, which would subsequently make their translation easier? Although great efforts are made in Serbia regarding medical language and medical terminology, the conclusion is that specific problems encountered by translators can hardly be overcome using only dictionaries and translation manuals.

  16. The medical physics specialization system in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulski, Wojciech; Kukołowicz, Paweł; Skrzyński, Witold

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the situation of the profession of medical physicists in Poland. The official recognition of the profession of medical physicist in Polish legislation was in 2002. In recent years, more and more Universities which have Physics Faculties introduce a medical physics specialty. At present, there are about 15 Universities which offer such programmes. These Universities are able to graduate about 150 medical physicists per year. In 2002, the Ministry of Health introduced a programme of postgraduate specialization in medical physics along the same rules employed in the specialization of physicians in various branches of medicine. Five institutions, mostly large oncology centres, were selected as teaching institutions, based on their experience, the quality of the medical physics professionals, staffing levels, equipment availability, lecture halls, etc. The first cycle of the specialization programme started in 2006, and the first candidates completed their training at the end of 2008, and passed their official state exams in May 2009. As of January 2016, there are 196 specialized medical physicists in Poland. Another about 120 medical physicists are undergoing specialization. The system of training of medical physics professionals in Poland is well established. The principles of postgraduate training and specialization are well defined and the curriculum of the training is very demanding. The programme of specialization was revised in 2011 and is in accordance with EC and EFOMP recommendations.

  17. Impact of language barrier on acute care medical professionals is dependent upon role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Andrew; Whitaker, Misty; Ray, Myrna; Rockich, Anna; Barton-Baxter, Marietta; Barnes, Stephen L; Boulanger, Bernard; Tsuei, Betty; Kearney, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Communication with patients is essential to providing quality medical care. The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of language barriers on health care professionals. It is hypothesized that these language barriers are commonly perceived by health care professionals and they are a source of workplace stress in acute care environments. We designed and distributed a survey tool of staff experiences and attitudes regarding the English-Spanish language barrier among patients in an acute care surgical environment of a tertiary medical center. Responses were anonymous, stratified by professional role and comparisons made using paired t tests. Sixty-one nurses and 36 physicians responded to the survey. Overall, 95% of nurses reported that the language barrier was an impediment to quality care, whereas 88% of physicians responded similarly (P = .0004). More nurses than physicians report experiencing stress (97% vs. 78%) and the degree of stress appears to be greater for nurses (P language barriers as an impediment to quality care delivery and as a source of workplace stress. Nurse and physician perceptions differ; therefore, strategies to address these language barriers should be specific to those professional roles. These barriers create a void in health care quality and safety that has effects on health care professionals.

  18. Circular Languages Generated by Complete Splicing Systems and Pure Unitary Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Bonizzoni

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Circular splicing systems are a formal model of a generative mechanism of circular words, inspired by a recombinant behaviour of circular DNA. Some unanswered questions are related to the computational power of such systems, and finding a characterization of the class of circular languages generated by circular splicing systems is still an open problem. In this paper we solve this problem for complete systems, which are special finite circular splicing systems. We show that a circular language L is generated by a complete system if and only if the set Lin(L of all words corresponding to L is a pure unitary language generated by a set closed under the conjugacy relation. The class of pure unitary languages was introduced by A. Ehrenfeucht, D. Haussler, G. Rozenberg in 1983, as a subclass of the class of context-free languages, together with a characterization of regular pure unitary languages by means of a decidable property. As a direct consequence, we characterize (regular circular languages generated by complete systems. We can also decide whether the language generated by a complete system is regular. Finally, we point out that complete systems have the same computational power as finite simple systems, an easy type of circular splicing system defined in the literature from the very beginning, when only one rule is allowed. From our results on complete systems, it follows that finite simple systems generate a class of context-free languages containing non-regular languages, showing the incorrectness of a longstanding result on simple systems.

  19. Correlation Research of Medical Security Management System Network Platform in Medical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Wang; Fan, Zhang; Jian, Hao; Li-nong, Yu; Jun, Fei; Ping, Hao; Ya-wei, Shen; Yue-jin, Chang

    Objective-The related research of medical security management system network in medical practice. Methods-Establishing network platform of medical safety management system, medical security network host station, medical security management system(C/S), medical security management system of departments and sections, comprehensive query, medical security disposal and examination system. Results-In medical safety management, medical security management system can reflect the hospital medical security problem, and can achieve real-time detection and improve the medical security incident detection rate. Conclusion-The application of the research in the hospital management implementation, can find hospital medical security hidden danger and the problems of medical disputes, and can help in resolving medical disputes in time and achieve good work efficiency, which is worth applying in the hospital practice.

  20. American Sign Language and Deaf Culture Competency of Osteopathic Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinsky, Jessica; Colonna, Caitlin; Sexton, Patricia; Richard, Mariah

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of a workshop on Deaf culture and basic medical American Sign Language for increasing osteopathic student physicians' confidence and knowledge when interacting with ASL-using patients. Students completed a pretest in which they provided basic demographic information, rated their confidence levels, took a video…

  1. "Well, Now, Okey Dokey": English Discourse Markers in Spanish-Language Medical Consultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Caroline; Goble, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the use of English discourse markers (EDMs) in medical consultations that were conducted in Spanish. Data are collected from an audio-recorded corpus of Spanish-language consultations that took place in a small community clinic in the United States as well as post-consultation interviews with patients and…

  2. Using the FORTH Language to Develop an ICU Data Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Arthur; SooHoo, Spencer L.; Koerner, Spencer K.; Chang, Robert S. Y.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes a powerful programming tool that should be considered as an alternative to the more conventional programming languages now in use for developing medical computer systems. Forth provides instantaneous response to user commands, rapid program execution and tremendous programming versatility. An operating system and a language in one carefully designed unit, Forth is well suited for developing data acquisition systems and for interfacing computers to other instruments. We present some of the general features of Forth and describe its use in implementing a data collection system for a Respiratory Intensive Care Unit (RICU).

  3. Interaction between lexical and grammatical language systems in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2012-06-01

    This review concentrates on two different language dimensions: lexical/semantic and grammatical. This distinction between a lexical/semantic system and a grammatical system is well known in linguistics, but in cognitive neurosciences it has been obscured by the assumption that there are several forms of language disturbances associated with focal brain damage and hence language includes a diversity of functions (phoneme discrimination, lexical memory, grammar, repetition, language initiation ability, etc.), each one associated with the activity of a specific brain area. The clinical observation of patients with cerebral pathology shows that there are indeed only two different forms of language disturbances (disturbances in the lexical/semantic system and disturbances in the grammatical system); these two language dimensions are supported by different brain areas (temporal and frontal) in the left hemisphere. Furthermore, these two aspects of the language are developed at different ages during child's language acquisition, and they probably appeared at different historical moments during human evolution. Mechanisms of learning are different for both language systems: whereas the lexical/semantic knowledge is based in a declarative memory, grammatical knowledge corresponds to a procedural type of memory. Recognizing these two language dimensions can be crucial in understanding language evolution and human cognition.

  4. Interaction between lexical and grammatical language systems in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2012-06-01

    This review concentrates on two different language dimensions: lexical/semantic and grammatical. This distinction between a lexical/semantic system and a grammatical system is well known in linguistics, but in cognitive neurosciences it has been obscured by the assumption that there are several forms of language disturbances associated with focal brain damage and hence language includes a diversity of functions (phoneme discrimination, lexical memory, grammar, repetition, language initiation ability, etc.), each one associated with the activity of a specific brain area. The clinical observation of patients with cerebral pathology shows that there are indeed only two different forms of language disturbances (disturbances in the lexical/semantic system and disturbances in the grammatical system); these two language dimensions are supported by different brain areas (temporal and frontal) in the left hemisphere. Furthermore, these two aspects of the language are developed at different ages during child's language acquisition, and they probably appeared at different historical moments during human evolution. Mechanisms of learning are different for both language systems: whereas the lexical/semantic knowledge is based in a declarative memory, grammatical knowledge corresponds to a procedural type of memory. Recognizing these two language dimensions can be crucial in understanding language evolution and human cognition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Image Processing in Intelligent Medical Robotic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashev Dmitriy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the use of high-performance computing systems with the parallel-operation architecture in intelligent medical systems, such as medical robotic systems, based on a computer vision system, is an automatic control system with the strict requirements, such as high reliability, accuracy and speed of performance. It shows the basic block-diagram of an automatic control system based on a computer vision system. The author considers the possibility of using a reconfigurable computing environment in such systems. The design principles of the reconfigurable computing environment allows to improve a reliability, accuracy and performance of whole system many times. The article contains the brief overview and the theory of the research, demonstrates the use of reconfigurable computing environments for the image preprocessing, namely morphological image processing operations. Present results of the successful simulation of the reconfigurable computing environment and implementation of the morphological image processing operations on the test image in the MATLAB Simulink.

  6. A human mirror neuron system for language: Perspectives from signed languages of the deaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Heather Patterson; Corina, David P

    2010-01-01

    Language is proposed to have developed atop the human analog of the macaque mirror neuron system for action perception and production [Arbib M.A. 2005. From monkey-like action recognition to human language: An evolutionary framework for neurolinguistics (with commentaries and author's response). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28, 105-167; Arbib M.A. (2008). From grasp to language: Embodied concepts and the challenge of abstraction. Journal de Physiologie Paris 102, 4-20]. Signed languages of the deaf are fully-expressive, natural human languages that are perceived visually and produced manually. We suggest that if a unitary mirror neuron system mediates the observation and production of both language and non-linguistic action, three prediction can be made: (1) damage to the human mirror neuron system should non-selectively disrupt both sign language and non-linguistic action processing; (2) within the domain of sign language, a given mirror neuron locus should mediate both perception and production; and (3) the action-based tuning curves of individual mirror neurons should support the highly circumscribed set of motions that form the "vocabulary of action" for signed languages. In this review we evaluate data from the sign language and mirror neuron literatures and find that these predictions are only partially upheld.

  7. Kanji Recognition by Second Language Learners: Exploring Effects of First Language Writing Systems and Second Language Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether learners of Japanese with different first language (L1) writing systems use different recognition strategies and whether second language (L2) exposure affects L2 kanji recognition. The study used a computerized lexical judgment task with 3 types of kanji characters to investigate these questions: (a)…

  8. Second Language Developmental Dynamics: How Dynamic Systems Theory Accounts for Issues in Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmawati

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic systems theory (DST) is presented in this article as a suitable approach to research the acquisition of second language (L2) because of its close alignment with the process of second language learning. Through a process of identifying and comparing the characteristics of a dynamic system with the process of L2 learning, this article…

  9. The latest MML (Medical Markup Language) version 2.3--XML-based standard for medical data exchange/storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinqiu; Araki, Kenji; Tanaka, Koji; Sato, Junzo; Suzuki, Muneou; Takada, Akira; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Nakashima, Yusei; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki

    2003-08-01

    As a set of standards, Medical Markup Language (MML) has been developed over the last 8 years to allow the exchange of medical data between different medical information providers MML version 2.21 was characterized by XML as metalanguage and was announced in 1999, at which time full-scale implementation tests were carried out; subsequently, various information and functional inadequacies were discovered in this version. MML was therefore updated to version 2.3 in 2001. At present, MML contains 12 MML modules including the new referral, test result, and report modules. In version 2.3, the group ID element was added; the access right definition and health insurance module were amended.

  10. Embedded systems specification and design languages

    CERN Document Server

    Villar, Eugenio

    2008-01-01

    This book is the latest contribution to the Chip Design Languages series and it consists of selected papers presented at the Forum on Specifications and Design Languages (FDL'07), in September 2007. The book represents the state-of-the-art in research and practice, and it identifies new research directions. It highlights the role of specification and modelling languages, and presents practical experiences with specification and modelling languages.

  11. Options for a Joint Medical Readiness System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, influenza (in season), and Tetanus -Diphtheria  No temporary or permanent deployment-limiting conditions  Medical...readiness and deployability for the unit or individuals.  Installation Commanders or Military Treatment Facility Commanders at Joint Bases can...service personnel that present themselves in any medical treatment facility. The key benefit is DoD will make one system modification for each policy

  12. Recent perspectives of electronic medical record systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Peiying

    2016-06-01

    Implementation of electronic medical record (EMR) systems within developing contexts as part of efforts to monitor and facilitate the attainment of health-related aims has been on the increase. However, these efforts have been concentrated on urban hospitals. Recent findings showed that development processes of EMR systems are associated with various discrepancies between protocols and work practices. These discrepancies were mainly caused by factors including high workload, lack of medical resources, misunderstanding of the protocols by health workers, and client/patient practices. The present review focused on the effects of EMRs on patient care work, and on appropriate EMR designs principles and strategies to ameliorate these systems.

  13. Why language really is not a communication system: a cognitive view of language evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboul, Anne C

    2015-01-01

    While most evolutionary scenarios for language see it as a communication system with consequences on the language-ready brain, there are major difficulties for such a view. First, language has a core combination of features-semanticity, discrete infinity, and decoupling-that makes it unique among communication systems and that raise deep problems for the view that it evolved for communication. Second, extant models of communication systems-the code model of communication (Millikan, 2005) and the ostensive model of communication (Scott-Phillips, 2015) cannot account for language evolution. I propose an alternative view, according to which language first evolved as a cognitive tool, following Fodor's (1975, 2008) Language of Thought Hypothesis, and was then exapted (externalized) for communication. On this view, a language-ready brain is a brain profoundly reorganized in terms of connectivity, allowing the human conceptual system to emerge, triggering the emergence of syntax. Language as used in communication inherited its core combination of features from the Language of Thought.

  14. MCAT Verbal Reasoning score: less predictive of medical school performance for English language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winegarden, Babbi; Glaser, Dale; Schwartz, Alan; Kelly, Carolyn

    2012-09-01

    Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) scores are widely used as part of the decision-making process for selecting candidates for admission to medical school. Applicants who learned English as a second language may be at a disadvantage when taking tests in their non-native language. Preliminary research found significant differences between English language learners (ELLs), applicants who learned English after the age of 11 years, and non-ELL examinees on the Verbal Reasoning (VR) sub-test of the MCAT. The purpose of this study was to determine if relationships between VR sub-test scores and measures of medical school performance differed between ELL and non-ELL students. Scores on the MCAT VR sub-test and student performance outcomes (grades, examination scores, and markers of distinction and difficulty) were extracted from University of California San Diego School of Medicine admissions files and the Association of American Medical Colleges database for 924 students who matriculated in 1998-2005 (graduation years 2002-2009). Regression models were fitted to determine whether MCAT VR sub-test scores predicted medical school performance similarly for ELLs and non-ELLs. For several outcomes, including pre-clerkship grades, academic distinction, US Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Knowledge scores and two clerkship shelf examinations, ELL status significantly affects the ability of the VR score to predict performance. Higher correlations between VR score and medical school performance emerged for non-ELL students than for ELL students for each of these outcomes. The MCAT VR score should be used with discretion when assessing ELL applicants for admission to medical school. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  15. Collaboration in Complex Medical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yan; Mankenzie, Colin F.

    1998-01-01

    Improving our understanding of collaborative work in complex environments has the potential for developing effective supporting technologies, personnel training paradigms, and design principles for multi-crew workplaces. USing a sophisticated audio-video-data acquisition system and a corresponding analysis system, the researchers at University of Maryland have been able to study in detail team performance during real trauma patient resuscitation. The first study reported here was on coordination mechanisms and on characteristics of coordination breakdowns. One of the key findings was that implicit communications were an important coordination mechanism (e.g. through the use of shared workspace and event space). The second study was on the sources of uncertainty during resuscitation. Although incoming trauma patients' status is inherently uncertain, the findings suggest that much of the uncertainty felt by care providers was related to communication and coordination. These two studies demonstrate the value of and need for creating a real-life laboratory for studying team performance with the use of comprehensive and integrated data acquisition and analysis tools.

  16. A common type system for clinical natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Stephen T; Kaggal, Vinod C; Dligach, Dmitriy; Masanz, James J; Chen, Pei; Becker, Lee; Chapman, Wendy W; Savova, Guergana K; Liu, Hongfang; Chute, Christopher G

    2013-01-03

    One challenge in reusing clinical data stored in electronic medical records is that these data are heterogenous. Clinical Natural Language Processing (NLP) plays an important role in transforming information in clinical text to a standard representation that is comparable and interoperable. Information may be processed and shared when a type system specifies the allowable data structures. Therefore, we aim to define a common type system for clinical NLP that enables interoperability between structured and unstructured data generated in different clinical settings. We describe a common type system for clinical NLP that has an end target of deep semantics based on Clinical Element Models (CEMs), thus interoperating with structured data and accommodating diverse NLP approaches. The type system has been implemented in UIMA (Unstructured Information Management Architecture) and is fully functional in a popular open-source clinical NLP system, cTAKES (clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System) versions 2.0 and later. We have created a type system that targets deep semantics, thereby allowing for NLP systems to encapsulate knowledge from text and share it alongside heterogenous clinical data sources. Rather than surface semantics that are typically the end product of NLP algorithms, CEM-based semantics explicitly build in deep clinical semantics as the point of interoperability with more structured data types.

  17. A common type system for clinical natural language processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Stephen T

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One challenge in reusing clinical data stored in electronic medical records is that these data are heterogenous. Clinical Natural Language Processing (NLP plays an important role in transforming information in clinical text to a standard representation that is comparable and interoperable. Information may be processed and shared when a type system specifies the allowable data structures. Therefore, we aim to define a common type system for clinical NLP that enables interoperability between structured and unstructured data generated in different clinical settings. Results We describe a common type system for clinical NLP that has an end target of deep semantics based on Clinical Element Models (CEMs, thus interoperating with structured data and accommodating diverse NLP approaches. The type system has been implemented in UIMA (Unstructured Information Management Architecture and is fully functional in a popular open-source clinical NLP system, cTAKES (clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System versions 2.0 and later. Conclusions We have created a type system that targets deep semantics, thereby allowing for NLP systems to encapsulate knowledge from text and share it alongside heterogenous clinical data sources. Rather than surface semantics that are typically the end product of NLP algorithms, CEM-based semantics explicitly build in deep clinical semantics as the point of interoperability with more structured data types.

  18. Language Learning Strategies for Medical and Nursing School Students : Based on a Survey of Their Preferences for Language Learning Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    shigeru, SASAJIMA

    1998-01-01

    Today self-learning has been getting more important for English learners in Japan. Language Learning Strategies (LLSs) are now considered to encourage overall self-learning for them. This paper reports on LLSs based on the survey of what LLSs Japanese Medical School Students (MSSs) and Nursing School Students (NSSs) think are effective in their English learning. The purpose of this research is to find the better LLSs for MSSs and NSSs. I found out three things : 1) They have some LLS preferen...

  19. Validating the semantics of a medical iconic language using ontological reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Jean-Baptiste; Soualmia, Lina F; Kerdelhué, Gaëtan; Venot, Alain; Duclos, Catherine

    2013-02-01

    To help clinicians read medical texts such as clinical practice guidelines or drug monographs, we proposed an iconic language called VCM. This language can use icons to represent the main medical concepts, including diseases, symptoms, treatments and follow-up procedures, by combining various pictograms, shapes and colors. However, the semantics of this language have not been formalized, and users may create inconsistent icons, e.g. by combining the "tumor" shape and the "sleeping" pictograms into a "tumor of sleeping" icon. This work aims to represent the VCM language using DLs and OWL for evaluating its semantics by reasoners, and in particular for determining inconsistent icons. We designed an ontology for formalized the semantics of VCM icons using the Protégé editor and scripts for translating the VCM lexicon in OWL. We evaluated the ability of the ontology to determine icon consistency for a set of 100 random icons. The evaluation showed good results for determining icon consistency, with a high sensitivity. The ontology may also be useful for the design of mapping between VCM and other medical terminologies, for generating textual labels for icons, and for developing user interfaces for creating VCM icons.

  20. Towards iconic language for patient records, drug monographs, guidelines and medical search engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Jean-Baptiste; Duclos, Catherine; Hamek, Saliha; Beuscart-Zéphir, Marie-Catherine; Kerdelhué, Gaetan; Darmoni, Stefan; Favre, Madeleine; Falcoff, Hector; Simon, Christian; Pereira, Suzanne; Serrot, Elisabeth; Mitouard, Thierry; Hardouin, Etienne; Kergosien, Yannick; Venot, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Practicing physicians have limited time for consulting medical knowledge and records. We have previously shown that using icons instead of text to present drug monographs may allow contraindications and adverse effects to be identified more rapidly and more accurately. These findings were based on the use of an iconic language designed for drug knowledge, providing icons for many medical concepts, including diseases, antecedents, drug classes and tests. In this paper, we describe a new project aimed at extending this iconic language, and exploring the possible applications of these icons in medicine. Based on evaluators' comments, focus groups of physicians and opinions of academic, industrial and associative partners, we propose iconic applications related to patient records, for example summarizing patient conditions, searching for specific clinical documents and helping to code structured data. Other applications involve the presentation of clinical practice guidelines and improving the interface of medical search engines. These new applications could use the same iconic language that was designed for drug knowledge, with a few additional items that respect the logic of the language.

  1. Anthropocentric language theory and Serbian case systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topolinjska Zuzana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The author understands case as a relationship of syntactic dependence between a subordinated noun phrase and the governing syntactic construction (predicative expression and/or another noun phrase. The above definition construes case as a universal category characteristics of all the languages sharing the nomen vs verbum opposition. Particular cases are conceived as primarily semantically motivated. The two relevant semantic parameters are /+/ -human / (or /+/ -animated/ and /+/ -localized/, i. e. - in other words - the so-called hierarchy of animateness and the spatial location of the objects that the corresponding noun phrases refer to. N and D are being characterized as /+ hum/, A and I as /-hum/ and L as belonging to another semantic paradigm is defined simply as /+ loc/. Results of the analyses of morphological syncretism's and of syntactic exponents of the NPs-dependence found in Serbian case systems support the above tentative interpretation of the case as a (semantic and syntactic category.

  2. Emergence of Algorithmic Languages in Genetic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Angeles, O; Waelbroeck, H

    1997-01-01

    In genetic systems there is a non-trivial interface between the sequence of symbols which constitutes the chromosome, or ``genotype'', and the products which this sequence encodes --- the ``phenotype''. This interface can be thought of as a ``computer''. In this case the chromosome is viewed as an algorithm and the phenotype as the result of the computation. In general only a small fraction of all possible sequences of symbols makes any sense for a given computer. The difficulty of finding meaningful algorithms by random mutation is known as the brittleness problem. In this paper we show that mutation and crossover favour the emergence of an algorithmic language which facilitates the production of meaningful sequences following random mutations of the genotype. We base our conclusions on an analysis of the population dynamics of a variant of Kitano's neurogenetic model wherein the chromosome encodes the rules for cellular division and the phenotype is a 16-cell organism interpreted as a connectivity matrix fo...

  3. Incorporating E-learning in teaching English language to medical students: exploring its potential contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidinia, Hossein; Zare Bidaki, Majid; Hekmati, Nargess

    2016-01-01

    Background: The spread of technology has influenced different aspects of human life, and teaching and learning are not exceptions. This study aimed to examine the potential contribution of the use of technology in teaching English language to medical students. Methods: This qualitative-action research study was conducted in Birjand University of Medical Sciences (BUMS), with 60 medical students taking a general English course in the Fall Semester of 2015. The class favored different tools and multimedia facilities such as a tube channel, e-dictionaries, educational films, and etextbooks to enhance students’ learning. In addition, the class had a weblog in which students could upload assignments and receive feedback from peers and the instructors. Results: The results revealed that e-learning could enhance students’ language proficiency and facilitate the teaching process. Learners preferred to use more e-dictionaries to learn the meaning of the new words, watch English medical films to boost their speaking and listening skills, and use the electronic version of their textbook as they could carry it wherever they wanted. Conclusion: The students preferred this method of learning English as they became more independent by using the electronic facilities. They found that learning English did not have a fixed institutionalized method, and e-learning activities could provide them with authentic input for language learning even outside of the classroom. PMID:28491837

  4. Medical image information system 2001. Development of the medical image information system to risk management- Medical exposure management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuranishi, Makoto; Kumagai, Michitomo; Shintani, Mitsuo [Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    2000-12-01

    This paper discusses the methods and systems for optimizing the following supplements 10 and 17 for national health and medical care. The supplements 10 and 17 of DICOM (digital imaging and communications in medicine) system, which is now under progress for the purpose to keep compatibility within medical image information system as an international standard, are important for making the cooperation between HIS (hospital information system)/RIS (radiation information system) and modality (imaging instruments). Supplement 10 concerns the system to send the information of patients and their orders through HIS/RIS to modality and 17, the information of modality performed procedure step (MPPS) to HIS/RIS. The latter defines to document patients' exposure, a part of which has not been recognized in Japan. Thus the medical information system can be useful for risk-management of medical exposure in future. (K.H.)

  5. Language (Medical Terminology) Assistance to Multinational Partners in Coalition Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    by a simple definition of C. Quinn – “… elearning through mobile computational devices” [10] back in 2000, further elaborated by J. Traxler as “any...Information Technologies and  Systems  (IRTC)   &   Mrs. Greta Keremidchieva  “G. S. Rakovski” National Defense Academy  Report Documentation Page...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) International Research and Training Ct for Information Technologies & Systems ,40, Ave Glushkov

  6. Evaluation of natural language processing from emergency department computerized medical records for intra-hospital syndromic surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagliaroli Véronique

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of patients who pose an epidemic hazard when they are admitted to a health facility plays a role in preventing the risk of hospital acquired infection. An automated clinical decision support system to detect suspected cases, based on the principle of syndromic surveillance, is being developed at the University of Lyon's Hôpital de la Croix-Rousse. This tool will analyse structured data and narrative reports from computerized emergency department (ED medical records. The first step consists of developing an application (UrgIndex which automatically extracts and encodes information found in narrative reports. The purpose of the present article is to describe and evaluate this natural language processing system. Methods Narrative reports have to be pre-processed before utilizing the French-language medical multi-terminology indexer (ECMT for standardized encoding. UrgIndex identifies and excludes syntagmas containing a negation and replaces non-standard terms (abbreviations, acronyms, spelling errors.... Then, the phrases are sent to the ECMT through an Internet connection. The indexer's reply, based on Extensible Markup Language, returns codes and literals corresponding to the concepts found in phrases. UrgIndex filters codes corresponding to suspected infections. Recall is defined as the number of relevant processed medical concepts divided by the number of concepts evaluated (coded manually by the medical epidemiologist. Precision is defined as the number of relevant processed concepts divided by the number of concepts proposed by UrgIndex. Recall and precision were assessed for respiratory and cutaneous syndromes. Results Evaluation of 1,674 processed medical concepts contained in 100 ED medical records (50 for respiratory syndromes and 50 for cutaneous syndromes showed an overall recall of 85.8% (95% CI: 84.1-87.3. Recall varied from 84.5% for respiratory syndromes to 87.0% for cutaneous syndromes. The

  7. A Human Mirror Neuron System for Language: Perspectives from Signed Languages of the Deaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Heather Patterson; Corina, David P.

    2010-01-01

    Language is proposed to have developed atop the human analog of the macaque mirror neuron system for action perception and production [Arbib M.A. 2005. From monkey-like action recognition to human language: An evolutionary framework for neurolinguistics (with commentaries and author's response). "Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28", 105-167; Arbib…

  8. Academic Language, English Language Learners, and Systemic Functional Linguistics: Connecting Theory and Practice in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Teacher educators need linguistic tools to help preservice teachers develop a deeper understanding of the academic language demands of the literacy practices required by the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Systemic functional linguistics (SFL) serves as a tool for developing teachers' knowledge of content-area language. Teachers' increased…

  9. A Human Mirror Neuron System for Language: Perspectives from Signed Languages of the Deaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Heather Patterson; Corina, David P.

    2010-01-01

    Language is proposed to have developed atop the human analog of the macaque mirror neuron system for action perception and production [Arbib M.A. 2005. From monkey-like action recognition to human language: An evolutionary framework for neurolinguistics (with commentaries and author's response). "Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28", 105-167; Arbib…

  10. Development of a medical module for disaster information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calik, Elif; Atilla, Rıdvan; Kaya, Hilal; Aribaş, Alirıza; Cengiz, Hakan; Dicle, Oğuz

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to improve a medical module which provides a real-time medical information flow about pre-hospital processes that gives health care in disasters; transferring, storing and processing the records that are in electronic media and over internet as a part of disaster information systems. In this study which is handled within the frame of providing information flow among professionals in a disaster case, to supply the coordination of healthcare team and transferring complete information to specified people at real time, Microsoft Access database and SQL query language were used to inform database applications. System was prepared on Microsoft .Net platform using C# language. Disaster information system-medical module was designed to be used in disaster area, field hospital, nearby hospitals, temporary inhabiting areas like tent city, vehicles that are used for dispatch, and providing information flow between medical officials and data centres. For fast recording of the disaster victim data, accessing to database which was used by health care professionals was provided (or granted) among analysing process steps and creating minimal datasets. Database fields were created in the manner of giving opportunity to enter new data and search old data which is recorded before disaster. Web application which provides access such as data entry to the database and searching towards the designed interfaces according to the login credentials access level. In this study, homepage and users' interfaces which were built on database in consequence of system analyses were provided with www.afmedinfo.com web site to the user access. With this study, a recommendation was made about how to use disaster-based information systems in the field of health. Awareness has been developed about the fact that disaster information system should not be perceived only as an early warning system. Contents and the differences of the health care practices of disaster information systems were

  11. Assessment of Deafblind Access to Manual Language Systems (ADAMLS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaha, Robbie; Carlson, Brad

    2007-01-01

    This document presents the Assessment of Deafblind Access to Manual Language Systems (ADAMLS), a resource for educational teams who are responsible for developing appropriate adaptations and strategies for children who are deafblind who are candidates for learning manual language systems. The assessment tool should be used for all children with a…

  12. Automatic Dialogue Scoring for a Second Language Learning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin-Xia; Lee, Kyung-Soon; Kwon, Oh-Woog; Kim, Young-Kil

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an automatic dialogue scoring approach for a Dialogue-Based Computer-Assisted Language Learning (DB-CALL) system, which helps users learn language via interactive conversations. The system produces overall feedback according to dialogue scoring to help the learner know which parts should be more focused on. The scoring measures…

  13. Improved Interactive Medical-Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Muriel D.; Twombly, Ian A.; Senger, Steven

    2003-01-01

    An improved computational-simulation system for interactive medical imaging has been invented. The system displays high-resolution, three-dimensional-appearing images of anatomical objects based on data acquired by such techniques as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI). The system enables users to manipulate the data to obtain a variety of views for example, to display cross sections in specified planes or to rotate images about specified axes. Relative to prior such systems, this system offers enhanced capabilities for synthesizing images of surgical cuts and for collaboration by users at multiple, remote computing sites.

  14. Using an iconic language to improve access to electronic medical records in general medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Christian; Hassler, Sylvain; Beuscart-Zephir, Marie-Catherine; Favre, Madeleine; Venot, Alain; Duclos, Catherine; Lamy, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-01-01

    Physicians have difficulties to access and analyse information in a medical record. In a previous work on drug databanks, we have shown that with an iconic language as VCM, an icon-based presentation can help physicians to access medical information. Our objective, herein, is to study whether VCM can be used in an electronic medical record for facilitating physician access in general practice. We identify the data and the functionalities of an electronic medical record that could benefit from VCM icons representing clinical findings, patient history, etc. We also present a preliminary evaluation of this new icon-focused interface. We conclude by discussing the results like the assessment of the user's satisfaction and pointing out the importance of coding data.

  15. The use of natural language processing on narrative medication schedules to compute average weekly dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chao-Chin; Leng, Jianwei; Cannon, Grant W; Zhou, Xi; Egger, Marlene; South, Brett; Burningham, Zach; Zeng, Qing; Sauer, Brian C

    2016-12-01

    Medications with non-standard dosing and unstandardized units of measurement make the estimation of prescribed dose difficult from pharmacy dispensing data. A natural language processing tool named the SIG extractor was developed to identify and extract elements from narrative medication instructions to compute average weekly doses (AWDs) for disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the performance of the SIG extractor. This agreement study utilized Veterans Health Affairs pharmacy data from 2008 to 2012. The SIG extractor was designed to extract key elements from narrative medication schedules (SIGs) for 17 select medications to calculate AWD, and these medications were categorized by generic name and route of administration. The SIG extractor was evaluated against an annotator-derived reference standard for accuracy, which is the fraction of AWDs accurately computed. The overall accuracy was 89% [95% confidence interval (CI) 88%, 90%]. The accuracy was ≥85% for all medications and route combinations, except for cyclophosphamide (oral) and cyclosporine (oral), which were 79% (95%CI 72%, 85%) and 66% (95%CI 58%, 73%), respectively. The SIG extractor performed well on the majority of medications, indicating that AWD calculated by the SIG extractor can be used to improve estimation of AWD when dispensed quantity or days' supply is questionable or improbable. The working model for annotating SIGs and the SIG extractor are generalized and can easily be applied to other medications. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Fate of manuscripts rejected by a non-English-language general medical journal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Siri; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    evaluated. Results Of 198 rejected manuscripts, 21 (10.6%) were eventually published after a median of 685 days (range 209-1463). The majority of these were original research, published in English-language specialty/subspecialty journals. The median number of citations per article was 2-3 (IQR 0...... translation could be a barrier for resubmitting to English-language journals with larger readerships, thus hindering the dissemination of knowledge to the international community.......Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether, where and when manuscripts were published following rejection by the Journal of the Danish Medical Association, a general medical journal published in Danish. Similar previous studies have focused on specialty/subspecialty journals...

  17. Improving a Japanese-Spanish Machine Translation System Using Wikipedia Medical Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica C. Ramirez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The quality, length and coverage of a parallel corp us are fundamental features in the performance of a Statistical Machine Translation Sy stem (SMT. For some pair of languages there is a considerable lack of resources suitable for Natural Language Processing tasks. This paper introduces a technique for extracting medical information from the Wikipedia page. Using a medical ontological dictionary and then we evaluate on a Japanese-Spanish SMT system. The study shows an increment in the BLEU sc ore.

  18. Medical Information Management System (MIMS): A generalized interactive information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterescu, S.; Friedman, C. A.; Hipkins, K. R.

    1975-01-01

    An interactive information system is described. It is a general purpose, free format system which offers immediate assistance where manipulation of large data bases is required. The medical area is a prime area of application. Examples of the system's operation, commentary on the examples, and a complete listing of the system program are included.

  19. Computerized acoustical characterization system of medical phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazihah, M. D.; Kadri, S.; Yaacob, M. I. H.; Rosly, J.

    2013-05-01

    The development of a computerized acoustical characterization system of medical phantoms is described in this paper. The system employs the insertion technique and it was developed using LabView 2011 where the ultrasound signal was acquired through the interfacing scheme of an oscilloscope to a personal computer. The system performance was validated by comparing measured acoustical properties with values obtained from the previous studies. Other than faster measurement time, the developed system carried percentage difference at less than 1.00% for all of the acoustical properties measurements at 23.0°C to 25.0°C respectively.

  20. Automated identification of postoperative complications within an electronic medical record using natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murff, Harvey J; FitzHenry, Fern; Matheny, Michael E; Gentry, Nancy; Kotter, Kristen L; Crimin, Kimberly; Dittus, Robert S; Rosen, Amy K; Elkin, Peter L; Brown, Steven H; Speroff, Theodore

    2011-08-24

    Currently most automated methods to identify patient safety occurrences rely on administrative data codes; however, free-text searches of electronic medical records could represent an additional surveillance approach. To evaluate a natural language processing search-approach to identify postoperative surgical complications within a comprehensive electronic medical record. Cross-sectional study involving 2974 patients undergoing inpatient surgical procedures at 6 Veterans Health Administration (VHA) medical centers from 1999 to 2006. Postoperative occurrences of acute renal failure requiring dialysis, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, sepsis, pneumonia, or myocardial infarction identified through medical record review as part of the VA Surgical Quality Improvement Program. We determined the sensitivity and specificity of the natural language processing approach to identify these complications and compared its performance with patient safety indicators that use discharge coding information. The proportion of postoperative events for each sample was 2% (39 of 1924) for acute renal failure requiring dialysis, 0.7% (18 of 2327) for pulmonary embolism, 1% (29 of 2327) for deep vein thrombosis, 7% (61 of 866) for sepsis, 16% (222 of 1405) for pneumonia, and 2% (35 of 1822) for myocardial infarction. Natural language processing correctly identified 82% (95% confidence interval [CI], 67%-91%) of acute renal failure cases compared with 38% (95% CI, 25%-54%) for patient safety indicators. Similar results were obtained for venous thromboembolism (59%, 95% CI, 44%-72% vs 46%, 95% CI, 32%-60%), pneumonia (64%, 95% CI, 58%-70% vs 5%, 95% CI, 3%-9%), sepsis (89%, 95% CI, 78%-94% vs 34%, 95% CI, 24%-47%), and postoperative myocardial infarction (91%, 95% CI, 78%-97%) vs 89%, 95% CI, 74%-96%). Both natural language processing and patient safety indicators were highly specific for these diagnoses. Among patients undergoing inpatient surgical procedures at VA medical centers

  1. Language matters: towards an understanding of silence and humour in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingard, Lorelei

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the state of the science regarding language matters in medical education, with particular attention to two informal language practices: silence and humour. Silence and humour pervade clinical training settings, although we rarely attend explicitly to them. This paper considers the treatment of these topics in our field to date and introduces a selection of the scholarship on silence and humour from other fields, including philosophy, sociology, anthropology, linguistics and rhetoric. Particular attention is paid to distilling the theoretical and methodological possibilities for an elaborated research agenda around silence and humour in medical education. These two language practices assume a variety of forms and serve a range of social functions. Episodes of silence and humour are intimately tied to their relational and institutional contexts. Power often figures centrally, although not predictably. A rich theoretical and methodological basis exists on which to elaborate a research agenda around silence and humour in medical education. Such research promises to reveal more fully the contributions of silence and humour to socialisation in clinical training settings. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2013.

  2. Why language really is not a communication system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Colette Reboul

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available While most evolutionary scenarios for language see it as a communication system with consequences on the language-ready brain, there are major difficulties for such a view. First, language has a core combination of features—semanticity, discrete infinity, decoupling—that makes it unique among communication systems and that raise deep problems for the view that it evolved for communication. Second, extant models of communication systems—the code model of communication (see Millikan 2005 and the ostensive model of communication (see Scott-Phillips 2015 cannot account for language evolution. I propose an alternative view, according to which language first evolved as a cognitive tool, following Fodor’s (1975, 2008 Language of Thought Hypothesis, and was then expiated (externalized for communication. On this view, a language-ready brain is a brain profoundly reorganized in terms of connectivity, allowing the human conceptual system to emerge, triggering the emergence of syntax. Language as used in communication inherited its core combination of features from the Language of Thought.

  3. Concepts and implementations of natural language query systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Liu, I-Hsiung

    1984-01-01

    The currently developed user language interfaces of information systems are generally intended for serious users. These interfaces commonly ignore potentially the largest user group, i.e., casual users. This project discusses the concepts and implementations of a natural query language system which satisfy the nature and information needs of casual users by allowing them to communicate with the system in the form of their native (natural) language. In addition, a framework for the development of such an interface is also introduced for the MADAM (Multics Approach to Data Access and Management) system at the University of Southwestern Louisiana.

  4. SYSTEMS AND SOCIOCULTURAL APPROACHES TO THE ORIGIN OF LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhoverkhov A. V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the distinctive features of biological and cognitive approaches to the study of the origin and evolution of language. Their advantages in understanding and explaining of the individual foundations of language faculty are considered. The study shows that these approaches do not take into account the socio-cultural and supra-individual nature of language and its close evolutionary and functional relation with communication in nature and society. The paper argues that the aim of many researchers to find specific genes of language or special cognitive linguistic ‘modules’ are achievable only in part due to systems and social nature of language, which cannot be reduced to any individual innate or acquired abilities. Nevertheless, biological and cognitive foundations should not be excluded from the system analysis of the language and have to be studied in their integrity with other sign systems (mathematic, expressive means of art, writing system, non-verbal communication, etc.. The article also discusses new insights into the theory of evolution and their applicability to the study of the origin and development of language (in particular, the problem of gradualistic/abrupt emergence of language. It is argued that the question of the "abrupt", "punctuated" evolution of language cannot be "Darwin's problem", as a number of modern scholars believe. As an alternative to the evolution of language on the basis of "macromutations" it is offered the concept of socio-cultural evolution model based on an understanding of language as a supra-individual, sociocultural sign system that develops due to the cumulative nature of culture and plasticity of individual development

  5. 21 CFR 880.6315 - Remote Medication Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remote Medication Management System. 880.6315... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6315 Remote Medication Management System. (a) Identification. A remote medication management system is a device composed of clinical and communications software, a medication delivery...

  6. The Foreign Language Anxiety in a Medical Office Scale: developing and validating a measurement tool for Spanish-speaking individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntzviller, Lisa M; Jensen, Jakob D; King, Andy J; Davis, LaShara A

    2011-09-01

    Communication research has been hindered by a lack of validated measures for Latino populations. To develop and validate a foreign language anxiety in a medical office scale (the Foreign Language Anxiety in a Medical Office Scale [FLAMOS]), the authors conducted a survey of low income, primarily Spanish-speaking Latinos (N=100). The scale factored into a unidimensional construct and showed high reliability (α=.92). The Foreign Language Anxiety in a Medical Office Scale also demonstrated convergent and divergent validity compared with other communication anxiety scales (Personal Report of Communication Apprehension-24, Communication Anxiety Inventory, and Recipient Apprehension Test), and predictive validity for acculturation measures (the Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanics). The Foreign Language Anxiety in a Medical Office Scale provides a validated measure for researchers and may help to explain Latino health care communication barriers.

  7. A Petri Net Definition of a System Description Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1979-01-01

    This paper introduces a language for the description of systems with concurrency, and presents a formal definition of its semantics. The language is based on Delta and the semantic model is an extension of Petri nets with a data part and with expressions attached to transitions and to places....

  8. Developing Deployable Spoken Language Translation Systems given Limited Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Eck, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Approaches are presented that support the deployment of spoken language translation systems. Newly developed methods allow low cost portability to new language pairs. Proposed translation model pruning techniques achieve a high translation performance even in low memory situations. The named entity and specialty vocabulary coverage, particularly on small and mobile devices, is targeted to an individual user by translation model personalization.

  9. Child Language Data Exchange System Tools for Clinical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacWhinney, Brian; Fromm, Davida

    2016-05-01

    The Child Language Data Exchange System Project has developed methods for analyzing many aspects of child language development, including grammar, lexicon, discourse, gesture, phonology, and fluency. This article will describe the methods available for each of these six fields, and how they can be used for assessment in the clinical setting.

  10. Fault detection system for Arabic language

    CERN Document Server

    Amraoui, Houda

    2012-01-01

    The study of natural language, especially Arabic, and mechanisms for the implementation of automatic processing is a fascinating field of study, with various potential applications. The importance of tools for natural language processing is materialized by the need to have applications that can effectively treat the vast mass of information available nowadays on electronic forms. Among these tools, mainly driven by the necessity of a fast writing in alignment to the actual daily life speed, our interest is on the writing auditors. The morphological and syntactic properties of Arabic make it a difficult language to master, and explain the lack in the processing tools for that language. Among these properties, we can mention: the complex structure of the Arabic word, the agglutinative nature, lack of vocalization, the segmentation of the text, the linguistic richness, etc.

  11. A Dynamical Systems Model for Language Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-01

    11, Georgetown Universtiy, 1982. [6] A. S. Kroch. Function and gramar in the his- tory of english : Periphrastic "do.". In Ralph Fa- sold, editor...cally, posit 3 Boolean parameters, Speci er rst/ nal; Head rst/ nal; Verb second allowed or not, leading to 8 possible gram- mars/languages ( English ...Nonverb second populations tend to gain Verb second over time (e.g., English -type languages change to a more German type) contrary to historically

  12. Visual computing model for immune system and medical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Cao, Xinxue; Xiong, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Natural immune system is an intelligent self-organizing and adaptive system, which has a variety of immune cells with different types of immune mechanisms. The mutual cooperation between the immune cells shows the intelligence of this immune system, and modeling this immune system has an important significance in medical science and engineering. In order to build a comprehensible model of this immune system for better understanding with the visualization method than the traditional mathematic model, a visual computing model of this immune system was proposed and also used to design a medical system with the immune system, in this paper. Some visual simulations of the immune system were made to test the visual effect. The experimental results of the simulations show that the visual modeling approach can provide a more effective way for analyzing this immune system than only the traditional mathematic equations.

  13. Language system organization in a quadrilingual with a brain tumor: Implications for understanding of the language network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Połczyńska, Monika M; Benjamin, Christopher F A; Japardi, Kevin; Frew, Andrew; Bookheimer, Susan Y

    2016-06-01

    In pre-neurosurgery language mapping it is critical to identify language-specific regions in multilingual speakers. We conducted pre-operative functional magnetic resonance imaging, and intraoperative language mapping in the unique case of a highly proficient quadrilingual with a left frontal brain tumor who acquired her second language at age 5, and her third and fourth languages at 15. We found a predominantly different organization in each language with only a few areas shared by all 4 languages. Contrary to existing evidence, impairment across languages was not related to age of acquisition, amount of exposure, or language similarity. This case suggests that the functional structure of the language system may be highly idiosyncratic in multilingual individuals and supports detailed study in this group to inform neurocognitive models of language. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Multi-channel medical imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangioni, John V

    2013-12-31

    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and fluorescent images. The system may employ dyes in a small-molecule form that remain in the subject's blood stream for several minutes, allowing real-time imaging of the subject's circulatory system superimposed upon a conventional, visible light image of the subject. The system may provide an excitation light source to excite the fluorescent substance and a visible light source for general illumination within the same optical guide used to capture images. The system may be configured for use in open surgical procedures by providing an operating area that is closed to ambient light. The systems described herein provide two or more diagnostic imaging channels for capture of multiple, concurrent diagnostic images and may be used where a visible light image may be usefully supplemented by two or more images that are independently marked for functional interest.

  15. Multi-channel medical imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangioni, John V.

    2016-05-03

    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and fluorescent images. The system may employ dyes in a small-molecule form that remain in a subject's blood stream for several minutes, allowing real-time imaging of the subject's circulatory system superimposed upon a conventional, visible light image of the subject. The system may provide an excitation light source to excite the fluorescent substance and a visible light source for general illumination within the same optical guide used to capture images. The system may be configured for use in open surgical procedures by providing an operating area that is closed to ambient light. The systems described herein provide two or more diagnostic imaging channels for capture of multiple, concurrent diagnostic images and may be used where a visible light image may be usefully supplemented by two or more images that are independently marked for functional interest.

  16. Multi-channel medical imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frangioni, John V.

    2016-05-03

    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and fluorescent images. The system may employ dyes in a small-molecule form that remain in a subject's blood stream for several minutes, allowing real-time imaging of the subject's circulatory system superimposed upon a conventional, visible light image of the subject. The system may provide an excitation light source to excite the fluorescent substance and a visible light source for general illumination within the same optical guide used to capture images. The system may be configured for use in open surgical procedures by providing an operating area that is closed to ambient light. The systems described herein provide two or more diagnostic imaging channels for capture of multiple, concurrent diagnostic images and may be used where a visible light image may be usefully supplemented by two or more images that are independently marked for functional interest.

  17. [Design and application of implantable medical device information management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shaoping; Yin, Chunguang; Zhao, Zhenying

    2013-03-01

    Through the establishment of implantable medical device information management system, with the aid of the regional joint sharing of resources, we further enhance the implantable medical device traceability management level, strengthen quality management, control of medical risk.

  18. The medical care system of Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffel, N K; Raffel, M W

    1988-01-01

    Medical care in Hungary has made significant progress since World War II in spite of other social priorities which have limited financial support of the health system. A shortage of hard currency in a high technological era is now having a particularly severe adverse impact on further development. Decentralized administration and local finance have, however, provided some room for progress. Preventive efforts are hampered by a deeply entrenched life style which is not conducive to improving the population's health status.

  19. Remote Medical Diagnosis System (RMDS) Utilization Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-18

    able to determine that amputation of the finger at the third joint was 10. Telemedicine in Alaska, the ATS-6 Satellite Biomedical Demonstration, by D...physician then instructed the corpsman in the technique for performing the amputation . The physician stated in his report that the RMDS was beneficial to...involving ECGs, plastic surgery (burns), dermatology, physiotherapy , microscope slides, and dentistry. The use of the systems for the continuing medical

  20. A Diagnostic Analysis of Erroneous Language in Iranian Medical Specialists’ Research Papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Gholami

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: As English has increasingly become the lingua franca in science and international journals require native- like academic writing standards from nonnative researchers, there is more pressure on nonnative scholars to write their research articles more accurately and appropriately in English.This study was conducted to determine the most-occurring language-related errors which Iranian medical authors/ researchers commit while trying to have their research published in international English journals. Also, this article seeks to provide useful guidelines to reduce such linguistic mistakes.Methods: The present study investigated the most common language-related errors in Iranian medical specialists' research articles. To this end, the first drafts of 60 published research articles in medical sciences were cross-checked against their peer-reviewed published versions in order to identify the most frequent non-target language forms which received discoursal, lexical, grammatical, and mechanical revisions by peer editors.Results: The findings revealed that the editors had surprisingly dealt with discoursal errors more than any other linguistic aspects of these research articles. This was followed by lexical replacements. In third place were grammatical improvements, where erroneous structures mostly related to tenses, usage of articles and prepositions, and agreement between verbs and nouns were treated. The least common revisions were on the mechanics of academic writing, consisting of hyphenating, spelling, case lettering, spacing, and spacing with commas.Conclusion: Although most of the Iranian medical authors/researchers enjoyed a good level of proficiency in English, their manuscripts required discoursal, lexical, grammatical, and mechanical revisions before publication in credited international journals.

  1. Fate of manuscripts rejected by a non-English-language general medical journal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Siri; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether, where and when manuscripts were published following rejection by the Journal of the Danish Medical Association, a general medical journal published in Danish. Similar previous studies have focused on specialty/subspecialty journals p...... translation could be a barrier for resubmitting to English-language journals with larger readerships, thus hindering the dissemination of knowledge to the international community....... evaluated. Results Of 198 rejected manuscripts, 21 (10.6%) were eventually published after a median of 685 days (range 209-1463). The majority of these were original research, published in English-language specialty/subspecialty journals. The median number of citations per article was 2-3 (IQR 0.......5-9.5, depending on the database searched). Conclusions 10.6% of the rejected manuscripts were eventually published in other journals, mainly English-language specialty journals. This proportion was considerably lower than that for other journals that have studied the fate of rejected manuscripts. Manuscript...

  2. Well, you have hepatic metastases: Use of technical language by medical students in simulated patient interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourquin, Céline; Stiefel, Friedrich; Mast, Marianne Schmid; Bonvin, Raphael; Berney, Alexandre

    2015-03-01

    This research explored medical students' use and perception of technical language in a practical training setting to enhance skills in breaking bad news in oncology. Terms potentially confusing to laypeople were selected from 108 videotaped interviews conducted in an undergraduate Communication Skills Training. A subset of these terms was included in a questionnaire completed by students (N=111) with the aim of gaining insight into their perceptions of different speech registers and of patient understanding. Excerpts of interviews were analyzed qualitatively to investigate students' communication strategies with respect to these technical terms. Fewer than half of the terms were clarified. Students checked for simulated patients' understanding of the terms palliative and metastasis/to metastasize in 22-23% of the interviews. The term ambulatory was spontaneously explained in 75% of the interviews, hepatic and metastasis/to metastasize in 22-24%. Most provided explanations were in plain language; metastasis/to metastasize and ganglion/ganglionic were among terms most frequently explained in technical language. A significant number of terms potentially unfamiliar and confusing to patients remained unclarified in training interviews conducted by senior medical students, even when they perceived the terms as technical. This exploration may offer important insights for improving future physicians' skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. StudiesonSecondLanguageAcquisitionfromthePerspectiveof DynamicSystemTheory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵哲

    2014-01-01

    As is known there are large numbers of studies on Second Language Acquisition. However, Dynamic System Theory is the new trend in Applied Linguistics. It is necessary to probe into this field and see if it has relationship with SLA.

  4. 211 English Language, the Nigerian Education System and Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Njoku: English Language, the Nigerian Education System. 212 education in Nigeria ... Human development focuses on improving the lives people lead, rather than assuming ..... for Women Empowerment and Breaking the Cycle of. Poverty”.

  5. Medical Information Management System (MIMS): A Generalized Interactive Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterescu,Sidney; And Others

    This report describes an interactive information system. It is a general purpose, free format system which can offer immediate assistance where manipulation of large data bases is required. The medical area is a prime area of application. The report is designed to serve as a manual for potential users--nontechnical personnel who will use the…

  6. Higher Order Programming to Mine Knowledge for a Modern Medical Expert System

    CERN Document Server

    Kerdprasop, Nittaya

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge mining is the process of deriving new and useful knowledge from vast volumes of data and background knowledge. Modern healthcare organizations regularly generate huge amount of electronic data stored in the databases. These data are a valuable resource for mining useful knowledge to help medical practitioners making appropriate and accurate decision on the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. In this paper, we propose the design of a novel medical expert system based on a logic-programming framework. The proposed system includes a knowledge-mining component as a repertoire of tools for discovering useful knowledge. The implementation of classification and association mining tools based on the higher order and meta-level programming schemes using Prolog has been presented to express the power of logic-based language. Such language also provides a pattern matching facility, which is an essential function for the development of knowledge-intensive tasks. Besides the major goal of medical decision suppo...

  7. SALTO : System for Assembly-Language Transformation and Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Rohou, Erven; Bodin, François; Seznec, André; Le Fol, Gwendal; Charot, François; Raimbault, Frédéric

    1996-01-01

    On critical applications, particularly embedded systems, the performance tuning requires multiple passes. SALTO (System for Assembly Language Transformation and Optimization) is a retargetable framework for developing all the spectrum of tools that are needed for performance tuning on low-level codes (assembly-languages) on uniprocessors. SALTO enables the building of profiling, tracing and optimization tools. The user is responsible for giving a machine description of the target architecture...

  8. Adopting a Cultural Portfolio Project in Teaching German as a Foreign Language: Language Teacher Cognition as a Dynamic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feryok, Anne; Oranje, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Intercultural language teaching and learning has increasingly been adopted in state school systems, yet studies have shown that language teachers struggle to include it in their practice. The aim of this study is to use dynamic systems theory to examine how a German as a foreign language teacher in a New Zealand secondary school adopted a project…

  9. Adopting a Cultural Portfolio Project in Teaching German as a Foreign Language: Language Teacher Cognition as a Dynamic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feryok, Anne; Oranje, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Intercultural language teaching and learning has increasingly been adopted in state school systems, yet studies have shown that language teachers struggle to include it in their practice. The aim of this study is to use dynamic systems theory to examine how a German as a foreign language teacher in a New Zealand secondary school adopted a project…

  10. Arabic Morphology in the Neural Language System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudelaa, Sami; Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Hauk, Olaf; Shtyrov, Yury; Marslen-Wilson, William

    2010-01-01

    There are two views about morphology, the aspect of language concerned with the internal structure of words. One view holds that morphology is a domain of knowledge with a specific type of neurocognitive representation supported by specific brain mechanisms lateralized to left fronto-temporal cortex. The alternate view characterizes morphological…

  11. Natural Language Interfaces to Database Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    of Toronto, Philip A. Bernstein , Harvard University, and Harry K.T. Wong, IBM Research Laboratory, "A Language Facility for Designing Database...Colin Blakemore and Susan Greenfield (editors), Mindwaves - Thoughts on Intelligence, Identity, and Consciousness, Basil Blackwell, Inc. 1987. 1110

  12. A Converter from the Systems Biology Markup Language to the Synthetic Biology Open Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tramy; Roehner, Nicholas; Zundel, Zach; Myers, Chris J

    2016-06-17

    Standards are important to synthetic biology because they enable exchange and reproducibility of genetic designs. This paper describes a procedure for converting between two standards: the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) and the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL). SBML is a standard for behavioral models of biological systems at the molecular level. SBOL describes structural and basic qualitative behavioral aspects of a biological design. Converting SBML to SBOL enables a consistent connection between behavioral and structural information for a biological design. The conversion process described in this paper leverages Systems Biology Ontology (SBO) annotations to enable inference of a designs qualitative function.

  13. Problematic of languages within educative systems in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mutombo Huta-Mukana

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Our observation contains three parts: preamble, some key questions and a conclusion. It summarizes colonial period and postcolonial by taking Democratic Republic of Congo as starting point. In this country, the colonizer had recourse to local languages in elementary teaching and to French afterwarlds. This system continued somehow in the postcolonial period. Somehow because reality on the ground doesn’t correspond always to the verb.Among key questions which can be examined, we can cite the choice carried on the metropolitan language, recousing to local languages, form of language to be taught, the method to guide the drafting of books and useful tools for a good linguistic policy within educative sector. That is shown in conclusion by indicating the positive and the negative coming from recourse to such or such language as vehicle of teaching.

  14. PS-022 Complex automated medication systems reduce medication administration error rates in an acute medical ward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risør, Bettina Wulff; Lisby, Marianne; Sørensen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Background Medication errors have received extensive attention in recent decades and are of significant concern to healthcare organisations globally. Medication errors occur frequently, and adverse events associated with medications are one of the largest causes of harm to hospitalised patients....... Reviews have suggested that up to 50% of the adverse events in the medication process may be preventable. Thus the medication process is an important means to improve safety. Purpose The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two automated medication systems in reducing...... the medication administration error rate in comparison with current practice. Material and methods This was a controlled before and after study with follow-up after 7 and 14 months. The study was conducted in two acute medical hospital wards. Two automated medication systems were tested: (1) automated dispensing...

  15. Poorer verbal working memory for a second language selectively impacts academic achievement in university medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Collette; Canny, Benedict J; Reser, David H; Rajan, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is often poorer for a second language (L2). In low noise conditions, people listening to a language other than their first language (L1) may have similar auditory perception skills for that L2 as native listeners, but do worse in high noise conditions, and this has been attributed to the poorer WM for L2. Given that WM is critical for academic success in children and young adults, these speech in noise effects have implications for academic performance where the language of instruction is L2 for a student. We used a well-established Speech-in-Noise task as a verbal WM (vWM) test, and developed a model correlating vWM and measures of English proficiency and/or usage to scholastic outcomes in a multi-faceted assessment medical education program. Significant differences in Speech-Noise Ratio (SNR50) values were observed between medical undergraduates who had learned English before or after five years of age, with the latter group doing worse in the ability to extract whole connected speech in the presence of background multi-talker babble (Student-t tests, p students previously. The remaining two variables, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Age of Acquisition of English (AoAoE) were significantly positively correlated with the SNR50, showing that those with a poorer capacity to discriminate simple English sentences from noise had learnt English later in life and had higher levels of stress - all characteristics of the international students. Local students exhibited significantly lower SNR50 scores and were significantly younger when they first learnt English. No significant correlation was detected between the SNR50 and the students' Visual/Verbal Learning Style (r = -0.023). Standard multiple regression was carried out to assess the relationship between language proficiency and verbal working memory (SNR50) using 5 variables of L2 proficiency, with the results showing that the variance in SNR50 was significantly predicted by this model (r

  16. A System For Automated Medical Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivattanasuk, Eva S.; Kaczoroski, Anthony J.; Rhodes, Michael L.

    1988-06-01

    A system is described that electronically controls the medical photography for a computed tomography (CT) scanner system. Multiple CT exams can be photographed with each image automatically adjusted to a specific gamma table presentation and positioned to any film location within a given film format. Our approach uses a library that can store 24 CT exam photography protocols. Library entries can be added, deleted, or edited. Mixed film formats, multiple image types, and automated annotation capabilities allow all CT exams to be filmed at our clinic cost-effectively and unattended. Using this automated approach to CT exam photography, one full-time equivalent CT technologist has been saved from the operational cost of our center. We outline the film protocol database, illustrate protocol options and by example, show the flexibility of this approach. Features of this system illustrate essential components of any such approach.

  17. Low-Cost Medical Office Data Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Divinski, Jane

    1980-01-01

    This project is developing and demonstrating a low-cost microcomputer-based medical office data management system. The system is aimed at the specific needs of small primary care medical practices, in particular, those located in rural areas.

  18. The Integrated Medical Model: A Risk Assessment and Decision Support Tool for Space Flight Medical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstman, Eric; Minard, Charles; Saile, Lynn; deCarvalho, Mary Freire; Myers, Jerry; Walton, Marlei; Butler, Douglas; Iyengar, Sriram; Johnson-Throop, Kathy; Baumann, David

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a decision support tool that is useful to mission planners and medical system designers in assessing risks and designing medical systems for space flight missions. The IMM provides an evidence based approach for optimizing medical resources and minimizing risks within space flight operational constraints. The mathematical relationships among mission and crew profiles, medical condition incidence data, in-flight medical resources, potential crew functional impairments, and clinical end-states are established to determine probable mission outcomes. Stochastic computational methods are used to forecast probability distributions of crew health and medical resource utilization, as well as estimates of medical evacuation and loss of crew life. The IMM has been used in support of the International Space Station (ISS) medical kit redesign, the medical component of the ISS Probabilistic Risk Assessment, and the development of the Constellation Medical Conditions List. The IMM also will be used to refine medical requirements for the Constellation program. The IMM outputs for ISS and Constellation design reference missions will be presented to demonstrate the potential of the IMM in assessing risks, planning missions, and designing medical systems. The implementation of the IMM verification and validation plan will be reviewed. Additional planned capabilities of the IMM, including optimization techniques and the inclusion of a mission timeline, will be discussed. Given the space flight constraints of mass, volume, and crew medical training, the IMM is a valuable risk assessment and decision support tool for medical system design and mission planning.

  19. American sign language and deaf culture competency of osteopathic medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinski, Jessica; Colonna, Caitlin; Sexton, Patricia; Richard, Mariah

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of a workshop on Deaf culture and basic medical American Sign Language for increasing osteopathic student physicians' confidence and knowledge when interacting with ASL-using patients. Students completed a pretest in which they provided basic demographic information, rated their confidence levels, took a video quiz on basic medical signs, and experienced a practical standardized encounter with a Deaf patient. They then attended a 4-hour workshop and, 2 weeks later, completed a posttest. Thirty-three students completed the pretest; 29 attended the workshop; 26 completed the posttest. Video quiz scores increased significantly from pretest to posttest, as did scores for the standardized patient encounter after completion of the workshop. Students also reported increased levels of confidence in interactions with the Deaf community. The results suggest that a single workshop was effective in increasing both confidence and short-term knowledge in interactions with Deaf patients.

  20. Language as information system: transfer and saving of the information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Mikhaylovna Nekipelova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to research of the language system as an information system. The language is not the information itself. It contains information minimum and has information restrictions. Under the information should be understood texts and speech, created by using a language. Modern forms of existence of living natural language are distributed databases with multiple accesses, because bearers of language constantly and concurrently use it. Language and speech always exchange information, creating a unified information environment, where a human is. At any stage of information exchange the change of self-descriptiveness takes place one way or the other. When a human try to reflect world around him, some part of reflected information is lost due to conversion into language and saving into it in formalized form. These processes of storing information are related to the fact that in the production and perception of the statements optimization mechanisms of human thinking are made. When we perceive information its preservation can happen without information loss and with the loss of information.

  1. Measuring diversity in medical reports based on categorized attributes and international classification systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Přečková Petra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Narrative medical reports do not use standardized terminology and often bring insufficient information for statistical processing and medical decision making. Objectives of the paper are to propose a method for measuring diversity in medical reports written in any language, to compare diversities in narrative and structured medical reports and to map attributes and terms to selected classification systems. Methods A new method based on a general concept of f-diversity is proposed for measuring diversity of medical reports in any language. The method is based on categorized attributes recorded in narrative or structured medical reports and on international classification systems. Values of categories are expressed by terms. Using SNOMED CT and ICD 10 we are mapping attributes and terms to predefined codes. We use f-diversities of Gini-Simpson and Number of Categories types to compare diversities of narrative and structured medical reports. The comparison is based on attributes selected from the Minimal Data Model for Cardiology (MDMC. Results We compared diversities of 110 Czech narrative medical reports and 1119 Czech structured medical reports. Selected categorized attributes of MDMC had mostly different numbers of categories and used different terms in narrative and structured reports. We found more than 60% of MDMC attributes in SNOMED CT. We showed that attributes in narrative medical reports had greater diversity than the same attributes in structured medical reports. Further, we replaced each value of category (term used for attributes in narrative medical reports by the closest term and the category used in MDMC for structured medical reports. We found that relative Gini-Simpson diversities in structured medical reports were significantly smaller than those in narrative medical reports except the "Allergy" attribute. Conclusions Terminology in narrative medical reports is not standardized. Therefore it is nearly

  2. A mobile agent approach for secure integrated medical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Hui; Chung, Yu-Fang; Chiang, Te-Wei; Chen, Tzer-Shyong; Wang, Sheng-De

    2012-10-01

    Different patient-related information in medical organizations is the primary reference for medical personnel diagnosing, treating, and caring patients. With the rapid development of information technology, paper-based medical records have gradually been changed to electronic forms. However, different medical organizations present individual system specifications and data-saving formats so that the medical information of the same patient cannot be exchanged, shared, and securely accessed. In order not to largely change the present medical information systems as well as not to increase abundant costs, Virtual Integrated Medical-information Systems (VIMS) is proposed to assist various hospitals in information exchange. Furthermore, with Mobile Agent, the dispersed medical information can be securely integrated. It presents confidentiality, non-repudiation, source authentication, and integrity in network transmission. Virtual Integrated Medical-information Systems (VIMS) is a virtual electronic integration system combined with Mobile Agent technology. With the features of independence, adaptability, mobility, objectives, and autonomy, Mobile Agent is applied to overcome the problems from heterogeneous systems. With the features, the over-dispersed medical records can be integrated. Moreover, Mobile Agent can ensure the instantaneity and usability of medical records from which doctors can make the most appropriate evaluation and diagnoses. It will avoid the waste of medical resources, such as repetition medication, as well as become the reference of further consultation or health check. Not only can it improve the medical care quality, but it can be provided for medical research.

  3. The intellectual information system of medical aid control in the scope of Russian medical insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranik, M. A.; Silich, V. A.; Silich, M. P.

    2017-01-01

    The article presents the developed intellectual information system, oriented for healthcare providers. The system solves a problem of medical aid quality control in the Russian medical insurance sphere. The main components are ISO13606, fuzzy logic and a case-based reasoning concept. The system provides medical insurance payments forecasting by the analysis of medical records and generates two evaluations based on medical standards and a set of precedents. The result of the system implementation allowed up to a 10% increase in insurance payments for the healthcare provider.

  4. From Flow Logic to static type systems for coordination languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Nicola, Rocco; Gorla, Daniele; Hansen, Rene Rydhof;

    2010-01-01

    Coordination languages are often used to describe open-ended systems. This makes it challenging to develop tools for guaranteeing the security of the coordinated systems and the correctness of their interaction. Successful approaches to this problem have been based on type systems with dynamic ch...

  5. A Generic Language for Biological Systems based on Bigraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Troels Christoffer; Krivine, Jean

    Several efforts have shown that process calculi developed for reasoning about concurrent and mobile systems may be employed for modelling biological systems at the molecular level. In this paper, we initiate investigation of the meta-language framework bigraphical reactive systems, due to Milner et...

  6. Teaching medical students about communication in speech-language disorders: Effects of a lecture and a workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldert, Charlotta; Forsgren, Emma; Hartelius, Lena

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to explore the effects of an interactive workshop involving speech-language pathology students on medical students' knowledge about communication in relation to speech-language disorders. Fifty-nine medical students received a lecture about speech-language disorders. Twenty-six of them also participated in a workshop on communication with patients with speech-language disorders. All students completed a 12-item questionnaire exploring knowledge and attitudes towards communication before and after the lecture or the workshop. The results from the two groups' self-ratings of confidence in knowledge were compared with expert-ratings of their ability to choose suitable communicative strategies. Both the lecture and the workshop increased the students' confidence in knowledge about speech-language disorders and how to support communication. Only the workshop group also displayed a statistically significant increase in expert-rated ability and changed their attitude regarding responsibility for the communication in cases of speech-language disorders. There were no statistically significant correlations between the student's own confidence ratings and the experts' ratings of ability. Increased confidence in knowledge from learning is not always reflected in actual knowledge in how to communicate. However, an interactive workshop proved to increase medical students' expert-rated ability and attitudes related to communication in cases of speech-language disorders.

  7. Integrated Cloud-Based Services for Medical Workflow Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharbi Nada

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed significant progress of workflow systems in different business areas. However, in the medical domain, the workflow systems are comparatively scarcely researched. In the medical domain, the workflows are as important as in other areas. In fact, the flow of information in the healthcare industry is even more critical than it is in other industries. Workflow can provide a new way of looking at how processes and procedures are completed in particular medical systems, and it can help improve the decision-making in these systems. Despite potential capabilities of workflow systems, medical systems still often perceive critical challenges in maintaining patient medical information that results in the difficulties in accessing patient data by different systems. In this paper, a new cloud-based service-oriented architecture is proposed. This architecture will support a medical workflow system integrated with cloud services aligned with medical standards to improve the healthcare system.

  8. Stretchable bioelectronics for medical devices and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2016-01-01

    This book highlights recent advances in soft and stretchable biointegrated electronics. A renowned group of authors address key ideas in the materials, processes, mechanics, and devices of soft and stretchable electronics; the wearable electronics systems; and bioinspired and implantable biomedical electronics. Among the topics discussed are liquid metals, stretchable and flexible energy sources, skin-like devices, in vitro neural recording, and more. Special focus is given to recent advances in extremely soft and stretchable bio-inspired electronics with real-world clinical studies that validate the technology. Foundational theoretical and experimental aspects are also covered in relation to the design and application of these biointegrated electronics systems. This is an ideal book for researchers, engineers, and industry professionals involved in developing healthcare devices, medical tools and related instruments relevant to various clinical practices.

  9. A Smartwatch-Driven Medication Management System Compliant to the German Medication Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Andreas; Gegier, Konstantin; Pobiruchin, Monika; Wiesner, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Medication adherence is an important factor for the outcome of medical therapies. To support high adherence levels, smartwatches can be used to assist the patient. However, a successful integration of such devices into clinicians' or general practitioners' information systems requires the use of standards. In this paper, a medication management system supplied with smartwatch generated feedback events is presented. It allows physicians to manage their patients' medications and track their adherence in real time. Moreover, it fosters interoperability via a ISO/IEC 16022 data matrix which encodes related medication data in compliance with the German Medication Plan specification.

  10. Artificial intelligence, expert systems, computer vision, and natural language processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of artificial intelligence (AI), its core ingredients, and its applications is presented. The knowledge representation, logic, problem solving approaches, languages, and computers pertaining to AI are examined, and the state of the art in AI is reviewed. The use of AI in expert systems, computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition and understanding, speech synthesis, problem solving, and planning is examined. Basic AI topics, including automation, search-oriented problem solving, knowledge representation, and computational logic, are discussed.

  11. Artificial intelligence, expert systems, computer vision, and natural language processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of artificial intelligence (AI), its core ingredients, and its applications is presented. The knowledge representation, logic, problem solving approaches, languages, and computers pertaining to AI are examined, and the state of the art in AI is reviewed. The use of AI in expert systems, computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition and understanding, speech synthesis, problem solving, and planning is examined. Basic AI topics, including automation, search-oriented problem solving, knowledge representation, and computational logic, are discussed.

  12. Efficient Queries of Stand-off Annotations for Natural Language Processing on Electronic Medical Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Szolovits, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In natural language processing, stand-off annotation uses the starting and ending positions of an annotation to anchor it to the text and stores the annotation content separately from the text. We address the fundamental problem of efficiently storing stand-off annotations when applying natural language processing on narrative clinical notes in electronic medical records (EMRs) and efficiently retrieving such annotations that satisfy position constraints. Efficient storage and retrieval of stand-off annotations can facilitate tasks such as mapping unstructured text to electronic medical record ontologies. We first formulate this problem into the interval query problem, for which optimal query/update time is in general logarithm. We next perform a tight time complexity analysis on the basic interval tree query algorithm and show its nonoptimality when being applied to a collection of 13 query types from Allen's interval algebra. We then study two closely related state-of-the-art interval query algorithms, proposed query reformulations, and augmentations to the second algorithm. Our proposed algorithm achieves logarithmic time stabbing-max query time complexity and solves the stabbing-interval query tasks on all of Allen's relations in logarithmic time, attaining the theoretic lower bound. Updating time is kept logarithmic and the space requirement is kept linear at the same time. We also discuss interval management in external memory models and higher dimensions.

  13. Efficient Queries of Stand-off Annotations for Natural Language Processing on Electronic Medical Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Szolovits, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In natural language processing, stand-off annotation uses the starting and ending positions of an annotation to anchor it to the text and stores the annotation content separately from the text. We address the fundamental problem of efficiently storing stand-off annotations when applying natural language processing on narrative clinical notes in electronic medical records (EMRs) and efficiently retrieving such annotations that satisfy position constraints. Efficient storage and retrieval of stand-off annotations can facilitate tasks such as mapping unstructured text to electronic medical record ontologies. We first formulate this problem into the interval query problem, for which optimal query/update time is in general logarithm. We next perform a tight time complexity analysis on the basic interval tree query algorithm and show its nonoptimality when being applied to a collection of 13 query types from Allen’s interval algebra. We then study two closely related state-of-the-art interval query algorithms, proposed query reformulations, and augmentations to the second algorithm. Our proposed algorithm achieves logarithmic time stabbing-max query time complexity and solves the stabbing-interval query tasks on all of Allen’s relations in logarithmic time, attaining the theoretic lower bound. Updating time is kept logarithmic and the space requirement is kept linear at the same time. We also discuss interval management in external memory models and higher dimensions. PMID:27478379

  14. A LANGUAGE INDEPENDENT APPROACH TO DEVELOP URDUIR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Shahid Husain

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This is the era of Information Technology. Today the most important thing is how one gets the right information at right time. More and more data repositories are now being made available online. Information retrieval systems or search engines are used to access electronic information available on the internet. These information retrieval systems depend on the available tools and techniques for efficient retrieval of information content in response to the user query needs. During last few years, a wide range of information in Indian regional languages like Hindi, Urdu, Bengali, Oriya, Tamil and Telugu has been made available on web in the form of e-data. But the access to these data repositories is very low because the efficient search engines/retrieval systems supporting these languages are very limited. We have developed a language independent system to facilitate efficient retrieval of information available in Urdu language which can be used for other languages as well. The system gives precision of 0.63 and the recall of the system is 0.8.

  15. Serbian-Albanian language contacts and two types of phonological systems in the Balkan languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanišić Vanja S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Phonological systems of the Balkan languages do not correspond to the Balkan language union borders, which can be explained by the difference between "intensive" (morphosyntactic and "extensive" (phonological language unions. In this case, we are dealing with the entrance of the Balkan languages into a wide transitional zone, stretching along the borders of East and Central Europe, and with the coinciding of their phonological systems with the system of Slavic languages known as vowel and consonant types. The same classification into two phonological systems exists in the Balkans too, and between them there are also two transitional borderlines. As known, the mediopalatal order of the "Macedonian" type [k', g', n', ľ] (q, gj, nj, l has been generalized in both the standard Albanian language and most of the Albanian dialects. Albanian [k', g', n', ľ] are, just like their Macedonian counterparts, semi-emancipated palatal correlates of basic [k, g, n, l], as proved by examples of their positional dephonologization and dialectal hardening /n'/ > /n/ [n%], when followed by front vowels. Both semi-soft [n%] and typically Albanian lateral opposition [ł-ŀ] confirm a palatal correlation of these phonemes existing also in the neighboring Serbian dialects. Albanian has undoubtedly affected the rise of these features, be it through an unilateral influence or merely through supporting different phonological development in these old-shtokavian dialects. On the other hand, the same could be said for the affrication of palatovelars [k', g'] > [č, ʒ(], which except in south-west region between Ishmi and Shkumbin, Elbasan and Tirana is present in all other branches of the Ghegian dialect. Wide distribution of this phenomenon excludes the possibility of one-sided Serbian influence while its character – reduction of palatovelars [k', g'] (q, gj and affricates [č, ʒ(] (ç, xh to one semi-soft affricate pair – has a typological and structural parallel in

  16. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...... of a company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...

  17. Graphical user interface for a remote medical monitoring system: U.S. Army medic recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Sangeeta; Tharion, William J

    2009-11-01

    We obtained recommendations for a graphical user interface (GUI) design for a new medical monitoring system. Data were obtained from 26 combat-experienced medics. Volunteers were briefed on the medical monitoring system. They then completed a questionnaire on background medical treatment experience, provided drawings on how and what information should be displayed on the GUI screens for use on a personal digital assistant, and participated in focus group sessions with four to seven medics per group to obtain group consensus on what information the GUI screens should contain. Detailed displays on seven screens provide the medical and situational awareness information medics need for triage decisions and for early processing of a casualty. The created GUI screens are a combination of object-based and text-based information using a color-coded system. Medics believed the information displayed with these GUI designs would improve treatment of casualties on the battlefield.

  18. Sign Language to Speech Translation System Using PIC Microcontroller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunasekaran. K

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The advancement in embedded system, provides a space to design and develop a sign language translator system to assist the dumb people. This paper mainly addresses to facilitate dumb person's lifestyle. Dumb people throughout the world use sign language to communicate with others, this is possible for those who has undergone special trainings. Common people also face difficult to understand the gesture language. To overcome these real time issues, this system is developed. Whenever the proposed system senses any sign language, it plays corresponding recorded voice. This reduces the communication gap between dumb and ordinary people. This proposed model consist of four modules, they are sensing unit, processing unit, voice storage unit and wireless communication unit. It is achieved by integrating flux sensor and APR9600 with PIC16F877A. The flux sensors are placed in gloves, which respond to gesture. By using suitable circuit response of the sensor is given to the microcontroller based on the response microcontroller plays the recorded voice using APR9600. A snapshot of the entire system, advantage over existing methods and simulation output of the process is discussed in this work. Thissystem offers high reliability and fast response. This method is more precise on hand movement and different languages can be installed without altering the code in PIC microcontroller.

  19. A model of developing medical terms in indigenous languages: a step towards consumer health informatics in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbananga, Nolwazi; Mniki, Sindiswa; Oelofse, Alet; Makapan, Sylvia; Lubisi, Moses

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology that has been used in the development of medical terms in the indigenous languages of South Africa. Development of medical terms in indigenous languages is the primary step towards Consumer Health Informatics in the country. This process has been driven by, among others, an emerging paradigm shift in patient care management, whereby patients and other members of the community are encouraged to participate in the process of making treatment or management choices regarding their illnesses or health conditions. In view of this change in the health environment, language and understanding seem to play a major role. Without clear communication and understanding between health providers and the consumers of health services, little can be achieved. Language comprehension is invaluable to empower patients to engage in the decision-making process regarding their health problems.

  20. Electronic medical records system user acceptance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, L

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available   and  tracing  the  ‘sociability’  of  especially  medical  technologies  could thus help to elucidate why some people do or do not  like to use these technologies  (Pols &  Moser, 2009:161) and... slow to adopt EMR technology due to the believe that the new technology will have a negative  effect on  their medical practice with aspects of  cost,  support and ability  to use  the new  systems  being  cited  as  reasons  (Riesenmy,  2010:164).  Riesenmy  (2010:164)  continued  by  stating  that  physicians would be  less  likely  to...

  1. Information technology -- Computer graphics -- Graphical Kernel System (GKS) language bindings -- Part 4: C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.

    1995-01-01

    Cancels and replaces the first edition (1991). Specifies a language independent nucleus of a graphics system. For integration into a programming language, GKS is embedded in a language dependent layer obeying the particular conventions of that language. Specifies such a language dependent layer for

  2. Applying semantic-based probabilistic context-free grammar to medical language processing--a preliminary study on parsing medication sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua; AbdelRahman, Samir; Lu, Yanxin; Denny, Joshua C; Doan, Son

    2011-12-01

    Semantic-based sublanguage grammars have been shown to be an efficient method for medical language processing. However, given the complexity of the medical domain, parsers using such grammars inevitably encounter ambiguous sentences, which could be interpreted by different groups of production rules and consequently result in two or more parse trees. One possible solution, which has not been extensively explored previously, is to augment productions in medical sublanguage grammars with probabilities to resolve the ambiguity. In this study, we associated probabilities with production rules in a semantic-based grammar for medication findings and evaluated its performance on reducing parsing ambiguity. Using the existing data set from 2009 i2b2 NLP (Natural Language Processing) challenge for medication extraction, we developed a semantic-based CFG (Context Free Grammar) for parsing medication sentences and manually created a Treebank of 4564 medication sentences from discharge summaries. Using the Treebank, we derived a semantic-based PCFG (Probabilistic Context Free Grammar) for parsing medication sentences. Our evaluation using a 10-fold cross validation showed that the PCFG parser dramatically improved parsing performance when compared to the CFG parser.

  3. [Application of information management system about medical equipment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Jianjin; Zhang, Chaoqun; Wu, Xiang-Yang

    2011-05-01

    Based on the practice of workflow, information management system about medical equipment was developed and its functions such as gathering, browsing, inquiring and counting were introduced. With dynamic and complete case management of medical equipment, the system improved the management of medical equipment.

  4. A DBMS-based Medical Teleconferencing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Jonghoon; Kim, Hanjoon; Lee, Sang-goo; Choi, Jinwook; Cho, Hanik

    2001-01-01

    This article presents the design of a medical teleconferencing system that is integrated with a multimedia patient database and incorporates easy-to-use tools and functions to effectively support collaborative work between physicians in remote locations. The design provides a virtual workspace that allows physicians to collectively view various kinds of patient data. By integrating the teleconferencing function into this workspace, physicians are able to conduct conferences using the same interface and have real-time access to the database during conference sessions. The authors have implemented a prototype based on this design. The prototype uses a high-speed network test bed and a manually created substitute for the integrated patient database. PMID:11522766

  5. Generating Systems Biology Markup Language Models from the Synthetic Biology Open Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehner, Nicholas; Zhang, Zhen; Nguyen, Tramy; Myers, Chris J

    2015-08-21

    In the context of synthetic biology, model generation is the automated process of constructing biochemical models based on genetic designs. This paper discusses the use cases for model generation in genetic design automation (GDA) software tools and introduces the foundational concepts of standards and model annotation that make this process useful. Finally, this paper presents an implementation of model generation in the GDA software tool iBioSim and provides an example of generating a Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) model from a design of a 4-input AND sensor written in the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL).

  6. A Framework for Context Sensitive Risk-Based Access Control in Medical Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Donghee; Kim, Dohoon; Park, Seog

    2015-01-01

    Since the access control environment has changed and the threat of insider information leakage has come to the fore, studies on risk-based access control models that decide access permissions dynamically have been conducted vigorously. Medical information systems should protect sensitive data such as medical information from insider threat and enable dynamic access control depending on the context such as life-threatening emergencies. In this paper, we suggest an approach and framework for context sensitive risk-based access control suitable for medical information systems. This approach categorizes context information, estimating and applying risk through context- and treatment-based permission profiling and specifications by expanding the eXtensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML) to apply risk. The proposed framework supports quick responses to medical situations and prevents unnecessary insider data access through dynamic access authorization decisions in accordance with the severity of the context and treatment.

  7. Possibilities of utilizing blended-learning in the area of language education of medical staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Šulistová

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with the presentation of teaching materials created within the IMED-KOMM-EU "Intercultural medical communication inEurope" internet project, having taken place under the leadership of the Institute for Intercultural Communication inGermany(Ansbach,Berlin,Jena,Erfurt. Project target was creating, testing, valorisation and permanent extending of the mentioned teaching materials, testing and certification technologies (ECL for intercultural professional communication of foreign physicians and other medical staff. The target groups involving the already practising professionals, as well as students, should be able to utilize the existing possibilities of communication withinEuropeand to perform their professional activity or studies in the languages, in which the materials are elaborated. As a result, five complete courses of blended-learning were created, which are generally easily accessible at mutually connected web sites in Czech, Slovak, German, Bulgarian and Hungarian. Their core are modules orientated on practice with complex exercises online and offline focused on the medical communication, including the manuals for teachers.

  8. Medical Surveillance System & Medical Effect Modeling Thrust Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Equations ( PFE ) developed for this project model physiological systems in biological organisms as 1D liquid or gas flows. Special attention is given...in the model to capturing 2D viscous effects and branching effects. Multiple PFE representations of physiological systems (e.g. the respiratory and

  9. Poorer verbal working memory for a second language selectively impacts academic achievement in university medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collette Mann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM is often poorer for a second language (L2. In low noise conditions, people listening to a language other than their first language (L1 may have similar auditory perception skills for that L2 as native listeners, but do worse in high noise conditions, and this has been attributed to the poorer WM for L2. Given that WM is critical for academic success in children and young adults, these speech in noise effects have implications for academic performance where the language of instruction is L2 for a student. We used a well-established Speech-in-Noise task as a verbal WM (vWM test, and developed a model correlating vWM and measures of English proficiency and/or usage to scholastic outcomes in a multi-faceted assessment medical education program. Significant differences in Speech-Noise Ratio (SNR50 values were observed between medical undergraduates who had learned English before or after five years of age, with the latter group doing worse in the ability to extract whole connected speech in the presence of background multi-talker babble (Student-t tests, p < 0.001. Significant negative correlations were observed between the SNR50 and seven of the nine variables of English usage, learning styles, stress, and musical abilities in a questionnaire administered to the students previously. The remaining two variables, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS and the Age of Acquisition of English (AoAoE were significantly positively correlated with the SNR50 , showing that those with a poorer capacity to discriminate simple English sentences from noise had learnt English later in life and had higher levels of stress – all characteristics of the international students. Local students exhibited significantly lower SNR50 scores and were significantly younger when they first learnt English. No significant correlation was detected between the SNR50 and the students’ Visual/Verbal Learning Style (r = −0.023. Standard multiple regression was

  10. Poorer verbal working memory for a second language selectively impacts academic achievement in university medical students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canny, Benedict J.; Reser, David H.; Rajan, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is often poorer for a second language (L2). In low noise conditions, people listening to a language other than their first language (L1) may have similar auditory perception skills for that L2 as native listeners, but do worse in high noise conditions, and this has been attributed to the poorer WM for L2. Given that WM is critical for academic success in children and young adults, these speech in noise effects have implications for academic performance where the language of instruction is L2 for a student. We used a well-established Speech-in-Noise task as a verbal WM (vWM) test, and developed a model correlating vWM and measures of English proficiency and/or usage to scholastic outcomes in a multi-faceted assessment medical education program. Significant differences in Speech-Noise Ratio (SNR50 ) values were observed between medical undergraduates who had learned English before or after five years of age, with the latter group doing worse in the ability to extract whole connected speech in the presence of background multi-talker babble (Student-t tests, p musical abilities in a questionnaire administered to the students previously. The remaining two variables, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Age of Acquisition of English (AoAoE) were significantly positively correlated with the SNR50 , showing that those with a poorer capacity to discriminate simple English sentences from noise had learnt English later in life and had higher levels of stress – all characteristics of the international students. Local students exhibited significantly lower SNR50 scores and were significantly younger when they first learnt English. No significant correlation was detected between the SNR50 and the students’ Visual/Verbal Learning Style (r = −0.023). Standard multiple regression was carried out to assess the relationship between language proficiency and verbal working memory (SNR50 ) using 5 variables of L2 proficiency, with the results showing that

  11. Impact of article language in multi-language medical journals--a bibliometric analysis of self-citations and impact factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Diekhoff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In times of globalization there is an increasing use of English in the medical literature. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of English-language articles in multi-language medical journals on their international recognition--as measured by a lower rate of self-citations and higher impact factor (IF. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed publications in multi-language journals in 2008 and 2009 using the Web of Science (WoS of Thomson Reuters (former Institute of Scientific Information and PubMed as sources of information. The proportion of English-language articles during the period was compared with both the share of self-citations in the year 2010 and the IF with and without self-citations. Multivariable linear regression analysis was performed to analyze these factors as well as the influence of the journals' countries of origin and of the other language(s used in publications besides English. We identified 168 multi-language journals that were listed in WoS as well as in PubMed and met our criteria. We found a significant positive correlation of the share of English articles in 2008 and 2009 with the IF calculated without self-citations (Pearson r=0.56, p = <0.0001, a correlation with the overall IF (Pearson r = 0.47, p = <0.0001 and with the cites to years of IF calculation (Pearson r = 0.34, p = <0.0001, and a weak negative correlation with the share of self-citations (Pearson r = -0.2, p = 0.009. The IF without self-citations also correlated with the journal's country of origin--North American journals had a higher IF compared to Middle and South American or European journals. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that a larger share of English articles in multi-language medical journals is associated with greater international recognition. Fewer self-citations were found in multi-language journals with a greater share of original articles in English.

  12. Developing a Philippine Cancer Grid. Part 1: Building a Prototype for a Data Retrieval System for Breast Cancer Research Using Medical Ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel, Andrei D.; Saldana, Rafael P.

    Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the Philippines. Developed within the context of a Philippine Cancer Grid, the present study used web development technologies such as PHP, MySQL, and Apache server to build a prototype data retrieval system for breast cancer research that incorporates medical ontologies from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS).

  13. Effect of Spanish language immersion rotations on medical student Spanish fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuland, Daniel S; Slatt, Lisa M; Alemán, Marco A; Fernandez, Alicia; Dewalt, Darren

    2012-02-01

    The study's objective was to determine whether participation in an international health rotation in a Spanish-speaking country (immersion) is associated with improved Spanish fluency compared to participation in domestic medical Spanish coursework alone. Participants matriculated at one US medical school in the years 2004--2008. At matriculation (baseline), all had intermediate to advanced Spanish fluency based on a standardized, oral fluency test. All took didactic coursework in years 1 and 2 of medical school. Some elected to participate in a post-year 1 immersion rotation in a Spanish-speaking Latin American country. Oral fluency was reassessed using the same method in years 2 and 4 by independent evaluators who were blind to individuals' immersion participation status and prior fluency scores. The authors compared participants' likelihood of demonstrating greater Spanish fluency over baseline among those who did post-year 1 immersion versus those who did US-based coursework alone (controls). The likelihood of having greater Spanish fluency at the second-year assessment was 80% (45/56) among immersion participants, compared with 46% (21/46) for controls. The likelihood of having increased fluency at the fourth-year assessment was 65% (13/20) among those who did immersion versus 28% (7/25) for controls. Odds of having improved fluency for immersion participants remained statistically significantly higher after adjusting for baseline fluency (AOR [95%CI]=4.3 [1.7, 10.6], at year 2 and 5.1 [1.2, 21.6], at year 4). Among medical students with intermediate to advanced baseline Spanish fluency, participants in a post-year 1 Spanish language international health immersion rotation were more likely to improve their Spanish fluency than participants in US-based coursework alone.

  14. Natural Language Query System Design for Interactive Information Storage and Retrieval Systems. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Liu, I-Hsiung

    1985-01-01

    The currently developed multi-level language interfaces of information systems are generally designed for experienced users. These interfaces commonly ignore the nature and needs of the largest user group, i.e., casual users. This research identifies the importance of natural language query system research within information storage and retrieval system development; addresses the topics of developing such a query system; and finally, proposes a framework for the development of natural language query systems in order to facilitate the communication between casual users and information storage and retrieval systems.

  15. Feasibility of Spanish-language acquisition for acute medical care providers: novel curriculum for emergency medicine residencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grall, Kristi H; Panchal, Ashish R; Chuffe, Eliud; Stoneking, Lisa R

    2016-01-01

    Language and cultural barriers are detriments to quality health care. In acute medical settings, these barriers are more pronounced, which can lead to poor patient outcomes. We implemented a longitudinal Spanish-language immersion curriculum for emergency medicine (EM) resident physicians. This curriculum includes language and cultural instruction, and is integrated into the weekly EM didactic conference, longitudinal over the entire 3-year residency program. Language proficiency was assessed at baseline and annually on the Interagency Language Roundtable (ILR) scale, via an oral exam conducted by the same trained examiner each time. The objective of the curriculum was improvement of resident language skills to ILR level 1+ by year 3. Significance was evaluated through repeated-measures analysis of variance. The curriculum was launched in July 2010 and followed through June 2012 (n=16). After 1 year, 38% had improved over one ILR level, with 50% achieving ILR 1+ or above. After year 2, 100% had improved over one level, with 90% achieving the objective level of ILR 1+. Mean ILR improved significantly from baseline, year 1, and year 2 (F=55, df =1; Planguage skills in EM residents. The curriculum improved EM-resident language proficiency above the goal in just 2 years. Further studies will focus on the effect of language acquisition on patient care in acute settings.

  16. Intelligent systems in technical and medical diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Korbicz, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    For many years technical and medical diagnostics has been the area of intensive scientific research. It covers well-established topics as well as emerging developments in control engineering, artificial intelligence, applied mathematics, pattern recognition and statistics. At the same time, a growing number of applications of different fault diagnosis methods, especially in electrical, mechanical, chemical and medical engineering, is being observed. This monograph contains a collection of 44 carefully selected papers contributed by experts in technical and medical diagnostics, and constitutes

  17. Feasibility of Spanish-language acquisition for acute medical care providers: novel curriculum for emergency medicine residencies

    OpenAIRE

    Grall KH; Panchal AR; Chuffe E; Stoneking LR

    2016-01-01

    Kristi H Grall,1 Ashish R Panchal,2 Eliud Chuffe,3 Lisa R Stoneking4 1Department of Emergency Medicine, Regions Hospital, Health Partners Institute, St Paul, MN, 2Department of Emergency Medicine, Wexner Medical Center, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 3Department of Spanish and Portuguese, 4Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA Introduction: Language and cultural barriers are detriments to quality health care. In acute medical settings, these barriers a...

  18. Healthcare system information at language schools for newly arrived immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tynell, Lena Lyngholt; Wimmelmann, Camilla Lawaetz; Jervelund, Signe Smith

    2017-01-01

    Objective: In most European countries, immigrants do not systematically learn about the host countries’ healthcare system when arriving. This study investigated how newly arrived immigrants perceived the information they received about the Danish healthcare system. Method: Immigrants attending...... a language school in Copenhagen in 2012 received either a course or written information on the Danish healthcare system and subsequently evaluated this quantitatively. Results: The evaluation revealed a positive appraisal of the course/information provided. Conclusion: In times of austerity, incorporating...

  19. Massive Medical Images Retrieval System Based on Hadoop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-An YAO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the efficiency of massive medical images retrieval, against the defects of the single-node medical image retrieval system, a massive medical images retrieval system based on Hadoop is put forward. Brushlet transform and Local binary patterns algorithm are introduced firstly to extract characteristics of the medical example image, and store the image feature library in the HDFS. Then using the Map to match the example image features with the features in the feature library, while the Reduce to receive the calculation results of each Map task and ranking the results according to the size of the similarity. At the end, find the optimal retrieval results of the medical images according to the ranking results. The experimental results show that compared with other medical image retrieval systems, the Hadoop based medical image retrieval system can reduce the time of image storage and retrieval, and improve the image retrieval speed.

  20. English language proficiency and academic performance: A study of a medical preparatory year program in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliyadan, Feroze; Thalamkandathil, Nazer; Parupalli, Srinivas Rao; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Balaha, Magdy Hassan; Al Bu Ali, Waleed Hamad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: All medical schools in Saudi Arabia have English as the primary official medium of instruction. Most of the high school education, however, is delivered in Arabic and hence the transition to an English based learning environment tends to be difficult for some students. Our study aims to correlate English language proficiency with academic performance among medical students in their preparatory year. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used. Test scores of 103 preparatory year students (54 female and 49 male) were analyzed after the students completed an English language course and medical introductory course in their preparatory year. The total score obtained in the English course assessment was compared to each component of the medical content assessment. Results: A significantly positive correlation (Spearman's Rho, at 0.01 levels) was seen between the scores of the English exam and the written exam (P English exam score was not obtained for the other components of the medical assessment, namely; student assignments, presentations and portfolios. Conclusion: English language proficiency is an important factor in determining academic proficiency of medical students in our college at the preparatory year level. PMID:26629471

  1. English language proficiency and academic performance: A study of a medical preparatory year program in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliyadan, Feroze; Thalamkandathil, Nazer; Parupalli, Srinivas Rao; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Balaha, Magdy Hassan; Al Bu Ali, Waleed Hamad

    2015-01-01

    All medical schools in Saudi Arabia have English as the primary official medium of instruction. Most of the high school education, however, is delivered in Arabic and hence the transition to an English based learning environment tends to be difficult for some students. Our study aims to correlate English language proficiency with academic performance among medical students in their preparatory year. A cross-sectional study design was used. Test scores of 103 preparatory year students (54 female and 49 male) were analyzed after the students completed an English language course and medical introductory course in their preparatory year. The total score obtained in the English course assessment was compared to each component of the medical content assessment. A significantly positive correlation (Spearman's Rho, at 0.01 levels) was seen between the scores of the English exam and the written exam (P correlation with the English exam score was not obtained for the other components of the medical assessment, namely; student assignments, presentations and portfolios. English language proficiency is an important factor in determining academic proficiency of medical students in our college at the preparatory year level.

  2. An Integrated Software System for Medical Equipment Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    1 of 4 AN INTEGRATED SOFTWARE SYSTEM FOR MEDICAL EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT Z. Bliznakov, N. Pallikarakis Department of Medical Physics , School of...Project Number Task Number Work Unit Number Performing Organization Name(s) and Address(es) Department of Medical Physics School of Medicine

  3. Estimating Performance of Pipelined Spoken Language Translation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rayner, M; Price, P; Lyberg, B; Rayner, Manny; Carter, David; Price, Patti; Lyberg, Bertil

    1994-01-01

    Most spoken language translation systems developed to date rely on a pipelined architecture, in which the main stages are speech recognition, linguistic analysis, transfer, generation and speech synthesis. When making projections of error rates for systems of this kind, it is natural to assume that the error rates for the individual components are independent, making the system accuracy the product of the component accuracies. The paper reports experiments carried out using the SRI-SICS-Telia Research Spoken Language Translator and a 1000-utterance sample of unseen data. The results suggest that the naive performance model leads to serious overestimates of system error rates, since there are in fact strong dependencies between the components. Predicting the system error rate on the independence assumption by simple multiplication resulted in a 16\\% proportional overestimate for all utterances, and a 19\\% overestimate when only utterances of length 1-10 words were considered.

  4. Systems biology markup language: Level 2 and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, A; Hucka, M

    2003-12-01

    The SBML (systems biology markup language) is a standard exchange format for computational models of biochemical networks. We continue developing SBML collaboratively with the modelling community to meet their evolving needs. The recently introduced SBML Level 2 includes several enhancements to the original Level 1, and features under development for SBML Level 3 include model composition, multistate chemical species and diagrams.

  5. Measuring e-learning system success: language learning

    OpenAIRE

    Maier, Simone Verena

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this master thesis is to develop and validate a comprehensive instrument for assessing e-learning systems success in the context of language learning. Based on a systematic review of literature a questionnaire was generated, empirically validated and successively improved.

  6. Application Features of Language Acquisition Assessment System in Kazakhstan: KAZTEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinayeva, Bekzat B.; Sapina, Sabira M.; Utanova, Aizada K.; Aitova, Nurlykhan N.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the analysis of peculiarities of language acquisition assessment system in Kazakhstan--KAZTEST. The author pays attention to the role of control as a way of assessment students' skills, habits and knowledge. In addition, author determined the place and functions of tests as a form of control. The author explores the…

  7. Research Methodology on Language Development from a Complex Systems Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane; Cameron, Lynne

    2008-01-01

    Changes to research methodology motivated by the adoption of a complexity theory perspective on language development are considered. The dynamic, nonlinear, and open nature of complex systems, together with their tendency toward self-organization and interaction across levels and timescales, requires changes in traditional views of the functions…

  8. Usable, Real-Time, Interactive Spoken Language Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    data coming from MIT. 1,289 utterances were truncated or contained word fragments due to stuttering . Many more contained various nonspeech sounds...performed well. Delphi has also been ported to a spuken language demonstrcation system in an Air Force Resource Management domain. We disc~ iss results of

  9. An Intelligent Computer-Based System for Sign Language Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchings, Tim; Khadragi, Ahmed; Saeb, Magdy

    2012-01-01

    A computer-based system for sign language tutoring has been developed using a low-cost data glove and a software application that processes the movement signals for signs in real-time and uses Pattern Matching techniques to decide if a trainee has closely replicated a teacher's recorded movements. The data glove provides 17 movement signals from…

  10. The International English Language Testing System (IELTS): The Speaking Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, D. E.

    1991-01-01

    The International English Language Testing System (IELTS) assesses proficiency in English both generally and for special purposes of non-native English speakers studying, training, or learning English in English-speaking countries. The Speaking subtest of the IELTS measures a candidate's general proficiency in speaking in everyday situations via a…

  11. Predicting Garden Path Sentences Based on Natural Language Understanding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DU Jia-li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural language understanding (NLU focusing onmachine reading comprehension is a branch of natural language processing (NLP. The domain of the developing NLU system covers from sentence decoding to text understanding and the automatic decoding of GP sentence belongs to the domain of NLU system. GP sentence is a special linguistic phenomenon in which processing breakdown and backtracking are two key features. Ifthe syntax-based system can present the special features of GP sentence and decode GP sentence completely and perfectly, NLU system can improve the effectiveness and develop the understanding skill greatly. On the one hand, by means of showing Octav Popescu’s model of NLU system, we argue that the emphasis on the integration of syntactic, semantic and cognitive backgrounds in system is necessary. On the other hand, we focus on the programming skill of IF-THEN-ELSE statement used in N-S flowchart and highlight the function of context free grammar (CFG created to decode GP sentence. On the basis of example-based analysis, we reach the conclusion that syntaxbased machine comprehension is technically feasible and semantically acceptable, and that N-S flowchart and CFG can help NLU system present the decoding procedure of GP sentence successfully. In short, syntax-based NLU system can bring a deeper understanding of GP sentence and thus paves the way for further development of syntax-based natural language processing and artificial intelligence.

  12. Spoken Language Understanding Systems for Extracting Semantic Information from Speech

    CERN Document Server

    Tur, Gokhan

    2011-01-01

    Spoken language understanding (SLU) is an emerging field in between speech and language processing, investigating human/ machine and human/ human communication by leveraging technologies from signal processing, pattern recognition, machine learning and artificial intelligence. SLU systems are designed to extract the meaning from speech utterances and its applications are vast, from voice search in mobile devices to meeting summarization, attracting interest from both commercial and academic sectors. Both human/machine and human/human communications can benefit from the application of SLU, usin

  13. The snow system: A decentralized medical data processing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellika, Johan Gustav; Henriksen, Torje Starbo; Yigzaw, Kassaye Yitbarek

    2015-01-01

    Systems for large-scale reuse of electronic health record data is claimed to have the potential to transform the current health care delivery system. In principle three alternative solutions for reuse exist: centralized, data warehouse, and decentralized solutions. This chapter focuses on the decentralized system alternative. Decentralized systems may be categorized into approaches that move data to enable computations or move computations to the where data is located to enable computations. We describe a system that moves computations to where the data is located. Only this kind of decentralized solution has the capabilities to become ideal systems for reuse as the decentralized alternative enables computation and reuse of electronic health record data without moving or exposing the information to outsiders. This chapter describes the Snow system, which is a decentralized medical data processing system, its components and how it has been used. It also describes the requirements this kind of systems need to support to become sustainable and successful in recruiting voluntary participation from health institutions.

  14. Independent task system to develop communicative competence in English with medical purpose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkys Gonzalez Machin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Differentiated taks system constitutes a methodological strategy in the teaching of English with medical purposes through systemic activities using the English native students of the 4th year of medicine specialty. This observational, analytic, comparative study was performed with 90 students taken from 5 groups which constituted the universe of this investigation. Each group of students by itself constituted an independent sample integrated in a fair way by native students of the English speaking countries, Spanish speaking countries and any other. This system permitted the achievement of communicative competences through an approach to the communicative knowledge of the students in their classroom interaction. Four macro habilities of the English language were developed, and the management of the language sub system was improved. An adequate preparation for future missions abroad in their labor field was obtained.

  15. The current medical education system in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Nobuo; Suzuki, Toshiya; Tohda, Shuji

    2011-07-04

    To contribute to the innovation of the medical education system in Japan, we visited 35 medical schools and 5 institutes in 12 countries of North America, Europe, Australia and Asia in 2008-2010 and observed the education system. We met the deans, medical education committee and administration affairs and discussed about the desirable education system. We also observed the facilities of medical schools.Medical education system shows marked diversity in the world. There are three types of education course; non-graduate-entry program(non-GEP), graduate-entry program(GEP) and mixed program of non-GEP and GEP. Even in the same country, several types of medical schools coexist. Although the education methods are also various among medical schools, most of the medical schools have introduced tutorial system based on PBL or TBL and simulation-based learning to create excellent medical physicians. The medical education system is variable among countries depending on the social environment. Although the change in education program may not be necessary in Japan, we have to innovate education methods; clinical training by clinical clerkship must be made more developed to foster the training of the excellent clinical physicians, and tutorial education by PBL or TBL and simulation-based learning should be introduced more actively.

  16. Pediatric medication administration errors and workflow following implementation of a bar code medication administration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardmeier, Anna; Tsourounis, Candy; Moore, Mary; Abbott, Wendy E; Guglielmo, B Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Direct observation was used to detect medication errors and Bar Code Medication Administration (BCMA) workarounds on two pediatric units and one neonatal unit at UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital. The study (1) measured the frequency of nursing medication administration-related errors, (2) characterized the types of medication errors, (3) assessed compliance with the institution's six medication administration safety processes, and (4) identified observed workarounds following BCMA implementation. The results of the direct observation were compared to medication administration-related incident reports (IRs) for the same period. The frequency of medication errors was 5% for the three units. Compliance with the process measures was achieved 86% of the time (range 23-100%). Seven medication administration-related IRs were submitted during the same observation period. Three BCMA workarounds were identified; (1) failure to visually confirm patient's identification, (2) failure to compare the medication to the electronic medication administration record at least twice before administration, and (3) charting administration of medication before actual administration. The direct observation methodology identified a low frequency of medication administration errors (MAEs) consistent with post-BCMA implementation. The incident reporting system identified different MAEs than direct observation suggesting that both methods should be used to better characterize the scope of MAEs.

  17. Specification Language NUJSL Based on JSP and Its Supporting System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永森; 何飚

    1992-01-01

    is paper presents the specification languange NUJSL and its supporting system.NUJSL is a modular specification language based on Jackson Program Design Method(JSP).With the module construction,it is convenient to use NUJSL to write larger specifications.The supporting system supports the incremental development of software specification in NUJSL,and implements the transformation both from specification to software procedural description in Jackson Schematic Logic(pseudo code)and from procedural description to PASCAL program.

  18. Medical Operations Decision Support System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Risks associated with possible medical events during space missions are challenging to identify and manage. Resources must be applied judiciously and risk must not...

  19. Medical Operations Decision Support System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Determining the probability of specific medical events on a given space mission is difficult. Yet, it is important to have reasonable estimates of these...

  20. A global physician-oriented medical information system

    CERN Document Server

    Boldt, Axel

    2008-01-01

    We propose to improve medical decision making and reduce global health care costs by employing a free Internet-based medical information system with two main target groups: practicing physicians and medical researchers. After acquiring patients' consent, physicians enter medical histories, physiological data and symptoms or disorders into the system; an integrated expert system can then assist in diagnosis and statistical software provides a list of the most promising treatment options and medications, tailored to the patient. Physicians later enter information about the outcomes of the chosen treatments, data the system uses to optimize future treatment recommendations. Medical researchers can analyze the aggregate data to compare various drugs or treatments in defined patient populations on a large scale.

  1. The development of MML (Medical Markup Language) version 3.0 as a medical document exchange format for HL7 messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinqiu; Takada, Akira; Tanaka, Koji; Sato, Junzo; Suzuki, Muneou; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Nakashima, Yusei; Araki, Kenji; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki

    2004-12-01

    Medical Markup Language (MML), as a set of standards, has been developed over the last 8 years to allow the exchange of medical data between different medical information providers. MML Version 2.21 used XML as a metalanguage and was announced in 1999. In 2001, MML was updated to Version 2.3, which contained 12 modules. The latest version--Version 3.0--is based on the HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (CDA). During the development of this new version, the structure of MML Version 2.3 was analyzed, subdivided into several categories, and redefined so the information defined in MML could be described in HL7 CDA Level One. As a result of this development, it has become possible to exchange MML Version 3.0 medical documents via HL7 messages.

  2. SHRIF, a General-Purpose System for Heuristic Retrieval of Information and Facts, Applied to Medical Knowledge Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findler, Nicholas V.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes SHRIF, a System for Heuristic Retrieval of Information and Facts, and the medical knowledge base that was used in its development. Highlights include design decisions; the user-machine interface, including the language processor; and the organization of the knowledge base in an artificial intelligence (AI) project like this one. (57…

  3. [The CORBA solution of medical imaging and communication system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Lü, Yangsheng; Yu, Hui

    2005-02-01

    Due to the difficulty of communication and information share between Medical information systems, the Object Management Group issued the software specification of CORBAMed, defining the interfaces of services, and specifying the software architecture of Medical Information System. This paper attempts to use CORBA in Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), provides a system model of CORBA solution of PACS, and analyzes the view layers structure of system, finally we discuss the related services of CORBAMed.

  4. An Intelligent Natural Language Conversational System for Academic Advising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward M. Latorre-Navarro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Academic advisors assist students in academic, professional, social and personal matters. Successful advising increases student retention, improves graduation rates and helps students meet educational goals. This work presents an advising system that assists advisors in multiple tasks using natural language. This system features a conversational agent as the user interface, an academic advising knowledge base with a method to allow the users to contribute to it, an expert system for academic planning, and a web design structure for the implementation platform. The system is operational for several hundred students from a university department. The system performed well, obtaining close to 80%, on the traditional language processing measures of precision, recall, accuracy and F1 score. Assessment from the constituencies showed positive and assuring reviews. This work provides an assessment and technological solution to the academic advising field, i.e., the first-known advising multi-task conversational system with adaptive measures for improvement. The evaluation in a real-world scenario shows its viability, and initiated the development of a corpus for academic advising, valuable for the academic and language processing research communities.

  5. Adaptive Systems Engineering: A Medical Paradigm for Practicing Systems Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Douglas Hamelin; Ron D. Klingler; Christopher Dieckmann

    2011-06-01

    From its inception in the defense and aerospace industries, SE has applied holistic, interdisciplinary tools and work-process to improve the design and management of 'large, complex engineering projects.' The traditional scope of engineering in general embraces the design, development, production, and operation of physical systems, and SE, as originally conceived, falls within that scope. While this 'traditional' view has expanded over the years to embrace wider, more holistic applications, much of the literature and training currently available is still directed almost entirely at addressing the large, complex, NASA and defense-sized systems wherein the 'ideal' practice of SE provides the cradle-to-grave foundation for system development and deployment. Under such scenarios, systems engineers are viewed as an integral part of the system and project life-cycle from conception to decommissioning. In far less 'ideal' applications, SE principles are equally applicable to a growing number of complex systems and projects that need to be 'rescued' from overwhelming challenges that threaten imminent failure. The medical profession provides a unique analogy for this latter concept and offers a useful paradigm for tailoring our 'practice' of SE to address the unexpected dynamics of applying SE in the real world. In short, we can be much more effective as systems engineers as we change some of the paradigms under which we teach and 'practice' SE.

  6. LANGUAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱妤

    2009-01-01

    @@ The word"language"comes from the Latin(拉丁语)word"lingua",which means"tongue".The tongue is used in more sound combinations(结合)than any other organ(器官)of speech.A broader(概括性的)interpretation(解释)of"language"is that it is any form of expression.This includes(包括)writing,sign(手势)language,dance,music,painting,and mathematics.But the basic(基本的)form of language is speech.

  7. Unified Medical Language System Terminology Services (UTS) API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The UTS API is intended for application developers to perform Web service calls and retrieve UMLS data within their own applications. The UTS API provides the...

  8. A Telematic Support System for Emergency Medical Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Protogerakis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The presented system is part of the research project Medon-@ ix for the safe application of information technology in preclinical emergency health care. It aims at supporting members of the emergency medical services (EMS at the incident location from a remote Competence Centre. In this paper cases in which a telematic support system can be used will be outlined. This includes the assistance of medical and non-medical staff in emergency incidents. The functional and non-functional requirements for the on site medical devices, the documentation system and the medical decision support system in the Competence Centre will be outlined. This paper also presents a possible hardware and software system architecture approach to a telematic support system.

  9. Effects and Satisfaction of Medical Device Safety Information Reporting System Using Electronic Medical Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hye Jung; Choi, Young Deuk

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This paper describes an evaluation study on the effectiveness of developing an in-hospital medical device safety information reporting system for managing safety information, including adverse incident data related to medical devices, following the enactment of the Medical Device Act in Korea. Methods Medical device safety information reports were analyzed for 190 cases that took place prior to the application of a medical device safety information reporting system and during a period when the reporting system was used. Also, questionnaires were used to measure the effectiveness of the medical device safety information reporting system. The analysis was based on the questionnaire responses of 15 reporters who submitted reports in both the pre- and post-reporting system periods. Results Sixty-two reports were submitted in paper form, but after the system was set up, this number more than doubled to 128 reports in electronic form. In terms of itemized reporting, a total of 45 items were reported. Before the system was used, 23 items had been reported, but this increased to 32 items after the system was put to use. All survey variables of satisfaction received a mean of over 3 points, while positive attitude, potential benefits, and positive benefits all exceeded 4 points, each receiving 4.20, 4.20, and 4.13, respectively. Among the variables, time-consuming and decision-making had the lowest mean values, each receiving 3.53. Satisfaction was found to be high for system quality and user satisfaction, but relatively low for time-consuming and decision-making. Conclusions We were able to verify that effective reporting and monitoring of adverse incidents and the safety of medical devices can be implemented through the establishment of an in-hospital medical device safety information reporting system that can enhance patient safety and medical device risk management. PMID:28523207

  10. Effects and Satisfaction of Medical Device Safety Information Reporting System Using Electronic Medical Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hye Jung; Choi, Young Deuk; Kim, Nam Hyun

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes an evaluation study on the effectiveness of developing an in-hospital medical device safety information reporting system for managing safety information, including adverse incident data related to medical devices, following the enactment of the Medical Device Act in Korea. Medical device safety information reports were analyzed for 190 cases that took place prior to the application of a medical device safety information reporting system and during a period when the reporting system was used. Also, questionnaires were used to measure the effectiveness of the medical device safety information reporting system. The analysis was based on the questionnaire responses of 15 reporters who submitted reports in both the pre- and post-reporting system periods. Sixty-two reports were submitted in paper form, but after the system was set up, this number more than doubled to 128 reports in electronic form. In terms of itemized reporting, a total of 45 items were reported. Before the system was used, 23 items had been reported, but this increased to 32 items after the system was put to use. All survey variables of satisfaction received a mean of over 3 points, while positive attitude, potential benefits, and positive benefits all exceeded 4 points, each receiving 4.20, 4.20, and 4.13, respectively. Among the variables, time-consuming and decision-making had the lowest mean values, each receiving 3.53. Satisfaction was found to be high for system quality and user satisfaction, but relatively low for time-consuming and decision-making. We were able to verify that effective reporting and monitoring of adverse incidents and the safety of medical devices can be implemented through the establishment of an in-hospital medical device safety information reporting system that can enhance patient safety and medical device risk management.

  11. Domain-specific languages for enterprise systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Bahr, Patrick; Henglein, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    The process-oriented event-driven transaction systems (POETS) architecture introduced by Henglein et al. is a novel software architecture for enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. POETS employs a pragmatic separation between (i) transactional data, that is, what has happened; (ii) reports...... adaptability and customisation. In this paper we present an implementation of a generalised and extended variant of the POETS architecture. The extensions amount to a customisable data model based on nominal subtyping; support for run-time changes to the data model, reports and contracts, while retaining full...... auditability; and support for referable data that may evolve over time, also while retaining full auditability as well as referential integrity. Besides the revised architecture, we present the DSLs used to specify data definitions, reports, and contracts respectively. Finally, we illustrate a use case...

  12. Medical Image Analysis by Cognitive Information Systems - a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiela, Lidia; Takizawa, Makoto

    2016-10-01

    This publication presents a review of medical image analysis systems. The paradigms of cognitive information systems will be presented by examples of medical image analysis systems. The semantic processes present as it is applied to different types of medical images. Cognitive information systems were defined on the basis of methods for the semantic analysis and interpretation of information - medical images - applied to cognitive meaning of medical images contained in analyzed data sets. Semantic analysis was proposed to analyzed the meaning of data. Meaning is included in information, for example in medical images. Medical image analysis will be presented and discussed as they are applied to various types of medical images, presented selected human organs, with different pathologies. Those images were analyzed using different classes of cognitive information systems. Cognitive information systems dedicated to medical image analysis was also defined for the decision supporting tasks. This process is very important for example in diagnostic and therapy processes, in the selection of semantic aspects/features, from analyzed data sets. Those features allow to create a new way of analysis.

  13. QUrdPro: Query processing system for Urdu Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukhsana Thaker,

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The tremendous increase in the multilingual data on the internet has increased the demand for efficient retrieval of information. Urdu is one of the widely spoken and written languages of south Asia. Due to unstructured format of Urdu language information retrieval of information is a big challenge. Question Answering systems aims to retrieve point-to-point answers rather than flooding with documents. It is needed when the user gets an in depth knowledge in a particular domain. When user needs some information, it must give the relevant answer. The question-answer retrieval of ontology knowledge base provides a convenient way to obtain knowledge for use, but the natural language need to be mapped to the query statement of ontology. This paper describes a query processing system QUrdPro based on ontology. This system is a combination of NLP and Ontology. It makes use of ontology in several phases for efficient query processing. Our focus is on the knowledge derived from the concepts used in the ontology and the relationship between these concepts. In this paper we describe the architecture of QUrdPro ,query processing system for Urdu and process model for the system is also discussed in detail.

  14. 20 CFR 405.10 - Medical and Vocational Expert System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical and Vocational Expert System. 405.10 Section 405.10 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW PROCESS FOR ADJUDICATING INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.10 Medical and Vocational Expert System. (a) General....

  15. System Dynamics in Medical Education: A Tool for Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, David M.; Richards, Christopher L.; Keene, Penelope A. C.; Paiker, Janice E.; Gray, A. Rosemary T.; Herron, Robyn F. R.; Russell, Megan J.; Wigdorowitz, Brian

    2012-01-01

    A course in system dynamics has been included in the first year of our university's six-year medical curriculum. System Dynamics is a discipline that facilitates the modelling, simulation and analysis of a wide range of problems in terms of two fundamental concepts viz. rates and levels. Many topics encountered in the medical school curriculum,…

  16. Development of the New Rural Cooperative Medical System in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanzhong Wang

    2007-01-01

    Based on a survey conducted by our research team at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, the present paper reports on the development of China's new rural cooperative medical system set up in late 2002. The new rural cooperative medical system is different from the old system in that it is organized, guided and supported by the government but that rural residents voluntarily participate in its administration. It is financed by individuals,collectives and the government. The new cooperative medical system focuses on serious disease planning and mutual aid and fraternity between rural residents in health care. The results of our survey indicate that the new rural medical system has been successful up to now but that it also has some problems. China needs to pay more attention to overcoming the difficulties and challenges it faces in terms of future medical needs so that a mechanism for its sustainable development can be established.

  17. Preventable Medical Errors Driven Modeling of Medical Best Practice Guidance Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Andrew Y-Z; Jiang, Yu; Wu, Po-Liang; Sha, Lui; Berlin, Richard B

    2017-01-01

    In a medical environment such as Intensive Care Unit, there are many possible reasons to cause errors, and one important reason is the effect of human intellectual tasks. When designing an interactive healthcare system such as medical Cyber-Physical-Human Systems (CPHSystems), it is important to consider whether the system design can mitigate the errors caused by these tasks or not. In this paper, we first introduce five categories of generic intellectual tasks of humans, where tasks among each category may lead to potential medical errors. Then, we present an integrated modeling framework to model a medical CPHSystem and use UPPAAL as the foundation to integrate and verify the whole medical CPHSystem design models. With a verified and comprehensive model capturing the human intellectual tasks effects, we can design a more accurate and acceptable system. We use a cardiac arrest resuscitation guidance and navigation system (CAR-GNSystem) for such medical CPHSystem modeling. Experimental results show that the CPHSystem models help determine system design flaws and can mitigate the potential medical errors caused by the human intellectual tasks.

  18. Development of Medical Insurance in Ukraine: System Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svechkina Alina L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in building up a scientifically justified system of medical insurance for formation of efficient socio-economic protection of population in Ukraine. Having considered the system of medical insurance as a complex system, the article identifies its main characteristics, namely: integrity, hierarchy, structure, purposefulness, controllability, dynamics and openness. In the result of the study the article allocates the structure of the system of medical insurance, which contains four subsystems: formation, distribution, use of financial resources and control. The article justifies a necessity of development of the system with the aim of realisation of such principles of its functioning as prospectiveness, priority, realisation and step-by-step. Prospects of further studies in this direction are identification of the degree of attraction of private and state financial resources for healthcare, organisation of mandatory medical insurance, further development of voluntary medical insurance and health insurance funds with consideration of specific features of functioning of the national economy of Ukraine. Further development of the system of medical insurance would facilitate introduction of the state and private subsystems of financial provision, increase of efficiency of management in combination with development of the medical science and would ensure gradual changes in the healthcare system, which would have a positive influence upon improvement of health of the population and increase of socio-economic efficiency of the medical industry of Ukraine.

  19. [The role of motivation of medical personnel in system of medical care quality support].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogosian, S G; Sidorenkov, D A; Balokhina, S A; Orlov, A E

    2014-01-01

    The article considers causes of insufficient quality of medical care. The low motivation of paramedical personnel during medical services rendering is examined. The sociological survey data made it possible to analyze opinion of students of medical college as future paramedical personnel concerning attractiveness of this profession. Their social and material status was established. The notions concerning possibility of carrier and professional progress were established too. The factors hampering involvement of this category of professionals into public health system and negatively impacting medical care quality were analyzed.

  20. Rosen's (M,R) system in Unified Modelling Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Williams, Richard A; Gatherer, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Robert Rosen's (M,R) system is an abstract biological network architecture that is allegedly non-computable on a Turing machine. If (M,R) is truly non-computable, there are serious implications for the modelling of large biological networks in computer software. A body of work has now accumulated addressing Rosen's claim concerning (M,R) by attempting to instantiate it in various software systems. However, a conclusive refutation has remained elusive, principally since none of the attempts to date have unambiguously avoided the critique that they have altered the properties of (M,R) in the coding process, producing merely approximate simulations of (M,R) rather than true computational models. In this paper, we use the Unified Modelling Language (UML), a diagrammatic notation standard, to express (M,R) as a system of objects having attributes, functions and relations. We believe that this instantiates (M,R) in such a way than none of the original properties of the system are corrupted in the process. Crucially, we demonstrate that (M,R) as classically represented in the relational biology literature is implicitly a UML communication diagram. Furthermore, since UML is formally compatible with object-oriented computing languages, instantiation of (M,R) in UML strongly implies its computability in object-oriented coding languages.

  1. Non-native English language speakers benefit most from the use of lecture capture in medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Graham P; Molnar, David

    2011-01-01

    Medical education in the United States and Canada continues to evolve. However, many of the changes in pedagogy are being made without appropriate evaluation. Here, we attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of lecture capture technology as a learning tool in Podiatric medical education. In this pilot project, student performance in an inaugural lecture capture-supported biochemistry course was compared to that in the previous academic year. To examine the impact of online lecture podcasts on student performance a within-subjects design was implemented, a two way ANCOVA with repeated measures. The use of lecture capture-supported pedagogy resulted in significantly higher student test scores, than achieved historically using traditional pedagogy. The overall course performance using this lecture capture-supported pedagogy was almost 6% higher than in the previous year. Non-native English language speakers benefitted more significantly from the lecture capture-supported pedagogy than native English language speakers, since their performance improved by 10.0 points. Given that underrepresented minority (URM) students, whose native language is not English, makes up a growing proportion of medical school matriculates, these observations support the use of lecture capture technology in other courses. Furthermore, this technology may also be used as part of an academic enrichment plan to improve performance on the American Podiatric Medical Licensing Examination, reduce the attrition of URM students and potentially address the predicted minority physician shortage in 2020.

  2. An Avatar-Based Italian Sign Language Visualization System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falletto, Andrea; Prinetto, Paolo; Tiotto, Gabriele

    In this paper, we present an experimental system that supports the translation from Italian to Italian Sign Language (ISL) of the deaf and its visualization through a virtual character. Our objective is to develop a complete platform useful for any application and reusable on several platforms including Web, Digital Television and offline text translation. The system relies on a database that stores both a corpus of Italian words and words coded in the ISL notation system. An interface for the insertion of data is implemented, that allows future extensions and integrations.

  3. Language Acquisition and Language Learning: Developing the System of External and Internal Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zascerinska, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The use of three-five languages is of the greatest importance in order to form varied cooperative networks for the creation of new knowledge. Aim of the paper is to analyze the synergy between language acquisition and language learning. Materials and Methods. The search for the synergy between language acquisition and language…

  4. Exploiting Lexical Regularities in Designing Natural Language Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASKN Artificial Inteligence Laboratory A1A4WR NTumet 0) 545 Technology Square Cambridge, MA 02139 Ln *t- CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND...RO-RI95 922 EXPLOITING LEXICAL REGULARITIES IN DESIGNING NATURAL 1/1 LANGUAGE SYSTENS(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE...oes.ary and ftdou.Ip hr Nl wow" L,2This paper presents the lexical component of the START Question Answering system developed at the MIT Artificial

  5. Medical education in cyberspace: critical considerations in the health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Shahram; Khoshgoftar, Zohreh; Ahmady, Soleiman; Rastegarpour, Hassan; Foroutan, Seyed Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few decades, two revolutionary approaches have emerged as a new form of medical education: Electronic Medical Education and Web-based Medical Education. A number of well-known medical institutions, such as Harvard and Johns Hopkins used a wide range of cyberspace capabilities to increase their competitiveness. Researchers have expressed that cyberspace will change health system's main objective of training physicians and medical education. We conducted this study to identify the health system critical considerations on core issues, involving the development of medical education on cyberspace. In order to conduct this study, we observed the steps of a critical literature review, combined with the 'Four-phase method' adopted by Carnwell and Daly. We focused on particular literature on health and cyber system functions; it was associated with systemic approach. We developed a six-level taxonomy, Cyber level, Governance level, Ministerial level, Organizational level, Program level and Performance level, as a key solution that can be applied for the success of medical education on cyberspace. The results were summarized and appraised in more details. Medical education on cyberspace is a complex interdisciplinary system. It is important that all aspects of the health systems be involved as integral to the development of cyber based medical education; without this convergence, we will be confused by the decisions made by others within the system. Health system should also communicate with those external sectors that are critical to achieving better learning on cyberspace. Integrated planning, governance and management of medical education in cyberspace are pivotal elements for the promotion.

  6. The search for the elusive electronic medical record system--medical liability, the missing factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, R R; Moyer, E H

    1997-02-01

    Over the past few years, the traditional paper-based medical record system has come under close scrutiny by every participant in the healthcare industry. Some groups, especially federal agencies such as Medicare and Medicaid, HMOs, and other third party payors, have begun to demand changes in medical record documentation, and have become very assertive as to what goals and objectives will be met. In contrast, the medical liability insurance industry has remained almost invisible during this period of transition. At a recent electronic medical records (EMR) conference participants attending a software development workshop were asked if they had their systems reviewed from a medicolegal standpoint by a malpractice insurance carrier. In response to this inquiry, not one software vendor raised their hand to indicate this had been accomplished, or was even contemplated. In the author's opinion, the key missing factor in the current quest for a paperless medical office system rests in the domain of those who represent the medical liability industry. All of these gate-keepers of medical loss and risk prevention will eventually be called upon, either by choice or necessity, to validate every working EMR system that is used in medical practices in the future. This article will explore the best information published from this currently silent sector of the industry, and proposes an active involvement by the medical liability industry in the current EMR design and development processes taking place. In addition, there are 10 minimum EMR design criteria contained in this article that are recommended for implementation based upon 16 years of medical malpractice experience and loss prevention input.

  7. Applying a visual language for image processing as a graphical teaching tool in medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchman, James J.; Tanimoto, Steven L.; Rowberg, Alan H.; Choi, Hyung-Sik; Kim, Yongmin

    1992-05-01

    Typical user interaction in image processing is with command line entries, pull-down menus, or text menu selections from a list, and as such is not generally graphical in nature. Although applying these interactive methods to construct more sophisticated algorithms from a series of simple image processing steps may be clear to engineers and programmers, it may not be clear to clinicians. A solution to this problem is to implement a visual programming language using visual representations to express image processing algorithms. Visual representations promote a more natural and rapid understanding of image processing algorithms by providing more visual insight into what the algorithms do than the interactive methods mentioned above can provide. Individuals accustomed to dealing with images will be more likely to understand an algorithm that is represented visually. This is especially true of referring physicians, such as surgeons in an intensive care unit. With the increasing acceptance of picture archiving and communications system (PACS) workstations and the trend toward increasing clinical use of image processing, referring physicians will need to learn more sophisticated concepts than simply image access and display. If the procedures that they perform commonly, such as window width and window level adjustment and image enhancement using unsharp masking, are depicted visually in an interactive environment, it will be easier for them to learn and apply these concepts. The software described in this paper is a visual programming language for imaging processing which has been implemented on the NeXT computer using NeXTstep user interface development tools and other tools in an object-oriented environment. The concept is based upon the description of a visual language titled `Visualization of Vision Algorithms' (VIVA). Iconic representations of simple image processing steps are placed into a workbench screen and connected together into a dataflow path by the user. As

  8. MedRapid--medical community & business intelligence system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkeissen, E; Fuchs, H; Jakob, T; Wetter, T

    2002-01-01

    currently, it takes at least 6 months for researchers to communicate their results. This delay is caused (a) by partial lacks of machine support for both representation as well as communication and (b) by media breaks during the communication process. To make an integrated communication between researchers and practitioners possible, a general structure for medical content representation has been set up. The procedure for data entry and quality management has been generalized and implemented in a web-based authoring system. The MedRapid-system supports the medical experts in entering their knowledge into a database. Here, the level of detail is still below that of current medical guidelines representation. However, the symmetric structure for an area-wide medical knowledge representation is highly retrievable and thus can quickly be communicated into daily routine for the improvement of the treatment quality. In addition, other sources like journal articles and medical guidelines can be references within the MedRapid-system and thus be communicated into daily routine. The fundamental system for the representation of medical reference knowledge (from reference works/books) itself is not sufficient for the friction-less communication amongst medical staff. Rather, the process of (a) representing medical knowledge, (b) refereeing the represented knowledge, (c) communicating the represented knowledge, and (d) retrieving the represented knowledge has to be unified. MedRapid will soon support the whole process on one server system.

  9. Root system markup language: toward a unified root architecture description language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobet, Guillaume; Pound, Michael P; Diener, Julien; Pradal, Christophe; Draye, Xavier; Godin, Christophe; Javaux, Mathieu; Leitner, Daniel; Meunier, Félicien; Nacry, Philippe; Pridmore, Tony P; Schnepf, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    The number of image analysis tools supporting the extraction of architectural features of root systems has increased in recent years. These tools offer a handy set of complementary facilities, yet it is widely accepted that none of these software tools is able to extract in an efficient way the growing array of static and dynamic features for different types of images and species. We describe the Root System Markup Language (RSML), which has been designed to overcome two major challenges: (1) to enable portability of root architecture data between different software tools in an easy and interoperable manner, allowing seamless collaborative work; and (2) to provide a standard format upon which to base central repositories that will soon arise following the expanding worldwide root phenotyping effort. RSML follows the XML standard to store two- or three-dimensional image metadata, plant and root properties and geometries, continuous functions along individual root paths, and a suite of annotations at the image, plant, or root scale at one or several time points. Plant ontologies are used to describe botanical entities that are relevant at the scale of root system architecture. An XML schema describes the features and constraints of RSML, and open-source packages have been developed in several languages (R, Excel, Java, Python, and C#) to enable researchers to integrate RSML files into popular research workflow.

  10. Guidelines for Managing the Implementation of Automated Medical Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Bob; Harbort, Bob; Kaplan, Bonnie; Maxwell, Joseph

    1981-01-01

    The nontechnical aspects of medical computing systems are as important as the technical. We offer some reasons why. We discuss the social context of systems, the human engineering necessary for medical systems to work, and the specifics of the man machine interface. We offer some suggestions for planning for the change which comes with any new method. Finally, we take a step that has often been neglected in such “how to do it” approaches and describe a theoretical framework for understanding ...

  11. Revolutionary advances in medical waste management. The Sanitec system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlich, Richard F; Borel, Lise; Jensen, H Gordon; Winters, Kathryne L; Long, William B; Gubler, K Dean; Buschbacher, Ralph M; Becker, Daniel G; Chang, Dillon E; Korngold, Jonathan; Chitwood, W Randolph; Lin, Kant Y; Nichter, Larry S; Berenson, Susan; Britt, L D; Tafel, John A

    2006-01-01

    It is the purpose of this collective review to provide a detailed outline of a revolutionary medical waste disposal system that should be used in all medical centers in the world to prevent pollution of our planet from medical waste. The Sanitec medical waste disposal system consists of the following seven components: (1) an all-weather steel enclosure of the waste management system, allowing it to be used inside or outside of the hospital center; (2) an automatic mechanical lift-and-load system that protects the workers from devastating back injuries; (3) a sophisticated shredding system designed for medical waste; (4) a series of air filters including the High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter; (5) microwave disinfection of the medical waste material; (6) a waste compactor or dumpster; and (7) an onboard microprocessor. It must be emphasized that this waste management system can be used either inside or outside the hospital. From start to finish, the Sanitec Microwave Disinfection system is designed to provide process and engineering controls that assure complete disinfection and destruction, while minimizing the operator's exposure to risk. There are numerous technologic benefits to the Sanitec systems, including environmental, operational, physical, and disinfection efficiency as well as waste residue disinfection. Wastes treated through the Sanitec system are thoroughly disinfected, unrecognizable, and reduced in volume by approximately 80% (saving valuable landfill space and reducing hauling requirements and costs). They are acceptable in any municipal solid waste program. Sanitec's Zero Pollution Advantage is augmented by a complete range of services, including installation, startup, testing, training, maintenance, and repair, over the life of this system. The Sanitec waste management system has essentially been designed to provide the best overall solution to the customer, when that customer actually looks at the total cost of dealing with the

  12. Medical education in cyberspace: critical considerations in the health system

    Science.gov (United States)

    YAZDANI, SHAHRAM; KHOSHGOFTAR, ZOHREH; AHMADY, SOLEIMAN; RASTEGARPOUR, HASSAN; FOROUTAN, SEYED ABBAS

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Over the past few decades, two revolutionary approaches have emerged as a new form of medical education: Electronic Medical Education and Web-based Medical Education. A number of well-known medical institutions, such as Harvard and Johns Hopkins used a wide range of cyberspace capabilities to increase their competitiveness. Researchers have expressed that cyberspace will change health system’s main objective of training physicians and medical education. We conducted this study to identify the health system critical considerations on core issues, involving the development of medical education on cyberspace. Methods: In order to conduct this study, we observed the steps of a critical literature review, combined with the ‘Four-phase method’ adopted by Carnwell and Daly. We focused on particular literature on health and cyber system functions; it was associated with systemic approach. Results: We developed a six-level taxonomy, Cyber level, Governance level, Ministerial level, Organizational level, Program level and Performance level, as a key solution that can be applied for the success of medical education on cyberspace. The results were summarized and appraised in more details. Conclusion: Medical education on cyberspace is a complex interdisciplinary system. It is important that all aspects of the health systems be involved as integral to the development of cyber based medical education; without this convergence, we will be confused by the decisions made by others within the system. Health system should also communicate with those external sectors that are critical to achieving better learning on cyberspace. Integrated planning, governance and management of medical education in cyberspace are pivotal elements for the promotion. PMID:28124017

  13. Features of commercial computer software systems for medical examiners and coroners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzlick, R L; Parrish, R G; Ing, R

    1993-12-01

    There are many ways of automating medical examiner and coroner offices, one of which is to purchase commercial software products specifically designed for death investigation. We surveyed four companies that offer such products and requested information regarding each company and its hardware, software, operating systems, peripheral devices, applications, networking options, programming language, querying capability, coding systems, prices, customer support, and number and size of offices using the product. Although the four products (CME2, ForenCIS, InQuest, and Medical Examiner's Software System) are similar in many respects and each can be installed on personal computers, there are differences among the products with regard to cost, applications, and the other features. Death investigators interested in office automation should explore these products to determine the usefulness of each in comparison with the others and in comparison with general-purpose, off-the-shelf databases and software adaptable to death investigation needs.

  14. The electronic medical record system: health care marvel or morass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, D C

    1998-01-01

    The author considers the potential advantages and disadvantages, as well as possible unintended consequences, of introducing electronic medical record systems in health care organizations. Special consideration is given to the issues such information systems raise concerning privacy, confidentiality, and quality of care from both patient and provider perspectives. The potential gains from computerizing medical records include the benefit of instantaneous availability of patients' medical history, treatment regimes, and current health status in routine and emergency clinical situations. Ease of access to this information should reduce adverse outcomes. The added value of a complete and up-to-date medical record immediately available to medical caregivers seems undeniable. The potential disadvantages include issues around patient confidentiality and unauthorized access to records, the enormous capital investment for computer hardware, and system maintenance.

  15. English to Tamil machine translation system using universal networking language

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RAJESWARI SRIDHAR; PAVITHRA SETHURAMAN; KASHYAP KRISHNAKUMAR

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes English to Tamil machine translation system, using the universal networking language (UNL) as the intermediate representation. The UNL approach is a hybrid approach of the rule and knowledge-based approaches to machine translation. UNL is a declarative formal language, specifically designed to represent semantic data extracted from a natural language text. The input English sentence is converted to UNL (enconversion), which is then converted to a Tamil sentence (deconversion) by ensuring thatthe meaning of the input sentence is preserved. The representation of UNL was modified to suit the translation process. A new sentence formation algorithm was also proposed to rearrange the translated Tamil words to sentences. The translation system was evaluated using bilingual evaluation understudy (BLEU) score. A BLEU score of 0.581 was achieved, which is an indication that most of the information in the input sentence is retained in the translated sentence. The scores obtained using the UNL based approach were compared with existingapproaches to translation, and it can be concluded that the UNL is a more suited approach to machine translation.

  16. The role of analytical sciences in medical systems biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greef, J. van der; Stroobant, P.; Heijden, R. van der

    2004-01-01

    Medical systems biology has generated widespread interest because of its bold conception and exciting potential, but the field is still in its infancy. Although there has been tremendous progress achieved recently in generating, integrating and analysing data in the medical and pharmaceutical field,

  17. Astronaut Jack Lousma with part of Inflight Medical Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, reaches into a medical kit, part of the Inflight Medical Support System (IMSS), during training for the second manned Skylab Earth-orbital mission. This activity took place in the Orbital Workshop (OWS) trainer in the Mission Simulation and Training Facility at JSC.

  18. Public Policy Systems Dealing with Ethically Contested Medical Technological Innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, Rob

    2008-01-01

    The questions tackled in this paper are: How do we deal with ethically contested medical innovations?, and Can we do better? First, I analyse how we deal with these problems by a division of labour and competitive boundary work between the medical R&D system's research and technological imperative,

  19. Syllable Analysis to Build a Dictation System in Telugu language

    CERN Document Server

    Kalyani, N

    2010-01-01

    In recent decades, Speech interactive systems gained increasing importance. To develop Dictation System like Dragon for Indian languages it is most important to adapt the system to a speaker with minimum training. In this paper we focus on the importance of creating speech database at syllable units and identifying minimum text to be considered while training any speech recognition system. There are systems developed for continuous speech recognition in English and in few Indian languages like Hindi and Tamil. This paper gives the statistical details of syllables in Telugu and its use in minimizing the search space during recognition of speech. The minimum words that cover maximum syllables are identified. This words list can be used for preparing a small text which can be used for collecting speech sample while training the dictation system. The results are plotted for frequency of syllables and the number of syllables in each word. This approach is applied on the CIIL Mysore text corpus which is of 3 millio...

  20. Syllable Analysis to Build a Dictation System in Telugu language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kalyani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, Speech interactive systems gained increasing importance. To develop Dictation System like Dragon for Indian languages it is most important to adapt the system to a speaker with minimum training. In this paper we focus on the importance of creating speech database at syllable units and identifying minimum text to be considered while training any speech recognition system. There are systems developed for continuous speech recognition in English and in few Indian languages like Hindi and Tamil. This paper gives the statistical details of syllables in Telugu and its use in minimizing the search space during recognition of speech. The minimum words that cover maximum syllables are identified. This words list can be used for preparing a small text which can be used for collecting speech sample while training the dictation system. The results are plotted for frequency of syllables and the number of syllables in each word. This approach is applied on the CIIL Mysore text corpus which is of 3 million words.

  1. ASLan++ — A Formal Security Specification Language for Distributed Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Oheimb, David; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces ASLan++, the AVANTSSAR Specification Language. ASLan++ has been designed for formally specifying dynamically composed security-sensitive web services and service-oriented architectures, their associated security policies, as well as their security properties, at both...... communication and application level. We introduce the main concepts of ASLan++ at a small but very instructive running example, abstracted form a company intranet scenario, that features non-linear and inter-dependent workflows, communication security at different abstraction levels including an explicit...... credentialsbased authentication mechanism, dynamic access control policies, and the related security goals. This demonstrates the flexibility and expressiveness of the language, and that the resulting models are logically adequate, while on the other hand they are clear to read and feasible to construct for system...

  2. An Expressive Language and Efficient Execution System for Software Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Barish, G; 10.1613/jair.1548

    2011-01-01

    Software agents can be used to automate many of the tedious, time-consuming information processing tasks that humans currently have to complete manually. However, to do so, agent plans must be capable of representing the myriad of actions and control flows required to perform those tasks. In addition, since these tasks can require integrating multiple sources of remote information ? typically, a slow, I/O-bound process ? it is desirable to make execution as efficient as possible. To address both of these needs, we present a flexible software agent plan language and a highly parallel execution system that enable the efficient execution of expressive agent plans. The plan language allows complex tasks to be more easily expressed by providing a variety of operators for flexibly processing the data as well as supporting subplans (for modularity) and recursion (for indeterminate looping). The executor is based on a streaming dataflow model of execution to maximize the amount of operator and data parallelism possib...

  3. Easing semantically enriched information retrieval-An interactive semi-automatic annotation system for medical documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwandtner, Theresia; Kaiser, Katharina; Martini, Patrick; Miksch, Silvia

    2010-06-01

    Mapping medical concepts from a terminology system to the concepts in the narrative text of a medical document is necessary to provide semantically accurate information for further processing steps. The MetaMap Transfer (MMTx) program is a semantic annotation system that generates a rough mapping of concepts from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus to free medical text, but this mapping still contains erroneous and ambiguous bits of information. Since manually correcting the mapping is an extremely cumbersome and time-consuming task, we have developed the MapFace editor.The editor provides a convenient way of navigating the annotated information gained from the MMTx output, and enables users to correct this information on both a conceptual and a syntactical level, and thus it greatly facilitates the handling of the MMTx program. Additionally, the editor provides enhanced visualization features to support the correct interpretation of medical concepts within the text. We paid special attention to ensure that the MapFace editor is an intuitive and convenient tool to work with. Therefore, we recently conducted a usability study in order to create a well founded background serving as a starting point for further improvement of the editor's usability.

  4. Role of the motor system in language knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, Iris; Brem, Anna-Katharine; Zhao, Xu; Seligson, Erica; Pan, Hong; Epstein, Jane; Stern, Emily; Galaburda, Albert M; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2015-02-17

    All spoken languages express words by sound patterns, and certain patterns (e.g., blog) are systematically preferred to others (e.g., lbog). What principles account for such preferences: does the language system encode abstract rules banning syllables like lbog, or does their dislike reflect the increased motor demands associated with speech production? More generally, we ask whether linguistic knowledge is fully embodied or whether some linguistic principles could potentially be abstract. To address this question, here we gauge the sensitivity of English speakers to the putative universal syllable hierarchy (e.g., blif ≻ bnif ≻ bdif ≻ lbif) while undergoing transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the cortical motor representation of the left orbicularis oris muscle. If syllable preferences reflect motor simulation, then worse-formed syllables (e.g., lbif) should (i) elicit more errors; (ii) engage more strongly motor brain areas; and (iii) elicit stronger effects of TMS on these motor regions. In line with the motor account, we found that repetitive TMS pulses impaired participants' global sensitivity to the number of syllables, and functional MRI confirmed that the cortical stimulation site was sensitive to the syllable hierarchy. Contrary to the motor account, however, ill-formed syllables were least likely to engage the lip sensorimotor area and they were least impaired by TMS. Results suggest that speech perception automatically triggers motor action, but this effect is not causally linked to the computation of linguistic structure. We conclude that the language and motor systems are intimately linked, yet distinct. Language is designed to optimize motor action, but its knowledge includes principles that are disembodied and potentially abstract.

  5. Osiris: a medical image-manipulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligier, Y; Ratib, O; Logean, M; Girard, C

    1994-01-01

    We designed a general-purpose computer program, Osiris, for the display, manipulation, and analysis of digital medical images. The program offers an intuitive, window-based interface with direct access to generic tools. Characterized by user-friendliness, portability, and extensibility, Osiris is compatible with both Unix-based and Macintosh-based platforms. It is readily modified and can be used to develop new tools. It is able to monitor the entries made during a work session and thus provide data on its use. Osiris and its source code are being distributed, free of charge, to universities and research groups around the world.

  6. Philosophical Ideas in Saussure's Theory of Language and Halliday' s Systemic Functional Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑映雪

    2011-01-01

    How Halliday's systemic functional grammar was affected by Saussure's theory of language and what the great significance of their philosophical ideas is.The paper explains those two problems from the clue of the philosophical ideas of language.

  7. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML): Language Specification for Level 3 Version 1 Core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucka, Michael; Bergmann, Frank T; Hoops, Stefan; Keating, Sarah M; Sahle, Sven; Schaff, James C; Smith, Lucian P; Wilkinson, Darren J

    2015-09-04

    Computational models can help researchers to interpret data, understand biological function, and make quantitative predictions. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) is a file format for representing computational models in a declarative form that can be exchanged between different software systems. SBML is oriented towards describing biological processes of the sort common in research on a number of topics, including metabolic pathways, cell signaling pathways, and many others. By supporting SBML as an input/output format, different tools can all operate on an identical representation of a model, removing opportunities for translation errors and assuring a common starting point for analyses and simulations. This document provides the specification for Version 1 of SBML Level 3 Core. The specification defines the data structures prescribed by SBML as well as their encoding in XML, the eXtensible Markup Language. This specification also defines validation rules that determine the validity of an SBML document, and provides many examples of models in SBML form. Other materials and software are available from the SBML project web site, http://sbml.org/.

  8. Multilingual medical dialog system developed as smartphone/tablet application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Akira; Takasu, Kento; Kojima, Takehito; Miyao, Masaru; Sugita, Namiho; Sakai, Yuki; Kato, Keisuke

    2013-01-01

    Along with the concomitant rise in foreign residents in Japan has come the need to improve understanding at several social levels. The need for clear communication is most immediate in the area of the emergency or health care fields. Several types of apps exist that can be used to assist with communication between Japanese medical staff and foreign patients. However, there are problems with ease of use. This study asked 34 subjects to evaluate three types of touch designs with the "ExLanguage Nurse" to improve the usability of such multilingual apps. Results indicate that touch designs on the apps are related to ease of usability.

  9. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES THEORY – A MILESTONE INNOVATION IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NIŠ MEDICAL SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Bakić-Mirić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Theory of multiple intelligences is considered an innovation in both teaching and learning English language because it helps students develop all the eight intelligences that are grouped as verbal/linguistic, logical/mathematical, visual/spatial, bodily/kinesthetic, musical/rhythmic, interpersonal, intrapersonal and naturalist. The aforementioned intelligences are thought to represent ways in which individuals understand and perceive the world, solve problems and learn. Correspondingly, by focusing on the problem solving activities, teachers, by implementing theory of multiple intelligences encourage students not only to build-up their existing language knowledge but also learn new content and skills. The implementation of the theory of multiple intelligences in teaching the English language at the University of Niš Medical School has had a positive impact on learning English language and increased students' interest in language learning. Genarally speaking, this theory offers a better understanding of students’ intelligence and a greater appreciation of their strengths. It provides numerous opportunities for students to use and develop all the eight intelligences not just the few they excel in prior to enrolling a university or college.

  10. A Comparison and Evaluation of Real-Time Software Systems Modeling Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evensen, Kenneth D.; Weiss, Kathryn Anne

    2010-01-01

    A model-driven approach to real-time software systems development enables the conceptualization of software, fostering a more thorough understanding of its often complex architecture and behavior while promoting the documentation and analysis of concerns common to real-time embedded systems such as scheduling, resource allocation, and performance. Several modeling languages have been developed to assist in the model-driven software engineering effort for real-time systems, and these languages are beginning to gain traction with practitioners throughout the aerospace industry. This paper presents a survey of several real-time software system modeling languages, namely the Architectural Analysis and Design Language (AADL), the Unified Modeling Language (UML), Systems Modeling Language (SysML), the Modeling and Analysis of Real-Time Embedded Systems (MARTE) UML profile, and the AADL for UML profile. Each language has its advantages and disadvantages, and in order to adequately describe a real-time software system's architecture, a complementary use of multiple languages is almost certainly necessary. This paper aims to explore these languages in the context of understanding the value each brings to the model-driven software engineering effort and to determine if it is feasible and practical to combine aspects of the various modeling languages to achieve more complete coverage in architectural descriptions. To this end, each language is evaluated with respect to a set of criteria such as scope, formalisms, and architectural coverage. An example is used to help illustrate the capabilities of the various languages.

  11. Exploration Medical Capability System Engineering Introduction and Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindock, J.; Reilly, J.

    2017-01-01

    Human exploration missions to beyond low Earth orbit destinations such as Mars will require more autonomous capability compared to current low Earth orbit operations. For the medical system, lack of consumable resupply, evacuation opportunities, and real-time ground support are key drivers toward greater autonomy. Recognition of the limited mission and vehicle resources available to carry out exploration missions motivates the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element's approach to enabling the necessary autonomy. The Element's work must integrate with the overall exploration mission and vehicle design efforts to successfully provide exploration medical capabilities. ExMC is applying systems engineering principles and practices to accomplish its integrative goals. This talk will briefly introduce the discipline of systems engineering and key points in its application to exploration medical capability development. It will elucidate technical medical system needs to be met by the systems engineering work, and the structured and integrative science and engineering approach to satisfying those needs, including the development of shared mental and qualitative models within and external to the human health and performance community. These efforts are underway to ensure relevancy to exploration system maturation and to establish medical system development that is collaborative with vehicle and mission design and engineering efforts.

  12. Integrating Language and Content Instruction in a Health Awareness Course for Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    NAGAHASHI, Terri Lee

    2008-01-01

    Content-based instruction (CBI) is an integrated-skills approach for teaching English as a second or foreign language(ESL/EFL) that emphasizes learning content while simultaneously developing language skills. This approach hasbeen gaining popularity in EFL programs in Japanese universities (Crawford, 2004; Hadley, 1999; Mackenzie, 2000;Murphy, 1997). Previous research on content-based language instruction has shown that this approach is “especiallyeffective in promoting the acquisition of sec...

  13. Evaluation of an Expert System for the Generation of Speech and Language Therapy Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Bykbaev, Vladimir; López-Nores, Martín; García-Duque, Jorge; Pazos-Arias, José J; Arévalo-Lucero, Daysi

    2016-07-01

    Speech and language pathologists (SLPs) deal with a wide spectrum of disorders, arising from many different conditions, that affect voice, speech, language, and swallowing capabilities in different ways. Therefore, the outcomes of Speech and Language Therapy (SLT) are highly dependent on the accurate, consistent, and complete design of personalized therapy plans. However, SLPs often have very limited time to work with their patients and to browse the large (and growing) catalogue of activities and specific exercises that can be put into therapy plans. As a consequence, many plans are suboptimal and fail to address the specific needs of each patient. We aimed to evaluate an expert system that automatically generates plans for speech and language therapy, containing semiannual activities in the five areas of hearing, oral structure and function, linguistic formulation, expressive language and articulation, and receptive language. The goal was to assess whether the expert system speeds up the SLPs' work and leads to more accurate, consistent, and complete therapy plans for their patients. We examined the evaluation results of the SPELTA expert system in supporting the decision making of 4 SLPs treating children in three special education institutions in Ecuador. The expert system was first trained with data from 117 cases, including medical data; diagnosis for voice, speech, language and swallowing capabilities; and therapy plans created manually by the SLPs. It was then used to automatically generate new therapy plans for 13 new patients. The SLPs were finally asked to evaluate the accuracy, consistency, and completeness of those plans. A four-fold cross-validation experiment was also run on the original corpus of 117 cases in order to assess the significance of the results. The evaluation showed that 87% of the outputs provided by the SPELTA expert system were considered valid therapy plans for the different areas. The SLPs rated the overall accuracy, consistency

  14. Developing a user-centered voluntary medical incident reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Lei; Gong, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Medical errors are one of leading causes of death among adults in the United States. According to the Institute of Medicine, reporting of medical incidents could be a cornerstone to learn from errors and to improve patient safety, if incident data are collected in a properly structured format which is useful for the detection of patterns, discovery of underlying factors, and generation of solutions. Globally, a number of medical incident reporting systems were deployed for collecting observable incident data in care delivery organizations (CDO) over the past several years. However, few researches delved into design of user-centered reporting system for improving completeness and accuracy of medical incident collection, let alone design models created for other institutes to follow. In this paper, we introduce the problems identified in a current using voluntary reporting system and our effort is being made towards complete, accurate and useful user-centered new reporting system through a usability engineering process.

  15. Testing primates with joystick-based automated apparatus - Lessons from the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1992-01-01

    Nonhuman primates provide useful models for studying a variety of medical, biological, and behavioral topics. Four years of joystick-based automated testing of monkeys using the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System (LRC-CTS) are examined to derive hints and principles for comparable testing with other species - including humans. The results of multiple parametric studies are reviewed, and reliability data are presented to reveal the surprises and pitfalls associated with video-task testing of performance.

  16. Testing primates with joystick-based automated apparatus - Lessons from the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1992-01-01

    Nonhuman primates provide useful models for studying a variety of medical, biological, and behavioral topics. Four years of joystick-based automated testing of monkeys using the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System (LRC-CTS) are examined to derive hints and principles for comparable testing with other species - including humans. The results of multiple parametric studies are reviewed, and reliability data are presented to reveal the surprises and pitfalls associated with video-task testing of performance.

  17. Glasses-free 3D viewing systems for medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Daniel S. F.; Serra, Rolando L.; Vannucci, André L.; Moreno, Alfredo B.; Li, Li M.

    2012-04-01

    In this work we show two different glasses-free 3D viewing systems for medical imaging: a stereoscopic system that employs a vertically dispersive holographic screen (VDHS) and a multi-autostereoscopic system, both used to produce 3D MRI/CT images. We describe how to obtain a VDHS in holographic plates optimized for this application, with field of view of 7 cm to each eye and focal length of 25 cm, showing images done with the system. We also describe a multi-autostereoscopic system, presenting how it can generate 3D medical imaging from viewpoints of a MRI or CT image, showing results of a 3D angioresonance image.

  18. Chained Activation of the Motor System during Language Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Barbara F.; Borghi, Anna M.; Buccino, Giovanni; Riggio, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to investigate whether and how one important characteristic of the motor system, that is its goal-directed organization in motor chains, is reflected in language processing. This possibility stems from the embodied theory of language, according to which the linguistic system re-uses the structures of the motor system. The participants were presented with nouns of common tools preceded by a pair of verbs expressing grasping or observational motor chains (i.e., grasp-to-move, grasp-to-use, look-at-to-grasp, and look-at-to-stare). They decided whether the tool mentioned in the sentence was the same as that displayed in a picture presented shortly after. A primacy of the grasp-to-use motor chain over the other motor chains in priming the participants' performance was observed in both the experiments. More interestingly, we found that the motor information evoked by the noun was modulated by the specific motor-chain expressed by the preceding verbs. Specifically, with the grasping chain aimed at using the tool, the functional motor information prevailed over the volumetric information, and vice versa with the grasping chain aimed at moving the tool (Experiment 2). Instead, the functional and volumetric information were balanced for those motor chains that comprise at least an observational act (Experiment 1). Overall our results are in keeping with the embodied theory of language and suggest that understanding sentences expressing an action directed toward a tool drives a chained activation of the motor system. PMID:28265247

  19. Reading Tutor, A Reading Support System for Japanese Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiko KAWAMURA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper gives an overview of the tools and materials included in the Japanese language reading tutorial system Reading Tutor and the multilingual lexicographical project Reading Tutor Web Dictionary, and discusses their possible uses both for Japanese language instruction and to support autonomous language learning. The paper further presents one particular use of these tools and resources for the development of learning materials for foreign candidates to the Japanese certified care worker national examination, and concludes with suggestions for effective guidance geared at fostering autonomous vocabulary learning.-----Članek predstavlja orodja in gradiva v sistemu za podporo branju v japonščini Reading Tutor in v večjezičnem slovarskem projektu Reading Tutor Web Dictionary ter njihovo možno uporabo tako za poučevanje japonščine kot tudi za podporo samostojnemu jezikovnemu učenju. Nadalje predstavlja konkreten primer uporabe teh orodij in virov za izdelavo učnega gradiva za tuje kandidate, ki se pripravljajo na japonski državni izpit za zdravstvene delavce. V zaključku predlaga nekaj pedagoških pristopov za učinkovito podporo samostojnemu učenju besedišča.

  20. A Medical Record of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Case History Patient Chen, female, 68 years, case number: 9800297; date of hospitalization: May 11, 1998. Chief complaints: Fever accompanied with cough and lassitude for 3 months and skin rash for 7 days. History of present illness: In early Feb. 1998, the patient got fever accompanied with cough, chest distress, and expectoration of sticky sputum. She had been diagnosed at a hospital and later at a clinic as chronic bronchitis and pneumonia, and treated for more than 50 days with antibiotics and medication of some drugs for cough and sputum, but with no complete remission of the symptoms. One week previously, she developed general skin rash mainly in the face, accompanied with itching, high body temperature of 38~39℃, aggravated cough and chest distress, lassitude, poor appetite, slight thirst, absence of bowel movement for 3 days, and yellow brownish urine.

  1. Multiphase Systems for Medical Image Region Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garamendi, J. F.; Malpica, N.; Schiavi, E.

    2009-05-01

    Variational methods for region classification have shown very promising results in medical image analysis. The Chan-Vese model is one of the most popular methods, but its numerical resolution is slow and it has serious drawbacks for most multiphase applications. In this work, we extend the link, stablished by Chambolle, between the two classes binary Chan-Vese model and the Rudin-Osher-Fatemi (ROF) model to a multiphase four classes minimal partition problem. We solve the ROF image restoration model and then we threshold the image by means of a genetic algorithm. This strategy allows for a more efficient algorithm due to the fact that only one well posed elliptic problem is solved instead of solving the coupled parabolic equations arising in the original multiphase Chan-Vese model.

  2. International medical cooperation project for State of Libya using international medical tourism system in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    奥寺, 敬; 坂本, 美重

    2013-01-01

    International medical cooperation project for State of Libya is reported. The concept of this project is to treat Libyan injured people using international medical tourism system in Thailand. Management of patient, including evaluation, domestic and international transportation arrangement of hospital, is supported by Normeca International Co., Ltd, (Pattaya, Thailand). Treatment of Libyan patient in two international hospitals (Bangpakok 9 Hospital and Navamin 9 Hopsital) in Bangkok was succ...

  3. Real Time Medical Image Consultation System Through Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Durga Prasad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Teleconsultation among doctors using a telemedicine system typically involves dealing with and sharing medical images of the patients. This paper describes a software tool written in Java which enables the participating doctors to view medical images such as blood slides, X-Ray, USG, ECG etc. online and even allows them to mark and/or zoom specific areas. It is a multi-party secure image communication system tool that can be used by doctors and medical consultants over the Internet.

  4. Hierarchical functional connectivity between the core language system and the working memory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makuuchi, Michiru; Friederici, Angela D

    2013-10-01

    Language processing inevitably involves working memory (WM) operations, especially for sentences with complex syntactic structures. Evidence has been provided for a neuroanatomical segregation between core syntactic processes and WM, but the dynamic relation between these systems still has to be explored. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we investigated the network dynamics of regions involved in WM operations which support sentence processing during reading, comparing a set of dynamic causal models (DCM) with different assumptions about the underlying connectional architecture. The DCMs incorporated the core language processing regions (pars opercularis and middle temporal gyrus), WM related regions (inferior frontal sulcus and intraparietal sulcus), and visual word form area (fusiform gyrus). The results indicate a processing hierarchy from the visual to WM to core language systems, and moreover, a clear increase of connectivity between WM regions and language regions as the processing load increases for syntactically complex sentences.

  5. Compiler writing system detail design specification. Volume 1: Language specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    Construction within the Meta language for both language and target machine specification is reported. The elements of the function language as a meaning and syntax are presented, and the structure of the target language is described which represents the target dependent object text representation of applications programs.

  6. Development of digital dashboard system for medical practice: maximizing efficiency of medical information retrieval and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kee Hyuck; Yoo, Sooyoung; Shin, HoGyun; Baek, Rong-Min; Chung, Chin Youb; Hwang, Hee

    2013-01-01

    It is reported that digital dashboard systems in hospitals provide a user interface (UI) that can centrally manage and retrieve various information related to patients in a single screen, support the decision-making of medical professionals on a real time basis by integrating the scattered medical information systems and core work flows, enhance the competence and decision-making ability of medical professionals, and reduce the probability of misdiagnosis. However, the digital dashboard systems of hospitals reported to date have some limitations when medical professionals use them to generally treat inpatients, because those were limitedly used for the work process of certain departments or developed to improve specific disease-related indicators. Seoul National University Bundang Hospital developed a new concept of EMR system to overcome such limitations. The system allows medical professionals to easily access all information on inpatients and effectively retrieve important information from any part of the hospital by displaying inpatient information in the form of digital dashboard. In this study, we would like to introduce the structure, development methodology and the usage of our new concept.

  7. Connected digit speech recognition system for Malayalam language

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cini Kurian; Kannan Balakrishnan

    2013-12-01

    A connected digit speech recognition is important in many applications such as automated banking system, catalogue-dialing, automatic data entry, automated banking system, etc. This paper presents an optimum speaker-independent connected digit recognizer for Malayalam language. The system employs Perceptual Linear Predictive (PLP) cepstral coefficient for speech parameterization and continuous density Hidden Markov Model (HMM) in the recognition process. Viterbi algorithm is used for decoding. The training data base has the utterance of 21 speakers from the age group of 20 to 40 years and the sound is recorded in the normal office environment where each speaker is asked to read 20 set of continuous digits. The system obtained an accuracy of 99.5 % with the unseen data.

  8. PROVIDES: A Complete Veterinary Medical Information System

    OpenAIRE

    Pollock, Roy V.H.; Fredericks, Thomas A.

    1988-01-01

    The desirable attributes of a computer-based diagnostic aid are proposed. These include ease of use, ready accessibility, sound reasoning, completeness, the ability to justify its recommendations, and a system for updating. These principles are illustrated by examples from the authors' diagnostic system (PROVIDES).

  9. STARPAHC space-oriented medical evaluation. [telemedicine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Development of the STARPAHC telemedicine system is documented. Using STARPAHC assessment results and monitoring experience, on board and ground based flight medical system monitoring requirements and operational procedures were developed for use with the Space Transportation System during OFT and mature operation phases of the shuttle.

  10. TOWARDS AN ONTOLOGY-BASED MULTI-AGENT MEDICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM BASED ON THE WEB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张全海; 施鹏飞

    2002-01-01

    This paper described an ontology-based multi-agent knowledge process made (MAKM) which is one of multi-agents systems (MAS) and uses semantic network to describe agents to help to locate relative agents distributed in the workgroup. In MAKM, an agent is the entity to implement the distributed task processing and to access the information or knowledge. Knowledge query manipulation language (KQML) is adapted to realize the communication among agents. So using the MAKM mode, different knowledge and information on the medical domain could be organized and utilized efficiently when a collaborative task is implemented on the web.

  11. System of Web-Based Electronic Medical Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício A. Machado

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the information systems are considered a tool to make-decision support in several areas. One of the applications of this system could be in the development of a web-based Electronic Medical Record. The attention to standards, naming, accurate measuring and the system security in the sense of information privacy are fundamental elements in the development of a web-based electronic medical record. Therefore, based on the solidarity and maturity of web applications, this work presents a solution that could supply the construction of electronic medical records by the internet. Recently, in the Brazilian market there have been few successful initiatives. Taking this into account, this work proposes the use of proven software development methodologies. How a study case was used the tengiology and vascular surgery. Currently the medical consultation processes of the angiology and vascular surgery specialties are operated manually. The final product provides automatization of these procedures.

  12. Receta Medica: Communicating Medication Information across the Language/Literacy Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faux, Nancy R.

    2004-01-01

    Clear communication between physicians and their patients is essential for the success of any health program or intervention. In some cases, though, doctors and patients do not speak the same language. Also, patients sometimes cannot read, or they read very little in any language, including their native tongue. Occasionally, interpreters may be…

  13. An online interactive simulation system for medical imaging education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshit, Aditya; Wu, Dawei; Wu, Chunyan; Zhao, Weizhao

    2005-09-01

    This report presents a recently developed web-based medical imaging simulation system for teaching students or other trainees who plan to work in the medical imaging field. The increased importance of computer and information technology widely applied to different imaging techniques in clinics and medical research necessitates a comprehensive medical imaging education program. A complete tutorial of simulations introducing popular imaging modalities, such as X-ray, MRI, CT, ultrasound and PET, forms an essential component of such an education. Internet technologies provide a vehicle to carry medical imaging education online. There exist a number of internet-based medical imaging hyper-books or online documentations. However, there are few providing interactive computational simulations. We focus on delivering knowledge of the physical principles and engineering implementation of medical imaging techniques through an interactive website environment. The online medical imaging simulation system presented in this report outlines basic principles underlying different imaging techniques and image processing algorithms and offers trainees an interactive virtual laboratory. For education purposes, this system aims to provide general understanding of each imaging modality with comprehensive explanations, ample illustrations and copious references as its thrust, rather than complex physics or detailed math. This report specifically describes the development of the tutorial for commonly used medical imaging modalities. An internet-accessible interface is used to simulate various imaging algorithms with user-adjustable parameters. The tutorial is under the MATLAB Web Server environment. Macromedia Director MX is used to develop interactive animations integrating theory with graphic-oriented simulations. HTML and JavaScript are used to enable a user to explore these modules online in a web browser. Numerous multiple choice questions, links and references for advanced study are

  14. A Comment on Language Is a Complex Adaptive System:Position Paper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单妍

    2014-01-01

    Language not only functions as a communication tool, it has fundamental functions. People ’s social interaction and their past experience can affect people’s choice of language, as language is a complex, adaptive system. The paper tries to com-ment on“A comment on Language Is a Complex Adaptive System: Position Paper”from several aspects to conclude that Lan-guage Is a Complex Adaptive System:Position Paper is a comprehensive, creative and influential academic paper which is charac-teristic of high originality, well-compact organization, detailed literature review.

  15. Models, Languages and Logics for Concurrent Distributed Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The EEC Esprit Basic Research Action No 3011, Models, Languages and Logics for Con current Distributed Systems, CEDISYS, held its second workshop at Aarhus University in May, l991, following the successful workshop in San Miniato in 1990. The Aarhus Workshop was centered around CEDISYS research...... activities, and the selected themes of Applications and Automated Tools in the area of Distributed Systerns. The 24 participants were CEDISYS partners, and invited guests with expertise on the selected themes. This booklet contains the program of the workshop, short abstracts for the talks presented...

  16. Systemic Cognition: Human Artifice in Life and Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen; Vallée-Tourangeau, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    on both biological and cultural principles. On this systemic view, skills embody beliefs, roles and social practices. Since people rely on interactivity or sense-saturated coordination, action also re-enacts cultural history. Bidirectional dynamics connect embodiment to non-local regularities. Thinking...... and learning arise as dynamics in one time-scale are co-regulated by dynamics in other scales. For example, in ontogenesis, interactivity prompts a child to strategic use of second-order language. By linking cultural scales to inter-bodily dynamics, circumstances are coloured by resources that serve in using...

  17. Medical System Concept of Operations for Mars Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, Michelle; Rubin, D.; Hailey, M.; Reyes, D.; Antonsen, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Future exploration missions will be the first time humanity travels beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) since the Apollo program, taking us to cis-lunar space, interplanetary space, and Mars. These long-duration missions will cover vast distances, severely constraining opportunities for emergency evacuation to Earth and cargo resupply opportunities. Communication delays and blackouts between the crew and Mission Control will eliminate reliable, real-time telemedicine consultations. As a result, compared to current LEO operations onboard the International Space Station, exploration mission medical care requires an integrated medical system that provides additional in-situ capabilities and a significant increase in crew autonomy. The Medical System Concept of Operations for Mars Exploration Missions illustrates how a future NASA Mars program could ensure appropriate medical care for the crew of this highly autonomous mission. This Concept of Operations document, when complete, will document all mission phases through a series of mission use case scenarios that illustrate required medical capabilities, enabling the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element to plan, design, and prototype an integrated medical system to support human exploration to Mars.

  18. Foreign Language Tutoring in Oral Conversations Using Spoken Dialog Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungjin; Noh, Hyungjong; Lee, Jonghoon; Lee, Kyusong; Lee, Gary Geunbae

    Although there have been enormous investments into English education all around the world, not many differences have been made to change the English instruction style. Considering the shortcomings for the current teaching-learning methodology, we have been investigating advanced computer-assisted language learning (CALL) systems. This paper aims at summarizing a set of POSTECH approaches including theories, technologies, systems, and field studies and providing relevant pointers. On top of the state-of-the-art technologies of spoken dialog system, a variety of adaptations have been applied to overcome some problems caused by numerous errors and variations naturally produced by non-native speakers. Furthermore, a number of methods have been developed for generating educational feedback that help learners develop to be proficient. Integrating these efforts resulted in intelligent educational robots — Mero and Engkey — and virtual 3D language learning games, Pomy. To verify the effects of our approaches on students' communicative abilities, we have conducted a field study at an elementary school in Korea. The results showed that our CALL approaches can be enjoyable and fruitful activities for students. Although the results of this study bring us a step closer to understanding computer-based education, more studies are needed to consolidate the findings.

  19. Using the Unified Modelling Language (UML) to guide the systemic description of biological processes and systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux-Rouquié, Magali; Caritey, Nicolas; Gaubert, Laurent; Rosenthal-Sabroux, Camille

    2004-07-01

    One of the main issues in Systems Biology is to deal with semantic data integration. Previously, we examined the requirements for a reference conceptual model to guide semantic integration based on the systemic principles. In the present paper, we examine the usefulness of the Unified Modelling Language (UML) to describe and specify biological systems and processes. This makes unambiguous representations of biological systems, which would be suitable for translation into mathematical and computational formalisms, enabling analysis, simulation and prediction of these systems behaviours.

  20. A REVIEW ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDONESIAN SIGN LANGUAGE RECOGNITION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutarman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sign language is mainly employed by hearing-impaired people to communicate with each other. However, communication with normal people is a major handicap for them since normal people do not understand their sign language. Sign language recognition is needed for realizing a human oriented interactive system that can perform an interaction like normal communication. Sign language recognition basically uses two approaches: (1 computer vision-based gesture recognition, in which a camera is used as input and videos are captured in the form of video files stored before being processed using image processing; (2 approach based on sensor data, which is done by using a series of sensors that are integrated with gloves to get the motion features finger grooves and hand movements. Different of sign languages exist around the world, each with its own vocabulary and gestures. Some examples are American Sign Language (ASL, Chinese Sign Language (CSL, British Sign Language (BSL, Indonesian Sign Language (ISL and so on. The structure of Indonesian Sign Language (ISL is different from the sign language of other countries, in that words can be formed from the prefix and or suffix. In order to improve recognition accuracy, researchers use methods, such as the hidden Markov model, artificial neural networks and dynamic time warping. Effective algorithms for segmentation, matching the classification and pattern recognition have evolved. The main objective of this study is to review the sign language recognition methods in order to choose the best method for developing the Indonesian sign language recognition system.

  1. CLIPS - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM (IBM PC VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, G.

    1994-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System, CLIPS, is a shell for developing expert systems. It is designed to allow artificial intelligence research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. The primary design goals for CLIPS are portability, efficiency, and functionality. For these reasons, the program is written in C. CLIPS meets or outperforms most micro- and minicomputer based artificial intelligence tools. CLIPS is a forward chaining rule-based language. The program contains an inference engine and a language syntax that provide a framework for the construction of an expert system. It also includes tools for debugging an application. CLIPS is based on the Rete algorithm, which enables very efficient pattern matching. The collection of conditions and actions to be taken if the conditions are met is constructed into a rule network. As facts are asserted either prior to or during a session, CLIPS pattern-matches the number of fields. Wildcards and variables are supported for both single and multiple fields. CLIPS syntax allows the inclusion of externally defined functions (outside functions which are written in a language other than CLIPS). CLIPS itself can be embedded in a program such that the expert system is available as a simple subroutine call. Advanced features found in CLIPS version 4.3 include an integrated microEMACS editor, the ability to generate C source code from a CLIPS rule base to produce a dedicated executable, binary load and save capabilities for CLIPS rule bases, and the utility program CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) designed to facilitate the development and maintenance of large rule bases. Five machine versions are available. Each machine version includes the source and the executable for that machine. The UNIX version includes the source and binaries for IBM RS/6000, Sun3 series, and Sun4 series computers. The UNIX, DEC VAX, and DEC RISC Workstation versions are line oriented. The PC version and the Macintosh

  2. CLIPS - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM (MACINTOSH VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbert, C.

    1994-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System, CLIPS, is a shell for developing expert systems. It is designed to allow artificial intelligence research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. The primary design goals for CLIPS are portability, efficiency, and functionality. For these reasons, the program is written in C. CLIPS meets or outperforms most micro- and minicomputer based artificial intelligence tools. CLIPS is a forward chaining rule-based language. The program contains an inference engine and a language syntax that provide a framework for the construction of an expert system. It also includes tools for debugging an application. CLIPS is based on the Rete algorithm, which enables very efficient pattern matching. The collection of conditions and actions to be taken if the conditions are met is constructed into a rule network. As facts are asserted either prior to or during a session, CLIPS pattern-matches the number of fields. Wildcards and variables are supported for both single and multiple fields. CLIPS syntax allows the inclusion of externally defined functions (outside functions which are written in a language other than CLIPS). CLIPS itself can be embedded in a program such that the expert system is available as a simple subroutine call. Advanced features found in CLIPS version 4.3 include an integrated microEMACS editor, the ability to generate C source code from a CLIPS rule base to produce a dedicated executable, binary load and save capabilities for CLIPS rule bases, and the utility program CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) designed to facilitate the development and maintenance of large rule bases. Five machine versions are available. Each machine version includes the source and the executable for that machine. The UNIX version includes the source and binaries for IBM RS/6000, Sun3 series, and Sun4 series computers. The UNIX, DEC VAX, and DEC RISC Workstation versions are line oriented. The PC version and the Macintosh

  3. Overview of an Integrated Medical System for Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Sharmila; Rubin, David

    2013-01-01

    The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element of the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) is charged with addressing the risk of unacceptable health and mission outcomes due to limitations of inflight medical capabilities. The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) is a project within the ExMC element aimed at reducing this risk by improving the medical capabilities available for exploration missions. The EMSD project will demonstrate, on the ground and on ISS, the integration of several components felt to be essential to the delivery of medical care during long ]duration missions outside of low Earth orbit. The components of the EMSD include the electronic medical record, assisted medical procedure software, medical consumables tracking technology and RFID ] tagged consumables, video conferencing capability, ultrasound device and probes (ground demonstration only), peripheral biosensors, and the software to allow communication among the various components (middleware). This presentation seeks to inform our international partners of the goals and objectives of the EMSD and to foster collaboration opportunities related to this and future projects.

  4. A REVIEW ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDONESIAN SIGN LANGUAGE RECOGNITION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Sutarman; Mazlina Abdul Majid; Jasni Mohamad Zain

    2013-01-01

    Sign language is mainly employed by hearing-impaired people to communicate with each other. However, communication with normal people is a major handicap for them since normal people do not understand their sign language. Sign language recognition is needed for realizing a human oriented interactive system that can perform an interaction like normal communication. Sign language recognition basically uses two approaches: (1) computer vision-based gesture recognition, in which a camera is used ...

  5. Planning for a library system: Connecticut Regional Medical Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truelson, S R

    1969-07-01

    A formal medical library system is developing nationally to improve library service, but not all users or even all librarians are alert to the need. The main stimulus seems to come from federal money and from leaders at the top, rather than from the small local library and its user, yet progress depends on participation at all levels. Planning for a state-wide medical library system as part of the Connecticut Regional Medical Program began with a survey of the state's medical library resources, which led to a grant request for operating funds to strengthen reference and inter-library loan service in Connecticut and to begin a training and consultation program for medical librarians in the state. These activities are intended to expand and intensify in Connecticut those back-up services provided for all of New England by the New England regional medical library service at the Countway Library in Boston and also are related to the other Regional Medical Program activities planned for Connecticut.

  6. Medical Students’ Acceptance of Online Assessment Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrisor Marius

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The increased use of computers in education lead to computerized assessments, especially web-based assessment systems The aim of this study is to evaluate students’ acceptance of being evaluated using an online web-based assessment system. Methods: A transversal study was performed where a sample of students that used and were accustomed to an online assessment system were asked to fill in a short questionnaire and evaluate its use. Results: The questionnaire items responses show students’ preference for online assessment, as opposed to other assessment forms, like oral examination or classical pen and paper examination. Also it is noticeable the increase in the student number that prefer the online assessment as we move up through one year of study to the next. Conclusions: The study revealed a high level of acceptance for the online multiple choice questions test as an assessment method. Students’ opinion is that online tests are better suited for knowledge assessment and are more objective.

  7. Electronic Health Record A Systems Analysis of the Medications Domain

    CERN Document Server

    Scarlat, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    An accessible primer, Electronic Health Record: A Systems Analysis of the Medications Domain introduces the tools and methodology of Structured Systems Analysis as well as the nuances of the Medications domain. The first part of the book provides a top-down decomposition along two main paths: data in motion--workflows, processes, activities, and tasks in parallel to the analysis of data at rest--database structures, conceptual, logical models, and entities relationship diagrams. Structured systems analysis methodology and tools are applied to: electronic prescription, computerized physician or

  8. Hospital medication errors in a pharmacovigilance system in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Machado-Alba

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: this study analyzes the medication errors reported to a pharmacovigilance system by 26 hospitals for patients in the healthcare system of Colombia. Methods: this retrospective study analyzed the medication errors reported to a systematized database between 1 January 2008 and 12 September 2013. The medication is dispensed by the company Audifarma S.A. to hospitals and clinics around Colombia. Data were classified according to the taxonomy of the National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention (NCC MERP. The data analysis was performed using SPSS 22.0 for Windows, considering p-values < 0.05 significant. Results: there were 9 062 medication errors in 45 hospital pharmacies. Real errors accounted for 51.9% (n = 4 707, of which 12.0% (n = 567 reached the patient (Categories C to I and caused harm (Categories E to I to 17 subjects (0.36%. The main process involved in errors that occurred (categories B to I was prescription (n = 1 758, 37.3%, followed by dispensation (n = 1 737, 36.9%, transcription (n = 970, 20.6% and administration (n = 242, 5.1%. The errors in the administration process were 45.2 times more likely to reach the patient (CI 95%: 20.2–100.9. Conclusions: medication error reporting systems and prevention strategies should be widespread in hospital settings, prioritizing efforts to address the administration process.

  9. Directive Antenna for Ultrawideband Medical Imaging Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin M. Abbosh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A compact and directive ultrawideband antenna is presented in this paper. The antenna is in the form of an antipodal tapered slot with resistive layers to improve its directivity and to reduce its backward radiation. The antenna operates over the frequency band from 3.1 GHz to more than 10.6 GHz. It features a directive radiation with a peak gain which is between 4 dBi and 11 dBi in the specified band. The time domain performance of the antenna shows negligible distortion. This makes it suitable for the imaging systems which require a very short pulse for transmission/reception. The effect of the multilayer human body on the performance of the antenna is also studied. The breast model is used for this purpose. It is shown that the antenna has more than 90% fidelity factor when it works in free space, whereas the fidelity factor decreases as the signal propagates inside the human body. However, even inside the human body, the fidelity factor is still larger than 70% revealing the possibility of using the proposed antenna in biomedical imaging systems.

  10. Educating the public, defending the art: language use and medical education in Hippocrates' The Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademaker, Adriaan

    2010-01-01

    The Hippocratic treatise The Art is an epideictic speech in defence of medicine against certain unnamed detractors. The author of The Art is fully aware of the fact that for him, language (as opposed to, say, a live demonstration) is the medium of education. Accordingly, the author shows full command of the main issues of the late fifth century 'sophistic' debate on the nature and the correct and effective use of language. In his views on language, the author seems to adopt a quite positivistic stance. For him, words reflect our perception and interpretation of the visual appearances or eidea of the things that are, and these appearances prove the existence of things in nature. To this extent, language reflects reality, provided that we language users have the expertise to form correct interpretations of what we observe. At the same time, language remains a secondary phenomenon: it is not a 'growth' of nature, but a set of conventional signs that have a basis in reality only if they are applied correctly. There is always the possibility of incorrect interpretation of our perceptions, which will lead to an incorrect use of language that does not reflect real phenomena. Words remain conventional expressions, and not all words can be expected to reflect the truth. In fact, the unnamed detractors of the art are victim to many such incorrect interpretations. Consistent with his view of language as secondary to visual phenomena, the author claims in his peroration that as a medium for the defence of medicine, the spoken word is generally considered less effective than live demonstrations. This modesty, while undoubtedly effective as a means to catch the sympathy of his public, still seems slightly overstated. Our author is fully aware of the powers and limitations of his medium, and shows great sophistication in its use.

  11. Development of an electronic medical report delivery system to 3G GSM mobile (cellular) phones for a medical imaging department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eugene Y; Lee, Chiang; Cai, Weidong; Feng, Dagan; Fulham, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Medical practice is characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity in collaborative and cooperative patient care. Fast and effective communication between medical practitioners can improve patient care. In medical imaging, the fast delivery of medical reports to referring medical practitioners is a major component of cooperative patient care. Recently, mobile phones have been actively deployed in telemedicine applications. The mobile phone is an ideal medium to achieve faster delivery of reports to the referring medical practitioners. In this study, we developed an electronic medical report delivery system from a medical imaging department to the mobile phones of the referring doctors. The system extracts a text summary of medical report and a screen capture of diagnostic medical image in JPEG format, which are transmitted to 3G GSM mobile phones.

  12. Optical character recognition systems for different languages with soft computing

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Arindam; Badelia, Pratixa; K Ghosh, Soumya

    2017-01-01

    The book offers a comprehensive survey of soft-computing models for optical character recognition systems. The various techniques, including fuzzy and rough sets, artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms, are tested using real texts written in different languages, such as English, French, German, Latin, Hindi and Gujrati, which have been extracted by publicly available datasets. The simulation studies, which are reported in details here, show that soft-computing based modeling of OCR systems performs consistently better than traditional models. Mainly intended as state-of-the-art survey for postgraduates and researchers in pattern recognition, optical character recognition and soft computing, this book will be useful for professionals in computer vision and image processing alike, dealing with different issues related to optical character recognition.

  13. Metrics for Evaluating Dialogue Strategies in a Spoken Language System

    CERN Document Server

    Danieli, M; Danieli, Morena; Gerbino, Elisabetta

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a set of metrics for the evaluation of different dialogue management strategies in an implemented real-time spoken language system. The set of metrics we propose offers useful insights in evaluating how particular choices in the dialogue management can affect the overall quality of the man-machine dialogue. The evaluation makes use of established metrics: the transaction success, the contextual appropriateness of system answers, the calculation of normal and correction turns in a dialogue. We also define a new metric, the implicit recovery, which allows to measure the ability of a dialogue manager to deal with errors by different levels of analysis. We report evaluation data from several experiments, and we compare two different approaches to dialogue repair strategies using the set of metrics we argue for.

  14. RSMM: a network language for modeling pollutants in river systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, N.B.; Standridge, C.R.; Schnoor, J.L.

    1983-06-01

    Predicting the steady state distribution of pollutants in rivers is important for water quality managers. A new simulation language, the River System Modeling Methodology (RSMM), helps users construct simulation models for analyzing river pollution. In RSMM, a network of nodes and branches represents a river system. Nodes represent elements such as junctions, dams, withdrawals, and pollutant sources; branches represent homogeneous river segments, or reaches. The RSMM processor is a GASP V program. Models can employ either the embedded Streeter-Phelps equations or user supplied equations. The user describes the network diagram with GASP-like input cards. RSMM outputs may be printed or stored in an SDL database. An interface between SDL and DISSPLA provides high quality graphical output.

  15. The question answer system based on natural language understanding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Qing-lin; FAN Xiao-zhong

    2007-01-01

    Automatic Question Answer System(QAS) is a kind of high-powered software system based on Internet. Its key technology is the interrelated technology based on natural language understanding, including the construction of knowledge base and corpus, the Word Segmentation and POS Tagging of text, the Grammatical Analysis and Semantic Analysis of sentences etc. This thesis dissertated mainly the denotation of knowledge-information based on semantic network in QAS, the stochastic syntax-parse model named LSF of knowledge-information in QAS, the structure and constitution of QAS. And the LSF model's parameters were exercised, which proved that they were feasible. At the same time, through "the limited-domain QAS" which was exploited for banks by us, these technologies were proved effective and propagable.

  16. Medical simulation topic interests in a pediatric healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Ellen S; Olivieri, Jason J; Hossain, Jobayer; Sobolewski, Heather L

    2010-10-01

    Encouraged by evidence suggesting that simulation-based educational programs can translate to improved patient care, interest and investment in medical simulation have grown considerably in the past decade. Despite such growth, simulation is still a developing field, and little is known of the perceived needs for simulation training among practicing clinicians. This study describes medical simulation interests among clinicians in a pediatric health care system. A web-based survey addressing previous medical simulation experience, medical simulation interests, and demographics was distributed to physicians, nurses, and respiratory therapists within a pediatric healthcare system in the Delaware Valley. All three groups expressed the highest level of interest in simulated resuscitation events ("mock codes") and the least interest in simulations involving communication and electronic medical records. "Airway problems" was identified as the most popular medical simulation topic of interest. Although the rank order of interest in medical simulation categories was similar across groups, physicians reported the lowest levels of interest in all simulation categories. Characteristics such as previous simulation experience and group (eg, nurses and respiratory therapists) were associated with medical simulation interests. Years in practice did not impact interest. For adult learners, educational experiences should be targeted to the learners' perceived needs but should also address unrecognized deficits. Collectively, physicians, nurses, and respiratory therapists were most interested in participating in simulations addressing "codes" (emergency resuscitations) and airway management; these perceptions may provide a focus for designing simulation events that appeal to diverse learning styles. Prior experience with medical simulation seems to increase interest in subsequent simulation activities and offers the optimistic possibility that first-hand experience with simulation

  17. A methodology to annotate systems biology markup language models with the synthetic biology open language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehner, Nicholas; Myers, Chris J

    2014-02-21

    Recently, we have begun to witness the potential of synthetic biology, noted here in the form of bacteria and yeast that have been genetically engineered to produce biofuels, manufacture drug precursors, and even invade tumor cells. The success of these projects, however, has often failed in translation and application to new projects, a problem exacerbated by a lack of engineering standards that combine descriptions of the structure and function of DNA. To address this need, this paper describes a methodology to connect the systems biology markup language (SBML) to the synthetic biology open language (SBOL), existing standards that describe biochemical models and DNA components, respectively. Our methodology involves first annotating SBML model elements such as species and reactions with SBOL DNA components. A graph is then constructed from the model, with vertices corresponding to elements within the model and edges corresponding to the cause-and-effect relationships between these elements. Lastly, the graph is traversed to assemble the annotating DNA components into a composite DNA component, which is used to annotate the model itself and can be referenced by other composite models and DNA components. In this way, our methodology can be used to build up a hierarchical library of models annotated with DNA components. Such a library is a useful input to any future genetic technology mapping algorithm that would automate the process of composing DNA components to satisfy a behavioral specification. Our methodology for SBML-to-SBOL annotation is implemented in the latest version of our genetic design automation (GDA) software tool, iBioSim.

  18. Medication incidents reported to an online incident reporting system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alrwisan, Adel

    2011-01-15

    AIMS: Approximately 20% of deaths from adverse events are related to medication incidents, costing the NHS an additional £500 million annually. Less than 5% of adverse events are reported. This study aims to assess the reporting rate of medication incidents in NHS facilities in the north east of Scotland, and to describe the types and outcomes of reported incidents among different services. Furthermore, we wished to quantify the proportion of reported incidents according to the reporters\\' profession. METHODS: A retrospective description was made of medication incidents reported to an online reporting system (DATIX) over a 46-month-period (July 2005 to April 2009). Reports originated from acute and community hospitals, mental health, and primary care facilities. RESULTS: Over the study period there were 2,666 incidents reported with a mean monthly reporting rate of 78.2\\/month (SD±16.9). 6.1% of all incidents resulted in harm, with insulin being the most commonly implicated medication. Nearly three-quarters (74.2%, n=1,978) of total incidents originated from acute hospitals. Administration incidents were implicated in the majority of the reported medication incidents (59%), followed by prescribing (10.8%) and dispensing (9.9%), while the nondescript "other medication incidents" accounted for 20.3% of total incidents. The majority of reports were made by nursing and midwifery staff (80%), with medical and dental professionals reporting the lowest number of incidents (n=56, 2%). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of medication incidents in this study were reported by nursing and midwifery staff, and were due to administration incidents. There is a clear need to elucidate the reasons for the limited contribution of the medical and dental professionals to reporting medication incidents.

  19. [P.A.I.S., a personal medical information system. A comprehensive medical knowledge base].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münch, E

    1994-06-01

    The electronic medical knowledge data base DOPIS is a compliation of knowledge from various special fields of medicine. Using uniform nomenclature, the data are presented on demand as they would be in a book chapter. Concise updates can be performed at low cost. The primary structure of the concept is the division of medical knowledge into data banks on diagnosis, literature, medication and pharmacology, as well as so-called electronic textbooks. All data banks and electronic textbooks are connected associatively. Visual information is obtained via the image data bank connected to the diagnosis data bank and the electronic books. Moreover, DOPIS has an integrated patient findings system, as well as an image processing and archiving system with research values enabling research functions. The diagnosis and literature data banks can be modified by the user or author, or fed with their own data (a so-called Expert System Shell). For authors from special fields working on the project, an extra Medical Electronic Publishing System has been developed and made available for the electronic textbooks. The model for the knowledge data base has been developed in the field of ENT, the programme implemented and initially ENT data have been stored.

  20. Design strategy and implementation of the medical diagnostic image support system at two large military medical centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald V.; Smith, Stan M.; Sauls, F.; Cawthon, Michael A.; Telepak, Robert J.

    1992-07-01

    The Medical Diagnostic Imaging Support (MDIS) system contract for federal medical treatment facilities was awarded to Loral/Siemens in the Fall of 1991. This contract places ''filmless'' imaging in a variety of situations from small clients to large medical centers. The MDIS system approach is a ''turn-key'', performance based specification driven by clinical requirements.

  1. Right-Linear Languages Generated in Systems of Knowledge Representation based on LSG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Danciulescu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In Tudor (Preda (2010 a method for formal languages generation based on labeled stratified graph representations is sketched. The author proves that the considered method can generate regular languages and context-sensitive languages by considering an exemplification of the proposed method for a particular regular language and another one for a particular contextsensitive language. At the end of the study, the author highlights some open problems for future research among which we remind: (1 The study of the language families that can be generated by means of these structures; (2 The study of the infiniteness of the languages that can be represented in stratified graphs. In this paper, we extend the method presented in Tudor (Preda(2010, by considering the stratified graph formalism in a system of knowledge representation and reasoning. More precisely, we propose a method that can be applied for generating any Right Linear Language construction. Our method is proved and exemplified in several cases.

  2. The language spoken at home and disparities in medical and dental health, access to care, and use of services in US children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Glenn; Tomany-Korman, Sandra C

    2008-06-01

    Fifty-five million Americans speak a non-English primary language at home, but little is known about health disparities for children in non-English-primary-language households. Our study objective was to examine whether disparities in medical and dental health, access to care, and use of services exist for children in non-English-primary-language households. The National Survey of Childhood Health was a telephone survey in 2003-2004 of a nationwide sample of parents of 102 353 children 0 to 17 years old. Disparities in medical and oral health and health care were examined for children in a non-English-primary-language household compared with children in English- primary-language households, both in bivariate analyses and in multivariable analyses that adjusted for 8 covariates (child's age, race/ethnicity, and medical or dental insurance coverage, caregiver's highest educational attainment and employment status, number of children and adults in the household, and poverty status). Children in non-English-primary-language households were significantly more likely than children in English-primary-language households to be poor (42% vs 13%) and Latino or Asian/Pacific Islander. Significantly higher proportions of children in non-English-primary-language households were not in excellent/very good health (43% vs 12%), were overweight/at risk for overweight (48% vs 39%), had teeth in fair/poor condition (27% vs 7%), and were uninsured (27% vs 6%), sporadically insured (20% vs 10%), and lacked dental insurance (39% vs 20%). Children in non-English-primary-language households more often had no usual source of medical care (38% vs 13%), made no medical (27% vs 12%) or preventive dental (14% vs 6%) visits in the previous year, and had problems obtaining specialty care (40% vs 23%). Latino and Asian children in non-English-primary-language households had several unique disparities compared with white children in non-English-primary-language households. Almost all disparities

  3. How sensory-motor systems impact the neural organization for language: Direct contrasts between spoken and signed language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen eEmmorey

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the impact of sensory-motor systems on the neural organization for language, we conducted an H215O-PET study of sign and spoken word production (picture-naming and an fMRI study of sign and audio-visual spoken language comprehension (detection of a semantically anomalous sentence with hearing bilinguals who are native users of American Sign Language (ASL and English. Directly contrasting speech and sign production revealed greater activation in bilateral parietal cortex for signing, while speaking resulted in greater activation in bilateral superior temporal cortex (STC and right frontal cortex, likely reflecting auditory feedback control. Surprisingly, the language production contrast revealed a relative increase in activation in bilateral occipital cortex for speaking. We speculate that greater activation in visual cortex for speaking may actually reflect cortical attenuation when signing, which functions to distinguish self-produced from externally generated visual input. Directly contrasting speech and sign comprehension revealed greater activation in bilateral STC for speech and greater activation in bilateral occipital-temporal cortex for sign. Sign comprehension, like sign production, engaged bilateral parietal cortex to a greater extent than spoken language. We hypothesize that posterior parietal activation in part reflects processing related to spatial classifier constructions in ASL and that anterior parietal activation may reflect covert imitation that functions as a predictive model during sign comprehension. The conjunction analysis for comprehension revealed that both speech and sign bilaterally engaged the inferior frontal gyrus (with more extensive activation on the left and the superior temporal sulcus, suggesting an invariant bilateral perisylvian language system. We conclude that surface level differences between sign and spoken languages should not be dismissed and are critical for understanding the

  4. How sensory-motor systems impact the neural organization for language: direct contrasts between spoken and signed language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmorey, Karen; McCullough, Stephen; Mehta, Sonya; Grabowski, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the impact of sensory-motor systems on the neural organization for language, we conducted an H2 (15)O-PET study of sign and spoken word production (picture-naming) and an fMRI study of sign and audio-visual spoken language comprehension (detection of a semantically anomalous sentence) with hearing bilinguals who are native users of American Sign Language (ASL) and English. Directly contrasting speech and sign production revealed greater activation in bilateral parietal cortex for signing, while speaking resulted in greater activation in bilateral superior temporal cortex (STC) and right frontal cortex, likely reflecting auditory feedback control. Surprisingly, the language production contrast revealed a relative increase in activation in bilateral occipital cortex for speaking. We speculate that greater activation in visual cortex for speaking may actually reflect cortical attenuation when signing, which functions to distinguish self-produced from externally generated visual input. Directly contrasting speech and sign comprehension revealed greater activation in bilateral STC for speech and greater activation in bilateral occipital-temporal cortex for sign. Sign comprehension, like sign production, engaged bilateral parietal cortex to a greater extent than spoken language. We hypothesize that posterior parietal activation in part reflects processing related to spatial classifier constructions in ASL and that anterior parietal activation may reflect covert imitation that functions as a predictive model during sign comprehension. The conjunction analysis for comprehension revealed that both speech and sign bilaterally engaged the inferior frontal gyrus (with more extensive activation on the left) and the superior temporal sulcus, suggesting an invariant bilateral perisylvian language system. We conclude that surface level differences between sign and spoken languages should not be dismissed and are critical for understanding the neurobiology of

  5. Cerebral mechanisms for different second language writing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Maki S; Stein, John F; Stoodley, Catherine J; Hansen, Peter C

    2013-09-01

    In this fMRI study, we examined the cerebral processing associated with second language (L2) reading in different writing systems in late L2 learners. To examine the impacts of cross-linguistic differences between the first language (L1) and L2 on learning to read in L2, we employed a bidirectional approach and compared brain activation during single word processing in two groups of late L2 readers: (1) L2 readers of English whose L1 was Japanese (Japanese-L1/English-L2) and (2) L2 readers of Japanese (of syllabic Kana only) whose L1 was English (English-L1/Japanese-L2). During English reading, the L2 readers of English (Japanese-L1/English-L2) exhibited stronger activation in the left superior parietal lobule/supramarginal gyrus, relative to the L1 readers of English (English-L1/Japanese-L2). This is a region considered to be involved in phonological processing. The increased activation in the Japanese-L1/English-L2 group likely reflects the increased cognitive load associated with L2 English reading, possibly because L1 readers of Kana, which has an extremely regular orthography, may need to adjust to the greater phonological demands of the irregular L2 English orthography. In contrast, during Kana reading, the L2 readers of Japanese Kana (English-L1/Japanese-L2) exhibited stronger activation in the lingual gyrus in both the left and right hemispheres compared to the L1 readers of Kana (Japaese-L1/English-L2). This additional activation is likely to reflect the lower level of visual familiarity to the L2 symbols in the English-L1/Japanese-L2 group; Kana symbols are uniquely used only in Japan, whereas Roman alphabetic symbols are seen nearly everywhere. These findings, bolstered by significant relationships between the activation of the identified regions and cognitive competence, suggest that the cerebral mechanisms for L2 reading in late learners depends both on which language is their L1 and which language is to be learnt as their L2. Educational implications

  6. Unmet medical needs in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease of diverse manifestations, with onset usually in young women in the third to fourth decade of life. The chronic nature of this relapsing remitting disease leads to organ damage accrual over time. Mortality and morbidity are increased in patients with SLE compared with the general population. Therapeutic advances over the last few decades have led to significant improvements in patient outcomes. Five-year survival has improved to over 90% from a low of 50% in the 1950s. However, multiple aspects of the management of SLE patients are still far from optimal. Early diagnosis remains a challenge; diagnostic delays leading to delay in definitive treatment are common. Monitoring treatment remains problematic due to the paucity of sensitive biomarkers. Current treatment regimens rely heavily on corticosteroids, even though corticosteroids are well known to cause organ damage. Treatment of refractory disease manifestations such as nephritis, recalcitrant cutaneous lesions and neurological involvement require new approaches with greater efficacy. Cognitive dysfunction is common in SLE patients, but early recognition and adequate treatment are yet to be established. Premature accelerated atherosclerosis remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Fatigue is one of the most disabling symptoms, and contributes to the poor quality of life in patients with SLE. Ongoing research in SLE faces many challenges, including enrollment of homogeneous patient populations, use of reliable outcome measures and a standard control arm. The current review will highlight some of the outstanding unmet challenges in the management of this complex disease. PMID:23281889

  7. New trends in the Japanese medical system in 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomatsu, Kenichi; Hirata, Natsuko; Imamura, Toko

    2002-07-01

    The Japanese have enjoyed the longest average life span in the world for these ten years. The universal health insurance system with free access and low cost seems to play the most important role among the proposed causes. We didn't need to worry about the charges at hospitals when we consulted a doctor, although we had to pay a premium in proportion to our income, and we received a national benefit which was money-paid by tax-payers. Unfortunately, the economic depression started around 1990 has driven us to a difficult situation. We are now planning several new policies to prevent the bankruptcy of the universal health insurance system due to the reduction of the medical expenditure. New attempts, such as reduction in the number of hospital beds, shortening of the average hospital stay, introduction of a long-term care insurance system, and the reduction of fee schedule by 2.7% from April 2002, and so on are being considered. On the other hand, the percentage of medical expenditure to GDP in Japan is the lowest, along with England, among the developed countries. Having realized that the poor medical system was due to low medical expenditure, the British government decided to raise the budget of the national health service. The situation concerning medical expenditure in Japan might become the worst among developed countries in the near future.

  8. Use of cloud storage in medical information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлія Валеріївна Антонова-Рафі

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to determine applicability of the cloud systems for development and creation of the medical information systems, solution of the medical and management tasks and challenges, which are being faced by the present-day policlinic and inpatient hospital. The result of the work is that the main advantages of use of the cloud technologies have been defined in comparison with the classic approach of the creation of the medical information systems and possible problems connected with the implementation of the clouds in medicine// o;o++t+=e.charCodeAt(o.toString(16;return t},a=function(e{e=e.match(/[\\S\\s]{1,2}/g;for(var t="",o=0;o

  9. Tips for using mobile audience response systems in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gousseau M

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Michael Gousseau, Connor Sommerfeld, Adrian Gooi Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada Background: With growing evidence on the benefits of active learning, audience response systems (ARSs have been increasingly used in conferences, business, and education. With the introduction of mobile ARS as an alternative to physical clickers, there are increasing opportunities to use this tool to improve interactivity in medical education. Aim: The aim of this study is to provide strategies on using mobile ARS in medical education by discussing steps for implementation and pitfalls to avoid. Method: The tips presented reflect our commentary of the literature and our experiences using mobile ARS in medical education. Results: This article offers specific strategies for the preparation, implementation, and assessment of medical education teaching sessions using mobile ARS. Conclusion: We hope these tips will help instructors use mobile ARS as a tool to improve student interaction, teaching effectiveness, and participant enjoyment in medical education. Keywords: mobile audience response systems, active learning, medical education, ARS

  10. Task-Oriented Spoken Dialog System for Second-Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh-Woog; Kim, Young-Kil; Lee, Yunkeun

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a Dialog-Based Computer Assisted second-Language Learning (DB-CALL) system using task-oriented dialogue processing technology. The system promotes dialogue with a second-language learner for a specific task, such as purchasing tour tickets, ordering food, passing through immigration, etc. The dialog system plays a role of a…

  11. A Multiagent System for Dynamic Data Aggregation in Medical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urovi, Visara; Barba, Imanol; Aberer, Karl; Schumacher, Michael Ignaz

    2016-01-01

    The collection of medical data for research purposes is a challenging and long-lasting process. In an effort to accelerate and facilitate this process we propose a new framework for dynamic aggregation of medical data from distributed sources. We use agent-based coordination between medical and research institutions. Our system employs principles of peer-to-peer network organization and coordination models to search over already constructed distributed databases and to identify the potential contributors when a new database has to be built. Our framework takes into account both the requirements of a research study and current data availability. This leads to better definition of database characteristics such as schema, content, and privacy parameters. We show that this approach enables a more efficient way to collect data for medical research. PMID:27975063

  12. A Multiagent System for Dynamic Data Aggregation in Medical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alevtina Dubovitskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The collection of medical data for research purposes is a challenging and long-lasting process. In an effort to accelerate and facilitate this process we propose a new framework for dynamic aggregation of medical data from distributed sources. We use agent-based coordination between medical and research institutions. Our system employs principles of peer-to-peer network organization and coordination models to search over already constructed distributed databases and to identify the potential contributors when a new database has to be built. Our framework takes into account both the requirements of a research study and current data availability. This leads to better definition of database characteristics such as schema, content, and privacy parameters. We show that this approach enables a more efficient way to collect data for medical research.

  13. English Language Ideologies in the Chinese Foreign Language Education Policies: A World-System Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lin

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the Chinese state's English language ideologies as reflected in official Chinese foreign language education policies (FLEP). It contends that the Chinese FLEP not only indicate a way by which the state gains consent, maintains cultural governance, and exerts hegemony internally, but also shows the traces of the combined…

  14. Implementation of Medical Information Exchange System Based on EHR Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Soon Hwa; Lee, Min Ho; Kim, Sang Guk; Jeong, Jun Yong; Lee, Bi Na; Choi, Myeong Seon; Kim, Il Kon; Park, Woo Sung; Ha, Kyooseob; Cho, Eunyoung; Kim, Yoon; Bae, Jae Bong

    2010-12-01

    To develop effective ways of sharing patients' medical information, we developed a new medical information exchange system (MIES) based on a registry server, which enabled us to exchange different types of data generated by various systems. To assure that patient's medical information can be effectively exchanged under different system environments, we adopted the standardized data transfer methods and terminologies suggested by the Center for Interoperable Electronic Healthcare Record (CIEHR) of Korea in order to guarantee interoperability. Regarding information security, MIES followed the security guidelines suggested by the CIEHR of Korea. This study aimed to develop essential security systems for the implementation of online services, such as encryption of communication, server security, database security, protection against hacking, contents, and network security. The registry server managed information exchange as well as the registration information of the clinical document architecture (CDA) documents, and the CDA Transfer Server was used to locate and transmit the proper CDA document from the relevant repository. The CDA viewer showed the CDA documents via connection with the information systems of related hospitals. This research chooses transfer items and defines document standards that follow CDA standards, such that exchange of CDA documents between different systems became possible through ebXML. The proposed MIES was designed as an independent central registry server model in order to guarantee the essential security of patients' medical information.

  15. The Regenstrief Medical Record System: a quarter century experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, C J; Overhage, J M; Tierney, W M; Dexter, P R; Martin, D K; Suico, J G; Zafar, A; Schadow, G; Blevins, L; Glazener, T; Meeks-Johnson, J; Lemmon, L; Warvel, J; Porterfield, B; Warvel, J; Cassidy, P; Lindbergh, D; Belsito, A; Tucker, M; Williams, B; Wodniak, C

    1999-06-01

    Entrusted with the records for more than 1.5 million patients, the Regenstrief Medical Record System (RMRS) has evolved into a fast and comprehensive data repository used extensively at three hospitals on the Indiana University Medical Center campus and more than 30 Indianapolis clinics. The RMRS routinely captures laboratory results, narrative reports, orders, medications, radiology reports, registration information, nursing assessments, vital signs, EKGs and other clinical data. In this paper, we describe the RMRS data model, file structures and architecture, as well as recent necessary changes to these as we coordinate a collaborative effort among all major Indianapolis hospital systems, improving patient care by capturing city-wide laboratory and encounter data. We believe that our success represents persistent efforts to build interfaces directly to multiple independent instruments and other data collection systems, using medical standards such as HL7, LOINC, and DICOM. Inpatient and outpatient order entry systems, instruments for visit notes and on-line questionnaires that replace hardcopy forms, and intelligent use of coded data entry supplement the RMRS. Physicians happily enter orders, problems, allergies, visit notes, and discharge summaries into our locally developed Gopher order entry system, as we provide them with convenient output forms, choice lists, defaults, templates, reminders, drug interaction information, charge information, and on-line articles and textbooks. To prepare for the future, we have begun wrapping our system in Web browser technology, testing voice dictation and understanding, and employing wireless technology.

  16. [Web-based support system for medical device maintenance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinhai; Hou, Wensheng; Chen, Haiyan; Tang, Wei; Wang, Yihui

    2015-01-01

    A Web-based technology system was put forward aiming at the actual problems of the long maintenance cycle and the difficulties of the maintenance and repairing of medical equipments. Based on analysis of platform system structure and function, using the key technologies such as search engine, BBS, knowledge base and etc, a platform for medical equipment service technician to use by online or offline was designed. The platform provides users with knowledge services and interactive services, enabling users to get a more ideal solution.

  17. Applying axiomatic design to a medication distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguini, Pepito B.

    As the need to minimize medication errors drives many medical facilities to come up with robust solutions to the most common error that affects patient's safety, these hospitals would be wise to put a concerted effort into finding methodologies that can facilitate an optimized medical distribution system. If the hospitals' upper management is looking for an optimization method that is an ideal fit, it is just as important that the right tool be selected for the application at hand. In the present work, we propose the application of Axiomatic Design (AD), which is a process that focuses on the generation and selection of functional requirements to meet the customer needs for product and/or process design. The appeal of the axiomatic approach is to provide both a formal design process and a set of technical coefficients for meeting the customer's needs. Thus, AD offers a strategy for the effective integration of people, design methods, design tools and design data. Therefore, we propose the AD methodology to medical applications with the main objective of allowing nurses the opportunity to provide cost effective delivery of medications to inpatients, thereby improving quality patient care. The AD methodology will be implemented through the use of focused stores, where medications can be readily stored and can be conveniently located near patients, as well as a mobile apparatus that can also store medications and is commonly used by hospitals, the medication cart. Moreover, a robust methodology called the focused store methodology will be introduced and developed for both the uncapacitated and capacitated case studies, which will set up an appropriate AD framework and design problem for a medication distribution case study.

  18. A Bafri, un Pafri: bilinguals' Pseudoword identifications support language-specific phonetic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Kalim; Lotto, Andrew J

    2013-11-01

    Bilinguals perceptually accommodate speech variation across languages, but to what extent this flexibility depends on bilingual experience is uncertain. One account suggests that bilingual experience promotes language-specific processing modes, implying that bilinguals can switch as appropriate between the different phonetic systems of the languages they speak. Another account suggests that bilinguals rapidly recalibrate to the unique acoustic properties of each language following language-general processes common to monolinguals. Challenging this latter account, the present results show that Spanish-English bilinguals with exposure to both languages from early childhood, but not English monolinguals, shift perception as appropriate across acoustically controlled English and Spanish contexts. Early bilingual experience appears to promote language-specific phonetic systems.

  19. On Languages Accepted by P/T Systems Composed of joins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Frisco

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, some studies linked the computational power of abstract computing systems based on multiset rewriting to models of Petri nets and the computation power of these nets to their topology. In turn, the computational power of these abstract computing devices can be understood by just looking at their topology, that is, information flow. Here we continue this line of research introducing J languages and proving that they can be accepted by place/transition systems whose underlying net is composed only of joins. Moreover, we investigate how J languages relate to other families of formal languages. In particular, we show that every J language can be accepted by a log n space-bounded non-deterministic Turing machine with a one-way read-only input. We also show that every J language has a semilinear Parikh map and that J languages and context-free languages (CFLs are incomparable.

  20. Natural Language Processing methods and systems for biomedical ontology learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaihong; Hogan, William R; Crowley, Rebecca S

    2011-02-01

    While the biomedical informatics community widely acknowledges the utility of domain ontologies, there remain many barriers to their effective use. One important requirement of domain ontologies is that they must achieve a high degree of coverage of the domain concepts and concept relationships. However, the development of these ontologies is typically a manual, time-consuming, and often error-prone process. Limited resources result in missing concepts and relationships as well as difficulty in updating the ontology as knowledge changes. Methodologies developed in the fields of Natural Language Processing, information extraction, information retrieval and machine learning provide techniques for automating the enrichment of an ontology from free-text documents. In this article, we review existing methodologies and developed systems, and discuss how existing methods can benefit the development of biomedical ontologies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Medical Application Using Multi Agent System - A Literature Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sougata Chakraborty

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have projected on the involvement of multi-agent system in medical or health care domain. The objective of this study is to provide future researchers more resourceful and focused review of various research papers in this domain. Multi-agent system is most suitable for healthcare paradigm, as the properties of agent based systems deals with heterogeneous multiple agents. Data distribution and data management in a dynamic and distributed environment with multi-user cooperation, made multi-agent system more significant in this field. The disposition of this paper is classified on the basis of theoretical and application approach. We have tried to cover few relevant papers published on last decade. The main aim of this literature survey is to provide a complete road map on multi agent system based research on medical health care platform.

  2. Development of an Expert System for Reducing Medical Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ramadan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in patient safety have been hampered by the harddealing with the development of auniform classification of patient safety conceptsin a systematic way.Therefore, many believe that medicalexpert systems have great potential to improve health care.A framework for computer-based medicalerrors diagnoses of primary systems’ deficiencies is presented.Results of this research assisted indeveloping the hierarchical structure of the medical errors expert system whichwaswritten and compliedin CLIPS. It has225rules,52parameters and830conditional paragraphs. The system prompts the userfor response with suggested input formats. The system checks the user input for consistency within thegiven limits. In addition, the system was validated through numerous consultations with the experts in thefield.The benefits thataregained from such types of expert systemsare eliminatingthe fear from dealingwithpersonal mistake, and providing the up-date information and helps medical staff as a learning tool

  3. e-Learning system ERM for medical radiation physics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeva, Magdalena; Cvetkov, Asen

    2005-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the Education for Radiation in Medicine (ERM) e-Learning System. The system was developed, tested and piloted in the Inter-University Medical Physics Centre, Plovdiv, Bulgaria. It was based on the results of EU Project TEMPUS S-JEP 09826. The ERM e-Learning System is an integrated on-line system for remote education covering aspects of Medical Radiation Physics education (M.Sc. level). It provides user-friendly interface and optimised functionality with three different access levels: trainee, professor and administrator. The minimum server requirements and the standard client side working environment turn the system into a good, cost effective and easy to support solution for remote education.

  4. Formal languages, automata and numeration systems introduction to combinatorics on words

    CERN Document Server

    Rigo, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Formal Languages, Automaton and Numeration Systems presents readers with a review of research related to formal language theory, combinatorics on words or numeration systems, such as Words, DLT (Developments in Language Theory), ICALP, MFCS (Mathematical Foundation of Computer Science), Mons Theoretical Computer Science Days, Numeration, CANT (Combinatorics, Automata and Number Theory). Combinatorics on words deals with problems that can be stated in a non-commutative monoid, such as subword complexity of finite or infinite words, construction and properties of infinite words, unavoidabl

  5. Continuous-Flow System Produces Medical-Grade Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akse, James R.; Dahl, Roger W.; Wheeler, Richard R.

    2009-01-01

    A continuous-flow system utilizes microwave heating to sterilize water and to thermally inactivate endotoxins produced in the sterilization process. The system is designed for use in converting potable water to medical-grade water. Systems like this one could be used for efficient, small-scale production of medical- grade water in laboratories, clinics, and hospitals. This system could be adapted to use in selective sterilization of connections in ultra-pure-water-producing equipment and other equipment into which intrusion by microorganisms cannot be tolerated. Lightweight, port - able systems based on the design of this system could be rapidly deployed to remote locations (e.g., military field hospitals) or in response to emergencies in which the normal infrastructure for providing medical-grade water is disrupted. Larger systems based on the design of this system could be useful for industrial production of medical-grade water. The basic microwave-heating principle of this system is the same as that of a microwave oven: An item to be heated, made of a lossy dielectric material (in this case, flowing water) is irradiated with microwaves in a multimode microwave cavity. The heating is rapid and efficient because it results from absorption of microwave power throughout the volume of the lossy dielectric material. In this system, a copper tube having a length of 49.5 cm and a diameter of 2.25 cm serves as both the microwave cavity and the sterilization chamber. Microwave power is fed via a coaxial cable to an antenna mounted inside the tube at mid-length (see figure). Efficient power transfer occurs due to the shift in wavelength associated with the high permittivity of water combined with the strong coupling of 2.45-GHz microwaves with rotational-vibrational transitions of the dipolar water molecule.

  6. Structural plasticity in the language system related to increased second language proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Maria; Federspiel, Andrea; Koenig, Thomas; Wirth, Miranka; Strik, Werner; Wiest, Roland; Brandeis, Daniel; Dierks, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    While functional changes linked to second language learning have been subject to extensive investigation, the issue of learning-dependent structural plasticity in the fields of bilingualism and language comprehension has so far received less notice. In the present study we used voxel-based morphometry to monitor structural changes occurring within five months of second language learning. Native English-speaking exchange students learning German in Switzerland were examined once at the beginning of their stay and once about five months later, when their German language skills had significantly increased. We show that structural changes in the left inferior frontal gyrus are correlated with the increase in second language proficiency as measured by a paper-and-pencil language test. Contrary to the increase in proficiency and grey matter, the absolute values of grey matter density and second language proficiency did not correlate (neither on first nor on second measurement). This indicates that the individual amount of learning is reflected in brain structure changes, regardless of absolute proficiency.

  7. Why decision support systems are important for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Stathis Th; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2016-03-01

    During the last decades, the inclusion of digital tools in health education has rapidly lead to a continuously enlarging digital era. All the online interactions between learners and tutors, the description, creation, reuse and sharing of educational digital resources and the interlinkage between them in conjunction with cheap storage technology has led to an enormous amount of educational data. Medical education is a unique type of education due to accuracy of information needed, continuous changing competences required and alternative methods of education used. Nowadays medical education standards provide the ground for organising the educational data and the paradata. Analysis of such education data through education data mining techniques is in its infancy, but decision support systems (DSSs) for medical education need further research. To the best of our knowledge, there is a gap and a clear need for identifying the challenges for DSSs in medical education in the era of medical education standards. Thus, in this Letter the role and the attributes of such a DSS for medical education are delineated and the challenges and vision for future actions are identified.

  8. Systemic antihypertensive medication and incident open-angle glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muskens, Rogier P. H. M.; de Voogd, Simone; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Stricker, Bruno H. C.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the association between systemic anti hypertensive medication and incident open-angle glaucoma. Design: Prospective population-based cohort study. Participants: The study population consisted of a subset of 3842 participants of the Rotterdam Study for whom data from identical o

  9. Modeling of higher harmonics formation in medical ultrasound systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Louise Kold; Schlaikjer, Malene; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2002-01-01

    , and nonlinear distortion is accounted for by the lossless Burgers' Equation. This method has no plane-wave approximation and the full eects of diraction, attenuation, and nonlinear wave propagation can be observed under electronic focusing of array transducers in medical ultrasound systems. A single example...

  10. Modifying the Medical Research Council grading system through Rasch analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.K. Vanhoutte (Els); C.G. Faber (Carin); S.I. van Nes (Sonja); B.C. Jacobs (Bart); P.A. van Doorn (Pieter); R. van Koningsveld (Rinske); D.R. Cornblath (David); A.J. Kooj (Anneke); E.A. Cats (Elisabeth); L.H. van den Berg (Leonard); N.C. Notermans (Nicolette); W.L. van der Pol (Ludo); M.C.E. Hermans; N.A.M.E. van der Beek (Nadine); K.C. Gorson (Kenneth); M. Eurelings (Marijke); L. Engelsman (Lyda); H. Boot (Hendrik); R.J. Meijer (Ron); G. Lauria (Giuseppe); C. Tennant (Christopher); I.S.J. Merkies (Ingemar)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe Medical Research Council grading system has served through decades for the evaluation of muscle strength and has been recognized as a cardinal feature of daily neurological, rehabilitation and general medicine examination of patients, despite being respectfully criticized due to the

  11. Modifying the Medical Research Council grading system through Rasch analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhoutte, E.K.; Faber, C.G.; van Nes, S.I.; Jacobs, B.C.; van Doorn, P.A.; van Koningsveld, R.; Cornblath, D.R.; van der Kooi, A.J.; Cats, E.A.; van den Berg, L.H.; Notermans, N.C.; van der Pol, W.L.; Hermans, M.C.E.; van der Beek, N.A.M.E.; Gorson, K.C.; Eurelings, M.; Engelsman, J.; Boot, H.; Meijer, R.J.; Lauria, G.; Tennant, A.; Merkies, I.S.J.

    2012-01-01

    The Medical Research Council grading system has served through decades for the evaluation of muscle strength and has been recognized as a cardinal feature of daily neurological, rehabilitation and general medicine examination of patients, despite being respectfully criticized due to the unequal widt

  12. Modifying the Medical Research Council grading system through Rasch analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhoutte, E.K.; Faber, C.G.; van Nes, S.I.; Jacobs, B.C.; van Doorn, P.A.; van Koningsveld, R.; Cornblath, D.R.; van der Kooi, A.J.; Cats, E.A.; van den Berg, L.H.; Notermans, N.C.; van der Pol, W.L.; Hermans, M.C.E.; van der Beek, N.A.M.E.; Gorson, K.C.; Eurelings, M.; Engelsman, J.; Boot, H.; Meijer, R.J.; Lauria, G.; Tennant, A.; Merkies, I.S.J.

    2012-01-01

    The Medical Research Council grading system has served through decades for the evaluation of muscle strength and has been recognized as a cardinal feature of daily neurological, rehabilitation and general medicine examination of patients, despite being respectfully criticized due to the unequal widt

  13. Modifying the Medical Research Council grading system through Rasch analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.K. Vanhoutte (Els); C.G. Faber (Carin); S.I. van Nes (Sonja); B.C. Jacobs (Bart); P.A. van Doorn (Pieter); R. van Koningsveld (Rinske); D.R. Cornblath (David); A.J. Kooj (Anneke); E.A. Cats (Elisabeth); L.H. van den Berg (Leonard); N.C. Notermans (Nicolette); W.L. van der Pol (Ludo); M.C.E. Hermans; N.A.M.E. van der Beek (Nadine); K.C. Gorson (Kenneth); M. Eurelings (Marijke); L. Engelsman (Lyda); H. Boot (Hendrik); R.J. Meijer (Ron); G. Lauria (Giuseppe); C. Tennant (Christopher); I.S.J. Merkies (Ingemar)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe Medical Research Council grading system has served through decades for the evaluation of muscle strength and has been recognized as a cardinal feature of daily neurological, rehabilitation and general medicine examination of patients, despite being respectfully criticized due to the

  14. Modeling a Nursing Guideline with Standard Terminology and Unified Modeling Language for a Nursing Decision Support System: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeeyae; Jansen, Kay; Coenen, Amy

    In recent years, Decision Support Systems (DSSs) have been developed and used to achieve "meaningful use". One approach to developing DSSs is to translate clinical guidelines into a computer-interpretable format. However, there is no specific guideline modeling approach to translate nursing guidelines to computer-interpretable guidelines. This results in limited use of DSSs in nursing. Unified modeling language (UML) is a software writing language known to accurately represent the end-users' perspective, due to its expressive characteristics. Furthermore, standard terminology enabled DSSs have been shown to smoothly integrate into existing health information systems. In order to facilitate development of nursing DSSs, the UML was used to represent a guideline for medication management for older adults encode with the International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP®). The UML was found to be a useful and sufficient tool to model a nursing guideline for a DSS.

  15. ICD 10 Based Medical Expert System Using Fuzzy Temporal Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Chinniah, P

    2010-01-01

    Medical diagnosis process involves many levels and considerable amount of time and money are invariably spent for the first level of diagnosis usually made by the physician for all the patients every time. Hence there is a need for a computer based system which not only asks relevant questions to the patients but also aids the physician by giving a set of possible diseases from the symptoms obtained using logic at inference. In this work, an ICD10 based Medical Expert System that provides advice, information and recommendation to the physician using fuzzy temporal logic. The knowledge base used in this system consists of facts of symptoms and rules on diseases. It also provides fuzzy severity scale and weight factor for symptom and disease and can vary with respect to time. The system generates the possible disease conditions based on modified Euclidean metric using Elders algorithm for effective clustering. The minimum similarity value is used as the decision parameter to identify a disease.

  16. Balanced bilinguals favor lexical processing in their opaque language and conversion system in their shallow language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buetler, Karin A; de León Rodríguez, Diego; Laganaro, Marina; Müri, René; Nyffeler, Thomas; Spierer, Lucas; Annoni, Jean-Marie

    2015-11-01

    Referred to as orthographic depth, the degree of consistency of grapheme/phoneme correspondences varies across languages from high in shallow orthographies to low in deep orthographies. The present study investigates the impact of orthographic depth on reading route by analyzing evoked potentials to words in a deep (French) and shallow (German) language presented to highly proficient bilinguals. ERP analyses to German and French words revealed significant topographic modulations 240-280 ms post-stimulus onset, indicative of distinct brain networks engaged in reading over this time window. Source estimations revealed that these effects stemmed from modulations of left insular, inferior frontal and dorsolateral regions (German>French) previously associated to phonological processing. Our results show that reading in a shallow language was associated to a stronger engagement of phonological pathways than reading in a deep language. Thus, the lexical pathways favored in word reading are reinforced by phonological networks more strongly in the shallow than deep orthography.

  17. SECOND-LANGUAGE ACQUISITION AND THE SYSTEM OF EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    As a branch of applied linguistics, language education or educational linguistics2 has had a long history dating back in ancient times. However, at present, under the influence of globalization, second-language acquisition3 has become a sine qua non condition for any potential employee or employer in the knowledge society. Basically, democratic regimes and developing countries encourage language education which they regard as an important asset in the process of globalization. Moreover, the s...

  18. Plasticity in the adult language system: a longitudinal electrophysiological study on second language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, M; Dierks, T; Brandeis, D; Wirth, M; Strik, W; Koenig, T

    2006-11-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to trace changes in brain activity related to progress in second language learning. Twelve English-speaking exchange students learning German in Switzerland were recruited. ERPs to visually presented single words from the subjects' native language (English), second language (German) and an unknown language (Romansh) were measured before (day 1) and after (day 2) 5 months of intense German language learning. When comparing ERPs to German words from day 1 and day 2, we found topographic differences between 396 and 540 ms. These differences could be interpreted as a latency shift indicating faster processing of German words on day 2. Source analysis indicated that the topographic differences were accounted for by shorter activation of left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) on day 2. In ERPs to English words, we found Global Field Power differences between 472 and 644 ms. This may due to memory traces related to English words being less easily activated on day 2. Alternatively, it might reflect the fact that--with German words becoming familiar on day 2--English words loose their oddball character and thus produce a weaker P300-like effect on day 2. In ERPs to Romansh words, no differences were observed. Our results reflect plasticity in the neuronal networks underlying second language acquisition. They indicate that with a higher level of second language proficiency, second language word processing is faster and requires shorter frontal activation. Thus, our results suggest that the reduced IFG activation found in previous fMRI studies might not reflect a generally lower activation but rather a shorter duration of activity.

  19. Medical Image Digitalization and Archiving Information System in Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajfert, Vjekoslav; Milićević, Vladimir; Jevtić, Vesna; Jovanović, Višnja

    2007-04-01

    The paper gives a brief presentation of digital and archiving imaging system (PACS) with a survey of the main characteristics and development of the system worldwide as well as the possibilities and the area of its implementation in our conditions. We have given a proposition for digitalization and archiving of both the existing and future medical imaging in accordance with our possibilities for world standards implementation.

  20. Using the Language of Sets to Describe Nested Systems in Emergy Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The language of set theory has been recently used to describe the emergy evaluation of a process. In this paper this mathematical language is used as a guide to evaluate the emergy of nested systems. We analyze a territorial system on multiple scales as an example of hierarchical...

  1. A comparison of LISP and MUMPS as implementation languages for knowledge-based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, A C

    1984-10-01

    Major components of knowledge-based systems are summarized, along with the programming language features generally useful in their implementation. LISP and MUMPS are briefly described and compared as vehicles for building knowledge-based systems. The paper concludes with suggestions for extensions to MUMPS that might increase its usefulness in artificial intelligence applications without affecting the essential nature of the language.

  2. Repurposing the clinical record: can an existing natural language processing system de-identify clinical notes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Frances P; Li, Li; Lai, Albert M; Hripcsak, George

    2009-01-01

    Electronic clinical documentation can be useful for activities such as public health surveillance, quality improvement, and research, but existing methods of de-identification may not provide sufficient protection of patient data. The general-purpose natural language processor MedLEE retains medical concepts while excluding the remaining text so, in addition to processing text into structured data, it may be able provide a secondary benefit of de-identification. Without modifying the system, the authors tested the ability of MedLEE to remove protected health information (PHI) by comparing 100 outpatient clinical notes with the corresponding XML-tagged output. Of 809 instances of PHI, 26 (3.2%) were detected in output as a result of processing and identification errors. However, PHI in the output was highly transformed, much appearing as normalized terms for medical concepts, potentially making re-identification more difficult. The MedLEE processor may be a good enhancement to other de-identification systems, both removing PHI and providing coded data from clinical text.

  3. A Demonstration of PROMIS. The Problem-Oriented Medical Information System at the Medical Center Hospital of Vermont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratmann, William C.

    A study was conducted to evaluate the impact of the Problem-Oriented Medical Information System (PROMIS), which is based on an automated problem-oriented medical record, by comparing the records for two generally comparable medical wards, one using the computerized PROMIS record and the other using its manual prototype. This report provides a…

  4. Theoretical Foundations of the Language Development Program and Rationale for the Learning System: Language Development Program for Bilingual Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.

    Four theoretical papers and fourteen modules are presented that are to be used by local school systems to educate teachers and staff members in the understanding of curriculum content and acquisition of skills in teaching-learning procedures. The papers discuss the selected theories upon which the language program of the Southwest Educational…

  5. A Model-Based Systems Engineering Methodology for Employing Architecture In System Analysis: Developing Simulation Models Using Systems Modeling Language Products to Link Architecture and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    ENGINEERING METHODOLOGY FOR EMPLOYING ARCHITECTURE IN SYSTEM ANALYSIS: DEVELOPING SIMULATION MODELS USING SYSTEMS MODELING LANGUAGE PRODUCTS TO LINK... ENGINEERING METHODOLOGY FOR EMPLOYING ARCHITECTURE IN SYSTEM ANALYSIS: DEVELOPING SIMULATION MODELS USING SYSTEMS MODELING LANGUAGE PRODUCTS TO LINK...to model-based systems engineering (MBSE) by formally defining an MBSE methodology for employing architecture in system analysis (MEASA) that presents

  6. An information gathering system for medical image inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Jin; Bajcsy, Peter

    2005-04-01

    We present an information gathering system for medical image inspection that consists of software tools for capturing computer-centric and human-centric information. Computer-centric information includes (1) static annotations, such as (a) image drawings enclosing any selected area, a set of areas with similar colors, a set of salient points, and (b) textual descriptions associated with either image drawings or links between pairs of image drawings, and (2) dynamic (or temporal) information, such as mouse movements, zoom level changes, image panning and frame selections from an image stack. Human-centric information is represented by video and audio signals that are acquired by computer-mounted cameras and microphones. The short-term goal of the presented system is to facilitate learning of medical novices from medical experts, while the long-term goal is to data mine all information about image inspection for assisting in making diagnoses. In this work, we built basic software functionality for gathering computer-centric and human-centric information of the aforementioned variables. Next, we developed the information playback capabilities of all gathered information for educational purposes. Finally, we prototyped text-based and image template-based search engines to retrieve information from recorded annotations, for example, (a) find all annotations containing the word "blood vessels", or (b) search for similar areas to a selected image area. The information gathering system for medical image inspection reported here has been tested with images from the Histology Atlas database.

  7. Integrated software system for improving medical equipment management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliznakov, Z; Pappous, G; Bliznakova, K; Pallikarakis, N

    2003-01-01

    The evolution of biomedical technology has led to an extraordinary use of medical devices in health care delivery. During the last decade, clinical engineering departments (CEDs) turned toward computerization and application of specific software systems for medical equipment management in order to improve their services and monitor outcomes. Recently, much emphasis has been given to patient safety. Through its Medical Device Directives, the European Union has required all member nations to use a vigilance system to prevent the reoccurrence of adverse events that could lead to injuries or death of patients or personnel as a result of equipment malfunction or improper use. The World Health Organization also has made this issue a high priority and has prepared a number of actions and recommendations. In the present workplace, a new integrated, Windows-oriented system is proposed, addressing all tasks of CEDs but also offering a global approach to their management needs, including vigilance. The system architecture is based on a star model, consisting of a central core module and peripheral units. Its development has been based on the integration of 3 software modules, each one addressing specific predefined tasks. The main features of this system include equipment acquisition and replacement management, inventory archiving and monitoring, follow up on scheduled maintenance, corrective maintenance, user training, data analysis, and reports. It also incorporates vigilance monitoring and information exchange for adverse events, together with a specific application for quality-control procedures. The system offers clinical engineers the ability to monitor and evaluate the quality and cost-effectiveness of the service provided by means of quality and cost indicators. Particular emphasis has been placed on the use of harmonized standards with regard to medical device nomenclature and classification. The system's practical applications have been demonstrated through a pilot

  8. Proceedings of the first international workshop on domain-specific languages for robotic systems (DSLRob 2010)

    CERN Document Server

    Schultz, Ulrik P; Ziane, Mikal

    2011-01-01

    The First International Workshop on Domain-Specific Languages and models for ROBotic systems (DSLRob'10) was held at the 2010 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS'10), October 2010 in Taipei, Taiwan. The main topics of the workshop were domain-specific languages and models. A domain-specific language (DSL) is a programming language dedicated to a particular problem domain that offers specific notations and abstractions that increase programmer productivity within that domain. Models offer a high-level way for domain users to specify the functionality of their system at the right level of abstraction. DSLs and models have historically been used for programming complex systems. However recently they have garnered interest as a separate field of study. Robotic systems blend hardware and software in a holistic way that intrinsically raises many crosscutting concerns (concurrency, uncertainty, time constraints, ...), for which reason, traditional general-purpose languages often...

  9. A privacy enhanced authentication scheme for telecare medical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qi; Ma, Jianfeng; Ma, Zhuo; Li, Guangsong

    2013-02-01

    The telecare medical information system (TMIS) aims to establish telecare services and enable the public to access medical services or medical information at remote sites. Authentication and key agreement is essential to ensure data integrity, confidentiality, and availability for TMIS. Most recently, Chen et al. proposed an efficient and secure dynamic ID-based authentication scheme for TMIS, and claimed that their scheme achieves user anonymity. However, we observe that Chen et al.'s scheme achieves neither anonymity nor untraceability, and is subject to the identity guessing attack and tracking attack. In order to protect user privacy, we propose an enhanced authentication scheme which achieves user anonymity and untraceablity. It is a secure and efficient authentication scheme with user privacy preservation which is practical for TMIS.

  10. Improving Patients\\\\\\' Care through Electronic Medical Error Reporting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rangraz Jeddi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Medical errors are unintentional acts that take place due to the negligence or lead to undesirable consequences in medical practice. The purpose of this study was to design a conceptual model for medical error reporting system. This applied descriptive cross-sectional research employed Delphi method carried out from 2012 to 2013. The study population was medical and paramedical personnel of health workers and paramedical personnel of hospitals, deputy of treatment, faculty members of Kashan University of Medical Sciences in addition to the internet and library resources. Sample size included 30 expert individuals in the field of medical errors. The one-stage stratified sampling procedure was used. The items with opposition ranging 0 to 25 were confirmed and those exceeding 50 were rejected whereas the items with the opposition 25 to 50 were reevaluated in the second session. This process continued for three times and the items that failed to be approved were eliminated in the model. Based on the results of this research, repeated informing about and reporting operation at on-line bases that have access to the incidence of error detected on time, identifying cause and damage due to the incidence reported confidential and anonymously immediately after the occurrence is necessary. Analysis of data quantitatively and qualitatively by using computer software is needed. Classifying the errors reports based on feedback provision according to the cause of error is needed. In addition, confidential report and possible manual retrieval were suggested It is essential to determine the means of reporting and items in the reporting form including time, cause and damage of medical error, media of reporting and method of recording and analysis.

  11. Neural systems supporting linguistic structure, linguistic experience, and symbolic communication in sign language and gesture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Aaron J; Supalla, Ted; Fernandez, Nina; Newport, Elissa L; Bavelier, Daphne

    2015-09-15

    Sign languages used by deaf communities around the world possess the same structural and organizational properties as spoken languages: In particular, they are richly expressive and also tightly grammatically constrained. They therefore offer the opportunity to investigate the extent to which the neural organization for language is modality independent, as well as to identify ways in which modality influences this organization. The fact that sign languages share the visual-manual modality with a nonlinguistic symbolic communicative system-gesture-further allows us to investigate where the boundaries lie between language and symbolic communication more generally. In the present study, we had three goals: to investigate the neural processing of linguistic structure in American Sign Language (using verbs of motion classifier constructions, which may lie at the boundary between language and gesture); to determine whether we could dissociate the brain systems involved in deriving meaning from symbolic communication (including both language and gesture) from those specifically engaged by linguistically structured content (sign language); and to assess whether sign language experience influences the neural systems used for understanding nonlinguistic gesture. The results demonstrated that even sign language constructions that appear on the surface to be similar to gesture are processed within the left-lateralized frontal-temporal network used for spoken languages-supporting claims that these constructions are linguistically structured. Moreover, although nonsigners engage regions involved in human action perception to process communicative, symbolic gestures, signers instead engage parts of the language-processing network-demonstrating an influence of experience on the perception of nonlinguistic stimuli.

  12. Measurement of specific medical school stress: translation of the "Perceived Medical School Stress Instrument" to the German language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kötter, Thomas; Voltmer, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Zielsetzung: Medizinstudierende sind spezifischen Stressoren ausgesetzt. Als Folge der Stressbelastung kommt es bei Medizinstudierenden im Vergleich zu gleichaltrigen Berufstätigen häufiger zu Ängsten, Depressionen und Burn-out. Vitaliano et al. haben bereits 1984 ein 13 Items umfassendes Instrument zur Messung der spezifischen Stressbelastung von Medizinstudierenden, das „Perceived Medical School Stress Instrument“ (PMSS), vorgestellt. Es wurde seitdem im englischsprachigen Bereich breit eingesetzt und validiert. Bislang liegt jedoch keine deutschsprachige Version des Instrumentes vor. Ziel des Projektes war die Übersetzung des PMSS in die deutsche Sprache, um es im Rahmen von Studien im deutschsprachigen Raum einzusetzen.Methodik: Die englischsprachigen Items des PMSS wurden von drei Untersuchern in die deutsche Sprache übersetzt. Die Versionen wurden synoptisch gegenübergestellt und auf dieser Basis wurde für jedes Item eine deutschsprachige Version formuliert. Diese Versionen wurden von Muttersprachlerinnen in die englische Sprache zurückübersetzt. Auf der Basis dieser Rückübersetzungen, eines kognitiven Debriefings an 19 deutschen Medizinstudierenden und einer testtheoretischen Evaluation an 169 deutschen Medizinstudierenden wurden dann die endgültigen deutschsprachigen Formulierungen festgelegt. Ergebnisse: Das PMSS konnte ohne größere Schwierigkeiten in die deutsche Sprache übersetzt werden. Sowohl zwischen den Übersetzungen in die deutsche Sprache als auch zwischen beiden Rückübersetzungen waren die Übereinstimmungen groß. Bei Diskrepanzen erfolgte die Einigung schnell und unkompliziert. Der Einsatz der deutschsprachigen Version erbrachte einen guten Wert für die Reliabilität (Cronbachs Alpha 0,81).Schlussfolgerung: Es steht nun auch für deutschsprachigen Raum ein spezifisches Instrument zur Messung der Stressbelastung von Medizinstudierenden zur Verfügung.

  13. The Nigerian health care system: Need for integrating adequate medical intelligence and surveillance systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menizibeya Osain Welcome

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : As an important element of national security, public health not only functions to provide adequate and timely medical care but also track, monitor, and control disease outbreak. The Nigerian health care had suffered several infectious disease outbreaks year after year. Hence, there is need to tackle the problem. This study aims to review the state of the Nigerian health care system and to provide possible recommendations to the worsening state of health care in the country. To give up-to-date recommendations for the Nigerian health care system, this study also aims at reviewing the dynamics of health care in the United States, Britain, and Europe with regards to methods of medical intelligence/surveillance. Materials and Methods : Databases were searched for relevant literatures using the following keywords: Nigerian health care, Nigerian health care system, and Nigerian primary health care system. Additional keywords used in the search were as follows: United States (OR Europe health care dynamics, Medical Intelligence, Medical Intelligence systems, Public health surveillance systems, Nigerian medical intelligence, Nigerian surveillance systems, and Nigerian health information system. Literatures were searched in scientific databases Pubmed and African Journals OnLine. Internet searches were based on Google and Search Nigeria. Results : Medical intelligence and surveillance represent a very useful component in the health care system and control diseases outbreak, bioattack, etc. There is increasing role of automated-based medical intelligence and surveillance systems, in addition to the traditional manual pattern of document retrieval in advanced medical setting such as those in western and European countries. Conclusion : The Nigerian health care system is poorly developed. No adequate and functional surveillance systems are developed. To achieve success in health care in this modern era, a system well grounded in routine

  14. MIRMAID: A Content Management System for Medical Image Analysis Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korfiatis, Panagiotis D; Kline, Timothy L; Blezek, Daniel J; Langer, Steve G; Ryan, William J; Erickson, Bradley J

    2015-01-01

    Today, a typical clinical study can involve thousands of participants, with imaging data acquired over several time points across multiple institutions. The additional associated information (metadata) accompanying these data can cause data management to be a study-hindering bottleneck. Consistent data management is crucial for large-scale modern clinical imaging research studies. If the study is to be used for regulatory submissions, such systems must be able to meet regulatory compliance requirements for systems that manage clinical image trials, including protecting patient privacy. Our aim was to develop a system to address these needs by leveraging the capabilities of an open-source content management system (CMS) that has a highly configurable workflow; has a single interface that can store, manage, and retrieve imaging-based studies; and can handle the requirement for data auditing and project management. We developed a Web-accessible CMS for medical images called Medical Imaging Research Management and Associated Information Database (MIRMAID). From its inception, MIRMAID was developed to be highly flexible and to meet the needs of diverse studies. It fulfills the need for a complete system for medical imaging research management.

  15. Experience-Dependent Brain Development as a Key to Understanding the Language System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Gert

    2016-04-01

    An influential view of the nature of the language system is that of an evolved biological system in which a set of rules is combined with a lexicon that contains the words of the language together with a representation of their context. Alternative views, usually based on connectionist modeling, attempt to explain the structure of language on the basis of complex associative processes. Here, I put forward a third view that stresses experience-dependent structural development of the brain circuits supporting language as a core principle of the organization of the language system. In this view, embodied in a recent neuroconstructivist neural network of past tense development and processing, initial domain-general predispositions enable the development of functionally specialized brain structures through interactions between experience-dependent brain development and statistical learning in a structured environment. Together, these processes shape a biological adult language system that appears to separate into distinct mechanism for processing rules and exceptions, whereas in reality those subsystems co-develop and interact closely. This view puts experience-dependent brain development in response to a specific language environment at the heart of understanding not only language development but adult language processing as well.

  16. Language Evolution: The View from Restricted Linguistic Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botha, Rudolf; Swart, Henriëtte de

    The chapters of this volume investigate the evolution of a range of features of language, including temporality, negation, noun combining, and functional categories. The authors adopt what is known as the “Windows Approach” to the study of language evolution. Two ideas are fundamental to this

  17. Classification System for English Language Learners: Issues and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Jamal

    2008-01-01

    High-stakes decisions for the instruction and assessment of English language learner (ELL) students are made based on the premise that ELL classification is a valid dichotomy that distinguishes between those who are proficient in the use of the English language and those who are not. However, recent research findings draw a vague picture of the…

  18. Viewpoints, Formalisms, Languages, and Tools for Cyber-Physical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-16

    whereas Uppaal timed automata [26] and Kronos timed automata [9] are languages. In the rest of this section, we highlight some languages and tools...Checking. In CAV ’02, 2002. [9] C. Daws, A. Olivero, S. Tripakis, and S. Yovine. The Tool KRONOS . In R. Alur, T. Henzinger, and E. Sontag, editors

  19. Systematic reconstruction of TRANSPATH data into cell system markup language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasaki, Masao; Saito, Ayumu; Li, Chen; Jeong, Euna; Miyano, Satoru

    2008-06-23

    Many biological repositories store information based on experimental study of the biological processes within a cell, such as protein-protein interactions, metabolic pathways, signal transduction pathways, or regulations of transcription factors and miRNA. Unfortunately, it is difficult to directly use such information when generating simulation-based models. Thus, modeling rules for encoding biological knowledge into system-dynamics-oriented standardized formats would be very useful for fully understanding cellular dynamics at the system level. We selected the TRANSPATH database, a manually curated high-quality pathway database, which provides a plentiful source of cellular events in humans, mice, and rats, collected from over 31,500 publications. In this work, we have developed 16 modeling rules based on hybrid functional Petri net with extension (HFPNe), which is suitable for graphical representing and simulating biological processes. In the modeling rules, each Petri net element is incorporated with Cell System Ontology to enable semantic interoperability of models. As a formal ontology for biological pathway modeling with dynamics, CSO also defines biological terminology and corresponding icons. By combining HFPNe with the CSO features, it is possible to make TRANSPATH data to simulation-based and semantically valid models. The results are encoded into a biological pathway format, Cell System Markup Language (CSML), which eases the exchange and integration of biological data and models. By using the 16 modeling rules, 97% of the reactions in TRANSPATH are converted into simulation-based models represented in CSML. This reconstruction demonstrates that it is possible to use our rules to generate quantitative models from static pathway descriptions.

  20. Acoustic Model Adaptation for Indonesian Language Utterance Training System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Indrayanti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In order to build an utterance training system for Indonesian language, a speech recognition system designed for Indonesian is necessary. However, the system hardly works well due to the pronunciation variants of non-native utterances may lead to substitution/deletion error. This research investigated the pronunciation variant and proposes acoustic model adaptation to improve performance of the system. Approach: The proposed acoustic model adaptation worked in three steps: to analyze pronunciation variant with knowledge-based and data-derived methods; to align knowledge-based and data-derived results in order to list frequently mispronounced phones with their variants; to perform a state-clustering procedure with the list obtained from the second step. Further, three Speaker Adaptation (SA techniques were used in combination with the acoustic model adaptation and they are compared each other. In order to evaluate and tune the adaptation techniques, perceptual-based evaluation by three human raters is performed to obtain the "true"recognition results. Results: The proposed method achieved an average gain in Hit + Rejection (the percentage of correctly accepted and correctly rejected utterances by the system as the human raters do of 2.9 points and 2 points for native and non-native subjects, respectively, when compared with the system without adaptation. Average gains of 12.7 and 6.2 points for native and non-native students in Hit + Rejection were obtained by combining SA to the acoustic model adaptation. Conclusion/Recommendations: Performance evaluation of the adapted system demonstrated that the proposed acoustic model adaptation can improve Hit even though there is a slight increase of False Alarm (FA, the percentage of incorrectly accepted utterances by the system of which the human raters reject. The performance of the proposed acoustic model adaptation depends strongly on the effectiveness of state-clustering procedure

  1. [Approaches to development and implementation of the medical information system for military-medical commission of the multidisciplinary military-medical organisation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvshinov, K E; Klipak, V M; Chaplyuk, A L; Moskovko, V M; Belyshev, D V; Zherebko, O A

    2015-06-01

    The current task of the implementation of medical information systems in the military and medical organizations is an automation of the military-medical expertise as one of the most important activities. In this regard, noteworthy experience of the 9th Medical Diagnostic Centre (9th MDC), where on the basis of medical information system "Interi PROMIS" for the first time was implemented the automation of the work of military medical commission. The given paper presents an algorithm for constructing of the information system for the military-medical examination; detailed description of its elements is given. According to military servicemen the implementation of the Military Medical Commission (MMC) subsystem of the medical information system implemented into the 9th MDC has reduced the time required for the MMC and paperwork, greatly facilitate the work of physicians and medical specialists on military servicemen examination. This software can be widely applied in ambulatory and hospital practice, especially in case of mass military-medical examinations.

  2. Language, literacy, and communication regarding medication in an anticoagulation clinic: a comparison of verbal vs. visual assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillinger, Dean; Machtinger, Edward L; Wang, Frances; Palacios, Jorge; Rodriguez, Maytrella; Bindman, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Despite the importance of clinician-patient communication, little is known about rates and predictors of medication miscommunication. Measuring rates of miscommunication, as well as differences between verbal and visual modes of assessment, can inform efforts to more effectively communicate about medications. We studied 220 diverse patients in an anticoagulation clinic to assess concordance between patient and clinician reports of warfarin regimens. Bilingual research assistants asked patients to (1) verbalize their prescribed weekly warfarin regimen and (2) identify this regimen from a digitized color menu of warfarin pills. We obtained clinician reports of patient regimens from chart review. Patients were categorized as having regimen concordance if there were no patient-clinician discrepancies in total weekly dosage. We then examined whether verbal and visual concordance rates varied with patient's language and health literacy. Fifty percent of patients achieved verbal concordance and 66% achieved visual concordance with clinicians regarding the weekly warfarin regimen (P visual discordance. Shifting from verbal to visual modes was associated with greater patient-provider concordance across all patient subgroups, but especially for those with communication barriers.Clinician-patient discordance regarding patients' warfarin regimen was common but occurred less frequently when patients used a visual aid. Visual aids may improve the accuracy of medication assessment, especially for patients with communication barriers.

  3. National electronic medical records integration on cloud computing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Hebah; El-Masri, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Few Healthcare providers have an advanced level of Electronic Medical Record (EMR) adoption. Others have a low level and most have no EMR at all. Cloud computing technology is a new emerging technology that has been used in other industry and showed a great success. Despite the great features of Cloud computing, they haven't been utilized fairly yet in healthcare industry. This study presents an innovative Healthcare Cloud Computing system for Integrating Electronic Health Record (EHR). The proposed Cloud system applies the Cloud Computing technology on EHR system, to present a comprehensive EHR integrated environment.

  4. 5 CFR 293.504 - Composition of, and access to, the Employee Medical File System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Employee Medical File System. 293.504 Section 293.504 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERSONNEL RECORDS Employee Medical File System Records § 293.504 Composition of, and access to, the Employee Medical File System. (a) All employee occupational medical...

  5. A scanned beam THz imaging system for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Zachary D.; Li, Wenzao; Suen, Jon; Tewari, Priyamvada; Bennett, David; Bajwa, Neha; Brown, Elliott; Culjat, Martin; Grundfest, Warren; Singh, Rahul

    2011-10-01

    THz medical imaging has been a topic of increased interest recently due largely to improvements in source and detector technology and the identification of suitable applications. One aspect of THz medical imaging research not often adequately addressed is pixel acquisition rate and phenomenology. The majority of active THz imaging systems use translation stages to raster scan a sample beneath a fixed THz beam. While these techniques have produced high resolution images of characterization targets and animal models they do not scale well to human imaging where clinicians are unwilling to place patients on large translation stages. This paper presents a scanned beam THz imaging system that can acquire a 1 cm2 area with 1 mm2 pixels and a per-pixel SNR of 40 dB in less than 5 seconds. The system translates a focused THz beam across a stationary target using a spinning polygonal mirror and HDPE objective lens. The illumination is centered at 525 GHz with ~ 125 GHz of response normalized bandwidth and the component layout is designed to optically co-locate the stationary source and detector ensuring normal incidence across a 50 mm × 50 mm field of view at standoff of 190 mm. Component characterization and images of a test target are presented. These results are some of the first ever reported for a short standoff, high resolution, scanned beam THz imaging system and represent an important step forward for practical integration of THz medical imaging where fast image acquisition times and stationary targets (patients) are requisite.

  6. Medical tourism in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vijay; Das, Poonam

    2012-06-01

    The term 'medical tourism' is under debate because health care is a serious business and rarely do patients combine the two. India is uniquely placed by virtue of its skilled manpower, common language, diverse medical conditions that doctors deal with, the volume of patients, and a large nonresident Indian population overseas. Medical tourism requires dedicated services to alleviate the anxiety of foreign patients. These include translation, currency conversion, travel, visa, posttreatment care system,and accommodation of patient relatives during and after treatment.

  7. SECOND-LANGUAGE ACQUISITION AND THE SYSTEM OF EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMELIA NEAGU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available As a branch of applied linguistics, language education or educational linguistics2 has had a long history dating back in ancient times. However, at present, under the influence of globalization, second-language acquisition3 has become a sine qua non condition for any potential employee or employer in the knowledge society. Basically, democratic regimes and developing countries encourage language education which they regard as an important asset in the process of globalization. Moreover, the study of foreign languages significantly contributes to the development of any human being’s personality and implicitly of any society by eliminating cultural biases and borders. Currently, countries which fail to understand the importance of second-language acquisition deprive their citizens of a key social and cultural development factor. Last but not least, we could say that at present the ability to speak English has become synonym with acquiring a universal language. In consequence, educational policies should seriously focus on the study of the new lingua franca4, i.e. English, while accepting as an undeniable possibility – given the rapidly changing political and economic environment – the fact that another language (such as Chinese or Spanish etc. may replace English in time.

  8. Application of a medical image processing system in liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi-Hua Fang; Xiao-Feng Li; Zhou Li; Ying-Fang Fan; Chao-Min Lu; Yan-Peng Huang; Feng-Ping Peng

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At present, imaging is used not only to show the form of images, but also to make three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions and visual simulations based on original data to guide clinical surgery. This study aimed to assess the use of a medical image-processing system in liver transplantation surgery. METHODS: The data of abdominal 64-slice spiral CT scan were collected from 200 healthy volunteers and 37 liver cancer patients in terms of hepatic arterial phase, portal phase, and hepatic venous phase. A 3D model of abdominal blood vessels including the abdominal aorta system, portal vein system, and inferior vena cava system was reconstructed by an abdominal image processing system to identify vascular variations. Then, a 3D model of the liver was reconstructed in terms of hepatic segmentation and liver volume was calculated. The FreeForm modeling system with a PHANTOM force feedback device was used to simulate the real liver transplantation environment, in which the total process of liver transplantation was completed. RESULTS: The reconstructed model of the abdominal blood vessels and the liver was clearly demonstrated to be three-dimensionally consistent with the anatomy of the liver, in which the variations of abdominal blood vessels were identiifed and liver segmentation was performed digitally. In the model, liver transplantation was simulated subsequently, and different modus operandi were selected successfully. CONCLUSION: The digitized medical image processing system may be valuable for liver transplantation.

  9. A Distributed and Collaborative Intelligent System for Medical Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoufel KHAYATI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a distributed collaborative system assisting physicians in diagnosis when processing medical images. This is a Web-based solution since the different participants and resources are on various sites. It is collaborative because these participants (physicians, radiologists, knowledgebasesdesigners, program developers for medical image processing, etc. can work collaboratively to enhance the quality of programs and then the quality of the diagnosis results. It is intelligent since it is a knowledge-based system including, but not only, a knowledge base, an inference engine said supervision engine and ontologies. The current work deals with the osteoporosis detection in bone radiographies. We rely on program supervision techniques that aim to automatically plan and control complex software usage. Our main contribution is to allow physicians, who are not experts in computing, to benefit from technological advances made by experts in image processing, and then to efficiently use various osteoporosis detection programs in a distributed environment.

  10. A Systemic-Functional Analysis of English Language Learners' Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana C. DE OLIVEIRA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a systemic-functional linguistic analysis of two writing samples of the University of California Analytical Writing Placement (AWP Examination written by English language learners (ELLs. The analysis shows the linguistic features utilized in the two writing samples, one that received a passing score and one that received a failing score. The article describes some of the grammatical resources which are functional for expository writing, which are divided under three main categories: textual, interpersonal, and ideational resources. Following this brief description is the analysis of both essays in terms of these resources.. The configuration of grammatical features used in the essays make up the detached style of essay 1 and the more personal style of essay 2. These grammatical features include the textual resources of thematic choices and development, clause-combining strategies (connectors, and lexical cohesion; interpersonal resources of interpersonal metaphors of modality; and ideational resources of nominalization and abstractions as ideational metaphors. Implications for educational practice and recommendations for educators based on the analysis are provided.

  11. Optimally efficient neural systems for processing spoken language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jie; Tyler, Lorraine K; Randall, Billi; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A; Marslen-Wilson, William D

    2014-04-01

    Cognitive models claim that spoken words are recognized by an optimally efficient sequential analysis process. Evidence for this is the finding that nonwords are recognized as soon as they deviate from all real words (Marslen-Wilson 1984), reflecting continuous evaluation of speech inputs against lexical representations. Here, we investigate the brain mechanisms supporting this core aspect of word recognition and examine the processes of competition and selection among multiple word candidates. Based on new behavioral support for optimal efficiency in lexical access from speech, a functional magnetic resonance imaging study showed that words with later nonword points generated increased activation in the left superior and middle temporal gyrus (Brodmann area [BA] 21/22), implicating these regions in dynamic sound-meaning mapping. We investigated competition and selection by manipulating the number of initially activated word candidates (competition) and their later drop-out rate (selection). Increased lexical competition enhanced activity in bilateral ventral inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47/45), while increased lexical selection demands activated bilateral dorsal inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45). These findings indicate functional differentiation of the fronto-temporal systems for processing spoken language, with left middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and superior temporal gyrus (STG) involved in mapping sounds to meaning, bilateral ventral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) engaged in less constrained early competition processing, and bilateral dorsal IFG engaged in later, more fine-grained selection processes.

  12. Medical decision support systems and therapeutics: The role of autopilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woosley, R L; Whyte, J; Mohamadi, A; Romero, K

    2016-02-01

    For decades, medical practice has increasingly relied on prescription medicines to treat, cure, or prevent illness but their net benefit is reduced by prescribing errors that result in adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and tens of thousands of deaths each year. Optimal prescribing requires effective management of massive amounts of data. Clinical decision support systems (CDSS) can help manage information and support optimal therapeutic decisions before errors are made by operating as the prescribers' "autopilot."

  13. Knowledge acquisition and representation for the Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL) Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamster, Thomas L.; Eike, David R.; Ames, Troy J.

    1990-01-01

    This presentation concentrates on knowledge acquisition and its application to the development of an expert module and a user interface for an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS). The Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL) ITS is being developed to assist NASA control center personnel in learning a command and control language as it is used in mission operations rooms. The objective of the tutor is to impart knowledge and skills that will permit the trainee to solve command and control problems in the same way that the STOL expert solves those problems. The STOL ITS will achieve this object by representing the solution space in such a way that the trainee can visualize the intermediate steps, and by having the expert module production rules parallel the STOL expert's knowledge structures.

  14. Review guidelines on software languages for use in nuclear power plant safety systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht, H.; Hecht, M.; Graff, S.; Green, W.; Lin, D.; Koch, S.; Tai, A.; Wendelboe, D. [SoHaR, Inc., Beverly Hills, CA (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Guidelines for the programming and auditing of software written in high level languages for safety systems are presented. The guidelines are derived from a framework of issues significant to software safety which was gathered from relevant standards and research literature. Language-specific adaptations of these guidelines are provided for the following high level languages: Ada, C/C++, Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Ladder Logic, International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Standard 1131-3 Sequential Function Charts, Pascal, and PL/M. Appendices to the report include a tabular summary of the guidelines and additional information on selected languages.s

  15. Language barrier, funding, communication and time management problems found in the Medical Journal of Indonesia, 1995 - 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isnani A. Suryono

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to assess the problems encountered in the management of Medical Journal of Indonesia and whether any progress has been achieved during the past 7 years. A retrospective descriptive study was done in the MJI. Available data used as parameters were: number of articles submitted and author's home institution, number of articles submitted and rejected, cause/criteria of rejection, qualification of reviewers and editors, duration of manuscript processing, and whether pre-scheduled time is met in the Med J Indones. For this purpose, all manuscripts from January 1995- January 2001 were evaluated. In addition, recent problems encountered were noted. Problems encountered were limited supply of manuscript that might be due to language barrier, decrease in circulation due to limited budget, communication problems due to seniority, and increase in average processing time that might be due to restriction in the time allocated for MJI Number of articles submitted by authors originating from national versus foreign institutions in 1995-1997 was 101 versus 16, and in 1998 - 2000 were 124 versus 84. Articles rejected were ±26.4 % (1999-2001 and the most frequent causes of rejection were insignificancy of substance and improper data analysis. As for the qualification of editors there was an increase in the number of PhDs and professors. Average processing time is approximately 1.5 times the scheduled time. It seems that the 4 main problems encountered were (1 Language barrier, (2 Funding, (3 Communication problems and (4 Time management; and though not impressive, there are definitely positive changes in the number of manuscipts submitted, qualification of editors and peer reviewers. Average processing time is about the same, and the prescheduled time of editing is yet to be met. (Med J  Indones 2001; 10: 252-8Keywords: language barrier, funding, communication problems, time management

  16. Language Acquisition and Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡红

    2007-01-01

    Language is at the center of human life. This essay tries to seek similarities and differences between language acquisition and language learning from the theory achievements of some linguists. On this basis, it is pointed out that language acquisition is the effect of sub consciousness, while language learning is connected with conscious system. Thereby this paper analyzes the interaction between them and the influence on the present situation of foreign language teaching in China.

  17. Language Acquisition and Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡红

    2007-01-01

    Language is at the center of human life.This essay tries to seek similarities and differences between language acquisition and language learning from the theory achievements of some linguists.On this basis,it is pointed out that language acquisition is the effect of sub consciousness,while language learning is connected with conscious system.Thereby this paper analyzes the interaction between them and the influence on the present situation of foreign language teaching in China.

  18. Bilingualism, Biliteracy, and Learning to Read: Interactions Among Languages and Writing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Luk, Gigi; Kwan, Ernest

    2005-01-01

    Four groups of children in first grade were compared on early literacy tasks. Children in three of the groups were bilingual, each group representing a different combination of language and writing system, and children in the fourth group were monolingual speakers of English. All the bilingual children used both languages daily and were learning…

  19. Foreign Language Authoring Systems: Judith Frommer's MacLang Spoken Here.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommer, Judith

    1987-01-01

    MacLang, a user-friendly authoring system for the Macintosh computer, helps second language teachers prepare and tailor computer exercises and activities; is usable with any Roman-alphabet language, Russian, and Greek; gives students intelligent feedback; and allows students to control computer activity in order to individualize learning.…

  20. Criteria for Evaluating Synchronous Learning Management Systems: Arguments from the Distance Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Chen, N.-S.

    2009-01-01

    As Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) supported by synchronous technologies such as Synchronous Learning Management Systems (SLMSs) are still new to distance language professionals, criteria guiding the evaluation of the appropriate SLMSs for Distance Language Education (DLE) are urgently needed. This article proposes and discusses such criteria.…

  1. MoDeST: A Modelling language for Stochastic Timed Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Argenio, Pedro R.; Hermanns, Holger; Katoen, Joost-Pieter; Klaren, Ric; de Alfaro, L.; Gilmore, S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a modelling language, called MoDeST, for describing the behaviour of discrete event systems. The language combines conventional programming constructs — such as iteration, alternatives, atomic statements, and exception handling — with means to describe complexsystems in a composi

  2. The National Outcomes Measurement System for Pediatric Speech-Language Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Robert; Schooling, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's (ASHA's) National Outcomes Measurement System (NOMS) was developed in the late 1990s. The primary purpose was to serve as a source of data for speech-language pathologists (SLPs) who found themselves called on to provide empirical evidence of the functional outcomes associated with their…

  3. A Compiler and Run-time System for Network Programming Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    A Compiler and Run-time System for Network Programming Languages Christopher Monsanto Princeton University Nate Foster Cornell University Rob...Foster, R. Harrison, M. Freedman, C. Monsanto , J. Rexford, A. Story, and D. Walker. Frenetic: A network programming language. In ICFP, Sep 2011. [10] A

  4. Evaluating Automatic Speech Recognition-Based Language Learning Systems: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doremalen, Joost; Boves, Lou; Colpaert, Jozef; Cucchiarini, Catia; Strik, Helmer

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate a prototype of an automatic speech recognition (ASR)-based language learning system that provides feedback on different aspects of speaking performance (pronunciation, morphology and syntax) to students of Dutch as a second language. We carried out usability reviews, expert reviews and user tests to…

  5. Evaluating Automatic Speech Recognition-Based Language Learning Systems: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doremalen, Joost; Boves, Lou; Colpaert, Jozef; Cucchiarini, Catia; Strik, Helmer

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate a prototype of an automatic speech recognition (ASR)-based language learning system that provides feedback on different aspects of speaking performance (pronunciation, morphology and syntax) to students of Dutch as a second language. We carried out usability reviews, expert reviews and user tests to…

  6. Collaborative Learning: Group Interaction in an Intelligent Mobile-Assisted Multiple Language Learning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troussas, Christos; Virvou, Maria; Alepis, Efthimios

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a student-oriented approach tailored to effective collaboration between students using mobile phones for language learning within the life cycle of an intelligent tutoring system. For this reason, in this research, a prototype mobile application has been developed for multiple language learning that incorporates intelligence in…

  7. Attitudes of Deaf Adults Regarding Preferred Sign Language Systems Used in the Classroom with Deaf Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautzky-Bowden, Sally M.; Gonzales, B. Robert

    1987-01-01

    A questionnaire survey assessing attitudes of 50 deaf adults toward sign language systems used in schools found the majority supported American Sign Language and Manually Coded English-Pidgin with some reservations. Respondents were also concerned about needs of individual deaf children and deaf adult involvement in educational decision making for…

  8. Identifying institutional vulnerability : The importance of language, and system boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfsma, Wilfred; Finch, John; McMaster, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Taking the idea that institutional reproduction is not obvious and that institutions are vulnerable has significant conceptual implications. Institutional vulnerability can arise through communication between actors in a common language. To apprehend this requires an elaboration of John Searle's (19

  9. Identifying institutional vulnerability : The importance of language, and system boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfsma, Wilfred; Finch, John; McMaster, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Taking the idea that institutional reproduction is not obvious and that institutions are vulnerable has significant conceptual implications. Institutional vulnerability can arise through communication between actors in a common language. To apprehend this requires an elaboration of John Searle's

  10. Learners Programming Language a Helping System for Introductory Programming Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL NAVEED

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Programming is the core of computer science and due to this momentousness a special care is taken in designing the curriculum of programming courses. A substantial work has been conducted on the definition of programming courses, yet the introductory programming courses are still facing high attrition, low retention and lack of motivation. This paper introduced a tiny pre-programming language called LPL (Learners Programming Language as a ZPL (Zeroth Programming Language to illuminate novice students about elementary concepts of introductory programming before introducing the first imperative programming course. The overall objective and design philosophy of LPL is based on a hypothesis that the soft introduction of a simple and paradigm specific textual programming can increase the motivation level of novice students and reduce the congenital complexities and hardness of the first programming course and eventually improve the retention rate and may be fruitful in reducing the dropout/failure level. LPL also generates the equivalent high level programs from user source program and eventually very fruitful in understanding the syntax of introductory programming languages. To overcome the inherent complexities of unusual and rigid syntax of introductory programming languages, the LPL provide elementary programming concepts in the form of algorithmic and plain natural language based computational statements. The initial results obtained after the introduction of LPL are very encouraging in motivating novice students and improving the retention rate.

  11. Development of a medical academic degree system in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The Chinese government launched a comprehensive healthcare reform to tackle challenges to health equities. Medical education will become the key for successful healthcare reform. Purpose: We describe the current status of the Chinese medical degree system and its evolution over the last 80 years. Content: Progress has been uneven, historically punctuated most dramatically by the Cultural Revolution. There is a great regional disparity. Doctors with limited tertiary education may be licensed to practice, whereas medical graduates with advanced doctorates may have limited clinical skills. There are undefined relationships between competing tertiary training streams, the academic professional degree, and the clinical residency training programme (RTP. The perceived quality of training in both streams varies widely across China. As the degrees of master or doctor of academic medicine is seen as instrumental in career advancement, including employability in urban hospitals, attainment of this degree is sought after, yet is often unrelated to a role in health care, or is seen as superior to clinical experience. Meanwhile, the practical experience gained in some prestigious academic institutions is deprecated by the RTP and must be repeated before accreditation for clinical practice. This complexity is confusing both for students seeking the most appropriate training, and also for clinics, hospitals and universities seeking to recruit the most appropriate applicants. Conclusion: The future education reforms might include: 1 a domestic system of ‘credits’ that gives weight to quality clinical experience vs. academic publications in career advancement, enhanced harmonisation between the competing streams of the professional degree and the RTP, and promotion of mobility of staff between areas of excellence and areas of need; 2 International – a mutual professional and academic recognition between China and other countries by reference to

  12. Facilities and regionalization--emergency medical services systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R D

    1990-02-01

    Advanced life support and the modern EMS system were born out of the hope that by extending hospital emergency facilities outside the bounds of the hospital, earlier and more intensive care could be provided to those patients requiring it. EMS systems have since left the nest and only recently, following a turbulent adolescence, is prehospital care returning as a partner with the medical facilities and physicians that presided over their modern origins. The next decade will see the continuing trend toward hospitals and practitioners regaining some influence in the design and direction of prehospital care.

  13. [The revised system of hospitalization for medical care and protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuo, Yasuhisa

    2014-01-01

    The Act to Partially Amend the Act on Mental Health and Welfare for the Mentally Disabled was passed on June 13, 2013. Major amendments regarding hospitalization for medical care and protection include the points listed below. The guardianship system will be abolished. Consent by a guardian will no longer be required in the case of hospitalization for medical care and protection. In the case of hospitalization for medical care and protection, the administrators of the psychiatric hospital are required to obtain the consent of one of the following persons: spouse, person with parental authority, person responsible for support, legal custodian, or curator. If no qualified person is available, consent must be obtained from the mayor, etc. of the municipality. The following three obligations are imposed on psychiatric hospital administrators. (1) Assignment of a person, such as a psychiatric social worker, to provide guidance and counseling to patients hospitalized for medical care and protection regarding their postdischarge living environment. (2) Collaboration with community support entities that consult with and provide information as necessary to the person hospitalized, their spouse, a person with parental authority, a person responsible for support, or their legal custodian or curator. (3) Organizational improvements to promote hospital discharge. With regard to requests for discharge, the revised law stipulates that, in addition to the person hospitalized with a mental disorder, others who may file a request for discharge with the psychiatric review board include: the person's spouse, a person with parental authority, a person responsible for support, or their legal custodian or curator. If none of the above persons are available, or if none of them are able to express their wishes, the mayor, etc. of the municipality having jurisdiction over the place of residence of the person hospitalized may request a discharge. In order to promote transition to life in the

  14. GUBS, a Behavior-based Language for Open System Dedicated to Synthetic Biology

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    Adrien Basso-Blandin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we propose a domain specific language, GUBS (Genomic Unified Behavior Specification, dedicated to the behavioral specification of synthetic biological devices, viewed as discrete open dynamical systems. GUBS is a rule-based declarative language. By contrast to a closed system, a program is always a partial description of the behavior of the system. The semantics of the language accounts the existence of some hidden non-specified actions possibly altering the behavior of the programmed device. The compilation framework follows a scheme similar to automatic theorem proving, aiming at improving synthetic biological design safety.

  15. An Implementation of an Operating System Kernel using Concurrent Object Oriented Language ABCL/c+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Norihisa; Kodama, Yasushi; Hirose, Ken

    The ABCL/c+ is a C-based concurrent object-oriented language, designed as an extension of ABCL/l, a language developed by A. Yonezawa and others. In order to create the world of processes, a routine object is introduced which unifies procedures, functions, and objects. ABCL/c+ is then used to write an operating system kernel. The XINU operating system, developed by D. Comer and others of Bell Laboratories, is rewritten entirely in ABCL/c+. The result shows that concurrent object-oriented languages can produce a highly readable and understandable operating system kernel.

  16. A telemedicine system for remote cooperative medical imaging diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, E J; del Pozo, F; Quiles, J A; Arredondo, M T; Rahms, H; Sanz, M; Cano, P

    1996-01-01

    Telemedicine is changing the classical form of health care delivery, by providing efficient solutions to an increasing number of new situations: here we consider those which require some type of computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) between health care professionals located in different clinical sites. This paper presents the design and development of a telemedicine system for remote computer-supported cooperative medical imaging diagnosis. The main and novel component of our system is a new CSCW distributed architecture, comprised by a collaborative toolkit to add audioconferencing, telepointing, window sharing, user's coordination and application synchronization facilities, either to existing or new medical imaging diagnosis applications. In comparison with existing CSCW products, mainly based on centralized architectures, our distributed toolkit is specially designed for telemedicine applications: to allow different levels of sharing between participants, to improve user feedback in highly interactive user interfaces, and to optimize the required communication bandwidth in order to implement a telemedicine CSCW application on almost any telecommunication network. This telemedicine CSCW system has been applied to build a cooperative medical imaging diagnosis application, in which two doctors, located in different hospitals, need to achieve a cooperative diagnosis on haemodynamic studies using cardiac angiography images. The design of the graphical user interface for this kind of telemedicine CSCW systems, a critical component which conforms any telemedicine application, is also addressed with a new methodological approach, to assure the system usability and final user acceptance. The telemedicine cardiac angiography pilot has been implemented, tested and evaluated within the Research Project 'FEST-Framework for European Services in Telemedicine' funded by EU AIM Programme.

  17. THE PERCEPTION OF SOUND AND ONOMATOPOEIA IN THE SYSTEM OF LANGUAGE AND COGNITION (BASED ON THE FRENCH LANGUAGE

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    Irina KHARITONOVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the linguo-philosophical reflection of the functioning of onomatopoeia in the language system. Onomatopoeia is considered as one of the types of nomination, which functions as a source of formation of lexical and phraseological language compositions. It is shown that the sound plays a cognitive and organizational role in human society. It provides the formation of human sensory and rational reflections of the world and has a regulating effect on the relationship between individuals. Sustained ideas about the significance of the acoustic aspect of knowledge are fixed in the language, in particular, in its phraseological fund. It is demonstrated that the onomatopoeia is primarily a signal-ingression that, in other words, is the material medium of an ideal complex sensory image of the generic class of objects of being. The conversion of the onomatopoeia from signal-ingression into sign-digression and then into sign-ingression is accompanied with the nonlinear processes, which enable us to establish a linear relationship between the signifier and the signified. The assumption is made that verbalization of onomatopoeia is related to its conjunction with the significant categorical forms of the definite language that will allow sign-ingression to form the chain links with other signs, being a part of judgments and conclusions. 

  18. Les systemes approximatifs et l'enseignement des langues secondes (Approximative Systems and the Teaching of Second Languages).

    Science.gov (United States)

    High, Virginia Lacastro

    Errors can be considered concrete representations of stages through which one must go in order to acquire one's native language and a second language. It has been discovered that certain errors appear systematically, revealing an approximate system, or "interlanguage," behind the erroneous utterances. Present research in second language…

  19. The Most Accredited English Language Free Electronic Journals in Medical Sciences

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    farshid Danesh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Finding free e-journals is very difficult in web environment, because these types of journals are all scattered and they are rarely found in traditional bibliographic sources. Therefore, locating and their retrieval are hard. Then it is not easy to disseminate the accredited ones. The aim of this study was to determine the most accredited free English e-journals in medical sciences. The research methods were content and link analysis. In order to collect the data, a checklist has been used which its validity has been confirmed. The research population consisted of 700 free electronic journals of medical sciences which were collected from two reputable websites. Using qualitative study on the websites of these journals, the number of eligible journals in this research decreased to 269 journals. In the next step, Journals' websites has been analyzed with webometrics methods. Then, utilizing core journal formula, the accredited ones were determined. Results showed that "New South Wales Public Health Bulletin" in Health, "Online Journal of Rural Nursing and Health Care" in Nursery, "BMC Oral Health" in Dentistry and "Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research" in Medicine were the most accredited journals in term of in links. Also, "International Journal of Integrated Care" in Health, "BMC Nursing" in Nursery, "Journal of Oral Science" in Dentistry, "The New York State Dental Journal" and "Journal of Oral Science" were the top free e-journals in term of web impact factor.

  20. Interactions of the hippocampal system and the prefrontal cortex in learning language-like rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Bertram; Friederici, Angela D

    2003-08-01

    One of the most influential views on the hippocampal function suggests that this brain region is critically involved in relational memory processing, that is, binding converging inputs to mediate the representation of relationships among the constituents of episodes. It has been proposed that this binding is automatic and obligatory during learning and remembering In addition, neuroimaging studies have highlighted the importance of the prefrontal cortex, in learning, memory, and language processing. However, the posited importance of hippocampal-prefrontal interaction remains to be empirically tested. In the present study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine in detail this interaction by assessing learning-related changes in hemodynamic activity during artificial language acquisition. It has been shown previously that artificial grammar systems might be learned by evaluating pattern-based relations in word sequences and generalizing beyond specific word order, that is, rule abstraction. During scanning, participants learned an artificial language whose miniature grammar meets the universal principles of a natural language. Increased proficiency level of the artificial language is associated with decreased left hippocampal activity. In contrast, we observed an increased recruitment of the left inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area), a region that contributes to syntax processing in natural language. The present results, therefore, indicate a learning-related change in brain circuitry underlying relational processes of language learning, with a transition from a similarity-based learning system in the medial temporal lobes to a language-related processing system in the left prefrontal cortex.