Sample records for medical care educators

  1. Caring to Care: Applying Noddings' Philosophy to Medical Education. (United States)

    Balmer, Dorene F; Hirsh, David A; Monie, Daphne; Weil, Henry; Richards, Boyd F


    The authors argue that Nel Noddings' philosophy, "an ethic of caring," may illuminate how students learn to be caring physicians from their experience of being in a caring, reciprocal relationship with teaching faculty. In her philosophy, Noddings acknowledges two important contextual continuities: duration and space, which the authors speculate exist within longitudinal integrated clerkships. In this Perspective, the authors highlight core features of Noddings' philosophy and explore its applicability to medical education. They apply Noddings' philosophy to a subset of data from a previously published longitudinal case study to explore its "goodness of fit" with the experience of eight students in the 2012 cohort of the Columbia-Bassett longitudinal integrated clerkship. In line with Noddings' philosophy, the authors' supplementary analysis suggests that students (1) recognized caring when they talked about "being known" by teaching faculty who "cared for" and "trusted" them; (2) responded to caring by demonstrating enthusiasm, action, and responsibility toward patients; and (3) acknowledged that duration and space facilitated caring relations with teaching faculty. The authors discuss how Noddings' philosophy provides a useful conceptual framework to apply to medical education design and to future research on caring-oriented clinical training, such as longitudinal integrated clerkships.

  2. Improving medical graduates' training in palliative care: advancing education and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Head BA


    Full Text Available Barbara A Head,1 Tara J Schapmire,1 Lori Earnshaw,1 John Chenault,2 Mark Pfeifer,1 Susan Sawning,3 Monica A Shaw,3 1Division of General Internal Medicine, Palliative Care and Medical Education, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 2Kornhouser Health Sciences Library, University of Louisville, 3Undergraduate Medical Education Office, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, USA Abstract: The needs of an aging population and advancements in the treatment of both chronic and life-threatening diseases have resulted in increased demand for quality palliative care. The doctors of the future will need to be well prepared to provide expert symptom management and address the holistic needs (physical, psychosocial, and spiritual of patients dealing with serious illness and the end of life. Such preparation begins with general medical education. It has been recommended that teaching and clinical experiences in palliative care be integrated throughout the medical school curriculum, yet such education has not become the norm in medical schools across the world. This article explores the current status of undergraduate medical education in palliative care as published in the English literature and makes recommendations for educational improvements which will prepare doctors to address the needs of seriously ill and dying patients. Keywords: medical education, palliative care, end-of-life care

  3. Undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care: a nationwide survey at German medical schools. (United States)

    Beckers, Stefan K; Timmermann, Arnd; Müller, Michael P; Angstwurm, Matthias; Walcher, Felix


    Since June 2002, revised regulations in Germany have required "Emergency Medical Care" as an interdisciplinary subject, and state that emergency treatment should be of increasing importance within the curriculum. A survey of the current status of undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care establishes the basis for further committee work. Using a standardized questionnaire, all medical faculties in Germany were asked to answer questions concerning the structure of their curriculum, representation of disciplines, instructors' qualifications, teaching and assessment methods, as well as evaluation procedures. Data from 35 of the 38 medical schools in Germany were analysed. In 32 of 35 medical faculties, the local Department of Anaesthesiology is responsible for the teaching of emergency medical care; in two faculties, emergency medicine is taught mainly by the Department of Surgery and in another by Internal Medicine. Lectures, seminars and practical training units are scheduled in varying composition at 97% of the locations. Simulation technology is integrated at 60% (n = 21); problem-based learning at 29% (n = 10), e-learning at 3% (n = 1), and internship in ambulance service is mandatory at 11% (n = 4). In terms of assessment methods, multiple-choice exams (15 to 70 questions) are favoured (89%, n = 31), partially supplemented by open questions (31%, n = 11). Some faculties also perform single practical tests (43%, n = 15), objective structured clinical examination (OSCE; 29%, n = 10) or oral examinations (17%, n = 6). Emergency Medical Care in undergraduate medical education in Germany has a practical orientation, but is very inconsistently structured. The innovative options of simulation technology or state-of-the-art assessment methods are not consistently utilized. Therefore, an exchange of experiences and concepts between faculties and disciplines should be promoted to guarantee a standard level of education in emergency medical care.

  4. Undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care: A nationwide survey at German medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timmermann Arnd


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since June 2002, revised regulations in Germany have required "Emergency Medical Care" as an interdisciplinary subject, and state that emergency treatment should be of increasing importance within the curriculum. A survey of the current status of undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care establishes the basis for further committee work. Methods Using a standardized questionnaire, all medical faculties in Germany were asked to answer questions concerning the structure of their curriculum, representation of disciplines, instructors' qualifications, teaching and assessment methods, as well as evaluation procedures. Results Data from 35 of the 38 medical schools in Germany were analysed. In 32 of 35 medical faculties, the local Department of Anaesthesiology is responsible for the teaching of emergency medical care; in two faculties, emergency medicine is taught mainly by the Department of Surgery and in another by Internal Medicine. Lectures, seminars and practical training units are scheduled in varying composition at 97% of the locations. Simulation technology is integrated at 60% (n = 21; problem-based learning at 29% (n = 10, e-learning at 3% (n = 1, and internship in ambulance service is mandatory at 11% (n = 4. In terms of assessment methods, multiple-choice exams (15 to 70 questions are favoured (89%, n = 31, partially supplemented by open questions (31%, n = 11. Some faculties also perform single practical tests (43%, n = 15, objective structured clinical examination (OSCE; 29%, n = 10 or oral examinations (17%, n = 6. Conclusion Emergency Medical Care in undergraduate medical education in Germany has a practical orientation, but is very inconsistently structured. The innovative options of simulation technology or state-of-the-art assessment methods are not consistently utilized. Therefore, an exchange of experiences and concepts between faculties and disciplines should be promoted to guarantee a standard

  5. Higher Referrals for Diabetes Education in a Medical Home Model of Care. (United States)

    Manard, William T; Syberg, Kevin; Behera, Anit; Salas, Joanne; Schneider, F David; Armbrecht, Eric; Hooks-Anderson, Denise; Crannage, Erica; Scherrer, Jeffrey


    The medical home model has been gaining attention from the health care community as a strategy for improved outcomes for management of chronic disease, including diabetes. The purpose of this study was to compare referrals for diabetes education among patients receiving care from a medical home model versus a traditional practice. Data were obtained from a large, university-affiliated primary care patient data registry. All patients (age 18-96 years) with a diagnosis of prediabetes or diabetes and seen by a physician at least twice during 2011 to 2013 were selected for inclusion. Multivariate regression models measuring the association between medical home status and referral to diabetes education were computed before and after adjusting for covariates. A significantly (P patients in a medical home than without a medical home (23.9% vs 13.5%) received a referral for diabetes education. After adjusting for covariates, medical home patients were 2.7 times more likely to receive a referral for diabetes education (odds ratio, 2.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.69-4.35). Patients in a medical home model were more likely to receive referrals for diabetes education than patients in a standard university-affiliated family medicine practice. Future longitudinal designs that match characteristics of patients with a medical home with those of patients without one will provide strong evidence to determine whether referral to diabetes education is a result of the medical home model of care independent of confounding factors. © Copyright 2016 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  6. Medical Education and Health Care Delivery: A Call to Better Align Goals and Purposes. (United States)

    Sklar, David P; Hemmer, Paul A; Durning, Steven J


    The transformation of the U.S. health care system is under way, driven by the needs of an aging population, rising health care spending, and the availability of health information. However, the speed and effectiveness of the transformation of health care delivery will depend, in large part, upon engagement of the health professions community and changes in clinicians' practice behaviors. Current efforts to influence practice behaviors emphasize changes in the health payment system with incentives to move from fee-for-service to alternative payment models.The authors describe the potential of medical education to augment payment incentives to make changes in clinical practice and the importance of aligning the purpose and goals of medical education with those of the health care delivery system. The authors discuss how curricular and assessment changes and faculty development can align medical education with the transformative trends in the health care delivery system. They also explain how the theory of situated cognition offers a shared conceptual framework that could help address the misalignment of education and clinical care. They provide examples of how quality improvement, health care innovation, population care management, and payment alignment could create bridges for joining health care delivery and medical education to meet the health care reform goals of a high-performing health care delivery system while controlling health care spending. Finally, the authors illustrate how current payment incentives such as bundled payments, value-based purchasing, and population-based payments can work synergistically with medical education to provide high-value care.

  7. A spoonful of care ethics: The challenges of enriching medical education. (United States)

    van Reenen, Eva; van Nistelrooij, Inge


    Nursing Ethics has featured several discussions on what good care comprises and how to achieve good care practices. We should "nurse" ethics by continuously reflecting on the way we "do" ethics, which is what care ethicists have been doing over the past few decades and continue to do so. Ethics is not limited to nursing but extends to all caring professions. In 2011, Elin Martinsen argued in this journal that care should be included as a core concept in medical ethical terminology because of "the harm to which patients may be exposed owing to a lack of care in the clinical encounter," specifically between doctors and patients. However, Martinsen leaves the didactical challenges arising from such a venture open for further enquiry. In this article, we explore the challenges arising from implementing care-ethical insights into medical education. Medical education in the Netherlands is investigated through a "care-ethical lens". This means exploring the possibility of enriching medical education with care-ethical insights, while at the same time discovering possible challenges emerging from such an undertaking. Participants and research context: This paper has been written from the academic context of a master in care ethics and policy. Ethical considerations: We have tried to be fair and respectful to the authors discussed and take a neutral stance towards the findings portrayed. Several challenges are identified, which we narrow down to two types: didactical and non-didactical. In order to overcome these challenges, we must not underestimate the possible resistance to a paradigm shift. Our efforts should mainly target the learning that takes place in the clinical phases of medical training and should be accompanied by the creation of awareness in healthcare practice.

  8. Importance of patient education on home medical care waste disposal in Japan

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    Ikeda, Yukihiro, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Attached office nurses more recovered medical waste from patients’ homes. • Most nurses educated their patients on how to store home medical care waste in their homes and on how to separate them. • Around half of nurses educated their patients on where to dispose of their home medical care waste. - Abstract: To determine current practices in the disposal and handling of home medical care (HMC) waste, a questionnaire was mailed to 1965 offices nationwide. Of the office that responded, 1283 offices were analyzed. Offices were classified by management configuration: those attached to hospitals were classified as ”attached offices” and others as “independent offices”. More nurses from attached offices recovered medical waste from patients’ homes than those from independent offices. Most nurses educated their patients on how to store HMC waste in their homes (79.3% of total) and on how to separate HMC waste (76.5% of total). On the other hand, only around half of nurses (47.3% from attached offices and 53.2% from independent offices) educated their patients on where to dispose of their HMC waste. 66.0% of offices replied that patients had separated their waste appropriately. The need for patient education has emerged in recent years, with education for nurses under the diverse conditions of HMC being a key factor in patient education.

  9. Importance of patient education on home medical care waste disposal in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yukihiro


    Highlights: • Attached office nurses more recovered medical waste from patients’ homes. • Most nurses educated their patients on how to store home medical care waste in their homes and on how to separate them. • Around half of nurses educated their patients on where to dispose of their home medical care waste. - Abstract: To determine current practices in the disposal and handling of home medical care (HMC) waste, a questionnaire was mailed to 1965 offices nationwide. Of the office that responded, 1283 offices were analyzed. Offices were classified by management configuration: those attached to hospitals were classified as ”attached offices” and others as “independent offices”. More nurses from attached offices recovered medical waste from patients’ homes than those from independent offices. Most nurses educated their patients on how to store HMC waste in their homes (79.3% of total) and on how to separate HMC waste (76.5% of total). On the other hand, only around half of nurses (47.3% from attached offices and 53.2% from independent offices) educated their patients on where to dispose of their HMC waste. 66.0% of offices replied that patients had separated their waste appropriately. The need for patient education has emerged in recent years, with education for nurses under the diverse conditions of HMC being a key factor in patient education

  10. Managed medical education? (United States)

    Hafferty, F W


    The forces of rationality and commodification, hallmarks of the managed care revolution, may soon breach the walls of organized medical education. Whispers are beginning to circulate that the cost of educating future physicians is too high. Simultaneously, managed care companies are accusing medical education of turning out trainees unprepared to practice in a managed care environment. Changes evident in other occupational and service delivery sectors of U.S. society as diverse as pre-college education and prisons provide telling insights into what may be in store for medical educators. Returning to academic medicine, the author reflects that because corporate managed care is already established in teaching hospitals, and because managed research (e.g., corporate-sponsored and -run drug trials, for-profit drug-study centers, and contract research organizations) is increasing, managed medical education could become a reality as well. Medical education has made itself vulnerable to the intrusion of corporate rationalizers because it has failed to professionalism at core of its curricula-something only it is able to do--and instead has focused unduly on the transmission of esoteric knowledge and core clinical skills, a process that can be carried out more efficiently, more effectively, and less expensively by other players in the medical education marketplace such as Kaplan, Compass, or the Princeton Review. The author explains why reorganizing medical education around professional values is crucial, why the AAMC's Medical School Objectives Project offers guidance in this area, why making this change will be difficult, and why medical education must lead in establishing how to document the presence and absence of such qualities as altruism and dutifulness and the ways that appropriate medical education can foster these and similar core competencies. "Anything less and organized medicine will acknowledged... that it has abandoned its social contract and entered the

  11. Science of health care delivery milestones for undergraduate medical education. (United States)

    Havyer, Rachel D; Norby, Suzanne M; Leep Hunderfund, Andrea N; Starr, Stephanie R; Lang, Tara R; Wolanskyj, Alexandra P; Reed, Darcy A


    The changing healthcare landscape requires physicians to develop new knowledge and skills such as high-value care, systems improvement, population health, and team-based care, which together may be referred to as the Science of Health Care Delivery (SHCD). To engender public trust and confidence, educators must be able to meaningfully assess physicians' abilities in SHCD. We aimed to develop a novel set of SHCD milestones based on published Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) milestones that can be used by medical schools to assess medical students' competence in SHCD. We reviewed all ACGME milestones for 25 specialties available in September 2013. We used an iterative, qualitative process to group the ACGME milestones into SHCD content domains, from which SHCD milestones were derived. The SHCD milestones were categorized within the current ACGME core competencies and were also mapped to Association of American Medical Colleges' Entrustable Professional Activities (AAMC EPAs). Fifteen SHCD sub-competencies and corresponding milestones are provided, grouped within ACGME core competencies and mapped to multiple AAMC EPAs. This novel set of milestones, grounded within the existing ACGME competencies, defines fundamental expectations within SHCD that can be used and adapted by medical schools in the assessment of medical students in this emerging curricular area. These milestones provide a blueprint for SHCD content and assessment as ongoing revisions to milestones and curricula occur.

  12. Medical Care during Pregnancy (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Medical Care During Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Medical Care During Pregnancy What's ... and their babies. What Is Prenatal Care Before Pregnancy? Prenatal care should start before you get pregnant. ...

  13. The role that graduate medical education must play in ensuring health equity and eliminating health care disparities. (United States)

    Maldonado, Maria E; Fried, Ethan D; DuBose, Thomas D; Nelson, Consuelo; Breida, Margaret


    Despite the 2002 Institute of Medicine report that described the moral and financial impact of health care disparities and the need to address them, it is evident that health care disparities persist. Recommendations for addressing disparities include collecting and reporting data on patient race and ethnicity, supporting language interpretation services, increasing awareness of health care disparities through education, requiring cultural competency training for all health care professionals, and increasing diversity among those delivering health care. The Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education places strong emphasis on graduate medical education's role in eliminating health care disparities by asking medical educators to objectively evaluate and report on their trainees' ability to practice patient-centered, culturally competent care. Moreover, one of the objectives of the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education Clinical Learning Environment Review visits as part of the Next Accreditation System is to identify how sponsoring institutions engage residents and fellows in the use of data to improve systems of care, reduce health care disparities, and improve patient outcomes. Residency and fellowship programs should ensure the delivery of meaningful curricula on cultural competency and health care disparities, for which there are numerous resources, and ensure resident assessment of culturally competent care. Moreover, training programs and institutional leadership need to collaborate on ensuring data collection on patient satisfaction, outcomes, and quality measures that are broken down by patient race, cultural identification, and language. A diverse physician workforce is another strategy for mitigating health care disparities, and using strategies to enhance faculty diversity should also be a priority of graduate medical education. Transparent data about institutional diversity efforts should be provided to interested medical students

  14. Opioid use in palliative care | Hosking | Continuing Medical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 21, No 5 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Opioid use in palliative care. M Hosking. Abstract.

  15. Resident and Staff Satisfaction of Pediatric Graduate Medical Education Training on Transition to Adult Care of Medically Complex Patients. (United States)

    Weeks, Matthew; Cole, Brandon; Flake, Eric; Roy, Daniel


    This study aims to describe the quantity and satisfaction current residents and experienced pediatricians have with graduate medical education on transitioning medically complex patients to adult care. There is an increasing need for transitioning medically complex adolescents to adult care. Over 90% now live into adulthood and require transition to adult healthcare providers. The 2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs found that only 40% of youth 12-17 yr receive the necessary services to appropriately transition to adult care. Prospective, descriptive, anonymous, web-based survey of pediatric residents and staff pediatricians at Army pediatric residency training programs was sent in March 2017. Questions focused on assessing knowledge of transition of care, satisfaction with transition training, and amount of education on transition received during graduate medical education training. Of the 145 responders (310 potential responders, 47% response rate), transition was deemed important with a score of 4.3 out of 5. The comfort level with transition was rated 2.6/5 with only 4.2% of participants receiving formal education during residency. The most commonly perceived barriers to implementing a curriculum were time constraints and available resources. Of the five knowledge assessment questions, three had a correct response rate of less than 1/3. The findings show the disparity between the presence of and perceived need for a formal curriculum on transitioning complex pediatric patients to adult care. This study also highlighted the knowledge gap of the transition process for novice and experienced pediatricians alike.

  16. Five Questions Critical Care Educators Should Ask About Simulation-Based Medical Education. (United States)

    Piquette, Dominique; LeBlanc, Vicki R


    Simulation is now commonly used in health care education, and a growing body of evidence supports its positive impact on learning. However, simulation-based medical education (SBME) involves a range of modalities, instructional methods, and presentations associated with different advantages and limitations. This review aims at better understanding the nature of SBME, its theoretic and proven benefits, its delivery, and the challenges posed by SBME. Areas requiring further research and development are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Medical technology and medical education]. (United States)

    von Mallek, D; Biersack, H-J; Mull, R; Wilhelm, K; Heinz, B; Mellert, F


    The education of medical professionals is divided into medical studies, postgraduate training leading to the qualification as a specialist, and continuing professional development. During education, all scientific knowledge and practical skills are to be acquired, which enable the physician to practice responsibly in a specialized medical area. In the present article, relevant curricula are analyzed regarding the consideration of medical device-related topics, as the clinical application of medical technology has reached a central position in modern patient care. Due to the enormous scientific and technical progress, this area has become as important as pharmacotherapy. Our evaluation shows that medical device-related topics are currently underrepresented in the course of medical education and training and should be given greater consideration in all areas of medical education. Possible solutions are presented.

  18. Implementation of a 4-Year Point-of-Care Ultrasound Curriculum in a Liaison Committee on Medical Education-Accredited US Medical School. (United States)

    Wilson, Sean P; Mefford, Jason M; Lahham, Shadi; Lotfipour, Shahram; Subeh, Mohammad; Maldonado, Gracie; Spann, Sophie; Fox, John C


    The established benefits of point-of-care ultrasound have given rise to multiple new and innovative curriculums to incorporate ultrasound teaching into medical education. This study sought to measure the educational success of a comprehensive and integrated 4-year point-of-care ultrasound curriculum. We integrated a curriculum consisting of traditional didactics combined with asynchronous learning modules and hands-on practice on live models with skilled sonographers into all 4 years of education at a Liaison Committee on Medical Education-accredited US Medical School. Each graduating student was administered an exit examination with 48 questions that corresponded to ultrasound milestones. Ninety-five percent (n = 84) of fourth-year medical students completed the exit examination. The mean score was 79.5% (SD, 10.2%), with mean scores on the ultrasound physics and anatomy subsections being 77.1% (SD, 11.0%) and 85.9% (SD, 21.0%), respectively. A comprehensive 4-year point-of-care ultrasound curriculum integrated into medical school may successfully equip graduating medical students with a fundamental understanding of ultrasound physics, anatomy, and disease recognition. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  19. An exploration of contextual dimensions impacting goals of care conversations in postgraduate medical education. (United States)

    Roze des Ordons, Amanda L; Lockyer, Jocelyn; Hartwick, Michael; Sarti, Aimee; Ajjawi, Rola


    Postgraduate medical trainees are not well prepared difficult conversations about goals of care with patients and families in the acute care clinical setting. While contextual nuances within the workplace can impact communication, research to date has largely focused on individual communication skills. Our objective was to explore contextual factors that influence conversations between trainees and patients/families about goals of care in the acute care setting. We conducted an exploratory qualitative study involving five focus groups with Internal Medicine trainees (n = 20) and a series of interviews with clinical faculty (n = 11) within a single Canadian centre. Thematic framework analysis was applied to categorize the data and identify themes and subthemes. Challenges and factors enabling goals of care conversations emerged within individual, interpersonal and system dimensions. Challenges included inadequate preparation for these conversations, disconnection between trainees, faculty and patients, policies around documentation, the structure of postgraduate medical education, and resource limitations; these challenges led to missed opportunities, uncertainty and emotional distress. Enabling factors were awareness of the importance of goals of care conversations, support in these discussions, collaboration with colleagues, and educational initiatives enabling skill development; these factors have resulted in learning, appreciation, and an established foundation for future educational initiatives. Contextual factors impact how postgraduate medical trainees communicate with patients/families about goals of care. Attention to individual, interpersonal and system-related factors will be important in designing educational programs that help trainees develop the capacities needed for challenging conversations.

  20. Attitude of clinical faculty members in Shiraz Medical University towards private practice physicians' participation in ambulatory care education

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    Khatereh Mahori


    Full Text Available Background: Improvement of medical education is necessary for meeting health care demands. Participation of private practice physicians in ambulatory care training is an effective method for enhancing medical students' skills. Purpose This study was undertaken to determine clinical professors' views about participation of physicians with private office in ambulatory care training. Methods: Participants composed of 162 Shiraz Medical University faculty members from 12 disciplines. A questionnaire requesting faculty members' views on different aspects of ambulat01y care teaching and interaction of community-based organizations was distributed. Results: Of 120 (74.1% respondents, 64 (54.2% believed that clinical settings of medical university are appropriate for ambulatory care training. Private practice physicians believed more than academic physicians without private office that private offices have wider range of patients, more common cases, and better follow up chance; and is also a better setting for learning ambulatory care compared with medical university clinical centers. Overall, 32 (29.1% respondent’s found the participation of physicians with private practice on medical education positive. Key words medical education, ambulatory medicine, private practice

  1. Oncology Education in Medical Schools: Towards an Approach that Reflects Australia's Health Care Needs. (United States)

    McRae, Robert J


    Cancer has recently overtaken heart disease to become the number 1 cause of mortality both globally and in Australia. As such, adequate oncology education must be an integral component of medical school if students are to achieve learning outcomes that meet the needs of the population. The aim of this review is to evaluate the current state of undergraduate oncology education and identify how Australian medical schools can improve oncology learning outcomes for students and, by derivative, improve healthcare outcomes for Australians with cancer. The review shows that oncology is generally not well represented in medical school curricula, that few medical schools offer mandatory oncology or palliative care rotations, and that junior doctors are exhibiting declining oncology knowledge and skills. To address these issues, Australian medical schools should implement the Oncology Education Committee's Ideal Oncology Curriculum, enact mandatory oncology and palliative care clinical rotations for students, and in doing so, appreciate the importance of students' differing approaches to learning.

  2. Palliative care education for medical students: Differences in course evolution, organisation, evaluation and funding: A survey of all UK medical schools. (United States)

    Walker, Steven; Gibbins, Jane; Paes, Paul; Adams, Astrid; Chandratilake, Madawa; Gishen, Faye; Lodge, Philip; Wee, Bee; Barclay, Stephen


    A proportion of newly qualified doctors report feeling unprepared to manage patients with palliative care and end-of-life needs. This may be related to barriers within their institution during undergraduate training. Information is limited regarding the current organisation of palliative care teaching across UK medical schools. To investigate the evolution and structure of palliative care teaching at UK medical schools. Anonymised, web-based questionnaire. Settings/participants: Results were obtained from palliative care course organisers at all 30 UK medical schools. The palliative care course was established through active planning (13/30, 43%), ad hoc development (10, 33%) or combination of approaches (7, 23%). The place of palliative care teaching within the curriculum varied. A student-selected palliative care component was offered by 29/30 (97%). All medical schools sought student feedback. The course was reviewed in 26/30 (87%) but not in 4. Similarly, a course organiser was responsible for the palliative care programme in 26/30 but not in 4. A total of 22 respondents spent a mean of 3.9 h (median 2.5)/week in supporting/delivering palliative care education (organisers received titular recognition in 18/27 (67%; no title 9 (33%); unknown 3 (11%)). An academic department of Palliative Medicine existed in 12/30 (40%) medical schools. Funding was not universally transparent. Palliative care teaching was associated with some form of funding in 20/30 (66%). Development, organisation, course evaluation and funding for palliative care teaching at UK medical schools are variable. This may have implications for delivery of effective palliative care education for medical students.

  3. Transitions of Care in Medical Education: A Compilation of Effective Teaching Methods. (United States)

    McBryde, Meagan; Vandiver, Jeremy W; Onysko, Mary


    Transitioning patients safely from the inpatient environment back to an outpatient environment is an important component of health care, and multidisciplinary cooperation and formal processes are necessary to accomplish this task. This Transitions of Care (TOC) process is constantly being shaped in health care systems to improve patient safety, outcomes, and satisfaction. While there are many models that have been published on methods to improve the TOC process systematically, there is no clear roadmap for educators to teach TOC concepts to providers in training. This article reviews published data to highlight specific methods shown to effectively instill these concepts and values into medical students and residents. Formal, evidence-based, TOC curriculum should be developed within medical schools and residency programs. TOC education should ideally begin early in the education process, and its importance should be reiterated throughout the curriculum longitudinally. Curriculum should have a specific focus on recognition of common causes of hospital readmissions, such as medication errors, lack of adequate follow-up visits, and social/economic barriers. Use of didactic lectures, case-based workshops, role-playing activities, home visits, interprofessional activities, and resident-led quality improvement projects have all be shown to be effective ways to teach TOC concepts.

  4. How sequestration cuts affect primary care physicians and graduate medical education. (United States)

    Chauhan, Bindiya; Coffin, Janis


    On April 1, 2013, sequestration cuts went into effect impacting Medicare physician payments, graduate medical education, and many other healthcare agencies. The cuts range from 2% to 5%, affecting various departments and organizations. There is already a shortage of primary care physicians in general, not including rural or underserved areas, with limited grants for advanced training. The sequestration cuts negatively impact the future of many primary care physicians and hinder the care many Americans will receive over time.

  5. How Can Medical Students Add Value? Identifying Roles, Barriers, and Strategies to Advance the Value of Undergraduate Medical Education to Patient Care and the Health System. (United States)

    Gonzalo, Jed D; Dekhtyar, Michael; Hawkins, Richard E; Wolpaw, Daniel R


    As health systems evolve, the education community is seeking to reimagine student roles that combine learning with meaningful contributions to patient care. The authors sought to identify potential stakeholders regarding the value of student work, and roles and tasks students could perform to add value to the health system, including key barriers and associated strategies to promote value-added roles in undergraduate medical education. In 2016, 32 U.S. medical schools in the American Medical Association's (AMA's) Accelerating Change in Education Consortium met for a two-day national meeting to explore value-added medical education; 121 educators, systems leaders, clinical mentors, AMA staff leadership and advisory board members, and medical students were included. A thematic qualitative analysis of workshop discussions and written responses was performed, which extracted key themes. In current clinical roles, students can enhance value by performing detailed patient histories to identify social determinants of health and care barriers, providing evidence-based medicine contributions at the point-of-care, and undertaking health system research projects. Novel value-added roles include students serving as patient navigators/health coaches, care transition facilitators, population health managers, and quality improvement team extenders. Six priority areas for advancing value-added roles are student engagement, skills, and assessments; balance of service versus learning; resources, logistics, and supervision; productivity/billing pressures; current health systems design and culture; and faculty factors. These findings provide a starting point for collaborative work to positively impact clinical care and medical education through the enhanced integration of value-added medical student roles into care delivery systems.

  6. [Information technology in medical education]. (United States)

    Ramić, A


    The role of information technology in educational models of under-graduate and post-graduate medical education is growing in 1980's influenced by PC's break-in in medical practice and creating relevant data basis, and, particularly, in 1990's by integration of information technology on international level, development of international network, Internet, Telemedicin, etc. The development of new educational information technology is evident, proving that information in transfer of medical knowledge, medical informatics and communication systems represent the base of medical practice, medical education and research in medical sciences. In relation to the traditional approaches in concept, contents and techniques of medical education, new models of education in training of health professionals, using new information technology, offer a number of benefits, such as: decentralization and access to relevant data sources, collecting and updating of data, multidisciplinary approach in solving problems and effective decision-making, and affirmation of team work within medical and non-medical disciplines. Without regard to the dynamics of change and progressive reform orientation within health sector, the development of modern medical education is inevitable for all systems a in which information technology and available data basis, as a base of effective and scientifically based medical education of health care providers, give guarantees for efficient health care and improvement of health of population.

  7. Facilitating LGBT Medical, Health and Social Care Content in Higher Education Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zowie Davy


    Full Text Available Increasingly, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT health care is becoming an important quality assurance feature of primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare in Britain. While acknowledging these very positive developments, teaching LGBT curricula content is contingent upon having educators understand the complexity of LGBT lives. The study adopted a qualitative mixed method approach. The study investigated how and in what ways barriers and facilitators of providing LGBT medical, health and social care curricula content figure in the accreditation policies and within undergraduate and postgraduate medical and healthcare teaching. This paper illustrates opposing views about curricula inclusion. The evidence presented suggests that LGBT content teaching is often challenged at various points in its delivery. In this respect, we will focus on a number of resistances that sometimes prevents teachers from engaging with and providing the complexities of LGBT curricula content. These include the lack of collegiate, colleague and student cooperation. By investing some time on these often neglected areas of resistance, the difficulties and good practice met by educators will be explored. This focus will make visible how to support medical, health and social care students become aware and confident in tackling contemporaneous health issues for LGBT patients.

  8. Scoping review protocol: education initiatives for medical psychiatry collaborative care. (United States)

    Shen, Nelson; Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Abi Jaoude, Alexxa; Bailey, Sharon M; Bernier, Thérèse; Freeland, Alison; Hawa, Aceel; Hollenberg, Elisa; Woldemichael, Bethel; Wiljer, David


    The collaborative care model is an approach providing care to those with mental health and addictions disorders in the primary care setting. There is a robust evidence base demonstrating its clinical and cost-effectiveness in comparison with usual care; however, the transitioning to this new paradigm of care has been difficult. While there are efforts to train and prepare healthcare professionals, not much is known about the current state of collaborative care training programmes. The objective of this scoping review is to understand how widespread these collaborative care education initiatives are, how they are implemented and their impacts. The scoping review methodology uses the established review methodology by Arksey and O'Malley. The search strategy was developed by a medical librarian and will be applied in eight different databases spanning multiple disciplines. A two-stage screening process consisting of a title and abstract scan and a full-text review will be used to determine the eligibility of articles. To be included, articles must report on an existing collaborative care education initiative for healthcare providers. All articles will be independently assessed for eligibility by pairs of reviewers, and all eligible articles will be abstracted and charted in duplicate using a standardised form. The extracted data will undergo a 'narrative review' or a descriptive analysis of the contextual or process-oriented data and simple quantitative analysis using descriptive statistics. Research ethics approval is not required for this scoping review. The results of this scoping review will inform the development of a collaborative care training initiative emerging from the Medical Psychiatry Alliance, a four-institution philanthropic partnership in Ontario, Canada. The results will also be presented at relevant national and international conferences and published in a peer-reviewed journal. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in

  9. PRIME Partnerships in International Medical Education - Restoring a Christian ethos to medical education worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huw Morgan


    Full Text Available Modern medicine has developed from an essentially Christian world-view and in Western countries has been greatly influenced by the Christian tradition of hospitality and caring for the sick. However, during the 20th century, medical education became increasingly secularised and focussed on the bio-physical model of disease, losing sight of a holistic view of the person that includes awareness of a spiritual dimension. Former Communist countries in particular have little recent tradition of caring, and medical education there tends to be characterised by poor role-models and out-dated didactic teaching. In the resource poor countries of the global South there are many Christian hospitals and clinics but often a lack of experienced medical teachers. Partnerships in International Medical Education (PRIME’s vision and mission is to support health-care education worldwide to restore a Christian-based holistic approach to patients, and act as a resource where needed, tailoring medical educational programmes to meet the needs of overseas partners (or colleagues in the NHS. Using interactive leaner-centred and problem-based educational methods, PRIME tutors (all experienced and qualified Christian medical educators seek to model patient-centred care by using learner-centred teaching, valuing each person as a bearer of the image of God. Most of PRIME’s teaching involves the doctor-patient relationship, communication skills, compassion, ethics and professionalism, often based around particular clinical scenarios to suit the learners. Small teams of voluntary tutors visiting partner institutions and colleagues for a few weeks a year can have a surprisingly large impact, as those grasping the vision become advocates for positive change in their own situations. Training of trainers and teachers in learner-centred, androgogic methodology to build capacity and sustainability is also a major part of the work.

  10. Use of Smartphones for Clinical and Medical Education. (United States)

    Valle, Jazmine; Godby, Tyler; Paul, David P; Smith, Harlan; Coustasse, Alberto

    Smartphone use in clinical settings and in medical education has been on the rise, benefiting both health care and health care providers. Studies have shown, however, that some health care facilities and providers are reluctant to switch to smartphones due to the threat of mixing personal apps with clinical care applications and the possibility that distraction created by smartphone use could lead to medication errors and errors linked to procedures, treatments, or tests. The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of smartphones in a clinical setting and for medical education, to determine their overall impact. The methodology for this qualitative study was a literature review, conducted over five electronic databases. The search was limited to articles published in English, between 2010 and 2016. Forty-one sources that focused on the implementation of and the barriers to use of smartphones in clinical and medical education environments were referenced. These studies revealed that smartphones have more positive than negative effects on the ability to enhance patient care and medical education. Smartphone use is clearly an effective and efficient method of enhancing patient care and medical education in the health care industry. Access to health care as well is enhanced by the use of this tool.

  11. Taking note of the perceived value and impact of medical student chart documentation on education and patient care. (United States)

    Friedman, Erica; Sainte, Michelle; Fallar, Robert


    To determine the extent of restrictions to medical student documentation in patients' records and the opinions of medical education leaders about such restrictions' impact on medical student education and patient care. Education deans (n = 126) of medical schools in the United States and Canada were surveyed to determine policies regarding placement of medical student notes in the patient record, the value of medical students' documentation in the medical record, and the use of electronic medical records (EMRs) for patient notes. The instrument was a 23-item anonymous Web survey. Seventy-nine deans responded. Over 90% believed student notes belong in medical records, but only 42% had a policy regarding this. Ninety-three percent indicated that without student notes, student education would be negatively affected. Fewer (56%) indicated that patient care would be negatively affected. Most thought limiting students' notes would negatively affect several other issues: feeling a part of the team (96%), preparation for internship (95%), and students' sense of involvement (94%). Half (52%) reported that fourth-year students could place notes in paper charts at "all" affiliated hospitals, and 6% reported that fourth-year students could do so at "no" hospitals. Although students' ability to enter notes in patients' records is believed to be important for student education, only about half of all hospitals allow all students' notes in the EMR. Policies regarding placement of student notes should be implemented to ensure students' competency in note writing and their value as members of the patient care team.

  12. Considering Point-of-Care Electronic Medical Resources in Lieu of Traditional Textbooks for Medical Education. (United States)

    Hale, LaDonna S; Wallace, Michelle M; Adams, Courtney R; Kaufman, Michelle L; Snyder, Courtney L


    Selecting resources to support didactic courses is a critical decision, and the advantages and disadvantages must be carefully considered. During clinical rotations, students not only need to possess strong background knowledge but also are expected to be proficient with the same evidence-based POC resources used by clinicians. Students place high value on “real world” learning and therefore may place more value on POC resources that they know practicing clinicians use as compared with medical textbooks. The condensed nature of PA education requires students to develop background knowledge and information literacy skills over a short period. One way to build that knowledge and those skills simultaneously is to use POC resources in lieu of traditional medical textbooks during didactic training. Electronic POC resources offer several advantages over traditional textbooks and should be considered as viable options in PA education.

  13. Midwives in medical student and resident education and the development of the medical education caucus toolkit. (United States)

    Radoff, Kari; Nacht, Amy; Natch, Amy; McConaughey, Edie; Salstrom, Jan; Schelling, Karen; Seger, Suzanne


    Midwives have been involved formally and informally in the training of medical students and residents for many years. Recent reductions in resident work hours, emphasis on collaborative practice, and a focus on midwives as key members of the maternity care model have increased the involvement of midwives in medical education. Midwives work in academic settings as educators to teach the midwifery model of care, collaboration, teamwork, and professionalism to medical students and residents. In 2009, members of the American College of Nurse-Midwives formed the Medical Education Caucus (MECA) to discuss the needs of midwives teaching medical students and residents; the group has held a workshop annually over the last 4 years. In 2014, MECA workshop facilitators developed a toolkit to support and formalize the role of midwives involved in medical student and resident education. The MECA toolkit provides a roadmap for midwives beginning involvement and continuing or expanding the role of midwives in medical education. This article describes the history of midwives in medical education, the development and growth of MECA, and the resulting toolkit created to support and formalize the role of midwives as educators in medical student and resident education, as well as common challenges for the midwife in academic medicine. This article is part of a special series of articles that address midwifery innovations in clinical practice, education, interprofessional collaboration, health policy, and global health. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  14. Education in Medical Biochemistry in Serbia. (United States)

    Majkic-Sing, Nada


    Medical biochemistry is the usual name for clinical biochemistry or clinical chemistry in Serbia. Medical biochemistry laboratories and medical biochemists as a profession are part of Health Care System and are regulated through: the Health Care Law and rules issued by the Chamber of Medical Biochemists of Serbia. The first continuous and organized education for Medical Biochemists in Serbia dates from 1945, when Department of Medical Biochemistry was established at Pharmaceutical Faculty in Belgrade. In 1987 at the same Faculty a five years undergraduate branch was established, educating Medical Biochemists under a special program. Since 2006 the new five year undergraduate (according to Bologna Declaration) and postgraduate program of four-year specialization according to EC4 European Syllabus for Post-Graduate Training in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine has been established. The Ministry of Education and Ministry of Public Health accredits the programs. There are four requirements for practicing medical biochemistry in the Health Care System: University Diploma of the Faculty of Pharmacy (Medical Biochemistry), successful completion of the profession exam at the Ministry of Health after completion of one additional year of obligatory practical training in medical laboratories, membership in the Serbian Chamber of Medical Biochemists and licence for skilled work issued by Serbian Chamber of Medical Biochemists.

  15. Tele-education as method of medical education. (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Pandza, Haris; Kulasin, Igor; Masic, Zlatan; Valjevac, Salih


    Development of computer networks and introduction and application of new technologies in all aspects of human activity needs to be followed by universities in their transformation on how to approach scientific, research, and education teaching curricula. Development and increased use of distance learning (DL) over the past decade have clearly shown the potential and efficiency of information technology applied in education. Use of information technology in medical education is where medical informatics takes its place as important scientific discipline which ensures benefit from IT in teaching and learning process involved. Definition of telemedicine as "use of technologies based on health care delivered on distance" covers areas such as electronic health, tele-health (eHealth), telematics, but also tele-education. Web based medical education today is offered in different forms--from online lectures, online exams, web based continuous education programs, use of electronic libraries, online medical and scientific databases etc. Department of Medical Informatics of Medical Faculty of University of Sarajevo has taken many steps to introduce distance learning in medical curricula--from organising professional--scientific events (congresses, workshop etc), organizing first tele-exam at the faculty and among first at the university, to offering online lectures and online education material at the Department's website ( Distance learning in medical education, as well as telemedicine, significantly influence health care in general and are shaping the future model of medical practice. Basic computer and networks skills must be a part of all future medical curricula. The impact of technical equipment on patient-doctor relationship must be taken into account, and doctors have to be trained and prepared for diagnosing or consulting patients by use of IT. Telemedicine requires special approach in certain medical fields--tele-consultation, tele

  16. Trust and risk: a model for medical education. (United States)

    Damodaran, Arvin; Shulruf, Boaz; Jones, Philip


    Health care delivery, and therefore medical education, is an inherently risky business. Although control mechanisms, such as external audit and accreditation, are designed to manage risk in clinical settings, another approach is 'trust'. The use of entrustable professional activities (EPAs) represents a deliberate way in which this is operationalised as a workplace-based assessment. Once engaged with the concept, clinical teachers and medical educators may have further questions about trust. This narrative overview of the trust literature explores how risk, trust and control intersect with current thinking in medical education, and makes suggestions for potential directions of enquiry. Beyond EPAs, the importance of trust in health care and medical education is reviewed, followed by a brief history of trust research in the wider literature. Interpersonal and organisational levels of trust and a model of trust from the management literature are used to provide the framework with which to decipher trust decisions in health care and medical education, in which risk and vulnerability are inherent. In workplace learning and assessment, the language of 'trust' may offer a more authentic and practical vocabulary than that of 'competency' because clinical and professional risks are explicitly considered. There are many other trust relationships in health care and medical education. At the most basic level, it is helpful to clearly delineate who is the trustor, the trustee, and for what task. Each relationship has interpersonal and organisational elements. Understanding and considered utilisation of trust and control mechanisms in health care and medical education may lead to systems that maturely manage risk while actively encouraging trust and empowerment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  17. [Social media and medical apps: how they can change health communication, education and care]. (United States)

    Santoro, Eugenio


    Social media and medical apps for smartphones and tablets are changing health communication, education and care. This change involves physicians and other health care professionals which for their education, training and updating have started to follow public pages and profiles opened by medical journals and professional societies on the online social networking sites (such as Facebook, Twitter and Google+), to access scientific content (videos, images, slides) available on user-generated contents sites (such as SlideShare, Pinterest and YouTube) or on health professional online communities such as Sermo, and to use medical and health apps on their smartphones and tablets. As shown by a number of experiences conducted in US by health institutions such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of Atlanta and hospitals such a the Mayo Clinic, these tools are also transforming the way to make health promotion activities and communication, promote healthy habits and lifestyles, and prevent chronic diseases. Finally this change involves patients which are starting to use medical and health apps on their smartphones and tablets to monitor their diseases, and tools such as Patients Like Me (an online patients' community), Facebook and Twitter to share with others the same disease experience, to learn about the disease and treatments, and to find opinions on physicians, hospitals and medical centers. These new communication tools allow users to move to a kind of collaborative education and updating where news and contents (such as public health recommendations, results of the most recent clinical researches or medical guidelines) may be shared and discussed.

  18. [Continuous medical education of general practitioners/family doctors in chronic wound care]. (United States)

    Sinozić, Tamara; Kovacević, Jadranka


    A number of healthcare professionals, specialists in different fields and with different levels of education, as well as non-healthcare professionals, are involved in the care of chronic wound patients, thus forming a multidisciplinary team that is not only responsible for the course and outcome of treatment, but also for the patient quality of life. Family doctor is also member of the team the task of which is to prevent, diagnose, monitor and anticipate complications and relapses, as well as complete recovery of chronic wound patients, with the overall care continuing even after the wound has healed, or is involved in palliative care. A family medicine practitioner with specialized education and their team of associates in the primary health care, along with material conditions and equipment improvement, can provide quality care for patients with peripheral cardiovascular diseases and chronic wounds, organized according to the holistic approach. It is essential that all professional associations of family medicine as well as professional associations of other specialties - fields that are involved in wound prevention and treatment - be included in developing the continuous medical education program. The benefits of modern information technology should be used to good advantage. The education should be adapted to the needs of family practitioners in terms of the form, place, time, volume, financial affordability and choice of topic. The interest shown in team education should be transformed into specialized programs in the creation of which it is essential to include both physicians and nurses and their respective professional associations. Special attention should be paid to education and training of young doctors/nurses, those with less work experience, those that have not yet been part of such education, those that lack experience in working with wound patients, those whose teams deal mostly with elderly patients, and also residents in family medicine and

  19. Quixotic medicine: physical and economic laws perilously disregarded in health care and medical education. (United States)

    Haburchak, David R; Mitchell, Bradford C; Boomer, Craig J


    Wise medical practice requires balancing the idealistic goals of medicine with the physical and economic realities of their application. Clinicians should know and employ the rules, maxims, and heuristics that summarize these goals and constraints. There has been little formal study of rules or laws pertaining to therapeutics and prognosis, so the authors postulate four physical and four economic laws that apply to health care: the laws of (1) finitude, (2) inertia, (3) entropy, and (4) the uncertainty principle; and the laws of (5) diminishing returns, (6) unintended consequences, (7) distribution, and (8) economizing. These laws manifest themselves in the absence of health, the pathogenesis of disease, prognosis, and the behaviors of participants in the health care enterprise. Physicians and the public perilously disregard these laws, frequently producing misdiagnoses, distraction, false expectations, unanticipated and undesirable outcomes, inequitable distribution of scarce resources, distrust, and cynicism: in short, quixotic medicine. The origins and public reinforcement of quixotic medicine make it deaf to calls for pragmatism. To achieve the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education competency of systems-based practice, the authors recommend that premedical education return to a broader liberal arts curriculum and that medical education and training foster didactic and experiential knowledge of these eight laws.

  20. Social accountability of medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Stefan; Karle, Hans


    accountability of medical education must be included in all accreditation processes at all levels. The global standards programme by World Federation for Medical Education (WFME) provides tools for national or regional accreditation but also guidance for reforms and quality improvement. The standards are used......Medical doctors constitute a profession which embraces trust from and accountability to society. This responsibility extends to all medical educational institutions. Social accountability of medical education means a willingness and ability to adjust to the needs of patients and health care systems...... both nationally and globally. But it also implies a responsibility to contribute to the development of medicine and society through fostering competence for research and improvement. Accreditation is a process by which a statutory body evaluates and recognises an educational institution and/or its...

  1. Surgical Education and Health Care Reform: Defining the Role and Value of Trainees in an Evolving Medical Landscape. (United States)

    Fayanju, Oluwadamilola M; Aggarwal, Reena; Baucom, Rebeccah B; Ferrone, Cristina R; Massaro, David; Terhune, Kyla P


    Health care reform and surgical education are often separated functionally. However, especially in surgery, where resident trainees often spend twice as much time in residency and fellowship than in undergraduate medical education, one must consider their contributions to health care. In this short commentary, we briefly review the status of health care in the United States as well as some of the recent and current changes in graduate medical education that pertain to surgical trainees. This is a perspective piece that draws on the interests and varied background of the multiinstitutional and international group of authors. The authors propose 3 main areas of focus for research and practice- (1) accurately quantifying the care provided currently by trainees, (2) determining impact to trainees and hospital systems of training parameters, focusing on long-term outcomes rather than short-term outcomes, and (3) determining practice models of education that work best for both health care delivery and trainees. The authors propose that surgical education must align itself with rather than separate itself from overall health care reform measures and even individual hospital financial pressures. This should not be seen as additional burden of service, but rather practical education in training as to the pressures trainees will face as future employees. Rethinking the contributions and training of residents and fellows may also synergistically work to impress to hospital administrators that providing better, more focused and applicable education to residents and fellows may have long-term, strategic, positive impacts on institutions.

  2. Integrating social factors into cross-cultural medical education. (United States)

    Green, Alexander R; Betancourt, Joseph R; Carrillo, J Emilio


    The field of cross-cultural medical education has blossomed in an environment of increasing diversity and increasing awareness of the effect of race and ethnicity on health outcomes. However, there is still no standardized approach to teaching doctors in training how best to care for diverse patient populations. As standards are developed, it is crucial to realize that medical educators cannot teach about culture in a vacuum. Caring for patients of diverse cultural backgrounds is inextricably linked to caring for patients of diverse social backgrounds. In this article, the authors discuss the importance of social issues in caring for patients of all cultures, and propose a practical, patient-based approach to social analysis covering four major domains--(1) social stress and support networks, (2) change in environment, (3) life control, and (4) literacy. By emphasizing and expanding the role of the social history in cross-cultural medical education, faculty can better train medical students, residents, and other health care providers to care for socioculturally diverse patient populations.

  3. Curriculum Trends in Medical Education in Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprajita Panwar


    Full Text Available Medical education began in Mauritius with the establishment of Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam (SSR Medical college in 1999 followed by a breakthrough in field of medicine with opening of Anna Medical College and Research Center (AMCRC in 2010 and Padhamshree DY PatilMedical College in 2013.Though it was an appreciable beginning of medical education in Mauritius, medical schools are currently experiencing hardships in delivering right medical exposure to health care professionals.Mauritian medical schools now need to review their current teaching methodology and present curriculum to keep pace with global standards. Integrated curriculum which is now gaining popularity world-wide is to be introduced and strongly implemented in medical schools in Mauritius. This curriculum would breach barriers and improve integration between pre-clinical and clinical sciences thus facilitating long-term retention of knowledge in medical schools and develop a professionally soundapproach towards management of health care. Horizontal curriculum can be replaced by vertical and spiral integration. For this major change, faculty engaged in medical profession are to be acquainted about innovative strategies and emerging trends in medical education. Thus this article aims to highlight the current scenario of medical education in Mauritius and also offer suggestions about possible future strategies to be implemented in medical colleges.Keywords: MEDICAL EDUCATION, CURRICULUM, CHALLENGES

  4. Global health education in Swedish medical schools. (United States)

    Ehn, S; Agardh, A; Holmer, H; Krantz, G; Hagander, L


    Global health education is increasingly acknowledged as an opportunity for medical schools to prepare future practitioners for the broad health challenges of our time. The purpose of this study was to describe the evolution of global health education in Swedish medical schools and to assess students' perceived needs for such education. Data on global health education were collected from all medical faculties in Sweden for the years 2000-2013. In addition, 76% (439/577) of all Swedish medical students in their final semester answered a structured questionnaire. Global health education is offered at four of Sweden's seven medical schools, and most medical students have had no global health education. Medical students in their final semester consider themselves to lack knowledge and skills in areas such as the global burden of disease (51%), social determinants of health (52%), culture and health (60%), climate and health (62%), health promotion and disease prevention (66%), strategies for equal access to health care (69%) and global health care systems (72%). A significant association was found between self-assessed competence and the amount of global health education received (pcurriculum. Most Swedish medical students have had no global health education as part of their medical school curriculum. Expanded education in global health is sought after by medical students and could strengthen the professional development of future medical doctors in a wide range of topics important for practitioners in the global world of the twenty-first century. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  5. Use of simulation-based education to improve resident learning and patient care in the medical intensive care unit: a randomized trial. (United States)

    Schroedl, Clara J; Corbridge, Thomas C; Cohen, Elaine R; Fakhran, Sherene S; Schimmel, Daniel; McGaghie, William C; Wayne, Diane B


    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of simulation-based education on the knowledge and skills of internal medicine residents in the medical intensive care unit (MICU). From January 2009 to January 2010, 60 first-year residents at a tertiary care teaching hospital were randomized by month of rotation to an intervention group (simulator-trained, n = 26) and a control group (traditionally trained, n = 34). Simulator-trained residents completed 4 hours of simulation-based education before their medical intensive care unit (MICU) rotation. Topics included circulatory shock, respiratory failure, and mechanical ventilation. After their rotation, residents completed a standardized bedside skills assessment using a 14-item checklist regarding respiratory mechanics, ventilator settings, and circulatory parameters. Performance of simulator-trained and traditionally trained residents was compared using a 2-tailed independent-samples t test. Simulator-trained residents scored significantly higher on the bedside skills assessment compared with traditionally trained residents (82.5% ± 10.6% vs 74.8% ± 14.1%, P = .027). Simulator-trained residents were highly satisfied with the simulation curriculum. Simulation-based education significantly improved resident knowledge and skill in the MICU. Knowledge acquired in the simulated environment was transferred to improved bedside skills caring for MICU patients. Simulation-based education is a valuable adjunct to standard clinical training for residents in the MICU. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Commentary: discovering a different model of medical student education. (United States)

    Watson, Robert T


    Traditional medical schools in modern academic health centers make discoveries, create new knowledge and technology, provide innovative care to the sickest patients, and educate future academic and practicing physicians. Unfortunately, the growth of the research and clinical care missions has sometimes resulted in a loss of emphasis on the general professional education of medical students. The author concludes that it may not be practical for many established medical schools to functionally return to the reason they were created: for the education of medical students.He had the opportunity to discover a different model of medical student education at the first new MD-granting medical school created in the United States in 25 years (in 2000), the Florida State University College of Medicine. He was initially skeptical about how its distributed regional campuses model, using practicing primary care physicians to help medical students learn in mainly ambulatory settings, could be effective. But his experience as a faculty member at the school convinced him that the model works very well.He proposes a better alignment of form and function for many established medical schools and an extension of the regional community-based model to the formation of community-based primary care graduate medical education programs determined by physician workforce needs and available resources.

  7. Patient Care Physician Supply and Requirements: Testing COGME Recommendations. Council on Graduate Medical Education, Eighth Report. (United States)

    Council on Graduate Medical Education.

    This report reassesses recommendations made by the Council on Graduate Medical Education in earlier reports which had, beginning in 1992, addressed the problems of physician oversupply. In this report physician supply and requirements are examined in the context of a health care system increasingly dominated by managed care. Patterns of physician…

  8. Care coordination, medical complexity, and unmet need for prescription medications among children with special health care needs. (United States)

    Aboneh, Ephrem A; Chui, Michelle A

    Children with special health care needs (CSHCN) have multiple unmet health care needs including that of prescription medications. The objectives of this study were twofold: 1) to quantify and compare unmet needs for prescription medications for subgroups of CSHCN without and with medical complexity (CMC)-those who have multiple, chronic, and complex medical conditions associated with severe functional limitations and high utilization of health care resources, and 2) to describe its association with receipt of effective care coordination services and level of medical complexity. A secondary data analysis of the 2009/2010 National Survey of CSHCN, a nationally representative telephone survey of parents of CSHCN, was conducted. Logistic regression models were constructed to determine associations between unmet need for prescription medications and medical complexity and care coordination for families of CSHCN, while controlling for demographic variables such as race, insurance, education level, and household income. Analyses accounted for the complex survey design and sampling weights. CMC represented about 3% of CSHCN. CMC parents reported significantly more unmet need for prescription medications and care coordination (4%, 68%), compared to Non-CMC parents (2%, 40%). Greater unmet need for prescription medications was associated with unmet care coordination (adjusted OR 3.81; 95% CI: 2.70-5.40) and greater medical complexity (adjusted OR 2.01; 95% CI: 1.00-4.03). Traditional care coordination is primarily facilitated by nurses and nurse practitioners with little formal training in medication management. However, pharmacists are rarely part of the CSHCN care coordination model. As care delivery models for these children evolve, and given the complexity of and numerous transitions of care for these patients, pharmacists can play an integral role to improve unmet needs for prescription medications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Surgeons' and Trauma Care Physicians' Perception of the Impact of the Globalization of Medical Education on Quality of Care in Lima, Peru. (United States)

    LaGrone, Lacey N; Isquith-Dicker, Leah N; Huaman Egoavil, Eduardo; Rodriguez Castro, Manuel J A; Allagual, Alfredo; Revoredo, Fernando; Mock, Charles N


    The globalization of medical education-the process by which trainees in any region gain access to international training (electronic or in-person)-is a growing trend. More data are needed to inform next steps in the responsible stewardship of this process, from the perspective of trainees and institutions at all income levels, and for use by national and international policymakers. To describe the impact of the globalization of medical education on surgical care in Peru from the perspective of Peruvian surgeons who received international training. Observational study of qualitative interviews conducted from September 2015 to January 2016 using grounded theory qualitative research methods. The study was conducted at 10 large public institutions that provide most of the trauma care in Lima, Peru, and included urban resident and faculty surgery and trauma care physicians. Access to international surgical rotations and medical information. Outcome measures defining the impact of globalization on surgical care were developed as part of simultaneous data collection and analysis during qualitative research as part of a larger project on trauma quality improvement practices in Peru. Fifty qualitative interviews of surgeons and emergency medicine physicians were conducted at 10 hospitals, including multiple from the public and social security systems. A median of 4 interviews were conducted at each hospital, and fewer than 3 interviews were conducted at only 1 hospital. From the broader theme of globalization emerged subthemes of an eroded sense of agency and a perception of inadequate training on the adaptation of international standards as negative effects of globalization on surgical care in Peru. Access to research funds, provision of incentives for acquisition of advanced clinical training, increased expectations for patient outcomes, and education in quality improvement skills are ways in which globalization positively affected surgeons and their patients in Peru

  10. The medical-industrial complex, professional medical associations, and continuing medical education. (United States)

    Schofferman, Jerome


    Financial relationships among the biomedical industries, physicians, and professional medical associations (PMAs) can be professional, ethical, mutually beneficial, and, most importantly, can lead to improved medical care. However, such relationships, by their very nature, present conflicts of interest (COIs). One of the greatest concerns regarding COI is continuing medical education (CME), especially because currently industry funds 40-60% of CME. COIs have the potential to bias physicians in practice, educators, and those in leadership positions of PMAs and well as the staff of a PMA. These conflicts lead to the potential to bias the content and type of CME presentations and thereby influence physicians' practice patterns and patient care. Physicians are generally aware of the potential for bias when industry contributes funding for CME, but they are most often unable to detect the bias. This may because it is very subtle and/or the educators themselves may not realize that they have been influenced by their relationships with industry. Following Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education guidelines and mandating disclosure that is transparent and complete have become the fallback positions to manage COIs, but such disclosure does not really mitigate the conflict. The eventual and best solutions to ensure evidence-based education are complete divestment by educators and leaders of PMAs, minimal and highly controlled industry funding of PMAs, blind pooling of any industry contributions to PMAs and CME, strict verification of disclosures, clear separation of marketing from education at CME events, and strict oversight of presentations for the presence of bias. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. National variation of ADHD diagnostic prevalence and medication use: health care providers and education policies. (United States)

    Fulton, Brent D; Scheffler, Richard M; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Levine, Peter; Stone, Susan; Brown, Timothy T; Modrek, Sepideh


    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnostic prevalence and medication use vary across U.S. census regions, but little is known about state-level variation. The purpose of this study was to estimate this variation across states and examine whether a state's health care provider characteristics and education policies are associated with this variation. Logistic regression models were estimated with 69,505 children aged four to 17 from the state-stratified and nationally representative 2003 National Survey of Children's Health, conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diagnostic prevalence was higher in the South (odds ratio [OR]=1.42, p<.001) than in the West; among children with ADHD diagnoses, medication use was higher in the South (OR=1.60, p<.01) and the Midwest (OR=1.53, p<.01) versus the West. On these measures, several states differed from the U.S. averages, including some states that, on the basis of the regional patterns found above, would not be expected to differ: Michigan had a high diagnostic prevalence; Vermont, South Dakota, and Nebraska had low diagnostic prevalences; and Connecticut, New Jersey, and Kentucky had low medication rates. Both diagnosis and medication status were associated with the number, age, and type of physicians within a state, particularly pediatricians. However, state education policies were not significantly associated with either diagnostic prevalence or medication rates. To better understand the association between a state's health care provider characteristics and both diagnostic prevalence and medication use, it may be fruitful to examine the content of provider continuing education programs, including the recommendations of major health professional organization guidelines to treat ADHD.

  12. Medical education. (United States)

    Krishnan, P


    In theory, the Medical Council of India (MCI) determines the standards and qualifications of medical schools. It also sanctions curricula and ensures standards. Yet no standards exist on the mode of selection in medical schools, duration of study, course content, student stipends or period of internship. It takes 4.5 years to finish medical school. Students undergo preclinical, paraclinical, and clinical training. Most courses are in English which tends to favor the urban elite. Students cannot always communicate with patients in local languages. Textbooks often provide medical examples unrelated to India. Pedagogy consists mainly of lectures and rote learning predominates. Curricula tend not to provide courses in community health. Students pick up on the elitist attitudes of the faculty. For example, faculty do not put much emphasis on community health, individual health, equity in health care delivery, and teamwork. Further the education system is not patient oriented, but hospital or disease oriented. Faculty should train students in creating sanitation programs, knowing local nutritious foods, and in making community diagnoses. Yet they tend to be practitioners 1st then educators. Further faculty are not paid well and are not always invited to take part in improving curriculum, so morale is often low. Moreover experience in health planning and management issues is not required for administrators. In addition, medical schools are not well equipped with learning aids, libraries, or teaching staff. Tax revenues finance medical education. 75% of graduating physicians set up a private practice. Further many physicians go to urban areas. 34-57% emigrate to other countries. The problems of medical education will not be solved until the political and economic system becomes more responsive to the health needs of the people.

  13. Professional identity in medical students: pedagogical challenges to medical education. (United States)

    Wilson, Ian; Cowin, Leanne S; Johnson, Maree; Young, Helen


    Professional identity, or how a doctor thinks of himself or herself as a doctor, is considered to be as critical to medical education as the acquisition of skills and knowledge relevant to patient care. This article examines contemporary literature on the development of professional identity within medicine. Relevant theories of identity construction are explored and their application to medical education and pedagogical approaches to enhancing students' professional identity are proposed. The influence of communities of practice, role models, and narrative reflection within curricula are examined. Medical education needs to be responsive to changes in professional identity being generated from factors within medical student experiences and within contemporary society.

  14. Early bedside care during preclinical medical education: can technology-enhanced patient simulation advance the Flexnerian ideal? (United States)

    Gordon, James A; Hayden, Emily M; Ahmed, Rami A; Pawlowski, John B; Khoury, Kimberly N; Oriol, Nancy E


    Flexner wanted medical students to study at the patient bedside-a remarkable innovation in his time-so that they could apply science to clinical care under the watchful eye of senior physicians. Ever since his report, medical schools have reserved the latter years of their curricula for such an "advanced" apprenticeship, providing clinical clerkship experiences only after an initial period of instruction in basic medical sciences. Although Flexner codified the segregation of preclinical and clinical instruction, he was committed to ensuring that both domains were integrated into a modern medical education. The aspiration to fully integrate preclinical and clinical instruction continues to drive medical education reform even to this day. In this article, the authors revisit the original justification for sequential preclinical-clinical instruction and argue that modern, technology-enhanced patient simulation platforms are uniquely powerful for fostering simultaneous integration of preclinical-clinical content in a way that Flexner would have applauded. To date, medical educators tend to focus on using technology-enhanced medical simulation in clinical and postgraduate medical education; few have devoted significant attention to using immersive clinical simulation among preclinical students. The authors present an argument for the use of dynamic robot-mannequins in teaching basic medical science, and describe their experience with simulator-based preclinical instruction at Harvard Medical School. They discuss common misconceptions and barriers to the approach, describe their curricular responses to the technique, and articulate a unifying theory of cognitive and emotional learning that broadens the view of what is possible, feasible, and desirable with simulator-based medical education.

  15. Medical students as health coaches, and more: adding value to both education and patient care


    Curry, Raymond H.


    New ways of thinking about medicine and health care demand new methods in medical education. Over the past two decades, as both the practice and the study of medicine have become increasingly concerned with demonstrable outcomes, medical schools have developed new curricula in health systems science and are increasingly emphasizing students’ development and demonstration of skills essential to a systems-based, outcomes-oriented practice environment. Polak and colleagues recently reported the ...

  16. Becoming an Educational Leader--Exploring Leadership in Medical Education (United States)

    Bolander Laksov, Klara; Tomson, Tanja


    Research on educational leadership emphasizes the importance of having institutional leaders heavily involved with advanced instructional programming. Best practices for developing educational leadership in higher education health care and medical faculties have to be better understood. Within the framework of a seminar series, researchers and…

  17. Pain education in North American medical schools. (United States)

    Mezei, Lina; Murinson, Beth B


    Knowledgeable and compassionate care regarding pain is a core responsibility of health professionals associated with better medical outcomes, improved quality of life, and lower healthcare costs. Education is an essential part of training healthcare providers to deliver conscientious pain care but little is known about whether medical school curricula meet educational needs. Using a novel systematic approach to assess educational content, we examined the curricula of Liaison Committee on Medical Education-accredited medical schools between August 2009 and February 2010. Our intent was to establish important benchmark values regarding pain education of future physicians during primary professional training. External validation was performed. Inclusion criteria required evidence of substantive participation in the curriculum management database of the Association of American Medical Colleges. A total of 117 U.S. and Canadian medical schools were included in the study. Approximately 80% of U.S. medical schools require 1 or more pain sessions. Among Canadian medical schools, 92% require pain sessions. Pain sessions are typically presented as part of general required courses. Median hours of instruction on pain topics for Canadian schools was twice the U.S. median. Many topics included in the International Association for the Study of Pain core curriculum received little or no coverage. There were no correlations between the types of pain education offered and school characteristics (eg, private versus public). We conclude that pain education for North American medical students is limited, variable, and often fragmentary. There is a need for innovative approaches and better integration of pain topics into medical school curricula. This study assessed the scope and scale of pain education programs in U.S. and Canadian medical schools. Significant gaps between recommended pain curricula and documented educational content were identified. In short, pain education was

  18. Power and Resistance: Leading Change in Medical Education (United States)

    Sundberg, Kristina; Josephson, Anna; Reeves, Scott; Nordquist, Jonas


    A key role for educational leaders within undergraduate medical education is to continually improve the quality of education; global quality health care is the goal. This paper reports the findings from a study employing a power model to highlight how educational leaders influence the development of undergraduate medical curricula and the…

  19. Five suggestions for future medical education in Korea. (United States)

    Yang, Eunbae B; Meng, Kwang Ho


    This study is to investigate the historical characteristics of medical education and healthcare environment in Korea and to suggest the desirable direction for future medical education. We draw a consensus through the literature analysis and several debates from the eight experts of medical education. There are several historical characteristics of medical education: medical education as vocational education and training, as a higher education, rapid growth of new medical schools, change to the medical education system, curriculum development, reinforcement of medical humanities, improvement of teaching and evaluation methods, validation of the national health personnel licensing examination, accreditation system for quality assurance, and establishment of specialized medical education division. The changes of health care environment in medical education are development of medical technologies, changes in the structures of the population and diseases, growth of information and communication technology, consumer-centered society, and increased intervention by the third party stakeholder. We propose five suggestions to be made to improve future medical education. They are plan for outcome and competency-based medical education, connection between the undergraduate and graduate medical education, reinforcement of continuous quality improvement of medical education, reorganization of the medical education system and construction of leadership of "academic medicine."

  20. Study of relation of continuing medical education to quality of family physicians' care. (United States)

    Dunn, E V; Bass, M J; Williams, J I; Borgiel, A E; MacDonald, P; Spasoff, R A


    A random sample of 120 physicians in Ontario was studied to assess quality of care in primary care and test an hypothesis that quality of care was related to continuing medical education (CME) activities. The quality-of-care scores were obtained by an in-office audit of a random selection of charts. The scores were global scores for charting, prevention, the use of 13 classes of drugs, and care of a two-year period for 182 different diagnoses. There were no relationships between global quality-of-care scores based on these randomly chosen charts and either the type or quantity of the physicians' CME activities. These activities were reading journals, attending rounds, attending scientific conferences, having informal consultations, using audio and video cassettes, and engaging in self-assessment. The implications of these findings are significant for future research in CME and for planners of present CME programs.

  1. Medical Education in Decentralized Settings: How Medical Students Contribute to Health Care in 10 Sub-Saharan African Countries. (United States)

    Talib, Zohray; van Schalkwyk, Susan; Couper, Ian; Pattanaik, Swaha; Turay, Khadija; Sagay, Atiene S; Baingana, Rhona; Baird, Sarah; Gaede, Bernhard; Iputo, Jehu; Kibore, Minnie; Manongi, Rachel; Matsika, Antony; Mogodi, Mpho; Ramucesse, Jeremais; Ross, Heather; Simuyeba, Moses; Haile-Mariam, Damen


    African medical schools are expanding, straining resources at tertiary health facilities. Decentralizing clinical training can alleviate this tension. This study assessed the impact of decentralized training and contribution of undergraduate medical students at health facilities. Participants were from 11 Medical Education Partnership Initiative-funded medical schools in 10 African countries. Each school identified two clinical training sites-one rural and the other either peri-urban or urban. Qualitative and quantitative data collection tools were used to gather information about the sites, student activities, and staff perspectives between March 2015 and February 2016. Interviews with site staff were analyzed using a collaborative directed approach to content analysis, and frequencies were generated to describe site characteristics and student experiences. The clinical sites varied in level of care but were similar in scope of clinical services and types of clinical and nonclinical student activities. Staff indicated that students have a positive effect on job satisfaction and workload. Respondents reported that students improved the work environment, institutional reputation, and introduced evidence-based approaches. Students also contributed to perceived improvements in quality of care, patient experience, and community outreach. Staff highlighted the need for resources to support students. Students were seen as valuable resources for health facilities. They strengthened health care quality by supporting overburdened staff and by bringing rigor and accountability into the work environment. As medical schools expand, especially in low-resource settings, mobilizing new and existing resources for decentralized clinical training could transform health facilities into vibrant service and learning environments.

  2. Medical education in Ecuador. (United States)

    Joffre, Carrillo P; Delgado, Belgica; Kosik, Russell Olive; Huang, Lei; Zhao, Xudong; Su, Tung-Ping; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Chen, Qi; Fan, Angela Pei-Chen


    Ecuador, the smallest of the Andean countries, is located in the northwest portion of South America. The nation's 14.5 million people have a tremendous need for high quality primary care. To describe the profound advances as well as the persistent needs in medical education in Ecuador that have occurred with globalization and with the modernization of the country. Through an extensive search of the literature; medical school data; reports from the Ecuador Ministry of Public Health and Ministry of Education; and information from the National Secretary of Higher Education, Science, and Innovation (SENESCYT), the medical education system in Ecuador has been thoroughly examined. The National System of Higher Education in Ecuador has experienced significant growth over the last 20 years. As of 2009 the system boasts 19 medical schools, all of which offer the required education needed to obtain the title of Physician, but only 12 of which offer postgraduate clinical training. Of these 19 universities, nine are public, five are private and self-financed, and five are private and co-financed. Post-graduate options for medical students include: (1) Clinical specialization, (2) Higher diploma, (3) Course specialization, (4) Master's degree, and (5) PhD degree. The rapid growth of Ecuador's system of medical education has led to inevitable gaps that threaten its ability to sustain itself. Chief among these is the lack of well-trained faculty to supply its medical schools. To ensure an adequate supply of faculty exists, the creation of sufficient postgraduate, sub-specialization, and PhD training positions must be created and maintained.

  3. [VR and AR Applications in Medical Practice and Education]. (United States)

    Hsieh, Min-Chai; Lin, Yu-Hsuan


    As technology advances, mobile devices have gradually turned into wearable devices. Furthermore, virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), and mixed reality (MR) are being increasingly applied in medical fields such as medical education and training, surgical simulation, neurological rehabilitation, psychotherapy, and telemedicine. Research results demonstrate the ability of VR, AR, and MR to ameliorate the inconveniences that are often associated with traditional medical care, reduce incidents of medical malpractice caused by unskilled operations, and reduce the cost of medical education and training. What is more, the application of these technologies has enhanced the effectiveness of medical education and training, raised the level of diagnosis and treatment, improved the doctor-patient relationship, and boosted the efficiency of medical execution. The present study introduces VR, AR, and MR applications in medical practice and education with the aim of helping health professionals better understand the applications and use these technologies to improve the quality of medical care.

  4. Complexity in graduate medical education: a collaborative education agenda for internal medicine and geriatric medicine. (United States)

    Chang, Anna; Fernandez, Helen; Cayea, Danelle; Chheda, Shobhina; Paniagua, Miguel; Eckstrom, Elizabeth; Day, Hollis


    Internal medicine residents today face significant challenges in caring for an increasingly complex patient population within ever-changing education and health care environments. As a result, medical educators, health care system leaders, payers, and patients are demanding change and accountability in graduate medical education (GME). A 2012 Society of General Internal Medicine (SGIM) retreat identified medical education as an area for collaboration between internal medicine and geriatric medicine. The authors first determined a short-term research agenda for resident education by mapping selected internal medicine reporting milestones to geriatrics competencies, and listing available sample learner assessment tools. Next, the authors proposed a strategy for long-term collaboration in three priority areas in clinical medicine that are challenging for residents today: (1) team-based care, (2) transitions and readmissions, and (3) multi-morbidity. The short-term agenda focuses on learner assessment, while the long-term agenda allows for program evaluation and improvement. This model of collaboration in medical education combines the resources and expertise of internal medicine and geriatric medicine educators with the goal of increasing innovation and improving outcomes in GME targeting the needs of our residents and their patients.

  5. Present Conditions and Problems of Home Care Education in Pharmaceutical Education: Through the Activities of "the Working Group to Create Home Clinical Cases for Education". (United States)

    Kobuke, Yuko


    In the pharmaceutical education model core curriculums revision, "basic qualities required as a pharmacist" are clearly shown, and "the method based on learning outcomes" has been adopted. One of the 10 qualities (No. 7) is "Practical ability of the health and medical care in the community". In the large item "F. Pharmaceutical clinical" of the model core curriculums, "participation in the home (visit) medical care and nursing care" is written in "participation in the health, medical care, and welfare of the community", and it is an important problem to offer opportunities of home medical care education at university. In our university, we launched a working group to create "home clinical cases for education" from the educational point of view to pharmacy students to learn home medical care, in collaboration with university faculty members and pharmacists, who are practitioners of home care. Through its working group activities, we would like to organize the present conditions and problems of home care education in pharmaceutical education and to examine the possibility of using "home clinical case studies" in home care education at university.

  6. The ecology of medical care in Beijing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Shao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We presented the pattern of health care consumption, and the utilization of available resources by describing the ecology of medical care in Beijing on a monthly basis and by describing the socio-demographic characteristics associated with receipt care in different settings. METHODS: A cohort of 6,592 adults, 15 years of age and older were sampled to estimate the number of urban-resident adults per 1,000 who visited a medical facility at least once in a month, by the method of three-stage stratified and cluster random sampling. Separate logistic regression analyses assessed the association between those receiving care in different types of setting and their socio-demographic characteristics. RESULTS: On average per 1,000 adults, 295 had at least one symptom, 217 considered seeking medical care, 173 consulted a physician, 129 visited western medical practitioners, 127 visited a hospital-based outpatient clinic, 78 visited traditional Chinese medical practitioners, 43 visited a primary care physician, 35 received care in an emergency department, 15 were hospitalized. Health care seeking behaviors varied with socio-demographic characteristics, such as gender, age, ethnicity, resident census register, marital status, education, income, and health insurance status. In term of primary care, the gate-keeping and referral roles of Community Health Centers have not yet been fully established in Beijing. CONCLUSIONS: This study represents a first attempt to map the medical care ecology of Beijing urban population and provides timely baseline information for health care reform in China.

  7. Medical education and human trafficking: using simulation. (United States)

    Stoklosa, Hanni; Lyman, Michelle; Bohnert, Carrie; Mittel, Olivia


    Healthcare providers have the potential to play a crucial role in human trafficking prevention, identification, and intervention. However, trafficked patients are often unidentified due to lack of education and preparation available to healthcare professionals at all levels of training and practice. To increase victim identification in healthcare settings, providers need to be educated about the issue of trafficking and its clinical presentations in an interactive format that maximizes learning and ultimately patient-centered outcomes. In 2014, University of Louisville School of Medicine created a simulation-based medical education (SBME) curriculum to prepare students to recognize victims and intervene on their behalf. The authors share the factors that influenced the session's development and incorporation into an already full third year medical curriculum and outline the development process. The process included a needs assessment for the education intervention, development of objectives and corresponding assessment, implementation of the curriculum, and finally the next steps of the module as it develops further. Additional alternatives are provided for other medical educators seeking to implement similar modules at their home institution. It is our hope that the description of this process will help others to create similar interactive educational programs and ultimately help trafficking survivors receive the care they need. HCP: Healthcare professional; M-SIGHT: Medical student instruction in global human trafficking; SBME: Simulation-based medical education; SP: Standardized patient; TIC: Trauma-informed care.

  8. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education resident duty hour new standards: history, changes, and impact on staffing of intensive care units. (United States)

    Pastores, Stephen M; O'Connor, Michael F; Kleinpell, Ruth M; Napolitano, Lena; Ward, Nicholas; Bailey, Heatherlee; Mollenkopf, Fred P; Coopersmith, Craig M


    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education recently released new standards for supervision and duty hours for residency programs. These new standards, which will affect over 100,000 residents, take effect in July 2011. In response to these new guidelines, the Society of Critical Care Medicine convened a task force to develop a white paper on the impact of changes in resident duty hours on the critical care workforce and staffing of intensive care units. A multidisciplinary group of professionals with expertise in critical care education and clinical practice. Relevant medical literature was accessed through a systematic MEDLINE search and by requesting references from all task force members. Material published by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and other specialty organizations was also reviewed. Collaboratively and iteratively, the task force corresponded by electronic mail and held several conference calls to finalize this report. The new rules mandate that all first-year residents work no more than 16 hrs continuously, preserving the 80-hr limit on the resident workweek and 10-hr period between duty periods. More senior trainees may work a maximum of 24 hrs continuously, with an additional 4 hrs permitted for handoffs. Strategic napping is strongly suggested for trainees working longer shifts. Compliance with the new Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education duty-hour standards will compel workflow restructuring in intensive care units, which depend on residents to provide a substantial portion of care. Potential solutions include expanded utilization of nurse practitioners and physician assistants, telemedicine, offering critical care training positions to emergency medicine residents, and partnerships with hospitalists. Additional research will be necessary to evaluate the impact of the new standards on patient safety, continuity of care, resident learning, and staffing in the intensive care unit.

  9. Effectiveness of cross-cultural education for medical residents caring for burmese refugees. (United States)

    McHenry, Megan Song; Nutakki, Kavitha; Swigonski, Nancy L


    Limited resources are available to educate health professionals on cultural considerations and specific healthcare needs of Burmese refugees. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a module focused on cross-cultural considerations when caring for Burmese refugees. A brief educational module using anonymously tracked pre- and post-intervention, self-administered surveys was developed and studied. The surveys measured pediatric and family medicine residents' knowledge, attitudes, and comfort in caring for Burmese refugees. Paired t-tests for continuous variables and Fisher's exact tests for categorical variables were used to test pre- and post-intervention differences. We included open-ended questions for residents to describe their experiences with the Burmese population. The survey was available to 173 residents. Forty-four pre- and post-intervention surveys were completed (response rate of 25%). Resident comfort in caring for Burmese increased significantly after the module (P = 0.04). Resident knowledge of population-specific cultural information increased regarding ethnic groups (P = 0.004), appropriate laboratory use (P = 0.04), and history gathering (P = 0.001). Areas of improved resident attitudes included comprehension of information from families (P = 0.03) and length of time required with interpreter (P = 0.01). Thematic evaluation of qualitative data highlighted four themes: access to interpreter and resources, verbal communication, nonverbal communication, and relationship building with cultural considerations. A brief intervention for residents has the potential to improve knowledge, attitudes, and comfort in caring for Burmese patients. Interventions focused on cultural considerations in medical care may improve cultural competency when caring for vulnerable patient populations.

  10. Simulation-based medical education: time for a pedagogical shift. (United States)

    Kalaniti, Kaarthigeyan; Campbell, Douglas M


    The purpose of medical education at all levels is to prepare physicians with the knowledge and comprehensive skills, required to deliver safe and effective patient care. The traditional 'apprentice' learning model in medical education is undergoing a pedagogical shift to a 'simulation-based' learning model. Experiential learning, deliberate practice and the ability to provide immediate feedback are the primary advantages of simulation-based medical education. It is an effective way to develop new skills, identify knowledge gaps, reduce medical errors, and maintain infrequently used clinical skills even among experienced clinical teams, with the overall goal of improving patient care. Although simulation cannot replace clinical exposure as a form of experiential learning, it promotes learning without compromising patient safety. This new paradigm shift is revolutionizing medical education in the Western world. It is time that the developing countries embrace this new pedagogical shift.

  11. Transitioning From Medical Educator to Scholarship in Medical Education. (United States)

    Darden, Alix G; DeLeon, Stephanie D


    Clinician educators spend most of their time in clinical practice, educating trainees in all types of care settings. Many are involved in formal teaching, curriculum development and learner assessment while holding educational leadership roles as well. Finding time to engage in scholarly work that can be presented and published is an academic expectation, but also a test of efficiency. Just as clinical research originates from problems related to patients, so should educational research originate from issues related to educating the next generation of doctors. Accrediting bodies challenge medical educators to be innovative while faculty already make the best use of the limited time available. One obvious solution is to turn the already existing education work into scholarly work. With forethought, planning, explicit expectations and use of the framework laid out in this article, clinical educators should be able to turn their everyday work and education challenges into scholarly work. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Learning to walk before we run: what can medical education learn from the human body about integrated care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eron G. Manusov


    Full Text Available True integration requires a shift in all levels of medical and allied health education; one that emphasizes team learning, practicing, and evaluating from the beginning of each students' educational experience whether that is as physician, nurse, psychologist, or any other health profession.  Integration of healthcare services will not occur until medical education focuses, like the human body, on each system working inter-dependently and cohesively to maintain balance through continual change and adaptation.  The human body develops and maintains homeostasis by a process of communication: true integrated care relies on learned interprofessionality and ensures shared responsibility and practice.

  13. Learning to walk before we run: what can medical education learn from the human body about integrated care. (United States)

    Manusov, Eron G; Marlowe, Daniel P; Teasley, Deborah J


    True integration requires a shift in all levels of medical and allied health education; one that emphasizes team learning, practicing, and evaluating from the beginning of each students' educational experience whether that is as physician, nurse, psychologist, or any other health profession. Integration of healthcare services will not occur until medical education focuses, like the human body, on each system working inter-dependently and cohesively to maintain balance through continual change and adaptation. The human body develops and maintains homeostasis by a process of communication: true integrated care relies on learned interprofessionality and ensures shared responsibility and practice.

  14. Emotional intelligence as a crucial component to medical education. (United States)

    Johnson, Debbi R


    The primary focus of this review was to discover what is already known about Emotional Intelligence (EI) and the role it plays within social relationships, as well as its importance in the fields of health care and health care education. This article analyzes the importance of EI in the field of health care and recommends various ways that this important skill can be built into medical programs. Information was gathered using various database searches including EBSCOHOST, Academic Search Premier and ERIC. The search was conducted in English language journals from the last ten years. Descriptors include: Emotional Intelligence, medical students and communication skills, graduate medical education, Emotional Intelligence and graduate medical education, Emotional Intelligence training programs, program evaluation and development. Results of the study show a direct correlation between medical education and emotional intelligence competencies, which makes the field of medical education an ideal one in which to integrate further EI training. The definition of EI as an ability-based skill allows for training in specific competencies that can be directly applied to a specialized field. When EI is conceptualized as an ability that can be taught, learned, and changed, it may be used to address the specific aspects of the clinician-patient relationship that are not working well. For this reason, teaching EI should be a priority in the field of medical education in order to better facilitate this relationship in the future.

  15. [Education on ethnic diversity in health care in medical school: what can we learn from the American perspective?]. (United States)

    Figueroa, Caroline A; Rassam, Fadi; Spong, Karin S


    In April 2012, 20 medical students took part in a study tour to San Francisco, themed 'ethnic diversity in health care'. In this article we discuss four lessons learned from the perspective of these students. The delivery of culturally sensitive healthcare is becoming more important in the Netherlands as the ethnic minority population rate will continue to grow over the coming years. However, diversity education is not a structural component of medical curricula in the Netherlands to the same degree as in the USA where medical education pays a lot of attention to differences in health between ethnic minorities; and where there is also extensive research on this subject. We emphasize that diversity education should create awareness of differences in health outcomes between ethnic groups and awareness of one's own bias and stereotypical views. The implementation of diversity education is a challenge, which requires a change of image and the involvement of teachers from diverse medical disciplines.

  16. Provider Education about Glaucoma and Glaucoma Medications during Videotaped Medical Visits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Sleath


    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to examine how patient, physician, and situational factors are associated with the extent to which providers educate patients about glaucoma and glaucoma medications, and which patient and provider characteristics are associated with whether providers educate patients about glaucoma and glaucoma medications. Methods. Patients with glaucoma who were newly prescribed or on glaucoma medications were recruited and a cross-sectional study was conducted at six ophthalmology clinics. Patients’ visits were videotape recorded and patients were interviewed after visits. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the data. Results. Two hundred and seventy-nine patients participated. Providers were significantly more likely to educate patients about glaucoma and glaucoma medications if they were newly prescribed glaucoma medications. Providers were significantly less likely to educate African American patients about glaucoma. Providers were significantly less likely to educate patients of lower health literacy about glaucoma medications. Conclusion. Eye care providers did not always educate patients about glaucoma or glaucoma medications. Practice Implications. Providers should consider educating more patients about what glaucoma is and how it is treated so that glaucoma patients can better understand their disease. Even if a patient has already been educated once, it is important to reinforce what has been taught before.

  17. The effect of a multifaceted educational intervention on medication preparation and administration errors in neonatal intensive care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chedoe, Indra; Molendijk, Harry; Hospes, Wobbe; Van den Heuvel, Edwin B.; Taxis, Katja

    Objective To examine the effect of a multifaceted educational intervention on the incidence of medication preparation and administration errors in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Design Prospective study with a preintervention and postintervention measurement using direct observation. Setting

  18. The current format and ongoing advances of medical education in the United States. (United States)

    Gishen, Kriya; Ovadia, Steven; Arzillo, Samantha; Avashia, Yash; Thaller, Seth R


    The objective of this study was to examine the current system of medical education along with the advances that are being made to support the demands of a changing health care system. American medical education must reform to anticipate the future needs of a changing health care system. Since the dramatic transformations to medical education that followed the publication of the Flexner report in 1910, medical education in the United States has largely remained unaltered. Today, the education of future physicians is undergoing modifications at all levels: premedical education, medical school, and residency training. Advances are being made with respect to curriculum design and content, standardized testing, and accreditation milestones. Fields such as plastic surgery are taking strides toward improving resident training as the next accreditation system is established. To promote more efficacious medical education, the American Medical Association has provided grants for innovations in education. Likewise, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education outlined 6 core competencies to standardize the educational goals of residency training. Such efforts are likely to improve the education of future physicians so that they are able to meet the future needs of American health care.

  19. The Harvard Medical School Academic Innovations Collaborative: transforming primary care practice and education. (United States)

    Bitton, Asaf; Ellner, Andrew; Pabo, Erika; Stout, Somava; Sugarman, Jonathan R; Sevin, Cory; Goodell, Kristen; Bassett, Jill S; Phillips, Russell S


    Academic medical centers (AMCs) need new approaches to delivering higher-quality care at lower costs, and engaging trainees in the work of high-functioning primary care practices. In 2012, the Harvard Medical School Center for Primary Care, in partnership with with local AMCs, established an Academic Innovations Collaborative (AIC) with the goal of transforming primary care education and practice. This novel two-year learning collaborative consisted of hospital- and community-based primary care teaching practices, committed to building highly functional teams, managing populations, and engaging patients. The AIC built on models developed by Qualis Health and the Institute for Healthcare Improvement, optimized for the local AMC context. Foundational elements included leadership engagement and development, application of rapid-cycle process improvement, and the creation of teams to care for defined patient populations. Nineteen practices across six AMCs participated, with nearly 260,000 patients and 450 resident learners. The collaborative offered three 1.5-day learning sessions each year featuring shared learning, practice coaches, and improvement measures, along with monthly data reporting, webinars, and site visits. Validated self-reports by transformation teams showed that practices made substantial improvement across all areas of change. Important factors for success included leadership development, practice-level resources, and engaging patients and trainees. The AIC model shows promise as a path for AMCs to catalyze health system transformation through primary care improvement. In addition to further evaluating the impact of practice transformation, expansion will require support from AMCs and payers, and the application of similar approaches on a broader scale.

  20. Web-based resources for critical care education. (United States)

    Kleinpell, Ruth; Ely, E Wesley; Williams, Ged; Liolios, Antonios; Ward, Nicholas; Tisherman, Samuel A


    To identify, catalog, and critically evaluate Web-based resources for critical care education. A multilevel search strategy was utilized. Literature searches were conducted (from 1996 to September 30, 2010) using OVID-MEDLINE, PubMed, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature with the terms "Web-based learning," "computer-assisted instruction," "e-learning," "critical care," "tutorials," "continuing education," "virtual learning," and "Web-based education." The Web sites of relevant critical care organizations (American College of Chest Physicians, American Society of Anesthesiologists, American Thoracic Society, European Society of Intensive Care Medicine, Society of Critical Care Medicine, World Federation of Societies of Intensive and Critical Care Medicine, American Association of Critical Care Nurses, and World Federation of Critical Care Nurses) were reviewed for the availability of e-learning resources. Finally, Internet searches and e-mail queries to critical care medicine fellowship program directors and members of national and international acute/critical care listserves were conducted to 1) identify the use of and 2) review and critique Web-based resources for critical care education. To ensure credibility of Web site information, Web sites were reviewed by three independent reviewers on the basis of the criteria of authority, objectivity, authenticity, accuracy, timeliness, relevance, and efficiency in conjunction with suggested formats for evaluating Web sites in the medical literature. Literature searches using OVID-MEDLINE, PubMed, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature resulted in >250 citations. Those pertinent to critical care provide examples of the integration of e-learning techniques, the development of specific resources, reports of the use of types of e-learning, including interactive tutorials, case studies, and simulation, and reports of student or learner satisfaction, among other general

  1. Medication safety programs in primary care: a scoping review. (United States)

    Khalil, Hanan; Shahid, Monica; Roughead, Libby


    measures. The objectives, inclusion criteria and methods for this scoping review were specified in advance and documented in a protocol that was previously published. This scoping review included nine studies published over an eight-year period that investigated or described the effects of medication safety programs in primary care settings. We classified each of the nine included studies into three main sections according to whether they included an organizational, professional or patient component. The organizational component is aimed at changing the structure of the organization to implement the intervention, the professional component is aimed at the healthcare professionals involved in implementing the interventions, and the patient component is aimed at counseling and education of the patient. All of the included studies had different types of medication safety programs. The programs ranged from complex interventions including pharmacists and teams of healthcare professionals to educational packages for patients and computerized system interventions. The outcome measures described in the included studies were medication error incidence, adverse events and number of drug-related problems. Multi-faceted medication safety programs are likely to vary in characteristics. They include educational training, quality improvement tools, informatics, patient education and feedback provision. The most likely outcome measure for these programs is the incidence of medication errors and reported adverse events or drug-related problems.

  2. Medical education and human trafficking: using simulation (United States)

    Stoklosa, Hanni; Lyman, Michelle; Bohnert, Carrie; Mittel, Olivia


    ABSTRACT Healthcare providers have the potential to play a crucial role in human trafficking prevention, identification, and intervention. However, trafficked patients are often unidentified due to lack of education and preparation available to healthcare professionals at all levels of training and practice. To increase victim identification in healthcare settings, providers need to be educated about the issue of trafficking and its clinical presentations in an interactive format that maximizes learning and ultimately patient-centered outcomes. In 2014, University of Louisville School of Medicine created a simulation-based medical education (SBME) curriculum to prepare students to recognize victims and intervene on their behalf. The authors share the factors that influenced the session’s development and incorporation into an already full third year medical curriculum and outline the development process. The process included a needs assessment for the education intervention, development of objectives and corresponding assessment, implementation of the curriculum, and finally the next steps of the module as it develops further. Additional alternatives are provided for other medical educators seeking to implement similar modules at their home institution. It is our hope that the description of this process will help others to create similar interactive educational programs and ultimately help trafficking survivors receive the care they need. Abbreviations: HCP: Healthcare professional; M-SIGHT: Medical student instruction in global human trafficking; SBME: Simulation-based medical education; SP: Standardized patient; TIC: Trauma-informed care PMID:29228882

  3. Enabling Access to Medical and Health Education in Rwanda Using Mobile Technology: Needs Assessment for the Development of Mobile Medical Educator Apps. (United States)

    Rusatira, Jean Christophe; Tomaszewski, Brian; Dusabejambo, Vincent; Ndayiragije, Vincent; Gonsalves, Snedden; Sawant, Aishwarya; Mumararungu, Angeline; Gasana, George; Amendezo, Etienne; Haake, Anne; Mutesa, Leon


    Lack of access to health and medical education resources for doctors in the developing world is a serious global health problem. In Rwanda, with a population of 11 million, there is only one medical school, hence a shortage in well-trained medical staff. The growth of interactive health technologies has played a role in the improvement of health care in developed countries and has offered alternative ways to offer continuous medical education while improving patient's care. However, low and middle-income countries (LMIC) like Rwanda have struggled to implement medical education technologies adapted to local settings in medical practice and continuing education. Developing a user-centered mobile computing approach for medical and health education programs has potential to bring continuous medical education to doctors in rural and urban areas of Rwanda and influence patient care outcomes. The aim of this study is to determine user requirements, currently available resources, and perspectives for potential medical education technologies in Rwanda. Information baseline and needs assessments data collection were conducted in all 44 district hospitals (DHs) throughout Rwanda. The research team collected qualitative data through interviews with 16 general practitioners working across Rwanda and 97 self-administered online questionnaires for rural areas. Data were collected and analyzed to address two key questions: (1) what are the currently available tools for the use of mobile-based technology for medical education in Rwanda, and (2) what are user's requirements for the creation of a mobile medical education technology in Rwanda? General practitioners from different hospitals highlighted that none of the available technologies avail local resources such as the Ministry of Health (MOH) clinical treatment guidelines. Considering the number of patients that doctors see in Rwanda, an average of 32 patients per day, there is need for a locally adapted mobile education app

  4. Knowledge of medical students on National Health Care System: A French multicentric survey. (United States)

    Feral-Pierssens, A-L; Jannot, A-S


    Education on national health care policy and costs is part of our medical curriculum explaining how our health care system works. Our aim was to measure French medical students' knowledge about national health care funding, costs and access and explore association with their educational and personal background. We developed a web-based survey exploring knowledge on national health care funding, access and costs through 19 items and measured success score as the number of correct answers. We also collected students' characteristics and public health training. The survey was sent to undergraduate medical students and residents from five medical universities between July and November 2015. A total of 1195 students from 5 medical universities responded to the survey. Most students underestimated the total amount of annual medical expenses, hospitalization costs and the proportion of the general population not benefiting from a complementary insurance. The knowledge score was not associated with medical education level. Three students' characteristics were significantly associated with a better knowledge score: male gender, older age, and underprivileged status. Medical students have important gaps in knowledge regarding national health care funding, coverage and costs. This knowledge was not associated with medical education level but with some of the students' personal characteristics. All these results are of great concern and should lead us to discussion and reflection about medical and public health training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Writing, self-reflection, and medical school performance: the Human Context of Health Care. (United States)

    Stephens, Mark B; Reamy, Brian V; Anderson, Denise; Olsen, Cara; Hemmer, Paul A; Durning, Steven J; Auster, Simon


    Finding ways to improve communication and self-reflection skills is an important element of medical education and continuing professional development. This study examines the relationship between self-reflection and educational outcomes. We correlate performance in a preclinical course that focuses on self-reflection as it relates to contextual elements of patient care (Human Context of Health Care), with educational measures such as overall grade point average, clinical clerkship scores, and Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) scores. Student performance in Human Context of Health Care correlated with MCAT-Verbal scores, MCAT-writing sample scores, clerkship grades, and overall medical school grade point average (R = 0.3; p self-reflection skills are often neglected in undergraduate medical curricula. Our findings suggest that these skills are important and correlate with recognized long-term educational outcomes.

  6. An Expanded Conceptual Framework of Medical Students' Primary Care Career Choice. (United States)

    Pfarrwaller, Eva; Audétat, Marie-Claude; Sommer, Johanna; Maisonneuve, Hubert; Bischoff, Thomas; Nendaz, Mathieu; Baroffio, Anne; Junod Perron, Noëlle; Haller, Dagmar M


    In many countries, the number of graduating medical students pursuing a primary care career does not meet demand. These countries face primary care physician shortages. Students' career choices have been widely studied, yet many aspects of this process remain unclear. Conceptual models are useful to plan research and educational interventions in such complex systems.The authors developed a framework of primary care career choice in undergraduate medical education, which expands on previously published models. They used a group-based, iterative approach to find the best way to represent the vast array of influences identified in previous studies, including in a recent systematic review of the literature on interventions to increase the proportion of students choosing a primary care career. In their framework, students enter medical school with their personal characteristics and initial interest in primary care. They complete a process of career decision making, which is subject to multiple interacting influences, both within and outside medical school, throughout their medical education. These influences are stratified into four systems-microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem-which represent different levels of interaction with students' career choices.This expanded framework provides an updated model to help understand the multiple factors that influence medical students' career choices. It offers a guide for the development of new interventions to increase the proportion of students choosing primary care careers and for further research to better understand the variety of processes involved in this decision.

  7. [Achievement and Future Direction of the PEACE Project - A National Education Project for Palliative Care Education]. (United States)

    Kizawa, Yoshiyuki; Yamamoto, Ryo


    Although palliative care is assuming an increasingly important role in patient care, most physicians did not learn to provide palliative care during their medical training. To address these serious deficiencies in physician training in palliative care, government decided to provide basic palliative education program for all practicing cancer doctors as a national policy namely Palliative care Emphasis program on symptom management and Assessment for Continuous medical Education(PEACE). The program was 2-days workshop based on adult learning theory and focusing on symptom management and communication. In this 9 years, 4,888 educational workshop has been held, and 93,250 physicians were trained. In prospective observational study, both knowledges and difficulties practicing palliative care were significantly improved. In 2017, the new palliative care education program will be launched including combined program of e-learning and workshop to provide tailor made education based on learner's readiness and educational needs in palliative care.

  8. Continuing interprofessional education in geriatrics and gerontology in medically underserved areas. (United States)

    Toner, John A; Ferguson, K Della; Sokal, Regina Davis


    There is a widening gap between the health care needs of older persons and the treatment skills of the health care professionals who serve them. This gap is especially severe in rural areas, where there is a shortage of and inadequate collaboration between health care professionals and poor access to services for older persons. There is also a special opportunity in rural areas, particularly those designated as "medically underserved," for continuing interprofessional education as a vehicle for retaining health care professionals who tend to leave medically underserved areas for more lucrative professional opportunities elsewhere. In collaboration with the Consortium of New York Geriatric Education Centers, the Columbia-New York Geriatric Education Center at the Stroud Center of Columbia University has developed the Program for Outreach to Interprofessional Services and Education (POISE). The purpose of POISE is to develop, implement, evaluate, and sustain interprofessional education and training for health care learners, while emphasizing improved access to health services for the geriatric population in medically underserved areas. The POISE model was designed as an effective approach to teaching the core geriatrics and gerontology curriculum endorsed by the national (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services) network of Geriatric Education Centers to health care learners in medically underserved areas of upstate New York. This article describes the adaptation and implementation of the POISE model.

  9. Interprofessional education in the integrated medical education and health care system: A content analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Introduction: The current literature supports the inclusion of inter-professional education in healthcare education. Changes in the structure and nature of the integrated medical education and healthcare system provide some opportunities for interprofessional education among various professions. This study is an attempt to determine the perceptions of students and faculty members about interprofessional education in the context of the medical education and healthcare system. Methods: This qualitative content analysis study was conducted using purposeful sampling in 2012. Thirteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with 6 faculty members and 7 students at Tehran and Iran Universities of Medical Sciences. Data collection and analysis were concurrent. Results: Data analysis revealed four categories and nine subcategories. The categories emerging from individual interviews were “educational structure”, “mediating factors”, “conceptual understanding”, and “professional identity”. These categories are explained using quotes derived from the data. Conclusion: Matching the existing educational context and structure with IPE through removing barriers and planning to prepare the required resources and facilities can solve numerous problems associated with implementation and design of interprofessional training programs in Iran. In this way, promoting the development of a cooperative rather than a competitive learning and working atmosphere should be taken into account. The present findings will assist the managers and policy makers to consider IPE as a useful strategy in the integrated medical education and healthcare system.

  10. The Medical Education and Best Practice in Orthopedic Patient Care in Poland. (United States)

    Rosiek, Anna; Leksowski, Krzysztof


    The leadership organization focuses on education, teamwork, customer relationship and developing strategy which help in building added value, in managing activities, time and quality. Everyday orthopedic experience shows that medical education is a mixture of: specific knowledge, skills and attitudes of people working together, and that creates effective teamwork in a hospital environment. Apart from the main reason of medical education, teaching about disease treatment and health problem solving, medical education should also concentrate on human factors and behavioral aspects of patient treatment in hospital.Assessment of an organization and medical education process by cultural and teamwork criteria, offers a powerful new way to think about performance at the frontlines of healthcare and in the future it could be gold standard for assessing the success of an organization, and standards in medical education, not only in orthopedics.

  11. Holistic Approach for Teaching Tuberculosis in Medical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava


    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is the foremost cause of mortality attributed to a curable infectious disease globally, accounting for 8.6 million new cases in the year 2012, of which India alone has a share of almost 25% of cases. Medical colleges have been acknowledged as tertiary level health care centers and have a key role in the diagnosis and management of different types of TB cases. However, a wide range of barriers and deficiencies have been acknowledged in the medical education curriculum over a period of time with regard to teaching of TB control. To combat the magnitude of TB on the health sector in Indian set-up, there is a crucial need for establishing a mutual and complementary partnership between policy makers, delegates from the medical colleges, and the regulatory body for medical education. In summary, medical students are the future health care providers for the general population and thus a well-organized medical education curriculum can play a significant role in reducing the magnitude of tuberculosis in the coming decade.

  12. Qualitative research methods for medical educators. (United States)

    Hanson, Janice L; Balmer, Dorene F; Giardino, Angelo P


    This paper provides a primer for qualitative research in medical education. Our aim is to equip readers with a basic understanding of qualitative research and prepare them to judge the goodness of fit between qualitative research and their own research questions. We provide an overview of the reasons for choosing a qualitative research approach and potential benefits of using these methods for systematic investigation. We discuss developing qualitative research questions, grounding research in a philosophical framework, and applying rigorous methods of data collection, sampling, and analysis. We also address methods to establish the trustworthiness of a qualitative study and introduce the reader to ethical concerns that warrant special attention when planning qualitative research. We conclude with a worksheet that readers may use for designing a qualitative study. Medical educators ask many questions that carefully designed qualitative research would address effectively. Careful attention to the design of qualitative studies will help to ensure credible answers that will illuminate many of the issues, challenges, and quandaries that arise while doing the work of medical education. Copyright © 2011 Academic Pediatric Association. All rights reserved.

  13. [Differences between generations: relevant for medical education in the Netherlands]. (United States)

    Busari, Jamiu O; Scheele, Fedde


    Provision of care is increasingly being tailored to patients' wishes, which means that insight into the ideas, norms and values of the care-consumer are required. This approach is also beginning to filter through into medical education. We can differentiate generations on the basis of shared opinions, because groups with shared experiences usually share the same values. This is a useful line of approach if we wish to serve different generations of consumers better. At the moment there are four different generations influencing the setup and division of the healthcare services and relevant to medical education in the coming decades. Future education methods will have to be in line with the wishes of the generation from which new doctors come. In order to achieve better care for patients it is important to give 'thinking in generations' more attention in medical education.

  14. Medical Care and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Medical Care and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old ... as pain caused by an ear infection Common Medical Problems Young children have an average of 6 ...

  15. Medical Care and Your 4- to 5-Year-Old (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Medical Care and Your 4- to 5-Year-Old ... pain, such as from an ear infection Common Medical Problems Problems often found in this age group ...

  16. The effect of a multifaceted educational intervention on medication preparation and administration errors in neonatal intensive care. (United States)

    Chedoe, Indra; Molendijk, Harry; Hospes, Wobbe; Van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Taxis, Katja


    To examine the effect of a multifaceted educational intervention on the incidence of medication preparation and administration errors in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Prospective study with a preintervention and postintervention measurement using direct observation. NICU in a tertiary hospital in the Netherlands. A multifaceted educational intervention including teaching and self-study. The incidence of medication preparation and administration errors. Clinical importance was assessed by three experts. The incidence of errors decreased from 49% (43-54%) (151 medications with one or more errors of 311 observations) to 31% (87 of 284) (25-36%). Preintervention, 0.3% (0-2%) medications contained severe errors, 26% (21-31%) moderate and 23% (18-28%) minor errors; postintervention, none 0% (0-2%) was severe, 23% (18-28%) moderate and 8% (5-12%) minor. A generalised estimating equations analysis provided an OR of 0.49 (0.29-0.84) for period (p=0.032), (route of administration (p=0.001), observer within period (p=0.036)). The multifaceted educational intervention seemed to have contributed to a significant reduction of the preparation and administration error rate, but other measures are needed to improve medication safety further.

  17. AI in medical education--another grand challenge for medical informatics. (United States)

    Lillehaug, S I; Lajoie, S P


    The potential benefits of artificial intelligence in medicine (AIM) were never realized as anticipated. This paper addresses ways in which such potential can be achieved. Recent discussions of this topic have proposed a stronger integration between AIM applications and health information systems, and emphasize computer guidelines to support the new health care paradigms of evidence-based medicine and cost-effectiveness. These proposals, however, promote the initial definition of AIM applications as being AI systems that can perform or aid in diagnoses. We challenge this traditional philosophy of AIM and propose a new approach aiming at empowering health care workers to become independent self-sufficient problem solvers and decision makers. Our philosophy is based on findings from a review of empirical research that examines the relationship between the health care personnel's level of knowledge and skills, their job satisfaction, and the quality of the health care they provide. This review supports addressing the quality of health care by empowering health care workers to reach their full potential. As an aid in this empowerment process we argue for reviving a long forgotten AIM research area, namely, AI based applications for medical education and training. There is a growing body of research in artificial intelligence in education that demonstrates that the use of artificial intelligence can enhance learning in numerous domains. By examining the strengths of these educational applications and the results from previous AIM research we derive a framework for empowering medical personnel and consequently raising the quality of health care through the use of advanced AI based technology.

  18. Early Innovative Immersion: A Course for Pre-Medical Professions Students Using Point-of-Care Ultrasound. (United States)

    Smalley, Courtney M; Browne, Vaughn; Kaplan, Bonnie; Russ, Brian; Wilson, Juliana; Lewiss, Resa E


    In preparing for medical school admissions, premedical students seek opportunities to expand their medical knowledge. Knowing what students seek and what point-of-care ultrasound offers, we created a novel educational experience using point-of-care ultrasound. The innovation has 3 goals: (1) to use point-of-care ultrasound to highlight educational concepts such as the flipped classroom, simulation, hands-on interaction, and medical exposure; (2) to work collaboratively with peers; and (3) to expose premedical students to mentoring for the medical school application process. We believe that this course could be used to encourage immersive innovation with point-of-care ultrasound, progressive education concepts, and preparation for medical admissions. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  19. Patient experience in a coordinated care model featuring diabetes self-management education integrated into the patient-centered medical home. (United States)

    Janiszewski, Debra; O'Brian, Catherine A; Lipman, Ruth D


    The purpose of this study is to gain insight about patient experience of diabetes self-management education in a patient-centered medical home. Six focus groups consisting of 37 people with diabetes, diverse in race and ethnicity, were conducted at 3 sites. Participants described their experience in the program and their challenges in diabetes self-management; they also suggested services to meet their diabetes care needs. The most common theme was ongoing concerns about care and support. There was much discussion about the value of the support provided by health navigators integrated in the diabetes health care team. Frequent concerns expressed by participants centered on personal challenges in engaging in healthy lifestyle behaviors. Ongoing programmatic support of self-management goals was widely valued. Individuals who received health care in a patient-centered medical home and could participate in diabetes self-management education with integrated support valued both activities. The qualitative results from this study suggest need for more formalized exploration of effective means to meet the ongoing support needs of people with diabetes. © 2015 The Author(s).

  20. Gender matters in medical education. (United States)

    Bleakley, Alan


    Women are in the majority in terms of entry to medical schools worldwide and will soon represent the majority of working doctors. This has been termed the 'feminising' of medicine. In medical education, such gender issues tend to be restricted to discussions of demographic changes and structural inequalities based on a biological reading of gender. However, in contemporary social sciences, gender theory has moved beyond both biology and demography to include cultural issues of gendered ways of thinking. Can contemporary feminist thought drawn from the social sciences help medical educators to widen their appreciation and understanding of the feminising of medicine? Post-structuralist feminist critique, drawn from the social sciences, focuses on cultural practices, such as language use, that support a dominant patriarchy. Such a critique is not exclusive to women, but may be described as supporting a tender-minded approach to practice that is shared by both women and men. The demographic feminising of medicine may have limited effect in terms of changing both medical culture and medical education practices without causing radical change to entrenched cultural habits that are best described as patriarchal. Medical education currently suffers from male biases, such as those imposed by 'andragogy', or adult learning theory, and these can be positively challenged through post-structuralist feminist critique. Women doctors entering the medical workforce can resist and reformulate the current dominant patriarchy rather than reproducing it, supported by male feminists. Such a feminising of medicine can extend to medical education, but will require an appropriate theoretical framework to make sense of the new territory. The feminising of medical education informed by post-structuralist frameworks may provide a platform for the democratisation of medical culture and practices, further informing authentic patient-centred practices of care. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2013.

  1. Undergraduate medical education. (United States)

    Rees, L; Wass, J


    Pressures from students and teachers, from professional bodies, and from changes in the way health care is delivered are all forcing a rethink of how medical students should be taught. These pressures may be more intense in London but are not confined to it. The recommendation the Tomlinson report advocates that has been generally welcomed is for more investment in primary care in London. General practitioners have much to teach medical schools about effective ways of learning, but incentives for teaching students in general practice are currently low, organising such teaching is difficult and needs resources, and resistance within traditional medical school hierarchies needs to be overcome. Likewise, students value learning within local communities, but the effort demanded of public health departments and community organisations is great at a time when they are under greater pressure than ever before. The arguments over research that favour concentration in four multifaculty schools are less clear cut for undergraduate education, where personal support for students is important. An immediate concern is that the effort demanded for reorganising along the lines suggested by Tomlinson will not leave medical schools much energy for innovating.

  2. Medical decision making and medical education: challenges and opportunities. (United States)

    Schwartz, Alan


    The Flexner Report highlighted the importance of teaching medical students to reason about uncertainty. The science of medical decision making seeks to explain how medical judgments and decisions ought ideally to be made, how they are actually made in practice, and how they can be improved, given the constraints of medical practice. The field considers both clinical decisions by or for individual patients and societal decisions designed to benefit the public. Despite the relevance of decision making to medical practice, it currently receives little formal attention in the U.S. medical school curriculum. This article suggests three roles for medical decision making in medical education. First, basic decision science would be a valuable prerequisite to medical training. Second, several decision-related competencies would be important outcomes of medical education; these include the physician's own decision skills, the ability to guide patients in shared decisions, and knowledge of health policy decisions at the societal level. Finally, decision making could serve as a unifying principle in the design of the medical curriculum, integrating other curricular content around the need to create physicians who are competent and caring decision makers.

  3. Medical Education: Entrusting Faith in Bedside Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava


    Full Text Available Globally, patient safety and quality of health care services are the predominant challenges faced by the health care industry. To produce competent doctors it is essential to inculcate skills such as clinical reasoning, critical thinking, and self-directed learning among the medical students. Bedside teaching is a common teaching format in medical education where students are taught in an interactive manner with real patients in hospital wards which help them in acquiring the medical skills and interpersonal behavior necessary for their daily practice as doctors.

  4. Education and training of medical physicists in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, V.; Vassileva, J.


    Full text: Medical radiology is chronologically the first and widest field of work of medical physicists. Therefore the education and training of medical radiological physicists is of big importance for both diagnostics and therapy. The education of medical radiological physicists in Bulgaria is organized in two levels: university and postgraduate, which is a good achievement of Bulgarian educational system. University education is in the framework of the M. Sc. program in Medical physics with a prevalent training in medical radiological physics. Three universities in the country have been carrying out this education since more than ten years. Postgraduate education covers specialties Medical Radiological Physics and Radiation Hygiene. It is organized by the Medical University but the training is opened also to specialists outside the health care system. The interests in both levels of education and training in Medical Physics is increasing with about 40 trainees in last years. The university and postgraduate education has good quality in theory but still inadequate in practical aspects. The continuous training and qualification of medical physicists has also difficulties; the main reasons are insufficient technical and financial resources as well as the lack of interest of the staff of the training centers. The responsibilities for education and training of medical physicists in radiology should be shared between physicists and physicians in the country

  5. Making Management Skills a Core Component of Medical Education. (United States)

    Myers, Christopher G; Pronovost, Peter J


    Physicians are being called upon to engage in greater leadership and management in increasingly complex and dynamic health care organizations. Yet, management skills are largely undeveloped in medical education. Without formal management training in the medical curriculum, physicians are left to cultivate their leadership and management abilities through a haphazard array of training programs or simply through trial and error, with consequences that may range from frustration among staff to reduced quality of care and increased risk of patient harm. To address this issue, the authors posit that medical education needs a more systematic focus on topics related to management and organization, such as individual decision making, interpersonal communication, team knowledge sharing, and organizational culture. They encourage medical schools to partner with business school faculty or other organizational scholars to offer a "Management 101" course in the medical curriculum to provide physicians-in-training with an understanding of these topics and raise the quality of physician leadership and management in modern health care organizations.

  6. Impact of Physician Asthma Care Education on Patient Outcomes (United States)

    Cabana, Michael D.; Slish, Kathryn K.; Evans, David; Mellins, Robert B.; Brown, Randall W.; Lin, Xihong; Kaciroti, Niko; Clark, Noreen M.


    Objective: We evaluated the effectiveness of a continuing medical education program, Physician Asthma Care Education, in improving pediatricians' asthma therapeutic and communication skills and patients' health care utilization for asthma. Methods: We conducted a randomized trial in 10 regions in the United States. Primary care providers were…

  7. Effect of a tailor-made continuous medical education program for primary care physicians on self-perception of physicians' roles and quality of care. (United States)

    Twig, Gilad; Lahad, Amnon; Kochba, Ilan; Ezra, Vered; Mandel, Dror; Shina, Avi; Kreiss, Yitshak; Zimlichman, Eyal


    A survey conducted among Israel Defense Force primary care physicians in 2001 revealed that they consider patients' needs more than they do organizational needs and that the education PCPs currently receive is inadequate. In 2003 the medical corps initiated a multi-format continuous medical education program aimed at improving skills in primary care medicine. To measure and analyze the effect of the tailor-made CME program on PCPs' self-perception 3 years after its implementation and correlate it to clinical performance. In 2006 a questionnaire was delivered to a representative sample of PCPs in the IDF. The questionnaire included items on demographic and professional background, statements on self-perception issues, and ranking of roles. We compared the follow-up survey (2006) to the results of the original study (2001) and correlated the survey results with clinical performance as measured through objective indicators. In the 2006 follow-up survey PCPs scored higher on questions dealing with their perception of themselves as case managers (3.8 compared to 4.0 on the 2001 survey on a 5 point scale, P = 0.046), perceived quality of care and education (3.5 vs. 3.8, P = 0.06), and on questions dealing with organizational commitment (3.5 vs. 3.8, P = 0.01). PCPs received higher scores on clinical indicators in the later study (odds ratio 2.05, P < 0.001). PCPs in the IDF perceived themselves more as case managers as compared to the 2001 survey. A tailor-made CME program may have contributed to the improvement in skills and quality of care.

  8. Transgender health care: improving medical students' and residents' training and awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubin SN


    Full Text Available Samuel N Dubin,1,* Ian T Nolan,1,* Carl G Streed Jr,2 Richard E Greene,3 Asa E Radix,4 Shane D Morrison5 1NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, 2Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine and Primary Care, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, 3Department of Internal Medicine, NYU School of Medicine, 4Callen-Lorde Community Health Center, New York, NY, 5Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic Surgery, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: A growing body of research continues to elucidate health inequities experienced by transgender individuals and further underscores the need for medical providers to be appropriately trained to deliver care to this population. Medical education in transgender health can empower physicians to identify and change the systemic barriers to care that cause transgender health inequities as well as improve knowledge about transgender-specific care. Methods: We conducted structured searches of five databases to identify literature related to medical education and transgender health. Of the 1272 papers reviewed, 119 papers were deemed relevant to predefined criteria, medical education, and transgender health topics. Citation tracking was conducted on the 119 papers using Scopus to identify an additional 12 relevant citations (a total of 131 papers. Searches were completed on October 15, 2017 and updated on December 11, 2017. Results: Transgender health has yet to gain widespread curricular exposure, but efforts toward incorporating transgender health into both undergraduate and graduate medical educations are nascent. There is no consensus on the exact educational interventions that should be used to address transgender health. Barriers to increased transgender health exposure include limited curricular time, lack of topic-specific competency among faculty, and underwhelming institutional support. All published

  9. Increasing educational indebtedness influences medical students to pursue specialization: a military recruitment potential? (United States)

    Bale, Asha G; Coutinho, Karl; Swan, Kenneth G; Heinrich, George F


    Cost of medical education and student indebtedness has increased dramatically. This study surveyed medical students on educational debt, educational costs, and whether indebtedness influenced career choice. Responses should impact (1) Department of Defense (DoD) recruitment of physicians and (2) future of primary care. The authors surveyed 188 incoming medical students (University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School, Class of 2012) concerning educational indebtedness, perceptions about educational costs, and plans regarding loan repayment. Data were analyzed and expressed as mean +/- standard error. Students with loans anticipated their medical educational costs to be $155,993. 62% felt costs were "exorbitant," and 28% "appropriate." 64% planned to specialize, whereas only 9% chose primary care. 28% of students planning specialization said income potential influenced their decision. 70% of students said cost was a factor in choosing New Jersey Medical School over a more expensive school. Students anticipated taking about 10 years to repay loans. As medical educational costs and student indebtedness rise, students are choosing less costly education and career paths with higher potential future earnings. These trends will negatively impact health care availability, accessibility, and cost. DoD programs to provide financial assistance in exchange for military service are not well publicized. These findings should increase DoD recruitment opportunities.

  10. Implementation of a diabetes self-management education program in primary care for adults using shared medical appointments. (United States)

    Sanchez, Iris


    The purpose of this study was to implement diabetes self-management education in primary care using the Chronic Care Model and shared medical appointments (SMA) to provide evidence-based interventions to improve process and measure outcomes. A quality improvement project using the Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle was implemented in a primary care setting in South Texas to provide diabetes self-management education for adults. Biological measures were evaluated in 70 patients at initiation of the project and thereafter based on current practice guidelines. The results of the project were consistent with the literature regarding the benefits, sustainability, and viability of SMA. As compared with that in studies presented in the literature, the patient population who participated in SMA had similar outcomes regarding improvement in A1C, self-management skills, and satisfaction. SMA are an innovative system redesign concept with the potential to provide comprehensive and coordinated care for patients with multiple and chronic health conditions while still being an efficient, effective, financially viable, and sustainable program. As the incidence and prevalence of diabetes increase, innovative models of care can meet the growing demand for access and utilization of diabetes self-management education programs. Programs focusing on chronic conditions to improve outcomes can be replicated by health care providers in primary care settings. SMA can increase revenue and productivity, improve disease management, and increase provider and patient satisfaction.

  11. Medical ethics and education for social responsibility. (United States)

    Roemer, M I


    The physician, said Henry Sigerist in 1940, has been acquiring an increasingly social role. For centuries, however, codes of medical ethics have concentrated on proper behavior toward individual patients and almost ignored the doctor's responsibilities to society. Major health service reforms have come principally from motivated lay leadership and citizen groups. Private physicians have been largely hostile toward movements to equalize the economic access for people to medical care and improve the supply and distribution of doctors. Medical practice in America and throughout the world has become seriously commercialized. In response, governments have applied various strategies to constrain physicians and induce more socially responsible behavior. But such external pressures should not be necessary if a broad socially oriented code of medical ethics were followed. Health care system changes would be most effective, but medical education could be thoroughly recast to clarify community health problems and policies required to meet them. Sigerist proposed such a new medical curriculum in 1941; if it had been introduced, a social code of medical ethics would not now seem utopian. An international conference might well be convened to consider how physicians should be educated to reach the inspiring goals of the World Health Organization.

  12. Restructuring graduate medical education to meet the health care needs of emirati citizens. (United States)

    Abdel-Razig, Sawsan; Alameri, Hatem


    Many nations are struggling with the design, implementation, and ongoing improvement of health care systems to meet the needs of their citizens. In the United Arab Emirates, a small nation with vast wealth, the lives of average citizens have evolved from a harsh, nomadic existence to enjoyment of the comforts of modern life. Substantial progress has been made in the provision of education, housing, health, employment, and other forms of social advancement. Having covered these basic needs, the government of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, is responding to the challenge of developing a comprehensive health system to serve the needs of its citizens, including restructuring the nation's graduate medical education (GME) system. We describe how Abu Dhabi is establishing GME policies and infrastructure to develop and support a comprehensive health care system, while also being responsive to population health needs. We review recent progress in developing a systematic approach for developing GME infrastructure in this small emirate, and discuss how the process of designing a GME system to meet the needs of Emirati citizens has benefited from the experience of "Western" nations. We also examine the challenges we encountered in this process and the solutions adopted, adapted, or specifically developed to meet local needs. We conclude by highlighting how our experience "at the GME drawing board" reflects the challenges encountered by scholars, administrators, and policymakers in nations around the world as they seek to coordinate health care and GME resources to ensure care for populations.

  13. Transforming educational accountability in medical ethics and humanities education toward professionalism. (United States)

    Doukas, David J; Kirch, Darrell G; Brigham, Timothy P; Barzansky, Barbara M; Wear, Stephen; Carrese, Joseph A; Fins, Joseph J; Lederer, Susan E


    Effectively developing professionalism requires a programmatic view on how medical ethics and humanities should be incorporated into an educational continuum that begins in premedical studies, stretches across medical school and residency, and is sustained throughout one's practice. The Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education National Conference on Medical Ethics and Humanities in Medical Education (May 2012) invited representatives from the three major medical education and accreditation organizations to engage with an expert panel of nationally known medical educators in ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. This article, based on the views of these representatives and their respondents, offers a future-tense account of how professionalism can be incorporated into medical education.The themes that are emphasized herein include the need to respond to four issues. The first theme highlights how ethics and humanities can provide a response to the dissonance that occurs in current health care delivery. The second theme focuses on how to facilitate preprofessional readiness for applicants through reform of the medical school admission process. The third theme emphasizes the importance of integrating ethics and humanities into the medical school administrative structure. The fourth theme underscores how outcomes-based assessment should reflect developmental milestones for professional attributes and conduct. The participants emphasized that ethics and humanities-based knowledge, skills, and conduct that promote professionalism should be taught with accountability, flexibility, and the premise that all these traits are essential to the formation of a modern professional physician.

  14. Quality, quantity and distribution of medical education and care: regulation by the private sector or mandate by government? (United States)

    Anlyan, W G


    The public, the federal government and most state governments have become increasingly concerned with the lack of access to primary care as well as the specialty and geographic maldistribution problems. Currently, there is a race in progress between the private sector and the federal government to devise solutions to these problems. In the federal sector, varying pieces of legislation are under active consideration to mandate the correction of specialty and geographic maldistribution; proposals include: 1) setting up federal machinery to regulate the numbers and types of residencies; 2) make obligatory the creation of Departments of Family Practice in each medical school; 3) withdraw current education support from medical schools causing tuition levels to increase substantially--federal student loans would then provide the necessary leverage to obligate the borrower to two years of service in an under-served area in exchange for loan forgiveness. In the private sector, for the first time in the history of the United States, the five major organizations involved in medical care have organized to form the Coordinating Council on Medical Education (CCME) and the Liaison Committee on Graduate Medical Education (LCGME). One of the initial major endeavors of the CCME has been to address itself to the problem of specialty maldistribution. The LCGME has been tooling up to become the accrediting group for residency training thus providing an overview of the quality and quantity of specialty training. It will be the intent of this presentation to bring the membership of the Southern Surgical Association an up-to-date report on these parallel efforts. The author's personal hope is that the private sector can move sufficiently rapidly to set up its own regulatory mechanisms and avert another federally controlled bureaucracy that will forever change the character of the medical profession in the United States.

  15. Early-life medical care and human capital accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem


    that both types of interventions may benefit not only child health but also long-term educational outcomes. In addition, early-life medical interventions may improve the educational outcomes of siblings. These findings can be used to design policies that improve long-term outcomes and reduce economic......Ample empirical evidence links adverse conditions during early childhood (the period from conception to age five) to worse health outcomes and lower academic achievement in adulthood. Can early-life medical care and public health interventions ameliorate these effects? Recent research suggests...

  16. A novel educational strategy targeting health care workers in underserved communities in Central America to integrate HIV into primary medical care. (United States)

    Flys, Tamara; González, Rosalba; Sued, Omar; Suarez Conejero, Juana; Kestler, Edgar; Sosa, Nestor; McKenzie-White, Jane; Monzón, Irma Irene; Torres, Carmen-Rosa; Page, Kathleen


    Current educational strategies to integrate HIV care into primary medical care in Central America have traditionally targeted managers or higher-level officials, rather than local health care workers (HCWs). We developed a complementary online and on-site interactive training program to reach local HCWs at the primary care level in underserved communities. The training program targeted physicians, nurses, and community HCWs with limited access to traditional onsite training in Panama, Nicaragua, Dominican Republic, and Guatemala. The curriculum focused on principles of HIV care and health systems using a tutor-supported blended educational approach of an 8-week online component, a weeklong on-site problem-solving workshop, and individualized project-based interventions. Of 258 initially active participants, 225 (225/258=87.2%) successfully completed the online component and the top 200 were invited to the on-site workshop. Of those, 170 (170/200=85%) attended the on-site workshop. In total, 142 completed all three components, including the project phase. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation instruments included knowledge assessments, reflexive essays, and acceptability surveys. The mean pre and post-essay scores demonstrating understanding of social determinants, health system organization, and integration of HIV services were 70% and 87.5%, respectively, with an increase in knowledge of 17.2% (pstructure, and effectiveness in improving their HIV-related knowledge and skills. This innovative curriculum utilized technology to target HCWs with limited access to educational resources. Participants benefited from technical skills acquired through the process, and could continue working within their underserved communities while participating in the online component and then implement interventions that successfully converted theoretical knowledge to action to improve integration of HIV care into primary care.

  17. Consultant medical trainers, modernising medical careers (MMC and the European time directive (EWTD: tensions and challenges in a changing medical education context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne Heather


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We analysed the learning and professional development narratives of Hospital Consultants training junior staff ('Consultant Trainers' in order to identify impediments to successful postgraduate medical training in the UK, in the context of Modernising Medical Careers (MMC and the European Working Time Directive (EWTD. Methods Qualitative study. Learning and continuing professional development (CPD, were discussed in the context of Consultant Trainers' personal biographies, organisational culture and medical education practices. We conducted life story interviews with 20 Hospital Consultants in six NHS Trusts in Wales in 2005. Results Consultant Trainers felt that new working patterns resulting from the EWTD and MMC have changed the nature of medical education. Loss of continuity of care, reduced clinical exposure of medical trainees and loss of the popular apprenticeship model were seen as detrimental for the quality of medical training and patient care. Consultant Trainers' perceptions of medical education were embedded in a traditional medical education culture, which expected long hours' availability, personal sacrifices and learning without formal educational support and supervision. Over-reliance on apprenticeship in combination with lack of organisational support for Consultant Trainers' new responsibilities, resulting from the introduction of MMC, and lack of interest in pursuing training in teaching, supervision and assessment represent potentially significant barriers to progress. Conclusion This study identifies issues with significant implications for the implementation of MMC within the context of EWTD. Postgraduate Deaneries, NHS Trusts and the new body; NHS: Medical Education England should deal with the deficiencies of MMC and challenges of ETWD and aspire to excellence. Further research is needed to investigate the views and educational practices of Consultant Medical Trainers and medical trainees.

  18. Does medical education erode medical trainees' ethical attitude and behavior? (United States)

    Yavari, Neda


    In the last few years, medical education policy makers have expressed concern about changes in the ethical attitude and behavior of medical trainees during the course of their education. They claim that newly graduated physicians (MDs) are entering residency years with inappropriate habits and attitudes earned during their education. This allegation has been supported by numerous research on the changes in the attitude and morality of medical trainees. The aim of this paper was to investigate ethical erosion among medical trainees as a serious universal problem, and to urge the authorities to take urgent preventive and corrective action. A comparison with the course of moral development in ordinary people from Kohlberg’s and Gilligan's points of view reveals that the growth of ethical attitudes and behaviors in medical students is stunted or even degraded in many medical schools. In the end, the article examines the feasibility of teaching ethics in medical schools and the best approach for this purpose. It concludes that there is considerable controversy among ethicists on whether teaching ethical virtues is plausible at all. Virtue-based ethics, principle-based ethics and ethics of care are approaches that have been considered as most applicable in this regard. PMID:28050246

  19. Nutrition education in medical school: a time of opportunity. (United States)

    Kushner, Robert F; Van Horn, Linda; Rock, Cheryl L; Edwards, Marilyn S; Bales, Connie W; Kohlmeier, Martin; Akabas, Sharon R


    Undergraduate medical education has undergone significant changes in development of new curricula, new pedagogies, and new forms of assessment since the Nutrition Academic Award was launched more than a decade ago. With an emphasis on a competency-based curriculum, integrated learning, longitudinal clinical experiences, and implementation of new technology, nutrition educators have an opportunity to introduce nutrition and diet behavior-related learning experiences across the continuum of medical education. Innovative learning opportunities include bridging personal health and nutrition to community, public, and global health concerns; integrating nutrition into lifestyle medicine training; and using nutrition as a model for teaching the continuum of care and promoting interprofessional team-based care. Faculty development and identification of leaders to serve as champions for nutrition education continue to be a challenge.

  20. The Time Is Now: Using Graduates' Practice Data to Drive Medical Education Reform. (United States)

    Triola, Marc M; Hawkins, Richard E; Skochelak, Susan E


    Medical educators are not yet taking full advantage of the publicly available clinical practice data published by federal, state, and local governments, which can be attributed to individual physicians and evaluated in the context of where they attended medical school and residency training. Understanding how graduates fare in actual practice, both in terms of the quality of the care they provide and the clinical challenges they face, can aid educators in taking an evidence-based approach to medical education. Although in their infancy, efforts to link clinical outcomes data to educational process data hold the potential to accelerate medical education research and innovation. This approach will enable unprecedented insight into the long-term impact of each stage of medical education on graduates' future practice. More work is needed to determine best practices, but the barrier to using these public data is low and the potential for early results is immediate. Using practice data to evaluate medical education programs can transform how the future physician workforce is trained and better align continuously learning medical education and health care systems.

  1. A survey of palliative medicine education in Japan's undergraduate medical curriculum. (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoichi; Takamiya, Yusuke; Saito, Mari; Kuroko, Koichi; Shiratsuchi, Tatsuko; Oshima, Kenzaburo; Ito, Yuko; Miyake, Satoshi


    This study aimed to examine the status of undergraduate palliative care education among Japanese medical students using data from a survey conducted in 2015. A questionnaire was originally developed, and the survey forms were sent to universities. The study's objectives, methods, disclosure of results, and anonymity were explained to participating universities in writing. Responses returned by the universities were considered to indicate consent to participate. Descriptive statistical methodology was employed. The response rate was 82.5% (66 of 80 medical faculties and colleges). Palliative care lectures were implemented in 98.5% of the institutions. Regarding lecture titles, "palliative medicine," "palliative care," and "terminal care" accounted for 42.4, 30.3, and 9.1% of the lectures, respectively. Teachers from the Department of Anesthesia, Palliative Care, and Psychiatry administered 51.5, 47.0, and 28.8% of lectures, respectively. Subjects of lectures included general palliative care (81.8%), pain management (87.9%), and symptom management (63.6%). Clinical clerkship on palliative care was a compulsory and non-compulsory course in 43.9 and 25.8% of the schools, respectively; 30.3% had no clinical clerkship curriculum. Undergraduate palliative care education is implemented in many Japanese universities. Clinical clerkship combined with participation in actual medical practice should be further improved by establishing a medical education certification system in compliance with the international standards.

  2. Lifelong Learning for Clinical Practice: How to Leverage Technology for Telebehavioral Health Care and Digital Continuing Medical Education. (United States)

    Hilty, Donald M; Turvey, Carolyn; Hwang, Tiffany


    Psychiatric practice continues to evolve and play an important role in patients' lives, the field of medicine, and health care delivery. Clinicians must learn a variety of clinical care systems and lifelong learning (LLL) is crucial to apply knowledge, develop skills, and adjust attitudes. Technology is rapidly becoming a key player-in delivery, lifelong learning, and education/training. The evidence base for telepsychiatry/telemental health via videoconferencing has been growing for three decades, but a greater array of technologies have emerged in the last decade (e.g., social media/networking, text, apps). Clinicians are combining telepsychiatry and these technologies frequently and they need to reflect on, learn more about, and develop skills for these technologies. The digital age has solidified the role of technology in continuing medical education and day-to-day practice. Other fields of medicine are also adapting to the digital age, as are graduate and undergraduate medical education and many allied mental health organizations. In the future, there will be more online training, simulation, and/or interactive electronic examinations, perhaps on a monthly cycle rather than a quasi-annual or 10-year cycle of recertification.

  3. Can outcome-based continuing medical education improve performance of immigrant physicians? (United States)

    Castel, Orit Cohen; Ezra, Vered; Alperin, Mordechai; Nave, Rachel; Porat, Tamar; Golan, Avivit Cohen; Vinker, Shlomo; Karkabi, Khaled


    Immigrant physicians are a valued resource for physician workforces in many countries. Few studies have explored the education and training needs of immigrant physicians and ways to facilitate their integration into the health care system in which they work. Using an educational program developed for immigrant civilian physicians working in military primary care clinics at the Israel Defence Force, we illustrate how an outcome-based CME program can address practicing physicians' needs for military-specific primary care education and improve patient care. Following an extensive needs assessment, a 3-year curriculum was developed. The curriculum was delivered by a multidisciplinary educational team. Pre/post multiple-choice examinations, objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE), and end-of-program evaluations were administered for curriculum evaluation. To evaluate change in learners' performance, data from the 2003 (before-program) and 2006 (after-program) work-based assessments were retrieved retrospectively. Change in the performance of program participants was compared with that of immigrant physicians who did not participate in the program. Out of 28 learners, 23 (82%) completed the program. Learners did significantly better in the annual post-tests compared with the pretests (p educators, facing the challenge of integrating immigrant physicians to fit their health care system, may consider adapting our approach. Copyright © 2011 The Alliance for Continuing Medical Education, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on CME, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  4. Towards non-reductionistic medical anthropology, medical education and practitioner-patient-interaction: the example of Anthroposophic Medicine. (United States)

    Heusser, Peter; Scheffer, Christian; Neumann, Melanie; Tauschel, Diethart; Edelhäuser, Friedrich


    To develop the hypothesis that reductionism in medical anthropology, professional education and health care influences empathy development, communication and patient satisfaction. We identified relevant literature and reviewed the material in a structured essay. We reflected our hypothesis by applying it to Anthroposophic Medicine (AM), an example of holistic theory and practice. Reductionism in medical anthropology such as in conventional medicine seems to lead to a less empathetic and less communicative health care culture than holism such as in CAM disciplines. However, reductionism can be transformed into a systemic, multi-perspective holistic view, when the emergent properties of the physical, living, psychic, spiritual and social levels of human existence and the causal relations between them are more carefully accounted for in epistemology, medical anthropology and professional education. This is shown by the example of AM and its possible benefits for communication with and satisfaction of patients. A non-reductionistic understanding of the human being may improve communication with patients and enhance patient benefit and satisfaction. Interdisciplinary qualitative and quantitative studies are warranted to test this hypothesis and to understand the complex relations between epistemology, medical anthropology, education, health care delivery and benefit for patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prioritizing health disparities in medical education to improve care (United States)

    Awosogba, Temitope; Betancourt, Joseph R.; Conyers, F. Garrett; Estapé, Estela S.; Francois, Fritz; Gard, Sabrina J.; Kaufman, Arthur; Lunn, Mitchell R.; Nivet, Marc A.; Oppenheim, Joel D.; Pomeroy, Claire; Yeung, Howa


    Despite yearly advances in life-saving and preventive medicine, as well as strategic approaches by governmental and social agencies and groups, significant disparities remain in health, health quality, and access to health care within the United States. The determinants of these disparities include baseline health status, race and ethnicity, culture, gender identity and expression, socioeconomic status, region or geography, sexual orientation, and age. In order to renew the commitment of the medical community to address health disparities, particularly at the medical school level, we must remind ourselves of the roles of doctors and medical schools as the gatekeepers and the value setters for medicine. Within those roles are responsibilities toward the social mission of working to eliminate health disparities. This effort will require partnerships with communities as well as with academic centers to actively develop and to implement diversity and inclusion strategies. Besides improving the diversity of trainees in the pipeline, access to health care can be improved, and awareness can be raised regarding population-based health inequalities. PMID:23659676

  6. Prioritizing health disparities in medical education to improve care. (United States)

    Awosogba, Temitope; Betancourt, Joseph R; Conyers, F Garrett; Estapé, Estela S; Francois, Fritz; Gard, Sabrina J; Kaufman, Arthur; Lunn, Mitchell R; Nivet, Marc A; Oppenheim, Joel D; Pomeroy, Claire; Yeung, Howa


    Despite yearly advances in life-saving and preventive medicine, as well as strategic approaches by governmental and social agencies and groups, significant disparities remain in health, health quality, and access to health care within the United States. The determinants of these disparities include baseline health status, race and ethnicity, culture, gender identity and expression, socioeconomic status, region or geography, sexual orientation, and age. In order to renew the commitment of the medical community to address health disparities, particularly at the medical school level, we must remind ourselves of the roles of doctors and medical schools as the gatekeepers and the value setters for medicine. Within those roles are responsibilities toward the social mission of working to eliminate health disparities. This effort will require partnerships with communities as well as with academic centers to actively develop and to implement diversity and inclusion strategies. Besides improving the diversity of trainees in the pipeline, access to health care can be improved, and awareness can be raised regarding population-based health inequalities. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Perspective: private schools of the Caribbean: outsourcing medical education. (United States)

    Eckhert, N Lynn


    Twenty-five percent of the U.S. physician workforce is made up of international medical graduates (IMGs), a growing proportion of whom (27% in 2005) are U.S. citizens. Most IMGs graduate from "offshore medical schools" (OMSs), for-profit institutions primarily located in the Caribbean region and established to train U.S. students who will return home to practice medicine. Following the recent call for a larger physician workforce, OMSs rapidly increased in number. Unlike U.S. schools, which must be accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education, OMSs are recognized by their home countries and may not be subject to a rigorous accreditation process. Although gaps in specific data exist, a closer look at OMSs reveals that most enroll three groups of students per year, and many educate students initially at "offshore campuses" and later at clinical sites in the United States. Students from some OMSs are eligible for the U.S. Federal Family Education Loan Program. The lack of uniform data on OMSs is problematic for state medical boards, which struggle to assess the quality of the medical education offered at any one school and which, in some cases, disapprove a school. With the United States' continued reliance on IMGs to meet its health needs, the public and the profession will be best served by knowing more about medical education outside of the United States. Review of medical education in OMSs whose graduates will become part of U.S. health care delivery is timely as the United States reforms its health-care-delivery system.

  8. Raising the Bar for the Care of Seriously Ill Patients: Results of a National Survey to Define Essential Palliative Care Competencies for Medical Students and Residents (United States)

    Schaefer, Kristen G.; Chittenden, Eva H.; Sullivan, Amy M.; Periyakoil, Vyjeyanth S.; Morrison, Laura J.; Carey, Elise C.; Sanchez-Reilly, Sandra; Block, Susan D.


    Purpose Given the shortage of palliative care specialists in the U.S., to ensure quality of care for patients with serious, life-threatening illness, generalist-level palliative care competencies need to be defined and taught. The purpose of this study was to define essential competencies for medical students and internal medicine and family medicine (IM/FM) residents through a national survey of palliative care experts. Method Proposed competencies were derived from existing Hospice and Palliative Medicine fellowship competencies, and revised to be developmentally appropriate for students and residents. In spring 2012, the authors administered a web-based, national cross-sectional survey of palliative care educational experts to assess ratings and rankings of proposed competencies and competency domains. Results The authors identified 18 comprehensive palliative care competencies for medical students and IM/FM residents, respectively. Over 95% of survey respondents judged the competencies as comprehensive and developmentally appropriate (survey response rate=72%, 71/98). Using predefined cut-off criteria, experts identified 7 medical student and 13 IM/FM resident competencies as essential. Communication and pain/symptom management were rated as the most critical domains. Conclusions This national survey of palliative care experts defines comprehensive and essential palliative care competencies for medical students and IM/FM residents that are specific, measurable, and can be used to report educational outcomes; provide a sequence for palliative care curricula in undergraduate and graduate medical education; and highlight the importance of educating medical trainees in communication and pain management. Next steps include seeking input and endorsement from stakeholders in the broader medical education community. PMID:24979171

  9. Raising the bar for the care of seriously ill patients: results of a national survey to define essential palliative care competencies for medical students and residents. (United States)

    Schaefer, Kristen G; Chittenden, Eva H; Sullivan, Amy M; Periyakoil, Vyjeyanth S; Morrison, Laura J; Carey, Elise C; Sanchez-Reilly, Sandra; Block, Susan D


    Given the shortage of palliative care specialists in the United States, to ensure quality of care for patients with serious, life-threatening illness, generalist-level palliative care competencies need to be defined and taught. The purpose of this study was to define essential competencies for medical students and internal medicine and family medicine (IM/FM) residents through a national survey of palliative care experts. Proposed competencies were derived from existing hospice and palliative medicine fellowship competencies and revised to be developmentally appropriate for students and residents. In spring 2012, the authors administered a Web-based, national cross-sectional survey of palliative care educational experts to assess ratings and rankings of proposed competencies and competency domains. The authors identified 18 comprehensive palliative care competencies for medical students and IM/FM residents, respectively. Over 95% of survey respondents judged the competencies as comprehensive and developmentally appropriate (survey response rate = 72%, 71/98). Using predefined cutoff criteria, experts identified 7 medical student and 13 IM/FM resident competencies as essential. Communication and pain/symptom management were rated as the most critical domains. This national survey of palliative care experts defines comprehensive and essential palliative care competencies for medical students and IM/FM residents that are specific, measurable, and can be used to report educational outcomes; provide a sequence for palliative care curricula in undergraduate and graduate medical education; and highlight the importance of educating medical trainees in communication and pain management. Next steps include seeking input and endorsement from stakeholders in the broader medical education community.

  10. Translational educational research: a necessity for effective health-care improvement. (United States)

    McGaghie, William C; Issenberg, S Barry; Cohen, Elaine R; Barsuk, Jeffrey H; Wayne, Diane B


    Medical education research contributes to translational science (TS) when its outcomes not only impact educational settings, but also downstream results, including better patient-care practices and improved patient outcomes. Simulation-based medical education (SBME) has demonstrated its role in achieving such distal results. Effective TS also encompasses implementation science, the science of health-care delivery. Educational, clinical, quality, and safety goals can only be achieved by thematic, sustained, and cumulative research programs, not isolated studies. Components of an SBME TS research program include motivated learners, curriculum grounded in evidence-based learning theory, educational resources, evaluation of downstream results, a productive research team, rigorous research methods, research resources, and health-care system acceptance and implementation. National research priorities are served from translational educational research. National funding priorities should endorse the contribution and value of translational education research.

  11. Cross-cultural undergraduate medical education in North America: theoretical concepts and educational approaches. (United States)

    Reitmanova, Sylvia


    Cross-cultural undergraduate medical education in North America lacks conceptual clarity. Consequently, school curricula are unsystematic, nonuniform, and fragmented. This article provides a literature review about available conceptual models of cross-cultural medical education. The clarification of these models may inform the development of effective educational programs to enable students to provide better quality care to patients from diverse sociocultural backgrounds. The approaches to cross-cultural health education can be organized under the rubric of two specific conceptual models: cultural competence and critical culturalism. The variation in the conception of culture adopted in these two models results in differences in all curricular components: learning outcomes, content, educational strategies, teaching methods, student assessment, and program evaluation. Medical schools could benefit from more theoretical guidance on the learning outcomes, content, and educational strategies provided to them by governing and licensing bodies. More student assessments and program evaluations are needed in order to appraise the effectiveness of cross-cultural undergraduate medical education.

  12. Discrimination and Delayed Health Care Among Transgender Women and Men: Implications for Improving Medical Education and Health Care Delivery. (United States)

    Jaffee, Kim D; Shires, Deirdre A; Stroumsa, Daphna


    The transgender community experiences health care discrimination and approximately 1 in 4 transgender people were denied equal treatment in health care settings. Discrimination is one of the many factors significantly associated with health care utilization and delayed care. We assessed factors associated with delayed medical care due to discrimination among transgender patients, and evaluated the relationship between perceived provider knowledge and delayed care using Anderson's behavioral model of health services utilization. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to test whether predisposing, enabling, and health system factors were associated with delaying needed care for transgender women and transgender men. A sample of 3486 transgender participants who took part in the National Transgender Discrimination Survey in 2008 and 2009. Predisposing, enabling, and health system environment factors, and delayed needed health care. Overall, 30.8% of transgender participants delayed or did not seek needed health care due to discrimination. Respondents who had to teach health care providers about transgender people were 4 times more likely to delay needed health care due to discrimination. Transgender patients who need to teach their providers about transgender people are significantly more likely to postpone or not seek needed care. Systemic changes in provider education and training, along with health care system adaptations to ensure appropriate, safe, and respectful care, are necessary to close the knowledge and treatment gaps and prevent delayed care with its ensuing long-term health implications.

  13. Preclinical Medical Student Hematology/Oncology Education Environment. (United States)

    Zumberg, Marc S; Broudy, Virginia C; Bengtson, Elizabeth M; Gitlin, Scott D


    To better prepare medical students to care for patients in today's changing health-care environment as they transition to continuing their education as residents, many US medical schools have been reviewing and modifying their curricula and are considering integration of newer adult learning techniques, including team-based learning, flipped classrooms, and other active learning approaches (Assoc Am Med Coll. 2014). Directors of hematology/oncology (H/O) courses requested an assessment of today's H/O education environment to help them respond to the ongoing changes in the education content and environment that will be necessary to meet this goal. Several recommendations for the improvement of cancer education resulted from American Association for Cancer Education's (ACCE's) "Cancer Education Survey II" including a call for medical schools to evaluate the effectiveness of current teaching methods in achieving cancer education objectives (Chamberlain et al. J Cancer Educ 7(2):105-114.2014). To understand the current environment and resources used in medical student preclinical H/O courses, an Internet-based, Survey Monkey®-formatted, questionnaire focusing on nine topic areas was distributed to 130 United States Hematology/Oncology Course Directors (HOCDs). HOCDs represent a diverse group of individuals who work in variably supportive environments and who are variably satisfied with their position. Several aspects of these courses remain relatively unchanged from previous assessments, including a predominance of traditional lectures, small group sessions, and examinations that are either written or computer-based. Newer technology, including web-based reproduction of lectures, virtual microscopes, and availability of additional web-based content has been introduced into these courses. A variety of learner evaluation and course assessment approaches are used. The ultimate effectiveness and impact of these changes needs to be determined.

  14. The current state of basic medical education in Israel: implications for a new medical school. (United States)

    Reis, Shmuel; Borkan, Jeffrey M; Weingarten, Michael


    The recent government decision to establish a new medical school, the fifth in Israel, is an opportune moment to reflect on the state of Basic Medical Education (BME) in the country and globally. It provides a rare opportunity for planning an educational agenda tailored to local needs. This article moves from a description of the context of Israeli health care and the medical education system to a short overview of two existing Israeli medical schools where reforms have recently taken place. This is followed by an assessment of Israeli BME and an effort to use the insights from this assessment to inform the fifth medical school blueprint. The fifth medical school presents an opportunity for further curricular reforms and educational innovations. Reforms and innovations include: fostering self-directed professional development methods; emphasis on teaching in the community; use of appropriate educational technology; an emphasis on patient safety and simulation training; promoting the humanities in medicine; and finally the accountability to the community that the graduates will serve.

  15. Primary Care Providers' experiences with Pharmaceutical Care-based Medication Therapy Management Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L. Maracle


    Full Text Available This study explored primary care providers' (PCPs experiences with the practice of pharmaceutical care-based medication therapy management (MTM. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were conducted with six PCPs who have experiences working with MTM pharmacists for at least three years. The first author conducted the interviews that were audio-taped, transcribed, and coded independently. The codes were then harmonized via discussion and consensus with the other authors. Data were analyzed for themes using the hermeneutic-phenomenological method as proposed by Max van Manen. Three men and three women were interviewed. On average, the interviewees have worked with MTM pharmacists for seven years. The six (6 themes uncovered from the interviews included: (1 "MTM is just part of our team approach to the practice of medicine": MTM as an integral part of PCPs' practices; (2 "Frankly it's education for the patient but it's also education for me": MTM services as a source of education; (3 "It's not exactly just the pharmacist that passes out the medicines at the pharmacy": The MTM practitioner is different from the dispensing pharmacist; (4 "So, less reactive, cleaning up the mess, and more proactive and catching things before they become so involved": MTM services as preventative health care efforts; (5"I think that time is the big thing": MTM pharmacists spend more time with patients; (6 "There's an access piece, there's an availability piece, there's a finance piece": MTM services are underutilized at the clinics. In conclusion, PCPs value having MTM pharmacists as part of their team in ambulatory clinics. MTM pharmacists are considered an important source of education to patients as well as to providers as they are seen as having a unique body of knowledge äóñmedication expertise. All PCPs highly treasure the time and education provided by the MTM pharmacists, their ability to manage and adjust patients' medications, and their capability to

  16. Primary Care Providers’ experiences with Pharmaceutical Care-based Medication Therapy Management Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L. Maracle, Pharm.D.


    Full Text Available This study explored primary care providers’ (PCPs experiences with the practice of pharmaceutical care-based medication therapy management (MTM. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were conducted with six PCPs who have experiences working with MTM pharmacists for at least three years. The first author conducted the interviews that were audio-taped, transcribed, and coded independently. The codes were then harmonized via discussion and consensus with the other authors. Data were analyzed for themes using the hermeneutic-phenomenological method as proposed by Max van Manen. Three men and three women were interviewed. On average, the interviewees have worked with MTM pharmacists for seven years. The six (6 themes uncovered from the interviews included: (1 “MTM is just part of our team approach to the practice of medicine”: MTM as an integral part of PCPs’ practices; (2 “Frankly it’s education for the patient but it’s also education for me”: MTM services as a source of education; (3 “It’s not exactly just the pharmacist that passes out the medicines at the pharmacy”: The MTM practitioner is different from the dispensing pharmacist; (4 “So, less reactive, cleaning up the mess, and more proactive and catching things before they become so involved”: MTM services as preventative health care efforts; (5“I think that time is the big thing”: MTM pharmacists spend more time with patients; (6 “There’s an access piece, there’s an availability piece, there’s a finance piece”: MTM services are underutilized at the clinics. In conclusion, PCPs value having MTM pharmacists as part of their team in ambulatory clinics. MTM pharmacists are considered an important source of education to patients as well as to providers as they are seen as having a unique body of knowledge –medication expertise. All PCPs highly treasure the time and education provided by the MTM pharmacists, their ability to manage and adjust patients

  17. Costs of a medical education: comparison with graduate education in law and business. (United States)

    Kerr, Jason R; Brown, Jeffrey J


    The costs of graduate school education are climbing, particularly within the fields of medicine, law, and business. Data on graduate level tuition, educational debt, and starting salaries for medical school, law school, and business school graduates were collected directly from universities and from a wide range of published reports and surveys. Medical school tuition and educational debt levels have risen faster than the rate of inflation over the past decade. Medical school graduates have longer training periods and lower starting salaries than law school and business school graduates, although physician salaries rise after completion of post-graduate education. Faced with an early debt burden and delayed entry into the work force, careful planning is required for medical school graduates to pay off their loans and save for retirement.

  18. Medical Education in Japan and Introduction of Medical Education at Tokyo Women’s Medical University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yumiko Okubo


    Medical education in Japan changed rapidly in the last decade of the 20th century with the introduction of new education methods and implementation of the core curriculum and common achievement testing such as CBT and OSCE.Recently, there have been other movements in medical education in Japan that have introduced 'outcome(competency) based education(OBE)' and created a system for accreditation of medical education programs. This report provides an overview of current medical education in Japan. Moreover, it introduces medical education at Tokyo Women’s Medical University.

  19. Envisioning a Future Governance and Funding System for Undergraduate and Graduate Medical Education. (United States)

    Gold, Jeffrey P; Stimpson, Jim P; Caverzagie, Kelly J


    Funding for graduate medical education (GME) and undergraduate medical education (UME) in the United States is being debated and challenged at the national and state levels as policy makers and educators question whether the multibillion dollar investment in medical education is succeeding in meeting the nation's health care needs. To address these concerns, the authors propose a novel all-payer system for GME and UME funding that equitably distributes medical education costs among all stakeholders, including those who benefit most from medical education. Through a "Medical Education Workforce (MEW) trust fund," indirect and direct GME dollars would be replaced with a funds-flow mechanism using fees paid for services by all payers (Medicaid, Medicare, private insurers, others) while providing direct compensation to physicians and institutions that actively engage medical learners in providing clinical care. The accountability of those receiving MEW funds would be improved by linking their funding levels to their ability to meet predetermined institutional, program, faculty, and learner benchmarks. Additionally, the MEW fund would cover learners' UME tuition, potentially eliminating their UME debt, in return for their provision of health care services (after completing GME training) in an underserved area or specialty. This proposed model attempts to increase transparency and enhance accountability in medical education by linking funding to the development of a physician workforce that is able to excel in the evolving health delivery system. Achieving this vision requires physician educators, leaders of academic health centers, policy makers, insurers, and patients to muster the courage to embrace transformational change.

  20. Online Continuing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Alwadie, Adnan D.


    As the largest country in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and its health care system are well positioned to embark on an online learning intervention so that health care providers in all areas of the country have the resources for updating their professional knowledge and skills. After a brief introduction, online continuing medical education is…

  1. Advancing medical education: connecting interprofessional collaboration and education opportunities with integrative medicine initiatives to build shared learning. (United States)

    Templeman, Kate; Robinson, Anske; McKenna, Lisa


    BackgroundImproved teamwork between conventional and complementary medicine (CM) practitioners is indicated to achieve effective healthcare. However, little is known about interprofessional collaboration and education in the context of integrative medicine (IM). MethodsThis paper reports the findings from a constructivist-grounded theory method study that explored and highlighted Australian medical students' experiences and opportunities for linking interprofessional collaboration and learning in the context of IM. Following ethical approval, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 medical students from 10 medical education faculties across Australian universities. Results Medical students recognised the importance of interprofessional teamwork between general medical practitioners and CM professionals in patient care and described perspectives of shared responsibilities, profession-specific responsibilities, and collaborative approaches within IM. While students identified that limited interprofessional collaboration currently occurred in the medical curriculum, interprofessional education was considered a means of increasing communication and collaboration between healthcare professionals, helping coordinate effective patient care, and understanding each healthcare team members' professional role and value. Conclusions The findings suggest that medical curricula should include opportunities for medical students to develop required skills, behaviours, and attitudes for interprofessional collaboration and interprofessional education within the context of IM. While this is a qualitative study that reflects theoretical saturation from a selected cohort of medical students, the results also point to the importance of including CM professionals within interprofessional collaboration, thus contributing to more person-centred care.

  2. Teaching Medical Students About "The Conversation": An Interactive Value-Based Advance Care Planning Session. (United States)

    Lum, Hillary D; Dukes, Joanna; Church, Skotti; Abbott, Jean; Youngwerth, Jean M


    Advance care planning (ACP) promotes care consistent with patient wishes. Medical education should teach how to initiate value-based ACP conversations. To develop and evaluate an ACP educational session to teach medical students a value-based ACP process and to encourage students to take personal ACP action steps. Groups of third-year medical students participated in a 75-minute session using personal reflection and discussion framed by The Conversation Starter Kit. The Conversation Project is a free resource designed to help individuals and families express their wishes for end-of-life care. One hundred twenty-seven US third-year medical students participated in the session. Student evaluations immediately after the session and 1 month later via electronic survey. More than 90% of students positively evaluated the educational value of the session, including rating highly the opportunities to reflect on their own ACP and to use The Conversation Starter Kit. Many students (65%) reported prior ACP conversations. After the session, 73% reported plans to discuss ACP, 91% had thought about preferences for future medical care, and 39% had chosen a medical decision maker. Only a minority had completed an advance directive (14%) or talked with their health-care provider (1%). One month later, there was no evidence that the session increased students' actions regarding these same ACP action steps. A value-based ACP educational session using The Conversation Starter Kit successfully engaged medical students in learning about ACP conversations, both professionally and personally. This session may help students initiate conversations for themselves and their patients.

  3. Educational impact of an assessment of medical students' collaboration in health care teams. (United States)

    Olupeliyawa, Asela; Balasooriya, Chinthaka; Hughes, Chris; O'Sullivan, Anthony


    This paper explores how structured feedback and other features of workplace-based assessment (WBA) impact on medical students' learning in the context of an evaluation of a workplace-based performance assessment: the teamwork mini-clinical evaluation exercise (T-MEX). The T-MEX enables observation-based measurement of and feedback on the behaviours required to collaborate effectively as a junior doctor within the health care team. The instrument is based on the mini-clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) format and focuses on clinical encounters such as consultations with medical and allied health professionals, discharge plan preparation, handovers and team meetings. The assessment was implemented during a 6-week period in 2010 with 25 medical students during their final clinical rotation. Content analysis was conducted on the written feedback provided by 23 assessors and the written reflections and action plans proposed by the 25 student participants (in 88 T-MEX forms). Semi-structured interviews with seven assessors and three focus groups with 14 student participants were conducted and the educational impact was explored through thematic analysis. The study enabled the identification of features of WBA that promote the development of collaborative competencies. The focus of the assessment on clinical encounters and behaviours important for collaboration provided opportunities for students to engage with the health care team and highlighted the role of teamwork in these encounters. The focus on specific behaviours and a stage-appropriate response scale helped students identify learning goals and facilitated the provision of focused feedback. Incorporating these features within an established format helped students and supervisors to engage with the instrument. Extending the format to include structured reflection enabled students to self-evaluate and develop plans for improvement. The findings illuminate the mechanisms by which WBA facilitates learning. The

  4. The challenge of promoting professionalism through medical ethics and humanities education. (United States)

    Doukas, David J; McCullough, Laurence B; Wear, Stephen; Lehmann, Lisa S; Nixon, Lois LaCivita; Carrese, Joseph A; Shapiro, Johanna F; Green, Michael J; Kirch, Darrell G


    Given recent emphasis on professionalism training in medical schools by accrediting organizations, medical ethics and humanities educators need to develop a comprehensive understanding of this emphasis. To achieve this, the Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education (PRIME) II Workshop (May 2011) enlisted representatives of the three major accreditation organizations to join with a national expert panel of medical educators in ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. PRIME II faculty engaged in a dialogue on the future of professionalism in medical education. The authors present three overarching themes that resulted from the PRIME II discussions: transformation, question everything, and unity of vision and purpose.The first theme highlights that education toward professionalism requires transformational change, whereby medical ethics and humanities educators would make explicit the centrality of professionalism to the formation of physicians. The second theme emphasizes that the flourishing of professionalism must be based on first addressing the dysfunctional aspects of the current system of health care delivery and financing that undermine the goals of medical education. The third theme focuses on how ethics and humanities educators must have unity of vision and purpose in order to collaborate and identify how their disciplines advance professionalism. These themes should help shape discussions of the future of medical ethics and humanities teaching.The authors argue that improvement of the ethics and humanities-based knowledge, skills, and conduct that fosters professionalism should enhance patient care and be evaluated for its distinctive contributions to educational processes aimed at producing this outcome.

  5. Knowledge and training in paediatric medical traumatic stress and trauma-informed care among emergency medical professionals in low- and middle-income countries. (United States)

    Hoysted, Claire; Babl, Franz E; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Landolt, Markus A; Jobson, Laura; Van Der Westhuizen, Claire; Curtis, Sarah; Kharbanda, Anupam B; Lyttle, Mark D; Parri, Niccolò; Stanley, Rachel; Alisic, Eva


    Background : Provision of psychosocial care, in particular trauma-informed care, in the immediate aftermath of paediatric injury is a recommended strategy to minimize the risk of paediatric medical traumatic stress. Objective : To examine the knowledge of paediatric medical traumatic stress and perspectives on providing trauma-informed care among emergency staff working in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Method : Training status, knowledge of paediatric medical traumatic stress, attitudes towards incorporating psychosocial care and barriers experienced were assessed using an online self-report questionnaire. Respondents included 320 emergency staff from 58 LMICs. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, t -tests and multiple regression. Results : Participating emergency staff working in LMICs had a low level of knowledge of paediatric medical traumatic stress. Ninety-one percent of respondents had not received any training or education in paediatric medical traumatic stress, or trauma-informed care for injured children, while 94% of respondents indicated they wanted training in this area. Conclusions : There appears to be a need for training and education of emergency staff in LMICs regarding paediatric medical traumatic stress and trauma-informed care, in particular among staff working in comparatively lower income countries.

  6. Cross-cultural medical education: conceptual approaches and frameworks for evaluation. (United States)

    Betancourt, Joseph R


    Given that understanding the sociocultural dimensions underlying a patient's health values, beliefs, and behaviors is critical to a successful clinical encounter, cross-cultural curricula have been incorporated into undergraduate medical education. The goal of these curricula is to prepare students to care for patients from diverse social and cultural backgrounds, and to recognize and appropriately address racial, cultural, and gender biases in health care delivery. Despite progress in the field of cross-cultural medical education, several challenges exist. Foremost among these is the need to develop strategies to evaluate the impact of these curricular interventions. This article provides conceptual approaches for cross-cultural medical education, and describes a framework for student evaluation that focuses on strategies to assess attitudes, knowledge, and skills, and the impact of curricular interventions on health outcomes.

  7. Meeting the milestones. Strategies for including high-value care education in pulmonary and critical care fellowship training. (United States)

    Courtright, Katherine R; Weinberger, Steven E; Wagner, Jason


    Physician decision making is partially responsible for the roughly 30% of U.S. healthcare expenditures that are wasted annually on low-value care. In response to both the widespread public demand for higher-quality care and the cost crisis, payers are transitioning toward value-based payment models whereby physicians are rewarded for high-value, cost-conscious care. Furthermore, to target physicians in training to practice with cost awareness, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has created both individual objective milestones and institutional requirements to incorporate quality improvement and cost awareness into fellowship training. Subsequently, some professional medical societies have initiated high-value care educational campaigns, but the overwhelming majority target either medical students or residents in training. Currently, there are few resources available to help guide subspecialty fellowship programs to successfully design durable high-value care curricula. The resource-intensive nature of pulmonary and critical care medicine offers unique opportunities for the specialty to lead in modeling and teaching high-value care. To ensure that fellows graduate with the capability to practice high-value care, we recommend that fellowship programs focus on four major educational domains. These include fostering a value-based culture, providing a robust didactic experience, engaging trainees in process improvement projects, and encouraging scholarship. In doing so, pulmonary and critical care educators can strive to train future physicians who are prepared to provide care that is both high quality and informed by cost awareness.

  8. A conceptual framework for the use of illness narratives in medical education. (United States)

    Kumagai, Arno K


    The use of narratives, including physicians' and patients' stories, literature, and film, is increasingly popular in medical education. There is, however, a need for an overarching conceptual framework to guide these efforts, which are often dismissed as "soft" and placed at the margins of medical school curricula. The purpose of this article is to describe the conceptual basis for an approach to patient-centered medical education and narrative medicine initiated at the University of Michigan Medical School in the fall of 2003. This approach, the Family Centered Experience, involves home visits and conversations between beginning medical students and patient volunteers and their families and is aimed at fostering humanism in medicine. The program incorporates developmental and learning theory, longitudinal interactions with individuals with chronic illness, reflective learning, and small-group discussions to explore the experience of illness and its care. The author describes a grounding of this approach in theories of empathy and moral development and clarifies the educational value that narratives bring to medical education. Specific pedagogical considerations, including use of activities to create "cognitive disequilibrium" and the concept of transformative learning, are also discussed and may be applied to narrative medicine, professionalism, multicultural education, medical ethics, and other subject areas in medical education that address individuals and their health care needs in society.

  9. Encountering aged care: a mixed methods investigation of medical students' clinical placement experiences. (United States)

    Annear, Michael J; Lea, Emma; Lo, Amanda; Tierney, Laura; Robinson, Andrew


    Residential aged care is an increasingly important health setting due to population ageing and the increase in age-related conditions, such as dementia. However, medical education has limited engagement with this fast-growing sector and undergraduate training remains primarily focussed on acute presentations in hospital settings. Additionally, concerns have been raised about the adequacy of dementia-related content in undergraduate medical curricula, while research has found mixed attitudes among students towards the care of older people. This study explores how medical students engage with the learning experiences accessible in clinical placements in residential aged care facilities (RACFs), particularly exposure to multiple comorbidity, cognitive impairment, and palliative care. Fifth-year medical students (N = 61) completed five-day clinical placements at two Australian aged care facilities in 2013 and 2014. The placements were supported by an iterative yet structured program and academic teaching staff to ensure appropriate educational experiences and oversight. Mixed methods data were collected before and after the clinical placement. Quantitative data included surveys of dementia knowledge and questions about attitudes to the aged care sector and working with older adults. Qualitative data were collected from focus group discussions concerning medical student expectations, learning opportunities, and challenges to engagement. Pre-placement surveys identified good dementia knowledge, but poor attitudes towards aged care and older adults. Negative placement experiences were associated with a struggle to discern case complexity and a perception of an aged care placement as an opportunity cost associated with reduced hospital training time. Irrespective of negative sentiment, post-placement survey data showed significant improvements in attitudes to working with older people and dementia knowledge. Positive student experiences were explained by in

  10. Medical Informatics Education & Research in Greece. (United States)

    Chouvarda, I; Maglaveras, N


    This paper aims to present an overview of the medical informatics landscape in Greece, to describe the Greek ehealth background and to highlight the main education and research axes in medical informatics, along with activities, achievements and pitfalls. With respect to research and education, formal and informal sources were investigated and information was collected and presented in a qualitative manner, including also quantitative indicators when possible. Greece has adopted and applied medical informatics education in various ways, including undergraduate courses in health sciences schools as well as multidisciplinary postgraduate courses. There is a continuous research effort, and large participation in EU-wide initiatives, in all the spectrum of medical informatics research, with notable scientific contributions, although technology maturation is not without barriers. Wide-scale deployment of eHealth is anticipated in the healthcare system in the near future. While ePrescription deployment has been an important step, ICT for integrated care and telehealth have a lot of room for further deployment. Greece is a valuable contributor in the European medical informatics arena, and has the potential to offer more as long as the barriers of research and innovation fragmentation are addressed and alleviated.

  11. A model to begin to use clinical outcomes in medical education. (United States)

    Haan, Constance K; Edwards, Fred H; Poole, Betty; Godley, Melissa; Genuardi, Frank J; Zenni, Elisa A


    The latest phase of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Outcome Project challenges graduate medical education (GME) programs to select meaningful clinical quality indicators by which to measure trainee performance and progress, as well as to assess and improve educational effectiveness of programs. The authors describe efforts to measure educational quality, incorporating measurable patient-care outcomes to guide improvement. University of Florida College of Medicine-Jacksonville education leaders developed a tiered framework for selecting clinical indicators whose outcomes would illustrate integration of the ACGME competencies and their assessment with learning and clinical care. In order of preference, indicators selected should align with a specialty's (1) national benchmarked consensus standards, (2) national specialty society standards, (3) standards of local, institutional, or regional quality initiatives, or (4) top-priority diagnostic and/or therapeutic categories for the specialty, based on areas of high frequency, impact, or cost. All programs successfully applied the tiered process to clinical indicator selection and then identified data sources to track clinical outcomes. Using clinical outcomes in resident evaluation assesses the resident's performance as reflective of his or her participation in the health care delivery team. Programmatic improvements are driven by clinical outcomes that are shown to be below benchmark across the residents. Selecting appropriate clinical indicators-representative of quality of care and of graduate medical education-is the first step toward tracking educational outcomes using clinical data as the basis for evaluation and improvement. This effort is an important aspect of orienting trainees to using data for monitoring and improving care processes and outcomes throughout their careers.

  12. Peer-to-Peer JXTA Architecture for Continuing Mobile Medical Education Incorporated in Rural Public Health Centers


    Rajasekaran, Rajkumar; Sriman Narayana Iyengar, Nallani Chackravatula


    Objectives: Mobile technology helps to improve continuing medical education; this includes all aspects of public health care as well as keeping one?s knowledge up-to-date. The program of continuing medical and health education is intertwined with mobile health technology, which forms an imperative component of national strategies in health. Continuing mobile medical education (CMME) programs are designed to ensure that all medical and health-care professionals stay up-to-date with the knowled...

  13. Primary Medical Care in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.

    Primary medical care in Chile: accessibility under military rule [Front Cover] [Front Matter] [Title Page] Contents Tables Figures Preface Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: The Restructuring of Medical Care Financing in Chile Chapter 3: Inflation and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 4: Help......-Seeking Behavior of the Urban Poor Chapter 5: Spatial Organization and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 6: Conclusion...

  14. The use of Facebook in medical education--a literature review. (United States)

    Pander, Tanja; Pinilla, Severin; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos; Fischer, Martin R


    The vogue of social media has changed interpersonal communication as well as learning and teaching opportunities in medical education. The most popular social media tool is Facebook. Its features provide potentially useful support for the education of medical students but it also means that some new challenges will have to be faced. This review aimed to find out how Facebook has been integrated into medical education. A systematical review of the current literature and grade of evidence is provided, research gaps are identified, links to prior reviews are drawn and implications for the future are discussed. The authors searched six databases. Inclusion criteria were defined and the authors independently reviewed the search results. The key information of the articles included was methodically abstracted and coded, synthesized and discussed in the categories study design, study participants'phase of medical education and study content. 16 articles met all inclusion criteria. 45-96% of health care professionals in all phases of their medical education have a Facebook profile. Most studies focused on Facebook and digital professionalism. Unprofessional behavior and privacy violations occurred in 0.02% to 16%. In terms of learning and teaching environment, Facebook is well accepted by medical students. It is used to prepare for exams, share online material, discuss clinical cases, organize face-to-face sessions and exchange information on clerkships. A few educational materials to teach Facebook professionalism were positively evaluated. There seems to be no conclusive evidence as to whether medical students benefit from Facebook as a learning environment on higher competence levels. Facebook influences a myriad of aspects of health care professionals, particularly at undergraduate and graduate level in medical education. Despite an increasing number of interventions, there is a lack of conclusive evidence in terms of its educational effectiveness. Furthermore, we

  15. Palliative and end of life care communication as emerging priorities in postgraduate medical education (United States)

    Roze des Ordons, Amanda; Ajjawi, Rola; Macdonald, John; Sarti, Aimee; Lockyer, Jocelyn; Hartwick, Michael


    Background Reliance on surveys and qualitative studies of trainees to guide postgraduate education about palliative and end of life (EOL) communication may lead to gaps in the curriculum. We aimed to develop a deeper understanding of internal medicine trainees’ educational needs for a palliative and EOL communication curriculum and how these needs could be met. Methods Mixed methods, including a survey and focus groups with trainees, and interviews with clinical faculty and medical educators, were applied to develop a broader perspective on current experiences and needs for further education. Quantitative descriptive and thematic analyses were conducted. Results Surveyed trainees were least confident and least satisfied with teaching in counseling about the emotional impact of emergencies and discussing organ donation. Direct observation with feedback, small group discussion, and viewing videos of personal consultations were perceived as effective, yet infrequently identified as instructional methods. Focus groups and interviews identified goals of care conversations as the highest educational priority, with education adapted to learner needs and accompanied by feedback and concurrent clinical and organizational support. Conclusions Our work expands on previous research describing needs for postgraduate education in palliative and EOL communication to include the importance of support, culture change, and faculty development, and provides insight into why such needs exist. PMID:27103952

  16. Nurses’ attitudes and behaviors on patient medication education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowen JF


    Full Text Available Background: Medication education is vital for positive patient outcomes. However, there is limited information about optimal medication education by nurses during hospitalization and care transitions. Objective: Examine nurses’ attitudes and behaviors regarding the provision of patient medication education. The secondary objectives were to determine if nurses’ medication education attitudes explain their behaviors, describe nurses’ confidence in patient medication knowledge and abilities, and identify challenges to and improvements for medication education. Methods: A cross sectional survey was administered to nurses servicing internal medicine, cardiology, or medical-surgical patients. Results: Twenty-four nurses completed the survey. Greater than 90% of nurses believed it is important to provide information on new medications and medical conditions, utilize resources, assess patient understanding and adherence, and use open ended question. Only 58% believed it is important to provide information on refill medications. Greater than 80% of nurses consistently provided information on new medications, assessed patient understanding, and utilized resources, but one-third or less used open-ended questions or provided information on refill medications. Most nurses spend 5-9 minutes per patient on medication education and their attitudes matched the following medication education behaviors: assessing adherence (0.57; p<0.01, providing information on new medications (0.52; p<0.05, using open-ended questions (0.51; p<0.01, and providing information on refill medications (0.39; p<0.05. Nurses had higher confidence that patients can understand and follow medication instructions, and identify names and purpose of their medications. Nurses had lower confidence that patients know what to expect from their medication or how to manage potential side effects. Communication, including language barriers and difficulty determining the patient

  17. A history of medical student debt: observations and implications for the future of medical education. (United States)

    Greysen, S Ryan; Chen, Candice; Mullan, Fitzhugh


    Over the last 50 years, medical student debt has become a problem of national importance, and obtaining medical education in the United States has become a loan-dependent, individual investment. Although this phenomenon must be understood in the general context of U.S. higher education as well as economic and social trends in late-20th-century America, the historical problem of medical student debt requires specific attention for several reasons. First, current mechanisms for students' educational financing may not withstand debt levels above a certain ceiling which is rapidly approaching. Second, there are no standards for costs of medical school attendance, and these can vary dramatically between different schools even within a single city. Third, there is no consensus on the true cost of educating a medical student, which limits accountability to students and society for these costs. Fourth, policy efforts to improve physician workforce diversity and mitigate shortages in the primary care workforce are inhibited by rising levels of medical student indebtedness. Fortunately, the current effort to expand the U.S. physician workforce presents a unique opportunity to confront the unsustainable growth of medical student debt and explore new approaches to the financing of medical students' education.

  18. The transformation of continuing medical education (CME in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balmer JT


    Full Text Available Jann Torrance Balmer Continuing Medical Education, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA, USA Abstract: This article describes five major themes that inform and highlight the transformation of continuing medical education in the USA. Over the past decade, the Institute of Medicine (IOM and other national entities have voiced concern over the cost of health care, prevalence of medical errors, fragmentation of care, commercial influence, and competence of health professionals. The recommendations from these entities, as well as the work of other regulatory, professional, academic, and government organizations, have fostered discussion and development of strategies to address these challenges. The five themes in this paper reflect the changing expectations of multiple stakeholders engaged in health care. Each theme is grounded in educational, politico-economic priorities for health care in the USA. The themes include (1 a shift in expectation from simple attendance or a time-based metric (credit to a measurement that infers competence in performance for successful continuing professional development (CPD; (2 an increased focus on interprofessional education to augment profession-specific continuing education; (3 the integration of CPD with quality improvement; (4 the expansion of CPD to address population and public health issues; and (5 identification and standardization of continuing education (CE professional competencies. The CE profession plays an essential role in the transformation of the US CPD system for health professionals. Coordination of the five themes described in this paper will foster an improved, effective, and efficient health system that truly meets the needs of patients. Keywords: continuing medical education, continued professional development, independence, competencies, CE professional

  19. Time-variable medical education innovation in context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamy CD


    Full Text Available Christopher D Stamy,1 Christine C Schwartz,1 Danielle A Phillips,2 Aparna S Ajjarapu,3 Kristi J Ferguson,4,5 Debra A Schwinn6–8 1University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, 2Des Moines University Osteopathic Medical Center, Des Moines, 3University of Iowa, 4Office of Consultation & Research in Medical Education, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, 5Department of Internal Medicine, 6Department of Anesthesia, 7Department of Biochemistry, 8Department of Pharmacology, University of Iowa Health Care, Iowa City, IA, USA Background: Medical education is undergoing robust curricular reform with several innovative models emerging. In this study, we examined current trends in 3-year Doctor of Medicine (MD education and place these programs in context. Methods: A survey was conducted among Deans of U.S. allopathic medical schools using structured phone interview regarding current availability of a 3-year MD pathway, and/or other variations in curricular innovation, within their institution. Those with 3-year programs answered additional questions. Results: Data from 107 institutions were obtained (75% survey response rate. The most common variation in length of medical education today is the accelerated 3-year pathway. Since 2010, 9 medical schools have introduced parallel 3-year MD programs and another 4 are actively developing such programs. However, the total number of students in 3-year MD tracks remains small (n=199 students, or 0.2% total medical students. Family medicine and general internal medicine are the most common residency programs selected. Benefits of 3-year MD programs generally include reduction in student debt, stability of guaranteed residency positions, and potential for increasing physician numbers in rural/underserved areas. Drawbacks include concern about fatigue/burnout, difficulty in providing guaranteed residency positions, and additional expense in teaching 2 parallel curricula. Four vignettes of

  20. Incorporation of medical informatics and information technology as core components of undergraduate medical education - time for change! (United States)

    Otto, Anthony; Kushniruk, Andre


    It is generally accepted that Information Technology (IT) is a highly desirable and a very necessary ingredient of modern health care. Review of available literature reveals a paucity of medical informatics and information technology courses in undergraduate medical curricula and a lack of research to assess the effectiveness of medical informatics in undergraduate medical education. The need for such initiatives is discussed and a pilot project is described that evaluated the effectiveness of education in the use of Electronic Medical Record (EMR) applications. Educational activities, for example, could be medical students conducting virtual medical encounters or interacting with EMR applications. An EMR application, which was used in several related projects, has been adapted to the educational environment: standardized patient records can be created and cloned so that individual students can interact with a "standard" patient and alter the patient's data.

  1. Primary care providers and medical homes for individuals with spina bifida. (United States)

    Walker, William O


    The contributions of primary care providers to the successful care of children with spina bifida cannot be underestimated. Overcoming systemic barriers to their integration into a comprehensive care system is essential. By providing routine and disability specific care through the structure of a Medical Home, they are often the first line resource and support for individuals and their families. The Medical Home model encourages primary care providers to facilitate discussions on topics as varied as education and employment. Knowledge of specific medical issues unique to this population allows the primary care provider to complement the efforts of other specialty clinics and providers in often neglected areas such as sexual health, obesity and latex sensitization. As individuals with spina bifida live into adulthood, and access to traditional multidisciplinary care models evolves, these skills will take on increasing importance within the scope of providing comprehensive and coordinated care.

  2. Policy issues related to educating the future Israeli medical workforce: an international perspective. (United States)

    Schoenbaum, Stephen C; Crome, Peter; Curry, Raymond H; Gershon, Elliot S; Glick, Shimon M; Katz, David R; Paltiel, Ora; Shapiro, Jo


    A 2014 external review of medical schools in Israel identified several issues of importance to the nation's health. This paper focuses on three inter-related policy-relevant topics: planning the physician and healthcare workforce to meet the needs of Israel's population in the 21(st) century; enhancing the coordination and efficiency of medical education across the continuum of education and training; and the financing of medical education. All three involve both education and health care delivery. The physician workforce is aging and will need to be replenished. Several physician specialties have been in short supply, and some are being addressed through incentive programs. Israel's needs for primary care clinicians are increasing due to growth and aging of the population and to the increasing prevalence of chronic conditions at all ages. Attention to the structure and content of both undergraduate and graduate medical education and to aligning incentives will be required to address current and projected workforce shortage areas. Effective workforce planning depends upon data that can inform the development of appropriate policies and on recognition of the time lag between developing such policies and seeing the results of their implementation. The preclinical and clinical phases of Israeli undergraduate medical education (medical school), the mandatory rotating internship (stáge), and graduate medical education (residency) are conducted as separate "silos" and not well coordinated. The content of basic science education should be relevant to clinical medicine and research. It should stimulate inquiry, scholarship, and lifelong learning. Clinical exposures should begin early and be as hands-on as possible. Medical students and residents should acquire specific competencies. With an increasing shift of medical care from hospitals to ambulatory settings, development of ambulatory teachers and learning environments is increasingly important. Objectives such as these

  3. Gerontology and geriatrics in Dutch medical education. (United States)

    Tersmette, W; van Bodegom, D; van Heemst, D; Stott, D; Westendorp, R


    The world population is ageing and healthcare services require trained staff who can address the needs of older patients. In this study we determined how current medical education prepares Dutch students of medicine in the field of Gerontology and Geriatrics (G&G). Using a checklist of the essentials of G&G, we assessed Dutch medical education on three levels. On the national level we analysed the latest National Blueprint for higher medical education (Raamplan artsopleiding 2009). On the faculty level we reviewed medical curricula on the basis of interviews with program directors and inspection of course materials. On the student level we assessed the topics addressed in the questions of the cross-institutional progress test (CIPT). The National Bluepr int contains few specific G&G objectives. Obligatory G&G courses in medical schools on average amount to 2.2% of the total curriculum measured as European Credit Transfer System units (ECTS). Only two out of eight medical schools have practical training during the Master phase in the form of a clerkship in G&G. In the CIPT, on average 1.5% of questions cover G&G. Geriatric education in the Netherlands does not seem to be in line with current demographic trends. The National Blueprint falls short of providing sufficiently detailed objectives for education on the care of older people. The geriatric content offered by medical schools is varied and incomplete, and students are only marginally tested on their knowledge of G&G in the CIPT.

  4. Achieving the Desired Transformation: Thoughts on Next Steps for Outcomes-Based Medical Education. (United States)

    Holmboe, Eric S; Batalden, Paul


    Since the introduction of the outcomes-based medical education (OBME) movement, progress toward implementation has been active but challenging. Much of the angst and criticism has been directed at the approaches to assessment that are associated with outcomes-based or competency frameworks, particularly defining the outcomes. In addition, these changes to graduate medical education (GME) are concomitant with major change in health care systems--specifically, changes to increase quality and safety while reducing cost. Every sector, from medical education to health care delivery and financing, is in the midst of substantial change and disruption.The recent release of the Institute of Medicine's report on the financing and governance of GME highlights the urgent need to accelerate the transformation of medical education. One source of continued tension within the medical education community arises from the assumption that the much-needed increases in value and improvement in health care can be achieved by holding the current educational structures and architecture of learning in place while concomitantly withdrawing resources. The authors of this Perspective seek to reframe the important and necessary debate surrounding the current challenges to implementing OBME. Building on recent change and service theories (e.g., Theory U and coproduction), they propose several areas of redirection, including reexamination of curricular models and greater involvement of learners, teachers, and regulators in cocreating new training models, to help facilitate the desired transformation in medical education.

  5. Electronic health record training in undergraduate medical education: bridging theory to practice with curricula for empowering patient- and relationship-centered care in the computerized setting. (United States)

    Wald, Hedy S; George, Paul; Reis, Shmuel P; Taylor, Julie Scott


    While electronic health record (EHR) use is becoming state-of-the-art, deliberate teaching of health care information technology (HCIT) competencies is not keeping pace with burgeoning use. Medical students require training to become skilled users of HCIT, but formal pedagogy within undergraduate medical education (UME) is sparse. How can medical educators best meet the needs of learners while integrating EHRs into medical education and practice? How can they help learners preserve and foster effective communication skills within the computerized setting? In general, how can UME curricula be devised for skilled use of EHRs to enhance rather than hinder provision of effective, humanistic health care?Within this Perspective, the authors build on recent publications that "set the stage" for next steps: EHR curricula innovation and implementation as concrete embodiments of theoretical underpinnings. They elaborate on previous calls for maximizing benefits and minimizing risks of EHR use with sufficient focus on physician-patient communication skills and for developing core competencies within medical education. The authors describe bridging theory into practice with systematic longitudinal curriculum development for EHR training in UME at their institution, informed by Kern and colleagues' curriculum development framework, narrative medicine, and reflective practice. They consider this innovation within a broader perspective-the overarching goal of empowering undergraduate medical students' patient- and relationship-centered skills while effectively demonstrating HCIT-related skills.

  6. Cross-cultural medical education in the United States: key principles and experiences. (United States)

    Betancourt, Joseph R; Cervantes, Marina C


    The field of cross-cultural care focuses on the ability to communicate effectively and provide quality health care to patients from diverse sociocultural backgrounds. In recent years, medical schools in the United States have increasingly recognized the growing importance of incorporating cross-cultural curricula into medical education. Cross-cultural medical education in the United States has emerged for four reasons: (1) the need for providers to have the skills to care for a diverse patient population; (2) the link between effective communication and health outcomes; (3) the presence of racial/ethnic disparities that are, in part, due to poor communication across cultures; and (4) medical school accreditation requirements. There are three major approaches to cross-cultural education: (1) the cultural sensitivity/awareness approach that focuses on attitudes; (2) the multicultural/categorical approach that focuses on knowledge; and (3) the cross-cultural approach that focuses on skills. The patient-based approach to cross-cultural care combines these three concepts into a framework that can be used to care for any patient, anytime, anywhere. Ultimately, if cross-cultural medical education is to evolve, students must believe it is important and understand that the categorical approach can lead to stereotyping; it should be taught using patient cases and highlighting clinical applications; it should be embedded in a longitudinal, developmentally appropriate fashion; and it should be integrated into the larger curriculum whenever possible. At the Harvard Medical School, we have tried to apply all of these lessons to our work, and we have started to develop a strategic integration process where we try to raise awareness, impart knowledge, and teach cross-cultural skills over the 4 years of schooling.

  7. Nurse Level of Education, Quality of Care and Patient Safety in the Medical and Surgical Wards in Malaysian Private Hospitals: A Cross-sectional Study. (United States)

    Abdul Rahman, Hamzah; Jarrar, Mu'taman; Don, Mohammad Sobri


    Nursing knowledge and skills are required to sustain quality of care and patient safety. The numbers of nurses with Bachelor degrees in Malaysia are very limited. This study aims to predict the impact of nurse level of education on quality of care and patient safety in the medical and surgical wards in Malaysian private hospitals. A cross-sectional survey by questionnaire was conducted. A total 652 nurses working in the medical and surgical wards in 12 private hospitals were participated in the study. Multistage stratified simple random sampling performed to invite nurses working in small size (less than 100 beds), medium size (100-199 beds) and large size (over than 200) hospitals to participate in the study. This allowed nurses from all shifts to participate in this study. Nurses with higher education were not significantly associated with both quality of care and patient safety. However, a total 355 (60.9%) of respondents participated in this study were working in teaching hospitals. Teaching hospitals offer training for all newly appointed staff. They also provide general orientation programs and training to outline the policies, procedures of the nurses' roles and responsibilities. This made the variances between the Bachelor and Diploma nurses not significantly associated with the outcomes of care. Nursing educational level was not associated with the outcomes of care in Malaysian private hospitals. However, training programs and the general nursing orientation programs for nurses in Malaysia can help to upgrade the Diploma-level nurses. Training programs can increase their self confidence, knowledge, critical thinking ability and improve their interpersonal skills. So, it can be concluded that better education and training for a medical and surgical wards' nurses is required for satisfying client expectations and sustaining the outcomes of patient care.

  8. Simulation-Based Medical Education: An Ethical Imperative. (United States)

    Ziv, Amitai; Wolpe, Paul Root; Small, Stephen D.; Glick, Shimon


    Describes simulation-based learning in medical education and presents four these that make a framework for simulations: (1) best standards of care and training; (2) error management and patient safety; (3) patient autonomy; and (4) social justice and resource allocation. (SLD)

  9. Nutrition education in medical school: a time of opportunity1234 (United States)

    Van Horn, Linda; Rock, Cheryl L; Edwards, Marilyn S; Bales, Connie W; Kohlmeier, Martin; Akabas, Sharon R


    Undergraduate medical education has undergone significant changes in development of new curricula, new pedagogies, and new forms of assessment since the Nutrition Academic Award was launched more than a decade ago. With an emphasis on a competency-based curriculum, integrated learning, longitudinal clinical experiences, and implementation of new technology, nutrition educators have an opportunity to introduce nutrition and diet behavior–related learning experiences across the continuum of medical education. Innovative learning opportunities include bridging personal health and nutrition to community, public, and global health concerns; integrating nutrition into lifestyle medicine training; and using nutrition as a model for teaching the continuum of care and promoting interprofessional team-based care. Faculty development and identification of leaders to serve as champions for nutrition education continue to be a challenge. PMID:24646826

  10. Implementing economic evaluation in simulation-based medical education: challenges and opportunities. (United States)

    Lin, Yiqun; Cheng, Adam; Hecker, Kent; Grant, Vincent; Currie, Gillian R


    Simulation-based medical education (SBME) is now ubiquitous at all levels of medical training. Given the substantial resources needed for SBME, economic evaluation of simulation-based programmes or curricula is required to demonstrate whether improvement in trainee performance (knowledge, skills and attitudes) and health outcomes justifies the cost of investment. Current literature evaluating SBME fails to provide consistent and interpretable information on the relative costs and benefits of alternatives. Economic evaluation is widely applied in health care, but is relatively scarce in medical education. Therefore, in this paper, using a focus on SBME, we define economic evaluation, describe the key components, and discuss the challenges associated with conducting an economic evaluation of medical education interventions. As a way forward to the rigorous and state of the art application of economic evaluation in medical education, we outline the steps to gather the necessary information to conduct an economic evaluation of simulation-based education programmes and curricula, and describe the main approaches to conducting an economic evaluation. A properly conducted economic evaluation can help stakeholders (i.e., programme directors, policy makers and curriculum designers) to determine the optimal use of resources in selecting the modality or method of assessment in simulation. It also helps inform broader decision making about allocation of scarce resources within an educational programme, as well as between education and clinical care. Economic evaluation in medical education research is still in its infancy, and there is significant potential for state-of-the-art application of these methods in this area. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  11. Advancements in Undergraduate Medical Education: Meeting the Challenges of an Evolving World of Education, Healthcare, and Technology. (United States)

    Shelton, P G; Corral, Irma; Kyle, Brandon


    Restructuring of undergraduate medical education (UGME) has occurred from time to time over the past century. Many influences, including the persuasive report of Abraham Flexner in 1910, acted to reorganize medical education in the early twentieth century [1, 2]. In his report, Flexner called on American medical schools to enact higher graduation standards and to stringently adhere to the protocols of mainstream science in their teaching. Prior to this report, UGME had changed little over the previous century but over the last several decades, reform within medical education has become routine. This increasing rate of change has been challenging for those within the realm of undergraduate medical education and can be frustrating to those outside this sphere. Today, the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) and Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) are typically the driving forces behind such changes, along with acceleration of advances in medical care and technology. The number of changes in the last decade is significant and warrants review by those interested or involved in education of medical students. This article aims to provide a summary of recent changes within UGME. Within the article, changes in both the pre-clerkship (1st and 2nd years) and clinical years (3rd and 4th) will be discussed. Finally, this review will attempt to clarify new terminology and concepts such as the recently released Core Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs). The goal of these UGME changes, as with Flexner's reform, is to ensure future physicians are better prepared for patient care.

  12. Applying adult learning practices in medical education. (United States)

    Reed, Suzanne; Shell, Richard; Kassis, Karyn; Tartaglia, Kimberly; Wallihan, Rebecca; Smith, Keely; Hurtubise, Larry; Martin, Bryan; Ledford, Cynthia; Bradbury, Scott; Bernstein, Henry Hank; Mahan, John D


    The application of the best practices of teaching adults to the education of adults in medical education settings is important in the process of transforming learners to become and remain effective physicians. Medical education at all levels should be designed to equip physicians with the knowledge, clinical skills, and professionalism that are required to deliver quality patient care. The ultimate outcome is the health of the patient and the health status of the society. In the translational science of medical education, improved patient outcomes linked directly to educational events are the ultimate goal and are best defined by rigorous medical education research efforts. To best develop faculty, the same principles of adult education and teaching adults apply. In a systematic review of faculty development initiatives designed to improve teaching effectiveness in medical education, the use of experiential learning, feedback, effective relationships with peers, and diverse educational methods were found to be most important in the success of these programs. In this article, we present 5 examples of applying the best practices in teaching adults and utilizing the emerging understanding of the neurobiology of learning in teaching students, trainees, and practitioners. These include (1) use of standardized patients to develop communication skills, (2) use of online quizzes to assess knowledge and aid self-directed learning, (3) use of practice sessions and video clips to enhance significant learning of teaching skills, (4) use of case-based discussions to develop professionalism concepts and skills, and (5) use of the American Academy of Pediatrics PediaLink as a model for individualized learner-directed online learning. These examples highlight how experiential leaning, providing valuable feedback, opportunities for practice, and stimulation of self-directed learning can be utilized as medical education continues its dynamic transformation in the years ahead

  13. Pharmaceutical care education in Kuwait: pharmacy students’ perspectives


    Katoue, Maram G.; Awad, Abdelmoneim I.; Schwinghammer, Terry L.; Kombian, Samuel B.


    Background: Pharmaceutical care is defined as the responsible provision of medication therapy to achieve definite outcomes that improve patients’ quality of life. Pharmacy education should equip students with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes they need to practise pharmaceutical care competently. Objective: To investigate pharmacy students’ attitudes towards pharmaceutical care, perceptions of their preparedness to perform pharmaceutical care competencies, opinions about the importance...

  14. Medical education in China for the 21st century: the context for change. (United States)

    Kaufman, A; Hamilton, J D; Peabody, J W


    A national conference on Medical Education in China for the 21st Century was convened in Beijing in November 1986. Over 6 days, leading medical educators and Ministry of Public Health officials from across China presented China's future health service needs and debated opportunities and constraints in meeting those needs by various innovations in medical education. Recent political upheavals have left many educators wary of innovation. There are major, conflicting demands between the needs of rural primary care service and the needs of medical schools to replenish medical school professional ranks depleted by the Cultural Revolution. Multiple and varied experiments in medical education will be encouraged among China's medical schools. China will probably amalgamate indigenous and foreign education experiments, offering the world community new and important innovations in medical education.

  15. Effect of self-care education on lifestyle modification, medication adherence and blood pressure in hypertensive adults: Randomized controlled clinical trial. (United States)

    Golshahi, Jafar; Ahmadzadeh, Hamid; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Pourmoghaddas, Ali


    Self-care management has recently been suggested as an effective approach for secondary prevention of hypertension. This study was conducted to examine whether self-care behaviors could modulate blood pressure levels and also comparing the different training methods of self-care on patients' adherence and controlling hypertension. This study was a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial, conducted on 180 hypertensive patients referring to four centers in Isfahan, Iran, between July and December 2013. Block randomization method were applied to divide eligible subjects into four equal groups, including group A in which the patients and their family were educated by cardiology resident about self-care behaviors through eight sessions, group B and group C were obtained self-care education through four pamphlets or eight short message services (SMS), respectively and group D were obtained only usual care of hypertension without any training about self-care management. Increasing vegetable intake and frequency of subject who took antihypertensive medication regularly and the reduction in the frequency of subjects who consumed high salt were significantly more in group A than the others (P = 0.001, P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). The systolic and diastolic blood pressure had significantly more reduction in the group A than the other groups (-8.18 ± 18.3 and - 3.89 ± 4.1; P < 0.001, respectively). The self-care management education integration into the usual care along with using SMS and other educational materials may improve the efficient and effective adherence strategies.

  16. Improving care planning and coordination for service users with medical co-morbidity transitioning between tertiary medical and primary care services. (United States)

    Cranwell, K; Polacsek, M; McCann, T V


    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Mental health service users with medical co-morbidity frequently experience difficulties accessing and receiving appropriate treatment in emergency departments. Service users frequently experience fragmented care planning and coordinating between tertiary medical and primary care services. Little is known about mental health nurses' perspectives about how to address these problems. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Emergency department clinicians' poor communication and negative attitudes have adverse effects on service users and the quality of care they receive. The findings contribute to the international evidence about mental health nurses' perspectives of service users feeling confused and frustrated in this situation, and improving coordination and continuity of care, facilitating transitions and increasing family and caregiver participation. Intervention studies are needed to evaluate if adoption of these measures leads to sustainable improvements in care planning and coordination, and how service users with medical co-morbidity are treated in emergency departments in particular. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Effective planning and coordination of care are essential to enable smooth transitions between tertiary medical (emergency departments in particular) and primary care services for service users with medical co-morbidity. Ongoing professional development education and support is needed for emergency department clinicians. There is also a need to develop an organized and systemic approach to improving service users' experience in emergency departments. Introduction Mental health service users with medical co-morbidity frequently experience difficulties accessing appropriate treatment in medical hospitals, and often there is poor collaboration within and between services. Little is known about mental health nurses' perspectives on how to address these problems. Aim To explore mental health nurses

  17. Developments in spiritual care education in German--speaking countries. (United States)

    Paal, Piret; Roser, Traugott; Frick, Eckhard


    This article examines spiritual care training provided to healthcare professionals in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The paper reveals the current extent of available training while defining the target group(s) and teaching aims. In addition to those, we will provide an analysis of delivered competencies, applied teaching and performance assessment methods. In 2013, an anonymous online survey was conducted among the members of the International Society for Health and Spiritual Care. The survey consisted of 10 questions and an open field for best practice advice. SPSS21 was used for statistical data analysis and the MAXQDA2007 for thematic content analysis. 33 participants participated in the survey. The main providers of spiritual care training are hospitals (36%, n = 18). 57% (n = 17) of spiritual care training forms part of palliative care education. 43% (n = 13) of spiritual care education is primarily bound to the Christian tradition. 36% (n = 11) of provided trainings have no direct association with any religious conviction. 64% (n = 19) of respondents admitted that they do not use any specific definition for spiritual care. 22% (n = 14) of available spiritual care education leads to some academic degree. 30% (n = 19) of training form part of an education programme leading to a formal qualification. Content analysis revealed that spiritual training for medical students, physicians in paediatrics, and chaplains take place only in the context of palliative care education. Courses provided for multidisciplinary team education may be part of palliative care training. Other themes, such as deep listening, compassionate presence, bedside spirituality or biographical work on the basis of logo-therapy, are discussed within the framework of spiritual care. Spiritual care is often approached as an integral part of grief management, communication/interaction training, palliative care, (medical) ethics, psychological or religious counselling

  18. Population Health and Tailored Medical Care in the Home: the Roles of Home-Based Primary Care and Home-Based Palliative Care. (United States)

    Ritchie, Christine S; Leff, Bruce


    With the growth of value-based care, payers and health systems have begun to appreciate the need to provide enhanced services to homebound adults. Recent studies have shown that home-based medical services for this high-cost, high-need population reduce costs and improve outcomes. Home-based medical care services have two flavors that are related to historical context and specialty background-home-based primary care (HBPC) and home-based palliative care (HBPalC). Although the type of services provided by HBPC and HBPalC (together termed "home-based medical care") overlap, HBPC tends to encompass longitudinal and preventive care, while HBPalC often provides services for shorter durations focused more on distress management and goals of care clarification. Given workforce constraints and growing demand, both HBPC and HBPalC will benefit from working together within a population health framework-where HBPC provides care to all patients who have trouble accessing traditional office practices and where HBPalC offers adjunctive care to patients with high symptom burden and those who need assistance with goals clarification. Policy changes that support provision of medical care in the home, population health strategies that tailor home-based medical care to the specific needs of the patients and their caregivers, and educational initiatives to assure basic palliative care competence for all home-based medical providers will improve access and reduce illness burden to this important and underrecognized population. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A novel educational strategy targeting health care workers in underserved communities in Central America to integrate HIV into primary medical care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Flys

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current educational strategies to integrate HIV care into primary medical care in Central America have traditionally targeted managers or higher-level officials, rather than local health care workers (HCWs. We developed a complementary online and on-site interactive training program to reach local HCWs at the primary care level in underserved communities. METHODS: The training program targeted physicians, nurses, and community HCWs with limited access to traditional onsite training in Panama, Nicaragua, Dominican Republic, and Guatemala. The curriculum focused on principles of HIV care and health systems using a tutor-supported blended educational approach of an 8-week online component, a weeklong on-site problem-solving workshop, and individualized project-based interventions. RESULTS: Of 258 initially active participants, 225 (225/258=87.2% successfully completed the online component and the top 200 were invited to the on-site workshop. Of those, 170 (170/200=85% attended the on-site workshop. In total, 142 completed all three components, including the project phase. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation instruments included knowledge assessments, reflexive essays, and acceptability surveys. The mean pre and post-essay scores demonstrating understanding of social determinants, health system organization, and integration of HIV services were 70% and 87.5%, respectively, with an increase in knowledge of 17.2% (p<0.001. The mean pre- and post-test scores evaluating clinical knowledge were 70.9% and 90.3%, respectively, with an increase in knowledge of 19.4% (p<0.001. A survey of Likert scale and open-ended questions demonstrated overwhelming participant satisfaction with course content, structure, and effectiveness in improving their HIV-related knowledge and skills. CONCLUSION: This innovative curriculum utilized technology to target HCWs with limited access to educational resources. Participants benefited from technical skills

  20. Nutrition in medical education: reflections from an initiative at the University of Cambridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ball L


    Full Text Available Lauren Ball,1 Jennifer Crowley,2 Celia Laur,3 Minha Rajput-Ray,3 Stephen Gillam,4 Sumantra Ray3 1Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Allied Health Sciences, Centre for Health Practice Innovation, Griffith University, Queensland, Brisbane, Australia; 2Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 3Need for Nutrition Education/Innovation Programme, Medical Research Council Human Nutrition Research, Cambridge, UK; 4Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Abstract: Landmark reports have confirmed that it is within the core responsibilities of doctors to address nutrition in patient care. There are ongoing concerns that doctors receive insufficient nutrition education during medical training. This paper provides an overview of a medical nutrition education initiative at the University of Cambridge, School of Clinical Medicine, including 1 the approach to medical nutrition education, 2 evaluation of the medical nutrition education initiative, and 3 areas identified for future improvement. The initiative utilizes a vertical, spiral approach during the clinically focused years of the Cambridge undergraduate and graduate medical degrees. It is facilitated by the Nutrition Education Review Group, a group associated with the UK Need for Nutrition Education/Innovation Programme, and informed by the experiences of their previous nutrition education interventions. Three factors were identified as contributing to the success of the nutrition education initiative including the leadership and advocacy skills of the nutrition academic team, the variety of teaching modes, and the multidisciplinary approach to teaching. Opportunities for continuing improvement to the medical nutrition education initiative included a review of evaluation tools, inclusion of nutrition in assessment items, and further alignment of the Cambridge curriculum with the

  1. Educating clinicians about cultural competence and disparities in health and health care. (United States)

    Like, Robert C


    An extensive body of literature has documented significant racial and ethnic disparities in health and health care. Cultural competency interventions, including the training of physicians and other health care professionals, have been proposed as a key strategy for helping to reduce these disparities. The continuing medical education (CME) profession can play an important role in addressing this need by improving the quality and assessing the outcomes of multicultural education programs. This article provides an overview of health care policy, legislative, accreditation, and professional initiatives relating to these subjects. The status of CME offerings on cultural competence/disparities is reviewed, with examples provided of available curricular resources and online courses. Critiques of cultural competence training and selected studies of its effectiveness are discussed. The need for the CME profession to become more culturally competent in its development, implementation, and evaluation of education programs is examined. Future challenges and opportunities are described, and a call for leadership and action is issued. Copyright © 2010 The Alliance for Continuing Medical Education, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on CME, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  2. Exposure management systems in emergencies as comprehensive medical care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Teruhiko


    The emergency management of nuclear hazards relies on a comprehensive medical care system that includes accident prevention administration, environmental monitoring, a health physics organization, and a medical institution. In this paper, the care organization involved in the criticality accident at Tokai-mura is described, and the problems that need to be examined are pointed out. In that incident, even the expert was initially utterly confused and was unable to take appropriate measures. The author concluded that the members of the care organization were all untrained for dealing with nuclear hazards and radiation accidents. The education and training of personnel at the job site are important, and they are even more so for the leaders. Revisions of the regional disaster prevention plans and care manual are needed. (K.H.)

  3. The REEME project: a cooperative model for sharing international medical education materials. (United States)

    Iserson, Kenneth V


    Although the Internet has become an excellent source of medical education materials, in many specialties, including Emergency Medicine (EM), most of the information is in English. Few international EM practitioners can attend costly specialty conferences, importing foreign experts to teach at these conferences is costly and, even then, these experts are available for a limited time to relatively few people. Countries with minimal health care or medical education budgets find providing even basic materials for professional medical education difficult. An exciting international project now freely distributes Spanish language educational programs to health care professionals on topics relating to EM. The Recursos Educacionales en Español para Medicina de Emergencia (REEME; Educational Resources in Spanish for EM) Project ( was developed to overcome some of these problems by providing language-specific specialty information and widespread international availability, and by promoting international cooperation among professional health care educators. It also provides a ready source of Spanish medical vocabulary for those trying to learn the language. With computer support from the University of Arizona's Learning and Technology Center, REEME first went "live" on November 1, 2004. Three years later, as of November 1, 2007, the site had 575 programs from 411 donors representing 19 countries and the United Nations. There are currently about 645 downloads per month to users in 73 countries. The REEME Project demonstrates the power of the Internet as a means to achieve international cooperation in medical education, and can serve as a model for similar projects in other specialties and languages.

  4. See one, do one, teach one: advanced technology in medical education. (United States)

    Vozenilek, John; Huff, J Stephen; Reznek, Martin; Gordon, James A


    The concept of "learning by doing" has become less acceptable, particularly when invasive procedures and high-risk care are required. Restrictions on medical educators have prompted them to seek alternative methods to teach medical knowledge and gain procedural experience. Fortunately, the last decade has seen an explosion of the number of tools available to enhance medical education: web-based education, virtual reality, and high fidelity patient simulation. This paper presents some of the consensus statements in regard to these tools agreed upon by members of the Educational Technology Section of the 2004 AEM Consensus Conference for Informatics and Technology in Emergency Department Health Care, held in Orlando, Florida. Web-based teaching: 1) Every ED should have access to medical educational materials via the Internet, computer-based training, and other effective education methods for point-of-service information, continuing medical education, and training. 2) Real-time automated tools should be integrated into Emergency Department Information Systems [EDIS] for contemporaneous education. Virtual reality [VR]: 1) Emergency physicians and emergency medicine societies should become more involved in VR development and assessment. 2) Nationally accepted protocols for the proper assessment of VR applications should be adopted and large multi-center groups should be formed to perform these studies. High-fidelity simulation: Emergency medicine residency programs should consider the use of high-fidelity patient simulators to enhance the teaching and evaluation of core competencies among trainees. Across specialties, patient simulation, virtual reality, and the Web will soon enable medical students and residents to... see one, simulate many, do one competently, and teach everyone.

  5. The cost of problem-based vs traditional medical education. (United States)

    Mennin, S P; Martinez-Burrola, N


    It is generally accepted that teachers' salaries are a major factor in the cost of medical education. Little is known about the effects of curriculum on teaching time. A comparison of teaching time devoted to each of two different medical education curricula is presented. In a traditional teacher-centered, subject-oriented curriculum, 61% of the total teaching effort expended by twenty-two teachers took place in the absence of students, i.e. in preparation for student contact. Only 39% of the effort devoted by these teachers to medical education took place in the presence of students. In a problem-based, student-centered curriculum which focuses upon small-group tutorial learning and early extended primary care experience in a rural community setting, 72% of the total teaching effort devoted to medical education was spent with students and only 28% was spent in preparation for student contact. Overall, there were no differences in the total amount of teaching time required by each of the two curricular approaches to medical education. There were, however, major differences in how teachers spent their teaching time.

  6. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Patient Care: Medical Students' Preparedness and Comfort. (United States)

    White, William; Brenman, Stephanie; Paradis, Elise; Goldsmith, Elizabeth S; Lunn, Mitchell R; Obedin-Maliver, Juno; Stewart, Leslie; Tran, Eric; Wells, Maggie; Chamberlain, Lisa J; Fetterman, David M; Garcia, Gabriel


    Phenomenon: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals face significant barriers in accessing appropriate and comprehensive medical care. Medical students' level of preparedness and comfort caring for LGBT patients is unknown. An online questionnaire (2009-2010) was distributed to students (n = 9,522) at 176 allopathic and osteopathic medical schools in Canada and the United States, followed by focus groups (2010) with students (n = 35) at five medical schools. The objective of this study was to characterize LGBT-related medical curricula, to determine medical students' assessments of their institutions' LGBT-related curricular content, and to evaluate their comfort and preparedness in caring for LGBT patients. Of 9,522 survey respondents, 4,262 from 170 schools were included in the final analysis. Most medical students (2,866/4,262; 67.3%) evaluated their LGBT-related curriculum as "fair" or worse. Students most often felt prepared addressing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; 3,254/4,147; 78.5%) and non-HIV sexually transmitted infections (2,851/4,136; 68.9%). They felt least prepared discussing sex reassignment surgery (1,061/4,070; 26.1%) and gender transitioning (1,141/4,068; 28.0%). Medical education helped 62.6% (2,669/4,262) of students feel "more prepared" and 46.3% (1,972/4,262) of students feel "more comfortable" to care for LGBT patients. Four focus group sessions with 29 students were transcribed and analyzed. Qualitative analysis suggested students have significant concerns in addressing certain aspects of LGBT health, specifically with transgender patients. Insights: Medical students thought LGBT-specific curricula could be improved, consistent with the findings from a survey of deans of medical education. They felt comfortable, but not fully prepared, to care for LGBT patients. Increasing curricular coverage of LGBT-related topics is indicated with emphasis on exposing students to LGBT patients in clinical settings.

  7. In our own image--a multidisciplinary qualitative analysis of medical education. (United States)

    Howe, Amanda; Billingham, Kate; Walters, Christina


    One aim of reform of undergraduate medical education is to achieve a better balance between an emphasis on scientific knowledge and an enhancement of desirable professional attitudes: for example, reducing the core curriculum in biochemistry in order to increase learning opportunities in ethics. This study was based on qualitative data collected from stakeholders involved in community- and primary care-based medical education. Its aim was to consider whether different participants agreed on the desired outcomes of basic medical training, and the contribution of community and primary care settings. Analysis of the data showed that the professional identity of the future doctor is contested, its goals reflective of the 'world view' of the stakeholder, and seen as being highly dependent on the contexts in which students learn. Themes which emerged suggest that medical education may not achieve its goals unless student experiences become less dominated by the context of secondary care and its predominantly technical practice of medicine, and more attention is paid to the personal development of the students. The discussion considers the implications for further reform, and emphasises the role of multidisciplinary tutoring in remodelling the world view of 'tomorrow's doctors'.

  8. Progress in the capture, manipulation, and delivery of medical media and its impact on education, clinical care, and research. (United States)

    Bernardo, Theresa M; Malinowski, Robert P


    In this article, advances in the application of medical media to education, clinical care, and research are explored and illustrated with examples, and their future potential is discussed. Impact is framed in terms of the Sloan Consortium's five pillars of quality education: access; student and faculty satisfaction; learning effectiveness; and cost effectiveness. (Hiltz SR, Zhang Y, Turoff M. Studies of effectiveness of learning networks. In Bourne J, Moore J, ed. Elements of Quality Online Education. Needham, MA: Sloan-Consortium, 2002:15-45). The alternatives for converting analog media (text, photos, graphics, sound, video, animations, radiographs) to digital media and direct digital capture are covered, as are options for storing, manipulating, retrieving, and sharing digital collections. Diagnostic imaging is given particular attention, clarifying the difference between computerized radiography and digital radiography and explaining the accepted standard (DICOM) and the advantages of Web PACS. Some novel research applications of medical media are presented.

  9. The Case for the Use of Nurse Practitioners in the Care of Children with Medical Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Samuels


    Full Text Available Although children with medically complex illness represent less than one percent of the total pediatric population, their health care expenditures and health care system utilization far exceed the numbers of other pediatric patients. Nurse practitioners, with their educational background focused on health care promotion and education, are uniquely qualified to reduce this inequity with cost effective care. Currently, nurse practitioners are used in a variety of health care settings and can provide acute and chronic care. Incorporating nurse practitioners at each step in the care of children with medical complexity can improve the quality of life for these children and their families, increase family satisfaction and decrease costs.

  10. Components of Culture in Health for Medical Students' Education. (United States)

    Tervalon, Melanie


    Describes key themes and components of culture in health care for incorporation into undergraduate medical education. These include teaching the rationale for learning about culture in health care; "culture basics"; data on and concepts of health status; tools and skills for productive cross-cultural clinical encounters; characteristics and…

  11. Medication management policy, practice and research in Australian residential aged care: Current and future directions. (United States)

    Sluggett, Janet K; Ilomäki, Jenni; Seaman, Karla L; Corlis, Megan; Bell, J Simon


    Eight percent of Australians aged 65 years and over receive residential aged care each year. Residents are increasingly older, frailer and have complex care needs on entry to residential aged care. Up to 63% of Australian residents of aged care facilities take nine or more medications regularly. Together, these factors place residents at high risk of adverse drug events. This paper reviews medication-related policies, practices and research in Australian residential aged care. Complex processes underpin prescribing, supply and administration of medications in aged care facilities. A broad range of policies and resources are available to assist health professionals, aged care facilities and residents to optimise medication management. These include national guiding principles, a standardised national medication chart, clinical medication reviews and facility accreditation standards. Recent Australian interventions have improved medication use in residential aged care facilities. Generating evidence for prescribing and deprescribing that is specific to residential aged care, health workforce reform, medication-related quality indicators and inter-professional education in aged care are important steps toward optimising medication use in this setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Medical care at mass gatherings: emergency medical services at large-scale rave events. (United States)

    Krul, Jan; Sanou, Björn; Swart, Eleonara L; Girbes, Armand R J


    The objective of this study was to develop comprehensive guidelines for medical care during mass gatherings based on the experience of providing medical support during rave parties. Study design was a prospective, observational study of self-referred patients who reported to First Aid Stations (FASs) during Dutch rave parties. All users of medical care were registered on an existing standard questionnaire. Health problems were categorized as medical, trauma, psychological, or miscellaneous. Severity was assessed based on the Emergency Severity Index. Qualified nurses, paramedics, and doctors conducted the study after training in the use of the study questionnaire. Total number of visitors was reported by type of event. During the 2006-2010 study period, 7,089 persons presented to FASs for medical aid during rave parties. Most of the problems (91.1%) were categorized as medical or trauma, and classified as mild. The most common medical complaints were general unwell-being, nausea, dizziness, and vomiting. Contusions, strains and sprains, wounds, lacerations, and blisters were the most common traumas. A small portion (2.4%) of the emergency aid was classified as moderate (professional medical care required), including two cases (0.03%) that were considered life-threatening. Hospital admission occurred in 2.2% of the patients. Fewer than half of all patients presenting for aid were transported by ambulance. More than a quarter of all cases (27.4%) were related to recreational drugs. During a five-year field research period at rave dance parties, most presentations on-site for medical evaluation were for mild conditions. A medical team of six healthcare workers for every 10,000 rave party visitors is recommended. On-site medical staff should consist primarily of first aid providers, along with nurses who have event-specific training on advanced life support, event-specific injuries and incidents, health education related to self-care deficits, interventions for

  13. Genetics education for non-genetic health care professionals in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plass, Anne Marie C.; Baars, Marieke J. H.; Beemer, Frits A.; ten Kate, Leo P.


    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether medical care providers in the Netherlands are adequately educated in genetics by collecting information about the current state of genetics education of non-genetics health care professionals. METHOD: The curricula of the 8

  14. Simulation Technology for Skills Training and Competency Assessment in Medical Education (United States)

    Obeso, Vivian T.; Issenberg, S. Barry


    Medical education during the past decade has witnessed a significant increase in the use of simulation technology for teaching and assessment. Contributing factors include: changes in health care delivery and academic environments that limit patient availability as educational opportunities; worldwide attention focused on the problem of medical errors and the need to improve patient safety; and the paradigm shift to outcomes-based education with its requirements for assessment and demonstration of competence. The use of simulators addresses many of these issues: they can be readily available at any time and can reproduce a wide variety of clinical conditions on demand. In lieu of the customary (and arguably unethical) system, whereby novices carry out the practice required to master various techniques—including invasive procedures—on real patients, simulation-based education allows trainees to hone their skills in a risk-free environment. Evaluators can also use simulators for reliable assessments of competence in multiple domains. For those readers less familiar with medical simulators, this article aims to provide a brief overview of these educational innovations and their uses; for decision makers in medical education, we hope to broaden awareness of the significant potential of these new technologies for improving physician training and assessment, with a resultant positive impact on patient safety and health care outcomes. PMID:18095044

  15. 32 CFR 564.37 - Medical care. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Medical care. 564.37 Section 564.37 National... REGULATIONS Medical Attendance and Burial § 564.37 Medical care. (a) General. The definitions of medical care; policies outlining the manner, conditions, procedures, and eligibility for care; and the sources from which...

  16. The Top Ten Websites in Critical Care Medicine Education Today. (United States)

    Wolbrink, Traci A; Rubin, Lucy; Burns, Jeffrey P; Markovitz, Barry


    The number of websites for the critical care provider is rapidly growing, including websites that are part of the Free Open Access Med(ical ed)ucation (FOAM) movement. With this rapidly expanding number of websites, critical appraisal is needed to identify quality websites. The last major review of critical care websites was published in 2011, and thus a new review of the websites relevant to the critical care clinician is necessary. A new assessment tool for evaluating critical care medicine education websites, the Critical Care Medical Education Website Quality Evaluation Tool (CCMEWQET), was modified from existing tools. A PubMed and Startpage search from 2007 to 2017 was conducted to identify websites relevant to critical care medicine education. These websites were scored based on the CCMEWQET. Ninety-seven websites relevant for critical care medicine education were identified and scored, and the top ten websites were described in detail. Common types of resources available on these websites included blog posts, podcasts, videos, online journal clubs, and interactive components such as quizzes. Almost one quarter of websites (n = 22) classified themselves as FOAM websites. The top ten websites most often included an editorial process, high-quality and appropriately attributed graphics and multimedia, scored much higher for comprehensiveness and ease of access, and included opportunities for interactive learning. Many excellent online resources for critical care medicine education currently exist, and the number is likely to continue to increase. Opportunities for improvement in many websites include more active engagement of learners, upgrading navigation abilities, incorporating an editorial process, and providing appropriate attribution for graphics and media.

  17. Advances in medical education and practice: role of massive open online courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldberg LR


    analysis, obtained nationally and internationally, has the potential to assist in greater understanding of the risk for diseases and their prevention, with this translating into medical education, and authentic, patient- and family-centered methods for student learning. This paper explores these issues. Keywords: interprofessional education, medical education, medical practice, massive open online course, MOOC, patient (or person- and family-centered care, quality health care

  18. Alcohol consumption in early adolescence and medical care. (United States)

    Borrás Santiesteban, Tania


    Alcohol consumptionin adolescents is a risky behavior that can be prevented. Objective. To determine health care and alcohol consumption pattern in early adolescence and its relation to determinants of health (biological, environmental, social and health system factors). A qualitative-quantitative, crosssectional study was carried out in the four schools belonging to Popular Council 8 of Mario Gutiérrez Ardaya health sector in May, 2013. The study universe was made up of adolescents aged 10-14. The sample was determined through a simple randomized sampling. Surveys were administered to adolescents, parents, educators and senior health staff members to determine alcohol consumption, medical care quality and level of knowledge on the problem. A nominal group with health professionals was created. Two hundred and eighty eight adolescents were included. 54.5% were alcohol users, of which 30.2% were 10-11 years old. Those classified as low risk were prevailing (55.6%). 100% of the senior health staff expressed the need for a methodology of care. 90.4% of education staff considered adolescence as a vulnerable stage. Relatives reported that there should be adolescent-specific medical appointments (61.8%). The nominal group's most important opinions were based on the main features that a consultation for adolescents should have and on the problems hindering proper care. Alcohol consumption was considered high and early start prevailed. Insufficient care to early adolescents who use alcohol was made evident. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  19. [Involvement of medical representatives in team medical care]. (United States)

    Hirotsu, Misaki; Sohma, Michiro; Takagi, Hidehiko


    In recent years, chemotherapies have been further advanced because of successive launch of new drugs, introduction of molecular targeting, etc., and the concept of so-called Team Medical Care ,the idea of sharing interdisciplinary expertise for collaborative treatment, has steadily penetrated in the Japanese medical society. Dr. Naoto Ueno is a medical oncologist at US MD Anderson Cancer Center, the birthplace of the Team Medical Care. He has advocated the concept of ABC of Team Oncology by positioning pharmaceutical companies as Team C. Under such team practice, we believe that medical representatives of a pharmaceutical company should also play a role as a member of the Team Medical Care by providing appropriate drug use information to healthcare professionals, supporting post-marketing surveillance of treated patients, facilitating drug information sharing among healthcare professionals at medical institutions, etc.

  20. [Research in medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Charlotte Vibeke


    Research in medical education is a relatively new discipline. Over the past 30 years, the discipline has experienced a tremendous growth, which is reflected in an increase in the number of publications in both medical education journals and medical science journals. However, recent reviews...... of articles on medical education studies indicate a need for improvement of the quality of medical education research in order to contribute to the advancement of educational practice as well as educational research. In particular, there is a need to embed studies in a conceptual theoretical framework...

  1. Practical strategies for increasing efficiency and effectiveness in critical care education. (United States)

    Joyce, Maurice F; Berg, Sheri; Bittner, Edward A


    Technological advances and evolving demands in medical care have led to challenges in ensuring adequate training for providers of critical care. Reliance on the traditional experience-based training model alone is insufficient for ensuring quality and safety in patient care. This article provides a brief overview of the existing educational practice within the critical care environment. Challenges to education within common daily activities of critical care practice are reviewed. Some practical evidence-based educational approaches are then described which can be incorporated into the daily practice of critical care without disrupting workflow or compromising the quality of patient care. It is hoped that such approaches for improving the efficiency and efficacy of critical care education will be integrated into training programs.

  2. Implementing a Pharmacist-Led Medication Management Pilot to Improve Care Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Root, PharmD, MS


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this project was to design and pilot a pharmacist-led process to address medication management across the continuum of care within a large integrated health-system.Summary: A care transitions pilot took place within a health-system which included a 150-bed community hospital. The pilot process expanded the pharmacist’s medication management responsibilities to include providing discharge medication reconciliation, a patient-friendly discharge medication list, discharge medication education, and medication therapy management (MTM follow-up.Adult patients with a predicted diagnosis-related group (DRG of congestive heart failure or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease admitted to the medical-surgical and intensive care units who utilized a primary care provider within the health-system were included in the pilot. Forty patients met the inclusion criteria and thirty-four (85% received an intervention from an inpatient or MTM pharmacist. Within this group of patients, 88 drug therapy problems (2.6 per patient were identified and 75% of the drug therapy recommendations made by the pharmacist were accepted by the care provider. The 30-day all-cause readmission rates for the intervention and comparison groups were 30.5% and 35.9%, respectively. The number of patients receiving follow-up care varied with 10 (25% receiving MTM follow-up, 26 (65% completing a primary care visit after their first hospital discharge, and 23 (58% receiving a home care visit.Conclusion: Implementation of a pharmacist-led medication management pilot across the continuum of care resulted in an improvement in the quality of care transitions within the health-system through increased identification and resolution of drug therapy problems and MTM follow-up. The lessons learned from the implementation of this pilot will be used to further refine pharmacy care transitions programs across the health-system.

  3. Educating the medical community through a teratology newsletter.


    Guttmacher, A E; Allen, E F


    To educate a geographically and professionally diverse group of health care providers about teratology in an economic and efficient manner, we developed a locally written and distributed teratology newsletter. Response to the newsletter, from readers as well as from our staff and funding agencies, suggests that such a newsletter can be a valuable tool in educating medical communities about teratology.

  4. Educating the medical community through a teratology newsletter. (United States)

    Guttmacher, A E; Allen, E F


    To educate a geographically and professionally diverse group of health care providers about teratology in an economic and efficient manner, we developed a locally written and distributed teratology newsletter. Response to the newsletter, from readers as well as from our staff and funding agencies, suggests that such a newsletter can be a valuable tool in educating medical communities about teratology. PMID:8434594

  5. Towards healthy learning climates in postgraduate medical education: exploring the role of hospital-wide education committees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silkens, Milou E. W. M.; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.; Scherpbier, Albert J. J. A.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Arah, Onyebuchi A.


    Background: Postgraduate medical education prepares residents for delivery of high quality patient care during training as well as for later practice, which makes high quality residency training programs crucial to safeguard patient care. Healthy learning climates contribute to high quality

  6. Mock ECHO: A Simulation-Based Medical Education Method. (United States)

    Fowler, Rebecca C; Katzman, Joanna G; Comerci, George D; Shelley, Brian M; Duhigg, Daniel; Olivas, Cynthia; Arnold, Thomas; Kalishman, Summers; Monnette, Rebecca; Arora, Sanjeev


    This study was designed to develop a deeper understanding of the learning and social processes that take place during the simulation-based medical education for practicing providers as part of the Project ECHO® model, known as Mock ECHO training. The ECHO model is utilized to expand access to care of common and complex diseases by supporting the education of primary care providers with an interprofessional team of specialists via videoconferencing networks. Mock ECHO trainings are conducted through a train the trainer model targeted at leaders replicating the ECHO model at their organizations. Trainers conduct simulated teleECHO clinics while participants gain skills to improve communication and self-efficacy. Three focus groups, conducted between May 2015 and January 2016 with a total of 26 participants, were deductively analyzed to identify common themes related to simulation-based medical education and interdisciplinary education. Principal themes generated from the analysis included (a) the role of empathy in community development, (b) the value of training tools as guides for learning, (c) Mock ECHO design components to optimize learning, (d) the role of interdisciplinary education to build community and improve care delivery, (e) improving care integration through collaboration, and (f) development of soft skills to facilitate learning. Mock ECHO trainings offer clinicians the freedom to learn in a noncritical environment while emphasizing real-time multidirectional feedback and encouraging knowledge and skill transfer. The success of the ECHO model depends on training interprofessional healthcare providers in behaviors needed to lead a teleECHO clinic and to collaborate in the educational process. While building a community of practice, Mock ECHO provides a safe opportunity for a diverse group of clinician experts to practice learned skills and receive feedback from coparticipants and facilitators.

  7. The Role of Medical Informatics in Primary Care Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PJ McCullagh


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the ability of a group of Primary Care professionals to acquire appropriate document retrieval skills, so that they can apply evidence based health care techniques to their various Primary Care roles. The participants, most of whom had little prior experience of the Internet, were enrolled on a two-year part-time Postgraduate Diploma / MSc in Primary Care. As part of the course, they took a compulsory 12-week module in Medical Informatics. A specific task was set: to find appropriate information on Meningococcal Meningitis and Public Health, by using National Library of Medicine's PUBMED bibliographic retrieval system and other unspecified Internet sources. A supplementary piece of coursework required the group to become information providers by providing tutorials on the world wide web. Analysis of the reports showed that the participants were able to learn and use the information tools successfully and that appropriate skills can be transferred in a short time. Overall nine were positive as to the benefits of the evidence-based approach contributing to local health care, with nine expressing mixed views and two having more negative opinions.

  8. Estimation of optimal educational cost per medical student. (United States)

    Yang, Eunbae B; Lee, Seunghee


    This study aims to estimate the optimal educational cost per medical student. A private medical college in Seoul was targeted by the study, and its 2006 learning environment and data from the 2003~2006 budget and settlement were carefully analyzed. Through interviews with 3 medical professors and 2 experts in the economics of education, the study attempted to establish the educational cost estimation model, which yields an empirically computed estimate of the optimal cost per student in medical college. The estimation model was based primarily upon the educational cost which consisted of direct educational costs (47.25%), support costs (36.44%), fixed asset purchases (11.18%) and costs for student affairs (5.14%). These results indicate that the optimal cost per student is approximately 20,367,000 won each semester; thus, training a doctor costs 162,936,000 won over 4 years. Consequently, we inferred that the tuition levels of a local medical college or professional medical graduate school cover one quarter or one-half of the per- student cost. The findings of this study do not necessarily imply an increase in medical college tuition; the estimation of the per-student cost for training to be a doctor is one matter, and the issue of who should bear this burden is another. For further study, we should consider the college type and its location for general application of the estimation method, in addition to living expenses and opportunity costs.

  9. Can elearning be used to teach palliative care? - medical students' acceptance, knowledge, and self-estimation of competence in palliative care after elearning. (United States)

    Schulz-Quach, Christian; Wenzel-Meyburg, Ursula; Fetz, Katharina


    Undergraduate palliative care education (UPCE) was mandatorily incorporated in medical education in Germany in 2009. Implementation of the new cross-sectional examination subject of palliative care (QB13) continues to be a major challenge for medical schools. It is clear that there is a need among students for more UPCE. On the other hand, there is a lack of teaching resources and patient availabilities for the practical lessons. Digital media and elearning might be one solution to this problem. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the elearning course Palliative Care Basics, with regard to students' acceptance of this teaching method and their performance in the written examination on the topic of palliative care. In addition, students' self-estimation in competence in palliative care was assessed. To investigate students' acceptance of the elearning course Palliative Care Basics, we conducted a cross-sectional study that is appropriate for proof-of-concept evaluation. The sample consisted of three cohorts of medical students of Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf (N = 670). The acceptance of the elearning approach was investigated by means of the standard evaluation of Heinrich Heine University. The effect of elearning on students' self-estimation in palliative care competencies was measured by means of the German revised version of the Program in Palliative Care Education and Practice Questionnaire (PCEP-GR). The elearning course Palliative Care Basics was well-received by medical students. The data yielded no significant effects of the elearning course on students' self-estimation in palliative care competencies. There was a trend of the elearning course having a positive effect on the mark in written exam. Elearning is a promising approach in UPCE and well-accepted by medical students. It may be able to increase students' knowledge in palliative care. However, it is likely that there are other approaches needed to change students' self

  10. Using Technology to Meet the Challenges of Medical Education. (United States)

    Guze, Phyllis A


    Medical education is rapidly changing, influenced by many factors including the changing health care environment, the changing role of the physician, altered societal expectations, rapidly changing medical science, and the diversity of pedagogical techniques. Changes in societal expectations put patient safety in the forefront, and raises the ethical issues of learning interactions and procedures on live patients, with the long-standing teaching method of "see one, do one, teach one" no longer acceptable. The educational goals of using technology in medical education include facilitating basic knowledge acquisition, improving decision making, enhancement of perceptual variation, improving skill coordination, practicing for rare or critical events, learning team training, and improving psychomotor skills. Different technologies can address these goals. Technologies such as podcasts and videos with flipped classrooms, mobile devices with apps, video games, simulations (part-time trainers, integrated simulators, virtual reality), and wearable devices (google glass) are some of the techniques available to address the changing educational environment. This article presents how the use of technologies can provide the infrastructure and basis for addressing many of the challenges in providing medical education for the future.

  11. Evaluating sociodemographic and medical conditions of patients under home care service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Önder


    Full Text Available Objective: In our study, we aimed to reveal medical conditions and the sociodemographic conditions of patients under home care service. Methods: Our study is planned on 52 patients who are under home care service at Sarıkamış State Hospital between June 2013 and May 2014. Patients' sex, education, social security status, comorbid diseases and general health status were recorded. Results: Fifty-two patients enrolled. 21 of them (40.4% were men, 31 of them (59.6 % were women. It is revealed that In 36 patients (69.2% did not receive formal education throughout their lives, while16 (30.8% of them had only primary education. All female patients were housewives. The most frequent diseases in home care patients were cerebrovascular disease in 18 (34.6% subjects, Alzheimer's disease in 9 (17.3%, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 4 (7.7% d. 38 patients (73.1% needed routine follow-up. Most of the patients (61.5% had green card health insurance. Only 6 patients (11.5% were in need of narcotic analgesics. Thirteen patients had pressure ulcers due to immobilization. Evaluating the exercise capacity of the patients; 43 (82.7% could not dressed themselves, 38 (73.1% could not use phone. Thirty-two patients had urinary incontinence and 31 had fecal incontinence. Conclusion: Today, population of patients who need home care service is increasing due to ease access to home care service and increase in survival. For a better care of patients, home care providers should be well educated and differences on features of patients and medical conditions it should be taken into consideration.

  12. Medical Oversight, Educational Core Content, and Proposed Scopes of Practice of Wilderness EMS Providers: A Joint Project Developed by Wilderness EMS Educators, Medical Directors, and Regulators Using a Delphi Approach. (United States)

    Millin, Michael G; Johnson, David E; Schimelpfenig, Tod; Conover, Keith; Sholl, Matthew; Busko, Jonnathan; Alter, Rachael; Smith, Will; Symonds, Jennifer; Taillac, Peter; Hawkins, Seth C


    A disparity exists between the skills needed to manage patients in wilderness EMS environments and the scopes of practice that are traditionally approved by state EMS regulators. In response, the National Association of EMS Physicians Wilderness EMS Committee led a project to define the educational core content supporting scopes of practice of wilderness EMS providers and the conditions when wilderness EMS providers should be required to have medical oversight. Using a Delphi process, a group of experts in wilderness EMS, representing educators, medical directors, and regulators, developed model educational core content. This core content is a foundation for wilderness EMS provider scopes of practice and builds on both the National EMS Education Standards and the National EMS Scope of Practice Model. These experts also identified the conditions when oversight is needed for wilderness EMS providers. By consensus, this group of experts identified the educational core content for four unique levels of wilderness EMS providers: Wilderness Emergency Medical Responder (WEMR), Wilderness Emergency Medical Technician (WEMT), Wilderness Advanced Emergency Medical Technician (WAEMT), and Wilderness Paramedic (WParamedic). These levels include specialized skills and techniques pertinent to the operational environment. The skills and techniques increase in complexity with more advanced certification levels, and address the unique circumstances of providing care to patients in the wilderness environment. Furthermore, this group identified that providers having a defined duty to act should be functioning with medical oversight. This group of experts defined the educational core content supporting the specific scopes of practice that each certification level of wilderness EMS provider should have when providing patient care in the wilderness setting. Wilderness EMS providers are, indeed, providing health care and should thus function within defined scopes of practice and with

  13. Rationing medical education.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discussed the pros and cons of the application of rationing to medical education and the different ... Even though some stakeholders in medical education might be taken aback at .... Walsh K. Online educational tools to improve the.

  14. Teaching Critical Thinking in Graduate Medical Education: Lessons Learned in Diagnostic Radiology. (United States)

    Morrissey, Benjamin; Heilbrun, Marta E


    The 2014 Institute of Medicine report, Graduate Medical Education that Meets the Nation's Health Needs , challenged the current graduate medical training process and encouraged new opportunities to redefine the fundamental skills and abilities of the physician workforce. This workforce should be skilled in critically evaluating the current systems to improve care delivery and health. To meet these goals, current challenges, motivations, and educational models at the medical school and graduate medical education levels related to formal training in nonclinical aspects of medicine, especially critical thinking, are reviewed. Our diagnostic radiology training program is presented as a "case study" to frame the review.

  15. Learner-centred medical education: Improved learning or increased stress? (United States)

    McLean, Michelle; Gibbs, Trevor J


    Globally, as medical education undergoes significant reform towards more "learner-centred" approaches, specific implications arise for medical educators and learners. Although this learner-centredness is grounded in educational theory, a point of discussion would be whether the application and practice of these new curricula alleviate or exacerbate student difficulties and levels of stress. This commentary will argue that while this reform in medical education is laudable, with positive implications for learning, medical educators may not have understood or perhaps not embraced "learner-centredness" in its entirety. During their training, medical students are expected to be "patient-centred". They are asked to apply a biopsychosocial model, which takes cognisance of all aspects of a patient's well-being. While many medical schools profess that their curricula reflect these principles, in reality, many may not always practice what they preach. Medical training all too often remains grounded in the biomedical model, with the cognitive domain overshadowing the psychosocial development and needs of learners. Entrusted by parents and society with the education and training of future healthcare professionals, medical education needs to move to a "learner-centred philosophy", in which the "whole" student is acknowledged. As undergraduate and post-graduate students increasingly apply their skills in an international arena, this learner-centredness should equally encapsulate the gender, cultural and religious diversity of both patients and students. Appropriate support structures, role models and faculty development are required to develop skills, attitudes and professional behaviour that will allow our graduates to become caring and sensitive healthcare providers.

  16. Perceived Educational Needs of the Integrated Care Psychiatric Consultant. (United States)

    Ratzliff, Anna; Norfleet, Kathryn; Chan, Ya-Fen; Raney, Lori; Unützer, Jurgen


    With the increased implementation of models that integrate behavioral health with other medical care, there is a need for a workforce of integrated care providers, including psychiatrists, who are trained to deliver mental health care in new ways and meet the needs of a primary care population. However, little is known about the educational needs of psychiatrists in practice delivering integrated care to inform the development of integrated care training experiences. The educational needs of the integrated care team were assessed by surveying psychiatric consultants who work in integrated care. A convenience sample of 52 psychiatrists working in integrated care responded to the survey. The majority of the topics included in the survey were considered educational priorities (>50% of the psychiatrists rated them as essential) for the psychiatric consultant role. Psychiatrists' perspectives on educational priorities for behavioral health providers (BHPs) and primary care providers (PCPs) were also identified. Almost all psychiatrists reported that they provide educational support for PCPs and BHPs (for PCP 92%; for BHP 96%). The information provided in this report suggests likely educational needs of the integrated care psychiatric consultant and provides insight into the learning needs of other integrated care team members. Defining clear priorities related to the three roles of the integrated care psychiatric consultant (clinical consultant, clinical educator, and clinical team leader) will be helpful to inform residency training programs to prepare psychiatrists for work in this emerging field of psychiatry.

  17. RFID and medication care. (United States)

    Lahtela, Antti; Saranto, Kaija


    Dynamic healthcare needs new IT innovations and applications to be able to treat the rapidly growing number of patients effectively and safely. The information technology has to support healthcare in developing practices and nursing patients without confronting any complications or errors. One critical and important part of healthcare is medication care, which is very vulnerable for different kind of errors, even on fatal errors. Thus, medication care needs new methods for avoiding errors in different situations during medication administration. This poster represents an RFID-based automated identification system for medication care in a hospital environment. This work is a part of the research project MaISSI (Managing IT Services and Service Implementation) at the University of Kuopio, Department of Computer Science, Finland.

  18. Medical education and training in Nepal: SWOT analysis. (United States)

    Dixit, H; Marahatta, S B


    To analyse the impact of the medical colleges that have been set up within the last two decades by production of the doctors and the effect on the health of the people. SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunities and threats) analysis of medical education in Nepal has been done by reviewing medical manpower produced by the different institutions in the undergraduate and postgraduate (PG) categories, their registration with the Nepal Medical Council in terms of the existing health scenario of the country. Shows severe shortage of basic sciences teachers. In the clinical areas ophthalmic manpower and services provided are exemplary. There are shortages and shortcomings in all areas if standard health care is to be provided to the Nepalese. There is a long way to go to provide the expected educational and medical services to foreigners prepared to pay more to avail of this in Nepal.

  19. A progressive three-phase innovation to medical education in the United States. (United States)

    Pfeifer, Cory M


    The practice of medicine has changed greatly over the past 100 years, yet the structure of undergraduate medical education has evolved very little. Many schools have modified their curricula to incorporate problem-based learning and organ systems-based curricula, but few schools have adequately addressed rising tuition costs. Undergraduate medical education has become cost-prohibitive for students interested in primary care. In the meanwhile, the concept of a separate dedicated intern year is outdated and mired in waste despite remaining a requirement for several hospital-based and surgical specialties. Described here is an innovative approach to medical education which reduces tuition costs and maximizes efficiency, based on principals already employed by several schools. This integrated curriculum, first suggested by the author in 2010, keeps the current USMLE system in place, exposes medical students to patient care earlier, expands and incorporates the 'intern' year into a four-year medical training program, provides more time for students to decide on a specialty, and allows residency programs to acquire fully-licensed practitioners with greater clinical experience than the status quo. MCAT: Medical college admission test; USMLE: US medical licensing examination.

  20. Scientific Skills as Core Competences in Medical Education: What Do Medical Students Think? (United States)

    Ribeiro, Laura; Severo, Milton; Pereira, Margarida; Ferreira, Maria Amélia


    Background: Scientific excellence is one of the most fundamental underpinnings of medical education and its relevance is unquestionable. To be involved in research activities enhances students' critical thinking and problem-solving capacities, which are mandatory competences for new achievements in patient care and consequently to the improvement…

  1. Gaming science innovations to integrate health systems science into medical education and practice. (United States)

    White, Earla J; Lewis, Joy H; McCoy, Lise


    Health systems science (HSS) is an emerging discipline addressing multiple, complex, interdependent variables that affect providers' abilities to deliver patient care and influence population health. New perspectives and innovations are required as physician leaders and medical educators strive to accelerate changes in medical education and practice to meet the needs of evolving populations and systems. The purpose of this paper is to introduce gaming science as a lens to magnify HSS integration opportunities in the scope of medical education and practice. Evidence supports gaming science innovations as effective teaching and learning tools to promote learner engagement in scientific and systems thinking for decision making in complex scenarios. Valuable insights and lessons gained through the history of war games have resulted in strategic thinking to minimize risk and save lives. In health care, where decisions can affect patient and population outcomes, gaming science innovations have the potential to provide safe learning environments to practice crucial decision-making skills. Research of gaming science limitations, gaps, and strategies to maximize innovations to further advance HSS in medical education and practice is required. Gaming science holds promise to equip health care teams with HSS knowledge and skills required for transformative practice. The ultimate goals are to empower providers to work in complex systems to improve patient and population health outcomes and experiences, and to reduce costs and improve care team well-being.

  2. Doctors or technicians: assessing quality of medical education

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    Tayyab Hasan


    Full Text Available Tayyab HasanPAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences, University Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan, BruneiAbstract: Medical education institutions usually adapt industrial quality management models that measure the quality of the process of a program but not the quality of the product. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of industrial quality management models on medical education and students, and to highlight the importance of introducing a proper educational quality management model. Industrial quality management models can measure the training component in terms of competencies, but they lack the educational component measurement. These models use performance indicators to assess their process improvement efforts. Researchers suggest that the performance indicators used in educational institutions may only measure their fiscal efficiency without measuring the quality of the educational experience of the students. In most of the institutions, where industrial models are used for quality assurance, students are considered as customers and are provided with the maximum services and facilities possible. Institutions are required to fulfill a list of recommendations from the quality control agencies in order to enhance student satisfaction and to guarantee standard services. Quality of medical education should be assessed by measuring the impact of the educational program and quality improvement procedures in terms of knowledge base development, behavioral change, and patient care. Industrial quality models may focus on academic support services and processes, but educational quality models should be introduced in parallel to focus on educational standards and products.Keywords: educational quality, medical education, quality control, quality assessment, quality management models

  3. Scientific Skills as Core Competences in Medical Education: What do medical students think? (United States)

    Ribeiro, Laura; Severo, Milton; Pereira, Margarida; Amélia Ferreira, Maria


    Background: Scientific excellence is one of the most fundamental underpinnings of medical education and its relevance is unquestionable. To be involved in research activities enhances students' critical thinking and problem-solving capacities, which are mandatory competences for new achievements in patient care and consequently to the improvement of clinical practice. Purposes: This work aimed to study the relevance given by Portuguese medical students to a core of scientific skills, and their judgment about their own ability to execute those skills. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on students attending the first, fourth and sixth years of medical course in the same period. An assessment istrument, exploring the importance given by Portuguese medical students to scientific skills in high school, to clinical practice and to their own ability to execute them, was designed, adapted and applied specifically to this study. Results: Students' perceptions were associated with gender, academic year, previous participation in research activities, positive and negative attitudes toward science, research integration into the curriculum and motivation to undertake research. The viewpoint of medical students about the relevance of scientific skills overall, and the ability to execute them, was independently associated with motivation to be enrolled in research. Conclusions: These findings have meaningful implications in medical education regarding the inclusion of a structural research program in the medical curriculum. Students should be aware that clinical practice would greatly benefit from the enrollment in research activities. By developing a solid scientific literacy future physicians will be able to apply new knowledge in patient care.

  4. Medical education: revolution, devolution and evolution in curriculum philosophy and design. (United States)

    Wittert, Gary A; Nelson, Adam J


    Contemporary medical education must train skilled and compassionate health care professionals who are rigorous in their approach to patient care and their pursuit of knowledge and solutions. Problem-based learning has been widely introduced, but there is no evidence that it leads to better outcomes than more traditional programs, and fundamental gaps in conceptual knowledge may result. Recently, emphasis has been placed on a solid grounding in underlying concepts combined with a systems-based approach, and ability to transfer information and solve problems. Integrating traditional scientific and clinical disciplines with progressive and continuous assessment, may be a better means of achieving the combined aims of clinically relevant curriculum design, vertical integration of medical knowledge, and facilitation of the continuum of training. Being adaptable and flexible, cognisant of costs, and driven by evidence are key features of delivering medical education and contemporary medical practice. Educational research should lead to continuous improvement, but innovation without evaluation and attention to costs may create as many, or more, problems as are solved.

  5. Oral Health Education for Medical Students: Malaysian and Australian Students' Perceptions of Educational Experience and Needs. (United States)

    Ahmad, Mas S; Abuzar, Menaka A; Razak, Ishak A; Rahman, Sabariah A; Borromeo, Gelsomina L


    Education in oral health is important to prepare future medical professionals for collaborative roles in maintaining patients' oral health, an important component of general health and well-being. The aims of this study were to determine the perceptions of medical students in Malaysia and Australia of the quality of their training in oral health care and their perceptions of their professional role in maintaining the oral health of their patients. A survey was administered in the classroom with final-year Malaysian (n=527; response rate=79.3%) and Australian (n=455; response rate: 60%) medical students at selected institutions in those countries. In the results, most of these medical students reported encountering patients with oral health conditions including ulcers, halitosis, and edentulism. A majority in both countries reported believing they should advise patients to obtain regular dental check-ups and eat a healthy diet, although they reported feeling less than comfortable in managing emergency dental cases. A high percentage reported they received a good education in smoking cessation but not in managing dental trauma, detecting cancerous lesions, or providing dietary advice in oral disease prevention. They expressed support for inclusion of oral health education in medical curricula. These students' experience with and perceptions of oral health care provide valuable information for medical curriculum development in these two countries as well as increasing understanding of this aspect of interprofessional education and practice now in development around the world.

  6. Furthering Medical Education in Texas. (United States)

    Varma, Surendra K; Jennings, John


    Medical education in Texas is moving in the right direction. The Texas Medical Association has been a major partner in advancing medical education initiatives. This special symposium issue on medical education examines residency training costs, the Next Accreditation System, graduate medical education in rural Texas, Texas' physician workforce needs, the current state of education reform, and efforts to retain medical graduates in Texas.

  7. Changing Medical School IT to Support Medical Education Transformation. (United States)

    Spickard, Anderson; Ahmed, Toufeeq; Lomis, Kimberly; Johnson, Kevin; Miller, Bonnie


    Many medical schools are modifying curricula to reflect the rapidly evolving health care environment, but schools struggle to provide the educational informatics technology (IT) support to make the necessary changes. Often a medical school's IT support for the education mission derives from isolated work units employing separate technologies that are not interoperable. We launched a redesigned, tightly integrated, and novel IT infrastructure to support a completely revamped curriculum at the Vanderbilt School of Medicine. This system uses coordinated and interoperable technologies to support new instructional methods, capture students' effort, and manage feedback, allowing the monitoring of students' progress toward specific competency goals across settings and programs. The new undergraduate medical education program at Vanderbilt, entitled Curriculum 2.0, is a competency-based curriculum in which the ultimate goal is medical student advancement based on performance outcomes and personal goals rather than a time-based sequence of courses. IT support was essential in the creation of Curriculum 2.0. In addition to typical learning and curriculum management functions, IT was needed to capture data in the learning workflow for analysis, as well as for informing individual and programmatic success. We aligned people, processes, and technology to provide the IT infrastructure for the organizational transformation. Educational IT personnel were successfully realigned to create the new IT system. The IT infrastructure enabled monitoring of student performance within each competency domain across settings and time via personal student electronic portfolios. Students use aggregated performance data, derived in real time from the portfolio, for mentor-guided performance assessment, and for creation of individual learning goals and plans. Poorly performing students were identified earlier through online communication systems that alert the appropriate instructor or coach of

  8. Rethinking the social history in the era of biolegitimacy: global health and medical education in the care of Palestinian and Syrian refugees in Beirut, Lebanon. (United States)

    Premkumar, Ashish; Raad, Kareem; Haidar, Mona H


    The critiques leveled towards medical humanitarianism by the social sciences have yet to be felt in medical education. The elevation of biological suffering, at the detriment of sociopolitical contextualization, has been shown to clearly impact both acute and long-term care of individuals and communities. With many medical students spending a portion of their educational time in global learning experiences, exposure to humanitarianism and its consequences becomes a unique component of biomedical education. How does the medical field reconcile global health education with the critiques of humanitarianism? This paper argues that the medical response to humanitarian reason should begin at the level of a social history. Using experiential data culled from fieldwork with Palestinian and Syrian refugees in Lebanon, the authors argue that an expanded social history, combined with knowledge derived from the social sciences, can have significant clinical implications. The ability to contextualize an individual's disease and life within a complex sociopolitical framework means that students must draw on disciplines as varied as anthropology, sociology, and political history to further their knowledge base. Moreover, situating these educational goals within the framework of physician advocacy can build a strong base in medical education from both a biomedical and activist perspective.

  9. Educational attainment and health outcomes: Data from the Medical Expenditures Panel Survey. (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert M; Fang, Zhengyi; Kirby, James


    Using data from the nationally representative Medical Expenditures Panel Survey (MEPS), we explored the extent to which health care utilization and health risk-taking, together with previously examined mediators, can explain the education-health gradient above and beyond what can be explained by previously examined mediators such as age, race, and poverty status. Health was measured using the Physical Component Score (PCS) from the Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short Form (SF-12). Educational attainment was self-reported and categorized as 1 (less than high school), 2 (high school graduate or GED), 3 (some college), 4 (bachelor's degree), and 5 (graduate degree). In bivariate analysis, we found systematic graded relationships between educational attainment and health including, SF-12 PCS scores, self-rated health, and activity limitations. In addition, education was associated with having more office visits and outpatient visits and less risk tolerance. Those with less education were also more likely to be uninsured throughout the year. Multivariate regression analysis suggested that adjustment for age, race, poverty status and marital status explained part, but not nearly all, of the relationship between education and health. Adding a variety of variables on health care and attitudes to the models provided no additional explanatory power. This pattern of results persisted even after stratifying on the number of self-reported chronic conditions. Our findings provide no evidence that access to and use of health care explains the education-health gradient. However, more research is necessary to conclusively rule out medical care as a mediator between education and health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. The use of Facebook in medical education – A literature review

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    Pander, Tanja


    Full Text Available [english] Background: The vogue of social media has changed interpersonal communication as well as learning and teaching opportunities in medical education. The most popular social media tool is Facebook. Its features provide potentially useful support for the education of medical students but it also means that some new challenges will have to be faced. Aims: This review aimed to find out how Facebook has been integrated into medical education. A systematical review of the current literature and grade of evidence is provided, research gaps are identified, links to prior reviews are drawn and implications for the future are discussed.Method: The authors searched six databases. Inclusion criteria were defined and the authors independently reviewed the search results. The key information of the articles included was methodically abstracted and coded, synthesized and discussed in the categories study design, study participants’phase of medical education and study content.Results: 16 articles met all inclusion criteria. 45-96% of health care professionals in all phases of their medical education have a Facebook profile. Most studies focused on Facebook and digital professionalism. Unprofessional behavior and privacy violations occurred in 0.02% to 16%. In terms of learning and teaching environment, Facebook is well accepted by medical students. It is used to prepare for exams, share online material, discuss clinical cases, organize face-to-face sessions and exchange information on clerkships. A few educational materials to teach Facebook professionalism were positively evaluated. There seems to be no conclusive evidence as to whether medical students benefit from Facebook as a learning environment on higher competence levels.Discussion: Facebook influences a myriad of aspects of health care professionals, particularly at undergraduate and graduate level in medical education. Despite an increasing number of interventions, there is a lack of

  11. The use of Facebook in medical education – A literature review (United States)

    Pander, Tanja; Pinilla, Severin; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos; Fischer, Martin R.


    Background: The vogue of social media has changed interpersonal communication as well as learning and teaching opportunities in medical education. The most popular social media tool is Facebook. Its features provide potentially useful support for the education of medical students but it also means that some new challenges will have to be faced. Aims: This review aimed to find out how Facebook has been integrated into medical education. A systematical review of the current literature and grade of evidence is provided, research gaps are identified, links to prior reviews are drawn and implications for the future are discussed. Method: The authors searched six databases. Inclusion criteria were defined and the authors independently reviewed the search results. The key information of the articles included was methodically abstracted and coded, synthesized and discussed in the categories study design, study participants’phase of medical education and study content. Results: 16 articles met all inclusion criteria. 45-96% of health care professionals in all phases of their medical education have a Facebook profile. Most studies focused on Facebook and digital professionalism. Unprofessional behavior and privacy violations occurred in 0.02% to 16%. In terms of learning and teaching environment, Facebook is well accepted by medical students. It is used to prepare for exams, share online material, discuss clinical cases, organize face-to-face sessions and exchange information on clerkships. A few educational materials to teach Facebook professionalism were positively evaluated. There seems to be no conclusive evidence as to whether medical students benefit from Facebook as a learning environment on higher competence levels. Discussion: Facebook influences a myriad of aspects of health care professionals, particularly at undergraduate and graduate level in medical education. Despite an increasing number of interventions, there is a lack of conclusive evidence in terms of

  12. Optimization of Medication Use at Accountable Care Organizations. (United States)

    Wilks, Chrisanne; Krisle, Erik; Westrich, Kimberly; Lunner, Kristina; Muhlestein, David; Dubois, Robert


    -in. Compared with 2012 data, data on ACOs that participated in this study show that they continue to build effective strategies to optimize medication use. These ACOs struggle with both notification related to prescription use and measurement of the influence optimized medication use has on costs and quality outcomes. Compared with the earlier study, these data find that more ACOs are involving pharmacists directly in care, expanding the use of generics, electronically transmitting prescriptions, identifying gaps in care and potential adverse events, and educating patients on therapeutic alternatives. ACO-level policies that facilitate practices to optimize medication use are needed. Integrating pharmacists into care, giving both pharmacists and physicians access to clinical data, obtaining physician buy-in, and measuring the impact of practices to optimize medication use may improve these practices. This research was sponsored and funded by the National Pharmaceutical Council (NPC), an industry funded health policy research group that is not involved in lobbying or advocacy. Employees of the sponsor contributed to the research questions, determination of the relevance of the research questions, and the research design. Specifically, there was involvement in the survey and interview instruments. They also contributed to some data interpretation and revision of the manuscript. Leavitt Partners was hired by NPC to conduct research for this study and also serves a number of health care clients, including life sciences companies, provider organizations, accountable care organizations, and payers. Westrich and Dubois are employed by the NPC. Wilks, Krisle, Lunner, and Muhlestein are employed by Leavitt Partners and did not receive separate compensation. Study concept and design were contributed by Krisle, Dubois, and Muhlestein, along with Lunner and Westrich. Krisle and Muhlestein collected the data, and data interpretation was performed by Wilks, Krisle, and Muhlestein, along

  13. "Should You Turn This into a Complete Gender Matter?" Gender Mainstreaming in Medical Education (United States)

    Verdonk, Petra; Benschop, Yvonne; de Haes, Hanneke; Mans, Linda; Lagro-Janssen, Toine


    The incorporation of a gender perspective in medical education aims toward better health, gender equity, and a better health care for both men and women. In this article, participants' responses to a Dutch gender awareness-raising project in medical education are discussed. Eighteen semi-structured interviews were held with education directors and…

  14. The impact of subspecialization on postgraduate medical education in neurosurgery. (United States)

    Toyota, Brian D


    Medical subspecialization is a response to rapidly expanding technology and knowledge. Although beneficial to patient care, it poses a challenge to the current infrastructure of resident education. This article analyzes the advent of subspecialization, the current template of postgraduate neurosurgical education, the impact of subspecialization on postgraduate neurosurgical education, and, finally, suggests strategies to optimize professional education in the face of an increasingly subspecialized field.

  15. A Faculty Development Program can result in an improvement of the quality and output in medical education, basic sciences and clinical research and patient care. (United States)

    Dieter, Peter Erich


    The Carl Gustav Carus Faculty of Medicine, University of Technology Dresden, Germany, was founded in 1993 after the reunification of Germany. In 1999, a reform process of medical education was started together with Harvard Medical International.The traditional teacher- and discipline-centred curriculum was displaced by a student-centred, interdisciplinary and integrative curriculum, which has been named Dresden Integrative Patient/Problem-Oriented Learning (DIPOL). The reform process was accompanied and supported by a parallel-ongoing Faculty Development Program. In 2004, a Quality Management Program in medical education was implemented, and in 2005 medical education received DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 certification. Quality Management Program and DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 certification were/are unique for the 34 medical schools in Germany.The students play a very important strategic role in all processes. They are members in all committees like the Faculty Board, the Board of Study Affairs (with equal representation) and the ongoing audits in the Quality Management Program. The Faculty Development program, including a reform in medical education, the establishment of the Quality Management program and the certification, resulted in an improvement of the quality and output of medical education and was accompanied in an improvement of the quality and output of basic sciences and clinical research and interdisciplinary patient care.

  16. Assessment of mothers’ satisfaction with the care of maternal care in Specialized Educational-Medical Centers in obstetrics and gynecological disease in Northwest, Iran

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    Simin Taghavi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients satisfaction includes the assessment of healthcare which she/he received. This study aims at assessment of mothers’ satisfaction with the care of maternal care in Specialized Educational-Medical Centers in obstetrics and gynecological disease in Northwest, Iran. Methods: In an analytic-descriptive cross-sectional study, 1000 female patients who admitted in educational-medical centers of Northwest were studied during a 2 years period (2010-2012. They asked to fill a 34-item closed-answer questionnaire (ranking from very unsatisfied to very satisfied responses following their discharge. Validity of the questionnaire was improved by gynecologist’s experts comments, and reliability of the questionnaire were assessed by test-retest methods (α = 0.946. Results: The satisfaction score (satisfied or very satisfied responses were 61.2, 55.8, 61.8 and 59.5 percent for admitting process, primary care services, treatments and therapeutic interventions and overall, respectively. The satisfaction score for access to doctors was highest in the morning and lowest at the night shifts. The satisfaction score about the personnel’s behavior was lowest during the night shifts. The satisfaction score about the residents’ behavior was highest for the morning shifts. There was no significant difference between the three working shifts regarding psychological feelings, humanitarian respect, and issues like nutrition and private and public hygiene. There was a significant direct correlation between the mean score of satisfaction and patients’ age (Spearman’s rho = 0.117, P < 0.001. Conclusion: The satisfaction level of patients hospitalized in Northwest of Iran's Hospitals was intermediate. Planning new strategies in this regard with emphasis on the main limitations may improve the satisfaction rate in the future.

  17. Educational challenges faced by international medical graduates in the UK

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    Hashim A


    Full Text Available Ahmed Hashim Gastroenterology Department, Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Brighton, UK Introduction: International medical graduates (IMGs in the UK constitute approximately one-quarter of the total number of doctors registered in the General Medical Council (GMC. The transition of IMGs into the health care system in the UK is accompanied by significant sociocultural and educational challenges. This study aims to explore the views of IMGs in medical training on the educational challenges they face.Methods: This study was conducted in the Kent, Surrey and Sussex region in 2015. All IMGs who work in medical (physicianly training programs were included. Data were collected through a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. Thematic approach was used to analyze the qualitative data.Results: Of the total 61 IMGs included, 17 responded to the survey and 3 were interviewed. The common educational barriers faced by IMGs were related to lack of appreciation of the values and structure of the National Health Service (NHS, ethical and medicolegal issues, receiving feedback from colleagues and the different learning strategies in the UK. IMGs suggested introduction of a mandatory dedicated induction program in the form of formal teaching sessions. They also believed that a supervised shadowing period prior in the first job in the UK would be beneficial. Further assessment areas should be incorporated into the prequalifying examinations to address specific educational needs such as NHS structure and hospital policies. Other measures such as buddying schemes with senior IMGs and educating NHS staff on different needs of IMGs should also be considered.Conclusion: This study highlighted important educational challenges faced by IMGs and generated relevant solutions. However, the opinions of the supervisors and other health care professionals need to be explored. Keywords: international medical graduates, IMG, educational barriers

  18. Interprofessional Medical-Legal Education of Medical Students: Assessing the Benefits for Addressing Social Determinants of Health. (United States)

    Pettignano, Robert; Bliss, Lisa; McLaren, Susan; Caley, Sylvia


    Screening tools exist to help identify patient issues related to social determinants of health (SDH), but solutions to many of these problems remain elusive to health care providers as they require legal solutions. Interprofessional medical-legal education is essential to optimizing health care delivery. In 2011, the authors implemented a four-session didactic interprofessional curriculum on medical-legal practice for third-year medical students at Morehouse School of Medicine. This program, also attended by law students, focused on interprofessional collaboration to address client/patient SDH issues and health-harming legal needs. In 2011-2014, the medical students participated in pre- and postintervention surveys designed to determine their awareness of SDH's impact on health as well as their attitudes toward screening for SDH issues and incorporating resources, including a legal resource, to address them. Mean ratings were compared between pre- and postintervention respondent cohorts using independent-sample t tests. Of the 222 medical students who participated in the program, 102 (46%) completed the preintervention survey and 100 (45%) completed the postintervention survey. Postintervention survey results indicated that students self-reported an increased likelihood to screen patients for SDH issues and an increased likelihood to refer patients to a legal resource (P education into undergraduate medical education may result in an increased likelihood to screen patients for SDH and to refer patients with legal needs to a legal resource. In the future, an additional evaluation to assess the curriculum's long-term impact will be administered prior to graduation.

  19. Troubling Muddy Waters: Problematizing Reflective Practice in Global Medical Education. (United States)

    Naidu, Thirusha; Kumagai, Arno K


    The idea of exporting the concept of reflective practice for a global medical education audience is growing. However, the uncritical export and adoption of Western concepts of reflection may be inappropriate in non-Western societies. The emphasis in Western medical education on the use of reflection for a specific end--that is, the improvement of individual clinical practice--tends to ignore the range of reflective practice, concentrating on reflection alone while overlooking critical reflection and reflexivity. This Perspective places the concept of reflective practice under a critical lens to explore a broader view for its application in medical education outside the West. The authors suggest that ideas about reflection in medicine and medical education may not be as easily transferable from Western to non-Western contexts as concepts from biomedical science are. The authors pose the question, When "exporting" Western medical education strategies and principles, how often do Western-trained educators authentically open up to the possibility that there are alternative ways of seeing and knowing that may be valuable in educating Western physicians? One answer lies in the assertion that educators should aspire to turn exportation of educational theory into a truly bidirectional, collaborative exchange in which culturally conscious views of reflective practice contribute to humanistic, equitable patient care. This discussion engages in troubling the already-muddy waters of reflective practice by exploring the global applicability of reflective practice as it is currently applied in medical education. The globalization of medical education demands critical reflection on reflection itself.

  20. Nurses' medication administration practices at two Singaporean acute care hospitals. (United States)

    Choo, Janet; Johnston, Linda; Manias, Elizabeth


    This study examined registered nurses' overall compliance with accepted medication administration procedures, and explored the distractions they faced during medication administration at two acute care hospitals in Singapore. A total of 140 registered nurses, 70 from each hospital, participated in the study. At both hospitals, nurses were distracted by personnel, such as physicians, radiographers, patients not under their care, and telephone calls, during medication rounds. Deviations from accepted medication procedures were observed. At one hospital, the use of a vest during medication administration alone was not effective in avoiding distractions during medication administration. Environmental factors and distractions can impact on the safe administration of medications, because they not only impair nurses' level of concentration, but also add to their work pressure. Attention should be placed on eliminating distractions through the use of appropriate strategies. Strategies that could be considered include the conduct of education sessions with health professionals and patients about the importance of not interrupting nurses while they are administering medications, and changes in work design. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Innovation in Indigenous Health and Medical Education: The Leaders in Indigenous Medical Education (LIME) Network as a Community of Practice. (United States)

    Mazel, Odette; Ewen, Shaun


    The Leaders in Indigenous Medical Education (LIME) Network aims to improve the quality and effectiveness of Indigenous health in medical education as well as best practice in the recruitment, retention, and graduation of Indigenous medical students. In this article we explore the utility of Etienne Wenger's "communities of practice" (CoP) concept in providing a theoretical framework to better understand the LIME Network as a form of social infrastructure to further knowledge and innovation in this important area of health care education reform. The Network operates across all medical schools in Australia and New Zealand. Utilizing a model of evaluation of communities of practice developed by Fung-Kee-Fung et al., we seek to analyze the outcomes of the LIME Network as a CoP and assess its approach and contribution to improving the implementation of Indigenous health in the medical curriculum and the graduation of Indigenous medical students. By reflecting on the Network through a community of practice lens, this article highlights the synthesis between the LIME Network and Wenger's theory and provides a framework with which to measure Network outputs. It also posits an opportunity to better capture the impact of Network activities into the future to ensure that it remains a relevant and sustainable entity.

  2. Factors Associated with Attitude and Knowledge Toward Hospice Palliative Care Among Medical Caregivers

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    Shih-Yi Lee


    Conclusion: Life and work experience improve the accuracy of medical staff in providing hospice palliative care. A culture-based, case-oriented continuing education program and a timely revision of the Hospice Palliative Care Article are recommended to increase the consistency between the principle and the practice of hospice palliative care.

  3. Quality Early Education and Child Care From Birth to Kindergarten. (United States)

    Donoghue, Elaine A


    High-quality early education and child care for young children improves physical and cognitive outcomes for the children and can result in enhanced school readiness. Preschool education can be viewed as an investment (especially for at-risk children), and studies show a positive return on that investment. Barriers to high-quality early childhood education include inadequate funding and staff education as well as variable regulation and enforcement. Steps that have been taken to improve the quality of early education and child care include creating multidisciplinary, evidence-based child care practice standards; establishing state quality rating and improvement systems; improving federal and state regulations; providing child care health consultation; as well as initiating other innovative partnerships. Pediatricians have a role in promoting quality early education and child care for all children not only in the medical home but also at the community, state, and national levels. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Medical education--addressing the needs of the dying child. (United States)

    Charlton, R


    This paper reviews the formulation of attitudes, the acquisition of knowledge and the development of skills which together enable medical practitioners to provide comprehensive palliative care for terminally ill children. Ideally, these should be developed to such an extent that a 'good death' can be achieved. Current medical education does not address these areas and the associated issues, including the breaking of bad news, understanding the grief reaction to serious illness and children's perceptions of death. Neither does training include how to take management decisions concerning informed consent, the transition from active treatment to palliative care, symptom control and choosing the place for care. These, and the unintentional attitude that regards the dying child as a 'medical failure', are discussed, together with the need to meet the needs of the parents and siblings, and the effects of bereavement. Finally, recommendations are made for undergraduate curricula and the need to emphasize the relationship of caring for the family unit, and not just the patient.

  5. Medical Service Utilization among Youth with School-Identified Disabilities in Residential Care (United States)

    Lambert, Matthew C.; Trout, Alexandra L.; Nelson, Timothy D.; Epstein, Michael H.; W. Thompson, Ronald


    Background: Behavioral, social, emotional, and educational risks among children and youth with school identified disabilities served in residential care have been well documented. However, the health care needs and medical service utilization of this high-risk population are less well known. Given the risks associated with children with…

  6. Doctors or technicians: assessing quality of medical education. (United States)

    Hasan, Tayyab


    Medical education institutions usually adapt industrial quality management models that measure the quality of the process of a program but not the quality of the product. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of industrial quality management models on medical education and students, and to highlight the importance of introducing a proper educational quality management model. Industrial quality management models can measure the training component in terms of competencies, but they lack the educational component measurement. These models use performance indicators to assess their process improvement efforts. Researchers suggest that the performance indicators used in educational institutions may only measure their fiscal efficiency without measuring the quality of the educational experience of the students. In most of the institutions, where industrial models are used for quality assurance, students are considered as customers and are provided with the maximum services and facilities possible. Institutions are required to fulfill a list of recommendations from the quality control agencies in order to enhance student satisfaction and to guarantee standard services. Quality of medical education should be assessed by measuring the impact of the educational program and quality improvement procedures in terms of knowledge base development, behavioral change, and patient care. Industrial quality models may focus on academic support services and processes, but educational quality models should be introduced in parallel to focus on educational standards and products.

  7. Medical education: Changes and perspectives (United States)

    Zhang, Qin; Lee, Liming; Gruppen, Larry D.; Ba, Denian


    As medical education undergoes significant internationalization, it is important for the medical education community to understand how different countries structure and provide medical education. This article highlights the current landscape of medical education in China, particularly the changes that have taken place in recent years. It also examines policies and offers suggestions about future strategies for medical education in China. Although many of these changes reflect international trends, Chinese medical education has seen unique transformations that reflect its particular culture and history. PMID:23631405

  8. Using evidence to improve satisfaction with medication side-effects education on a neuro-medical surgical unit. (United States)

    Ahrens, Susan L; Wirges, Ashley M


    Patient satisfaction is viewed as a significant indicator of quality of care. More specifically, improving patient satisfaction related to communication about medications and potential side effects can improve healthcare outcomes. Patient satisfaction scores related to medication side effects on a neuro-medical surgical unit were monitored following a quality improvement program. These patients frequently experience cognitive impairment and functional difficulties that can affect the way they understand and handle medications. The purpose of this quality improvement practice change was to (a) develop an educational approach for post acute neurosurgical patients and (b) evaluate whether the use of the approach is successful in improving patient satisfaction scores related to medication education on side effects. The quality improvement program interventions included (a) patient informational handouts inserted into admission folders, (b) nurse education about the importance of providing education on side effects to patient and discussion of their involvement with the program, (c) unit flyers with nurse education, and (d) various communications with bedside nurses through personal work mail and emails. The primary focus was for nurses to employ the "teach back" method to review and reinforce the medication side-effect teaching with patients. Evaluation of the data showed an increase in patient satisfaction after the implementation of the "Always Ask" program.

  9. 'Should you turn this into a complete gender matter?' Gender mainstreaming in medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, Petra; Benschop, Yvonne; de Haes, Hanneke; Mans, Linda; Lagro-Janssen, Toine


    The incorporation of a gender perspective in medical education aims toward better health, gender equity, and a better health care for both men and women. In this article, participants' responses to a Dutch gender awareness-raising project in medical education are discussed. Eighteen semi-structured

  10. Addressing gaps in physician knowledge regarding transgender health and healthcare through medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah McPhail


    Conclusions: The findings suggest a pressing need for better medical education that exposes students to basic skills in trans health so that they can become competent in providing care to trans people. This learning must take place alongside anti-transphobia education. Based on these findings, we suggest key recommendations at the close of the paper for providing quality trans health curriculum in medical education.

  11. Improving and measuring inpatient documentation of medical care within the MS-DRG system: education, monitoring, and normalized case mix index. (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Benjamin P; Lorenz, Robert R; Luther, Ralph B; Knowles-Ward, Lisa; Kelly, Dianne L; Weil, Robert J


    Documentation of the care delivered to hospitalized patients is a ubiquitous and important aspect of medical care. The majority of references to documentation and coding are based on the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Medicare Severity Diagnosis Related Group (MS-DRG) inpatient prospective payment system (IPPS). We educated the members of a clinical care team in a single department (neurosurgery) at our hospital. We measured subsequent documentation improvements in a simple, meaningful, and reproducible fashion. We created a new metric to measure documentation, termed the "normalized case mix index," that allows comparison of hospitalizations across multiple unrelated MS-DRG groups. Compared to one year earlier, the traditional case mix index, normalized case mix index, severity of illness, and risk of mortality increased one year after the educational intervention. We encourage other organizations to implement and systematically monitor documentation improvement efforts when attempting to determine the accuracy and quality of documentation achieved.

  12. Medical education in Israel 2016: five medical schools in a period of transition. (United States)

    Reis, Shmuel; Urkin, Jacob; Nave, Rachel; Ber, Rosalie; Ziv, Amitai; Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Meitar, Dafna; Gilbey, Peter; Mevorach, Dror


    We reviewed the existing programs for basic medical education (BME) in Israel as well as their output, since they are in a phase of reassessment and transition. The transition has been informed, in part, by evaluation in 2014 by an International Review Committee (IRC). The review is followed by an analysis of its implications as well as the emergent roadmap for the future. The review documents a trend of modernizing, humanizing, and professionalizing Israeli medical education in general, and BME in particular, independently in each of the medical schools. Suggested improvements include an increased emphasis on interactive learner-centered rather than frontal teaching formats, clinical simulation, interprofessional training, and establishment of a national medical training forum for faculty development. In addition, collaboration should be enhanced between medical educators and health care providers, and among the medical schools themselves. The five schools admitted about 730 Israeli students in 2015, doubling admissions from 2000. In 2014, the number of new licenses, including those awarded to Israeli international medical graduates (IMGs), surpassed for the first time in more than a decade the estimated need for 1100 new physicians annually. About 60 % of the licenses awarded in 2015 were to IMGs. Israeli BME is undergoing continuous positive changes, was supplied with a roadmap for even further improvement by the IRC, and has doubled its output of graduates. The numbers of both Israeli graduates and IMGs are higher than estimated previously and may address the historically projected physician shortage. However, it is not clear whether the majority of newly licensed physicians, who were trained abroad, have benefited from similar recent improvements in medical education similar to those benefiting graduates of the Israeli medical schools, nor is it certain that they will benefit from the further improvements that have recently been recommended for the Israeli

  13. Transforming Medical Education is the Key to Meeting North Carolina's Physician Workforce Needs. (United States)

    Cunningham, Paul R G; Baxley, Elizabeth G; Garrison, Herbert G


    To meet the needs of the population of North Carolina, an epic transformation is under way in health care. This transformation requires that we find new ways to educate and train physicians and other health care professionals. In this commentary, we propose that the success of the Brody School of Medicine in preparing a primary care physician workforce can serve as a model for meeting the state's future physician workforce needs. Other considerations include increasing graduate medical education positions through state funding and providing incentives for medical students who stay in North Carolina. ©2016 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.

  14. Teaching medical ethics to meet the realities of a changing health care system. (United States)

    Millstone, Michael


    The changing context of medical practice--bureaucratic, political, or economic--demands that doctors have the knowledge and skills to face these new realities. Such changes impose obstacles on doctors delivering ethical care to vulnerable patient populations. Modern medical ethics education requires a focus upon the knowledge and skills necessary to close the gap between the theory and practice of ethical care. Physicians and doctors-in-training must learn to be morally sensitive to ethical dilemmas on the wards, learn how to make professionally grounded decisions with their patients and other medical providers, and develop the leadership, dedication, and courage to fulfill ethical values in the face of disincentives and bureaucratic challenges. A new core focus of medical ethics education must turn to learning how to put ethics into practice by teaching physicians to realistically negotiate the new institutional maze of 21st-century medicine.

  15. Sociology in American medical education since the 1960s: the rhetoric or reform. (United States)

    Wegar, K


    Despite recommendations by medical reformers that medical sociology be included in the curriculum, there is currently little evidence of a far-reaching integration of sociological perspectives in American medical education. Yet, support for the relevance of sociological knowledge has since the late 1960s helped to diffuse external pressures for change in health care and medical education. As a symbol of the communitarian commitment of the medical profession, claims in favor of the incorporation of sociological perspectives have thus occasionally, and largely unintentionally, served the public relations interests of biomedicine. However, the more recent interest in medical ethics has to some degree transformed medicine's educational agenda and the definition of medical 'human values'. Whereas the rhetorical expropriation of medical sociology primarily has concerned medicine's responsibility vis-à-vis society as a whole, the new medical ethics education signifies a return to a more individualistically oriented medical morality.

  16. A retrospective analysis of the relationship between medical student debt and primary care practice in the United States. (United States)

    Phillips, Julie P; Petterson, Stephen M; Bazemore, Andrew W; Phillips, Robert L


    We undertook a study to reexamine the relationship between educational debt and primary care practice, accounting for the potentially confounding effect of medical student socioeconomic status. We performed retrospective multivariate analyses of data from 136,232 physicians who graduated from allopathic US medical schools between 1988 and 2000, obtained from the American Association of Medical Colleges Graduate Questionnaire, the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile, and other sources. Need-based loans were used as markers for socioeconomic status of physicians' families of origin. We examined 2 outcomes: primary care practice and family medicine practice in 2010. Physicians who graduated from public schools were most likely to practice primary care and family medicine at graduating educational debt levels of $50,000 to $100,000 (2010 dollars; P practice persisted when physicians from different socioeconomic status groups, as approximated by loan type, were examined separately. At higher debt, graduates' odds of practicing primary care or family medicine declined. In contrast, private school graduates were not less likely to practice primary care or family medicine as debt levels increased. High educational debt deters graduates of public medical schools from choosing primary care, but does not appear to influence private school graduates in the same way. Students from relatively lower income families are more strongly influenced by debt. Reducing debt of selected medical students may be effective in promoting a larger primary care physician workforce. © 2014 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  17. Is the modernisation of postgraduate medical training in the Netherlands successful? Views of the NVMO Special Interest Group on Postgraduate Medical Education. (United States)

    Scheele, Fedde; Van Luijk, Scheltus; Mulder, Hanneke; Baane, Coby; Rooyen, Corry Den; De Hoog, Matthijs; Fokkema, Joanne; Heineman, Erik; Sluiter, Henk


    Worldwide, the modernisation of medical education is leading to the design and implementation of new postgraduate curricula. In this article, the Special Interest Group for postgraduate medical education of the Netherlands Association for Medical Education (NVMO) reports on the experiences in the Netherlands. To provide insight into the shift in the aims of postgraduate training, as well as into the diffusion of distinct curricular activities, introduced during the process of modernisation. Based on three levels of training described by Frenk et al., the process of modernisation in the Netherlands is reviewed in a narrative way, using the expert views of the NVMO-SIG on PGME as a source of information. Educational science has effectively been incorporated and has until now mainly been applied on the level of informative learning to create 'medical expertise'. Implementing change on the level of formative learning for 'professional performance' has until now been a slow and arduous process, but the concept of reflection on practice has been firmly embraced. The training on the level of transformative learning is still in its early stages. The discussion about the aims of modern medical education could benefit from a more structured and transdisciplinary approach. Research is warranted on the interface between health care provision and those sciences that specialise in generic professional skills and in the societal context. Training professionals and educating 'enlightened change agents' for transformation in health care requires more governance and support from academic leaders with a broader perspective on the future of health care.

  18. What are the implications of implementation science for medical education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Price


    Full Text Available Background: Derived from multiple disciplines and established in industries outside of medicine, Implementation Science (IS seeks to move evidence-based approaches into widespread use to enable improved outcomes to be realized as quickly as possible by as many as possible. Methods: This review highlights selected IS theories and models, chosen based on the experience of the authors, that could be used to plan and deliver medical education activities to help learners better implement and sustain new knowledge and skills in their work settings. Results: IS models, theories and approaches can help medical educators promote and determine their success in achieving desired learner outcomes. We discuss the importance of incorporating IS into the training of individuals, teams, and organizations, and employing IS across the medical education continuum. Challenges and specific strategies for the application of IS in educational settings are also discussed. Conclusions: Utilizing IS in medical education can help us better achieve changes in competence, performance, and patient outcomes. IS should be incorporated into curricula across disciplines and across the continuum of medical education to facilitate implementation of learning. Educators should start by selecting, applying, and evaluating the teaching and patient care impact one or two IS strategies in their work.

  19. Modernizing and transforming medical education at the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College. (United States)

    Lisasi, Esther; Kulanga, Ahaz; Muiruri, Charles; Killewo, Lucy; Fadhili, Ndimangwa; Mimano, Lucy; Kapanda, Gibson; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory; Nyindo, Mramba; Mteta, Kien; Kessi, Egbert; Ntabaye, Moshi; Bartlett, John


    The Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University (KCMU) College and the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) are addressing the crisis in Tanzanian health care manpower by modernizing the college's medical education with new tools and techniques. With a $10 million MEPI grant and the participation of its partner, Duke University, KCMU is harnessing the power of information technology (IT) to upgrade tools for students and faculty. Initiatives in eLearning have included bringing fiber-optic connectivity to the campus, offering campus-wide wireless access, opening student and faculty computer laboratories, and providing computer tablets to all incoming medical students. Beyond IT, the college is also offering wet laboratory instruction for hands-on diagnostic skills, team-based learning, and clinical skills workshops. In addition, modern teaching tools and techniques address the challenges posed by increasing numbers of students. To provide incentives for instructors, a performance-based compensation plan and teaching awards have been established. Also for faculty, IT tools and training have been made available, and a medical education course management system is now being widely employed. Student and faculty responses have been favorable, and the rapid uptake of these interventions by students, faculty, and the college's administration suggests that the KCMU College MEPI approach has addressed unmet needs. This enabling environment has transformed the culture of learning and teaching at KCMU College, where a path to sustainability is now being pursued.

  20. The future of graduate medical education in Germany - position paper of the Committee on Graduate Medical Education of the Society for Medical Education (GMA). (United States)

    David, Dagmar M; Euteneier, Alexander; Fischer, Martin R; Hahn, Eckhart G; Johannink, Jonas; Kulike, Katharina; Lauch, Robert; Lindhorst, Elmar; Noll-Hussong, Michael; Pinilla, Severin; Weih, Markus; Wennekes, Vanessa


    The German graduate medical education system is going through an important phase of changes. Besides the ongoing reform of the national guidelines for graduate medical education (Musterweiterbildungsordnung), other factors like societal and demographic changes, health and research policy reforms also play a central role for the future and competitiveness of graduate medical education. With this position paper, the committee on graduate medical education of the Society for Medical Education (GMA) would like to point out some central questions for this process and support the current discourse. As an interprofessional and interdisciplinary scientific society, the GMA has the resources to contribute in a meaningful way to an evidence-based and future-oriented graduate medical education strategy. In this position paper, we use four key questions with regards to educational goals, quality assurance, teaching competence and policy requirements to address the core issues for the future of graduate medical education in Germany. The GMA sees its task in contributing to the necessary reform processes as the only German speaking scientific society in the field of medical education.

  1. Teledermatology as an educational tool for teaching dermatology to residents and medical students. (United States)

    Boyers, Lindsay N; Schultz, Amanda; Baceviciene, Rasa; Blaney, Susan; Marvi, Natasha; Dellavalle, Robert P; Dunnick, Cory A


    Although teledermatology (TD) is regarded as a tool to improve patient access to specialty healthcare, little has been done to evaluate its role in medical education. We describe the TD program at the Denver (CO) Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center and evaluate its use as an educational tool for teaching dermatology to dermatology residents and medical students. Dermatology residents manage TD consultations and review all cases with a faculty preceptor; medical students participate as observers when possible. This study assessed dermatology resident (n=14) and medical student (n=16) perceptions of TD and its usefulness in teaching six core clinical competencies. Both residents (79%) and medical students (88%) "strongly agree" or "agree" that TD is an important educational tool. In general, medical students were slightly more satisfied than residents across all of the core competencies assessed except for patient care. Medical students and residents were most satisfied with the competencies of practice-based learning and improvement and medical knowledge, whereas they were least satisfied with those of interpersonal and communication skills and professionalism. Overall, TD is valued as a teaching tool for dermatology in the areas of patient care, medical knowledge, practice-based learning and improvement, and systems-based practice.

  2. Conducting Quantitative Medical Education Research: From Design to Dissemination. (United States)

    Abramson, Erika L; Paul, Caroline R; Petershack, Jean; Serwint, Janet; Fischel, Janet E; Rocha, Mary; Treitz, Meghan; McPhillips, Heather; Lockspeiser, Tai; Hicks, Patricia; Tewksbury, Linda; Vasquez, Margarita; Tancredi, Daniel J; Li, Su-Ting T


    Rigorous medical education research is critical to effectively develop and evaluate the training we provide our learners. Yet many clinical medical educators lack the training and skills needed to conduct high-quality medical education research. We offer guidance on conducting sound quantitative medical education research. Our aim is to equip readers with the key skills and strategies necessary to conduct successful research projects, highlighting new concepts and controversies in the field. We utilize Glassick's criteria for scholarship as a framework to discuss strategies to ensure that the research question of interest is worthy of further study and how to use existing literature and conceptual frameworks to strengthen a research study. Through discussions of the strengths and limitations of commonly used study designs, we expose the reader to particular nuances of these decisions in medical education research and discuss outcomes generally focused on, as well as strategies for determining the significance of consequent findings. We conclude with information on critiquing research findings and preparing results for dissemination to a broad audience. Practical planning worksheets and comprehensive tables illustrating key concepts are provided in order to guide researchers through each step of the process. Medical education research provides wonderful opportunities to improve how we teach our learners, to satisfy our own intellectual curiosity, and ultimately to enhance the care provided to patients. Copyright © 2018 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Capitated payments to primary care providers and the delivery of patient education. (United States)

    Pearson, William S; King, Dana E; Richards, Chesley


    Patient education is a critical component of the patient-centered medical home and is a powerful and effective tool in chronic disease management. However, little is known about the effect of practice payment on rates of patient education during office encounters. For this study we took data from the 2009 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. This was a cross-sectional analysis of patient visits to primary care providers to determine whether practice payment in the form of capitated payments is associated within patient education being included more frequently during office visits compared with other payment methods. In a sample size of 9863 visits in which capitation status was available and the provider was the patient's primary care provider, the weighted percentages of visits including patient education were measured as a percentages of education (95% confidence intervals): 75% capitation, 74.0% (52.2-88.1). In an adjusted logistic model controlling for new patients (yes/no), number of chronic conditions, number of medications managed, number of previous visits within the year, and age and sex of the patients, the odds of receiving education were reported as odds ratios (95% confidence intervals): 75% capitation, 3.38 (1.23-9.30). Patients are more likely to receive education if their primary care providers receive primarily capitated payment. This association is generally important for health policymakers constructing payment strategies for patient populations who would most benefit from interventions that incorporate or depend on patient education, such as populations requiring management of chronic diseases.

  4. Clinical Impact of Education Provision on Determining Advance Care Planning Decisions among End Stage Renal Disease Patients Receiving Regular Hemodialysis in University Malaya Medical Centre. (United States)

    Hing Wong, Albert; Chin, Loh Ee; Ping, Tan Li; Peng, Ng Kok; Kun, Lim Soo


    Advance care planning (ACP) is a process of shared decision-making about future health-care plans between patients, health care providers, and family members, should patients becomes incapable of participating in medical treatment decisions. ACP discussions enhance patient's autonomy, focus on patient's values and treatment preferences, and promote patient-centered care. ACP is integrated as part of clinical practice in Singapore and the United States. To assess the clinical impact of education provision on determining ACP decisions among end-stage renal disease patients on regular hemodialysis at University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC). To study the knowledge and attitude of patients toward ACP and end-of-life issues. Fifty-six patients were recruited from UMMC. About 43 questions pretest survey adapted from Lyon's ACP survey and Moss's cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) attitude survey was given to patients to answer. An educational brochure is then introduced to these patients, and a posttest survey carried out after that. The results were analyzed using SPSS version 22.0. Opinion on ACP, including CPR decisions, showed an upward trend on the importance percentage after the educational brochure exposure, but this was statistically not significant. Seventy-five percent of participants had never heard of ACP before, and only 3.6% had actually prepared a written advanced directive. The ACP educational brochure clinically impacts patients' preferences and decisions toward end-of-life care; however, this is statistically not significant. Majority of patients have poor knowledge on ACP. This study lays the foundation for execution of future larger scale clinical trials, and ultimately, the incorporation of ACP into clinical practice in Malaysia.

  5. Medical education as moral formation: an Aristotelian account of medical professionalsim. (United States)

    Kinghorn, Warren A


    The medical professionalism movement, bolstered by many influential medical organizations and institutions, has in the last decade produced a number of conceptual definitions of professionalism and a number of concrete proposals for its measurement and teaching. These projects, however laudable, are misguided when they treat professionalism as a unitary descriptive concept rather than as a contested and therefore primarily evaluative one; when they conceive professionalism as a domain of medical practice separable in principle from other domains; and when they treat professionalism as, in principle, a specifiable goal or product of sufficiently well designed educational curricula. The logic of professionalism-as-product corresponds to the logic of techne (art or practical skill) in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics. Aristotle provides a cogent argument, however, that the moral excellences denoted by "professionalism" cannot be "produced" or even prespecified in the concrete; rather, they must be acquired through long practice under the careful concrete guidance of teachers who themselves embody these moral excellences. Phronesis (practical wisdom) rather than techne must therefore be the guiding logic of educational initiatives in medical professional formation, with particular emphasis on close mentorship and on the moral character both of students and of those who teach them.

  6. A brief history of medical education in Sub-Saharan Africa. (United States)

    Monekosso, G L


    Developments in medical education in Sub-Saharan Africa over the past 100 years have been characterized by the continent's unique history. During the first half of the 20th century, the Europeans effectively installed medical education in their African colonies. The years 1950 to 1960 were distinguished by successful movements for independence, with new governments giving priority to medical education. By 1980, there were 51 medical schools in Sub-Saharan Africa. The period from 1975 to 1990 was problematic both politically and economically for Sub-Saharan Africa, and medical schools did not escape the general difficulties. War, corruption, mounting national debts, and political instability were characteristics of this period. In many countries, maintaining medical school assets--faculty members, buildings, laboratories, libraries--became difficult, and emigration became the goal of many health professionals. In contrast, the past 20 years have seen rapid growth in the number of medical schools in Sub-Saharan Africa. Economic growth and political stability in most Sub-Saharan African countries augur well for investment in health systems strengthening and in medical education. There are, nonetheless, major problem areas, including inadequate funding, challenges of sustainability, and the continuing brain drain. The 20th century was a time of colonialism and the struggle for independence during which medical education did not advance as quickly or broadly as it did in other regions of the world. The 21st century promises a different history, one of rapid growth in medical education, leading to better care and better health for the people of Africa.

  7. Medical Students' Death Anxiety: Severity and Association With Psychological Health and Attitudes Toward Palliative Care. (United States)

    Thiemann, Pia; Quince, Thelma; Benson, John; Wood, Diana; Barclay, Stephen


    Death anxiety (DA) is related to awareness of the reality of dying and death and can be negatively related to a person's psychological health. Physicians' DA also may influence their care for patients approaching death. Doctors face death in a professional context for the first time at medical school, but knowledge about DA among medical students is limited. This study examined medical students' DA in relation to: 1) its severity, gender differences, and trajectory during medical education and 2) its associations with students' attitudes toward palliative care and their psychological health. Four cohorts of core science and four cohorts of clinical students at the University of Cambridge Medical School took part in a questionnaire survey with longitudinal follow-up. Students who provided data on the revised Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale were included in the analysis (n = 790). Medical students' DA was moderate, with no gender differences and remained very stable over time. High DA was associated with higher depression and anxiety levels and greater concerns about the personal impact of providing palliative care. The associations between high DA and lower psychological health and negative attitudes toward palliative care are concerning. It is important to address DA during medical education to enhance student's psychological health and the quality of their future palliative care provision. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prototype Web-based continuing medical education using FlashPix images.


    Landman, A.; Yagi, Y.; Gilbertson, J.; Dawson, R.; Marchevsky, A.; Becich, M. J.


    Continuing Medical Education (CME) is a requirement among practicing physicians to promote continuous enhancement of clinical knowledge to reflect new developments in medical care. Previous research has harnessed the Web to disseminate complete pathology CME case studies including history, images, diagnoses, and discussions to the medical community. Users submit real-time diagnoses and receive instantaneous feedback, eliminating the need for hard copies of case material and case evaluation fo...

  9. Medical Education in Nigeria: Training in Humanistic Qualities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The challenge to the medical education today is not only the acquisition of knowledge and skills required for prescribed professional roles but also the training of humane doctors. The doctors have to alleviate the patients' suffering by providing emotional, social, spiritual and physical support in a holistic care setting.

  10. Medical care of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Isamu


    This monograph, divided into six chapters, focuses on basic knowledge and medical strategies for radiation accidents. Chapters I to V deal with practice in emergency care for radiation exposure, covering 1) medical strategies for radiation accidents, 2) personnel dosimetry and monitoring, 3) nuclear facilities and their surrounding areas with the potential for creating radiation accidents, and emergency medical care for exposed persons, 4) emergency care procedures for radiation exposure and radioactive contamination, and 5) radiation hazards and their treatment. The last chapter provides some references. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. Medical care of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Isamu


    Focusing on the population exposed to radioactivity released from a nuclear power plant, the paper gives an overview of medical strategies in emergency care, steps in medical care, and clinical procedures including decontamination and oral administration of iodine-131. Strategies for evacuation are presented depending on predicted exposure doses to the whole body and thyroid gland. Medical care consists of three steps. When the thyroid gland is supposed to be exposed to 5 - 50 rem or more, the oral administration of iodine-131 is recommended. (Namekawa, K.)

  12. Discrepancies between perceptions of students and deans regarding the consequences of restricting students' use of electronic medical records on quality of medical education. (United States)

    Solarte, Ivan; Könings, Karen D


    Electronic medical records (EMR) are more used in university hospitals, but the use of EMR by medical students at the workplace is still a challenge, because the conflict of interest between medical accountability for hospitals and quality of medical education programs for students. Therefore, this study investigates the use of EMR from the perspective of medical school deans and students, and determines their perceptions and concerns about consequences of restricted use of EMR by students on quality of education and patient care. We administered a large-scale survey about the existence of EMR, existing policies, students' use for learning, and consequences on patient care to 42 deans and 789 Residency Physician Applicants in a private university in Colombia. Data from 26 deans and 442 former graduated students were compared with independent t tests and chi square tests. Only half of medical schools had learning programs and policies about the use of EMR by students. Deans did not realize that students have less access to EMR than to paper-based MR. Perceptions of non-curricular learning opportunities how to write in (E)MR were significantly different between deans and students. Limiting students use of EMR has negative consequences on medical education, according to both deans and students, while deans worried significantly more about impact on patient care than students. Billing issues and liability aspects were their major concerns. There is a need for a clear policy and educational program on the use of EMR by students. Discrepancies between the planned curriculum by deans and the real clinical learning environment as experienced by students indicate suboptimal learning opportunities for students. Creating powerful workplace-learning experiences and resolving concerns on students use of EMR has to be resolved in a constructive collaboration way between the involved stakeholders, including also EMR designers and hospital administrators. We recommend intense

  13. Medical Education Must Move from the Information Age to the Age of Artificial Intelligence. (United States)

    Wartman, Steven A; Combs, C Donald


    Changes to the medical profession require medical education reforms that will enable physicians to more effectively enter contemporary practice. Proposals for such reforms abound. Common themes include renewed emphasis on communication, teamwork, risk-management, and patient safety. These reforms are important but insufficient. They do not adequately address the most fundamental change--the practice of medicine is rapidly transitioning from the information age to the age of artificial intelligence. Employers need physicians who: work at the top of their license, have knowledge spanning the health professions and care continuum, effectively leverage data platforms, focus on analyzing outcomes and improving performance, and communicate the meaning of the probabilities generated by massive amounts of data to patients given their unique human complexities.Future medical practice will have four characteristics that must be addressed in medical education: care will be (1) provided in many locations; (2) provided by newly-constituted health care teams; and (3) based on a growing array of data from multiple sources and artificial intelligence applications; and (4) the interface between medicine and machines will need to be skillfully managed. Thus, medical education must make better use of the findings of cognitive psychology, pay more attention to the alignment of humans and machines in education, and increase the use of simulations. Medical education will need to evolve to include systematic curricular attention to the organization of professional effort among health professionals, the use of intelligence tools like machine learning and robots, and a relentless focus on improving performance and patient outcomes. [end of abstract].

  14. Weighing the cost of educational inflation in undergraduate medical education. (United States)

    Cusano, Ronald; Busche, Kevin; Coderre, Sylvain; Woloschuk, Wayne; Chadbolt, Karen; McLaughlin, Kevin


    Despite the fact that the length of medical school training has remained stable for many years, the expectations of graduating medical students (and the schools that train them) continue to increase. In this Reflection, the authors discuss motives for educational inflation and suggest that these are likely innocent, well-intentioned, and subconscious-and include both a propensity to increase expectations of ourselves and others over time, and a reluctance to reduce training content and expectations. They then discuss potential risks of educational inflation, including reduced emphasis on core knowledge and clinical skills, and adverse effects on the emotional, psychological, and financial wellbeing of students. While acknowledging the need to change curricula to improve learning and clinical outcomes, the authors proffer that it is naïve to assume that we can inflate educational expectations at no additional cost. They suggest that before implementing and/or mandating change, we should consider of all the costs that medical schools and students might incur, including opportunity costs and the impact on the emotional and financial wellbeing of students. They propose a cost-effectiveness framework for medical education and advocate prioritization of interventions that improve learning outcomes with no additional costs or are cost-saving without adversely impacting learning outcomes. When there is an additional cost for improved learning outcomes or a decline in learning outcomes as a result of cost saving interventions, they suggest careful consideration and justification of this trade-off. And when there are neither improved learning outcomes nor cost savings they recommend resisting the urge to change.

  15. Identification of priorities for improvement of medication safety in primary care: a PRIORITIZE study. (United States)

    Tudor Car, Lorainne; Papachristou, Nikolaos; Gallagher, Joseph; Samra, Rajvinder; Wazny, Kerri; El-Khatib, Mona; Bull, Adrian; Majeed, Azeem; Aylin, Paul; Atun, Rifat; Rudan, Igor; Car, Josip; Bell, Helen; Vincent, Charles; Franklin, Bryony Dean


    Medication error is a frequent, harmful and costly patient safety incident. Research to date has mostly focused on medication errors in hospitals. In this study, we aimed to identify the main causes of, and solutions to, medication error in primary care. We used a novel priority-setting method for identifying and ranking patient safety problems and solutions called PRIORITIZE. We invited 500 North West London primary care clinicians to complete an open-ended questionnaire to identify three main problems and solutions relating to medication error in primary care. 113 clinicians submitted responses, which we thematically synthesized into a composite list of 48 distinct problems and 45 solutions. A group of 57 clinicians randomly selected from the initial cohort scored these and an overall ranking was derived. The agreement between the clinicians' scores was presented using the average expert agreement (AEA). The study was conducted between September 2013 and November 2014. The top three problems were incomplete reconciliation of medication during patient 'hand-overs', inadequate patient education about their medication use and poor discharge summaries. The highest ranked solutions included development of a standardized discharge summary template, reduction of unnecessary prescribing, and minimisation of polypharmacy. Overall, better communication between the healthcare provider and patient, quality assurance approaches during medication prescribing and monitoring, and patient education on how to use their medication were considered the top priorities. The highest ranked suggestions received the strongest agreement among the clinicians, i.e. the highest AEA score. Clinicians identified a range of suggestions for better medication management, quality assurance procedures and patient education. According to clinicians, medication errors can be largely prevented with feasible and affordable interventions. PRIORITIZE is a new, convenient, systematic, and replicable method

  16. Medical education for rural areas: Opportunities and challenges for information and communications technologies

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    Sargeant Joan


    Full Text Available Resources in medical education are not evenly distributed and access to education can be more problematic in rural areas. Similar to telemedicine′s positive influence on health care access, advances in information and communications technologies (ICTs increase opportunities for medical education. This paper provides a descriptive overview of the use of ICTs in medical education and suggests a conceptual model for reviewing ICT use in medical education, describes specific ICTs and educational interventions, and discusses opportunities and challenges of ICT use, especially in rural areas. The literature review included technology and medical education, 1996-2005. Using an educational model as a framework, the uses of ICTs in medical education are, very generally, to link learners, instructors, specific course materials and/or information resources in various ways. ICTs range from the simple (telephone, audio-conferencing to the sophisticated (virtual environments, learning repositories and can increase access to medical education and enhance learning and collaboration for learners at all levels and for institutions. While ICTs are being used and offer further potential for medical education enhancement, challenges exist, especially for rural areas. These are technological (e.g., overcoming barriers like cost, maintenance, access to telecommunications infrastructure, educational (using ICTs to best meet learners′ educational priorities, integrating ICTs into educational programs and social (sensitivity to remote needs, resources, cultures. Finally, there is need for more rigorous research to more clearly identify advantages and disadvantages of specific uses of ICTs in medical education.

  17. Knowledge of palliative care among medical interns in a tertiary health institution in Northwestern Nigeria

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    Daniel Chukwunyere Nnadi


    Full Text Available Background: Palliative care is the proactive care which seeks to maximize quality of life for people and families facing life-threatening illnesses. Objectives: To ascertain the existing knowledge of palliative care among medical interns and determine the effect of a structured educational intervention on improvement of their knowledge levels. Subjects and Methods: This is a quasi-experimental, interventional study with a one group pre- and post-test design involving medical interns rotating through the various departments of the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto. The study population was chosen by convenience sampling method. The interns completed a pre- and a post-test assessment following a structured educational intervention for the evaluation of knowledge of palliative care. Knowledge was evaluated by a self-administered structured questionnaire. Results: A total number of 49 medical interns were recruited, among whom were 41 males and 8 females. Their ages ranged from 21 to 36 years with a mean of 27.7 (standard deviation 2.14 years. In the pretest, 11/49 (22.5% of the respondents had poor knowledge level of palliative care; however, in the postintervention, only 2/49 (4.1% of the respondents had poor knowledge. Similarly, good knowledge levels appreciated from 9/49 (18.4% to 14/49 (28.6% while very good knowledge increased from 10/49 (20.4% to 19/49 (38.8%. This effect was statistically significant (Chi-square test 11.655 df = 3, P = 0.009. Conclusion: There is poor knowledge of palliative care among the interns due to ignorance. Following an educational intervention, the knowledge levels appreciated significantly. Palliative care should be part of the medical curriculum.

  18. Estimating the value of medical education: a net present value approach. (United States)

    Kahn, Marc J; Nelling, Edward F


    Estimating the value of a medical education is a difficult undertaking. As student debt levels rise and the role of managed care in price-setting increases, the financial benefit of an MD degree comes into question. We developed a model using net present value (NPV) analysis for a range of annual costs of medical school attendance. Using this model, we determined the point at which pursuing a medical education is a "break-even" proposition from a financial perspective. The NPV of a medical education was positive for all annual costs of attendance from $10,000 to $100,000 and ranged from approximately $39,000 to $674,000 depending on the discount rate. Assuming a discount rate of 8%, only at an annual cost of attendance of $139,805 was the NPV = $0, which represents the break-even cost of medical education for a prospective student. Medical education is a financially advantageous undertaking for costs of attendance that far exceed even the most expensive schools in the United States. Our analysis suggests that based on economics, the supply of future physicians ought to be secure.

  19. Economic evaluation of pharmacist-led medication reviews in residential aged care facilities. (United States)

    Hasan, Syed Shahzad; Thiruchelvam, Kaeshaelya; Kow, Chia Siang; Ghori, Muhammad Usman; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din


    Medication reviews is a widely accepted approach known to have a substantial impact on patients' pharmacotherapy and safety. Numerous options to optimise pharmacotherapy in older people have been reported in literature and they include medication reviews, computerised decision support systems, management teams, and educational approaches. Pharmacist-led medication reviews are increasingly being conducted, aimed at attaining patient safety and medication optimisation. Cost effectiveness is an essential aspect of a medication review evaluation. Areas covered: A systematic searching of articles that examined the cost-effectiveness of medication reviews conducted in aged care facilities was performed using the relevant databases. Pharmacist-led medication reviews confer many benefits such as attainment of biomarker targets for improved clinical outcomes, and other clinical parameters, as well as depict concrete financial advantages in terms of decrement in total medication costs and associated cost savings. Expert commentary: The cost-effectiveness of medication reviews are more consequential than ever before. A critical evaluation of pharmacist-led medication reviews in residential aged care facilities from an economical aspect is crucial in determining if the time, effort, and direct and indirect costs involved in the review rationalise the significance of conducting medication reviews for older people in aged care facilities.

  20. [Medical care of injuries caused intentionally by domestic violence]. (United States)

    Híjar-Medina, Martha; Flores-Regata, Lilí; Valdez-Santiago, Rosario; Blanco, Julia


    To describe and analyze the causes of emergency care services for intentional injuries, especially those caused by domestic violence, at four public hospitals in Mexico City. A cross-sectional study was conducted between January and April 1998, which included variables related with the victim, the aggressor, and the medical care provided to the victim. A questionnaire was applied to individuals who had been injured intentionally. Statistical analysis of data consisted of simple frequencies, the chi 2 test, and odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A logistic regression model was also used to adjust for variables associated with the injury requiring emergency medical care. A total of 598 cases of intentional injuries were analyzed, 16% of which were due to domestic violence. Females were the most frequent victims (76%), followed by young people between 15 and 29 years old (46%). Variables associated with medical care due to injuries by domestic violence were: age 30 or older (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.13-4.90), female gender (OR 8.60 95% CI 4.25-17.40), history of injuries (OR 4.93 95% CI 2.03-11.95), home as place of occurrence (OR 36.25 95% CI 16.59-79.18), and low education level (OR 2.33 95% CI 1.03-5.26). Study findings are consistent with those from other studies and call for enforcement of the Mexican Official Norm for Medical Care of Domestic Violence (Norma Oficial Mexicana para la Atención Médica de la Violencia Familiar) established in March 2000.

  1. The emotions of graduating medical students about prior patient care experiences. (United States)

    Clay, Alison S; Ross, Elizabeth; Chudgar, Saumil M; Grochowski, Colleen O'Connor; Tulsky, James A; Shapiro, Dan


    To determine the emotional responses to patient care activities described by fourth year medical students. Qualitative content analysis for emerging themes in letters written by graduating medical students to patients during a Capstone Course. The patient need not be alive and the letter would never be sent. Six themes emerged from student letters: (1) Sorrow for the depths of patient suffering; (2) Gratitude towards patients and their families; (3) Personal responsibility for care provided to patients; (4) Regret for poor care provided by the student or student's team; (5) Shattered expectations about medicine and training; and (6) Anger towards patients. Students expressed sensitivity to vulnerable patients, including those who were alone, unable to communicate, or for whom care was biased. Students' expressed powerlessness (inability to cure, managing a work-life balance, and challenges with hierarchy) in some essays. At graduation, medical students describe strong emotions about previous patient care experiences, including difficulty witnessing suffering, disappointment with medicine, and gratitude to patients and their families Providing regular opportunities for writing throughout medical education would allow students to recognize their emotions, reflect upon them and promote wellness that would benefit students and their patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Health education during antenatal care: the need for more

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    Al-Ateeq MA


    Full Text Available Mohammed A Al-Ateeq,1 Amal A Al-Rusaiess21College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdul-Aziz University for Health Sciences, 2Department of Family Medicine and Primary Health Care, King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Abstract: The aim of health education during ante natal is to provide advice, education, ­reassurance and support, to address and treat the minor problems of pregnancy, and to provide effective screening during the pregnancy. Exploring current practices in this regard revealed the need for more organized educational activities to ensure high quality and clients satisfaction. Keywords: antenatal care, health education, pregnant women, postpartum, misconceptions

  3. Current trends in medical ethics education in Japanese medical schools. (United States)

    Kurosu, Mitsuyasu


    The Japanese medical education program has radically improved during the last 10 years. In 1999, the Task Force Committee on Innovation of Medical Education for the 21st Century proposed a tutorial education system, a core curriculum, and a medical student evaluation system for clinical clerkship. In 2001, the Model Core Curriculum of medical education was instituted, in which medical ethics became part of the core material. Since 2005, a nationwide medical student evaluation system has been applied for entrance to clinical clerkship. Within the Japan Society for Medical Education, the Working Group of Medical Ethics proposed a medical ethics education curriculum in 2001. In line with this, the Japanese Association for Philosophical and Ethical Research in Medicine has begun to address the standardization of the curriculum of medical ethics. A medical philosophy curriculum should also be included in considering illness, health, life, death, the body, and human welfare.

  4. Health Care Professional Factors Influencing Shared Medical Decision Making in Korea

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    Kae-Hwa Jo


    Full Text Available Till date, the medical decision-making process in Korea has followed the paternalist model, relying on the instructions of physicians. However, in recent years, shared decision making at the end-of-life between physicians and nurses is now emphasized in Korea. The purpose of this study was conducted to explore how health care professionals’ characteristics, attitude toward dignified dying, and moral sensitivity affect their shared medical decision making. The design was descriptive survey. This study was undertaken in two university hospitals in two metropolitan cities, South Korea. The participants were 344 nurses and 80 physicians who work at university hospitals selected by convenience sampling method. Data were collected from January 10 through March 20, 2014 using the Dignified Dying Scale, Moral Sensitivity Scale, and Shared Medical Decision-Making Scale. Shared medical decision making, attitude toward dignified dying, moral sensitivity, age, and working experience had a significant correlation with each other. The factors affecting shared medical decision making of Korean health care professionals were moral sensitivity and attitude toward dignified dying. These variables explained 22.4% of the shared medical decision making. Moral sensitivity and a positive attitude toward dignified dying should be promoted among health care professionals as a part of an educational program for shared medical decision making.

  5. Modernizing and Transforming Medical Education at the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College (United States)

    Lisasi, Esther; Kulanga, Ahaz; Muiruri, Charles; Killewo, Lucy; Fadhili, Ndimangwa; Mimano, Lucy; Kapanda, Gibson; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory; Nyindo, Mramba; Mteta, Kien; Kessi, Egbert; Ntabaye, Moshi; Bartlett, John


    The Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University (KCMU) College and the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) are addressing the crisis in Tanzanian health care manpower by modernizing the college’s medical education with new tools and techniques. With a $10 million MEPI grant and the participation of its partner, Duke University, KCMU is harnessing the power of information technology (IT) to upgrade tools for students and faculty. Initiatives in eLearning have included bringing fiber-optic connectivity to the campus, offering campus-wide wireless access, opening student and faculty computer laboratories, and providing computer tablets to all incoming medical students. Beyond IT, the college is also offering wet laboratory instruction for hands-on diagnostic skills, team-based learning, and clinical skills workshops. In addition, modern teaching tools and techniques address the challenges posed by increasing numbers of students. To provide incentives for instructors, a performance-based compensation plan and teaching awards have been established. Also for faculty, IT tools and training have been made available, and a medical education course management system is now being widely employed. Student and faculty responses have been favorable, and the rapid uptake of these interventions by students, faculty, and the college’s administration suggests that the KCMU College MEPI approach has addressed unmet needs. This enabling environment has transformed the culture of learning and teaching at KCMU College, where a path to sustainability is now being pursued. PMID:25072581

  6. Medical education teaching resources. (United States)

    Jibson, Michael D; Seyfried, Lisa S; Gay, Tamara L


    Numerous monographs on psychiatry education have appeared without a review specifically intended to assist psychiatry faculty and trainees in the selection of appropriate volumes for study and reference. The authors prepared this annotated bibliography to fill that gap. The authors identified titles from web-based searches of the topics "academic psychiatry," "psychiatry education," and "medical education," followed by additional searches of the same topics on the websites of major publishers. Forty-nine titles referring to psychiatry education specifically and medical education generally were identified. The authors selected works that were published within the last 10 years and remain in print and that met at least one of the following criteria: (1) written specifically about psychiatry or for psychiatric educators; (2) of especially high quality in scholarship, writing, topic selection and coverage, and pertinence to academic psychiatry; (3) covering a learning modality deemed by the authors to be of particular interest for psychiatry education. The authors reviewed 19 books pertinent to the processes of medical student and residency education, faculty career development, and education administration. These included 11 books on medical education in general, 4 books that focus more narrowly on the field of psychiatry, and 4 books addressing specific learning modalities of potential utility in the mental health professions. Most of the selected works proved to be outstanding contributions to the medical education literature.

  7. Characteristics associated with purchasing antidepressant or antianxiety medications through primary care in Israel. (United States)

    Ayalon, Liat; Gross, Revital; Yaari, Aviv; Feldhamer, Elan; Balicer, Ran; Goldfracht, Margalit


    This study analyzed the role of patient and physician characteristics associated with the purchase of antidepressant or antianxiety medications in Israel, a country that has a universal health care system. A national sample of 30,000 primary care patients over the age of 22 was randomly drawn from the registry of the largest health care fund in Israel. Data concerning medication purchase between January and December 2006 were extracted. Physician and patient characteristics were merged with Israel's unique identification number. Multilevel analysis was conducted to identify patient- and physician-level predictors of medication purchase. Overall, 19% (N = 4,762) of the sample purchased antidepressant or antianxiety medications. Individuals with greater general medical and psychiatric comorbidity were more likely to purchase antidepressant or antianxiety medications. Older adults, women, those of higher socioeconomic status, and immigrants (with the exception of Jews born in Asia or Africa) were also more likely to purchase medications. Arabs and Jews born in Asia and Africa were less likely to purchase medications even after all other variables were accounted for. Physician characteristics were minimally associated with the purchase of medications. The findings demonstrate that despite universal health care access, there were variations by population groups. Educational efforts should target patients as well as physicians.

  8. Public health has no place in undergraduate medical education. (United States)

    Woodward, A


    It is time to review the reasons for including public health in medical education. Undergraduate medical students are interested above all in the diagnosis and treatment of individual cases of disease; population-based health care means little to most students, and is seldom regarded as important. Should public health teachers concentrate their efforts in other areas, where students are more receptive? This paper presents arguments for and against the proposition that public health has no place in the undergraduate medical course. In favour of the proposition, it is argued that the clinical imperative is so firmly entrenched in the minds of students and in the cultures of medical schools that public health will always be diminished and elbowed to one side in medical curricula. Moreover, the major gains in the health of populations will be won in other arenas. Therefore public health should rupture the links with medical schools that were formed in another age and, in any event, are now weakening as public health strikes a new identity. The effort that currently goes into teaching unwilling medical students would have better returns if it was invested elsewhere. Against the proposition, it is argued that the health of populations will not be improved without participation of all groups with an interest in and an influence on health care. No group is more influential in the organization and delivery of health services than the medical profession, so it would be foolish for public health to withdraw from medical education. Moreover, effective medical practice requires an ability to think in terms of populations as well as individuals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Medical Education and Leadership in Breastfeeding Medicine. (United States)

    Taylor, Julie Scott; Bell, Esther


    Physicians' experience with high quality training in breastfeeding during their medical education is historically varied. The process of becoming a board-certified physician entails more than 20 years of education, and although medical school and residency training timelines and courses are relatively standardized across the United States and even internationally, breastfeeding education varies greatly across schools and programs. The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine (ABM) exists, in part, because historically, physicians have received too little clinical training in breastfeeding and infant nutrition. An overarching goal of ABM, which is a multispecialty organization of doctors around the world, is to educate all maternal-child healthcare professionals, not just physicians, about breastfeeding. Within the field of medicine, family doctors, pediatricians, and obstetrician/gynecologists are considered the most logical source of breastfeeding expertise. However, the need for breastfeeding education goes beyond those providers who have obvious interactions with mothers and babies. We must educate anesthesiologists, surgeons, internists, and psychiatrists, among others. Building pipelines of physicians who are well educated in breastfeeding medicine allows more effective collaboration and care of mothers and infants among providers in various medical and surgical specialties as well as between doctors and other healthcare providers. This evidence-based education needs to be multifaceted, with didactic curricula for a strong knowledge base complemented by clinical experiences for skill development and application. Clinical knowledge and skills can also be reinforced during nonclinical opportunities in teaching, research, advocacy, and professional development. In this article, we describe a foundational framework for physician education in breastfeeding medicine as well as several creative noncurricular opportunities to develop breastfeeding expertise in future

  10. Comparison of stress among medical and not medical personnel in health care

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    Anita Mujakić


    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: Does the opinion of the medical and non - medical staff varies on (1 the level of stress depending on seniority, (2 the staircase of stress in relation to education, and (3 how motivation affects the level of stress. Purpose: The purpose of the study is to determine whether in health care and higher education contribute to increased job stress. Also, we wanted to know whether they are more motivated workers are less exposed to occupational stress and / or employees with higher seniority also more exposed to stress. Method: We did quantitative research in public health institute. Overview of theoretical principles based on domestic and foreign professional literature. Articles and expert input was obtained in electronic databases ProQuest Online Information Service, Ebsco and SpringerLink. Statistical part of the study, we calculated the statistical program where we used the Mann - Whitney U- statistics and Wilcox W-statistics. Results: The results indicate that there is a statistical difference in understanding the importance of seniority and education on occupational stress among medical and non - medical sector. Employees in the medical sector more statistically argue that education and working life affect the career stress. We rejected our second hypothesis, which says that there is a difference between the two sectors regarding the impact of motivation on occupational stress. Both sectors they consider to be less motivated workers exposed to occupational stress. Organization: The survey can further highlight the risks that may be possible due to congestion and occupational stress. Society: positive influence on the social understanding of diversity obtained service of a single profession and thus routing problem in a disproportionate burden of healthcare workers. Healthcare professionals who work under less stress effectively and positively affect the quality of services rendered. Originality: This kind of research by

  11. The transformation of continuing medical education (CME) in the United States. (United States)

    Balmer, Jann Torrance


    This article describes five major themes that inform and highlight the transformation of continuing medical education in the USA. Over the past decade, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and other national entities have voiced concern over the cost of health care, prevalence of medical errors, fragmentation of care, commercial influence, and competence of health professionals. The recommendations from these entities, as well as the work of other regulatory, professional, academic, and government organizations, have fostered discussion and development of strategies to address these challenges. The five themes in this paper reflect the changing expectations of multiple stakeholders engaged in health care. Each theme is grounded in educational, politico-economic priorities for health care in the USA. The themes include (1) a shift in expectation from simple attendance or a time-based metric (credit) to a measurement that infers competence in performance for successful continuing professional development (CPD); (2) an increased focus on interprofessional education to augment profession-specific continuing education; (3) the integration of CPD with quality improvement; (4) the expansion of CPD to address population and public health issues; and (5) identification and standardization of continuing education (CE) professional competencies. The CE profession plays an essential role in the transformation of the US CPD system for health professionals. Coordination of the five themes described in this paper will foster an improved, effective, and efficient health system that truly meets the needs of patients.

  12. Gamification as a tool for enhancing graduate medical education (United States)

    Nevin, Christa R; Westfall, Andrew O; Rodriguez, J Martin; Dempsey, Donald M; Cherrington, Andrea; Roy, Brita; Patel, Mukesh; Willig, James H


    Introduction The last decade has seen many changes in graduate medical education training in the USA, most notably the implementation of duty hour standards for residents by the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education. As educators are left to balance more limited time available between patient care and resident education, new methods to augment traditional graduate medical education are needed. Objectives To assess acceptance and use of a novel gamification-based medical knowledge software among internal medicine residents and to determine retention of information presented to participants by this medical knowledge software. Methods We designed and developed software using principles of gamification to deliver a web-based medical knowledge competition among internal medicine residents at the University of Alabama (UA) at Birmingham and UA at Huntsville in 2012–2013. Residents participated individually and in teams. Participants accessed daily questions and tracked their online leaderboard competition scores through any internet-enabled device. We completed focus groups to assess participant acceptance and analysed software use, retention of knowledge and factors associated with loss of participants (attrition). Results Acceptance: In focus groups, residents (n=17) reported leaderboards were the most important motivator of participation. Use: 16 427 questions were completed: 28.8% on Saturdays/Sundays, 53.1% between 17:00 and 08:00. Retention of knowledge: 1046 paired responses (for repeated questions) were collected. Correct responses increased by 11.9% (pgamification-based educational intervention was well accepted among our millennial learners. Coupling software with gamification and analysis of trainee use and engagement data can be used to develop strategies to augment learning in time-constrained educational settings. PMID:25352673

  13. Accreditation of Medical Education Programs: Moving From Student Outcomes to Continuous Quality Improvement Measures. (United States)

    Blouin, Danielle; Tekian, Ara


    Accreditation of undergraduate medical education programs aims to ensure the quality of medical education and promote quality improvement, with the ultimate goal of providing optimal patient care. Direct linkages between accreditation and education quality are, however, difficult to establish. The literature examining the impact of accreditation predominantly focuses on student outcomes, such as performances on national examinations. However, student outcomes present challenges with regard to data availability, comparability, and contamination.The true impact of accreditation may well rest in its ability to promote continuous quality improvement (CQI) within medical education programs. The conceptual model grounding this paper suggests accreditation leads medical schools to commit resources to and engage in self-assessment activities that represent best practices of CQI, leading to the development within schools of a culture of CQI. In line with this model, measures of the impact of accreditation on medical schools need to include CQI-related markers. The CQI orientation of organizations can be measured using validated instruments from the business and management fields. Repeated determinations of medical schools' CQI orientation at various points throughout their accreditation cycles could provide additional evidence of the impact of accreditation on medical education. Strong CQI orientation should lead to high-quality medical education and would serve as a proxy marker for the quality of graduates and possibly for the quality of care they provide.It is time to move away from a focus on student outcomes as measures of the impact of accreditation and embrace additional markers, such as indicators of organizational CQI orientation.

  14. Shared Medical Appointments: A Portal for Nutrition and Culinary Education in Primary Care-A Pilot Feasibility Project. (United States)

    Delichatsios, Helen K; Hauser, Michelle E; Burgess, Jonathan D; Eisenberg, David M


    Diseases linked to obesity such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, degenerative joint disease, gastroesophageal reflux, and sleep apnea constitute a large portion of primary care visits. Patients with these conditions often lack knowledge, skills, and support needed to maintain health. Shared medical appointments (SMAs) that include culinary skills and nutrition education offer a novel, cost-effective way to address these diseases in primary care. Adult patients in a primary care practice at a large academic hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, who had at least 1 cardiovascular risk factor were invited to participate in SMAs that included cooking demonstrations and teaching about nutrition in addition to medical management of their conditions. Sessions were conducted by a physician and an assistant in a conference room of a traditional primary care practice as part of a pilot feasibility project. Seventy patients, contributing a total of 156 patient visits, attended 17 nutrition-focused SMAs over a 4-year period. Patients were surveyed after each visit and indicated that they enjoyed the SMAs, would consider alternating SMAs with traditional one-on-one visits, and would recommend SMAs to others. Half would pay out of pocket or a higher copay to attend SMAs. Financially, the practice broke even compared with traditional one-onone office visits. In this feasibility study, chronic disease SMAs conducted with a culinary/nutrition focus were feasible, cost-effective, and well received by patients. Follow-up studies are needed to evaluate short- and long-term outcomes of this SMA model on obesity-related diseases.

  15. Commentary: narrative lessons from a Nigerian novelist: implications for medical education and care. (United States)

    Zarconi, Joseph


    In her TED Talk entitled "The danger of a single story," Nigerian novelist Chimamanda Adichie shares stories about her life that illustrate the natural human tendency to interpret the lives of others in the context of what she describes as narrowly constructed and often stereotypical "single stories." These single-story views often portray others as wholly different from those constructing the stories, thereby diminishing the possibilities for genuine human connection. Referencing Adichie's talk, the author describes the narrative dissonance that so often distances patients from their physicians. He illustrates the dangers to patients that can result from single-story caregiving by physicians, sharing an example from his own experience in which unnecessary harm came to his patient because of his own single-story thinking. The author argues that these single-story dangers must be openly and consciously addressed in the training of doctors to counteract the tendency for their clinical and educational experiences to inculcate single stories by which physicians come to interpret their patients. He offers suggestions as to why single-story thinking arises in clinical practice and how to mitigate these forces in medical education. The author concludes by contending that the education of physicians, and caring for the sick, should be aimed at preserving the dignity of those being served, and he argues for an "equal humanity" model of the patient-physician relationship that engages patients in all dimensions of their multiple stories.

  16. Cost savings from reduced catheter-related bloodstream infection after simulation-based education for residents in a medical intensive care unit. (United States)

    Cohen, Elaine R; Feinglass, Joe; Barsuk, Jeffrey H; Barnard, Cynthia; O'Donnell, Anna; McGaghie, William C; Wayne, Diane B


    Interventions to reduce preventable complications such as catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) can also decrease hospital costs. However, little is known about the cost-effectiveness of simulation-based education. The aim of this study was to estimate hospital cost savings related to a reduction in CRBSI after simulation training for residents. This was an intervention evaluation study estimating cost savings related to a simulation-based intervention in central venous catheter (CVC) insertion in the Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU) at an urban teaching hospital. After residents completed a simulation-based mastery learning program in CVC insertion, CRBSI rates declined sharply. Case-control and regression analysis methods were used to estimate savings by comparing CRBSI rates in the year before and after the intervention. Annual savings from reduced CRBSIs were compared with the annual cost of simulation training. Approximately 9.95 CRBSIs were prevented among MICU patients with CVCs in the year after the intervention. Incremental costs attributed to each CRBSI were approximately $82,000 in 2008 dollars and 14 additional hospital days (including 12 MICU days). The annual cost of the simulation-based education was approximately $112,000. Net annual savings were thus greater than $700,000, a 7 to 1 rate of return on the simulation training intervention. A simulation-based educational intervention in CVC insertion was highly cost-effective. These results suggest that investment in simulation training can produce significant medical care cost savings.

  17. Educational intervention on medication reviews aiming to reduce acute healthcare consumption in elderly patients with potentially inappropriate medicines-A pragmatic open-label cluster-randomized controlled trial in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt-Mende, K; Andersen, M; Wettermark, B


    consisted of educational outreach visits with feedback on prescribing and the development of a working procedure on MRs. Follow-up was 9 months. Outcomes were assessed in an administrative health care database. The combined primary outcome was unplanned hospital admission and/or emergency department visit...... after an educational intervention in primary care. The reasons for the lack of effect could be a suboptimal intervention, limitations in outcome measures, and the use of administrative data to monitor outcomes.......PURPOSE: Potentially inappropriate medicines (PIMs) may cause 10% of unplanned admissions in elderly people. We performed an educational intervention in primary care to reduce acute health care consumption and PIMs through the promotion of medication reviews (MRs) in elderly patients. METHODS...

  18. Funding of Graduate Medical Education in a Market-Based Healthcare System. (United States)

    Schuster, Barbara L


    The graduate medical education (GME) process in the United States is considered the most respected model for high-quality education of graduate physicians in the world. With substantial funding through government and private insurers and through structured educational accreditation standards, the American Board of Medical Specialists-certified physicians are recognized for their expertise in delivering high-quality medical care. However, under fiscal constraints and changing social expectations, questions are continually posed about the process of funding and whether the "physician outcomes" are sufficient to continue with the investment. This article reviews the history of postgraduate physician education, the multiple funding pathways, disruptions to a placid educational system and changing social expectations. The ultimate issues involve the core goals of GME and how much GME should shoulder responsibility for changing the healthcare system. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Medical Schools in the Era of Managed Care: An Interview with Arnold Relman. (United States)

    Academe, 1999


    An interview with the former editor of "The New England Journal of Medicine" examines the impact on medical education of corporatization of the health-care system, including pressures to see more patients, less time spent with each patient, financial pressures limiting medical research, issues related to tenure, and concerns that young doctors are…

  20. Educational theory and medical education practice: a cautionary note for medical school faculty. (United States)

    Colliver, Jerry A


    Educational theory is routinely cited as justification for practice in medical education, even though the justification for the theory itself is unclear. Problem-based learning (PBL), for example, is said to be based on powerful educational principles that should result in strong effects on learning and performance. But research over the past 20 years has produced little convincing evidence for the educational effectiveness of PBL, which naturally raises doubts about the underlying theory. This essay reflects on educational theory, in particular cognitive theory, and concludes that the theory is little more than metaphor, not rigorous, tested, confirmed scientific theory. This metaphor/theory may lead to ideas for basic and applied research, which in turn may facilitate the development of theory. In the meantime, however, the theory cannot be trusted to determine practice in medical education. Despite the intuitive appeal of educational theory, medical educators have a responsibility to set aside their enthusiasm and make it clear to medical school faculty and administrators that educational innovations and practice claims are, at best, founded on conjecture, not on evidence-based science.

  1. [Educational differences in health care utilization in the last year of life among South Korean cancer patients]. (United States)

    Choo, Soo-Young; Lee, Sang-Yi; Kim, Chul-Woung; Kim, Su Young; Yoon, Tae-Ho; Shin, Hai Rim; Moon, Ok Ryun


    There have been few studies examining the differences in health care utilization across social classes during the last year of life. Therefore, in this study we analyzed the quantitative and qualitative differences in health care utilization among cancer patients across educational classes in their last year of life, and derived from it implications for policy. To evaluate health care utilization by cancer patients in the last year of life, Death certificate data from 2004 were merged with National Health Insurance data (n = 60,088). In order to use educational level as a social class index, we selected the individuals aged 40 and over as study subjects (n = 57,484). We analyzed the differences in the medical expenditures, admission days, and rates of admission experience across educational classes descriptively. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the association between medical expenditures and independent variables such as sex, age, education class, site of death and type of cancer. The upper educational class spent much more on medical expenditures in the last one year of life, particularly during the last month of life, than the lower educational class did. The ratio of monthly medical expenditures per capita between the college class and no education class was 2.5 in the last 6-12 months of life, but the ratio was 1.6 in the last 1 month. Also, the lower the educational class, the higher the proportion of medical expenditures during the last one month of life, compared to total medical expenditures in the last one year of life. The college educational class had a much higher rate of admission experiences in tertiary hospitals within Seoul than the other education classes did. This study shows that the lower educational classes had qualitative and quantitative disadvantages in utilizing health care services for cancer in the last year of life.

  2. E-learning as new method of medical education. (United States)

    Masic, Izet


    NONE DECLARED Distance learning refers to use of technologies based on health care delivered on distance and covers areas such as electronic health, tele-health (e-health), telematics, telemedicine, tele-education, etc. For the need of e-health, telemedicine, tele-education and distance learning there are various technologies and communication systems from standard telephone lines to the system of transmission digitalized signals with modem, optical fiber, satellite links, wireless technologies, etc. Tele-education represents health education on distance, using Information Communication Technologies (ICT), as well as continuous education of a health system beneficiaries and use of electronic libraries, data bases or electronic data with data bases of knowledge. Distance learning (E-learning) as a part of tele-education has gained popularity in the past decade; however, its use is highly variable among medical schools and appears to be more common in basic medical science courses than in clinical education. Distance learning does not preclude traditional learning processes; frequently it is used in conjunction with in-person classroom or professional training procedures and practices. Tele-education has mostly been used in biomedical education as a blended learning method, which combines tele-education technology with traditional instructor-led training, where, for example, a lecture or demonstration is supplemented by an online tutorial. Distance learning is used for self-education, tests, services and for examinations in medicine i.e. in terms of self-education and individual examination services. The possibility of working in the exercise mode with image files and questions is an attractive way of self education. Automated tracking and reporting of learners' activities lessen faculty administrative burden. Moreover, e-learning can be designed to include outcomes assessment to determine whether learning has occurred. This review article evaluates the current

  3. [Virtual reality in medical education]. (United States)

    Edvardsen, O; Steensrud, T


    Virtual reality technology has found new applications in industry over the last few years. Medical literature has for several years predicted a break-through in this technology for medical education. Although there is a great potential for this technology in medical education, there seems to be a wide gap between expectations and actual possibilities at present. State of the technology was explored by participation at the conference "Medicine meets virtual reality V" (San Diego Jan. 22-25 1997) and a visit to one of the leading laboratories on virtual reality in medical education. In this paper we introduce some of the basic terminology and technology, review some of the topics covered by the conference, and describe projects running in one of the leading laboratories on virtual reality technology for medical education. With this information in mind, we discuss potential applications of the current technology in medical education. Current virtual reality systems are judged to be too costly and their usefulness in education too limited for routine use in medical education.

  4. Recognition of medical errors' reporting system dimensions in educational hospitals. (United States)

    Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H; Mohammadinia, Leila; Tavakoli, Nahid; Ghalriz, Parvin; Haghshenas, Abbas


    Nowadays medical errors are one of the serious issues in the health-care system and carry to account of the patient's safety threat. The most important step for achieving safety promotion is identifying errors and their causes in order to recognize, correct and omit them. Concerning about repeating medical errors and harms, which were received via theses errors concluded to designing and establishing medical error reporting systems for hospitals and centers that are presenting therapeutic services. The aim of this study is the recognition of medical errors' reporting system dimensions in educational hospitals. This research is a descriptive-analytical and qualities' study, which has been carried out in Shahid Beheshti educational therapeutic center in Isfahan during 2012. In this study, relevant information was collected through 15 face to face interviews. That each of interviews take place in about 1hr and creation of five focused discussion groups through 45 min for each section, they were composed of Metron, educational supervisor, health officer, health education, and all of the head nurses. Concluded data interviews and discussion sessions were coded, then achieved results were extracted in the presence of clear-sighted persons and after their feedback perception, they were categorized. In order to make sure of information correctness, tables were presented to the research's interviewers and final the corrections were confirmed based on their view. The extracted information from interviews and discussion groups have been divided into nine main categories after content analyzing and subject coding and their subsets have been completely expressed. Achieved dimensions are composed of nine domains of medical error concept, error cases according to nurses' prospection, medical error reporting barriers, employees' motivational factors for error reporting, purposes of medical error reporting system, error reporting's challenges and opportunities, a desired system

  5. 78 FR 18990 - Medical Professionals Recruitment and Continuing Education Programs (United States)


    ... have experience hosting healthcare forums and meetings combining modern medicine and traditional... care by promoting education in the medical disciplines, honoring traditional healing principles and... and/or biomedical research. Foster forums where modern medicine combines with traditional healing to...

  6. Palliative Care Medical Education in European Universities: A Descriptive Study and Numerical Scoring System Proposal for Assessing Educational Development. (United States)

    Carrasco, José Miguel; Lynch, Thomas J; Garralda, Eduardo; Woitha, Kathrin; Elsner, Frank; Filbet, Marilène; Ellershaw, John E; Clark, David; Centeno, Carlos


    The lack of palliative medicine (PM) education has been identified as a barrier to the development of the discipline. A number of international institutions have called for its implementation within undergraduate medical curricula. The objectives are to describe the situation of undergraduate PM education in Europe and to propose a scoring system to evaluate its status. This descriptive study was conducted with data provided by key experts from countries of the World Health Organization European Region (n = 53). A numerical scoring system was developed through consensus techniques. Forty-three countries (81%) provided the requested information. In 13 countries (30%), a PM course is taught in all medical schools, being compulsory in six of them (14%). In 15 countries (35%), PM is taught in at least one university. In 14 countries (33%), PM is not taught within medical curricula. A full professor of PM was identified in 40% of countries. Three indicators were developed to construct a scale (rank 0-100) of educational development: 1) proportion of medical schools that teach PM (weight = 32%); 2) proportion of medical schools that offer PM as a compulsory subject (weight = 40%); 3) total number of PM professors (weight = 28%). The highest level of PM educational development was found in Israel, Norway, the U.K., Belgium, France, Austria, Germany, and Ireland. PM is taught in a substantial number of undergraduate medical programs at European universities, and a qualified teaching structure is emerging; however, there is a wide variation in the level of PM educational development between individual countries. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cross-cultural education in U.S. medical schools: development of an assessment tool. (United States)

    Peña Dolhun, Eduardo; Muñoz, Claudia; Grumbach, Kevin


    Medical education is responding to an increasingly diverse population and to regulatory and quality-of-care requirements by developing cross-cultural curricula in health care. This undertaking has proved problematic because there is no consensus on what elements of cross-cultural medicine should be taught. Further, less is known about what is being taught. This study hypothesized that a tool could be developed to assess common themes, concepts, learning objectives, and methods in cross-cultural education. In 2001, 31 U.S. medical schools were invited to provide the researchers all written and/or Web-based materials related to implementing cross-cultural competency in their curricula. A tool was developed to measure teaching methods, skill sets, and eight content areas in cross-cultural education. A total of 19 medical schools supplied their curricular materials. There was considerable variation in approaches to teaching and in the content of cross-cultural education across the schools. Most emphasized teaching general themes, such as the doctor-patient relationship, socioeconomic status, and racism. Most also focused on specific cultural information about the ethnic communities they served. Few schools extensively addressed health care access and language issues. This assessment tool is an important step toward developing a standard nomenclature for measuring the success of cross-cultural education curricula. On the national level, the tool can be used to compare program components and encourage the exchange of effective teaching tools by promoting a common language, which will be essential for developing and implementing curricula, for comparing programs, and evaluating their effects on quality of care.

  8. iMedEd: the role of mobile health technologies in medical education. (United States)

    Gaglani, Shiv M; Topol, Eric J


    Mobile health (mHealth) technologies have experienced a recent surge in attention because of their potential to transform the delivery of health care. This enthusiasm is partly due to the near ubiquity of smartphones and tablets among clinicians, as well as to the stream of mobile medical apps and devices being created. While much discussion has been devoted to how these tools will impact the practice of medicine, surprisingly little has been written on the role these technologies will play in medical education. In this commentary the authors describe the opportunities, applications, and challenges of mHealth apps and devices in medical education and argue that medical schools should make efforts to integrate these technologies into their curricula. By not doing so, medical educators risk producing a generation of clinicians underprepared for the changing realities of medical practice brought on by mHealth technologies.

  9. The Undergraduate Medical Education for the 21st Century (UME-21) project: the Federal Government perspective. (United States)

    Bazell, Carol; Davis, Howard; Glass, Jerilyn; Rodak, John; Bastacky, Stanford M


    The Undergraduate Medical Education for the 21st Century (UME-21) project was implemented by the Division of Medicine, Bureau of Health Professions, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) to encourage medical schools to collaborate with managed care organizations and others. The purpose of the collaboration was to ensure that medical students are prepared to provide quality patient care and manage that care in an integrated health care system in which the cost of care and use of empirically justified care are important elements. The UME-21 project represents a continuation of HRSA's interest in the managed care arena. The UME-21 project involved the collaboration of eight partner schools and 10 associate partner schools, together with 50 external partners, to develop innovative curricula that integrated UME-21 content from nine special areas as learning objectives. This project demonstrated that concerted efforts by the leadership in medical education can bring about innovative change in medical school curricula. It ís also demonstrated that faculty of the three primary care disciplines of family medicine, general internal medicine, and general pediatrics were able to cooperate to accomplish such change by working together to allocate clerkship time and content. An important lesson learned in this project was that significant innovations in medical school curricula could be accomplished with a broadbased commitment and involvement of both faculties across the three primary care disciplines and top administrative officials of the medical school. It is uncertain, however, if the innovations achieved will produce further changes or if those changes achieved can be sustained without continued funding.

  10. Sexual Health Competencies for Undergraduate Medical Education in North America. (United States)

    Bayer, Carey Roth; Eckstrand, Kristen L; Knudson, Gail; Koehler, Jean; Leibowitz, Scott; Tsai, Perry; Feldman, Jamie L


    The number of hours spent teaching sexual health content and skills in medical education continues to decrease despite the increase in sexual health issues faced by patients across the lifespan. In 2012 and 2014, experts across sexuality disciplines convened for the Summits on Medical School Education and Sexual Health to strategize and recommend approaches to improve sexual health education in medical education systems and practice settings. One of the summit recommendations was to develop sexual health competencies that could be implemented in undergraduate medical education curricula. To discuss the process of developing sexual health competencies for undergraduate medical education in North America and present the resulting competencies. From 2014 to 2016, a summit multidisciplinary subcommittee met through face-to-face, phone conference, and email meetings to review prior competency-based guidelines and then draft and vet general sexual health competencies for integration into undergraduate medical school curricula. The process built off the Association of American Medical Colleges' competency development process for training medical students to care for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and gender non-conforming patients and individuals born with differences of sex development. This report presents the final 20 sexual health competencies and 34 qualifiers aligned with the 8 overall domains of competence. Development of a comprehensive set of sexual health competencies is a necessary first step in standardizing learning expectations for medical students upon completion of undergraduate training. It is hoped that these competencies will guide the development of sexual health curricula and assessment tools that can be shared across medical schools to ensure that all medical school graduates will be adequately trained and comfortable addressing the different sexual health concerns presented by patients across the lifespan. Bayer CR, Eckstrand KL, Knudson G, et

  11. Prioritizing medication safety in care of people with cancer: clinicians’ views on main problems and solutions (United States)

    Car, Lorainne Tudor; Papachristou, Nikolaos; Urch, Catherine; Majeed, Azeem; Atun, Rifat; Car, Josip; Vincent, Charles


    Background Cancer care is liable to medication errors due to the complex nature of cancer treatment, the common presence of comorbidities and the involvement of a number of clinicians in cancer care. While the frequency of medication errors in cancer care has been reported, little is known about their causal factors and effective prevention strategies. With a unique insight into the main safety issues in cancer treatment, frontline staff can help close this gap. In this study, we aimed to identify medication safety priorities in cancer patient care according to clinicians in North West London using PRIORITIZE, a novel priority–setting approach. Methods The project steering group determined the scope, the context and the criteria for prioritization. We then invited North West London cancer care clinicians to identify and prioritize main causes for, and solutions to, medication errors in cancer care. Forty cancer care providers submitted their suggestions which were thematically synthesized into a composite list of 20 distinct problems and 22 solutions. A group of 26 clinicians from the initial cohort ranked the composite list of suggestions using predetermined criteria. Results The top ranked problems focused on patients’ poor understanding of treatments due to language or education difficulties, clinicians’ insufficient attention to patients’ psychological distress, and inadequate information sharing among health care providers. The top ranked solutions were provision of guidance to patients and their carers on what to do when unwell, pre–chemotherapy work–up for all patients and better staff training. Overall, clinicians considered improved communication between health care providers, quality assurance procedures (during prescription and monitoring stages) and patient education as key strategies for improving cancer medication safety. Prescribing stage was identified as the most vulnerable to medication safety threats. The highest ranked suggestions

  12. Status of medical mycology education. (United States)

    Steinbach, William J; Mitchell, Thomas G; Schell, Wiley A; Espinel-Ingroff, Ana; Coico, Richard F; Walsh, Thomas J; Perfect, John R


    The number of immunocompromised patients and subsequent invasive fungal infections continues to rise. However, the education of future medical mycologists to engage this growing problem is diminishing. While there are an increasing number of publications and grants awarded in mycology, the time and detail devoted to teaching medical mycology in United States medical schools are inadequate. Here we review the history in medical mycology education and the current educational opportunities. To accurately gauge contemporary teaching we also conducted a prospective survey of microbiology and immunology departmental chairpersons in United States medical schools to determine the amount and content of contemporary education in medical mycology.

  13. Mind the Gap: Representation of Medical Education in Cardiology-Related Articles and Journals. (United States)

    Allred, Clint; Berlacher, Kathryn; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Auseon, Alex J


    Cardiology fellowship programs are at the interface of medical education and the care of patients suffering from the leading cause of mortality in the United States, yet there is an apparent lack of research guiding the effective education of fellows. We sought to quantify the number of publications in cardiology journals that pertained to the education of cardiology trainees and the number of cardiologists participating in education research. For the period between January and December 2012, we cataloged cardiology-specific and general medical/medical education journals and sorted them by impact factor. Tables of content were reviewed for articles with an educational focus, a cardiology focus, or both. We recorded the authors' areas of medical training, and keywords from each cardiology journal's mission statement were reviewed for emphasis on education. Twenty-six cardiology journals, containing 6645 articles, were reviewed. Only 4 articles had education themes. Ten general medical and 15 medical education journals contained 6810 articles. Of these, only 7 focused on medical education in cardiology, and none focused on cardiology fellowship training. Among the 4887 authors of publications in medical education journals, 25 were cardiologists (less than 1%), and among the 1036 total words in the mission statements of all cardiology journals, the term "education" appeared once. Published educational research is lacking in cardiology training, and few cardiologists appear to be active members of the education scholarship community. Cardiology organizations and academic journals should support efforts to identify target areas of study and publish scholarship in educational innovation.

  14. Gamification as a tool for enhancing graduate medical education. (United States)

    Nevin, Christa R; Westfall, Andrew O; Rodriguez, J Martin; Dempsey, Donald M; Cherrington, Andrea; Roy, Brita; Patel, Mukesh; Willig, James H


    The last decade has seen many changes in graduate medical education training in the USA, most notably the implementation of duty hour standards for residents by the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education. As educators are left to balance more limited time available between patient care and resident education, new methods to augment traditional graduate medical education are needed. To assess acceptance and use of a novel gamification-based medical knowledge software among internal medicine residents and to determine retention of information presented to participants by this medical knowledge software. We designed and developed software using principles of gamification to deliver a web-based medical knowledge competition among internal medicine residents at the University of Alabama (UA) at Birmingham and UA at Huntsville in 2012-2013. Residents participated individually and in teams. Participants accessed daily questions and tracked their online leaderboard competition scores through any internet-enabled device. We completed focus groups to assess participant acceptance and analysed software use, retention of knowledge and factors associated with loss of participants (attrition). Acceptance: In focus groups, residents (n=17) reported leaderboards were the most important motivator of participation. Use: 16 427 questions were completed: 28.8% on Saturdays/Sundays, 53.1% between 17:00 and 08:00. Retention of knowledge: 1046 paired responses (for repeated questions) were collected. Correct responses increased by 11.9% (pgamification-based educational intervention was well accepted among our millennial learners. Coupling software with gamification and analysis of trainee use and engagement data can be used to develop strategies to augment learning in time-constrained educational settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  15. Medical education... meet Michel Foucault. (United States)

    Hodges, Brian D; Martimianakis, Maria A; McNaughton, Nancy; Whitehead, Cynthia


    There have been repeated calls for the greater use of conceptual frameworks and of theory in medical education. Although it is familiar to few medical educators, Michel Foucault's work is a helpful theoretical and methodological source. This article explores what it means to use a 'Foucauldian approach', presents a sample of Foucault's historical-genealogical studies that are relevant to medical education, and introduces the work of four researchers currently undertaking Foucauldian-inspired medical education research. Although they are not without controversy, Foucauldian approaches are employed by an increasing number of scholars and are helpful in shedding light on what it is possible to think, say and be in medical education. Our hope in sharing this Foucauldian work and perspective is that we might stimulate a dialogue that is forward-looking and optimistic about the possibilities for change in medical education. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Resident duty hour modification affects perceptions in medical education, general wellness, and ability to provide patient care. (United States)

    Moeller, Andrew; Webber, Jordan; Epstein, Ian


    Resident duty hours have recently been under criticism, with concerns for resident and patient well-being. Historically, call shifts have been long, and some residency training programs have now restricted shift lengths. Data and opinions about the effects of such restrictions are conflicting. The Internal Medicine Residency Program at Dalhousie University recently moved from a traditional call structure to a day float/night float system. This study evaluated how this change in duty hours affected resident perceptions in several key domains. Senior residents from an internal medicine training program in Canada responded to an anonymous online survey immediately before and 6 months after the implementation of duty hour reform. The survey contained questions relating to three major domains: resident wellness, ability to deliver quality health care, and medical education experience. Mean pre- and post-intervention scores were compared using the t-test for paired samples. Twenty-three of 27 (85 %) senior residents completed both pre- and post-reform surveys. Residents perceived significant changes in many domains with duty hour reform. These included improved general wellness, less exposure to personal harm, fewer feelings of isolation, less potential for error, improvement in clinical skills expertise, increased work efficiency, more successful teaching, increased proficiency in medical skills, more successful learning, and fewer rotation disruptions. Senior residents in a Canadian internal medicine training program perceived significant benefits in medical education experience, ability to deliver healthcare, and resident wellness after implementation of duty hour reform.

  17. Properties of publications on anatomy in medical education literature. (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc; Bolhuis, Sanneke; van Kuppeveld, Sascha; Kooloos, Jan; Laan, Roland


    Publications on anatomy in medical education appear to be largely anecdotal. To explore this, we investigated the literature on anatomy in medical education, aiming first to evaluate the contribution of the literature on anatomy in medical education to "best evidence medical education" (BEME) and second to evaluate the development of this literature toward more "best evidence" between 1985 and 2009. Four databases were searched for publications on anatomy in medical education published between 1985 and 2009, resulting in 525 references. Hundred publications were characterized by five variables (journal category, paper subject, paper category, author perspective, and paper perspective). Statements from these publications were characterized by two variables (category and foundation). The publications contained 797 statements that involved the words "anatomy," "anatomical," or "anatomist." Forty-five percent of the publications contained no explicit research question. Forty percent of the statements made were about "teaching methods" and 17% about "teaching content," 8% referred to "practical value," and 10% to "side effects" of anatomy education. Ten percent of the statements were "positional," five percent "traditional," four percent "self-evident," and two percent referred to "quality of care." Fifty-six percent of the statements had no foundation, 17% were founded on empirical data, and 27% by references. These results substantiated the critical comments about the anecdotal nature of the literature. However, it is encouraging to see that between 1985 and 2009 the number of publications is rising that these publications increasingly focus on teaching methods and that an academic writing style is developing. This suggests a growing body of empirical literature about anatomy education. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Anatomists.

  18. Evaluation of the Program in Medical Education for the Urban Underserved (PRIME-US) at the UC Berkeley-UCSF Joint Medical Program (JMP): The First 4 Years. (United States)

    Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen; Ivey, Susan L; Garcia, Roxanna M; Azzam, Amin


    Medical educators, clinicians, and health policy experts widely acknowledge the need to increase the diversity of our healthcare workforce and build our capacity to care for medically underserved populations and reduce health disparities. The Program in Medical Education for the Urban Underserved (PRIME-US) is part of a family of programs across the University of California (UC) medical schools aiming to recruit and train physicians to care for underserved populations, expand the healthcare workforce to serve diverse populations, and promote health equity. PRIME-US selects medical students from diverse backgrounds who are committed to caring for underserved populations and provides a 5-year curriculum including a summer orientation, a longitudinal seminar series with community engagement and leadership-development activities, preclerkship clinical immersion in an underserved setting, a master's degree, and a capstone rotation in the final year of medical school. This is a mixed-methods evaluation of the first 4 years of the PRIME-US at the UC Berkeley-UC San Francisco Joint Medical Program (JMP). From 2006 to 2010, focus groups were conducted each year with classes of JMP PRIME-US students, for a total of 11 focus groups; major themes were identified using content analysis. In addition, 4 yearly anonymous, online surveys of all JMP students, faculty and staff were conducted and analyzed. Most PRIME-US students came from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds and ethnic backgrounds underrepresented in medicine, and all were committed to caring for underserved populations. The PRIME-US students experienced many program benefits including peer support, professional role models and mentorship, and curricular enrichment activities that developed their knowledge, skills, and sustained commitment to care for underserved populations. Non-PRIME students, faculty, and staff also benefited from participating in PRIME-sponsored seminars and community-based activities

  19. The future of medical education is no longer blood and guts, it is bits and bytes. (United States)

    Gorman, P J; Meier, A H; Rawn, C; Krummel, T M


    In the United States, medical care consumes approximately $1.2 trillion annually (14% of the gross domestic product) and involves 250,000 physicians, almost 1 million nurses, and countless other providers. While the Information Age has changed virtually every other facet of our life, the education of these healthcare professionals, both present and future, is largely mired in the 100-year-old apprenticeship model best exemplified by the phase "see one, do one, teach one." Continuing medical education is even less advanced. While the half-life of medical information is less than 5 years, the average physician practices 30 years and the average nurse 40 years. Moreover, as medical care has become increasingly complex, medical error has become a substantial problem. The current convulsive climate in academic health centers provides an opportunity to rethink the way medical education is delivered across a continuum of professional lifetimes. If this is well executed, it will truly make medical education better, safer, and cheaper, and provide real benefits to patient care, with instantaneous access to learning modules. At the Center for Advanced Technology in Surgery at Stanford we envision this future: within the next 10 years we will select, train, credential, remediate, and recredential physicians and surgeons using simulation, virtual reality, and Web-based electronic learning. Future physicians will be able to rehearse an operation on a projectable palpable hologram derived from patient-specific data, and deliver the data set of that operation with robotic assistance the next day.

  20. Ethics for medical educators: an overview and fallacies. (United States)

    Singh, Arjun


    Ethics is the rule of right conduct or practice in a profession. The basic principles of ethics are beneficence, justice and autonomy or individual freedom. There is very minor demarcation between ethics and the law. The ethics is promulgated by the professional bodies. All are expected to guide the medical professional in their practice. Medical educators have dual ethical obligations: firstly, to the society at large which expects us to produce competent health professionals, and secondly, to the students under our care. The students observe and copy what their teacher does and his/her role modelling can be a gateway to a student's character building. Due to rapid increase in the number of medical colleges, privatization, and capitalism, ethical issue has become much more relevant and needs to discuss in detail. The present paper discusses the ethics for medical educators in detail with, basic principles, common breaches of ethics and fallacies due to wrong application of ethical principles, and the approach to ethics and methods by which we can prevent and avoid breach of ethics.

  1. Perspective: Medical education in medical ethics and humanities as the foundation for developing medical professionalism. (United States)

    Doukas, David J; McCullough, Laurence B; Wear, Stephen


    Medical education accreditation organizations require medical ethics and humanities education to develop professionalism in medical learners, yet there has never been a comprehensive critical appraisal of medical education in ethics and humanities. The Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education (PRIME) I Workshop, convened in May 2010, undertook the first critical appraisal of the definitions, goals, and objectives of medical ethics and humanities teaching. The authors describe assembling a national expert panel of educators representing the disciplines of ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. This panel was tasked with describing the major pedagogical goals of art, ethics, history, and literature in medical education, how these disciplines should be integrated with one another in medical education, and how they could be best integrated into undergraduate and graduate medical education. The authors present the recommendations resulting from the PRIME I discussion, centered on three main themes. The major goal of medical education in ethics and humanities is to promote humanistic skills and professional conduct in physicians. Patient-centered skills enable learners to become medical professionals, whereas critical thinking skills assist learners to critically appraise the concept and implementation of medical professionalism. Implementation of a comprehensive medical ethics and humanities curriculum in medical school and residency requires clear direction and academic support and should be based on clear goals and objectives that can be reliably assessed. The PRIME expert panel concurred that medical ethics and humanities education is essential for professional development in medicine.

  2. Implementation of a phased medical educational approach in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Holm


    Full Text Available Objective: Healthcare provider education can serve as one method for improving healthcare in developing countries. Working with providers at St Luke Hospital in Haiti, we developed a phased educational approach through partnership development, face-to-face teaching, and virtual educational tools. Design: Our novel approach included three phases: direct patient care, targeted education, and utilization of the train-the-trainer model. Our end goal was an educational system that could be utilized by the local medical staff to continually improve their medical knowledge, even after our educational project was completed. We implemented pre- and post-lecture evaluations during our teaching phase to determine whether the education provided was effective and beneficial. Additionally, we provided medical lectures on a shared file internet platform,, during the train-the-trainer phase to allow healthcare providers in Haiti to access the educational content electronically. Results: In total, 47 lectures were given to 150 medical providers, including nurses, physicians, and pharmacists. Pre- and post-lecture evaluations were administered. The mean was 30.63 (14.40 for pre-lecture evaluations and 93.36 (9.80 for post-lecture evaluations indicating improvement out of a total of 100 possible points. Our collaborative account contains 214 medical education lectures available for viewing as a constant resource to St Luke Hospital staff. Thus far, 20 of the 43 (47% Haitian medical providers have viewed lectures, with an average of 5.6 lectures viewed per person. Qualitative data suggest that these methods improved communication between healthcare staff, promoted better ways of triaging patients, and improved job satisfaction. Conclusions: A phased educational approach can improve healthcare workers’ knowledge through partnership in a developing country. Educating local providers is one way of ensuring that in-country healthcare staff will

  3. Multimedia educational interventions for consumers about prescribed and over-the-counter medications. (United States)

    Ciciriello, Sabina; Johnston, Renea V; Osborne, Richard H; Wicks, Ian; deKroo, Tanya; Clerehan, Rosemary; O'Neill, Clare; Buchbinder, Rachelle


    assessors. None of the included studies reported the minimum clinically important difference for the outcomes that were measured. We have therefore reported results from the studies but have been unable to interpret whether differences were of clinical importance.The main findings of the review are as follows.Knowledge: There is low quality evidence that multimedia education was more effective than usual care (non-standardised education provided as part of usual clinical care) or no education (standardised mean difference (SMD) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49 to 1.58, six studies with 817 participants). There was considerable statistical heterogeneity (I(2) = 89%), however, all but one of the studies favoured the multimedia group. There is moderate quality evidence that multimedia education was not more effective at improving knowledge than control multimedia interventions (i.e. multimedia programs that do not provide information about the medication) (mean difference (MD) of knowledge scores 2.78%, 95% CI -1.48 to 7.0, two studies with 568 participants). There is moderate quality evidence that multimedia education was more effective when added to a co-intervention (written information or brief standardised instructions provided by a health professional) compared with the co-intervention alone (MD of knowledge scores 24.59%, 95% CI 22.34 to 26.83, two studies with 381 participants).Skill acquisition: There is moderate quality evidence that multimedia education was more effective than usual care or no education (MD of inhaler technique score 18.32%, 95% CI 11.92 to 24.73, two studies with 94 participants) and written education (risk ratio (RR) of improved inhaler technique 2.14, 95% CI 1.33 to 3.44, two studies with 164 participants). There is very low quality evidence that multimedia education was equally effective as education by a health professional (MD of inhaler technique score -1.01%, 95% CI -15.75 to 13.72, three studies with 130 participants).Compliance with

  4. The health sciences librarian in medical education: a vital pathways project task force. (United States)

    Schwartz, Diane G; Blobaum, Paul M; Shipman, Jean P; Markwell, Linda Garr; Marshall, Joanne Gard


    The Medical Education Task Force of the Task Force on Vital Pathways for Hospital Librarians reviewed current and future roles of health sciences librarians in medical education at the graduate and undergraduate levels and worked with national organizations to integrate library services, education, and staff into the requirements for training medical students and residents. Standards for medical education accreditation programs were studied, and a literature search was conducted on the topic of the role of the health sciences librarian in medical education. Expectations for library and information services in current standards were documented, and a draft standard prepared. A comprehensive bibliography on the role of the health sciences librarian in medical education was completed, and an analysis of the services provided by health sciences librarians was created. An essential role and responsibility of the health sciences librarian will be to provide the health care professional with the skills needed to access, manage, and use library and information resources effectively. Validation and recognition of the health sciences librarian's contributions to medical education by accrediting agencies will be critical. The opportunity lies in health sciences librarians embracing the diverse roles that can be served in this vital activity, regardless of accrediting agency mandates.

  5. Using an expanded outcomes framework and continuing education evidence to improve facilitation of patient-centered medical home recognition and transformation. (United States)

    Van Hoof, Thomas J; Kelvey-Albert, Michele; Katz, Matthew; Lalime, Ken; Sacks, Ken; Meehan, Thomas P


    The patient-centered medical home is a model for delivering primary care in the United States. Primary care clinicians and their staffs require assistance in understanding the innovation and in applying it to practice. The purpose of this article is to describe and to critique a continuing education program that is relevant to, and will become more common in, primary care. A multifaceted educational strategy prepared 20 primary care private practices to achieve National Committee for Quality Assurance Level 3 recognition as Patient-Centered Medical Homes. Eighteen (90%) practices submitted an application to the National Committee for Quality Assurance. On the first submission attempt, 13 of 18 (72%) achieved Level 3 recognition and 5 (28%) achieved Level 1 recognition. An interactive multifaceted educational strategy can be successful in preparing primary care practices for Patient-Centered Medical Homes recognition, but the strategy may not ensure transformation. Future educational activities should consider an expanded outcomes framework and the evidence of effective continuing education to be more successful with recognition and transformation.

  6. Self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students in a tertiary care medical college, West Bengal. (United States)

    Banerjee, I; Bhadury, T


    Self-medication is a widely prevalent practice in India. It assumes a special significance among medical students as they are the future medical practitioners. To assess the pattern of self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students. Tertiary care medical college in West Bengal, India. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among the undergraduate medical students. Out of 500 students of the institute, 482 consented for the study and filled in the supplied questionnaire. Fourteen incomplete questionnaires were excluded and the remaining 468 analyzed. It was found that 267 (57.05%) respondents practiced self-medication. The principal morbidities for seeking self-medication included cough and common cold as reported by 94 students (35.21%) followed by diarrhea (68 students) (25.47%), fever (42 students) (15.73%), headache (40 students) (14.98%) and pain abdomen due to heartburn/ peptic ulcer (23 students) (8.61%). Drugs/ drug groups commonly used for self-medication included antibiotics (31.09%) followed by analgesics (23.21%), antipyretics (17.98%), antiulcer agents (8.99%), cough suppressant (7.87%), multivitamins (6.37%) and antihelminthics (4.49%). Among reasons for seeking self-medication, 126 students (47.19%) felt that their illness was mild while 76 (28.46%) preferred as it is time-saving. About 42 students (15.73%) cited cost-effectiveness as the primary reason while 23 (8.62%) preferred because of urgency. Our study shows that self-medication is widely practiced among students of the institute. In this situation, faculties should create awareness and educate their students regarding advantages and disadvantages of self-medication.

  7. Electronic conferencing for continuing medical education: a resource survey. (United States)

    Sternberg, R J


    The use of electronic technologies to link participants for education conferences is an option for providers of Continuing Medical Education. In order to profile the kinds of electronic networks currently offering audio- or videoteleconferences for physician audiences, a survey was done during late 1985. The information collected included range of services, fees, and geographic areas served. The results show a broad diversity of providers providing both interactive and didactic programming to both physicians and other health care professionals.

  8. Investigating Medication Errors in Educational Health Centers of Kermanshah

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    Mohsen Mohammadi


    Full Text Available Background and objectives : Medication errors can be a threat to the safety of patients. Preventing medication errors requires reporting and investigating such errors. The present study was conducted with the purpose of investigating medication errors in educational health centers of Kermanshah. Material and Methods: The present research is an applied, descriptive-analytical study and is done as a survey. Error Report of Ministry of Health and Medical Education was used for data collection. The population of the study included all the personnel (nurses, doctors, paramedics of educational health centers of Kermanshah. Among them, those who reported the committed errors were selected as the sample of the study. The data analysis was done using descriptive statistics and Chi 2 Test using SPSS version 18. Results: The findings of the study showed that most errors were related to not using medication properly, the least number of errors were related to improper dose, and the majority of errors occurred in the morning. The most frequent reason for errors was staff negligence and the least frequent was the lack of knowledge. Conclusion: The health care system should create an environment for detecting and reporting errors by the personnel, recognizing related factors causing errors, training the personnel and create a good working environment and standard workload.

  9. Disruptive Technologies: A Credible Threat to Leading Programs in Continuing Medical Education? (United States)

    Christensen, Clayton M.; Armstrong, Elizabeth G.


    Disruptive technologies are simple convenient innovations that have triggered failures of some well-managed companies. They may threaten continuing medical-education programs so focused on leading-edge technology they lose sight of the very different educational needs of growing numbers of health care providers, who are turning to consultants, the…

  10. Redefining "Medical Care." (United States)

    Roth, Lauren R

    President Donald J. Trump has said he will repeal the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and replace it with health savings accounts (HSAs). Conservatives have long preferred individual accounts to meet social welfare needs instead of more traditional entitlement programs. The types of "medical care" that can be reimbursed through an HSA are listed in section 213(d) of the Internal Revenue Code (Code) and include expenses "for the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease, or for the purpose of affecting any structure or function of the body." In spite of the broad language, regulations and court interpretations have narrowed this definition substantially. It does not include the many social factors that determine health outcomes. Though the United States spends over seventeen percent of gross domestic product (GDP) on "healthcare", the country's focus on the traditional medicalized model of health results in overall population health that is far beneath the results of other countries that spend significantly less. Precision medicine is one exceptional way in which American healthcare has focused more on individuals instead of providing broad, one-size-fits-all medical care. The precision medicine movement calls for using the genetic code of individuals to both predict future illness and to target treatments for current illnesses. Yet the definition of "medical care" under the Code remains the same for all. My proposal for precision healthcare accounts involves two steps-- the first of which requires permitting physicians to write prescriptions for a broader range of goods and services. The social determinants of health are as important to health outcomes as are surgical procedures and drugs--or perhaps more so according to many population health studies. The second step requires agencies and courts to interpret what constitutes "medical care" under the Code differently depending on the taxpayer's income level. Childhood sports programs and payments

  11. Leadership lessons from military education for postgraduate medical curricular improvement. (United States)

    Edler, Alice; Adamshick, Mark; Fanning, Ruth; Piro, Nancy


    quality medical education includes both teaching and learning of data-driven knowledge, and appropriate technical skills and tacit behaviours, such as effective communication and professional leadership. But these implicit behaviours are not readily adaptable to traditional medical curriculum models. This manuscript explores a medical leadership curriculum informed by military education. our paediatric anaesthesia residents expressed a strong desire for more leadership opportunity within the training programme. Upon exploration, current health care models for leadership training were limited to short didactic presentations or lengthy certificate programmes. We could not find an appropriate model for our 1-year fellowship. in collaboration with the US Naval Academy, we modified the 'Leadership Education and Development Program' curriculum to introduce daily and graduated leadership opportunities: starting with low-risk decision-making tasks and progressing to independent professional decision making and leadership. Each resident who opted into the programme had a 3-month role as team leader and spent 9 months as a team member. At the end of the first year of this curriculum both quantitative assessment and qualitative reflection from residents and faculty members noted significantly improved clinical and administrative decision making. The second-year residents' performance showed further improvement. medical education has long emphasised subject-matter knowledge as a prime focus. However, in competency-based medical education, new curriculum models are needed. Many helpful models can be found in other professional fields. Collaborations between professional educators benefit the students, who are learning these new skills, the medical educators, who work jointly with other professionals, and the original curriculum designer, who has an opportunity to reflect on the strengths and weaknesses of his or her model. Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2010.

  12. Sexuality education in North American medical schools: current status and future directions. (United States)

    Shindel, Alan W; Parish, Sharon J


    Both the general public and individual patients expect healthcare providers to be knowledgeable and approachable regarding sexual health. Despite this expectation there are no universal standards or expectations regarding the sexuality education of medical students. To review the current state of the art in sexuality education for North American medical students and to articulate future directions for improvement. Evaluation of: (i) peer-reviewed literature on sexuality education (focusing on undergraduate medical students); and (ii) recommendations for sexuality education from national and international public health organizations. Current status and future innovations for sexual health education in North American medical schools. Although the importance of sexuality to patients is recognized, there is wide variation in both the quantity and quality of education on this topic in North American medical schools. Many sexual health education programs in medical schools are focused on prevention of unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection. Educational material on sexual function and dysfunction, female sexuality, abortion, and sexual minority groups is generally scant or absent. A number of novel interventions, many student initiated, have been implemented at various medical schools to improve the student's training in sexual health matters. There is a tremendous opportunity to mold the next generation of healthcare providers to view healthy sexuality as a relevant patient concern. A comprehensive and uniform curriculum on human sexuality at the medical school level may substantially enhance the capacity of tomorrow's physicians to provide optimal care for their patients irrespective of gender, sexual orientation, and individual sexual mores/beliefs. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  13. Undergraduate medical education.


    Rees, L; Wass, J


    Pressures from students and teachers, from professional bodies, and from changes in the way health care is delivered are all forcing a rethink of how medical students should be taught. These pressures may be more intense in London but are not confined to it. The recommendation the Tomlinson report advocates that has been generally welcomed is for more investment in primary care in London. General practitioners have much to teach medical schools about effective ways of learning, but incentives...

  14. APA Summit on Medical Student Education Task Force on Informatics and Technology: learning about computers and applying computer technology to education and practice. (United States)

    Hilty, Donald M; Hales, Deborah J; Briscoe, Greg; Benjamin, Sheldon; Boland, Robert J; Luo, John S; Chan, Carlyle H; Kennedy, Robert S; Karlinsky, Harry; Gordon, Daniel B; Yager, Joel; Yellowlees, Peter M


    This article provides a brief overview of important issues for educators regarding medical education and technology. The literature describes key concepts, prototypical technology tools, and model programs. A work group of psychiatric educators was convened three times by phone conference to discuss the literature. Findings were presented to and input was received from the 2005 Summit on Medical Student Education by APA and the American Directors of Medical Student Education in Psychiatry. Knowledge of, skills in, and attitudes toward medical informatics are important to life-long learning and modern medical practice. A needs assessment is a starting place, since student, faculty, institution, and societal factors bear consideration. Technology needs to "fit" into a curriculum in order to facilitate learning and teaching. Learning about computers and applying computer technology to education and clinical care are key steps in computer literacy for physicians.

  15. InsuOnline, an Electronic Game for Medical Education on Insulin Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Trial With Primary Care Physicians. (United States)

    Diehl, Leandro Arthur; Souza, Rodrigo Martins; Gordan, Pedro Alejandro; Esteves, Roberto Zonato; Coelho, Izabel Cristina Meister


    Most patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are followed by primary care physicians, who often lack knowledge or confidence to prescribe insulin properly. This contributes to clinical inertia and poor glycemic control. Effectiveness of traditional continuing medical education (CME) to solve that is limited, so new approaches are required. Electronic games are a good option, as they can be very effective and easily disseminated. The objective of our study was to assess applicability, user acceptance, and educational effectiveness of InsuOnline, an electronic serious game for medical education on insulin therapy for DM, compared with a traditional CME activity. Primary care physicians (PCPs) from South of Brazil were invited by phone or email to participate in an unblinded randomized controlled trial and randomly allocated to play the game InsuOnline, installed as an app in their own computers, at the time of their choice, with minimal or no external guidance, or to participate in a traditional CME session, composed by onsite lectures and cases discussion. Both interventions had the same content and duration (~4 h). Applicability was assessed by the number of subjects who completed the assigned intervention in each group. Insulin-prescribing competence (factual knowledge, problem-solving skills, and attitudes) was self-assessed through a questionnaire applied before, immediately after, and 3 months after the interventions. Acceptance of the intervention (satisfaction and perceived importance for clinical practice) was also assessed immediately after and 3 months after the interventions, respectively. Subjects' characteristics were similar between groups (mean age 38, 51.4% [69/134] male). In the game group, 69 of 88 (78%) completed the intervention, compared with 65 of 73 (89%) in the control group, with no difference in applicability. Percentage of right answers in the competence subscale, which was 52% at the baseline in both groups, significantly improved

  16. A before and after study of medical students' and house staff members' knowledge of ACOVE quality of pharmacologic care standards on an acute care for elders unit. (United States)

    Jellinek, Samantha P; Cohen, Victor; Nelson, Marcia; Likourezos, Antonios; Goldman, William; Paris, Barbara


    The Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders (ACOVE) comprehensive set of quality assessment tools for ill older persons is a standard designed to measure overall care delivered to vulnerable elders (ie, those aged > or =65 years) at the level of a health care system or plan. The goal of this research was to quantify the pretest and posttest results of medical students and house staff participating in a pharmacotherapist-led educational intervention that focused on the ACOVE quality of pharmacologic care standards. This was a before and after study assessing the knowledge ofACOVE standards following exposure to an educational intervention led by a pharmacotherapist. It was conducted at the 29-bed Acute Care for Elders (ACE) unit of Maimonides Medical Center, a 705-bed, independent teaching hospital located in Brooklyn, New York. Participants included all medical students and house staff completing a rotation on the ACE unit from August 2004 through May 2005 who completed both the pre-and posttests. A pharmacotherapist provided a 1-hour active learning session reviewing the evidence supporting the quality indicators and reviewed case-based questions with the medical students and house staff. Educational interventions also occurred daily through pharmacotherapeutic consultations and during work rounds. Medical students and house staff were administered the same 15-question, patient-specific, case-based, multiple-choice pre-and posttest to assess knowledge of the standards before and after receiving the intervention. A total of 54 medical students and house staff (median age, 28.58 years; 40 men, 14 women) completed the study. Significantly higher median scores were achieved on the multiple-choice test after the intervention than before (median scores, 14/15 [93.3%] vs 12/15 [80.0%], respectively; P = 0.001). A pharmacotherapist-led educational intervention improved the scores of medical students and house staff on a test evaluating knowledge of evidence

  17. Dialog about Psychosocial Issues in Problem-Based Learning Sessions in Medical Education (United States)

    Adams, Nancy E.


    The purpose of this qualitative case study was two-fold: to investigate the dialog about psychosocial aspects of health care in problem based learning (PBL) groups in a single medical school; and to describe the factors that learners and PBL facilitators identify as influencing dialog about these issues in PBL groups. Medical education is a…

  18. Chasing Perfection and Catching Excellence in Graduate Medical Education. (United States)

    Andolsek, Kathryn M


    The author reflects on the chapter titled "Preserving Excellence in Residency Training and Medical Care" in Dr. Kenneth Ludmerer's book Let Me Heal: The Opportunity to Preserve Excellence in American Medicine. Rather than assuming that the status quo represents excellence, however, the author asserts that we must make an informed judgment regarding the quality of graduate medical education (GME) by applying an evidence-based approach, carefully measuring performance against specific criteria. But what are the right criteria to judge excellence in GME? The author posits that the first criterion for excellence is the foundational concept identified by the Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation, that of accountability to the public. The author argues that for GME to be truly excellent it must produce a workforce "of sufficient size, specialty mix, and skill" needed to serve the public good. For GME to be truly excellent it must produce the right composition (reflecting the population it serves), use the right pedagogy, and be embedded within the right clinical learning environment. Implementation of competency-based education must be bolder and accelerated. The process of culling out service from education in GME must be more honest, not because all service cannot in some ways be educational but because it is simply too expensive to squander a single minute of time in training. Finally, the epidemic of burnout must be addressed urgently and innovatively.

  19. Seeking health care through international medical tourism. (United States)

    Eissler, Lee Ann; Casken, John


    The purpose of this study was the exploration of international travel experiences for the purpose of medical or dental care from the perspective of patients from Alaska and to develop insight and understanding of the essence of the phenomenon of medical tourism. The study is conceptually oriented within a model of health-seeking behavior. Using a qualitative design, 15 Alaska medical tourists were individually interviewed. The data were analyzed using a hermeneutic process of inquiry to uncover the meaning of the experience. Six themes reflecting the experiences of Alaska medical tourists emerged: "my motivation," "I did the research," "the medical care I need," "follow-up care," "the advice I give," and "in the future." Subthemes further categorized data for increased understanding of the phenomenon. The thematic analysis provides insight into the experience and reflects a modern approach to health-seeking behavior through international medical tourism. The results of this study provide increased understanding of the experience of obtaining health care internationally from the patient perspective. Improved understanding of medical tourism provides additional information about a contemporary approach to health-seeking behavior. Results of this study will aid nursing professionals in counseling regarding medical tourism options and providing follow-up health care after medical tourism. Nurses will be able to actively participate in global health policy discussions regarding medical tourism trends. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  20. A systematic review of service-learning in medical education: 1998-2012. (United States)

    Stewart, Trae; Wubbena, Zane C


    PHENOMENON: In the United States, the Affordable Care Act has increased the need for community-centered pedagogy for medical education such as service-learning, wherein students connect academic curriculum and reflections to address a community need. Yet heterogeneity among service-learning programs suggests the need for a framework to understand variations among service-learning programs in medical education. A qualitative systematic review of literature on service-learning and medical education was conducted for the period between 1998 and 2012. A two-stage inclusion criteria process resulted in articles (n = 32) on service-learning and Doctor of Medicine or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine being included for both coding and analysis. Focused and selective coding were employed to identify recurring themes and subthemes from the literature. The findings of the qualitative thematic analysis of service-learning variation in medical education identified a total of seven themes with subthemes. The themes identified from the analysis were (a) geographic location and setting, (b) program design, (c) funding, (d) participation, (e) program implementation, (f) assessment, and (g) student outcomes. Insights: This systematic review of literature confirmed the existence of program heterogeneity among service-learning program in medical education. However, the findings of this study provide key insights into the nature of service-learning in medical education building a framework for which to organize differences among service-learning programs. A list of recommendations for future areas of inquiry is provided to guide future research.

  1. Mastery learning: it is time for medical education to join the 21st century. (United States)

    McGaghie, William C


    Clinical medical education in the 21st century is grounded in a 19th-century model that relies on longitudinal exposure to patients as the curriculum focus. The assumption is that medical students and postgraduate residents will learn from experience, that vicarious or direct involvement in patient care is the best teacher. The weight of evidence shows, however, that results from such traditional clinical education are uneven at best. Educational inertia endorsed until recently by medical school accreditation policies has maintained the clinical medical education status quo for decades.Mastery learning is a new paradigm for medical education. Basic principles of mastery learning are that educational excellence is expected and can be achieved by all learners and that little or no variation in measured outcomes will result. This Commentary describes the origins of mastery learning and presents its essential features. The Commentary then introduces the eight reports that comprise the mastery learning cluster for this issue of Academic Medicine. The reports are intended to help medical educators recognize advantages of the mastery model and begin to implement mastery learning at their own institutions. The Commentary concludes with brief statements about future directions for mastery learning program development and research in medical education.

  2. Educational needs for improving self-care in heart failure patients with diabetes. (United States)

    Cha, EunSeok; Clark, Patricia C; Reilly, Carolyn Miller; Higgins, Melinda; Lobb, Maureen; Smith, Andrew L; Dunbar, Sandra B


    To explore the need for self-monitoring and self-care education in heart failure patients with diabetes (HF- DM patients) by describing cognitive and affective factors to provide guidance in developing effective self-management education. A cross-sectional correlation design was employed using baseline patient data from a study testing a 12-week patient and family dyad intervention to improve dietary and medication-taking self-management behaviors in HF patients. Data from 116 participants recruited from metropolitan Atlanta area were used. Demographic and comorbidities, physical function, psychological distress, relationship with health care provider, self-efficacy (medication taking and low sodium diet), and behavioral outcomes (medications, dietary habits) were assessed. Descriptive statistics and a series of chi-square tests, t tests, or Mann-Whitney tests were performed to compare HF patients with and without DM. HF-DM patients were older and heavier, had more comorbidities, and took more daily medications than HF patients. High self-efficacy on medication and low-sodium diet was reported in both groups with no significant difference. Although HF-DM patients took more daily medications than HF, both groups exhibited high HF medication-taking behaviors. The HF-DM patients consumed significantly lower total sugar than HF patients but clinically higher levels of sodium. Diabetes educators need to be aware of potential conflicts of treatment regimens to manage 2 chronic diseases. Special and integrated diabetes self-management education programs that incorporate principles of HF self-management should be developed to improve self-management behavior in HF-DM patients.

  3. Preventing Complications of Pediatric Tracheostomy Through Standardized Wound Care and Parent Education. (United States)

    Gaudreau, Philip A; Greenlick, Hannah; Dong, Tiffany; Levy, Michelle; Hackett, Alyssa; Preciado, Diego; Zalzal, George; Reilly, Brian K


    Pediatric tracheostomy is commonly performed for upper airway obstruction and prolonged mechanical ventilation. Children undergoing tracheostomy typically have multiple chronic medical problems that place them at high risk for readmission and additional complications. To determine whether the institution of a postoperative protocol for parent education and wound care with a nurse trained in tracheostomy care decreases the rate of readmission and other complications. A case series and medical record review was conducted of children 18 years and younger who underwent tracheostomy at a tertiary pediatric medical center between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2014. A postoperative tracheostomy care and education protocol. Overall 30-day readmission rate, 30-day tracheostomy-related readmission rate, tracheostomy wound complications, and additional factors that may have affected readmission rates and wound complications (age at the time of tracheostomy, discharge location, indication for tracheostomy). A total of 191 children (118 boys and 73 girls) were included; of these, 112 participated in the education protocol and 79 children did not. Following institution of the education protocol, there was no decrease in the overall readmission rate (26.8% before the protocol vs 26.6% after the protocol; difference, 0.2%; 95% CI, -12.5% to 13.0%) or in the tracheostomy-related readmission rate (10.1% before the protocol vs 7.1% after the protocol; difference, 3.0%; 95% CI, -5.0% to 11.0%). Overall, 68.6% of readmissions were associated with medical comorbidities (95% CI, 55.9% to 81.3%). There was a significant decrease in tracheostomy-related wound complications after institution of the protocol (31.6% to 17.9%; difference, 13.7%; 95% CI, 1.6% to 26.0%). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that children who were discharged home were significantly more likely to be readmitted for a tracheostomy-related complication than were patients discharged to an advanced care

  4. The perception of the hidden curriculum on medical education: an exploratory study

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    Murakami Manabu


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major curriculum reform of undergraduate medical education occurred during the past decades in the United Kingdom (UK; however, the effects of the hidden curriculum, which influence the choice of primary care as a career, have not been sufficiently recognized. While Japan, where traditionally few institutions systematically foster primary care physicians and very few have truly embraced family medicine as their guiding discipline, has also experienced meaningful curriculum reform, the effect of the hidden curriculum is not well known. The aim of this study is to identify themes pertaining to the students' perceptions of the hidden curriculum affecting undergraduate medical education in bedside learning in Japan. Methods Semi-structured interviews with thematic content analysis were implemented. Undergraduate year-5 students from a Japanese medical school at a Japanese teaching hospital were recruited. Interview were planned to last between 30 to 60 minutes each, over an 8-month period in 2007. The interviewees' perceptions concerning the quality of teaching in their bedside learning and related experiences were collected and analysed thematically. Results Twenty five medical students (18 males and 7 females, mean age 25 years old consented to participate in the interviews, and seven main themes emerged: "the perception of education as having a low priority," "the prevalence of positive/negative role models," "the persistence of hierarchy and exclusivity," "the existence of gender issues," "an overburdened medical knowledge," "human relationships with colleagues and medical team members," and "first experience from the practical wards and their patients." Conclusions Both similarities and differences were found when comparing the results to those of previous studies in the UK. Some effects of the hidden curriculum in medical education likely exist in common between the UK and Japan, despite the differences in their demographic

  5. Agents for change: nonphysician medical providers and health care quality. (United States)

    Boucher, Nathan A; Mcmillen, Marvin A; Gould, James S


    Quality medical care is a clinical and public health imperative, but defining quality and achieving improved, measureable outcomes are extremely complex challenges. Adherence to best practice invariably improves outcomes. Nonphysician medical providers (NPMPs), such as physician assistants and advanced practice nurses (eg, nurse practitioners, advanced practice registered nurses, certified registered nurse anesthetists, and certified nurse midwives), may be the first caregivers to encounter the patient and can act as agents for change for an organization's quality-improvement mandate. NPMPs are well positioned to both initiate and ensure optimal adherence to best practices and care processes from the moment of initial contact because they have robust clinical training and are integral to trainee/staff education and the timely delivery of care. The health care quality aspects that the practicing NPMP can affect are objective, appreciative, and perceptive. As bedside practitioners and participants in the administrative and team process, NPMPs can fine-tune care delivery, avoiding the problem areas defined by the Institute of Medicine: misuse, overuse, and underuse of care. This commentary explores how NPMPs can affect quality by 1) supporting best practices through the promotion of guidelines and protocols, and 2) playing active, if not leadership, roles in patient engagement and organizational quality-improvement efforts.

  6. Radiation therapy patient education using VERT: combination of technology with human care. (United States)

    Jimenez, Yobelli A; Lewis, Sarah J


    The Virtual Environment for Radiotherapy Training (VERT) system is a recently available tool for radiation therapy education. The majority of research regarding VERT-based education is focused on students, with a growing area of research being VERT's role in patient education. Because large differences in educational requirements exist between students and patients, focused resources and subsequent evaluations are necessary to provide solid justification for the unique benefits and challenges posed by VERT in a patient education context. This commentary article examines VERT's role in patient education, with a focus on salient visual features, VERT's ability to address some of the spatial challenges associated with RT patient education and how to combine technology with human care. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy and New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology.

  7. Are medical educators following General Medical Council guidelines on obesity education: if not why not? (United States)


    Background Although the United Kingdom’s (UK’s) General Medical Council (GMC) recommends that graduating medical students are competent to discuss obesity and behaviour change with patients, it is difficult to integrate this education into existing curricula, and clinicians report being unprepared to support patients needing obesity management in practice. We therefore aimed to identify factors influencing the integration of obesity management education within medical schools. Methods Twenty-seven UK and Irish medical school educators participated in semi-structured interviews. Grounded theory principles informed data collection and analysis. Themes emerging directly from the dataset illustrated key challenges for educators and informed several suggested solutions. Results Factors influencing obesity management education included: 1) Diverse and opportunistic learning and teaching, 2) Variable support for including obesity education within undergraduate medical programmes, and 3) Student engagement in obesity management education. Findings suggest several practical solutions to identified challenges including clarifying recommended educational agendas; improving access to content-specific guidelines; and implementing student engagement strategies. Conclusions Students’ educational experiences differ due to diverse interpretations of GMC guidelines, educators’ perceptions of available support for, and student interest in obesity management education. Findings inform the development of potential solutions to these challenges which may be tested further empirically. PMID:23578257

  8. Current status of palliative care--clinical implementation, education, and research. (United States)

    Grant, Marcia; Elk, Ronit; Ferrell, Betty; Morrison, R Sean; von Gunten, Charles F


    Palliative and end-of-life care is changing in the United States. This dynamic field is improving care for patients with serious and life-threatening cancer through creation of national guidelines for quality care, multidisciplinary educational offerings, research endeavors, and resources made available to clinicians. Barriers to implementing quality palliative care across cancer populations include a rapidly expanding population of older adults who will need cancer care and a decrease in the workforce available to give care. Methods of integrating current palliative care knowledge into care of patients include multidisciplinary national education and research endeavors, and clinician resources. Acceptance of palliative care as a recognized medical specialty provides a valuable resource for improvement of care. Although compilation of evidence for the importance of palliative care specialities is in its initial stages, national research grants have provided support to build the knowledge necessary for appropriate palliative care. Opportunities are available to clinicians for understanding and applying appropriate palliative and end-of-life care to patients with serious and life-threatening cancers. (c) 2009 American Cancer Society, Inc.

  9. Use of Free, Open Access Medical Education and Perceived Emergency Medicine Educational Needs Among Rural Physicians in Southwestern Ontario. (United States)

    Folkl, Alex; Chan, Teresa; Blau, Elaine


    Free, open access medical education (FOAM) has the potential to revolutionize continuing medical education, particularly for rural physicians who practice emergency medicine (EM) as part of a generalist practice. However, there has been little study of rural physicians' educational needs since the advent of FOAM. We asked how rural physicians in Southwestern Ontario obtained their continuing EM education. We asked them to assess their perceived level of comfort in different areas of EM. To understand how FOAM resources might serve the rural EM community, we compared their responses with urban emergency physicians. Responses were collected via survey and interview. There was no significant difference between groups in reported use of FOAM resources. However, there was a significant difference between rural and urban physicians' perceived level of EM knowledge, with urban physicians reporting a higher degree of confidence for most knowledge categories, particularly those related to critical care and rare procedures. This study provides the first description of EM knowledge and FOAM resource utilization among rural physicians in Southwestern Ontario. It also highlights an area of educational need -- that is, critical care and rare procedures. Future work should address whether rural physicians are using FOAM specifically to improve their critical care and procedural knowledge. As well, because of the generalist nature of rural practice, future work should clarify whether there is an opportunity cost to rural physicians' knowledge of other clinical domains if they chose to focus more time on continuing education in critical care EM.

  10. Self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students in a tertiary care medical college, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Banerjee


    Full Text Available Background: Self-medication is a widely prevalent practice in India. It assumes a special significance among medical students as they are the future medical practitioners. Aim: To assess the pattern of self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students. Settings and Design: Tertiary care medical college in West Bengal, India. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among the undergraduate medical students. Results: Out of 500 students of the institute, 482 consented for the study and filled in the supplied questionnaire. Fourteen incomplete questionnaires were excluded and the remaining 468 analyzed. It was found that 267 (57.05% respondents practiced self-medication. The principal morbidities for seeking self-medication included cough and common cold as reported by 94 students (35.21% followed by diarrhea (68 students (25.47%, fever (42 students (15.73%, headache (40 students (14.98% and pain abdomen due to heartburn/ peptic ulcer (23 students (8.61%. Drugs/ drug groups commonly used for self-medication included antibiotics (31.09% followed by analgesics (23.21%, antipyretics (17.98%, antiulcer agents (8.99%, cough suppressant (7.87%, multivitamins (6.37% and antihelminthics (4.49%. Among reasons for seeking self-medication, 126 students (47.19% felt that their illness was mild while 76 (28.46% preferred as it is time-saving. About 42 students (15.73% cited cost-effectiveness as the primary reason while 23 (8.62% preferred because of urgency. Conclusion: Our study shows that self-medication is widely practiced among students of the institute. In this situation, faculties should create awareness and educate their students regarding advantages and disadvantages of self-medication.

  11. Twelve Tips for teaching medical professionalism at all levels of medical education. (United States)

    Al-Eraky, Mohamed Mostafa


    Review of studies published in medical education journals over the last decade reveals that teaching medical professionalism is essential, yet challenging. According to a recent Best Evidence in Medical Education (BEME) guide, there is no consensus on a theoretical or practical model to integrate the teaching of professionalism into medical education. The aim of this article is to outline a practical manual for teaching professionalism at all levels of medical education. Drawing from research literature and author's experience, Twelve Tips are listed and organised in four clusters with relevance to (1) the context, (2) the teachers, (3) the curriculum, and (4) the networking. With a better understanding of the guiding educational principles for teaching medical professionalism, medical educators will be able to teach one of the most challenging constructs in medical education.

  12. Setting priorities for research in medical nutrition education: an international approach. (United States)

    Ball, Lauren; Barnes, Katelyn; Laur, Celia; Crowley, Jennifer; Ray, Sumantra


    To identify the research priorities for medical nutrition education worldwide. A 5-step stakeholder engagement process based on methodological guidelines for identifying research priorities in health. 277 individuals were identified as representatives for 30 different stakeholder organisations across 86 countries. The stakeholder organisations represented the views of medical educators, medical students, doctors, patients and researchers in medical education. Each stakeholder representative was asked to provide up to three research questions that should be deemed as a priority for medical nutrition education. Research questions were critically appraised for answerability, sustainability, effectiveness, potential for translation and potential to impact on disease burden. A blinded scoring system was used to rank the appraised questions, with higher scores indicating higher priority (range of scores possible 36-108). 37 submissions were received, of which 25 were unique research questions. Submitted questions received a range of scores from 62 to 106 points. The highest scoring questions focused on (1) increasing the confidence of medical students and doctors in providing nutrition care to patients, (2) clarifying the essential nutrition skills doctors should acquire, (3) understanding the effectiveness of doctors at influencing dietary behaviours and (4) improving medical students' attitudes towards the importance of nutrition. These research questions can be used to ensure future projects in medical nutrition education directly align with the needs and preferences of research stakeholders. Funders should consider these priorities in their commissioning of research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  13. E-health in graduate and postgraduate medical education: illusions, expectations and reality. (United States)

    Bari, Ferenc; Forczek, Erzsébet; Hantos, Zoltán


    With the overall growth of informatics, the medical education system should also provide programs at both graduate and post-graduate levels. While there is a wide consensus as to the importance of this urgent need, several factors slow down the construction and operation of effective education programs in medical and nursing schools. The increasing need for better and more comprehensive training in informatics is strongly limited by several factors including undefined output skills, tight time frame etc. An efficient development of partnerships within the health care system assumes that all professionals involved must possess strong informatics and interpersonal knowledge, and skills reaching beyond their own individual fields. There is an emerging need to define the basic skills and knowledge for each level of the health care education. Trans-border cooperation offers a unique opportunity for the establishment of common criteria for basic skills and knowledge, via joint discussions, collaborative thinking and concerted action.

  14. Transformative learning: empathy and multicultural awareness in podiatric medical education. (United States)

    Elliott, Craig M; Toomey, Robert J; Goodman, Brooke A; Barbosa, Peter


    Short-term medical missions are common in medical educational settings and could possibly affect student learning. Little research has been conducted about the potential of these missions on students' transformative learning, in particular as it relates to empathy and multicultural awareness. Eight podiatric medical students who participated in short-term medical missions in 2008 and 2009 completed an electronic survey to investigate the effect of their experience as it relates to their learning. The empathy and multicultural awareness impact of the mission experience was emphasized. Qualitative questions in the survey were coded, themed, and triangulated with the quantitative responses. Six students (75%) "strongly agreed" that participating in the medical mission was a significant positive experience in their podiatric medical training. Six students felt that their experiences in serving these communities increased their personal awareness of multicultural/diversity needs in general. All of the students agreed that they will become better podiatric physicians because of their experiences in the medical missions. The qualitative data also indicate that the experience had an effect on the students' views of health care and increased empathy toward their patients. Short-term medical missions could play a significant role in the transformative learning experience in podiatric medical education. This could affect the empathy and multicultural awareness of podiatric medical students. Further and more extensive evaluations of the potential impact of short-term medical missions in podiatric medical education should be explored because it could influence curriculum and global health in the field of podiatric medicine.

  15. Focus on performance: the 21 century revolution in medical education. (United States)

    Davidoff, Frank


    For centuries medicine was predominantly a tradition-based "trade" until the introduction of science transformed it into an intellectually rigorous discipline. That transformation contributed heavily to the dominance in medical education of the learning of biomedical concepts ("knowing that") over learning how to translate that knowledge into clinical performance ("knowing how"). The recent emergence of performance-oriented educational initiatives suggests, however, that the balance between these two complementary approaches is changing, a change that has been referred to as "the Flexnerian revolution of the 21(st) century." Problem-based learning, learning the practice of evidence-based medicine, and learning to use clinical guidelines are among the important initiatives designed to develop high-level performance in the care of individual patients. Initiatives in which learners acquire skill in changing the performance of care systems are also being widely implemented. These trends have received important formal support through recent changes in residency training accreditation standards. Although it is too early to assess the impact of these initiatives or to know whether they will develop further, medical education is unlikely to reach its full potential unless it successfully comes to grips with the challenges of understanding, teaching, and measuring performance.

  16. InsuOnline, an Electronic Game for Medical Education on Insulin Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Trial With Primary Care Physicians (United States)


    Background Most patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are followed by primary care physicians, who often lack knowledge or confidence to prescribe insulin properly. This contributes to clinical inertia and poor glycemic control. Effectiveness of traditional continuing medical education (CME) to solve that is limited, so new approaches are required. Electronic games are a good option, as they can be very effective and easily disseminated. Objective The objective of our study was to assess applicability, user acceptance, and educational effectiveness of InsuOnline, an electronic serious game for medical education on insulin therapy for DM, compared with a traditional CME activity. Methods Primary care physicians (PCPs) from South of Brazil were invited by phone or email to participate in an unblinded randomized controlled trial and randomly allocated to play the game InsuOnline, installed as an app in their own computers, at the time of their choice, with minimal or no external guidance, or to participate in a traditional CME session, composed by onsite lectures and cases discussion. Both interventions had the same content and duration (~4 h). Applicability was assessed by the number of subjects who completed the assigned intervention in each group. Insulin-prescribing competence (factual knowledge, problem-solving skills, and attitudes) was self-assessed through a questionnaire applied before, immediately after, and 3 months after the interventions. Acceptance of the intervention (satisfaction and perceived importance for clinical practice) was also assessed immediately after and 3 months after the interventions, respectively. Results Subjects’ characteristics were similar between groups (mean age 38, 51.4% [69/134] male). In the game group, 69 of 88 (78%) completed the intervention, compared with 65 of 73 (89%) in the control group, with no difference in applicability. Percentage of right answers in the competence subscale, which was 52% at the baseline in both

  17. Educational outcomes of the Harvard Medical School-Cambridge integrated clerkship: a way forward for medical education. (United States)

    Hirsh, David; Gaufberg, Elizabeth; Ogur, Barbara; Cohen, Pieter; Krupat, Edward; Cox, Malcolm; Pelletier, Stephen; Bor, David


    The authors report data from the Harvard Medical School-Cambridge Integrated Clerkship (CIC), a model of medical education in which students' entire third year consists of a longitudinal, integrated curriculum. The authors compare the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of students completing the CIC with those of students completing traditional third-year clerkships. The authors compared 27 students completing the first three years of the CIC (2004-2007) with 45 students completing clerkships at other Harvard teaching hospitals during the same period. At baseline, no significant between-group differences existed (Medical College Admission Test and Step 1 scores, second-year objective structured clinical examination [OSCE] performance, attitudes toward patient-centered care, and plans for future practice) in any year. The authors compared students' National Board of Medical Examiners Subject and Step 2 Clinical Knowledge scores, OSCE performance, perceptions of the learning environment, and attitudes toward patient-centeredness. CIC students performed as well as or better than their traditionally trained peers on measures of content knowledge and clinical skills. CIC students expressed higher satisfaction with the learning environment, more confidence in dealing with numerous domains of patient care, and a stronger sense of patient-centeredness. CIC students are at least as well as and in several ways better prepared than their peers. CIC students also demonstrate richer perspectives on the course of illness, more insight into social determinants of illness and recovery, and increased commitment to patients. These data suggest that longitudinal integrated clerkships offer students important intellectual, professional, and personal benefits.

  18. Factors influencing a nurse's decision to question medication administration in a neonatal clinical care unit. (United States)

    Aydon, Laurene; Hauck, Yvonne; Zimmer, Margo; Murdoch, Jamee


    The aim of this study was to identify factors that influence nurse's decisions to question concerning aspects of medication administration within the context of a neonatal clinical care unit. Medication error in the neonatal setting can be high with this particularly vulnerable population. As the care giver responsible for medication administration, nurses are deemed accountable for most errors. However, they are recognised as the forefront of prevention. Minimal evidence is available around reasoning, decision making and questioning around medication administration. Therefore, this study focuses upon addressing the gap in knowledge around what nurses believe influences their decision to question. A critical incident design was employed where nurses were asked to describe clinical incidents around their decision to question a medication issue. Nurses were recruited from a neonatal clinical care unit and participated in an individual digitally recorded interview. One hundred and three nurses participated between December 2013-August 2014. Use of the constant comparative method revealed commonalities within transcripts. Thirty-six categories were grouped into three major themes: 'Working environment', 'Doing the right thing' and 'Knowledge about medications'. Findings highlight factors that influence nurses' decision to question issues around medication administration. Nurses feel it is their responsibility to do the right thing and speak up for their vulnerable patients to enhance patient safety. Negative dimensions within the themes will inform planning of educational strategies to improve patient safety, whereas positive dimensions must be reinforced within the multidisciplinary team. The working environment must support nurses to question and ultimately provide safe patient care. Clear and up to date policies, formal and informal education, role modelling by senior nurses, effective use of communication skills and a team approach can facilitate nurses to

  19. Challenges to neurology residency education in today's health care environment. (United States)

    Bega, Danny; Krainc, Dimitri


    Residency training has had to adapt to higher patient volumes, increased complexity of medical care, and the commercialized system of health care. These changes have led to a concerning culture shift in neurology. We review the relationship between the emerging health care delivery system and residency training, highlighting issues related to duty hours and work-life balance, the changing technological landscape, high patient volumes, and complex service obligations. We propose that the current challenges in health care delivery offer the opportunity to improve neurology residency through faculty development programs, bringing teaching back to the bedside, increasing resident autonomy, utilizing near-peer teaching, and rewarding educators who facilitate an environment of inquiry and scholarship, with the ultimate goal of better alignment between education and patient care. Ann Neurol 2016;80:315-320. © 2016 American Neurological Association.

  20. Stakeholder Perspectives on Changes in Hypertension Care Under the Patient-Centered Medical Home. (United States)

    O'Donnell, Alison J; Bogner, Hillary R; Cronholm, Peter F; Kellom, Katherine; Miller-Day, Michelle; McClintock, Heather F de Vries; Kaye, Elise M; Gabbay, Robert


    Hypertension is a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular and kidney disease, yet the proportion of adults whose hypertension is controlled is low. The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) is a model for care delivery that emphasizes patient-centered and team-based care and focuses on quality and safety. Our goal was to investigate changes in hypertension care under PCMH implementation in a large multipayer PCMH demonstration project that may have led to improvements in hypertension control. The PCMH transformation initiative conducted 118 semistructured interviews at 17 primary care practices in southeastern Pennsylvania between January 2011 and January 2012. Clinicians (n = 47), medical assistants (n = 26), office administrators (n = 12), care managers (n = 11), front office staff (n = 7), patient educators (n = 4), nurses (n = 4), social workers (n = 4), and other administrators (n = 3) participated in interviews. Study personnel used thematic analysis to identify themes related to hypertension care. Clinicians described difficulties in expanding services under PCMH to meet the needs of the growing number of patients with hypertension as well as how perceptions of hypertension control differed from actual performance. Staff and office administrators discussed achieving patient-centered hypertension care through patient education and self-management support with personalized care plans. They indicated that patient report cards were helpful tools. Participants across all groups discussed a team- and systems-based approach to hypertension care. Practices undergoing PCMH transformation may consider stakeholder perspectives about patient-centered, team-based, and systems-based approaches as they work to optimize hypertension care.

  1. Intensive medical student involvement in short-term surgical trips provides safe and effective patient care: a case review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macleod Jana B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hierarchical nature of medical education has been thought necessary for the safe care of patients. In this setting, medical students in particular have limited opportunities for experiential learning. We report on a student-faculty collaboration that has successfully operated an annual, short-term surgical intervention in Haiti for the last three years. Medical students were responsible for logistics and were overseen by faculty members for patient care. Substantial planning with local partners ensured that trip activities supplemented existing surgical services. A case review was performed hypothesizing that such trips could provide effective surgical care while also providing a suitable educational experience. Findings Over three week-long trips, 64 cases were performed without any reported complications, and no immediate perioperative morbidity or mortality. A plurality of cases were complex urological procedures that required surgical skills that were locally unavailable (43%. Surgical productivity was twice that of comparable peer institutions in the region. Student roles in patient care were greatly expanded in comparison to those at U.S. academic medical centers and appropriate supervision was maintained. Discussion This demonstration project suggests that a properly designed surgical trip model can effectively balance the surgical needs of the community with an opportunity to expose young trainees to a clinical and cross-cultural experience rarely provided at this early stage of medical education. Few formalized programs currently exist although the experience above suggests the rewarding potential for broad-based adoption.

  2. Evaluation of Managerial Needs for Palliative Care Centers: Perspectives of Medical Directors. (United States)

    Kafadar, Didem; Ince, Nurhan; Akcakaya, Adem; Gumus, Mahmut


    Palliative therapies have an important role in increasing the quality of healthcare and in dealing with physical and psychosocial problems due to cancer. We here aimed to evaluate the managerial perspectives and opinions of the hospital managers and clinical directors about specialized palliative care centers. This study was conducted in two large-scale hospitals in which oncology care is given with medical directors (n:70). A questionnaire developed by the researchers asking about demographic characteristics and professional experience, opinions and suggestions of medical directors about providing and integrating palliative care into healthcare was used and responses were analyzed. Potential barriers in providing palliative care (PC) and integrating PC into health systems were perceived as institutional by most of the doctors (97%) and nurses (96%). Social barriers were reported by 54% of doctors and 82% of nurses. Barriers due to interest and knowledge of health professionals about PC were reported by 76% of doctors and 75% of nurses. Among encouragement ideas to provide PC were dealing with staff educational needs (72%), improved working conditions (77%) and establishing a special PC unit (49)%. An independent PC unit was suggested by 27.7% of participants and there was no difference between the hospitals. To overcome the barriers for integration of PC into health systems, providing education for health professionals and patient relatives, raising awareness in society, financial arrangements and providing infrastructure were suggested. The necessity for planning and programming were emphasized. In our study, the opinions and perspectives of hospital managers and clinical directors were similar to current approaches. Managerial needs for treating cancer in efficient cancer centers, increasing the capacity of health professionals to provide care in every stage of cancer, effective education planning and patient care management were emphasized.

  3. Online nutrition and T2DM continuing medical education course launched on state-level medical association. (United States)

    Hicks, Kristen K; Murano, Peter S


    The purpose of this research study was to determine whether a 1-hour online continuing medical education (CME) course focused on nutrition for type 2 diabetes would result in a gain in nutrition knowledge by practicing physicians. A practicing physician and dietitian collaborated to develop an online CME course (both webinar and self-study versions) on type 2 diabetes. This 1-hour accredited course was launched through the state-level medical association's education library, available to all physicians. Physicians (n=43) registered for the course, and of those, 31 completed the course in its entirety. A gain in knowledge was found when comparing pre- versus post-test scores related to the online nutrition CME ( P Online CME courses launched via state-level medical associations offer convenient continuing education to assist practicing physicians in addressing patient nutrition and lifestyle concerns related to chronic disease. The present diabetes CME one-credit course allowed physicians to develop basic nutrition care concepts on this topic to assist patients in a better way.

  4. Creating a medical education enterprise: leveling the playing fields of medical education vs. medical science research within core missions. (United States)

    Thammasitboon, Satid; Ligon, B Lee; Singhal, Geeta; Schutze, Gordon E; Turner, Teri L


    Unlike publications of medical science research that are more readily rewarded, clinician-educators' scholarly achievements are more nebulous and under-recognized. Create an education enterprise that empowers clinician-educators to engage in a broad range of scholarly activities and produce educational scholarship using strategic approaches to level the playing fields within an organization. The authors analyzed the advantages and disadvantages experienced by medical science researchers vs. clinician educators using Bolman and Deal's (B&D) four frames of organization (structural, human resource, political, symbolic). The authors then identified organizational approaches and activities that align with each B&D frame and proposed practical strategies to empower clinician-educators in their scholarly endeavors. Our medical education enterprise enhanced the structural frame by creating a decentralized medical education unit, incorporated the human resource component with an endowed chair to support faculty development, leveraged the political model by providing grant supports and expanding venues for scholarship, and enhanced the symbolic frame by endorsing the value of education and public recognition from leaderships. In five years, we saw an increased number of faculty interested in becoming clinician-educators, had an increased number of faculty winning Educational Awards for Excellence and delivering conference presentations, and received 12 of the 15 college-wide awards for educational scholarship. These satisfactory trends reflect early success of our educational enterprise. B&D's organizational frames can be used to identify strategies for addressing the pressing need to promote and recognize clinician-educators' scholarship. We realize that our situation is unique in several respects, but this approach is flexible within an institution and transferable to any other institution and its medical education program. B&D: Bolman and Deal; CRIS: Center for Research

  5. Development of a nationwide consensus syllabus of palliative medicine for undergraduate medical education in Japan: a modified Delphi method. (United States)

    Kizawa, Yoshiyuki; Tsuneto, Satoru; Tamba, Kaichiro; Takamiya, Yusuke; Morita, Tatsuya; Bito, Seiji; Otaki, Junji


    There is currently no consensus syllabus of palliative medicine for undergraduate medical education in Japan, although the Cancer Control Act proposed in 2007 covers the dissemination of palliative care. To develop a nationwide consensus syllabus of palliative medicine for undergraduate medical education in Japan using a modified Delphi method. We adopted the following three-step method: (1) a workshop to produce the draft syllabus; (2) a survey-based provisional syllabus; (3) Delphi rounds and a panel meeting (modified Delphi method) to produce the working syllabus. Educators in charge of palliative medicine from 63% of the medical schools in Japan collaborated to develop a survey-based provisional syllabus before the Delphi rounds. A panel of 32 people was then formed for the modified Delphi rounds comprising 28 educators and experts in palliative medicine, one cancer survivor, one bereaved family member, and two medical students. The final consensus syllabus consists of 115 learning objectives across seven sections as follows: basic principles; disease process and comprehensive assessment; symptom management; psychosocial care; cultural, religious, and spiritual issues; ethical issues; and legal frameworks. Learning objectives were categorized as essential or desirable (essential: 66; desirable: 49). A consensus syllabus of palliative medicine for undergraduate medical education was developed using a clear and innovative methodology. The final consensus syllabus will be made available for further dissemination of palliative care education throughout the country.

  6. Registered Nurses’ Patient Education in Everyday Primary Care Practice (United States)

    Bergh, Anne-Louise; Friberg, Febe; Persson, Eva; Dahlborg-Lyckhage, Elisabeth


    Nurses’ patient education is important for building patients’ knowledge, understanding, and preparedness for self-management. The aim of this study was to explore the conditions for nurses’ patient education work by focusing on managers’ discourses about patient education provided by nurses. In 2012, data were derived from three focus group interviews with primary care managers. Critical discourse analysis was used to analyze the transcribed interviews. The discursive practice comprised a discourse order of economic, medical, organizational, and didactic discourses. The economic discourse was the predominant one to which the organization had to adjust. The medical discourse was self-evident and unquestioned. Managers reorganized patient education routines and structures, generally due to economic constraints. Nurses’ pedagogical competence development was unclear, and practice-based experiences of patient education were considered very important, whereas theoretical pedagogical knowledge was considered less important. Managers’ support for nurses’ practical- and theoretical-based pedagogical competence development needs to be strengthened. PMID:28462314

  7. Information Life-Cycle Management at the Erasmus Medical Center : Collaboratively Managing Digital Data for Care, Research, Education and the International Development of the GLOBE 3D Genome Viewer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias); P. Walgemoed; H.J.F.M.M. Eussen (Bert)


    textabstractInformation Lifecycle Management at the Erasmus University Medical Centre. Collaboratively managing digital data for care, research and education using the international development of the GLOBE 3D Genome Viewer and Erasmus Computing Grid as catalyzing initiatives. The

  8. Threading the cloak: palliative care education for care providers of adolescents and young adults with cancer. (United States)

    Wiener, Lori; Weaver, Meaghann Shaw; Bell, Cynthia J; Sansom-Daly, Ursula M


    Medical providers are trained to investigate, diagnose, and treat cancer. Their primary goal is to maximize the chances of curing the patient, with less training provided on palliative care concepts and the unique developmental needs inherent in this population. Early, systematic integration of palliative care into standard oncology practice represents a valuable, imperative approach to improving the overall cancer experience for adolescents and young adults (AYAs). The importance of competent, confident, and compassionate providers for AYAs warrants the development of effective educational strategies for teaching AYA palliative care. Just as palliative care should be integrated early in the disease trajectory of AYA patients, palliative care training should be integrated early in professional development of trainees. As the AYA age spectrum represents sequential transitions through developmental stages, trainees experience changes in their learning needs during their progression through sequential phases of training. This article reviews unique epidemiologic, developmental, and psychosocial factors that make the provision of palliative care especially challenging in AYAs. A conceptual framework is provided for AYA palliative care education. Critical instructional strategies including experiential learning, group didactic opportunity, shared learning among care disciplines, bereaved family members as educators, and online learning are reviewed. Educational issues for provider training are addressed from the perspective of the trainer, trainee, and AYA. Goals and objectives for an AYA palliative care cancer rotation are presented. Guidance is also provided on ways to support an AYA's quality of life as end of life nears.

  9. Educating medical students about the personal meaning of terminal illness using the film, "Wit". (United States)

    Ozcakir, Alis; Bilgel, Nazan


    Addressing the emotional needs of dying patients is rarely found to have a place in formal medical curriculum and is also a difficult area to teach through classical medical lectures. "Cinemeducation" is a wonderful way to educate health care providers about the magnitude of emotions that arise during those difficult situations. The aims of this study were to test the relevance and usefulness of the movie 'Wit' in teaching medical students about the personal meaning of terminal illness and to assess the impact of this teaching method on students' attitudes toward palliative care. This was an education study using qualitative and quantitative data analysis of 518 first-year medical students in a single medical faculty in Turkey. Students watched the entire film, filled out an evaluation questionnaire, and answered questions about the film. Students also expressed their own feelings and thoughts about palliative care. Overall, 88% rated the film as excellent, very good, or good. According to 54% of the students, the emotions of terminally ill patients were fully portrayed in the film and in a very realistic way. Approximately 61.4% of the students found this film emotional. Most students (80.5%) stated that this film made them think about the emotional and spiritual suffering that dying patients go through and found this learning approach about palliative care more useful than didactic lectures and journal article readings but not more useful than bedside rounds. It was thought that caring for dying patients would be very or fairly personally satisfying for 65.3% of the students. The film 'Wit' gave the students an opportunity to explore their beliefs, values and attitudes in terms of the bio-psycho-social-spiritual aspects of health care and encouraged them to think more about the humanitarian issues of the medical profession.

  10. Farmers' Concerns: A Qualitative Assessment to Plan Rural Medical Education (United States)

    Anderson, Brittney T.; Johnson, Gwendolyn J.; Wheat, John R.; Wofford, Amina S.; Wiggins, O. Sam; Downey, Laura H.


    Abstract Context: Limited research suggests that translational approaches are needed to decrease the distance, physical and cultural, between farmers and health care. Purpose: This study seeks to identify special concerns of farmers in Alabama and explore the need for a medical education program tailored to prepare physicians to address those…

  11. [The awareness of pediatricians about ethical legal issues of medical care provision]. (United States)

    Polunina, N V; Shmelev, I A; Konovalov, O A


    The implementation of rights of under-age patients in medical institutions in many ways depends on level of awareness of pediatricians about availability and mechanisms of legal guarantees provided to them by law and hence depends quality of medical care of children population. The study was carried out to analyze opinions of pediatricians about issues of implementation of rights of patients. The results are presented concerning sociological survey of 261 pediatricians of the Samarskaia oblast. The study established inadequate awareness of respondents about ethical legal issues of medicine and rate of application of knowledge about legal acts in practical activity. The awareness was higher among pediatricians of younger age with duration of professional work lesser than 10 years. This phenomenon is explained by inclusion of courses of biomedical ethics and medical law in educational programs of medical educational institutions during last decade. The direct dependence is established between awareness of pediatricians about issues of bioethics and the level of their qualification. The most of the respondents consider that the have sufficient level of knowledge about rights of children-patients and their parents related to reservation of medical secrecy, consent or refuse of parents to medical intervention and receiving full information about child's health. The overwhelming majority of pediatricians, independently of professional category and duration of service, provided this right implementing modern informational and collegiate model of interaction with parents of ill child and informed that always obtained their consent about medical care. However, such rights of children were limited by framework of child's health and ability for apprehending information about one's health and prospective medical intervention. All respondents participated in survey insisted that they never disclosed medical secrecy. The development of legal literacy of pediatricians by

  12. Implementing the patient-centered medical home in residency education. (United States)

    Doolittle, Benjamin R; Tobin, Daniel; Genao, Inginia; Ellman, Matthew; Ruser, Christopher; Brienza, Rebecca


    In recent years, physician groups, government agencies and third party payers in the United States of America have promoted a Patient-centered Medical Home (PCMH) model that fosters a team-based approach to primary care. Advocates highlight the model's collaborative approach where physicians, mid-level providers, nurses and other health care personnel coordinate their efforts with an aim for high-quality, efficient care. Early studies show improvement in quality measures, reduction in emergency room visits and cost savings. However, implementing the PCMH presents particular challenges to physician training programs, including institutional commitment, infrastructure expenditures and faculty training. Teaching programs must consider how the objectives of the PCMH model align with recent innovations in resident evaluation now required by the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) in the US. This article addresses these challenges, assesses the preliminary success of a pilot project, and proposes a viable, realistic model for implementation at other institutions.

  13. Pilot Point-of-Care Ultrasound Curriculum at Harvard Medical School: Early Experience (United States)

    Rempell, Joshua S.; Saldana, Fidencio; DiSalvo, Donald; Kumar, Navin; Stone, Michael B.; Chan, Wilma; Luz, Jennifer; Noble, Vicki E.; Liteplo, Andrew; Kimberly, Heidi; Kohler, Minna J.


    Introduction Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is expanding across all medical specialties. As the benefits of US technology are becoming apparent, efforts to integrate US into pre-clinical medical education are growing. Our objective was to describe our process of integrating POCUS as an educational tool into the medical school curriculum and how such efforts are perceived by students. Methods This was a pilot study to introduce ultrasonography into the Harvard Medical School curriculum to first- and second-year medical students. Didactic and hands-on sessions were introduced to first-year students during gross anatomy and to second-year students in the physical exam course. Student-perceived attitudes, understanding, and knowledge of US, and its applications to learning the physical exam, were measured by a post-assessment survey. Results All first-year anatomy students (n=176) participated in small group hands-on US sessions. In the second-year physical diagnosis course, 38 students participated in four sessions. All students (91%) agreed or strongly agreed that additional US teaching should be incorporated throughout the four-year medical school curriculum. Conclusion POCUS can effectively be integrated into the existing medical school curriculum by using didactic and small group hands-on sessions. Medical students perceived US training as valuable in understanding human anatomy and in learning physical exam skills. This innovative program demonstrates US as an additional learning modality. Future goals include expanding on this work to incorporate US education into all four years of medical school. PMID:27833681

  14. I believe I am so called: reflections on a vocation in medical education. (United States)

    Hart, Curtis W


    This essay is concerned with the fulfillment of ordination commitments through a pastoral role in medical education and review of medical research with human subjects. Stylistically, it combines memoir with the genre known as "creative non-fiction." Its major issues have to do with the identity formation and transformation of the author, the function and ethics of institutional review boards, the teaching of medical ethics to medical students, and courses involved in the doctor-patient relationship and in palliative care intended to increase the sensitivity and self-awareness of physicians-in-becoming. This essay was presented in its initial form at the Annual Fellows Meeting of the Society for Values in Higher Education in 2010.

  15. Seniors managing multiple medications: using mixed methods to view the home care safety lens. (United States)

    Lang, Ariella; Macdonald, Marilyn; Marck, Patricia; Toon, Lynn; Griffin, Melissa; Easty, Tony; Fraser, Kimberly; MacKinnon, Neil; Mitchell, Jonathan; Lang, Eddy; Goodwin, Sharon


    . There is a need for policy makers, health system leaders, care providers, researchers, and educators to work with home care clients and caregivers on three key messages for improvement: adapt care delivery models to the home care landscape; develop a palette of user-centered tools to support medication safety in the home; and strengthen health systems integration.

  16. Nurses\\' perception of caring behaviors in intensive care units in hospitals of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadi SE


    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Caring is the core of nursing however, different individules have different perceptions of it. Continuous assessment and measurement of caring behaviors results in the identification of their problems. The careful planning of interventions and problem solving will improve care. The aim of this study was to identify nurses' perception of caring behaviors in the intensive care units. Materials and Method: In this descriptive-analytic study, 140 nurses were selected from intensive care units of hospitals affiliated to Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, using the census method in 2012. The data collection tool was the Caring Behaviors Inventory for Elders (CBI-E. This questionnaire consisted of two parts including demographic information and 28 items related to care. Face and content validity of the Persian version of the questionnaire were provided by professionals, and after deletion of 4 items a 24-item questionnaire was provided. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated to assess reliability (&alpha = 0.71. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 18 and descriptive-analytic statistics (Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test. Results: Based on the findings, nurses paid more attention to the physical–technical aspects (95.71 ± 12.76 of care in comparison to its psychosocial aspects (75.41 ± 27.91. Nurses had the highest score in care behavior of "timely performance of medical procedures and medication administration". Conclusion: Since nurses paid more attention to the technical aspects of care than its psychosocial aspects, by providing nurses with a correct perception of care, patients can be provided with needs-based care. This will increase patient satisfaction with nursing care, and indirectly result in the positive attitude of patients and society toward the nursing profession and its services. Moreover, nursing education officials can use these results to assist nurses in meeting

  17. On-line integration of computer controlled diagnostic devices and medical information systems in undergraduate medical physics education for physicians. (United States)

    Hanus, Josef; Nosek, Tomas; Zahora, Jiri; Bezrouk, Ales; Masin, Vladimir


    We designed and evaluated an innovative computer-aided-learning environment based on the on-line integration of computer controlled medical diagnostic devices and a medical information system for use in the preclinical medical physics education of medical students. Our learning system simulates the actual clinical environment in a hospital or primary care unit. It uses a commercial medical information system for on-line storage and processing of clinical type data acquired during physics laboratory classes. Every student adopts two roles, the role of 'patient' and the role of 'physician'. As a 'physician' the student operates the medical devices to clinically assess 'patient' colleagues and records all results in an electronic 'patient' record. We also introduced an innovative approach to the use of supportive education materials, based on the methods of adaptive e-learning. A survey of student feedback is included and statistically evaluated. The results from the student feedback confirm the positive response of the latter to this novel implementation of medical physics and informatics in preclinical education. This approach not only significantly improves learning of medical physics and informatics skills but has the added advantage that it facilitates students' transition from preclinical to clinical subjects. Copyright © 2011 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Learning from Primary Health Care Centers in Nepal: reflective writings on experiential learning of third year Nepalese medical students


    Dhital, Rolina; Subedi, Madhusudan; Prasai, Neeti; Shrestha, Karun; Malla, Milan; Upadhyay, Shambhu


    Background Medical education can play important role in cultivating the willingness among the medical students to work in underprivileged areas after their graduation. Experiential learning through early exposure to primary health care centers could help students better understand the opportunities and challenges of such settings. However, the information on the real experiences and reflections of medical students on the rural primary health care settings from low-income countries like Nepal ...

  19. Pathology Competencies for Medical Education and Educational Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara E. C. Knollmann-Ritschel MD


    Full Text Available Current medical school curricula predominantly facilitate early integration of basic science principles into clinical practice to strengthen diagnostic skills and the ability to make treatment decisions. In addition, they promote life-long learning and understanding of the principles of medical practice. The Pathology Competencies for Medical Education (PCME were developed in response to a call to action by pathology course directors nationwide to teach medical students pathology principles necessary for the practice of medicine. The PCME are divided into three competencies: 1 Disease Mechanisms and Processes, 2 Organ System Pathology, and 3 Diagnostic Medicine and Therapeutic Pathology. Each of these competencies is broad and contains multiple learning goals with more specific learning objectives. The original competencies were designed to be a living document, meaning that they will be revised and updated periodically, and have undergone their first revision with this publication. The development of teaching cases, which have a classic case-based design, for the learning objectives is the next step in providing educational content that is peer-reviewed and readily accessible for pathology course directors, medical educators, and medical students. Application of the PCME and cases promotes a minimum standard of exposure of the undifferentiated medical student to pathophysiologic principles. The publication of the PCME and the educational cases will create a current educational resource and repository published through Academic Pathology .

  20. Social media as an open-learning resource in medical education: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutherland S


    Full Text Available S Sutherland,1 A Jalali2 1Department of Critical Care, The Ottawa Hospital, ²Division of Clinical and Functional Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada Purpose: Numerous studies evaluate the use of social media as an open-learning resource in education, but there is a little published knowledge of empirical evidence that such open-learning resources produce educative outcomes, particularly with regard to student performance. This study undertook a systematic review of the published literature in medical education to determine the state of the evidence as to empirical studies that conduct an evaluation or research regarding social media and open-learning resources.Methods: The authors searched MEDLINE, ERIC, Embase, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar from 2012 to 2017. This search included using keywords related to social media, medical education, research, and evaluation, while restricting the search to peer reviewed, English language articles only. To meet inclusion criteria, manuscripts had to employ evaluative methods and undertake empirical research.Results: Empirical work designed to evaluate the impact of social media as an open-learning resource in medical education is limited as only 13 studies met inclusion criteria. The majority of these studies used undergraduate medical education as the backdrop to investigate open-learning resources, such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. YouTube appears to have little educational value due to the unsupervised nature of content added on a daily basis. Overall, extant reviews have demonstrated that we know a considerable amount about social media use, although to date, its impacts remain unclear.Conclusion: There is a paucity of outcome-based, empirical studies assessing the impact of social media in medical education. The few empirical studies identified tend to focus on evaluating the affective outcomes of social media and medical education as opposed to

  1. Afraid of medical care school-aged children's narratives about medical fear. (United States)

    Forsner, Maria; Jansson, Lilian; Söderberg, Anna


    Fear can be problematic for children who come into contact with medical care. This study aimed to illuminate the meaning of being afraid when in contact with medical care, as narrated by children 7-11 years old. Nine children participated in the study, which applied a phenomenological hermeneutic analysis methodology. The children experienced medical care as "being threatened by a monster," but the possibility of breaking this spell of fear was also mediated. The findings indicate the important role of being emotionally hurt in a child's fear to create, together with the child, an alternate narrative of overcoming this fear.

  2. Governance and assessment in a widely distributed medical education program in Australia. (United States)

    Solarsh, Geoff; Lindley, Jennifer; Whyte, Gordon; Fahey, Michael; Walker, Amanda


    The learning objectives, curriculum content, and assessment standards for distributed medical education programs must be aligned across the health care systems and community contexts in which their students train. In this article, the authors describe their experiences at Monash University implementing a distributed medical education program at metropolitan, regional, and rural Australian sites and an offshore Malaysian site, using four different implementation models. Standardizing learning objectives, curriculum content, and assessment standards across all sites while allowing for site-specific implementation models created challenges for educational alignment. At the same time, this diversity created opportunities to customize the curriculum to fit a variety of settings and for innovations that have enriched the educational system as a whole.Developing these distributed medical education programs required a detailed review of Monash's learning objectives and curriculum content and their relevance to the four different sites. It also required a review of assessment methods to ensure an identical and equitable system of assessment for students at all sites. It additionally demanded changes to the systems of governance and the management of the educational program away from a centrally constructed and mandated curriculum to more collaborative approaches to curriculum design and implementation involving discipline leaders at multiple sites.Distributed medical education programs, like that at Monash, in which cohorts of students undertake the same curriculum in different contexts, provide potentially powerful research platforms to compare different pedagogical approaches to medical education and the impact of context on learning outcomes.

  3. Internal medicine rounding practices and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies. (United States)

    Shoeb, Marwa; Khanna, Raman; Fang, Margaret; Sharpe, Brad; Finn, Kathleen; Ranji, Sumant; Monash, Brad


    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has established the requirement for residency programs to assess trainees' competencies in 6 core domains (patient care, medical knowledge, practice-based learning, interpersonal skills, professionalism, and systems-based practice). As attending rounds serve as a primary means for educating trainees at academic medical centers, our study aimed to identify current rounding practices and attending physician perceived capacity of different rounding models to promote teaching within the ACGME core competencies. We disseminated a 24-question survey electronically using educational and hospital medicine leadership mailing lists. We assessed attending physician demographics and the frequency with which they used various rounding models, as defined by the location of the discussion of the patient and care plan: bedside rounds (BR), hallway rounds (HR), and card-flipping rounds (CFR). Using the ACGME framework, we assessed the perceived educational value of each model. We received 153 completed surveys from attending physicians representing 34 institutions. HR was used most frequently for both new and established patients (61% and 43%), followed by CFR for established patients (36%) and BR for new patients (22%). Most attending physicians indicated that BR and HR were superior to CFR in promoting the following ACGME competencies: patient care, systems-based practice, professionalism, and interpersonal skills. HR is the most commonly employed rounding model. BR and HR are perceived to be valuable for teaching patient care, systems-based practice, professionalism, and interpersonal skills. CFR remains prevalent despite its perceived inferiority in promoting teaching across most of the ACGME core competencies. © 2014 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  4. [The globalization of medical education]. (United States)

    Stevens, Fred C J


    With reference to a recently published research article on the applicability and effectiveness of problem-based learning (PBL) in non-Western medical schools, this commentary explores the assumption that a set of shared values is the common denominator of the globalisation of medical education. The use and effectiveness of PBL are not isolated from the cultural and social structural context in which it is applied; critical differences in values and in views on education underlie what educators and students perceive to be effective locally. The globalisation of medical education is more than the import of instructional designs, and includes Western models of social organisation that require deep reflection and adaptation for success; hence, instead of spreading models for medical education across the globe, more effort should be put into the support of 'home-grown' equivalents and alternatives.

  5. A need for otolaryngology education among primary care providers (United States)

    Hu, Amanda; Sardesai, Maya G.; Meyer, Tanya K.


    Objective Otolaryngic disorders are very common in primary care, comprising 20–50% of presenting complaints to a primary care provider. There is limited otolaryngology training in undergraduate and postgraduate medical education for primary care. Continuing medical education may be the next opportunity to train our primary care providers (PCPs). The objective of this study was to assess the otolaryngology knowledge of a group of PCPs attending an otolaryngology update course. Methods PCPs enrolled in an otolaryngology update course completed a web-based anonymous survey on demographics and a pre-course knowledge test. This test was composed of 12 multiple choice questions with five options each. At the end of the course, they were asked to evaluate the usefulness of the course for their clinical practice. Results Thirty seven (74%) PCPs completed the survey. Mean knowledge test score out of a maximum score of 12 was 4.0±1.7 (33.3±14.0%). Sorted by area of specialty, the mean scores out of a maximum score of 12 were: family medicine 4.6±2.1 (38.3±17.3%), pediatric medicine 4.2±0.8 (35.0±7.0%), other (e.g., dentistry, emergency medicine) 4.2±2.0 (34.6±17.0%), and adult medicine 3.9±2.1 (32.3±17.5%). Ninety one percent of respondents would attend the course again. Conclusion There is a low level of otolaryngology knowledge among PCPs attending an otolaryngology update course. There is a need for otolaryngology education among PCPs. PMID:22754276

  6. Organization of prehospital medical care for patients with cerebral stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Anatolyevich Shamalov


    Full Text Available The main tasks of prehospital medical care are to make a correct diagnosis of stroke and to minimize patient transportation delays. Stroke is a medical emergency so all patients with suspected stroke must be admitted by a first arrived ambulance team to a specialized neurology unit for stroke patients. Most rapidly transporting the patient to hospital, as well as reducing the time of examination to verify the pattern of stroke are a guarantee of successful thrombolytic therapy that is the most effective treatment for ischemic stroke. Substantially reducing the time of in-hospital transfers (the so-called door-to-needle time allows stroke patients to be directly admitted to the around the clock computed tomography room, without being sent to the admission unit. Prehospital stroke treatment policy (basic therapy is to correct the body’s vital functions and to maintain respiration, hemodynamics, and water-electrolyte balance and it can be performed without neuroimaging verification of the pattern of stroke. The application of current organizational, methodical, and educational approaches is useful in improving the quality of medical care for stroke patients, in enhancing the continuity between prehospital and hospital cares, and in promoting new effective technologies in stroke therapy.

  7. Computer-based medical education in Benha University, Egypt: knowledge, attitude, limitations, and suggestions. (United States)

    Bayomy, Hanaa; El Awadi, Mona; El Araby, Eman; Abed, Hala A


    Computer-assisted medical education has been developed to enhance learning and enable high-quality medical care. This study aimed to assess computer knowledge and attitude toward the inclusion of computers in medical education among second-year medical students in Benha Faculty of Medicine, Egypt, to identify limitations, and obtain suggestions for successful computer-based learning. This was a one-group pre-post-test study, which was carried out on second-year students in Benha Faculty of Medicine. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to compare students' knowledge, attitude, limitations, and suggestions toward computer usage in medical education before and after the computer course to evaluate the change in students' responses. The majority of students were familiar with use of the mouse and keyboard, basic word processing, internet and web searching, and e-mail both before and after the computer course. The proportion of students who were familiar with software programs other than the word processing and trouble-shoot software/hardware was significantly higher after the course (Pcomputer (P=0.008), the inclusion of computer skills course in medical education, downloading lecture handouts, and computer-based exams (Pcomputers limited the inclusion of computer in medical education (Pcomputer labs, lack of Information Technology staff mentoring, large number of students, unclear course outline, and lack of internet access were more frequently reported before the course (Pcomputer labs, inviting Information Technology staff to support computer teaching, and the availability of free Wi-Fi internet access covering several areas in the university campus; all would support computer-assisted medical education. Medical students in Benha University are computer literate, which allows for computer-based medical education. Staff training, provision of computer labs, and internet access are essential requirements for enhancing computer usage in medical

  8. Archives: Continuing Medical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 88 of 88 ... Archives: Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home > Archives: Continuing Medical Education. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 51 - 88 of 88 ...

  9. Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Adolescent Care: Psychosocial and Medical Considerations (United States)

    Guss, Carly; Shumer, Daniel; Katz-Wise, Sabra L.


    Purpose of review Transgender individuals display incongruence between their assigned birth sex and their current gender identity, and may identify as male, female or elsewhere on the gender spectrum. Gender nonconformity describes an individual whose gender identity, role, or expression are not typical for individuals in a given assigned sex category. This update highlights recent literature pertaining to the psychosocial and medical care of transgender and gender nonconforming (TGN) adolescents with applications for the general practitioner. Recent findings The psychological risks and outcomes of TGN adolescents are being more widely recognized. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that social and medical gender transition reduces gender dysphoria, defined as distress that accompanies the incongruence between one’s birth sex and identified gender. Unfortunately, lack of education about TGN adolescents in medical training persists. Summary Recent literature highlights increased health risks in TGN adolescents and improved outcomes following gender dysphoria treatment. It is important for clinicians to become familiar with the range of treatment options and referral resources available to TGN adolescents in order to provide optimal and welcoming care to all adolescents. PMID:26087416

  10. Transgender and gender nonconforming adolescent care: psychosocial and medical considerations. (United States)

    Guss, Carly; Shumer, Daniel; Katz-Wise, Sabra L


    Transgender individuals display incongruence between their assigned birth sex and their current gender identity, and may identify as male, female, or being elsewhere on the gender spectrum. Gender nonconformity describes an individual whose gender identity, role, or expression is not typical for individuals in a given assigned sex category. This update highlights recent literature pertaining to the psychosocial and medical care of transgender and gender nonconforming (TGN) adolescents with applications for the general practitioner. The psychological risks and outcomes of TGN adolescents are being more widely recognized. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that social and medical gender transition reduces gender dysphoria, defined as distress that accompanies the incongruence between one's birth sex and identified gender. Unfortunately, lack of education about TGN adolescents in medical training persists. Recent literature highlights increased health risks in TGN adolescents and improved outcomes following gender dysphoria treatment. It is important for clinicians to become familiar with the range of treatment options and referral resources available to TGN adolescents in order to provide optimal and welcoming care to all adolescents.

  11. Profile of graduates of Israeli medical schools in 1981--2000: educational background, demography and evaluation of medical education programs. (United States)

    Bitterman, Noemi; Shalev, Ilana


    In light of changes in the medical profession, the different requirements placed on physicians and the evolving needs of the healthcare system, the need arose to examine the medical education curriculum in Israel. This survey, conducted by the Samuel Neaman Institute for Science and Technology, summarizes 20 years of medical education in Israel's four medical schools, as the first stage in mapping the existing state of medical education in Israel and providing a basis for decision-making on future medical education programs. To characterize the academic background of graduates, evaluate their attitudes towards current and alternative medical education programs, and examine subgroups among graduates according to gender, medical school, high school education, etc. The survey included graduates from all four Israeli medical schools who graduated between the years 1981 and 2000 in a sample of 1:3. A questionnaire and stamped return envelope were sent to every third graduate; the questionnaire included open and quantitative questions graded on a scale of 1 to 5. The data were processed for the entire graduate population and further analyzed according to subgroups such as medical schools, gender, high school education, etc. The response rate was 41.3%. The survey provided a demographic profile of graduates over a 20 year period, their previous educational and academic background, additional academic degrees achieved, satisfaction, and suggestions for future medical education programs. The profile of the medical graduates in Israel is mostly homogenous in terms of demographics, with small differences among the four medical schools. In line with recommendations of the graduates, and as an expression of the changing requirements in the healthcare system and the medical profession, the medical schools should consider alternative medical education programs such as a bachelor's degree in life sciences followed by MD studies, or education programs that combine medicine with

  12. The relevance and role of homestays in medical education: a scoping study. (United States)

    Hughes, Bonnie Olivia; Moshabela, Mosa; Owen, Jenni; Gaede, Bernhard


    The community-based medical education curriculum is growing in popularity as a strategy to bring universal health coverage to underserved communities by providing medical students with hands-on training in primary health care. Accommodation and immersion of medical students within the community will become increasingly important to the success of community-based curricula. In the context of tourism, homestays, where local families host guests, have shown to provide an immersive accommodation experience. By exploring homestays in the educational context, this scoping study investigates their role in providing an immersive pedagogical experience for medical students. A scoping review was performed using the online databases ScienceDirect and the Duke University Library Database, which searches Academic Search Complete, JSTOR, LexisNexis Academic, Web of Science, Proquest, PubMed and WorldCat. Using the inclusion term 'homestays' and excluding the term 'tourism', 181 results were returned. AClose assessment using inclusion criteria narrowed this to 14 relevant articles. There is very little published research specific to the experience of medical students in community homestays, indicating a gap in the literature. However, the existing educational outcomes suggest homestays may have the potential to serve a significant role in medical education, especially as a component of decentralised or community-based programmes. The literature reveals that educational homestays influence language learning, cultural immersion, and the development of professional skills for health science careers. These outcomes relate to the level of engagement between students and hosts, including the catalytic role of community liaisons. Homestays offer a unique depth of experience that has the potential to enrich the education of participating students, and require further research, particularly in the context of distributed and decentralised training platforms for medical and health sciences

  13. Training Physicians toward a Dignifying Approach in Adolescents' Health Care: A Promising Simulation-Based Medical Education Program. (United States)

    Hardoff, Daniel; Gefen, Assaf; Sagi, Doron; Ziv, Amitai


    Human dignity has a pivotal role within the health care system. There is little experience using simulation-based medical education (SBME) programs that focus on human dignity issues in doctor-patient relationships. To describe and assess a SBME program aimed at improving physicians' competence in a dignifying approach when encountering adolescents and their parents. A total of 97 physicians participated in 8 one-day SMBE workshops that included 7 scenarios of typical adolescent health care dilemmas. These issues could be resolved if the physician used an appropriate dignifying approach toward the patient and the parents. Debriefing discussions were based on video recordings of the scenarios. The effect of the workshops on participants' approach to adolescent health care was assessed by a feedback questionnaire and on 5-point Likert score questionnaires administered before the workshop and 3 months after. All participants completed both the pre-workshop and the feedback questionnaires and 41 (42%) completed the post-workshop questionnaire 3 months later. Practice and competence topics received significantly higher scores in post-workshop questionnaires (P simulation-based workshop may improve physicians' communication skills and sense of competence in addressing adolescents' health care issues which require a dignifying approach toward both the adolescent patients and their parents. This dignity-focused methodology may be expanded to improve communication skills of physicians from various disciplines.

  14. A Chronic Disease Management Student-Faculty Collaborative Practice: Educating Students on Innovation in Health Care Delivery. (United States)

    Remus, Kristin E; Honigberg, Michael; Tummalapalli, Sri Lekha; Cohen, Laura P; Fazio, Sara; Weinstein, Amy R


    In the current transformative health care landscape, it is imperative that clinician educators inspire future clinicians to practice primary care in a dynamic environment. A focus on patient-centered, goal-oriented care for patients with chronic conditions is critical. In 2009, Harvard Medical School founded the Crimson Care Collaborative, a student-faculty collaborative practice (SFCP) network. With the aim of expanding clinical and educational opportunities for medical students and improving patient control of chronic disease (i.e., hypertension, obesity, and diabetes) in an innovative learning environment, in 2012, the authors developed a novel SFCP at their hospital-based academic primary care practice. In this SFCP, students learn to explore patient priorities, provide focused counseling and education, and assist patients with self-management goals during clinical visits. From 2012 to 2014, 250 student volunteers participated in the SFCP as clinicians, innovators, educators, and leaders, with between 80 and 95 medical students engaging each semester. Between January 2012 and March 2014, there were 476 urgent care or chronic disease management visits. Patients with chronic diseases were seen at least twice on average, and by 2014, chronic disease management visits accounted for approximately 74% of visits. Work is under way to create assessment tools to evaluate the practice's educa tional impact and student understanding of the current health care system, develop interdisciplinary care teams, expand efforts in registry management and broaden the patient recruitment scope, further emphasize patient engage ment and retention, and evaluate chronic disease management and patient satisfaction effectiveness.

  15. Medical Care Tasks among Spousal Dementia Caregivers: Links to Care-Related Sleep Disturbances. (United States)

    Polenick, Courtney A; Leggett, Amanda N; Maust, Donovan T; Kales, Helen C


    Medical care tasks are commonly provided by spouses caring for persons living with dementia (PLWDs). These tasks reflect complex care demands that may interfere with sleep, yet their implications for caregivers' sleep outcomes are unknown. The authors evaluated the association between caregivers' medical/nursing tasks (keeping track of medications; managing tasks such as ostomy care, intravenous lines, or blood testing; giving shots/injections; and caring for skin wounds/sores) and care-related sleep disturbances. A retrospective analysis of cross-sectional data from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study and National Study of Caregiving was conducted. Spousal caregivers and PLWDs/proxies were interviewed by telephone at home. The U.S. sample included 104 community-dwelling spousal caregivers and PLWDs. Caregivers reported on their sociodemographic and health characteristics, caregiving stressors, negative caregiving relationship quality, and sleep disturbances. PLWDs (or proxies) reported on their health conditions and sleep problems. Caregivers who performed a higher number of medical/nursing tasks reported significantly more frequent care-related sleep disturbances, controlling for sociodemographic and health characteristics, caregiving stressors, negative caregiving relationship quality, and PLWDs' sleep problems and health conditions. Post hoc tests showed that wound care was independently associated with more frequent care-related sleep disturbances after accounting for the other medical/nursing tasks and covariates. Spousal caregivers of PLWDs who perform medical/nursing tasks may be at heightened risk for sleep disturbances and associated adverse health consequences. Interventions to promote the well-being of both care partners may benefit from directly addressing caregivers' needs and concerns about their provision of medical/nursing care. Copyright © 2018 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  16. Development of Electronic Medical Record-Based "Rounds Report" Results in Improved Resident Efficiency, More Time for Direct Patient Care and Education, and Less Resident Duty Hour Violations. (United States)

    Ham, Phillip B; Anderton, Toby; Gallaher, Ryan; Hyrman, Mike; Simmerman, Erika; Ramanathan, Annamalai; Fallaw, David; Holsten, Steven; Howell, Charles Gordon


    Surgeons frequently report frustration and loss of efficiency with electronic medical record (EMR) systems. Together, surgery residents and a programmer at Augusta University created a rounds report (RR) summarizing 24 hours of vitals, intake/output, labs, and other values for each inpatient that were previously transcribed by hand. The objective of this study was to evaluate the RR's effect on surgery residents. Surgery residents were queried to assess the RR's impact. Outcome measures were time spent preparing for rounds, direct patient care time, educational activity time, rates of incorrect/incomplete data on rounds, and rate of duty hour violations. Hospital wide, 17,200 RRs were generated in the 1-month study. Twenty-three surgery residents participated. Time spent preparing for rounds decreased per floor patient (15.6 ± 3.0 vs 6.0 ± 1.2, P care unit patient (19.9 ± 2.9 vs 7.5 ± 1.2 P care increased from 45.1 ± 5.6 to 54.0 ± 5.7 per cent (P = 0.0044). Educational activity time increased from 35.2 ± 5.4 to 54.7 ± 7.1 minutes per resident per day (P = 0.0004). Reported duty hour violations decreased 58 per cent (P care at academic medical centers.

  17. Rationing medical education.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discussed the pros and cons of the application of rationing to medical education and the different ... Different types of rationing exist in healthcare professional education. ... state-of-the-art resources, technology and tutors con-.

  18. Educational gradients in psychotropic medication use among older adults in Costa Rica and the United States. (United States)

    Domino, Marisa Elena; Dow, William H; Coto-Yglesias, Fernando


    The relationship of education, psychiatric diagnoses, and use of psychotropic medication has been explored in the United States, but little is known about this relationship in poorer countries, despite the high burden of mental illness in these countries. This study estimated educational gradients in diagnosis and psychotropic drug use in the United States and Costa Rica, a middle-income country with universal health insurance. Analyses were conducted by using data of older adults (≥60) from the 2005 U.S. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (N=4,788) and the 2005 Costa Rican Longevity and Healthy Aging Study (N=2,827). Logistic regressions examined the effect of education level (low, medium, or high) and urban residence on the rates of self-reported mental health diagnoses, screening diagnosis, and psychotropic medication use with and without an associated psychiatric diagnosis. Rates of self-reported diagnoses were lower in the United States (12%) than in Costa Rica (20%), possibly reflecting differences in survey wording. In both countries, the odds of having depression were significantly lower among persons with high education. In Costa Rica, use of psychotropic medication among persons with self-reported diagnoses increased by education level. The educational gradients in medication use were different in the United States and Costa Rica, and stigma and access to care in these countries may play an important role in these differences, although type of insurance did not affect educational gradients in the United States. These analyses increase the evidence of the role of education in use of the health care system.

  19. Clinical audit in the final year of undergraduate medical education: towards better care of future generations. (United States)

    Mak, Donna B; Miflin, Barbara


    In Australia, in an environment undergoing rapidly changing requirements for health services, there is an urgent need for future practitioners to be knowledgeable, skilful and self-motivated in ensuring the quality and safety of their practice. Postgraduate medical education and vocational programs have responded by incorporating training in quality improvement into continuing professional development requirements, but undergraduate medical education has been slower to respond. This article describes the clinical audit programme undertaken by all students in the final year of the medical course at the University of Notre Dame, Fremantle, Australia, and examines the educational worth of this approach. Data were obtained from curricular documents, including the clinical audit handbook, and from evaluation questionnaires administered to students and supervisors. The clinical audit programme is based on sound educational principles, including situated and participatory learning and reflective practice. It has demonstrated multi-dimensional benefits for students in terms of learning the complexities of conducting an effective audit in professional practice, and for health services in terms of facilitating quality improvement. Although this programme was developed in a medical course, the concept is readily transferable to a variety of other health professional curricula in which students undertake clinical placements.

  20. Assessing the impact of a medical librarian on identification of valid and actionable practice gaps for a continuing medical education committee. (United States)

    Bartkowiak, Barbara A; Safford, Lindsey A; Stratman, Erik J


    Identifying educational needs related to professional practice gaps can be a complex process for continuing medical education (CME) committees and for physicians who submit activity applications. Medical librarians possess unique skills that may be useful for identifying practice gaps relevant to CME committees. We assessed this assumption by assessing a medical librarian's contributions to practice gap identification for the Marshfield Clinic's CME Committee. We reviewed all locally relevant, locally actionable practice gaps identified annually by various stakeholders and presented to our CME Committee from 2010 to 2013. Total numbers of practice gaps identified, total categorized as actionable, and numbers of subsequent activities resulting from these gaps were calculated for each year. Medical librarian totals were compared to those of other CME committee stakeholders to determine the relative contribution. The medical librarian identified unique, actionable published practice gaps that directly contributed to CME activity planning. For each study year, contributions by the medical librarian grew, from 0 of 27 actionable gaps validated by CME Committee in 2010 to 49 of 108 (45.4%) in 2013. With the librarian's assistance, the number of valid practice gaps submitted between 2010 and 2013 by stakeholders climbed from 23 for 155 activities (14.8%) to 133 for 157 activities (84.7%). Medical librarians can provide a valuable service to CME committees by identifying valid professional practice gaps that inform decisions about educational activities aimed at improving clinical practice. Medical librarians bring into deliberations unique information, including national health policy priorities, practice gaps found in the literature, and point-of-care search engine statistics. © 2014 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for

  1. Barriers and facilitators to the dissemination of DECISION+, a continuing medical education program for optimizing decisions about antibiotics for acute respiratory infections in primary care: A study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagnon Marie-Pierre


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In North America, acute respiratory infections are the main reason for doctors' visits in primary care. Family physicians and their patients overuse antibiotics for treating acute respiratory infections. In a pilot clustered randomized trial, we showed that DECISION+, a continuing medical education program in shared decision making, has the potential to reduce the overuse of antibiotics for treating acute respiratory infections. DECISION+ learning activities consisted of three interactive sessions of three hours each, reminders at the point of care, and feedback to doctors on their agreement with patients about comfort with the decision whether to use antibiotics. The objective of this study is to identify the barriers and facilitators to physicians' participation in DECISION+ with the goal of disseminating DECISION+ on a larger scale. Methods/design This descriptive study will use mixed methods and retrospective and prospective components. All analyses will be based on an adapted version of the Ottawa Model of Research Use. First, we will use qualitative methods to analyze the following retrospective data from the pilot study: the logbooks of eight research assistants, the transcriptions of 15 training sessions, and 27 participant evaluations of the DECISION+ training sessions. Second, we will collect prospective data in semi-structured focus groups composed of family physicians to identify barriers and facilitators to the dissemination of a future training program similar to DECISION+. All 39 family physicians exposed to DECISION+ during the pilot project will be eligible to participate. We will use a self-administered questionnaire based on Azjen's Theory of Planned Behaviour to assess participants' intention to take part in future training programs similar to DECISION+. Discussion Barriers and facilitators identified in this project will guide modifications to DECISION+, a continuing medical education program in shared

  2. “Exporting” medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Shah


    Full Text Available A commentary on four reports of the pre-conference on medical education in low and middle income countries and efforts by mainly North American physicians to provide assistance held November, 2015. The authors address issues of participatory learning and developing critical thinking; mutual learning and leadership; and professionalism and ethics in medical education.

  3. Cultural competence in medical education: aligning the formal, informal and hidden curricula. (United States)

    Paul, David; Ewen, Shaun C; Jones, Rhys


    The concept of cultural competence has become reified by inclusion as an accreditation standard in the US and Canada, in New Zealand it is demanded through an Act of Parliament, and it pervades discussion in Australian medical education discourse. However, there is evidence that medical graduates feel poorly prepared to deliver cross-cultural care (Weissman et al. in J Am Med Assoc 294(9):1058-1067, 2005) and many commentators have questioned the effectiveness of cultural competence curricula. In this paper we apply Hafferty's taxonomy of curricula, the formal, informal and hidden curriculum (Hafferty in Acad Med 73(4):403-407, 1998), to cultural competence. Using an example across each of these curricular domains, we highlight the need for curricular congruence to support cultural competence development among learners. We argue that much of the focus on cultural competence has been in the realm of formal curricula, with existing informal and hidden curricula which may be at odds with the formal curriculum. The focus of the formal, informal and hidden curriculum, we contend, should be to address disparities in health care outcomes. In conclusion, we suggest that without congruence between formal, informal and hidden curricula, approaches to addressing disparity in health care outcomes in medical education may continue to represent reform without change.

  4. Medical schools can cooperate: a new joint venture to provide medical education in the Northern Rivers region of New South Wales. (United States)

    Page, Sue L; Birden, Hudson H; Hudson, J Nicky; Thistlethwaite, Jill E; Roberts, Chris; Wilson, Ian; Bushnell, John; Hogg, John; Freedman, S Ben; Yeomans, Neville


    The medical schools at the University of Western Sydney, University of Wollongong and University of Sydney have developed a joint program for training medical students through placements of up to 40 weeks on the New South Wales North Coast. The new partnership agency - the North Coast Medical Education Collaboration - builds on the experience of regional doctors and their academic partners. A steering committee has identified the availability and support requirements of local practitioners to provide training, and has undertaken a comparative mapping of learning objectives and assessments from the courses of the three universities. The goals of the program include preparing doctors who can perform effectively in rural settings and multidisciplinary health care teams, and to advance research in medical education.

  5. Psychotropic medication patterns among youth in foster care. (United States)

    Zito, Julie M; Safer, Daniel J; Sai, Devadatta; Gardner, James F; Thomas, Diane; Coombes, Phyllis; Dubowski, Melissa; Mendez-Lewis, Maria


    Studies have revealed that youth in foster care covered by Medicaid insurance receive psychotropic medication at a rate > 3 times that of Medicaid-insured youth who qualify by low family income. Systematic data on patterns of medication treatment, particularly concomitant drugs, for youth in foster care are limited. The purpose of this work was to describe and quantify patterns of psychotropic monotherapy and concomitant therapy prescribed to a randomly selected, 1-month sample of youth in foster care who had been receiving psychotropic medication. METHODS. Medicaid data were accessed for a July 2004 random sample of 472 medicated youth in foster care aged 0 through 19 years from a southwestern US state. Psychotropic medication treatment data were identified by concomitant pattern, frequency, medication class, subclass, and drug entity and were analyzed in relation to age group; gender; race or ethnicity; International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, psychiatric diagnosis; and physician specialty. Of the foster children who had been dispensed psychotropic medication, 41.3% received > or = 3 different classes of these drugs during July 2004, and 15.9% received > or = 4 different classes. The most frequently used medications were antidepressants (56.8%), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder drugs (55.9%), and antipsychotic agents (53.2%). The use of specific psychotropic medication classes varied little by diagnostic grouping. Psychiatrists prescribed 93% of the psychotropic medication dispensed to youth in foster care. The use of > or = 2 drugs within the same psychotropic medication class was noted in 22.2% of those who were given prescribed drugs concomitantly. Concomitant psychotropic medication treatment is frequent for youth in foster care and lacks substantive evidence as to its effectiveness and safety.

  6. Point-of-care echocardiography in simulation-based education and assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amini R


    Full Text Available Richard Amini, Lori A Stolz, Parisa P Javedani, Kevin Gaskin, Nicola Baker, Vivienne Ng, Srikar Adhikari Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Arizona Medical Center, Tucson, AZ, USA Background: Emergency medicine milestones released by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education require residents to demonstrate competency in bedside ultrasound (US. The acquisition of these skills necessitates a combination of exposure to clinical pathology, hands-on US training, and feedback. Objectives: We describe a novel simulation-based educational and assessment tool designed to evaluate emergency medicine residents’ competency in point-of-care echocardiography for evaluation of a hypotensive patient with chest pain using bedside US. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at an academic medical center. A simulation-based module was developed to teach and assess the use of point-of-care echocardiography in the evaluation of the hypotensive patient. The focus of this module was sonographic imaging of cardiac pathology, and this focus was incorporated in all components of the session: asynchronous learning, didactic lecture, case-based learning, and hands-on stations. Results: A total of 52 residents with varying US experience participated in this study. Questions focused on knowledge assessment demonstrated improvement across the postgraduate year (PGY of training. Objective standardized clinical examination evaluation demonstrated improvement between PGY I and PGY III; however, it was noted that there was a small dip in hands-on scanning skills during the PGY II. Clinical diagnosis and management skills also demonstrated incremental improvement across the PGY of training. Conclusion: The 1-day, simulation-based US workshop was an effective educational and assessment tool at our institution. Keywords: point-of care ultrasound, simulation education

  7. Use of targeted medication reviews to deliver preconception care: A demonstration project. (United States)

    DiPietro Mager, Natalie A; Bright, David R; Markus, Dani; Weis, Lindsey; Hartzell, David M; Gartner, James

    To demonstrate the ability of a statewide network of community pharmacists to provide preconception care services with the use of targeted medication reviews (TMRs). Community pharmacists are well qualified and well positioned to assist in this public health priority; however, there are no documented case studies of pharmacists providing preconception care with the use of TMRs. Through the demonstration project, pharmacists provided educational TMRs focused on 3 elements of preconception care to women aged 15 to 45 years enrolled in a nonprofit managed care plan: (1) medications that may cause fetal harm (category D/X); (2) folic acid use; and (3) immunizations. TMRs were generated and released to the individual pharmacy where that patient had prescriptions filled. Any practicing pharmacist in Ohio participating in the medication therapy management platform with a patient in the sample received a TMR notification. The pharmacists documented and billed for the service through this commercially available platform. Nineteen weeks after implementation of the TMRs, 1149 individual pharmacists from 818 different pharmacies had completed at least 1 TMR. Pharmacists completed 33% of all TMR opportunities with a 65% success rate. Establishing new services that were focused on preconception care resulted in rapid integration into existing medication therapy management processes in hundreds of pharmacies across Ohio. These results may help to provide justification for additional payers to reimburse for similar services. Through demonstrating the impact on preconception care, the role of the community pharmacist may continue to expand to include provision of additional preventive care services following the model developed in this initiative. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Why nutrition education is inadequate in the medical curriculum: a qualitative study of students' perspectives on barriers and strategies. (United States)

    Mogre, Victor; Stevens, Fred C J; Aryee, Paul A; Amalba, Anthony; Scherpbier, Albert J J A


    The provision of nutrition care by doctors is important in promoting healthy dietary habits, and such interventions can lead to reductions in disease morbidity, mortality, and medical costs. However, medical students and doctors report inadequate nutrition education and preparedness during their training at school. Previous studies investigating the inadequacy of nutrition education have not sufficiently evaluated the perspectives of students. In this study, students' perspectives on doctors' role in nutrition care, perceived barriers, and strategies to improve nutrition educational experiences are explored. A total of 23 undergraduate clinical level medical students at the 5th to final year in the School of Medicine and Health Sciences of the University for Development Studies in Ghana were purposefully selected to participate in semi-structured individual interviews. Students expressed their opinions and experiences regarding the inadequacy of nutrition education in the curriculum. Each interview was audio-recorded and later transcribed verbatim. Using the constant comparison method, key themes were identified from the data and analysis was done simultaneously with data collection. Students opined that doctors have an important role to play in providing nutrition care to their patients. However, they felt their nutrition education was inadequate due to lack of priority for nutrition education, lack of faculty to provide nutrition education, poor application of nutrition science to clinical practice and poor collaboration with nutrition professionals. Students opined that their nutrition educational experiences will be improved if the following strategies were implemented: adoption of innovative teaching and learning strategies, early and comprehensive incorporation of nutrition as a theme throughout the curriculum, increasing awareness on the importance of nutrition education, reviewing and revision of the curriculum to incorporate nutrition, and involving

  9. Enhancing the relationship and improving communication between adolescents and their health care providers: a school based intervention by medical students. (United States)

    Towle, Angela; Godolphin, William; Van Staalduinen, Samantha


    To develop, implement and evaluate a workshop to help adolescents develop independent and active relationships with their physicians. A needs-assessment survey informed the development of a workshop delivered by medical student volunteers and incorporated into the career and personal planning curriculum of high schools in Vancouver, Canada. Over a 6-year period, 64 workshops were delivered by 181 medical students to 1651 high school students in six schools. The workshop is acceptable, do-able, effective and sustainable, characteristics that arise from the mutual benefits to all the groups involved: the medical school, the school board, the medical students, the high school teachers and students. The workshop provides a model for providing health care education to adolescents in the community. Teaching adolescents the importance of good doctor-patient communication encourages them to take ongoing responsibility for their health care and is an alternative route to direct health care education.

  10. Is medical students' moral orientation changeable after preclinical medical education? (United States)

    Lin, Chaou-Shune; Tsou, Kuo-Inn; Cho, Shu-Ling; Hsieh, Ming-Shium; Wu, Hsi-Chin; Lin, Chyi-Her


    Moral orientation can affect ethical decision-making. Very few studies have focused on whether medical education can change the moral orientation of the students. The purpose of the present study was to document the types of moral orientation exhibited by medical students, and to study if their moral orientation was changed after preclinical education. From 2007 to 2009, the Mojac scale was used to measure the moral orientation of Taiwan medical students. The students included 271 first-year and 109 third-year students. They were rated as a communitarian, dual, or libertarian group and followed for 2 years to monitor the changes in their Mojac scores. In both first and third-year students, the dual group after 2 years of preclinical medical education did not show any significant change. In the libertarian group, first and third-year students showed a statistically significant increase from a score of 99.4 and 101.3 to 103.0 and 105.7, respectively. In the communitarian group, first and third-year students showed a significant decline from 122.8 and 126.1 to 116.0 and 121.5, respectively. During the preclinical medical education years, students with communitarian orientation and libertarian orientation had changed in their moral orientation to become closer to dual orientation. These findings provide valuable hints to medical educators regarding bioethics education and the selection criteria of medical students for admission.

  11. Medical returns: seeking health care in Mexico. (United States)

    Horton, Sarah; Cole, Stephanie


    Despite the growing prevalence of transnational medical travel among immigrant groups in industrialized nations, relatively little scholarship has explored the diverse reasons immigrants return home for care. To date, most research suggests that cost, lack of insurance and convenience propel US Latinos to seek health care along the Mexican border. Yet medical returns are common even among Latinos who do have health insurance and even among those not residing close to the border. This suggests that the distinct culture of medicine as practiced in the border clinics Latinos visit may be as important a factor in influencing medical returns as convenience and cost. Drawing upon qualitative interviews, this article presents an emic account of Latinos' perceptions of the features of medical practice in Mexico that make medical returns attractive. Between November 15, 2009 and January 15, 2010, we conducted qualitative interviews with 15 Mexican immigrants and nine Mexican Americans who sought care at Border Hospital, a private clinic in Tijuana. Sixteen were uninsured and eight had insurance. Yet of the 16 uninsured, six had purposefully dropped their insurance to make this clinic their permanent "medical home." Moreover, those who substituted receiving care at Border Hospital for their US health insurance plan did so not only because of cost, but also because of what they perceived as the distinctive style of medical practice at Border Hospital. Interviewees mentioned the rapidity of services, personal attention, effective medications, and emphasis on clinical discretion as features distinguishing "Mexican medical practice," opposing these features to the frequent referrals and tests, impersonal doctor-patient relationships, uniform treatment protocols and reliance on surgeries they experienced in the US health care system. While interviewees portrayed these features as characterizing a uniform "Mexican medical culture," we suggest that they are best described as

  12. 'Soft and fluffy': medical students' attitudes towards psychology in medical education. (United States)

    Gallagher, Stephen; Wallace, Sarah; Nathan, Yoga; McGrath, Deirdre


    Psychology is viewed by medical students in a negative light. In order to understand this phenomenon, we interviewed 19 medical students about their experiences of psychology in medical education. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Four main themes were generated: attitudes, teaching culture, curriculum factors and future career path; negative attitudes were transmitted by teachers to students and psychology was associated with students opting for a career in general practice. In summary, appreciation of psychology in medical education will only happen if all educators involved in medical education value and respect each other's speciality and expertise. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. Organisational fundamentals of medical care in catastrophes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahnefeld, F.W.


    The author presents definitions, considerations, and fundamentals of discussion. He starts by listing the institutions, equipment and traning required for medical care and life-saving services in cases of emergency. A central coordination service for medical care and life saving is proposed. The present situation is reviewed, future needs are stated, and the necessary components of a medical service are listed. (DG) [de

  14. Undergraduate medical education for the 21st century: leadership and teamwork. (United States)

    O'Connell, Mark T; Pascoe, John M


    The health care delivery system is experiencing enormous flux. The knowledge and skills sets required of today's physicians include expertise in competency areas that have not been included in the traditional medical curricula. The Undergraduate Medical Education for the 21st Century (UME-21) project was designed to develop innovative curricula that addressed the training necessary for medical students to gain skills required to provide high-quality, accessible, and affordable care in the modern health care environment. One of the nine UME-21 content areas, leadership and teamwork, has historically received relatively little attention in medical education. Each school participating in the UME-21 project submitted a final report that provided information for this descriptive summary of curricular innovations for teaching the concepts of leadership and teamwork to medical students. A classification lexicon for the curricular content and experiences in this content area was derived from these UME-21 project reports. Each school evaluated its curricular innovations independently using a variety of methods, largely descriptive and qualitative in nature. Eight UME-21 schools developed curricula addressing the content area of leadership and teamwork. The majority of these curricula used the clinical care teams in the clinical rotations to demonstrate the principles and importance of leadership and teamwork. Three of the schools implemented didactic sessions and workshops to explicitly address leadership and teamwork. One school used the gross anatomy dissection teams as the "laboratory" for demonstrating this content material. The evaluations of these curricular efforts showed them to be positively regarded by the medical students. Outcomes of measurable changes in competency in this area of expertise were not evaluated. There is little past experience in teaching leadership and teamwork in medical school. The UME-21 project supported the design and implementation of

  15. Educating future physicians to track health care quality: feasibility and perceived impact of a health care quality report card for medical students. (United States)

    O'Neill, Sean M; Henschen, Bruce L; Unger, Erin D; Jansson, Paul S; Unti, Kristen; Bortoletto, Pietro; Gleason, Kristine M; Woods, Donna M; Evans, Daniel B


    Quality improvement (QI) requires measurement, but medical schools rarely provide opportunities for students to measure their patient outcomes. The authors tested the feasibility and perceived impact of a quality metric report card as part of an Education-Centered Medical Home longitudinal curriculum. Student teams were embedded into faculty practices and assigned a panel of patients to follow longitudinally. Students performed retrospective chart reviews and reported deidentified data on 30 nationally endorsed QI metrics for their assigned patients. Scorecards were created for each clinic team. Students completed pre/post surveys on self-perceived QI skills. A total of 405 of their patients' charts were abstracted by 149 students (76% response rate; mean 2.7 charts/student). Median abstraction time was 21.8 (range: 13.1-37.1) minutes. Abstracted data confirmed that the students had successfully recruited a "high-risk" patient panel. Initial performance on abstracted quality measures ranged from 100% adherence on the use of beta-blockers in postmyocardial infarction patients to 24% on documentation of dilated diabetic eye exams. After the chart abstraction assignment, grand rounds, and background readings, student self-assessment of their perceived QI skills significantly increased for all metrics, though it remained low. Creation of an actionable health care quality report card as part of an ambulatory longitudinal experience is feasible, and it improves student perception of QI skills. Future research will aim to use statistical process control methods to track health care quality prospectively as our students use their scorecards to drive clinic-level improvement efforts.

  16. Perspectives on management education: an exploratory study of UK and Portuguese medical students. (United States)

    Martins, Henrique M G; Detmer, Don E; Rubery, Eileen


    Healthcare management is becoming extremely important and large health organizations face increasing demands for leadership and system change. The role of doctors is pivotal but their relationship with management issues and practice has been a matter of long-lasting debate. The aim of this research was to establish opinions of medical students and other medical educational stakeholders on the value and structure of a management and leadership course in medical school. A survey of undergraduate medical students from two medical schools (n = 268) was carried out, and quantitative and qualitative data were analysed and compared with opinions collected from interviews with hospital managers and clinical professors. Portuguese medical students attributed hi