WorldWideScience

Sample records for medical care cost

  1. High-cost users of medical care

    OpenAIRE

    Garfinkel, Steven A.; Riley, Gerald F.; Iannacchione, Vincent G.

    1988-01-01

    Based on data from the National Medical Care Utilization and Expenditure Survey, the 10 percent of the noninstitutionalized U.S. population that incurred the highest medical care charges was responsible for 75 percent of all incurred charges. Health status was the strongest predictor of high-cost use, followed by economic factors. Persons 65 years of age or over incurred far higher costs than younger persons and had higher out-of-pocket costs, absolutely and as a percentage of income, althoug...

  2. The costs of caring: medical costs of Alzheimer's disease and the managed care environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murman, D L

    2001-01-01

    This review summarizes the medical costs associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementias, as well as the payers responsible for these medical costs in the US health care system. It is clear from this review that AD and related dementias are associated with substantial medical costs. The payers responsible for a majority of these costs are families of patients with AD and the US government through the Medicare and Medicaid programs. In an attempt to control expenditures, Medicare and Medicaid have turned to managed care principles and managed care organizations. The increase in "managed" dementia care gives rise to several potential problems for patients with AD, along with many opportunities for systematic improvement in the quality of dementia care. Evidence-based disease management programs provide the greatest opportunities for improving managed dementia care but will require the development of dementia-specific quality of care measures to evaluate and continually improve them.

  3. Alcoholism treatment and medical care costs from Project MATCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, H D; Cisler, R A; Longabaugh, R; Stout, R L; Treno, A J; Zweben, A

    2000-07-01

    This paper examines the costs of medical care prior to and following initiation of alcoholism treatment as part of a study of patient matching to treatment modality. Longitudinal study with pre- and post-treatment initiation. The total medical care costs for inpatient and outpatient treatment for patients participating over a span of 3 years post-treatment. Three treatment sites at two of the nine Project MATCH locations (Milwaukee, WI and Providence, RI). Two hundred and seventy-nine patients. Patients were randomly assigned to one of three treatment modalities: a 12-session cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), a four-session motivational enhancement therapy (MET) or a 12-session Twelve-Step facilitation (TSF) treatment over 12 weeks. Total medical care costs declined from pre- to post-treatment overall and for each modality. Matching effects independent of clinical prognosis showed that MET has potential for medical-care cost-savings. However, patients with poor prognostic characteristics (alcohol dependence, psychiatric severity and/or social network support for drinking) have better cost-savings potential with CBT and/or TSF. Matching variables have significant importance in increasing the potential for medical-care cost-reductions following alcoholism treatment.

  4. Medical Care Cost Recovery National Database (MCCR NDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Medical Care Cost Recovery National Database (MCCR NDB) provides a repository of summary Medical Care Collections Fund (MCCF) billing and collection information...

  5. Trends in medical care cost--revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenzino, J V

    1997-01-01

    Market forces have had a greater influence on the health care sector than anticipated. The increased use of managed care, particularly HMOs, has been largely responsible for a sharp deceleration in the rise of medical care costs. After recording double-digit growth for much of the post-Medicare/Medicaid period, national health expenditures rose just 5.1 percent and 5.5 percent in 1994 and 1995, respectively. The medical care Consumer Price Index (CPI) rose 3.5 percent in 1996-just 0.5 percent above the overall CPI. The delivery and financing of health care continues to evolve within a framework of cost constraints. As such, mergers, acquisitions and provider alliance groups will remain an integral part of the health industry landscape. However, cost savings are likely to become more difficult to achieve, especially if the "quality of care" issue becomes more pronounced. National health expenditures, which surpassed the $1 trillion mark in 1996, are projected to rise to $1.4 trillion by the year 2000--representing a 7.2 percent growth rate from 1995. In any event, demographics and technological advances suggest that the health sector will demand a rising share of economic resources. The ratio of health care expenditures to gross domestic product is forecast to rise from 13.6 percent in 1995 to 15 percent by the year 2000.

  6. Cost of Transformation among Primary Care Practices Participating in a Medical Home Pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martsolf, Grant R; Kandrack, Ryan; Gabbay, Robert A; Friedberg, Mark W

    2016-07-01

    Medical home initiatives encourage primary care practices to invest in new structural capabilities such as patient registries and information technology, but little is known about the costs of these investments. To estimate costs of transformation incurred by primary care practices participating in a medical home pilot. We interviewed practice leaders in order to identify changes practices had undertaken due to medical home transformation. Based on the principles of activity-based costing, we estimated the costs of additional personnel and other investments associated with these changes. The Pennsylvania Chronic Care Initiative (PACCI), a statewide multi-payer medical home pilot. Twelve practices that participated in the PACCI. One-time and ongoing yearly costs attributed to medical home transformation. Practices incurred median one-time transformation-associated costs of $30,991 per practice (range, $7694 to $117,810), equivalent to $9814 per clinician ($1497 to $57,476) and $8 per patient ($1 to $30). Median ongoing yearly costs associated with transformation were $147,573 per practice (range, $83,829 to $346,603), equivalent to $64,768 per clinician ($18,585 to $93,856) and $30 per patient ($8 to $136). Care management activities accounted for over 60% of practices' transformation-associated costs. Per-clinician and per-patient transformation costs were greater for small and independent practices than for large and system-affiliated practices. Error in interviewee recall could affect estimates. Transformation costs in other medical home interventions may be different. The costs of medical home transformation vary widely, creating potential financial challenges for primary care practices-especially those that are small and independent. Tailored subsidies from payers may help practices make these investments. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

  7. [Direct costs of medical care for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexico micro-costing analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Bolaños, Rosibel de Los Ángeles; Reynales Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Jiménez Ruíz, Jorge Alberto; Juárez Márquezy, Sergio Arturo; Hernández Ávila, Mauricio

    2010-12-01

    Estimate the direct cost of medical care incurred by the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social) for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). The clinical files of 497 patients who were treated in secondary and tertiary medical care units in 2002-2004 were reviewed. Costs were quantified using a disease costing approach (DCA) from the provider's perspective, a micro-costing technique, and a bottom-up methodology. Average annual costs by diagnosis, complication, and total cost were estimated. Total IMSS DM2 annual costs were US$452 064 988, or 3.1% of operating expenses. The annual average cost per patient was US$3 193.75, with US$2 740.34 per patient without complications and US$3 550.17 per patient with complications. Hospitalization and intensive care bed-days generated the greatest expenses. The high cost of providing medical care to patients with DM2 and its complications represents an economic burden that health institutions should consider in their budgets to enable them to offer quality service that is both adequate and timely. Using the micro-costing methodology allows an approximation to real data on utilization and management of the disease.

  8. Brand Medications and Medicare Part D: How Eye Care Providers' Prescribing Patterns Influence Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman-Casey, Paula Anne; Woodward, Maria A; Niziol, Leslie M; Lee, Paul P; De Lott, Lindsey B

    2018-03-01

    To quantify costs of eye care providers' Medicare Part D prescribing patterns for ophthalmic medications and to estimate the potential savings of generic or therapeutic drug substitutions and price negotiation. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Eye care providers prescribing medications through Medicare Part D in 2013. Medicare Part D 2013 prescriber public use file and summary file were used to calculate medication costs by physician specialty and drug. Savings from generic or therapeutic drug substitutions were estimated for brand drugs. The potential savings from price negotiation was estimated using drug prices negotiated by the United States Veterans Administration (USVA). Total cost of brand and generic medications prescribed by eye care providers. Eye care providers accounted for $2.4 billion in total Medicare part D prescription drug costs and generated the highest percentage of brand name medication claims compared with all other providers. Brand medications accounted for a significantly higher proportion of monthly supplies by volume, and therefore, also by total cost for eye care providers compared with all other providers (38% vs. 23% by volume, P total cost, P total cost attributable to eye care providers is driven by glaucoma medications, accounting for $1.2 billion (54% of total cost; 72% of total volume). The second costliest category, dry eye medications, was attributable mostly to a single medication, cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion (Restasis, Allergan, Irvine, CA), which has no generic alternative, accounting for $371 million (17% of total cost; 4% of total volume). If generic medications were substituted for brand medications when available, $148 million would be saved (7% savings); if generic and therapeutic substitutions were made, $882 million would be saved (42% savings). If Medicare negotiated the prices for ophthalmic medications at USVA rates, $1.09 billion would be saved (53% savings). Eye care providers prescribe more brand

  9. Relationship between patient dependence and direct medical-, social-, indirect-, and informal-care costs in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darbà J

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Josep Darbà,1 Lisette Kaskens2 1Department of Economics, University of Barcelona, 2BCN Health Economics and Outcomes Research SL, Barcelona, Spain Objective: The objectives of this analysis were to examine how patients' dependence on others relates to costs of care and explore the incremental effects of patient dependence measured by the Dependence Scale on costs for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD in Spain. Methods: The Co-Dependence in Alzheimer's Disease study is an 18 multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study among patients with AD according to the clinical dementia rating score and their caregivers in Spain. This study also gathered data on resource utilization for medical care, social care, caregiver productivity losses, and informal caregiver time reported in the Resource Utilization in Dementia Lite instrument and a complementary questionnaire. The data of 343 patients and their caregivers were collected through the completion of a clinical report form during one visit/assessment at an outpatient center or hospital, where all instruments were administered. The data collected (in addition to clinical measures also included sociodemographic data concerning the patients and their caregivers. Cost analysis was based on resource use for medical care, social care, caregiver productivity losses, and informal caregiver time reported in the Resource Utilization in Dementia Lite instrument and a complementary questionnaire. Resource unit costs were applied to value direct medical-, social-, and indirect-care costs. A replacement cost method was used to value informal care. Patient dependence on others was measured using the Dependence Scale, and the Cumulative Index Rating Scale was administered to the patient to assess multi-morbidity. Multivariate regression analysis was used to model the effects of dependence and other sociodemographic and clinical variables on cost of care. Results: The mean (standard deviation costs per patient

  10. Unhealthy lifestyle practices and medical-care costs in the military

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Timothy H.

    1994-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited The majority of all medical illnesses, and associated costs. can be prevented through personal decisions not to use unhealthy lifest)·Je practices (e.g., smoking. not exercising). A statistical analysis was conducted to examine whether there was a cost impact on medical care as a result of military· personnel engaging in unhealthy lifestyle practices. The approach taken for this anal...

  11. Controlling health costs: physician responses to patient expectations for medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatini, Amber K; Tilburt, Jon C; Campbell, Eric G; Sheeler, Robert D; Egginton, Jason S; Goold, Susan D

    2014-09-01

    Physicians have dual responsibilities to make medical decisions that serve their patients' best interests but also utilize health care resources wisely. Their ability to practice cost-consciously is particularly challenged when faced with patient expectations or requests for medical services that may be unnecessary. To understand how physicians consider health care resources and the strategies they use to exercise cost-consciousness in response to patient expectations and requests for medical care. Exploratory, qualitative focus groups of practicing physicians were conducted. Participants were encouraged to discuss their perceptions of resource constraints, and experiences with redundant, unnecessary and marginally beneficial services, and were asked about patient requests or expectations for particular services. Sixty-two physicians representing a variety of specialties and practice types participated in nine focus groups in Michigan, Ohio, and Minnesota in 2012 MEASUREMENTS: Iterative thematic content analysis of focus group transcripts Physicians reported making trade-offs between a variety of financial and nonfinancial resources, considering not only the relative cost of medical decisions and alternative services, but the time and convenience of patients, their own time constraints, as well as the logistics of maintaining a successful practice. They described strategies and techniques to educate patients, build trust, or substitute less costly alternatives when appropriate, often adapting their management to the individual patient and clinical environment. Physicians often make nuanced trade-offs in clinical practice aimed at efficient resource use within a complex flow of clinical work and patient expectations. Understanding the challenges faced by physicians and the strategies they use to exercise cost-consciousness provides insight into policy measures that will address physician's roles in health care resource use.

  12. End-of-life costs of medical care for advanced stage cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Cancer, one of the leading causes of mortality in the world, imposes a substantial economic burden on each society, including Serbia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the major cancer cost drivers in Serbia. Methods. A retrospective, indepth, bottom-up analysis of two combined databases was performed in order to quantify relevant costs. End-of-life data were obtained from patients with cancer, who deceased within the first year of the established diagnose, including basic demographics, diagnosis, tumour histology, medical resource use and related costs, time and cause of death. All costs were allocated to one of the three categories of cancer health care services: primary care (included home care, hospital outpatient and hospital inpatient care. Results. Exactly 114 patients were analyzed, out of whom a high percent (48.25% had distant metastases at the moment of establishing the diagnosis. Malignant neoplasms of respiratory and intrathoracic organs were leading causes of morbidity. The average costs per patient were significantly different according to the diagnosis, with the highest (13,114.10 EUR and the lowest (4.00 EUR ones observed in the breast cancer and melanoma, respectively. The greatest impact on total costs was observed concerning pharmaceuticals, with 42% of share (monoclonal antibodies amounted to 34% of all medicines and 14% of total costs, followed by oncology medical care (21%, radiation therapy and interventional radiology (11%, surgery (9%, imaging diagnostics (9% and laboratory costs (8%. Conclusion. Cancer treatment incurs high costs, especially for end-of-life pharmaceutical expenses, ensued from medical personnel tendency to improve such patients’ quality of life in spite of nearing the end of life. Reimbursement policy on monoclonal antibodies, in particular at end-stage disease, should rely on cost-effectiveness evidence as well as documented clinical efficiency. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke

  13. Incremental cost of PACS in a medical intensive care unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlotz, Curtis P.; Cleff, Bridget; Even-Shoshan, Orit; Bozzo, Mary T.; Redfern, Regina O.; Brikman, Inna; Seshadri, Sridhar B.; Horii, Steven C.; Kundel, Harold L.

    1995-05-01

    Our purpose is to determine the incremental costs (or savings) due to the introduction of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) and computed radiology (CR) in a medical intensive care unit (MICU). Our economic analysis consists of three measurement methods. The first method is an assessment of the direct costs to the radiology department, implemented in a spreadsheet model. The second method consists of a series of brief observational studies to measure potential changes in personnel costs that might not be reflected in administrative claims. The third method (results not reported here) is a multivariate modeling technique which estimates the independent effect of PACS/CR on the cost of care (estimated from administrative claims data), while controlling for clinical case- mix variables. Our direct cost model shows no cost savings to the radiology department after the introduction of PACS in the medical intensive care unit. Savings in film supplies and film library personnel are offset by increases in capital equipment costs and PACS operation personnel. The results of observational studies to date demonstrate significant savings in clinician film-search time, but no significant change in technologist time or lost films. Our model suggests that direct radiology costs will increase after the limited introduction of PACS/CR in the MICU. Our observational studies show a small but significant effect on clinician film search time by the introduction of PACS/CR in the MICU, but no significant effect on other variables. The projected costs of a hospital-wide PACS are currently under study.

  14. Direct costs of emergency medical care: a diagnosis-based case-mix classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraff, L J; Cameron, J M; Sekhon, R

    1991-01-01

    To develop a diagnosis-based case mix classification system for emergency department patient visits based on direct costs of care designed for an outpatient setting. Prospective provider time study with collection of financial data from each hospital's accounts receivable system and medical information, including discharge diagnosis, from hospital medical records. Three community hospital EDs in Los Angeles County during selected times in 1984. Only direct costs of care were included: health care provider time, ED management and clerical personnel excluding registration, nonlabor ED expense including supplies, and ancillary hospital services. Indirect costs for hospitals and physicians, including depreciation and amortization, debt service, utilities, malpractice insurance, administration, billing, registration, and medical records were not included. Costs were derived by valuing provider time based on a formula using annual income or salary and fringe benefits, productivity and direct care factors, and using hospital direct cost to charge ratios. Physician costs were based on a national study of emergency physician income and excluded practice costs. Patients were classified into one of 216 emergency department groups (EDGs) on the basis of the discharge diagnosis, patient disposition, age, and the presence of a limited number of physician procedures. Total mean direct costs ranged from $23 for follow-up visit to $936 for trauma, admitted, with critical care procedure. The mean total direct costs for the 16,771 nonadmitted patients was $69. Of this, 34% was for ED costs, 45% was for ancillary service costs, and 21% was for physician costs. The mean total direct costs for the 1,955 admitted patients was $259. Of this, 23% was for ED costs, 63% was for ancillary service costs, and 14% was for physician costs. Laboratory and radiographic services accounted for approximately 85% of all ancillary service costs and 38% of total direct costs for nonadmitted patients

  15. Acute Care Use for Ambulatory Care-Sensitive Conditions in High-Cost Users of Medical Care with Mental Illness and Addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Jennifer M; Taylor, Valerie H; Fung, Kinwah; Yang, Rebecca; Vigod, Simone N

    2018-01-01

    The role of mental illness and addiction in acute care use for chronic medical conditions that are sensitive to ambulatory care management requires focussed attention. This study examines how mental illness or addiction affects risk for repeat hospitalization and/or emergency department use for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSCs) among high-cost users of medical care. A retrospective, population-based cohort study using data from Ontario, Canada. Among the top 10% of medical care users ranked by cost, we determined rates of any and repeat care use (hospitalizations and emergency department [ED] visits) between April 1, 2011, and March 31, 2012, for 14 consensus established ACSCs and compared them between those with and without diagnosed mental illness or addiction during the 2 years prior. Risk ratios were adjusted (aRR) for age, sex, residence, and income quintile. Among 314,936 high-cost users, 35.9% had a mental illness or addiction. Compared to those without, individuals with mental illness or addiction were more likely to have an ED visit or hospitalization for any ACSC (22.8% vs. 19.6%; aRR, 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.23). They were also more likely to have repeat ED visits or hospitalizations for the same ACSC (6.2% vs. 4.4% of those without; aRR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.44-1.53). These associations were stronger in stratifications by mental illness diagnostic subgroup, particularly for those with a major mental illness. The presence of mental illness and addiction among high-cost users of medical services may represent an unmet need for quality ambulatory and primary care.

  16. High-value, cost-conscious health care: concepts for clinicians to evaluate the benefits, harms, and costs of medical interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Douglas K; Qaseem, Amir; Chou, Roger; Shekelle, Paul

    2011-02-01

    Health care costs in the United States are increasing unsustainably, and further efforts to control costs are inevitable and essential. Efforts to control expenditures should focus on the value, in addition to the costs, of health care interventions. Whether an intervention provides high value depends on assessing whether its health benefits justify its costs. High-cost interventions may provide good value because they are highly beneficial; conversely, low-cost interventions may have little or no value if they provide little benefit. Thus, the challenge becomes determining how to slow the rate of increase in costs while preserving high-value, high-quality care. A first step is to decrease or eliminate care that provides no benefit and may even be harmful. A second step is to provide medical interventions that provide good value: medical benefits that are commensurate with their costs. This article discusses 3 key concepts for understanding how to assess the value of health care interventions. First, assessing the benefits, harms, and costs of an intervention is essential to understand whether it provides good value. Second, assessing the cost of an intervention should include not only the cost of the intervention itself but also any downstream costs that occur because the intervention was performed. Third, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio estimates the additional cost required to obtain additional health benefits and provides a key measure of the value of a health care intervention.

  17. Costs of medically assisted reproduction treatment at specialized fertility clinics in the Danish public health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Terkel; Erb, Karin; Rizvanovic, Amra

    2014-01-01

    To examine the costs to the public health care system of couples in medically assisted reproduction.......To examine the costs to the public health care system of couples in medically assisted reproduction....

  18. The Association between Charlson Comorbidity Index and the Medical Care Cost of Cancer: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Jun Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study compared comorbidity-related medical care cost associated with different types of cancer, by examining breast (N=287, colon (N=272, stomach (N=614, and lung (N=391 cancer patients undergoing surgery. Methods. Using medical benefits claims data, we calculated Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI and total medical cost. The effect of comorbidity on the medical care cost was investigated using multiple regression and logistic regression models and controlling for demographic characteristics and cancer stage. Results. The treatment costs incurred by stomach and colon cancer patients were 1.05- and 1.01-fold higher, respectively, in patients with higher CCI determined. For breast cancer, the highest costs were seen in those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, but the increase in cost reduced as CCI increased. Colon cancer patients with diabetes mellitus and a CCI = 1 score had the highest medical costs. The lowest medical costs were incurred by lung cancer patients with COPD and a CCI = 2 score. Conclusion. The comorbidities had a major impact on the use of medical resources, with chronic comorbidities incurring the highest medical costs. The results indicate that comorbidities affect cancer outcomes and that they must be considered strategies mitigating cancer’s economic and social impact.

  19. Patient-centered medical homes in Louisiana had minimal impact on Medicaid population's use of acute care and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Evan S; Campbell, Claudia; Diana, Mark L; Webber, Larry; Culbertson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The patient-centered medical home model of primary care has received considerable attention for its potential to improve outcomes and reduce health care costs. Yet little information exists about the model's ability to achieve these goals for Medicaid patients. We sought to evaluate the effect of patient-centered medical home certification of Louisiana primary care clinics on the quality and cost of care over time for a Medicaid population. We used a quasi-experimental pre-post design with a matched control group to assess the effect of medical home certification on outcomes. We found no impact on acute care use and modest support for reduced costs and primary care use among medical homes serving higher proportions of chronically ill patients. These findings provide preliminary results related to the ability of the patient-centered medical home model to improve outcomes for Medicaid beneficiaries. The findings support a case-mix-adjusted payment policy for medical homes going forward. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  20. An evaluation of the impact of patient cost sharing for antihypertensive medications on adherence, medication and health care utilization, and expenditures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesa JA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Jacqueline A Pesa1, Jill Van Den Bos2, Travis Gray2, Colleen Hartsig2, Robert Brett McQueen3, Joseph J Saseen3, Kavita V Nair31Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, Louisville, CO, USA; 2Milliman, Inc, Denver, CO, USA; 3University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USAObjective: To assess the impact of patient cost-sharing for antihypertensive medications on the proportion of days covered (PDC by antihypertensive medications, medical utilization, and health care expenditures among commercially insured individuals assigned to different risk categories.Methods: Participants were identified from the Consolidated Health Cost Guidelines (CHCG database (January 1, 2006–December 31, 2008 based on a diagnosis (index claim for hypertension, continuous enrollment ≥12 months pre- and post-index, and no prior claims for antihypertensive medications. Participants were assigned to: low-risk group (no comorbidities, high-risk group (1+ selected comorbidities, or very high-risk group (prior hospitalization for 1+ selected comorbidities. The relationship between patient cost sharing and PDC by antihypertensive medications was assessed using standard linear regression models, controlling for risk group membership, and various demographic and clinical factors. The relationship between PDC and health care service utilization was subsequently examined using negative binomial regression models.Results: Of the 28,688 study patients, 66% were low risk. The multivariate regression model supported a relationship between patient cost sharing per 30-day fill and PDC in the following year. For every US$1.00 increase in cost sharing, PDC decreased by 1.1 days (P < 0.0001. Significant predictors of PDC included high risk, older age, gender, Charlson Comorbidity Index score, geography, and total post-index insurer- and patient-paid costs. An increase in PDC was associated with a decrease in all-cause and hypertension-related inpatient, outpatient, and emergency

  1. Adherence and health care costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuga AO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aurel O Iuga,1,2 Maura J McGuire3,4 1Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 2Johns Hopkins University, 3Johns Hopkins Community Physicians, 4Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Medication nonadherence is an important public health consideration, affecting health outcomes and overall health care costs. This review considers the most recent developments in adherence research with a focus on the impact of medication adherence on health care costs in the US health system. We describe the magnitude of the nonadherence problem and related costs, with an extensive discussion of the mechanisms underlying the impact of nonadherence on costs. Specifically, we summarize the impact of nonadherence on health care costs in several chronic diseases, such as diabetes and asthma. A brief analysis of existing research study designs, along with suggestions for future research focus, is provided. Finally, given the ongoing changes in the US health care system, we also address some of the most relevant and current trends in health care, including pharmacist-led medication therapy management and electronic (e-prescribing. Keywords: patient, medication, adherence, compliance, nonadherence, noncompliance, cost

  2. Patterns of Daily Costs Differ for Medical and Surgical Intensive Care Unit Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershengorn, Hayley B; Garland, Allan; Gong, Michelle N

    2015-12-01

    Published studies suggest hospital costs on Day 1 in the intensive care unit (ICU) far exceed those of subsequent days, when costs are relatively stable. Yet, no study stratified patients by ICU type. To determine whether daily cost patterns differ by ICU type. We performed a retrospective study of adults admitted to five ICUs (two surgical: quaternary surgical ICU [SICU quat] and quaternary cardiac surgical ICU [CSICU quat]; two medical: tertiary medical ICU [MICU tertiary] and quaternary medical ICU [MICU quat]; one general: community medical surgical ICU [MSICU comm]) at Montefiore Medical Center in the Bronx, New York during 2013. After excluding costs clearly accrued outside the ICU, daily hospital costs were merged with clinical data. Patterns of daily unadjusted costs were evaluated in each ICU using median regression. Generalized estimating equations with first-order autocorrelation were used to identify factors independently associated with daily costs. Unadjusted daily costs were higher on Day 1 than on subsequent days only for surgical ICUs-SICU quat (median [interquartile range], $2,636 [$1,834-$4,282] on Day 1 vs. $1,840 [$1,501-$2,332] on Day 2; P cost from Days 1 to 2. After multivariate adjustment, there remained a significant decrease in cost from ICU Day 1 to 2 in surgical units with statistically similar Day 1 and 2 costs for other ICUs. Higher Day 1 costs are not seen in patients admitted to medical/nonsurgical ICUs.

  3. Impact of Integrated Care Model (ICM) on Direct Medical Costs in Management of Advanced Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandurska, Ewa; Damps-Konstańska, Iwona; Popowski, Piotr; Jędrzejczyk, Tadeusz; Janowiak, Piotr; Świętnicka, Katarzyna; Zarzeczna-Baran, Marzena; Jassem, Ewa

    2017-06-12

    BACKGROUND Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a commonly diagnosed condition in people older than 50 years of age. In advanced stage of this disease, integrated care (IC) is recommended as an optimal approach. IC allows for holistic and patient-focused care carried out at the patient's home. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of IC on costs of care and on demand for medical services among patients included in IC. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 154 patients diagnosed with advanced COPD. Costs of care (general, COPD, and exacerbations-related) were evaluated for 1 year, including 6-months before and after implementing IC. The analysis included assessment of the number of medical procedures of various types before and after entering IC and changes in medical services providers. RESULTS Direct medical costs of standard care in advanced COPD were 886.78 EUR per 6 months. Costs of care of all types decreased after introducing IC. Changes in COPD and exacerbation-related costs were statistically significant (p=0.012492 and p=0.017023, respectively). Patients less frequently used medical services for respiratory system and cardiovascular diseases. Similarly, the number of hospitalizations and visits to emergency medicine departments decreased (by 40.24% and 8.5%, respectively). The number of GP visits increased after introducing IC (by 7.14%). CONCLUSIONS The high costs of care in advanced COPD indicate the need for new forms of effective care. IC caused a decrease in costs and in the number of hospitalization, with a simultaneous increase in the number of GP visits.

  4. Posthospital Discharge Medical Care Costs and Family Burden Associated with Osteoporotic Fracture Patients in China from 2011 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Xie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study collected and evaluated data on the costs of outpatient medical care and family burden associated with osteoporosis-related fracture rehabilitation following hospital discharge in China. Materials and Methods. Data were collected using a patient questionnaire from osteoporosis-related fracture patients (N = 123 who aged 50 years and older who were discharged between January 2011 and January 2013 from 3 large hospitals in China. The survey captured posthospital discharge direct medical costs, indirect medical costs, lost work time for caregivers, and patient ambulatory status. Results. Hip fracture was the most frequent fracture site (62.6%, followed by vertebral fracture (34.2%. The mean direct medical care costs per patient totaled 3,910¥, while mean indirect medical costs totaled 743¥. Lost work time for unpaid family caregivers was 16.4 days, resulting in an average lost income of 3,233¥. The average posthospital direct medical cost, indirect medical cost, and caregiver lost income associated with a fracture patient totaled 7,886¥. Patients’ ambulatory status was negatively impacted following fracture. Conclusions. Significant time and cost of care are placed on patients and caregivers during rehabilitation after discharge for osteoporotic fracture. It is important to evaluate the role and responsibility for creating the growing and inequitable burden placed on patients and caregivers following osteoporotic fracture.

  5. Medical costs of war in 2035: long-term care challenges for veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiling, James; Rosen, Joseph M; Edwards, Ryan D

    2012-11-01

    War-related medical costs for U.S. veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan may be enormous because of differences between these wars and previous conflicts: (1) Many veterans survive injuries that would have killed them in past wars, and (2) improvised explosive device attacks have caused "polytraumatic" injuries (multiple amputations; brain injury; severe facial trauma or blindness) that require decades of costly rehabilitation. In 2035, today's veterans will be middle-aged, with health issues like those seen in aging Vietnam veterans, complicated by comorbidities of posttraumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, and polytrauma. This article cites emerging knowledge about best practices that have demonstrated cost-effectiveness in mitigating the medical costs of war. We propose that clinicians employ early interventions (trauma care, physical therapy, early post-traumatic stress disorder diagnosis) and preventive health programs (smoking cessation, alcohol-abuse counseling, weight control, stress reduction) to treat primary medical conditions now so that we can avoid treating costly secondary and tertiary complications in 2035. (We should help an amputee reduce his cholesterol and maintain his weight at age 30, rather than treating his heart disease or diabetes at age 50.) Appropriate early interventions for primary illness should preserve veterans' functional status, ensure quality clinical care, and reduce the potentially enormous cost burden of their future health care.

  6. Availability, cost, and prescription patterns of antihypertensive medications in primary health care in China: a nationwide cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Meng; Zhang, Qiuli; Bai, Xueke; Wu, Chaoqun; Li, Yetong; Mossialos, Elias; Mensah, George A; Masoudi, Frederick A; Lu, Jiapeng; Li, Xi; Salas-Vega, Sebastian; Zhang, Anwen; Lu, Yuan; Nasir, Khurram; Krumholz, Harlan M; Jiang, Lixin

    2017-12-09

    Around 200 million adults in China have hypertension, but few are treated or achieve adequate control of their blood pressure. Available and affordable medications are important for successfully controlling hypertension, but little is known about current patterns of access to, and use of, antihypertensive medications in Chinese primary health care. We used data from a nationwide cross-sectional survey (the China Patient-Centered Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events Million Persons Project primary health care survey), which was undertaken between November, 2016 and May, 2017, to assess the availability, cost, and prescription patterns of 62 antihypertensive medications at primary health-care sites across 31 Chinese provinces. We surveyed 203 community health centres, 401 community health stations, 284 township health centres, and 2474 village clinics to assess variation in availability, cost, and prescription by economic region and type of site. We also assessed the use of high-value medications, defined as guideline-recommended and low-cost. We also examined the association of medication cost with availability and prescription patterns. Our study sample included 3362 primary health-care sites and around 1 million people (613 638 people at 2758 rural sites and 478 393 people at 604 urban sites). Of the 3362 sites, 8·1% (95% CI 7·2-9·1) stocked no antihypertensive medications and 33·8% (32·2-35·4) stocked all four classes that were routinely used. Village clinics and sites in the western region of China had the lowest availability. Only 32·7% (32·2-33·3) of all sites stocked high-value medications, and few high-value medications were prescribed (11·2% [10·9-11·6] of all prescription records). High-cost medications were more likely to be prescribed than low-cost alternatives. China has marked deficiencies in the availability, cost, and prescription of antihypertensive medications. High-value medications are not preferentially used. Future efforts to

  7. Cost of Medical Care of Patients with Advanced Serious Illness in Singapore (COMPASS): prospective cohort study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Irene; Singh, Ratna; Malhotra, Chetna; Ozdemir, Semra; Dent, Rebecca A; Kumarakulasinghe, Nesaretnam Barr; Yeo, Wee Lee; Cheung, Yin Bun; Malhotra, Rahul; Kanesvaran, Ravindran; Yee, Alethea Chung Pheng; Chan, Noreen; Wu, Huei Yaw; Chin, Soh Mun; Allyn, Hum Yin Mei; Yang, Grace Meijuan; Neo, Patricia Soek Hui; Nadkarni, Nivedita V; Harding, Richard; Finkelstein, Eric A

    2018-04-23

    Advanced cancer significantly impacts quality of life of patients and families as they cope with symptom burden, treatment decision-making, uncertainty and costs of treatment. In Singapore, information about the experiences of advanced cancer patients and families and the financial cost they incur for end-of-life care is lacking. Understanding of this information is needed to inform practice and policy to ensure continuity and affordability of care at the end of life. The primary objectives of the Cost of Medical Care of Patients with Advanced Serious Illness in Singapore (COMPASS) cohort study are to describe changes in quality of life and to quantify healthcare utilization and costs of patients with advanced cancer at the end of life. Secondary objectives are to investigate patient and caregiver preferences for diagnostic and prognostic information, preferences for end-of-life care, caregiver burden and perceived quality of care and to explore how these change as illness progresses and finally to measure bereavement adjustment. The purpose of this paper is to present the COMPASS protocol in order to promote scientific transparency. This cohort study recruits advanced cancer patients (n = 600) from outpatient medical oncology clinics at two public tertiary healthcare institutions in Singapore. Patients and their primary informal caregiver are surveyed every 3 months until patients' death; caregivers are followed until 6 months post patient death. Patient medical and billing records are obtained and merged with patient survey data. The treating medical oncologists of participating patients are surveyed to obtain their beliefs regarding care delivery for the patient. The study will allow combination of self-report, medical, and cost data from various sources to present a comprehensive picture of the end-of-life experience of advanced cancer patients in a unique Asian setting. This study is responsive to Singapore's National Strategy for Palliative Care which

  8. High and rising health care costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Paul B

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. is spending a growing share of the GDP on health care, outpacing other industrialized countries. This synthesis examines why costs are higher in the U.S. and what is driving their growth. Key findings include: health care inefficiency, medical technology and health status (particularly obesity) are the primary drivers of rising U.S. health care costs. Health payer systems that reward inefficiencies and preempt competition have impeded productivity gains in the health care sector. The best evidence indicates medical technology accounts for one-half to two-thirds of spending growth. While medical malpractice insurance and defensive medicine contribute to health costs, they are not large enough factors to significantly contribute to a rise in spending. Research is consistent that demographics will not be a significant factor in driving spending despite the aging baby boomers.

  9. Medical Care Costs Associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis in the US: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hresko, Andrew; Lin, Jay; Solomon, Daniel H

    2018-01-05

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a morbid, mortal and costly condition without a cure. Treatments for RA have expanded over the last two decades and direct medical costs may differ by types of treatments. There has not been a systematic literature review since the introduction of new RA treatments, including biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARDs). We conducted a systematic literature review with meta-analysis of direct medical costs associated with RA cared for in the US since the marketing of the first bDMARD. Standard search strategies and sources were used and data were extracted independently by two reviewers. The methods and quality of included studies were assessed. Total direct medical costs as well as RA-specific costs were calculated using random effects meta-analysis. Subgroups of interest included Medicare patients and those using bDMARDs. We found 541 potentially relevant studies and 12 papers met the selection criteria. The quality of studies varied: 1/3 were poor, 1/3 were fair, and 1/3 were good. Total direct medical costs were estimated at $12,509 (95% CI $7,451-21,001) for all RA patients using any treatment regimen and $36,053 (95% CI $32,138-40,445) for bDMARD users. RA-specific costs were $3,723 (95% CI $2,408-5,762) for all RA patients using any treatment regimen and $20,262 (95% CI $17,480-23,487) for bDMARD users. The total and disease-specific direct medical costs of patients with RA is substantial. Among bDMARD users, cost of RA care is over half of all direct medical costs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Specialist medication review does not benefit short-term outcomes and net costs in continuing-care patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pope, George

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVES: to evaluate specialist geriatric input and medication review in patients in high-dependency continuing care. DESIGN: prospective, randomised, controlled trial. SETTING: two residential continuing care hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: two hundred and twenty-five permanent patients. INTERVENTION: patients were randomised to either specialist geriatric input or regular input. The specialist group had a medical assessment by a geriatrician and medication review by a multidisciplinary expert panel. Regular input consisted of review as required by a medical officer attached to each ward. Reassessment occurred after 6 months. RESULTS: one hundred and ten patients were randomised to specialist input and 115 to regular input. These were comparable for age, gender, dependency levels and cognition. After 6 months, the total number of medications per patient per day fell from 11.64 to 11.09 in the specialist group (P = 0.0364) and increased from 11.07 to 11.5 in the regular group (P = 0.094). There was no significant difference in mortality or frequency of acute hospital transfers (11 versus 6 in the specialist versus regular group, P = 0.213). CONCLUSION: specialist geriatric assessment and medication review in hospital continuing care resulted in a reduction in medication use, but at a significant cost. No benefits in hard clinical outcomes were demonstrated. However, qualitative benefits and lower costs may become evident over longer periods.

  11. Primary care team communication networks, team climate, quality of care, and medical costs for patients with diabetes: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Marlon P; Agneessens, Filip; Tuan, Wen-Jan; Zakletskaia, Larissa I; Kamnetz, Sandra A; Gilchrist, Valerie J

    2016-06-01

    Primary care teams play an important role in providing the best quality of care to patients with diabetes. Little evidence is available on how team communication networks and team climate contribute to high quality diabetes care. To determine whether primary care team communication and team climate are associated with health outcomes, health care utilization, and associated costs for patients with diabetes. A cross-sectional survey of primary care team members collected information on frequency of communication with other care team members about patient care and on team climate. Patient outcomes (glycemic, cholesterol, and blood pressure control, urgent care visits, emergency department visits, hospital visit days, medical costs) in the past 12 months for team diabetes patient panels were extracted from the electronic health record. The data were analyzed using nested (clinic/team/patient) generalized linear mixed modeling. 155 health professionals at 6 U.S. primary care clinics participated from May through December 2013. Primary care teams with a greater number of daily face-to-face communication ties among team members were associated with 52% (rate ratio=0.48, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.94) fewer hospital days and US$1220 (95% CI: -US$2416, -US$24) lower health-care costs per team diabetes patient in the past 12 months. In contrast, for each additional registered nurse (RN) who reported frequent daily face-to-face communication about patient care with the primary care practitioner (PCP), team diabetes patients had less-controlled HbA1c (Odds ratio=0.83, 95% CI: 0.66, 0.99), increased hospital days (RR=1.57, 95% CI: 1.10, 2.03), and higher healthcare costs (β=US$877, 95% CI: US$42, US$1713). Shared team vision, a measure of team climate, significantly mediated the relationship between team communication and patient outcomes. Primary care teams which relied on frequent daily face-to-face communication among more team members, and had a single RN communicating patient care

  12. Primary care team communication networks, team climate, quality of care, and medical costs for patients with diabetes: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Marlon P.; Agneessens, Filip; Tuan, Wen-Jan; Zakletskaia, Larissa I.; Kamnetz, Sandra A.; Gilchrist, Valerie J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Primary care teams play an important role in providing the best quality of care to patients with diabetes. Little evidence is available on how team communication networks and team climate contribute to high quality diabetes care. Objective To determine whether primary care team communication and team climate are associated with health outcomes, health care utilization, and associated costs for patients with diabetes. Methods A cross-sectional survey of primary care team members collected information on frequency of communication with other care team members about patient care and on team climate. Patient outcomes (glycemic, cholesterol, and blood pressure control, urgent care visits, emergency department visits, hospital visit days, medical costs) in the past 12 months for team diabetes patient panels were extracted from the electronic health record. The data were analyzed using nested (clinic/team/patient) generalized linear mixed modeling. Participants 155 health professionals at 6 U.S. primary care clinics participated from May through December 2013. Results Primary care teams with a greater number of daily face-to-face communication ties among team members were associated with 52% (Rate Ratio=0.48, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.94) fewer hospital days and US$1220 (95% CI: -US$2416, -US$24) lower health-care costs per team diabetes patient in the past 12 months. In contrast, for each additional registered nurse (RN) who reported frequent daily face-to-face communication about patient care with the primary care practitioner (PCP), team diabetes patients had less-controlled HbA1c (Odds Ratio=0.83, 95% CI: 0.66, 0.99), increased hospital days (RR=1.57, 95% CI: 1.10, 2.03), and higher healthcare costs (β=US$877, 95% CI: US$42, US$1713). Shared team vision, a measure of team climate, significantly mediated the relationship between team communication and patient outcomes. Conclusions Primary care teams which relied on frequent daily face-to-face communication among more

  13. Cost analysis of medical assistance in dying in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachtenberg, Aaron J; Manns, Braden

    2017-01-23

    The legalization of medical assistance in dying will affect health care spending in Canada. Our aim was to determine the potential costs and savings associated with the implementation of medical assistance in dying. Using published data from the Netherlands and Belgium, where medically assisted death is legal, we estimated that medical assistance in dying will account for 1%-4% of all deaths; 80% of patients will have cancer; 50% of patients will be aged 60-80 years; 55% will be men; 60% of patients will have their lives shortened by 1 month; and 40% of patients will have their lives shortened by 1 week. We combined current mortality data for the Canadian population with recent end-of-life cost data to calculate a predicted range of savings associated with the implementation of medical assistance in dying. We also estimated the direct costs associated with offering medically assisted death, including physician consultations and drug costs. Medical assistance in dying could reduce annual health care spending across Canada by between $34.7 million and $138.8 million, exceeding the $1.5-$14.8 million in direct costs associated with its implementation. In sensitivity analyses, we noted that even if the potential savings are overestimated and costs underestimated, the implementation of mdedical assistance in dying will likely remain at least cost neutral. Providing medical assistance in dying in Canada should not result in any excess financial burden to the health care system, and could result in substantial savings. Additional data on patients who choose medical assistance in dying in Canada should be collected to enable more precise estimates of the impact of medically assisted death on health care spending and to enable further economic evaluation. © 2017 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  14. Factors associated with geographic variation in cost per episode of care for three medical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify associations between market factors, especially relative reimbursement rates, and the probability of surgery and cost per episode for three medical conditions (cataract, benign prostatic neoplasm, and knee degeneration) with multiple treatment options. Methods We use 2004–2006 Medicare claims data for elderly beneficiaries from sixty nationally representative communities to estimate multivariate models for the probability of surgery and cost per episode of care as a function local market factors, including Medicare physician reimbursement for surgical versus non-surgical treatment and the availability of primary care and specialty physicians. We used Symmetry’s Episode Treatment Groups (ETG) software to group claims into episodes for the three conditions (n = 540,874 episodes). Results Higher Medicare reimbursement for surgical episodes and greater availability of the relevant specialists are significantly associated with more surgery and higher cost per episode for all three conditions, while greater availability of primary care physicians is significantly associated with less frequent surgery and lower cost per episode. Conclusion Relative Medicare reimbursement rates for surgical vs. non-surgical treatments and the availability of both primary care physicians and relevant specialists are associated with the likelihood of surgery and cost per episode. PMID:24949281

  15. [Cost at the first level of care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal-Ríos, E; Montalvo-Almaguer, G; Salinas-Martínez, M; Guzmán-Padilla, J E; Tovar-Castillo, N H; Garza-Elizondo, M E

    1996-01-01

    To estimate the unit cost of 15 causes of demand for primary care per health clinic in an institutional (social security) health care system, and to determine the average cost at the state level. The cost of 80% of clinic visits was estimated in 35 of 40 clinics in the social security health care system in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The methodology for fixed costs consisted of: departmentalization, inputs, cost, weights and construction of matrices. Variable costs were estimated for standard patients by type of health care sought and with the consensus of experts; the sum of fixed and variable costs gave the unit cost. A computerized model was employed for data processing. A large variation in unit cost was observed between health clinics studied for all causes of demand, in both metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas. Prenatal care ($92.26) and diarrhea ($93.76) were the least expensive while diabetes ($240.42) and hypertension ($312.54) were the most expensive. Non-metropolitan costs were higher than metropolitan costs (p < 0.05); controlling for number of physician's offices showed that this was determined by medical units with only one physician's office. Knowledge of unit costs is a tool that, when used by medical administrators, allows adequate health care planning and efficient allocation of health resources.

  16. Money for nothing? The net costs of medical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Pedro P; Machado, Sara R

    2010-09-01

    One of the stages of medical training is the residency programme. Hosting institutions often claim compensation for the training provided. How much should this compensation be? According to our results, given the benefits arising from having residents among the house staff, no transfer (either tuition fee or subsidy) should be set to compensate the hosting institution for providing medical training. This paper quantifies the net costs of medical training, defined as the training costs over and above the wage paid. We jointly consider two effects. On the one hand, residents take extra time and resources from both the hosting institution and the supervisor. On the other hand, residents can be regarded as a less expensive substitute to nurses and/or graduate physicians, in the production of health care, both in primary care centres and hospitals. The net effect can be either positive or negative. We use the fact that residents, in Portugal, are centrally allocated to National Health Service hospitals to treat them as a fixed exogenous production factor. The data used comes from Portuguese hospitals and primary care centres. Cost function estimates point to a small negative marginal impact of residents on hospitals' (-0.02%) and primary care centres' (-0.9%) costs. Nonetheless, there is a positive relation between size and cost to the very large hospitals and primary care centres. Our approach to estimation of residents' costs controls for other teaching activities hospitals might have (namely undergraduate Medical Schools). Overall, the net costs of medical training appear to be quite small.

  17. Health care costs matter: a review of nutrition economics – is there a role for nutritional support to reduce the cost of medical health care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naberhuis JK

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Jane K Naberhuis,1 Vivienne N Hunt,2 Jvawnna D Bell,3 Jamie S Partridge,3 Scott Goates,3 Mark JC Nuijten4 1Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA; 2Abbott Nutrition, Research and Development, Singapore; 3Abbott Nutrition, Research and Development, Columbus, OH, USA; 4A2M (Ars Accessus Medica, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Background and aims: As policy-makers assess the value of money spent on health care, research in the field of health economics is expanding rapidly. This review covers a period of 10 years and seeks to characterize the publication of papers at the intersection of health economics and nutrition. Methods: Relevant publications on nutrition care were identified in the medical literature databases using predetermined search criteria. These included nutritional interventions linked to health economic terms with inclusion criteria requiring original research that included clinical outcomes and cost analyses, subjects’ ages ≥18 years, and publications in English between January 2004 and October 2014. Results: Of the 5,646 publications identified in first-round searches, 274 met the specified inclusion criteria. The number of publications linking nutrition to economic outcomes has increased markedly over the 10-year period, with a growing number of studies in both developed and developing countries. Most studies were undertaken in Europe (39% and the USA and Canada (28%. The most common study setting was hospital (62% followed by community/noninstitutional care (30%. Of all the studies, 12% involved the use of oral nutritional supplements, and 13% involved parenteral nutrition. The economic outcomes consistently measured were medical care costs (53% of the studies, hospital length of stay (48%, hospital readmission rates (9%, and mortality (25%. Conclusion: The number of publications focused on the economics of nutrition interventions has increased dramatically in recent years

  18. Distribution of variable vs fixed costs of hospital care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R R; Frutos, P W; Ciavarella, G G; Gussow, L M; Mensah, E K; Kampe, L M; Straus, H E; Joseph, G; Rydman, R J

    1999-02-17

    Most strategies proposed to control the rising cost of health care are aimed at reducing medical resource consumption rates. These approaches may be limited in effectiveness because of the relatively low variable cost of medical care. Variable costs (for medication and supplies) are saved if a facility does not provide a service while fixed costs (for salaried labor, buildings, and equipment) are not saved over the short term when a health care facility reduces service. To determine the relative variable and fixed costs of inpatient and outpatient care for a large urban public teaching hospital. Cost analysis. A large urban public teaching hospital. All expenditures for the institution during 1993 and for each service were categorized as either variable or fixed. Fixed costs included capital expenditures, employee salaries and benefits, building maintenance, and utilities. Variable costs included health care worker supplies, patient care supplies, diagnostic and therapeutic supplies, and medications. In 1993, the hospital had nearly 114000 emergency department visits, 40000 hospital admissions, 240000 inpatient days, and more than 500000 outpatient clinic visits. The total budget for 1993 was $429.2 million, of which $360.3 million (84%) was fixed and $68.8 million (16%) was variable. Overall, 31.5% of total costs were for support expenses such as utilities, employee benefits, and housekeeping salaries, and 52.4% included direct costs of salary for service center personnel who provide services to individual patients. The majority of cost in providing hospital service is related to buildings, equipment, salaried labor, and overhead, which are fixed over the short term. The high fixed costs emphasize the importance of adjusting fixed costs to patient consumption to maintain efficiency.

  19. Cost associated with stroke: outpatient rehabilitative services and medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Kyler M; Wasserman, Joan; Ostwald, Sharon K

    2011-10-01

    This study aimed to capture direct costs of outpatient rehabilitative stroke care and medications for a 1-year period after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Outpatient rehabilitative services and medication costs for 1 year, during the time period of 2001 to 2005, were calculated for 54 first-time stroke survivors. Costs for services were based on Medicare reimbursement rates. Medicaid reimbursement rates and average wholesale price were used to estimate medication costs. Of the 54 stroke survivors, 40 (74.1%) were categorized as independent, 12 (22.2%) had modified dependence, and 2 (3.7%) were dependent at the time of discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Average cost for outpatient stroke rehabilitation services and medications the first year post inpatient rehabilitation discharge was $17,081. The corresponding average yearly cost of medication was $5,392, while the average cost of yearly rehabilitation service utilization was $11,689. Cost attributed to medication remained relatively constant throughout the groups. Outpatient rehabilitation service utilization constituted a large portion of cost within each group: 69.7% (dependent), 72.5% (modified dependence), and 66.7% (independent). Stroke survivors continue to incur significant costs associated with their stroke for the first 12 months following discharge from an inpatient rehabilitation setting. Changing public policies affect the cost and availability of care. This study provides a snapshot of outpatient medication and therapy costs prior to the enactment of major changes in federal legislation and serves as a baseline for future studies.

  20. Effect of PACS/CR on cost of care and length of stay in a medical intensive care unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlotz, Curtis P.; Kundel, Harold L.; Brikman, Inna; Pratt, Hugh M.; Redfern, Regina O.; Horii, Steven C.; Schwartz, J. Sanford

    1996-05-01

    Our purpose was to determine the economic effects associated with the introduction of PACS and computed radiology (CR) in a medical intensive care unit (MICU). Clinical and financial data were collected over a period of 6 months, both before and after the introduction of PACS/CR in our medical intensive care unit. Administrative claims data resulting from the MICU stay of each patient enrolled in our study were transferred online to our research database from the administrative databases of our hospital and its affiliated clinical practices. These data included all charge entries, sociodemographic data, admissions/discharge/transfer chronologies, ICD9 diagnostic and procedure codes, and diagnostic related groups. APACHE III scores and other case mix adjusters were computed from the diagnostic codes, and from the contemporaneous medical record. Departmental charge to cost ratios and the Medicare Resource-Based Relative Value Scale fee schedule were used to estimate costs from hospital and professional charges. Data were analyzed using both the patient and the exam as the unit of analysis. Univariate analyses by patient show that patients enrolled during the PACS periods were similar to those enrolled during the Film periods in age, sex, APACHE III score, and other measures of case mix. No significant differences in unadjusted median length of stay between the two Film and two PACS periods were detected. Likewise, no significant differences in unadjusted total hospital and professional costs were found between the Film and PACS periods. In our univariate analyses by exam, we focused on the subgroup of exams that had triggered primary clinical actions in any period. Those action-triggering exams were divided into two groups according to whether the referring clinician elected to obtain imaging results from the workstation or from the usual channels. Patients whose imaging results were obtain from the workstation had significantly lower professional costs in the 7 days

  1. Managing Costs and Medical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    People with cancer may face major financial challenges and need help dealing with the high costs of care. Cancer treatment can be very expensive, even when you have insurance. Learn ways to manage medical information, paperwork, bills, and other records.

  2. Costs of health care across primary care models in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laberge, Maude; Wodchis, Walter P; Barnsley, Jan; Laporte, Audrey

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between newly introduced primary care models in Ontario, Canada, and patients' primary care and total health care costs. A specific focus is on the payment mechanisms for primary care physicians, i.e. fee-for-service (FFS), enhanced-FFS, and blended capitation, and whether providers practiced as part of a multidisciplinary team. Utilization data for a one year period was measured using administrative databases for a 10% sample selected at random from the Ontario adult population. Primary care and total health care costs were calculated at the individual level and included costs from physician services, hospital visits and admissions, long term care, drugs, home care, lab tests, and visits to non-medical health care providers. Generalized linear model regressions were conducted to assess the differences in costs between primary care models. Patients not enrolled with a primary care physicians were younger, more likely to be males and of lower socio-economic status. Patients in blended capitation models were healthier and wealthier than FFS and enhanced-FFS patients. Primary care and total health care costs were significantly different across Ontario primary care models. Using the traditional FFS as the reference, we found that patients in the enhanced-FFS models had the lowest total health care costs, and also the lowest primary care costs. Patients in the blended capitation models had higher primary care costs but lower total health care costs. Patients that were in multidisciplinary teams (FHT), where physicians are also paid on a blended capitation basis, had higher total health care costs than non-FHT patients but still lower than the FFS reference group. Primary care and total health care costs increased with patients' age, morbidity, and lower income quintile across all primary care payment types. The new primary care models were associated with lower total health care costs for patients compared to the

  3. Total cost of care lower among Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries receiving care from patient-centered medical homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hasselt, Martijn; McCall, Nancy; Keyes, Vince; Wensky, Suzanne G; Smith, Kevin W

    2015-02-01

    To compare health care utilization and payments between NCQA-recognized patient-centered medical home (PCMH) practices and practices without such recognition. Medicare Part A and B claims files from July 1, 2007 to June 30, 2010, 2009 Census, 2007 Health Resources and Services Administration and CMS Utilization file, Medicare's Enrollment Data Base, and the 2005 American Medical Association Physician Workforce file. This study used a longitudinal, nonexperimental design. Three annual observations (July 1, 2008-June 30, 2010) were available for each practice. We compared selected outcomes between practices with and those without NCQA PCMH recognition. Individual Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) beneficiaries and their claims and utilization data were assigned to PCMH or comparison practices based on where they received the plurality of evaluation and management services between July 1, 2007 and June 30, 2008. Relative to the comparison group, total Medicare payments, acute care payments, and the number of emergency room visits declined after practices received NCQA PCMH recognition. The decline was larger for practices with sicker than average patients, primary care practices, and solo practices. This study provides additional evidence about the potential of the PCMH model for reducing health care utilization and the cost of care. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  4. How do high cost-sharing policies for physician care affect total care costs among people with chronic disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Haichang; Harman, Jeffrey S; Yang, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether high cost-sharing in physician care is associated with a differential impact on total care costs by health status. Total care includes physician care, emergency room (ER) visits and inpatient care. Since high cost-sharing policies can reduce needed care as well as unneeded care use, it raises the concern whether these policies are a good strategy for controlling costs among chronically ill patients. This study used the 2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data with a cross-sectional study design. Difference in difference (DID), instrumental variable technique, two-part model, and bootstrap technique were employed to analyze cost data. Chronically ill individuals' probability of reducing any overall care costs was significantly less than healthier individuals (beta = 2.18, p = 0.04), while the integrated DID estimator from split results indicated that going from low cost-sharing to high cost-sharing significantly reduced costs by $12,853.23 more for sick people than for healthy people (95% CI: -$17,582.86, -$8,123.60). This greater cost reduction in total care among sick people likely resulted from greater cost reduction in physician care, and may have come at the expense of jeopardizing health outcomes by depriving patients of needed care. Thus, these policies would be inappropriate in the short run, and unlikely in the long run to control health plans costs among chronically ill individuals. A generous benefit design with low cost-sharing policies in physician care or primary care is recommended for both health plans and chronically ill individuals, to save costs and protect these enrollees' health status.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of Crohn’s disease post-operative care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Emily K; Kamm, Michael A; Dr Cruz, Peter; Hamilton, Amy L; Ritchie, Kathryn J; Bell, Sally J; Brown, Steven J; Connell, William R; Desmond, Paul V; Liew, Danny

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To define the cost-effectiveness of strategies, including endoscopy and immunosuppression, to prevent endoscopic recurrence of Crohn’s disease following intestinal resection. METHODS: In the “POCER” study patients undergoing intestinal resection were treated with post-operative drug therapy. Two thirds were randomized to active care (6 mo colonoscopy and drug intensification for endoscopic recurrence) and one third to drug therapy without early endoscopy. Colonoscopy at 18 mo and faecal calprotectin (FC) measurement were used to assess disease recurrence. Administrative data, chart review and patient questionnaires were collected prospectively over 18 mo. RESULTS: Sixty patients (active care n = 43, standard care n = 17) were included from one health service. Median total health care cost was $6440 per patient. Active care cost $4824 more than standard care over 18 mo. Medication accounted for 78% of total cost, of which 90% was for adalimumab. Median health care cost was higher for those with endoscopic recurrence compared to those in remission [$26347 (IQR 25045-27485) vs $2729 (IQR 1182-5215), P cost by $1010 per patient over 18 mo. Active care was associated with 18% decreased endoscopic recurrence, costing $861 for each recurrence prevented. CONCLUSION: Post-operative management strategies are associated with high cost, primarily medication related. Calprotectin use reduces costs. The long term cost-benefit of these strategies remains to be evaluated. PMID:27076772

  6. The Affordable Care Act and the Burden of High Cost Sharing and Utilization Management Restrictions on Access to HIV Medications for People Living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani-Hank, Yasamean

    2016-08-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic continues to be a critical public health issue in the United States, where an estimated 1.2 million individuals live with HIV infection. Viral suppression is one of the primary public health goals for People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). A crucial component of this goal involves adequate access to health care, specifically anti-retroviral HIV medications. The enactment of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2010 raised hopes for millions of PLWHA without access to health care coverage. High cost-sharing requirements enacted by health plans place a financial burden on PLWHA who need ongoing access to these life-saving medications. Plighted with poverty, Detroit, Michigan, is a center of attention for examining the financial burden of HIV medications on PLWHA under the new health plans. From November 2014 to January 2015, monthly out-of-pocket costs and medication utilization requirements for 31 HIV medications were examined for the top 12 insurance carriers offering Qualified Health Plans on Michigan's Health Insurance Marketplace Exchange. The percentage of medications requiring quantity limits and prior authorization were calculated. The average monthly out-of-pocket cost per person ranged from $12 to $667 per medication. Three insurance carriers placed all 31 HIV medications on the highest cost-sharing tier, charging 50% coinsurance. High out-of-pocket costs and medication utilization restrictions discourage PLWHA from enrolling in health plans and threaten interrupted medication adherence, drug resistance, and increased risk of viral transmission. Health plans inflicting high costs and medication restrictions violate provisions of the ACA and undermine health care quality for PLWHA. (Population Health Management 2016;19:272-278).

  7. Cost-benefit and cost-savings analyses of antiarrhythmic medication monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Melissa; Carnes, Cynthia; Grover, Janel; Davis, Rich; Kalbfleisch, Steven

    2012-09-15

    The economic impact of pharmacist-managed antiarrhythmic drug therapy monitoring on an academic medical center's electrophysiology (EP) program was investigated. Data were collected for the initial two years of patient visits (n = 816) to a pharmacist-run clinic for antiarrhythmic drug therapy monitoring. A retrospective cost analysis was conducted to assess the direct costs associated with three appointment models: (1) a clinic office visit only, (2) a clinic visit involving electrocardiography and basic laboratory tests, and (3) a clinic visit including pulmonary function testing and chest x-rays in addition to electrocardiography and laboratory testing. A subset of patient cases (n = 18) were included in a crossover analysis comparing pharmacist clinic care and usual care in an EP physician clinic. The primary endpoints were the cost benefits and cost savings associated with pharmacy-clinic care versus usual care. A secondary endpoint was improvement of overall EP program efficiency. The payer mix was 61.6% (n = 498) Medicare, 33.2% (n = 268) managed care, and 5.2% (n = 42) other. Positive contribution margins were demonstrated for all appointment models. The pharmacist-managed clinic also yielded cost savings by reducing overall patient care charges by 21% relative to usual care. By the second year, the pharmacy clinic improved EP program efficiency by scheduling an average of 24 patients per week, in effect freeing up one day per week of EP physician time to spend on other clinical activities. Pharmacist monitoring of antiarrhythmic drug therapy in an out-patient clinic provided cost benefits, cost savings, and improved overall EP program efficiency.

  8. Medical returns: seeking health care in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Sarah; Cole, Stephanie

    2011-06-01

    Despite the growing prevalence of transnational medical travel among immigrant groups in industrialized nations, relatively little scholarship has explored the diverse reasons immigrants return home for care. To date, most research suggests that cost, lack of insurance and convenience propel US Latinos to seek health care along the Mexican border. Yet medical returns are common even among Latinos who do have health insurance and even among those not residing close to the border. This suggests that the distinct culture of medicine as practiced in the border clinics Latinos visit may be as important a factor in influencing medical returns as convenience and cost. Drawing upon qualitative interviews, this article presents an emic account of Latinos' perceptions of the features of medical practice in Mexico that make medical returns attractive. Between November 15, 2009 and January 15, 2010, we conducted qualitative interviews with 15 Mexican immigrants and nine Mexican Americans who sought care at Border Hospital, a private clinic in Tijuana. Sixteen were uninsured and eight had insurance. Yet of the 16 uninsured, six had purposefully dropped their insurance to make this clinic their permanent "medical home." Moreover, those who substituted receiving care at Border Hospital for their US health insurance plan did so not only because of cost, but also because of what they perceived as the distinctive style of medical practice at Border Hospital. Interviewees mentioned the rapidity of services, personal attention, effective medications, and emphasis on clinical discretion as features distinguishing "Mexican medical practice," opposing these features to the frequent referrals and tests, impersonal doctor-patient relationships, uniform treatment protocols and reliance on surgeries they experienced in the US health care system. While interviewees portrayed these features as characterizing a uniform "Mexican medical culture," we suggest that they are best described as

  9. Incidence and cost of medications dispensed despite electronic medical record discontinuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Patrick J; Peterson, Kristin L; Statz-Paynter, Jamie L; Zorek, Joseph A

    2015-01-01

    To determine the incidence and cost of medications dispensed despite discontinuation (MDDD) of the medications in the electronic medical record within an integrated health care organization. Dean Health System, with medical clinics and pharmacies linked by an electronic medical record, and a shared health plan and pharmacy benefits management company. Pharmacist-led quality improvement project using retrospective chart review. Electronic medical records, pharmacy records, and prescription claims data from patients 18 years of age or older who had a prescription filled for a chronic condition from June 2012 to August 2013 and submitted a claim through the Dean Health Plan were aggregated and cross-referenced to identify MDDD. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize demographics and MDDD incidence. Fisher's exact test and independent samples t tests were used to compare MDDD and non-MDDD groups. Wholesale acquisition cost was applied to each MDDD event. 7,406 patients met inclusion criteria. For 223 (3%) patients with MDDD, 253 independent events were identified. In terms of frequency per category, antihypertensive agents topped the list, followed, in descending order, by anticonvulsants, antilipemics, antidiabetics, and anticoagulants. Nine medications accounted for 59% (150 of 253) of all MDDD events; these included (again in descending order): gabapentin, atorvastatin, simvastatin, hydrochlorothiazide, lisinopril, warfarin, furosemide, metformin, and metoprolol. Mail-service pharmacies accounted for the highest incidence (5.3%) of MDDD, followed by mass merchandisers (4.6%) and small chains (3.9%). The total cost attributable to MDDD was $9,397.74. Development of a technology-based intervention to decrease the incidence of MDDD may be warranted to improve patient safety and decrease health care costs.

  10. Can home care services achieve cost savings in long-term care for older people?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, V L; Ondrich, J; Laditka, S

    1998-07-01

    To determine whether efficient allocation of home care services can produce net long-term care cost savings. Hazard function analysis and nonlinear mathematical programming. Optimal allocation of home care services resulted in a 10% net reduction in overall long-term care costs for the frail older population served by the National Long-Term Care (Channeling) Demonstration, in contrast to the 12% net cost increase produced by the demonstration intervention itself. Our findings suggest that the long-sought goal of overall cost-neutrality or even cost-savings through reducing nursing home use sufficiently to more than offset home care costs is technically feasible, but requires tighter targeting of services and a more medically oriented service mix than major home care demonstrations have implemented to date.

  11. A review on cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of psychosocial care in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke Jansen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several psychosocial care interventions have been found effective in improving psychosocial outcomes in cancer patients. At present, there is increasingly being asked for information on the value for money of this type of intervention. This review therefore evaluates current evidence from studies investigating cost-effectiveness or cost-utility of psychosocial care in cancer patients. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed and Web of Science yielding 539 unique records, of which 11 studies were included in the study. Studies were mainly performed in breast cancer populations or mixed cancer populations. Studied interventions included collaborative care (four studies, group interventions (four studies, individual psychological support (two studies, and individual psycho-education (one study. Seven studies assessed the cost-utility of psychosocial care (based on quality-adjusted-life-years while three studies investigated its cost-effectiveness (based on profile of mood states [mood], Revised Impact of Events Scale [distress], 12-Item Health Survey [mental health], or Fear of Progression Questionnaire [fear of cancer progression]. One study did both. Costs included were intervention costs (three studies, intervention and direct medical costs (five studies, or intervention, direct medical, and direct nonmedical costs (three studies. In general, results indicated that psychosocial care is likely to be cost-effective at different, potentially acceptable, willingness-to-pay thresholds. Further research should be performed to provide more clear information as to which psychosocial care interventions are most cost-effective and for whom. In addition, more research should be performed encompassing potential important cost drivers from a societal perspective, such as productivity losses or informal care costs, in the analyses.

  12. Effectively marketing prepaid medical care with decision support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgionne, G A

    1991-01-01

    The paper reports a decision support system (DSS) that enables health plan administrators to quickly and easily: (1) manage relevant medical care market (consumer preference and competitors' program) information and (2) convert the information into appropriate medical care delivery and/or payment policies. As the paper demonstrates, the DSS enables providers to design cost efficient and market effective medical care programs. The DSS provides knowledge about subscriber preferences, customer desires, and the program offerings of the competition. It then helps administrators structure a medical care plan in a way that best meets consumer needs in view of the competition. This market effective plan has the potential to generate substantial amounts of additional revenue for the program. Since the system's data base consists mainly of the provider's records, routine transactions, and other readily available documents, the DSS can be implemented at a nominal incremental cost. The paper also evaluates the impact of the information system on the general financial performance of existing dental and mental health plans. In addition, the paper examines how the system can help contain the cost of providing medical care while providing better services to more potential beneficiaries than current approaches.

  13. Costs of medical care after open or minimally invasive prostate cancer surgery: A population-based analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrance, William T.; Eastham, James A.; Yee, David S.; Laudone, Vincent P.; Denton, Brian; Scardino, Peter T.; Elkin, Elena B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that minimally-invasive radical prostatectomy (MRP) and open radical prostatectomy (ORP) have similar short-term clinical and functional outcomes. MRP with robotic assistance is generally more expensive than ORP, but it is not clear whether subsequent costs of care vary by approach. Methods In the linked SEER-Medicare database we identified men age 66 or older who received MRP or ORP in 2003-2006 for prostate cancer. Total cost of care was estimated as the sum of Medicare payments from all claims for hospital care, outpatient care, physician services, home health and hospice care, and durable medical equipment in the first year from date of surgical admission. We estimated the impact of surgical approach on costs controlling for patient and disease characteristics. Results Of 5,445 surgically-treated prostate cancer patients, 4,454 (82%) had ORP and 991 (18%) had MRP. Mean total first-year costs were more than $1,200 greater for MRP compared with ORP ($16,919 vs. $15692, p=0.08). Controlling for patient and disease characteristics, MRP was associated with 2% greater mean total payments, but this difference was not statistically significant. First-year costs were greater for men who were older, black, lived in the Northeast, had lymph node involvement, more advanced tumor stage or greater comorbidity. Conclusions In this population-based cohort of older men, MRP and ORP had similar economic outcomes. From a payer’s perspective, any benefits associated with MRP may not translate to net savings compared with ORP in the first year after surgery. PMID:22025192

  14. Multi-professional clinical medication reviews in care homes for the elderly: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial with cost effectiveness analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sach Tracey

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence demonstrates that measures are needed to optimise therapy and improve administration of medicines in care homes for older people. The aim of this study is to determine the clinical and cost effectiveness of a novel model of multi-professional medication review. Methods A cluster randomised controlled trial design, involving thirty care homes. In line with current practice in medication reviews, recruitment and consent will be sought from general practitioners and care homes, rather than individual residents. Care homes will be segmented according to size and resident mix and allocated to the intervention arm (15 homes or control arm (15 homes sequentially using minimisation. Intervention homes will receive a multi-professional medication review at baseline and at 6 months, with follow-up at 12 months. Control homes will receive usual care (support they currently receive from the National Health Service, with data collection at baseline and 12 months. The novelty of the intervention is a review of medications by a multi-disciplinary team. Primary outcome measures are number of falls and potentially inappropriate prescribing. Secondary outcome measures include medication costs, health care resource use, hospitalisations and mortality. The null hypothesis proposes no difference in primary outcomes between intervention and control patients. The primary outcome variable (number of falls will be analysed using a linear mixed model, with the intervention specified as a fixed effect and care homes included as a random effect. Analyses will be at the level of the care home. The economic evaluation will estimate the cost-effectiveness of the intervention compared to usual care from a National Health Service and personal social services perspective. The study is not measuring the impact of the intervention on professional working relationships, the medicines culture in care homes or the generic health-related quality of life of

  15. Estimation of optimal educational cost per medical student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eunbae B; Lee, Seunghee

    2009-09-01

    This study aims to estimate the optimal educational cost per medical student. A private medical college in Seoul was targeted by the study, and its 2006 learning environment and data from the 2003~2006 budget and settlement were carefully analyzed. Through interviews with 3 medical professors and 2 experts in the economics of education, the study attempted to establish the educational cost estimation model, which yields an empirically computed estimate of the optimal cost per student in medical college. The estimation model was based primarily upon the educational cost which consisted of direct educational costs (47.25%), support costs (36.44%), fixed asset purchases (11.18%) and costs for student affairs (5.14%). These results indicate that the optimal cost per student is approximately 20,367,000 won each semester; thus, training a doctor costs 162,936,000 won over 4 years. Consequently, we inferred that the tuition levels of a local medical college or professional medical graduate school cover one quarter or one-half of the per- student cost. The findings of this study do not necessarily imply an increase in medical college tuition; the estimation of the per-student cost for training to be a doctor is one matter, and the issue of who should bear this burden is another. For further study, we should consider the college type and its location for general application of the estimation method, in addition to living expenses and opportunity costs.

  16. Costs of stroke and stroke services: Determinants of patient costs and a comparison of costs of regular care and care organised in stroke services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koopmanschap Marc A

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke is a major cause of death and long-term disability in Western societies and constitutes a major claim on health care budgets. Organising stroke care in a stroke service has recently been demonstrated to result in better health effects for patients. This paper discusses patient costs after stroke and compares costs between regular and stroke service care. Methods Costs were calculated within the framework of the evaluation of three experiments with stroke services in the Netherlands. Cost calculations are base on medical consumption data and actual costs. Results 598 patients were consecutively admitted to hospital after stroke. The average total costs of care per patient for the 6 month follow-up are estimated at €16,000. Costs are dominated by institutional and accommodation costs. Patients who die after stroke incur less costs. For patients that survive the acute phase, the most important determinants of costs are disability status and having a partner – as they influence patients' stroke careers. These determinants also interact. The most efficient stroke service experiment was most successful in co-ordinating patient flow from hospital to (nursing home, through capacity planning and efficient discharge procedures. In this region the costs of stroke service care are the same as for regular stroke care. The other experiments suffered from waiting lists for nursing homes and home care, leading to "blocked beds" in hospitals and nursing homes and higher costs of care. Costs of co-ordination are estimated at about 3% of total costs of care. Conclusion This paper demonstrates that by organising care for stroke patients in a stroke service, better health effects can be achieved with the same budget. In addition, it provides insight in need, predisposing and enabling factors that determine costs of care after stroke.

  17. Impact of a Novel Cost-Saving Pharmacy Program on Pregabalin Use and Health Care Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carolyn; Odell, Kevin; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Bancroft, Tim; Halpern, Rachel; Sadosky, Alesia

    2016-02-01

    Pharmacy cost-saving programs often aim to reduce costs for members and payers by encouraging use of lower-tier or generic medications and lower-cost sales channels. In 2010, a national U.S. health plan began a novel pharmacy program directed at reducing pharmacy expenditures for targeted medications, including pregabalin. The program provided multiple options to avoid higher cost sharing: use mail order pharmacy or switch to a lower-cost alternative medication via mail order or retail. Members who did not choose any option eventually paid the full retail cost of pregabalin. To evaluate the impact of the pharmacy program on pregabalin and alternative medication use, health care costs, and health care utilization. This retrospective analysis of claims data included adult commercial health plan members with a retail claim for pregabalin in the first 13 months of the pharmacy program (identification [ID] period: February 1, 2010-February 28, 2011). Members whose benefit plan included the pharmacy program were assigned to the program cohort; all others were assigned to the nonprogram cohort. The program cohort index date was the first retail pregabalin claim during the ID period and after the program start; the nonprogram cohort index date was the first retail pregabalin claim during the ID period. All members were continuously enrolled for 12 months pre- and post-index and had at least 1 inpatient claim or ≥ 2 ambulatory visit claims for a pregabalin-indicated condition. Cohorts were propensity score matched (PSM) 1:1 with logistic regression on demographic and pre-index characteristics, including mail order and pregabalin use, comorbidity, health care costs, and health care utilization. Pregabalin, gabapentin and other alternative medication use, health care costs, and health care utilization were measured. The program cohort was also divided into 2 groups: members who changed to gabapentin post-index and those who did not. A difference-in-differences (Di

  18. Costs of medical care after open or minimally invasive prostate cancer surgery: a population-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrance, William T; Eastham, James A; Yee, David S; Laudone, Vincent P; Denton, Brian; Scardino, Peter T; Elkin, Elena B

    2012-06-15

    Evidence suggests that minimally invasive radical prostatectomy (MRP) and open radical prostatectomy (ORP) have similar short-term clinical and functional outcomes. MRP with robotic assistance is generally more expensive than ORP, but it is not clear whether subsequent costs of care vary by approach. In the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer registry linked with Medicare claims, men aged 66 years or older who received MRP or ORP in 2003 through 2006 for prostate cancer were identified. Total cost of care was estimated as the sum of Medicare payments from all claims for hospital care, outpatient care, physician services, home health and hospice care, and durable medical equipment in the first year from the date of surgical admission. The impact of surgical approach on costs was estimated, controlling for patient and disease characteristics. Of 5445 surgically treated prostate cancer patients, 4454 (82%) had ORP and 991 (18%) had MRP. Mean total first-year costs were more than $1200 greater for MRP compared with ORP ($16,919 vs $15,692; P = .08). Controlling for patient and disease characteristics, MRP was associated with 2% greater mean total payments, but this difference was not statistically significant. First-year costs were greater for men who were older, black, lived in the Northeast, had lymph node involvement, more advanced tumor stage, or greater comorbidity. In this population-based cohort of older men, MRP and ORP had similar economic outcomes. From a payer's perspective, any benefits associated with MRP may not translate to net savings compared with ORP in the first year after surgery. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  19. 75 FR 24754 - Cost of Hospital and Medical Care Treatment Furnished by the Department of Defense Military...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Cost of Hospital and Medical Care Treatment Furnished by the... Third Persons AGENCY: Office of Management and Budget, Executive Office of the President. ACTION: Notice.... 593; 42 U.S.C. 2652), and delegated to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget by the...

  20. Medical tourism and its impact on the US health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgione, Dana A; Smith, Pamela C

    2007-01-01

    The health care industry within the United States continues to face unprecedented increases in costs, along with the task of providing care to an estimated 46 million uninsured or underinsured patients. These patients, along with both insurers and employers, are seeking to reduce the costs of treatment through international outsourcing of medical and surgical care. Knows as medical tourism, this trend is on the rise, and the US health care system has not fully internalized the effects this will have on its economic structure and policies. The demand for low-cost health care services is driving patients to seek treatment on a globally competitive basis, while balancing important quality of care issues. In this article, we outline some of the issues facing legislators, health care policy makers, providers, and health service researchers regarding the impact of medical tourism on the US health care system.

  1. The cost of bariatric medical tourism on the Canadian healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Caroline E; Lester, Erica L W; Karmali, Shahzeer; de Gara, Christopher J; Birch, Daniel W

    2014-05-01

    Medical tourists are defined as individuals who intentionally travel from their home province/country to receive medical care. Minimal literature exists on the cost of postoperative care and complications for medical tourists. The costs associated with these patients were reviewed. Between February 2009 and June 2013, 62 patients were determined to be medical tourists. Patients were included if their initial surgery was performed between January 2003 and June 2013. A chart review was performed to identify intervention costs sustained upon their return. Conservatively, the costs of length of stay (n = 657, $1,433,673.00), operative procedures (n = 110, $148,924.30), investigations (n = 700, $214,499.06), blood work (n = 357, $19,656.90), and health professionals' time (n = 76, $17,414.87) were summated to the total cost of $1.8 million CAD. The absolute denominator of patients who go abroad for bariatric surgery is unknown. Despite this, a substantial cost is incurred because of medical tourism. Future investigations will analyze the cost effectiveness of bariatric surgery conducted abroad compared with local treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased care demand and medical costs after falls in nursing homes: A Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterke, Carolyn Shanty; Panneman, Martien J; Erasmus, Vicki; Polinder, Suzanne; van Beeck, Ed F

    2018-04-21

    To estimate the increased care demand and medical costs caused by falls in nursing homes. There is compelling evidence that falls in nursing homes are preventable. However, proper implementation of evidence-based guidelines to prevent falls is often hindered by insufficient management support, staff time and funding. A three-round Delphi study. A panel of 41 experts, all working in nursing homes in the Netherlands, received three online questionnaires to estimate the extra hours of care needed during the first year after the fall. This was estimated for ten falls categories with different levels of injury severity, in three scenarios, that is a best-case, a typical-case and a worst-case scenario. We calculated the costs of falls by multiplying the mean amount of extra hours that the participants spent on the care for a resident after a fall with their hourly wages. In case of a noninjurious fall, the extra time spent on the faller is on average almost 5 hr, expressed in euros that add to € 193. The extra staff time and costs of falls increased with increasing severity of injury. In the case of a fracture of the lower limb, the extra staff time increased to 132 hr, expressed in euros that is € 4,604. In the worst-case scenario of a fracture of the lower limb, the extra staff time increased to 284 hr, expressed in euros that is € 10,170. Falls in nursing homes result in a great deal of extra staff time spent on care, with extra costs varying between € 193 for a noninjurious fall and € 10,170 for serious falls. This study could aid decision-making on investing in appropriate implementation of falls prevention interventions in nursing homes. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Economic evaluation of pharmacist-led medication reviews in residential aged care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Syed Shahzad; Thiruchelvam, Kaeshaelya; Kow, Chia Siang; Ghori, Muhammad Usman; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din

    2017-10-01

    Medication reviews is a widely accepted approach known to have a substantial impact on patients' pharmacotherapy and safety. Numerous options to optimise pharmacotherapy in older people have been reported in literature and they include medication reviews, computerised decision support systems, management teams, and educational approaches. Pharmacist-led medication reviews are increasingly being conducted, aimed at attaining patient safety and medication optimisation. Cost effectiveness is an essential aspect of a medication review evaluation. Areas covered: A systematic searching of articles that examined the cost-effectiveness of medication reviews conducted in aged care facilities was performed using the relevant databases. Pharmacist-led medication reviews confer many benefits such as attainment of biomarker targets for improved clinical outcomes, and other clinical parameters, as well as depict concrete financial advantages in terms of decrement in total medication costs and associated cost savings. Expert commentary: The cost-effectiveness of medication reviews are more consequential than ever before. A critical evaluation of pharmacist-led medication reviews in residential aged care facilities from an economical aspect is crucial in determining if the time, effort, and direct and indirect costs involved in the review rationalise the significance of conducting medication reviews for older people in aged care facilities.

  4. Value based care and bundled payments: Anesthesia care costs for outpatient oncology surgery using time-driven activity-based costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Katy E; Guzman, Alexis B; Rubio, Augustin C; Frenzel, John C; Feeley, Thomas W

    2016-09-01

    With the movement towards bundled payments, stakeholders should know the true cost of the care they deliver. Time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) can be used to estimate costs for each episode of care. In this analysis, TDABC is used to both estimate the costs of anesthesia care and identify the primary drivers of those costs of 11 common oncologic outpatient surgical procedures. Personnel cost were calculated by determining the hourly cost of each provider and the associated process time of the 11 surgical procedures. Using the anesthesia record, drugs, supplies and equipment costs were identified and calculated. The current staffing model was used to determine baseline personnel costs for each procedure. Using the costs identified through TDABC analysis, the effect of different staffing ratios on anesthesia costs could be predicted. Costs for each of the procedures were determined. Process time and costs are linearly related. Personnel represented 79% of overall cost while drugs, supplies and equipment represented the remaining 21%. Changing staffing ratios shows potential savings between 13% and 28% across the 11 procedures. TDABC can be used to estimate the costs of anesthesia care. This costing information is critical to assessing the anesthesiology component in a bundled payment. It can also be used to identify areas of cost savings and model costs of anesthesia care. CRNA to anesthesiologist staffing ratios profoundly influence the cost of care. This methodology could be applied to other medical specialties to help determine costs in the setting of bundled payments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Cost of Health Care for AIDS Patients in Saskatchewan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin P Browne

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The medical records of 19 patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (aids were reviewed in an attempt to estimate their health care costs. The patients were all male, members of high risk groups and diagnosed between April 1985 and February 1988. Twelve of the patients died; they lived a mean of 240 days (range 0 to 580 after diagnosis, were admitted three times (range one to six to hospital for 65 total days (range one to 148 for a cost per patient of $33,721 (range $2,768 to $64,981 for inpatient care. They made five (range zero to 25 office visits per patient costing $196 per patient (range $0 to $4,999 for outpatient care. The seven survivors (one was lost to follow-up have lived 375 days (range 186 to 551 since diagnosis, have been admitted to hospital two times (range zero to seven for 30 total days (range zero to 86 for a total cost per patient of $14,223 (range $0 to $39,410 for inpatient care. They have made 11 office/emergency room visits (range zero to 46 costing in total $4322 (range $0 to $13,605 for outpatient care. The total expenditure was $546,332 ($28,754 per patient, of which total fees to physicians were $37,210 (6.8%, and estimated costs of laboratory tests $117,917 (21.6%, drugs $36,930 (6.7%, and medical imaging $20,794 (3.8%. Patients now deceased cost $416,445 (mean $34,704 per patient, accounting for 76.2% of overall expenditures. The average medical/surgical and drug costs per patient day in hospital were greater for aids patients than for the average medical/surgical patient in the authors’ institution.

  6. Understanding Health Care Costs in a Wisconsin Acute Leukemia Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Steinert

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We investigated factors driving health care costs of patients with a diagnosis of acute myeloid and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods: Standard costs identified in insurance claims data obtained from the Wisconsin Health Information Organization were used in a sample of 837 acute leukemia patients from April 2009 to June 2011. The Andersen behavioral model of health care utilization guided selection of patient and community factors expected to influence health care costs. A generalized linear model fitting gamma-distributed data with log-link technique was used to analyze cost. Results: Type of treatment received and disease severity represented significant cost drivers, and patients receiving at least some of their treatment from academic medical centers experienced higher costs. Inpatient care and pharmacy costs of patients who received treatment from providers located in areas of higher poverty experienced lower costs, raising questions of potential treatment and medical practice disparities between provider locations. Directions of study findings were not consistent between different types of services received and underscore the complexity of investigating health care cost. Conclusions: While prevalence of acute leukemia in the United States is low compared to other diseases, its extreme high cost of treatment is not well understood and potentially influences treatment decisions. Acute leukemia health care costs may not follow expected patterns; further exploration of the relationship between cost and the treatment decision, and potential treatment disparities between providers in different socioeconomic locations, is needed.

  7. Medical liability and health care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Leonard J; Morrisey, Michael A; Becker, David J

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) on medical liability and the controversy over whether federal medical reform including a damages cap could make a useful contribution to health care reform. By providing guaranteed access to health care insurance at community rates, the ACA could reduce the problem of under-compensation resulting from damages caps. However, it may also exacerbate the problem of under-claiming in the malpractice system, thereby reducing incentives to invest in loss prevention activities. Shifting losses from liability insurers to health insurers could further undermine the already weak deterrent effect of the medical liability system. Republicans in Congress and physician groups both pushed for the adoption of a federal damages cap as part of health care reform. Physician support for damages caps could be explained by concerns about the insurance cycle and the consequent instability of the market. Our own study presented here suggests that there is greater insurance market stability in states with caps on non-economic damages. Republicans in Congress argued that the enactment of damages caps would reduce aggregate health care costs. The Congressional Budget Office included savings from reduced health care utilization in its estimates of cost savings that would result from the enactment of a federal damages cap. But notwithstanding recent opinions offered by the CBO, it is not clear that caps will significantly reduce health care costs or that any savings will be passed on to consumers. The ACA included funding for state level demonstration projects for promising reforms such as offer and disclosure and health courts, but at this time the benefits of these reforms are also uncertain. There is a need for further studies on these issues.

  8. The health system cost of post-abortion care in Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlassoff, Michael; Musange, Sabine F; Kalisa, Ina R; Ngabo, Fidele; Sayinzoga, Felix; Singh, Susheela; Bankole, Akinrinola

    2015-01-01

    Based on research conducted in 2012, we estimate the cost to the Rwandan health-care system of providing post-abortion care (PAC) due to unsafe abortions, a subject of policy importance not studied before at the national level. Thirty-nine public and private health facilities representing three levels of health care were randomly selected for data collection from key care providers and administrators for all five regions. Using an ingredients approach to costing, data were gathered on drugs, supplies, material, personnel time and hospitalization. Additionally, direct non-medical costs such as overhead and capital costs were also measured. We found that the average annual PAC cost per client, across five types of abortion complications, was $93. The total cost of PAC nationally was estimated to be $1.7 million per year, 49% of which was expended on direct non-medical costs. Satisfying all demands for PAC would raise the national cost to $2.5 million per year. PAC comprises a significant share of total expenditure in reproductive health in Rwanda. Investing more resources in provision of contraceptive services to prevent unwanted or mistimed pregnancies would likely reduce health systems costs. PMID:24548846

  9. Health insurance and the demand for medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Meza, D

    1983-03-01

    With rare exceptions the provision of actuarially fair health insurance tends to substantially increase the demand for medical care by redistributing income from the healthy to the sick. This suggests that previous studies which attribute all the extra demand for medical care to moral hazard effects may overestimate the efficiency costs of health insurance.

  10. Cooperative medical insurance and the cost of care in Shandong, PR China: perspectives of patients and community members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Mohammad Afzal; Raulli, Alexandra; Yan, Wang; Dong, Han; Aiguo, Zhang; Ping, Dong

    2015-03-01

    This research was conducted to identify the cost of care associated with utilization of village clinics and membership of the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) in 2 counties of Shandong province, PR China. A total of 397 community members and 297 patients who used the village clinics were interviewed. The average cost for primary care treatment of 1 episode of illness was about 55 yuan (about US$8). Although more than 50% of people had NCMS membership, many consider the monetary reimbursements as insufficient. The low insurance reimbursement rates and inability to pay out-of-pocket expenses compromise access to care. Delays can cause more serious illnesses with potential to overburden the secondary care at the township and county hospitals. Those rural people who have not yet enjoyed the benefits of China's economic development may not benefit from recent health care reform and finance mechanisms unless schemes such as the NCMS provide more substantial subsidies. © 2010 APJPH.

  11. Health care resource use and direct medical costs for patients with schizophrenia in Tianjin, People’s Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu J

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Jing Wu,1 Xiaoning He,1 Li Liu,2 Wenyu Ye,2 William Montgomery,3 Haibo Xue,2 Jeffery S McCombs41School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China; 2Lilly Suzhou Pharmaceutical Company, Ltd, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Eli Lilly and Company, Sydney, Australia; 4Departments of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Economics and Policy, School of Pharmacy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USAObjective: Information concerning the treatment costs of schizophrenia is scarce in People’s Republic of China. The aims of this study were to quantify health care resource utilization and to estimate the direct medical costs for patients with schizophrenia in Tianjin, People’s Republic of China.Methods: Data were obtained from the Tianjin Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI database. Adult patients with ≥1 diagnosis of schizophrenia and 12-month continuous enrollment after the first schizophrenia diagnosis between 2008 and 2009 were included. Both schizophrenia-related, psychiatric-related, and all-cause related resource utilization and direct medical costs were estimated.Results: A total of 2,125 patients were included with a mean age of 52.3 years, and 50.7% of the patients were female. The annual mean all-cause costs were $2,863 per patient with psychiatric-related and schizophrenia-related costs accounting for 84.1% and 62.0% respectively. The schizophrenia-related costs for hospitalized patients were eleven times greater than that of patients who were not hospitalized. For schizophrenia-related health services, 60.8% of patients experienced at least one hospitalization with a mean (median length of stay of 112.1 (71 days and a mean cost of $1,904 per admission; 59.0% of patients experienced at least one outpatient visit with a mean (median number of visits of 6.2 (4 and a mean cost of $42 per visit during the 12-month follow-up period. Non-medication

  12. How much does care in palliative care wards cost in Poland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciałkowska-Rysz, Aleksandra D; Pokropska, Wieslawa; Łuczak, Jacek; Kaptacz, Anna; Stachowiak, Andrzej; Hurich, Krystyna; Koszela, Monika

    2016-04-01

    The main task of palliative care units is to provide a dignified life for people with advanced progressive chronic disease through appropriate symptom management, communication between medical specialists and the patient and his family, as well as the coordination of care. Many palliative care units struggle with low incomes from the National Health Fund (NHF), which causes serious economic problems. The aim of the study was to estimate of direct and administrative costs of care and the actual cost per patient per day in selected palliative care units and comparison of the results to the valuation of the NHF. The study of the costs of hospitalization of 175 patients was conducted prospectively in five palliative care units (PCUs). The costs directly associated with care were recorded on the specially prepared forms in each unit and also personnel and administrative costs provided by the accounting departments. The total costs of analyzed units amounted to 209 002 EUR (898 712 PLN), while the payment for palliative care services from the NHF amounted to 126 010 EUR (541 844 PLN), which accounted for only 60% of the costs incurred by the units. The average cost per person per day of hospitalization, calculated according to the actual duration of hospitalization in the unit, was 83 EUR (357 PLN), and the average payment from the NHF was 52.8 EUR (227 PLN). Underpayment per person per day was approximately 29.2 EUR (125 PLN). The study showed a significant difference between the actual cost of palliative care units and the level of refund from the NHF. Based on the analysis of costs, the application has been submitted to the NHF to change the reimbursement amount of palliative care services in 2013.

  13. Quality of neurological care. Balancing cost control and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, J L

    1997-11-01

    As the quality of neurological care becomes a mutual objective of physicians, patients, and health planners, increased demands on cost savings will create conflicts that could threaten the ethical basis of medical practice. Physicians will see increasing ethical conflicts between their fiduciary duties to make treatment decisions in the best interest of their patients and their justice-based duties to conserve societal resources. These conflicts can be best mitigated if physicians maintain their orientation as patient advocates but practice cost-conscious clinical behaviors that consider the cost-effectiveness of tests and treatments and do not squander society's finite resources by ordering medical tests and treatments of zero or marginal utility. Health system planners should resolve their conflicting objectives of quality and cost control by rigorously defining and measuring quality through physician leadership and by implementing cost-control measures that enhance the quality of medical care. Managed care organizations voluntarily should forsake financially successful but blatantly unethical cost-saving schemes, such as gag clauses and end-of-year kickback payments to physicians, because these schemes diminish patients' trust in physicians and degrade the integrity of the patient-physician relationship. State and federal laws should prudently regulate these unethical cost-saving schemes to the same extent as they have for the harmful conflicts in fee-for-service medicine.

  14. Direct medical costs of motorcycle crashes in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, Daniel; Wasserstein, David; Nathens, Avery B; Bai, Yu Qing; Redelmeier, Donald A; Wodchis, Walter P

    2017-11-20

    There is no reliable estimate of costs incurred by motorcycle crashes. Our objective was to calculate the direct costs of all publicly funded medical care provided to individuals after motorcycle crashes compared with automobile crashes. We conducted a population-based, matched cohort study of adults in Ontario who presented to hospital because of a motorcycle or automobile crash from 2007 through 2013. For each case, we identified 1 control absent a motor vehicle crash during the study period. Direct costs for each case and control were estimated in 2013 Canadian dollars from the payer perspective using methodology that links health care use to individuals over time. We calculated costs attributable to motorcycle and automobile crashes within 2 years using a difference-in-differences approach. We identified 26 831 patients injured in motorcycle crashes and 281 826 injured in automobile crashes. Mean costs attributable to motorcycle and automobile crashes were $5825 and $2995, respectively ( p motorcycle crashes compared with automobile crashes (2194 injured annually/100 000 registered motorcycles v. 718 injured annually/100 000 registered automobiles; incidence rate ratio [IRR] 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.8 to 3.3, p motorcycles v. 12 severe injuries annually/100 000 registered automobiles; IRR 10.4, 95% CI 8.3 to 13.1, p motorcycle in Ontario costs the public health care system 6 times the amount of each registered automobile. Medical costs may provide an additional incentive to improve motorcycle safety. © 2017 Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  15. The economics of health care quality and medical errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andel, Charles; Davidow, Stephen L; Hollander, Mark; Moreno, David A

    2012-01-01

    Hospitals have been looking for ways to improve quality and operational efficiency and cut costs for nearly three decades, using a variety of quality improvement strategies. However, based on recent reports, approximately 200,000 Americans die from preventable medical errors including facility-acquired conditions and millions may experience errors. In 2008, medical errors cost the United States $19.5 billion. About 87 percent or $17 billion were directly associated with additional medical cost, including: ancillary services, prescription drug services, and inpatient and outpatient care, according to a study sponsored by the Society for Actuaries and conducted by Milliman in 2010. Additional costs of $1.4 billion were attributed to increased mortality rates with $1.1 billion or 10 million days of lost productivity from missed work based on short-term disability claims. The authors estimate that the economic impact is much higher, perhaps nearly $1 trillion annually when quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) are applied to those that die. Using the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) estimate of 98,000 deaths due to preventable medical errors annually in its 1998 report, To Err Is Human, and an average of ten lost years of life at $75,000 to $100,000 per year, there is a loss of $73.5 billion to $98 billion in QALYs for those deaths--conservatively. These numbers are much greater than those we cite from studies that explore the direct costs of medical errors. And if the estimate of a recent Health Affairs article is correct-preventable death being ten times the IOM estimate-the cost is $735 billion to $980 billion. Quality care is less expensive care. It is better, more efficient, and by definition, less wasteful. It is the right care, at the right time, every time. It should mean that far fewer patients are harmed or injured. Obviously, quality care is not being delivered consistently throughout U.S. hospitals. Whatever the measure, poor quality is costing payers and

  16. Knowledge of medical students on National Health Care System: A French multicentric survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feral-Pierssens, A-L; Jannot, A-S

    2017-09-01

    Education on national health care policy and costs is part of our medical curriculum explaining how our health care system works. Our aim was to measure French medical students' knowledge about national health care funding, costs and access and explore association with their educational and personal background. We developed a web-based survey exploring knowledge on national health care funding, access and costs through 19 items and measured success score as the number of correct answers. We also collected students' characteristics and public health training. The survey was sent to undergraduate medical students and residents from five medical universities between July and November 2015. A total of 1195 students from 5 medical universities responded to the survey. Most students underestimated the total amount of annual medical expenses, hospitalization costs and the proportion of the general population not benefiting from a complementary insurance. The knowledge score was not associated with medical education level. Three students' characteristics were significantly associated with a better knowledge score: male gender, older age, and underprivileged status. Medical students have important gaps in knowledge regarding national health care funding, coverage and costs. This knowledge was not associated with medical education level but with some of the students' personal characteristics. All these results are of great concern and should lead us to discussion and reflection about medical and public health training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. 78 FR 21631 - Fiscal Year 2013 Cost of Hospital and Medical Care Treatment Furnished by the Department of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Fiscal Year 2013 Cost of Hospital and Medical Care Treatment... Tortiously Liable Third Persons AGENCY: Office of Management and Budget, Executive Office of the President...-603 (76 Stat. 593; 42 U.S.C. 2652), and delegated to the Director of the Office of Management and...

  18. 76 FR 15349 - Fiscal Year 2011 Cost of Hospital and Medical Care Treatment Furnished by the Department of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Fiscal Year 2011 Cost of Hospital and Medical Care Treatment... Tortiously Liable Third Persons AGENCY: Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget... 87-693 (76 Stat. 593; 42 U.S.C. 2652), and delegated to the Director of the Office of Management and...

  19. 75 FR 62348 - Reimbursement Offsets for Medical Care or Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AN55 Reimbursement Offsets for Medical Care... Veterans Affairs (VA) proposes to amend its regulations concerning the reimbursement of medical care and... situations where third-party payers are required to reimburse VA for costs related to care provided by VA to...

  20. Direct health care costs associated with asthma in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadatsafavi, Mohsen; Lynd, Larry; Marra, Carlo; Carleton, Bruce; Tan, Wan C; Sullivan, Sean; FitzGerald, J Mark

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A better understanding of health care costs associated with asthma would enable the estimation of the economic burden of this increasingly common disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine the direct medical costs of asthma-related health care in British Columbia (BC). METHODS: Administrative health care data from the BC Linked Health Database and PharmaNet database from 1996 to 2000 were analyzed for BC residents five to 55 years of age, including the billing information for physician visits, drug dispensations and hospital discharge records. A unit cost was assigned to physician/emergency department visits, and government reimbursement fees for prescribed medications were applied. The case mix method was used to calculate hospitalization costs. All costs were reported in inflation-adjusted 2006 Canadian dollars. RESULTS: Asthma resulted in $41,858,610 in annual health care-related costs during the study period ($331 per patient-year). The major cost component was medications, which accounted for 63.9% of total costs, followed by physician visits (18.3%) and hospitalization (17.8%). When broader definitions of asthma-related hospitalizations and physician visits were used, total costs increased to $56,114,574 annually ($444 per patient-year). There was a statistically significant decrease in the annual per patient cost of hospitalizations (P<0.01) over the study period. Asthma was poorly controlled in 63.5% of patients, with this group being responsible for 94% of asthma-related resource use. CONCLUSION: The economic burden of asthma is significant in BC, with the majority of the cost attributed to poor asthma control. Policy makers should investigate the reason for lack of proper asthma control and adjust their policies accordingly to improve asthma management. PMID:20422063

  1. Methodological issues in assessing changes in costs pre- and post-medication switch: a schizophrenia study example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyhuis Allen W

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic, and costly illness that adversely impacts patients' lives and health care payer budgets. Cost comparisons of treatment regimens are, therefore, important to health care payers and researchers. Pre-Post analyses ("mirror-image", where outcomes prior to a medication switch are compared to outcomes post-switch, are commonly used in such research. However, medication changes often occur during a costly crisis event. Patients may relapse, be hospitalized, have a medication change, and then spend a period of time with intense use of costly resources (post-medication switch. While many advantages and disadvantages of Pre-Post methodology have been discussed, issues regarding the attributability of costs incurred around the time of medication switching have not been fully investigated. Methods Medical resource use data, including medications and acute-care services (hospitalizations, partial hospitalizations, emergency department were collected for patients with schizophrenia who switched antipsychotics (n = 105 during a 1-year randomized, naturalistic, antipsychotic cost-effectiveness schizophrenia trial. Within-patient changes in total costs per day were computed during the pre- and post-medication change periods. In addition to the standard Pre-Post analysis comparing costs pre- and post-medication change, we investigated the sensitivity of results to varying assumptions regarding the attributability of acute care service costs occurring just after a medication switch that were likely due to initial medication failure. Results Fifty-six percent of all costs incurred during the first week on the newly initiated antipsychotic were likely due to treatment failure with the previous antipsychotic. Standard analyses suggested an average increase in cost-per-day for each patient of $2.40 after switching medications. However, sensitivity analyses removing costs incurred post-switch that were potentially

  2. Cost savings from reduced catheter-related bloodstream infection after simulation-based education for residents in a medical intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Elaine R; Feinglass, Joe; Barsuk, Jeffrey H; Barnard, Cynthia; O'Donnell, Anna; McGaghie, William C; Wayne, Diane B

    2010-04-01

    Interventions to reduce preventable complications such as catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) can also decrease hospital costs. However, little is known about the cost-effectiveness of simulation-based education. The aim of this study was to estimate hospital cost savings related to a reduction in CRBSI after simulation training for residents. This was an intervention evaluation study estimating cost savings related to a simulation-based intervention in central venous catheter (CVC) insertion in the Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU) at an urban teaching hospital. After residents completed a simulation-based mastery learning program in CVC insertion, CRBSI rates declined sharply. Case-control and regression analysis methods were used to estimate savings by comparing CRBSI rates in the year before and after the intervention. Annual savings from reduced CRBSIs were compared with the annual cost of simulation training. Approximately 9.95 CRBSIs were prevented among MICU patients with CVCs in the year after the intervention. Incremental costs attributed to each CRBSI were approximately $82,000 in 2008 dollars and 14 additional hospital days (including 12 MICU days). The annual cost of the simulation-based education was approximately $112,000. Net annual savings were thus greater than $700,000, a 7 to 1 rate of return on the simulation training intervention. A simulation-based educational intervention in CVC insertion was highly cost-effective. These results suggest that investment in simulation training can produce significant medical care cost savings.

  3. Retail clinic utilization associated with lower total cost of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Andrew; Dunham, Lisette; Snower, Kristen; Hu, Min; Matlin, Olga S; Shrank, William H; Choudhry, Niteesh K; Brennan, Troyen

    2013-04-01

    To better understand the impact of retail clinic use on a patient's annual total cost of care. A propensity score matched-pair, cohort design was used to analyze healthcare spending patterns among CVS Caremark employees in the year following a visit to a MinuteClinic, the retail clinics inside CVS pharmacies. De-identified medical and pharmacy claims for CVS Caremark employees and their dependents who received care at a retail clinic between June 1, 2009, and May 31, 2010, were matched to those of subjects who received care elsewhere. High-dimensional propensity score and greedy matching techniques were used to create a 1-to-1 matched cohort that was analyzed using generalized linear regression models. Individuals using a retail clinic had a lower total cost of care (-$262; 95% confidence interval, -$510 to -$31; P = .025) in the year following their clinic visit than individuals who received care in other settings. This savings was primarily due to lower medical expenses at physicians' offices ($77 savings, P = .008) and hospital inpatient care ($121 savings, P = .049). The 6022 retail clinic users also had 142 (12%) fewer emergency department visits (P = .01), though this was not related to significant cost savings. This study found that retail clinic use was associated with lower overall total cost of care compared with that at alternative sites. Savings may extend beyond the retail clinic visit itself to other types of medical utilization.

  4. Adaptive pacing, cognitive behaviour therapy, graded exercise, and specialist medical care for chronic fatigue syndrome: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul McCrone

    Full Text Available The PACE trial compared the effectiveness of adding adaptive pacing therapy (APT, cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT, or graded exercise therapy (GET, to specialist medical care (SMC for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. This paper reports the relative cost-effectiveness of these treatments in terms of quality adjusted life years (QALYs and improvements in fatigue and physical function.Resource use was measured and costs calculated. Healthcare and societal costs (healthcare plus lost production and unpaid informal care were combined with QALYs gained, and changes in fatigue and disability; incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs were computed.SMC patients had significantly lower healthcare costs than those receiving APT, CBT and GET. If society is willing to value a QALY at £30,000 there is a 62.7% likelihood that CBT is the most cost-effective therapy, a 26.8% likelihood that GET is most cost effective, 2.6% that APT is most cost-effective and 7.9% that SMC alone is most cost-effective. Compared to SMC alone, the incremental healthcare cost per QALY was £18,374 for CBT, £23,615 for GET and £55,235 for APT. From a societal perspective CBT has a 59.5% likelihood of being the most cost-effective, GET 34.8%, APT 0.2% and SMC alone 5.5%. CBT and GET dominated SMC, while APT had a cost per QALY of £127,047. ICERs using reductions in fatigue and disability as outcomes largely mirrored these findings.Comparing the four treatments using a health care perspective, CBT had the greatest probability of being the most cost-effective followed by GET. APT had a lower probability of being the most cost-effective option than SMC alone. The relative cost-effectiveness was even greater from a societal perspective as additional cost savings due to reduced need for informal care were likely.

  5. Cost of medication adherence and persistence in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy-Martin T

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tessa Kennedy-Martin,1 Kristina S Boye,2 Xiaomei Peng2 1Kennedy-Martin Health Outcomes Ltd, Brighton, UK; 2Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA Purpose: To explore published evidence on health care costs associated with adherence or persistence to antidiabetes medications in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.Methods: Primary research studies published between January 2006 and December 2015 on compliance, adherence, or persistence and treatment in patients with T2DM that document a link with health care costs were identified through literature searches in bibliographic databases and 2015 abstract books for relevant DM congresses. Results were assessed for relevance by two reviewers. The review was part of a larger overview evaluating the impact of adherence and persistence on a range of clinical and economic outcomes; only findings from the cost element are reported herein.Results: A total of 4,662 de-duplicated abstracts were identified and 110 studies included in the wider review. Of these, 19 reported an association between adherence (n=13, persistence (n=5, or adherence and persistence (n=1, and health care costs. All studies were retrospective, with sample sizes ranging from 301 to 740,195. Medication possession ratio was the most commonly employed adherence measure (n=11. The majority of adherence studies (n=9 reported that medication adherence was associated with lower total health care costs. Pharmacy costs were often increased in adherent patients but this was offset by beneficial effects on other costs. Findings were more variable in persistence studies; three reported that higher pharmacy costs in persistent patients were not sufficiently offset by savings in other areas to result in a reduction in total health care costs.Conclusions: Few studies have evaluated the relationship between adherence, persistence, and health care costs in T2DM. However, it has been consistently shown that medication

  6. The Effects of Quality of Care on Costs: A Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuckols, Teryl K; Escarce, José J; Asch, Steven M

    2013-01-01

    Context The quality of health care and the financial costs affected by receiving care represent two fundamental dimensions for judging health care performance. No existing conceptual framework appears to have described how quality influences costs. Methods We developed the Quality-Cost Framework, drawing from the work of Donabedian, the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method, reports by the Institute of Medicine, and other sources. Findings The Quality-Cost Framework describes how health-related quality of care (aspects of quality that influence health status) affects health care and other costs. Structure influences process, which, in turn, affects proximate and ultimate outcomes. Within structure, subdomains include general structural characteristics, circumstance-specific (e.g., disease-specific) structural characteristics, and quality-improvement systems. Process subdomains include appropriateness of care and medical errors. Proximate outcomes consist of disease progression, disease complications, and care complications. Each of the preceding subdomains influences health care costs. For example, quality improvement systems often create costs associated with monitoring and feedback. Providing appropriate care frequently requires additional physician visits and medications. Care complications may result in costly hospitalizations or procedures. Ultimate outcomes include functional status as well as length and quality of life; the economic value of these outcomes can be measured in terms of health utility or health-status-related costs. We illustrate our framework using examples related to glycemic control for type 2 diabetes mellitus or the appropriateness of care for low back pain. Conclusions The Quality-Cost Framework describes the mechanisms by which health-related quality of care affects health care and health status–related costs. Additional work will need to validate the framework by applying it to multiple clinical conditions. Applicability could be assessed

  7. Cost-benefit analysis of telehealth in pre-hospital care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langabeer, James R; Champagne-Langabeer, Tiffany; Alqusairi, Diaa; Kim, Junghyun; Jackson, Adria; Persse, David; Gonzalez, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Objective There has been very little use of telehealth in pre-hospital emergency medical services (EMS), yet the potential exists for this technology to transform the current delivery model. In this study, we explore the costs and benefits of one large telehealth EMS initiative. Methods Using a case-control study design and both micro- and gross-costing data from the Houston Fire Department EMS electronic patient care record system, we conducted a cost-benefit analysis (CBA) comparing costs with potential savings associated with patients treated through a telehealth-enabled intervention. The intervention consisted of telehealth-based consultation between the 911 patient and an EMS physician, to evaluate and triage the necessity for patient transport to a hospital emergency department (ED). Patients with non-urgent, primary care-related conditions were then scheduled and transported by alternative means to an affiliated primary care clinic. We measured CBA as both total cost savings and cost per ED visit averted, in US Dollars ($USD). Results In total, 5570 patients were treated over the first full 12 months with a telehealth-enabled care model. We found a 6.7% absolute reduction in potentially medically unnecessary ED visits, and a 44-minute reduction in total ambulance back-in-service times. The average cost for a telehealth patient was $167, which was a statistically significantly $103 less than the control group ( p cost savings from the societal perspective, or $2468 cost savings per ED visit averted (benefit). Conclusion Patient care enabled by telehealth in a pre-hospital environment, is a more cost effective alternative compared to the traditional EMS 'treat and transport to ED' model.

  8. Working on reform. How workers' compensation medical care is affected by health care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelstein, J; Rest, K

    1996-01-01

    The medical component of workers' compensation programs-now costing over $24 billion annually-and the rest of the nation's medical care system are linked. They share the same patients and providers. They provide similar benefits and services. And they struggle over who should pay for what. Clearly, health care reform and restructuring will have a major impact on the operation and expenditures of the workers' compensation system. For a brief period, during the 1994 national health care reform debate, these two systems were part of the same federal policy development and legislative process. With comprehensive health care reform no longer on the horizon, states now are tackling both workers' compensation and medical system reforms on their own. This paper reviews the major issues federal and state policy makers face as they consider reforms affecting the relationship between workers' compensation and traditional health insurance. What is the relationship of the workers' compensation cost crisis to that in general health care? What strategies are being considered by states involved in reforming the medical component of workers compensation? What are the major policy implications of these strategies?

  9. Understanding the cost of dermatologic care: A survey study of dermatology providers, residents, and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Aaron J; Mann, Julianne A; Carlberg, Valerie M; Kimball, Alexa B; Musty, Michael J; Simpson, Eric L

    2017-04-01

    The American Academy of Dermatology recommends dermatologists understand the costs of dermatologic care. This study sought to measure dermatology providers' understanding of the cost of dermatologic care and how those costs are communicated to patients. We also aimed to understand the perspectives of patients and dermatological trainees on how cost information enters into the care they receive or provide. Surveys were systematically developed and distributed to 3 study populations: dermatology providers, residents, and patients. Response rates were over 95% in all 3 populations. Dermatology providers and residents consistently underestimated the costs of commonly recommended dermatologic medications but accurately predicted the cost of common dermatologic procedures. Dermatology patients preferred to know the cost of procedures and medications, even when covered by insurance. In this population, the costs of dermatologic medications frequently interfered with patients' ability to properly adhere to prescribed regimens. The surveyed population was limited to the northwestern United States and findings may not be generalizable. Cost estimations were based on average reimbursement rates, which vary by insurer. Improving dermatology providers' awareness and communication of the costs of dermatologic care might enhance medical decision-making, improve adherence and outcomes, and potentially reduce overall health care expenditures. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Patient-oncologist cost communication, financial distress, and medication adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestvina, Christine M; Zullig, Leah L; Rushing, Christel; Chino, Fumiko; Samsa, Gregory P; Altomare, Ivy; Tulsky, James; Ubel, Peter; Schrag, Deborah; Nicolla, Jon; Abernethy, Amy P; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Zafar, S Yousuf

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about the association between patient-oncologist discussion of cancer treatment out-of-pocket (OOP) cost and medication adherence, a critical component of quality cancer care. We surveyed insured adults receiving anticancer therapy. Patients were asked if they had discussed OOP cost with their oncologist. Medication nonadherence was defined as skipping doses or taking less medication than prescribed to make prescriptions last longer, or not filling prescriptions because of cost. Multivariable analysis assessed the association between nonadherence and cost discussions. Among 300 respondents (86% response), 16% (n = 49) reported high or overwhelming financial distress. Nineteen percent (n = 56) reported talking to their oncologist about cost. Twenty-seven percent (n = 77) reported medication nonadherence. To make a prescription last longer, 14% (n = 42) skipped medication doses, and 11% (n = 33) took less medication than prescribed; 22% (n = 66) did not fill a prescription because of cost. Five percent (n = 14) reported chemotherapy nonadherence. To make a prescription last longer, 1% (n = 3) skipped chemotherapy doses, and 2% (n = 5) took less chemotherapy; 3% (n = 10) did not fill a chemotherapy prescription because of cost. In adjusted analyses, cost discussion (odds ratio [OR] = 2.58; 95% CI, 1.14 to 5.85; P = .02), financial distress (OR = 1.64, 95% CI, 1.38 to 1.96; P financial burden than expected (OR = 2.89; 95% CI, 1.41 to 5.89; P financial distress were associated with medication nonadherence, suggesting that cost discussions are important for patients forced to make cost-related behavior alterations. Future research should examine the timing, content, and quality of cost-discussions. Copyright © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  11. Health Care Costs, Utilization and Patterns of Care following Lyme Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrion, Emily R.; Aucott, John; Lemke, Klaus W.; Weiner, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lyme disease is the most frequently reported vector borne infection in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control have estimated that approximately 10% to 20% of individuals may experience Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome – a set of symptoms including fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, and neurocognitive complaints that persist after initial antibiotic treatment of Lyme disease. Little is known about the impact of Lyme disease or post-treatment Lyme disease symptoms (PTLDS) on health care costs and utilization in the United States. Objectives 1) to examine the impact of Lyme disease on health care costs and utilization, 2) to understand the relationship between Lyme disease and the probability of developing PTLDS, 3) to understand how PTLDS may impact health care costs and utilization. Methods This study utilizes retrospective data on medical claims and member enrollment for persons aged 0-64 years who were enrolled in commercial health insurance plans in the United States between 2006-2010. 52,795 individuals treated for Lyme disease were compared to 263,975 matched controls with no evidence of Lyme disease exposure. Results Lyme disease is associated with $2,968 higher total health care costs (95% CI: 2,807-3,128, pLyme disease, having one or more PTLDS-related diagnosis is associated with $3,798 higher total health care costs (95% CI: 3,542-4,055, pLyme disease is associated with increased costs above what would be expected for an easy to treat infection. The presence of PTLDS-related diagnoses after treatment is associated with significant health care costs and utilization. PMID:25650808

  12. The daily cost of ICU patients: A micro-costing study in 23 French Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrant, Jean-Yves; Garrigues, Bernard; Pribil, Céline; Bardoulat, Isabelle; Courtial, Frédéric; Maurel, Frédérique; Bazin, Jean-Étienne

    2015-06-01

    To estimate the daily cost of intensive care unit (ICU) stays via micro-costing. A multicentre, prospective, observational, cost analysis study was carried out among 21 out of 23 French ICUs randomly selected from French National Hospitals. Each ICU randomly enrolled 5 admitted adult patients with a simplified acute physiology II score ≥ 15 and with at least one major intensive care medical procedure. All health-care human resources used by each patient over a 24-hour period were recorded, as well as all medications, laboratory analyses, investigations, tests, consumables and administrative expenses. All resource costs were estimated from the hospital's perspective (reference year 2009) based on unitary cost data. One hundred and four patients were included (mean age: 62.3 ± 14.9 years, mean SAPS II: 51.5 ± 16.1, mean SOFA on the study day: 6.9 ± 4.3). Over 24 hours, 29 to 186 interventions per patient were performed by different caregivers, leading to a mean total time spent for patient care of 13:32 ± 05:00 h. The total daily cost per patient was € 1425 ± € 520 (95% CI = € 1323 to € 1526). ICU human resources represented 43% of total daily cost. Patient-dependent expenses (€ 842 ± € 521) represented 59% of the total daily cost. The total daily cost was correlated with the daily SOFA score (r = 0.271, P = 0.006) and the bedside-time given by caregivers (r = 0.716, P average cost of one day of ICU care in French National Hospitals is strongly correlated with the duration of bedside-care carried out by human resources. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. Cost Analysis of the STONE Randomized Trial: Can Health Care Costs be Reduced One Test at a Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikow, Joy; Xing, Guibo; Cox, Ginger; Leigh, Paul; Mills, Lisa; Miglioretti, Diana L; Moghadassi, Michelle; Smith-Bindman, Rebecca

    2016-04-01

    Decreasing the use of high-cost tests may reduce health care costs. To compare costs of care for patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with suspected kidney stones randomized to 1 of 3 initial imaging tests. Patients were randomized to point-of-care ultrasound (POC US, least costly), radiology ultrasound (RAD US), or computed tomography (CT, most costly). Subsequent testing and treatment were the choice of the treating physician. A total of 2759 patients at 15 EDs were randomized to POC US (n=908), RAD US, (n=893), or CT (n=958). Mean age was 40.4 years; 51.8% were male. All medical care documented in the trial database in the 7 days following enrollment was abstracted and coded to estimate costs using national average 2012 Medicare reimbursements. Costs for initial ED care and total 7-day costs were compared using nonparametric bootstrap to account for clustering of patients within medical centers. Initial ED visit costs were modestly lower for patients assigned to RAD US: $423 ($411, $434) compared with patients assigned to CT: $448 ($438, $459) (Pcosts were not significantly different between groups: $1014 ($912, $1129) for POC US, $970 ($878, $1078) for RAD US, and $959 ($870, $1044) for CT. Hospital admissions contributed over 50% of total costs, though only 11% of patients were admitted. Mean total costs (and admission rates) varied substantially by site from $749 to $1239. Assignment to a less costly test had no impact on overall health care costs for ED patients. System-level interventions addressing variation in admission rates from the ED might have greater impact on costs.

  14. Emerging trends in the outsourcing of medical and surgical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Jennifer B; McGrath, Mary H; Maa, John

    2011-01-01

    As total health care expenditures are expected to constitute an increasing portion of the US gross domestic product during the coming years, the US health care system is anticipating a historic spike in the need for care. Outsourcing medical and surgical care to other nations has expanded rapidly, and several ethical, legal, and financial considerations require careful evaluation. Ultimately, the balance between cost savings, quality, and patient satisfaction will be the key determinant in the future of medical outsourcing.

  15. Population Health and Tailored Medical Care in the Home: the Roles of Home-Based Primary Care and Home-Based Palliative Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Christine S; Leff, Bruce

    2018-03-01

    With the growth of value-based care, payers and health systems have begun to appreciate the need to provide enhanced services to homebound adults. Recent studies have shown that home-based medical services for this high-cost, high-need population reduce costs and improve outcomes. Home-based medical care services have two flavors that are related to historical context and specialty background-home-based primary care (HBPC) and home-based palliative care (HBPalC). Although the type of services provided by HBPC and HBPalC (together termed "home-based medical care") overlap, HBPC tends to encompass longitudinal and preventive care, while HBPalC often provides services for shorter durations focused more on distress management and goals of care clarification. Given workforce constraints and growing demand, both HBPC and HBPalC will benefit from working together within a population health framework-where HBPC provides care to all patients who have trouble accessing traditional office practices and where HBPalC offers adjunctive care to patients with high symptom burden and those who need assistance with goals clarification. Policy changes that support provision of medical care in the home, population health strategies that tailor home-based medical care to the specific needs of the patients and their caregivers, and educational initiatives to assure basic palliative care competence for all home-based medical providers will improve access and reduce illness burden to this important and underrecognized population. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A randomized controlled trial on teaching geriatric medical decision making and cost consciousness with the serious game GeriatriX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagro, Joep; van de Pol, Marjolein H J; Laan, Annalies; Huijbregts-Verheyden, Fanny J; Fluit, Lia C R; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M

    2014-12-01

    Medical students often lack training in complex geriatric medical decision making. We therefore developed the serious game, GeriatriX, for training medical decision making with weighing patient preferences, and appropriateness and costs of medical care. We hypothesized that education with GeriatriX would improve the ability to deal with geriatric decision making and also increase cost consciousness. A randomized, controlled pre-post measurement design. Fifth-year medical students. Playing the serious game GeriatriX as an additive to usual geriatric education. We evaluated the effects of playing GeriatriX on self-perceived knowledge of geriatric themes and the self-perceived competence of weighing patient preferences, appropriateness, and costs of medical care in geriatric decision making. Cost consciousness was evaluated with a postmeasurement to estimate costs of different diagnostic tests. There was a large positive increase in the self-perceived competence of weighing patient preferences, appropriateness, and costs of medical care in the intervention group (n = 71) (effect sizes of 0.7, 1.0, and 1.2, respectively), which was significantly better for the last 2 aspects than in the control group (n = 63). The intervention group performed better on cost consciousness. Although the self-perceived knowledge increased substantially on some geriatric topics, this improvement was not different between the intervention and control groups. After playing the serious game, GeriatriX, medical students have a higher self-perceived competence in weighing patient preferences, appropriateness, and costs of medical care in complex geriatric medical decision making. Playing GeriatriX also resulted in better cost consciousness. We therefore encourage wider use of GeriatriX to teach geriatrics in medical curricula and its further research on educational and health care outcomes. Copyright © 2014 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier

  17. COMPARISON OF MEDICAL COSTS AND CARE OF APPENDECTOMY PATIENTS BETWEEN FEE-FOR-SERVICE AND SET FEE FOR DIAGNOSIS-RELATED GROUP SYSTEMS IN 20 CHINESE HOSPITALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin-hua; He, Guo-ping; Liu, Jing-wei

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the fee-for-service and set fee for diagnosis-related group systems with regard to quality of medical care and cost to appendectomy patients. We conducted a retrospective study of 208 inpatients (from 20 hospitals) who undergone appendectomy in Changsha, China during 2013. Data were obtained from databases of medical insurance information systems directly connected to the hospital information systems. We collected and compared patient ages, length of study, and total medical costs for impatient appendectomies between patients using fee-for-service and set fee for diagnosisrelated group systems. One hundred thirty-three patients used the fee for service system and 75 used the set fee diagnosis related group system. For those using the diagnosis-related group system, the mean length of hospitalization (6.2 days) and mean number of prescribed antimicrobials (2.4) per patient were significantly lower than those of the patients who used the fee-for-service system (7.3 days and 3.0, respectively; p = 0.018; p < 0.05) and were accompanied by lower medical costs and cost of antimicrobials (RMB 2,518 versus RMB 4,484 and RMB476 versus RMB1,108, respectively; p = 0.000, p = 0.000). There were no significant differences in post-surgical complications between the two systems. The diagnosis-related group system had significantly medical costs for appendectomy compared to the fee-for-service system, without sacrificing quality of medical care.

  18. Measuring the cost of care in benign prostatic hyperplasia using time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, A L; Agarwal, N; Setlur, N P; Tan, H J; Niedzwiecki, D; McLaughlin, N; Burke, M A; Steinberg, K; Chamie, K; Saigal, C S

    2015-03-01

    Determining '"value'" in health care, defined as outcomes per unit cost, depends on accurately measuring cost. We used time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) to determine the cost of care in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) - a common urologic condition. We implemented TDABC across the entire care pathway for BPH including primary and specialist care in both inpatient and outpatient settings. A team of expert stakeholders created detailed process maps, determined space and product costs, and calculated personnel capacity cost rates. A model pathway was derived from practice guidelines and calculated costs were applied. Although listed as 'optional' in practice guidelines, invasive diagnostic testing can increase costs by 150% compared with the standalone urology clinic visit. Of five different surgical options, a 400% cost discrepancy exists between the most and least expensive treatments. TDABC can be used to measure cost across an entire care pathway in a large academic medical center. Sizable cost variation exists between diagnostic and surgical modalities for men with BPH. As financial risk is shifted toward providers, understanding the cost of care will be vital. Future work is needed to determine outcome discrepancy between the diagnostic and surgical modalities in BPH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of health information technology on the costs and quality of medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Leila

    2014-03-01

    Information technology has been linked to productivity growth in a wide variety of sectors, and health information technology (HIT) is a leading example of an innovation with the potential to transform industry-wide productivity. This paper analyzes the impact of health information technology (HIT) on the quality and intensity of medical care. Using Medicare claims data from 1998 to 2005, I estimate the effects of early investment in HIT by exploiting variation in hospitals' adoption statuses over time, analyzing 2.5 million inpatient admissions across 3900 hospitals. HIT is associated with a 1.3% increase in billed charges (p-value: 5.6%), and there is no evidence of cost savings even five years after adoption. Additionally, HIT adoption appears to have little impact on the quality of care, measured by patient mortality, adverse drug events, and readmission rates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Annual Direct Medical Costs of Diabetic Foot Disease in Brazil: A Cost of Illness Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana M. Toscano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the annual costs for the treatment of diabetic foot disease (DFD in Brazil. We conducted a cost-of-illness study of DFD in 2014, while considering the Brazilian Public Healthcare System (SUS perspective. Direct medical costs of outpatient management and inpatient care were considered. For outpatient costs, a panel of experts was convened from which utilization of healthcare services for the management of DFD was obtained. When considering the range of syndromes included in the DFD spectrum, we developed four well-defined hypothetical DFD cases: (1 peripheral neuropathy without ulcer, (2 non-infected foot ulcer, (3 infected foot ulcer, and (4 clinical management of amputated patients. Quantities of each healthcare service was then multiplied by their respective unit costs obtained from national price listings. We then developed a decision analytic tree to estimate nationwide costs of DFD in Brazil, while taking into the account the estimated cost per case and considering epidemiologic parameters obtained from a national survey, secondary data, and the literature. For inpatient care, ICD10 codes related to DFD were identified and costs of hospitalizations due to osteomyelitis, amputations, and other selected DFD related conditions were obtained from a nationwide hospitalization database. Direct medical costs of DFD in Brazil was estimated considering the 2014 purchasing power parity (PPP (1 Int$ = 1.748 BRL. We estimated that the annual direct medical costs of DFD in 2014 was Int$ 361 million, which denotes 0.31% of public health expenses for this period. Of the total, Int$ 27.7 million (13% was for inpatient, and Int$ 333.5 million (87% for outpatient care. Despite using different methodologies to estimate outpatient and inpatient costs related to DFD, this is the first study to assess the overall economic burden of DFD in Brazil, while considering all of its syndromes and both outpatients and inpatients

  1. Annual Direct Medical Costs of Diabetic Foot Disease in Brazil: A Cost of Illness Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Cristiana M; Sugita, Tatiana H; Rosa, Michelle Q M; Pedrosa, Hermelinda C; Rosa, Roger Dos S; Bahia, Luciana R

    2018-01-08

    The aim of this study was to estimate the annual costs for the treatment of diabetic foot disease (DFD) in Brazil. We conducted a cost-of-illness study of DFD in 2014, while considering the Brazilian Public Healthcare System (SUS) perspective. Direct medical costs of outpatient management and inpatient care were considered. For outpatient costs, a panel of experts was convened from which utilization of healthcare services for the management of DFD was obtained. When considering the range of syndromes included in the DFD spectrum, we developed four well-defined hypothetical DFD cases: (1) peripheral neuropathy without ulcer, (2) non-infected foot ulcer, (3) infected foot ulcer, and (4) clinical management of amputated patients. Quantities of each healthcare service was then multiplied by their respective unit costs obtained from national price listings. We then developed a decision analytic tree to estimate nationwide costs of DFD in Brazil, while taking into the account the estimated cost per case and considering epidemiologic parameters obtained from a national survey, secondary data, and the literature. For inpatient care, ICD10 codes related to DFD were identified and costs of hospitalizations due to osteomyelitis, amputations, and other selected DFD related conditions were obtained from a nationwide hospitalization database. Direct medical costs of DFD in Brazil was estimated considering the 2014 purchasing power parity (PPP) (1 Int$ = 1.748 BRL). We estimated that the annual direct medical costs of DFD in 2014 was Int$ 361 million, which denotes 0.31% of public health expenses for this period. Of the total, Int$ 27.7 million (13%) was for inpatient, and Int$ 333.5 million (87%) for outpatient care. Despite using different methodologies to estimate outpatient and inpatient costs related to DFD, this is the first study to assess the overall economic burden of DFD in Brazil, while considering all of its syndromes and both outpatients and inpatients. Although we

  2. Financial costs and patients' perceptions of medical tourism in bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, David H; Sheppard, Caroline E; de Gara, Christopher J; Karmali, Shahzeer; Birch, Daniel W

    2016-02-01

    Many Canadians pursue surgical treatment for severe obesity outside of their province or country - so-called "medical tourism." We have managed many complications related to this evolving phenomenon. The costs associated with this care seem substantial but have not been previously quantified. We surveyed Alberta general surgeons and postoperative medical tourists to estimate costs of treating complications related to medical tourism in bariatric surgery and to understand patients' motivations for pursuing medical tourism. Our analysis suggests more than $560 000 was spent treating 59 bariatric medical tourists by 25 surgeons between 2012 and 2013. Responses from medical tourists suggest that they believe their surgeries were successful despite some having postoperative complications and lacking support from medical or surgical teams. We believe that the financial cost of treating complications related to medical tourism in Alberta is substantial and impacts existing limited resources.

  3. The Future Train Wreck: Paying for Medical Costs for Higher Education's Retirees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, John H.

    2006-01-01

    Trustees and administrators today confront one of two problems with post-retirement medical care. First, if institutions provide no support for their retirees' medical care, they implicitly offer a powerful incentive for senior faculty to stay on. The compensation and opportunity costs of this effect are obviously very high. But, second, if they…

  4. Medical costs of cancer attributable to work in the Basque Country (Spain) in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Gómez, Montserrat; Castañeda López, Rosario; Urbanos Garrido, Rosa; López Menduiña, Patricia; Markowitz, Steven

    2013-01-01

    [corrected] Underreporting of work-related cancer in the Basque Country (Spain) is massive. The aim of our study is to estimate the job-related cancer in the Basque Country in 2008 treated by the Basque Public Health System-Osakidetza, as well as the medical costs derived from its treatment in the same year. Scientific evidence from industrialised countries is used to estimate the number of processes of cancer attributable to work. Medical costs for specialised care (outpatient and hospital admissions) are derived from the National Health System cost accounts. Costs due to primary health care and pharmaceutical benefits are obtained from Spanish secondary sources. Figures were computed according to disease and sex. We estimate 1,331 work-attributable cancers hospitalizations and 229 work-attributable cancers specialized ambulatory cases. Medical costs borne by public health care system exceed 10 million euros. Specialized care accounts for 64.2% of the total cost. Bronchus and lung cancer represents the largest percentage of total expenditure (27%), followed by the bladder cancer (12.6%), mesothelioma (8.6%), the colon cancer (7.3%), and stomach (6.7%). The magnitude of cancer attributable to work in the Basque Country is much higher than reflected in the official Registry of Occupational Diseases. Underreporting of work-related cancers hampers prevention and shifts funding of medical costs from social security to the tax-financed public health system. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Cost-benefit analysis of electronic medical record system at a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong Soo; Lee, Woo Baik; Rhee, Poong-Lyul

    2013-09-01

    Although Electronic Medical Record (EMR) systems provide various benefits, there are both advantages and disadvantages regarding its cost-effectiveness. This study analyzed the economic effects of EMR systems using a cost-benefit analysis based on the differential costs of managerial accounting. Samsung Medical Center (SMC) is a general hospital in Korea that developed an EMR system for outpatients from 2006 to 2008. This study measured the total costs and benefits during an 8-year period after EMR adoption. The costs include the system costs of building the EMR and the costs incurred in smoothing its adoption. The benefits included cost reductions after its adoption and additional revenues from both remodeling of paper-chart storage areas and medical transcriptionists' contribution. The measured amounts were discounted by SMC's expected interest rate to calculate the net present value (NPV), benefit-cost ratio (BCR), and discounted payback period (DPP). During the analysis period, the cumulative NPV and the BCR were US$3,617 thousand and 1.23, respectively. The DPP was about 6.18 years. Although the adoption of an EMR resulted in overall growth in administrative costs, it is cost-effective since the cumulative NPV was positive. The positive NPV was attributed to both cost reductions and additional revenues. EMR adoption is not so attractive to management in that the DPP is longer than 5 years at 6.18 and the BCR is near 1 at 1.23. However, an EMR is a worthwhile investment, seeing that this study did not include any qualitative benefits and that the paper-chart system was cost-centric.

  6. Costs of terminal patients who receive palliative care or usual care in different hospital wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Steven; Kutten, Betty; Keirse, Emmanuel; Berghe, Paul Vanden; Beguin, Claire; Desmedt, Marianne; Deveugele, Myriam; Léonard, Christian; Paulus, Dominique; Menten, Johan

    2010-11-01

    In addition to the effectiveness of hospital care models for terminal patients, policy makers and health care payers are concerned about their costs. This study aims to measure the hospital costs of treating terminal patients in Belgium from the health care payer perspective. Also, this study compares the costs of palliative and usual care in different types of hospital wards. A multicenter, retrospective cohort study compared costs of palliative care with usual care in acute hospital wards and with care in palliative care units. The study enrolled terminal patients from a representative sample of hospitals. Health care costs included fixed hospital costs and charges relating to medical fees, pharmacy and other charges. Data sources consisted of hospital accountancy data and invoice data. Six hospitals participated in the study, generating a total of 146 patients. The findings showed that palliative care in a palliative care unit was more expensive than palliative care in an acute ward due to higher staffing levels in palliative care units. Palliative care in an acute ward is cheaper than usual care in an acute ward. This study suggests that palliative care models in acute wards need to be supported because such care models appear to be less expensive than usual care and because such care models are likely to better reflect the needs of terminal patients. This finding emphasizes the importance of the timely recognition of the need for palliative care in terminal patients treated in acute wards.

  7. Identifying potentially cost effective chronic care programs for people with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L M G Steuten

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available L M G Steuten1, K M M Lemmens2, A P Nieboer2, H JM Vrijhoef31Maastricht University Medical Centre, School for Care and Public Health Research, Department of Health, Organisation, Policy and Economics, Maastricht, The Netherlands; 2Erasmus University Medical Centre, Institute of Health Policy and Management, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 3Maastricht University Medical Centre, School for Care and Public Health Research, Department of Integrated Care, Maastricht, The NetherlandsObjective: To review published evidence regarding the cost effectiveness of multi-component COPD programs and to illustrate how potentially cost effective programs can be identified.Methods: Systematic search of Medline and Cochrane databases for evaluations of multi-component disease management or chronic care programs for adults with COPD, describing process, intermediate, and end results of care. Data were independently extracted by two reviewers and descriptively summarized.Results: Twenty articles describing 17 unique COPD programs were included. There is little evidence for significant improvements in process and intermediate outcomes, except for increased provision of patient self-management education and improved disease-specific knowledge. Overall, the COPD programs generate end results equivalent to usual care, but programs containing ≥3 components show lower relative risks for hospitalization. There is limited scope for programs to break-even or save money.Conclusion: Identifying cost effective multi-component COPD programs remains a challenge due to scarce methodologically sound studies that demonstrate significant improvements on process, intermediate and end results of care. Estimations of potential cost effectiveness of specific programs illustrated in this paper can, in the absence of ‘perfect data’, support timely decision-making regarding these programs. Nevertheless, well-designed health economic studies are needed to decrease the current decision

  8. Implementation of Patient-Centered Medical Homes in Adult Primary Care Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jeffrey A; Markovitz, Amanda R; Paustian, Michael L; Wise, Christopher G; El Reda, Darline K; Green, Lee A; Fetters, Michael D

    2015-08-01

    There has been relatively little empirical evidence about the effects of patient-centered medical home (PCMH) implementation on patient-related outcomes and costs. Using a longitudinal design and a large study group of 2,218 Michigan adult primary care practices, our study examined the following research questions: Is the level of, and change in, implementation of PCMH associated with medical surgical cost, preventive services utilization, and quality of care in the following year? Results indicated that both level and amount of change in practice implementation of PCMH are independently and positively associated with measures of quality of care and use of preventive services, after controlling for a variety of practice, patient cohort, and practice environmental characteristics. Results also indicate that lower overall medical and surgical costs are associated with higher levels of PCMH implementation, although change in PCMH implementation did not achieve statistical significance. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Assessment of direct causes and costs of medical admissions in Bingham University Teaching Hospital – Jos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter U Bassi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available >Background: As health-care costs continue to rise and the population ages, an individual Nigerian continues to experience financial hardship in settling medical bills, especially when health insurance schemes are still far from reality for most Nigerians, making health-care financing burdensome in Nigeria like many developing countries. This has made out-of-pocket expenditure the most common form of health-care financing.Aims: This study assessed the average costs, duration, and causes of inpatient admission so as to know the direct costs associated with medical care for proper health-care planning.Settings and Design: This was a pilot study of a prospective cohort design whereby all patients were admitted to medical wards during the study period.Materials and Methods: Cost analysis was performed from the societal perspective, but included only direct medical care cost for this analysis. Patients input charts and pharmacy dispensing charts of all patients admitted to medical wards between May and July 2015 were reviewed. All costs were in local currency (Naira using the average exchange rates proposed by Central Bank of Nigeria for June 2015.Statistical sAnalysis Used: Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 20.Results: A total of 293 out of 320 patients met inclusion criteria and were assessed. Female patients admitted during the study period had an overall higher mean cost of care ₦84, 303.94 ± 6860.56 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 68,991.65–96,103.27 compared to male patients ₦68, 601.59 ± 57,178.37 (95% CI: 59,081.51–78,121.67 (P < 0.102. Civil servants had higher mean overall costs of care ₦90, 961.70 ± 105,175.62 (95% CI: 65,883.46–116,039.94 (P < 0.203.Conclusions: The higher prevalence of female patients with higher mean cost of inpatient care in this study suggests that Jos females may be more health conscious than their male counterparts. Overall mean cost of inpatient care stay was not proportional to

  10. Tax-Assisted Approaches for Helping Canadians Meet Out-of-Pocket Health-Care Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Herbert Emery

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Canadians are not saving for the inevitable costs of drugs and long-term care which they will have to pay for out of pocket in their old age, and these costs could potentially be financially devastating for them. Later in life, when out-of-pocket health-care costs mount, those who previously enjoyed the security of a workplace insurance plan to cover such expenses will face a grim financial reality. Many aspects of care for older Canadians aren’t covered by this country’s single-payer health-care system. Besides prescription drugs, these include management of chronic conditions by ancillary health professionals, home care, long-term care, and dental and vision care. Statistics show that in 2012, Canadians’ private spending on health care totaled $60 billion, with private health insurance covering $24.5 billion of that amount. Coverage of health-care costs that don’t fall under Medicare’s purview is at present rather piecemeal. The non-refundable federal Medical Expense Tax Credit covers expenses only after the three-per-cent minimum, or first $2,171, of out-of-pocket costs have been paid by the individual. The Disability Tax Credit is available to those with a certified chronic disability, and these individuals are eligible for further support via the Registered Disability Savings Plan. A Caregiver Tax Credit is also available. The federal government has a golden opportunity to provide an incentive for Canadians to set aside money to pay not only for the often catastrophic medical and drug costs that can come with aging, but also to save so they can afford long-term care, or purchase private health insurance. Too many Canadians, unfortunately, believe that the federal government picks up the tab for long-term care. In fact, provincial subsidies are provided on a means-testing basis, thus leaving many better-off Canadians in the lurch when they can no longer live alone and must make the transition to long-term care. Providing more

  11. Value-based insurance design: consumers' views on paying more for high-cost, low-value care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Marjorie

    2010-11-01

    Value-based insurance designs frequently lower consumers' cost sharing to motivate healthy behavior, such as adhering to medication regimens. Few health care purchasers have followed the more controversial approach of using increased cost sharing to temper demand for high-cost, low-value medical care. Yet there is evidence that when health care's affordability is at stake, the public may be willing to compromise on coverage of certain medical problems and less effective treatments. Businesses should engage employees in discussions about if and how this type of value-based insurance design should apply to their own insurance coverage. A similar process could also be used for Medicare and other public-sector programs.

  12. Effects of primary care team social networks on quality of care and costs for patients with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Marlon P; Gilchrist, Valerie J; Fleming, Michael F; Zakletskaia, Larissa I; Tuan, Wen-Jan; Beasley, John W

    2015-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the United States. Primary care teams can be best suited to improve quality of care and lower costs for patients with cardiovascular disease. This study evaluates the associations between primary care team communication, interaction, and coordination (ie, social networks); quality of care; and costs for patients with cardiovascular disease. Using a sociometric survey, 155 health professionals from 31 teams at 6 primary care clinics identified with whom they interact daily about patient care. Social network analysis calculated variables of density and centralization representing team interaction structures. Three-level hierarchical modeling evaluated the link between team network density, centralization, and number of patients with a diagnosis of cardiovascular disease for controlled blood pressure and cholesterol, counts of urgent care visits, emergency department visits, hospital days, and medical care costs in the previous 12 months. Teams with dense interactions among all team members were associated with fewer hospital days (rate ratio [RR] = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.50-0.77) and lower medical care costs (-$556; 95% CI, -$781 to -$331) for patients with cardiovascular disease. Conversely, teams with interactions revolving around a few central individuals were associated with increased hospital days (RR = 1.45; 95% CI, 1.09-1.94) and greater costs ($506; 95% CI, $202-$810). Team-shared vision about goals and expectations mediated the relationship between social network structures and patient quality of care outcomes. Primary care teams that are more interconnected and less centralized and that have a shared team vision are better positioned to deliver high-quality cardiovascular disease care at a lower cost. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  13. Examining the Influence of Cost Concern and Awareness of Low-cost Health Care on Cancer Screening among the Medically Underserved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Alicia L; Strane, Alcha; Christie, Omari; Bynum, Shalanda; Wiltshire, Jaqueline

    2017-01-01

    African Americans suffer a greater burden of mortality from breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers than other groups in the United States. Early detection through timely screening can improve survival outcomes; however, cost is frequently reported as a barrier to screening. Federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) provide preventive and primary care to underserved populations regardless of ability to pay, positioning them to improve cancer screening rates. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of concern about health care cost (cost concern) and awareness of low-cost health care (awareness) on cancer screening among 236 African Americans within an FQHC service area using self-report surveys. Multiple logistic regression indicated that awareness was positively associated with cervical and colorectal cancer screening, while cost concern was negatively associated with mammography screening. Results indicate that improving awareness and understanding of low-cost health care could increase cancer screening among underserved African Americans.

  14. Health care costs: saving in the private sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeson, F E

    1979-01-01

    Robeson offers a number of options to employers to help reduce the impact of increasing health care costs. He points out that large organizations which employ hundreds of people have considerable market power which can be exerted to contain costs. It is suggested that the risk management departments assume the responsibility for managing the effort to reduce the costs of medical care and of the health insurance programs of these organizations since that staff is experienced at evaluating premiums and negotiating with third-party payors. The article examines a number of short-run strategies for firms to pursue to contain health care costs: (1) use alternative delivery systems such as health maintenance organizations (HMOs) which have cost-cutting potential but require marketing efforts to persuade employees of their desirability; (2) contracts with third-party payors which require a second opinion (peer review), a practice which saved one labor union over $2 million from 1972 to 1976; (3) implementation of insurance coverage for less expensive outpatient care; and (4) the use of claims review. These strategies are compared in terms of four criteria: supply of demand for health services; management effort; cost; and time necessary for realized savings. Robeson concludes that development of a management plan for containing health care costs requires an extensive analysis of alternatives, organizational objectives, existing policies, and resources, and offers a table summarizing the cost-containment strategies that a firm should consider.

  15. Cost assessment of a new oral care program in the intensive care unit to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ory, Jérôme; Mourgues, Charline; Raybaud, Evelyne; Chabanne, Russell; Jourdy, Jean Christophe; Belard, Fabien; Guérin, Renaud; Cosserant, Bernard; Faure, Jean Sébastien; Calvet, Laure; Pereira, Bruno; Guelon, Dominique; Traore, Ousmane; Gerbaud, Laurent

    2018-06-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most frequent hospital-acquired infections in intensive care units (ICU). In the bundle of care to prevent the VAP, the oral care is very important strategies, to decrease the oropharyngeal bacterial colonization and presence of causative bacteria of VAP. In view of the paucity of medical economics studies, our objective was to determine the cost of implementing this oral care program for preventing VAP. In five ICUs, during period 1, caregivers used a foam stick for oral care and, during period 2, a stick and tooth brushing with aspiration. Budgetary effect of the new program from the hospital's point of view was analyzed for both periods. The costs avoided were calculated from the incidence density of VAP (cases per 1000 days of intubation). The cost study included device cost, benefit lost, and ICU cost (medication, employer and employee contributions, blood sample analysis…). A total of 2030 intubated patients admitted to the ICUs benefited from oral care. The cost of implementing the study protocol was estimated to be €11,500 per year. VAP rates decreased significantly between the two periods (p1 = 12.8% and p2 = 8.5%, p = 0.002). The VAP revenue was ranged from €28,000 to €45,000 and the average cost from €39,906 to €42,332. The total cost assessment calculated was thus around €1.9 million in favor of the new oral care program. Our study showed that the implementation of a simple strategy improved the quality of patient care is economically viable. NCT02400294.

  16. Stoicism, the physician, and care of medical outliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadimos Thomas J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical outliers present a medical, psychological, social, and economic challenge to the physicians who care for them. The determinism of Stoic thought is explored as an intellectual basis for the pursuit of a correct mental attitude that will provide aid and comfort to physicians who care for medical outliers, thus fostering continued physician engagement in their care. Discussion The Stoic topics of good, the preferable, the morally indifferent, living consistently, and appropriate actions are reviewed. Furthermore, Zeno's cardinal virtues of Justice, Temperance, Bravery, and Wisdom are addressed, as are the Stoic passions of fear, lust, mental pain, and mental pleasure. These concepts must be understood by physicians if they are to comprehend and accept the Stoic view as it relates to having the proper attitude when caring for those with long-term and/or costly illnesses. Summary Practicing physicians, especially those that are hospital based, and most assuredly those practicing critical care medicine, will be emotionally challenged by the medical outlier. A Stoic approach to such a social and psychological burden may be of benefit.

  17. Association between medication supplies and healthcare costs in older adults from an urban healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroupe, K T; Murray, M D; Stump, T E; Callahan, C M

    2000-07-01

    The amount of medication dispensed to older adults for the treatment of chronic disease must be balanced carefully. Insufficient medication supplies lead to inadequate treatment of chronic disease, whereas excessive supplies represent wasted resources and the potential for toxicity. We used an electronic medical record system to determine the distribution of medications supplied to older urban adults and to examine the correlations of these distributions with healthcare costs and use. A cross-sectional study using data acquired over 3 years (1994-1996). A tax-supported urban public healthcare system consisting of a 300-bed hospital, an emergency department, and a network of community-based ambulatory care centers. Patients were >60 years of age and had at least one prescription refill and at least two ambulatory visits or one hospitalization during the 3-year period. Focusing on 12 major categories of drugs used to treat chronic diseases, we determined the amounts and direct costs of these medications dispensed to older adult patients. Amounts of medications that were needed by patients to medicate themselves adequately were compared with the medication supply actually dispensed considering all sources of care (primary, emergency, and inpatient). We calculated the excess drug costs attributable to oversupply of medication (>120% of the amount needed) and the drug cost reduction caused by undersupply of medication (120% of the supply needed. The total direct cost of targeted medications for 3 years was $1.96 million or, on average, $654,000 annually. During the 3-year period, patients receiving >120% of their needed medications had excess direct medication costs of $279,084 or $144 per patient, whereas patients receiving <80% of drugs needed had reduced medication costs of $423,438 or $634 per patient. Multivariable analyses revealed that both under- and over-supplies of medication were associated with a greater likelihood of emergency department visits and hospital

  18. How to solve the cost crisis in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert S; Porter, Michael E

    2011-09-01

    U.S. health care costs currently exceed 17% of GDP and continue to rise. One fundamental reason that providers are unable to reverse the trend is that they don't understand what it costs to deliver patient care or how those costs compare with outcomes. To put it bluntly, few health care providers measure the actual costs for treating a given patient with a given medical condition over a full cycle of care, or compare the costs they incur with the outcomes they achieve. What isn't measured cannot be managed or improved, and this is all too true in health care, where poor costing systems mean that effective and efficient providers go unrewarded, and inefficient ones have little incentive to improve. But all this can be remedied by exploring the concept of value in health care and carefully measuring costs. This article describes a new way to analyze costs that uses patients and their conditions--not organizational units or narrow diagnostic treatment groups--as the fundamental unit of analysis for measuring costs and outcomes. The new approach, called time-driven activity-cased costing, is currently being implemented in pilots at the Head and Neck Center at MD Anderson, the Cleft Lip and Palate Program at Children's Hospital in Boston, and units performing knee replacements at Schön Klinik in Germany and Brigham & Women's Hospital in Boston. As providers and payors better understand costs, they will be positioned to achieve a true "bending of the cost curve" from within the system, not in response to top-down mandates. Accurate costing also unlocks a whole cascade of opportunities, such as process improvement, better organization of care, and new reimbursement approaches that will accelerate the pace of innovation and value creation.

  19. Self-reported Function, Health Resource Use, and Total Health Care Costs Among Medicare Beneficiaries With Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, Alisa J; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Cioffi, George A; Blumberg, Dana M

    2016-04-01

    The effect of glaucoma on nonglaucomatous medical conditions and resultant secondary health care costs is not well understood. To assess self-reported medical conditions, the use of medical services, and total health care costs among Medicare beneficiaries with glaucoma. Longitudinal observational study of 72,587 Medicare beneficiaries in the general community using the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (2004-2009). Coding to extract data started in January 2015, and analyses were performed between May and July 2015. Self-reported health, the use of health care services, adjusted mean annual total health care costs per person, and adjusted mean annual nonoutpatient costs per person. Participants were 72,587 Medicare beneficiaries 65 years or older with (n = 4441) and without (n = 68,146) a glaucoma diagnosis in the year before collection of survey data. Their mean age was 76.9 years, and 43.2% were male. Patients with glaucoma who responded to survey questions on visual disability were stratified into those with (n = 1748) and without (n = 2639) self-reported visual disability. Medicare beneficiaries with glaucoma had higher adjusted odds of inpatient hospitalizations (odds ratio [OR], 1.27; 95% CI, 1.17-1.39; P total health care costs and $2599 (95% CI, $1985-$3212; P total and nonoutpatient medical costs. Perception of vision loss among patients with glaucoma may be associated with depression, falls, and difficulty walking. Reducing the prevalence and severity of glaucoma may result in improvements in associated nonglaucomatous medical conditions and resultant reduction in health care costs.

  20. Direct medical cost of overweight and obesity in the United States: a quantitative systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Adam Gilden; Williamson, David F.; Glick, Henry A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To estimate per-person and aggregate direct medical costs of overweight and obesity and to examine the effect of study design factors. Methods PubMed (1968–2009), EconLit (1969–2009), and Business Source Premier (1995–2009) were searched for original studies. Results were standardized to compute the incremental cost per overweight person and per obese person, and to compute the national aggregate cost. Results A total of 33 U.S. studies met review criteria. Among the 4 highest quality studies, the 2008 per-person direct medical cost of overweight was $266 and of obesity was $1723. The aggregate national cost of overweight and obesity combined was $113.9 billion. Study design factors that affected cost estimate included: use of national samples versus more selected populations; age groups examined; inclusion of all medical costs versus obesity-related costs only; and BMI cutoffs for defining overweight and obesity. Conclusions Depending on the source of total national health care expenditures used, the direct medical cost of overweight and obesity combined is approximately 5.0% to 10% of U.S. health care spending. Future studies should include nationally representative samples, evaluate adults of all ages, report all medical costs, and use standard BMI cutoffs. PMID:20059703

  1. Modelling the cost effectiveness of antidepressant treatment in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revicki, D A; Brown, R E; Palmer, W; Bakish, D; Rosser, W W; Anton, S F; Feeny, D

    1995-12-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the cost effectiveness of nefazodone compared with imipramine or fluoxetine in treating women with major depressive disorder. Clinical decision analysis and a Markov state-transition model were used to estimate the lifetime health outcomes and medical costs of 3 antidepressant treatments. The model, which represents ideal primary care practice, compares treatment with nefazodone to treatment with either imipramine or fluoxetine. The economic analysis was based on the healthcare system of the Canadian province of Ontario, and considered only direct medical costs. Health outcomes were expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and costs were in 1993 Canadian dollars ($Can; $Can1 = $US0.75, September 1995). Incremental cost-utility ratios were calculated comparing the relative lifetime discounted medical costs and QALYs associated with nefazodone with those of imipramine or fluoxetine. Data for constructing the model and estimating necessary parameters were derived from the medical literature, clinical trial data, and physician judgement. Data included information on: Ontario primary care physicians' clinical management of major depression; medical resource use and costs; probabilities of recurrence of depression; suicide rates; compliance rates; and health utilities. Estimates of utilities for depression-related hypothetical health states were obtained from patients with major depression (n = 70). Medical costs and QALYs were discounted to present value using a 5% rate. Sensitivity analyses tested the assumptions of the model by varying the discount rate, depression recurrence rates, compliance rates, and the duration of the model. The base case analysis found that nefazodone treatment costs $Can1447 less per patient than imipramine treatment (discounted lifetime medical costs were $Can50,664 vs $Can52,111) and increases the number of QALYs by 0.72 (13.90 vs 13.18). Nefazodone treatment costs $Can14 less than fluoxetine

  2. Costs and cost-effectiveness of periviable care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughey, Aaron B; Burchfield, David J

    2014-02-01

    With increasing concerns regarding rapidly expanding healthcare costs, cost-effectiveness analysis allows assessment of whether marginal gains from new technology are worth the increased costs. Particular methodologic issues related to cost and cost-effectiveness analysis in the area of neonatal and periviable care include how costs are estimated, such as the use of charges and whether long-term costs are included; the challenges of measuring utilities; and whether to use a maternal, neonatal, or dual perspective in such analyses. A number of studies over the past three decades have examined the costs and the cost-effectiveness of neonatal and periviable care. Broadly, while neonatal care is costly, it is also cost effective as it produces both life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). However, as the gestational age of the neonate decreases, the costs increase and the cost-effectiveness threshold is harder to achieve. In the periviable range of gestational age (22-24 weeks of gestation), whether the care is cost effective is questionable and is dependent on the perspective. Understanding the methodology and salient issues of cost-effectiveness analysis is critical for researchers, editors, and clinicians to accurately interpret results of the growing body of cost-effectiveness studies related to the care of periviable pregnancies and neonates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Nutritional care of medical inpatients: a health technology assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruse Filip

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inspiration for the present assessment of the nutritional care of medical patients is puzzlement about the divide that exists between the theoretical knowledge about the importance of the diet for ill persons, and the common failure to incorporate nutritional aspects in the treatment and care of the patients. The purpose is to clarify existing problems in the nutritional care of Danish medical inpatients, to elucidate how the nutritional care for these inpatients can be improved, and to analyse the costs of this improvement. Methods Qualitative and quantitative methods are deployed to outline how nutritional care of medical inpatients is performed at three Danish hospitals. The practices observed are compared with official recommendations for nutritional care of inpatients. Factors extraneous and counterproductive to optimal nutritional care are identified from the perspectives of patients and professional staff. A review of the literature illustrates the potential for optimal nutritional care. A health economic analysis is performed to elucidate the savings potential of improved nutritional care. Results The prospects for improvements in nutritional care are ameliorated if hospital management clearly identifies nutritional care as a priority area, and enjoys access to management tools for quality assurance. The prospects are also improved if a committed professional at the ward has the necessary time resources to perform nutritional care in practice, and if the care staff can requisition patient meals rich in nutrients 24 hours a day. At the kitchen production level prospects benefit from a facilitator contact between care and kitchen staff, and if the kitchen staff controls the whole food path from the kitchen to the patient. At the patient level, prospects are improved if patients receive information about the choice of food and drink, and have a better nutrition dialogue with the care staff. Better nutritional care of

  4. Comparison of two public sector tertiary care hospitals' management in reducing direct medical cost burden on breast carcinoma patients in Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed Khaliq, Imran; Zahid Mahmood, Hafiz; Akhter, Naveed; Danish Sarfraz, Muhammad; Asim, Khadija; Masood Gondal, Khalid

    2018-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the major causes of death incurring highest morbidity and mortality amongst women of Pakistan. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the role of two public sector tertiary care hospitals' management in reducing out of pocket (OOP) expenses on direct medical costs borne by breast carcinoma patients' household from diagnosis through treatment. Moreover, the study intended to explore the reasons of opting private diagnostic facilities by the said patients during the services taken from the foresaid tertiary care centers. A purposive sample of 164 primary breast carcinoma patients was recruited for data collection of this cross-sectional study. Face to face interviews and semistructured questionnaires were adopted as method of data gathering tools. Major cost components of direct medical costs were used to compare the financial strain on the patients' households of both targeted hospitals. In addition, information was collected regarding the reasons of opting private diagnostic centers for investigations. Frequency, percentages, median and inter quartile range (IQR) were calculated for the data. Non-parametric variables were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. It was observed that overall direct medical cost borne by the breast carcinoma patients' households in Jinnah hospital (median US$1153.93 / Rs. 118,589) was significantly higher than Mayo hospital (median US$427.93 /Rs. 43,978), pprivately opted investigations procedures was the common issue of the patients under treatment in both hospitals.

  5. Health Insurance, Medical Care, and Health Outcomes: A Model of Elderly Health Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhou; Gilleskie, Donna B.; Norton, Edward C.

    2009-01-01

    Prescription drug coverage creates a change in medical care consumption, beyond standard moral hazard, arising both from the differential cost-sharing and the relative effectiveness of different types of care. We model the dynamic supplemental health insurance decisions of Medicare beneficiaries, their medical care demand, and subsequent health…

  6. Managing health care costs: strategies available to small businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, C W; Finley, L; Kinard, J

    1990-07-01

    Although health care costs continue to rise at an alarming rate, small businesses can take steps to help moderate these costs. First, business firms must restructure benefits so that needless surgery is eliminated and inpatient hospital care is minimized. Next, small firms should investigate the feasibility of partial self-insurance options such as risk pooling and purchasing preferred premium plans. Finally, small firms should investigate the cost savings that can be realized through the use of alternative health care delivery systems such as HMOs and PPOs. Today, competition is reshaping the health care industry by creating more options and rewarding efficiency. The prospect of steadily rising prices and more choices makes it essential that small employers become prudent purchasers of employee health benefits. For American businesses, the issue is crucial. Unless firms can control health care costs, they will have to keep boosting the prices of their goods and services and thus become less competitive in the global marketplace. In that event, many workers will face a prospect even more grim than rising medical premiums: losing their jobs.

  7. The Cost of Nurse-Midwifery Care: Use of Interventions, Resources, and Associated Costs in the Hospital Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Molly R; Murphy, Sean M; Fitzgerald, Cynthia E; Andersen, H Frank; Daratha, Kenn B

    Obstetrical care often involves multiple expensive, and often elective, interventions that may increase costs to patients, payers, and the health care system with little effect on patient outcomes. The objectives of this study were to examine the following hospital related outcomes: 1) use of labor and birth interventions, 2) inpatient duration of stay, and 3) total direct health care costs for patients attended by a certified nurse-midwife (CNM) compared with those attended by an obstetrician-gynecologist (OB-GYN), within an environment of safe and high-quality care. Electronic health records for 1,441 medically low-risk women who gave birth at a hospital located in the U.S. Pacific Northwest between January and September 2013 were sampled. Multilevel regression and generalized linear models were used for analysis. Reduced use of selected labor and birth interventions (cesarean delivery, vacuum-assisted delivery, epidural anesthesia, labor induction, and cervical ripening), reduced maternal duration of stay, and reduced overall costs associated with CNM-led care relative to OB-GYN-led care were observed for medically low-risk women in a hospital setting. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were comparable across groups. This study supports consideration of increased use of CNMs as providers for the care of women at low risk for complications to decrease costs for the health care system. The use of CNMs to the fullest extent within state-regulated scopes of practice could result in more efficient use of hospital resources. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The cost of sustaining a patient-centered medical home: experience from 2 states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, Michael K; Ehrenberger, David; Scammon, Debra L; Day, Julie; Allen, Tatiana; Reall, Andreu J; Sides, Rhonda W; Kim, Jaewhan

    2015-09-01

    As medical practices transform to patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs), it is important to identify the ongoing costs of maintaining these "advanced primary care" functions. A key required input is personnel effort. This study's objective was to assess direct personnel costs to practices associated with the staffing necessary to deliver PCMH functions as outlined in the National Committee for Quality Assurance Standards. We developed a PCMH cost dimensions tool to assess costs associated with activities uniquely required to maintain PCMH functions. We interviewed practice managers, nurse supervisors, and medical directors in 20 varied primary care practices in 2 states, guided by the tool. Outcome measures included categories of staff used to perform various PCMH functions, time and personnel costs, and whether practices were delivering PCMH functions. Costs per full-time equivalent primary care clinician associated with PCMH functions varied across practices with an average of $7,691 per month in Utah practices and $9,658 in Colorado practices. PCMH incremental costs per encounter were $32.71 in Utah and $36.68 in Colorado. The average estimated cost per member per month for an assumed panel of 2,000 patients was $3.85 in Utah and $4.83 in Colorado. Identifying costs of maintaining PCMH functions will contribute to effective payment reform and to sustainability of transformation. Maintenance and ongoing support of PCMH functions require additional time and new skills, which may be provided by existing staff, additional staff, or both. Adequate compensation for ongoing and substantial incremental costs is critical for practices to sustain PCMH functions. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  9. General hospital costs in England of medical and psychiatric care for patients who self-harm: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiachristas, Apostolos; McDaid, David; Casey, Deborah; Brand, Fiona; Leal, Jose; Park, A-La; Geulayov, Galit; Hawton, Keith

    2017-10-01

    Self-harm is an extremely common reason for hospital presentation. However, few estimates have been made of the hospital costs of assessing and treating self-harm. Such information is essential for planning services and to help strengthen the case for investment in actions to reduce the frequency and effects of self-harm. In this study, we aimed to calculate the costs of hospital medical care associated with a self-harm episode and the costs of psychosocial assessment, together with identification of the key drivers of these costs. In a retrospective analysis, we estimated hospital resource use and care costs for all presentations for self-harm to the John Radcliffe Hospital (Oxford, UK), between April 1, 2013, and March 31, 2014. Episode-related data were provided by the Oxford Monitoring System for Self-harm and we linked these with financial hospital records to quantify costs. We assessed time and resources allocated to psychosocial assessments through discussion with clinical and managerial staff. We then used generalised linear models to investigate the associations between hospital costs and methods of self-harm. Between April 1, 2013, and March 31, 2014, 1647 self-harm presentations by 1153 patients were recorded. Of these, 1623 (99%) presentations by 1140 patients could be linked with hospital finance records. 179 (16%) patients were younger than 18 years. 1150 (70%) presentations were for self-poisoning alone, 367 (22%) for self-injury alone, and 130 (8%) for a combination of methods. Psychosocial assessments were made in 75% (1234) of all episodes. The overall mean hospital cost per episode of self-harm was £809. Costs differed significantly between different types of self-harm: self-injury alone £753 (SD 2061), self-poisoning alone £806 (SD 1568), self-poisoning and self-injury £987 (SD 1823; p<0·0001). Costs were mainly associated with the type of health-care service contact such as inpatient stay, intensive care, and psychosocial assessment. Mean

  10. Medical Tourism: A Cost or Benefit to the NHS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanefeld, Johanna; Horsfall, Daniel; Lunt, Neil; Smith, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Medical Tourism’ – the phenomenon of people travelling abroad to access medical treatment - has received increasing attention in academic and popular media. This paper reports findings from a study examining effect of inbound and outbound medical tourism on the UK NHS, by estimating volume of medical tourism and associated costs and benefits. A mixed methods study it includes analysis of the UK International Passenger Survey (IPS); interviews with 77 returning UK medical tourists, 63 policymakers, NHS managers and medical tourism industry actors policymakers, and a review of published literature. These informed costing of three types of treatments for which patients commonly travel abroad: fertility treatment, cosmetic and bariatric surgery. Costing of inbound tourism relied on data obtained through 28 Freedom-of-Information requests to NHS Foundation Trusts. Findings demonstrate that contrary to some popular media reports, far from being a net importer of patients, the UK is now a clear net exporter of medical travellers. In 2010, an estimated 63,000 UK residents travelled for treatment, while around 52,000 patients sought treatment in the UK. Inbound medical tourists treated as private patients within NHS facilities may be especially profitable when compared to UK private patients, yielding close to a quarter of revenue from only 7% of volume in the data examined. Costs arise where patients travel abroad and return with complications. Analysis also indicates possible savings especially in future health care and social costs averted. These are likely to be specific to procedures and conditions treated. UK medical tourism is a growing phenomenon that presents risks and opportunities to the NHS. To fully understand its implications and guide policy on issues such as NHS global activities and patient safety will require investment in further research and monitoring. Results point to likely impact of medical tourism in other universal public health systems

  11. Medical tourism: a cost or benefit to the NHS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Hanefeld

    Full Text Available 'Medical Tourism' - the phenomenon of people travelling abroad to access medical treatment - has received increasing attention in academic and popular media. This paper reports findings from a study examining effect of inbound and outbound medical tourism on the UK NHS, by estimating volume of medical tourism and associated costs and benefits. A mixed methods study it includes analysis of the UK International Passenger Survey (IPS; interviews with 77 returning UK medical tourists, 63 policymakers, NHS managers and medical tourism industry actors policymakers, and a review of published literature. These informed costing of three types of treatments for which patients commonly travel abroad: fertility treatment, cosmetic and bariatric surgery. Costing of inbound tourism relied on data obtained through 28 Freedom-of-Information requests to NHS Foundation Trusts. Findings demonstrate that contrary to some popular media reports, far from being a net importer of patients, the UK is now a clear net exporter of medical travellers. In 2010, an estimated 63,000 UK residents travelled for treatment, while around 52,000 patients sought treatment in the UK. Inbound medical tourists treated as private patients within NHS facilities may be especially profitable when compared to UK private patients, yielding close to a quarter of revenue from only 7% of volume in the data examined. Costs arise where patients travel abroad and return with complications. Analysis also indicates possible savings especially in future health care and social costs averted. These are likely to be specific to procedures and conditions treated. UK medical tourism is a growing phenomenon that presents risks and opportunities to the NHS. To fully understand its implications and guide policy on issues such as NHS global activities and patient safety will require investment in further research and monitoring. Results point to likely impact of medical tourism in other universal public health

  12. Medical tourism: a cost or benefit to the NHS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanefeld, Johanna; Horsfall, Daniel; Lunt, Neil; Smith, Richard

    2013-01-01

    'Medical Tourism' - the phenomenon of people travelling abroad to access medical treatment - has received increasing attention in academic and popular media. This paper reports findings from a study examining effect of inbound and outbound medical tourism on the UK NHS, by estimating volume of medical tourism and associated costs and benefits. A mixed methods study it includes analysis of the UK International Passenger Survey (IPS); interviews with 77 returning UK medical tourists, 63 policymakers, NHS managers and medical tourism industry actors policymakers, and a review of published literature. These informed costing of three types of treatments for which patients commonly travel abroad: fertility treatment, cosmetic and bariatric surgery. Costing of inbound tourism relied on data obtained through 28 Freedom-of-Information requests to NHS Foundation Trusts. Findings demonstrate that contrary to some popular media reports, far from being a net importer of patients, the UK is now a clear net exporter of medical travellers. In 2010, an estimated 63,000 UK residents travelled for treatment, while around 52,000 patients sought treatment in the UK. Inbound medical tourists treated as private patients within NHS facilities may be especially profitable when compared to UK private patients, yielding close to a quarter of revenue from only 7% of volume in the data examined. Costs arise where patients travel abroad and return with complications. Analysis also indicates possible savings especially in future health care and social costs averted. These are likely to be specific to procedures and conditions treated. UK medical tourism is a growing phenomenon that presents risks and opportunities to the NHS. To fully understand its implications and guide policy on issues such as NHS global activities and patient safety will require investment in further research and monitoring. Results point to likely impact of medical tourism in other universal public health systems.

  13. Cost-Effectiveness of a Nonpharmacological Intervention in Pediatric Burn Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nadia J; David, Michael; Cuttle, Leila; Kimble, Roy M; Rodger, Sylvia; Higashi, Hideki

    2015-07-01

    To report the cost-effectiveness of a tailored handheld computerized procedural preparation and distraction intervention (Ditto) used during pediatric burn wound care in comparison to standard practice. An economic evaluation was performed alongside a randomized controlled trial of 75 children aged 4 to 13 years who presented with a burn to the Royal Children's Hospital, Brisbane, Australia. Participants were randomized to either the Ditto intervention (n = 35) or standard practice (n = 40) to measure the effect of the intervention on days taken for burns to re-epithelialize. Direct medical, direct nonmedical, and indirect cost data during burn re-epithelialization were extracted from the randomized controlled trial data and combined with scar management cost data obtained retrospectively from medical charts. Nonparametric bootstrapping was used to estimate statistical uncertainty in cost and effect differences and cost-effectiveness ratios. On average, the Ditto intervention reduced the time to re-epithelialize by 3 days at AU$194 less cost for each patient compared with standard practice. The incremental cost-effectiveness plane showed that 78% of the simulated results were within the more effective and less costly quadrant and 22% were in the more effective and more costly quadrant, suggesting a 78% probability that the Ditto intervention dominates standard practice (i.e., cost-saving). At a willingness-to-pay threshold of AU$120, there is a 95% probability that the Ditto intervention is cost-effective (or cost-saving) against standard care. This economic evaluation showed the Ditto intervention to be highly cost-effective against standard practice at a minimal cost for the significant benefits gained, supporting the implementation of the Ditto intervention during burn wound care. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Medical care costs incurred by patients with smoking-related non-small cell lung cancer treated at the National Cancer Institute of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Oscar; Quintana-Carrillo, Roger Humberto; Ahumada-Curiel, Gabriel; Corona-Cruz, Jose Francisco; Correa-Acevedo, Elma; Zinser-Sierra, Juan; de la Mata-Moya, Dolores; Mohar-Betancourt, Alejandro; Morales-Oyarvide, Vicente; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is a public health problem in Mexico and worldwide; its economic impact on developing countries has not been well documented. The aim of this study was to assess the direct medical costs attributable to smoking incurred by lung cancer patients treated at the National Cancer Institute of Mexico (INCan). The study was conducted at INCan in 2009. We carried out a cost of illness (COI) methodology, using data derived from an expert panel consensus and from medical chart review. A panel of experts developed a diagnostic-therapeutic guide that combined the hospital patient pathways and the infrastructure, human resources, technology, and services provided by the medical units at INCan. Cost estimates in Mexican pesos were adjusted by inflation and converted into US Dollars using the 2013 FIX exchange rate for foreign transactions (1 USD = 13.06 Mexican pesos). A 297 incident cases diagnosed with any type of lung cancer were analyzed. According to clinical stage, the costs per patient were 13,456; 35,648; 106,186; and 144,555 USD, for lung cancer stages I, II, III, and IV respectively. The weighted average annual cost/patient was and 139,801 USD and the average annual cost/patient that was attributable to smoking was 92,269 USD. This cost was independent of the clinical stage, with stage IV representing 96% of the annual cost. The total annual cost of smoking-related lung cancer at INCan was 19,969,781 USD. The medical care costs of lung cancer attributable to smoking represent a high cost both for INCan and the Mexican health sector. These costs could be reduced if all provisions established in the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control of the World Health Organization were implemented in Mexico.

  15. 12-Step participation reduces medical use costs among adolescents with a history of alcohol and other drug treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Marlon P; Parthasarathy, Sujaya; Chi, Felicia W; Sterling, Stacy; Campbell, Cynthia I

    2012-11-01

    Adolescents who attend 12-step groups following alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment are more likely to remain abstinent and to avoid relapse post-treatment. We examined whether 12-step attendance is also associated with a corresponding reduction in health care use and costs. We used difference-in-difference analysis to compare changes in seven-year follow-up health care use and costs by changes in 12-step participation. Four Kaiser Permanente Northern California AOD treatment programs enrolled 403 adolescents, 13-18-years old, into a longitudinal cohort study upon AOD treatment entry. Participants self-reported 12-step meeting attendance at six-month, one-year, three-year, and five-year follow-up. Outcomes included counts of hospital inpatient days, emergency room (ER) visits, primary care visits, psychiatric visits, AOD treatment costs and total medical care costs. Each additional 12-step meeting attended was associated with an incremental medical cost reduction of 4.7% during seven-year follow-up. The medical cost offset was largely due to reductions in hospital inpatient days, psychiatric visits, and AOD treatment costs. We estimate total medical use cost savings at $145 per year (in 2010 U.S. dollars) per additional 12-step meeting attended. The findings suggest that 12-step participation conveys medical cost offsets for youth who undergo AOD treatment. Reduced costs may be related to improved AOD outcomes due to 12-step participation, improved general health due to changes in social network following 12-step participation, or better compliance to both AOD treatment and 12-step meetings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. U.S. academic medical centers under the managed health care environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, K

    1999-06-01

    This research investigates the impact of managed health care on academic medical centers in the United States. Academic medical centers hold a unique position in the U.S. health care system through their missions of conducting cutting-edge biomedical research, pursuing clinical and technological innovations, providing state-of-the-art medical care and producing highly qualified health professionals. However, policies to control costs through the use of managed care and limiting resources are detrimental to academic medical centers and impede the advancement of medical science. To survive the threats of managed care in the health care environment, academic medical centers must rely on their upper level managers to derive successful strategies. The methods used in this study include qualitative approaches in the form of key informants and case studies. In addition, a survey questionnaire was sent to 108 CEOs in all the academic medical centers in the U.S. The findings revealed that managers who perform the liaison, monitor, entrepreneur and resource allocator roles are crucial to ensure the survival of academic medical centers, so that academic medical centers can continue their missions to serve the general public and promote their well-being.

  17. Financial burden of medical care: a family perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Robin A; Kirzinger, Whitney K

    2014-01-01

    Data from the National Health Interview Survey, 2012. In 2012, more than one in four families experienced financial burdens of medical care. Families with incomes at or below 250% of the federal poverty level (FPL) were more likely to experience financial burdens of medical care than families with incomes above 250% of the FPL. Families with children aged 0-17 years were more likely than families without children to experience financial burdens of medical care. The presence of a family member who was uninsured increased the likelihood that a family would experience a financial burden of medical care. Recently published data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) found that 1 in 5 persons was in a family having problems paying medical bills, and 1 in 10 persons was in a family with medical bills that they were unable to pay at all (1-3). NHIS defines "family" as an individual or a group of two or more related persons living together in the same housing unit. The family perspective is important to consider when examining financial risk because significant expenses for one family member may adversely affect the whole family. Health insurance coverage is one way for a family to mitigate financial risk associated with health care costs, although health insurance status may differ among family members. This report explores selected family demographic characteristics and their association with financial burdens of medical care (problems paying medical bills, paying medical bills over time, and having medical bills that cannot be paid) based on data from the 2012 NHIS. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  18. Health care resource utilization and cost of care for haemophilia A and B patients in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibnaseri, Zahra; Davari, Majid; Cheraghali, Abdolmajid; Eshghi, Peyman; Ravanbod, Roya; Espandar, Ramin; Hantooshzadeh, Razieh

    2016-02-01

    Despite the fact that the total therapeutic expenditure of haemophilia is paid by the national health system in Iran, a limited number of research has been performed to evaluate the economic burden of haemophilia. It is even more important when considering the fact that "prophylaxis" has never been used as the main treatment protocol in haemophiliacs in the country, causing high arthropathy rates. The aim of this study is to evaluate the cost drivers in the treatment of haemophilia A and B patients in Iran. The national registry database of Ministry of Health (MoH) was queried to identify total number of individuals characteristics diagnosed with Factor VIII and IX deficiency. The service package defined by the department for special diseases was used as the reference for the type and frequency of health care utilization in haemophiliacs in Iran. The direct medical costs including prescription, medical intervention, inpatient, outpatient and diagnostics services and arthroplasty were considered. The prices were extracted from Iranian medical tariff book 2014-15. Medication cost was obtained from the Iranian Food and Drug Organization. Among 8,337 patients registered with bleeding disorders, 3,948 and 848 were identified with haemophilia A and B respectively, of whom 856 (18%) patients had inhibitor at any time in the past. In the two groups, 2,328 (59%) and 452 (53%) patients suffered from severe, 686 (17%) and 186 (22%) from moderate and 902 (23%) and 185 (22%) from mild type of haemophilia. The average annual health care cost for every patient was USD 15,130, mostly allocated to medication USD 10,180 (67%), followed by therapeutic services USD 4,775 (32%) while diagnostic services stood third USD 177 (1%). There is an urgent need for developing clinical practice guidelines for treatment protocols, procedures and supportive care in haemophilia management in Iran. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical effectiveness and cost savings in diabetes care, supported by pharmacist counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez de Bittner, Magaly; Chirikov, Viktor V; Breunig, Ian M; Zaghab, Roxanne W; Shaya, Fadia Tohme

    To determine the effectiveness and cost savings of a real-world, continuous, pharmacist-delivered service with an employed patient population with diabetes over a 5-year period. The Patients, Pharmacists Partnerships (P 3 Program) was offered as an "opt-in" benefit to employees of 6 public and private self-insured employers in Maryland and Virginia. Care was provided in ZIP code-matched locations and at 2 employers' worksites. Six hundred two enrolled patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes were studied between July 2006 and May 2012 with an average follow-up of 2.5 years per patient. Of these patients, 162 had health plan cost and utilization data. A network of 50 trained pharmacists provided chronic disease management to patients with diabetes using a common process of care. Communications were provided to patients and physicians. Employers provided incentives for patients who opted in, including waived medication copayments and free diabetes self-monitoring supplies. The service was provided at no cost to the patient. A Web-based, electronic medical record that complied with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act helped to standardize care. Quality assurance was conducted to ensure the standard of care. Glycosylated hemoglobin (A1c), blood pressure, and total health care costs (before and after enrollment). Statistically significant improvements were shown by mean decreases in A1c (-0.41%, P care costs to employers declined by $1031 per beneficiary after the cost of the program was deducted. This 66-month real-world study confirms earlier findings. Employers netted savings through improved clinical outcomes and reduced emergency and hospital utilization when comparing costs 12 months before and after enrollment. The P 3 program had positive clinical outcomes and economic outcomes. Pharmacist-provided comprehensive medication therapy management services should be included as a required element of insurance offered by employers and health insurance

  20. Recent trends in workload, input costs, and expenditures in the Air Force Medical Service Direct Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Anthony S; Moilanen, Dale A; Fonseca, Vincent P; Chao, Susan Y

    2002-04-01

    A study was conducted to examine the relationship between two types of trends in the Air Force Medical Service Direct Care System (AFMS/DCS): trends in expenditures, total and by categories; and trends in medical workload, defined as the sum of inpatient admissions and outpatient clinic visits. Expenditure and medical workload data were extracted from the Medical Expense and Performance Reporting System Executive Query System. Medical inflation data were obtained from the Bureau of Labor Statistics Producer Price Index series. Between fiscal years 1995 and 1999, the AFMS/DCS experienced a 21.2% decrease in medical workload, but total (nominal) expenditures declined only 3.6%. Of all expenditure categories, only inpatient medical care, outpatient medical care, and military-funded private sector care for active duty personnel (supplemental care) have any direct relationship with AFMS/DCS medical workload. Real expenditures for the three categories above decreased by 20.3% during the 5-year period. Accounting for inflation and considering only expenditures related to medical workload, these results suggest that the AFMS/DCS is spending approximately 20% less money to do approximately 20% less work.

  1. COSTS OF THE HEALTH CARE IN RUSSIA ASSOCIATED WITH SMOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kontsevaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To analyze costs of health care in Russia associated with smoking in 2009. Material and methods. Cardiovascular diseases, cancers and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD were included in the analysis. Calculation was performed on the basis of the relative risks of diseases associated with smoking, and obtained from foreign surveys, official statistics on morbidity and health system resources expenditure, and costs of health-seeking in line with state program of guaranteed free medical care.  Results. In 2009 total costs of the health care system associated with smoking exceeded RUR 35.8 bln. It corresponded to 0.1% of gross domestic product in Russia in 2009. The costs structure was the following: hospitalization – RUR 26.2 bln, emergency calls – RUR 1.4 bln, and outpatient health-seeking – RUR 8.2 bln. Costs of outpatient pharmacotherapy were not included into analysis because of lack of baseline data needed for calculations. Cardiovascular diseases caused 62% of the health care costs associated with smoking, cancers – 20.2%, and COPD – 17.8%. Conclusion. The smoking in Russia is associated with significant health care costs. It makes needed resources investment in preventive programs to reduce smoking prevalence.

  2. Management of sacroiliac joint disruption and degenerative sacroiliitis with nonoperative care is medical resource-intensive and costly in a United States commercial payer population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Stacey J; Polly, David W; Knight, Tyler; Holt, Tim; Cummings, John

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Low back pain is common and originates in the sacroiliac (SI) joint in 15%–30% of cases. Traditional SI joint disruption/degenerative sacroiliitis treatments include nonoperative care or open SI joint fusion. To evaluate the usefulness of newly developed minimally-invasive technologies, the costs of traditional treatments must be better understood. We assessed the costs of nonoperative care for SI joint disruption to commercial payers in the United States (US). Methods A retrospective study of claim-level medical resource use and associated costs used the MarketScan® Commercial Claims and Encounters as well as Medicare Supplemental Databases of Truven Healthcare. Patients with a primary ICD-9-CM diagnosis code for SI joint disruption (720.2, 724.6, 739.4, 846.9, or 847.3), an initial date of diagnosis from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2007 (index date), and continuous enrollment for ≥1 year before and 3 years after the index date were included. Claims attributable to SI joint disruption with a primary or secondary ICD-9-CM diagnosis code of 71x.xx, 72x.xx, 73x.xx, or 84x.xx were identified; the 3-year medical resource use-associated reimbursement and outpatient pain medication costs (measured in 2011 US dollars) were tabulated across practice settings. A subgroup analysis was performed among patients with lumbar spinal fusion. Results The mean 3-year direct, attributable medical costs were $16,196 (standard deviation [SD] $28,592) per privately-insured patient (N=78,533). Among patients with lumbar spinal fusion (N=434), attributable 3-year mean costs were $91,720 (SD $75,502) per patient compared to $15,776 (SD $27,542) per patient among patients without lumbar spinal fusion (N=78,099). Overall, inpatient hospitalizations (19.4%), hospital outpatient visits and procedures (14.0%), and outpatient pain medications (9.6%) accounted for the largest proportion of costs. The estimated 3-year insurance payments attributable to SI joint disruption

  3. Globalization of health care delivery in the United States through medical tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sameer; Breuing, Richard; Chahal, Rajneet

    2012-01-01

    This study highlights some of the inefficiencies in the U.S. health care system and determines what effect medical tourism has had on the U.S. and global health care supply chains. This study also calls attention to insufficient health communication efforts to inform uninsured or underinsured medical tourists about the benefits and risks and determines the managerial and cost implications of various surgical procedures on the global health care system into the future. This study evaluated 3 years (2005, 2007, and 2011) of actual and projected surgical cost data. The authors selected 3 countries for analysis: the United States, India, and Thailand. The surgeries chosen for evaluation were total knee replacement (knee arthroplasty), hip replacement (hip arthroplasty), and heart bypass (coronary artery bypass graft). Comparisons of costs were made using Monte Carlo simulation with variability encapsulated by triangular distributions. The results are staggering. In 2005, the amount of money lost to India and Thailand on just these 3 surgeries because of cost inefficiencies in the U.S. health care system was between 1.3 to 2 billion dollars. In 2011, because many more Americans are expected to travel overseas for health care, this amount is anticipated to rise to between 20 and 30.2 billion dollars. Therefore, more attention should be paid to health communication efforts that truly illustrate the benefits/risks of medical travel. The challenge of finding reliable data for surgeries performed and associated surgical cost estimates was mitigated by the use of a Monte Carlo simulation of triangular distributions. The implications from this study are clear: If the U.S. health care industry is unable to eliminate waste and inefficiency and thus curb rising costs, it will continue to lose surgical revenue to foreign health providers. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  4. Cost-effectiveness of a transitional pharmaceutical care program for patients discharged from the hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Karapinar-Çarkıt

    Full Text Available To improve continuity of care at hospital admission and discharge and to decrease medication errors pharmaceutical care programs are developed. This study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of the COACH program in comparison with usual care from a societal perspective.A controlled clinical trial was performed at the Internal Medicine department of a general teaching hospital. All admitted patients using at least one prescription drug were included. The COACH program consisted of medication reconciliation, patient counselling at discharge, and communication to healthcare providers in primary care. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with an unplanned rehospitalisation within three months after discharge. Also, the number of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs was assessed. Cost data were collected using cost diaries. Uncertainty surrounding cost differences and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios between the groups was estimated by bootstrapping.In the COACH program, 168 patients were included and in usual care 151 patients. There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients with unplanned rehospitalisations (mean difference 0.17%, 95% CI -8.85;8.51, and in QALYs (mean difference -0.0085, 95% CI -0.0170;0.0001. Total costs for the COACH program were non-significantly lower than usual care (-€1160, 95% CI -3168;847. Cost-effectiveness planes showed that the program was not cost-effective compared with usual care for unplanned rehospitalisations and QALYs gained.The COACH program was not cost-effective in comparison with usual care. Future studies should focus on high risk patients and include other outcomes (e.g. adverse drug events as this may increase the chances of a cost-effective intervention. Dutch trial register NTR1519.

  5. The High Direct Medical Costs of Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoffstall, Andrew J; Gaebler, Julia A; Kreher, Nerissa C; Niecko, Timothy; Douglas, Diah; Strong, Theresa V; Miller, Jennifer L; Stafford, Diane E; Butler, Merlin G

    2016-08-01

    To assess medical resource utilization associated with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) in the US, hypothesized to be greater relative to a matched control group without PWS. We used a retrospective case-matched control design and longitudinal US administrative claims data (MarketScan) during a 5-year enrollment period (2009-2014). Patients with PWS were identified by Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis code 759.81. Controls were matched on age, sex, and payer type. Outcomes included total, outpatient, inpatient and prescription costs. After matching and application of inclusion/exclusion criteria, we identified 2030 patients with PWS (1161 commercial, 38 Medicare supplemental, and 831 Medicaid). Commercially insured patients with PWS (median age 10 years) had 8.8-times greater total annual direct medical costs than their counterparts without PWS (median age 10 years: median costs $14 907 vs $819; P < .0001; mean costs: $28 712 vs $3246). Outpatient care comprised the largest portion of medical resource utilization for enrollees with and without PWS (median $5605 vs $675; P < .0001; mean $11 032 vs $1804), followed by mean annual inpatient and medication costs, which were $10 879 vs $1015 (P < .001) and $6801 vs $428 (P < .001), respectively. Total annual direct medical costs were ∼42% greater for Medicaid-insured patients with PWS than their commercially insured counterparts, an increase partly explained by claims for Medicaid Waiver day and residential habilitation. Direct medical resource utilization was considerably greater among patients with PWS than members without the condition. This study provides a first step toward quantifying the financial burden of PWS posed to individuals, families, and society. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cost of Care for the Initial Management of Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercow, Alexandra S; Chen, Ling; Chatterjee, Sudeshna; Tergas, Ana I; Hou, June Y; Burke, William M; Ananth, Cande V; Neugut, Alfred I; Hershman, Dawn L; Wright, Jason D

    2017-12-01

    To examine the cost of care during the first year after a diagnosis of ovarian cancer, estimate the sources of cost, and explore the out-of-pocket costs. We performed a retrospective cohort study of women with ovarian cancer diagnosed from 2009 to 2012 who underwent both surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy using the Truven Health MarketScan database. This database is comprised of patients covered by commercial insurance sponsored by more than 100 employers in the United States. Medical expenditures, including physician reimbursement, for a 12-month period beginning on the date of surgery were estimated. All payments were examined, including out-of-pocket costs for patients. Payments were divided into expenditures for inpatient care, outpatient care (including chemotherapy), and outpatient drug costs. The 12-month treatment period was divided into three phases: surgery to 30 days (operative period), 1-6 months (adjuvant therapy), and 6-12 months after surgery. The primary outcome was the overall cost of care within the first year of diagnosis of ovarian cancer; secondary outcomes included assessment of factors associated with cost. A total of 26,548 women with ovarian cancer who underwent surgery were identified. After exclusion of patients with incomplete insurance enrollment or coverage, those who did not undergo chemotherapy, and those with capitated plans, our cohort consisted of 5,031 women. The median total medical expenditures per patient during the first year after the index procedure were $93,632 (interquartile range $62,319-140,140). Inpatient services accounted for $30,708 (interquartile range $20,102-51,107; 37.8%) in expenditures, outpatient services $52,700 (interquartile range $31,210-83,206; 58.3%), and outpatient drug costs $1,814 (interquartile range $603-4,402; 3.8%). The median out-of-pocket expense was $2,988 (interquartile range $1,649-5,088). This included $1,509 (interquartile range $705-2,878) for outpatient services, $589 (interquartile range

  7. Reduction of medication costs after detoxification for medication-overuse headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Asif M; Bendtsen, Lars; Zeeberg, Peter; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2013-04-01

    To examine whether detoxifying patients with medication-overuse headache can reduce long-term medication costs. Direct costs of medications in medication-overuse headache have been reported to be very high but have never been calculated on the basis of exact register data. Long-term economic savings obtained by detoxification have never been investigated. We conducted a registry-based observational retrospective follow-up study on 336 medication-overuse headache patients treated and discharged from the Danish Headache Center over a 2-year period. By means of the Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics, we collected information on the costs and use of prescription-only medication 1 year before admission and 1 year after discharge from Danish Headache Center. The average medication costs per patient per year decreased with 24%, from US$971 before treatment to US$737 after (P = .001), and the average medication use decreased with 14.4% (P = .02). Savings were most pronounced for patients overusing triptans. In this group, the average medication costs per patient per year decreased with 43% (P headache at a tertiary headache center has a long-lasting effect on the medication costs and use, in particular among patients overusing triptans. The results may not be generalizable to all countries and may be sensitive to the costs of triptans. © 2012 American Headache Society.

  8. [Clinical study using activity-based costing to assess cost-effectiveness of a wound management system utilizing modern dressings in comparison with traditional wound care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohura, Takehiko; Sanada, Hiromi; Mino, Yoshio

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of cost-effectiveness, including medical delivery and health service fee systems, has become widespread in Japanese health care. In the field of pressure ulcer management, the recent introduction of penalty subtraction in the care fee system emphasizes the need for prevention and cost-effective care of pressure ulcer. Previous cost-effectiveness research on pressure ulcer management tended to focus only on "hardware" costs such as those for pharmaceuticals and medical supplies, while neglecting other cost aspects, particularly those involving the cost of labor. Thus, cost-effectiveness in pressure ulcer care has not yet been fully established. To provide true cost effectiveness data, a comparative prospective study was initiated in patients with stage II and III pressure ulcers. Considering the potential impact of the pressure reduction mattress on clinical outcome, in particular, the same type of pressure reduction mattresses are utilized in all the cases in the study. The cost analysis method used was Activity-Based Costing, which measures material and labor cost aspects on a daily basis. A reduction in the Pressure Sore Status Tool (PSST) score was used to measure clinical effectiveness. Patients were divided into three groups based on the treatment method and on the use of a consistent algorithm of wound care: 1. MC/A group, modern dressings with a treatment algorithm (control cohort). 2. TC/A group, traditional care (ointment and gauze) with a treatment algorithm. 3. TC/NA group, traditional care (ointment and gauze) without a treatment algorithm. The results revealed that MC/A is more cost-effective than both TC/A and TC/NA. This suggests that appropriate utilization of modern dressing materials and a pressure ulcer care algorithm would contribute to reducing health care costs, improved clinical results, and, ultimately, greater cost-effectiveness.

  9. Do Statins Reduce the Health and Health Care Costs of Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudette, Étienne; Goldman, Dana P; Messali, Andrew; Sood, Neeraj

    2015-07-01

    Obesity impacts both individual health and, given its high prevalence, total health care spending. However, as medical technology evolves, health outcomes for a number of obesity-related illnesses improve. This article examines whether medical innovation can mitigate the adverse health and spending associated with obesity, using statins as a case study. Because of the relationship between obesity and hypercholesterolaemia, statins play an important role in the medical management of obese individuals and the prevention of costly obesity-related sequelae. Using well-recognized estimates of the health impact of statins and the Future Elderly Model (FEM)-an established dynamic microsimulation model of the health of Americans aged over 50 years-we estimate the changes in life expectancy, functional status and health care costs of obesity due to the introduction and widespread use of statins. Life expectancy gains of statins are estimated to be 5-6 % greater for obese individuals than for healthy-weight individuals, but most of these additional gains are associated with some level of disability. Considering both medical spending and the value of quality-adjusted life-years, statins do not significantly alter the costs of class 1 and 2 obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 and ≥35 kg/m(2), respectively) and they increase the costs of class 3 obesity (BMI ≥40 kg/m(2)) by 1.2 %. Although statins are very effective medications for lowering the risk of obesity-associated illnesses, they do not significantly reduce the costs of obesity.

  10. Guideline adherence is worth the effort: a cost-effectiveness analysis in intrauterine insemination care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagen, E C; Nelen, W L D M; Adang, E M; Grol, R P T M; Hermens, R P M G; Kremer, J A M

    2013-02-01

    Is optimal adherence to guideline recommendations in intrauterine insemination (IUI) care cost-effective from a societal perspective when compared with suboptimal adherence to guideline recommendations? Optimal guideline adherence in IUI care has substantial economic benefits when compared with suboptimal guideline adherence. Fertility guidelines are tools to help health-care professionals, and patients make better decisions about clinically effective, safe and cost-effective care. Up to now, there has been limited published evidence about the association between guideline adherence and cost-effectiveness in fertility care. In a retrospective cohort study involving medical record analysis and a patient survey (n = 415), interviews with staff members (n = 13) and a review of hospitals' financial department reports and literature, data were obtained about patient characteristics, process aspects and clinical outcomes of IUI care and resources consumed. In the cost-effectiveness analyses, restricted to four relevant guideline recommendations, the ongoing pregnancy rate per couple (effectiveness), the average medical and non-medical costs of IUI care, possible additional IVF treatment, pregnancy, delivery and period from birth up to 6 weeks after birth for both mother and offspring per couple (costs) and the incremental net monetary benefits were calculated to investigate if optimal guideline adherence is cost-effective from a societal perspective when compared with suboptimal guideline adherence. Seven hundred and sixty five of 1100 randomly selected infertile couples from the databases of the fertility laboratories of 10 Dutch hospitals, including 1 large university hospital providing tertiary care and 9 public hospitals providing secondary care, were willing to participate, but 350 couples were excluded because of ovulatory disorders or the use of donated spermatozoa (n = 184), still ongoing IUI treatment (n = 143) or no access to their medical records (n = 23). As

  11. Medication therapy management and condition care services in a community-based employer setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannigman, Mark J; Leifheit, Michael; Bellman, Nick; Pierce, Tracey; Marriott, Angela; Bishop, Cheryl

    2010-08-15

    A program in which health-system pharmacists and pharmacy technicians provide medication therapy management (MTM), wellness, and condition care (disease management) services under contract with local businesses is described. The health-system pharmacy department's Center for Medication Management contracts directly with company benefits departments for defined services to participating employees. The services include an initial wellness and MTM session and, for certain patients identified during the initial session, ongoing condition care. The initial appointment includes a medication history, point-of-care testing for serum lipids and glucose, body composition analysis, and completion of a health risk assessment. The pharmacist conducts a structured MTM session, reviews the patient's test results and risk factors, provides health education, discusses opportunities for cost savings, and documents all activities on the patient's medication action plan. Eligibility for the condition care program is based on a diagnosis of diabetes, hypertension, asthma, heart failure, or hyperlipidemia or elevation of lipid or glucose levels. Findings are summarized for employers after the initial wellness screening and at six-month intervals. Patients receiving condition care sign a customized contract, establish goals, attend up to four MTM sessions per year, and track their information on a website; employers may offer incentives for participation. When pharmacists recommend adjustments to therapy or cost-saving changes, it is up to patients to discuss these with their physician. A survey completed by each patient after the initial wellness session has indicated high satisfaction. Direct cost savings related to medication changes have averaged $253 per patient per year. Total cost savings to companies in the first year of the program averaged $1011 per patient. For the health system, the program has been financially sustainable. Key laboratory values indicate positive clinical

  12. Consumers devise drug cost-cutting measures: medical and legal issues to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, Gouranga

    2003-01-01

    Health care costs in general, and prescription drug costs in particular, are rapidly rising. Between 1996 and 2007 the average annual per capita health care cost is projected to increase from dollar 3,781 to dollar 7,100. [AQ1] The single leading component of health care cost is the cost of prescription drugs (currently 10% of total health care spending, projected to become 18% in 2008). The average cost per drug increased 40% during the 1993-1998 period. Forty-one million Americans have no health insurance, and those who have, have inadequate prescription drug coverage. [AQ2] To cope with this situation, many consumers are trying to economize by doing without the prescriptions or the appropriate doses, buying generics or medicines from Canada or Mexico, or splitting pills of higher doses to take advantage of the pricing policy of drug manufacturers. Some of these approaches are medically and/or legally acceptable, while some are dubious. Most adversely affected are the seniors and poor; for certain groups of seniors prescription drugs account for 30% of their health care spending. The problem must receive prompt concerted attention from consumers, insurers, pharmaceutical companies, and lawmakers before it gets out of hand.

  13. Optimization of Medication Use at Accountable Care Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Chrisanne; Krisle, Erik; Westrich, Kimberly; Lunner, Kristina; Muhlestein, David; Dubois, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Optimized medication use involves the effective use of medications for better outcomes, improved patient experience, and lower costs. Few studies systematically gather data on the actions accountable care organizations (ACOs) have taken to optimize medication use. To (a) assess how ACOs optimize medication use; (b) establish an association between efforts to optimize medication use and achievement on financial and quality metrics; (c) identify organizational factors that correlate with optimized medication use; and (d) identify barriers to optimized medication use. This cross-sectional study consisted of a survey and interviews that gathered information on the perceptions of ACO leadership. The survey contained a medication practices inventory (MPI) composed of 38 capabilities across 6 functional domains related to optimizing medication use. ACOs completed self-assessments that included rating each component of the MPI on a scale of 1 to 10. Fisher's exact tests, 2-proportions tests, t-tests, and logistic regression were used to test for associations between ACO scores on the MPI and performance on financial and quality metrics, and on ACO descriptive characteristics. Of the 847 ACOs that were contacted, 49 provided usable survey data. These ACOs rated their own system's ability to manage the quality and costs of optimizing medication use, providing a 64% and 31% affirmative response, respectively. Three ACOs achieved an overall MPI score of 8 or higher, 45 scored between 4 and 7.9, and 1 scored between 0 and 3.9. Using the 3 score groups, the study did not identify a relationship between MPI scores and achievement on financial or quality benchmarks, ACO provider type, member volume, date of ACO creation, or the presence of a pharmacist in a leadership position. Barriers to optimizing medication use relate to reimbursement for pharmacist integration, lack of health information technology interoperability, lack of data, feasibility issues, and physician buy

  14. The direct cost of acute hip fracture care in care home residents in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahota, O; Morgan, N; Moran, C G

    2012-03-01

    Data on the true acute care costs of hip fractures for patients admitted from care homes are limited. Detailed costing analysis was undertaken for 100 patients. Median cost was £9,429 [10,896], increasing to £14,435 [16,681], for those requiring an upgrade from residential to nursing home care. Seventy-six percent of costs were attributable to hospital bed days, and therefore, interventions targeted at reducing hospital stay may be cost effective. Previous studies have estimated the costs associated with hip fracture, although these vary widely, and for patients admitted from care homes, who represent a significant fracture burden, there are limited data. The primary aim of this study was to perform a detailed assessment of the direct medical costs incurred and secondly compare this to the actual remuneration received by the hospital. One hundred patients presenting from a care home in 2006 were randomly selected and a detailed case-note costing analysis was undertaken. This cost was then compared to the actual remuneration received by the hospital. Median cost per patient episode was £9,429 [10,896] (all patients) range £4,292-162,324 [4,960-187,582] (subdivided into hospital bed day costs £7,129 [8,238], operative costs £1,323 [1,529] and investigation costs £977 [1,129]). Twenty-two percent of the patients admitted from a residential home required upgrading to a nursing home. In this group, the median length of stay was 31 days (mean 38, range 10-88) median cost £14,435 [16,681]. Average remuneration received equated to £6,222 [7,190] per patient. This represents a mean loss in income, compared to actual calculated costs of £3,207 [3,706] per patient. The median cost was £9,429 [10,896], increasing to £14,435 [16,681], for those requiring an upgrade from residential to nursing home care at discharge. Significant cost differences were seen comparing the actual cost to remuneration received. Interventions targeted at reducing length of stay may be cost

  15. Impact of a Patient-Centered Medical Home on Access, Quality, and Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Effec- tiveness Data and Information Set metrics, and composite measures for access, patient satisfaction, provider communica- tion, and customer service...reduced health care costs. The patient -centered medical home (PCMH) concept is “an approach to providing comprehensive primary care [in] a health care... patient at the right place and right time” is vital to the appro- priate utilization of health care services across a broad spec- trum of patient needs

  16. Weighing the cost of educational inflation in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusano, Ronald; Busche, Kevin; Coderre, Sylvain; Woloschuk, Wayne; Chadbolt, Karen; McLaughlin, Kevin

    2017-08-01

    Despite the fact that the length of medical school training has remained stable for many years, the expectations of graduating medical students (and the schools that train them) continue to increase. In this Reflection, the authors discuss motives for educational inflation and suggest that these are likely innocent, well-intentioned, and subconscious-and include both a propensity to increase expectations of ourselves and others over time, and a reluctance to reduce training content and expectations. They then discuss potential risks of educational inflation, including reduced emphasis on core knowledge and clinical skills, and adverse effects on the emotional, psychological, and financial wellbeing of students. While acknowledging the need to change curricula to improve learning and clinical outcomes, the authors proffer that it is naïve to assume that we can inflate educational expectations at no additional cost. They suggest that before implementing and/or mandating change, we should consider of all the costs that medical schools and students might incur, including opportunity costs and the impact on the emotional and financial wellbeing of students. They propose a cost-effectiveness framework for medical education and advocate prioritization of interventions that improve learning outcomes with no additional costs or are cost-saving without adversely impacting learning outcomes. When there is an additional cost for improved learning outcomes or a decline in learning outcomes as a result of cost saving interventions, they suggest careful consideration and justification of this trade-off. And when there are neither improved learning outcomes nor cost savings they recommend resisting the urge to change.

  17. Incremental health care utilization and costs for acute otitis media in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sameer; Shapiro, Nina L; Bhattacharyya, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Determine the incremental health care costs associated with the diagnosis and treatment of acute otitis media (AOM) in children. Cross-sectional analysis of a national health-care cost database. Pediatric patients (age children with and without a diagnosis of AOM, adjusting for age, sex, region, race, ethnicity, insurance coverage, and Charlson comorbidity Index. A total of 8.7 ± 0.4 million children were diagnosed with AOM (10.7 ± 0.4% annually, mean age 5.3 years, 51.3% male) among 81.5 ± 2.3 million children sampled (mean age 8.9 years, 51.3% male). Children with AOM manifested an additional +2.0 office visits, +0.2 emergency department visits, and +1.6 prescription fills (all P <0.001) per year versus those without AOM, adjusting for demographics and medical comorbidities. Similarly, AOM was associated with an incremental increase in outpatient health care costs of $314 per child annually (P <0.001) and an increase of $17 in patient medication costs (P <0.001), but was not associated with an increase in total prescription expenses ($13, P = 0.766). The diagnosis of AOM confers a significant incremental health-care utilization burden on both patients and the health care system. With its high prevalence across the United States, pediatric AOM accounts for approximately $2.88 billion in added health care expense annually and is a significant health-care utilization concern. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Costs of medically assisted reproduction treatment at specialized fertility clinics in the Danish public health care system: results from a 5-year follow-up cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Terkel; Erb, Karin; Rizvanovic, Amra; Ziebe, Søren; Mikkelsen Englund, Anne L; Hald, Finn; Boivin, Jacky; Schmidt, Lone

    2014-01-01

    To examine the costs to the public health care system of couples in medically assisted reproduction. Longitudinal cohort study of infertile couples initiating medically assisted reproduction treatment. Specialized public fertility clinics in Denmark. Seven hundred and thirty-nine couples having no child at study entry and with data on kind of treatment and live birth (yes/no) for each treatment attempt at the specialized public fertility clinic. Treatment data for medically assisted reproduction attempts conducted at the public fertility clinics were abstracted from medical records. Flow diagrams were drawn for different standard treatment cycles and direct costs at each stage in the flow charts were measured and valued by a bottom-up procedure. Indirect costs were distributed to each treatment cycle on the basis of number of visits as basis. Costs were adjusted to 2012 prices using a constructed medical price index. Live birth, costs. Total costs per live birth in 2012 prices were estimated to 10,755€. Costs per treated couple - irrespective of whether the treatment was terminated by a live birth or not - were estimated at 6607€. Costs per live birth of women <35 years at treatment initiation were 9338€ and 15,040€ for women ≥35 years. The public costs for live births after conception with medically assisted reproduction treatment are relatively modest. The results can be generalized to public fertility treatment in Denmark and to other public treatment settings with similar limitations in numbers of public treatment cycles offered. © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Medical Care during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Medical Care During Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Medical Care During Pregnancy What's ... and their babies. What Is Prenatal Care Before Pregnancy? Prenatal care should start before you get pregnant. ...

  20. Information system technologies' role in augmenting dermatologists' knowledge of prescription medication costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarco, Sebastian S; Paul, Ravi; Kilpatrick, Russell J

    2015-12-01

    Despite the recent rising costs of once affordable dermatologic prescription medications, a survey measuring dermatologists' attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge of the cost of drugs they commonly prescribe has not been conducted. Awareness of drug costs is hindered by a lack of access to data about the prices of medicines. No surveys of physicians have addressed this issue by proposing new information system technologies that augment prescription medication price transparency and measuring how receptive physicians are to using these novel solutions in their daily clinical practice. Our research aims to investigate these topics with a survey of physicians in dermatology. Members of the North Carolina Dermatology Association were contacted through their electronic mailing list and asked to take an online survey. The survey asked several questions about dermatologists' attitudes and beliefs about drug costs. To measure their knowledge of prescription medications, the National Average Drug Acquisition Cost was used as an authoritative price that was compared to the survey takers' price estimates of drugs commonly used in dermatology. Physicians' willingness to use four distinct information system technologies that increase drug price transparency was also assessed. Dermatologists believe drug costs are an important factor in patient care and believe access to price information would allow them to provide a higher quality of care. Dermatologists' knowledge of the costs of medicines they commonly prescribe is poor, but they want to utilize information system technologies that increase access to drug pricing information. There is an unmet demand for information system technologies which increase price transparency of medications in dermatology. Physicians and IT professionals have the opportunity to create novel information systems that can be utilized to help guide cost conscious clinical decision making. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cost Analysis and Policy Implications of a Pediatric Palliative Care Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, Daphna; Hadler, Max W; Chen, Xiao; Wu, Shang-Hua; Dimand, Robert; Abramson, Jill M; Ferrell, Betty; Diamant, Allison L; Kominski, Gerald F

    2016-09-01

    In 2010, California launched Partners for Children (PFC), a pediatric palliative care pilot program offering hospice-like services for children eligible for full-scope Medicaid delivered concurrently with curative care, regardless of the child's life expectancy. We assessed the change from before PFC enrollment to the enrolled period in 1) health care costs per enrollee per month (PEPM), 2) costs by service type and diagnosis category, and 3) health care utilization (days of inpatient care and length of hospital stay). A pre-post analysis compared enrollees' health care costs and utilization up to 24 months before enrollment with their costs during participation in the pilot, from January 2010 through December 2012. Analyses were conducted using paid Medicaid claims and program enrollment data. The average PEPM health care costs of program enrollees decreased by $3331 from before their participation in PFC to the enrolled period, driven by a reduction in inpatient costs of $4897 PEPM. PFC enrollees experienced a nearly 50% reduction in the average number of inpatient days per month, from 4.2 to 2.3. Average length of stay per hospitalization dropped from an average of 16.7 days before enrollment to 6.5 days while in the program. Through the provision of home-based therapeutic services, 24/7 access to medical advice, and enhanced, personally tailored care coordination, PFC demonstrated an effective way to reduce costs for children with life-limiting conditions by moving from costly inpatient care to more coordinated and less expensive outpatient care. PFC's home-based care strategy is a cost-effective model for pediatric palliative care elsewhere. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Influenza-like-illness and clinically diagnosed flu: disease burden, costs and quality of life for patients seeking ambulatory care or no professional care at all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilcke, Joke; Coenen, Samuel; Beutels, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    This is one of the first studies to (1) describe the out-of-hospital burden of influenza-like-illness (ILI) and clinically diagnosed flu, also for patients not seeking professional medical care, (2) assess influential background characteristics, and (3) formally compare the burden of ILI in patients with and without a clinical diagnosis of flu. A general population sample with recent ILI experience was recruited during the 2011-2012 influenza season in Belgium. Half of the 2250 respondents sought professional medical care, reported more symptoms (especially more often fever), a longer duration of illness, more use of medication (especially antibiotics) and a higher direct medical cost than patients not seeking medical care. The disease and economic burden were similar for ambulatory ILI patients, irrespective of whether they received a clinical diagnosis of flu. On average, they experienced 5-6 symptoms over a 6-day period; required 1.6 physician visits and 86-91% took medication. An average episode amounted to €51-€53 in direct medical costs, 4 days of absence from work or school and the loss of 0.005 quality-adjusted life-years. Underlying illness led to greater costs and lower quality-of-life. The costs of ILI patients with clinically diagnosed flu tended to increase, while those of ILI patients without clinically diagnosed flu tended to decrease with age. Recently vaccinated persons experienced lower costs and a higher quality-of-life, but this was only the case for patients not seeking professional medical care. This information can be used directly to evaluate the implementation of cost-effective prevention and control measures for influenza. In particular to inform the evaluation of more widespread seasonal influenza vaccination, including in children, which is currently considered by many countries.

  3. Influenza-like-illness and clinically diagnosed flu: disease burden, costs and quality of life for patients seeking ambulatory care or no professional care at all.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joke Bilcke

    Full Text Available This is one of the first studies to (1 describe the out-of-hospital burden of influenza-like-illness (ILI and clinically diagnosed flu, also for patients not seeking professional medical care, (2 assess influential background characteristics, and (3 formally compare the burden of ILI in patients with and without a clinical diagnosis of flu. A general population sample with recent ILI experience was recruited during the 2011-2012 influenza season in Belgium. Half of the 2250 respondents sought professional medical care, reported more symptoms (especially more often fever, a longer duration of illness, more use of medication (especially antibiotics and a higher direct medical cost than patients not seeking medical care. The disease and economic burden were similar for ambulatory ILI patients, irrespective of whether they received a clinical diagnosis of flu. On average, they experienced 5-6 symptoms over a 6-day period; required 1.6 physician visits and 86-91% took medication. An average episode amounted to €51-€53 in direct medical costs, 4 days of absence from work or school and the loss of 0.005 quality-adjusted life-years. Underlying illness led to greater costs and lower quality-of-life. The costs of ILI patients with clinically diagnosed flu tended to increase, while those of ILI patients without clinically diagnosed flu tended to decrease with age. Recently vaccinated persons experienced lower costs and a higher quality-of-life, but this was only the case for patients not seeking professional medical care. This information can be used directly to evaluate the implementation of cost-effective prevention and control measures for influenza. In particular to inform the evaluation of more widespread seasonal influenza vaccination, including in children, which is currently considered by many countries.

  4. Health care development: integrating transaction cost theory with social support theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajli, M Nick; Shanmugam, Mohana; Hajli, Ali; Khani, Amir Hossein; Wang, Yichuan

    2014-07-28

    The emergence of Web 2.0 technologies has already been influential in many industries, and Web 2.0 applications are now beginning to have an impact on health care. These new technologies offer a promising approach for shaping the future of modern health care, with the potential for opening up new opportunities for the health care industry as it struggles to deal with challenges including the need to cut costs, the increasing demand for health services and the increasing cost of medical technology. Social media such as social networking sites are attracting more individuals to online health communities, contributing to an increase in the productivity of modern health care and reducing transaction costs. This study therefore examines the potential effect of social technologies, particularly social media, on health care development by adopting a social support/transaction cost perspective. Viewed through the lens of Information Systems, social support and transaction cost theories indicate that social media, particularly online health communities, positively support health care development. The results show that individuals join online health communities to share and receive social support, and these social interactions provide both informational and emotional support.

  5. Escalating Health Care Cost due to Unnecessary Diagnostic Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD AZAM ISHAQUE CHAUDHARY

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on health care systems can improve health outcomes now and in the future. Growing economies have serious concerns on the rising cost of health, whereas, in under developed countries like Pakistan, it is not emphasized yet at all. The research is conducted to improve a unique aspect of health care systems to provide effective, patient-centred, high-standard health care while maintaining the cost effectiveness. Research is being qualified in two paradigms qualitative and quantitative. In qualitative research, expert?s interviews have been taken to get the basic knowledge of radiology based testing and their prerequisites, in quantitative research ordered are being analysed to check the frequency and if they are unnecessary or qualified medical necessity guidelines as established in qualitative method. Analysis was made on the basis of the trinity relationship of diagnosis, symptoms and respected order to determine the necessity of the order to get its impact on cost of the overall health of those patients and point out more than 50% unnecessary orders are being performed in two government hospitals. The situation is alarming and policy makers should focus on unnecessary ordering to avoid out of pocket expenses and improve quality of care. The research helps in successful application of health care system modifications and policies pertaining to one aspect of health systems, i.e. cost-effectiveness of health care.

  6. The Case for the Use of Nurse Practitioners in the Care of Children with Medical Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Samuels

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Although children with medically complex illness represent less than one percent of the total pediatric population, their health care expenditures and health care system utilization far exceed the numbers of other pediatric patients. Nurse practitioners, with their educational background focused on health care promotion and education, are uniquely qualified to reduce this inequity with cost effective care. Currently, nurse practitioners are used in a variety of health care settings and can provide acute and chronic care. Incorporating nurse practitioners at each step in the care of children with medical complexity can improve the quality of life for these children and their families, increase family satisfaction and decrease costs.

  7. [Costs of maternal-infant care in an institutionalized health care system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal Ríos, E; Salinas Martínez, A M; Guzmán Padilla, J E; Garza Elizondo, M E; Tovar Castillo, N H; García Cornejo, M L

    1998-01-01

    Partial and total maternal and child health care costs were estimated. The study was developed in a Primary Care Health Clinic (PCHC) and a General Hospital (GH) of a social security health care system. Maternal and child health care services, type of activity and frequency utilization during 1995, were defined; cost examination was done separately for the PCHC and the GH. Estimation of fixed cost included departmentalization, determination of inputs, costs, basic services disbursements, and weighing. These data were related to depreciation, labor period and productivity. Estimation of variable costs required the participation of field experts; costs corresponded to those registered in billing records. The fixed cost plus the variable cost determined the unit cost, which multiplied by the of frequency of utilization generated the prenatal care, labor and delivery care, and postnatal care cost. The sum of these three equaled the maternal and child health care cost. The prenatal care cost was $1,205.33, the labor and delivery care cost was $3,313.98, and the postnatal care was $559.91. The total cost of the maternal and child health care corresponded to $5,079.22. Cost information is valuable for the health care personnel for health care planning activities.

  8. Primary Medical Care in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.

    Primary medical care in Chile: accessibility under military rule [Front Cover] [Front Matter] [Title Page] Contents Tables Figures Preface Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: The Restructuring of Medical Care Financing in Chile Chapter 3: Inflation and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 4: Help......-Seeking Behavior of the Urban Poor Chapter 5: Spatial Organization and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 6: Conclusion...

  9. Cost Effectiveness of Falls and Injury Prevention Strategies for Older Adults Living in Residential Aged Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Jody L; Haas, Marion R; Goodall, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the cost effectiveness of interventions designed to prevent falls and fall-related injuries among older people living in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) from an Australian health care perspective. A decision analytic Markov model was developed that stratified individuals according to their risk of falling and accounted for the risk of injury following a fall. The effectiveness of the interventions was derived from two Cochrane reviews of randomized controlled trials for falls/fall-related injury prevention in RACFs. Interventions were considered effective if they reduced the risk of falling or reduced the risk of injury following a fall. The interventions that were modelled included vitamin D supplementation, annual medication review, multifactorial intervention (a combination of risk assessment, medication review, vision assessment and exercise) and hip protectors. The cost effectiveness was calculated as the incremental cost relative to the incremental benefit, in which the benefit was estimated using quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Uncertainty was explored using univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Vitamin D supplementation and medication review both dominated 'no intervention', as these interventions were both more effective and cost saving (because of healthcare costs avoided). Hip protectors are dominated (less effective and more costly) by vitamin D and medication review. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for medication review relative to vitamin D supplementation is AU$2442 per QALY gained, and the ICER for multifactorial intervention relative to medication review is AU$1,112,500 per QALY gained. The model is most sensitive to the fear of falling and the cost of the interventions. The model suggests that vitamin D supplementation and medication review are cost-effective interventions that reduce falls, provide health benefits and reduce health care costs in older adults living in RACFs.

  10. Direct costs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among managed care patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Anand A Dalal1, Laura Christensen2, Fang Liu3, Aylin A Riedel31US Health Outcomes, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 2Health Economics Outcomes Research, i3 Innovus, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 3Health Economics Outcomes Research, i3 Innovus, Eden Prairie, MN, USAPurpose: To estimate patient- and episode-level direct costs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD among commercially insured patients in the US.Methods: In this retrospective claims-based analysis, commercial enrollees with evidence of COPD were grouped into five mutually exclusive cohorts based on the most intensive level of COPD-related care they received in 2006, ie, outpatient, urgent outpatient (outpatient care in addition to a claim for an oral corticosteroid or antibiotic within seven days, emergency department (ED, standard inpatient admission, and intensive care unit (ICU cohorts. Patient-level COPD-related annual health care costs, including patient- and payer-paid costs, were compared among the cohorts. Adjusted episode-level costs were calculated.Results: Of the 37,089 COPD patients included in the study, 53% were in the outpatient cohort, 37% were in the urgent outpatient cohort, 3% were in the ED cohort, and the standard admission and ICU cohorts together comprised 6%. Mean (standard deviation, SD annual COPD-related health care costs (2008 US$ increased across the cohorts (P < 0.001, ranging from $2003 ($3238 to $43,461 ($76,159 per patient. Medical costs comprised 96% of health care costs for the ICU cohort. Adjusted mean (SD episode-level costs were $305 ($310 for an outpatient visit, $274 ($336 for an urgent outpatient visit, $327 ($65 for an ED visit, $9745 ($2968 for a standard admission, and $33,440 for an ICU stay.Conclusion: Direct costs of COPD-related care for commercially insured patients are driven by hospital stays with or without ICU care. Exacerbation prevention resulting in reduced need for inpatient care could lower costs

  11. The evolution of dependent medical care in the U.S. Army.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Thomas J S

    2011-10-01

    There is great focus within the military medical community regarding the ever growing cost of medical care overall and dependent care specifically. A great deal of discussion relates to the delivery of care through a growing military-civilian partnership, where an increased amount of health care will be referred to an ever growing network of civilian providers. The U.S. military establishment now stands at an important crossroad leading into the future of dependent care. However, the special concerns, which arise from the responsibility of caring for military dependents, are not a solely recent phenomenon. Ever since the establishment of a permanent standing U.S. Army in the late 1700s, there have been families in need of medical treatment. Although changes occurred continuously, the development and evolution of policies regulating the delivery of medical care to dependants can be divided into three periods. The first is the longest and ranges from the establishment of the Army until the year 1900. The second period spans from 1900 to the post-Korean War year of 1956. The third and final period is from 1956 to 1975. Special changes and advances in each of these periods have served to shape the face of dependent care in today's Army Medical Department.

  12. Outpatient treatment costs and their potential impact on cancer care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isshiki, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Cancer creates a tremendous financial burden. Cancer-related costs are categorized into direct, indirect, and psychosocial costs. Although there have been many reports on medical care costs, which are direct, those on other costs are extremely scarce. We estimated travel time and costs required for cancer patients to receive outpatient treatment. We studied 521 cancer patients receiving anti-cancer treatment between February 2009 and December 2012 at the Outpatient Chemotherapy Center of Teikyo University Chiba Medical Center. Address data were extracted from Data Warehouse electronic medical records, and travel distance and time required for outpatient treatment were calculated via MapInfo and ACT Distance Calculator Package. Transportation costs were estimated on the basis of ¥274 (=$3.00) per kilometer. The study design was approved by an ethics review board of Teikyo University (12-851). Average round-trip travel distance, time, and cost for all patients were 26.7 km, 72.5 min, and ¥7,303 ($79.99), respectively. Cancer patients incurred a travel cost of ¥4000–¥9000 ($40.00 to $100.00) for each outpatient treatment. With population aging, seniors living alone and senior households are increasing, and outpatient visits are becoming a common burden

  13. Health Care: Reprocessed Medical Single-Use Devices in DoD

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... for decontamination and resterilization. The emergence of new materials and sterilization methods, and the increasing costs of health care, resulted in the development of medical single-use devices and the practice of reprocessing the devices...

  14. Analysis of the costs and quality of cardiovascular care in oncological monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élide Sbardellotto Mariano da Costa

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: To analyze the health care costs specifically related to cardiovascular diseases, which were spent by patients of a private healthcare provider in southern Brazil, after their diagnosis of cancer. Method: We developed an observational, cross-sectional, retrospective study, with a qualitative-quantitative strategy, through the activity of analytical internal audit of medical accounts. Results: 860 accounts from 2012 to 2015 were analyzed, 73% referred to female users, with average age of 62.38 years, and a total direct cost of BRL 241,103.72. There was prevalence of 37% of breast cancer, 15% of prostate cancer and 9% of colon cancer. In relation to the cardiovascular care, 44% were consultations, 44% were complementary exams, 10% were emergency care, and 3% were hospitalizations. Regarding the health care costs with cardiovascular services, higher costs were in hospitalizations (51%, followed by complementary exams (37%, consultations (8% and emergency care (4%. Conclusion: The cancer survivors commonly use health care in other specialties such as cardiology, and the main cost refers to hospitalization. It is recommended to invest in prevention (consultation and complementary exam as well as in programs of chronic disease management to reduce costs and improve the quality of health care.

  15. Care bundle for ventilator-associated pneumonia in a medical intensive care unit in Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ping Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP occurs in patients requiring mechanical ventilators for more than 48 h. VAP is the most common nosocomial infection and the leading cause of complications and death in intensive care units (ICUs. Materials and Methods: Two historical comparison groups of 375 patients who used mechanical ventilators for more than 48 h in the medical ICU (MICU from December 1, 2011 to May 31, 2012 and December 1, 2013 to May 31, 2014 were enrolled in this study. There were 194 adult patients in the control group that received traditional care, and there were 181 patients in the experimental VAP care bundle group. Our VAP care bundle entailed several preventive strategies including daily assessments of sedation, daily consideration of weaning and extubation by the doctors and respiratory therapists charged with the care of the patients, maintenance of the intra-cuff pressure values at approximately 20-30 cm H 2 O, hand hygiene, daily oral hygiene, personal protective equipment for suctioning, the placement of patients in semi-recumbent positions with the head of the bed elevated to at least 30°, aspiration of an endotracheal tube and oral cavity prior to position changes, daily cleaning of the ventilator and suction bottle with sterile distilled water, weekly replacement of the ventilator circuit and heater, sterilization of the circuit by pasteurization, and the use of an independent care room. The data were collected by reviewing the patients′ medical records and by retrieving information from the Nosocomial Infection Control Unit of one medical center in Northern Taiwan. Results: The incidence of VAP in the VAP care bundle group (0.281 cases per 1000 ventilator days was significantly lower than that in the control group (0.495 cases per 1000 ventilator days. We estimated that the occurrence of VAP in the MICU increased the medical costs by an average of NT $68317 per patient. Conclusions: VAP care bundle is an

  16. Cost-effectiveness of a transitional pharmaceutical care program for patients discharged from the hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Karapinar-Çarkit (Fatma); R. van der Knaap (Ronald); Bouhannouch, F. (Fatiha); S.D. Borgsteede (Sander); M.J.A. Janssen (Marjo); Siegert, C.E.H. (Carl E. H.); T.C.G. Egberts (Toine C.G.); P.M.L.A. van den Bemt (Patricia); M.F. van Wier (Marieke); J.E. Bosmans (Judith)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground To improve continuity of care at hospital admission and discharge and to decrease medication errors pharmaceutical care programs are developed. This study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of the COACH program in comparison with usual care from a societal perspective.

  17. Unit cost of medical services at different hospitals in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Chatterjee

    Full Text Available Institutional care is a growing component of health care costs in low- and middle-income countries, but local health planners in these countries have inadequate knowledge of the costs of different medical services. In India, greater utilisation of hospital services is driven both by rising incomes and by government insurance programmes that cover the cost of inpatient services; however, there is still a paucity of unit cost information from Indian hospitals. In this study, we estimated operating costs and cost per outpatient visit, cost per inpatient stay, cost per emergency room visit, and cost per surgery for five hospitals of different types across India: a 57-bed charitable hospital, a 200-bed private hospital, a 400-bed government district hospital, a 655-bed private teaching hospital, and a 778-bed government tertiary care hospital for the financial year 2010-11. The major cost component varied among human resources, capital costs, and material costs, by hospital type. The outpatient visit cost ranged from Rs. 94 (district hospital to Rs. 2,213 (private hospital (USD 1 = INR 52. The inpatient stay cost was Rs. 345 in the private teaching hospital, Rs. 394 in the district hospital, Rs. 614 in the tertiary care hospital, Rs. 1,959 in the charitable hospital, and Rs. 6,996 in the private hospital. Our study results can help hospital administrators understand their cost structures and run their facilities more efficiently, and we identify areas where improvements in efficiency might significantly lower unit costs. The study also demonstrates that detailed costing of Indian hospital operations is both feasible and essential, given the significant variation in the country's hospital types. Because of the size and diversity of the country and variations across hospitals, a large-scale study should be undertaken to refine hospital costing for different types of hospitals so that the results can be used for policy purposes, such as revising

  18. Unit Cost of Medical Services at Different Hospitals in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Susmita; Levin, Carol; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2013-01-01

    Institutional care is a growing component of health care costs in low- and middle-income countries, but local health planners in these countries have inadequate knowledge of the costs of different medical services. In India, greater utilisation of hospital services is driven both by rising incomes and by government insurance programmes that cover the cost of inpatient services; however, there is still a paucity of unit cost information from Indian hospitals. In this study, we estimated operating costs and cost per outpatient visit, cost per inpatient stay, cost per emergency room visit, and cost per surgery for five hospitals of different types across India: a 57-bed charitable hospital, a 200-bed private hospital, a 400-bed government district hospital, a 655-bed private teaching hospital, and a 778-bed government tertiary care hospital for the financial year 2010–11. The major cost component varied among human resources, capital costs, and material costs, by hospital type. The outpatient visit cost ranged from Rs. 94 (district hospital) to Rs. 2,213 (private hospital) (USD 1 = INR 52). The inpatient stay cost was Rs. 345 in the private teaching hospital, Rs. 394 in the district hospital, Rs. 614 in the tertiary care hospital, Rs. 1,959 in the charitable hospital, and Rs. 6,996 in the private hospital. Our study results can help hospital administrators understand their cost structures and run their facilities more efficiently, and we identify areas where improvements in efficiency might significantly lower unit costs. The study also demonstrates that detailed costing of Indian hospital operations is both feasible and essential, given the significant variation in the country’s hospital types. Because of the size and diversity of the country and variations across hospitals, a large-scale study should be undertaken to refine hospital costing for different types of hospitals so that the results can be used for policy purposes, such as revising payment rates

  19. Direct medical cost and utility analysis of diabetics outpatient at Karanganyar public hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eristina; Andayani, T. M.; Oetari, R. A.

    2017-11-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is a high cost disease, especially in long-term complication treatment. Long-term complication treatment cost was a problem for the patient, it can affect patients quality of life stated with utility value. The purpose of this study was to determine the medical cost, utility value and leverage factors of diabetics outpatient. This study was cross sectional design, data collected from retrospective medical record of the financial and pharmacy department to obtain direct medical cost, utility value taken from EQ-5D-5L questionnaire. Data analyzed by Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results of this study were IDR 433,728.00 for the direct medical cost and pharmacy as the biggest cost. EQ-5D-5L questionnaire showed the biggest proportion on each dimension were 61% no problem on mobility dimension, 89% no problems on self-care dimension, 54% slight problems on usual activities dimension, 41% moderate problems on pain/discomfort dimension and 48% moderate problems on anxiety/depresion dimension. Build upon Thailand value set, utility value was 0.833. Direct medical cost was IDR 433,728.00 with leverage factors were pattern therapy, blood glucose level and complication. Utility value was 0.833 with leverage factors were patients characteristic, therapy pattern, blood glucose level and complication.

  20. Management of sacroiliac joint disruption and degenerative sacroiliitis with nonoperative care is medical resource-intensive and costly in a United States commercial payer population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackerman SJ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Stacey J Ackerman,1 David W Polly Jr,2 Tyler Knight,3 Tim Holt,4 John Cummings5 1Covance Market Access Services Inc, San Diego, CA, USA; 2University of Minnesota, Orthopaedic Surgery, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 3Covance Market Access Services Inc, Gaithersburg, MD, USA; 4Montgomery Spine Center, Orthopaedic Surgery, Montgomery, AL, USA; 5Community Health Network, Neurosurgery, Indianapolis, IN, USA Introduction: Low back pain is common and originates in the sacroiliac (SI joint in 15%–30% of cases. Traditional SI joint disruption/degenerative sacroiliitis treatments include nonoperative care or open SI joint fusion. To evaluate the usefulness of newly developed minimally-invasive technologies, the costs of traditional treatments must be better understood. We assessed the costs of nonoperative care for SI joint disruption to commercial payers in the United States (US. Methods: A retrospective study of claim-level medical resource use and associated costs used the MarketScan® Commercial Claims and Encounters as well as Medicare Supplemental Databases of Truven Healthcare. Patients with a primary ICD-9-CM diagnosis code for SI joint disruption (720.2, 724.6, 739.4, 846.9, or 847.3, an initial date of diagnosis from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2007 (index date, and continuous enrollment for ≥1 year before and 3 years after the index date were included. Claims attributable to SI joint disruption with a primary or secondary ICD-9-CM diagnosis code of 71x.xx, 72x.xx, 73x.xx, or 84x.xx were identified; the 3-year medical resource use-associated reimbursement and outpatient pain medication costs (measured in 2011 US dollars were tabulated across practice settings. A subgroup analysis was performed among patients with lumbar spinal fusion. Results: The mean 3-year direct, attributable medical costs were $16,196 (standard deviation [SD] $28,592 per privately-insured patient (N=78,533. Among patients with lumbar spinal fusion (N=434, attributable 3-year

  1. Cost-effectiveness of endobronchial valve treatment in patients with severe emphysema compared to standard medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Jorine E; Klooster, Karin; Groen, Henk; Ten Hacken, Nick H T; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    2018-03-25

    Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction using endobronchial valves (EBV) is an effective new treatment option for severe emphysema patients without interlobar collateral ventilation. The objective of this study was to perform an economic evaluation including the costs and cost-effectiveness of EBV treatment compared with standard medical care (SoC) from the hospital perspective in the short term and long term. For the short-term evaluation, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were calculated based on the 6-month end point data from the STELVIO randomized trial. For the long-term evaluation, a Markov simulation model was constructed based on STELVIO and literature. The clinical outcome data were quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) based on the EuroQol5-Dimensions (EQ5D) questionnaire, the 6-min walking distance (6MWD) and the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). The mean difference between the EBV group and controls was €16 721/patient. In the short-term (6 months), costs per additional QALY was €205 129, the ICER for 6MWD was €160 and for SGRQ was €1241. In the long term, the resulting cost-effectiveness ratios indicate additional costs of €39 000 per QALY gained with a 5-year time horizon and €21 500 per QALY gained at 10 years. In comparison, historical costs per additional QALY 1 year after the coil treatment are €738 400, 5 years after lung volume reduction surgery are €48 415 and 15 years after double-lung transplantation are €29 410. The positive clinical effects of EBV treatment are associated with increased costs compared with SoC. Our results suggest that the EBV treatment has a favourable cost-effectiveness profile, also when compared with other treatment modalities for this patient group. © 2018 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  2. Relationship between global severity of patients with Alzheimer's disease and costs of care in Spain; results from the co-dependence study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbà, J; Kaskens, L; Lacey, L

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this analysis were to examine how patients' global severity with Alzheimer's disease (AD) relates to costs of care and explore the incremental effects of global severity measured by the clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale on these costs for patients in Spain. The Codep-EA study is an 18-multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study among patients (343) with AD according to the CDR score and their caregivers in Spain. The data obtained included (in addition to clinical measures) also socio-demographic data concerning the patient and its caregiver. Cost analyses were based on resource use for medical care, social care, caregiver productivity losses, and informal caregiver time reported in the resource utilization in dementia (RUD). Lite instrument and a complementary questionnaire. Multivariate regression analysis was used to model the effects of global severity and other socio-demographic and clinical variables on cost of care. The mean (standard deviation) costs per patient over 6 months for direct medical, social care, indirect and informal care costs, were estimated at €1,028.1 (1,655.0), €843.8 (2,684.8), €464.2 (1,639.0) and €33,232.2 (30,898.9), respectively. Dementia severity, as having a CDR score 0.5, 2, or 3 with CDR score 1 being the reference group were all independently and significantly associated with informal care costs. Whereas having a CDR score of 2 was also significantly related with social care costs, a CDR score of 3 was associated with most cost components including direct medical, social care, and total costs, all compared to the reference group. The costs of care for patients with AD in Spain are substantial, with informal care accounting for the greatest part. Dementia severity, measured by CDR score, showed that with increasing severity of the disease, direct medical, social care, informal care and total costs augmented.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of a transitional pharmaceutical care program for patients discharged from the hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karapinar-Çarkıt, Fatma; van der Knaap, Ronald; Bouhannouch, Fatiha; Borgsteede, Sander D; Janssen, Marjo J A; Siegert, Carl E H; Egberts, Toine C G; van den Bemt, Patricia M L A; van Wier, Marieke F; Bosmans, Judith E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To improve continuity of care at hospital admission and discharge and to decrease medication errors pharmaceutical care programs are developed. This study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of the COACH program in comparison with usual care from a societal perspective. METHODS: A

  4. Basing care reforms on evidence: the Kenya health sector costing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flessa, Steffen; Moeller, Michael; Ensor, Tim; Hornetz, Klaus

    2011-05-27

    The Government of the Republic of Kenya is in the process of implementing health care reforms. However, poor knowledge about costs of health care services is perceived as a major obstacle towards evidence-based, effective and efficient health care reforms. Against this background, the Ministry of Health of Kenya in cooperation with its development partners conducted a comprehensive costing exercise and subsequently developed the Kenya Health Sector Costing Model in order to fill this data gap. Based on standard methodology of costing of health care services in developing countries, standard questionnaires and analyses were employed in 207 health care facilities representing different trustees (e.g. Government, Faith Based/Nongovernmental, private-for-profit organisations), levels of care and regions (urban, rural). In addition, a total of 1369 patients were randomly selected and asked about their demand-sided costs. A standard step-down costing methodology was applied to calculate the costs per service unit and per diagnosis of the financial year 2006/2007. The total costs of essential health care services in Kenya were calculated as 690 million Euros or 18.65 Euro per capita. 54% were incurred by public sector facilities, 17% by Faith Based and other Nongovernmental facilities and 23% in the private sector. Some 6% of the total cost is due to the overall administration provided directly by the Ministry and its decentralised organs. Around 37% of this cost is absorbed by salaries and 22% by drugs and medical supplies. Generally, costs of lower levels of care are lower than of higher levels, but health centres are an exemption. They have higher costs per service unit than district hospitals. The results of this study signify that the costs of health care services are quite high compared with the Kenyan domestic product, but a major share are fixed costs so that an increasing coverage does not necessarily increase the health care costs proportionally. Instead

  5. Basing care reforms on evidence: The Kenya health sector costing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The Government of the Republic of Kenya is in the process of implementing health care reforms. However, poor knowledge about costs of health care services is perceived as a major obstacle towards evidence-based, effective and efficient health care reforms. Against this background, the Ministry of Health of Kenya in cooperation with its development partners conducted a comprehensive costing exercise and subsequently developed the Kenya Health Sector Costing Model in order to fill this data gap. Methods Based on standard methodology of costing of health care services in developing countries, standard questionnaires and analyses were employed in 207 health care facilities representing different trustees (e.g. Government, Faith Based/Nongovernmental, private-for-profit organisations), levels of care and regions (urban, rural). In addition, a total of 1369 patients were randomly selected and asked about their demand-sided costs. A standard step-down costing methodology was applied to calculate the costs per service unit and per diagnosis of the financial year 2006/2007. Results The total costs of essential health care services in Kenya were calculated as 690 million Euros or 18.65 Euro per capita. 54% were incurred by public sector facilities, 17% by Faith Based and other Nongovernmental facilities and 23% in the private sector. Some 6% of the total cost is due to the overall administration provided directly by the Ministry and its decentralised organs. Around 37% of this cost is absorbed by salaries and 22% by drugs and medical supplies. Generally, costs of lower levels of care are lower than of higher levels, but health centres are an exemption. They have higher costs per service unit than district hospitals. Conclusions The results of this study signify that the costs of health care services are quite high compared with the Kenyan domestic product, but a major share are fixed costs so that an increasing coverage does not necessarily increase the health

  6. Smarter elder care? A cost-effectiveness analysis of implementing technology in elder care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aanesen, Margrethe; Lotherington, Ann Therese; Olsen, Frank

    2011-09-01

    Whereas in most sectors, technology has taken over trivial and labour consuming tasks, this transformation has been delayed in the healthcare sector. Although appropriate technology is available, there is general resistance to substituting 'warm' hands with 'cold' technology. In the future, this may change as the number of elderly people increases relative to the people in the work force. In combination with an increasing demand for healthcare services, there are calls for efforts to increase productivity in the sector. Based on experience data from previous studies on information and communication technology efforts in the healthcare sector, we quantitatively assess the use of smart house technology and video visits in home care. Having identified healthcare providers, hospitals and relatives as the main affected groups, we show that smart house technology is cost-effective, even if only relatives gain from it. Video visits, which have higher implementation costs, demand effects on both relatives and health care providers in order to be a cost-effective tool in home care. As the analysis is purely quantitative, these results need to be complemented with qualitative effects and with more thorough discussions of the ethical, medical and legal aspects of the use of technology in home care.

  7. Activity-based costing of health-care delivery, Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBain, Ryan K; Jerome, Gregory; Leandre, Fernet; Browning, Micaela; Warsh, Jonathan; Shah, Mahek; Mistry, Bipin; Faure, Peterson Abnis I; Pierre, Claire; Fang, Anna P; Mugunga, Jean Claude; Gottlieb, Gary; Rhatigan, Joseph; Kaplan, Robert

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the implementation of a time-driven activity-based costing analysis at five community health facilities in Haiti. Together with stakeholders, the project team decided that health-care providers should enter start and end times of the patient encounter in every fifth patient's medical dossier. We trained one data collector per facility, who manually entered the time recordings and patient characteristics in a database and submitted the data to a cloud-based data warehouse each week. We calculated the capacity cost per minute for each resource used. An automated web-based platform multiplied reported time with capacity cost rate and provided the information to health-facilities administrators. Between March 2014 and June 2015, the project tracked the clinical services for 7162 outpatients. The cost of care for specific conditions varied widely across the five facilities, due to heterogeneity in staffing and resources. For example, the average cost of a first antenatal-care visit ranged from 6.87 United States dollars (US$) at a low-level facility to US$ 25.06 at a high-level facility. Within facilities, we observed similarly variation in costs, due to factors such as patient comorbidities, patient arrival time, stocking of supplies at facilities and type of visit. Time-driven activity-based costing can be implemented in low-resource settings to guide resource allocation decisions. However, the extent to which this information will drive observable changes at patient, provider and institutional levels depends on several contextual factors, including budget constraints, management, policies and the political economy in which the health system is situated.

  8. The Cost of Sustaining a Patient-Centered Medical Home: Experience From 2 States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, Michael K.; Ehrenberger, David; Scammon, Debra L.; Day, Julie; Allen, Tatiana; Reall, Andreu J.; Sides, Rhonda W.; Kim, Jaewhan

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE As medical practices transform to patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs), it is important to identify the ongoing costs of maintaining these “advanced primary care” functions. A key required input is personnel effort. This study’s objective was to assess direct personnel costs to practices associated with the staffing necessary to deliver PCMH functions as outlined in the National Committee for Quality Assurance Standards. METHODS We developed a PCMH cost dimensions tool to assess costs associated with activities uniquely required to maintain PCMH functions. We interviewed practice managers, nurse supervisors, and medical directors in 20 varied primary care practices in 2 states, guided by the tool. Outcome measures included categories of staff used to perform various PCMH functions, time and personnel costs, and whether practices were delivering PCMH functions. RESULTS Costs per full-time equivalent primary care clinician associated with PCMH functions varied across practices with an average of $7,691 per month in Utah practices and $9,658 in Colorado practices. PCMH incremental costs per encounter were $32.71 in Utah and $36.68 in Colorado. The average estimated cost per member per month for an assumed panel of 2,000 patients was $3.85 in Utah and $4.83 in Colorado. CONCLUSIONS Identifying costs of maintaining PCMH functions will contribute to effective payment reform and to sustainability of transformation. Maintenance and ongoing support of PCMH functions require additional time and new skills, which may be provided by existing staff, additional staff, or both. Adequate compensation for ongoing and substantial incremental costs is critical for practices to sustain PCMH functions. PMID:26371263

  9. Direct medical mental health care costs of schizophrenia in France, Germany and the United Kingdom - findings from the European Schizophrenia Cohort (EuroSC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heider, Dirk; Bernert, Sebastian; König, Hans-Helmut; Matschinger, Herbert; Hogh, Theresa; Brugha, Traolach S; Bebbington, Paul E; Azorin, Michel; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Toumi, Mondher

    2009-05-01

    To quantify and compare the resource consumption and direct costs of medical mental health care of patients suffering from schizophrenia in France, Germany and the United Kingdom. In the European Cohort Study of Schizophrenia, a naturalistic two-year follow-up study, patients were recruited in France (N=288), Germany (N=618), and the United Kingdom (N=302). Data about the use of services and medication were collected. Unit cost data were obtained and transformed into United States Dollar Purchasing Power Parities (USD-PPP). Mean service use and costs were estimated using between-effects regression models. In the French/German/UK sample estimated means for a six-month period were respectively 5.7, 7.5 and 6.4 inpatient days, and 11.0, 1.3, and 0.7 day-clinic days. After controlling for age, sex, number of former hospitalizations and psychopathology (CGI score), mean costs were 3700/2815/3352 USD-PPP. Service use and estimated costs varied considerably between countries. The greatest differences were related to day-clinic use. The use of services was not consistently higher in one country than in the others. Estimated costs did not necessarily reflect the quantity of service use, since unit costs for individual types of service varied considerably between countries.

  10. The economics of bladder cancer: costs and considerations of caring for this disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svatek, Robert S; Hollenbeck, Brent K; Holmäng, Sten; Lee, Richard; Kim, Simon P; Stenzl, Arnulf; Lotan, Yair

    2014-08-01

    Due to high recurrence rates, intensive surveillance strategies, and expensive treatment costs, the management of bladder cancer contributes significantly to medical costs. To provide a concise evaluation of contemporary cost-related challenges in the care of patients with bladder cancer. An emphasis is placed on the initial diagnosis of bladder cancer and therapy considerations for both non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and more advanced disease. A systematic review of the literature was performed using Medline (1966 to February 2011). Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms for search criteria included "bladder cancer, neoplasms" OR "carcinoma, transitional cell" AND all cost-related MeSH search terms. Studies evaluating the costs associated with of various diagnostic or treatment approaches were reviewed. Routine use of perioperative chemotherapy following complete transurethral resection of bladder tumor has been estimated to provide a cost savings. Routine office-based fulguration of small low-grade recurrences could decrease costs. Another potential important target for decreasing variation and cost lies in risk-modified surveillance strategies after initial bladder tumor removal to reduce the cost associated with frequent cystoscopic and radiographic procedures. Optimizing postoperative care after radical cystectomy has the potential to decrease length of stay and perioperative morbidity with substantial decreases in perioperative care expenses. The gemcitabine-cisplatin regimen has been estimated to result in a modest increase in cost effectiveness over methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin. Additional costs of therapies need to be balanced with effectiveness, and there are significant gaps in knowledge regarding optimal surveillance and treatment of both early and advanced bladder cancer. Regardless of disease severity, improvements in the efficiency of bladder cancer care to limit unnecessary interventions and optimize effective

  11. Manipulative therapy in addition to usual medical care accelerates recovery of shoulder complaints at higher costs: economic outcomes of a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergman Gert JD

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shoulder complaints are common in primary care and have unfavourable long term prognosis. Our objective was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of manipulative therapy of the cervicothoracic spine and the adjacent ribs in addition to usual medical care (UMC by the general practitioner in the treatment of shoulder complaints. Methods This economic evaluation was conducted alongside a randomized trial in primary care. Included were 150 patients with shoulder complaints and a dysfunction of the cervicothoracic spine and adjacent ribs. Patients were treated with UMC (NSAID's, corticosteroid injection or referral to physical therapy and were allocated at random (yes/no to manipulative therapy (manipulation and mobilization. Patient perceived recovery, severity of main complaint, shoulder pain, disability and general health were outcome measures. Data about direct and indirect costs were collected by means of a cost diary. Results Manipulative therapy as add-on to UMC accelerated recovery on all outcome measures included. At 26 weeks after randomization, both groups reported similar recovery rates (41% vs. 38%, but the difference between groups in improvement of severity of the main complaint, shoulder pain and disability sustained. Compared to the UMC group the total costs were higher in the manipulative group (€1167 vs. €555. This is explained mainly by the costs of the manipulative therapy itself and the higher costs due sick leave from work. The cost effectiveness ratio showed that additional manipulative treatment is more costly but also more effective than UMC alone. The cost-effectiveness acceptability curve shows that a 50%-probability of recovery with AMT within 6 months after initiation of treatment is achieved at €2876. Conclusion Manipulative therapy in addition to UMC accelerates recovery and is more effective than UMC alone on the long term, but is associated with higher costs. International Standard

  12. Cost Effectiveness of On-site versus Off-site Depression Collaborative Care in Rural Federally Qualified Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, Jeffrey M.; Fortney, John C.; Mouden, Sip; Lu, Liya; Hudson, Teresa J; Mittal, Dinesh

    2018-01-01

    Objective Collaborative care for depression is effective and cost-effective in primary care settings. However, there is minimal evidence to inform the choice of on-site versus off-site models. This study examined the cost-effectiveness of on-site practice-based collaborative care (PBCC) versus off-site telemedicine-based collaborative care (TBCC) for depression in Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs). Methods Multi-site randomized pragmatic comparative cost-effectiveness trial. 19,285 patients were screened for depression, 14.8% (n=2,863) screened positive (PHQ9 ≥10) and 364 were enrolled. Telephone interview data were collected at baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-months. Base case analysis used Arkansas FQHC healthcare costs and secondary analysis used national cost estimates. Effectiveness measures were depression-free days and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) derived from depression-free days, Medical Outcomes Study SF-12, and Quality of Well Being scale (QWB). Nonparametric bootstrap with replacement methods were used to generate an empirical joint distribution of incremental costs and QALYs and acceptability curves. Results Mean base case FQHC incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) using depression-free days was $10.78/depression-free day. Mean base case ICERs using QALYs ranged from $14,754/QALY (depression-free day QALY) to $37,261/QALY (QWB QALY). Mean secondary national ICER using depression-free days was $8.43/depression-free day and using QALYs ranged from $11,532/QALY (depression-free day QALY) to $29,234/QALY (QWB QALY). Conclusions These results support the cost-effectiveness of the TBCC intervention in medically underserved primary care settings. Results can inform the decision about whether to insource (make) or outsource (buy) depression care management in the FQHC setting within the current context of Patient-Centered Medical Home, value-based purchasing, and potential bundled payments for depression care. The www.clinicaltrials.gov # for

  13. Does public insurance provide better financial protection against rising health care costs for families of children with special health care needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; Dick, Andrew W; Szilagyi, Peter G

    2008-10-01

    Health care costs grew rapidly since 2001, generating substantial economic pressures on families, especially those with children with special health care needs (CSHCN). To examine how the growth of health care costs affected financial burden for families of CSHCN between 2001 and 2004 and to determine the extent to which health insurance coverage protected families of CSHCN against financial burden. In 2001-2004, 5196 families of CSHCN were surveyed by the national Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). The main outcome was financial burden, defined as the proportion of family income spent on out-of-pocket (OOP) health care expenditures for all family members, including OOP costs and premiums. Family insurance coverage was classified as: (1) all members publicly insured, (2) all members privately insured, (3) all members uninsured, (4) partial coverage, and (5) a mix of public and private with no uninsured periods. An upward trend in financial burden for families of CSHCN occurred and was associated with growth of economy-wide health care costs. A multivariate analysis indicated that, given the economy-wide increase in medical costs between 2001 and 2004, a family with CSHCN was at increased risk in 2004 for having financial burden exceeding 10% of family income [odds ratio (OR) = 1.39; P financial burden exceeding 20% of family income. Over 15% of families with public insurance had financial burden exceeding 10% of family income compared with 20% of families with private insurance (P financial burden of >10% or 20% of family income than privately-insured families. Rising health care costs increased financial burden on families of CSHCN in 2001-2004. Public insurance coverage provided better financial protection than private insurance against the rapidly rising health care costs for families of CSHCN.

  14. Biopsychosocial law, health care reform, and the control of medical inflation in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Daniel; Mueller, Kathryn; Warren, Pamela A

    2012-05-01

    A noteworthy attempt at health care reform was the 1992 Colorado workers' compensation reform bill, which led to the creation of what has been called "biopsychosocial laws." These laws mandated the use of treatment guidelines for patients with injury or chronic pain, which advocated a biopsychosocial model of rehabilitation, and aspired to use a "best practice" approach to controlling costs. The purpose of this study was to examine the financial impact of this health care reform process, and to test the hypothesis that this approach can be an effective strategy to contain costs while providing good care. This study utilized a dataset collected prospectively from 1992 to 2007 in 45 U.S. states for regulatory purposes. These data summarized the medical treatment and disability costs of 520,314 injured workers in Colorado, and an estimated 28.6 million injured workers nationally. As no other state passed a comparable bill, the Colorado worker compensation reform bill created a natural experiment, where a treatment group was created by legally enforceable medical treatment guidelines. In the 15 years following the implementation of the reform, the inflation of medical costs in Colorado workers' compensation was only one third that of the national average, saving an estimated $859 million on patients injured in 2007 alone. Although there were confounding variables, and causality could not be determined, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that Colorado's 1992 legislative efforts to reform workers compensation law using the biopsychosocial model worked as intended to provide good care while controlling costs. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Can Nonurgent Emergency Department Care Costs be Reduced? Empirical Evidence from a U.S. Nationally Representative Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Haichang; Kilgore, Meredith L; Sen, Bisakha Pia; Blackburn, Justin

    2015-09-01

    A well-functioning primary care system has the capacity to provide effective care for patients to avoid nonurgent emergency department (ED) use and related costs. This study examined how patients' perceived deficiency in ambulatory care is associated with nonurgent ED care costs nationwide. This retrospective cohort study used data from the 2010-2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. This study chose usual source of care, convenience of needed medical care, and patient evaluation of care quality as the main independent variables. The marginal effect following a multivariate logit model was employed to analyze the urgent vs. nonurgent ED care costs in 2011, after controlling for covariates in 2010. The endogeneity was accounted for by the time lag effect and controlling for education levels. Sample weights and variance were adjusted with the survey procedures to make results nationally representative. Patient-perceived poor and intermediate levels of primary care quality had higher odds of nonurgent ED care costs (odds ratio [OR] = 2.22, p = 0.035, and OR = 2.05, p = 0.011, respectively) compared to high-quality care, with a marginal effect (at means) of 13.0% and 11.5% higher predicted probability of nonurgent ED care costs. Costs related to these ambulatory care quality deficiencies amounted to $229 million for private plans (95% confidence interval [CI] $100 million-$358 million), $58.5 million for public plans (95% CI $33.9 million-$83.1 million), and an overall of $379 million (95% CI $229 million-$529 million) nationally. These findings highlight the improvement in ambulatory care quality as the potential target area to effectively reduce nonurgent ED care costs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Practice Innovation, Health Care Utilization and Costs in a Network of Federally Qualified Health Centers and Hospitals for Medicaid Enrollees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tricia J; Jones, Art; Lulias, Cheryl; Perry, Anthony

    2018-06-01

    State Medicaid programs need cost-effective strategies to provide high-quality care that is accessible to individuals with low incomes and limited resources. Integrated delivery systems have been formed to provide care across the continuum, but creating a shared vision for improving community health can be challenging. Medical Home Network was created as a network of primary care providers and hospital systems providing care to Medicaid enrollees, guided by the principles of egalitarian governance, practice-level care coordination, real-time electronic alerts, and pay-for-performance incentives. This analysis of health care utilization and costs included 1,189,195 Medicaid enrollees. After implementation of Medical Home Network, a risk-adjusted increase of $9.07 or 4.3% per member per month was found over the 2 years of implementation compared with an increase of $17.25 or 9.3% per member per month, before accounting for the cost of care management fees and other financial incentives, for Medicaid enrollees within the same geographic area with a primary care provider outside of Medical Home Network. After accounting for care coordination fees paid to providers, the net risk-adjusted cost reduction was $11.0 million.

  17. Direct health care costs associated with obesity in Chinese population in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jingcheng; Wang, Yao; Cheng, Wenwei; Shao, Hui; Shi, Lizheng

    2017-03-01

    Overweight and obesity are established major risk factors for type 2 diabetes, and major public health concerns in China. This study aims to assess the economic burden associated with overweight and obesity in the Chinese population ages 45 and older. The Chinese Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) in 2011 included 13,323 respondents of ages 45 and older living in 450 rural and urban communities across China. Demographic information, height, weight, direct health care costs for outpatient visits, hospitalization, and medications for self-care were extracted from the CHARLS database. Health Care costs were calculated in 2011 Chinese currency. The body mass index (BMI) was used to categorize underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese populations. Descriptive analyses and a two-part regression model were performed to investigate the association of BMI with health care costs. To account for non-normality of the cost data, we applied a non-parametric bootstrap approach using the percentile method to estimate the 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Overweight and obese groups had significantly higher total direct health care costs (RMB 2246.4, RMB 2050.7, respectively) as compared with the normal-weight group (RMB 1886.0). When controlling for demographic characteristics, overweight and obese adults were 15.0% and 35.9% more likely to incur total health care costs, and obese individuals had 14.2% higher total health care costs compared with the normal-weight group. Compared with the normal-weight counterparts, the annual total direct health care costs were significantly higher among obese adults in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Future Costs, Fixed Healthcare Budgets, and the Decision Rules of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baal, Pieter; Meltzer, David; Brouwer, Werner

    2016-02-01

    Life-saving medical technologies result in additional demand for health care due to increased life expectancy. However, most economic evaluations do not include all medical costs that may result from this additional demand in health care and include only future costs of related illnesses. Although there has been much debate regarding the question to which extent future costs should be included from a societal perspective, the appropriate role of future medical costs in the widely adopted but more narrow healthcare perspective has been neglected. Using a theoretical model, we demonstrate that optimal decision rules for cost-effectiveness analyses assuming fixed healthcare budgets dictate that future costs of both related and unrelated medical care should be included. Practical relevance of including the costs of future unrelated medical care is illustrated using the example of transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Our findings suggest that guidelines should prescribe inclusion of these costs. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. [Calculation of workers' health care costs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydlewska-Liszkowska, Izabela

    2006-01-01

    In different health care systems, there are different schemes of organization and principles of financing activities aimed at ensuring the working population health and safety. Regardless of the scheme and the range of health care provided, economists strive for rationalization of costs (including their reduction). This applies to both employers who include workers' health care costs into indirect costs of the market product manufacture and health care institutions, which provide health care services. In practice, new methods of setting costs of workers' health care facilitate regular cost control, acquisition of detailed information about costs, and better adjustment of information to planning and control needs in individual health care institutions. For economic institutions and institutions specialized in workers' health care, a traditional cost-effect calculation focused on setting costs of individual products (services) is useful only if costs are relatively low and the output of simple products is not very high. But when products form aggregates of numerous actions like those involved in occupational medicine services, the method of activity based costing (ABC), representing the process approach, is much more useful. According to this approach costs are attributed to the product according to resources used during different activities involved in its production. The calculation of costs proceeds through allocation of all direct costs for specific processes in a given institution. Indirect costs are settled on the basis of resources used during the implementation of individual tasks involved in the process of making a new product. In this method, so called map of processes/actions consisted in the manufactured product and their interrelations are of particular importance. Advancements in the cost-effect for the management of health care institutions depend on their managerial needs. Current trends in this regard primarily depend on treating all cost reference

  20. The Negative Impact of Stark Law Exemptions on Graduate Medical Education and Health Care Costs: The Example of Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anscher, Mitchell S.; Anscher, Barbara M.; Bradley, Cathy J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To survey radiation oncology training programs to determine the impact of ownership of radiation oncology facilities by non-radiation oncologists on these training programs and to place these findings in a health policy context based on data from the literature. Methods and Materials: A survey was designed and e-mailed to directors of all 81 U.S. radiation oncology training programs in this country. Also, the medical and health economic literature was reviewed to determine the impact that ownership of radiation oncology facilities by non-radiation oncologists may have on patient care and health care costs. Prostate cancer treatment is used to illustrate the primary findings. Results: Seventy-three percent of the surveyed programs responded. Ownership of radiation oncology facilities by non-radiation oncologists is a widespread phenomenon. More than 50% of survey respondents reported the existence of these arrangements in their communities, with a resultant reduction in patient volumes 87% of the time. Twenty-seven percent of programs in communities with these business arrangements reported a negative impact on residency training as a result of decreased referrals to their centers. Furthermore, the literature suggests that ownership of radiation oncology facilities by non-radiation oncologists is associated with both increased utilization and increased costs but is not associated with increased access to services in traditionally underserved areas. Conclusions: Ownership of radiation oncology facilities by non-radiation oncologists appears to have a negative impact on residency training by shifting patients away from training programs and into community practices. In addition, the literature supports the conclusion that self-referral results in overutilization of expensive services without benefit to patients. As a result of these findings, recommendations are made to study further how physician ownership of radiation oncology facilities influence graduate

  1. Strategies for Appropriate Patient-centered Care to Decrease the Nationwide Cost of Cancers in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Myon Bae

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In terms of years of life lost to premature mortality, cancer imposes the highest burden in Korea. In order to reduce the burden of cancer, the Korean government has implemented cancer control programs aiming to reduce cancer incidence, to increase survival rates, and to decrease cancer mortality. However, these programs may paradoxically increase the cost burden. For examples, a cancer screening program for early detection could bring about over-diagnosis and over-treatment, and supplying medical services in a paternalistic manner could lead to defensive medicine or futile care. As a practical measure to reduce the cost burden of cancer, appropriate cancer care should be established. Ensuring appropriateness requires patient-doctor communication to ensure that utility values are shared and that autonomous decisions are made regarding medical services. Thus, strategies for reducing the cost burden of cancer through ensuring appropriate patient-centered care include introducing value-based medicine, conducting cost-utility studies, and developing patient decision aids.

  2. Medical Care Provided Under California's Workers' Compensation Program: Effects of the Reforms and Additional Opportunities to Improve the Quality and Efficiency of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Barbara O; Timbie, Justin W; Sorbero, Melony E

    2011-01-01

    Since 2004, significant changes have been made to the California workers' compensation (WC) system. The Commission on Health and Safety and Workers' Compensation (CHSWC) asked the RAND Corporation to examine the impact that these changes have on the medical care provided to injured workers. This study synthesizes findings from interviews and available information regarding the implementation of the changes affecting WC medical care and identifies areas in which additional changes might increase the quality and efficiency of care delivered under the WC system. To improve incentives for efficiently providing medically appropriate care, California should revise its fee schedule allowances for services provided by hospitals to inpatients, freestanding ambulatory surgery centers, and physicians, create nonmonetary incentives for providing medically appropriate care in the medical provider network (MPN) context through more-selective contracting with providers and reducing medical review requirements for high-performing physicians; reduce incentives for inappropriate prescribing practices by curtailing in-office physician dispensing; and implement pharmacy benefit network regulations. To increase accountability for performance, California should revise the MPN certification process to place accountability for meeting MPN standards on the entity contracting with the physician network; strengthen Division of Workers' Compensation (DWC) authorities to provide intermediate sanctions for failure to comply with MPN requirements; and modify the Labor Code to remove payers and MPNs from the definition of individually identifiable data so that performance on key measures can be publicly available. To facilitate monitoring and oversight, California should provide DWC with more flexibility to add needed data elements to medical data reporting and provide penalties for a claim administrator failing to comply with the data-reporting requirements; require that medical cost

  3. Medical care and payment for diabetes in China: enormous threat and great opportunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenying Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Diabetes Impact Study followed up a large national population-based screening study to estimate the use of and expenditures for medical care caused by diabetes in China and to ascertain the use and cost of essential basic medicines and care. METHODS: In 2009-10, the study team interviewed 1482 adults with diabetes and 1553 adults with glucose tolerance in the normal range from population-based random samples at 12 sites in China. The response rate was 67%. FINDINGS: After adjusting for age, sex, and urban/rural location, people with diabetes received 1.93 times more days of inpatient treatment, 2.40 times more outpatient visits, and 3.35 times more medications than people with normal glucose tolerance (all p<0.05. Adjusted expenditures for medical care were 3.38 times higher among people with diabetes than among people with normal glucose tolerance (p<0.01, unadjusted 3.97. Persons who were diagnosed with ≥ 10 years prior to the survey paid 3.75 times as much for medical care as those with ≤ 5 years of diagnosed diabetes. Among persons with diabetes, 45.2% took medication to control blood sugar, 21.1% took an antihypertensive medicine, 22.4% took daily aspirin, and 1.8% took a statin. Over the three months before the interview, 46.1% of persons with diabetes recalled seeing a doctor, 48.9% recalled a blood pressure measurement, and 54.5% recalled a blood sugar test. Over the year preceding the interview, 32.1% recalled a retinal screening and 17.9% recalled a foot examination. CONCLUSIONS: In China, health care use and costs were dramatically higher for people with diabetes than for people with normal glucose tolerance and, in relative terms, much higher than in industrialized countries. Low-cost generic medicines that would reduce diabetes expenditures were not fully used.

  4. Comparative effectiveness research as choice architecture: the behavioral law and economics solution to the health care cost crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobkin, Russell

    2014-02-01

    With the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act ("ACA") set to dramatically increase access to medical care, the problem of rising costs will move center stage in health law and policy discussions. "Consumer directed health care" proposals, which provide patients with financial incentives to equate marginal costs and benefits of care at the point of treatment, demand more decisionmaking ability from consumers than is plausible due to bounded rationality. Proposals that seek to change the incentives of health care providers threaten to create conflicts of interest between doctors and patients. New approaches are desperately needed. This Article proposes a government-facilitated but market-based approach to improving efficiency in the private market for medical care that I call "relative value health insurance." This approach focuses on the "choice architecture" necessary to enable even boundedly rational patients to contract for an efficient level of health care services through their health insurance purchase decisions. It uses comparative effectiveness research, which the ACA funds at a significant level for the first time, to rate medical treatments on a scale of one to ten based on their relative value, taking into account expected costs and benefits. These relative value ratings would enable consumers to contract with insurers for different levels of medical care at different prices, reflecting different cost-quality trade-offs. The Article describes both the benefits of relative value health insurance and the impediments to its implementation. It concludes with a brief discussion of how relative value ratings could also help to rationalize expenditures on public health insurance programs.

  5. Medical charge of asthma care in admitted Thai children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visitsunthorn, Nualanong; Durongpisitkul, Worawan; Uoonpan, Srisakul; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai; Vichyanond, Pakit

    2005-11-01

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in children. Due to high admission rate for acute asthmatic attack, children often miss their schools and parents have to stop working to take care of them. These affect both mental and physical health as well as socioeconomic status of the family and the country. To evaluate medical charge of asthma care in children admitted to the Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University. The study was a retrospective and descriptive study. Data were collected from children with asthmatic attack admitted to the Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand from January 1st, 2000 to June 30th, 2003. Cost of room, food, drugs, devices, laboratory study and service charge were recorded. Total medical charges per year, per patient per admission and per patient per day were calculated. Data were analyzed with Chi square test, ANOVA and Post Hoc test. A p value of attack admitted to the Department of Pediatrics, Siriraj Hospital increased between 2000-2002 (113,147 and 176 in 2000, 2001, and 2002). Seventy two percent of the patients were asthma. The average duration of hospitalization was 4 days (95% CI, 3.6-4.3). Average medical charge per patient per admission and per day was 3236.20 and 998.60 Bahts respectively. There was no significant difference in the medical charge per patient among the admitted years. Medical charge of admission was significantly associated with the asthma severity. (p attack in children at Siriraj Hospital and the total medical charge per year increased between 2000-2002. Nevertheless, medical charge of asthma admission per person was unchanged. Main expense in medical charge of asthma admission was the cost of medication and room. Severity of asthma was related directly to medical charge.

  6. 32 CFR 564.37 - Medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Medical care. 564.37 Section 564.37 National... REGULATIONS Medical Attendance and Burial § 564.37 Medical care. (a) General. The definitions of medical care; policies outlining the manner, conditions, procedures, and eligibility for care; and the sources from which...

  7. Retrospective Analysis of Medication Adherence and Cost Following Medication Therapy Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Branham, PharmD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine if pharmacist-provided medication therapy management (MTM improves medication adherence in Medicare patients. A secondary objective is to compare the total monthly cost of a patient’s prescription medication regimen 6 months before and 6 months following a comprehensive medication review (CMR. Design: Retrospective analysis of medication adherence, pre-post comparison. Setting: Three independent pharmacies in North Carolina. Patients: 97 Medicare Part D beneficiaries with one or more chronic disease states who participated in a comprehensive medication review (CMR. Intervention: MTM services provided by community pharmacists. Main outcome measure: Change in adherence as measured by the proportion of days covered (PDC and change in medication costs for patients and third party payers. Results: Patients were adherent to chronic disease-state medications before and after MTM (PDC≥ 0.8. Overall, change in mean adherence before and after MTM did not change significantly (0.87 and 0.88, respectively; p = 0.43. However, patients taking medications for cholesterol management, GERD, thyroid and BPH demonstrated improved adherence following a CMR. No change in adherence was noted for patients using antihypertensives and antidiabetic agents. Average total chronic disease-state medication costs for participants were reduced from $210.74 to $193.63 (p=0.08 following the comprehensive medication review. Total costs for patient and third party payers decreased from patients prescribed antilipemics, antihypertensives, GERD and thyroid disorders following a CMR. Conclusions: Pharmacist-provided MTM services were effective at improving medication adherence for some patients managed with chronic medications. Pharmacist-provided MTM services also were effective in decreasing total medication costs.

  8. Costs of Medically Attended Acute Gastrointestinal Infections: The Polish Prospective Healthcare Utilization Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Marcin; Rosinska, Magdalena; Rogalska, Justyna; Staszewska, Ewa; Stefanoff, Pawel

    The burden of acute gastrointestinal infections (AGIs) on the society has not been well studied in Central European countries, which prevents the implementation of effective, targeted public health interventions. We investigated patients of 11 randomly selected general practices and 8 hospital units. Each patient meeting the international AGI case definition criteria was interviewed on costs incurred related to the use of health care resources. Follow-up interview with consenting patients was conducted 2 to 4 weeks after the general practitioner (GP) visit or discharge from hospital, collecting information on self-medication costs and indirect costs. Costs were recalculated to US dollars by using the purchasing power parity exchange rate for Poland. Weighting the inpatient costs by age-specific probability of hospital referral by GPs, the societal cost of a medically attended AGI case was estimated to be US $168. The main cost drivers of direct medical costs were cost of hospital bed days (US $28), cost of outpatient pharmacotherapy (US $20), and cost of GP consultation (US $10). Patients covered only the cost of outpatient pharmacotherapy. Considering the AGI population GP consultation rate, the age-adjusted societal cost of medically attended AGI episodes was estimated at US $2222 million, of which 53% was attributable to indirect costs. Even though AGIs generate a low cost for individuals, they place a high burden on the society, attributed mostly to indirect costs. Higher resources could be allocated to the prevention and control of AGIs. Copyright © 2013, International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. [Involvement of medical representatives in team medical care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirotsu, Misaki; Sohma, Michiro; Takagi, Hidehiko

    2009-04-01

    In recent years, chemotherapies have been further advanced because of successive launch of new drugs, introduction of molecular targeting, etc., and the concept of so-called Team Medical Care ,the idea of sharing interdisciplinary expertise for collaborative treatment, has steadily penetrated in the Japanese medical society. Dr. Naoto Ueno is a medical oncologist at US MD Anderson Cancer Center, the birthplace of the Team Medical Care. He has advocated the concept of ABC of Team Oncology by positioning pharmaceutical companies as Team C. Under such team practice, we believe that medical representatives of a pharmaceutical company should also play a role as a member of the Team Medical Care by providing appropriate drug use information to healthcare professionals, supporting post-marketing surveillance of treated patients, facilitating drug information sharing among healthcare professionals at medical institutions, etc.

  10. Links between social environment and health care utilization and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, Marie A; Brewster, Amanda L; Bradley, Elizabeth H; Keene, Danya; Tan, Annabel X; Curry, Leslie A

    2018-01-01

    The social environment influences health outcomes for older adults and could be an important target for interventions to reduce costly medical care. We sought to understand which elements of the social environment distinguish communities that achieve lower health care utilization and costs from communities that experience higher health care utilization and costs for older adults with complex needs. We used a sequential explanatory mixed methods approach. We classified community performance based on three outcomes: rate of hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions, all-cause risk-standardized hospital readmission rates, and Medicare spending per beneficiary. We conducted in-depth interviews with key informants (N = 245) from organizations providing health or social services. Higher performing communities were distinguished by several aspects of social environment, and these features were lacking in lower performing communities: 1) strong informal support networks; 2) partnerships between faith-based organizations and health care and social service organizations; and 3) grassroots organizing and advocacy efforts. Higher performing communities share similar social environmental features that complement the work of health care and social service organizations. Many of the supportive features and programs identified in the higher performing communities were developed locally and with limited governmental funding, providing opportunities for improvement.

  11. Medical Cost Trajectories and Onsets of Cancer and NonCancer Diseases in US Elderly Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Akushevich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Time trajectories of medical costs-associated with onset of twelve aging-related cancer and chronic noncancer diseases were analyzed using the National Long-Term Care Survey data linked to Medicare Service Use files. A special procedure for selecting individuals with onset of each disease was developed and used for identification of the date at disease onset. Medical cost trajectories were found to be represented by a parametric model with four easily interpretable parameters reflecting: (i prediagnosis cost (associated with initial comorbidity, (ii cost of the disease onset, (iii population recovery representing reduction of the medical expenses associated with a disease since diagnosis was made, and (iv acquired comorbidity representing the difference between post- and pre diagnosis medical cost levels. These parameters were evaluated for the entire US population as well as for the subpopulation conditional on age, disability and comorbidity states, and survival (2.5 years after the date of onset. The developed approach results in a family of new forecasting models with covariates.

  12. A cost-utility analysis of a comprehensive orthogeriatric care for hip fracture patients, compared with standard of care treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Gary; Adunsky, Abraham; Rasooly, Iris

    2013-01-01

    The economic burden associated with hip fractures calls for the investigation of innovative new cost-utility forms of organisation and integration of services for these patients. To carry out a cost-utility analysis integrating epidemiological and economic aspects for hip fracture patients treated within a comprehensive orthogeriatric model (COGM) of care, as compared with standard of care model (SOCM). A demonstration study conducted in a major tertiary medical centre, operating both a COGM ward and standard orthopaedic and rehabilitation wards. Data was collected on the clinical outcomes and health care costs of the two different treatment modalities, in order to calculate the absolute cost and disability-adjusted life years (DALY) ratio. The COGM model used 23% fewer resources per patient ($14,919 vs. $19,363) than the SOCM model and to avert 0.226 additional DALY per patient, mainly as a result of lower 1-year mortality rates among COGM patients (14.8% vs. 17.3%). A comprehensive ortho-geriatric care modality is more cost-effective, providing additional quality-adjusted life years (QALY) while using fewer resources compared with standard of care approach. The results should assist health policy-makers in optimising healthcare use and healthcare planning.

  13. The costs of HIV/AIDS care at government hospitals in Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Chapman, Glyn; Chitsike, Inam

    2000-01-01

    According to official figures, HIV infection in Zimbabwe stood at 700 000-1 000 000 in 1995, representing 7-10% of the population, with even higher expected numbers in 2000. Such high numbers will have far reaching effects on the economy and the health care sector. Information on costs of treatment...... and care of HIV/AIDS patients in health facilities is necessary in order to have an idea of the likely costs of the increasing number of HIV/AIDS patients. Therefore, the present study estimated the costs per in-patient day as well as per in-patient stay for patients in government health facilities...... an in-patient note review) to identify the direct treatment and diagnostic costs such as medication, laboratory tests and X-rays, and the standard step-down costing methodology to capture all the remaining resources used such as hospital administration, meals, housekeeping, laundry, etc. The findings...

  14. Impact of lung function on exacerbations, health care utilization, and costs among patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke X

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Xuehua Ke,1 Jessica Marvel,2 Tzy-Chyi Yu,2 Debra Wertz,1 Caroline Geremakis,1 Liya Wang,1 Judith J Stephenson,1 David M Mannino3 1HealthCore Inc., Wilmington, DE, 2Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, 3University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA Objective: To evaluate the impact of lung function, measured as forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 % predicted, on health care resource utilization and costs among patients with COPD in a real-world US managed-care population.Methods: This observational retrospective cohort study utilized administrative claim data augmented with medical record data. The study population consisted of patients with one or more medical claims for pre- and postbronchodilator spirometry during the intake period (July 1, 2012 to June 30, 2013. The index date was the date of the earliest medical claim for pre- and postbronchodilator spirometry. Spirometry results were abstracted from patients’ medical records. Patients were divided into two groups (low FEV1% predicted [<50%] and high FEV1% predicted [≥50%] based on the 2014 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease report. Health care resource utilization and costs were based on the prevalence and number of discrete encounters during the 12-month postindex follow-up period. Costs were adjusted to 2014 US dollars.Results: A total of 754 patients were included (n=297 low FEV1% predicted group, n=457 high FEV1% predicted group. COPD exacerbations were more prevalent in the low FEV1% predicted group compared with the high group during the 12-month pre- (52.5% vs 39.6% and postindex periods (49.8% vs 36.8%. Mean (standard deviation follow-up all-cause and COPD-related costs were $27,380 ($38,199 and $15,873 ($29,609 for patients in the low FEV1% predicted group, and $22,075 ($28,108 and $10,174 ($18,521 for patients in the high group. In the multivariable analyses, patients in the low FEV1% predicted group were more likely to have COPD

  15. Comparative cost of illness analysis and assessment of health care burden of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber-Katz, Olivia; Klug, Constanze; Thiele, Simone; Schorling, Elisabeth; Zowe, Janet; Reilich, Peter; Nagels, Klaus H; Walter, Maggie C

    2014-12-18

    Our study aimed to determine the burden of illness in dystrophinopathy type Duchenne (DMD) and Becker (BMD), both leading to progressive disability, reduced working capacity and high health care utilization. A micro-costing method was used to examine the direct, indirect and informal care costs measuring the economic burden of DMD in comparison to BMD on patients, relatives, payers and society in Germany and to determine the health care burden of these diseases. Standardized questionnaires were developed based on predefined structured interview guidelines to obtain data directly from patients and caregivers using the German dystrophinopathy patient registry. The health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was analyzed using PedsQL™ Measurement Model. In total, 363 patients with genetically confirmed dystrophinopathies were enrolled. Estimated annual disease burden including direct medical/non-medical, indirect and informal care costs of DMD added up to € 78,913 while total costs in BMD were € 39,060. Informal care costs, indirect costs caused by loss of productivity and absenteeism of patients and caregivers as well as medical costs of rehabilitation services and medical aids were identified as the most important cost drivers. Total costs notably increased with disease progression and were consistent with the clinical severity; however, patients' HRQOL declined with disease progression. In conclusion, early assessments of economic aspects and the disease burden are essential to gain extensive knowledge of a distinct disease and above all play an important role in funding drug development programs for rare diseases. Therefore, our results may help to accelerate payer negotiations such as the pricing and reimbursement of new therapies, and will hopefully contribute to facilitating the efficient translation of innovations from clinical research over marketing authorization to patient access to a causative treatment.

  16. Care coordination, medical complexity, and unmet need for prescription medications among children with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboneh, Ephrem A; Chui, Michelle A

    Children with special health care needs (CSHCN) have multiple unmet health care needs including that of prescription medications. The objectives of this study were twofold: 1) to quantify and compare unmet needs for prescription medications for subgroups of CSHCN without and with medical complexity (CMC)-those who have multiple, chronic, and complex medical conditions associated with severe functional limitations and high utilization of health care resources, and 2) to describe its association with receipt of effective care coordination services and level of medical complexity. A secondary data analysis of the 2009/2010 National Survey of CSHCN, a nationally representative telephone survey of parents of CSHCN, was conducted. Logistic regression models were constructed to determine associations between unmet need for prescription medications and medical complexity and care coordination for families of CSHCN, while controlling for demographic variables such as race, insurance, education level, and household income. Analyses accounted for the complex survey design and sampling weights. CMC represented about 3% of CSHCN. CMC parents reported significantly more unmet need for prescription medications and care coordination (4%, 68%), compared to Non-CMC parents (2%, 40%). Greater unmet need for prescription medications was associated with unmet care coordination (adjusted OR 3.81; 95% CI: 2.70-5.40) and greater medical complexity (adjusted OR 2.01; 95% CI: 1.00-4.03). Traditional care coordination is primarily facilitated by nurses and nurse practitioners with little formal training in medication management. However, pharmacists are rarely part of the CSHCN care coordination model. As care delivery models for these children evolve, and given the complexity of and numerous transitions of care for these patients, pharmacists can play an integral role to improve unmet needs for prescription medications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of a health-social partnership transitional program for post-discharge medical patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Frances Kam Yuet

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Readmissions are costly and have implications for quality of care. Studies have been reported to support effects of transitional care programs in reducing hospital readmissions and enhancing clinical outcomes. However, there is a paucity of studies executing full economic evaluation to assess the cost-effectiveness of these transitional care programs. This study is therefore launched to fill this knowledge gap. Methods Cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted alongside a randomized controlled trial that examined the effects of a Health-Social Transitional Care Management Program (HSTCMP for medical patients discharged from an acute regional hospital in Hong Kong. The cost and health outcomes were compared between the patients receiving the HSTCMP and usual care. The total costs comprised the pre-program, program, and healthcare utilization costs. Quality of life was measured with SF-36 and transformed to utility values between 0 and 1. Results The readmission rates within 28 (control 10.2%, study 4.0% and 84 days (control 19.4%, study 8.1% were significantly higher in the control group. Utility values showed no difference between the control and study groups at baseline (p = 0.308. Utility values for the study group were significantly higher than in the control group at 28 (p  Conclusions Previous studies on transitional care focused mainly on clinical outcomes and not too many included cost as an outcome measure. Studies examining the cost-effectiveness of the post-discharge support services are scanty. This study is the first to examine the cost-effectiveness of a transitional care program that used nurse-led services participated by volunteers. Results have shown that a health-social partnership transitional care program is cost-effective in reducing healthcare costs and attaining QALY gains. Economic evaluation helps to inform funders and guide decisions for the effective use of competing healthcare resources.

  18. Treatment persistence & health care costs of adult MDD patients treated with escitalopram vs. citalopram in a medicaid population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Eric Q; Ben-Hamadi, Rym; Lu, Mei; Beaulieu, Nicolas; Yu, Andrew P; Erder, M Haim

    2012-01-01

    Compare treatment persistence and health care costs of major depressive disorder (MDD) Medicaid patients treated with escitalopram versus citalopram. Retrospective analysis of Medicaid administrative claims data. Analyzed administrative claims data from the Florida Medicaid program (07/2002-06/2006) for patients ages 18-64 years with 21 inpatient claim or 2 independent medical claims for MDD. Outcomes included discontinuation and switching rates and prescription drug, medical, and total health care costs, all-cause and related to mental disorder. Contingency table analysis and survival analysis were used to compare outcomes between treatment groups, using both unadjusted analysis and multivariate analysis adjusting for baseline characteristics. The study included 2,650 patients initiated on escitalopram and 630 patients initiated on citalopram. Patients treated with escitalopram were less likely to discontinue the index drug (63.7% vs. 68.9%, P=0.015) or to switch to another second-generation antidepressant (14.9% vs. 18.4%, P=0.029) over the six months post-index date. Patients treated with escitalopram had $1,014 lower total health care costs (P=0.032) and $519 lower health care costs related to mental disorder (P=0.023). More than half of the total cost difference was attributable to savings in inpatient hospitalizations related to mental disorder ($571, P=0.003) and to outpatient costs ($53, PEscitalopram therapy was also associated with $736 lower medical costs related to mental disorder (P=0.009). In the Florida Medicaid program, compared to adult MDD patients initiated on citalopram, escitalopram patients have better treatment persistence and lower total health care costs due to any cause and due to mental disorder, mostly driven by lower hospitalization costs related to mental disorder.

  19. RFID and medication care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahtela, Antti; Saranto, Kaija

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic healthcare needs new IT innovations and applications to be able to treat the rapidly growing number of patients effectively and safely. The information technology has to support healthcare in developing practices and nursing patients without confronting any complications or errors. One critical and important part of healthcare is medication care, which is very vulnerable for different kind of errors, even on fatal errors. Thus, medication care needs new methods for avoiding errors in different situations during medication administration. This poster represents an RFID-based automated identification system for medication care in a hospital environment. This work is a part of the research project MaISSI (Managing IT Services and Service Implementation) at the University of Kuopio, Department of Computer Science, Finland.

  20. Economic burden of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation: a retrospective analysis of health care costs in a commercially insured population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Jalpa A; Cai, Qian; Buono, Jessica L; Spalding, William M; Sarocco, Phil; Tan, Hiangkiat; Stephenson, Judith J; Carson, Robyn T

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C) is estimated to be between 4.3% and 5.2% among adults in the United States. Little is known about the health care resource utilization and costs associated with IBS-C. To (a) evaluate the annual total all-cause, gastrointestinal (GI)-related, and IBS-C-related health care costs among IBS-C patients seeking medical care in a commercially insured population and (b) estimate the incremental all-cause health care costs among IBS-C patients relative to matched controls. Patients aged ≥ 18 years with continuous medical and pharmacy benefit eligibility in 2010 were identified from the HealthCore Integrated Research Database, which consists of administrative claims from 14 geographically dispersed U.S. health plans representing 45 million lives. IBS-C patients were defined as those with ≥ 1 medical claim with an ICD-9-CM diagnosis code in any position for IBS (ICD-9-CM 564.1x) and either ≥ 2 medical claims for constipation (ICD-9-CM 564.0x) on different service dates or ≥ 1 medical claim for constipation plus ≥ 1 pharmacy claim for a constipation-related prescription on different dates of service during the study period. Controls were defined as patients without any medical claims for IBS, constipation, abdominal pain, or bloating or pharmacy claims for constipation-related prescriptions. Controls were randomly selected and matched with IBS-C patients in a 1:1 ratio based on age (± 4 years), gender, health plan region, and health plan type. Patients with diagnoses or prescriptions suggesting mixed IBS, IBS with diarrhea, chronic diarrhea, or drug-induced constipation were excluded. Total health care costs in 2010 U.S. dollars were defined as the sum of health plan and patient paid costs for prescriptions and medical services, including inpatient visits, emergency room (ER) visits, physician office visits, and other outpatient services. The total cost approach was used to assess

  1. Robust Machine Learning Variable Importance Analyses of Medical Conditions for Health Care Spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Sherri

    2018-03-11

    To propose nonparametric double robust machine learning in variable importance analyses of medical conditions for health spending. 2011-2012 Truven MarketScan database. I evaluate how much more, on average, commercially insured enrollees with each of 26 of the most prevalent medical conditions cost per year after controlling for demographics and other medical conditions. This is accomplished within the nonparametric targeted learning framework, which incorporates ensemble machine learning. Previous literature studying the impact of medical conditions on health care spending has almost exclusively focused on parametric risk adjustment; thus, I compare my approach to parametric regression. My results demonstrate that multiple sclerosis, congestive heart failure, severe cancers, major depression and bipolar disorders, and chronic hepatitis are the most costly medical conditions on average per individual. These findings differed from those obtained using parametric regression. The literature may be underestimating the spending contributions of several medical conditions, which is a potentially critical oversight. If current methods are not capturing the true incremental effect of medical conditions, undesirable incentives related to care may remain. Further work is needed to directly study these issues in the context of federal formulas. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  2. A tertiary care-primary care partnership model for medically complex and fragile children and youth with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John B; Colby, Holly H; Bartelt, Tera; Jablonski, Debra; Krauthoefer, Mary L; Havens, Peter

    2007-10-01

    To evaluate the impact of a tertiary care center special needs program that partners with families and primary care physicians to ensure seamless inpatient and outpatient care and assist in providing medical homes. Up to 3 years of preenrollment and postenrollment data were compared for patients in the special needs program from July 1, 2002, through June 30, 2005. A tertiary care center pediatric hospital and medical school serving urban and rural patients. A total of 227 of 230 medically complex and fragile children and youth with special needs who had a wide range of chronic disorders and were enrolled in the special needs program. Care coordination provided by a special needs program pediatric nurse case manager with or without a special needs program physician. Preenrollment and postenrollment tertiary care center resource utilization, charges, and payments. A statistically significant decrease was found in the number of hospitalizations, number of hospital days, and tertiary care center charges and payments, and an increase was found in the use of outpatient services. Aggregate data revealed a decrease in hospital days from 7926 to 3831, an increase in clinic visits from 3150 to 5420, and a decrease in tertiary care center payments of $10.7 million. The special needs program budget for fiscal year 2005 had a deficit of $400,000. This tertiary care-primary care partnership model improved health care and reduced costs with relatively modest institutional support.

  3. Social network approaches to recruitment, HIV prevention, medical care, and medication adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latkin, Carl A; Davey-Rothwell, Melissa A; Knowlton, Amy R; Alexander, Kamila A; Williams, Chyvette T; Boodram, Basmattee

    2013-06-01

    This article reviews the current issues and advancements in social network approaches to HIV prevention and care. Social network analysis can provide a method to understand health disparities in HIV rates, treatment access, and outcomes. Social network analysis is a valuable tool to link social structural factors to individual behaviors. Social networks provide an avenue for low-cost and sustainable HIV prevention interventions that can be adapted and translated into diverse populations. Social networks can be utilized as a viable approach to recruitment for HIV testing and counseling, HIV prevention interventions, optimizing HIV medical care, and medication adherence. Social network interventions may be face-to-face or through social media. Key issues in designing social network interventions are contamination due to social diffusion, network stability, density, and the choice and training of network members. There are also ethical issues involved in the development and implementation of social network interventions. Social network analyses can also be used to understand HIV transmission dynamics.

  4. Cost Benefit of Comprehensive Primary and Preventive School-Based Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, William V; Connor, Katherine A; Mueller, Josiah M; Hong, Jonathan C; Velazquez, Gabriela Calderon; Johnson, Sara B

    2018-01-01

    The Rales Health Center is a comprehensive school-based health center at an urban elementary/middle school. Rales Health Center provides a full range of pediatric services using an enriched staffing model consisting of pediatrician, nurse practitioner, registered nurses, and medical office assistant. This staffing model provides greater care but costs more than traditional school-based health centers staffed by part-time nurses. The objective was to analyze the cost benefit of Rales Health Center enhanced staffing model compared with a traditional school-based health center (standard care), focusing on asthma care, which is among the most prevalent chronic conditions of childhood. In 2016, cost-benefit analysis using a decision tree determined the net social benefit of Rales Health Center compared with standard care from the U.S. societal perspective based on the 2015-2016 academic year. It was assumed that Rales Health Center could handle greater patient throughput related to asthma, decreased prescription costs, reduced parental resources in terms of missed work time, and improved student attendance. Univariate and multivariate probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. The expected cost to operate Rales Health Center was $409,120, compared with standard care cost of $172,643. Total monetized incremental benefits of Rales Health Center were estimated to be $993,414. The expected net social benefit for Rales Health Center was $756,937, which demonstrated substantial societal benefit at a return of $4.20 for every dollar invested. This net social benefit estimate was robust to sensitivity analyses. Despite the greater cost associated with the Rales Health Center's enhanced staffing model, the results of this analysis highlight the cost benefit of providing comprehensive, high-quality pediatric care in schools, particularly schools with a large proportion of underserved students. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by

  5. Medical therapy v. PCI in stable coronary artery disease: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeysundera, Harindra C; Tomlinson, George; Ko, Dennis T; Dzavik, Vladimir; Krahn, Murray D

    2013-10-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with either drug-eluting stents (DES) or bare metal stents (BMS) reduces angina and repeat procedures compared with optimal medical therapy alone. It remains unclear if these benefits are sufficient to offset their increased costs and small increase in adverse events. Cost utility analysis of initial medical therapy v. PCI with either BMS or DES. . Markov cohort decision model. Data Sources. Propensity-matched observational data from Ontario, Canada, for baseline event rates. Effectiveness and utility data obtained from the published literature, with costs from the Ontario Case Costing Initiative. Patients with stable coronary artery disease, confirmed after angiography, stratified by risk of restenosis based on diabetic status, lesion size, and lesion length. Time Horizon. Lifetime. Perspective. Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care. Interventions. Optimal medical therapy, PCI with BMS or DES. Lifetime costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). of Base Case Analysis. In the overall population, medical therapy had the lowest lifetime costs at $22,952 v. $25,081 and $25,536 for BMS and DES, respectively. Medical therapy had a quality-adjusted life expectancy of 10.1 v. 10.26 QALYs for BMS, producing an ICER of $13,271/QALY. The DES strategy had a quality-adjusted life expectancy of only 10.20 QALYs and was dominated by the BMS strategy. This ranking was consistent in all groups stratified by restenosis risk, except diabetic patients with long lesions in small arteries, in whom DES was cost-effective compared with medical therapy (ICER of $18,826/QALY). Limitations. There is the possibility of residual unobserved confounding. In patients with stable coronary artery disease, an initial BMS strategy is cost-effective.

  6. Is integrated nursing home care cheaper than traditional care? A cost comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Aggie T G; van Raak, Arno J A; Maarse, Hans J A M

    2008-12-01

    It is generally assumed that integrated care has a cost-saving potential in comparison with traditional care. However, there is little evidence on this potential with respect to integrated nursing home care. DESIGN/METHODS/SETTINGS/PARTICIPANTS: Between 1999 and 2003, formal and informal caregivers of different nursing homes in the Netherlands recorded activities performed for residents with somatic or psycho-social problems. In total, 23,380 lists were analysed to determine the average costs of formal and informal care per activity, per type of resident and per nursing home care type. For formal care activities, the total personnel costs per minute (in Euro) were calculated. For informal care costs, two shadow prices were used. Compared to traditional care, integrated care had lower informal direct care costs per resident and per activity and lower average costs per direct activity (for a set of activities performed by formal caregivers). The total average costs per resident per day and the costs of formal direct care per resident, however, were higher as were the costs of delivering a set of indirect activities to residents with somatic problems. The general assumption that integrated care has a cost-saving potential (per resident or per individual activity) was only partially supported by our research. Our study also raised issues which should be investigated in future research on integrated nursing home care.

  7. Financial impact of tertiary care in an academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, T S; Carlton, L M; O'Hern, D G; Hardt, N S; Keith Ozaki, C; Flynn, T C; Seeger, J M

    2000-06-01

    To analyze the financial impact of three complex vascular surgical procedures to both an academic hospital and a department of surgery and to examine the potential impact of decreased reimbursements. The cost of providing tertiary care has been implicated as one potential cause of the financial difficulties affecting academic medical centers. Patients undergoing revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia, elective thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair, and treatment of infected aortic grafts at the University of Florida were compared with those undergoing elective infrarenal aortic reconstruction and carotid endarterectomy. Hospital costs and profit summaries were obtained from the Clinical Resource Management Office. Departmental costs and profit summary were estimated based on the procedural relative value units (RVUs), the average clinical cost per RVU ($33.12), surgeon charges, and the collection rate for the vascular surgery division (30.2%) obtained from the Faculty Group Practice. Surgeon work effort was analyzed using the procedural work RVUs and the estimated total care time. The analyses were performed for all payors and the subset of Medicare patients, and the potential impact of a 15% reduction in hospital and physician reimbursement was analyzed. Net hospital income was positive for all but one of the tertiary care procedures, but net losses were sustained by the hospital for the mesenteric ischemia and infected aortic graft groups among the Medicare patients. In contrast, the estimated reimbursement to the department of surgery for all payors was insufficient to offset the clinical cost of providing the RVUs for all procedures, and the estimated losses were greater for the Medicare patients alone. The surgeon work effort was dramatically higher for the tertiary care procedures, whereas the reimbursement per work effort was lower. A 15% reduction in reimbursement would result in an estimated net loss to the hospital for each of the tertiary

  8. Costos de atención médica atribuibles al tabaquismo en el IMSS, Morelos Costs of medical care attributable to tobacco consumption at the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS, Morelos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Myriam Reynales-Shigematsu

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar los costos de atención médica en el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS, Delegación Morelos, de las enfermedades mayores atribuibles al consumo de tabaco. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Las estimaciones de costos se realizaron desde la perspectiva del proveedor utilizando la metodología de costeo de enfermedad. Un panel de expertos multidisciplinario caracterizó la atención médica, en términos de la frecuencia de utilización de servicios en el primer y segundo niveles de atención, considerando el grado de severidad de la enfermedad. Los costos unitarios se estimaron en pesos mexicanos del 2001. Para estimar los costos atribuibles al tabaquismo se utilizó la fracción atribuible al consumo de tabaco para cada enfermedad (FA. RESULTADOS: Los costos promedio anuales de atención médica en el primer y segundo niveles de atención en la Delegación Morelos corresponden a 79 530 pesos para infarto agudo del miocardio (IAM, 73 303 pesos para enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC y 102 215 pesos para cáncer de pulmón (CP. El costo total anual para la Delegación por estas tres enfermedades asciende a 147 millones 390 mil 688 pesos. Los costos atribuibles al consumo de tabaco corresponden a 124 millones de pesos, lo cual equivale a 7.3% del presupuesto anual de la Delegación. CONCLUSIONES: Estos resultados confirman el alto costo de la atención médica en el IMSS correspondiente a las enfermedades atribuibles al consumo de tabaco. Se recomienda realizar este estudio en el plano nacional, de tal manera que los tomadores de decisiones tengan herramientas para fortalecer las políticas de control del tabaquismo en México.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost of medical care for the major diseases attributable to tobacco consumption at the IMSS, Morelos. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cost of illness (COI analysis was carried out from the perspective of the health provider. An expert panel characterized medical care in primary and

  9. Health Care Costs of Spontaneous Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage for Rehabilitation, Home Care, and In-Hospital Treatment for the First Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridwan, Sami; Urbach, Horst; Greschus, Susanne; von Hagen, Johanna; Esche, Jonas; Boström, Azize

    2017-01-01

    Given the young age of onset and high probability of long-term disability after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), the financial impact is expected to be substantial. Our primary objective was to highlight subsequent treatment costs after the acute in-hospital stay, including rehabilitation and home care, compared with costs for ischemic stroke. The study included 101 patients (median age 52 years, 70 women) with aneurysmal SAH treated from July 2007 to April 2009. In-hospital costs were calculated using German diagnosis related groups. Rehabilitation costs depended on rehabilitation phase/grade and daily rate. Level of severity of care requirements determined the costs for home care. Of patients, 54% received coiling and 46% received clipping. The clipping group included more poor-grade patients than the coiling group (P = 0.039); 23 patients died. Of 78 surviving patients, 70 received rehabilitation treatment (68 in Germany). Mean rehabilitation costs were €16,030 per patient. Patients in the clipping group generated higher rehabilitation costs and longer treatment periods in rehabilitation facilities (P = 0.001 for costs [€20,290 vs. €11,771] and P = 0.011 for duration (54.4 days vs. 40.5 days). Of surviving patients, 32% needed home care, of whom 52% required constant care. Multivariate regression analysis identified longer intensive care unit stay and poor Hunt and Hess grade as independent predictors of higher costs. Aneurysmal SAH prevalently affects working individuals with long-term occupational disability necessitating long-term medical rehabilitation for most patients and subsequent nursing care in one third of survivors. Overall, SAH treatment generates far higher costs than reported for ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effectiveness and Cost-effectiveness of Opportunistic Screening and Stepped-care Interventions for Older Alcohol Users in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulton, Simon; Bland, Martin; Crosby, Helen; Dale, Veronica; Drummond, Colin; Godfrey, Christine; Kaner, Eileen; Sweetman, Jennifer; McGovern, Ruth; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; Parrott, Steve; Tober, Gillian; Watson, Judith; Wu, Qi

    2017-11-01

    To compare the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a stepped-care intervention versus a minimal intervention for the treatment of older hazardous alcohol users in primary care. Multi-centre, pragmatic RCT, set in Primary Care in UK. Patients aged ≥ 55 years scoring ≥ 8 on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test were allocated either to 5-min of brief advice or to 'Stepped Care': an initial 20-min of behavioural change counselling, with Step 2 being three sessions of Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Step 3 referral to local alcohol services (progression between each Step being determined by outcomes 1 month after each Step). Outcome measures included average drinks per day, AUDIT-C, alcohol-related problems using the Drinking Problems Index, health-related quality of life using the Short Form 12, costs measured from a NHS/Personal Social Care perspective and estimated health gains in quality adjusted life-years measured assessed EQ-5D. Both groups reduced alcohol consumption at 12 months but the difference between groups was small and not significant. No significant differences were observed between the groups on secondary outcomes. In economic terms stepped care was less costly and more effective than the minimal intervention. Stepped care does not confer an advantage over a minimal intervention in terms of reduction in alcohol use for older hazardous alcohol users in primary care. However, stepped care has a greater probability of being more cost-effective. Current controlled trials ISRCTN52557360. A stepped care approach was compared with brief intervention for older at-risk drinkers attending primary care. While consumption reduced in both groups over 12 months there was no significant difference between the groups. An economic analysis indicated the stepped care which had a greater probability of being more cost-effective than brief intervention. © The Author 2017. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights

  11. [Cost-effectiveness of two hospital care schemes for psychiatric disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevárez-Sida, Armando; Valencia-Huarte, Enrique; Escobedo-Islas, Octavio; Constantino-Casas, Patricia; Verduzco-Fragoso, Wázcar; León-González, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    In Mexico, six of every twenty Mexicans suffer psychiatric disorders at some time in their lives. This disease ranks fifth in the country. The objective was to determine and compare the cost-effectiveness of two models for hospital care (partial and traditional) at a psychiatric hospital of Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). a multicenter study with a prospective cohort of 374 patients was performed. We made a cost-effectiveness analysis from an institutional viewpoint with a six-month follow-up. Direct medical costs were analyzed, with quality of life gains as outcome measurement. A decision tree and a probabilistic sensitivity analysis were used. patient care in the partial model had a cost 50 % lower than the traditional one, with similar results in quality of life. The cost per successful unit in partial hospitalization was 3359 Mexican pesos while in the traditional it increased to 5470 Mexican pesos. treating patients in the partial hospitalization model is a cost-effective alternative compared with the traditional model. Therefore, the IMSS should promote the infrastructure that delivers the psychiatric services to the patient attending to who requires it.

  12. Relational Climate and Health Care Costs: Evidence From Diabetes Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soley-Bori, Marina; Stefos, Theodore; Burgess, James F; Benzer, Justin K

    2018-01-01

    Quality of care worries and rising costs have resulted in a widespread interest in enhancing the efficiency of health care delivery. One area of increasing interest is in promoting teamwork as a way of coordinating efforts to reduce costs and improve quality, and identifying the characteristics of the work environment that support teamwork. Relational climate is a measure of the work environment that captures shared employee perceptions of teamwork, conflict resolution, and diversity acceptance. Previous research has found a positive association between relational climate and quality of care, yet its relationship with costs remains unexplored. We examined the influence of primary care relational climate on health care costs incurred by diabetic patients at the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs between 2008 and 2012. We found that better relational climate is significantly related to lower costs. Clinics with the strongest relational climate saved $334 in outpatient costs per patient compared with facilities with the weakest score in 2010. The total outpatient cost saving if all clinics achieved the top 5% relational climate score was $20 million. Relational climate may contribute to lower costs by enhancing diabetic treatment work processes, especially in outpatient settings.

  13. Evaluation of a program to improve diabetes care through intensified care management activities and diabetes medication copayment reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, Stephen J; Johnson, Scott; Higgins, Tara; Quilliam, Brian

    2012-05-01

    Medication copayment reduction can be integrated with disease management programs to incentivize patient engagement in chronic care management. While disease management programs in diabetes have been evaluated across a range of settings and designs, less is known regarding the effectiveness of copayment reduction as a component of disease management. To evaluate the short-term results of a diabetes-focused disease management program that included copayment reduction, care coordination, and patient goal setting, focusing on rates of evidence-based care processes and all-cause pharmacy and health care costs. Blue Cross Blue Shield of Rhode Island offered large employer groups the opportunity to participate in a diabetes disease management initiative that featured reduced copayments (from $7/$25/$40 for generic, tier 2, and tier 3 drugs, respectively, to $0 for generic and $0-$2 for brand drugs) for diabetes-related medications. In return for the copayment reduction, participants agreed to the following: (a) participate in care coordination with a case manager, (b) have an annual physical examination, (c) have a hemoglobin A1c blood test at least twice annually, and (d) have a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) test at least once annually. Patients received personalized support provided by a registered nurse and dietician, disease-related education provided by nurses, and intensified case management services, including working with a health coach to establish healthy behavioral change goals. All study subjects were aged 18 years or older and had at least 1 ICD-9-CM code for diabetes and at least 1 claim for an antidiabetic drug during a 12-month measurement period, which was each subject's most recent 12-month period of continuous enrollment from January 1, 2008, through May 31, 2010. Administrative claims data were used to determine the percentage of intervention (participating) and nonintervention (nonparticipating) subjects from among all of the plan

  14. Lower Costs, Better Care- Reforming Our Health Care Delivery

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Affordable Care Act includes tools to improve the quality of health care that can also lower costs for taxpayers and patients. This means avoiding costly...

  15. Payment and Care for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Patients: Toward a Specialized Medical Home for Complex Care Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, James L; McClellan, Mark B; Majhail, Navneet S; Hari, Parameswaran N; Bredeson, Christopher N; Maziarz, Richard T; LeMaistre, Charles F; Lill, Michael C; Farnia, Stephanie H; Komanduri, Krishna V; Boo, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    Patient-centered medical home models are fundamental to the advanced alternative payment models defined in the Medicare Access and Children's Health Insurance Plan Reauthorization Act (MACRA). The patient-centered medical home is a model of healthcare delivery supported by alternative payment mechanisms and designed to promote coordinated medical care that is simultaneously patient-centric and population-oriented. This transformative care model requires shifting reimbursement to include a per-patient payment intended to cover services not previously reimbursed such as disease management over time. Payment is linked to quality measures, including proportion of care delivered according to predefined pathways and demonstrated impact on outcomes. Some medical homes also include opportunities for shared savings by reducing overall costs of care. Recent proposals have suggested expanding the medical home model to specialized populations with complex needs because primary care teams may not have the facilities or the requisite expertise for their unique needs. An example of a successful care model that may provide valuable lessons for those creating specialty medical home models already exists in many hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) centers that deliver multidisciplinary, coordinated, and highly specialized care. The integration of care delivery in HCT centers has been driven by the specialty care their patients require and by the payment methodology preferred by the commercial payers, which has included bundling of both inpatient and outpatient care in the peritransplant interval. Commercial payers identify qualified HCT centers based on accreditation status and comparative performance, enabled in part by center-level comparative performance data available within a national outcomes database mandated by the Stem Cell Therapeutic and Research Act of 2005. Standardization across centers has been facilitated via voluntary accreditation implemented by Foundation for

  16. Developing a costing framework for palliative care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosoiu, Daniela; Dumitrescu, Malina; Connor, Stephen R

    2014-10-01

    Palliative care services have been reported to be a less expensive alternative to traditional treatment; however, little is known about how to measure the cost of delivering quality palliative care. The purpose of this project was to develop a standardized method for measuring the cost of palliative care delivery that could potentially be replicated in multiple settings. The project was implemented in three stages. First, an interdisciplinary group of palliative care experts identified standards of quality palliative care delivery in the inpatient and home care services. Surveys were conducted of government agencies and palliative care providers to identify payment practices and budgets for palliative care services. In the second phase, unit costs were defined and a costing framework was designed to measure inpatient and home-based palliative care unit costs. The final phase was advocacy for inclusion of calculated costs into the national funding system. In this project, a reliable framework for determining the cost of inpatient and home-based palliative care services was developed. Inpatient palliative care cost in Romania was calculated at $96.58 per day. Home-based palliative care was calculated at $30.37 per visit, $723.60 per month, and $1367.71 per episode of care, which averaged 45 visits. A standardized methodology and framework for costing palliative care are presented. The framework allows a country or provider of care to substitute their own local costs to generate cost information relevant to the health-care system. In Romania, this allowed the palliative care provider community to advocate for a consistent payment system. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Health care quality, access, cost, workforce, and surgical education: the ultimate perfect storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Marshall Z

    2012-01-01

    The discussions on health care reform over the past two years have focused on cost containment while trying to maintain quality of care. Focusing on just cost and quality unfortunately does not address other very important factors that impact on our health care delivery system. Availability of a well-trained workforce, maintaining the sophisticated medical/surgical education system, and ultimately access to quality care by the public are critical to maintaining and enhancing our health care delivery system. Unfortunately, all five of these components are under at risk. Thus, we have evolving the ultimate perfect storm affecting our health care delivery system. Although not ideal and given the uniqueness of our population and their expectations, our current delivery system is excellent compared to other countries. However, the cost of our current system is rising at an alarming rate. Currently, health care consumes 17% of our gross domestic product. If our system is not revised this will continue to rise and by 2025 it will consume 48%. The dilemma, given the current state of our overall economy and rising debt, is how to address this major problem. Unfortunately, the Affordable Care Act, which is now law, does not address most of the issues and the cost was initially grossly under estimated. Furthermore, the law does not address the issues of workforce, maintaining our medical education system or ultimately, access. A major revision of our system will be necessary to truly create a system that protects and enhances all five of the components of our health care delivery system. To effectively accomplish this will require addressing those issues that lead to wasteful spending and diversion of our health care dollars to profit instead of care. Improved and efficient delivery systems that reduce complications, reduction of duplication of tertiary and quaternary programs or services within the same markets (i.e. regionalization of care), health insurance reform, and

  18. The cost to successfully apply for level 3 medical home recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottus, Kathleen; Reiter, Kristin; Mitchell, C. Madeline; Donahue, Katrina E.; Gabbard, Wilson M.; Gush, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The NCQA Patient Centered Medical Home (PCMH) recognition program provides practices an opportunity to implement Medical home activities. Understanding the costs to apply for recognition may enable practices to plan their work. METHODS Practice coaches identified 5 exemplar practices that received level 3 recognition (3 pediatric and 2 family medicine practices). This analysis focuses on 4 that received 2011 recognition. Clinical, informatics and administrative staff participated in 2–3 hour interviews. We collected the time required to develop, implement and maintain required activities. We categorized costs as: 1) non-personnel, 2) developmental 3) those to implement activities 4) those to maintain activities, 5) those to document the work and 6) consultant costs. Only incremental costs were included and are presented as costs per full-time equivalent provider (pFTE) RESULTS Practice size ranged from 2.5 – 10.5 pFTE’s, payer mixes from 7–43 % Medicaid. There was variation in the distribution of costs by activity by practice; but the costs to apply were remarkably similar ($11,453–$15,977 pFTE). CONCLUSION The costs to apply for 2011 recognition were noteworthy. Work to enhance care coordination and close loops were highly valued. Financial incentives were key motivators. Future efforts to minimize the burden of low value activities could benefit practices. PMID:26769879

  19. The costs of HIV/AIDS care at government hospitals in Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Chapman, Glyn; Chitsike, Inam

    2000-01-01

    and care of HIV/AIDS patients in health facilities is necessary in order to have an idea of the likely costs of the increasing number of HIV/AIDS patients. Therefore, the present study estimated the costs per in-patient day as well as per in-patient stay for patients in government health facilities...... of the study indicate that hospital care for HIV/AIDS patients was considerably higher than for non-HIV/AIDS patients. In five of the seven hospitals visited, the average costs of an in-patient stay for an HIV/AIDS patient were found to be as much as twice as high as a non-HIV/AIDS patient. This difference...... could be attributed to higher direct costs per in-patient day (medication, laboratory tests and X-rays) as well as longer average lengths of stay in hospital for HIV/AIDS patients compared with non-infected patients. Therefore, the impact on hospital services of increasing number of HIV/AIDS patients...

  20. Medical Care Expenditures for Individuals with Prediabetes: The Potential Cost Savings in Reducing the Risk of Developing Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tamkeen; Tsipas, Stavros; Wozniak, Gregory

    2017-10-01

    The United States has 86 million adults with prediabetes. Individuals with prediabetes can prevent or delay the development of type 2 diabetes through lifestyle modifications such as participation in the National Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), thereby mitigating the medical and economic burdens associated with diabetes. A cohort analysis of a commercially insured population was conducted using individual-level claims data from Truven Health MarketScan ® Lab Database to identify adults with prediabetes, track whether they develop diabetes, and compare medical expenditures for those who are newly diagnosed with diabetes to those who are not. This study then illustrates how reducing the risk of developing diabetes by participation in an evidence-based lifestyle change program could yield both positive net savings on medical care expenditures and return on investment (ROI). Annual expenditures are found to be nearly one third higher for those who develop diabetes in subsequent years relative to those who do not transition from prediabetes to diabetes, with an average difference of $2671 per year. At that cost differential, the 3-year ROI for a National DPP is estimated to be as high as 42%. The results show the importance and economic benefits of participation in lifestyle intervention programs to prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes.

  1. Medical care of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Isamu

    1986-02-01

    This monograph, divided into six chapters, focuses on basic knowledge and medical strategies for radiation accidents. Chapters I to V deal with practice in emergency care for radiation exposure, covering 1) medical strategies for radiation accidents, 2) personnel dosimetry and monitoring, 3) nuclear facilities and their surrounding areas with the potential for creating radiation accidents, and emergency medical care for exposed persons, 4) emergency care procedures for radiation exposure and radioactive contamination, and 5) radiation hazards and their treatment. The last chapter provides some references. (Namekawa, K.)

  2. Medical care of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Isamu

    1986-01-01

    Focusing on the population exposed to radioactivity released from a nuclear power plant, the paper gives an overview of medical strategies in emergency care, steps in medical care, and clinical procedures including decontamination and oral administration of iodine-131. Strategies for evacuation are presented depending on predicted exposure doses to the whole body and thyroid gland. Medical care consists of three steps. When the thyroid gland is supposed to be exposed to 5 - 50 rem or more, the oral administration of iodine-131 is recommended. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. Patient cost-sharing, socioeconomic status, and children’s health care utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Alexander; Nilsson, Anton

    2018-01-01

    This paper estimates the effect of cost-sharing on the demand for children’s and adolescents’ use of medical care. We use a large population-wide registry dataset including detailed information on contacts with the health care system as well as family income. Two different estimation strategies...... caused by factors other than cost-sharing. We find that when care is free of charge, individuals increase their number of doctor visits by 5–10%. Effects are similar in middle childhood and adolescence, and are driven by those from low-income families. The differences across income groups cannot...... are used: regression discontinuity design exploiting age thresholds above which fees are charged, and difference- in-differences models exploiting policy changes. We also estimate combined regression discontinuity difference-in-differences models that take into account discontinuities around age thresholds...

  4. Screening esophagus during routine ultrasound: medical and cost benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Elrazek, Abd Elrazek M A; Eid, Khaled A; El-Sherif, Abd Elhalim A; Abd El Al, Usama M; El-Sherbiny, Samir M; Bilasy, Shymaa E

    2015-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis is an approach used to determine the value of a medical care option and refers to a method used to assess the costs and health benefits of an intervention. Upon the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis, the current guidelines recommend that all cirrhotic patients have to be screened for the presence of esophageal varices by endoscopy. In addition, patients with a positive family history of esophageal cancer are screened annually. These approaches place a heavy burden on endoscopy units, and repeated testing over time may have a detrimental effect on patient compliance. Following the recommendations of a recent study entitled 'Detection of risky esophageal varices using two dimensional ultrasound: when to perform endoscopy', the intra-abdominal portion of the esophagus of 1100 patients was divided into a hepatic group, which included 650 patients, and a nonhepatic group, which included 450 patients, who presented with manifestations of liver diseases and gastrointestinal symptoms, respectively, and were examined using standard two-dimensional ultrasound (US) to evaluate cost effectiveness, standard issues, and medical benefits using conventional US. The overall effectiveness analysis of 1100 patients yielded a 41% cost standard benefit calculated to be $114,760 in a 6-month study. Two-dimensional US can play an important role in screening for esophageal abnormalities, thus saving money and time. The esophagus should be screened during routine conventional abdominal US.

  5. Lean Six Sigma in health care and the challenge of implementation of Six Sigma methodologies at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocha, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Six Sigma and Lean Thinking are quality initiatives initially deployed in industry to improve operational efficiency leading to better quality and subsequent cost savings. The financial rationale for embarking on this quality journey is clear; applying it to today's health care remains challenging. The cost of medical care is increasing at an alarming rate; most of these cost increases are attributed to an aging population and technological advances; therefore, largely beyond control. Furthermore, health care cost increases are caused by unnecessary operational inefficiency associated with the direct medical service delivery process. This article describes the challenging journey of implementing Six Sigma methodology at a tertiary care medical center. Many lessons were learned; however, of utmost importance were team approach, "buy in" of the stakeholders, and the willingness of team members to change daily practice and to adapt new and innovative ways how health care can be delivered. Six Sigma incorporated as part of the "company's or hospital's culture" would be most desirable but the learning curve will be steep.

  6. The cost of problem-based vs traditional medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennin, S P; Martinez-Burrola, N

    1986-05-01

    It is generally accepted that teachers' salaries are a major factor in the cost of medical education. Little is known about the effects of curriculum on teaching time. A comparison of teaching time devoted to each of two different medical education curricula is presented. In a traditional teacher-centered, subject-oriented curriculum, 61% of the total teaching effort expended by twenty-two teachers took place in the absence of students, i.e. in preparation for student contact. Only 39% of the effort devoted by these teachers to medical education took place in the presence of students. In a problem-based, student-centered curriculum which focuses upon small-group tutorial learning and early extended primary care experience in a rural community setting, 72% of the total teaching effort devoted to medical education was spent with students and only 28% was spent in preparation for student contact. Overall, there were no differences in the total amount of teaching time required by each of the two curricular approaches to medical education. There were, however, major differences in how teachers spent their teaching time.

  7. The Budget Impact of Increased Use of Febuxostat in the Management of Gout: A US Health Plan Managed Care Pharmacy and Medical Costs Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolen, Lee J; Gahn, James C; Mitri, Ghaith; Shiozawa, Aki

    2016-07-01

    Gout is a chronic disease characterized by the deposition of urate crystals in the joints and throughout the body, caused by an excess burden of serum uric acid (sUA). The study estimates pharmacy and medical cost budgetary impacts of wider adoption by US payers of febuxostat, a urate-lowering therapy (ULT) for the treatment of gout. A US payer-perspective budget impact model followed ULT patients from a 1,000,000-member plan over 3 years. The current market share scenario, febuxostat (6%) and ULT allopurinol (94%), was compared with an 18% febuxostat market share. Data were implemented from randomized controlled trials, census and epidemiologic studies, and real-world database analyses. An innovation was the inclusion of gout-related chronic kidney disease costs. Cost results were estimated as annual and cumulative incremental costs, expressed as total costs, cost per member per month, and cost per treated member per month. Clinical results were also estimated. Increasing the febuxostat market share resulted in a 6.3% increase in patients achieving the sUA target level of <6.0 mg/dL and a 1.4% reduction in gout flares during the 3-year period. Total cost increased 1.4%, with a 49.9% increase in ULT costs, a 1.4% reduction in flare costs, a 1.2% reduction in chronic kidney disease costs, and a 2.8% reduction in gout care costs. The cumulative incremental costs were $1,307,425 in the first year, $1,939,016 through the second year, and $2,092,744 through the third year. By the third year, savings in medical costs offset most of the increase in treatment costs. Impacts on cumulative cost per member per month and cumulative cost per treated member per month followed the same pattern, with the highest impact in the first year and cumulative impacts declining during the 3-year period. The cumulative cost per member per month impact was estimated as $0.109, $0.081, and $0.058 and the cumulative cost per treated member per month impact was estimated as $12.416, $9.207, and

  8. Impact of Blunted Perception of Dyspnea on Medical Care Use and Expenditure, and Mortality in Elderly People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru eEbihara

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Dyspnea is an alarming symptom responsible for millions of patient visits each year. Poor perception of dyspnea might be reasonably attributed to an inappropriately low level of fear and inadequate earlier medical treatment for both patients and physicians, resulting in subsequent intensive care. This study was conducted to evaluate medical care use and cost, and mortality according to the perception of dyspnea in community-dwelling elderly people. We analyzed baseline data from a community-based Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA in 2002. The perception of dyspnea in 479 Japanese community-dwelling elderly people with normal lung function was measured in August 2002. The sensation of dyspnea during breathing with a linear inspiratory resistance of 10, 20 and 30 cmH2O/L/s was rated using the Borg scale. According to the perception of dyspnea, we divided the elderly into tertiles and compared all hospitalizations, out-patient visits, costs and death through computerized linkage with National Health Insurance (NHI beneficiaries claims history files between August 2002 and March 2008. In-patient hospitalization days and medical care costs significantly increased with the blunted perception of dyspnea, resulting in an increase in total medical-costs with blunted perception of dyspnea. With low perception group as reference, the hazard ratios of all cause mortality were 0.65 (95%CI 0.23-1.89 for intermediate perception group and 0.31(0.10-0.97 for high perception group, indicating the mortality rate also significantly increased with the blunted perception of dyspnea after multivariates adjustment (p=0.04. The blunted perception of dyspnea is related to hospitalization, large medical costs and all-cause mortality in community-dwelling elderly people. These findings provide a rational for preventing serious illness with careful monitoring of objective conditions in the elderly.

  9. Comparative study on medical utilization and costs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with good lung function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim JU

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Jeong Uk Lim,1 Kyungjoo Kim,2 Sang Hyun Kim,3 Myung Goo Lee,4 Sang Yeub Lee,5 Kwang Ha Yoo,6 Sang Haak Lee,1 Ki-Suck Jung,7 Chin Kook Rhee,2 Yong Il Hwang7 1Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, St Paul’s Hospital, 2Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 3Big Data Division, Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, Wonju, 4Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University Chuncheon Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon, 5Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University, Anam Hospital, 6Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, 7Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University Medical Center, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang, Republic of Korea Introduction: Patients with mild to moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are underdiagnosed and undertreated due to the asymptomatic nature of the disease. Previous studies on patients with mild COPD have focused on symptomatic patients. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the treatment status of patients with early COPD in Korea.Materials and methods: We compared hospital visits, medical costs per person, and COPD medication use by patients with COPD screened from the general population and COPD cohort patients. Patients with COPD aged ≥40 years with the value of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 ≥60% were selected from the 2007 to 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES data. Data including the number of outpatient clinic visits, admission to hospitals, COPD-related medications, and medical

  10. Socio-economic disadvantage, quality of medical care and admission for acute severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbe, J; Vamos, M; Fergusson, W

    1997-06-01

    In asthma, socio-economic and health care factors may operate by a number of mechanisms to influence asthma morbidity and mortality. To determine the quality of medical care including the patient perception of the doctor-patient relationship, and the level of socio-economic disadvantage in patients admitted to hospital with acute severe asthma. One hundred and thirty-eight patients (15-50 years) admitted to hospital (general ward or intensive care unit) with acute asthma were prospectively assessed using a number of previously validated instruments. The initial subjects had severe asthma on admission (pH = 7.3 +/- 0.2, PaCO2 = 7.1 +/- 5.0 kPa, n = 90) but short hospital stay (3.7 +/- 2.6 days). Although having high morbidity (40% had hospital admission in the last year and 60% had moderate/severe interference with sleep and/or ability to exercise), they had indicators of good ongoing medical care (96% had a regular GP, 80% were prescribed inhaled steroids, 84% had a peak flow meter, GP measured peak flow routinely in 80%, 52% had a written crisis plan and 44% had a supply of steroids at home). However, they were severely economically disadvantaged (53% had experienced financial difficulties in the last year, and for 35% of households the only income was a social security benefit). In the last year 39% had delayed or put off GP visit because of cost. Management of the index attack was compromised by concern about medical costs in 16% and time off work in 20%. Patients admitted to hospital with acute asthma have evidence of good quality on-going medical care, but are economically disadvantaged. If issues such as financial barriers to health care are not acknowledged and addressed, the health care services for asthmatics will not be effectively utilised and the current reductions in morbidity and mortality may not be maintained.

  11. A qualitative study exploring issues related to medication management in residential aged care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Nizaruddin, Mariani; Omar, Marhanis-Salihah; Mhd-Ali, Adliah; Makmor-Bakry, Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Globally, the population of older people is on the rise. As families are burdened with the high cost of care for aging members, demand is increasing for medical care and nursing homes. Thus, medication management is crucial to ensure that residents in a care center benefit and assist the management of the care center in reducing the burden of health care. This study is aimed to qualitatively explore issues related to medication management in residential aged care facilities (RACFs). A total of 11 stakeholders comprising health care providers, administrators, caretakers and residents were recruited from a list of registered government, nongovernmental organization and private RACFs in Malaysia from September 2016 to April 2017. An exploratory qualitative study adhering to Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Studies was conducted. In-depth interview was conducted with consent of all participants, and the interviews were audio recorded for later verbatim transcription. Observational analysis was also conducted in a noninterfering manner. Three themes, namely medication use process, personnel handling medications and culture, emerged in this study. Medication use process highlighted an unclaimed liability for residents' medication by the RACFs, whereas personnel handling medications were found to lack sufficient training in medication management. Culture of the organization did affect the medication safety and quality improvement. The empowerment of the residents in their medication management was limited. There were unclear roles and responsibility of who manages the medication in the nongovernment-funded RACFs, although they were well structured in the private nursing homes. There are important issues related to medication management in RACFs which require a need to establish policy and guidelines.

  12. Cost-utility of medication withdrawal in older fallers: results from the improving medication prescribing to reduce risk of FALLs (IMPROveFALL) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polinder, Suzanne; Boyé, Nicole D A; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U S; Van der Velde, Nathalie; Hartholt, Klaas A; De Vries, Oscar J; Lips, Paul; Van der Cammen, Tischa J M; Patka, Peter; Van Beeck, Ed F; Van Lieshout, Esther M M

    2016-11-04

    The use of Fall-Risk-Increasing-Drugs (FRIDs) has been associated with increased risk of falls and associated injuries. This study investigates the effect of withdrawal of FRIDs versus 'care as usual' on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), costs, and cost-utility in community-dwelling older fallers. In a prospective multicenter randomized controlled trial FRIDs assessment combined with FRIDs-withdrawal or modification was compared with 'care as usual' in older persons, who visited the emergency department after experiencing a fall. For the calculation of costs the direct medical costs (intramural and extramural) and indirect costs (travel costs) were collected for a 12 month period. HRQoL was measured at baseline and at 12 months follow-up using the EuroQol-5D and Short Form-12 version 2. The change in EuroQol-5D and Short Form-12 scores over 12 months follow-up within the control and intervention groups was compared using the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test for continuous variables and the McNemar test for dichotomous variables. The change in scores between the control and intervention groups were compared using a two-way analysis of variance. We included 612 older persons who visited an emergency department because of a fall. The mean cost of the FRIDs intervention was €120 per patient. The total fall-related healthcare costs (without the intervention costs) did not differ significantly between the intervention group and the control group (€2204 versus €2285). However, the withdrawal of FRIDs reduced medication costs with a mean of €38 per participant. Furthermore, the control group had a greater decline in EuroQol-5D utility score during the 12-months follow-up than the intervention group (p = 0.02). The change in the Short Form-12 Physical Component Summary and Mental Component Summary scores did not differ significantly between the two groups. Withdrawal of FRID's in older persons who visited an emergency department due to a fall, did not lead to

  13. Cost-utility of medication withdrawal in older fallers: results from the improving medication prescribing to reduce risk of FALLs (IMPROveFALL trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Polinder

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of Fall-Risk-Increasing-Drugs (FRIDs has been associated with increased risk of falls and associated injuries. This study investigates the effect of withdrawal of FRIDs versus ‘care as usual’ on health-related quality of life (HRQoL, costs, and cost-utility in community-dwelling older fallers. Methods In a prospective multicenter randomized controlled trial FRIDs assessment combined with FRIDs-withdrawal or modification was compared with ‘care as usual’ in older persons, who visited the emergency department after experiencing a fall. For the calculation of costs the direct medical costs (intramural and extramural and indirect costs (travel costs were collected for a 12 month period. HRQoL was measured at baseline and at 12 months follow-up using the EuroQol-5D and Short Form-12 version 2. The change in EuroQol-5D and Short Form-12 scores over 12 months follow-up within the control and intervention groups was compared using the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test for continuous variables and the McNemar test for dichotomous variables. The change in scores between the control and intervention groups were compared using a two-way analysis of variance. Results We included 612 older persons who visited an emergency department because of a fall. The mean cost of the FRIDs intervention was €120 per patient. The total fall-related healthcare costs (without the intervention costs did not differ significantly between the intervention group and the control group (€2204 versus €2285. However, the withdrawal of FRIDs reduced medication costs with a mean of €38 per participant. Furthermore, the control group had a greater decline in EuroQol-5D utility score during the 12-months follow-up than the intervention group (p = 0.02. The change in the Short Form-12 Physical Component Summary and Mental Component Summary scores did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusions Withdrawal of FRID’s in older

  14. Patient-centered medical homes improve care for adults with chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourat, Nadereh; Lavarreda, Shana Alex; Snyder, Sophie

    2013-05-01

    The success of health care reform implementation in 2014 partly depends on more efficient delivery of care to the millions of California residents eligible to gain insurance. Emerging evidence supports the effectiveness of the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) as a potential model of care delivery, which improves health outcomes and reduces costs. Among other principles, PCMH entails receipt of care from a personal doctor, who coordinates the patient's care and develops an individualized treatment plan for the patient. These principles are particularly essential in delivery of care to those with chronic conditions who require more intensive care management. Using the 2009 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS 2009), this policy brief indicates that patients who reported meeting these fundamental PCMH principles were more likely to have visited the doctor and to have received flu shots, and they also had better communication with providers than those who did not report meeting these PCMH principles. The data also showed that uninsured individuals, Medi-Cal beneficiaries, those at or below 133% of the federal poverty level, Latinos, and Asian-Americans were less likely to report meeting all three PCMH principles. These findings highlight the population groups that would most benefit from the PCMH care delivery model, particularly Medi-Cal beneficiaries and those eligible for Covered California, the California health benefits exchange.

  15. Lessons learned from testing the quality cost model of Advanced Practice Nursing (APN) transitional care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooten, Dorothy; Naylor, Mary D; York, Ruth; Brown, Linda P; Munro, Barbara Hazard; Hollingsworth, Andrea O; Cohen, Susan M; Finkler, Steven; Deatrick, Janet; Youngblut, JoAnne M

    2002-01-01

    To describe the development, testing, modification, and results of the Quality Cost Model of Advanced Practice Nurses (APNs) Transitional Care on patient outcomes and health care costs in the United States over 22 years, and to delineate what has been learned for nursing education, practice, and further research. The Quality Cost Model of APN Transitional Care. Review of published results of seven randomized clinical trials with very low birth-weight (VLBW) infants; women with unplanned cesarean births, high risk pregnancies, and hysterectomy surgery; elders with cardiac medical and surgical diagnoses and common diagnostic related groups (DRGs); and women with high risk pregnancies in which half of physician prenatal care was substituted with APN care. Ongoing work with the model is linking the process of APN care with the outcomes and costs of care. APN intervention has consistently resulted in improved patient outcomes and reduced health care costs across groups. Groups with APN providers were rehospitalized for less time at less cost, reflecting early detection and intervention. Optimal number and timing of postdischarge home visits and telephone contacts by the APNs and patterns of rehospitalizations and acute care visits varied by group. To keep people well over time, APNs must have depth of knowledge and excellent clinical and interpersonal skills that are the hallmark of specialist practice, an in-depth understanding of systems and how to work within them, and sufficient patient contact to effect positive outcomes at low cost.

  16. [Cost of intensive care in a German hospital: cost-unit accounting based on the InEK matrix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J; Neurohr, C; Bauer, M; Weiss, M; Schleppers, A

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the actual cost per intensive care unit (ICU) day in Germany based on routine data from an electronic patient data management system as well as analysis of cost-driving factors. A differentiation between days with and without mechanical ventilation was performed. On the ICU of a German focused-care hospital (896 beds, 12 anesthesiology ICU beds), cost per treatment day was calculated with or without mechanical ventilation from the perspective of the hospital. Costs were derived retrospectively with respect to the period between January and October 2006 by cost-unit accounting based on routine data collected from the ICU patients. Patients with a length of stay of at least 2 days on the ICU were included. Demographic, clinical and economical data were analyzed for patient characterization. Data of 407 patients (217 male and 190 female) were included in the analysis, of which 159 patients (100 male, 59 female) were completely or partially mechanically ventilated. The mean simplified acute physiology (SAPS) II score at the onset of ICU stay was 28.2. Average cost per ICU day was 1,265 EUR and costs for ICU days with and without mechanical ventilation amounted to 1,426 EUR and 1,145 EUR, respectively. Personnel costs (50%) showed the largest cost share followed by drugs plus medicinal products (18%) and infrastructure (16%). For the first time, a cost analysis of intensive care in Germany was performed with routine data based on the matrix of the institute for reimbursement in hospitals (InEK). The results revealed a higher resource use on the ICU than previously expected. The large share of personnel costs on the ICU was evident but is comparable to other medical departments in the hospital. The need for mechanical ventilation increases the daily costs of resources by approximately 25%.

  17. Does Coordinated Postpartum Care Influence Costs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Zemp

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Questions under study: To investigate changes to health insurance costs for post-discharge postpartum care after the introduction of a midwife-led coordinated care model. Methods: The study included mothers and their newborns insured by the Helsana health insurance group in Switzerland and who delivered between January 2012 and May 2013 in the canton of Basel Stadt (BS (intervention canton. We compared monthly post-discharge costs before the launch of a coordinated postpartum care model (control phase, n = 144 to those after its introduction (intervention phase, n = 92. Costs in the intervention canton were also compared to those in five control cantons without a coordinated postpartum care model (cross-sectional control group: n = 7, 767. Results: The average monthly post-discharge costs for mothers remained unchanged in the seven months following the introduction of a coordinated postpartum care model, despite a higher use of midwife services (increasing from 72% to 80%. Likewise, monthly costs did not differ between the intervention canton and five control cantons. In multivariate analyses, the ambulatory costs for mothers were not associated with the post-intervention phase. Cross-sectionally, however, they were positively associated with midwifery use. For children, costs in the post-intervention phase were lower in the first month after hospital discharge compared to the pre-intervention phase (difference of –114 CHF [95%CI –202 CHF to –27 CHF], yet no differences were seen in the cross-sectional comparison. Conclusions: The introduction of a coordinated postpartum care model was associated with decreased costs for neonates in the first month after hospital discharge. Despite increased midwifery use, costs for mothers remained unchanged.

  18. Sharing the costs of care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjoerd Kooiker; Mirjam de Klerk; Judith ter Berg; Yolanda Schothorst

    2012-01-01

    The costs of care in the Netherlands have risen sharply since 2000 and will become increasingly difficult to finance in the future. How are those increasing costs to be paid, and who is to pay them? The Dutch care system is based on the principle of solidarity, which begs the question of who is

  19. Cost-efficiency of specialist hyperacute in-patient rehabilitation services for medically unstable patients with complex rehabilitation needs: a prospective cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Stokes, Lynne; Bavikatte, Ganesh; Williams, Heather; Bill, Alan; Sephton, Keith

    2016-09-08

    To evaluate functional outcomes, care needs and cost-efficiency of hyperacute (HA) rehabilitation for a cohort of in-patients with complex neurological disability and unstable medical/surgical conditions. A multicentre cohort analysis of prospectively collected clinical data from the UK Rehabilitation Outcomes Collaborative (UKROC) national clinical database, 2012-2015. Two HA specialist rehabilitation services in England, providing different service models for HA rehabilitation. All patients admitted to each of the units with an admission rehabilitation complexity M score of ≥3 (N=190; mean age 46 (SD16) years; males:females 63:37%). Diagnoses were acquired brain injury (n=166; 87%), spinal cord injury (n=9; 5%), peripheral neurological conditions (n=9; 5%) and other (n=6; 3%). Specialist in-patient multidisciplinary rehabilitation combined with management and stabilisation of intercurrent medical and surgical problems. Rehabilitation complexity and medical acuity: Rehabilitation Complexity Scale-version 13. Dependency and care costs: Northwick Park Dependency Scale/Care Needs Assessment (NPDS/NPCNA). Functional independence: UK Functional Assessment Measure (UK FIM+FAM). (1) reduction in dependency and (2) cost-efficiency, measured as the time taken to offset rehabilitation costs by savings in NPCNA-estimated costs of on-going care in the community. The mean length of stay was 103 (SD66) days. Some differences were observed between the two units, which were in keeping with the different service models. However, both units showed a significant reduction in dependency and acuity between admission and discharge on all measures (Wilcoxon: pspecialist HA rehabilitation can be highly cost-efficient, producing substantial savings in on-going care costs, and relieving pressure in the acute care services. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Medicaid care management: description of high-cost addictions treatment clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, Charles J; Sun, Yi; Yerneni, Rajeev; Tesiny, Ed; Burke, Constance; Bardsley, Leland; McDonald, Rebecca; Morgenstern, Jon

    2013-09-01

    High utilizers of alcohol and other drug treatment (AODTx) services are a priority for healthcare cost control. We examine characteristics of Medicaid-funded AODTx clients, comparing three groups: individuals cost clients in the top decile of AODTx expenditures (HC; n=5,718); and 1760 enrollees in a chronic care management (CM) program for HC clients implemented in 22 counties in New York State. Medicaid and state AODTx registry databases were combined to draw demographic, clinical, social needs and treatment history data. HC clients accounted for 49% of AODTx costs funded by Medicaid. As expected, HC clients had significant social welfare needs, comorbid medical and psychiatric conditions, and use of inpatient services. The CM program was successful in enrolling some high-needs, high-cost clients but faced barriers to reaching the most costly and disengaged individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Understanding your health care costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000878.htm Understanding your health care costs To use the sharing features on this page, ... on out-of-pocket costs. Out-of-Pocket Costs The good news is there is a limit ...

  2. 'No matter what the cost': A qualitative study of the financial costs faced by family and whānau caregivers within a palliative care context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gott, Merryn; Allen, Ruth; Moeke-Maxwell, Tess; Gardiner, Clare; Robinson, Jackie

    2015-06-01

    There has been significant attention paid in recent years to the economic costs of health service provision for people with palliative care needs. However, little is known about the costs incurred by family caregivers who typically provide the bulk of care for people at the end of life. To explore the nature and range of financial costs incurred by family caregiving within a palliative care context. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 family/whānau caregivers who were currently caring for someone with a life-limiting illness or had done so within the preceding year. Narrative analysis was used to identify impacts and costs at the personal, interpersonal, sociocultural and structural levels. Auckland, New Zealand. Costs of caregiving were significant and, for participants, resulted in debt or even bankruptcy. A range of direct (transport, food and medication) and indirect costs (related to employment, cultural needs and own health) were reported. A multi-level qualitative analysis revealed how costs operated at a number of levels (personal, interpersonal, sociocultural and structural). The palliative care context increased costs, as meeting needs were prioritised over cost. In addition, support from statutory service providers to access sources of financial support was limited. Families incur significant financial costs when caring for someone at the end of life. Research is now needed to quantify the financial contribution of family and whānau caregiving within a palliative care context, particularly given attempts in many countries to shift more palliative care provision into community settings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. A qualitative study exploring issues related to medication management in residential aged care facilities

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    Ahmad Nizaruddin M

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mariani Ahmad Nizaruddin, Marhanis-Salihah Omar, Adliah Mhd-Ali, Mohd Makmor-Bakry Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Background: Globally, the population of older people is on the rise. As families are burdened with the high cost of care for aging members, demand is increasing for medical care and nursing homes. Thus, medication management is crucial to ensure that residents in a care center benefit and assist the management of the care center in reducing the burden of health care. This study is aimed to qualitatively explore issues related to medication management in residential aged care facilities (RACFs.Participants and methods: A total of 11 stakeholders comprising health care providers, administrators, caretakers and residents were recruited from a list of registered government, nongovernmental organization and private RACFs in Malaysia from September 2016 to April 2017. An exploratory qualitative study adhering to Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Studies was conducted. In-depth interview was conducted with consent of all participants, and the interviews were audio recorded for later verbatim transcription. Observational analysis was also conducted in a noninterfering manner.Results and discussion: Three themes, namely medication use process, personnel handling medications and culture, emerged in this study. Medication use process highlighted an unclaimed liability for residents’ medication by the RACFs, whereas personnel handling medications were found to lack sufficient training in medication management. Culture of the organization did affect the medication safety and quality improvement. The empowerment of the residents in their medication management was limited. There were unclear roles and responsibility of who manages the medication in the nongovernment-funded RACFs, although they were well structured in the private nursing homes.Conclusion: There are important issues

  4. Medication cost problems among chronically ill adults in the US: did the financial crisis make a bad situation even worse?

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    Piette JD

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available John D Piette1, Ann Marie Rosland1, Maria J Silveira1, Rodney Hayward1, Colleen A McHorney21Ann Arbor VA Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 2US Outcomes Research, Merck and Co, Inc, North Wales, PA, USAAbstract: A national internet survey was conducted between March and April 2009 among 27,302 US participants in the Harris Interactive Chronic Illness Panel. Respondents reported behaviors related to cost-related medication non-adherence (CRN and the impacts of medication costs on other aspects of their daily lives. Among respondents aged 40–64 and looking for work, 66% reported CRN in 2008, and 41% did not fill a prescription due to cost pressures. More than half of respondents aged 40–64 and nearly two-thirds of those in this group who were looking for work or disabled reported other impacts of medication costs, such as cutting back on basic needs or increasing credit card debt. More than one-third of respondents aged 65+ who were working or looking for work reported CRN. Regardless of age or employment status, roughly half of respondents reporting medication cost hardship said that these problems had become more frequent in 2008 than before the economic recession. These data show that many chronically ill patients, particularly those looking for work or disabled, reported greater medication cost problems since the economic crisis began. Given links between CRN and worse health, the financial downturn may have had significant health consequences for adults with chronic illness.Keywords: medication adherence, cost-of-care, access to care, chronic disease

  5. Hydroxyurea is associated with lower costs of care of young children with sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Winfred C; Oyeku, Suzette O; Luo, Zhaoyu; Boulet, Sheree L; Miller, Scott T; Casella, James F; Fish, Billie; Thompson, Bruce W; Grosse, Scott D

    2013-10-01

    In the BABY HUG trial, young children with sickle cell anemia randomized to receive hydroxyurea had fewer episodes of pain, hospitalization, and transfusions. With anticipated broader use of hydroxyurea in this population, we sought to estimate medical costs of care in treated versus untreated children. The BABY HUG database was used to compare inpatient events in subjects receiving hydroxyurea with those receiving placebo. Unit costs were estimated from the 2009 MarketScan Multi-state Medicaid Database for children with sickle cell disease, aged 1 to 3 years. Inpatient costs were based on length of hospital stay, modified by the occurrence of acute chest syndrome, splenic sequestration, or transfusion. Outpatient expenses were based on the schedule required for BABY HUG and a "standard" schedule for 1- to 3-year-olds with sickle cell anemia. There were 232 hospitalizations in the subjects receiving hydroxyurea and 324 in those on placebo; length of hospital stay was similar in the 2 groups. Estimated outpatient expenses were greater in those receiving hydroxyurea, but these were overshadowed by inpatient costs. The total estimated annual cost for those on hydroxyurea ($11 072) was 21% less than the cost of those on placebo ($13 962; P = .038). Savings on inpatient care resulted in a significantly lower overall estimated medical care cost for young children with sickle cell anemia who were receiving hydroxyurea compared with those receiving placebo. Because cost savings are likely to increase with age, these data provide additional support for broad use of hydroxyurea treatment in this population.

  6. Cost analysis of in-patient cancer chemotherapy at a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Mohammad Ashraf; Tabish, S A; Jan, Farooq A; Khan, Nazir A; Wafai, Z A; Pandita, K K

    2013-01-01

    Cancer remains a major health problem in all communities worldwide. Rising healthcare costs associated with treating advanced cancers present a significant economic challenge. It is a need of the hour that the health sector should devise cost-effective measures to be put in place for better affordability of treatments. To achieve this objective, information generation through indigenous hospital data on unit cost of in-patient cancer chemotherapy in medical oncology became imperative and thus hallmark of this study. The present prospective hospital based study was conducted in Medical Oncology Department of tertiary care teaching hospital. After permission from the Ethical Committee, a prospective study of 6 months duration was carried out to study the cost of treatment provided to in-patients in Medical Oncology. Direct costs that include the cost of material, labor and laboratory investigations, along with indirect costs were calculated, and data analyzed to compute unit cost of treatment. The major cost components of in-patient cancer chemotherapy are cost of drugs and materials as 46.88% and labor as 48.45%. The average unit cost per patient per bed day for in-patient chemotherapy is Rs. 5725.12 ($125.96). This includes expenditure incurred both by the hospital and the patient (out of pocket). The economic burden of cancer treatment is quite high both for the patient and the healthcare provider. Modalities in the form of health insurance coverage need to be established and strengthened for pooling of resources for the treatment and transfer of risks of these patients.

  7. Self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students in a tertiary care medical college, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, I; Bhadury, T

    2012-01-01

    Self-medication is a widely prevalent practice in India. It assumes a special significance among medical students as they are the future medical practitioners. To assess the pattern of self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students. Tertiary care medical college in West Bengal, India. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among the undergraduate medical students. Out of 500 students of the institute, 482 consented for the study and filled in the supplied questionnaire. Fourteen incomplete questionnaires were excluded and the remaining 468 analyzed. It was found that 267 (57.05%) respondents practiced self-medication. The principal morbidities for seeking self-medication included cough and common cold as reported by 94 students (35.21%) followed by diarrhea (68 students) (25.47%), fever (42 students) (15.73%), headache (40 students) (14.98%) and pain abdomen due to heartburn/ peptic ulcer (23 students) (8.61%). Drugs/ drug groups commonly used for self-medication included antibiotics (31.09%) followed by analgesics (23.21%), antipyretics (17.98%), antiulcer agents (8.99%), cough suppressant (7.87%), multivitamins (6.37%) and antihelminthics (4.49%). Among reasons for seeking self-medication, 126 students (47.19%) felt that their illness was mild while 76 (28.46%) preferred as it is time-saving. About 42 students (15.73%) cited cost-effectiveness as the primary reason while 23 (8.62%) preferred because of urgency. Our study shows that self-medication is widely practiced among students of the institute. In this situation, faculties should create awareness and educate their students regarding advantages and disadvantages of self-medication.

  8. Medical therapy cost considerations for glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiscella, Richard G; Green, Amy; Patuszynski, Daniel H; Wilensky, Jacob

    2003-07-01

    To determine the calculated daily patient cost (cost minimization) of medical glaucoma therapy and review cost trends. Experimental, controlled, prospective study. The actual volume of various glaucoma medications or glaucoma medications with redesigned bottles was determined for most commercially available sizes of the tested products. The drops per milliliter based on the actual volume and the daily costs of the dosage schedules recommended by the manufacturers were compared. The cost of each bottle of medication was determined from the average wholesale price (AWP) in the United States. A comparison to 1999 prices where applicable will be analyzed to review costing trends. The generic timolol products (range, US dollars 0.38-US dollars 0.46 per day) were similar on a cost per day basis vs Betimol (Santen, Napa Valley, California, USA), Optipranolol (Bausch and Lomb Pharmaceuticals, Tampa, Florida, USA) and Timoptic (Merck, West Point, Pennsylvania, USA). Their percentage cost increase ranged from 5% to 22% since 1999, except for generic timolol XE gel-forming solution (48%). Betagan (Allergan, Irvine, California, USA), Betoptic S (Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, Texas, USA), and Ocupress (Novartis, Duluth, Georgia, USA) ranged from US dollars 0.88 to US dollars 1.11 per day, and their percentage cost increase ranged from 33% to 53%. Some brand-only products have raised their AWPs a greater percentage, including Betoptic S (37%), Iopidine (Alcon, Fort Worth, Texas, USA) (50%), Ocupress (Novartis Ophthalmics, Duluth, Georgia, USA) (53%), and Pilopine gel (Alcon, Fort Worth, Texas, USA) (32%). The mean cost per day for the topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors Azopt (Alcon Laboratories; US dollars 1.33 per day) and Trusopt (Merck; US dollars 1.05 per day) differed from 1999 when prices were almost identical. Cosopt (Merck; timolol 0.5% plus dorzolamide 2%, US dollars 1.04 per day) was less than the cost of separate bottles of a topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitor

  9. Clinical benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of neonatal intensive care in Mexico.

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    Jochen Profit

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal intensive care improves survival, but is associated with high costs and disability amongst survivors. Recent health reform in Mexico launched a new subsidized insurance program, necessitating informed choices on the different interventions that might be covered by the program, including neonatal intensive care. The purpose of this study was to estimate the clinical outcomes, costs, and cost-effectiveness of neonatal intensive care in Mexico.A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted using a decision analytic model of health and economic outcomes following preterm birth. Model parameters governing health outcomes were estimated from Mexican vital registration and hospital discharge databases, supplemented with meta-analyses and systematic reviews from the published literature. Costs were estimated on the basis of data provided by the Ministry of Health in Mexico and World Health Organization price lists, supplemented with published studies from other countries as needed. The model estimated changes in clinical outcomes, life expectancy, disability-free life expectancy, lifetime costs, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs for neonatal intensive care compared to no intensive care. Uncertainty around the results was characterized using one-way sensitivity analyses and a multivariate probabilistic sensitivity analysis. In the base-case analysis, neonatal intensive care for infants born at 24-26, 27-29, and 30-33 weeks gestational age prolonged life expectancy by 28, 43, and 34 years and averted 9, 15, and 12 DALYs, at incremental costs per infant of US$11,400, US$9,500, and US$3,000, respectively, compared to an alternative of no intensive care. The ICERs of neonatal intensive care at 24-26, 27-29, and 30-33 weeks were US$1,200, US$650, and US$240, per DALY averted, respectively. The findings were robust to variation in parameter values over wide ranges in sensitivity analyses

  10. Patterns of Cost for Patients Dying in the Intensive Care Unit and Implications for Cost Savings of Palliative Care Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Nita; Benkeser, David; Coe, Norma B; Engelberg, Ruth A; Teno, Joan M; Curtis, J Randall

    2016-11-01

    Terminal intensive care unit (ICU) stays represent an important target to increase value of care. To characterize patterns of daily costs of ICU care at the end of life and, based on these patterns, examine the role for palliative care interventions in enhancing value. Secondary analysis of an intervention study to improve quality of care for critically ill patients. 572 patients who died in the ICU between 2003 and 2005 at a Level-1 trauma center. Data were linked with hospital financial records. Costs were categorized into direct fixed, direct variable, and indirect costs. Patterns of daily costs were explored using generalized estimating equations stratified by length of stay, cause of death, ICU type, and insurance status. Estimates from the literature of effects of palliative care interventions on ICU utilization were used to simulate potential cost savings under different time horizons and reimbursement models. Mean cost for a terminal ICU stay was 39.3K ± 45.1K. Direct fixed costs represented 45% of total hospital costs, direct variable costs 20%, and indirect costs 34%. Day of admission was most expensive (mean 9.6K ± 7.6K); average cost for subsequent days was 4.8K ± 3.4K and stable over time and patient characteristics. Terminal ICU stays display consistent cost patterns across patient characteristics. Savings can be realized with interventions that align care with patient preferences, helping to prevent unwanted ICU utilization at end of life. Cost modeling suggests that implications vary depending on time horizon and reimbursement models.

  11. Variability in the Initial Costs of Care and One-Year Outcomes of Observation Services

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    Abbass, Ibrahim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of observation units (OUs following emergency departments (ED visits as a model of care has increased exponentially in the last decade. About one-third of U.S. hospitals now have OUs within their facilities. While their use is associated with lower costs and comparable level of care compared to inpatient units, there is a wide variation in OUs characteristics and operational procedures. The objective of this research was to explore the variability in the initial costs of care of placing patients with non-specific chest pain in observation units (OUs and the one-year outcomes. Methods: The author retrospectively investigated medical insurance claims of 22,962 privately insured patients (2009-2011 admitted to 41 OUs. Outcomes included the one-year chest pain/cardiovascular related costs and primary and secondary outcomes. Primary outcomes included myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, stroke or cardiac arrest, while secondary outcomes included revascularization procedures, ED revisits for angina pectoris or chest pain and hospitalization due to cardiovascular diseases. The author aggregated the adjusted costs and prevalence rates of outcomes for patients over OUs, and computed the weighted coefficients of variation (WCV to compare variations across OUs. Results: There was minimal variability in the initial costs of care (WCV=2.2%, while the author noticed greater variability in the outcomes. Greater variability were associated with the adjusted cardiovascular-related costs of medical services (WCV=17.6% followed by the adjusted prevalence odds ratio of patients experiencing primary outcomes (WCV=16.3% and secondary outcomes (WCV=10%. Conclusion: Higher variability in the outcomes suggests the need for more standardization of the observation services for chest pain patients. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(3:395–400.

  12. The importance of job characteristics in determining medical care-seeking in the Dutch working population, a longitudinal survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbeek, Romy

    2012-08-31

    The working population is ageing, which will increase the number of workers with chronic health complaints, and, as a consequence, the number of workers seeking health care. It is very important to understand factors that influence medical care-seeking in order to control the costs. I will investigate which work characteristics independently attribute to later care-seeking in order to find possibilities to prevent unnecessary or inefficient care-seeking. Data were collected in a longitudinal two-wave study (n = 2305 workers). The outcome measures were visits (yes/no and frequency) to a general practitioner (GP), a physical therapist, a medical specialist and/or a mental health professional. Multivariate regression analyses were carried out separately for men and women for workers with health complaints. In the Dutch working population, personal, health, and work characteristics, but not sickness absence, were associated with later care-seeking. Work characteristics independently attributed to medical care-seeking but only for men and only for the frequency of visits to the GP. Women experience more health complaints and seek health care more often than men. For women, experiencing a work handicap (health complaints that impede work performance) was the only work characteristic associated with more care-seeking (GP). For men, work characteristics that led to less care-seeking were social support by colleagues (GP frequency), high levels of decision latitude (GP frequency) and high levels of social support by the supervisor (medical specialist). Other work characteristics led to more care-seeking: high levels of engagement (GP), full time work (GP frequency) and experiencing a work handicap (physical therapist). We can conclude that personal and health characteristics are most important when explaining medical care-seeking in the Dutch working population. Work characteristics independently attributed to medical care-seeking but only for men and only for the

  13. Cost-income analysis of oral health units of health care centers in Yazd city

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    Hosein Fallahzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Increasing demands for health care's services on one hand and limited resources on the other hand brings about pressure over governments to find out a mechanism for fair and appropriate distribution of resources. Economic analysis is one of the appropriate tools for policy making on this priority. The aim of this study was to assess capital and consumption of oral health units of health care centers in Yazd city and comparing it with revenue of these centers and determining of cost effectiveness.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross sectional study, all health care centers of Yazd city with active dentistry department were evaluated. The data has been extracted from current documents in health care center of county based issued receipts and daily information registers.Results: Expended cost for providing of oral hygiene services in second half of 2008 in 13 medical health centers of Yazd included active dentistry section was 557.887.500 Rials and revenue to cost ratio was about 34%. The most provided service was related to tooth extraction and the average of tooth restoration in each working day was 0.48.Conclusion: With attention to low tariffs of dentistry services in medical health centers and paying subsidy to target groups, expenses of oral hygiene are always more than its revenue.

  14. Integrated complex care coordination for children with medical complexity: A mixed-methods evaluation of tertiary care-community collaboration

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    Cohen Eyal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care medical homes may improve health outcomes for children with special healthcare needs (CSHCN, by improving care coordination. However, community-based primary care practices may be challenged to deliver comprehensive care coordination to complex subsets of CSHCN such as children with medical complexity (CMC. Linking a tertiary care center with the community may achieve cost effective and high quality care for CMC. The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of community-based complex care clinics integrated with a tertiary care center. Methods A before- and after-intervention study design with mixed (quantitative/qualitative methods was utilized. Clinics at two community hospitals distant from tertiary care were staffed by local community pediatricians with the tertiary care center nurse practitioner and linked with primary care providers. Eighty-one children with underlying chronic conditions, fragility, requirement for high intensity care and/or technology assistance, and involvement of multiple providers participated. Main outcome measures included health care utilization and expenditures, parent reports of parent- and child-quality of life [QOL (SF-36®, CPCHILD©, PedsQL™], and family-centered care (MPOC-20®. Comparisons were made in equal (up to 1 year pre- and post-periods supplemented by qualitative perspectives of families and pediatricians. Results Total health care system costs decreased from median (IQR $244 (981 per patient per month (PPPM pre-enrolment to $131 (355 PPPM post-enrolment (p=.007, driven primarily by fewer inpatient days in the tertiary care center (p=.006. Parents reported decreased out of pocket expenses (p© domains [Health Standardization Section (p=.04; Comfort and Emotions (p=.03], while total CPCHILD© score decreased between baseline and 1 year (p=.003. Parents and providers reported the ability to receive care close to home as a key benefit. Conclusions Complex

  15. Rationing of medical care: Rules of rescue, cost-effectiveness, and the Oregon plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Emmet J

    2004-06-01

    Doctors who deal with individual patients fail to avoid interventions with minimal expected benefits. This is one reason that the United States spends more on health care services than any of 28 other industrialized nations. Yet, our money has not bought us health; our infant mortality rate ranks 23rd, and our overall life expectancy rate ranks 20th among the 29 nations. Ours is the only nation without a national health system. Our job-based health insurance system has allowed the number of uninsured persons to reach 44 million, which is 18% of the nonelderly population. This article examines the role of such ethical concepts as beneficence, utilitarianism, and justice in the allocation of health care resources. It also examines the innovative Oregon Health Plan and its use of cost-effectiveness analysis for health care allocation that is based on league tables.

  16. Reforming Cardiovascular Care in the United States towards High-Quality Care at Lower Cost with Examples from Model Programs in the State of Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyeshmerni, Daniel; Froehlich, James B; Lewin, Jack; Eagle, Kim A

    2014-07-01

    Despite its status as a world leader in treatment innovation and medical education, a quality chasm exists in American health care. Care fragmentation and poor coordination contribute to expensive care with highly variable quality in the United States. The rising costs of health care since 1990 have had a huge impact on individuals, families, businesses, the federal and state governments, and the national budget deficit. The passage of the Affordable Care Act represents a large shift in how health care is financed and delivered in the United States. The objective of this review is to describe some of the economic and social forces driving health care reform, provide an overview of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), and review model cardiovascular quality improvement programs underway in the state of Michigan. As health care reorganization occurs at the federal level, local and regional efforts can serve as models to accelerate improvement toward achieving better population health and better care at lower cost. Model programs in Michigan have achieved this goal in cardiovascular care through the systematic application of evidence-based care, the utilization of regional quality improvement collaboratives, community-based childhood wellness promotion, and medical device-based competitive bidding strategies. These efforts are examples of the direction cardiovascular care delivery will need to move in this era of the Affordable Care Act.

  17. Reforming Cardiovascular Care in the United States towards High-Quality Care at Lower Cost with Examples from Model Programs in the State of Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alyeshmerni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite its status as a world leader in treatment innovation and medical education, a quality chasm exists in American health care. Care fragmentation and poor coordination contribute to expensive care with highly variable quality in the United States. The rising costs of health care since 1990 have had a huge impact on individuals, families, businesses, the federal and state governments, and the national budget deficit. The passage of the Affordable Care Act represents a large shift in how health care is financed and delivered in the United States. The objective of this review is to describe some of the economic and social forces driving health care reform, provide an overview of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA, and review model cardiovascular quality improvement programs underway in the state of Michigan. As health care reorganization occurs at the federal level, local and regional efforts can serve as models to accelerate improvement toward achieving better population health and better care at lower cost. Model programs in Michigan have achieved this goal in cardiovascular care through the systematic application of evidence-based care, the utilization of regional quality improvement collaboratives, community-based childhood wellness promotion, and medical device-based competitive bidding strategies. These efforts are examples of the direction cardiovascular care delivery will need to move in this era of the Affordable Care Act.

  18. The outcome of health anxiety in primary care. A two-year follow-up study on health care costs and self-rated health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Per; Ørnbøl, Eva; Christensen, Kaj Sparle

    2010-03-24

    Hypochondriasis is prevalent in primary care, but the diagnosis is hampered by its stigmatizing label and lack of valid diagnostic criteria. Recently, new empirically established criteria for Health anxiety were introduced. Little is known about Health anxiety's impact on longitudinal outcome, and this study aimed to examine impact on self-rated health and health care costs. 1785 consecutive primary care patients aged 18-65 consulting their family physicians (FPs) for a new illness were followed-up for two years. A stratified subsample of 701 patients was assessed by the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry interview. Patients with mild (N = 21) and severe Health anxiety (N = 81) and Hypochondriasis according to the DSM-IV (N = 59) were compared with a comparison group of patients who had a well-defined medical condition according to their FPs and a low score on the screening questionnaire (N = 968). Self-rated health was measured by questionnaire at index and at three, 12, and 24 months, and health care use was extracted from patient registers. Compared with the 968 patients with well-defined medical conditions, the 81 severe Health anxiety patients and the 59 DSM-IV Hypochondriasis patients continued during follow-up to manifest significantly more Health anxiety (Whiteley-7 scale). They also continued to have significantly worse self-rated functioning related to physical and mental health (component scores of the SF-36). The severe Health anxiety patients used about 41-78% more health care per year in total, both during the 3 years preceding inclusion and during follow-up, whereas the DSM-IV Hypochondriasis patients did not have statistically significantly higher total use. A poor outcome of Health anxiety was not explained by comorbid depression, anxiety disorder or well-defined medical condition. Patients with mild Health anxiety did not have a worse outcome on physical health and incurred significantly less health care costs than the group of

  19. The outcome of health anxiety in primary care. A two-year follow-up study on health care costs and self-rated health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Fink

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypochondriasis is prevalent in primary care, but the diagnosis is hampered by its stigmatizing label and lack of valid diagnostic criteria. Recently, new empirically established criteria for Health anxiety were introduced. Little is known about Health anxiety's impact on longitudinal outcome, and this study aimed to examine impact on self-rated health and health care costs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 1785 consecutive primary care patients aged 18-65 consulting their family physicians (FPs for a new illness were followed-up for two years. A stratified subsample of 701 patients was assessed by the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry interview. Patients with mild (N = 21 and severe Health anxiety (N = 81 and Hypochondriasis according to the DSM-IV (N = 59 were compared with a comparison group of patients who had a well-defined medical condition according to their FPs and a low score on the screening questionnaire (N = 968. Self-rated health was measured by questionnaire at index and at three, 12, and 24 months, and health care use was extracted from patient registers. Compared with the 968 patients with well-defined medical conditions, the 81 severe Health anxiety patients and the 59 DSM-IV Hypochondriasis patients continued during follow-up to manifest significantly more Health anxiety (Whiteley-7 scale. They also continued to have significantly worse self-rated functioning related to physical and mental health (component scores of the SF-36. The severe Health anxiety patients used about 41-78% more health care per year in total, both during the 3 years preceding inclusion and during follow-up, whereas the DSM-IV Hypochondriasis patients did not have statistically significantly higher total use. A poor outcome of Health anxiety was not explained by comorbid depression, anxiety disorder or well-defined medical condition. Patients with mild Health anxiety did not have a worse outcome on physical health and incurred

  20. Costos directos de atención médica en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 en México: análisis de microcosteo Direct costs of medical care for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexico micro-costing analysis

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    Rosibel de los Ángeles Rodríguez Bolaños

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar los costos directos de la atención médica a pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2 en el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS. MÉTODOS: Se revisaron expedientes clínicos de 497 pacientes que ingresaron a unidades de segundo y tercer nivel de atención durante el período 2002-2004. Los costos se cuantificaron utilizando el enfoque de costeo de enfermedad (CDE desde la perspectiva del proveedor, la técnica del microcosteo y la metodología de abajo-arriba (bottom-up. Se estimaron costos promedio anuales de diagnóstico, por complicación y total de la enfermedad. RESULTADOS: El costo total anual de los pacientes con DM2 para el IMSS fue de US$452 064 988, correspondiente a 3,1% del gasto de operación. El costo promedio anual por paciente fue de US$3 193,75, correspondiendo US$2 740,34 para el paciente sin complicaciones y US$3 550,17 para el paciente con complicaciones. Los días/cama en hospitalización y en unidad de cuidados intensivos fueron los servicios con mayor costo. CONCLUSIONES: Los elevados costos en la atención médica a pacientes con DM2 y complicaciones representan una carga económica que las instituciones de salud deben considerar en su presupuesto, a fin de poder brindar un servicio de calidad, adecuado y oportuno. El empleo de la metodología de microcosteo permite un acercamiento a datos reales de utilización y manejo de la enfermedadOBJECTIVE: Estimate the direct cost of medical care incurred by the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2. METHODS: The clinical files of 497 patients who were treated in secondary and tertiary medical care units in 2002-2004 were reviewed. Costs were quantified using a disease costing approach (DCA from the provider's perspective, a micro-costing technique, and a bottom-up methodology. Average annual costs by diagnosis, complication, and total cost were estimated. RESULTS

  1. The nonhospital costs of care of patients with CF in The Netherlands: Results of a questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Wildhagen (Mark); J.B. Verheij (Joke); J.G. Verzijl; J. Gerritsen (Jorrit); W.H. Bakker (Willem); H.B. Hilderink; L.P. ten Kate; T. Tijmstra; L. Kooij (Loes); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractCystic fibrosis (CF) causes a relatively high medical consumption. A large part of the treatment takes place at home. Because data regarding nonhospital care are lacking, we wished to determine the costs of care of patients with CF outside the hospital. A questionnaire was sent to 73

  2. The nonhospital costs of care of patients with CF in The Netherlands : Results of a questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildhagen, MF; Verheij, JBGM; Verzijl, JG; Gerritsen, J; Bakker, W; Hilderink, HBM; tenKate, LP; Tijmstra, T; Kooij, L; Habbema, JDF

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) causes a relatively high medical consumption, A large part of the treatment takes place at home, Because data regarding nonhospital care are lacking, we wished to determine the costs of care of patients with CF outside the hospital. A questionnaire was sent to 73 patients with

  3. Medical costs in patients with heart failure after acute heart failure events: one-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eugene; Kwon, Hye-Young; Baek, Sang Hong; Lee, Haeyoung; Yoo, Byung-Su; Kang, Seok-Min; Ahn, Youngkeun; Yang, Bong-Min

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated annual medical costs using real-world data focusing on acute heart failure. The data were retrospectively collected from six tertiary hospitals in South Korea. Overall, 330 patients who were hospitalized for acute heart failure between January 2011 and July 2012 were selected. Data were collected on their follow-up medical visits for 1 year, including medical costs incurred toward treatment. Those who died within the observational period or who had no records of follow-up visits were excluded. Annual per patient medical costs were estimated according to the type of medical services, and factors contributing to the costs using Gamma Generalized Linear Models (GLM) with log link were analyzed. On average, total annual medical costs for each patient were USD 6,199 (±9,675), with hospitalization accounting for 95% of the total expenses. Hospitalization cost USD 5,904 (±9,666) per patient. Those who are re-admitted have 88.5% higher medical expenditure than those who have not been re-admitted in 1 year, and patients using intensive care units have 19.6% higher expenditure than those who do not. When the number of hospital days increased by 1 day, medical expenses increased by 6.7%. Outpatient drug costs were not included. There is a possibility that medical expenses for AHF may have been under-estimated. It was found that hospitalization resulted in substantial costs for treatment of heart failure in South Korea, especially in patients with an acute heart failure event. Prevention strategies and appropriate management programs that would reduce both frequency of hospitalization and length of stay for patients with the underlying risk of heart failure are needed.

  4. Production cost structure in US outpatient physical therapy health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubiani, Gregory G; Okunade, Albert A

    2013-02-01

    This paper investigates the technology cost structure in US physical therapy care. We exploit formal economic theories and a rich national data of providers to tease out implications for operational cost efficiencies. The 2008-2009 dataset comprising over 19 000 bi-weekly, site-specific physical therapy center observations across 28 US states and Occupational Employment Statistics data (Bureau of Labor Statistics) includes measures of output, three labor types (clinical, support, and administrative), and facilities (capital). We discuss findings from the iterative seemingly unrelated regression estimation system model. The generalized translog cost estimates indicate a well-behaved underlying technology structure. We also find the following: (i) factor demands are downwardly sloped; (ii) pair-wise factor relationships largely reflect substitutions; (iii) factor demand for physical therapists is more inelastic compared with that for administrative staff; and (iv) diminishing scale economies exist at the 25%, 50%, and 75% output (patient visits) levels. Our findings advance the timely economic understanding of operations in an increasingly important segment of the medical care sector that has, up-to-now (because of data paucity), been missing from healthcare efficiency analysis. Our work further provides baseline estimates for comparing operational efficiencies in physical therapy care after implementations of the 2010 US healthcare reforms. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Inpatient cost for hip fracture patients managed with an orthogeriatric care model in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lester Teong Jin; Wong, Seng Joung; Kwek, Ernest Beng Kee

    2017-03-01

    The estimated incidence of hip fractures worldwide was 1.26 million in 1990 and is expected to double to 2.6 million by 2025. The cost of care for hip fracture patients is a significant economic burden. This study aimed to look at the inpatient cost of hip fractures among elderly patients placed under a mature orthogeriatric co-managed system. This study was a retrospective analysis of 244 patients who were admitted to the Department of Orthopaedics of Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore, in 2011 for hip fractures under a mature orthogeriatric hip fracture care path. Information regarding costs, surgical procedures performed and patient demographics was collected. The mean cost of hospitalisation was SGD 13,313.81. The mean cost was significantly higher for the patients who were managed surgically than for the patients who were managed non-surgically (SGD 14,815.70 vs. SGD 9,011.38; p 48 hours was SGD 2,716.63. Reducing the time to surgery and preventing pre- and postoperative complications can help reduce overall costs. A standardised care path that empowers allied health professionals can help to reduce perioperative complications, and a combined orthogeriatric care service can facilitate prompt surgical treatment. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association

  6. Impact of a new reimbursement program on hepatitis B antiviral medication cost and utilization in Beijing, China.

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    Qian Qiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a significant clinical and financial burden for chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients. In Beijing, China, partial reimbursement on antiviral agents was first implemented for the treatment of CHB patients in July 1, 2011. AIMS: In this study, we describe the medical cost and utilization rates of antiviral therapy for CHB patients to explore the impact of the new partial reimbursement policy on the medical care cost, the composition, and antivirals utilization. METHODS: Clinical and claims data of a retrospective cohort of 92,776 outpatients and 2,774 inpatients with non-cirrhotic CHB were retrieved and analyzed from You'an Hospital, Beijing between February 14, 2008 and December 31, 2012. The propensity score matching was used to adjust factors associated with the annual total cost, including age, gender, medical insurance type and treatment indicator. RESULTS: Compared to patients who paid out-of-pocket, medical cost, especially antiviral costs increased greater among patients with medical insurance after July 1, 2011, the start date of reimbursement policy. Outpatients with medical insurance had 16% more antiviral utilization; usage increased 3% among those who paid out-of-pocket after the new partial reimbursement policy was implemented. CONCLUSIONS: Direct medical costs and antiviral utilization rates of CHB patients with medical insurance were higher than those from paid out-of-pocket payments, even after adjusting for inflation and other factors. Thus, a new partial reimbursement program may positively optimize the cost and standardization of antiviral treatment.

  7. Cost Analysis of Prenatal Care Using the Activity-Based Costing Model: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesse, Theresa; Golembeski, Susan; Potter, Jonell

    1999-01-01

    The cost of prenatal care in a private nurse-midwifery practice was examined using the activity-based costing system. Findings suggest that the activities of the nurse-midwife (the health care provider) constitute the major cost driver of this practice and that the model of care and associated, time-related activities influence the cost. This pilot study information will be used in the development of a comparative study of prenatal care, client education, and self care. PMID:22945985

  8. Cost analysis of prenatal care using the activity-based costing model: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesse, T; Golembeski, S; Potter, J

    1999-01-01

    The cost of prenatal care in a private nurse-midwifery practice was examined using the activity-based costing system. Findings suggest that the activities of the nurse-midwife (the health care provider) constitute the major cost driver of this practice and that the model of care and associated, time-related activities influence the cost. This pilot study information will be used in the development of a comparative study of prenatal care, client education, and self care.

  9. Long-term health and medical cost impact of smoking prevention in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li Yan; Michael, Shannon L

    2015-02-01

    To estimate smoking progression probabilities from adolescence to young adulthood and to estimate long-term health and medical cost impacts of preventing smoking in today's adolescents. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we first estimated smoking progression probabilities from adolescence to young adulthood. Then, using the predicted probabilities, we estimated the number of adolescents who were prevented from becoming adult daily smokers as a result of a hypothetical 1 percentage point reduction in the prevalence of ever smoking in today's adolescents. We further estimated lifetime medical costs saved and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained as a result of preventing adolescents from becoming adult daily smokers. All costs were in 2010 dollars. Compared with never smokers, those who had tried smoking at baseline had higher probabilities of becoming current or former daily smokers at follow-up regardless of baseline grade or sex. A hypothetical 1 percentage point reduction in the prevalence of ever smoking in 24.5 million students in 7th-12th grades today could prevent 35,962 individuals from becoming a former daily smoker and 44,318 individuals from becoming a current daily smoker at ages 24-32 years. As a result, lifetime medical care costs are estimated to decrease by $1.2 billion and lifetime QALYs is estimated to increase by 98,590. Effective smoking prevention programs for adolescents go beyond reducing smoking prevalence in adolescence; they also reduce daily smokers in young adulthood, increase QALYs, and reduce medical costs substantially in later life. This finding indicates the importance of continued investment in effective youth smoking prevention programs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. The ecology of medical care in Beijing.

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    Shuang Shao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We presented the pattern of health care consumption, and the utilization of available resources by describing the ecology of medical care in Beijing on a monthly basis and by describing the socio-demographic characteristics associated with receipt care in different settings. METHODS: A cohort of 6,592 adults, 15 years of age and older were sampled to estimate the number of urban-resident adults per 1,000 who visited a medical facility at least once in a month, by the method of three-stage stratified and cluster random sampling. Separate logistic regression analyses assessed the association between those receiving care in different types of setting and their socio-demographic characteristics. RESULTS: On average per 1,000 adults, 295 had at least one symptom, 217 considered seeking medical care, 173 consulted a physician, 129 visited western medical practitioners, 127 visited a hospital-based outpatient clinic, 78 visited traditional Chinese medical practitioners, 43 visited a primary care physician, 35 received care in an emergency department, 15 were hospitalized. Health care seeking behaviors varied with socio-demographic characteristics, such as gender, age, ethnicity, resident census register, marital status, education, income, and health insurance status. In term of primary care, the gate-keeping and referral roles of Community Health Centers have not yet been fully established in Beijing. CONCLUSIONS: This study represents a first attempt to map the medical care ecology of Beijing urban population and provides timely baseline information for health care reform in China.

  11. Outpatient costs in pharmaceutically treated diabetes patients with and without a diagnosis of depression in a Dutch primary care setting

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    Bosmans Judith E

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess differences in outpatient costs among pharmaceutically treated diabetes patients with and without a diagnosis of depression in a Dutch primary care setting. Methods A retrospective case control study over 3 years (2002-2004. Data on 7128 depressed patients and 23772 non-depressed matched controls were available from the electronic medical record system of 20 general practices organized in one large primary care organization in the Netherlands. A total of 393 depressed patients with diabetes and 494 non-depressed patients with diabetes were identified in these records. The data that were extracted from the medical record system concerned only outpatient costs, which included GP care, referrals, and medication. Results Mean total outpatient costs per year in depressed diabetes patients were €1039 (SD 743 in the period 2002-2004, which was more than two times as high as in non-depressed diabetes patients (€492, SD 434. After correction for age, sex, type of insurance, diabetes treatment, and comorbidity, the difference in total annual costs between depressed and non-depressed diabetes patients changed from €408 (uncorrected to €463 (corrected in multilevel analyses. Correction for comorbidity had the largest impact on the difference in costs between both groups. Conclusions Outpatient costs in depressed patients with diabetes are substantially higher than in non-depressed patients with diabetes even after adjusting for confounders. Future research should investigate whether effective treatment of depression among diabetes patients can reduce health care costs in the long term.

  12. Medical and Indirect Costs Associated with a Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Epidemic in Arizona, 2002-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Naomi A; Traeger, Marc S; McQuiston, Jennifer H; Williams, Velda; Hamilton, Charlene; Regan, Joanna J

    2015-09-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is an emerging public health issue on some American Indian reservations in Arizona. RMSF causes an acute febrile illness that, if untreated, can cause severe illness, permanent sequelae requiring lifelong medical support, and death. We describe costs associated with medical care, loss of productivity, and death among cases of RMSF on two American Indian reservations (estimated population 20,000) between 2002 and 2011. Acute medical costs totaled more than $1.3 million. This study further estimated $181,100 in acute productivity lost due to illness, and $11.6 million in lifetime productivity lost from premature death. Aggregate costs of RMSF cases in Arizona 2002-2011 amounted to $13.2 million. We believe this to be a significant underestimate of the cost of the epidemic, but it underlines the severity of the disease and need for a more comprehensive study. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  13. Cost-effectiveness and the socialization of health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, P

    1995-01-01

    The more health care is socialized, the more cost-effectiveness is an appropriate criterion for expenditure. Utility-maximizing individuals, facing divisibility of health care purchases and declining marginal health gains, and complete information about probable health improvements, should buy health care according to its cost-effectiveness. Absent these features, individual health spending will not be cost-effective; and in any case, differences in personal utilities and risk aversion will not lead to the same ranking of health care interventions for everyone. Private insurance frees consumers from concern for cost, which undermines cost-effectiveness, but lets them emphasize effectiveness, which favors value for money. This is most important for costly and cost-effective interventions, especially for poor people. Cost-effectiveness is more appropriate and easier to achieve under second-party insurance. More complete socialization of health care, via public finance, can yield greater efficiency by making insurance compulsory. Cost-effectiveness is also more attractive when taxpayers subsidize others' care: needs (effectiveness) take precedence over wants (utility). The gain in effectiveness may be greater, and the welfare loss from Pareto non-optimality smaller, in poor countries than in rich ones.

  14. Pain symptoms and stooling patterns do not drive diagnostic costs for children with functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome in primary or tertiary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Mariella M; Weidler, Erica M; Czyzewski, Danita I; Shulman, Robert J

    2009-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) compare the cost of medical evaluation for children with functional abdominal pain or irritable bowel syndrome brought to a pediatric gastroenterologist versus children who remained in the care of their pediatrician, (2) compare symptom characteristics for the children in primary versus tertiary care, and (3) examine if symptom characteristics predicted the cost of medical evaluation. Eighty-nine children aged 7 to 10 years with functional abdominal pain or irritable bowel syndrome seen by a gastroenterologist (n = 46) or seen only by a pediatrician (n = 43) completed daily pain and stool diaries for 2 weeks. Mothers provided retrospective reports of their children's symptoms in the previous year. Cost of medical evaluation was calculated via chart review of diagnostic tests and application of prices as if the patients were self-pay. Child-reported diary data reflected no significant group differences with respect to pain, interference with activities, or stool characteristics. In contrast, mothers of children evaluated by a gastroenterologist viewed their children as having higher maximum pain intensity in the previous year. Excluding endoscopy costs, cost of medical evaluation was fivefold higher for children evaluated by a gastroenterologist, with higher cost across blood work, stool studies, breath testing, and diagnostic imaging. Symptom characteristics did not predict cost of care for either group. Despite the lack of difference in symptom characteristics between children in primary and tertiary care, a notable differential in cost of evaluation exists in accordance with level of care. Symptom characteristics do not seem to drive diagnostic evaluation in either primary or tertiary care. Given the lack of differences in child-reported symptoms and the maternal perspective that children evaluated by a gastroenterologist had more severe pain, we speculate that parent perception of child symptoms may be a primary factor in

  15. Costs of medically assisted reproduction treatment at specialized fertility clinics in the Danish public health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Terkel; Erb, Karin; Rizvanovic, Amra

    2014-01-01

    were abstracted from medical records. Flow diagrams were drawn for different standard treatment cycles and direct costs at each stage in the flow charts were measured and valued by a bottomup procedure. Indirect costs were distributed to each treatment cycle on the basis of number of visits as basis...

  16. Self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students in a tertiary care medical college, West Bengal

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    I Banerjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-medication is a widely prevalent practice in India. It assumes a special significance among medical students as they are the future medical practitioners. Aim: To assess the pattern of self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students. Settings and Design: Tertiary care medical college in West Bengal, India. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among the undergraduate medical students. Results: Out of 500 students of the institute, 482 consented for the study and filled in the supplied questionnaire. Fourteen incomplete questionnaires were excluded and the remaining 468 analyzed. It was found that 267 (57.05% respondents practiced self-medication. The principal morbidities for seeking self-medication included cough and common cold as reported by 94 students (35.21% followed by diarrhea (68 students (25.47%, fever (42 students (15.73%, headache (40 students (14.98% and pain abdomen due to heartburn/ peptic ulcer (23 students (8.61%. Drugs/ drug groups commonly used for self-medication included antibiotics (31.09% followed by analgesics (23.21%, antipyretics (17.98%, antiulcer agents (8.99%, cough suppressant (7.87%, multivitamins (6.37% and antihelminthics (4.49%. Among reasons for seeking self-medication, 126 students (47.19% felt that their illness was mild while 76 (28.46% preferred as it is time-saving. About 42 students (15.73% cited cost-effectiveness as the primary reason while 23 (8.62% preferred because of urgency. Conclusion: Our study shows that self-medication is widely practiced among students of the institute. In this situation, faculties should create awareness and educate their students regarding advantages and disadvantages of self-medication.

  17. Efficiency of the system of management accounting and reporting in a medical organization when providing dental care to the population

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    Gaidarov G.M.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions, the justification of managerial decisions in a medical organization requires the introduction of a detailed system of management accounting, the most important element of which is the correctness and legality of writing-off of medical preparations and supplies, especially with respect to resource-intensive types of medical care, in particular, dental care. Purpose of the study: evaluation of the effectiveness of the system of management accounting and reporting developed and implemented in the Department of Therapeutic Dentistry of the ISMU aimed at the rational and effective use of limited financial resources in modern conditions. Methods. The study used an economic method to analyze the actual costs incurred in the provision of dental services in medical organizations in Irkutsk, participating in the provision of medical care in the MHI system. Results. The use of the developed and implemented system of management accounting and reporting for the dental medical organization on the basis of the results of the implementation for the period January-October 2017 resulted in a reduction in the actual costs for a single completed case of dental care and almost a twofold reduction in the cost of medicines. However, even the implementation of these measures was not capable of bringing actual expenditures into full compliance with the normative volume of financing in the MHI system, especially taking into account the phased increase in the level of wages of medics. Conclusion. The internal environment and the accounting and reporting policy of the medical organization are undoubtedly of great importance in solving the problems of rational and effective use of financial resources, but the state’s provision of sufficient level of tariffs for medical care in the MHI system plays a key role.

  18. Impact of pharmacist’s interventions on cost of drug therapy in intensive care unit. Pharmacy

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    Saokaew S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacist participation in patient care team has been shown to reduce incidence of adverse drug events, and overall drug costs. However, impact of pharmacist participation in the multidisciplinary intensive care team on cost saving and cost avoidance has little been studied in Thailand.Objective: To describe the characteristics of the interventions and to determine pharmacist’s interventions led to change in cost saving and cost avoidance in intensive care unit (ICU. Methods: A Prospective, standard care-controlled study design was used to compare cost saving and cost avoidance of patients receiving care from patient care team (including a clinical pharmacist versus standard care (no pharmacist on team. All patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit 1 and 2 during the same period were included in the study. The outcome measures were overall drug cost and length of ICU stay. Interventions made by the pharmacist in the study group were documented. The analyses of acceptance and cost saving and/or cost avoidance were also performed. Results: A total of 65 patients were admitted to either ICU 1 or 2 during the 5 week- study period. The pharmacist participated in patient care and made total of 127 interventions for the ICU-1 team. Ninety-eight percent of the interventions were accepted and implemented by physicians. The difference of overall drug cost per patient between two groups was 182.01 USD (1,076.37 USD in study group and 1,258.38 USD in control group, p=0.138. The average length of ICU stay for the intervention group and the control group was not significantly different (7.16 days vs. 6.18 days, p=0.995. The 125 accepted interventions were evaluated for cost saving and cost avoidance. Pharmacist’s interventions yielded a total of 1,971.43 USD from drug cost saving and 294.62 USD from adverse drug event cost avoidance. The net cost saved and avoided from pharmacist interventions was 2,266.05 USD. Interventions involving

  19. Unpacking the financial costs of "bariatric tourism" gone wrong: Who holds responsibility for costs to the Canadian health care system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jeremy C; Silva, Diego S; Crooks, Valorie A

    2016-12-01

    Canadians are motivated to travel abroad for bariatric surgery owing to wait times for care and restrictions on access at home for various reasons. While such surgery abroad is typically paid for privately, if "bariatric tourists" experience complications or have other essential medical needs upon their return to Canada, these costs are borne by the publicly funded health system. In this commentary, we discuss why assigning responsibility for the costs of complications stemming from bariatric tourism is complicated and contextual.

  20. Medical costs, Cesarean delivery rates, and length of stay in specialty hospitals vs. non-specialty hospitals in South Korea.

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    Seung Ju Kim

    Full Text Available Since 2011, specialty hospitals in South Korea have been known for providing high- quality care in specific clinical areas. Much research related to specialty hospitals and their performance in many such areas has been performed, but investigations about their performance in obstetrics and gynecology are lacking. Thus, we aimed to compare specialty vs. non-specialty hospitals with respect to mode of obstetric delivery, especially the costs and length of stay related to Cesarean section (CS procedures, and to provide evidence to policy-makers for evaluating the success of hospitals that specialize in obstetric and gynecological (OBGYN care.We obtained National Health Insurance claim data from 2012 to 2014, which included information from 418,141 OBGYN cases at 214 hospitals. We used a generalized estimating equation model to identify a potential association between the likelihood of CS at specialty hospitals compared with other hospitals. We also evaluated medical costs and length of stay in specialty hospitals according to type of delivery.We found that 150,256 (35.9% total deliveries were performed by CS. The odds ratio of CS was significantly lower in specialty hospitals (OR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.93-0.96compared to other hospitals Medical costs (0.74% and length of stay (1% in CS cases increased in specialty hospitals, although length of stay following vaginal delivery was lower (0.57% in specialty hospitals compared with other hospitals.We determined that specialty hospitals are significantly associated with a lower likelihood of CS delivery and shorter length of stay after vaginal delivery. Although they are also associated with higher costs for delivery, the increased cost could be due to the high level of intensive care provided, which leads to improve quality of care. Policy-makers should consider incentive programs to maintain performance of specialty hospitals and promote efficiency that could reduce medical costs accrued by patients.

  1. Redefining "Medical Care."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Lauren R

    President Donald J. Trump has said he will repeal the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and replace it with health savings accounts (HSAs). Conservatives have long preferred individual accounts to meet social welfare needs instead of more traditional entitlement programs. The types of "medical care" that can be reimbursed through an HSA are listed in section 213(d) of the Internal Revenue Code (Code) and include expenses "for the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease, or for the purpose of affecting any structure or function of the body." In spite of the broad language, regulations and court interpretations have narrowed this definition substantially. It does not include the many social factors that determine health outcomes. Though the United States spends over seventeen percent of gross domestic product (GDP) on "healthcare", the country's focus on the traditional medicalized model of health results in overall population health that is far beneath the results of other countries that spend significantly less. Precision medicine is one exceptional way in which American healthcare has focused more on individuals instead of providing broad, one-size-fits-all medical care. The precision medicine movement calls for using the genetic code of individuals to both predict future illness and to target treatments for current illnesses. Yet the definition of "medical care" under the Code remains the same for all. My proposal for precision healthcare accounts involves two steps-- the first of which requires permitting physicians to write prescriptions for a broader range of goods and services. The social determinants of health are as important to health outcomes as are surgical procedures and drugs--or perhaps more so according to many population health studies. The second step requires agencies and courts to interpret what constitutes "medical care" under the Code differently depending on the taxpayer's income level. Childhood sports programs and payments

  2. The Value of Electronic Medical Record Implementation in Mental Health Care: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, Sanaz; Fischler, Ilan; Stuckey, Melanie I; Klassen, Philip E; Chen, John

    2017-01-05

    Electronic medical records (EMR) have been implemented in many organizations to improve the quality of care. Evidence supporting the value added to a recovery-oriented mental health facility is lacking. The goal of this project was to implement and customize a fully integrated EMR system in a specialized, recovery-oriented mental health care facility. This evaluation examined the outcomes of quality improvement initiatives driven by the EMR to determine the value that the EMR brought to the organization. The setting was a tertiary-level mental health facility in Ontario, Canada. Clinical informatics and decision support worked closely with point-of-care staff to develop workflows and documentation tools in the EMR. The primary initiatives were implementation of modules for closed loop medication administration, collaborative plan of care, clinical practice guidelines for schizophrenia, restraint minimization, the infection prevention and control surveillance status board, drug of abuse screening, and business intelligence. Medication and patient scan rates have been greater than 95% since April 2014, mitigating the adverse effects of medication errors. Specifically, between April 2014 and March 2015, only 1 moderately severe and 0 severe adverse drug events occurred. The number of restraint incidents decreased 19.7%, which resulted in cost savings of more than Can $1.4 million (US $1.0 million) over 2 years. Implementation of clinical practice guidelines for schizophrenia increased adherence to evidence-based practices, standardizing care across the facility. Improved infection prevention and control surveillance reduced the number of outbreak days from 47 in the year preceding implementation of the status board to 7 days in the year following. Decision support to encourage preferential use of the cost-effective drug of abuse screen when clinically indicated resulted in organizational cost savings. EMR implementation allowed Ontario Shores Centre for Mental Health

  3. Direct medical costs and medication compliance among fibromyalgia patients: duloxetine initiators vs. pregabalin initiators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peter; Peng, Xiaomei; Sun, Steve; Novick, Diego; Faries, Douglas E; Andrews, Jeffrey S; Wohlreich, Madelaine M; Wu, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    To assess and compare direct medical costs and medication compliance between patients with fibromyalgia who initiated duloxetine and patients with fibromyalgia who initiated pregabalin in 2008. A retrospective cohort study design was used based on a large US national commercial claims database (2006 to 2009). Patients with fibromyalgia aged 18 to 64 who initiated duloxetine or pregabalin in 2008 and who had continuous health insurance 1 year preceding and 1 year following the initiation were selected into duloxetine cohort or pregabalin cohort based on their initiated agent. Medication compliance was measured by total supply days, medication possession ratio (MPR), and proportion of patients with MPR ≥ 0.8. Direct medical costs were measured by annual costs per patient and compared between the cohorts in the year following the initiation. Propensity score stratification and bootstrapping methods were used to adjust for distribution bias, as well as cross-cohort differences in demographic, clinical and economic characteristics, and medication history prior to the initiation. Both the duloxetine (n = 3,033) and pregabalin (n = 4,838) cohorts had a mean initiation age around 49 years, 89% were women. During the postindex year, compared to the pregabalin cohort, the duloxetine cohort had higher totally annual supply days (273.5 vs. 176.6, P costs ($2,994.9 vs. $4,949.6, P costs ($8,259.6 vs. $10,312.2, P costs ($5,214.6 vs. $5,290.8, P > 0.05), and lower total medical costs ($16,469.1 vs. $20,552.6, P compliance and consumed less inpatient, outpatient, and total medical costs than those who initiated pregabalin. © 2013 The Authors Pain Practice © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  4. Multimorbidity in chronic disease: impact on health care resources and costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPhail SM

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Steven M McPhail1,2 1Centre for Functioning and Health Research, Metro South Health, 2Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation and School of Public Health and Social Work, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia Abstract: Effective and resource-efficient long-term management of multimorbidity is one of the greatest health-related challenges facing patients, health professionals, and society more broadly. The purpose of this review was to provide a synthesis of literature examining multimorbidity and resource utilization, including implications for cost-effectiveness estimates and resource allocation decision making. In summary, previous literature has reported substantially greater, near exponential, increases in health care costs and resource utilization when additional chronic comorbid conditions are present. Increased health care costs have been linked to elevated rates of primary care and specialist physician occasions of service, medication use, emergency department presentations, and hospital admissions (both frequency of admissions and bed days occupied. There is currently a paucity of cost-effectiveness information for chronic disease interventions originating from patient samples with multimorbidity. The scarcity of robust economic evaluations in the field represents a considerable challenge for resource allocation decision making intended to reduce the burden of multimorbidity in resource-constrained health care systems. Nonetheless, the few cost-effectiveness studies that are available provide valuable insight into the potential positive and cost-effective impact that interventions may have among patients with multiple comorbidities. These studies also highlight some of the pragmatic and methodological challenges underlying the conduct of economic evaluations among people who may have advanced age, frailty, and disadvantageous socioeconomic circumstances, and where long-term follow-up may be required to

  5. Primary health-care costs associated with special health care needs up to age 7 years: Australian population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, Jon; Oberklaid, Frank; Gold, Lisa; Lucas, Nina; Mensah, Fiona K; Wake, Melissa

    2014-10-01

    We studied infants and children with and without special health care needs (SHCN) during the first 8 years of life to compare the (i) types and costs to the government's Medicare system of non-hospital health-care services and prescription medication in each year and (ii) cumulative costs according to persistence of SHCN. Data from the first two biennial waves of the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, comprising two independent cohorts recruited in 2004, at ages 0-1 (n = 5107) and 4-5 (n = 4983) years. Exposure condition: parent-reported Children with Special Health Care Needs Screener at both waves, spanning ages 0-7 years. Federal Government Medicare expenditure, via data linkage to the Medicare database, on non-hospital health-care attendances and prescriptions from birth to 8 years. At both waves and in both cohorts, >92% of children had complete SHCN and Medicare data. The proportion of children with SHCN increased from 6.1% at age 0-1 years to 15.0% at age 6-7 years. Their additional Medicare costs ranged from $491 per child at 6-7 years to $1202 at 0-1 year. This equates to an additional $161.8 million annual cost or 0.8% of federal funding for non-hospital-based health care. In both cohorts, costs were highest for children with persistent SHCNs. SHCNs incur substantial non-hospital costs to Medicare, and no doubt other sources of care, from early childhood. This suggests that economic evaluations of early prevention and intervention services for SHCNs should consider impacts on not only the child and family but also the health-care system. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  6. Medical and Indirect Costs Associated with a Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Epidemic in Arizona, 2002–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Naomi A.; Traeger, Marc S.; McQuiston, Jennifer H.; Williams, Velda; Hamilton, Charlene; Regan, Joanna J.

    2015-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is an emerging public health issue on some American Indian reservations in Arizona. RMSF causes an acute febrile illness that, if untreated, can cause severe illness, permanent sequelae requiring lifelong medical support, and death. We describe costs associated with medical care, loss of productivity, and death among cases of RMSF on two American Indian reservations (estimated population 20,000) between 2002 and 2011. Acute medical costs totaled more than $1.3 million. This study further estimated $181,100 in acute productivity lost due to illness, and $11.6 million in lifetime productivity lost from premature death. Aggregate costs of RMSF cases in Arizona 2002–2011 amounted to $13.2 million. We believe this to be a significant underestimate of the cost of the epidemic, but it underlines the severity of the disease and need for a more comprehensive study. PMID:26033020

  7. Severe forms of fibromyalgia with acute exacerbation of pain: costs, comorbidities, and length of stay in inpatient care

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    Romeyke T

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tobias Romeyke,1,2 Elisabeth Noehammer,1 Hans Christoph Scheuer,2 Harald Stummer1,3 1Institute for Management and Economics in Health Care, University of Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology (UMIT, Hall in Tirol, Austria; 2Waldhausklinik Deuringen, Acute Hospital for Internal Medicine, Pain Therapy, Complementary, and Individualized Patient-Centered Medicine, Stadtbergen, Germany; 3Institute for Management and Innovation in Healthcare, University Schloss Seeburg, Seekirchen/Wallersee, Austria Background and purpose: As a disease of the musculoskeletal system, fibromyalgia is becoming increasingly important, because of the direct and indirect costs to health systems. The purpose of this study of health economics was to obtain information about staff costs differentiated by service provider, and staff and material costs of the nonmedical infrastructure in inpatient care.Patients and methods: This study looked at 263 patients who received interdisciplinary inpatient treatment for severe forms of fibromyalgia with acute exacerbation of pain between 2011 and 2014. Standardized cost accounting and an analysis of additional diagnoses were performed.Results: The average cost per patient was €3,725.84, with staff and material costs of the nonmedical infrastructure and staff costs of doctors and nurses accounting for the highest proportions of the costs. Each fibromyalgia patient had an average of 6.1 additional diagnoses.Conclusion: Severe forms of fibromyalgia are accompanied by many concomitant diseases and associated with both high clinical staff costs and high medical and nonmedical infrastructure costs. Indication-based cost calculations provide important information for health policy and hospital managers if they include all elements that incur costs in both a differentiated and standardized way. Keywords: fibromyalgia, DRG, cost, length of stay, comorbidities, interdisciplinary care, inpatient care, musculoskeletal, pain

  8. Direct medical cost of stroke in Singapore.

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    Ng, Charmaine Shuyu; Toh, Matthias Paul Han Sim; Ng, Jiaying; Ko, Yu

    2015-10-01

    Globally, stroke is recognized as one of the main causes of long-term disability, accounting for approximately 5·7 million deaths each year. It is a debilitating and costly chronic condition that consumes about 2-4% of total healthcare expenditure. To estimate the direct medical cost associated with stroke in Singapore in 2012 and to determine associated predictors. The National Healthcare Group Chronic Disease Management System database was used to identify patients with stroke between the years 2006 and 2012. Estimated stroke-related costs included hospitalizations, accident and emergency room visits, outpatient physician visits, laboratory tests, and medications. A total of 700 patients were randomly selected for the analyses. The mean annual direct medical cost was found to be S$12 473·7, of which 93·6% were accounted for by inpatient services, 4·9% by outpatient services, and 1·5% by A&E services. Independent determinants of greater total costs were stroke types, such as ischemic stroke (P = 0·005), subarachnoid hemorrhage (P costs. Efforts to reduce inpatient costs and to allocate health resources to focus on the primary prevention of stroke should become a priority. © 2015 World Stroke Organization.

  9. Impact of mineral and bone disorder on healthcare resource use and associated costs in the European Fresenius medical care dialysis population: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiroli, Silvia; Mattin, Caroline; Belozeroff, Vasily; Perrault, Louise; Mitchell, Dominic; Gioni, Ioanna

    2012-10-29

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is associated with mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the economic consequences of SHPT have not been adequately studied in the European population. We assessed the relationship between SHPT parameters (intact parathyroid hormone [iPTH], calcium, and phosphate) and hospitalisations, medication use, and associated costs among CKD patients in Europe. The analysis of this retrospective cohort study used records of randomly selected patients who underwent haemodialysis between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2006 at participating European Fresenius Medical Care facilities in 10 countries. Patients had ≥ 1 iPTH value recorded, and ≥ 1 month of follow-up after a 3-month baseline period during which SHPT parameters were assessed. Time at risk was post-baseline until death, successful renal transplantation, loss to follow-up, or the end of follow-up. Outcomes included cost per patient-month, rates of hospitalisations (cardiovascular disease [CVD], fractures, and parathyroidectomy [PTX]), and use of SHPT-, diabetes-, and CVD-related medications. National costs were applied to hospitalisations and medication use. Generalised linear models compared costs across strata of iPTH, total calcium, and phosphate, adjusting for baseline covariates. There were 6369 patients included in the analysis. Mean ± SD person-time at risk was 13.1 ± 6.4 months. Patients with iPTH > 600 pg/mL had a higher hospitalisation rate than those with lower iPTH. Hospitalisation rates varied little across calcium and phosphate levels. SHPT-related medication use varied with iPTH, calcium, and phosphate. After adjusting for demographic and clinical variables, patients with baseline iPTH > 600 pg/mL had 41% (95% CI: 25%, 59%) higher monthly total healthcare costs compared with those with iPTH in the K/DOQI target range (150-300 pg/mL). Patients with baseline phosphate and total calcium levels above target ranges (1.13-1.78 mmol/L and 2

  10. The 3C study: coverage cost and care of type 1 diabetes in China--study design and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Helen; Kissimova-Skarbek, Katarzyna; Whiting, David; Ji, Linong

    2011-11-01

    To describe coverage, cost and care of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in 2 regions of China--Beijing and Shantou--including: This is a mixed-methods descriptive study with three arms--coverage, cost and care. It is taking place in 4 tertiary hospitals, 3 secondary hospitals and 4 primary health facilities in Beijing, and 2 tertiary hospitals, 2 secondary hospitals and 2 primary health centres in Shantou, China. Two additional hospitals are involved in the coverage arm of the study. T1D participants are recruited from a 3-year list generated by each hospital and from those attending the outpatient clinic or admitted to the inpatient ward. Participants also include health care professionals and government officials. To determine coverage of care, a list of people with T1D is being developed including information on diagnosis, age, sex and vital status. The age and sex distribution will be compared with the expected distribution. To estimate the economic burden of T1D three groups of costs will be calculated - direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs and indirect costs from different perspectives of analysis (patients and their families, health system, insurer and societal perspective). The data are being collected from people with T1D (patient-parents face-to-face interviews), hospital billing departments, medical records and government officials using a combined "top-down, bottom-up" approach developed to validate the data. Quality of life is assessed using the EQ-5D tool and burden of disease is measured based on clinical outcomes and complications. Standard care will be defined, costed and compared to the cost of current care identified within the study to determine the investment required to improve outcomes. The third arm includes three components - health policy, clinical care and education, and information management. Face-to-face, semi-structured interviews are conducted with people with T1D (for those implementation considerations were identified early in the

  11. Encountering aged care: a mixed methods investigation of medical students' clinical placement experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annear, Michael J; Lea, Emma; Lo, Amanda; Tierney, Laura; Robinson, Andrew

    2016-02-04

    Residential aged care is an increasingly important health setting due to population ageing and the increase in age-related conditions, such as dementia. However, medical education has limited engagement with this fast-growing sector and undergraduate training remains primarily focussed on acute presentations in hospital settings. Additionally, concerns have been raised about the adequacy of dementia-related content in undergraduate medical curricula, while research has found mixed attitudes among students towards the care of older people. This study explores how medical students engage with the learning experiences accessible in clinical placements in residential aged care facilities (RACFs), particularly exposure to multiple comorbidity, cognitive impairment, and palliative care. Fifth-year medical students (N = 61) completed five-day clinical placements at two Australian aged care facilities in 2013 and 2014. The placements were supported by an iterative yet structured program and academic teaching staff to ensure appropriate educational experiences and oversight. Mixed methods data were collected before and after the clinical placement. Quantitative data included surveys of dementia knowledge and questions about attitudes to the aged care sector and working with older adults. Qualitative data were collected from focus group discussions concerning medical student expectations, learning opportunities, and challenges to engagement. Pre-placement surveys identified good dementia knowledge, but poor attitudes towards aged care and older adults. Negative placement experiences were associated with a struggle to discern case complexity and a perception of an aged care placement as an opportunity cost associated with reduced hospital training time. Irrespective of negative sentiment, post-placement survey data showed significant improvements in attitudes to working with older people and dementia knowledge. Positive student experiences were explained by in

  12. Seeking health care through international medical tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissler, Lee Ann; Casken, John

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was the exploration of international travel experiences for the purpose of medical or dental care from the perspective of patients from Alaska and to develop insight and understanding of the essence of the phenomenon of medical tourism. The study is conceptually oriented within a model of health-seeking behavior. Using a qualitative design, 15 Alaska medical tourists were individually interviewed. The data were analyzed using a hermeneutic process of inquiry to uncover the meaning of the experience. Six themes reflecting the experiences of Alaska medical tourists emerged: "my motivation," "I did the research," "the medical care I need," "follow-up care," "the advice I give," and "in the future." Subthemes further categorized data for increased understanding of the phenomenon. The thematic analysis provides insight into the experience and reflects a modern approach to health-seeking behavior through international medical tourism. The results of this study provide increased understanding of the experience of obtaining health care internationally from the patient perspective. Improved understanding of medical tourism provides additional information about a contemporary approach to health-seeking behavior. Results of this study will aid nursing professionals in counseling regarding medical tourism options and providing follow-up health care after medical tourism. Nurses will be able to actively participate in global health policy discussions regarding medical tourism trends. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  13. Controlling Health Care Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessoff, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This article examines issues on health care costs and describes measures taken by public districts to reduce spending. As in most companies in America, health plan designs in public districts are being changed to reflect higher out-of-pocket costs, such as higher deductibles on visits to providers, hospital stays, and prescription drugs. District…

  14. Patterns of trauma care costs and reimbursements: the burden of uninsured motorists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, D D; Holcomb, S F; Sherck, J P

    1985-08-01

    In today's rapidly changing medical-economic environment, hospitals must continually reexamine their services to determine which are cost efficient. We used a database system to analyze our financial experience with motor vehicle accident victims discharged between July 1982 and June 1983. We found that motor vehicle accidents accounted for 2.1% of discharges, but 6.6% of patient-days. The average length of stay was 23.8 days, more than three times the hospital average (7.4 days). Charges averaged +723 per day, essentially identical with the hospital average. In terms of patient-days, 51% of accident victims were covered by private insurance, 39% by Medi-Cal (California's Medicaid), and 3% by Medicare; 7% were uninsured and unsponsored. Hospital charges related directly to patient-days and were identical for the four financial categories. Overall reimbursement for these patients was 80.3% of charges, approximately equal to our estimated costs. Reimbursement as a percentage of charges varied greatly according to the category of sponsorship: private insurance, 90%; Medicare, 78%; and unsponsored, 15%. Medi-Cal paid a fixed confidential per diem rate. Caring for victims of motor vehicle accidents was a break-even proposition for our institution in 1982-1983. Uninsured and unsponsored patients produced a large deficit which of necessity had to be made up by cost shifting to privately insured patients or by direct tax subsidies. Motor vehicle insurance per se made only a modest contribution to our reimbursement for the care of these patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care: a nationwide survey at German medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Stefan K; Timmermann, Arnd; Müller, Michael P; Angstwurm, Matthias; Walcher, Felix

    2009-05-12

    Since June 2002, revised regulations in Germany have required "Emergency Medical Care" as an interdisciplinary subject, and state that emergency treatment should be of increasing importance within the curriculum. A survey of the current status of undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care establishes the basis for further committee work. Using a standardized questionnaire, all medical faculties in Germany were asked to answer questions concerning the structure of their curriculum, representation of disciplines, instructors' qualifications, teaching and assessment methods, as well as evaluation procedures. Data from 35 of the 38 medical schools in Germany were analysed. In 32 of 35 medical faculties, the local Department of Anaesthesiology is responsible for the teaching of emergency medical care; in two faculties, emergency medicine is taught mainly by the Department of Surgery and in another by Internal Medicine. Lectures, seminars and practical training units are scheduled in varying composition at 97% of the locations. Simulation technology is integrated at 60% (n = 21); problem-based learning at 29% (n = 10), e-learning at 3% (n = 1), and internship in ambulance service is mandatory at 11% (n = 4). In terms of assessment methods, multiple-choice exams (15 to 70 questions) are favoured (89%, n = 31), partially supplemented by open questions (31%, n = 11). Some faculties also perform single practical tests (43%, n = 15), objective structured clinical examination (OSCE; 29%, n = 10) or oral examinations (17%, n = 6). Emergency Medical Care in undergraduate medical education in Germany has a practical orientation, but is very inconsistently structured. The innovative options of simulation technology or state-of-the-art assessment methods are not consistently utilized. Therefore, an exchange of experiences and concepts between faculties and disciplines should be promoted to guarantee a standard level of education in emergency medical care.

  16. Undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care: A nationwide survey at German medical schools

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    Timmermann Arnd

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since June 2002, revised regulations in Germany have required "Emergency Medical Care" as an interdisciplinary subject, and state that emergency treatment should be of increasing importance within the curriculum. A survey of the current status of undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care establishes the basis for further committee work. Methods Using a standardized questionnaire, all medical faculties in Germany were asked to answer questions concerning the structure of their curriculum, representation of disciplines, instructors' qualifications, teaching and assessment methods, as well as evaluation procedures. Results Data from 35 of the 38 medical schools in Germany were analysed. In 32 of 35 medical faculties, the local Department of Anaesthesiology is responsible for the teaching of emergency medical care; in two faculties, emergency medicine is taught mainly by the Department of Surgery and in another by Internal Medicine. Lectures, seminars and practical training units are scheduled in varying composition at 97% of the locations. Simulation technology is integrated at 60% (n = 21; problem-based learning at 29% (n = 10, e-learning at 3% (n = 1, and internship in ambulance service is mandatory at 11% (n = 4. In terms of assessment methods, multiple-choice exams (15 to 70 questions are favoured (89%, n = 31, partially supplemented by open questions (31%, n = 11. Some faculties also perform single practical tests (43%, n = 15, objective structured clinical examination (OSCE; 29%, n = 10 or oral examinations (17%, n = 6. Conclusion Emergency Medical Care in undergraduate medical education in Germany has a practical orientation, but is very inconsistently structured. The innovative options of simulation technology or state-of-the-art assessment methods are not consistently utilized. Therefore, an exchange of experiences and concepts between faculties and disciplines should be promoted to guarantee a standard

  17. Censored Quantile Instrumental Variable Estimates of the Price Elasticity of Expenditure on Medical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Amanda

    2016-01-02

    Efforts to control medical care costs depend critically on how individuals respond to prices. I estimate the price elasticity of expenditure on medical care using a censored quantile instrumental variable (CQIV) estimator. CQIV allows estimates to vary across the conditional expenditure distribution, relaxes traditional censored model assumptions, and addresses endogeneity with an instrumental variable. My instrumental variable strategy uses a family member's injury to induce variation in an individual's own price. Across the conditional deciles of the expenditure distribution, I find elasticities that vary from -0.76 to -1.49, which are an order of magnitude larger than previous estimates.

  18. Medical care and payment for diabetes in China: enormous threat and great opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenying; Zhao, Wenhui; Xiao, Jianzhong; Li, Rui; Zhang, Ping; Kissimova-Skarbek, Katarzyna; Schneider, Erin; Jia, Weiping; Ji, Linong; Guo, Xiaohui; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Jie; Tian, Haoming; Chen, Li; Zhou, Zhiguang; Ji, Qiuhe; Ge, Jiapu; Chen, Gang; Brown, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The Diabetes Impact Study followed up a large national population-based screening study to estimate the use of and expenditures for medical care caused by diabetes in China and to ascertain the use and cost of essential basic medicines and care. In 2009-10, the study team interviewed 1482 adults with diabetes and 1553 adults with glucose tolerance in the normal range from population-based random samples at 12 sites in China. The response rate was 67%. After adjusting for age, sex, and urban/rural location, people with diabetes received 1.93 times more days of inpatient treatment, 2.40 times more outpatient visits, and 3.35 times more medications than people with normal glucose tolerance (all psugar, 21.1% took an antihypertensive medicine, 22.4% took daily aspirin, and 1.8% took a statin. Over the three months before the interview, 46.1% of persons with diabetes recalled seeing a doctor, 48.9% recalled a blood pressure measurement, and 54.5% recalled a blood sugar test. Over the year preceding the interview, 32.1% recalled a retinal screening and 17.9% recalled a foot examination. In China, health care use and costs were dramatically higher for people with diabetes than for people with normal glucose tolerance and, in relative terms, much higher than in industrialized countries. Low-cost generic medicines that would reduce diabetes expenditures were not fully used.

  19. Investments and costs of oral health care for Family Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Stefânia Ribeiro Macêdo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the investments to implement and operational costs of a type I Oral Health Care Team in the Family Health Care Strategy. METHODS This is an economic assessment study, for analyzing the investments and operational costs of an oral health care team in the city of Salvador, BA, Northeastern Brazil. The amount worth of investments for its implementation was obtained by summing up the investments in civil projects and shared facilities, in equipments, furniture, and instruments. Regarding the operational costs, the 2009-2012 time series was analyzed and the month of December 2012 was adopted for assessing the monetary values in effect. The costs were classified as direct variable costs (consumables and direct fixed costs (salaries, maintenance, equipment depreciation, instruments, furniture, and facilities, besides the indirect fixed costs (cleaning, security, energy, and water. The Ministry of Health’s share in funding was also calculated, and the factors that influence cost behavior were described. RESULTS The investment to implement a type I Oral Health Care Team was R$29,864.00 (US$15,236.76. The operational costs of a type I Oral Health Care Team were around R$95,434.00 (US$48,690.82 a year. The Ministry of Health’s financial incentives for investments accounted for 41.8% of the implementation investments, whereas the municipality contributed with a 59.2% share of the total. Regarding operational costs, the Ministry of Health contributed with 33.1% of the total, whereas the municipality, with 66.9%. Concerning the operational costs, the element of heaviest weight was salaries, which accounted for 84.7%. CONCLUSIONS Problems with the regularity in the supply of inputs and maintenance of equipment greatly influence the composition of costs, besides reducing the supply of services to the target population, which results in the service probably being inefficient. States are suggested to partake in funding

  20. Investments and costs of oral health care for Family Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macêdo, Márcia Stefânia Ribeiro; Chaves, Sônia Cristina Lima; Fernandes, Antônio Luis de Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the investments to implement and operational costs of a type I Oral Health Care Team in the Family Health Care Strategy. METHODS This is an economic assessment study, for analyzing the investments and operational costs of an oral health care team in the city of Salvador, BA, Northeastern Brazil. The amount worth of investments for its implementation was obtained by summing up the investments in civil projects and shared facilities, in equipments, furniture, and instruments. Regarding the operational costs, the 2009-2012 time series was analyzed and the month of December 2012 was adopted for assessing the monetary values in effect. The costs were classified as direct variable costs (consumables) and direct fixed costs (salaries, maintenance, equipment depreciation, instruments, furniture, and facilities), besides the indirect fixed costs (cleaning, security, energy, and water). The Ministry of Health’s share in funding was also calculated, and the factors that influence cost behavior were described. RESULTS The investment to implement a type I Oral Health Care Team was R$29,864.00 (US$15,236.76). The operational costs of a type I Oral Health Care Team were around R$95,434.00 (US$48,690.82) a year. The Ministry of Health’s financial incentives for investments accounted for 41.8% of the implementation investments, whereas the municipality contributed with a 59.2% share of the total. Regarding operational costs, the Ministry of Health contributed with 33.1% of the total, whereas the municipality, with 66.9%. Concerning the operational costs, the element of heaviest weight was salaries, which accounted for 84.7%. CONCLUSIONS Problems with the regularity in the supply of inputs and maintenance of equipment greatly influence the composition of costs, besides reducing the supply of services to the target population, which results in the service probably being inefficient. States are suggested to partake in funding, especially to cover the

  1. Cost effectiveness of medical devices to diagnose pre-eclampsia in low-resource settings

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    Zoë M. McLaren

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal mortality remains a major health challenge facing developing countries, with pre-eclampsia accounting for up to 17% of maternal deaths. Diagnosis requires skilled health providers and devices that are appropriate for low-resource settings. This study presents the first cost-effectiveness analysis of multiple medical devices used to diagnose pre-eclampsia in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. Methods: Blood pressure and proteinuria measurement devices, identified from compendia for LMICs, were included. We developed a decision tree framework to assess the cost-effectiveness of each device using parameter values that reflect the general standard of care based on a survey of relevant literature and expert opinion. We examined the sensitivity of our results using one-way and second-order probabilistic multivariate analyses. Results: Because the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs averted for each device were very similar, the results were influenced by the per-use cost ranking. The most cost-effective device combination was a semi-automatic blood pressure measurement device and visually read urine strip test with the lowest combined per-use cost of $0.2004 and an incremental cost effectiveness ratio of $93.6 per DALY gained relative to a baseline with no access to diagnostic devices. When access to treatment is limited, it is more cost-effective to improve access to treatment than to increase testing rates or diagnostic device sensitivity. Conclusions: Our findings were not sensitive to changes in device sensitivity, however they were sensitive to changes in the testing rate and treatment rate. Furthermore, our results suggest that simple devices are more cost-effective than complex devices. The results underscore the desirability of two design features for LMICs: ease of use and accuracy without calibration. Our findings have important implications for policy makers, health economists, health care providers and

  2. Cost accounting for end-of-life care: recommendations to the field by the Cost Accounting Workgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seninger, Stephen; Smith, Dean G

    2004-01-01

    Accurate measurement of economic costs is prerequisite to progress in improving the care delivered to Americans during the last stage of life. The Robert Wood Johnson Excellence in End-of-Life Care national program assembled a Cost Accounting Workgroup to identify accurate and meaningful methods to measure palliative and end-of-life health care use and costs. Eight key issues were identified: (1) planning the cost analysis; (2) identifying the perspective for cost analysis; (3) describing the end-of-life care program; (4) identifying the appropriate comparison group; (5) defining the period of care to be studied; (6) identifying the units of health care services; (7) assigning monetary values to health care service units; and (8) calculating costs. Economic principles of cost measurement and cost measurement issues encountered by practitioners were reviewed and incorporated into a set of recommendations.

  3. Trends in health care expenditure among US adults with heart failure: The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2002-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Bishu, Kinfe G; Fonarow, Gregg C; Egede, Leonard E

    2017-04-01

    Population-based national data on the trends in expenditures related to heart failure (HF) are scarce. Assessing the time trends in health care expenditures for HF in the United States can help to better define the burden of this condition. Using 10-year data (2002-2011) from the national Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (weighted sample of 188,708,194US adults aged ≥18years) and a 2-part model (adjusting for demographics, comorbidities, and time); we estimated adjusted mean and incremental medical expenditures by HF status. The costs were direct total health care expenditures (out-of-pocket payments and payments by private insurance, Medicaid, Medicare, and other sources) from various sources (office-based visits, hospital outpatient, emergency department, inpatient hospital, pharmacy, home health care, and other medical expenditures). Compared with expenditures for individuals without HF ($5511 [95% CI 5405-5617]), individuals with HF had a 4-fold higher mean expenditures of ($23,854 [95% CI 21,733-25,975]). Individuals with HF had $3446 (95% CI 2592-4299) higher direct incremental expenditures compared with those without HF, after adjusting for demographics and comorbidities. Among those with HF, costs continuously increased by $5836 (28% relative increase), from $21,316 (95% CI 18,359-24,272) in 2002/2003 to $27,152 (95% CI 20,066-34,237) in 2010/2011, and inpatient costs ($11,318 over the whole period) were the single largest component of total medical expenditure. The estimated unadjusted total direct medical expenditures for US adults with HF were $30 billion/y and the adjusted total incremental expenditure was $5.8 billion/y. Heart failure is costly and over a recent 10-year period, and direct expenditure related to HF increased markedly, mainly driven by inpatient costs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Costs and expected gain in lifetime health from intensive care versus general ward care of 30,712 individual patients: a distribution-weighted cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemark, Frode; Haaland, Øystein A; Kvåle, Reidar; Flaatten, Hans; Norheim, Ole F; Johansson, Kjell A

    2017-08-21

    Clinicians, hospital managers, policy makers, and researchers are concerned about high costs, increased demand, and variation in priorities in the intensive care unit (ICU). The objectives of this modelling study are to describe the extra costs and expected health gains associated with admission to the ICU versus the general ward for 30,712 patients and the variation in cost-effectiveness estimates among subgroups and individuals, and to perform a distribution-weighted economic evaluation incorporating extra weighting to patients with high severity of disease. We used a decision-analytic model that estimates the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained (ICER) from ICU admission compared with general ward care using Norwegian registry data from 2008 to 2010. We assigned increasing weights to health gains for those with higher severity of disease, defined as less expected lifetime health if not admitted. The study has inherent uncertainty of findings because a randomized clinical trial comparing patients admitted or rejected to the ICU has never been performed. Uncertainty is explored in probabilistic sensitivity analysis. The mean cost-effectiveness of ICU admission versus ward care was €11,600/QALY, with 1.6 QALYs gained and an incremental cost of €18,700 per patient. The probability (p) of cost-effectiveness was 95% at a threshold of €22,000/QALY. The mean ICER for medical admissions was €10,700/QALY (p = 97%), €12,300/QALY (p = 93%) for admissions after acute surgery, and €14,700/QALY (p = 84%) after planned surgery. For individualized ICERs, there was a 50% probability that ICU admission was cost-effective for 85% of the patients at a threshold of €64,000/QALY, leaving 15% of the admissions not cost-effective. In the distributional evaluation, 8% of all patients had distribution-weighted ICERs (higher weights to gains for more severe conditions) above €64,000/QALY. High-severity admissions gained the most, and were more

  5. The impact of technology on health care cost and policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Paul E; Konski, Andre

    2008-07-01

    As health care spending in the United States continues to increase at a pace significantly faster than that of other sectors of the economy, there seems to be greater interest and willingness to consider the root causes of the rise and to explore options for reform. Some of the reasons for cost escalation are associated with a growing and aging population that all too often makes inappropriate personal choices, but others are clearly attributable to growth in the cost of drugs, hospital and nursing home care, provider reimbursement, and durable medical equipment. Some health care economists have suggested that the rapid introduction of new technologies has also played a major role. Vendors understandably desire early market penetration of any new device or technology, but often this may be accomplished before significant evidence of benefit is available. Our current system of device approval unlinked to coverage and payment has produced further disruption in the system. The nature of the problem and consideration of various factors in the introduction, implementation, and evaluation of new technologies will be considered.

  6. [Cost-effectiveness of addiction care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suijkerbuijk, A W M; van Gils, P F; Greeven, P G J; de Wit, G A

    2015-01-01

    A large number of interventions are available for the treatment of addiction. Professionals need to know about the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of interventions so they can prioritise appropriate interventions for the treatment of addiction. To provide an overview of the scientific literature on the cost-effectiveness of addiction treatment for alcohol- and drug-abusers. We searched the databases Medline and Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. To be relevant for our study, articles had to focus on interventions in the health-care setting, have a Western context and have a health-related outcome measure such as quality adjusted life years (QALY). Twenty-nine studies met our inclusion criteria: 15 for alcohol and 14 for drugs. The studies on alcohol addiction related mainly to brief interventions. They proved to be cost-saving or had a favourable incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), remaining below the threshold of € 20,000 per QALY. The studies on drug addiction all involved pharmacotherapeutic interventions. In the case of 10 out of 14 interventions, the ICER was less than € 20,000 per QALY. Almost all of the interventions studied were cost-saving or cost-effective. Many studies consider only health-care costs. Additional research, for instance using a social cost-benefit analysis, could provide more details about the costs of addiction and about the impact that an intervention could have in these/the costs.

  7. Incentive-Based Primary Care: Cost and Utilization Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Marcus J; Kadlec, Helena

    2015-01-01

    In its fee-for-service funding model for primary care, British Columbia, Canada, introduced incentive payments to general practitioners as pay for performance for providing enhanced, guidelines-based care to patients with chronic conditions. Evaluation of the program was conducted at the health care system level. To examine the impact of the incentive payments on annual health care costs and hospital utilization patterns in British Columbia. The study used Ministry of Health administrative data for Fiscal Year 2010-2011 for patients with diabetes, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and/or hypertension. In each disease group, cost and utilization were compared across patients who did, and did not, receive incentive-based care. Health care costs (eg, primary care, hospital) and utilization measures (eg, hospital days, readmissions). After controlling for patients' age, sex, service needs level, and continuity of care (defined as attachment to a general practice), the incentives reduced the net annual health care costs, in Canadian dollars, for patients with hypertension (by approximately Can$308 per patient), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (by Can$496), and congestive heart failure (by Can$96), but not diabetes (incentives cost about Can$148 more per patient). The incentives were also associated with fewer hospital days, fewer admissions and readmissions, and shorter lengths of hospital stays for all 4 groups. Although the available literature on pay for performance shows mixed results, we showed that the funding model used in British Columbia using incentive payments for primary care might reduce health care costs and hospital utilization.

  8. Profile of medical care costs in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the Medicare programme and under commercial insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lisa; Bian, Amy; Jordan, Scott; Wolff, Andrew; Shefner, Jeremy M; Andrews, Jinsy

    2018-02-01

    To determine amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-associated costs incurred by patients covered by Medicare and/or commercial insurance before, during and after diagnosis and provide cost details. Costs were calculated from the Medicare Standard Analytical File 5% sample claims data from Parts A and B from 2009, 2010 and 2011 for ALS Medicare patients aged ≥70 years (monthly costs) and ≥65 years (costs associated with disability milestones). Commercial insurance patients aged 18-63 years were selected based on the data provided in the Coordination of Benefits field from Truven MarketScan® in 2008-2010. Monthly costs increased nine months before diagnosis, peaked during the index month (Medicare: $10,398; commercial: $9354) and decreased but remained high post-index. Costs generally shifted from outpatient to inpatient and private nursing after diagnosis; prescriptions and durable medical equipment costs were much higher for commercial patients post-diagnosis. Patients appeared to progress to disability milestones more rapidly as their disease progressed in severity (14.4 months to non-invasive ventilation [NIV] vs. 16.6 months to hospice), and their costs increased accordingly (NIV: $58,973 vs. hospice: $76,179). For newly diagnosed ALS patients in the U.S., medical costs are substantial and increase rapidly and substantially with each disability milestone.

  9. Beliefs that influence cost-related medication non-adherence among the “haves” and “have nots” with chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM

    2011-08-01

    of reporting CRN.Conclusion: Beyond objective financial measures, CRN is influenced by patient beliefs, which can influence the perceived value of prescription drugs. Addressing these beliefs, as well as the unique adherence concerns of patients with depression and asthma, could decrease CRN rates even if cost pressures themselves cannot be reduced.Keywords: medication adherence, cost-of-care, access to care, chronic disease 

  10. Primary care as a means of decreasing health care costs | van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was focussedat furthering the health objectives of the Government\\'s Reconstruction and Development Programme in the area ofprimary care. The purpose of the study was to examine the possible reduction of medical scheme claims for cardiovascular disease by means of primary care, so that medical scheme ...

  11. Direct costs of care for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with hepatitis C cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapper, Elliot B; Catana, Andreea M; Sethi, Nidhi; Mansuri, Daniel; Sethi, Saurabh; Vong, Annie; Afdhal, Nezam H

    2016-03-15

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the commonest cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the United States. The benefits of HCV therapy may be measured in part by the prevention of HCC and other complications of cirrhosis. The true cost of care of the HCV patient with HCC is unknown. One hundred patients were randomly selected from a cohort of all HCC patients with HCV at a US transplant center between 2003 and 2013. Patients were categorized by the primary treatment modality, Barcelona class, and ultimate transplant status. Costs included the unit costs of procedures, imaging, hospitalizations, medications, and all subsequent care of the HCC patient until either death or the end of follow-up. Associations with survival and cost were assessed in multivariate regression models. Overall costs included a median of $176,456 (interquartile range [IQR], $84,489-$292,192) per patient or $6279 (IQR, $4043-$9720) per patient-month of observation. The median costs per patient-month were $7492 (IQR, $5137-$11,057) for transplant patients and $4830 for nontransplant patients. The highest median monthly costs were for transplant patients with Barcelona A4 disease ($11,349) and patients who received chemoembolization whether they underwent transplantation ($10,244) or not ($8853). Transarterial chemoembolization and radiofrequency ablation were independently associated with a 28% increase and a 22% decrease in costs, respectively, with adjustments for the severity of liver disease and Barcelona class. These data represent real-world estimates of the cost of HCC care provided at a transplant center and should inform economic studies of HCV therapy. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  12. Development of hospital data warehouse for cost analysis of DPC based on medical costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muranaga, F; Kumamoto, I; Uto, Y

    2007-01-01

    To develop a data warehouse system for cost analysis, based on the categories of the diagnosis procedure combination (DPC) system, in which medical costs were estimated by DPC category and factors influencing the balance between costs and fees. We developed a data warehouse system for cost analysis using data from the hospital central data warehouse system. The balance data of patients who were discharged from Kagoshima University Hospital from April 2003 to March 2005 were determined in terms of medical procedure, cost per day and patient admission in order to conduct a drill-down analysis. To evaluate this system, we analyzed cash flow by DPC category of patients who were categorized as having malignant tumors and whose DPC category was reevaluated in 2004. The percentages of medical expenses were highest in patients with acute leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and particularly in patients with malignant tumors of the liver and intrahepatic bile duct. Imaging tests degraded the percentages of medical expenses in Kagoshima University Hospital. These results suggested that cost analysis by patient is important for hospital administration in the inclusive evaluation system using a case-mix index such as DPC.

  13. Does a One-Size-Fits-All Cost-Sharing Approach Incentivize Appropriate Medication Use? A Roundtable on the Fairness and Ethics Associated with Variable Cost Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Jennifer S; Shih, Chuck; Barker, Thomas; Dieguez, Gabriela; Larson, Cheryl; Sherman, Helen; Dubois, Robert W

    2017-06-01

    Tiered formularies, in which patients pay copays or coinsurance out-of-pocket (OOP), are used to manage costs and encourage more efficient health care resource use. Formulary tiers are typically based on the cost of treatment rather than the medical appropriateness for the patient. Cost sharing may have unintended consequences on treatment adherence and health outcomes. Use of higher-cost, higher-tier medications can be due to a variety of factors, including unsuccessful treatment because of lack of efficacy or side effects, patient clinical or genetic characteristics, patient preferences to avoid potential side effects, or patient preferences based on the route of administration. For example, patients with rheumatoid arthritis may be required to fail low-cost generic treatments before obtaining coverage for a higher-tier tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitor for which they would have a larger financial burden. Little is known about stakeholders' views on the acceptability of greater patient cost sharing if the individual patient characteristics lead to the higher-cost treatments. To identify and discuss the trade-offs associated with variable cost sharing in pharmacy benefits. To discuss the trade-offs associated with variable cost sharing in pharmacy benefits, we convened an expert roundtable of patient, payer, and employer representatives (panelists). Panelists reviewed background white papers, including an ethics framework; actuarial analysis; legal review; and stakeholder perspectives representing health plan, employer, and patient views. Using case studies, panelists were asked to consider (a) when it would be more (or less) acceptable to require higher cost sharing; (b) the optimal distribution of financial burdens across patients, all plan members, and employers; and (c) the existing barriers and potential solutions to align OOP costs with medically appropriate treatments. Panelists felt it was least acceptable for patients to have greater OOP costs if the

  14. Costs of a medical education: comparison with graduate education in law and business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jason R; Brown, Jeffrey J

    2006-02-01

    The costs of graduate school education are climbing, particularly within the fields of medicine, law, and business. Data on graduate level tuition, educational debt, and starting salaries for medical school, law school, and business school graduates were collected directly from universities and from a wide range of published reports and surveys. Medical school tuition and educational debt levels have risen faster than the rate of inflation over the past decade. Medical school graduates have longer training periods and lower starting salaries than law school and business school graduates, although physician salaries rise after completion of post-graduate education. Faced with an early debt burden and delayed entry into the work force, careful planning is required for medical school graduates to pay off their loans and save for retirement.

  15. Unpacking the financial costs of “bariatric tourism” gone wrong: Who holds responsibility for costs to the Canadian health care system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jeremy C.; Silva, Diego S.; Crooks, Valorie A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Canadians are motivated to travel abroad for bariatric surgery owing to wait times for care and restrictions on access at home for various reasons. While such surgery abroad is typically paid for privately, if “bariatric tourists” experience complications or have other essential medical needs upon their return to Canada, these costs are borne by the publicly funded health system. In this commentary, we discuss why assigning responsibility for the costs of complications stemming from bariatric tourism is complicated and contextual. PMID:28234613

  16. Cost-Effectiveness of a Chronic Care Model for Frail Older Adults in Primary Care: Economic Evaluation Alongside a Stepped-Wedge Cluster-Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Karen M; Bosmans, Judith E; Jansen, Aaltje P D; Hoogendijk, Emiel O; Muntinga, Maaike E; van Hout, Hein P J; Nijpels, Giel; van der Horst, Henriette E; van Tulder, Maurits W

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the Geriatric Care Model (GCM), an integrated care model for frail older adults based on the Chronic Care Model, with that of usual care. Economic evaluation alongside a 24-month stepped-wedge cluster-randomized controlled trial. Primary care (35 practices) in two regions in the Netherlands. Community-dwelling older adults who were frail according to their primary care physicians and the Program on Research for Integrating Services for the Maintenance of Autonomy case-finding tool questionnaire (N = 1,147). The GCM consisted of the following components: a regularly scheduled in-home comprehensive geriatric assessment by a practice nurse followed by a customized care plan, management and training of practice nurses by a geriatric expert team, and coordination of care through community network meetings and multidisciplinary team consultations of individuals with complex care needs. Outcomes were measured every 6 months and included costs from a societal perspective, health-related quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study 12-item Short-Form Survey (SF-12) physical (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scales), functional limitations (Katz activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living), and quality-adjusted life years based on the EQ-5D. Multilevel regression models adjusted for time and baseline confounders showed no significant differences in costs ($356, 95% confidence interval = -$488-1,134) and outcomes between intervention and usual care phases. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves showed that, for the SF-12 PCS and MCS, the probability of the intervention being cost-effective was 0.76 if decision-makers are willing to pay $30,000 per point improvement on the SF-12 scales (range 0-100). For all other outcomes the probability of the intervention being cost-effective was low. Because the GCM was not cost-effective compared to usual care after 24 months of follow-up, widespread implementation

  17. Afraid of medical care school-aged children's narratives about medical fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsner, Maria; Jansson, Lilian; Söderberg, Anna

    2009-12-01

    Fear can be problematic for children who come into contact with medical care. This study aimed to illuminate the meaning of being afraid when in contact with medical care, as narrated by children 7-11 years old. Nine children participated in the study, which applied a phenomenological hermeneutic analysis methodology. The children experienced medical care as "being threatened by a monster," but the possibility of breaking this spell of fear was also mediated. The findings indicate the important role of being emotionally hurt in a child's fear to create, together with the child, an alternate narrative of overcoming this fear.

  18. The economic burden of diabetes to French national health insurance: a new cost-of-illness method based on a combined medicalized and incremental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lagasnerie, Grégoire; Aguadé, Anne-Sophie; Denis, Pierre; Fagot-Campagna, Anne; Gastaldi-Menager, Christelle

    2018-03-01

    A better understanding of the economic burden of diabetes constitutes a major public health challenge in order to design new ways to curb diabetes health care expenditure. The aim of this study was to develop a new cost-of-illness method in order to assess the specific and nonspecific costs of diabetes from a public payer perspective. Using medical and administrative data from the major French national health insurance system covering about 59 million individuals in 2012, we identified people with diabetes and then estimated the economic burden of diabetes. Various methods were used: (a) global cost of patients with diabetes, (b) cost of treatment directly related to diabetes (i.e., 'medicalized approach'), (c) incremental regression-based approach, (d) incremental matched-control approach, and (e) a novel combination of the 'medicalized approach' and the 'incremental matched-control' approach. We identified 3 million individuals with diabetes (5% of the population). The total expenditure of this population amounted to €19 billion, representing 15% of total expenditure reimbursed to the entire population. Of the total expenditure, €10 billion (52%) was considered to be attributable to diabetes care: €2.3 billion (23% of €10 billion) was directly attributable, and €7.7 billion was attributable to additional reimbursed expenditure indirectly related to diabetes (77%). Inpatient care represented the major part of the expenditure attributable to diabetes care (22%) together with drugs (20%) and medical auxiliaries (15%). Antidiabetic drugs represented an expenditure of about €1.1 billion, accounting for 49% of all diabetes-specific expenditure. This study shows the economic impact of the assumption concerning definition of costs on evaluation of the economic burden of diabetes. The proposed new cost-of-illness method provides specific insight for policy-makers to enhance diabetes management and assess the opportunity costs of diabetes complications

  19. Cost in medical education: one hundred and twenty years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kieran

    2015-10-01

    The first full paper that is dedicated to cost in medical education appears in the BMJ in 1893. This paper "The cost of a medical education" outlines the likely costs associated with undergraduate education at the end of the nineteenth century, and offers guidance to the student on how to make financial planning. Many lessons can be gleaned from the paper about the cost and other aspects of nineteenth century medical education. Cost is viewed almost exclusively from the domain of the male gender. Cost is viewed not just from the perspective of a young man but of a young gentleman. There is a strong implication that medicine is a club and that you have to have money to join the club and then to take part in the club's activities. Cost affects choice of medical school and selection into schools. The paper places great emphasis on the importance of passing exams at their first sitting and progressing through each year in a timely manner-mainly to save costs. The subject of cost is viewed from the perspective of the payer-at this time students and their families. The paper encourages the reader to reflect on what has and has not changed in this field since 1893. Modern medical education is still expensive; its expense deters students; and we have only started to think about how to control costs or how to ensure value. Too much of the cost of medical education continues to burden students and their families.

  20. Processes of early stroke care and hospital costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Marie Louise; Ehlers, Lars H; Hundborg, Heidi H

    2014-01-01

    Background: The relationship between processes of early stroke care and hospital costs remains unclear. Aims: We therefore examined the association in a population-based cohort study. Methods: We identified 5909 stroke patients who were admitted to stroke units in a Danish county between 2005...... of hospitalization were $23352 (standard deviation 27827). The relationship between receiving more relevant processes of early stroke care and lower hospital costs followed a dose-response relationship. The adjusted costs were $24566 (95% confidence interval 19364-29769) lower for patients who received 75......-100% of the relevant processes of care compared with patients receiving 0-24%. All processes of care were associated with potential cost savings, except for early catheterization and early thromboembolism prophylaxis. Conclusions: Early care in agreement with key guidelines recommendations for the management...

  1. The cost of caring for end-stage kidney disease patients: an analysis based on hospital financial transaction records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, F J; Seddon, P; Saul, M; Zeidel, M L

    1998-05-01

    The costs of care for end-stage renal disease patients continue to rise because of increased numbers of patients. Efforts to contain these costs have focused on the development of capitated payment schemes, in which all costs for the care of these patients are covered in a single payment. To determine the effect of a capitated reimbursement scheme on care of dialysis patients (both hemodialysis [HD] and peritoneal dialysis [PD]), complete financial records (all reimbursements for inpatient and outpatient care, as well as physician collections) of dialysis patients at a single medical center over 1 year were analyzed. For the period from July 1994 to July 1995, annualized cost per dialysis patient-year averaged $63,340, or 9.8% higher than the corrected estimate from the U.S. Renal Data Service (USRDS; $57,660). The "most expensive" 25% of patients engendered 44 to 48% of the total costs, and inpatient costs accounted for 37 to 40% of total costs. Nearly half of the inpatient costs resulted from only two categories (room charges and inpatient dialysis), whereas other categories each made up a small fraction of the inpatient costs. PD patients were far less expensive to care for than HD patients, due to reduced hospital days and lower cost of outpatient dialysis. Care for a university-based dialysis population was only slightly more expensive than estimates predicted from the USRDS. These results validate the USRDS spending data and suggest that they can be used effectively for setting capitated rates. Efforts to control costs without sacrificing quality of care must center on reducing inpatient costs, particularly room charges and the cost of inpatient dialysis.

  2. Cost of influenza hospitalization at a tertiary care children's hospital and its impact on the cost-benefit analysis of the recommendation for universal influenza immunization in children age 6 to 23 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jennifer L; Katz, Ben Z

    2005-12-01

    To calculate the costs of influenza hospitalization at a tertiary care children's hospital as the basis of a cost-benefit analysis of the new influenza vaccine recommendation for children age 6 to 23 months. We reviewed the medical records of all patients admitted to Children's Memorial Hospital (CMH) in 2002 diagnosed with influenza. Total hospital costs were obtained from the Business Development Office. Thirty-five charts were analyzed. Both of the 2 patients requiring mechanical ventilation and 4 of 6 patients admitted to the intensive care unit had high-risk underlying medical conditions. Nine children were age 6 to 23 months; 4 of these 9 had no preexisting medical conditions. Had all 18 high-risk children over age 6 months been protected from influenza, approximately $350,000 in hospital charges could have been saved. Preventing the additional 4 hospitalizations in the otherwise low-risk children age 6 to 23 months for whom vaccine is currently recommended would have cost approximately $281,000 ($46/child) more than the hospital charges saved. When all children age 6 to 23 months are considered, influenza vaccination is less costly than other prophylactic measures. Addition of indirect costs, deaths, outpatient costs, and the cost of secondary cases would favor the cost:benefit ratio for influenza vaccination of all children age 6 to 23 months.

  3. Medical Care Tasks among Spousal Dementia Caregivers: Links to Care-Related Sleep Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polenick, Courtney A; Leggett, Amanda N; Maust, Donovan T; Kales, Helen C

    2018-05-01

    Medical care tasks are commonly provided by spouses caring for persons living with dementia (PLWDs). These tasks reflect complex care demands that may interfere with sleep, yet their implications for caregivers' sleep outcomes are unknown. The authors evaluated the association between caregivers' medical/nursing tasks (keeping track of medications; managing tasks such as ostomy care, intravenous lines, or blood testing; giving shots/injections; and caring for skin wounds/sores) and care-related sleep disturbances. A retrospective analysis of cross-sectional data from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study and National Study of Caregiving was conducted. Spousal caregivers and PLWDs/proxies were interviewed by telephone at home. The U.S. sample included 104 community-dwelling spousal caregivers and PLWDs. Caregivers reported on their sociodemographic and health characteristics, caregiving stressors, negative caregiving relationship quality, and sleep disturbances. PLWDs (or proxies) reported on their health conditions and sleep problems. Caregivers who performed a higher number of medical/nursing tasks reported significantly more frequent care-related sleep disturbances, controlling for sociodemographic and health characteristics, caregiving stressors, negative caregiving relationship quality, and PLWDs' sleep problems and health conditions. Post hoc tests showed that wound care was independently associated with more frequent care-related sleep disturbances after accounting for the other medical/nursing tasks and covariates. Spousal caregivers of PLWDs who perform medical/nursing tasks may be at heightened risk for sleep disturbances and associated adverse health consequences. Interventions to promote the well-being of both care partners may benefit from directly addressing caregivers' needs and concerns about their provision of medical/nursing care. Copyright © 2018 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  4. Impact Of Health Care Delivery System Innovations On Total Cost Of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin W; Bir, Anupa; Freeman, Nikki L B; Koethe, Benjamin C; Cohen, Julia; Day, Timothy J

    2017-03-01

    Using delivery system innovations to advance health care reform continues to be of widespread interest. However, it is difficult to generalize about the success of specific types of innovations, since they have been examined in only a few studies. To gain a broader perspective, we analyzed the results of forty-three ambulatory care programs funded by the first round of the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation's Health Care Innovations Awards. The innovations' impacts on total cost of care were estimated by independent evaluators using multivariable difference-in-differences models. Through the first two years, most of the innovations did not show a significant effect on total cost of care. Using meta-regression, we assessed the effects on costs of five common components of these innovations. Innovations that used health information technology or community health workers achieved the greatest cost savings. Savings were also relatively large in programs that targeted clinically fragile patients-clinically complex populations at risk for disease progression. While the magnitude of these effects was often substantial, none achieved conventional levels of significance in our analyses. Meta-analyses of a larger number of delivery system innovations are needed to more clearly establish their potential for patient care cost savings. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  5. The Changing Health Care Landscape and Implications of Organizational Ethics on Modern Medical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castlen, Joseph P; Cote, David J; Moojen, Wouter A; Robe, Pierre A; Balak, Naci; Brennum, Jannick; Ammirati, Mario; Mathiesen, Tiit; Broekman, Marike L D

    2017-06-01

    Medicine is rapidly changing, both in the level of collective medical knowledge and in how it is being delivered. The increased presence of administrators in hospitals helps to facilitate these changes and ease administrative workloads on physicians; however, tensions sometimes form between physicians and administrators. This situation is based on perceptions from both sides that physicians obstruct cost-saving measures and administrators put profits before patients. In reality, increasing patient populations and changes in health care are necessitating action by hospitals to prevent excessive spending as health care systems become larger and more difficult to manage. Recognizing the cause of changes in health care, which do not always originate with physicians and administrators, along with implementing changes in hospitals such as increased physician leadership, could help to ease tensions and promote a more collaborative atmosphere. Ethically, there is a need to preserve physician autonomy, which is a tenet of medical professionalism, and a need to rein in spending costs and ensure that patients receive the best possible care. Physicians and administrators both need to have a well-developed personal ethic to achieve these goals. Physicians need be allowed to retain relative autonomy over their practices as they support and participate in administrator-led efforts toward distributive justice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A review of costing methodologies in critical care studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Jesse M; Fager, Samuel S; Milzman, David P

    2002-09-01

    Clinical decision making in critical care has traditionally been based on clinical outcome measures such as mortality and morbidity. Over the past few decades, however, increasing competition in the health care marketplace has made it necessary to consider costs when making clinical and managerial decisions in critical care. Sophisticated costing methodologies have been developed to aid this decision-making process. We performed a narrative review of published costing studies in critical care during the past 6 years. A total of 282 articles were found, of which 68 met our search criteria. They involved a mean of 508 patients (range, 20-13,907). A total of 92.6% of the studies (63 of 68) used traditional cost analysis, whereas the remaining 7.4% (5 of 68) used cost-effectiveness analysis. None (0 of 68) used cost-benefit analysis or cost-utility analysis. A total of 36.7% (25 of 68) used hospital charges as a surrogate for actual costs. Of the 43 articles that actually counted costs, 37.2% (16 of 43) counted physician costs, 27.9% (12 of 43) counted facility costs, 34.9% (15 of 43) counted nursing costs, 9.3% (4 of 43) counted societal costs, and 90.7% (39 of 43) counted laboratory, equipment, and pharmacy costs. Our conclusion is that despite considerable progress in costing methodologies, critical care studies have not adequately implemented these techniques. Given the importance of financial implications in medicine, it would be prudent for critical care studies to use these more advanced techniques. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  7. Time-driven activity-based costing to estimate cost of care at multidisciplinary aerodigestive centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jordan A; Mistry, Bipin; Hardy, Stephen; Fracchia, Mary Shannon; Hersh, Cheryl; Wentland, Carissa; Vadakekalam, Joseph; Kaplan, Robert; Hartnick, Christopher J

    2017-09-01

    Providing high-value healthcare to patients is increasingly becoming an objective for providers including those at multidisciplinary aerodigestive centers. Measuring value has two components: 1) identify relevant health outcomes and 2) determine relevant treatment costs. Via their inherent structure, multidisciplinary care units consolidate care for complex patients. However, their potential impact on decreasing healthcare costs is less clear. The goal of this study was to estimate the potential cost savings of treating patients with laryngeal clefts at multidisciplinary aerodigestive centers. Retrospective chart review. Time-driven activity-based costing was used to estimate the cost of care for patients with laryngeal cleft seen between 2008 and 2013 at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Pediatric Aerodigestive Center. Retrospective chart review was performed to identify clinic utilization by patients as well as patient diet outcomes after treatment. Patients were stratified into neurologically complex and neurologically noncomplex groups. The cost of care for patients requiring surgical intervention was five and three times as expensive of the cost of care for patients not requiring surgery for neurologically noncomplex and complex patients, respectively. Following treatment, 50% and 55% of complex and noncomplex patients returned to normal diet, whereas 83% and 87% of patients experienced improved diets, respectively. Additionally, multidisciplinary team-based care for children with laryngeal clefts potentially achieves 20% to 40% cost savings. These findings demonstrate how time-driven activity-based costing can be used to estimate and compare patient costs in multidisciplinary aerodigestive centers. 2c. Laryngoscope, 127:2152-2158, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. Considerations for Assessing the Appropriateness of High-Cost Pediatric Care in Low-Income Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C. Argent

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It may be difficult to predict the consequences of provision of high-cost pediatric care (HCC in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs, and these consequences may be different to those experienced in high-income countries. An evaluation of the implications of HCC in LMICs must incorporate considerations of the specific context in that country (population age profile, profile of disease, resources available, likely costs of the HCC, likely benefits that can be gained versus the costs that will be incurred. Ideally, the process that is followed in decision making around HCC should be transparent and should involve the communities that will be most affected by those decisions. It is essential that the impacts of provision of HCC are carefully monitored so that informed decisions can be made about future provision medical interventions.

  9. Implementing the patient-centered medical home model for chronic disease care in small medical practices: practice group characteristics and physician understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Louisa; Nash, David B

    2013-01-01

    Strengthening primary care may improve health outcomes and restrain spending. The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model is endorsed as a tool to achieve this. Early evaluations in large group practices demonstrate improvements in some health outcomes. Evidence is lacking from small medical practices that deliver the majority of primary health care. This was a national survey of 200 physicians that explored perceptions of PCMH. There was considerable interest in adoption of the model; however, providing PCMH care was seen as an extension of traditional roles that requires additional reimbursement. No differentiation was made among a variety of payment models to do this. All joint principle components of the model were identified as important: extending access and information technology were the most contentious. There was consensus that PCMH might improve the quality of primary care; however, tension between wider societal benefits and rising costs for individual practices was a challenge to implementation.

  10. Health insurance and the demand for medical care: Instrumental variable estimates using health insurer claims data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Abe

    2016-07-01

    This paper takes a different approach to estimating demand for medical care that uses the negotiated prices between insurers and providers as an instrument. The instrument is viewed as a textbook "cost shifting" instrument that impacts plan offerings, but is unobserved by consumers. The paper finds a price elasticity of demand of around -0.20, matching the elasticity found in the RAND Health Insurance Experiment. The paper also studies within-market variation in demand for prescription drugs and other medical care services and obtains comparable price elasticity estimates. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Effect of phenotype on health care costs in Crohn's disease: A European study using the Montreal classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odes, Selwyn; Vardi, Hillel; Friger, Michael; Wolters, Frank; Hoie, Ole; Moum, Bjørn; Bernklev, Tomm; Yona, Hagit; Russel, Maurice; Munkholm, Pia; Langholz, Ebbe; Riis, Lene; Politi, Patrizia; Bondini, Paolo; Tsianos, Epameinondas; Katsanos, Kostas; Clofent, Juan; Vermeire, Severine; Freitas, João; Mouzas, Iannis; Limonard, Charles; O'Morain, Colm; Monteiro, Estela; Fornaciari, Giovanni; Vatn, Morten; Stockbrugger, Reinhold

    2007-12-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract associated with life-long high health care costs. We aimed to determine the effect of disease phenotype on cost. Clinical and economic data of a community-based CD cohort with 10-year follow-up were analyzed retrospectively in relation to Montreal classification phenotypes. In 418 patients, mean total costs of health care for the behavior phenotypes were: nonstricturing-nonpenetrating 1690, stricturing 2081, penetrating 3133 and penetrating-with-perianal-fistula 3356 €/patient-phenotype-year (P<0.001), and mean costs of surgical hospitalization 215, 751, 1293 and 1275 €/patient-phenotype-year respectively (P<0.001). Penetrating-with-perianal-fistula patients incurred significantly greater expenses than penetrating patients for total care, diagnosis and drugs, but not surgical hospitalization. Total costs were similar in the location phenotypes: ileum 1893, colon 1748, ileo-colonic 2010 and upper gastrointestinal tract 1758 €/patient-phenotype-year, but surgical hospitalization costs differed significantly, 558, 209, 492 and 542 €/patient-phenotype-year respectively (P<0.001). By multivariate analysis, the behavior phenotype significantly impacted total, medical and surgical hospitalization costs, whereas the location phenotype affected only surgical costs. Younger age at diagnosis predicted greater surgical expenses. Behavior is the dominant phenotype driving health care cost. Use of the Montreal classification permits detection of cost differences caused by perianal fistula.

  12. Latin American Clinical Epidemiology Network Series - Paper 6: The influence of alcohol in traffic accidents and health care costs of it in Bogotá-Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Naranjo-Lujan, Salomé; Rondón, Martín; Acosta, Andrés; Maldonado, Patricia; Arango Villegas, Carlos; Hurtado, Jaime; Hernández, Juan Carlos; Angarita, María Del Pilar; Peña, Marcela; Saavedra, Miguel Ángel; Quitian, Hoover

    2017-06-01

    In Colombia, some studies have estimated medical costs associated to traffic accidents. It is required to assess results by city or region and determine the influence of variables such as alcohol consumption. The main objective of this study was to identify health care costs associated to traffic accidents in Bogota and determine whether alcohol consumption can increase them. Cross-sectional costs study conducted in patients over 18 years treated in the emergency rooms of six different hospitals in Bogota, Colombia. The average total cost of medical care per patient was 628 USD, in Bogota-Colombia. The average cost per accident was estimated at 1,349 USD. On average, the total cost for health care for patients with positive blood alcohol level was 1.8 times higher than those who did not consume alcohol. The indirect costs were on average 115.3 USD per injured person. Numbers are expressed in 2011 U.S. dollars. Alcohol consumption increases the risk of traffic accidents and direct medical health costs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effectiveness and cost effectiveness of counselling in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, P; Rowland, N; Mellor, C l; Heywood, P; Godfrey, C; Hardy, R

    2002-01-01

    Counsellors are prevalent in primary care settings. However, there are concerns about the clinical and cost-effectiveness of the treatments they provide, compared with alternatives such as usual care from the general practitioner, medication or other psychological therapies. To assess the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of counselling in primary care by reviewing cost and outcome data in randomised controlled trials, controlled clinical trials and controlled patient preference trials of counselling interventions in primary care, for patients with psychological and psychosocial problems considered suitable for counselling. The original search strategy included electronic searching of databases (including the CCDAN Register of RCTs and CCTs) along with handsearching of a specialist journal. Published and unpublished sources (clinical trials, books, dissertations, agency reports etc.) were searched, and their reference lists scanned to uncover further controlled trials. Contact was made with subject experts and CCDAN members in order to uncover further trials. For the updated review, searches were restricted to those databases judged to be high yield in the first version of the review: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PSYCLIT and CINAHL, the Cochrane Controlled Trials register and the CCDAN trials register. All controlled trials comparing counselling in primary care with other treatments for patients with psychological and psychosocial problems considered suitable for counselling. Trials completed before the end of June 2001 were included in the review. Data were extracted using a standardised data extraction sheet. The relevant data were entered into the Review Manager software. Trials were quality rated, using CCDAN criteria, to assess the extent to which their design and conduct were likely to have prevented systematic error. Continuous measures of outcome were combined using standardised mean differences. An overall effect size was calculated for each outcome with 95

  14. Good agreement between questionnaire and administrative databases for health care use and costs in patients with osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertson M Clare

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimating costs is essential to the economic analysis of health care programs. Health care costs are often captured from administrative databases or by patient report. Administrative records only provide a partial representation of health care costs and have additional limitations. Patient-completed questionnaires may allow a broader representation of health care costs; however the validity and feasibility of such methods have not been firmly established. This study was conducted to assess the validity and feasibility of using a patient-completed questionnaire to capture health care use and costs for patients with osteoarthritis, and to compare the research costs of the data-capture methods. Methods We designed a patient questionnaire and applied it in a clinical trial. We captured equivalent data from four administrative databases. We evaluated aspects of the questionnaire's validity using sensitivity and specificity, Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (ρc, and Bland-Altman comparisons. Results The questionnaire's response rate was 89%. Acceptable sensitivity and specificity levels were found for all types of health care use. The numbers of visits and the majority of medications reported by patients were in agreement with the database-derived estimates (ρc > 0.40. Total cost estimates from the questionnaire agreed with those from the databases. Patient-reported co-payments agreed with administrative records with respect to GP office transactions, but not pharmaceutical co-payments. Research costs for the questionnaire-based method were less than one-third of the costs for the databases method. Conclusion A patient-completed questionnaire is feasible for capturing health care use and costs for patients with osteoarthritis, and data collected using it mostly agree with administrative databases. Caution should be exercised when applying unit costs and collecting co-payment data.

  15. Psychotropic medication patterns among youth in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Julie M; Safer, Daniel J; Sai, Devadatta; Gardner, James F; Thomas, Diane; Coombes, Phyllis; Dubowski, Melissa; Mendez-Lewis, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Studies have revealed that youth in foster care covered by Medicaid insurance receive psychotropic medication at a rate > 3 times that of Medicaid-insured youth who qualify by low family income. Systematic data on patterns of medication treatment, particularly concomitant drugs, for youth in foster care are limited. The purpose of this work was to describe and quantify patterns of psychotropic monotherapy and concomitant therapy prescribed to a randomly selected, 1-month sample of youth in foster care who had been receiving psychotropic medication. METHODS. Medicaid data were accessed for a July 2004 random sample of 472 medicated youth in foster care aged 0 through 19 years from a southwestern US state. Psychotropic medication treatment data were identified by concomitant pattern, frequency, medication class, subclass, and drug entity and were analyzed in relation to age group; gender; race or ethnicity; International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, psychiatric diagnosis; and physician specialty. Of the foster children who had been dispensed psychotropic medication, 41.3% received > or = 3 different classes of these drugs during July 2004, and 15.9% received > or = 4 different classes. The most frequently used medications were antidepressants (56.8%), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder drugs (55.9%), and antipsychotic agents (53.2%). The use of specific psychotropic medication classes varied little by diagnostic grouping. Psychiatrists prescribed 93% of the psychotropic medication dispensed to youth in foster care. The use of > or = 2 drugs within the same psychotropic medication class was noted in 22.2% of those who were given prescribed drugs concomitantly. Concomitant psychotropic medication treatment is frequent for youth in foster care and lacks substantive evidence as to its effectiveness and safety.

  16. Home iv Antibiotic Therapy through a Medical Day Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Gourdeau

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available An out-patient parenteral antibiotic therapy program provided through a medical day care unit was evaluated in a tertiary care hospital. From July 11, 1988 to December 31, 1990, 122 patients were treated either on site at the unit or at home with self-administered intravenous antibiotics. In all, 142 courses of parenteral antibiotics (mostly cephalosporins and clindamycin were given for a total of 124 infections, mostly bone and soft tissue infections (67 of 124, 54%. The duration of out-patient therapy ranged from two to 62 days with a mean duration of 9.4 days if treated at the unit, or 13.2 days in the home care model (1476 patient-days. Vein access was peripheral and catheters remained functional for an average of 4.9 days (range 0.5 to 22 days. Only two patients experienced adverse drug reactions that necessitated modification of treatment. One other case was readmitted to the hospital for surgical debridement. The average cost per patient-day was $66 compared with $375 for in-hospital therapy. This program proved to be safe, efficient, and cost-effective.

  17. Impact of omalizumab on medical cost of childhood asthma in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hideki; Iwata, Mihoko; Matsuzaki, Hiroshi; Ono, Rintaro; Murakami, Yoko; Taba, Naohiko; Honjo, Satoshi; Motomura, Chikako; Odajima, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    Omalizumab is effective in children with severe asthma, but its impact on medical cost in Japan is not clear. We evaluated the impact of omalizumab on medical cost by comparing the pre- vs post-omalizumab-initiation medical costs of 12 children with severe asthma who received omalizumab for 2 years, and calculating incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for omalizumab therapy. Health outcome was measured as hospital-free days (HFD). The median total medical costs and medication fee per patient increased significantly after omalizumab initiation because of the high cost of omalizumab. The median hospitalization fee per patient, however, decreased significantly after omalizumab initiation due to reduction in hospitalization. Omalizumab led to an estimated increase of 40.8 HFD per omalizumab responder patient per 2 years. The cost was JPY 20 868 per additional HFD. Omalizumab can therefore reduce hospitalization cost in children with severe asthma in Japan. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  18. Corruption in the health care sector: A barrier to access of orthopaedic care and medical devices in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Maryse; Kohler, Jillian C; Orbinski, James; Howard, Andrew

    2012-05-03

    Globally, injuries cause approximately as many deaths per year as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria combined, and 90% of injury deaths occur in low- and middle- income countries. Given not all injuries kill, the disability burden, particularly from orthopaedic injuries, is much higher but is poorly measured at present. The orthopaedic services and orthopaedic medical devices needed to manage the injury burden are frequently unavailable in these countries. Corruption is known to be a major barrier to access of health care, but its effects on access to orthopaedic services is still unknown. A qualitative case study of 45 open-ended interviews was conducted to investigate the access to orthopaedic health services and orthopaedic medical devices in Uganda. Participants included orthopaedic surgeons, related healthcare professionals, industry and government representatives, and patients. Participants' experiences in accessing orthopaedic medical devices were explored. Thematic analysis was used to analyze and code the transcripts. Analysis of the interview data identified poor leadership in government and corruption as major barriers to access of orthopaedic care and orthopaedic medical devices. Corruption was perceived to occur at the worker, hospital and government levels in the forms of misappropriation of funds, theft of equipment, resale of drugs and medical devices, fraud and absenteeism. Other barriers elicited included insufficient health infrastructure and human resources, and high costs of orthopaedic equipment and poverty. This study identified perceived corruption as a significant barrier to access of orthopaedic care and orthopaedic medical devices in Uganda. As the burden of injury continues to grow, the need to combat corruption and ensure access to orthopaedic services is imperative. Anti-corruption strategies such as transparency and accountability measures, codes of conduct, whistleblower protection, and higher wages and benefits for workers could be

  19. Corruption in the health care sector: A barrier to access of orthopaedic care and medical devices in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchard Maryse

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, injuries cause approximately as many deaths per year as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria combined, and 90% of injury deaths occur in low- and middle- income countries. Given not all injuries kill, the disability burden, particularly from orthopaedic injuries, is much higher but is poorly measured at present. The orthopaedic services and orthopaedic medical devices needed to manage the injury burden are frequently unavailable in these countries. Corruption is known to be a major barrier to access of health care, but its effects on access to orthopaedic services is still unknown. Methods A qualitative case study of 45 open-ended interviews was conducted to investigate the access to orthopaedic health services and orthopaedic medical devices in Uganda. Participants included orthopaedic surgeons, related healthcare professionals, industry and government representatives, and patients. Participants’ experiences in accessing orthopaedic medical devices were explored. Thematic analysis was used to analyze and code the transcripts. Results Analysis of the interview data identified poor leadership in government and corruption as major barriers to access of orthopaedic care and orthopaedic medical devices. Corruption was perceived to occur at the worker, hospital and government levels in the forms of misappropriation of funds, theft of equipment, resale of drugs and medical devices, fraud and absenteeism. Other barriers elicited included insufficient health infrastructure and human resources, and high costs of orthopaedic equipment and poverty. Conclusions This study identified perceived corruption as a significant barrier to access of orthopaedic care and orthopaedic medical devices in Uganda. As the burden of injury continues to grow, the need to combat corruption and ensure access to orthopaedic services is imperative. Anti-corruption strategies such as transparency and accountability measures, codes of conduct

  20. Corruption in the health care sector: A barrier to access of orthopaedic care and medical devices in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Globally, injuries cause approximately as many deaths per year as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria combined, and 90% of injury deaths occur in low- and middle- income countries. Given not all injuries kill, the disability burden, particularly from orthopaedic injuries, is much higher but is poorly measured at present. The orthopaedic services and orthopaedic medical devices needed to manage the injury burden are frequently unavailable in these countries. Corruption is known to be a major barrier to access of health care, but its effects on access to orthopaedic services is still unknown. Methods A qualitative case study of 45 open-ended interviews was conducted to investigate the access to orthopaedic health services and orthopaedic medical devices in Uganda. Participants included orthopaedic surgeons, related healthcare professionals, industry and government representatives, and patients. Participants’ experiences in accessing orthopaedic medical devices were explored. Thematic analysis was used to analyze and code the transcripts. Results Analysis of the interview data identified poor leadership in government and corruption as major barriers to access of orthopaedic care and orthopaedic medical devices. Corruption was perceived to occur at the worker, hospital and government levels in the forms of misappropriation of funds, theft of equipment, resale of drugs and medical devices, fraud and absenteeism. Other barriers elicited included insufficient health infrastructure and human resources, and high costs of orthopaedic equipment and poverty. Conclusions This study identified perceived corruption as a significant barrier to access of orthopaedic care and orthopaedic medical devices in Uganda. As the burden of injury continues to grow, the need to combat corruption and ensure access to orthopaedic services is imperative. Anti-corruption strategies such as transparency and accountability measures, codes of conduct, whistleblower protection, and higher

  1. Cost of care of atopic dermatitis in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Handa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD is a common dermatologic condition with a prevalence varying from 5% to 15%, and it has been rising over time. Several studies from developed countries have revealed the substantial economic burden of AD on health care budgets. There has been no research however on the cost of care of AD from India a country where health care is self-funded with no health insurance or social security provided by the government. Aim: The aim of our study was to assess prospectively the cost of care of AD in children in an outpatient hospital setting in India. Methods: A total of 40 children with AD, <10 years of age, registered in the pediatric dermatology clinic at our institute were enrolled for the study. All patients were followed-up for 6 months. Demographic information, clinical profile, severity, and the extent of AD were recorded in predesigned performa. Caregivers were asked to fill up a cost assessment questionnaire specially designed for the study. It had a provision for measuring direct, indirect, and provider costs. Results: Of the 40 patients, 37 completed the study. Mean total cost for AD was Rs. 6235.00 ± 3514.00. Direct caregiver cost was Rs. 3022.00 ± 1620.00 of which treatment cost constituted 77.2 ± 11.1%. The total provider cost (cost of consultation, nursing/paramedical staff and infrastructure was Rs. 948.00, which was 15.2% of the total cost of care and the mean indirect cost calculated by adding loss of earnings of parents due to hospital visits was Rs. 2264.00 ± 2392.00 (range: 0-13,332. The mean total cost depending on the severity of AD was Rs. 3579.00 ± 948.00, Rs. 6806.00 ± 3676.00 and Rs. 8991.00 ± 3129.00 for mild, moderate and severe disease, respectively. Conclusions: AD causes a considerable drain on the financial resources of families in India since the treatment is mostly self-funded. Cost of care of AD is high and comparable to those of chronic physical illness, such as diabetes

  2. Cost-Effectiveness of Improving Health Care to People with HIV in Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Broughton

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A 2010 evaluation found generally poor outcomes among HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy in Nicaragua. We evaluated an intervention to improve HIV nursing services in hospital outpatient departments to improve patient treatment and retention in care. The intervention included improving patient tracking, extending clinic hours, caring for children of HIV+ mothers, ensuring medication availability, promoting self-help groups and family involvement, and coordinating multidisciplinary care. Methods. This pre/postintervention study examined opportunistic infections and clinical status of HIV patients before and after implementation of changes to the system of nursing care. Hospital expenditure data were collected by auditors and hospital teams tracked intervention expenses. Decision tree analysis determined incremental cost-effectiveness from the implementers’ perspective. Results. Opportunistic infections decreased by 24% (95% CI: 14%–34% and 11.3% of patients improved in CDC clinical stage. Average per-patient costs decreased by $133/patient/year (95% CI: $29–$249. The intervention, compared to business-as-usual strategy, saved money while improving outcomes. Conclusions. Improved efficiency of services can allow more ART-eligible patients to receive therapy. We recommended the intervention be implemented in all HIV service facilities in Nicaragua.

  3. Comparison of medical costs generated by IBS patients in primary and secondary care in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flik, Carla E.; Laan, Wijnand; Smout, Andre J. P. M.; Weusten, Bas L. A. M.; de Wit, Niek J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a functional somatic syndrome characterized by patterns of persistent bodily complaints for which a thorough diagnostic workup does not reveal adequate explanatory structural pathology. Detailed insight into disease-specific health-care costs is critical

  4. Organisational fundamentals of medical care in catastrophes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahnefeld, F.W.

    1983-01-01

    The author presents definitions, considerations, and fundamentals of discussion. He starts by listing the institutions, equipment and traning required for medical care and life-saving services in cases of emergency. A central coordination service for medical care and life saving is proposed. The present situation is reviewed, future needs are stated, and the necessary components of a medical service are listed. (DG) [de

  5. Current pulse: can a production system reduce medical errors in health care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Printezis, Antonios; Gopalakrishnan, Mohan

    2007-01-01

    One of the reasons for rising health care costs is medical errors, a majority of which result from faulty systems and processes. Health care in the past has used process-based initiatives such as Total Quality Management, Continuous Quality Improvement, and Six Sigma to reduce errors. These initiatives to redesign health care, reduce errors, and improve overall efficiency and customer satisfaction have had moderate success. Current trend is to apply the successful Toyota Production System (TPS) to health care since its organizing principles have led to tremendous improvement in productivity and quality for Toyota and other businesses that have adapted them. This article presents insights on the effectiveness of TPS principles in health care and the challenges that lie ahead in successfully integrating this approach with other quality initiatives.

  6. Health care costs of adults treated for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder who received alternative drug therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Eric Q; Birnbaum, Howard G; Zhang, Huabin F; Ivanova, Jasmina I; Yang, Elaine; Mallet, David

    2007-09-01

    Many therapies exist for treating adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), also referred to as attention-deficit disorder (ADD), but there is no research regarding cost differences associated with initiating alternative ADD/ADHD drug therapies in adults. To compare from the perspective of a large self-insured employer the risk-adjusted direct health care costs associated with 3 alternative drug therapies for ADD in newly treated patients: extended-release methylphenidate (osmotic release oral system-MPH), mixed amphetamine salts extended release (MAS-XR), or atomoxetine. We analyzed data from a US claims database of 5 million beneficiaries from 31 large self-insured employers (1999-2004). Analysis was restricted to adults aged 18 to 64 years with at least 1 diagnosis of ADD/ADHD (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM] codes 314.0x--attention deficit disorder; 314.00--attention deficit disorder without hyperactivity; or 314.01--attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity) and at least 1 pharmacy claim for OROS-MPH, MAS-XR, or atomoxetine identified using National Drug Codes. In preliminary analysis, we calculated the duration of index ADHD drug therapy as time from index therapy initiation to a minimum 60-day gap. Because the median duration of index ADHD drug therapy was found to be approximately 90 days, the primary measures were total direct medical plus drug costs and medical-only costs computed over 6 months following therapy initiation. Adults were required to have continuous eligibility 6 months before and 6 months after their latest drug therapy initiation and no ADHD therapy during the previous 6 months. Cost was measured as the payment amount made by the health plan to the provider rather than billed charges, and it excluded patient copayments and deductibles. Medical costs included costs incurred for all-cause inpatient and outpatient/other services. Costs were adjusted for inflation to

  7. Crowdfunding FOR MEDICAL CARE: Ethical Issues in an Emerging Health Care Funding Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jeremy

    2016-11-01

    Crowdfunding websites allow users to post a public appeal for funding for a range of activities, including adoption, travel, research, participation in sports, and many others. One common form of crowdfunding is for expenses related to medical care. Medical crowdfunding appeals serve as a means of addressing gaps in medical and employment insurance, both in countries without universal health insurance, like the United States, and countries with universal coverage limited to essential medical needs, like Canada. For example, as of 2012, the website Gofundme had been used to raise a total of 8.8 million dollars (U.S.) for seventy-six hundred campaigns, the majority of which were health related. This money can make an important difference in the lives of crowdfunding users, as the costs of unexpected or uninsured medical needs can be staggering. In this article, I offer an overview of the benefits of medical crowdfunding websites and the ethical concerns they raise. I argue that medical crowdfunding is a symptom and cause of, rather than a solution to, health system injustices and that policy-makers should work to address the injustices motivating the use of crowdfunding sites for essential medical services. Despite the sites' ethical problems, individual users and donors need not refrain from using them, but they bear a political responsibility to address the inequities encouraged by these sites. I conclude by suggesting some responses to these concerns and future directions for research. © 2016 The Hastings Center.

  8. Caring to Care: Applying Noddings' Philosophy to Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, Dorene F; Hirsh, David A; Monie, Daphne; Weil, Henry; Richards, Boyd F

    2016-12-01

    The authors argue that Nel Noddings' philosophy, "an ethic of caring," may illuminate how students learn to be caring physicians from their experience of being in a caring, reciprocal relationship with teaching faculty. In her philosophy, Noddings acknowledges two important contextual continuities: duration and space, which the authors speculate exist within longitudinal integrated clerkships. In this Perspective, the authors highlight core features of Noddings' philosophy and explore its applicability to medical education. They apply Noddings' philosophy to a subset of data from a previously published longitudinal case study to explore its "goodness of fit" with the experience of eight students in the 2012 cohort of the Columbia-Bassett longitudinal integrated clerkship. In line with Noddings' philosophy, the authors' supplementary analysis suggests that students (1) recognized caring when they talked about "being known" by teaching faculty who "cared for" and "trusted" them; (2) responded to caring by demonstrating enthusiasm, action, and responsibility toward patients; and (3) acknowledged that duration and space facilitated caring relations with teaching faculty. The authors discuss how Noddings' philosophy provides a useful conceptual framework to apply to medical education design and to future research on caring-oriented clinical training, such as longitudinal integrated clerkships.

  9. Health economics evidence for medical nutrition: are these interventions value for money in integrated care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Stefan; Droeschel, Daniel; Nuijten, Mark; Chevrou-Séverac, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    Health care decision-makers have begun to realize that medical nutrition plays an important role in the delivery of care, and it needs to be seen as a sole category within the overall health care reimbursement system to establish the value for money. Indeed, improving health through improving patients' nutrition may contribute to the cost-effectiveness and financial sustainability of health care systems. Medical nutrition is regulated by a specific bill either in Europe or in the United States, which offers specific legislations and guidelines (as provided to patients with special nutritional needs) and indications for nutritional support. Given that the efficacy of medical nutrition has been proven, one can wonder whether the heterogeneous nature of its coverage/reimbursement across countries might be due to the lack of health-related economic evidence or value-for-money of nutritional interventions. This paper aims to address this knowledge gap by performing a systematic literature review on health economics evidence regarding medical nutrition, and by summarizing the results of these publications related to the value for money of medical nutrition interventions. A systematic literature search was initiated and executed based on a predefined search protocol following the population, intervention, comparison, and outcomes (PICO) criteria. Following the systematic literature search of recently published literature on health economics evidence regarding medical nutrition, this study aims to summarize the results of those publications that are related to the value for money of medical nutrition interventions. The evaluations were conducted by analyzing different medical nutrition according to their indications, the economic methodology or perspective adopted, the cost source and utility measures, selected efficiency measures, as well as the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. A total of 225 abstracts were identified for the detailed review, and the data were

  10. The health care cost of dying: a population-based retrospective cohort study of the last year of life in Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tanuseputro

    Full Text Available Coordinated and appropriate health care across sectors is an ongoing challenge, especially at the end-of-life. Population-level data on end-of-life health care use and cost, however, are seldom reported across a comprehensive array of sectors. Such data will identify the level of care being provided and areas where care can be optimized.This retrospective cohort study identified all deaths in Ontario from April 1, 2010 to March 31, 2013. Using population-based health administrative databases, we examined health care use and cost in the last year of life.Among 264,755 decedents, the average health care cost in the last year of life was $53,661 (Quartile 1-Quartile 3: $19,568-$66,875. The total captured annual cost of $4.7 billion represents approximately 10% of all government-funded health care. Inpatient care, incurred by 75% of decedents, contributed 42.9% of total costs ($30,872 per user. Physician services, medications/devices, laboratories, and emergency rooms combined to less than 20% of total cost. About one-quarter used long-term-care and 60% used home care ($34,381 and $7,347 per user, respectively. Total cost did not vary by sex or neighborhood income quintile, but were less among rural residents. Costs rose sharply in the last 120 days prior to death, predominantly for inpatient care.This analysis adds new information about the breadth of end-of-life health care, which consumes a large proportion of Ontario's health care budget. The cost of inpatient care and long-term care are substantial. Introducing interventions that reduce or delay institutional care will likely reduce costs incurred at the end of life.

  11. State-level medical and absenteeism cost of asthma in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmagambetov, Tursynbek; Khavjou, Olga; Murphy, Louise; Orenstein, Diane

    2017-05-01

    For medically treated asthma, we estimated prevalence, medical and absenteeism costs, and projected medical costs from 2015 to 2020 for the entire population and separately for children in the 50 US states and District of Columbia (DC) using the most recently available data. We used multiple data sources, including the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, U.S. Census Bureau, Kaiser Family Foundation, Medical Statistical Information System, and Current Population Survey. We used a two-part regression model to estimate annual medical costs of asthma and a negative binomial model to estimate annual school and work days missed due to asthma. Per capita medical costs of asthma ranged from $1,860 (Mississippi) to $2,514 (Michigan). Total medical costs of asthma ranged from $60.7 million (Wyoming) to $3.4 billion (California). Medicaid costs ranged from $4.1 million (Wyoming) to $566.8 million (California), Medicare from $5.9 million (DC) to $446.6 million (California), and costs paid by private insurers ranged from $27.2 million (DC) to $1.4 billion (California). Total annual school and work days lost due to asthma ranged from 22.4 thousand (Wyoming) to 1.5 million days (California) and absenteeism costs ranged from $4.4 million (Wyoming) to $345 million (California). Projected increase in medical costs from 2015 to 2020 ranged from 9% (DC) to 34% (Arizona). Medical and absenteeism costs of asthma represent a significant economic burden for states and these costs are expected to rise. Our study results emphasize the urgency for strategies to strengthen state level efforts to prevent and control asthma attacks.

  12. Processes of early stroke care and hospital costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Marie Louise; Ehlers, Lars H; Hundborg, Heidi H; Ingeman, Annette; Johnsen, Søren P

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between processes of early stroke care and hospital costs remains unclear. We therefore examined the association in a population based cohort study. We identified 5909 stroke patients who were admitted to stroke units in a Danish county between 2005 and 2010.The examined recommended processes of care included early admission to a stroke unit, early initiation of antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy, early computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI) scan, early physiotherapy and occupational therapy, early assessment of nutritional risk, constipation risk and of swallowing function, early mobilization,early catheterization, and early thromboembolism prophylaxis.Hospital costs were assessed for each patient based on the number of days spent in different in-hospital facilities using local hospital charges. The mean costs of hospitalization were $23 352 (standard deviation 27 827). The relationship between receiving more relevant processes of early stroke care and lower hospital costs followed a dose–response relationship. The adjusted costs were $24 566 (95% confidence interval 19 364–29 769) lower for patients who received 75–100% of the relevant processes of care compared with patients receiving 0–24%. All processes of care were associated with potential cost savings, except for early catheterization and early thromboembolism prophylaxis. Early care in agreement with key guidelines recommendations for the management of patients with stroke may be associated with hospital savings.

  13. Helicopter Emergency Medical Services: effects, costs and benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.N. Ringburg (Akkie)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAdvanced prehospital medical care with air transport was introduced in the Netherlands in May 1995. The fi rst helicopter Mobile Medical Team, also called Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) was a joint venture initiative of the VU Medical Center in Amsterdam and the Algemene

  14. Utilization and costs of home-based and community-based care within a social HMO: trends over an 18-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Leutz

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Our objective was to describe the utilization and costs of services from 1985 to 2002 of a Social Health Maintenance Organization (SHMO demonstration project providing a benefit for home-based and community-based as well as short-term institutional (HCB care at Kaiser Permanente Northwest (KPNW, serving the Portland, Oregon area. The HCB care benefit was offered by KPNW as a supplement to Medicare's acute care medical benefits, which KPNW provides in an HMO model. KPNW receives a monthly per capita payment from Medicare to provide medical benefits, and Medicare beneficiaries who choose to join pay a supplemental premium that covers prescription drugs, HCB care benefits, and other services. A HCB care benefit of up to $12,000 per year in services was available to SHMO members meeting requirement for nursing home certification (NHC. Methods: We used aggregate data to track temporal changes in the period 1985 to 2002 on member eligibility, enrollment in HCB care plans, age, service utilization and co-payments. Trends in the overall costs and financing of the HCB care benefit were extracted from quarterly reports, management data, and finance data. Results: During the time period, 14,815 members enrolled in the SHMO and membership averaged 4,531. The proportion of SHMO members aged 85 or older grew from 12 to 25%; proportion meeting requirements for NHC rose from 4 to 27%; and proportion with HCB care plans rose from 4 to 18%. Costs for the HCB care benefit rose from $21 per SHMO member per month in 1985 to $95 in 2002. The HCB care costs were equivalent to 12% to 16% of Medicare reimbursement. The HCB program costs were covered by member premiums (which rose from $49 to $180 and co-payments from members with care plans. Over the 18-year period, spending shifted from nursing homes to a range of community services, e.g. personal care, homemaking, member reimbursement, lifeline, equipment, transportation, shift care, home nursing, adult day

  15. Do workplace wellness programs reduce medical costs? Evidence from a Fortune 500 company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hangsheng; Mattke, Soeren; Harris, Katherine M; Weinberger, Sarah; Serxner, Seth; Caloyeras, John P; Exum, Ellen

    2013-05-01

    The recent passage of the Affordable Care Act has heightened the importance of workplace wellness programs. This paper used administrative data from 2002 to 2007 for PepsiCo's self-insured plan members to evaluate the effect of its wellness program on medical costs and utilization. We used propensity score matching to identify a comparison group who were eligible for the program but did not participate. No significant changes were observed in inpatient admissions, emergency room visits, or per-member per-month (PMPM) costs. The discrepancy between our findings and those of prior studies may be due to the difference in intervention intensity or program implementation.

  16. Cost of care of haemophilia with inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minno, M N D; Di Minno, G; Di Capua, M; Cerbone, A M; Coppola, A

    2010-01-01

    In Western countries, the treatment of patients with inhibitors is presently the most challenging and serious issue in haemophilia management, direct costs of clotting factor concentrates accounting for >98% of the highest economic burden absorbed for the healthcare of patients in this setting. Being designed to address questions of resource allocation and effectiveness, decision models are the golden standard to reliably assess the overall economic implications of haemophilia with inhibitors in terms of mortality, bleeding-related morbidity, and severity of arthropathy. However, presently, most data analyses stem from retrospective short-term evaluations, that only allow for the analysis of direct health costs. In the setting of chronic diseases, the cost-utility analysis, that takes into account the beneficial effects of a given treatment/healthcare intervention in terms of health-related quality of life, is likely to be the most appropriate approach. To calculate net benefits, the quality adjusted life year, that significantly reflects such health gain, has to be compared with specific economic impacts. Differences in data sources, in medical practice and/or in healthcare systems and costs, imply that most current pharmacoeconomic analyses are confined to a narrow healthcare payer perspective. Long-term/lifetime prospective or observational studies, devoted to a careful definition of when to start a treatment; of regimens (dose and type of product) to employ, and of inhibitor population (children/adults, low-responding/high responding inhibitors) to study, are thus urgently needed to allow for newer insights, based on reliable data sources into resource allocation, effectiveness and cost-utility analysis in the treatment of haemophiliacs with inhibitors.

  17. Radiation protection medical care of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walt, H.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation protection medical care for radiation workers is part of the extensive programme protecting people against dangers emanating from the peaceful application of ionizing radiation. Thus it is a special field of occupational health care and emergency medicine in case of radiation accidents. It has proved helpful in preventing radiation damage as well as in early detection, treatment, after-care, and expert assessment. The medical checks include pre-employment and follow-up examinations, continued long-range medical care as well as specific monitoring of individuals and defined groups of workers. Three levels of action are involved: works medical officers specialized in radiation protection, the Institute of Medicine at the National Board for Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection, and a network of clinical departments specialized in handling cases of acute radiation damage. An account is given of categories, types, and methods of examinations for radiation workers and operators. (author)

  18. Lean Six Sigma to Reduce Intensive Care Unit Length of Stay and Costs in Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzeciak, Stephen; Mercincavage, Michael; Angelini, Cory; Cogliano, William; Damuth, Emily; Roberts, Brian W; Zanotti, Sergio; Mazzarelli, Anthony J

    Patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) represent important "outliers" of hospital length of stay (LOS) and costs (∼$26 billion annually in the United States). We tested the hypothesis that a Lean Six Sigma (LSS) approach for process improvement could reduce hospital LOS and the associated costs of care for patients with PMV. Before-and-after cohort study. Multidisciplinary intensive care unit (ICU) in an academic medical center. Adult patients admitted to the ICU and treated with PMV, as defined by diagnosis-related group (DRG). We implemented a clinical redesign intervention based on LSS principles. We identified eight distinct processes in preparing patients with PMV for post-acute care. Our clinical redesign included reengineering daily patient care rounds ("Lean ICU rounds") to reduce variation and waste in these processes. We compared hospital LOS and direct cost per case in patients with PMV before (2013) and after (2014) our LSS intervention. Among 259 patients with PMV (131 preintervention; 128 postintervention), median hospital LOS decreased by 24% during the intervention period (29 vs. 22 days, p < .001). Accordingly, median hospital direct cost per case decreased by 27% ($66,335 vs. $48,370, p < .001). We found that a LSS-based clinical redesign reduced hospital LOS and the costs of care for patients with PMV.

  19. Cost - utility analysis of parenteral antibiotics prescribed in medical wards in a tertiary care health facility in southern province of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukshmy Menik Hettihewa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Parenteral antibiotic (PA prescription pattern in a hospital will directly influence the annual budget allocation, development of bacterial resistance and occurrence of unnecessary adverse drug reactions if it is done with poor adherence to the standard guidelines of prescription. As specialist in the field we understand the need of conducting economic studies in relation to the cost and utility of PA prescription pattern. It will be helpful to predict the drug procurement plan for the next year and also to prevent unnecessary complications mentioned above. Objective: Our main objective was to analyze the cost/utility relationship of PA drugs which were used in medical wards in this hospital according to the top ten of the cost (TTTC and the top ten of the consumption (TTCS. Materials and method : Aggregate data from the pharmacy record books were collected for year 2010 from indoor pharmacy. Unit prize was obtained from medical supplies division. Total quantity consumed by each medical ward was considered for analysis of the cost /utility relationship. Two top ten lists were prepared according to the cost and the consumption respectively for medical wards and the correlation was analyzed using non parametric testing with spearman test. Results: Regarding PA drugs used in this hospital, 7/10 PA drugs in TTTC are not included in the TTCS. Out of the total cost for TTTC, 82.6% of the cost had been spent for the PA drugs which are not in the TTCS and 17.5% of the cost of TTTC was used to purchase only three drugs from the TTCS. But these three drugs had contributed only 28% of top ten consumption. 72% of the PA drugs in TTCS were not costly drugs and highly consumed in medical wards. Correlation was significantly positive between cost and utility of PA drugs. ( r=-0.91,p<0.001 Conclusion: Majority of the consumed PA drugs are non-costly and it indicates the prescriptions had been done according to the rational guidelines including

  20. 42 CFR 456.143 - Content of medical care evaluation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Content of medical care evaluation studies. 456.143 Section 456.143 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...: Medical Care Evaluation Studies § 456.143 Content of medical care evaluation studies. Each medical care...

  1. Medical Comorbidities Impact the Episode-of-Care Reimbursements of Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Samuel; Sabeh, Karim G; Buller, Leonard T; Law, Tsun Yee; Roche, Martin W; Hernandez, Victor H

    2017-07-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) costs are a source of great interest in the currently evolving health care market. The initiation of a bundled payment system has led to further research into costs drivers of this commonly performed procedure. One aspect that has not been well studied is the effect of comorbidities on the reimbursements of THA. The purpose of this study was to determine if common medical comorbidities affect these reimbursements. A retrospective, level of evidence III study was performed using the PearlDiver supercomputer to identify patients who underwent primary THA between 2007 and 2015. Patients were stratified by medical comorbidities and compared using the analysis of variance for reimbursements of the day of surgery, and over the 90-day postoperative period. A cohort of 250,343 patients was identified. Greatest reimbursements on the day of surgery were found among patients with a history of cirrhosis, morbid obesity, obesity, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hepatitis C. Patients with cirrhosis, hepatitis C, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, atrial fibrillation, and CKD incurred in the greatest reimbursements over the 90-day period after surgery. Medical comorbidities significantly impact reimbursements, and inferentially costs, after THA. The most costly comorbidities at 90 days include cirrhosis, hepatitis C, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, atrial fibrillation, and CKD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of a new medical insurance payment system for hospice patients in palliative care programs in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngin; Lee, Seung Hun; Kim, Yun Jin; Lee, Sang Yeoup; Lee, Jeong Gyu; Jeong, Dong Wook; Yi, Yu Hyeon; Tak, Young Jin; Hwang, Hye Rim; Gwon, Mieun

    2018-03-07

    This study investigates the effects of a new medical insurance payment system for hospice patients in palliative care programs and analyzes length of survival (LoS) determinants. At the Pusan National University Hospital hospice center, between January 2015 and April 2016, 276 patients were hospitalized with several diagnosed types of terminal stage cancer. This study separated patients into two groups, "old" and "new," by admission date, considering the new system has been applied from July 15, 2015. The study subsequently compared LoS, total cost, and out-of-pocket expenses for the two groups. Overall, 142 patients applied to the new medical insurance payment system group, while the old medical insurance payment system included 134 patients. The results do not show a significantly negative difference in LoS for the new system group (p = 0.054). Total cost is higher within the new group (p system registers lower patient out-of-pocket expenses (p payment system is not inferior to the classic one in terms of LoS. The total cost of the new system increased due to a multidisciplinary approach toward palliative care. However, out-of-pocket expenses for patients overall decreased, easing their financial burden.

  3. Improving care planning and coordination for service users with medical co-morbidity transitioning between tertiary medical and primary care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranwell, K; Polacsek, M; McCann, T V

    2017-08-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Mental health service users with medical co-morbidity frequently experience difficulties accessing and receiving appropriate treatment in emergency departments. Service users frequently experience fragmented care planning and coordinating between tertiary medical and primary care services. Little is known about mental health nurses' perspectives about how to address these problems. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Emergency department clinicians' poor communication and negative attitudes have adverse effects on service users and the quality of care they receive. The findings contribute to the international evidence about mental health nurses' perspectives of service users feeling confused and frustrated in this situation, and improving coordination and continuity of care, facilitating transitions and increasing family and caregiver participation. Intervention studies are needed to evaluate if adoption of these measures leads to sustainable improvements in care planning and coordination, and how service users with medical co-morbidity are treated in emergency departments in particular. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Effective planning and coordination of care are essential to enable smooth transitions between tertiary medical (emergency departments in particular) and primary care services for service users with medical co-morbidity. Ongoing professional development education and support is needed for emergency department clinicians. There is also a need to develop an organized and systemic approach to improving service users' experience in emergency departments. Introduction Mental health service users with medical co-morbidity frequently experience difficulties accessing appropriate treatment in medical hospitals, and often there is poor collaboration within and between services. Little is known about mental health nurses' perspectives on how to address these problems. Aim To explore mental health nurses

  4. Using the computer to optimize human performance in health care delivery. The pathologist as medical information specialist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpman, R A

    1987-07-01

    The demands for information retrieval, processing, and synthesis placed on all providers of health care have increased dramatically in the last several decades. Although systems have been developed to capture charge-related data in support of cost reimbursement, there has been a conspicuous lack of attention paid to information tools to directly enhance the delivery of patient care. The termination of cost reimbursement, together with an increasing recognition of the problems inherent in current manual record-keeping systems, is creating a significant new focus on medical information. This change in focus requires a shift in systems orientation away from financial and departmentally centered systems and toward patient-centered approaches. There is thus increasing recognition of the need for a physician-level medical information specialist to serve as an institution's chief information officer, assuming responsibility for the collection, manipulation, and availability of all patient care-related data. By virtue of training, typical experience, hospital presence, and a noncompetitive position with the hospital's medical staff, the pathologist is uniquely suited for this position. To effectively perform this role, a variety of new specialized data management tools are becoming available. Integrated information systems, patient care management by exception, decision support tools, and, in the future, "artificial intelligence" assists can all be expected to become staples of pathology practice, especially impacting those pathologists who choose to be responsive to the new practice milieu of medical information science.

  5. Home Health Care: Services and Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, Geraldine; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Findings from a study of home care services in one New York district document the value and relatively modest costs of home health care for the chronically ill and dependent elderly. Professional nurses coordinated the care, but most of the direct services were provided by home health aides and housekeepers. (MF)

  6. Integrated, multidisciplinary care for hand eczema: design of a randomized controlled trial and cost-effectiveness study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boot Cécile RL

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The individual and societal burden of hand eczema is high. Literature indicates that moderate to severe hand eczema is a disease with a poor prognosis. Many patients are hampered in their daily activities, including work. High costs are related to high medical consumption, productivity loss and sick leave. Usual care is suboptimal, due to a lack of optimal instruction and coordination of care, and communication with the general practitioner/occupational physician and people involved at the workplace. Therefore, an integrated, multidisciplinary intervention involving a dermatologist, a care manager, a specialized nurse and a clinical occupational physician was developed. This paper describes the design of a study to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of integrated care for hand eczema by a multidisciplinary team, coordinated by a care manager, consisting of instruction on avoiding relevant contact factors, both in the occupational and in the private environment, optimal skin care and treatment, compared to usual, dermatologist-led care. Methods The study is a multicentre, randomized, controlled trial with an economic evaluation alongside. The study population consists of patients with chronic, moderate to severe hand eczema, who visit an outpatient clinic of one of the participating 5 (three university and two general hospitals. Integrated, multidisciplinary care, coordinated by a care manager, including allergo-dermatological evaluation by a dermatologist, occupational intervention by a clinical occupational physician, and counselling by a specialized nurse on optimizing topical treatment and skin care will be compared with usual care by a dermatologist. The primary outcome measure is the cumulative difference in reduction of the clinical severity score HECSI between the groups. Secondary outcome measures are the patient's global assessment, specific quality of life with regard to the hands, generic quality

  7. Trends in Health Care Expenditure among U.S. Adults with Heart Failure - The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2002–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B.; Bishu, Kinfe G.; Fonarow, Gregg C; Egede, Leonard E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Population-based national data on the trends in expenditures related to heart failure (HF) is scarce. Assessing the time trends in health care expenditures for HF in the United States can help to better define the burden of this condition. Methods Using 10-year data (2002–2011) from the national Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (weighted sample of 188,708,194 U.S adults aged ≥18 years) and a two-part model (adjusting for demographics, comorbidities and time); we estimated adjusted mean and incremental medical expenditures by HF status. The costs were direct total health care expenditures (out-of-pocket payments and payments by private insurance, Medicaid, Medicare, and other sources) from various sources (office-based visits, hospital outpatient, emergency room, inpatient hospital, pharmacy, home health care, and other medical expenditures). Results Compared to expenditures for individuals without HF ($5,511 [95% confidence interval (CI): 5,405–5,617]), individuals with HF had a four-fold higher mean expenditures of ($23,854 [95%CI: 21,733–25,975]). Individuals with HF had $3,446 (95%CI: 2,592–4,299) higher direct incremental expenditures compared with those without HF, after adjusting for demographics and comorbidities. Among those with HF, costs continuously increased by $5836 (28% relative increase), from $21,316 (95%CI: 18,359–24,272) in 2002/2003 to $27,152 (95%CI: 20,066–34,237) in 2010/2011; and inpatient costs ($11,318 over the whole period) were the single largest component of total medical expenditure. The estimated unadjusted total direct medical expenditures for US adults with HF were $30 billion/year and the adjusted total incremental expenditure $5.8 billion/year. Conclusions Heart failure is costly and over a recent 10-year period, direct expenditure related to HF increased markedly, mainly driven by inpatient costs. PMID:28454834

  8. A flexible model for correlated medical