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Sample records for medicago sativa land

  1. Production of aerial biomass and equivalent land use in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) intercropping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereyra, T. W.; Pagliaricci, H. R.; Ohanian, A. E.; Bonvillani, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Productivity increase has traditionally been associated to yield increase through breeding and crop management practices. Nevertheless, if production is considered per area and time unit, the intercropping system may be another way to improve cost-effectiveness. The objective of the experiment was to determine the produced biomass and the equivalent land use in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) monocrop and intercrops with sorghum Sudan (Sorghum sudanense L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.). The aerial biomass of all the treatments (expressed per surface unit) and the equivalent land use were determined. The design was completely randomized, arranged in blocks with two repetitions. The results were subject to an ANAVA and the means were compared through Duncan's test, by means of the statistical pack INFOSTAT. The alfalfa-sorghum intercrop triplicated the alfalfa production with regards to the monocrop, while alfalfa-oat did not exceed the production of pure alfalfa in the winter months. The alfalfa-sorghum intercrop was 57 % more efficient in land use than the respective monocrops, while alfalfa-oat did not surpass the unit. (author)

  2. Lucerne (Medicago sativa) or grass-clover as cut-and-carry fertilizers in organic agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgt, van der G.J.H.M.; Eekeren, van N.J.M.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Koopmans, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Onfarm nitrogen fixation is a driving force in organic agriculture. The efficiency with which this nitrogen is used can be increased by using lucerne (Medicago sativa) or grassclover directly as sources of fertilizer on arable land: cutandcarry fertilizers. In two arable crops, the use of lucerne

  3. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chunxiang; Hernandez, Timothy; Zhou, Chuanen; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a high-quality forage crop widely grown throughout the world. This chapter describes an efficient protocol that allows for the generation of large number of transgenic alfalfa plants by sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Binary vectors carrying different selectable marker genes that confer resistance to phosphinothricin (bar), kanamycin (npt II), or hygromycin (hph) were used to generate transgenic alfalfa plants. Intact trifoliates collected from clonally propagated plants in the greenhouse were sterilized with bleach and then inoculated with Agrobacterium strain EHA105. More than 80 % of infected leaf pieces could produce rooted transgenic plants in 4-5 months after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

  4. Identification of novel RNA viruses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa): an Alphapartitivirus, a Deltapartitivirus, and a Marafivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyein; Park, Dongbin; Hahn, Yoonsoo

    2018-01-05

    Genomic RNA molecules of plant RNA viruses are often co-isolated with the host RNAs, and their sequences can be detected in plant transcriptome datasets. Here, an alfalfa (Medicago sativa) transcriptome dataset was analyzed and three new RNA viruses were identified, which were named Medicago sativa alphapartitivirus 1 (MsAPV1), Medicago sativa deltapartitivirus 1 (MsDPV1), and Medicago sativa marafivirus 1 (MsMV1). The RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of MsAPV1, MsDPV1, and MsMV1 showed about 68%, 58%, and 46% amino acid sequence identity, respectively, with their closest virus species. Sequence similarity and phylogenetic analyses indicated that MsAPV1, MsDPV1, and MsMV1 were novel RNA virus species that belong to the genus Alphapartitivirus of the family Partitiviridae, the genus Deltapartitivirus of the family Partitiviridae, and the genus Marafivirus of the family Tymoviridae, respectively. The bioinformatics procedure applied in this study may facilitate the identification of novel RNA viruses from plant transcriptome data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Prediction of chemical composition of South African Medicago sativa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict chemical and digestibility parameters was investigated. Samples (n = 168) representing the spectral characteristics of the South African. Medicago sativa L. hay population were chemically analysed for the development of calibration equations. Values for r² and ...

  6. A model for assessing Medicago Sativa L. hay quality | Scholtz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to identify chemical parameters and/or models for assessing. Medicago sativa L. (L) hay quality, using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) analysis and Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) milk prediction as a criterion of accuracy. Milk yield (MY) derived from the ...

  7. Sample preparation of Medicago sativa L. hay for chemical analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of the grinding procedure on the moisture and crude protein concentration of a ground Medicago sativa L. hay sample for quality grading. An additional aim was to investigate the accuracy of electronic moisture testers (EMT). Variance of analyses revealed significant ...

  8. Accumulation of heavy metals in Medicago sativa L. and Trifolium pratense L. at the contaminated fluvisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Snežana P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, heavy metals concentrations increased in some agricultural areas due to the consequences of anthropogenic impacts. The aim of this study was to determine the level of heavy metals (As, Cr, Ni and Pb in Medicago sativa L. and Trifolium pratense L. grown on fluvisol, in order to obtain information on safety of these nutrients. The total content of Pb, As, Cr and Ni in the samples of fluvisol was above the maximum allowable amount. The content of heavy metals in Medicago sativa L. and Trifolium pratense L. was below the critical and toxic concentrations in all samples originating from contaminated soil. It was concluded that the accumulation of heavy metals in plants did not depend only on the total content in soil, but also the affinity of the plant, and individual and interactive effects of various soil properties. No statistically significant differences in the accumulation of heavy metals between Medicago sativa L. and Trifolium pratense L were observed. It is necessary to further control of heavy metals in the investigated area, in order to prevent their entry into the food chain and provide healthy food.

  9. Detection of Norspermidine and Norspermine in Medicago sativa L. (Alfalfa) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Garay, Benjamin; Phillips, Gregory C.; Kuehn, Glenn D.

    1989-01-01

    Shoot meristem tissues of alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., were found by high performance liquid chromatography analyses to contain the uncommon polyamines, norspermidine and norspermine. The chemical structures of norspermidine and norspermine, purified from alfalfa, were confirmed by comparison of mass spectra with those from authentic standards. The discovery of norspermidine and norspermine in alfalfa implicates the presence of at least two biosynthetic enzymes, a polyamine oxidase and a previously uncharacterized aminopropyltransferase. PMID:16666576

  10. Phenanthrene uptake by Medicago sativa L. under the influence of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Naiying [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Department of Chemistry, Shangqiu Normal College, Shangqiu 476000 (China); Huang Honglin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang Shuzhen, E-mail: szzhang@rcees.ac.c [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhu Yongguan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Christie, Peter [Agri-Environment Branch, Agriculture Food and Environmental Science Division, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom); Zhang Yong [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Environmental Science Research Centre, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2009-05-15

    Phenanthrene uptake by Medicago sativa L. was investigated under the influence of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. Inoculation of lucerne with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus etunicatum L. resulted in higher phenanthrene accumulation in the roots and lower accumulation in the shoots compared to non-mycorrhizal controls. Studies on sorption and desorption of phenanthrene by roots and characterization of heterogeneity of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal roots using solid-state {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 13}C NMR) demonstrated that increased aromatic components due to mycorrhizal inoculation resulted in enhanced phenanthrene uptake by the roots but lower translocation to the shoots. Direct visualization using two-photon excitation microscopy (TPEM) revealed higher phenanthrene accumulation in epidermal cells of roots and lower transport into the root interior and stem in mycorrhizal plants than in non-mycorrhizal controls. These results provide some insight into the mechanisms by which arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation may influence the uptake of organic contaminants by plants. - Colonization by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus promoted root uptake and decreased shoot uptake of phenanthrene by Medicago sativa L.

  11. Phenanthrene uptake by Medicago sativa L. under the influence of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Naiying; Huang Honglin; Zhang Shuzhen; Zhu Yongguan; Christie, Peter; Zhang Yong

    2009-01-01

    Phenanthrene uptake by Medicago sativa L. was investigated under the influence of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. Inoculation of lucerne with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus etunicatum L. resulted in higher phenanthrene accumulation in the roots and lower accumulation in the shoots compared to non-mycorrhizal controls. Studies on sorption and desorption of phenanthrene by roots and characterization of heterogeneity of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal roots using solid-state 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 13 C NMR) demonstrated that increased aromatic components due to mycorrhizal inoculation resulted in enhanced phenanthrene uptake by the roots but lower translocation to the shoots. Direct visualization using two-photon excitation microscopy (TPEM) revealed higher phenanthrene accumulation in epidermal cells of roots and lower transport into the root interior and stem in mycorrhizal plants than in non-mycorrhizal controls. These results provide some insight into the mechanisms by which arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation may influence the uptake of organic contaminants by plants. - Colonization by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus promoted root uptake and decreased shoot uptake of phenanthrene by Medicago sativa L.

  12. Nitrogen accumulation in lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) under water deficit stress

    OpenAIRE

    Vasileva Viliana; Vasilev Emil

    2013-01-01

    In order to study nitrogen accumulation in aboveground and root dry mass in lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) under water deficit stress, a pot experiment was carried out at the Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria. The plants were grown under optimum water supply (75-80% FC) and 10-days water deficit stress was simulated at the stage of budding by interrupting the irrigation until soil moisture was reduced to 37-40% FC. Mineral nitrogen fertilization (ammonium nitrate) at the doses of 40, ...

  13. First report of race 2 of Colletotrichum trifolii causing anthracnose on alfalfa (Medicago sativa) in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthracnose of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), caused by Colletotrichum trifolii, is widespread in the United States. Three physiological races have been described. Race 1 is reported to be the dominant race that is present wherever alfalfa is grown, while race 2 was reported in a limited area in the Mid...

  14. [Natural nucleotide polymorphism of the Srlk gene that determines salt stress tolerance in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevskaia, M S; Pavlov, A V; Dziubenko, E A; Dziubenko, N I; Potokina, E K

    2014-04-01

    Based on legume genome syntheny, the nucleotide sequence of Srlk gene, key role of which in response to salt stress was demonstrated for the model species Medicago truncatula, was identified in the major forage and siderate crop alfalfa (Medicago sativa). In twelve alfalfa samples originating from regions with contrasting growing conditions, 19 SNPs were revealed in the Srlk gene. For two nonsynonymous SNPs, molecular markers were designed that could be further used to analyze the association between Srlk gene nucleotide polymorphism and the variability in salt stress tolerance among alfalfa cultivars.

  15. Comparison of the phytoremediation potentials of Medicago falcata L. And Medicago sativa L. in aged oil-sludge-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchenko, Leonid; Muratova, Anna; Turkovskaya, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Thirteen-year monitoring of the vegetation growing in the industrial and adjacent areas of an oil refinery showed the prevalence of yellow medick (Medicago falcata L.) over other plant species, including alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). A comparative field study of the two Medicago species established that yellow medick and alfalfa exhibited similar resistance to soil petroleum hydrocarbons and that the pollutant concentration in their rhizosphere was 30% lower than that in the surrounding bulk soil. In laboratory pot experiments, yellow medick reduced the contaminant content by 18% owing to the degradation of the major heavy oil fractions, such as paraffins, naphthenes, and alcohol and benzene tars; and it was more successful than alfalfa. Both species were equally effective in stimulating the total number of soil microorganisms, but the number of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degraders, was larger in the root zone of alfalfa. In turn, yellow medick provided a favorable balance of available nitrogen. Both Medicago species equally stimulated the dehydrogenase and peroxidase activities of the soil, and yellow medick increased the activity of soil polyphenol oxidase but reduced the activity of catalase. The root tissue activity of catalase, ascorbate oxidase, and tyrosinase was grater in alfalfa than in yellow medick. The peroxidase activity of plant roots was similar in both species, but nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed some differences in the peroxidase profiles of the root extracts of alfalfa and yellow medick. Overall, this study suggests that the phytoremediation potentials of yellow medick and alfalfa are similar, with some differences.

  16. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) forage production, tissue and soil nutrient concentration under three N based broiler litter regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is considered as most important forage legume grown in Kentucky. Alfalfa supports many livestock production systems including the beef, dairy, and horse industries in Kentucky. Being a legume, alfalfa typically meets its N requirement through symbiotic N2 fixation, but h...

  17. Resistant and susceptible responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) to bacterial stem blight caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial stem blight caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae is a common disease of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the central and western U.S. and has been reported in Australia and Europe. The disease is not always recognized because symptoms are often associated with frost damage. Two culti...

  18. The Hybridization Barrier between Herbaceous Medicago sativa and Woody M. arborea Is Weakened by Selection of Seed Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Bingham

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Medicago sativa, alfalfa or lucerne, and M. arborea were considered reproductively isolated until recently. Then, in 2003, an alfalfa genotype was identified that produced a few seeds and progeny with hybrid traits after a large number of pollinations by M. arborea. A derivative of this alfalfa genotype also produced a low frequency of progeny with hybrid traits. Thus, the hybridization barrier was weakened by selection of seed parents. Hybrids from both events expressed traits from M. arborea and M. arborea-specific DNA bands, although more of the M. sativa genome was retained, based on the DNA results. Thus, there was chromatin elimination during embryogenesis, resulting in partial hybrids (hereafter hybrids. However, more than 30 hybrids with an array of M. arborea traits have been obtained thus far, and research continues on the nature of the hybrids. Traits have been genetically transmitted in crosses, and selected traits are in use for alfalfa breeding. This paper reviews the first hybrids and then focuses on further weakening of the hybridization barrier with the discovery of a more efficient hybridizer derived from crossing Medicago sativa subspecies, sativa, coerulea and falcata. This genotype was found to have reproductive abnormalities associated with its complex subspecies origin that are best described as hybrid breakdown. In effect, this subspecies derivative is a bridge-cross parent that consistently produces hybrids. Reproductive abnormalities in the bridge-cross parent are reported and discussed.

  19. The Hybridization Barrier between Herbaceous Medicago sativa and Woody M. arborea Is Weakened by Selection of Seed Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Edwin; Armour, David; Irwin, John

    2013-01-01

    Medicago sativa, alfalfa or lucerne, and M. arborea were considered reproductively isolated until recently. Then, in 2003, an alfalfa genotype was identified that produced a few seeds and progeny with hybrid traits after a large number of pollinations by M. arborea. A derivative of this alfalfa genotype also produced a low frequency of progeny with hybrid traits. Thus, the hybridization barrier was weakened by selection of seed parents. Hybrids from both events expressed traits from M. arborea and M. arborea-specific DNA bands, although more of the M. sativa genome was retained, based on the DNA results. Thus, there was chromatin elimination during embryogenesis, resulting in partial hybrids (hereafter hybrids). However, more than 30 hybrids with an array of M. arborea traits have been obtained thus far, and research continues on the nature of the hybrids. Traits have been genetically transmitted in crosses, and selected traits are in use for alfalfa breeding. This paper reviews the first hybrids and then focuses on further weakening of the hybridization barrier with the discovery of a more efficient hybridizer derived from crossing Medicago sativa subspecies, sativa, coerulea and falcata. This genotype was found to have reproductive abnormalities associated with its complex subspecies origin that are best described as hybrid breakdown. In effect, this subspecies derivative is a bridge-cross parent that consistently produces hybrids. Reproductive abnormalities in the bridge-cross parent are reported and discussed. PMID:27137379

  20. Effect of alfalfa (medicago sativa) on fermentation profile and nutritive value of switchgrass (panicum virgatum) and bermudagrass (cynodon dactylon) silages

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experiment was conducted at the University of Kentucky Spindletop Farm in Lexington, Kentucky between October and November, 2009 to evaluate the effect of different percentages of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) as mixtures in switchgrass (Panicum virgatus) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) silages. ...

  1. Influence of papermill sludge on growth of Medicago sativa, Festuca rubra and Agropyron trachycaulum in gold mine tailings: A greenhouse study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Scott; Renault, Sylvie

    2008-01-01

    A greenhouse study was undertaken to determine the suitability of adding papermill sludge to neutral/alkaline gold mine tailings to improve the establishment of Festuca rubra, Agropyron trachycaulum and Medicago sativa. Festuca rubra root and shoot biomass and A. Trachycaulum shoot biomass were increased with papermill sludge amendment. The addition of papermill sludge and fertilizer drastically increased the shoot and root biomass of M. sativa (20-30 times) while A. trachycaulum and F. rubra showed a more moderate increase in growth. Photosynthetic pigment content of the leaves was higher in papermill sludge treatments than in the treatments without papermill sludge. The organic carbon content, macro-aggregate content and field capacity of the gold mine tailings were increased while the bulk density was decreased by the addition of papermill sludge. This study suggests that addition of papermill sludge and adequate fertilization can alleviate some of the adverse conditions of neutral/alkaline gold mine tailings. - Addition of papermill sludge and adequate fertilization of neutral gold mine tailings increased growth of Medicago sativa, Festuca rubra and Agropyron trachycaulum

  2. Crystal structure of isoflavone reductase from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqiang; He, Xianzhi; Lin, Jianqiao; Shao, Hui; Chang, Zhenzhan; Dixon, Richard A

    2006-05-19

    Isoflavonoids play important roles in plant defense and exhibit a range of mammalian health-promoting activities. Isoflavone reductase (IFR) specifically recognizes isoflavones and catalyzes a stereospecific NADPH-dependent reduction to (3R)-isoflavanone. The crystal structure of Medicago sativa IFR with deletion of residues 39-47 has been determined at 1.6A resolution. Structural analysis, molecular modeling and docking, and comparison with the structures of other NADPH-dependent enzymes, defined the putative binding sites for co-factor and substrate and potential key residues for enzyme activity and substrate specificity. Further mutagenesis has confirmed the role of Lys144 as a catalytic residue. This study provides a structural basis for understanding the enzymatic mechanism and substrate specificity of IFRs as well as the functions of IFR-like proteins.

  3. Enhanced salt tolerance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) by rstB gene transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wan-Jun; Wang, Tao

    2015-05-01

    Generating salt tolerance forage plant is essential for use of the land affected by high salinity. A salt tolerance gene rstB was used as a selectable marker gene in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tobacco under a selective regime of 170mM NaCl. The transgenic plants showed clear improvement in salt tolerance. To improve salt tolerance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), rstB gene was introduced into alfalfa genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. No abnormal phenotype was observed among the transgenic plants when compared with wild type (wt) plants. Significant enhancement of resistance to salt-shock treatment was noted on the rstB transgenic (T0) plants. Transgenic second-generation (T1) seeds showed improved germination rate and seedling growth under salt-stress condition. Hindered Na(+) accumulation, but enhanced Ca(2+) accumulation was observed on the rstB T1 plants when subjected to salt-stresses. Enhanced calcium accumulation in transgenic plants was also verified by cytohistochemical localization of calcium. Under salt-stress of 50mM NaCl, about 15% of the transgenic plants finished their life-cycle but the wt plants had no flower formation. The results demonstrated that the expression of rstB gene improved salt tolerance in transgenic alfalfa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of vanadium and tungsten on nitrogen fixation and the growth of Medicago sativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, K K

    1969-01-01

    In sand culture, it was found that vanadium had no stimulatory effect on nitrogen content or the growth of Medicago sativa inoculated with an effective strain of Rhizobium meliloti or supplied with ammonium nitrate. At the level of 500 ppm it reduced the plant growth, the inhibitory effect being particularly severe on the root. On the other hand tungsten increased nitrogen fixation and the dry matter yield of the inoculated plants. The results are suggestive of a direct role of tungsten in symbiotic nitrogen fixation. 4 references, 2 tables.

  5. Toxic effects of copper-based nanoparticles or compounds to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jie; Rico, Cyren M; Zhao, Lijuan; Adeleye, Adeyemi S; Keller, Arturo A; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-01-01

    The increased production and use of nanoparticles (NPs) has generated concerns about their impact on living organisms. In this study, nCu, bulk Cu, nCuO, bulk CuO, Cu(OH)2 (CuPRO 2005, Kocide 3000), and CuCl2 were exposed for 15 days to 10 days-old hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Each compound was applied at 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg L(-1). At harvest, we measured the size of the plants and determined the concentration of Cu, macro and microelements by using ICP-OES. Catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activity was also determined. Results showed that all Cu NPs/compounds reduced the root length by 49% in both plant species. All Cu NPs/compounds increased Cu, P, and S (>100%, >50%, and >20%, respectively) in alfalfa shoots and decreased P and Fe in lettuce shoot (>50% and >50%, respectively, excluding Fe in CuCl2 treatment). Biochemical assays showed reduced catalase activity in alfalfa (root and shoot) and increased ascorbate peroxidase activity in roots of both plant species. Results suggest that Cu NPs/compounds not only reduced the size of the plants but altered nutrient content and enzyme activity in both plant species.

  6. Medicago sativa--Sinorhizobium meliloti Symbiosis Promotes the Bioaccumulation of Zinc in Nodulated Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zribi, Kais; Nouairi, Issam; Slama, Ines; Talbi-Zribi, Ons; Mhadhbi, Haythem

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated effects of Zn supply on germination, growth, inorganic solutes (Zn, Ca, Fe, and Mg) partitioning and nodulation of Medicago sativa This plant was cultivated with and without Zn (2 mM). Treatments were plants without (control) and with Zn tolerant strain (S532), Zn intolerant strain (S112) and 2 mM urea nitrogen fertilisation. Results showed that M. sativa germinates at rates of 50% at 2 mM Zn. For plants given nitrogen fertilisation, Zn increased plant biomass production. When grown with symbionts, Zn supply had no effect on nodulation. Moreover, plants with S112 showed a decrease of shoot and roots biomasses. However, in symbiosis with S532, an increase of roots biomass was observed. Plants in symbiosis with S. meliloti accumulated more Zn in their roots than nitrogen fertilised plants. Zn supply results in an increase of Ca concentration in roots of fertilised nitrogen plants. However, under Zn supply, Fe concentration decreased in roots and increased in nodules of plants with S112. Zn supply showed contrasting effects on Mg concentrations for plants with nitrogen fertilisation (increase) and plants with S112 (decrease). The capacity of M. sativa to accumulate Zn in their nodulated roots encouraged its use in phytostabilisation processes.

  7. Transgene silencing of sucrose synthase in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) stem vascular tissue suggests a role for invertase in cell wall cellulose synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants were transformed with two constructs: (1) a truncated phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase promoter isolated from alfalfa nodules (PEPC-4) fused to GUS; and (2) PEPC-4 fused with sucrose synthase (SUS) isolated from alfalfa nodules. Histochemical staining for GUS in st...

  8. Nitrogen accumulation in lucerne (Medicago sativa L. under water deficit stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileva Viliana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study nitrogen accumulation in aboveground and root dry mass in lucerne (Medicago sativa L. under water deficit stress, a pot experiment was carried out at the Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria. The plants were grown under optimum water supply (75-80% FC and 10-days water deficit stress was simulated at the stage of budding by interrupting the irrigation until soil moisture was reduced to 37-40% FC. Mineral nitrogen fertilization (ammonium nitrate at the doses of 40, 80, 120 and 160 mg N kg-1 soil was applied. It was found that nitrogen accumulation in dry aboveground mass was reduced to 18.0%, and in dry root mass to 26.5% under water deficit stress. Mineral nitrogen fertilization contributed to easily overcome the stress conditions of water deficit stress in lucerne.

  9. Natural occurrence of entomophthoroid fungi of aphid pests on Medicago sativa L. in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina G Manfrino

    Full Text Available Four species of entomophthoroid fungi, Pandora neoaphidis (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae, Zoophthora radicans (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae, Entomophthora planchoniana (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae and Neozygites fresenii (Neozygitales: Neozygitaceae were found to infect Aphis craccivora, Therioaphis trifolii, and Acyrthosiphon pisum and unidentified species of Acyrthosiphon on lucerne in Argentina. Samples were collected from five sites (Ceres, Rafaela, Sarmiento, Monte Vera and Bernardo de Irigoyen in the province of Santa Fe. In this study, Zoophthora radicans was the most important pathogen and was recorded mainly on Acyrthosiphon sp. Zoophthora radicans was successfully isolated and maintained in pure cultures. This study is the first report of entomophthoroid fungi infecting lucerne (Medicago sativa L. aphids in Argentina.

  10. Stress responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessmann, H.; Edwards, R.; Dixon, R.A.; Geno, P.W.

    1990-01-01

    The isoflavonoid conjugates medicarpin-3-O-glucoside-6 double-prime-O-malonate (MGM), afrormosin-7-O-glucoside (AG), and afrormosin-7-O-glucoside-6 double-prime-O-malonate (AGM) were isolated and characterized from cell suspension cultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), where they were the major constitutive secondary metabolites. They were also found in alfalfa roots but not in other parts of the plant. The phytoalexin medicarpin accumulated rapidly in suspension cultured cells treated with elicitor from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and this was subsequently accompanied by an increase in the levels of MGM. In contrast, net accumulation of afrormosin conjugates was not affected by elicitor treatment. Labeling studies with [ 14 C]phenylalanine indicated that afrormosin conjugates were the major de novo synthesized isoflavonoid products in unelicited cells. During elicitation, [ 14 C]phenylalanine was incorporated predominantly into medicarpin, although a significant proportion of the newly synthesized medicarpin was also conjugated. Treatment of 14 C-labeled, elicited cells with L-α-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid, a potent inhibitor of PAL activity in vivo, resulted in the initial appearance of labeled medicarpin of very low specific activity, suggesting that the phytoalexin could be released from a preformed conjugate under these conditions. Our data draw attention to the involvement of isoflavone hydroxylases during the constitutive and elicitor-induced accumulation of isoflavonoids and their conjugates in alfalfa cell cultures

  11. How planting configuration influences plant secondary metabolites and total N in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theories suggest that incorporating alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.; Alf) or birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT) into endophyte-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceas Schreb.; E+TF) pasturelands may improve livestock production. We investigated how planting configuration might influence p...

  12. Exploring the plant-associated bacterial communities in Medicago sativa L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pini Francesco

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant-associated bacterial communities caught the attention of several investigators which study the relationships between plants and soil and the potential application of selected bacterial species in crop improvement and protection. Medicago sativa L. is a legume crop of high economic importance as forage in temperate areas and one of the most popular model plants for investigations on the symbiosis with nitrogen fixing rhizobia (mainly belonging to the alphaproteobacterial species Sinorhizobium meliloti. However, despite its importance, no studies have been carried out looking at the total bacterial community associated with the plant. In this work we explored for the first time the total bacterial community associated with M. sativa plants grown in mesocosms conditions, looking at a wide taxonomic spectrum, from the class to the single species (S. meliloti level. Results Results, obtained by using Terminal-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP analysis, quantitative PCR and sequencing of 16 S rRNA gene libraries, showed a high taxonomic diversity as well as a dominance by members of the class Alphaproteobacteria in plant tissues. Within Alphaproteobacteria the families Sphingomonadaceae and Methylobacteriaceae were abundant inside plant tissues, while soil Alphaproteobacteria were represented by the families of Hyphomicrobiaceae, Methylocystaceae, Bradyirhizobiaceae and Caulobacteraceae. At the single species level, we were able to detect the presence of S. meliloti populations in aerial tissues, nodules and soil. An analysis of population diversity on nodules and soil showed a relatively low sharing of haplotypes (30-40% between the two environments and between replicate mesocosms, suggesting drift as main force shaping S. meliloti population at least in this system. Conclusions In this work we shed some light on the bacterial communities associated with M. sativa plants, showing that Alphaproteobacteria may

  13. Uptake of oxytetracycline and its phytotoxicity to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, W.D.; Zhu, Y.G.; Liang, Y.C.; Zhang, J.; Smith, F.A.; Yang, M.

    2007-01-01

    A series of experiments were conducted in a hydroponic system to investigate the uptake of oxytetracycline (OTC) and its toxicity to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). OTC inhibited alfalfa shoot and root growth by up to 61% and 85%, respectively. The kinetics of OTC uptake could be well described by Michaelis-Menten equation with V max of 2.25 μmol g -1 fresh weight h -1 , and K m of 0.036 mM. The uptake of OTC by alfalfa was strongly inhibited by the metabolic inhibitor, 2,4-DNP (2,4-dinitrophenol), at pH 3.5 and 6.0, but not by the aquaporin competitors, glycerol and Ag + . OTC uptake, however, was significantly inhibited by Hg 2+ , suggesting that the inhibition of influx was due to general cellular stress rather than the specific action of Hg 2+ on aquaporins. Results from the present study suggested that OTC uptake into alfalfa is an energy-dependent process. - Plant uptake of antibiotic oxytetracycline is energy-dependent

  14. Biofertilizer in the nutritional quality of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Luis Lemes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. in the nutritional composition to the application of biofertilizers. The experiment was conducted with increasing doses of biofertilizers in a greenhouse at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine / UNESP, Araçatuba - Sao Paulo, Brazil, from April to October 2010. The experimental design was completely randomized with six biofertilizer doses from cattle manure (0, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 m3 ha-1 and five replications. Cuts were performed, on average, every 27 days, 10 cm above the ground when 10% of the plants were flowering. Biofertilization had a positive significant impact on foliar nitrogen, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, and shoot iron concentrations. The values of crude protein, acid detergent fiber, and neutral detergent fiber did not differ between doses of biofertilizers. Biofertilization is a viable alternative for nutrition of this species, showing positive results in the nutritional composition of alfalfa. However, but long-term studies are necessary to assess the environmental impact of these fertilizers.

  15. Toxic effects of arsenic on Sinorhizobium-Medicago sativa symbiotic interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajuelo, Eloisa [Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Seville, 41012 Seville (Spain); Rodriguez-Llorente, Ignacio D. [Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Seville, 41012 Seville (Spain)], E-mail: irodri@us.es; Dary, Mohammed; Palomares, Antonio J. [Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Seville, 41012 Seville (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    Recently, the Rhizobium-legume symbiotic interaction has been proposed as an interesting tool in bioremediation. However, little is known about the effect of most common contaminants on this process. The phytotoxic effects of arsenic on nodulation of Medicago sativa have been examined in vitro using the highly arsenic resistant and symbiotically effective Sinorhizobium sp. strain MA11. The bacteria were able to grow on plates containing As concentrations as high as 10 mM. Nevertheless, as little as 25-35 {mu}M arsenite produced a 75% decrease in the total number of nodules, due to a 90% reduction in the number of rhizobial infections, as could be determined using the strain MA11 carrying a lacZ reporter gene. This effect was associated to root hair damage and a shorter infective root zone. However, once nodulation was established nodule development seemed to continue normally, although earlier senescence could be observed in nodules of arsenic-grown plants. - First steps of nodulation of alfalfa, in particular infection thread formation, are more sensitive to As than nitrogen fixation due to plant effects.

  16. WATER DEFICIT EFFECT ON YIELD AND FORAGE QUALITY OF MEDICAGO SATIVA POPULATIONS UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS IN MARRAKESH AREA (MOROCCO)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed FARISSI; Cherki GHOULAM; Abdelaziz BOUIZGAREN

    2014-01-01

    The present study focused the effect of water deficit on agronomic potential and some traits related to forage quality in plants of Moroccan Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) populations (Taf 1, Taf 2, Dem and Tata) originated from Oasis and High Atlas of Morocco and an introduced variety from Australia (Siriver). The experiment was conducted under field conditions in experimental station of INRA-Marrakech and under two irrigation treatments. The first treatment was normal irrigation, providing an...

  17. Phytotoxicity of three plant-based biodiesels, unmodified castor oil, and Diesel fuel to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus), and wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamgbose, Ifeoluwa; Anderson, Todd A

    2015-12-01

    The wide use of plant-based oils and their derivatives, in particular biodiesel, have increased extensively over the past decade to help alleviate demand for petroleum products and improve the greenhouse gas emissions profile of the transportation sector. Biodiesel is regarded as a clean burning alternative fuel produced from livestock feeds and various vegetable oils. Although in theory these animal and/or plant derived fuels should have less environmental impact in soil based on their simplified composition relative to Diesel, they pose an environmental risk like Diesel at high concentrations when disposed. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the phytotoxicity of three different plant-derived biodiesels relative to conventional Diesel. For phytotoxicological analysis, we used seeds of four crop plants, Medicago sativa, Lactuca sativa, Raphanus sativus, and Triticum aestivum to analyze the germination of seeds in contaminated soil samples. The toxicological experiment was conducted with two different soil textures: sandy loam soil and silt loam soil. The studied plant-based biodiesels were safflower methyl-ester, castor methyl ester, and castor ethyl-ester. Biodiesel toxicity was more evident at high concentrations, affecting the germination and survival of small-seeded plants to a greater extent. Tolerance of plants to the biodiesels varied between plant species and soil textures. With the exception of R. sativus, all plant species were affected and exhibited some sensitivity to the fuels, such as delayed seedling emergence and slow germination (average=10 days) at high soil concentrations (0.85% for Diesel and 1.76% for the biodiesels). Tolerance of plants to soil contamination had a species-specific nature, and on average, decreased in the following order: Raphanus sativus (0-20%)>Triticum aestivum (10-40%) ≥ Medicago sativa> Lactuca sativa (80-100%). Thus, we conclude that there is some phytotoxicity associated with plant-based biodiesels. Further

  18. Natural occurrence of entomophthoroid fungi of aphid pests on Medicago sativa L. in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfrino, Romina G; Zumoffen, Leticia; Salto, César E; Lastra, Claudia C López

    2014-01-01

    Four species of entomophthoroid fungi, Pandora neoaphidis (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae), Zoophthora radicans (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae), Entomophthora planchoniana (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) and Neozygites fresenii (Neozygitales: Neozygitaceae) were found to infect Aphis craccivora, Therioaphis trifolii, and Acyrthosiphon pisum and unidentified species of Acyrthosiphon on lucerne in Argentina. Samples were collected from five sites (Ceres, Rafaela, Sarmiento, Monte Vera and Bernardo de Irigoyen) in the province of Santa Fe. In this study, Zoophthora radicans was the most important pathogen and was recorded mainly on Acyrthosiphon sp. Zoophthora radicans was successfully isolated and maintained in pure cultures. This study is the first report of entomophthoroid fungi infecting lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) aphids in Argentina. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. A PROPOSITO DE UN ENSAYO CON ABONOS (cal y harina de huesos EN ALFALFAl (Medicago sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidoro Mogilner

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo, los autores estudian el efecto que sobre el rendimiento de la alfalfa (Medicago sativa produce la incorporación de diferentes dosis de cal y harina de huesos, en un suelo pobre de P y Ca; de una textura pesada con alto contenido de arcilla en todos los horizontes, de un pH ácido (5.1 a 6.2 y que es característico de la zona donde fué hecha la experiencia.Se han obtenido resultados referentes a la influencia de la inoculación de la semilla con Rhizobium y el agregado de cal y harina de huesos sobre los rendimientos.

  20. Fotossíntese em alfafa (Medicago sativa L.) sob supressão e ressuprimento de fosfato

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes,Fernando Teixeira; Pereira,Gilmara Duarte; Borges,Arnaldo Chaer; Mosquim,Paulo Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Neste estudo, foram avaliados os efeitos da supressão e do ressuprimento de fosfato (Pi) sobre a fotossíntese e eficiência fotoquímica de plantas de Medicago sativa cv. Flórida 77, em diferentes estádios do desenvolvimento vegetativo (V3, V4) e reprodutivo (R6, R8). O ensaio foi conduzido em casa de vegetação e as plantas cultivadas na solução nutritiva de HOAGLAND & ARNON (1950), contendo 0,14mmol L-1 de Pi. A supressão de Pi por dez dias reduziu os teores de fósforo nas folhas amostrada...

  1. Uptake of oxytetracycline and its phytotoxicity to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, W D [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhu, Y G [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Liang, Y C [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Nutrient Cycling, Institute of Soils and Fertilizers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang, J [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Smith, F A [Soil and Land Systems, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, DP 636, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Yang, M [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2007-05-15

    A series of experiments were conducted in a hydroponic system to investigate the uptake of oxytetracycline (OTC) and its toxicity to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). OTC inhibited alfalfa shoot and root growth by up to 61% and 85%, respectively. The kinetics of OTC uptake could be well described by Michaelis-Menten equation with V {sub max} of 2.25 {mu}mol g{sup -1} fresh weight h{sup -1}, and K {sub m} of 0.036 mM. The uptake of OTC by alfalfa was strongly inhibited by the metabolic inhibitor, 2,4-DNP (2,4-dinitrophenol), at pH 3.5 and 6.0, but not by the aquaporin competitors, glycerol and Ag{sup +}. OTC uptake, however, was significantly inhibited by Hg{sup 2+}, suggesting that the inhibition of influx was due to general cellular stress rather than the specific action of Hg{sup 2+} on aquaporins. Results from the present study suggested that OTC uptake into alfalfa is an energy-dependent process. - Plant uptake of antibiotic oxytetracycline is energy-dependent.

  2. Monolignol biosynthesis in microsomal preparations from lignifying stems of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dianjing; Chen, Fang; Dixon, Richard A

    2002-11-01

    Microsomal preparations from lignifying stems of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) contained coniferaldehyde 5-hydroxylase activity and immunodetectable caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (COMT), and catalyzed the S-adenosyl L-methionine (SAM) dependent methylation of caffeic acid, caffeyl aldehyde and caffeyl alcohol. When supplied with NADPH and SAM, the microsomes converted caffeyl aldehyde to coniferaldehyde, 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde, and traces of sinapaldehyde. Coniferaldehyde was a better precursor of sinapaldehyde than was 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde. The alfalfa microsomes could not metabolize 4-coumaric acid, 4-coumaraldehyde, 4-coumaroyl CoA, or ferulic acid. No metabolism of monolignol precursors was observed in microsomal preparations from transgenic alfalfa down-regulated in COMT expression. In most microsomal preparations, the level of the metabolic conversions was independent of added recombinant COMT. Taken together, the data provide only limited support for the concept of metabolic channeling in the biosynthesis of S monolignols via coniferaldehyde.

  3. The effect of Medicago arabica, M. hybrida and M. sativa saponins on the growth and development of Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f. sp. tulipae apt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jarecka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work it was shown that total saponins originated from M. hybrida and M. sativa substantially limited mycelium growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. tulipae and symptoms of fusariosis on tulip bulbs. Out of 15 individual tested saponins originated from M. arabica, M. hybrida and M. sativa, four compounds: 3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→2α-L-arabinopyranosyl] hederagenin, hederagenin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, medicagenic acid, medicagenic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside had the strongest inhibitory effect on mycelium growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tulipae on PDA medium. The total saponins from M. arabica, M. hybrida and M. sativa inhibited the number of colony forming units of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tulipae in artificially infested substrate. The use of saponins originated from Medicago as a fungicide is suggested.

  4. Ractopamine up take by alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelver, Weilin L; DeSutter, Thomas M

    2015-08-01

    Ractopamine is a beta adrenergic agonist used as a growth promoter in swine, cattle and turkeys. To test whether ractopamine has the potential to accumulate in plants grown in contaminated soil, a greenhouse study was conducted with alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown in two soils having different concentrations of organic matter (1.3% and 2.1%), amended with 0, 0.5, and 10 μg/g of ractopamine. Plant growth ranged from 2.7 to 8.8 g dry weight (dw) for alfalfa, and 8.7 to 40 g dw for wheat and was generally greater in the higher organic matter content soil. The uptake of ractopamine in plant tissues ranged from non-detectable to 897 ng/g and was strongly dependent on soil ractopamine concentration across soil and plant tissue. When adjusted to the total fortified quantities, the amount of ractopamine taken up by the plant tissue was low, <0.01% for either soil. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Accumulation and residue of napropamide in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and soil involved in toxic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Li E; Yang, Hong

    2011-06-15

    Napropamide belongs to the amide herbicide family and widely used to control weeds in farmland. Intensive use of the herbicide has resulted in widespread contamination to ecosystems. The present study demonstrated an analysis on accumulation of the toxic pesticide napropamide in six genotypes of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), along with biological parameters and its residues in soils. Soil was treated with napropamide at 3 mg kg(-1) dry soil and alfalfa plants were cultured for 10 or 30 d, respectively. The maximum value for napropamide accumulation is 0.426 mg kg(-1) in shoots and 2.444 mg kg(-1) in roots. The napropamide-contaminated soil with alfalfa cultivation had much lower napropamide concentrations than the control (soil without alfalfa cultivation). Also, the content of napropamide residue in the rhizosphere was significantly lower than that in the non-rhizosphere soil. M. sativa exposed to 3 mg kg(-1) napropamide showed inhibited growth. Further analysis revealed that plants treated with napropamide accumulated more reactive oxygen species (O(2)(-) and H(2)O(2)) and less amounts of chlorophyll. However, not all cultivars showed oxidative injury, suggesting that the alfalfa cultivars display different tolerance to napropamide. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of simple sequence repeat markers and diversity analysis in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zan; Yan, Hongwei; Fu, Xinnian; Li, Xuehui; Gao, Hongwen

    2013-04-01

    Efficient and robust molecular markers are essential for molecular breeding in plant. Compared to dominant and bi-allelic markers, multiple alleles of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are particularly informative and superior in genetic linkage map and QTL mapping in autotetraploid species like alfalfa. The objective of this study was to enrich SSR markers directly from alfalfa expressed sequence tags (ESTs). A total of 12,371 alfalfa ESTs were retrieved from the National Center for Biotechnology Information. Total 774 SSR-containing ESTs were identified from 716 ESTs. On average, one SSR was found per 7.7 kb of EST sequences. Tri-nucleotide repeats (48.8 %) was the most abundant motif type, followed by di-(26.1 %), tetra-(11.5 %), penta-(9.7 %), and hexanucleotide (3.9 %). One hundred EST-SSR primer pairs were successfully designed and 29 exhibited polymorphism among 28 alfalfa accessions. The allele number per marker ranged from two to 21 with an average of 6.8. The PIC values ranged from 0.195 to 0.896 with an average of 0.608, indicating a high level of polymorphism of the EST-SSR markers. Based on the 29 EST-SSR markers, assessment of genetic diversity was conducted and found that Medicago sativa ssp. sativa was clearly different from the other subspecies. The high transferability of those EST-SSR markers was also found for relative species.

  7. Genetic transformation and analysis of rice OsAPx2 gene in Medicago sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingjie Guan

    Full Text Available The OsAPx2 gene from rice was cloned to produce PBI121::OsAPx2 dual-expression plants, of which expression level would be increasing under stressful conditions. The enzyme ascorbate peroxidase (APX in the leaves and roots of the plants increased with increasing exposure time to different sodium chloride (NaCl and hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2concentrations, as indicated by protein gel blot analysis. The increased enzyme yield improved the ability of the plants to resist the stress treatments. The OsAPx2 gene was localized in the cytoplasm of epidermal onion cells as indicated by the instantaneous expression of green fluorescence. An 80% regeneration rate was observed in Medicago sativa L. plants transformed with the OsAPx2 gene using Agrobacterium tumefaciens, as indicated by specific primer PCR. The OsAPx2 gene was expressed at the mRNA level and the individual M. sativa (T#1,T#2,T#5 were obtained through assaying the generation of positive T2 using RNA gel blot analysis. When the seeds of the wild type (WT and the T2 (T#1,T#5 were incubated in culture containing MS with NaCl for 7 days, the results as shown of following: the root length of transgenic plant was longer than WT plants, the H(2O(2 content in roots of WT was more than of transgenic plants, the APX activity under stresses increased by 2.89 times compared with the WT, the malondialdehyde (MDA content of the WT was higher than the transgenic plants, the leaves of the WT turned yellow, but those of the transgenic plants remained green and remained healthy. The chlorophyll content in the WT leaves was less than in the transgenic plants, after soaking in solutions of H(2O(2, sodium sulfite (Na(2SO(3, and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3. Therefore, the OsAPx2 gene overexpression in transgenic M. sativa improves the removal of H(2O(2 and the salt-resistance compared with WT plants. A novel strain of M. sativa carrying a salt-resistance gene was obtained.

  8. Over-Expression of Arabidopsis EDT1 Gene Confers Drought Tolerance in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangshun Zheng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is an important legume forage crop with great economic value. However, as the growth of alfalfa is seriously affected by an inadequate supply of water, drought is probably the major abiotic environmental factor that most severely affects alfalfa production worldwide. In an effort to enhance alfalfa drought tolerance, we transformed the Arabidopsis Enhanced Drought Tolerance 1 (AtEDT1 gene into alfalfa via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Compared with wild type plants, drought stress treatment resulted in higher survival rates and biomass, but reduced water loss rates in the transgenic plants. Furthermore, transgenic alfalfa plants had increased stomatal size, but reduced stomatal density, and these stomatal changes contributed greatly to reduced water loss from leaves. Importantly, transgenic alfalfa plants exhibited larger root systems with larger root lengths, root weight, and root diameters than wild type plants. The transgenic alfalfa plants had reduced membrane permeability and malondialdehyde content, but higher soluble sugar and proline content, higher superoxide dismutase activity, higher chlorophyll content, enhanced expression of drought-responsive genes, as compared with wild type plants. Notably, transgenic alfalfa plants grew better in a 2-year field trial and showed enhanced growth performance with increased biomass yield. All of our morphological, physiological, and molecular analyses demonstrated that the ectopic expression of AtEDT1 improved growth and enhanced drought tolerance in alfalfa. Our study provides alfalfa germplasm for use in forage improvement programs, and may help to increase alfalfa production in arid lands.

  9. Effects of simulated acidic rain on yields of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa, Triticum aestivum and Medicago sativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, L.S.; Gmur, N.F.; Mancini, D.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine effects to simulated acidic rain on radishes (Raphanus sativus), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown under greenhouse conditions. Experimental designs allowed the detection of statistically significant differences among means that differed by less than 10%. Simulated rainfalls of 2.5, 25, 63, 398, 100 and 2512 ..mu..eq H/sup +/ 1/sup -1/ (pH 5.6, 4.6, 4.2, 3.4, 3.0 and 2.6, respectively) decreased root yields (fresh mass) of radishes 26, 42, 37, 41, 66 and 73% compared with plants not exposed to rainfalls, Similar reductions were present in radish shoot fresh mass, leaf area, and root diameter. Fresh mass yields of lettuce plants exposed to 100, 794 and 1995 ..mu..eq H/sup +/ 1/sup -1/ (pH 4.0, 3.1 and 2.7, respectively) were 11, 10 and 14%, respectively, below heads of plants not exposed to rainfalls. Yields of plants exposed to simulated rainfalls of 2.0 ..mu..eq H/sup +/ 1/sup -1/ (pH 5.7) were similar to plants not exposed to rainfalls. Although visible foliar injury occurred to lettuce, this injury was present only on wrapper leaves and would not affect marketable quality. Yields of wheat which were applied during anthesis and caryopsis development were not influenced by exposure to 46 simulated rainfalls even as high as 1996 ..mu..eq H/sup +/ 1/sup -1/ (pH 2.7). Alfalfa plants exhibited no overall differences in fresh mass of forage among treatments even after 57 simulated rainfalls of 1996 ..mu..eq H/sup +/ 1/sup -1/ (pH 2.7) over 105 days. 22 references, 2 figures, 7 tables.

  10. Molecular Diversity and Population Structure of a Worldwide Collection of Cultivated Tetraploid Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) Germplasm as Revealed by Microsatellite Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Haiping; Chen, Zhihong; Zhang, Zhengli; Wang, Xuemin; Gao, Hongwen; Wang, Zan

    2015-01-01

    Information on genetic diversity and population structure of a tetraploid alfalfa collection might be valuable in effective use of the genetic resources. A set of 336 worldwide genotypes of tetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) was genotyped using 85 genome-wide distributed SSR markers to reveal the genetic diversity and population structure in the alfalfa. Genetic diversity analysis identified a total of 1056 alleles across 85 marker loci. The average expected heterozygosity and polymorphism information content values were 0.677 and 0.638, respectively, showing high levels of genetic diversity in the cultivated tetraploid alfalfa germplasm. Comparison of genetic characteristics across chromosomes indicated regions of chromosomes 2 and 3 had the highest genetic diversity. A higher genetic diversity was detected in alfalfa landraces than that of wild materials and cultivars. Two populations were identified by the model-based population structure, principal coordinate and neighbor-joining analyses, corresponding to China and other parts of the world. However, lack of strictly correlation between clustering and geographic origins suggested extensive germplasm exchanges of alfalfa germplasm across diverse geographic regions. The quantitative analysis of the genetic diversity and population structure in this study could be useful for genetic and genomic analysis and utilization of the genetic variation in alfalfa breeding.

  11. Micromonospora from nitrogen fixing nodules of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). A new promising Plant Probiotic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; Galindo-Villardón, Purificación; Trujillo, Martha E; Igual, José M; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio

    2014-09-17

    Biotic interactions can improve agricultural productivity without costly and environmentally challenging inputs. Micromonospora strains have recently been reported as natural endophytes of legume nodules but their significance for plant development and productivity has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to determine the diversity and function of Micromonospora isolated from Medicago sativa root nodules. Micromonospora-like strains from field alfalfa nodules were characterized by BOX-PCR fingerprinting and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The ecological role of the interaction of the 15 selected representative Micromonospora strains was tested in M. sativa. Nodulation, plant growth and nutrition parameters were analyzed. Alfalfa nodules naturally contain abundant and highly diverse populations of Micromonospora, both at the intra- and at interspecific level. Selected Micromonospora isolates significantly increase the nodulation of alfalfa by Ensifer meliloti 1021 and also the efficiency of the plant for nitrogen nutrition. Moreover, they promote aerial growth, the shoot-to-root ratio, and raise the level of essential nutrients. Our results indicate that Micromonospora acts as a Rhizobia Helper Bacteria (RHB) agent and has probiotic effects, promoting plant growth and increasing nutrition efficiency. Its ecological role, biotechnological potential and advantages as a plant probiotic bacterium (PPB) are also discussed.

  12. Effect of Medicago sativa L. and compost on organic and inorganic pollutant removal from a mixed contaminated soil and risk assessment using ecotoxicological tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Charlotte; Hogland, William; Kaczala, Fabio; Jani, Yahya; Marchand, Lilian; Augustsson, Anna; Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-11-01

    Several Gentle Remediation Options (GRO), e.g., plant-based options (phytoremediation), singly and combined with soil amendments, can be simultaneously efficient for degrading organic pollutants and either stabilizing or extracting trace elements (TEs). Here, a 5-month greenhouse trial was performed to test the efficiency of Medicago sativa L., singly and combined with a compost addition (30% w/w), to treat soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC), Co and Pb collected at an auto scrap yard. After 5 months, total soil Pb significantly decreased in the compost-amended soil planted with M. sativa, but not total soil Co. Compost incorporation into the soil promoted PHC degradation, M. sativa growth and survival, and shoot Pb concentrations [3.8 mg kg(-1) dry weight (DW)]. Residual risk assessment after the phytoremediation trial showed a positive effect of compost amendment on plant growth and earthworm development. The O2 uptake by soil microorganisms was lower in the compost-amended soil, suggesting a decrease in microbial activity. This study underlined the benefits of the phytoremediation option based on M. sativa cultivation and compost amendment for remediating PHC- and Pb-contaminated soils.

  13. Occurrence of Transgenic Feral Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) in Alfalfa Seed Production Areas in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Stephanie L; Kesoju, Sandya R; Martin, Ruth C; Kramer, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The potential environmental risks of transgene exposure are not clear for alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa), a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral alfalfa in major alfalfa seed-production areas in the western United States to (1) evaluate evidence that feral transgenic plants spread transgenes and (2) determine environmental and agricultural production factors influencing the location of feral alfalfa, especially transgenic plants. Road verges in Fresno, California; Canyon, Idaho; and Walla Walla, Washington were surveyed in 2011 and 2012 for feral plants, and samples were tested for the CP4 EPSPS protein that conveys resistance to glyphosate. Of 4580 sites surveyed, feral plants were observed at 404 sites. Twenty-seven percent of these sites had transgenic plants. The frequency of sites having transgenic feral plants varied among our study areas. Transgenic plants were found in 32.7%, 21.4.7% and 8.3% of feral plant sites in Fresno, Canyon and Walla Walla, respectively. Spatial analysis suggested that feral populations started independently and tended to cluster in seed and hay production areas, places where seed tended to drop. Significant but low spatial auto correlation suggested that in some instances, plants colonized nearby locations. Neighboring feral plants were frequently within pollinator foraging range; however, further research is needed to confirm transgene flow. Locations of feral plant clusters were not well predicted by environmental and production variables. However, the likelihood of seed spillage during production and transport had predictive value in explaining the occurrence of transgenic feral populations. Our study confirms that genetically engineered alfalfa has dispersed into the environment, and suggests that minimizing seed spillage and eradicating feral alfalfa along road sides would be effective strategies to minimize transgene dispersal.

  14. Nodulation by Sinorhizobium meliloti originated from a mining soil alleviates Cd toxicity and increases Cd-phytoextraction in Medicago sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghnaya, Tahar; Mnassri, Majda; Ghabriche, Rim; Wali, Mariem; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Lutts, Stanley; Abdelly, Chedly

    2015-01-01

    Besides their role in nitrogen supply to the host plants as a result of symbiotic N fixation, the association between legumes and Rhizobium could be useful for the rehabilitation of metal-contaminated soils by phytoextraction. A major limitation presents the metal-sensitivity of the bacterial strains. The aim of this work was to explore the usefulness of Sinorhizobium meliloti originated from a mining site for Cd phytoextraction by Medicago sativa. Inoculated and non-inoculated plants were cultivated for 60 d on soils containing 50 and/or 100 mg Cd kg(-1) soil. The inoculation hindered the occurrence of Cd- induced toxicity symptoms that appeared in the shoots of non-inoculated plants. This positive effect of S. meliloti colonization was accompanied by an increase in biomass production and improved nutrient acquisition comparatively to non-inoculated plants. Nodulation enhanced Cd absorption by the roots and Cd translocation to the shoots. The increase of plant biomass concomitantly with the increase of Cd shoot concentration in inoculated plants led to higher potential of Cd-phytoextraction in these plants. In the presence of 50 mg Cd kg(-1) in the soil, the amounts of Cd extracted in the shoots were 58 and 178 μg plant(-1) in non-inoculated and inoculated plants, respectively. This study demonstrates that this association M. sativa-S. meliloti may be an efficient biological system to extract Cd from contaminated soils.

  15. Allelopathic interference of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) genotypes to annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Hasan Muhammad; Pratley, James E; Sandral, G A; Humphries, A

    2017-07-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) genotypes at varying densities were investigated for allelopathic impact using annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) as the target species in a laboratory bioassay. Three densities (15, 30, and 50 seedlings/beaker) and 40 alfalfa genotypes were evaluated by the equal compartment agar method (ECAM). Alfalfa genotypes displayed a range of allelopathic interference in ryegrass seedlings, reducing root length from 5 to 65%. The growth of ryegrass decreased in response to increasing density of alfalfa seedlings. At the lowest density, Q75 and Titan9 were the least allelopathic genotypes. An overall inhibition index was calculated to rank each alfalfa genotype. Reduction in seed germination of annual ryegrass occurred in the presence of several alfalfa genotypes including Force 10, Haymaster7 and SARDI Five. A comprehensive metabolomic analysis using Quadruple Time of Flight (Q-TOF), was conducted to compare six alfalfa genotypes. Variation in chemical compounds was found between alfalfa root extracts and exudates and also between genotypes. Further individual compound assessments and quantitative study at greater chemical concentrations are needed to clarify the allelopathic activity. Considerable genetic variation exists among alfalfa genotypes for allelopathic activity creating the opportunity for its use in weed suppression through selection.

  16. Resistance and susceptibility of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars to the aphid Therioaphis maculata (Homoptera:Aphididae): insect biology and cultivar evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALEXANDRE DE ALMEIDA E SILVA; ELENICE MOURO VARANDA; JOS(E) RICARDO BAROSELA

    2006-01-01

    Biology of the aphid Therioaphis maculata was studied on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), including four resistant (Mesa-Sirsa, CUF101, Baker and Lahontan) and two susceptible (ARC and Caliverde) alfalfa cultivars, and one of the most cropped Brazilian cultivars, Crioula. Under controlled conditions, antibiosis (i.e., reduced longevity, fecundity and increased mortality of the aphid) was observed mainly on the resistant alfalfa cultivars,except on Lahontan. Crioula seemed to be tolerant to aphids. Present data support geographic limitation usage of cultivars, and we suggest Baker and Mesa-Sirsa as sources of antibiosis,and provide biological information of a tropical T. maculata biotype on alfalfa.

  17. Fotossíntese em alfafa (Medicago sativa L. sob supressão e ressuprimento de fosfato Photosynthesis in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. under phosphate suppression and ressuply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Teixeira Gomes

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, foram avaliados os efeitos da supressão e do ressuprimento de fosfato (Pi sobre a fotossíntese e eficiência fotoquímica de plantas de Medicago sativa cv. Flórida 77, em diferentes estádios do desenvolvimento vegetativo (V3, V4 e reprodutivo (R6, R8. O ensaio foi conduzido em casa de vegetação e as plantas cultivadas na solução nutritiva de HOAGLAND & ARNON (1950, contendo 0,14mmol L-1 de Pi. A supressão de Pi por dez dias reduziu os teores de fósforo nas folhas amostradas, em todos os estádios do desenvolvimento. Entretanto, com o ressuprimento, somente nos estádios vegetativos, os valores foram semelhantes ao tratamento controle. A fotossíntese por área foliar, em todos os estádios do desenvolvimento diminuiu com a supressão de Pi. De modo geral, o ressuprimento de Pi à solução nutritiva resultou em recuperação na fotossíntese, excetuando-se as plantas no estádio V3, uma indicação de que o período de supressão não causou danos permanentes no aparato fotossintético. Os teores dos pigmentos fotossintéticos e a eficiência fotoquímica do fotossistema II (FS II, avaliada pela relação Fv/Fm, não foram alterados quando as plantas foram submetidas à supressão de Pi. Esse resultado demonstra que o transporte de elétrons através do FS II não limitou a fotossíntese nas folhas amostradas, sob supressão de Pi, sugerindo que a supressão causou efeito mais pronunciado na etapa bioquímica da fotossíntese.This work evaluated the phosphate (Pi suppression and ressupply on photosynthesis and photochemical efficiency from Medicago sativa plants cv. Florida 77, in different growth stages (V3 and V4 and reproductive (R6 and R8. The experiment was performed in a greenhouse, the plants being cultivated in HOAGLAND & ARMOND (1950 nutritive solution containing 0,14mmol L-1 of Pi. Pi suppression for ten days reduced Pi levels in sampled leaves, in all growth stages. However, with the re-supply only in the

  18. Differential response to water deficit stress in alfalfa ( Medicago ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was fixed as objective to compare the response to water deficit (33% of field capacity, FC) stress of eight cultivars of Medicago sativa, originating from the Mediterranean basin. Comparison was performed on some key parameters such as growth, relative water content, leaf water potential, MDA tissue ...

  19. Stem nematode counteracts plant resistance of aphids in alfalfa, Medicago sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Ricardo A; Spears, Lori R

    2014-10-01

    Plants are exploited by a diverse community of insect herbivores and phytopathogens that interact indirectly through plant-mediated interactions. Generally, plants are thought to respond to insects and pathogens through different defensive signaling pathways. As plants are selected for resistance to one phytophagous organism type (insect vs. pathogen) in managed systems, it is not clear how this selection may affect community interactions. This study examined the effect of nematode-resistant varieties on aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) suppression, and then determined how infection by the stem nematode, Ditylenchus dipsaci, mediated ecological effects on aphids and on plant defense proteins. Four alfalfa (Medicago sativa) varieties were selected with resistance to nematodes only (+,-), aphids only (-,+), nematodes and aphids (+,+), and susceptibility to nematodes and aphids (-,-). Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted to isolate the effect of nematode infection and aphid abundance on each variety. We found that varieties resistant to nematode, regardless of aphid resistance, had the lowest aphid counts, suggesting possible cross-resistance. Aphid abundance, however, increased when plants were exposed to nematodes. Resistant varieties were associated with elevated saponins but these compounds were not affected by insect or pathogen feeding. Concentrations of peroxidases and trypsin inhibitors, however, were increased in nematode resistant varieties when exposed to nematodes and aphids, respectively. The patterns of plant defense were variable, and a combination of resistance traits and changes in nutrient availability may drive positive interactions between nematodes and aphids aboveground.

  20. Nutraceutical Potential of New Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Ingredients for Beverage Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Zarazúa, Maria Guadalupe; Bah, Moustapha; Costa, Anabela Silvia Gomes; Rodrigues, Francisca; Pimentel, Filipa Botelho; Rojas-Molina, Isela; Rojas, Alejandra; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz Prior Pinto

    2017-10-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has been extensively used as animal feed, due to its fiber, protein, minerals, and vitamins, being also a useful source of phenolic compounds with potential therapeutic benefits. Nevertheless, its potential use as human ingredient is scarce. The aim of this work was to assess the nutritional composition, amino acid profile, and antioxidant capacity (AOC) of freeze-dried juice (FDJ) and fibrous residual material (RM), two new alfalfa-derived products (Adps) recently launched as ingredients for beverage preparations. Results demonstrated a high content of proteins (23-30 g/100 g FDJ and 13-17 g/100 g RM), crude fiber (29 g/100 g RM), and minerals (such as sodium, calcium, iron, and zinc). No significant difference was found in caloric content (4 kcal/g). Essential and nonessential amino acids were quantified in both Adps being leucine and lysine the most abundant. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents (TPC and TFC, respectively) and their changes along the different harvesting periods of the year were also examined. FDJ presented the highest TPC in May (19 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight [dw]), while in October TFC had the maximum value (4 mg catechin equivalents/g dw). Both products exhibited an interesting AOC by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays. This study reports the nutraceutical potential of two new types of Adps.

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alleviate arsenic toxicity to Medicago sativa by influencing arsenic speciation and partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinglong; Sun, Yuqing; Jiang, Xuelian; Chen, Baodong; Zhang, Xin

    2018-08-15

    In a pot experiment, Medicago sativa inoculated with/without arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Rhizophagus irregularis were grown in four levels (0, 10, 25, and 75 mg/kg) of arsenic (As)-polluted soil to investigate the influences of AM symbiosis on plant As tolerance. The results showed that mycorrhizal inoculation significantly increased plant biomass, while As addition decreased mycorrhizal colonization and hyphal length density. Mycorrhizal inoculation dramatically improved plant phosphorus (P) nutrition, restricted As uptake and retained more As in roots by upregulating the expression of the AM-induced P transporter gene MsPT4 and the metallothionein gene MsMT2. High soil As content downregulated MsPT4 expression. Dimethylarsenic acid (DMA) was detected only in the shoots of mycorrhizal plants, indicating that AM fungi likely play an essential role in As detoxification by biological methylation. The present investigation allowed deeper insights into the As detoxification mechanisms of AM associations and demonstrated the important role of AM fungi in plant resistance under As-contaminated conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Shepherd’s Purse (Capsella bursa pastoris (L. Medic. on the Chemical Composition of Lucerne (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetanka Dimitrova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in a pure stand of lucerne (variety Viktoria under natural weed infestation with shepherd’s purse (Capsella bursa pastoris (L. Medic. on a slightly leached chernozem soil under nonirrigated conditions in the experimental field of the Institute ofForage Crops – Pleven during the 2006-2007 period. The effect of shepherd’s purse Capsella bursa pastoris (L. Medic. on the chemical composition of lucerne Medicago sativa (L. was analyzed.Statistically significant (P<0.05 functional relations were found between the chemical characteristics and percentage of Capsella bursa pastoris (L. Medic. participation in the lucerne sward, and forage quality. These relations indicated a multiple practical relevance and a necessity to control Capsella bursa pastoris (L. Medic. in lucerne stands in order to decrease weed density and improve forage quality.

  3. Selective lignin downregulation leads to constitutive defense response expression in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Giraldo, Lina; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Tang, Yuhong; Dixon, Richard A

    2011-05-01

    • Downregulation of hydroxycinnamoyl CoA: shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) reduces lignin levels and improves forage quality and saccharification efficiency for bioethanol production. However, the plants have reduced stature. It was previously reported that HCT-down-regulated Arabidopsis have impaired auxin transport, but this has recently been disproved. • To address the basis for the phenotypes of lignin-modified alfalfa, we measured auxin transport, profiled a range of metabolites including flavonoids and hormones, and performed in depth transcriptome analyses. • Auxin transport is unaffected in HCT antisense alfalfa despite increased flavonoid biosynthesis. The plants show increased cytokinin and reduced auxin levels, and gibberellin levels and sensitivity are both reduced. Levels of salicylic, jasmonic and abscisic acids are elevated, associated with massive upregulation of pathogenesis and abiotic stress-related genes and enhanced tolerance to fungal infection and drought. • We suggest that HCT downregulated alfalfa plants exhibit constitutive activation of defense responses, triggered by release of bioactive cell wall fragments and production of hydrogen peroxide as a result of impaired secondary cell wall integrity. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Environmental impact assessment of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Lovarelli, Daniela; Tedesco, Doriana; Pretolani, Roberto; Ferrante, Valentina

    2018-09-01

    On-farm production of hay and high-protein-content feed has several advantages such as diversification of on-farm cultivated crops, reduction of off-farm feed concentrates transported over long distances and a reduction in runoff during the winter season if grown crops are perennial. Among those crops cultivated for high-protein-content feed, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most important in the Italian context. Nevertheless, up to now, only a few studies have assessed the environmental performance of alfalfa hay production. In this study, using the Life Cycle Assessment approach, the environmental impact of alfalfa hay production in Northern Italy was analyzed. More in detail, two production practices (without and with irrigation) were compared. The results show that alfalfa hay production in irrigated fields has a better environmental performance compared to non-irrigated production, mainly because of the yield increase achieved with irrigation. In particular, for the Climate Change impact category, the impact is equal to 84.54 and 80.21kgCO 2 /t of hay for the scenario without and with irrigation, respectively. However, for two impact categories (Ozone Depletion and Human Toxicity-No Cancer Effect), the impact of irrigation completely offsets the yield increase, and the cultivation practice without irrigation shows the best environmental performance. For both scenarios, the mechanization of harvest is the main environmental hotspot, mostly due to fuel consumption and related combustion emissions. Wide differences were highlighted by comparing the two scenarios with the Ecoinvent process of alfalfa hay production; these differences are mostly due to the cultivation practice and, in particular, to the more intensive fertilization in Swiss production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [The effect of Medicago spp. on growth of Trichophyton mentagrophytes in microculture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiewak, R; Szostak, W; Jurzysta, M; Biały, Z; Maleszka, R; Rzepecka, B; Mazurek, M

    2001-01-01

    The study aimed at assessing effect of dried root and aerial parts of Medicago spp. on growth of Trichophryton mentagrophytes. Fungus strains were inoculated onto microcultures with Sabouraud agar supplemented each with 1 g of dried and pulverised roots or aerial parts of 3 species: Medicago arabica, M. sativa, and M. murex. The strongest inhibitory effect on T. mentagrophytes growth was that of aerial parts of M. arabica (median diameter 6 mm compared to 13 mm of control), followed by root of M. arabica (10 mm) and root of M. murex (10.5 mm)--in all cases p < 0.001. Slight inhibitory effect was also found in the case of aerial parts of M. murex (median diameter 12 mm, p = 0.03). In contrast, M. sativa has shown stimulating effect on growth of T. mentagrophytes (15 mm for root and 16.5 mm for aerial part, p<0.001).

  6. Sexual Polyploidization in Medicago sativa L.: Impact on the Phenotype, Gene Transcription, and Genome Methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosellini, Daniele; Ferradini, Nicoletta; Allegrucci, Stefano; Capomaccio, Stefano; Zago, Elisa Debora; Leonetti, Paola; Balech, Bachir; Aversano, Riccardo; Carputo, Domenico; Reale, Lara; Veronesi, Fabio

    2016-04-07

    Polyploidization as the consequence of 2n gamete formation is a prominent mechanism in plant evolution. Studying its effects on the genome, and on genome expression, has both basic and applied interest. We crossed two diploid (2n = 2x = 16) Medicago sativa plants, a subsp. falcata seed parent, and a coerulea × falcata pollen parent that form a mixture of n and 2n eggs and pollen, respectively. Such a cross produced full-sib diploid and tetraploid (2n = 4x = 32) hybrids, the latter being the result of bilateral sexual polyploidization (BSP). These unique materials allowed us to investigate the effects of BSP, and to separate the effect of intraspecific hybridization from those of polyploidization by comparing 2x with 4x full sib progeny plants. Simple sequence repeat marker segregation demonstrated tetrasomic inheritance for all chromosomes but one, demonstrating that these neotetraploids are true autotetraploids. BSP brought about increased biomass, earlier flowering, higher seed set and weight, and larger leaves with larger cells. Microarray analyses with M. truncatula gene chips showed that several hundred genes, related to diverse metabolic functions, changed their expression level as a consequence of polyploidization. In addition, cytosine methylation increased in 2x, but not in 4x, hybrids. Our results indicate that sexual polyploidization induces significant transcriptional novelty, possibly mediated in part by DNA methylation, and phenotypic novelty that could underpin improved adaptation and reproductive success of tetraploid M. sativa with respect to its diploid progenitor. These polyploidy-induced changes may have promoted the adoption of tetraploid alfalfa in agriculture. Copyright © 2016 Rosellini et al.

  7. Sexual Polyploidization in Medicago sativa L.: Impact on the Phenotype, Gene Transcription, and Genome Methylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Rosellini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyploidization as the consequence of 2n gamete formation is a prominent mechanism in plant evolution. Studying its effects on the genome, and on genome expression, has both basic and applied interest. We crossed two diploid (2n = 2x = 16 Medicago sativa plants, a subsp. falcata seed parent, and a coerulea × falcata pollen parent that form a mixture of n and 2n eggs and pollen, respectively. Such a cross produced full-sib diploid and tetraploid (2n = 4x = 32 hybrids, the latter being the result of bilateral sexual polyploidization (BSP. These unique materials allowed us to investigate the effects of BSP, and to separate the effect of intraspecific hybridization from those of polyploidization by comparing 2x with 4x full sib progeny plants. Simple sequence repeat marker segregation demonstrated tetrasomic inheritance for all chromosomes but one, demonstrating that these neotetraploids are true autotetraploids. BSP brought about increased biomass, earlier flowering, higher seed set and weight, and larger leaves with larger cells. Microarray analyses with M. truncatula gene chips showed that several hundred genes, related to diverse metabolic functions, changed their expression level as a consequence of polyploidization. In addition, cytosine methylation increased in 2x, but not in 4x, hybrids. Our results indicate that sexual polyploidization induces significant transcriptional novelty, possibly mediated in part by DNA methylation, and phenotypic novelty that could underpin improved adaptation and reproductive success of tetraploid M. sativa with respect to its diploid progenitor. These polyploidy-induced changes may have promoted the adoption of tetraploid alfalfa in agriculture.

  8. Nonphotosynthetic CO2 fixation by alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) roots and nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.P.; Heichel, G.H.; Vance, C.P.

    1987-01-01

    The dependence of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) root and nodule nonphotosynthetic CO 2 fixation on the supply of currently produced photosynthate and nodule nitrogenase activity was examined a various times after phloem-girdling and exposure of nodules to Ar:O 2 . Phloem-girdling was effected 20 hours and exposure to Ar:O 2 was effected 2 to 3 hours before initiation of experiments. Nodule and root CO 2 fixation rates of phloem-girdled plants were reduced to 38 and 50%, respectively, of those of control plants. Exposure to Ar:O 2 decreased nodule CO 2 fixation rates to 45%, respiration rates to 55%, and nitrogenase activities to 51% of those of the controls. The products of nodule CO 2 fixation were exported through the xylem to the shoot mainly as amino acids within 30 to 60 minutes after exposure to 14 CO 2 . In contrast to nodules, roots exported very little radioactivity, and most of the 14 C was exported as organic acids. The nonphotosynthetic CO 2 fixation rate of roots and nodules averaged 26% of the gross respiration rate, i.e. the sum of net respiration and nonphotosynthetic CO 2 assimilation. Nodules fixed CO 2 at a rate 5.6 times that of roots, but since nodules comprised a small portion of root system mass, roots accounted for 76% of the nodulated roots system CO 2 fixation. The results indicate that nodule CO 2 fixation in alfalfa is associated with N assimilation

  9. Correlations between environmental factors and wild bee behavior on alfalfa (Medicago sativa) in northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Liu, Hongping; Li, Xiaoxia; Song, Yu; Chen, Li; Jin, Liang

    2009-10-01

    To discover the effect of environmental factors on pollinator visitation to flowering Medicago sativa, several field experiments were designed to examine the diurnal movement patterns of wild bee species in the Hexi Corridor of northwestern China. Our study results showed that Megachile abluta, M. spissula, and Xylocopa valga showed unimodal diurnal foraging behavior, whereas Andrena parvula and Anthophora melanognatha showed bimodal diurnal foraging behavior. Correlation analysis indicated that diurnal foraging activities of pollinators were significantly correlated with environmental factors. Correlations of foraging activities versus environmental factors for M. abluta, M. spissula, and X. valga best fit a linear model, whereas those of A. parvula and A. melanognatha best fit a parallel quadratic model. Results of this study indicated that solitary wild bees such as M. abluta, M. spissula, X. valga, A. parvula, and A. melanognatha are potential alfalfa pollinators in the Hexi Corridor. An understanding of the environmental factors that affect the behaviors of different wild bees foraging in alfalfa are basic to the utilization of solitary wild bees in a practical way for increased, or more consistent, pollination of alfalfa for seed production.

  10. Salicornia europaea L. Na⁺/H⁺ antiporter gene improves salt tolerance in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L Q; Niu, Y D; Huridu, H; Hao, J F; Qi, Z; Hasi, A

    2014-07-24

    In order to obtain a salt-tolerant perennial alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), we transferred the halophyte Salicornia europaea L. Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene, SeNHX1, to alfalfa by using the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. The transformants were confirmed by both PCR and RT-PCR analyses. Of 197 plants that were obtained after transformation, 36 were positive by PCR analysis using 2 primer pairs for the CaMV35S-SeNHX1 and SeNHX1-Nos fragments; 6 plants survived in a greenhouse. RT-PCR analysis revealed that SeNHX1 was expressed in 5 plants. The resultant transgenic alfalfa had better salt tolerance. After stress treatment for 21 days with 0.6% NaCl, the chlorophyll and MDA contents in transgenic plants were lower, but proline content and SOD, POD, and CAT activities were higher than those in wild-type plants. These results suggest that the salt tolerance of transgenic alfalfa was improved by the overexpression of the SeNHX1 gene.

  11. Effects of the weed density on grass yield of Alfalfa ( Medicago ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study, in which the effects of different row spacing applications on weed density and on grass yield of Medicago sativa L. were investigated, was carried out in Van-Turkey from 2006 - 2008. Randomized blocks design was adopted with three replications. Row spacing applications of 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 cm were ...

  12. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by alfalfa (Medicago sativa) leaf extracts in sensitive and multidrug-resistant tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatouillat, Grégory; Magid, Abdulmagid Alabdul; Bertin, Eric; Okiemy-Akeli, Marie-Genevieve; Morjani, Hamid; Lavaud, Catherine; Madoulet, Claudie

    2014-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has been used to cure a wide variety of ailments. However, only a few studies have reported its anticancer effects. In this study, extracts were obtained from alfalfa leaves and their cytotoxic effects were assessed on several sensitive and multidrug-resistant tumor cells lines. Using the mouse leukaemia P388 cell line and its doxorubicin-resistant counterpart (P388/DOX), we showed that the inhibition of cell growth induced by alfalfa leaf extracts was mediated through the induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by DNA fragmentation analysis. The execution of programmed cell death was achieved via the activation of caspase-3, leading to PARP cleavage. Fractionation of toluene extract (To-1), the most active extract obtained from crude extract, led to the identification of 3 terpene derivatives and 5 flavonoids. Among them, (-)-medicarpin, (-)-melilotocarpan E, millepurpan, tricin, and chrysoeriol showed cytotoxic effects in P388 as well as P388/DOX cells. These results demonstrate that alfalfa leaf extract may have interesting potential in cancer chemoprevention and therapy.

  13. Comparative analysis of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) leaf transcriptomes reveals genotype-specific salt tolerance mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yunting; Xu, Yuxing; Hettenhausen, Christian; Lu, Chengkai; Shen, Guojing; Zhang, Cuiping; Li, Jing; Song, Juan; Lin, Honghui; Wu, Jianqiang

    2018-02-15

    Soil salinity is an important factor affecting growth, development, and productivity of almost all land plants, including the forage crop alfalfa (Medicago sativa). However, little is known about how alfalfa responds and adapts to salt stress, particularly among different salt-tolerant cultivars. Among seven alfalfa cultivars, we found that Zhongmu-1 (ZM) is relatively salt-tolerant and Xingjiang Daye (XJ) is salt-sensitive. Compared to XJ, ZM showed slower growth under low-salt conditions, but exhibited stronger tolerance to salt stress. RNA-seq analysis revealed 2237 and 1125 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between ZM and XJ in the presence and absence of salt stress, among which many genes are involved in stress-related pathways. After salt treatment, compared with the controls, the number of DEGs in XJ (19373) was about four times of that in ZM (4833). We also detected specific differential gene expression patterns: In response to salt stress, compared with XJ, ZM maintained relatively more stable expression levels of genes related to the ROS and Ca 2+ pathways, phytohormone biosynthesis, and Na + /K + transport. Notably, several salt resistance-associated genes always showed greater levels of expression in ZM than in XJ, including a transcription factor. Consistent with the suppression of plant growth resulting from salt stress, the expression of numerous photosynthesis- and growth hormone-related genes decreased more dramatically in XJ than in ZM. By contrast, the expression levels of photosynthetic genes were lower in ZM under low-salt conditions. Compared with XJ, ZM is a salt-tolerant alfalfa cultivar possessing specific regulatory mechanisms conferring exceptional salt tolerance, likely by maintaining high transcript levels of abiotic and biotic stress resistance-related genes. Our results suggest that maintaining this specific physiological status and/or plant adaptation to salt stress most likely arises by inhibition of plant growth in ZM through

  14. The thiol compounds glutathione and homoglutathione differentially affect cell development in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, Taras; Asard, Han; Potters, Geert; Jansen, Marcel A K

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is an important scavenger of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), precursor of metal chelating phytochelatins, xenobiotic defence compound and regulator of cell proliferation. Homoglutathione (hGSH) is a GSH homologue that is present in several taxa in the family of Fabaceae. It is thought that hGSH performs many of the stress-defence roles typically ascribed to GSH, yet little is known about the potential involvement of hGSH in controlling cell proliferation. Here we show that hGSH/GSH ratios vary across organs and cells and that these changes in hGSH/GSH ratio occur during dedifferentiation and/or cell cycle activation events. The use of a GSH/hGSH biosynthesis inhibitor resulted in impaired cytokinesis in isolated protoplasts, showing the critical importance of these thiol-compounds for cell division. However, exposure of isolated protoplasts to exogenous GSH accelerated cytokinesis, while exogenous hGSH was found to inhibit the same process. We conclude that GSH and hGSH have distinct functional roles in cell cycle regulation in Medicago sativa L. GSH is associated with meristemic cells, and promotes cell cycle activation and induction of somatic embryogenesis, while hGSH is associated with differentiated cells and embryo proliferation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. [Determination of Hard Rate of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Seeds with Near Infrared Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-xun; Chen, Ling-ling; Zhang, Yun-wei; Mao, Pei-sheng

    2016-03-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most commonly grown forage crop due to its better quality characteristics and high adaptability in China. However, there was 20%-80% hard seeds in alfalfa which could not be identified easily from non hard seeds which would cause the loss of seed utilization value and plant production. This experiment was designed for 121 samples of alfalfa. Seeds were collected according to different regions, harvested year and varieties. 31 samples were artificial matched as hard rates ranging from 20% to 80% to establish a model for hard seed rate by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with Partial Least Square (PLS). The objective of this study was to establish a model and to estimate the efficiency of NIRS for determining hard rate of alfalfa seeds. The results showed that the correlation coefficient (R2(cal)) of calibration model was 0.981 6, root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) was 5.32, and the ratio of prediction to deviation (RPD) was 3.58. The forecast model in this experiment presented the satisfied precision. The proposed method using NIRS technology is feasible for identification and classification of hard seed in alfalfa. A new method, as nondestructive testing of hard seed rate, was provided to theoretical basis for fast nondestructive detection of hard seed rates in alfalfa.

  16. Soil bulk electrical resistivity and forage ground cover: nonlinear models in an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Rossi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is a highly productive and fertility-building forage crop; its performance, can be highly variable as influenced by within-field soil spatial variability. Characterising the relations between soil and forage- variation is important for optimal management. The aim of this work was to model the relationship between soil electrical resistivity (ER and plant productivity in an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. field in Southern Italy. ER mapping was accomplished by a multi-depth automatic resistivity profiler. Plant productivity was assessed through normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI at 2 dates. A non-linear relationship between NDVI and deep soil ER was modelled within the framework of generalised additive models. The best model explained 70% of the total variability. Soil profiles at six locations selected along a gradient of ER showed differences related to texture (ranging from clay to sandy-clay loam, gravel content (0 to 55% and to the presence of a petrocalcic horizon. Our results prove that multi-depth ER can be used to localise permanent soil features that drive plant productivity.

  17. The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae gives contradictory effects on phosphorus and arsenic acquisition by Medicago sativa Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Baodong; Xiao Xueyi; Zhu Yongguan; Smith, F. Andrew; Miao Xie, Z.; Smith, Sally E.

    2007-01-01

    Mycorrhizal fungi may play an important role in protecting plants against arsenic (As) contamination. However, little is known about the direct and indirect involvement of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in detoxification mechanisms. A compartmented pot cultivation system ('cross-pots') is used here to investigate the roles of AMF Glomus mosseae in plant phosphorus (P) and As acquisition by Medicago sativa, and P-As interactions. The results indicate that fungal colonization dramatically increased plant dry weight by a factor of around 6, and also substantially increased both plant P and As contents (i.e. total uptake). Irrespective of P and As addition levels, AM plants had shoot and root P concentrations 2 fold higher, but As concentrations significantly lower, than corresponding uninoculated controls. The decreased shoot As concentrations were largely due to 'dilution effects' that resulted from stimulated growth of AM plants and reduced As partitioning to shoots. The study provides further evidence for the protective effects of AMF on host plants against As contamination, and have uncovered key aspects of underlying mechanisms. The possible application of AMF in remediation practices is discussed

  18. Cell suspension culture and mutants selection for resistance to PEG induced water stress in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaodong; Lin Tingan

    1994-01-01

    Elements affecting suspension cell culture in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) were studied and a method of rapid establishment of embryogenic suspension cell lines was introduced. Effects of γ ray irradiation on the growth of suspension cells were studied, and the optimum dose of irradiation for inducing mutants from suspension cells was about 20 ∼ 60 Gy. Effects of PEG and NaCl induced water stress on the growth of suspension cells were also investigated, and the results showed that the congregants of preliminary suspension culture were more susceptible than the established suspension cell lines. With 20 Gy of γ ray irradiation on suspension cell line (JL416), six clones were obtained with 70 days of selection on medium of 15% PEG (about-11 bar). A number of regenerated plants were obtained from these clones. One clone was also gained from medium containing 20% PEG (about-15 bar). The selected mutant cell lines (JP15 and JP20) has strong resistances to high concentration of PEG and NaCl induced water stress

  19. Concerted changes in N and C primary metabolism in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) under water restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranjuelo, Iker; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Molero, Gemma; Gilard, Françoise; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Nogués, Salvador

    2013-02-01

    Although the mechanisms of nodule N(2) fixation in legumes are now well documented, some uncertainty remains on the metabolic consequences of water deficit. In most cases, little consideration is given to other organs and, therefore, the coordinated changes in metabolism in leaves, roots, and nodules are not well known. Here, the effect of water restriction on exclusively N(2)-fixing alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants was investigated, and proteomic, metabolomic, and physiological analyses were carried out. It is shown that the inhibition of nitrogenase activity caused by water restriction was accompanied by concerted alterations in metabolic pathways in nodules, leaves, and roots. The data suggest that nodule metabolism and metabolic exchange between plant organs nearly reached homeostasis in asparagine synthesis and partitioning, as well as the N demand from leaves. Typically, there was (i) a stimulation of the anaplerotic pathway to sustain the provision of C skeletons for amino acid (e.g. glutamate and proline) synthesis; (ii) re-allocation of glycolytic products to alanine and serine/glycine; and (iii) subtle changes in redox metabolites suggesting the implication of a slight oxidative stress. Furthermore, water restriction caused little change in both photosynthetic efficiency and respiratory cost of N(2) fixation by nodules. In other words, the results suggest that under water stress, nodule metabolism follows a compromise between physiological imperatives (N demand, oxidative stress) and the lower input to sustain catabolism.

  20. Producción de biomasa aérea y uso equivalente de la tierra en intercultivos de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. W Pereyra

    Full Text Available Tradicionalmente, el incremento de la productividad se ha asociado al aumento del rendimiento a través del mejoramiento genético y las prácticas de manejo del cultivo. Sin embargo, si se considera la producción por unidad de área y de tiempo, el sistema de intercultivos puede ser otra forma de mejorar la rentabilidad. El objetivo del experimento fue determinar la biomasa producida y el uso equivalente de la tierra en monocultivo e intercultivos de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. con sorgo sudán (Sorghum sudanense L. y avena (Avena sativa L.. Se determinó la biomasa aérea de todos los tratamientos (expresada por unidad de superficie y el uso equivalente de la tierra. El diseño fue completamente aleatorizado, dispuesto en bloques con dos repeticiones. Los resultados se sometieron a un ANOVA y las medias se compararon mediante la prueba de Duncan, a través del paquete estadístico INFOSTAT. El intercultivo alfalfa-sorgo triplicó la producción de alfalfa en relación con el monocultivo, mientras que alfalfa-avena no superó la producción de alfalfa pura en los meses de invierno. El intercultivo alfalfa-sorgo fue un 57 % más eficiente en el uso de la tierra que sus respectivos monocultivos, mientras que alfalfa-avena no logró superar la unidad.

  1. Evaluation of microbial biomass C and N content of the soils cultivated with vetch (Vicia sativa L. and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlyas Bolat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Legume forage crops have the ability of retaining free nitrogen in the air through symbiotic Rhizobium bacteria found in their roots. Additionally, microbial biomass (MB–an essential living component of soil and a significant factor influencing plant nutrient dynamics–is considered to be accurate indicator of soil’s biological condition. Given the aforementioned aspects, soil MB C (Cmic and MB N (Nmic of different legume forage crops were investigated in this study. Soil samples were taken in order to identify certain physical and chemical characteristics of the soil using volume cylinders (0 – 6.5 cm depth from Vicia sativa L. (VSP and Medicago sativa L. planted (MSP areas. To determine the Cmic and Nmic contents, topsoil samples were also taken from 0 – 6.5 cm depth. Cmic and Nmic contents were identified using chloroform – fumigation – extraction method. There was no statistical significance for particle density, bulk density, electrical conductivity, CaCO3 %, and decomposition ratio (Corg/Ntotal of the VSP and MSP soil (P > 0.05. However, some other soil characteristics such as temperature, porosity, sand, silt and clay contents, pH, organic C and total N differed significantly (P < 0.05. Compared to VSP soil, the Cmic contents were determined to be 27 % higher (P < 0.05 in MSP soil. In VSP soil, the soil Nmic content ranged from 83.38 µg g-1 to 124.67 µg g-1, while it ranged from 91.62 µg g-1 to 187.07 µg g-1 in MSP soil. The Nmic content of the MSP soil was observed to be approximately 35 % higher than VSP soil, and a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05 was noticed between the two. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found not only between the Cmic and organic C contents (r = 0.667; P < 0.05 but also between the Nmic and total N contents of MSP and VSP soil (r = 0.881; P < 0.01. The results of the study revealed that soil Cmic and Nmic values differ as the types of planted legume forage crops

  2. The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae gives contradictory effects on phosphorus and arsenic acquisition by Medicago sativa Linn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Baodong [Department of Soil Environmental Sciences/State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Xiao Xueyi [Department of Soil Environmental Sciences/State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhu Yongguan [Department of Soil Environmental Sciences/State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)]. E-mail: ygzhu@rcees.ac.en; Smith, F. Andrew [Soil and Land Systems, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Waite Campus, University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Miao Xie, Z. [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Smith, Sally E. [Soil and Land Systems, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Waite Campus, University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia)

    2007-07-01

    Mycorrhizal fungi may play an important role in protecting plants against arsenic (As) contamination. However, little is known about the direct and indirect involvement of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in detoxification mechanisms. A compartmented pot cultivation system ('cross-pots') is used here to investigate the roles of AMF Glomus mosseae in plant phosphorus (P) and As acquisition by Medicago sativa, and P-As interactions. The results indicate that fungal colonization dramatically increased plant dry weight by a factor of around 6, and also substantially increased both plant P and As contents (i.e. total uptake). Irrespective of P and As addition levels, AM plants had shoot and root P concentrations 2 fold higher, but As concentrations significantly lower, than corresponding uninoculated controls. The decreased shoot As concentrations were largely due to 'dilution effects' that resulted from stimulated growth of AM plants and reduced As partitioning to shoots. The study provides further evidence for the protective effects of AMF on host plants against As contamination, and have uncovered key aspects of underlying mechanisms. The possible application of AMF in remediation practices is discussed.

  3. Allelopathic Potential of Switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum L.) on Perennial Ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.) and Alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Junfeng; An, Yu; Ma, Yongqing; Ichizen, Nobumasa

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated allelopathy and its chemical basis in nine switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum L.) accessions. Perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.) and alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) were used as test species. Undiluted aqueous extracts (5 g plant tissue in 50 ml water) from the shoots and roots of most of the switchgrass accessions inhibited the germination and growth of the test species. However, the allelopathic effect of switchgrass declined when extracts were diluted 5- or 50-fold. Seedling growth was more sensitive than seed germination as an indicator of allelopathic effect. Allelopathic effect was related to switchgrass ecotype but not related to ploidy level. Upland accessions displayed stronger allelopathic potential than lowland accessions. The aqueous extract from one switchgrass accession was separated into phenols, organic acids, neutral chemicals, and alkaloids, and then these fractions were bioassayed to test for allelopathic potential. Alkaloids had the strongest allelopathic effect among the four chemical fractions. In summary, the results indicated that switchgrass has allelopathic potential; however, there is not enough evidence to conclude that allelopathic advantage is the main factor that has contributed to the successful establishment of switchgrass on China’s Loess Plateau.

  4. Speciation Matters: Bioavailability of Silver and Silver Sulfide Nanoparticles to Alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemeier, John P; Schwab, Fabienne; Colman, Benjamin P; Webb, Samuel M; Newville, Matthew; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Winkler, Christopher; Wiesner, Mark R; Lowry, Gregory V

    2015-07-21

    Terrestrial crops are directly exposed to silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and their environmentally transformed analog silver sulfide nanoparticles (Ag2S-NPs) when wastewater treatment biosolids are applied as fertilizer to agricultural soils. This leads to a need to understand their bioavailability to plants. In the present study, the mechanisms of uptake and distribution of silver in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were quantified and visualized upon hydroponic exposure to Ag-NPs, Ag2S-NPs, and AgNO3 at 3 mg total Ag/L. Total silver uptake was measured in dried roots and shoots, and the spatial distribution of elements was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and synchrotron-based X-ray imaging techniques. Despite large differences in release of Ag(+) ions from the particles, Ag-NPs, Ag2S-NPs, and Ag(+) became associated with plant roots to a similar degree, and exhibited similarly limited (<1%) amounts of translocation of silver into the shoot system. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) mapping revealed differences in the distribution of Ag into roots for each treatment. Silver nanoparticles mainly accumulated in the (columella) border cells and elongation zone, whereas Ag(+) accumulated more uniformly throughout the root. In contrast, Ag2S-NPs remained largely adhered to the root exterior, and the presence of cytoplasmic nano-SixOy aggregates was observed. Exclusively in roots exposed to particulate silver, NPs smaller than the originally dosed NPs were identified by TEM in the cell walls. The apparent accumulation of Ag in the root apoplast determined by XRF, and the presence of small NPs in root cell walls suggests uptake of partially dissolved NPs and translocation along the apoplast.

  5. Development of manganese toxicity in pasture legumes under extreme climatic conditions. [Trifolium subterraneum; Medicago sativa; Brassica campestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siman, A; Cradock, F W; Hudson, A W

    1974-08-01

    Manganese levels and pH in soil were measured on limed and unlimed plots at bi-monthly intervals for two years at five field sites with lucerne (Medicago sativa) and subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum) and related to rainfall and temperature. Pot experiments with lucerne, subterranean clover and rape (Brassica campestris) were used to confirm the results of the field experiments. Manganese toxicity developed in lucerne and subterranean clover under waterlogged conditions after heavy rain on the slightly acid soils (pH 4.7-5.5). Lucerne also showed manganese toxicity on the same soils in summer after extended hot, dry conditions. The maximum available manganese was 210 ..mu..g/g in the waterlogged soil (0-15 cm) the 128 ..mu..g/g in the heat affected soil. Lime treatment of 2240 kg/ha reduced the maximum available manganese to 148 ..mu..g/g in waterlogged plots and to 47 ..mu..g/g in the heat affected plots but failed to correct manganese toxicity. However, lime corrected toxicity symptoms under less severe conditions. In the pot experiments, available manganese reached 270 ..mu..g/g after 2 weeks artificial waterlogging and 68 ..mu..g/g after 2 weeks dry heat exposure. 12 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  6. In vitro regeneration of some Iranian alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. genotypes via somatic embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Shokrpour

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An effective in vitro regeneration system is one of the prerequisites for genetic manipulation of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. varieties and genotypes. In this research, somatic embryogenesis of four alfalfa genotypes, 6-18 (synthetic, 4-14 (Kara Yonje- Karakozlu, 3-27 (Kara Yonje Maraghe and y-6 (Regen-SY, were investigated using leaf and petiole explants. Formation of callus and somatic embryogenesis was significantly influenced by the explant type and interaction of genotype and culture medium. Petiole explants of genotype 4-14 produced the highest yield of callus (0.406 gr fresh weight of callus. Percentage of somatic embryogenesis and the number of embryos per callus in petiole explants of genotype 4-14 was higher than those of other genotypes and explants. In genotype 6-18, the highest percentage of somatic embryogenesis was achieved on MS medium containing 5 mg/L 2,4-D and 2 mg/L kinetin. There was no significant differences between genotypes and explants in terms of embryo conversion to plantlet, and on average, 58% of somatic embryos converted to plantlet on MS medium. The petiole explants of genotype 6-18 did not exhibit somatic embryogenesis response in medium containing low ratio of 2,4-D:Kinetin (5 mg/L 2,4-D and 2 mg/L kinetin. While, these explants showed somatic embryogenesis in higher ratio of 2,4-D:Kinetin (5:1. The plantlet conversion efficiency of somatic embryos produced through this study was relatively higher and therefore, the method presented in this study could be used in alfalfa genetic manipulation and molecular studies.

  7. Increase in 4-coumaryl alcohol units during lignification in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) alters the extractability and molecular weight of lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebell, Angela; Gracom, Kristen; Katahira, Rui; Chen, Fang; Pu, Yunqiao; Ragauskas, Art; Dixon, Richard A; Davis, Mark

    2010-12-10

    The lignin content of biomass can impact the ease and cost of biomass processing. Lignin reduction through breeding and genetic modification therefore has potential to reduce costs in biomass-processing industries (e.g. pulp and paper, forage, and lignocellulosic ethanol). We investigated compositional changes in two low-lignin alfalfa (Medicago sativa) lines with antisense down-regulation of p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H) or hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT). We investigated whether the difference in reactivity during lignification of 4-coumaryl alcohol (H) monomers versus the naturally dominant sinapyl alcohol and coniferyl alcohol lignin monomers alters the lignin structure. Sequential base extraction readily reduced the H monomer content of the transgenic lines, leaving a residual lignin greatly enriched in H subunits; the extraction profile highlighted the difference between the control and transgenic lines. Gel permeation chromatography of isolated ball-milled lignin indicated significant changes in the weight average molecular weight distribution of the control versus transgenic lines (CTR1a, 6000; C3H4a, 5500; C3H9a, 4000; and HCT30a, 4000).

  8. Strontium-90 in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) around the Hanford site in southeastern Washington state: an evaluation of surveillance data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, T.M.; Jaquish, R.E.; Antonio, E.J.; Patton, G.W.

    1998-01-01

    From 1988–1994, 90 Sr concentrations in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown in areas receiving irrigation water from the Columbia River downstream of Hanford have exceeded concentrations observed in alfalfa grown nearby using other irrigation water sources. Surveillance data indicate that the relationship is not linked to atmospheric releases from Hanford. Attributing the apparent differences in 90 Sr concentrations to irrigation water is equivocal. Evaluations of 90 Sr in Columbia River water fail to consistently show a statistically significant (P > 0.05) contribution at locations immediately downstream of Hanford. Modeling of past 90 Sr fallout accumulation in soil indicates that the potential contribution from Hanford liquid effluents entering the Columbia River, subsequently used as irrigation water from 1972 to 1992, would account for ~ 2% of 90 Sr in soil. The remaining 98% arises from historic atomic weapons testing fallout. Radiological doses modeled for an alfalfa-cow's milk-human pathway indicate that the maximum 50 year effective dose equivalent to a standard man who consumes 270 l of milk per year was 0.9 μSv, which is < 0.03% of the 3 mSv annual dose resulting from natural sources of radiation exposure

  9. Low-fiber alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) meal in the laying hen diet: effects on productive traits and egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Introna, M; Tufarelli, V

    2014-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects on laying performance and egg quality resulting from partial substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber alfalfa (LFA; Medicago sativa L.) meal in the diet of early-phase laying hens. ISA Brown layers, 18 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were fed 2 wheat middling-based diets: a control diet, which contained SBM (15% of diet), and a test diet containing LFA (15% of diet) as the main protein source. Low-fiber alfalfa meal was obtained by a combination of sieving and air-classification processes. Feed intake was recorded daily, and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were weekly collected to evaluate egg components and quality. The partial substitution of SBM with LFA had no adverse effect on growth performance of early-phase laying hens. Egg production and none of the egg-quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P alfalfa meal in the laying-hen diet can positively influence yolk quality without adversely affecting productive traits. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Proteomic Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins during Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Flower Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingling; Chen, Quanzhu; Zhu, Yanqiao; Hou, Longyu; Mao, Peisheng

    2016-01-01

    Flower development, pollination, and fertilization are important stages in the sexual reproduction process of plants; they are also critical steps in the control of seed formation and development. During alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) seed production, some distinct phenomena such as a low seed setting ratio, serious flower falling, and seed abortion commonly occur. However, the causes of these phenomena are complicated and largely unknown. An understanding of the mechanisms that regulate alfalfa flowering is important in order to increase seed yield. Hence, proteomic technology was used to analyze changes in protein expression during the stages of alfalfa flower development. Flower samples were collected at pre-pollination (S1), pollination (S2), and the post-pollination senescence period (S3). Twenty-four differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified, including 17 down-regulated in pollinated flowers, one up-regulated in pollinated and senesced flowers, and six up-regulated in senesced flowers. The largest proportions of the identified proteins were involved in metabolism, signal transduction, defense response, oxidation reduction, cell death, and programmed cell death (PCD). Their expression profiles demonstrated that energy metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and amino acid metabolism provided the nutrient foundation for pollination in alfalfa. Furthermore, there were three proteins involved in multiple metabolic pathways: dual specificity kinase splA-like protein (kinase splALs), carbonic anhydrase, and NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase-like protein. Expression patterns of these proteins indicated that MAPK cascades regulated multiple processes, such as signal transduction, stress response, and cell death. PCD also played an important role in the alfalfa flower developmental process, and regulated both pollination and flower senescence. The current study sheds some light on protein expression profiles during alfalfa flower development and

  11. STUDY ON PHYTOEXTRACTION BALANCE OF ZN, CD, PB FROM MINE-WASTE POLLUTED SOILS BY USING MEDICAGO SATIVA AND TRIFOLIUM PRATENSE SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. LIXANDRU

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available For a term of two years was studied phytoextractive potential of Zn, Cd and Pb using successive culture of alfalfa (Medicago sativa and red clover (Trifolium pratense. In the experimental plot was incorporated a quantity of 20 kg mine waste per square meter, providing in soil 1209 mg Zn/kg d.s., 4.70 mg Cd/kg d.s. and 188.2 mg Pb/kg d.s. The metals content accumulated in plants was determined at the two moments of biomass harvesting, and through balance calculations we could establish the phytoextraction efficiency of the two forage-grasses species. The obtained results indicate that both perennial forage-legumes species have a good phytoextractive capacity and tolerance for Zn and Pb, especially Trifolium pratense specie. By using this species as phytoextractors on soil polluted with 3.76 times more Pb and 4.03 times more Zn, is provided the reduction of metallic ions concentration in soil to limits admitted by laws in a period of 3, respectively, 4 years.

  12. Identification of molecular markers associated with Verticillium wilt resistance in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) using high-resolution melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiejun; Yu, Long-Xi; McCord, Per; Miller, David; Bhamidimarri, Suresh; Johnson, David; Monteros, Maria J; Ho, Julie; Reisen, Peter; Samac, Deborah A

    2014-01-01

    Verticillium wilt, caused by the soilborne fungus, Verticillium alfalfae, is one of the most serious diseases of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) worldwide. To identify loci associated with resistance to Verticillium wilt, a bulk segregant analysis was conducted in susceptible or resistant pools constructed from 13 synthetic alfalfa populations, followed by association mapping in two F1 populations consisted of 352 individuals. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were used for genotyping. Phenotyping was done by manual inoculation of the pathogen to replicated cloned plants of each individual and disease severity was scored using a standard scale. Marker-trait association was analyzed by TASSEL. Seventeen SNP markers significantly associated with Verticillium wilt resistance were identified and they were located on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 7 and 8. SNP markers identified on chromosomes 2, 4 and 7 co-locate with regions of Verticillium wilt resistance loci reported in M. truncatula. Additional markers identified on chromosomes 1 and 8 located the regions where no Verticillium resistance locus has been reported. This study highlights the value of SNP genotyping by high resolution melting to identify the disease resistance loci in tetraploid alfalfa. With further validation, the markers identified in this study could be used for improving resistance to Verticillium wilt in alfalfa breeding programs.

  13. A saturated genetic linkage map of autotetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) developed using genotyping-by-sequencing is highly syntenous with the Medicago truncatula genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuehui; Wei, Yanling; Acharya, Ananta; Jiang, Qingzhen; Kang, Junmei; Brummer, E Charles

    2014-08-21

    A genetic linkage map is a valuable tool for quantitative trait locus mapping, map-based gene cloning, comparative mapping, and whole-genome assembly. Alfalfa, one of the most important forage crops in the world, is autotetraploid, allogamous, and highly heterozygous, characteristics that have impeded the construction of a high-density linkage map using traditional genetic marker systems. Using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), we constructed low-cost, reasonably high-density linkage maps for both maternal and paternal parental genomes of an autotetraploid alfalfa F1 population. The resulting maps contain 3591 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers on 64 linkage groups across both parents, with an average density of one marker per 1.5 and 1.0 cM for the maternal and paternal haplotype maps, respectively. Chromosome assignments were made based on homology of markers to the M. truncatula genome. Four linkage groups representing the four haplotypes of each alfalfa chromosome were assigned to each of the eight Medicago chromosomes in both the maternal and paternal parents. The alfalfa linkage groups were highly syntenous with M. truncatula, and clearly identified the known translocation between Chromosomes 4 and 8. In addition, a small inversion on Chromosome 1 was identified between M. truncatula and M. sativa. GBS enabled us to develop a saturated linkage map for alfalfa that greatly improved genome coverage relative to previous maps and that will facilitate investigation of genome structure. GBS could be used in breeding populations to accelerate molecular breeding in alfalfa. Copyright © 2014 Li et al.

  14. Effects of compost organic amendments on chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Montemurro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The following fertiliser treatments were compared during the years 2002 and 2003 on alfalfa forage (Medicago sativa L.: compost obtained from the organic fraction of the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW; olive pomace compost (OPC; mineral fertiliser (Min. All the treatments allowed a distribution of 75kg ha-1 of P2O5. Three cuttings occurred: at 168, 206 and 351 days after compost application (DAA in 2002; 119, 152 and 320 DAA in 2003. Cumulative biomass and dry matter yields were measured during each experimental year. Furthermore, chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter (DMd, organic matter (OMd, crude protein (CPd and NDF (NDFd were determined. MSW treatment showed a significantly (P<0.01 higher content of ADL than OPC and Min (77.0, 66.0 and 65.0g kg-1 DM, respectively. Fertiliser treatments also affected (P<0.01 digestibility parameters. In fact, DMd and OMd values showed the same trend with lower percentages in MSW treatment than in the OPC and Min ones. The NDFd differed in all treatments having the highest value in OPC (40.1%. The results indicated that the soil distribution of organic materials offer the possibility to reduce the application of mineral fertilisers and production costs without decreasing alfalfa yield, forage chemical composition and in vitro digestibility.

  15. Complete nucleotide sequence of Alfalfa mosaic virus isolated from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucco, Verónica; de Breuil, Soledad; Bejerman, Nicolás; Lenardon, Sergio; Giolitti, Fabián

    2014-06-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of an Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) isolate infecting alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Argentina, AMV-Arg, was determined. The virus genome has the typical organization described for AMV, and comprises 3,643, 2,593, and 2,038 nucleotides for RNA1, 2 and 3, respectively. The whole genome sequence and each encoding region were compared with those of other four isolates that have been completely sequenced from China, Italy, Spain and USA. The nucleotide identity percentages ranged from 95.9 to 99.1 % for the three RNAs and from 93.7 to 99 % for the protein 1 (P1), protein 2 (P2), movement protein and coat protein (CP) encoding regions, whereas the amino acid identity percentages of these proteins ranged from 93.4 to 99.5 %, the lowest value corresponding to P2. CP sequences of AMV-Arg were compared with those of other 25 available isolates, and the phylogenetic analysis based on the CP gene was carried out. The highest percentage of nucleotide sequence identity of the CP gene was 98.3 % with a Chinese isolate and 98.6 % at the amino acid level with four isolates, two from Italy, one from Brazil and the remaining one from China. The phylogenetic analysis showed that AMV-Arg is closely related to subgroup I of AMV isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a complete nucleotide sequence of AMV from South America and the first worldwide report of complete nucleotide sequence of AMV isolated from alfalfa as natural host.

  16. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) shoot saponins: identification and bio-activity by the assessment of aphid feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazahery-Laghab, H; Yazdi-Samadi, B; Bagheri, M; Bagheri, A R

    2011-01-01

    Biochemical components in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), such as saponins, can act as protecting factors against bio-stresses. Saponins are also antifeedants and show oral toxicity towards higher and lower animals. Changes in saponins, such as variation in the carbon skeleton, or hydrolysis of saponin glycosides and other conjugates, may change their biological effects. The aims of this research were to study saponin variation in different growth stages of alfalfa and to investigate the biological role of saponins in the spotted alfalfa aphid, Therioaphis maculata. Saponins from alfalfa shoots in different growth stages were extracted, chemically purified and analysed by TLC. Specific saponins such as soyasaponin1 from root and shoot and two bisdesmosides of medicagenic acid, one from shoot and another from root tissues, were identified using reference compounds allowing changes in saponin composition during plant development in different shoot tissues of alfalfa to be assessed. The response of the alfalfa aphid to feeding on alfalfa in different growth stages was studied. No significant difference in the survival of aphids, from neonate to adult, was observed, but due to the antibiotic effects of saponins, two differences were found in the onset of nymph production and cumulative nymph production. The results show that the saponin composition in alfalfa changes with plant development and this, in turn, can often negatively affect the development of specific insect pests such as the spotted alfalfa aphid, suggesting a possible biological role of alfalfa saponins.

  17. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Loci for Salt Tolerance during Germination in Autotetraploid Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Using Genotyping-by-Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Long-Xi; Liu, Xinchun; Boge, William; Liu, Xiang-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is one of major abiotic stresses limiting alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) production in the arid and semi-arid regions in US and other counties. In this study, we used a diverse panel of alfalfa accessions previously described by Zhang et al. (2015) to identify molecular markers associated with salt tolerance during germination using genome-wide association study (GWAS) and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS). Phenotyping was done by germinating alfalfa seeds under different levels of salt stress. Phenotypic data of adjusted germination rates and SNP markers generated by GBS were used for marker-trait association. Thirty six markers were significantly associated with salt tolerance in at least one level of salt treatments. Alignment of sequence tags to the Medicago truncatula genome revealed genetic locations of the markers on all chromosomes except chromosome 3. Most significant markers were found on chromosomes 1, 2, and 4. BLAST search using the flanking sequences of significant markers identified 14 putative candidate genes linked to 23 significant markers. Most of them were repeatedly identified in two or three salt treatments. Several loci identified in the present study had similar genetic locations to the reported QTL associated with salt tolerance in M. truncatula. A locus identified on chromosome 6 by this study overlapped with that by drought in our previous study. To our knowledge, this is the first report on mapping loci associated with salt tolerance during germination in autotetraploid alfalfa. Further investigation on these loci and their linked genes would provide insight into understanding molecular mechanisms by which salt and drought stresses affect alfalfa growth. Functional markers closely linked to the resistance loci would be useful for MAS to improve alfalfa cultivars with enhanced resistance to drought and salt stresses. PMID:27446182

  18. Impacts of coal fly ash on plant growth and accumulation of essential nutrients and trace elements by alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown in a loessial soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Honghua; Dong, Zhigang; Peng, Qi; Wang, Xia; Fan, Chenbin; Zhang, Xingchang

    2017-07-15

    Coal fly ash (CFA) is a problematic solid waste all over the world. One distinct beneficial reuse of CFA is its utilization in land application as a soil amendment. A pot experiment was carried out to assess the feasibility of using CFA to improve plant growth and increase the supply of plant-essential elements and selenium (Se) of a loessial soil for agricultural purpose. Plants of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were grown in a loessial soil amended with different rates (5%, 10%, 20% and 40%) of CFA for two years and subjected to four successive cuttings. Dry mass of shoots and roots, concentrations of plant-essential elements and Se in plants were measured. Shoot dry mass and root dry mass were always significantly increased by 5%, 10% and 20% CFA treatments, and by 40% CFA treatment in all harvests except the first one. The CFA had a higher supply of exchangeable phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), molybdenum (Mo), and Se than the loessial soil. Shoot P, calcium (Ca), Mg, Mo, boron (B), and Se concentrations were generally markedly increased, but shoot potassium (K), Cu, and Zn concentrations were generally reduced. The CFA can be a promising source of some essential elements and Se for plants grown in the loessial soil, and an application rate of not higher than 5% should be safe for agricultural purpose without causing plant toxicity symptoms in the studied loessial soil and similar soils. Field trials will be carried out to confirm the results of the pot experiment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Tolerancia experimental de las especies vegetales Nicotiana glauca, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Tecoma stans, Medicago sativa y Spinacea oleracea al boro, en Argentina

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    Marta L. de Viana

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La actividad de las industrias borateras constituye una fuente puntual y difusa de contaminación del aire, suelo y aguas superficiales y profundas. Por lo tanto, el estudio y experimentación acerca de las posibles formas de contrarrestar este impacto constituye una prioridad. Una técnica relativamente nueva para descontaminar suelos es la fitorremediación, que emplea plantas y microorganismos asociados. El primer paso es detectar las especies vegetales tolerantes, lo que constituye el objetivo de este trabajo. Se realizó un experimento en laboratorio para evaluar la germinación, la supervivencia y el crecimiento de distintas especies en diferentes concentraciones de boro. Al comienzo y al final del experimento se determinó la concentración de boro en el sustrato para cada tratamiento y para sustratos con y sin vegetación. Se encontraron diferencias significativas debidas al tratamiento, la especie y la interacción especie *tratamiento. M. sativa, N. glauca y J. mimosifolia fueron las especies de mayor tolerancia al boro. Las otras especies presentaron una disminución en todas las variables-respuesta en función de la concentración del contaminante. Todas presentaron una baja supervivencia en la máxima concentración. La disminución de boro fue máxima en el tratamiento de 30 ppm de boro con M. sativa y la menor se registró en los tratamiento de 20 ppm de boro con J. mimosifolia y de 30 ppm de boro con T. stans y S. oleraceae. Se concluye que N. glauca, M. sativa y J. mimosifolia podrían considerarse como prometedoras en remediación.Experimental tolerance to boron of the plant species Nicotiana glauca, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Tecoma stans, Medicago sativa y Spinacea oleracea in Argentina. The activity of boron industries is a punctual and diffuse source of air, soil and water pollution. Therefore, it is a priority to study possible ways of reducing this impact. A relatively new technology for reducing soil pollution is

  20. Identification of molecular markers associated with Verticillium wilt resistance in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. using high-resolution melting.

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    Tiejun Zhang

    Full Text Available Verticillium wilt, caused by the soilborne fungus, Verticillium alfalfae, is one of the most serious diseases of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. worldwide. To identify loci associated with resistance to Verticillium wilt, a bulk segregant analysis was conducted in susceptible or resistant pools constructed from 13 synthetic alfalfa populations, followed by association mapping in two F1 populations consisted of 352 individuals. Simple sequence repeat (SSR and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers were used for genotyping. Phenotyping was done by manual inoculation of the pathogen to replicated cloned plants of each individual and disease severity was scored using a standard scale. Marker-trait association was analyzed by TASSEL. Seventeen SNP markers significantly associated with Verticillium wilt resistance were identified and they were located on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 7 and 8. SNP markers identified on chromosomes 2, 4 and 7 co-locate with regions of Verticillium wilt resistance loci reported in M. truncatula. Additional markers identified on chromosomes 1 and 8 located the regions where no Verticillium resistance locus has been reported. This study highlights the value of SNP genotyping by high resolution melting to identify the disease resistance loci in tetraploid alfalfa. With further validation, the markers identified in this study could be used for improving resistance to Verticillium wilt in alfalfa breeding programs.

  1. Screening of Cd tolerant genotypes and isolation of metallothionein genes in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaojuan; Song, Yu; Ma Yanhua; Zhuo Renying; Jin Liang

    2011-01-01

    In order to evaluate Cd tolerance in wide-ranging sources of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and to identify Cd tolerant genotypes which may potentially be useful for restoring Cd-contaminated environments, thirty-six accessions of alfalfa were screened under hydroponic culture. Our results showed that the relative root growth rate varied from 0.48 to 1.0, which indicated that different alfalfa accessions had various responses to Cd stress. The candidate fragments derived from differentially expressed metallothionein (MT) genes were cloned from leaves of two Cd tolerant genotypes, YE and LZ. DNA sequence and the deduced protein sequence showed that MsMT2a and MsMT2b had high similarity to those in leguminous plants. DDRT-PCR analysis showed that MsMT2a expressed in both YE and LZ plants under control and Cd stress treatment, but MsMT2b only expressed under Cd stress treatment. This suggested that MsMT2a was universally expressed in leaves of alfalfa but expression of MsMT2b was Cadmium (Cd) inducible. - Highlights: → Evaluate Cd tolerance in wide sources of alfalfa accessions. → Identify Cd-hyperaccumulators potentially useful for restoring Cd-contaminated environments. → Cloned differentially expressed metallothionein (MT) genes. → Characteristics and deduced protein sequence of MsMT2a and MsMT2b were analyzed. → MsMT2a might be a universally gene of alfalfa but MsMT2b might be an inductive gene. - Two Cd tolerant alfalfa genotypes were screened and their metallothionein genes were cloned which showed that MsMT2a was universally expressed but MsMT2b was Cd inducible expression.

  2. Screening of Cd tolerant genotypes and isolation of metallothionein genes in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xiaojuan, E-mail: xiaojuanwang@lzu.edu.cn [School of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, P.O. Box 61, Lanzhou 730020 (China); Song, Yu [School of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, P.O. Box 61, Lanzhou 730020 (China); Environment Management College of China, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Ma Yanhua [Hebei Normal University of Science and Technology, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zhuo Renying [Key Lab of Tree Genomics, Research Institute of Subtropical of Forest, Chinese Academy of Forest, Fuyang 311400 (China); Jin Liang [School of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, P.O. Box 61, Lanzhou 730020 (China)

    2011-12-15

    In order to evaluate Cd tolerance in wide-ranging sources of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and to identify Cd tolerant genotypes which may potentially be useful for restoring Cd-contaminated environments, thirty-six accessions of alfalfa were screened under hydroponic culture. Our results showed that the relative root growth rate varied from 0.48 to 1.0, which indicated that different alfalfa accessions had various responses to Cd stress. The candidate fragments derived from differentially expressed metallothionein (MT) genes were cloned from leaves of two Cd tolerant genotypes, YE and LZ. DNA sequence and the deduced protein sequence showed that MsMT2a and MsMT2b had high similarity to those in leguminous plants. DDRT-PCR analysis showed that MsMT2a expressed in both YE and LZ plants under control and Cd stress treatment, but MsMT2b only expressed under Cd stress treatment. This suggested that MsMT2a was universally expressed in leaves of alfalfa but expression of MsMT2b was Cadmium (Cd) inducible. - Highlights: > Evaluate Cd tolerance in wide sources of alfalfa accessions. > Identify Cd-hyperaccumulators potentially useful for restoring Cd-contaminated environments. > Cloned differentially expressed metallothionein (MT) genes. > Characteristics and deduced protein sequence of MsMT2a and MsMT2b were analyzed. > MsMT2a might be a universally gene of alfalfa but MsMT2b might be an inductive gene. - Two Cd tolerant alfalfa genotypes were screened and their metallothionein genes were cloned which showed that MsMT2a was universally expressed but MsMT2b was Cd inducible expression.

  3. Medicago PhosphoProtein Database: a repository for Medicago truncatula phosphoprotein data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Rose

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of legume crops to fix atmospheric nitrogen via a symbiotic association with soil rhizobia makes them an essential component of many agricultural systems. Initiation of this symbiosis requires protein phosphorylation-mediated signaling in response to rhizobial signals named Nod factors. Medicago truncatula (Medicago is the model system for studying legume biology, making the study of its phosphoproteome essential. Here, we describe the Medicago Phosphoprotein Database (http://phospho.medicago.wisc.edu, a repository built to house phosphoprotein, phosphopeptide, and phosphosite data specific to Medicago. Currently, the Medicago Phosphoprotein Database holds 3,457 unique phosphopeptides that contain 3,404 non-redundant sites of phosphorylation on 829 proteins. Through the web-based interface, users are allowed to browse identified proteins or search for proteins of interest. Furthermore, we allow users to conduct BLAST searches of the database using both peptide sequences and phosphorylation motifs as queries. The data contained within the database are available for download to be investigated at the user’s discretion. The Medicago Phosphoprotein Database will be updated continually with novel phosphoprotein and phosphopeptide identifications, with the intent of constructing an unparalleled compendium of large-scale Medicago phosphorylation data.

  4. Proteomic identification of differentially expressed proteins during alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. flower development

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    Lingling Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Flower development, pollination, and fertilization are important stages in the sexual reproduction process of plants; they are also critical steps in the control of seed formation and development. During alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. seed production, some distinct phenomena such as a low seed setting ratio, serious flower falling, and seed abortion commonly occur. However, the causes of these phenomena are complicated and largely unknown. An understanding of the mechanisms that regulate alfalfa flowering is important in order to increase seed yield. Hence, proteomic technology was used to analyze changes in protein expression during the stages of alfalfa flower development. Flower samples were collected at pre-pollination (S1, pollination (S2, and the post-pollination senescence period (S3. Twenty-four differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified, including 17 down-regulated in pollinated flowers, one up-regulated in pollinated and senesced flowers, and six up-regulated in senesced flowers. The largest proportions of the identified proteins were involved in metabolism, signal transduction, defense response, oxidation reduction, cell death, and programmed cell death (PCD. Their expression profiles demonstrated that energy metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and amino acid metabolism provided the nutrient foundation for pollination in alfalfa. Furthermore, there were three proteins involved in multiple metabolic pathways: dual specificity kinase splA-like protein (kinase splALs, carbonic anhydrase (CA, and NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase-like protein (NQOLs. Expression patterns of these proteins indicated that MAPK cascades regulated multiple processes, such as signal transduction, stress response, and cell death. PCD also played an important role in the alfalfa flower developmental process, and regulated both pollination and flower senescence. The current study sheds some light on protein expression profiles during alfalfa flower

  5. Genome-Wide Association Mapping and Genomic Selection for Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Forage Quality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biazzi, Elisa; Nazzicari, Nelson; Pecetti, Luciano; Brummer, E Charles; Palmonari, Alberto; Tava, Aldo; Annicchiarico, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Genetic progress for forage quality has been poor in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), the most-grown forage legume worldwide. This study aimed at exploring opportunities for marker-assisted selection (MAS) and genomic selection of forage quality traits based on breeding values of parent plants. Some 154 genotypes from a broadly-based reference population were genotyped by genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), and phenotyped for leaf-to-stem ratio, leaf and stem contents of protein, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL), and leaf and stem NDF digestibility after 24 hours (NDFD), of their dense-planted half-sib progenies in three growing conditions (summer harvest, full irrigation; summer harvest, suspended irrigation; autumn harvest). Trait-marker analyses were performed on progeny values averaged over conditions, owing to modest germplasm × condition interaction. Genomic selection exploited 11,450 polymorphic SNP markers, whereas a subset of 8,494 M. truncatula-aligned markers were used for a genome-wide association study (GWAS). GWAS confirmed the polygenic control of quality traits and, in agreement with phenotypic correlations, indicated substantially different genetic control of a given trait in stems and leaves. It detected several SNPs in different annotated genes that were highly linked to stem protein content. Also, it identified a small genomic region on chromosome 8 with high concentration of annotated genes associated with leaf ADL, including one gene probably involved in the lignin pathway. Three genomic selection models, i.e., Ridge-regression BLUP, Bayes B and Bayesian Lasso, displayed similar prediction accuracy, whereas SVR-lin was less accurate. Accuracy values were moderate (0.3-0.4) for stem NDFD and leaf protein content, modest for leaf ADL and NDFD, and low to very low for the other traits. Along with previous results for the same germplasm set, this study indicates that GBS data can be exploited to improve both quality traits

  6. Comparative gene expression profiles between heterotic and non-heterotic hybrids of tetraploid Medicago sativa

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    Nettleton Dan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterosis, the superior performance of hybrids relative to parents, has clear agricultural value, but its genetic control is unknown. Our objective was to test the hypotheses that hybrids expressing heterosis for biomass yield would show more gene expression levels that were different from midparental values and outside the range of parental values than hybrids that do not exhibit heterosis. Results We tested these hypotheses in three Medicago sativa (alfalfa genotypes and their three hybrids, two of which expressed heterosis for biomass yield and a third that did not, using Affymetrix M. truncatula GeneChip arrays. Alfalfa hybridized to approximately 47% of the M. truncatula probe sets. Probe set signal intensities were analyzed using MicroArray Suite v.5.0 (MAS and robust multi-array average (RMA algorithms. Based on MAS analysis, the two heterotic hybrids performed similarly, with about 27% of genes showing differential expression among the parents and their hybrid compared to 12.5% for the non-heterotic hybrid. At a false discovery rate of 0.15, 4.7% of differentially expressed genes in hybrids (~300 genes showed nonadditive expression compared to only 0.5% (16 genes in the non-heterotic hybrid. Of the nonadditively expressed genes, approximately 50% showed expression levels that fell outside the parental range in heterotic hybrids, but only one of 16 showed a similar profile in the non-heterotic hybrid. Genes whose expression differed in the parents were three times more likely to show nonadditive expression than genes whose parental transcript levels were equal. Conclusion The higher proportions of probe sets with expression level that differed from the parental midparent value and that were more extreme than either parental value in the heterotic hybrids compared to a non-heterotic hybrid were also found using RMA. We conclude that nonadditive expression of transcript levels may contribute to heterosis for biomass

  7. Expression of an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) peroxidase gene in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana enhances resistance to NaCl and H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, K; Xiao, G Z; Guo, W E; Yuan, J B; Li, J; Chao, Y H; Han, L B

    2016-05-23

    Peroxidases (PODs) are enzymes that play important roles in catalyzing the reduction of H2O2 and the oxidation of various substrates. They function in many different and important biological processes, such as defense mechanisms, immune responses, and pathogeny. The POD genes have been cloned and identified in many plants, but their function in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is not known, to date. Based on the POD gene sequence (GenBank accession No. L36157.1), we cloned the POD gene in alfalfa, which was named MsPOD. MsPOD expression increased with increasing H2O2. The gene was expressed in all of the tissues, including the roots, stems, leaves, and flowers, particularly in stems and leaves under light/dark conditions. A subcellular analysis showed that MsPOD was localized outside the cells. Transgenic Arabidopsis with MsPOD exhibited increased resistance to H2O2 and NaCl. Moreover, POD activity in the transgenic plants was significantly higher than that in wild-type Arabidopsis. These results show that MsPOD plays an important role in resistance to H2O2 and NaCl.

  8. Land-cover classification with an expert classification algorithm using digital aerial photographs

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    José L. de la Cruz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the spectral information of digital aerial sensors in determining land-cover classification using new digital techniques. The land covers that have been evaluated are the following, (1 bare soil, (2 cereals, including maize (Zea mays L., oats (Avena sativa L., rye (Secale cereale L., wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and barley (Hordeun vulgare L., (3 high protein crops, such as peas (Pisum sativum L. and beans (Vicia faba L., (4 alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., (5 woodlands and scrublands, including holly oak (Quercus ilex L. and common retama (Retama sphaerocarpa L., (6 urban soil, (7 olive groves (Olea europaea L. and (8 burnt crop stubble. The best result was obtained using an expert classification algorithm, achieving a reliability rate of 95%. This result showed that the images of digital airborne sensors hold considerable promise for the future in the field of digital classifications because these images contain valuable information that takes advantage of the geometric viewpoint. Moreover, new classification techniques reduce problems encountered using high-resolution images; while reliabilities are achieved that are better than those achieved with traditional methods.

  9. Mycorrhizal Glomus spp. vary in their effects on the dynamics and turnover of fine alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, A.; Waly, N.; Chunhui, M.; Zhang, Q.; Liu, H.; Yang, J.

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of fine roots in the soil profile has important implications related to water and nutrient uptake. The Objective of this study was to compare the effects of different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the fine root dynamics of Medicago sativa L. cv. Sanditi. We used minirhizotrons to observe changes in fine root length density (FRLD, mm/cm2) and fine root surface area density (FRSAD, mm2/cm2) during the growing season. Fine root P concentrations and turnover rate were also measured. The colonization rate of fine roots varied depending on the AMF species. Colonization rates were highest when roots were inoculated with Glomus mosseae and lowest when roots were inoculated G. intraradices. Inoculation with AMF significantly increased both FRLD and FRSAD. G. versiforme increased FRLD and FRSAD most, whereas G. mosseae had the least effect. Inoculation with AMF also decreased fine root turnover rates. Inoculation with a mixture of AMF species increased fine root turnover and P concentrations more than inoculation with a single AMF species. Fine root length density increased to a maximum on Aug. 6 and then decreased. In comparison, FRSAD exhibited two peaks during the growing season. Overall, the Results indicated that inoculation with AMF can significantly promote fine root growth and P uptake by alfalfa growing on soil with low P availability. The AMF may preserve fine root function late in the growing season. (author)

  10. Co-transforming bar and CsLEA enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiyu; Duan, Zhen; Zhang, Daiyu; Zhang, Jianquan; Di, Hongyan; Wu, Fan; Wang, Yanrong

    2016-03-25

    Drought and high salinity are two major abiotic factors that restrict alfalfa productivity. A dehydrin protein, CsLEA, from the desert grass Cleistogenes songorica was transformed into alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using the bar gene as a selectable marker, and the drought and salt stress tolerances of the transgenic plants were assessed. Thirty-nine of 119 transformants were positive, as screened by Basta, and further molecularly authenticated using PCR and RT-PCR. Phenotype observations revealed that the transgenic plants grew better than the wild-type (WT) plants after 15d of drought stress and 10d of salt stress: the leaves of WT alfalfa turned yellow, whereas the transgenic alfalfa leaves only wilted; after rewatering, the transgenic plants returned to a normal state, though the WT plants could not be restored. Evaluation of physiologic and biochemical indices during drought and salt stresses showed a relatively lower Na(+) content in the leaves of the transgenic plants, which would reduce toxic ion effects. In addition, the transgenic plants were able to maintain a higher relative water content (RWC), higher shoot biomass, fewer photosystem changes, decreased membrane injury, and a lower level of osmotic stress injury. These results demonstrate that overexpression of the CsLEA gene can enhance the drought and salt tolerance of transgenic alfalfa; in addition, carrying the bar gene in the genome may increase herbicide resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. WATER DEFICIT EFFECT ON YIELD AND FORAGE QUALITY OF MEDICAGO SATIVA POPULATIONS UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS IN MARRAKESH AREA (MOROCCO

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    Mohamed FARISSI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused the effect of water deficit on agronomic potential and some traits related to forage quality in plants of Moroccan Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. populations (Taf 1, Taf 2, Dem and Tata originated from Oasis and High Atlas of Morocco and an introduced variety from Australia (Siriver. The experiment was conducted under field conditions in experimental station of INRA-Marrakech and under two irrigation treatments. The first treatment was normal irrigation, providing an amount of water corresponding to the potential evapo-transpiration of the crop, and the second treatment was water deficit stress (one irrigation per cut. For each treatment, the experiment was conducted as a split plot based on a randomized complete block design with four replications. The plants were measured and analyzed over three cuts. Some agronomic traits as, plant height, fresh and dry forage yields were measured. The forage quality was evaluated by leaf:stem ratio and the contents of plants in proteins and nitrogen. The results indicated that the water deficit has negatively affected the plant height and forage yield. The decrease in leaf:stem ratio was observed under water deficit conditions. However, the proteins and nitrogen contents were unaffected. The behavior of tested alfalfa genotypes was significantly different. The Moroccan alfalfa populations were more adapted to water deficit conditions comparatively to Siriver variety and the Tata population was the most adapted one.

  12. Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L.) by Sinorhizobium Meliloti at Al-Qassim Regions, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Barakah, F. N.; Mridha, M. A. U.

    2016-01-01

    The nodulation status in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants by Sinorhizobium meliloti under Saudi field condition was assessed in some selected farms in four seasons for two years. In the present study, we also monitored the introduced S. meliloti strains activity under Saudi soil conditions. The samples were collected at regular seasonal intervals from the selected farms. The total number of nodules, morphology of the nodules and the effectiveness of N/sub 2/-fixation was assessed. In general, it was revealed that soils in the selected areas in Saudi Arabia have sufficient bacteria of the proper types to nodulate the alfalfa plants. These nodules are high in number, small in size and white in color. The nodules obtained from most of the selected farms are ineffective for nitrogen fixation. Inoculation of alfalfa seeds with imported S. meliloti strains failed to fix the atmospheric nitrogen sufficiently and also the growth improvement of alfalfa plants. There was a wide variation in the occurrence of number of nodules among the four seasons in two years. It was also observed that summer season severely affected the nodulation making it nearly zero. This low number of nodules exerts a very slow recovery of nodule formation in the next year. The introduced strains were always over competing with the native strains but they did not survive because of hot and dry summer. Nitrogenase activity of the nodules collected from both the inoculated and non-inoculated farms were always very low in all the collected samples, which indicates that the ability of fixing nitrogen by S. meliloti strains in alfalfa under Saudi soils conditions is very low. (author)

  13. Co-expression of bacterial aspartate kinase and adenylylsulfate reductase genes substantially increases sulfur amino acid levels in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zongyong; Xie, Can; Ma, Lei; Liu, Liping; Jin, Yongsheng; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most important forage crops used to feed livestock, such as cattle and sheep, and the sulfur amino acid (SAA) content of alfalfa is used as an index of its nutritional value. Aspartate kinase (AK) catalyzes the phosphorylation of aspartate to Asp-phosphate, the first step in the aspartate family biosynthesis pathway, and adenylylsulfate reductase (APR) catalyzes the conversion of activated sulfate to sulfite, providing reduced sulfur for the synthesis of cysteine, methionine, and other essential metabolites and secondary compounds. To reduce the feedback inhibition of other metabolites, we cloned bacterial AK and APR genes, modified AK, and introduced them into alfalfa. Compared to the wild-type alfalfa, the content of cysteine increased by 30% and that of methionine increased substantially by 60%. In addition, a substantial increase in the abundance of essential amino acids (EAAs), such as aspartate and lysine, was found. The results also indicated a close connection between amino acid metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The total amino acid content and the forage biomass tested showed no significant changes in the transgenic plants. This approach provides a new method for increasing SAAs and allows for the development of new genetically modified crops with enhanced nutritional value.

  14. Co-downregulation of the hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase and coumarate 3-hydroxylase significantly increases cellulose content in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zongyong; Li, Heng; Zhang, Rongxue; Ma, Lei; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2015-10-01

    Lignin is a component of the cell wall that is essential for growth, development, structure and pathogen resistance in plants, but high lignin is an obstacle to the conversion of cellulose to ethanol for biofuel. Genetically modifying lignin and cellulose contents can be a good approach to overcoming that obstacle. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is rich in lignocellulose biomass and used as a model plant for the genetic modification of lignin in this study. Two key enzymes in the lignin biosynthesis pathway-hydroxycinnamoyl -CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) and coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H)-were co-downregulated. Compared to wild-type plants, the lignin content in the modified strain was reduced by 38%, cellulose was increased by 86.1%, enzyme saccharification efficiency was increased by 10.9%, and cell wall digestibility was increased by 13.0%. The modified alfalfa exhibited a dwarf phenotype, but normal above ground biomass. This approach provides a new strategy for reducing lignin and increasing cellulose contents and creates a new genetically modified crop with enhanced value for biofuel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Phytoextraction of rhenium by lucerne (Medicago sativa) and erect milkvetch (Astragalus adsurgens) from alkaline soils amended with coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Honghua; Dong, Zhigang; Pang, Jiayin; Wu, Gao-Lin; Zheng, Jiyong; Zhang, Xingchang

    2018-07-15

    Coal fly ash (CFA) is an industrial waste generated in huge amounts worldwide, and the management of CFA has become an environmental concern. Recovery of valuable metals from CFA is one of the beneficial reuse options of CFA. Rhenium (Re) is one of the rarest metals in the Earth's crust and one of the most expensive metals of strategic significance in the world market. A CFA at the Jungar Thermal Power Plant, Inner Mongolia, China, contains more Re than two alkaline soils in the surrounding region. Pot experiments were undertaken to grow lucerne (Medicago sativa) and erect milkvetch (Astragalus adsurgens) in a loessial soil and an aeolian sandy soil amended with different rates (5%, 10%, 20%, and 40%) of CFA. The results show that plant growth was considerably enhanced and Re concentration in plants was significantly increased when CFA was applied to the alkaline soils at rates of ≤20%; while in some cases plant growth was also markedly enhanced by the 40% CFA treatment, which increased plant Re concentration the most of all treatments. Both lucerne and erect milkvetch showed potential for phytoextracting Re from CFA-amended alkaline soils. Using CFA for soil amendment not only offers a potential solution for the waste disposal problem of CFA, but the phytoextraction of Re by both lucerne and erect milkvetch may also bring an economic profit in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The photosynthetic and stomatal response of Medicago sativa cv. saranac to free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment (F.A.C.E.) and nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridson, N.P.

    1996-08-01

    Plots of Medicago sativa cv. saranac were grown in the field at ambient (355 {mu}mol CO{sub 2} mol{sup -1} air) or elevated (600{mu}mol CO{sub 2} mol{sup -1} air) CO{sub 2} concentrations. High (200kg yr{sup -1}) or low (20kg yr{sup -1}) nitrogen levels were applied to two isogeneic lines, one able and one unable to use nitrogen fixing bacteria. Plants were in the second year of field growth. Exposure to elevated CO{sub 2} was via a Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment System (FACE). Elevated CO{sub 2} increased diurnal assimilation by between 12% and 92%. Analysis of A/C{sub i} responses showed that effective nitrogen fertilisation was more important to rubisCO and RuBP activity than elevated CO{sub 2}. No acclimation was consistently observed. Leaves lower down the canopy were found to have lower Vc{sub max} and J{sub max} values, though age may be the cause of the latter effect. FACE conditions have only a small effect on these responses. There was some evidence found for the down-regulation of photosynthesis in the late afternoon. The FACE conditions had no affect on stomatal density but did increase epidermal cell density.

  17. A sequence-based genetic map of Medicago truncatula and comparison of marker colinearity with M. sativa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choi, H.K.; Kim, D.; Uhm, T.; Limpens, E.H.M.; Lim, H.; Mun, J.H.; Kalo, P.; Penmetsa, R.V.; Seres, A.; Kulikova, O.; Roe, B.A.; Bisseling, T.; Kiss, G.B.; Cook, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    A core genetic map of the legume Medicago truncatula has been established by analyzing the segregation of 288 sequence-characterized genetic markers in an E, population composed of 93 individuals. These molecular markers correspond to 141 ESTs, 80 BAC end sequence tags, and 67 resistance gene

  18. Resistant and susceptible responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa to bacterial stem blight caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev G Nemchinov

    Full Text Available Bacterial stem blight caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae is a common disease of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Little is known about host-pathogen interactions and host defense mechanisms. Here, individual resistant and susceptible plants were selected from cultivars Maverick and ZG9830 and used for transcript profiling at 24 and 72 hours after inoculation (hai with the isolate PssALF3. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs in resistant and susceptible genotypes. Although resistant plants from each cultivar produced a hypersensitive response, transcriptome analyses indicated that they respond differently at the molecular level. The number of DEGs was higher in resistant plants of ZG9830 at 24 hai than in Maverick, suggesting that ZG9830 plants had a more rapid effector triggered immune response. Unique up-regulated genes in resistant ZG9830 plants included genes encoding putative nematode resistance HSPRO2-like proteins, orthologs for the rice Xa21 and soybean Rpg1-b resistance genes, and TIR-containing R genes lacking both NBS and LRR domains. The suite of R genes up-regulated in resistant Maverick plants had an over-representation of R genes in the CC-NBS-LRR family including two genes for atypical CCR domains and a putative ortholog of the Arabidopsis RPM1 gene. Resistance in both cultivars appears to be mediated primarily by WRKY family transcription factors and expression of genes involved in protein phosphorylation, regulation of transcription, defense response including synthesis of isoflavonoids, and oxidation-reduction processes. These results will further the identification of mechanisms involved in resistance to facilitate selection of parent populations and development of commercial varieties.

  19. Activity of Saponins from Medicago species Against HeLa and MCF-7 Cell Lines and their Capacity to Potentiate Cisplatin Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avato, Pinarosa; Migoni, Danilo; Argentieri, Mariapia; Fanizzi, Francesco P; Tava, Aldo

    2017-11-24

    Saponins from Medicago species display several biological activities, among them apoptotic effects against plant cells have been evidenced. In contrast, their cytotoxic and antitumor activity against animal cells have not been studied in great details. To explore the cytotoxic properties of saponin from Medicago species against animal cells and their effect in combination with the antitumoral drug cisplatin. Cytotoxic activity of saponin mixtures from M. arabica (tops and roots), M. arborea (tops) and M. sativa (tops, roots and seeds) and related prosapogenins from M. arborea and M. sativa (tops) against HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines is described. In addition, cytotoxicity of soyasaponin I and purified saponins (1-8) of hederagenin, medicagenic and zanhic acid is also presented. Combination experiments with cisplatin have been also conducted. Saponins from M. arabica tops and roots (mainly monodesmosides of hederagenin and bayogenin) were the most effective to reduce proliferation of HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines. Among the purified saponins, the most cytotoxic was saponin 1, 3-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin. When saponins, derived prosapogenins and pure saponins were used in combination with cisplatin, they all, to different extent, were able to potentiate cisplatin activity against HeLa cells but not against MCF-7 cell lines. Moreover uptake of cisplatin in these cell lines was significantly reduced. Overall results showed that specific molecular types of saponins (hederagenin glycosides) have potential as anti-cancer agents or as leads for anti-cancer agents. Moreover saponins from Medicago species have evidenced interesting properties to mediate cisplatin effects in tumor cell lines. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Fixed-Precision Sequential Sampling Plans for Estimating Alfalfa Caterpillar, Colias lesbia, Egg Density in Alfalfa, Medicago sativa, Fields in Córdoba, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Gerardo V.; Porta, Norma C. La; Avalos, Susana; Mazzuferi, Vilma

    2013-01-01

    The alfalfa caterpillar, Colias lesbia (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), is a major pest of alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), crops in Argentina. Its management is based mainly on chemical control of larvae whenever the larvae exceed the action threshold. To develop and validate fixed-precision sequential sampling plans, an intensive sampling programme for C. lesbia eggs was carried out in two alfalfa plots located in the Province of Córdoba, Argentina, from 1999 to 2002. Using Resampling for Validation of Sampling Plans software, 12 additional independent data sets were used to validate the sequential sampling plan with precision levels of 0.10 and 0.25 (SE/mean), respectively. For a range of mean densities of 0.10 to 8.35 eggs/sample, an average sample size of only 27 and 26 sample units was required to achieve a desired precision level of 0.25 for the sampling plans of Green and Kuno, respectively. As the precision level was increased to 0.10, average sample size increased to 161 and 157 sample units for the sampling plans of Green and Kuno, respectively. We recommend using Green's sequential sampling plan because it is less sensitive to changes in egg density. These sampling plans are a valuable tool for researchers to study population dynamics and to evaluate integrated pest management strategies. PMID:23909840

  1. Citric acid- and Tween(®) 80-assisted phytoremediation of a co-contaminated soil: alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) performance and remediation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnello, A C; Huguenot, D; van Hullebusch, E D; Esposito, G

    2016-05-01

    A pot experiment was designed to assess the phytoremediation potential of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in a co-contaminated (i.e., heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons) soil and the influence of citric acid and Tween(®) 80 (polyethylene glycol sorbitan monooleate), applied individually and combined together, for their possible use in chemically assisted phytoremediation. The results showed that alfalfa plants could tolerate and grow in a co-contaminated soil. Over a 90-day experimental time, shoot and root biomass increased and negligible plant mortality occurred. Heavy metals were uptaken by alfalfa to a limited extent, mostly by plant roots, and their concentration in plant tissues were in the following order: Zn > Cu > Pb. Microbial population (alkane-degrading microorganisms) and activity (lipase enzyme) were enhanced in the presence of alfalfa with rhizosphere effects of 9.1 and 1.5, respectively, after 90 days. Soil amendments did not significantly enhance plant metal concentration or total uptake. In contrast, the combination of citric acid and Tween(®) 80 significantly improved alkane-degrading microorganisms (2.4-fold increase) and lipase activity (5.3-fold increase) in the rhizosphere of amended plants, after 30 days of experiment. This evidence supports a favorable response of alfalfa in terms of tolerance to a co-contaminated soil and improvement of rhizosphere microbial number and activity, additionally enhanced by the joint application of citric acid and Tween(®) 80, which could be promising for future phytoremediation applications.

  2. Silicon Priming Created an Enhanced Tolerance in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Seedlings in Response to High Alkaline Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Duo; Liu, Miao; Liu, Xiao-Long; Cheng, Xian-Guo; Liang, Zheng-Wei

    2018-01-01

    Alkaline stress as a result of higher pH usually triggers more severe physiological damage to plants than that of saline stress with a neutral pH. In the present study, we demonstrated that silicon (Si) priming of alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) seedlings increased their tolerance to high alkaline stress situations. Gongnong No. 1 seedlings were subjected to alkaline stress simulated by 25 mM Na 2 CO 3 (pH 11.2). Alkaline stress greatly decreased the biomass and caused severe lodging or wilting of alfalfa seedlings. In contrast, the application of Si to alfalfa seedlings 36 h prior to the alkaline treatment significantly alleviated the damage symptoms and greatly increased the biomass and chlorophyll content. Because of being concomitant with increasing photosynthesis and water use efficiency, decreasing membrane injury and malondialdehyde content, and increasing peroxidase and catalase ascorbate activities in alfalfa leaves, thereby alleviating the triggered oxidative damage by alkaline stress to the plant. Furthermore, Si priming significantly decreased the accumulation of protein and proline content in alfalfa, thus reducing photosynthetic feedback repression. Si priming significantly accumulated more Na in the roots, but led to a decrease of Na accumulation and an increase of K accumulation in the leaves under alkaline stress. Meanwhile, Si priming decreased the accumulation of metal ions such as Mg, Fe, Mn, and Zn in the roots of alfalfa seedlings under alkaline stress. Collectively, these results suggested that Si is involved in the metabolic or physiological changes and has a potent priming effect on the alkaline tolerance of alfalfa seedlings. The present study indicated that Si priming is a new approach to improve the alkaline tolerance in alfalfa and provides increasing information for further exploration of the alkaline stress response at the molecular level in alfalfa.

  3. Fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of low moisture silage made from mature bermudagrass (C. dactylon) and switchgrass (P. virgatum) in mixture with alfalfa (M. sativa) or treated with urea and plantain (Musa AAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two experiments were conducted at the University of Kentucky Spindletop Farm in Lexington, Kentucky between October and November, 2009 to evaluate the effect of different percentages of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) as mixtures in switchgrass (Panicum virgatus) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) silage...

  4. Efecto de las arañas (Arachnida: Araneae como depredadoras de insectos plaga en cultivos de alfalfa (Medicago sativa (Fabaceae en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Armendano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae as predators of insect pest in alfalfa crops (Medicago sativa (Fabaceae in Argentina. Spiders are predators that reduce insect pest populations in agroecosystems. Trials were conducted to measure the selectivity against different insect preys, the daily consumption, effect of predators alone and together with a known number of preys, and the indirect effect of predators on vegetation. For this, experimental units (1x1m were used covered with a fine plastic mesh. Misumenops pallidus, Oxyopes salticus and Araneus sp. were used as generalist predators, and aphids, weevils, locusts, chrysomelids and Lepidoptera larvae as their potential preys. Among the preys offered, the spiders preferred Lepidoptera larvae compared to the other two pests groups (weevils and aphids. The maximum consumption rate was of 93.33% for Lepidoptera larvae, 25.33% for aphids and 11.67% for weevils. The Q Index values for the three species of spiders showed a positive selectivity only for defoliating larvae. O. salticus showed the highest values of consumption rates while Rachiplusia nu was the most consumed. The maximum value of consumption in 24 hours was showed by O. salticus on R. nu (C=2.8. The association of several species of predatory spiders increased the total number of insects captured, and also showed that the addition of spiders caused a decrease in the number of leaves damaged by the effect of lepidopterous larvae. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1651-1662. Epub 2011 December 01

  5. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Colonization Alters Subcellular Distribution and Chemical Forms of Cadmium in Medicago sativa L. and Resists Cadmium Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanzheng

    2012-01-01

    Some plants can tolerate and even detoxify soils contaminated with heavy metals. This detoxification ability may depend on what chemical forms of metals are taken up by plants and how the plants distribute the toxins in their tissues. This, in turn, may have an important impact on phytoremediation. We investigated the impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Glomus intraradices, on the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium (Cd) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) that were grown in Cd-added soils. The fungus significantly colonized alfalfa roots by day 25 after planting. Colonization of alfalfa by G. intraradices in soils contaminated with Cd ranged from 17% to 69% after 25–60 days and then decreased to 43%. The biomass of plant shoots with AM fungi showed significant 1.7-fold increases compared to no AM fungi addition under the treatment of 20 mg·kg−1 Cd. Concentrations of Cd in the shoots of alfalfa under 0.5, 5, and 20 mg·kg−1 Cd without AM fungal inoculation are 1.87, 2.92, and 2.38 times higher, respectively, than those of fungi-inoculated plants. Fungal inoculation increased Cd (37.2–80.5%) in the cell walls of roots and shoots and decreased in membranes after 80 days of incubation compared to untreated plants. The proportion of the inactive forms of Cd in roots was higher in fungi-treated plants than in controls. Furthermore, although fungi-treated plants had less overall Cd in subcellular fragments in shoots, they had more inactive Cd in shoots than did control plants. These results provide a basis for further research on plant-microbe symbioses in soils contaminated with heavy metals, which may potentially help us develop management regimes for phytoremediation. PMID:23139811

  6. MsZEP, a novel zeaxanthin epoxidase gene from alfalfa (Medicago sativa), confers drought and salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yafang; Chang, Leqin; Zhang, Tong; An, Jie; Liu, Yushi; Cao, Yuman; Zhao, Xia; Sha, Xuyang; Hu, Tianming; Yang, Peizhi

    2016-02-01

    The zeaxanthin epoxidase gene ( MsZEP ) was cloned and characterized from alfalfa and validated for its function of tolerance toward drought and salt stresses by heterologous expression in Nicotiana tabacum. Zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP) plays important roles in plant response to various environment stresses due to its functions in ABA biosynthetic and the xanthophyll cycle. To understand the expression characteristics and the biological functions of ZEP in alfalfa (Medicago sativa), a novel gene, designated as MsZEP (KM044311), was cloned, characterized and overexpressed in Nicotiana tabacum. The open reading frame of MsZEP contains 1992 bp nucleotides and encodes a 663-amino acid polypeptide. Amino acid sequence alignment indicated that deduced MsZEP protein was highly homologous to other plant ZEP sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MsZEP was grouped into a branch with other legume plants. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that MsZEP gene expression was clearly tissue-specific, and the expression levels were higher in green tissues (leaves and stems) than in roots. MsZEP expression decreased in shoots under drought, cold, heat and ABA treatment, while the expression levels in roots showed different trends. Besides, the results showed that nodules could up-regulate the MsZEP expression under non-stressful conditions and in the earlier stage of different abiotic stress. Heterologous expression of the MsZEP gene in N. tabacum could confer tolerance to drought and salt stress by affecting various physiological pathways, ABA levels and stress-responsive genes expression. Taken together, these results suggested that the MsZEP gene may be involved in alfalfa responses to different abiotic stresses and nodules, and could enhance drought and salt tolerance of transgenic tobacco by heterologous expression.

  7. Effects of Fe-chelate and iron oxide nanoparticles on some of the physiological characteristics of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Askary

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Iron is an essential micronutrient for plant growth that plays an important role in plant metabolism. Iron deficiency is an abiotic stress that is often found in plants grown in calcareous and alkaline soils. The solubility of Fe+3 decreases dramatically with increasing pH. 30% of the arable land worldwide consists of calcareous and alkaline soils. Common iron fertilizers used to reduce deficiency syndromes contain iron(II sulfate heptahydrate (FeSO4.7H2O or iron chelates. Iron chelate (for example Fe-EDTA is absorbed by plants, which however depends on soil conditions especially soil pH. Nowadays , nano-Fe fertilizer can be used as a rich source of iron for plants ,because it gradually releases Fe in a wide pH range (pH 3– 11. Nanofertilizer usage leads to increase element efficiency, reduce soil toxicity and negative effects caused by the excessive consumption of chemical fertilizers and reduce the fertilizer’ s application . This research was carried out to determine the suitable type of iron fertilizer and to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of nano-Fe fertilizer on Medicago sativa Materials and methods In order to investigate the effects of Fe-deficiency and different levels of Fe2O3 nanoparticles compared to Fe-EDTA on leaf growth, photosynthetic pigments and antioxidative activity of alfalfa (Medicago sativa cv.Hamadani, an experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design with three replications in Arak University during 2015. After germination of sterilized seeds of alfalfa, 1-day seedlings were cultured in plastic vases contains perlite. Plants were maintained under 25/18°C day/night temperatures with 12-hr photoperiod. Irrigation was done weekly with 100ml complete Hoagland solution (containing iron chelate (Fe-EDTA for control plants or 100ml Hoagland solution without iron chelate and containing different concentrations of ironoxide nanoparticles (0, 5, 10, 20 and 25µM. Plants

  8. Absorption of SO/sub 2/ by pecan (Carya illinoensis (Wang) K. Koch) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. ) and its effect on net photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisson, W.B.; Booth, J.A.; Throneberry, G.O.

    1981-06-01

    Absorption rates of SO/sub 2/ by pecan (Carya illinoensis (Wang) K. Koch) leaflets exposed to 2.6, 5.2, and 7.8 mg SO/sub 2/ m/sup -3/ were measured over a 2 h period. SO/sub 2/ was rapidly absorbed by the leaflets in all treatments during the initial 30-50 min; the rate of uptake decreased to a rather constant level thereafter. Total SO/sub 2/ absorbed during the 2 h period was 15.6, 25.6, and 38.9 nmol cm/sup -2/ for the low, medium, and high SO/sub 2/ concentrations, respectively. Reductions in net photosynthetic rates were proportional to ambient SO/sub 2/ concentrations and total SO/sub 2/ absorbed. Partial photosynthetic recovery occurred in all treatments during a 2 hr post-treatment period and full recovery occurred during a 12 h dark period. Exposure to SO/sub 2/ resulted in slight increases in stomatal and boundary layer resistances to CO/sub 2/ and substantial increases in residual resistances. Absorption rates of SO/sub 2/ by alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) exposed to 5.2 mg SO/sub 2/ m/sup -3/ for 1 h were approximately double those of pecan exposed to the same ambient SO/sub 2/ concentration. Alfalfa net photosynthetic rates were reduced 74% after 1 h exposure to 5.2 mg SO/sub 2/ m/sup -3/ while a depression of 42% occurred in pecan.

  9. Effects of four short-chain fatty acids or salts on fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xian J; Wen, Ai Y; Wang, Jian; Desta, Seare T; Dong, Zhi H; Shao, Tao

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of four chemicals on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage. Wilted alfalfa was ensiled without additive (control), or with formic acid (FA), potassium diformate (KDF), sodium diacetate (SDA) or calcium propionate (CAP). After 60 days of ensiling, the pH values in FA, KDF and SDA silages were lower (P < 0.05) compared to that of control and CAP silages, and chemicals (P < 0.05) decreased butyric acid and ammonia N concentrations and populations of aerobic bacteria and yeasts compared to the control. The SDA and CAP silages had a higher (P < 0.05) lactic acid bacteria content compared to the FA and KDF silages. The SDA and CAP silages had higher (P < 0.05) acetic and propionic acid contents compared to the other silages, respectively. The ammonia N concentrations in the FA and KDF silages were lower compared to the other silages during the first 5 days of aerobic exposure, and then increased sharply to 105 and 100 g kg -1 total N, respectively, which was higher (P < 0.05) than that of the SDA and CAP silages on day 9 of aerobic exposure. Yeasts and aerobic bacteria counts in SDA silage slowly increased and remained at lower levels compared to the other silages after 7 days of aerobic exposure. Additives prolonged the aerobic stability duration compared to the control, and the SDA and CAP silages remained stable for more than 216 h, followed by the KDF and FA silages (202 and 196 h, respectively). © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa) with increased sucrose phosphate synthase activity shows enhanced growth when grown under N2-fixing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebril, Sayed; Seger, Mark; Villanueva, Fabiola Muro; Ortega, Jose Luis; Bagga, Suman; Sengupta-Gopalan, Champa

    2015-10-01

    Overexpression of SPS in alfalfa is accompanied by early flowering, increased plant growth and an increase in elemental N and protein content when grown under N2-fixing conditions. Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS; EC 2.3.1.14) is the key enzyme in the synthesis of sucrose in plants. The outcome of overexpression of SPS in different plants using transgenic approaches has been quite varied, but the general consensus is that increased SPS activity is associated with the production of new sinks and increased sink strength. In legumes, the root nodule is a strong C sink and in this study our objective was to see how increasing SPS activity in a legume would affect nodule number and function. Here we have transformed alfalfa (Medicago sativa, cv. Regen SY), with a maize SPS gene driven by the constitutive CaMV35S promoter. Our results showed that overexpression of SPS in alfalfa, is accompanied by an increase in nodule number and mass and an overall increase in nitrogenase activity at the whole plant level. The nodules exhibited an increase in the level of key enzymes contributing to N assimilation including glutamine synthetase and asparagine synthetase. Moreover, the stems of the transformants showed higher level of the transport amino acids, Asx, indicating increased export of N from the nodules. The transformants exhibited a dramatic increase in growth both of the shoots and roots, and earlier flowering time, leading to increased yields. Moreover, the transformants showed an increase in elemental N and protein content. The overall conclusion is that increased SPS activity improves the N status and plant performance, suggesting that the availability of more C in the form of sucrose enhances N acquisition and assimilation in the nodules.

  11. Physiological and Proteomic Responses of Contrasting Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Varieties to PEG-Induced Osmotic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuimei; Shi, Shangli

    2018-01-01

    Drought severely limits global plant distribution and agricultural production. Elucidating the physiological and molecular mechanisms governing alfalfa stress responses will contribute to the improvement of drought tolerance in leguminous crops. In this study, the physiological and proteomic responses of two alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) varieties contrasting in drought tolerance, Longzhong (drought-tolerant) and Gannong No. 3 (drought-sensitive), were comparatively assayed when seedlings were exposed to -1.2 MPa polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) treatments for 15 days. The results showed that the levels of proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl free radical (OH•) and superoxide anion free radical (O2•-) in both varieties were significantly increased, while the root activity, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities, and the ratios of reduced/oxidized ascorbate (AsA/DHA) and reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) were significantly decreased. The soluble protein and soluble sugar contents, the total antioxidant capability (T-AOC) and the activities of peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) first increased and then decreased with the increase in treatment days. Under osmotic stress, Longzhong exhibited lower levels of MDA, H2O2, OH• and O2•- but higher levels of SOD, CAT, APX, T-AOC and ratios of AsA/DHA and GSH/GSSG compared with Gannong No.3. Using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ), 142 differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) were identified from two alfalfa varieties, including 52 proteins (34 up-regulated and 18 down-regulated) in Longzhong, 71 proteins (28 up-regulated and 43 down-regulated) in Gannong No. 3, and 19 proteins (13 up-regulated and 6 down-regulated) shared by both varieties. Most of these DAPs were involved in stress and defense, protein metabolism, transmembrane transport, signal transduction, as well as cell wall and

  12. Physiological and Proteomic Responses of Contrasting Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Varieties to PEG-Induced Osmotic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuimei; Shi, Shangli

    2018-01-01

    Drought severely limits global plant distribution and agricultural production. Elucidating the physiological and molecular mechanisms governing alfalfa stress responses will contribute to the improvement of drought tolerance in leguminous crops. In this study, the physiological and proteomic responses of two alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) varieties contrasting in drought tolerance, Longzhong (drought-tolerant) and Gannong No. 3 (drought-sensitive), were comparatively assayed when seedlings were exposed to -1.2 MPa polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) treatments for 15 days. The results showed that the levels of proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), hydroxyl free radical (OH • ) and superoxide anion free radical (O 2 •- ) in both varieties were significantly increased, while the root activity, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities, and the ratios of reduced/oxidized ascorbate (AsA/DHA) and reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) were significantly decreased. The soluble protein and soluble sugar contents, the total antioxidant capability (T-AOC) and the activities of peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) first increased and then decreased with the increase in treatment days. Under osmotic stress, Longzhong exhibited lower levels of MDA, H 2 O 2 , OH • and O 2 •- but higher levels of SOD, CAT, APX, T-AOC and ratios of AsA/DHA and GSH/GSSG compared with Gannong No.3. Using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ), 142 differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) were identified from two alfalfa varieties, including 52 proteins (34 up-regulated and 18 down-regulated) in Longzhong, 71 proteins (28 up-regulated and 43 down-regulated) in Gannong No. 3, and 19 proteins (13 up-regulated and 6 down-regulated) shared by both varieties. Most of these DAPs were involved in stress and defense, protein metabolism, transmembrane transport, signal transduction, as well as cell

  13. De novo characterization of fall dormant and nondormant alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) leaf transcriptome and identification of candidate genes related to fall dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Senhao; Shi, Yinghua; Cheng, Ningning; Du, Hongqi; Fan, Wenna; Wang, Chengzhang

    2015-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most widely cultivated perennial forage legumes worldwide. Fall dormancy is an adaptive character related to the biomass production and winter survival in alfalfa. The physiological, biochemical and molecular mechanisms causing fall dormancy and the related genes have not been well studied. In this study, we sequenced two standard varieties of alfalfa (dormant and non-dormant) at two time points and generated approximately 160 million high quality paired-end sequence reads using sequencing by synthesis (SBS) technology. The de novo transcriptome assembly generated a set of 192,875 transcripts with an average length of 856 bp representing about 165.1 Mb of the alfalfa leaf transcriptome. After assembly, 111,062 (57.6%) transcripts were annotated against the NCBI non-redundant database. A total of 30,165 (15.6%) transcripts were mapped to 323 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. We also identified 41,973 simple sequence repeats, which can be used to generate markers for alfalfa, and 1,541 transcription factors were identified across 1,350 transcripts. Gene expression between dormant and non-dormant alfalfa at different time points were performed, and we identified several differentially expressed genes potentially related to fall dormancy. The Gene Ontology and pathways information were also identified. We sequenced and assembled the leaf transcriptome of alfalfa related to fall dormancy, and also identified some genes of interest involved in the fall dormancy mechanism. Thus, our research focused on studying fall dormancy in alfalfa through transcriptome sequencing. The sequencing and gene expression data generated in this study may be used further to elucidate the complete mechanisms governing fall dormancy in alfalfa.

  14. Co-transforming bar and CsALDH Genes Enhanced Resistance to Herbicide and Drought and Salt Stress in Transgenic Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhen; Zhang, Daiyu; Zhang, Jianquan; Di, Hongyan; Wu, Fan; Hu, Xiaowen; Meng, Xuanchen; Luo, Kai; Zhang, Jiyu; Wang, Yanrong

    2015-01-01

    Drought and high salinity are two major abiotic factors that restrict the productivity of alfalfa. By application of the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method, an oxidative responsive gene, CsALDH12A1, from the desert grass Cleistogenes songorica together with the bar gene associated with herbicide resistance, were co-transformed into alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). From the all 90 transformants, 16 were positive as screened by spraying 1 mL L-1 10% Basta solution and molecularly diagnosis using PCR. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that drought and salt stress induced high CsALDH expression in the leaves of the transgenic plants. The CsALDH expression levels under drought (15 d) and salt stress (200 mM NaCl) were 6.11 and 6.87 times higher than in the control plants, respectively. In comparison to the WT plants, no abnormal phenotypes were observed among the transgenic plants, which showed significant enhancement of tolerance to 15 d of drought and 10 d of salinity treatment. Evaluation of the physiological and biochemical indices during drought and salt stress of the transgenic plants revealed relatively lower Na+ content and higher K+ content in the leaves relative to the WT plants, a reduction of toxic on effects and maintenance of osmotic adjustment. In addition, the transgenic plants could maintain a higher relative water content level, higher shoot biomass, fewer changes in the photosystem, decreased membrane injury, and a lower level of osmotic stress. These results indicate that the co-expression of the introduced bar and CsALDH genes enhanced the herbicide, drought and salt tolerance of alfalfa and therefore can potentially be used as a novel genetic resource for the future breeding programs to develop new cultivars. PMID:26734025

  15. Producción, evaluación y caracterización microbiológica de un biofertilizante artesanal para la fijación de nitrógeno en especies vegetales forrajeras.

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes Villegas, María Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The increased production of grasslands in Ecuador has necessitated the use of chemical fertilizers, as in the case of commercial urea, which has caused impacts on agricultural land. As an alternative to this chemical fertilizer , developed , tested and characterized a craft biofertilizer made from roots of alfalfa ( Medicago sativa) , White Clover ( Trifolium repens ) and rye grass ( Lolium perenne), which has diazotrophic microbiological activity of bacterial species such...

  16. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products: Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    New flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Generally, dry FGD by-products are treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. Provided the environmental impacts are socially and scientifically acceptable, beneficial uses via recycling can provide economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD. A study titled ''Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products'' was initiated in December, 1990 to develop and demonstrate large volume, beneficial uses of FGD by-products. Phase 1 and Phase 2 reports have been published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA. Phase 3 objectives were to demonstrate, using field studies, the beneficial uses of FGD by-products (1) as an amendment material on agricultural lands and on abandoned surface coal mine land, (2) as an engineering material for soil stabilization and raid repair, and (3) to assess the environmental and economic impacts of such beneficial uses. Application of dry FGD by-product to three soils in place of agricultural limestone increased alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea may L.) yields. No detrimental effects on soil and plant quality were observed.

  17. Genome sequence of Ensifer meliloti strain WSM1022; a highly effective microsymbiont of the model legume Medicago truncatula A17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpolilli, Jason; Hill, Yvette; Tian, Rui; Howieson, John; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Han, James; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Reeve, Wayne

    2013-12-20

    Ensifer meliloti WSM1022 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of Medicago. WSM1022 was isolated in 1987 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the annual Medicago orbicularis growing on the Cyclades Island of Naxos in Greece. WSM1022 is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with M. truncatula and other annual species such as M. tornata and M. littoralis and is also highly effective with the perennial M. sativa (alfalfa or lucerne). In common with other characterized E. meliloti strains, WSM1022 will nodulate but fixes poorly with M. polymorpha and M. sphaerocarpos and does not nodulate M. murex. Here we describe the features of E. meliloti WSM1022, together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,649,661 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged into 121 scaffolds of 125 contigs containing 6,323 protein-coding genes and 75 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 100 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project.

  18. The Medicago truncatula gene expression atlas web server

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Yuhong

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Legumes (Leguminosae or Fabaceae play a major role in agriculture. Transcriptomics studies in the model legume species, Medicago truncatula, are instrumental in helping to formulate hypotheses about the role of legume genes. With the rapid growth of publically available Affymetrix GeneChip Medicago Genome Array GeneChip data from a great range of tissues, cell types, growth conditions, and stress treatments, the legume research community desires an effective bioinformatics system to aid efforts to interpret the Medicago genome through functional genomics. We developed the Medicago truncatula Gene Expression Atlas (MtGEA web server for this purpose. Description The Medicago truncatula Gene Expression Atlas (MtGEA web server is a centralized platform for analyzing the Medicago transcriptome. Currently, the web server hosts gene expression data from 156 Affymetrix GeneChip® Medicago genome arrays in 64 different experiments, covering a broad range of developmental and environmental conditions. The server enables flexible, multifaceted analyses of transcript data and provides a range of additional information about genes, including different types of annotation and links to the genome sequence, which help users formulate hypotheses about gene function. Transcript data can be accessed using Affymetrix probe identification number, DNA sequence, gene name, functional description in natural language, GO and KEGG annotation terms, and InterPro domain number. Transcripts can also be discovered through co-expression or differential expression analysis. Flexible tools to select a subset of experiments and to visualize and compare expression profiles of multiple genes have been implemented. Data can be downloaded, in part or full, in a tabular form compatible with common analytical and visualization software. The web server will be updated on a regular basis to incorporate new gene expression data and genome annotation, and is accessible

  19. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (Funneliformis mosseae improves alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. re-growth ability in saline soil through enhanced nitrogen remobilization and improved nutritional balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Namdari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In current study, the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on salinity tolerance in terms of root’s reserves remobilization to shoot and its relationship with re-growth ability and ionic status of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. plants were investigated. In a pot experiment, a factorial experiment in base of randomized complete blocks design in three replications was carried out. Alfalfa plants (Iranian cultivar-Baghdadi inoculated with AMF (Funneliformis mosseae or retained as un-inoculated, were grown in soil and irrigated with three salt concentrations including 1.4 (control, 7 and 12 dS/m. Three harvests were carried out at 10% of flowering stage. AMF inoculation increased the size of root sugars and soluble N pools at harvest time. The shoot biomass production following harvest had a close correlation with nitrogen (N remobilization from root (r=0.92, P≤0.01. However salinity stress significantly reduced amount and percentage of N remobilization to re-growing shoot but AMF plants exhibited greater amount and percentage of root N pools dedicated to remobilization. AMF inoculation also affected ionic relations of plants as AM+ plants contained greater K+ within both root and shoot organs while Ca2+ and Na+ were affected by AMF only within shoot tissue. AMF plants exhibited higher K+/Na+ within shoot and Ca+2/Na+ within root organs. There was a high positive correlation coefficient between K+/Na+, Ca+2/Na+ ratios and N remobilization from root (respectively, r=0.92, 0.88; P≤0.01. To sum up, ionic status within both root and shoot organs, got more balanced by AMF inoculation so that AMF reduced limitations within both source (root and sink (re-growing shoot organs concerning N remobilization to re-growing shoot.

  20. Cloning and expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase cDNA induced by thidiazuron during somatic embryogenesis of alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bi-Hong; Wu, Bei; Zhang, Chun-Rong; Huang, Xia; Chen, Yun-Feng; Huang, Xue-Lin

    2012-01-15

    Embryogenic callus (EC) induced from petioles of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Jinnan) on B5h medium turned green, compact and non-embryogenic when the kinetin (KN) in the medium was replaced partially or completely by thidiazuron (TDZ). The application of CoCl₂, which is an inhibitor of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO), counteracted the effect of TDZ. Ethylene has been shown to be involved in the modulation of TDZ-induced morphogenesis responses. However, very little is known about the genes involved in ethylene formation during somatic embryogenesis (SE). To investigate whether ethylene mediated by ACO is involved in the effect of TDZ on inhibition of embryogenic competence of the alfalfa callus. In this study we cloned full-length ACO cDNA from the alfalfa callus, named MsACO, and observed changes in this gene expression during callus formation and induction of SE under treatment with TDZ or TDZ plus CoCl₂. RNA blot analysis showed that during the EC subcultural period, the expression level of MsACO in EC was significantly increased on the 2nd day, rose to the highest level on the 8th day and remained at this high level until the 21st day. However, the ACO expression in the TDZ (0.93 μM)-treated callus was higher than in the EC especially on the 8th day. Moreover the ACO expression level increased with increasing TDZ concentration during the subcultural/maintenance period of the callus. It is worth noting that comparing the treatment with TDZ alone, the treatment with 0.93 μM TDZ plus 50 μM CoCl₂ reduced both of the ACO gene expressions and ACO activity in the treated callus. These results indicate that the effect of TDZ could be counteracted by CoCl₂ either on the ACO gene expression level or ACO activity. Thus, a TDZ inhibitory effect on embryogenic competence of alfalfa callus could be mediated by ACO gene expression. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Experimental tolerance to boron of the plant species Nicotiana glauca, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Tecoma stans, Medicago sativa y Spinacea oleracea in Argentina; Tolerancia experimental de las especies vegetales Nicotiana glauca, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Tecoma stans, Medicago sativa y Spinacea oleracea al boro, en Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Marta L. de; Albarracin Franco, Silvia [Univ. Nacional de Salta, Inst. de Ecologia y Ambiente Humano, CIUNSa, Buenos Aires No. 177, 4400, Salta (Argentina)], E-mail: mldeviana@arnet.com.ar

    2008-09-15

    The activity of the borate deposits industries constitutes a point source and diffuse pollution of air, soil and water. Therefore, the study and experimentation on possible ways to offset this impact is a priority. A relatively new technique to decontaminate soils is phytoremediation, which uses plants and associated microorganisms. The first step is to identify tolerant plant species, which is the focus of this work. An experiment was conducted in the laboratory to evaluate the germination, survival and growth of different species in different concentrations of boron. At the beginning and end of the experiment was determined concentration of boron in the substrate for each treatment and for substrates with and without vegetation. Significant differences due to treatment, the species and species-treatment interaction. M. sativa, N. glauca and J. mimosifolia were the species most tolerant to boron. The other species showed a decrease in all variables-response function of the concentration of the contaminant. All had low survival in the highest concentration. The decrease of boron was highest in the treatment of 30 ppm of boron with M. sativa and the lowest was recorded in the treatment of 20 ppm of boron with J. mimosifolia and 30 ppm of boron with T. stans and S. oleracea. It is concluded that N. glauca, M. sativa and J. mimosifolia could be considered as promising remediation. (author) [Spanish] La actividad de las industrias borateras constituye una fuente puntual y difusa de contaminacion del aire, suelo y aguas superficiales y profundas. Por lo tanto, el estudio y experimentacion acerca de las posibles formas de contrarrestar este impacto constituye una prioridad. Una tecnica relativamente nueva para descontaminar suelos es la fitorremediacion, que emplea plantas y microorganismos asociados. El primer paso es detectar las especies vegetales tolerantes, lo que constituye el objetivo de este trabajo. Se realizo un experimento en laboratorio para evaluar la

  2. Land Suitability Assessment for Camelina (Camelina sativa L. Development in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celián Román-Figueroa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Camelina (Camelina sativa L. is an oilseed with potential for use as a raw material in second-generation biofuels. Camelina has a seed yield of up to 2380 kg·ha−1 and contains around 45% fatty acids. Selection of a suitable site is critical for production optimization. The objective of this study was to determine Chilean agro-climatic suitability for establishing camelina as a productive alternative. Climate and soil requirements and geographical restraints were evaluated for the species, considering the climatological characteristics of its regions of origin, as well as regions where camelina is successfully grown in the rest of the world. The variables considered included factors (maximum temperatures of the warmest month, water deficits, and degree days and limitations (altitude, geomorphology, and current land use, which permitted the evaluation of the national territory for a certain level of suitability. It was determined that 1.3% of the national territory (960,664 ha has some degree of suitability for camelina adoption. Between the Biobío and Los Lagos regions, 49.0% of the land (471,203 ha is in the category of no thermic restrictions, with mild water restrictions, and mild soil restrictions or without information, which can be used for camelina production. The Los Ríos region has 21.4% surface area (321,176 ha with some level of suitability for camelina, the most suitable region to establish this crop in Chile. This research has provided valuable information applicable to new species and geographic areas which facilitate the adaptation of agricultural and forestry production to global changes.

  3. Characterization and genetic dissection of resistance to spotted alfalfa aphid (Therioaphis trifolii) in Medicago truncatula

    KAUST Repository

    Kamphuis, L. G.; Lichtenzveig, J.; Peng, K.; Guo, S.-M.; Klingler, John; Siddique, K. H. M.; Gao, L.-L.; Singh, K. B.

    2013-01-01

    Aphids cause significant yield losses in agricultural crops worldwide. Medicago truncatula, a model legume, cultivated pasture species in Australia and close relative of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), was used to study the defence response against Therioaphis trifolii f. maculate [spotted alfalfa aphid (SAA)]. Aphid performance and plant damage were compared among three accessions. A20 is highly susceptible, A17 has moderate resistance, and Jester is strongly resistant. Subsequent analyses using A17 and A20, reciprocal F1s and an A17×A20 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population revealed that this moderate resistance is phloem mediated and involves antibiosis and tolerance but not antixenosis. Electrical penetration graph analysis also identified a novel waveform termed extended potential drop, which occurred following SAA infestation of M. truncatula. Genetic dissection using the RIL population revealed three quantitative trait loci on chromosomes 3, 6, and 7 involved in distinct modes of aphid defence including antibiosis and tolerance. An antibiosis locus resides on linkage group 3 (LG3) and is derived from A17, whereas a plant tolerance and antibiosis locus resides on LG6 and is derived from A20, which exhibits strong temporary tolerance. The loci identified reside in regions harbouring classical resistance genes, and introgression of these loci in current medic cultivars may help provide durable resistance to SAA, while elucidation of their molecular mechanisms may provide valuable insight into other aphid–plant interactions.

  4. Characterization and genetic dissection of resistance to spotted alfalfa aphid (Therioaphis trifolii) in Medicago truncatula

    KAUST Repository

    Kamphuis, L. G.

    2013-09-21

    Aphids cause significant yield losses in agricultural crops worldwide. Medicago truncatula, a model legume, cultivated pasture species in Australia and close relative of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), was used to study the defence response against Therioaphis trifolii f. maculate [spotted alfalfa aphid (SAA)]. Aphid performance and plant damage were compared among three accessions. A20 is highly susceptible, A17 has moderate resistance, and Jester is strongly resistant. Subsequent analyses using A17 and A20, reciprocal F1s and an A17×A20 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population revealed that this moderate resistance is phloem mediated and involves antibiosis and tolerance but not antixenosis. Electrical penetration graph analysis also identified a novel waveform termed extended potential drop, which occurred following SAA infestation of M. truncatula. Genetic dissection using the RIL population revealed three quantitative trait loci on chromosomes 3, 6, and 7 involved in distinct modes of aphid defence including antibiosis and tolerance. An antibiosis locus resides on linkage group 3 (LG3) and is derived from A17, whereas a plant tolerance and antibiosis locus resides on LG6 and is derived from A20, which exhibits strong temporary tolerance. The loci identified reside in regions harbouring classical resistance genes, and introgression of these loci in current medic cultivars may help provide durable resistance to SAA, while elucidation of their molecular mechanisms may provide valuable insight into other aphid–plant interactions.

  5. EFICIENCIA DEL AGUA DE RIEGO EN LA PRODUCCIÓN DE MAÍZ FORRAJERO (Zea mays L. Y ALFALFA (Medicago sativa: IMPACTO SOCIAL Y ECONÓMICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio Pedroza Sandoval

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El maíz y la alfalfa, son los dos principales cultivos forrajeros en la Cuenca Lechera de la Laguna de los estados de Coahuila y Durango, México, donde el recurso hídrico es el mayor factor limitante. El objetivo de este estudio fue hacer una evaluación de la eficiencia biológica, económica y social del uso de agua de riego en los cultivos de maíz forrajero (Zea mays L. y alfalfa (Medicago sativa, mediante un análisis económico comparativo y de eficiencia de productividad. El maíz fue más eficiente que la alfalfa, puesto que un m3 de agua subterránea produjo 5.72 kg de biomasa, $0.67 de ganancia por m3 de agua usada y 100 000 m3 de agua produjeron 0.65 empleos durante el ciclo del cultivo; mientras que la alfalfa produjo 0.215 kg de biomasa, $0.90 de ganancia y se generaron 0.43 empleos con los mismos volúmenes de agua indicados en el maíz. El cultivo de maíz forrajero fue más eficiente en producción de biomasa por volumen de agua utilizado y empleos generados, pero menos eficiente en ganancias, donde la alfalfa fue mejor. Una combinación durante el año de cultivos forrajeros con calidad energética y proteica como el maíz y la alfalfa respectivamente, éstos producidos bajo un programa de rotación, habrán de redundar en un equilibrio entre calidad de forraje, productividad del mismo, un mayor beneficio social y un menor impacto ambiental.

  6. Genotype, explant, medium, light and radiation effects on the in vitro plant regeneration in alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fiki, A.A.; Abdel-Hameed, A.A.M.; Sayed, A.I.H.

    2005-01-01

    The relative importance of genotype, explants, radiation, medium and light and their interactions for in vitro plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) has been studied. Shoot and leaf explants of two commercially grown Egyptian cultivars, Al-Wadi Al-Gadid and Siwa Tarkibi, were used in the study. The effect of gamma radiation doses 40, 80, 120 and 160 Gy were negative on plant regeneration, in spite of increase with some treatments. The best results of plant regeneration were obtained with dose 40 Gy with control light regime (16 h) on MS + 0.5 mg NAA + 1.5 mg BAP in both shoot and leaf explants of cv. Al-Wadi. The shoot explant of cv. Siwa was sensitive for gamma radiation dose 40 Gy while affirmative effect was obtained in leaf explant on MS + 1.0 mg NAA + 0.5 mg BAP with control light regime. However, dose 80 Gy showed the best results on MS + 0.5 mg NAA + 0.5 mg BAP in shoot and leaf explants of both cultivars, with control light regime in shoot explant and dark/light (DL) and dark/dark (DD) in leaf explant of cv. Al-Wadi, while with light/dark (LD) in shoot explant and control light regime in leaf explant of cv. Siwa. On the other hand, the highest plant regeneration ratio observed with dose 120 Gy were on 1.5 mg NAA + 0.5 mg BAP with control light regime in shoot and leaf explants of cv. Al-Wadi but on 0.5 mg NAA + 0.5 mg BAP with control and dark/light (DL) light regime in shoot and leaf explants of cv. Siwa. Whereas, the radiation dose 160 Gy showed severe effect on plant regeneration in both cultivars but highest percentage was observed on MS + 0.5 mg NAA + 0.5 mg BAP with dark/light (DL) in shoot explant, MS + 0.5 mg NAA + 1.5 mg BAP with control light regime in leaf explant of cv. Al-Wadi, MS + 0.5 mg NAA + 1.5 mg BAP in shoot explant and MS + 0.5 mg NAA + 0.5 mg BAP in leaf explant with dark/light (DL) in cv. Siwa. However, the effects of the same doses on callus growth showed that the highest callus weight was

  7. Effects of sowing methods and potassium application on the performance of two Alfalfa cultivars (Medicago sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhag, B.B.M.

    2007-03-01

    A field experiment was conducted at the Demonstration Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic University of Omdurman during the period from december 2004 to may 2006 to evaluate the effects of three sowing methods (sowing on flat, ridges and mustaba) and the tow levels of potassium fertilizer, (0 k 0 and 50 kg/ha k 1 ) on the performance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). This was carried out using tow cultivars, Hegazi (local) and Alfanafa (introduced). A randomized complete block design with four applications in factorial experiment was used to layout the work field. Sowing was done in the last week of december 2004 at a seed rate of 20 kg/ha by broadcasting the seeds on flat, ridge and mustaba. The first irrigation was applied immediately and the second was done five days after sowing. Subsequent irrigations were performed at an interval of seven days between irrigations during summer and ten days during winter, depending on the weather conditions. A seedling emergence was observed 3 to 5 days after sowing. Weeding was done manually when necessary. The first cut was done 70 days after sowing, when 50% of the plants were in the bloom stage, and the subsequent ones were done monthly, using a sickle, just a above the soil surface. A After the last cut (in Feb 2006), when environmental conditions were favorable, the plants were left were for seed yield which was harvested in April, 2006. Data were collected on plant height, plant population, leaf area index, leaf to stem ratio, fresh weight, dry weight, potassium content in plant, seed-yield and its components. The results revealed that there were significant differences between cultivars, sowing methods, potassium application and all possible interactions between the different treatments for all parameters except number of pods/raceme and total seed-weight in all treatments, leaf to stem ratio, leaf area index, number of racemes/plant, number of seeds/pod and 1000-seed weight in sowing methods and potassium

  8. Transgene silencing of sucrose synthase in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) stem vascular tissue suggests a role for invertase in cell wall cellulose synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samac, Deborah A; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Miller, Susan S; Yang, S Samuel; O'Rourke, Jamie A; Shin, Sanghyun; Vance, Carroll P

    2015-12-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a widely adapted perennial forage crop that has high biomass production potential. Enhanced cellulose content in alfalfa stems would increase the value of the crop as a bioenergy feedstock. We examined if increased expression of sucrose synthase (SUS; EC 2.4.1.13) would increase cellulose in stem cell walls. Alfalfa plants were transformed with a truncated alfalfa phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene promoter (PEPC7-P4) fused to an alfalfa nodule-enhanced SUS cDNA (MsSUS1) or the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene. Strong GUS expression was detected in xylem and phloem indicating that the PEPC7-P4 promoter was active in stem vascular tissue. In contrast to expectations, MsSUS1 transcript accumulation was reduced 75-90 % in alfalfa plants containing the PEPC7-P4::MsSUS1 transgene compared to controls. Enzyme assays indicated that SUS activity in stems of selected down-regulated transformants was reduced by greater than 95 % compared to the controls. Although SUS activity was detected in xylem and phloem of control plants by in situ enzyme assays, plants with the PEPC7-P4::MsSUS1 transgene lacked detectable SUS activity in post-elongation stem (PES) internodes and had very low SUS activity in elongating stem (ES) internodes. Loss of SUS protein in PES internodes of down-regulated lines was confirmed by immunoblots. Down-regulation of SUS expression and activity in stem tissue resulted in no obvious phenotype or significant change in cell wall sugar composition. However, alkaline/neutral (A/N) invertase activity increased in SUS down-regulated lines and high levels of acid invertase activity were observed. In situ enzyme assays of stem tissue showed localization of neutral invertase in vascular tissues of ES and PES internodes. These results suggest that invertases play a primary role in providing glucose for cellulose biosynthesis or compensate for the loss of SUS1 activity in stem vascular tissue.

  9. Inoculação microbiana da silagem de alfafa (Medicago sativa e seu efeito sobre o consumo de matéria seca e sobre a fermentação ruminal em bovinos - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.2074 Microbial inoculation of alfalfa silage (Medicago sativa and its effect on dry matter intake and ruminal fermentation in bovines - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.2074

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Mazza Rodrigues

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da inoculação microbiana da alfafa (Medicago sativa para ensilagem sobre o consumo de matéria seca, fermentação ruminal e taxa de passagem de líquidos em bovinos. Doze vacas não-gestantes e não-lactantes foram distribuídas em um delineamento em blocos, e os tratamentos corresponderam à silagem pré-secada de alfafa (60% de MS e 19,5% de PB controle ou inoculada com o produto Silobac® (Lactobacillus plantarum e Pediococcus pentosaceus. A dieta experimental continha 50% de silagem de alfafa e 50% de concentrado. O experimento teve duração total de 21 dias, sendo o 21º dia utilizado para colheitas de líquido ruminal realizadas às 0h, 2h, 4h, 6h, 8h, 10h e 12h, após a 1a refeição. A inoculação microbiana da silagem de alfafa não alterou o consumo de MS (inoculada = 2,56 vs. controle = 2,39% PV, o pH do líquido ruminal (6,15 vs. 6,27, a concentração ruminal de N-NH3 (19,0 vs. 18,2mg/dl, a concentração total de AGVs (122,5 vs. 113,8mM ou a proporção molar de ácido acético (66,1 vs. 66,8% molar, propiônico (21,1 vs. 19,6% molar e butírico (12,8 vs. 13,6% molar. Parâmetros relativos à dinâmica líquida ruminal, como o volume líquido (59,5 vs. 63,4 litros e a taxa de passagem de líquidos (8,6 vs. 8,0%/h, também não foram alterados com a inoculação.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of microbial inoculation of alfalfa (Medicago sativa for ensiling on dry matter intake, ruminal fermentation and liquid passage rate in twelve non pregnant dry cows. A randomized block design was used and the treatments were alfalfa haylage control (60% DM and 19.5% CP or inoculated with Silobac® product (Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Experimental diet contained 50% of alfalfa silage and 50% of concentrate. Experimental period lasted for twenty-one days; the 21st day was used for ruminal liquid sampling at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 e 12 hours

  10. Risks and benefits of compost-like materials prepared by the thermal treatment of raw scallop hepatopancreas for supplying cadmium and the growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushijima, Kensuke; Fukushima, Masami; Kanno, Shinya; Kanno, Itoko; Ohnishi, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Scallop hepatopancreas, fishery waste, contains relatively high levels of Cd and organic nitrogen compounds, the latter of which represent a fertilizer. In this study, raw scallop hepatopancreas tissue was thermally treated with sawdust and red loam in the presence of an iron catalyst to produce compost-like materials (CLMs). Two CLM samples were prepared by varying the content of raw scallop hepatopancreas tissue: 46 wt.% for CLM-1 and 18 wt.% for CLM-2. Mixtures of control soil (CTL) and CLMs (CLM content: 10 and 25 wt.%) were examined for the growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) to evaluate the risks and benefits of using this material for fertilization. The Cd content in shoots and roots of alfalfa, that were grown in the presence of CLMs, was significantly higher than those for the plants grown in the CTL, indicating that Cd had accumulated in the plants from CLMs. The accumulation of Cd in the alfalfa roots was quite high in the case of the 25% CLM-1 sample. However, alfalfa growth was significantly promoted in the presence of 10% CLM-1. This can be attributed to the higher levels of nitrogen and humic substances, which serve as fertilizer components. Although the fertilization effect in case of CLM-1showed a potential benefit, the accumulation of Cd in alfalfa was clearly increased in the presence of both CLMs. In conclusion, the use of CLMs produced from raw scallop hepatopancreas tissue can be considered to have a desirable benefit from standpoint of its use as fertilizer, but is accompanied by a risk of the accumulation of Cd in alfalfa plants.

  11. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Loci Associated with Plant Growth and Forage Production under Salt Stress in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Ping Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Salinity tolerance is highly desirable to sustain alfalfa production in marginal lands that have been rendered saline. In this study, we used a diverse panel of 198 alfalfa accessions for mapping loci associated with plant growth and forage production under salt stress using genome-wide association studies (GWAS. The plants were genotyped using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS. A greenhouse procedure was used for phenotyping four agronomic and physiological traits affected by salt stress, including dry weight (DW, plant height (PH, leaf chlorophyll content (LCC, and stomatal conductance (SC. For each trait, a stress susceptibility index (SSI was used to evaluate plant performance under stressed and non-stressed conditions. Marker-trait association identified a total of 42 markers significantly associated with salt tolerance. They were located on all chromosomes except chromosome 2 based on the alignment of their flanking sequences to the reference genome (Medicago truncatula. Of those identified, 13 were associated with multiple traits. Several loci identified in the present study were also identified in previous reports. BLAST search revealed that 19 putative candidate genes linked to 24 significant markers. Among them, B3 DNA-binding protein, Thiaminepyrophosphokinase and IQ calmodulin-binding motif protein were identified among multiple traits in the present and previous studies. With further investigation, these markers and candidates would be useful for developing markers for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs to improve alfalfa cultivars with enhanced tolerance to salt stress.

  12. Disponibilidade hídrica relacionada ao conteúdo de nitrogênio e à produtividade da alfafa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Wladecir Salles de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A variação da abundância isotópica do 13C e fixação biológica do nitrogênio podem ser utilizadas em programas de melhoramento de cultivares de alfafa (Medicago sativa L., pois contribuem para o entendimento de processos fisiológicos relacionados ao uso da água, fotossíntese, obtenção e uso do nitrogênio, bem como suas interdependências e efeitos sobre a produtividade, eficiência do uso da água e qualidade da biomassa produzida. Nesse sentido, torna-se necessária a avaliação do desempenho sob condições contrastantes em disponibilidade hídrica. Neste estudo, avaliou-se o desempenho de 12 e 6 cultivares de alfafa, respectivamente, em dois experimentos instalados em lisímetros no delineamento estatístico de parcelas subdivididas sob irrigação constante e regime de chuvas. Sob condições controladas, a alfafa responde positivamente à irrigação tanto em relação aos caracteres quantitativos quanto qualitativos e dentre os cultivares estudados, os cultivares Crioula Brasileira e Crioula Chilena apresentaram os melhores desempenhos. Na avaliação de seis meses de duração, não houve correlação entre a discriminação isotópica do carbono (DIC, fixação biológica de nitrogênio (FBN, produção de matéria seca (PMS e eficiência do uso da água (EUA. Na avaliação de um ano sob irrigação a DIC correlacionou-se negativamente com PMS (-0,92**, EUA (-0,94** e FBN (-0,79*. A FBN correlacionou-se positivamente com a PMS (0,93** e EUA (0,87*. Sob regime de chuva não houve correlação entre os parâmetros. Existe uma tendência de correlação positiva entre a PMS e DIC demonstrada em inúmeros trabalhos científicos. Essa tendência pode ser alterada sob limitação de água, limitação ao desenvolvimento radicular ou quando o conjunto de cultivares analisadas é contrastante. Se a correlação permanece de forma positiva invariável, não existe possibilidade de aumento da EUA, uma vez que o aumento da DIC

  13. Decomposition of olive mill waste compost, goat manure and Medicago sativa in Lebanese soils using the litterbag technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atallah, Therese

    2014-05-01

    Organic amendments, green manure and plant residues incorporation are the main sources of nutrients in organic farming, their decomposition rate is crucial for the accumulation and long-term storage of organic matter in soils. In this study the decomposition of compost from olive mill waste (N: 29.3 g kg-1; total dissolved nitrogen or TDN: 3.82 g kg-1), goat manure (N: 31.5 g kg-1; TDN: 0.94 g kg-1), the shoots (N: 33.6 g kg-1; TDN: 17.57 g kg-1) and roots (N: 22.12 g kg-1; TDN: 8.87 g kg-1) of Medicago sativa was followed in three Lebanese soils. The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium released were followed over one year, starting in early winter (December-January). The mild sub-humid Mediterranean conditions allowed a rapid mass loss in alfalfa shoots 30 days after incorporation. Manure and compost were more persistent. Between 80 and 90% of TDN were released, after 30 days of in-situ incubation for compost, the release was over 90% for alfalfa shoots. The movement of P was slower, as the compost (6.99 g kg-1 of P) and manure (9.81 g kg-1 of P) lost 33% and 22%, respectively, during 30 days of incubation. After one year, 15 to 35% of P remained in the soils. The manure was the richest in potassium (19.66 g kg-1) followed by the alfalfa shoots (15.56 g kg-1), the compost (8.19 g kg-1) and the roots (5.96 g kg-1). The loss of potassium was important, as over 88% had disappeared over the year. All decomposition curves followed an exponential model. The calculated coefficients of decomposition for total nitrogen (lnfinal - lninitial/days) were significantly higher for alfalfa shoots (0.00547 day-1) and similar for the compost (0.00184 day-1) and the manure (0.00175 day-1). The ANOVA test showed a difference between two of the sites (Site A: 521 g kg-1 of clay and 42 g kg-1 of calcium carbonate; Site S: 260 g kg-1 of clay and 269 g kg-1 of CaCO3) and the third one (Site L: 315 g kg-1 of clay and 591 g kg-1 of CaCO3). The relationships between the soil calcium

  14. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is tolerant to higher levels of salinity than previous guidelines indicated: Implications of field and greenhouse studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Daniel H.; Benes, Sharon; Galdi, Giuliano; Hutmacher, Bob; Grattan, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most widely grown leguminous forage crop in North America and is valued for high productivity, quality, economic value, and for dairy productivity. Alfalfa has historically been classified as moderately sensitive to saline conditions, with yield declines predicted at >2 dS/m in the saturated soil paste extract. However, greenhouse, sand tank, and field studies over the past five years have confirmed that alfalfa can be grown with limited negative effects at much higher salinity levels. A broad collection of alfalfa varieties has exhibited a range of resistance at irrigation water salinities >5 dS/m ECw in greenhouse trials, with significant variation due to variety. USDA-ARS sand tank studies indicated similar or greater tolerances closer to 8 dS/m in the soil water, in addition to confirmation of significant varietal differences. A three-year field study on clay loam soil with applications of 5-7 dS/m ECw irrigation water indicated normal yields and excellent stand survivability. A second field study in the same soil type with levels from 8-10 dS/m ECw showed yield reductions of 10-15% but economic yields were still achieved at those levels. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted with mixed salt saline sodic waters typical of the San Joaquin Valley of California. Field evaluation of variety performance was subject to greater variation due to secondary salinity-soil interactions including water infiltration and crusting problems, not only salinity per-se. Thus, adequate irrigation water availability to the crop may be as important as salinity in impacting yields under field conditions. Once established, the deep-rooted characteristics of alfalfa enable utilization of deeper subsurface moisture, even at moderate to high salinity levels, as documented by USDA lysimeter studies. Significant advantages to salinity-tolerant varieties have been observed. It will be important to consider specific management factors which may enable

  15. Experimental tolerance to boron of the plant species Nicotiana glauca, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Tecoma stans, Medicago sativa y Spinacea oleracea in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, Marta L. de; Albarracin Franco, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    The activity of the borate deposits industries constitutes a point source and diffuse pollution of air, soil and water. Therefore, the study and experimentation on possible ways to offset this impact is a priority. A relatively new technique to decontaminate soils is phytoremediation, which uses plants and associated microorganisms. The first step is to identify tolerant plant species, which is the focus of this work. An experiment was conducted in the laboratory to evaluate the germination, survival and growth of different species in different concentrations of boron. At the beginning and end of the experiment was determined concentration of boron in the substrate for each treatment and for substrates with and without vegetation. Significant differences due to treatment, the species and species-treatment interaction. M. sativa, N. glauca and J. mimosifolia were the species most tolerant to boron. The other species showed a decrease in all variables-response function of the concentration of the contaminant. All had low survival in the highest concentration. The decrease of boron was highest in the treatment of 30 ppm of boron with M. sativa and the lowest was recorded in the treatment of 20 ppm of boron with J. mimosifolia and 30 ppm of boron with T. stans and S. oleracea. It is concluded that N. glauca, M. sativa and J. mimosifolia could be considered as promising remediation. (author) [es

  16. Effects of enhanced UVB on growth and yield of alfalfa (Medic ago Sativa L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oudat, M.; Baydoun, S.A.; Mohamad, A.

    1997-04-01

    The effects of 20% increase of UVB on growth and yield of alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L.) and two cultivars of soybean (Glycine Max (L.) Mer) under field conditions have been investigated. The increase of UVB dose ranged between 1.746 and 7.112 J/cm 2 during experiment. The results showed that soybean yield decrease by 16% and 31% in A. 3803 and A. 2522 cultivars respectively, under UVB exposure. The dry weight and leaf area were sensitive in the A. 3803 cultivar, while they were tolerant in the A. 2522 cultivar. Alfalfa response to UVB varied during the different stages of growth, whereas the yield was 12% less in the exposed plants. (author). 21 refs., 17 tabs

  17. Evaluation of Perennial Forage Legumes and Herbs in Six Mediterranean Environments Evaluación de Leguminosas y Hierbas Forrajeras Perennes en Seis Medioambientes Mediterráneos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Real

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is an absence of drought tolerant herbaceous perennial forage legume and herb options other than lucerne (Medicago sativa L. for environments with Mediterranean-like climates common in extensive areas of Southern Australia, the Mediterranean basin, and Chile. Therefore, a collection of 174 forage perennial legume and herb entries from 103 species and 32 genera was evaluated for adaptation in a diverse range of Mediterranean climatic environments in Southern Australia. The seasonal rainfall distribution varied from moderately to highly winter dominant with long term average annual rainfall ranging from 318 to 655 mm. The entries were rated for productivity and persistence over 3 yr. The 12 entries identified as the most promising for winter, summer, or all-year round production included Bituminaria bituminosa (L. C.H. Stirt. var. albomarginata; Cichorium intybus L.; Cullen australasicum (Schltdl. J.W. Grimes; Dorycnium hirsutum (L. Ser.; Kennedia prostrata R. Br.; Lotononis bainesii Baker, Lotus pedunculatus Cav.; L. corniculatus L.; L. cytisoides L.; Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.; Medicago sativa subsp. caerulea (Less. ex Ledeb. Schmalh., and M. sativa subsp. falcata (L. Arcang. These entries maintained production and persisted for the period of the evaluation, with the exception of C. intybus and L. corniculatus that declined in persistence over time. The potential role of these species in extensive grazing systems in Mediterranean climatic zones, their attributes and limitations, and current progress in developing them as useful forage plants was discussed.Existe una escasez de leguminosas y hierbas perennes herbáceas además de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. tolerantes a sequía para ambientes con clima mediterráneo como los que se encuentran en el Sur de Australia, el Mediterráneo y Chile. Por lo tanto, una colección de 174 leguminosas perennes y hierbas correspondientes a 103 especies y 32 géneros fue evaluada por su adaptaci

  18. Design of optimal solvent for extraction of bio–active ingredients from six varieties of Medicago sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caunii Angela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive research has been performed worldwide and important evidences were collected to show the immense potential of plants used in various traditional therapeutic systems. The aim of this work is to investigate the different extracting solvents in terms of the influence of their polarity on the extracting ability of bioactive molecules (phenolic compounds from the M. sativa flowers. Results The total phenolic content of samples was determined using the Folin Ciocalteu (FC procedure and their antioxidant activity was assayed through in vitro radical decomposing activity using the radical DPPH° assay (IUPAC name for DPPH is (phenyl–(2,4,6–trinitrophenyl iminoazanium. The results showed that water was better than methanol and acetic acid for extracting bioactive compounds, in particular for total phenolic compounds from the flowers of alfalfa. The average content of bioactive molecules in methanol extract was 263.5±1.02 mg GAE/100g of dry weight lyophilized extract. The total phenolic content of the tested plant extracts was highly correlated with the radical decomposing activity. However, all extracts were free–radical inhibitors, but the water extract was more potent than the acetic and the methanol ones. The order of inhibitor effectiveness (expressed by IC50 proved to be: water extract (0.924mg/mL > acetic acid extract (0.154mg/mL > methanol (0.079mg/mL. The profiles of each extract (fingerprint were characterized by FT–MIR spectroscopy. Conclusions The present study compares the fingerprint of different extracts of the M. sativa flowers, collected from the wild flora of Romania. The total phenolic content of the tested plant extracts was highly correlated with the radical decomposing activity. The dependence of the extract composition on the solvent polarity (acetic acid vs. methanol vs. water was revealed by UV–VIS spectrometry and Infrared fingerprint.

  19. Medicago truncatula SOC1 Genes Are Up-regulated by Environmental Cues That Promote Flowering

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    Jared B. Fudge

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Like Arabidopsis thaliana, the flowering of the legume Medicago truncatula is promoted by long day (LD photoperiod and vernalization. However, there are differences in the molecular mechanisms involved, with orthologs of two key Arabidopsis thaliana regulators, FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC and CONSTANS (CO, being absent or not having a role in flowering time function in Medicago. In Arabidopsis, the MADS-box transcription factor gene, SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (AtSOC1, plays a key role in integrating the photoperiodic and vernalization pathways. In this study, we set out to investigate whether the Medicago SOC1 genes play a role in regulating flowering time. Three Medicago SOC1 genes were identified and characterized (MtSOC1a–MtSOC1c. All three MtSOC1 genes, when heterologously expressed, were able to promote earlier flowering of the late-flowering Arabidopsis soc1-2 mutant. The three MtSOC1 genes have different patterns of expression. However, consistent with a potential role in flowering time regulation, all three MtSOC1 genes are expressed in the shoot apex and are up-regulated in the shoot apex of plants in response to LD photoperiods and vernalization. The up-regulation of MtSOC1 genes was reduced in Medicago fta1-1 mutants, indicating that they are downstream of MtFTa1. Insertion mutant alleles of Medicago soc1b do not flower late, suggestive of functional redundancy among Medicago SOC1 genes in promoting flowering.

  20. The lipoxygenase gene family: a genomic fossil of shared polyploidy between Glycine max and Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Beom-Soon

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soybean lipoxygenases (Lxs play important roles in plant resistance and in conferring the distinct bean flavor. Lxs comprise a multi-gene family that includes GmLx1, GmLx2 and GmLx3, and many of these genes have been characterized. We were interested in investigating the relationship between the soybean lipoxygenase isozymes from an evolutionary perspective, since soybean has undergone two rounds of polyploidy. Here we report the tetrad genome structure of soybean Lx regions produced by ancient and recent polyploidy. Also, comparative genomics with Medicago truncatula was performed to estimate Lxs in the common ancestor of soybean and Medicago. Results Two Lx regions in Medicago truncatula showing synteny with soybean were analyzed. Differential evolutionary rates between soybean and Medicago were observed and the median Ks values of Mt-Mt, Gm-Mt, and Gm-Gm paralogs were determined to be 0.75, 0.62, and 0.46, respectively. Thus the comparison of Gm-Mt paralogs (Ks = 0.62 and Gm-Mt orthologs (Ks = 0.45 supports the ancient duplication of Lx regions in the common ancestor prior to the Medicago-Glycine split. After speciation, no Lx regions generated by another polyploidy were identified in Medicago. Instead tandem duplication of Lx genes was observed. On the other hand, a lineage-specific duplication occurred in soybean resulting in two pairs of Lx regions. Each pair of soybean regions was co-orthologous to one Lx region in Medicago. A total of 34 Lx genes (15 MtLxs and 19 GmLxs were divided into two groups by phylogenetic analysis. Our study shows that the Lx gene family evolved from two distinct Lx genes in the most recent common ancestor. Conclusion This study analyzed two pairs of Lx regions generated by two rounds of polyploidy in soybean. Each pair of soybean homeologous regions is co-orthologous to one region of Medicago, demonstrating the quartet structure of the soybean genome. Differential evolutionary rates between

  1. The Medicago Genome Provides Insight into the Evolution of Rhizobial Symbioses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nevin D.; Debellé, Frédéric; Oldroyd, Giles E. D.; Geurts, Rene; Cannon, Steven B.; Udvardi, Michael K.; Benedito, Vagner A.; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Gouzy, Jérôme; Schoof, Heiko; Van de Peer, Yves; Proost, Sebastian; Cook, Douglas R.; Meyers, Blake C.; Spannagl, Manuel; Cheung, Foo; De Mita, Stéphane; Krishnakumar, Vivek; Gundlach, Heidrun; Zhou, Shiguo; Mudge, Joann; Bharti, Arvind K.; Murray, Jeremy D.; Naoumkina, Marina A.; Rosen, Benjamin; Silverstein, Kevin A. T.; Tang, Haibao; Rombauts, Stephane; Zhao, Patrick X.; Zhou, Peng; Barbe, Valérie; Bardou, Philippe; Bechner, Michael; Bellec, Arnaud; Berger, Anne; Bergès, Hélène; Bidwell, Shelby; Bisseling, Ton; Choisne, Nathalie; Couloux, Arnaud; Denny, Roxanne; Deshpande, Shweta; Dai, Xinbin; Doyle, Jeff; Dudez, Anne-Marie; Farmer, Andrew D.; Fouteau, Stéphanie; Franken, Carolien; Gibelin, Chrystel; Gish, John; Goldstein, Steven; González, Alvaro J.; Green, Pamela J.; Hallab, Asis; Hartog, Marijke; Hua, Axin; Humphray, Sean; Jeong, Dong-Hoon; Jing, Yi; Jöcker, Anika; Kenton, Steve M.; Kim, Dong-Jin; Klee, Kathrin; Lai, Hongshing; Lang, Chunting; Lin, Shaoping; Macmil, Simone L; Magdelenat, Ghislaine; Matthews, Lucy; McCorrison, Jamison; Monaghan, Erin L.; Mun, Jeong-Hwan; Najar, Fares Z.; Nicholson, Christine; Noirot, Céline; O’Bleness, Majesta; Paule, Charles R.; Poulain, Julie; Prion, Florent; Qin, Baifang; Qu, Chunmei; Retzel, Ernest F.; Riddle, Claire; Sallet, Erika; Samain, Sylvie; Samson, Nicolas; Sanders, Iryna; Saurat, Olivier; Scarpelli, Claude; Schiex, Thomas; Segurens, Béatrice; Severin, Andrew J.; Sherrier, D. Janine; Shi, Ruihua; Sims, Sarah; Singer, Susan R.; Sinharoy, Senjuti; Sterck, Lieven; Viollet, Agnès; Wang, Bing-Bing; Wang, Keqin; Wang, Mingyi; Wang, Xiaohong; Warfsmann, Jens; Weissenbach, Jean; White, Doug D.; White, Jim D.; Wiley, Graham B.; Wincker, Patrick; Xing, Yanbo; Yang, Limei; Yao, Ziyun; Ying, Fu; Zhai, Jixian; Zhou, Liping; Zuber, Antoine; Dénarié, Jean; Dixon, Richard A.; May, Gregory D.; Schwartz, David C.; Rogers, Jane; Quétier, Francis; Town, Christopher D.; Roe, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    Legumes (Fabaceae or Leguminosae) are unique among cultivated plants for their ability to carry out endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation with rhizobial bacteria, a process that takes place in a specialized structure known as the nodule. Legumes belong to one of the two main groups of eurosids, the Fabidae, which includes most species capable of endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation 1. Legumes comprise several evolutionary lineages derived from a common ancestor 60 million years ago (Mya). Papilionoids are the largest clade, dating nearly to the origin of legumes and containing most cultivated species 2. Medicago truncatula (Mt) is a long-established model for the study of legume biology. Here we describe the draft sequence of the Mt euchromatin based on a recently completed BAC-assembly supplemented with Illumina-shotgun sequence, together capturing ~94% of all Mt genes. A whole-genome duplication (WGD) approximately 58 Mya played a major role in shaping the Mt genome and thereby contributed to the evolution of endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation. Subsequent to the WGD, the Mt genome experienced higher levels of rearrangement than two other sequenced legumes, Glycine max (Gm) and Lotus japonicus (Lj). Mt is a close relative of alfalfa (M. sativa), a widely cultivated crop with limited genomics tools and complex autotetraploid genetics. As such, the Mt genome sequence provides significant opportunities to expand alfalfa’s genomic toolbox. PMID:22089132

  2. Bioactive spirans and other constituents from the leaves of Cannabis sativa f. sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tian-Tian; Zhang, Jian-Chun; Zhang, Hai; Liu, Qing-Chao; Zhao, Yong; Hou, Yu-Fei; Bai, Lu; Zhang, Li; Liu, Xue-Qiang; Liu, Xue-Ying; Zhang, Sheng-Yong; Bai, Nai-Sheng

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, 17 compounds (1-17) were isolated from the leaves of Hemp (Cannabis sativa f. sativa). Among the isolates, two were determined to be new spirans: cannabispirketal (1), and α-cannabispiranol 4'-O-β-D-glucopyranose (2) by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, LC-MS, and HRESIMS. The known compounds 7, 8, 10, 13, 15, and 16 were isolated from Hemp (C. sativa f. sativa) for the first time. Furthermore, compounds 8 and 13 were isolated from the nature for the first time. All isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity on different tissue-derived passage cancer cell lines through cell viability and apoptosis assay. Among these compounds, compounds 5, 9 and 16 exhibited a broad-spectrum antitumor effect via inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis. These results obtained have provided valuable clues to the understanding of the cytotoxic profile for these isolated compounds from Hemp (C. sativa f. sativa).

  3. Toxicities of TNT and RDX to Terrestrial Plants in Five Soils with Contrasting Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    lettuce ( Lactuca sativa (L.)) and barley (Hordeum vulgare (L.)), respectively, at analytically determined soil concentrations up to and including 3320... sativa L.), Japanese millet (J. millet; Echinochloa crus-galli L. [Beauv.]), and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in five natural soils that...of the test. The test species in these studies were Medicago sativa (L.) var. Canada no. 1 (alfalfa), Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv. var

  4. Effects of drought and salt stress on seed germination of three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seeds of Medicago sativa (L.), Astragalus adsurgens (Pall.) and Coronilla varia (L.) were evaluated at germination for tolerance to salt (NaCl) and drought conditions induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG) in an experiment of orthogonal design. The results reveal that the germination percentages of M. sativa and A.

  5. Medicago sativa spp. falcata

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... The aim of this study was to assess the genetic diversity of ... Regression analysis showed no relationship between genetic distance and phenotypic distance. ... For legumes, growth habit, flower color, leaf ..... 47.49±1.877abc.

  6. The effects of ascorbic acid on salt induced alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. J. T. Ekanem

    contribute to the high electrical conductivity of salt-affected lands3. ... the cellular mechanisms of the stress and its application at the .... Fig 2: Effect of salt and ascorbic acid on a) stem length, b) root length, c) root number, d) dry weight of ...

  7. Non-enzymatic access to the plasma membrane of Medicago root hairs by laser microsurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkdjian, A.; Leitz, G.; Manigault, P.; Harim, A.; Greulich, K. O.

    1993-07-01

    Using UV laser microsurgery, the cell walls of root hairs from Medicago sativa (alfalfa) were perforated under plasmolysing conditions, giving direct access to the plasma membrane without enzyme treatment. The opening in the cell wall of a few μm in diameter results in immediate movement of the protoplasm and partial or complete extrusion of the cell contents. The movement of the protoplasm is retarded by increases in calcium concentration. The calcium-dependency of the movement of the protoplasm allows us to obtain preferentially the extrusion of protoplasm, or to gain access to a small area of plasma membrane in situ. The complete protoplasm can be expelled, to form a protoplast. Fluorescein diacetate staining indicated esterase activity and membrane integrity of the protoplasts. Microscopic examination revealed organelle movement and the presence of a nucleus. The plasma membrane was free from cell wall fragments, as shown by Tinopal staining. Conditions for obtaining plasmolysis without disturbing the physiology of the root hairs too much were achieved by slow, stepwise and reversible plasmolysis. Cytoplasmic streaming in root hairs was maintained during plasmolysis and laser microperforation. This laser technique should be suitable for the performance of electrophysiological studies using the patch-clamp technique on plasma membrane from non-enzyme-treated cells. (author)

  8. Non-enzymatic access to the plasma membrane of Medicago root hairs by laser microsurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurkdjian, A.; Leitz, G.; Manigault, P.; Harim, A.; Greulich, K.O.

    1993-01-01

    Using UV laser microsurgery, the cell walls of root hairs from Medicago sativa (alfalfa) were perforated under plasmolysing conditions, giving direct access to the plasma membrane without enzyme treatment. The opening in the cell wall of a few μm in diameter results in immediate movement of the protoplasm and partial or complete extrusion of the cell contents. The movement of the protoplasm is retarded by increases in calcium concentration. The calcium-dependency of the movement of the protoplasm allows us to obtain preferentially the extrusion of protoplasm, or to gain access to a small area of plasma membrane in situ. The complete protoplasm can be expelled, to form a protoplast. Fluorescein diacetate staining indicated esterase activity and membrane integrity of the protoplasts. Microscopic examination revealed organelle movement and the presence of a nucleus. The plasma membrane was free from cell wall fragments, as shown by Tinopal staining. Conditions for obtaining plasmolysis without disturbing the physiology of the root hairs too much were achieved by slow, stepwise and reversible plasmolysis. Cytoplasmic streaming in root hairs was maintained during plasmolysis and laser microperforation. This laser technique should be suitable for the performance of electrophysiological studies using the patch-clamp technique on plasma membrane from non-enzyme-treated cells. (author)

  9. [Allelopathic effects of the humus soils from Betula platyphylla and Quercus liaotungensis pure plantations on 9 kinds of common shrubs and herbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang-Jia; Liu, Zeng-wen; Zhu, Bo-Chao; Bing, Yuan-Hao; Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Lü, Chen

    2014-06-01

    The humus soils were collected from Betula platyphylla and Quercus liaotungensis pure plantations and woodless land separately where the site conditions were basically the same, and taken as medium for potting culture test of 9 kinds of shrubs or herbs in plastic greenhouse to assess the allelopathic effects of humus soils of pure plantations on shrubs or herbs. Humus soils from B. platyphylla plantation significantly inhibited the seed germinations of Medicago sativa and Melilotus officinalis, decreased the catalase (CAT) activity of M. officinalis, Coronilla varia, M. sativa and Lespedeza davurica, and improved malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in seedlings of Caragana kor-shinskii, C. varia and Astragalus adsurgens. The biomass growths of C. varia, Amorpha fruticosa, M. sativa, M. officinalis and A. adsurgens in humus soils from B. platyphylla plantation were significantly decreased by 48.2%, 45.1%, 44.3%, 37.3% and 36.0%, respectively. In addition, humus soil of Q. liaotungensis plantation significantly decreased the germination rates of M. sativa and A. adsurgens, the chlorophyll contents of Vicia villosa, A. fruticosa and M. sativa, and improved malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in seedlings of Lespedeza davurica, Caragana korshinskii, M. officinalis and A. adsurgens. The biomass growths of A. adsurgens, M. sativa, M. officinalis and A. fruticosa were significantly decreased by 52.6% , 43.8%, 35.5% and 34.6%, respective- ly. B. platyphylla plantation humus soil had obvious inhibition effects on M. sativa, M. officinalis and A. fruticosa, while Q. liaotungensis plantation humus soil had obvious inhibition effects on M. sativa, A. adsurgens and A. fruticosa.

  10. [Comparison of soil fertility among open-pit mine reclaimed lands in Antaibao regenerated with different vegetation types].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Li, Jin-chuan; Yue, Jian-ying; Zhou, Xiao-mei; Guo, Chun-yan; Lu, Ning; Wang, Yu-hong; Yang, Sheng-quan

    2013-09-01

    Re-vegetation is mainly applied into regeneration in opencast mine to improve the soil quality. It is very important to choose feasible vegetation types for soil restoration. In this study, three typical forest restoration types were studied at Antaibao mine, namely, Medicago sativa, mixed forests Pinus taebelaefolius-Robinia pseudoacacia-Caragana korshinskii and Elaeagnus angustifolia-Robinia pseudoacacia-Caragana korshinskii-Hipophae rhamnoides, to determine the nutrient contents and enzyme activities in different soil layers. The results showed that re-vegetation markedly increased soil nutrient contents and the enzyme activities during the restoration process. The nutrient content of soil in the P. taebelaefolius-R. pseudoacacia-C. korshinskii mixed forest field was significantly higher than those in other plots. It was found that the soil of the P. taebelaefolius-R. pseudoacacia-C. korshinskii mixed forest had the highest integrated fertility index values. In conclusion, the restoration effects of the P. zaebelaefolius-R. pseudoacacia-C. Korshinskii mixed forest was better than that of E. angustifolia-R. pseudoacacia-C. korshinskii-H. rhamnoides, while M. sativa grassland had the least effect.

  11. Phthalate esters contamination in soil and plants on agricultural land near an electronic waste recycling site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ting Ting; Christie, Peter; Luo, Yong Ming; Teng, Ying

    2013-08-01

    The accumulation of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in soil and plants in agricultural land near an electronic waste recycling site in east China has become a great threat to the neighboring environmental quality and human health. Soil and plant samples collected from land under different utilization, including fallow plots, vegetable plots, plots with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) as green manure, fallow plots under long-term flooding and fallow plots under alternating wet and dry periods, together with plant samples from relative plots were analyzed for six PAE compounds nominated as prior pollutants by USEPA. In the determined samples, the concentrations of six target PAE pollutants ranged from 0.31-2.39 mg/kg in soil to 1.81-5.77 mg/kg in various plants (dry weight/DW), and their bioconcentration factors (BCFs) ranged from 5.8 to 17.9. Health risk assessments were conducted on target PAEs, known as typical environmental estrogen analogs, based on their accumulation in the edible parts of vegetables. Preliminary risk assessment to human health from soil and daily vegetable intake indicated that DEHP may present a high-exposure risk on all ages of the population in the area by soil ingestion or vegetable consumption. The potential damage that the target PAE compounds may pose to human health should be taken into account in further comprehensive risk assessments in e-waste recycling sites areas. Moreover, alfalfa removed substantial amounts of PAEs from the soil, and its use can be considered a good strategy for in situ remediation of PAEs.

  12. Spatio-Temporal Expression Patterns of Arabidopsis thaliana and Medicago truncatula Defensin-Like Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallu, Sumitha; Wang, Lin; Botanga, Christopher J.; Gomez, S. Karen; Costa, Liliana M.; Harrison, Maria J.; Samac, Deborah A.; Glazebrook, Jane; Katagiri, Fumiaki; Gutierrez-Marcos, Jose F.; VandenBosch, Kathryn A.

    2013-01-01

    Plant genomes contain several hundred defensin-like (DEFL) genes that encode short cysteine-rich proteins resembling defensins, which are well known antimicrobial polypeptides. Little is known about the expression patterns or functions of many DEFLs because most were discovered recently and hence are not well represented on standard microarrays. We designed a custom Affymetrix chip consisting of probe sets for 317 and 684 DEFLs from Arabidopsis thaliana and Medicago truncatula, respectively for cataloging DEFL expression in a variety of plant organs at different developmental stages and during symbiotic and pathogenic associations. The microarray analysis provided evidence for the transcription of 71% and 90% of the DEFLs identified in Arabidopsis and Medicago, respectively, including many of the recently annotated DEFL genes that previously lacked expression information. Both model plants contain a subset of DEFLs specifically expressed in seeds or fruits. A few DEFLs, including some plant defensins, were significantly up-regulated in Arabidopsis leaves inoculated with Alternaria brassicicola or Pseudomonas syringae pathogens. Among these, some were dependent on jasmonic acid signaling or were associated with specific types of immune responses. There were notable differences in DEFL gene expression patterns between Arabidopsis and Medicago, as the majority of Arabidopsis DEFLs were expressed in inflorescences, while only a few exhibited root-enhanced expression. By contrast, Medicago DEFLs were most prominently expressed in nitrogen-fixing root nodules. Thus, our data document salient differences in DEFL temporal and spatial expression between Arabidopsis and Medicago, suggesting distinct signaling routes and distinct roles for these proteins in the two plant species. PMID:23527067

  13. Spatio-temporal expression patterns of Arabidopsis thaliana and Medicago truncatula defensin-like genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin Tesfaye

    Full Text Available Plant genomes contain several hundred defensin-like (DEFL genes that encode short cysteine-rich proteins resembling defensins, which are well known antimicrobial polypeptides. Little is known about the expression patterns or functions of many DEFLs because most were discovered recently and hence are not well represented on standard microarrays. We designed a custom Affymetrix chip consisting of probe sets for 317 and 684 DEFLs from Arabidopsis thaliana and Medicago truncatula, respectively for cataloging DEFL expression in a variety of plant organs at different developmental stages and during symbiotic and pathogenic associations. The microarray analysis provided evidence for the transcription of 71% and 90% of the DEFLs identified in Arabidopsis and Medicago, respectively, including many of the recently annotated DEFL genes that previously lacked expression information. Both model plants contain a subset of DEFLs specifically expressed in seeds or fruits. A few DEFLs, including some plant defensins, were significantly up-regulated in Arabidopsis leaves inoculated with Alternaria brassicicola or Pseudomonas syringae pathogens. Among these, some were dependent on jasmonic acid signaling or were associated with specific types of immune responses. There were notable differences in DEFL gene expression patterns between Arabidopsis and Medicago, as the majority of Arabidopsis DEFLs were expressed in inflorescences, while only a few exhibited root-enhanced expression. By contrast, Medicago DEFLs were most prominently expressed in nitrogen-fixing root nodules. Thus, our data document salient differences in DEFL temporal and spatial expression between Arabidopsis and Medicago, suggesting distinct signaling routes and distinct roles for these proteins in the two plant species.

  14. Nutritive evaluation of Medicago truncutula (cv. jernalong) pasture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritive evaluation of Medicago truncutula (cv. jernalong) pasture for sheep. 1. Seasonal .... obtained by laboratory work, using in vitro techniques. (Engels et al. .... model that was used to explain 92,3% of the variance in. IVDOM content.

  15. Characterization of Cannabis sativa allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Ajay P; Green, Brett J; Sussman, Gordon; Berlin, Noam; Lata, Hemant; Chandra, Suman; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Hettick, Justin M; Beezhold, Donald H

    2013-07-01

    Allergic sensitization to Cannabis sativa is rarely reported, but the increasing consumption of marijuana has resulted in an increase in the number of individuals who become sensitized. To date, little is known about the causal allergens associated with C sativa. To characterize marijuana allergens in different components of the C sativa plant using serum IgE from marijuana sensitized patients. Serum samples from 23 patients with a positive skin prick test result to a crude C sativa extract were evaluated. IgE reactivity was variable between patients and C sativa extracts. IgE reactivity to C sativa proteins in Western blots was heterogeneous and ranged from 10 to 70 kDa. Putative allergens derived from 2-dimensional gels were identified. Prominent IgE reactive bands included a 23-kDa oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 2 and a 50-kDa protein identified to be the photosynthetic enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Additional proteins were identified in the proteomic analysis, including those from adenosine triphosphate synthase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase, and luminal binding protein (heat shock protein 70), suggesting these proteins are potential allergens. Deglycosylation studies helped refine protein allergen identification and demonstrated significant IgE antibodies against plant oligosaccharides that could help explain cross-reactivity. Identification and characterization of allergens from C sativa may be helpful in further understanding allergic sensitization to this plant species. Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sequence divergence of microsatellites for phylogeographic assessment of Moroccan Medicago species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitouna, N; Marghali, S; Gharbi, M; Haddioui, A; Trifi-Farah, N

    2014-03-12

    Six Medicago species were investigated to characterize and valorize plant genetic resources of pastoral interest in Morocco. Samples were obtained from the core collection of the South Australian Research and Development Institute (SARDI). The transferability of single sequence repeat markers of Medicago truncatula was successful with 97.6% efficiency across the five species. A total of 283 alleles and 243 genotypes were generated using seven SSR markers, confirming the high level of polymorphism that is characteristic of the Medicago genus, despite a heterozygosity deficit (HO = 0.378; HE = 0.705). In addition, a high level of gene flow was revealed among the species analyzed with significant intra-specific variation. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram generated by the dissimilarity matrix revealed that M. polymorpha and M. orbicularis are closely related, and that M. truncatula is likely the ancestral species. The Pearson correlation index revealed no significant correlations between the geographic distribution of the Moroccan species and genetic similarities, indicating local adaptation of these species to different ecological environments independent of their topographical proximities. The substantial genetic variation observed was likely due to the predominance of selfing species, the relative proximity of prospected sites, human impacts, and the nature of the SARDI core collections, which are selected for their high genetic diversity. The results of this first report on Moroccan Medicago species will be of great interest for establishing strategies aiming at reasonable management and selection programs for local and Mediterranean germplasm in the face of increasing environmental change.

  17. Cloning and characterization of a heme oxygenase-2 gene from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guang-Qing; Jin, Qi-Jiang; Lin, Yu-Ting; Feng, Jian-Fei; Nie, Li; Shen, Wen-Biao; Zheng, Tian-Qing

    2011-11-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO, EC 1.14.99.3) catalyzes the oxidation of heme and performs vital roles in plant development and stress responses. Two HO isozymes exist in plants. Between these, HO-1 is an oxidative stress-response protein, and HO-2 usually exhibited constitutive expression. Although alfalfa HO-1 gene (MsHO1) has been investigated previously, HO2 is still poorly understood. In this study, we report the cloning and characterization of HO2 gene, MsHO2, from alfalfa (Medica sativa L.). The full-length cDNA of MsHO2 contains an ORF of 870 bp and encodes for 290 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 33.3 kDa. Similar to MsHO1, MsHO2 also appears to have an N-terminal transit peptide sequence for chloroplast import. Many conserved residues in plant HO were also conserved in MsHO2. However, unlike HO-1, the conserved histidine (His) required for heme-iron binding and HO activity was replaced by tyrosine (Tyr) in MsHO2. Further biochemical activity analysis of purified mature MsHO2 showed no HO activity, suggesting that MsHO2 may not be a true HO in nature. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed its maximum expression in the germinating seeds. Importantly, the expression levels of MsHO2 were up-regulated under sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and H(2)O(2) (especially) treatment, respectively.

  18. The promotive effect of N 2 fixers, Bacillus circulans and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The promotive effect of N 2 fixers, Bacillus circulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the viability of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and the impact on the productivity of alfalfa ( Medicago sativa l.)

  19. Yield and nutritive quality of forage legumes on reclaimed surface mined land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditsch, D.C.; Collins, M.

    1998-01-01

    Legumes are important in the long-term nitrogen economy of surface mined lands and for establishing and maintaining quality livestock forage. Little information is available to reclamation specialists for use in selection of forage legume species based on productivity potential, persistence and nutritive quality for livestock. A study was initiated at two sites in the Appalachian coal fields of Kentucky to evaluate monocultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) under management regimes suitable for livestock production. Legumes were harvested at the early bloom stage throughout the growing season for dry matter (DM) yield determination. Forage quality was determined by measuring crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), cellulose (CEL) and acid detergent lignin (ADL). High DM yields were produced by all species during the first production season (range 6.2-9.2 Mg ha -1 ) but yields of all species declined rapidly by year three. Birdsfoot trefoil demonstrated slightly greater drought tolerance during mid-season (July/August) than alfalfa and red clover. With the exception of site number-sign 1 in 1992 (4 harvests), no more than 3 harvests were made during a single growing season. Crude protein concentration of these forage legumes was found to be within the range commonly measured on undisturbed lands. However, high NDF and ADF values were observed above those reported by others for the same species. These results indicate that it may be difficult to maintain a high level of productivity throughout the five-year bonding period under hay management. Management practices such as summer stockpiling may be necessary to compensate for the rapid and wide fluctuations in DM yield and quality due to low water-holding capacity of mine spoils. 15 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  20. Sinorhizobium meliloti can protect Medicago truncatula against Phoma medicaginis attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncef MRABET

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Sinorhizobium meliloti microsymbiont of Medicago spp. was used in an antibiosis test against Phoma medicaginis and in bioprotection assays of Medicago truncatula JA17 from the pathogen. Among 17 S. meliloti strains isolated from root nodules of M. truncatula and Medicago laciniata grown in Tunisian soils, six showed up to 60% growth inhibition of five P. medicaginis strains isolated from infected field-grown M. truncatula. Two S. meliloti strains with differing in vitro effects on P. medicaginis, 10.16/R6 antagonist and 5M6 non antagonist, were used in a bioprotection assay of M. truncatula JA17 from the pathogen. The inoculation of P. medicaginis caused complete root and stem rotting, and the mortality of all treated plantlets. Inoculation of the antagonist S. meliloti strain 10.16/R6 to M. truncatula JA17 infected with P. medicaginis was associated with a significant 65% decrease of vegetative rotting length, an 80% decrease of plant mortality, an increase of root length, and enhancement of root and shoot biomass comparatively to control plantlets treated with P. medicaginis. The inoculation of the non antagonistic S. meliloti strain 5M6 slightly decreased disease and slightly increased plant growth parameters.

  1. In silico identification of known osmotic stress responsive genes from Arabidopsis in soybean and Medicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina M. Soares-Cavalcanti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants experience various environmental stresses, but tolerance to these adverse conditions is a very complex phenomenon. The present research aimed to evaluate a set of genes involved in osmotic response, comparing soybean and medicago with the well-described Arabidopsis thaliana model plant. Based on 103 Arabidopsis proteins from 27 categories of osmotic stress response, comparative analyses against Genosoja and Medicago truncatula databases allowed the identification of 1,088 soybean and 1,210 Medicago sequences. The analysis showed a high number of sequences and high diversity, comprising genes from all categories in both organisms. Genes with unknown function were among the most representative, followed by transcription factors, ion transport proteins, water channel, plant defense, protein degradation, cellular structure, organization & biogenesis and senescence. An analysis of sequences with unknown function allowed the annotation of 174 soybean and 217 Medicago sequences, most of them concerning transcription factors. However, for about 30% of the sequences no function could be attributed using in silico procedures. The establishment of a gene set involved in osmotic stress responses in soybean and barrel medic will help to better understand the survival mechanisms for this type of stress condition in legumes.

  2. The molecular genetic linkage map of the model legume Medicago truncatula: an essential tool for comparative legume genomics and the isolation of agronomically important genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ané Jean-Michel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The legume Medicago truncatula has emerged as a model plant for the molecular and genetic dissection of various plant processes involved in rhizobial, mycorrhizal and pathogenic plant-microbe interactions. Aiming to develop essential tools for such genetic approaches, we have established the first genetic map of this species. Two parental homozygous lines were selected from the cultivar Jemalong and from the Algerian natural population (DZA315 on the basis of their molecular and phenotypic polymorphism. Results An F2 segregating population of 124 individuals between these two lines was obtained using an efficient manual crossing technique established for M. truncatula and was used to construct a genetic map. This map spans 1225 cM (average 470 kb/cM and comprises 289 markers including RAPD, AFLP, known genes and isoenzymes arranged in 8 linkage groups (2n = 16. Markers are uniformly distributed throughout the map and segregation distortion is limited to only 3 linkage groups. By mapping a number of common markers, the eight linkage groups are shown to be homologous to those of diploid alfalfa (M. sativa, implying a good level of macrosynteny between the two genomes. Using this M. truncatula map and the derived F3 populations, we were able to map the Mtsym6 symbiotic gene on linkage group 8 and the SPC gene, responsible for the direction of pod coiling, on linkage group 7. Conclusions These results demonstrate that Medicago truncatula is amenable to diploid genetic analysis and they open the way to map-based cloning of symbiotic or other agronomically-important genes using this model plant.

  3. Effects of Sludge Compost on EC value of Saline Soil and Plant Height of Medicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chongyang; Zhao, Ke; Chen, Xing; Wang, Xiaohui

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the effects of sludge composting on the EC value of saline soil and the response to Medicago plant height were studied by planting Medicago with pots for 45 days in different proportions as sludge composting with saline soil. The results showed that the EC value of saline soil did not change obviously with the increase of fertilization ratio,which indicated that the EC value of saline soil was close to that of the original soil. The EC decreased by 31.45% at fertilization ratio of 40%. The height of Medicago reached the highest at 40% fertilization ratio, and that was close to 60% fertilization ratio, and the difference was significant with other treatments. By comprehensive analyse and compare,the optimum application rate of sludge compost was 40% under this test condition.

  4. Root developmental programs shape the Medicago truncatula nodule meristem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, H.; Xiao, T.T.; Kulikova, O.; Wan, X.; Bisseling, T.; Scheres, B.; Heidstra, R.

    2015-01-01

    Nodules on the roots of legume plants host nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium bacteria. Several lines of evidence indicate that nodules are evolutionarily related to roots. We determined whether developmental control of the Medicago truncatula nodule meristem bears resemblance to that in root meristems

  5. Observations of foliar injury to plants by sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, A.K.; Chaphekar, S.B.

    1978-01-01

    Morphological and anatomical changes in mature leaves indicated that Raphanus sativus, Commelina benghalensis and Medicago sativa were injured and Pennisetum typhoideum, Alternanthere ficoidea and Mangifera indica (seedlings) were not injured by sulfur dioxide fumigation. The highly susceptible plants like Raphanus, Medicago, and Commelina can be used for monitoring air quality in a polluted atmosphere. Uninjured species like Pennisetum on the other hand, may be grown in polluted areas for maintaining agricultural production. 9 references, 1 table.

  6. cell- and tissue-specific transcriptome analyses of Medicago truncatula root nodules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Limpens

    Full Text Available Legumes have the unique ability to host nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium bacteria as symbiosomes inside root nodule cells. To get insight into this key process, which forms the heart of the endosymbiosis, we isolated specific cells/tissues at different stages of symbiosome formation from nodules of the model legume Medicago truncatula using laser-capture microdissection. Next, we determined their associated expression profiles using Affymetrix Medicago GeneChips. Cells were collected from the nodule infection zone divided into a distal (where symbiosome formation and division occur and proximal region (where symbiosomes are mainly differentiating, as well as infected cells from the fixation zone containing mature nitrogen fixing symbiosomes. As non-infected cells/tissue we included nodule meristem cells and uninfected cells from the fixation zone. Here, we present a comprehensive gene expression map of an indeterminate Medicago nodule and selected genes that show specific enriched expression in the different cells or tissues. Validation of the obtained expression profiles, by comparison to published gene expression profiles and experimental verification, indicates that the data can be used as digital "in situ". This digital "in situ" offers a genome-wide insight into genes specifically associated with subsequent stages of symbiosome and nodule cell development, and can serve to guide future functional studies.

  7. Radionuclides in milk of dairy heifers raised on forages harvested from phosphatic clay soils on reclaimed mined land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, C.R.; Umana, R.; Hayen, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    Alfalfa (AR; Medicago sativa L.) and corn (CSR; Zea mays L.) were grown in phosphatic clay soils on phosphate-mined reclaimed land in central Florida. Corn (CSC) also was grown on unmined land and served as a control forage. Upon harvesting, plants were chopped and ensiled. Concentrations of 226 Ra averaged 2.44, 0.26 and 0.15; 210 Pb averaged 1.04, 0.63, and 0.52; and 210 Po averaged 1.59, 0.59, and 1.26 Bq kg -1 DM for AR, CSR, and CSC, respectively. These forages were fed separately to Holstein dairy replacement heifers (Bos taurus) (n=15 per forage) from approximately 9 to 25 mo of age. Heifers gave birth to calves at approximately 24 mo of age. Samples of milk were collected on d 1, 15, and 30 of lactation and analyzed for radionuclides. Averaged across sampling days, heifers fed AR had greater milk concentrations of 226 Ra compared with those fed CSR (0.27 vs. 0.22 Bq kg -1 DM; P -1 DM; P 210 Po compared with heifers fed CSR (0.58 vs. 0.30 Bq kg -1 DM; P -1 DM). Lead-210 was greater in milk from heifers fed CSR compared with those fed AR or CSC (1.38 vs. 0.94 and 0.92 Bq kg -1 DM; P < 0.13), respectively. Plasma S and Cu concentrations suggested subclinical molybdenosis in heifers fed AR. However, all heifers grew at an acceptable rate, conceived normally, had normal gestation periods, gave high quality colostrum at calving, and produced similar amounts of milk. 17 refs., 9 tabs

  8. Cover crops for managing weeds, soil chemical fertility and nutritional status of organically grown orange orchard in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Paolo Mauro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cover crops can offer significant advantages in the agronomic management of citrus orchards in Mediterranean environments. Therefore, a three-year research was conducted in eastern Sicily aimed at studying the effects of four cover crop sequences (Sinapis arvensis-Trigonella foenum-graecum-T. foenum-graecum; Medicago scutellata-Avena sativa-Lolium perenne; Vicia faba minor-A. sativa-A. sativa; A. sativa-V. faba. minor-L. perenne on weeds, major soil chemical properties and nutritional status of an organically grown orange orchard. The results highlighted that, among the studied cover crop sequences, Vicia faba-Avena-Avena was the most beneficial for weeds control within the orchard (92%, of cover crop cover, and 586 and 89 g DW m–2 of cover crop aboveground biomass and weeds aboveground biomass, respectively. Overall, the chemical fertility of the soil was positively influenced. In particular, it was observed an increase of the content of total nitrogen and available phosphorus in the soil by both Sinapis-Trigonella-Trigonella (0.75 g kg–1 and 59.0 mg kg–1, respectively and Vicia faba-Avena-Avena (0.70 g kg–1 and 56.0 mg kg–1, respectively cover crop sequences. Medicago-Avena-Lolium sequence seemed to be the most useful to ensure a better nutritional status of the orange orchard.

  9. Uranium uptake and accumulation in plants from soil contaminated with uranium in different concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Luxue; Tang Yongjin; Luo Xuegang

    2014-01-01

    The plants of Medicago sativa L., Hibiscus esulentus L, Waterspinach, Amaranthus retroflexus and Abutilon theophrasti Medic were employed as the indicator to investigate the uranium uptake and accumulation from soils contaminated with uranium (UO_2 (CH_3COO)_2 · 2H_2O) of 25 mg · kg"-"l, 75 mg · kg"-"1, 125 mg · kg"-"l, 175 mg · kg"-"l respectively, in a pot experiment. The result shows that, U concentration in the aerial part and underground part of the whole plant increased with the rise of uranium concentration in the soils. In the contaminated soils with 25∼125 mg · kg"-"l concentrations of uranium, U content of Medicago sativa L is the highset (6.78 mg · kg"-"l, 61.53 mg · kg"-"l, 74.06 mg · kg"-"l separately). While in the 175 mg · kg"-"l concentration of uranium contaminated soils, U content of Hibiscus esulentus L is the highest (86.72 mg · kg"-"1), which is mainly because of U concentration in its roots have higher level of uranium (388.16 mg · kg"-"l). Comprehensive analysis shows that Medicago sativa L. is a good plant for phytoextraction and Hibiscus esulentus L is a good immobilizing plant for phytoremediation. The results can provide some theoretical basis and technical support for remedying U-contaminated soils in different areas of our country. (authors)

  10. Efecto de las arañas (Arachnida: Araneae como depredadoras de insectos plaga en cultivos de alfalfa (Medicago sativa (Fabaceae en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Armendano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae as predators of insect pest in alfalfa crops (Medicago sativa (Fabaceae in Argentina. Spiders are predators that reduce insect pest populations in agroecosystems. Trials were conducted to measure the selectivity against different insect preys, the daily consumption, effect of predators alone and together with a known number of preys, and the indirect effect of predators on vegetation. For this, experimental units (1x1m were used covered with a fine plastic mesh. Misumenops pallidus, Oxyopes salticus and Araneus sp. were used as generalist predators, and aphids, weevils, locusts, chrysomelids and Lepidoptera larvae as their potential preys. Among the preys offered, the spiders preferred Lepidoptera larvae compared to the other two pests groups (weevils and aphids. The maximum consumption rate was of 93.33% for Lepidoptera larvae, 25.33% for aphids and 11.67% for weevils. The Q Index values for the three species of spiders showed a positive selectivity only for defoliating larvae. O. salticus showed the highest values of consumption rates while Rachiplusia nu was the most consumed. The maximum value of consumption in 24 hours was showed by O. salticus on R. nu (C=2.8. The association of several species of predatory spiders increased the total number of insects captured, and also showed that the addition of spiders caused a decrease in the number of leaves damaged by the effect of lepidopterous larvae. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1651-1662. Epub 2011 December 01Las arañas son depredadoras capaces de reducir las poblaciones de insectos plaga en agroecosistemas. Para medir la selectividad frente a distintas presas, se realizaron ensayos de consumo diario, efecto de los depredadores aisladamente y en conjunto sobre el número de presas y efecto indirecto de los depredadores sobre la vegetación; se utilizaron jaulas experimentales de 1x1m cubiertas con una fina malla plástica. Misumenops pallidus, Oxyopes salticus y

  11. Alfalfa stem tissues: Cell wall deposition, composition, and degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, H.G.; Engels, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Declining cell wall degradability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) stems with maturation limits the nutritional value of alfalfa for ruminants. This study characterized changes in cell wall concentration, composition, and degradability by rumen microbes resulting from alfalfa stem tissue

  12. Cover crop-based ecological weed management: exploration and optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruidhof, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: organic farming, ecologically-based weed management, cover crops, green manure, allelopathy, Secale cereale, Brassica napus, Medicago sativa

    Cover crop-based ecological weed management: exploration and optimization. In organic farming systems, weed control is recognized as one

  13. Cardiovascular benefits of black cumin (Nigella sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabana, Adel; El-Menyar, Ayman; Asim, Mohammad; Al-Azzeh, Hiba; Al Thani, Hassan

    2013-03-01

    Black Cumin (Nigella sativa), which belongs to the botanical family of Ranunculaceae, commonly grows in Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Western Asia. Its ripe fruit contains tiny black seeds, known as "Al-Habba Al-Sauda" and "Al-Habba Al-Barakah" in Arabic and black seed or black cumin in English. Seeds of Nigella sativa are frequently used in folk medicine in the Middle East and some Asian countries for the promotion of good health and the treatment of many ailments. However, data for the cardiovascular benefits of black cumin are not well-established. We reviewed the literature from 1960 to March 2012 by using the following key words: "Nigella sativa," "black seeds," and "thymoquinone." Herein, we discussed the most relevant articles to find out the role of Nigella sativa in the cardiovascular diseases spectrum especially when there is a paucity of information and need of further studies in human to establish the utility of Nigella sativa in cardiovascular system protection.

  14. A community resource for high-throughput quantitative RT-PCR analysis of transcription factor gene expression in Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redman Julia C

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicago truncatula is a model legume species that is currently the focus of an international genome sequencing effort. Although several different oligonucleotide and cDNA arrays have been produced for genome-wide transcript analysis of this species, intrinsic limitations in the sensitivity of hybridization-based technologies mean that transcripts of genes expressed at low-levels cannot be measured accurately with these tools. Amongst such genes are many encoding transcription factors (TFs, which are arguably the most important class of regulatory proteins. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR is the most sensitive method currently available for transcript quantification, and one that can be scaled up to analyze transcripts of thousands of genes in parallel. Thus, qRT-PCR is an ideal method to tackle the problem of TF transcript quantification in Medicago and other plants. Results We established a bioinformatics pipeline to identify putative TF genes in Medicago truncatula and to design gene-specific oligonucleotide primers for qRT-PCR analysis of TF transcripts. We validated the efficacy and gene-specificity of over 1000 TF primer pairs and utilized these to identify sets of organ-enhanced TF genes that may play important roles in organ development or differentiation in this species. This community resource will be developed further as more genome sequence becomes available, with the ultimate goal of producing validated, gene-specific primers for all Medicago TF genes. Conclusion High-throughput qRT-PCR using a 384-well plate format enables rapid, flexible, and sensitive quantification of all predicted Medicago transcription factor mRNAs. This resource has been utilized recently by several groups in Europe, Australia, and the USA, and we expect that it will become the 'gold-standard' for TF transcript profiling in Medicago truncatula.

  15. Production of 2nd generation Bioethanol from Lucerne - Optimization of Hydrothermal Pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Jensen, Morten; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2012-01-01

    Lucerne (Medicago sativa) has many qualities associated with sustainable agriculture such as nitrogen fixation and high biomass yield. Therefore, there is interest in whether lucerne is a suitable biomass substrate for bioethanol production, and if hydrothermal pretreatment (HTT) of lucerne impro...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK062499 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK062499 001-104-A06 At4g27250.1 dihydroflavonol 4-reductase family / dihydrokaempferol... 4-reductase family similar to dihydrokaempferol 4-reductase, Ipomoea purpurea (GI:4239849), Medicago sativa, PIR2:S61416 8e-45 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK067272 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK067272 J013098D22 At4g27250.1 dihydroflavonol 4-reductase family / dihydrokaempferol... 4-reductase family similar to dihydrokaempferol 4-reductase, Ipomoea purpurea (GI:4239849), Medicago sativa, PIR2:S61416 7e-40 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK099340 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK099340 J033024N22 At4g27250.1 dihydroflavonol 4-reductase family / dihydrokaempferol... 4-reductase family similar to dihydrokaempferol 4-reductase, Ipomoea purpurea (GI:4239849), Medicago sativa, PIR2:S61416 2e-40 ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CJAC-01-0155 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-0155 sp|Q09134|GRPA_MEDFA Abscisic acid and environmental stress-induc...ible protein emb|CAA42554.1| environmental stress and abscisic acid inducible protein [Medicago sativa subsp. falcata] Q09134 2e-05 35% ...

  20. Differential Effects of Legume Species on the Recovery of Soil Microbial Communities, and Carbon and Nitrogen Contents, in Abandoned Fields of the Loess Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin Hua; Jiao, Shu Mei; Gao, Rong Qing; Bardgett, Richard D.

    2012-12-01

    Plant-soil interactions are known to influence a wide range of ecosystem-level functions. Moreover, the recovery of these functions is of importance for the successful restoration of soils that have been degraded through intensive and/or inappropriate land use. Here, we assessed the effect of planting treatments commonly used to accelerate rates of grassland restoration, namely introduction of different legume species Medicago sativa, Astragalus adsurgens, Melilotus suaveolens, on the recovery of soil microbial communities and carbon and nitrogen contents in abandoned fields of the Loess Plateau, China. The results showed effects were species-specific, and either positive, neutral or negative depending on the measure and time-scale. All legumes increased basal respiration and metabolic quotient and had a positive effect on activity and functional diversity of the soil microbial community, measured using Biolog EcoPlate. However, soil under Astragalus adsurgens had the highest activity and functional diversity relative to the other treatments. Soil carbon and nitrogen content and microbial biomass were effectively restored in 3-5 years by introducing Medicago sativa and Astragalus adsurgens into early abandoned fields. Soil carbon and nitrogen content were retarded in 3-5 years and microbial biomass was retarded in the fifth year by introducing Melilotus suaveolens. Overall, the restoration practices of planting legumes can significantly affect soil carbon and nitrogen contents, and the biomass, activity, and functional diversity of soil microbial community. Therefore, we propose certain legume species could be used to accelerate ecological restoration of degraded soils, hence assist in the protection and preservation of the environment.

  1. Protective effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa L.and Portulaca oleracea L. on free radical induced hemolysis of RBCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Taghiabadi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available "n  Background and the purpose of the study: It has been shown that Nigella sativa L. and Portulaca oleracea L. have many antioxidant components. In the present study, the cytoprotective effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of N.sativa and P.oleracea against hemolytic damages induced by free radical initiator, AAPH [2, 2' azobis (2- amidinopropane hydrochloride] was evaluated. "n  Methods: Hemolysis was induced by addition of AAPH. To study the cytoprotective effect, aqueous (50, 200, 300, 400, 800 μg/ml and ethanolic (25, 100, 150, 200 and 400 μg/ml extracts of N. sativa and aqueous (25, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 400 μg/ml and ethanolic (300, 600, 900, 1200 and 1800 μg/ml extracts of P. oleracea were employed. RBCs were incubated with both extracts and AAPH at 37 °C for 6 hrs. In order to evaluate the impact of the time of addition, extracts were added one and 2 hrs after AAPH. Samples of suspensions were removed at different times and the degree of hemolysis was assessed spectrophotometrically by reading the absorption of supernatants at 540 nm. "n  Results: Aqueous (300, 400 and 800 μg/ml and ethanolic (150, 200 and 400 μg/ml extracts of N.sativa and also, aqueous (100, 150, 200 and 400 μg/ml and ethanolic (1200, 1800 μg/ml extracts of P.oleracea showed concentration-dependent cytoprotective effects. Addition of extracts one hour after AAPH reduced but did not eliminate protective activities of extracts. "n  Conclusion: Cytorotective effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of N. sativa and P. oleracea against AAPH- induced hemolysis may be related to antioxidant properties of these plants.

  2. A novel gene whose expression in Medicago truncatula roots is suppressed in response to colonization by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi and to phosphate nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, S H; Harrison, M J

    1997-05-01

    A cDNA clone (Mt4) was isolated as a result of a differential screen to identify genes showing altered expression during the interaction between Medicago truncatula and the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungus Glomus versiforme. Mt4 represents a M. truncatula mRNA that contains numerous short open reading frames, the two longest of which are predicted to encode polypeptides of 51 amino acids each. One of these open reading frames shares a short region of identity with a phosphate starvation-inducible gene from tomato. Mt4 gene expression is regulated in response to colonization by mycorrhizal fungi: transcripts were detected in non-colonized roots and levels decreased in both M. truncatula and M. sativa (alfalfa) roots after colonization by G. versiforme. Transcript levels also decreased during the incomplete interaction between G. versiforme and a M. sativa mycorrhizal minus (myc-) line, indicating that the down-regulation of this gene occurs early during the interaction between the fungus and its host plant. Phosphate levels in the nutrient media also affected the expression of the Mt4 gene: transcripts were present in the roots of plants grown under phosphate-deficient conditions, but were undetectable in the roots of plants grown under phosphate sufficient conditions. Furthermore, expression was only observed when plants were grown under nitrogen-sufficient conditions. Northern blot analyses indicate that Mt4 transcripts are present primarily in roots and barely detectable in stems or leaves. Thus, Mt4 represents a M. truncatula gene whose expression is regulated in response to both colonization by mycorrhizal fungi and to the phosphate status of the plant.

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241480 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241480 J065165O08 At4g27250.1 68417.m03912 dihydroflavonol 4-reductase family / dihydrokaempferol... 4-reductase family similar to dihydrokaempferol 4-reductase, Ipomoea purpurea (GI:4239849), Medicago sativa, PIR2:S61416 4e-31 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242505 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242505 J080309P03 At4g27250.1 68417.m03912 dihydroflavonol 4-reductase family / dihydrokaempferol... 4-reductase family similar to dihydrokaempferol 4-reductase, Ipomoea purpurea (GI:4239849), Medicago sativa, PIR2:S61416 3e-38 ...

  5. Identification of loci Associated with Resistance to Root-Rot Diseases in Autotetraploid Alfalfa using Genome-Wide Sequencing and Association Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the world-wide forage crop. Changing trends to multipurpose uses increases demand for alfalfa. However, the production of alfalfa is challenged by endemic and emerging diseases. Identification of genes/loci controlling disease resistance will facilitate breeding for i...

  6. First report of Fusarium wilt of alfalfa caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. medicaginis in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. medicaginis, is an economically important vascular disease of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) throughout the world. Alfalfa plants with foliar wilt symptoms and reddish-brown arcs in roots consistent with Fusarium wilt were observed in disease assessment ...

  7. Storage characteristics, nutritive value, energy content, and in-vivo digestibility of moist large-rectangular bales of alfalfa-orchardgrass hay treated with a propionic-acid-based preservative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unstable weather, poor drying conditions, and unpredictable rainfall events often place valuable hay crops at risk. Recent research with large-round bales comprised of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) has shown that these large-bale packages are particularly sens...

  8. Three way interactions between Thymus vulgaris, Medicago truncatula and Sinorhizobium meliloti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøndahl, Eva; Ehlers, Bodil Kirstine

    2012-01-01

    Thymus vulgaris is a dominating component of the Mediterranean garrigue vegetation. It produces aromatic oil, containing monoterpenes, which affects the performance (growth, survival) of other plants, and microorganisms. Annual plant species of the genus Medicago are commonly found in Mediterranean...... shows patterns of adaptation to its thyme neighbor, and 2) if any adaptive response was dependent on the rhizobium, and whether the rhizobium was either "experienced" or "naive" with respect to thyme monoterpenes. Using a G*G*E design, the fitness of 13 genotypes of Medicago truncatula was tested....... Of these genotypes, 7 were ”experienced”, and 6 were ”naive” to thyme. All genotypes were grown on soil either amended with thyme monoterpene or not. In addition, each plant received a rhizobium treatment, which was either: no rhizobium, a mix of thyme experienced Sinorhizobium genotypes, or a mix of thyme naive...

  9. Elicitor-induced transcription factors for metabolic reprogramming of secondary metabolism in Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixon Richard A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure of Medicago truncatula cell suspension cultures to pathogen or wound signals leads to accumulation of various classes of flavonoid and/or triterpene defense molecules, orchestrated via a complex signalling network in which transcription factors (TFs are essential components. Results In this study, we analyzed TFs responding to yeast elicitor (YE or methyl jasmonate (MJ. From 502 differentially expressed TFs, WRKY and AP2/EREBP gene families were over-represented among YE-induced genes whereas Basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH family members were more over-represented among the MJ-induced genes. Jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ transcriptional regulators were highly induced by MJ treatment. To investigate potential involvement of WRKY TFs in signalling, we expressed four Medicago WRKY genes in tobacco. Levels of soluble and wall bound phenolic compounds and lignin were increased in all cases. WRKY W109669 also induced tobacco endo-1,3-β-glucanase (NtPR2 and enhanced the systemic defense response to tobacco mosaic virus in transgenic tobacco plants. Conclusion These results confirm that Medicago WRKY TFs have broad roles in orchestrating metabolic responses to biotic stress, and that they also represent potentially valuable reagents for engineering metabolic changes that impact pathogen resistance.

  10. Comparative investigation of physiological responses of field-grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An important consideration in designing and managing forage systems is the knowledge of the physiological response mechanisms to cutting, especially when water deficit conditions are prevailing. The objective of this study was to determine the physiological response of Medicago sativa and Festuca arundinacea to ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288497 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H3 from Zea mays SP|P05203, Medicago sativa GI:166384, Encephalartos altensteinii SP|P08903, Pisum sativum SP|P02300; contains Pfam profile PF00125 Core histone H2A/H2B/H3/H4 4e-57 ...

  12. Molecular cloning of a novel GSK3/shaggy-like gene from Triticum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The deduced amino acid sequence showed a high homology with shaggy-like kinases from Triticum aestivum, Zea mays, Trifolium repens, Nicotine tabacum, Medicago sativa and Arabidopsis thaliana; therefore, the gene was named TmGSK1 (Triticum monococcum Glycogen Synthase Kinase 1,GenBank Accession No.

  13. Alfalfa contains substantial 9-hydroperoxide lyase activity and a 3Z:2E-enal isomerase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Noordermeer, M.A.; Veldink, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    Fatty acid hydroperoxides formed by lipoxygenase can be cleaved by hydroperoxide lyase resulting in the formation of short-chain aldehydes and omega-oxo acids. Plant hydroperoxide lyases use 13- or 9-hydroperoxy linoleic and linolenic acid as substrates. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) has been

  14. Forage accumulation and nutritive value of reduced lignin and reference alfalfa cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reduced lignin alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars have the potential to increase the feeding value of alfalfa for livestock by improving the forage fiber digestibility and to increase harvest management flexibility. The objectives were to compare the yield and forage nutritive value of reduced ...

  15. Enhancing pollination by attracting & retaining leaf cutting bees (Megachile rotundata) in alfalfa seed production fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (F.), has become an important managed pollinator of alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. One problem when using alfalfa leafcutting bees as managed pollinator, is the dispersal of many females upon release, even when adequate nesting sites are present. While d...

  16. Soil quality effects on regeneration of annual Medicago pastures in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annual medic (Medicago spp.) pastures are widely used as the forage component of crop rotation systems in the Mediterranean region of South Africa. Reliable establishment of medics can be challenging. This may be related to poor soil quality, an inherent problem of soils in the region often aggravated by poor ...

  17. Monterey Peninsula Water Supply Project Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Report/Statement. Appendices. Monterey Peninsula Water Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    device and trapping facility near the face cf the 8 3 88089 A3-7 FIGURE 3-3 -7/ .7-U mv I 1 . - a Cach agua Creek Site Are a V 0 2.5 5 I I 1L KilometersI...succulentus succulent annual lupine Madia gracilis gumweed Madia madioides woodland madia Madia sativa Chile tarweed Marah fabaceus manroot Medicago...Lupinus nanus ssp. nanus sky lupine Lupinus succulentus succulent annual lupine Madia gracilis gumweed Madia sativa Chile tarweed I Marah fabaceus

  18. Voluntary intake and digestibility by sheep of alfalfa ensiled at different moisture concentrations following fertilization with dairy slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy slurry is used commonly as an animal-sourced fertilizer in agronomic production. However, residual effects of slurry application on intake and digestibility of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage from subsequent harvests are not well known. The objective of this study was to determine if mois...

  19. Degradation of lucerne stem cell walls by five rumen bacterial species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, H.G.; Engels, F.M.; Weimer, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    The rumen bacterial strains Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens H17c, Fibrobacter succinogenes S85, Lachnospira multiparus 40, Ruminococcus albus 7 and R. flavefaciens FD-1 were compared individually and as a five-species mixture with a rumen inoculum for their ability to degrade lucerne (Medicago sativa L.)

  20. Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures: Carcass merit and meat quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and meat quality parameters when meat goat kids were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pretense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L; OGR) pastures. Final shrunk body weights were similar whe...

  1. Development and characterization of the first infectious clone of alfalfa latent virus, a strain of Pea streak virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is a natural host plant for many plant pathogens including fungi, bacteria, nematodes and viruses. Alfalfa latent virus (ALV) is a member of the carlavirus group and occurs symptomlessly in alfalfa. The first complete genomic sequence of the ALV that was recently obtained i...

  2. Discovery AP2/ERF family genes in silico in Medicago truncatula

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    Medicago truncatula is a legume model plant due to its small genome and it has been used to study the molecular events of legume ... molecular mechanism of stress responses of AP2/EREBPs. ..... comprehensive profiling of developmental, hormonal or ... interactions with other organisms, plant development and stress.

  3. [Molecular identification of astragali radix and its adulterants by ITS sequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhan-Hu; Li, Yue; Yuan, Qing-Jun; Zhou, Li-She; Li, Min-Hui

    2012-12-01

    To explore a new method for identification Astragali Radix from its adulterants by using ITS sequence. Thirteen samples of the different Astragali Radix materials and 6 samples of the adulterants of the roots of Hedysarum polybotrys, Medicago sativa and Althaea rosea were collected. ITS sequence was amplified by PCR and sequenced unidirectionally. The interspecific K-2-P distances of Astragali Radix and its adulterants were calculated, and NJ tree and UPGMA tree were constructed by MEGA 4. ITS sequences were obtained from 19 samples respectively, there were Astragali Radix 646-650 bp, H. polybotrys 664 bp, Medicago sativa 659 bp, Althaea rosea 728 bp, which were registered in the GenBank. Phylogeny trees reconstruction using NJ and UPGMA analysis based on ITS nucleotide sequences can effectively distinguish Astragali Radix from adulterants. ITS sequence can be used to identify Astragali Radix from its adulterants successfully and is an efficient molecular marker for authentication of Astragali Radix and its adulterants.

  4. The complete chloroplast genomes of Cannabis sativa and Humulus lupulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Daniela; White, Kristin H; Keepers, Kyle G; Kane, Nolan C

    2016-09-01

    Cannabis and Humulus are sister genera comprising the entirety of the Cannabaceae sensu stricto, including C. sativa L. (marijuana, hemp), and H. lupulus L. (hops) as two economically important crops. These two plants have been used by humans for many purposes including as a fiber, food, medicine, or inebriant in the case of C. sativa, and as a flavoring component in beer brewing in the case of H. lupulus. In this study, we report the complete chloroplast genomes for two distinct hemp varieties of C. sativa, Italian "Carmagnola" and Russian "Dagestani", and one Czech variety of H. lupulus "Saazer". Both C. sativa genomes are 153 871 bp in length, while the H. lupulus genome is 153 751 bp. The genomes from the two C. sativa varieties differ in 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), while the H. lupulus genome differs in 1722 SNPs from both C. sativa cultivars.

  5. NaCl - Changes stem morphology, anatomy and phloem structure in Lucerne (Medicago sativa cv. Gabès): Comparison of upper and lower internodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nja, Riheb Ben; Merceron, Bruno; Faucher, Mireille; Fleurat-Lessard, Pierrette; Béré, Emile

    2018-02-01

    In M. sativa cv. Gabès plants treated with 150mM NaCl, the height of the stem is decreased and the internode number, length and diameter are reduced. This depressive effect on growth, but also on photosynthetic activity and water balance, is accompanied by structural changes. In the upper internodes, NaCl treatment increases cambium development, so that the vascular ring is initiated earlier than in controls. In the lower internodes, the number of lignified phloem fibers is increased by NaCl, and their wall thickness is augmented, compared to controls; in the phloem complex, the nacreous layer is enlarged, the number of internal wall ingrowths is increased, but companion cells are damaged. In the treated lower internodes, few vessels occur in the secondary xylem, which is by contrast rich in lignified fibers and in wide vessels grouped in the metaxylem area; protoxylem parenchyma and adjacent pith are also lignified. In addition, in treated lower internodes, starch grains are less abundant than in controls, and this variation might be related to the decrease of photosynthesis. When taken together, qualitative and quantitative results indicate that the saline stress has a marked morpho-anatomical impact on the M. sativa Gabès stem. In particular, variations of secondary derivative distribution, increased wall thickening, lignification of phloem and xylem fibers and damage in the phloem complex are NaCl-induced responses, and are more expressed in the lower than in the upper internodes. The reinforcement of the stem lignified vasculature is thus a positive response to stress, but it has a negative impact on the quality of the forage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Apoptotic Effect of Nigella sativa on Human Lymphoma U937 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Belkis Atasever; Isik, Fatma Busra; Gur, Hazal; Ozen, Fatih; Catal, Tunc

    2017-10-01

    Nigella sativa is from botanical Ranunculaceae family and commonly known as black seed. Apoptotic effect of N. sativa and its apoptotic signaling pathways on U937 lymphoma cells are unknown. In this study, we investigated selective cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of N. sativa extract and its apoptotic mechanisms on U937 cells. In addition, we also studied selective cytotoxic activity of thymoquinone that is the most active essential oil of N. sativa . Our results showed that N. sativa extract has selective cytotoxicity and apoptotic effects on U937 cells but not ECV304 control cells. However, thymoquinone had no significant cytotoxicity against on both cells. N. sativa extract increased significantly caspase-3, BAD, and p53 gene expressions in U937 cells. N. sativa may have anticancer drug potential and trigger p53-induced apoptosis in U937 lymphoma cells. This is the first study showing the apoptotic effect of Nigella sativa extract on U937 cells. Abbreviations used: CI: Cytotoxicity index, DMEM: Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium, HL: Hodgkin's lymphoma, MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethy lthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, RPMI: Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium.

  7. Microsynteny between pea and Medicago truncatula in the SYM2 region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gualtieri, G.; Kulikova, O.; Limpens, E.; Kim, D.J.; Cook, D.R.; Bisseling, T.; Geurts, R.

    2002-01-01

    The crop legume pea (Pisum sativum) is genetically well characterized. However, due to its large genome it is not amenable to efficient positional cloning strategies. The purpose of this study was to determine if the model legume Medicago truncatula, which is a close relative of pea, could be used

  8. ECONOMIC VALUE OF SOME LEGUMINOUS PLANT SPECIES OF THE COLLECTIONS FROM THE BOTANICAL GARDEN (INSTITUTE OF THE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru TELEUTA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the evaluation of the growth and development rates, the seed productivity, the green mass yield, the biochemical composition and the content of amino acids, phosphorous and calcium, the nutritive and energy value of the forage, as well as the biomethane productivity of local ecotypes of the leguminous species maintained in monoculture, in the collection of the Botanical Garden (Institute of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova (BG ASM: Astragalus ponticus, Coronilla varia, Lotus corniculatus, Medicago falcata, Onobrychis arenaria and Trifolium repens are presented in this article. Control variants – the traditional forage crops: Medicago sativa and Onobrychis viciifolia. The local ecotypes of the studied leguminous species were characterized by different growth and development rates. Coronilla varia and Lotus corniculatus, in the 2nd-3rd years, could be harvested, for the first time, 5 days earlier than Medicago sativa, but Medicago falcata and Onobrychis viciifolia – 18 days later. The green mass yield varied from 0.83 kg/m2 to 4.08 kg/m2. The studied ecotypes reached amounts of 0.60-0.89 nutritive units/kg and metabolizable energy 8.05-9.90 MJ/kg of dry matter, the content of digestible protein, of 106.28-225.09 g/nutritive unit, met the zootechnical standards; seed production: 19.12-83.00 g/m2; the biomethane yield ranged from 692 to 3197 m3/ha. Higher yield of natural forage, dry matter and biomethane was produced by Onobrychis arenaria and Coronilla varia.

  9. Changes in mycorrhiza development in maize induced by crop management practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavito, M.E.; Miller, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    (Zea mays L.) or with the original plant species in the field site, bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leys.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). The delay in mycorrhiza development after cropping with canola was also observed in samples taken from the field and in a bioassay, both conducted at the beginning...

  10. Reduced Lignin Alfalfa - Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. farmers harvested alfalfa (Medicago sativa) for hay or haylage from 24.5million acres in 2009. Midwestern states harvested 57 % of 2009 acreage for hay and haylage. However, acreage is stable to declining. Alfalfa provides an excellent source of fiber, protein, minerals and vitamins that partia...

  11. Mechanisms of qualitative and quantitative resistance to Aphanomyces root rot in alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphanomyces root rot (ARR), caused by Aphanomyces euteiches, is one of the most important diseases of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) in the United States. Two races of the pathogen are currently recognized. Most modern alfalfa cultivars have high levels of resistance to race 1 but few cultivars have resi...

  12. Dynamics of predation on Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae) in alfalfa trap cropped organic strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) can be strategically planted as a trap crop for Lygus spp. in California’s organic strawberry fields. Alfalfa has been shown to attract both Lygus spp. and, in turn, a Lygus-specific parasitoid, Peristenus relictus (Ruthe). However, the impact of alfalfa trap-cropped st...

  13. Establishing vegetation on Kimberlite mine tailings: 2. Field trials. | N ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of field experiments were carried out on Kimberlite mine tailing located at Cullinan in the Transvaal. The most successful species in pure sward were Chloris gayana, Cynodon aethiopicus, Eragrostis curvula, E. tef, Pennisetum purpureum, Melilotus alban and Medicago sativa. Growth of grasses in the absence of ...

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome of Eruca sativa Mill. (Garden rocket.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yankun Wang

    Full Text Available Eruca sativa (Cruciferae family is an ancient crop of great economic and agronomic importance. Here, the complete mitochondrial genome of Eruca sativa was sequenced and annotated. The circular molecule is 247,696 bp long, with a G+C content of 45.07%, containing 33 protein-coding genes, three rRNA genes, and 18 tRNA genes. The Eruca sativa mitochondrial genome may be divided into six master circles and four subgenomic molecules via three pairwise large repeats, resulting in a more dynamic structure of the Eruca sativa mtDNA compared with other cruciferous mitotypes. Comparison with the Brassica napus MtDNA revealed that most of the genes with known function are conserved between these two mitotypes except for the ccmFN2 and rrn18 genes, and 27 point mutations were scattered in the 14 protein-coding genes. Evolutionary relationships analysis suggested that Eruca sativa is more closely related to the Brassica species and to Raphanus sativus than to Arabidopsis thaliana.

  15. Adaptation to climate change in desertified lands of the marginal regions in Egypt through sustainable crop and livestock diversification systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan M. El Shaer

    2015-01-01

    Environmental degradation resulting from current climate changes, including prolonged drought, land degradation, desertification, and loss of biodiversity, is presenting enormous challenges to achieve food security and eradication of poverty in the marginal regions (about 90%of the total area) of Egypt. In addition to the natural constraints of high temperature, wind erosion, sand dune movement, and recurrent drought, such regions are subjected to improper land and water management. Moreover, there is a lack of knowledge, technologies, and experiences to match with the current severe climatic changes. There is a great need for establishing sustainable integrated ecosystem rehabilitation and management programs to overcome such problems in the marginal areas, particularly in the Sinai Peninsula due to its strategic and social importance. A series of research and development programs have been conducted in 2006 to im-prove the livelihoods of smallholders through enhancing the efficient management and utilization of local resources that can cope with the drastic changes of climate in the Sinai Peninsula. An integrated livestock/salt-tolerant fodder crop system was introduced, in 2010 by the project teamwork of Desert Research center, Egypt, to many smallholders in the South Sinai region, where studies were conducted at both the general research and individual farmer levels. The most important results were:(1) adoption of the most salt-tolerant genotypes of three forage crops:pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and Sudan grass (Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf.); two cereal crops (triticale and barley);and two oil crops:safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) and Brassica (Mustard). Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. and Medicago arborium), cowpeas (Vigna sinensis L.), fodder beets (Beta vulgaris L.), clumping desert bunchgrass (Panicum turgedum), ryegrass (Lolium perenne) Ray grass, forage shrubs (Kochia indica, Atriplex num-mularia, Sesbania sesban L

  16. The long-term effects of alfalfa on soil water content in the Loess ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-23

    May 23, 2011 ... affect the water content in deep soil and continuous growing alfalfa ... Wasteland, wheat field and six seeded alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) grasslands with ... The crops (wheat, maize, potato, beans and millet) had been rainfed on all ..... Productivity dynamic of alfalfa and its effects on water eco-environment.

  17. Effects of a propionic acid-based preservative on storage characteristics, nutritive value, and energy content for alfalfa hays packaged in large, round bales

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2009 and 2010, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hays from two cuttings that were harvested from the same field site were used to evaluate the effects of a propionic acid-based preservative on the storage characteristics and nutritive value of hays stored as large, round bales. A total of 87 large...

  18. Do soil tests help forecast nitrogen response in first-year corn following alfalfa on fine-textured soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improved methods of predicting grain yield response to fertilizer N for first-year corn (Zea mays L.) following alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) on fine-textured soils are needed. Data from 21 site-years in the North Central Region were used to (i) determine how Illinois soil nitrogen test (ISNT) and pr...

  19. Nigella sativa L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... and agro-biodiversity in black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) genotypes from ... analysis. INTRODUCTION. Among the medicinal plants in use from prehistoric times, .... AA240 FS Fast sequential atomic absorption spectrophotometer) ... Lead (Pb) mg kg- ..... for herbal, pharmaceutical, neutraceutical and cosmetic.

  20. Two complete chloroplast genome sequences of Cannabis sativa varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyehyun; Seo, Boyoung; Lee, Seunghwan; Ahn, Dong-Ha; Jo, Euna; Park, Jin-Kyoung; Min, Gi-Sik

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we determined the complete chloroplast (cp) genomes from two varieties of Cannabis sativa. The genome sizes were 153,848 bp (the Korean non-drug variety, Cheungsam) and 153,854 bp (the African variety, Yoruba Nigeria). The genome structures were identical with 131 individual genes [86 protein-coding genes (PCGs), eight rRNA, and 37 tRNA genes]. Further, except for the presence of an intron in the rps3 genes of two C. sativa varieties, the cp genomes of C. sativa had conservative features similar to that of all known species in the order Rosales. To verify the position of C. sativa within the order Rosales, we conducted phylogenetic analysis by using concatenated sequences of all PCGs from 17 complete cp genomes. The resulting tree strongly supported monophyly of Rosales. Further, the family Cannabaceae, represented by C. sativa, showed close relationship with the family Moraceae. The phylogenetic relationship outlined in our study is well congruent with those previously shown for the order Rosales.

  1. [Ttextual research of Cannabis sativa varieties and medicinal part].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yingfang; Wang, Huadong; Guo, Shanshan; Yan, Jie; Long, Fei

    2010-07-01

    To determine the medicinal part and varieties of Cannabis Sativa through herbal textual research to Provide bibliographic reference for clinical application. Herbal textual research of C. Sativa from ancient herbal works and modern data analysis. Through the herbal textual research, the plant of the C. sativa, for Fructus Cannabis used now is identical with that described in ancient herbal literatures. People did not make a sharp distinction on medicinal part of C. sativa in the early stage literatures, female inflorescence and unripe fruit, fruit and kernel of seed were all used. Since Taohongjing realized the toxicity ofpericarp, all the herbal and prescription works indicate that the pericarp shall be removed before usage and only the kernel can be used. However, in modem literatures, both fruit and kernel can be used as medicinal part. The plants for Fructus Cannabis described in modern and ancient literatures are identical. The base of the original plant is the same either in ancient or modern. And the toxicity of the fruit is more than that of the kernel. The kernel is the exact medicinal part of C. Sativa.

  2. Translational genomics from model species Medicago truncatula to crop legume Trifolium pratense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lang Chunting, Chunting

    2012-01-01

    The legume Trifolium pratense (red clover) is an important fodder crop and produces important secondary metabolites. This makes red clover an interesting species. In this thesis, the red clover genome is compared to the legume model species Medicago truncatula, of which the

  3. Novel SINEs families in Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus: bioinformatic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzalski, Marek; Sakowicz, Tomasz

    2011-07-01

    Although short interspersed elements (SINEs) were discovered nearly 30 years ago, the studies of these genomic repeats were mostly limited to animal genomes. Very little is known about SINEs in legumes--one of the most important plant families. Here we report identification, genomic distribution and molecular features of six novel SINE elements in Lotus japonicus (named LJ_SINE-1, -2, -3) and Medicago truncatula (MT_SINE-1, -2, -3), model species of legume. They possess all the structural features commonly found in short interspersed elements including RNA polymerase III promoter, polyA tail and flanking repeats. SINEs described here are present in low to moderate copy numbers from 150 to 3000. Bioinformatic analyses were used to searched public databases, we have shown that three of new SINE elements from M. truncatula seem to be characteristic of Medicago and Trifolium genera. Two SINE families have been found in L. japonicus and one is present in both M. truncatula and L. japonicus. In addition, we are discussing potential activities of the described elements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Tracking alien chromosome in sativa background by genomic in situ hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, F.M.; Iqbal, M.; Salim, M.

    2004-01-01

    Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used to look into the genomic constitution of monosomic alien -addition line derived from O. sativa x O. brachyantha. Biotin label genomic DNA from O. brachyantha was used as probe. The probe hybridized to the brachyantha chromosome. No detectable hybridization signal was observed on sativa chromosomes. This differential painting of chromosome enables us to unequivocally discriminate brachyantha chromosome from those of sativa. Results showed the usefulness of GISH in the identification of a single alien chromosome in the sativa background. (author)

  5. Effects of legume species introduction on vegetation and soil nutrient development on abandoned croplands in a semi-arid environment on the Loess Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zi-Qiang; Yu, Kai-Liang; Epstein, Howard; Fang, Chao; Li, Jun-Ting; Liu, Qian-Qian; Liu, Xue-Wei; Gao, Wen-Juan; Li, Feng-Min

    2016-01-15

    Revegetation facilitated by legume species introduction has been used for soil erosion control on the Loess Plateau, China. However, it is still unclear how vegetation and soil resources develop during this restoration process, especially over the longer term. In this study, we investigated the changes of plant aboveground biomass, vegetation cover, species richness and density of all individuals, and soil total nitrogen, mineral nitrogen, total phosphorus and available phosphorus over 11 years from 2003 to 2013 in three treatments (natural revegetation, Medicago sativa L. introduction and Melilotus suaveolens L. introduction) on the semi-arid Loess Plateau. Medicago significantly increased aboveground biomass and vegetation cover, and soil total nitrogen and mineral nitrogen contents. The Medicago treatment had lower species richness and density of all individuals, lower soil moisture in the deep soil (i.e., 1.4-5m), and lower soil available phosphorus. Melilotus introduction significantly increased aboveground biomass in only the first two years, and it was not an effective approach to improve vegetation biomass and cover, and soil nutrients, especially in later stages of revegetation. Overall, our study suggests that M. sativa can be the preferred plant species for revegetation of degraded ecosystems on the Loess Plateau, although phosphorus fertilizer should be applied for the sustainability of the revegetation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Study of the boron distribution in pea and alfalfa plants using SSNTD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianming; Inst. for Application of Atomic Energy)" data-affiliation=" (Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, BJ (China)> Inst. for Application of Atomic Energy)" >Deng Hongmin

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of boron in pea (Pisum sativum L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was determined by using SSNTD. The results show that boron concentrations in leaves are highest, furthermore boron concentrations of the base leaves are higher than those of the top leaves. Among flower tissues, calyx has the highest boron concentration

  7. Prohexadione-calcium rate and timing effects on alfalfa interseeded into silage corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prohexadione-Ca (PHD) can enhance establishment of alfalfa (Medicago sativa, L.) interseeded into silage corn (Zea mays, L.), but optimal application rates and timing for this growth regulator are unknown. Two experiments examined how single or split applications of 0.25 to 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 of PHD o...

  8. Alfalfa breeding benefits from genomics of Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žilije Bernadet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available International programs aim at developing knowledge and tools in the model species Medicago truncatula. Genetic resources, DNA sequences, markers, genetic and physical maps are now publicly available. These efforts contribute to improve breeding schemes of crop species such as alfalfa. However, transfer of information from M. truncatula to alfalfa is not straightforward. The article reviews the gain given by the model species to better analyze genetic determinism of breeding traits in alfalfa. It also shows that investments in alfalfa genomics (DNA sequences, SNP development are needed to benefit from the model species.

  9. Assessment of genomic relationship between Oryza sativa and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hybrid was produced between these two species at the International Rice Research Institute using embryo rescue technique. The chromosome pairing was examined in pollen mother cells of O. australinesis, O. sativa and the hybrid between O. sativa and O. australinesis. The hybrid was highly sterile with pollen stain ...

  10. Identification of the large subunit of Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase as a substrate for transglutaminase in Medicageo sativa L. (alfalfa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margosiak, S.A.; Dharma, A.; Carver, M.R.B.; Gonzales, A.P.; Louie, D.; Kuehn, G.D.

    1990-01-01

    Extract prepared from floral meristematic tissue of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) were investigated for expression of the enzyme transglutaminase in order to identify the major protein substrate for transglutaminase-directed modifications among plant proteins. The large polymorphic subunits of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in alfalfa, with molecular weights of 52,700 and 57,600, are major substrates for transglutaminase in these extracts. This was established by: (a) covalent conjugation of monodansylcadaverine to the large subunit followed by fluorescent detection in SDS-polyacrylamide gels; (b) covalent conjugation of [ 14 C]putrescine to the large subunit with detection by autoradiography; (c) covalent conjugation of monodansylcadaverine to the large subunit and demonstration of immunocross-reactivity on nitrocellulose transblot of the modified large subunit with antibody prepared in rabbits against dansylated-ovalbumin; (d) demonstration of a direct dependence of the rate of transglutaminase-mediated, [ 14 C]putresciene incorporation upon the concentration of ribulose, 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from alfalfa or spinach; and (e) presumptive evidence from size exclusion chromatography that transglutaminase may cofractionate with native molecules of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in crude extracts

  11. Soil sulfur amendments suppress Selenium uptake by alfalfa and western wheatgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. L. Mackowiak; M. C. Amacher

    2008-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is a potential soil contaminant in many parts of the world where it can pose a health risk to livestock and wildlife. Phosphate ore mining in Southeast Idaho has resulted in numerous waste rock dumps revegetated with forages to stabilize the dumps and support grazing. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), smooth brome (Bromus inermis...

  12. Geographically structured genetic variation in the Medicago lupulina-Ensifer mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Tia L; Wood, Corlett W; Heath, Katy D; Stinchcombe, John R

    2017-07-01

    Gene flow between genetically differentiated populations can maintain variation in species interactions, especially when population structure is congruent between interacting species. However, large-scale empirical comparisons of the population structure of interacting species are rare, particularly in positive interspecific interactions (mutualisms). One agriculturally and ecologically important mutualism is the partnership between legume plants and rhizobia. Through characterizing and comparing the population genomic structure of the legume Medicago lupulina and two rhizobial species (Ensifer medicae and E. meliloti), we explored the spatial scale of population differentiation between interacting partners in their introduced range in North America. We found high proportions of E. meliloti in southeastern populations and high proportions of E. medicae in northwestern populations. Medicago lupulina and the Ensifer genus showed similar patterns of spatial genetic structure (isolation by distance). However, we detected no evidence of isolation by distance or population structure within either species of bacteria. Genome-wide nucleotide diversity within each of the two Ensifer species was low, suggesting limited introduction of strains, founder events, or severe bottlenecks. Our results suggest that there is potential for geographically structured coevolution between M. lupulina and the Ensifer genus, but not between M. lupulina and either Ensifer species. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Impacto de una intervención alimentaria con un concentrado proteico de Medicago sativa L (alfalfa, en niños pre escolares con desnutrición crónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Soberón

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Estudios realizados a nivel preclínico han demostrado el valor biológico del concentrado proteico obtenido de Medicago sativa L, alfalfa (CPA, por lo que este producto puede ser una alternativa para reducir la desnutrición. Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto del consumo de CPA por niños preescolares con desnutrición crónica, mediante indicadores bioquímicos y hematológicos. Diseño: Estudio analítico de intervención, de tipo longitudinal y prospectivo. Institución: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Participantes: Niños preescolares con desnutrición crónica, provenientes de una comunidad de Pampas, Huancavelica, Perú. Intervenciones: Previo consentimiento informado de los padres, se evaluó el estado alimentario-nutricional, bioquímico y hematológico de 23 niños menores de seis años, para establecer la condición de desnutrición. Luego, se desarrolló una intervención alimentario nutricional con el CPA como complemento alimenticio, por 25 días, en niños seleccionados. Finalmente, se repitió la evaluación una vez concluido el período de intervención. Las determinaciones bioquímicas fueron hemoglobina, proteínas totales, albúmina y globulina, creatinina, transaminasas, y las hematológicas, hematocrito, recuento de reticulocitos. Se utilizó el programa Excel y t-student, a fin de obtener la inferencia en los resultados. Resultados: Para el indicador talla/edad, 84,5% de los niños padecía desnutrición crónica; respecto a calorías y nutrientes consumidos por los niños, los valores de energía estuvieron entre 563 kcal y 2 597 kcal; de proteína, 9,7 g a 78 g; de grasas, 5,1 g a 53,8 g; carbohidratos, 79,8 g a 495,1 g; calcio, entre 180,9 mg y 986 mg; y hierro, 1,9 mg y 21,5 mg. Los valores de hemoglobina, proteínas totales, globulinas, creatinina, transaminasas y hematocrito obtenidos antes y después de la ingesta de

  14. Energizing marginal soils: A perennial cropping system for Sida hermaphrodita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabel, Moritz; Poorter, Hendrik; Temperton, Vicky; Schrey, Silvia D.; Koller, Robert; Schurr, Ulrich; Jablonowski, Nicolai D.

    2017-04-01

    As a way to avoid land use conflicts, the use of marginal soils for the production of plant biomass can be a sustainable alternative to conventional biomass production (e.g. maize). However, new cropping strategies have to be found that meet the challenge of crop production under marginal soil conditions. We aim for increased soil fertility by the use of the perennial crop Sida hermaphrodita in combination with organic fertilization and legume intercropping to produce substantial biomass yield. We present results of a three-year outdoor mesocosm experiment testing the perennial energy crop Sida hermaphrodita grown on a marginal model substrate (sand) with four kinds of fertilization (Digestate broadcast, Digestate Depot, mineral NPK and unfertilized control) in combination with legume intercropping. After three years, organic fertilization (via biogas digestate) compared to mineral fertilization (NPK), reduced the nitrate concentration in leachate and increased the soil carbon content. Biomass yields of Sida were 25% higher when fertilized organically, compared to mineral fertilizer. In general, digestate broadcast application reduced root growth and the wettability of the sandy substrate. However, when digestate was applied locally as depot to the rhizosphere, root growth increased and the wettability of the sandy substrate was preserved. Depot fertilization increased biomass yield by 10% compared to digestate broadcast fertilization. We intercropped Sida with various legumes (Trifolium repens, Trifolium pratense, Melilotus spp. and Medicago sativa) to enable biological nitrogen fixation and make the cropping system independent from synthetically produced fertilizers. We could show that Medicago sativa grown on marginal substrate fixed large amounts of N, especially when fertilized organically, whereas mineral fertilization suppressed biological nitrogen fixation. We conclude that the perennial energy crop Sida in combination with organic fertilization has great

  15. Performance and emission of CI engine fuelled with camelina sativa oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruczyński, Stanisław W.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Camelina sativa as a potential source of alternative fuel. ► Neat camelina sativa oil as a fuel for CI engine. ► The engine performance and emissions of CI engine fuelled with neat camelina sativa oil. ► Comparison of rate of heat release for camelina sativa oil and diesel oil. - Abstract: The paper describes the results of the tests of CI Perkins 1104C-44 engine fuelled with camelina sativa oil. The engine was not especially calibrated for fuelling with the vegetable fuel. During the test the engine performance and emissions were analysed. For comparison the same speed characteristic was examined for standard fuelling of the engine with diesel oil. In order to understand the engine performance and emission the mass fraction burnt and the rate of heat release was calculated and compared for the same energy provided to the engine cylinder with the injected fuels. The results show that there is possible to receive relatively good engine performance for fuelling the engine with camelina sativa oil but there is a need to change the calibration parameters of the engine fuel system when the engine is fuelled with this fuel.

  16. Transcript profiling of two alfalfa genotypes with contrasting cell wall composition in stems using a cross-species platform: optimizing analysis by masking biased probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hans-Joachim G

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The GeneChip® Medicago Genome Array, developed for Medicago truncatula, is a suitable platform for transcript profiling in tetraploid alfalfa [Medicago sativa (L. subsp. sativa]. However, previous research involving cross-species hybridization (CSH has shown that sequence variation between two species can bias transcript profiling by decreasing sensitivity (number of expressed genes detected and the accuracy of measuring fold-differences in gene expression. Results Transcript profiling using the Medicago GeneChip® was conducted with elongating stem (ES and post-elongation stem (PES internodes from alfalfa genotypes 252 and 1283 that differ in stem cell wall concentrations of cellulose and lignin. A protocol was developed that masked probes targeting inter-species variable (ISV regions of alfalfa transcripts. A probe signal intensity threshold was selected that optimized both sensitivity and accuracy. After masking for both ISV regions and previously identified single-feature polymorphisms (SFPs, the number of differentially expressed genes between the two genotypes in both ES and PES internodes was approximately 2-fold greater than the number detected prior to masking. Regulatory genes, including transcription factor and receptor kinase genes that may play a role in development of secondary xylem, were significantly over-represented among genes up-regulated in 252 PES internodes compared to 1283 PES internodes. Several cell wall-related genes were also up-regulated in genotype 252 PES internodes. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR of differentially expressed regulatory and cell wall-related genes demonstrated increased sensitivity and accuracy after masking for both ISV regions and SFPs. Over 1,000 genes that were differentially expressed in ES and PES internodes of genotypes 252 and 1283 were mapped onto putative orthologous loci on M. truncatula chromosomes. Clustering simulation analysis of the differentially expressed genes

  17. Effects of cutting frequency on alfalfa yield and yield components in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of cutting frequency on alfalfa yield and yield components in Songnen Plain, Northeast China. J Chen, F Tang, R Zhu, C Gao, G Di, Y Zhang. Abstract. The productivity and quality of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is strongly influenced by cutting frequency (F). To clarify that the yield and quality of alfalfa if affected by F, ...

  18. Genetic Engineering of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Khurshid, Muhammad; Sun, Zhan Min; Tang, Yi Xiong; Zhou, Mei Liang; Wu, Yan Min

    2016-01-01

    Alfalfa is excellent perennial legume forage for its extensive ecological adaptability, high nutrition value, palatability and biological nitrogen fixation. It plays a very important role in the agriculture, animal husbandry and ecological construction. It is cultivated in all continents. With the development of modern plant breeding and genetic engineering techniques, a large amount of work has been carried out on alfalfa. Here we summarize the recent research advances in genetic engineering of alfalfa breeding, including transformation, quality improvement, stress resistance and as a bioreactor. The review article can enables us to understand the research method, direction and achievements of genetic engineering technology of Alfalfa.

  19. DEWAX Transcription Factor Is Involved in Resistance to Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seulgi Ju

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The cuticle of land plants is the first physical barrier to protect their aerial parts from biotic and abiotic stresses. DEWAX, an AP2/ERF-type transcription factor, negatively regulates cuticular wax biosynthesis. In this study, we investigated the resistance to Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa overexpressing DEWAX and in Arabidopsis dewax mutant. Compared to wild type (WT leaves, Arabidopsis DEWAX OX and dewax leaves were more and less permeable to toluidine blue dye, respectively. The ROS levels increased in DEWAX OX leaves, but decreased in dewax relative to WT leaves. Compared to WT, DEWAX OX was more resistant, while dewax was more sensitive to B. cinerea; however, defense responses to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000:GFP were inversely modulated. Microarray and RT-PCR analyses indicated that the expression of defense-related genes was upregulated in DEWAX OX, but downregulated in dewax relative to WT. Transactivation assay showed that DEWAX upregulated the expression of PDF1.2a, IGMT1, and PRX37. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that DEWAX directly interacts with the GCC-box motifs of PDF1.2a promoter. In addition, ectopic expression of DEWAX increased the tolerance to B. cinerea in C. sativa. Taken together, we suggest that increased ROS accumulation and DEWAX-mediated upregulation of defense-related genes are closely associated with enhanced resistance to B. cinerea in Arabidopsis and C. sativa.

  20. Effect of petroleum on decomposition of shrub-grass litters in soil in Northern Shaanxi of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxi; Liu, Zengwen; Yu, Qi; Luc, Nhu Trung; Bing, Yuanhao; Zhu, Bochao; Wang, Wenxuan

    2015-07-01

    The impacts of petroleum contamination on the litter decomposition of shrub-grass land would directly influence nutrient cycling, and the stability and function of ecosystem. Ten common shrub and grass species from Yujiaping oil deposits were studied. Litters from these species were placed into litterbags and buried in petroleum-contaminated soil with 3 levels of contamination (slight, moderate and serious pollution with petroleum concentrations of 15, 30 and 45 g/kg, respectively). A decomposition experiment was then conducted in the lab to investigate the impacts of petroleum contamination on litter decomposition rates. Slight pollution did not inhibit the decomposition of any litters and significantly promoted the litter decomposition of Hippophae rhamnoides, Caragana korshinskii, Amorpha fruticosa, Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa, Periploca sepium, Medicago sativa and Bothriochloa ischaemum. Moderate pollution significantly inhibited litter decomposition of M. sativa, Coronilla varia, Artemisia vestita and Trrifolium repens and significantly promoted the litter decomposition of C. korshinskii, Z. jujuba var. spinosa and P. sepium. Serious pollution significantly inhibited the litter decomposition of H. rhamnoides, A. fruticosa, B. ischaemum and A. vestita and significantly promoted the litter decomposition of Z. jujuba var. spinosa, P. sepium and M. sativa. In addition, the impacts of petroleum contamination did not exhibit a uniform increase or decrease as petroleum concentration increased. Inhibitory effects of petroleum on litter decomposition may hinder the substance cycling and result in the degradation of plant communities in contaminated areas. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1.  Molecular evolution and positive selection of the symbiotic gene NORK in Medicago truncatula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Mita, Stephane; Santoni, Sylvain; Hochu, Isabelle

    2006-01-01

    . The membrane-anchored receptor NORK (nodulation receptor kinase) of the legume Medicago truncatula controls early steps of root infection by two symbiotic microorganisms: nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia) and endomycorrhizal fungi (Glomales). We analyzed the diversity of the gene NORK by sequencing 4...

  2. Comparative physical mapping of rice BAC clones linked to resistance genes Glh,Bph-3 and xa-5 in Oryza sativa L.and O.granulata Nees et Am.ex Watt.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Zhiyong; TAN Guangxuan; YOU Aiqing; HE Guangyuan; SHE Chaowen; LI Lijia; SONG Yunchun

    2004-01-01

    Oryza granulata Nees et Arn. ex Watt. is one of the three wild relatives of rice, which are the most valuable for study and utilization in China. In this study, the homology and physical locations of three rice resistance genes, Glh,Bph-3 and xa-5 are comparatively analyzed between O. sativa and O. granulata by Southern blotting and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The results of Southern blotting indicate that there exist homologous sequences of the tested RFLP markers in O. granulata. By using three bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones scanned by the tested RFLP as probes, FISH signals are detected on both mitotic and pachytene chromosomes in O. sativa and O. granulata.Dual-color FISH demonstrates that two of the three BAC clones (14E16 and 38J9) are located on the short arm of the same chromosome pair in O. granulata. Additionally, colinearity is shown for the two clones between O. sativa and O.granulata. Another BAC clone 44B4 is located on the end of the short arm of other chromosome pair in these two species.Although the phylogenetic relationship between O. sativa and O. granulata is the most distinct in Oryza and these two species have evidently different biological features and ecological habits, the relative lengths and arm ratios of the detected chromosomes and the relative positions of the tested clone signals on chromosomes in O. granulata are quite similar to those in O. sativa.

  3. Determination of essential elements in milk and urine of camel and in nigella sativa Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AI-Attas, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Studies on milk and urine of camel and Nigella sativa seeds, either with respect to concentration or bioavailability of major and trace essential elements of these materials are limited and warrant further investigation. The objective of this study was to analyze urine, milk of camel and Nigella sativa for some element using neutron activation analysis. Camel milk and urine have higher concentration of Na than Nigella sativa seeds but K concentration in camel urine and Nigella sativa is higher than that of milk. The Ca and Mg concentration in Nigella sativa seeds are higher than that in milk and urine. The concentration of iron and Zn in Nigella sativa is high. The concentration of Co and Cr in urine is higher than in Nigella sativa and camel milk Se is detected only in urine's camel. Nigella sativa seeds contain more trace elements as Sr, Al, Rb, Ba and La.

  4. Cannabis sativa allergy: looking through the fog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decuyper, I I; Van Gasse, A L; Cop, N; Sabato, V; Faber, M A; Mertens, C; Bridts, C H; Hagendorens, M M; De Clerck, L; Rihs, H P; Ebo, D G

    2017-02-01

    IgE-mediated Cannabis (C. sativa, marihuana) allergy seems to be on the rise. Both active and passive exposure to cannabis allergens may trigger a C. sativa sensitization and/or allergy. The clinical presentation of a C. sativa allergy varies from mild to life-threatening reactions and often seems to depend on the route of exposure. In addition, sensitization to cannabis allergens can result in various cross-allergies, mostly for plant foods. This clinical entity, designated as the 'cannabis-fruit/vegetable syndrome', might also imply cross-reactivity with tobacco, natural latex and plant-food-derived alcoholic beverages. Hitherto, these cross-allergies are predominantly reported in Europe and appear mainly to rely upon cross-reactivity between nonspecific lipid transfer proteins or thaumatin-like proteins present in C. sativa and their homologues, ubiquitously distributed throughout plant kingdom. At present, diagnosis of cannabis-related allergies predominantly rests upon a thorough history completed with skin testing using native extracts from crushed buds and leaves. However, quantification of specific IgE antibodies and basophil activation tests can also be helpful to establish correct diagnosis. In the absence of a cure, treatment comprises absolute avoidance measures. Whether avoidance of further use will halt the extension of related cross-allergies remains uncertain. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Manejo de água para estabelecimento de alfafa (Medicago sativa L. Water management for alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Bartolomeu Rassini

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available O manejo de água para o desenvolvimento da alfafa cv. Crioula foi avaliado a campo, com a finalidade de verificar seus efeitos no estabelecimento da planta, até o 1º corte, em 1997. Para isso, verificou-se o comportamento em três estádios de desenvolvimento (E1 = início do estádio vegetativo, E2 = vegetativo pleno e E3 = reprodutivo até colheita em quatro níveis de água (A = 100%, B = 80%, C = 45-50% e D = 20-25% de uma lâmina de irrigação por aspersão. Foram avaliados oito experimentos: 111, 110, 100, 101, 001, 011, 010, 000, em que o primeiro dígito se refere a E1; o segundo, a E2; e o terceiro, a E3. O valor 0 representa a época em que o estádio não recebeu água, coberto por uma estrututura móvel, que deslizava sobre trilhos, e também protegia contra precipitações pluviais casuais. O valor 1 refere-se à época em que houve aplicação dos níveis de água de irrigação. Os estádios de desenvolvimento da planta, em termos de rendimento de matéria seca, responderam de maneira diferente às condições hídricas, sendo E2 e E3 (planta estabelecida os mais sensíveis e E1 (início do estádio vegetativo, o menos sensível, no qual a água foi prejudicial ao estabelecimento e rendimento da planta.The water management for growth of Crioula alfalfa cultivar was evaluated in a field study, in order to assess the effects in the plant establishment up to the first cut, at 1977. The study was carried out in 1997. So that, the behaviour at three growth stages (E1 = early vegetative stage, E2 = full vegetative stage, and E3 = reproductive stage until harvest in the presence of four water levels (A = 100%, B = 80%, C = 45-50%, and D = 20-25% from a sprinkler irrigation was studied. Eight combinations were evaluated: 111, 110, 100, 101, 001, 011, 010, 000, where the first digit is E1, the second is E2 and the third is E3. The number 0 in the figures represents the period in which growth stage did not receive water, cover by a mobile structure, which slide on trail, and also protected against occasional rainfall. The number 1 represents the time in which the irrigation water levels were applied. The growth stages of the plants as for dry matter yield, differently respond to the water conditions. The E2 and E3 were the most sensible to water supply and E1 the least sensible; in which the water was detrimental to the plant establishment and yield.

  6. 114_M.I. Imam et al.,_Nigella Sativa EXTRACT IMPROVES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user pc

    ut to assess the memory enhancing effect of Nigella sativa Extract on m ze. The study was ... a sativa has a beneficial effect on learning and memory and has a be t memory than piracetam. ..... deserves more attention. Journal of Ayub. Medical ...

  7. The protective effect of Nigella sativa against liver injury: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollazadeh, Hamid; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2014-12-01

    Nigella sativa (Family Ranunculaceae) is a widely used medicinal plant throughout the world. N. sativa is referred in the Middle East as a part of an overall holistic approach to health. Pharmacological properties of N. sativa including immune stimulant, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, spasmolytic and bronchodilator have been shown. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress are known as the major causes of many diseases such as liver injury and many substances and drugs can induce oxidative damage by generation of ROS in the body. Many pharmacological properties of N. sativa are known to be attributed to the presence of thymoquinone and its antioxidant effects. Thymoquinone protects liver from injury via different mechanisms including inhibition of iron-dependent lipid peroxidation, elevation in total thiol content and glutathione level, radical scavengering, increasing the activity of quinone reductase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione transferase, inhibition of NF-κB activity and inhibition of both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. Therefore, this review aimed to highlight the roles of ROS in liver diseases and the mechanisms of N. sativa in prevention of liver injury.

  8. Development of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Assay for Rapid Detection of Cannabis sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Masashi; Aragane, Masako; Nakamura, Kou; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Sasaki, Yohei

    2016-07-01

    In many parts of the world, the possession and cultivation of Cannabis sativa L. are restricted by law. As chemical or morphological analyses cannot identify the plant in some cases, a simple yet accurate DNA-based method for identifying C. sativa is desired. We have developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the rapid identification of C. sativa. By optimizing the conditions for the LAMP reaction that targets a highly conserved region of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase gene, C. sativa was identified within 50 min at 60-66°C. The detection limit was the same as or higher than that of conventional PCR. The LAMP assay detected all 21 specimens of C. sativa, showing high specificity. Using a simple protocol, the identification of C. sativa could be accomplished within 90 min from sample treatment to detection without use of special equipment. A rapid, sensitive, highly specific, and convenient method for detecting and identifying C. sativa has been developed and is applicable to forensic investigations and industrial quality control.

  9. Species identification of Cannabis sativa using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher E; Premasuthan, Amritha; Satkoski Trask, Jessica; Kanthaswamy, Sree

    2013-03-01

    Most narcotics-related cases in the United States involve Cannabis sativa. Material is typically identified based on the cystolithic hairs on the leaves and with chemical tests to identify of the presence of cannabinoids. Suspect seeds are germinated into a viable plant so that morphological and chemical tests can be conducted. Seed germination, however, causes undue analytical delays. DNA analyses that involve the chloroplast and nuclear genomes have been developed for identification of C. sativa materials, but they require several nanograms of template DNA. Using the trnL 3' exon-trnF intragenic spacer regions within the C. sativa chloroplast, we have developed a real-time quantitative PCR assay that is capable of identifying picogram amounts of chloroplast DNA for species determination of suspected C. sativa material. This assay provides forensic science laboratories with a quick and reliable method to identify an unknown sample as C. sativa. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. A method for the isolation of root hairs from the model legume Medicago truncatula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos Escribano, J.; Bisseling, T.

    2003-01-01

    A new method for the isolation of root hairs from the model legume, Medicago truncatula, was developed. The procedure involves the propagation of detached roots on agar plates and the collection of root hairs by immersion in liquid nitrogen. Yields of up to 40 µg of root hair protein were obtained

  11. The protective effect of Nigella sativa against liver injury: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mollazadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa (Family Ranunculaceae is a widely used medicinal plant throughout the world. N. sativa is referred in the Middle East as a part of an overall holistic approach to health. Pharmacological properties of N. sativa including immune stimulant, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, spasmolytic and bronchodilator have been shown. Reactive oxygen species (ROS and oxidative stress are known as the major causes of many diseases such as liver injury and many substances and drugs can induce oxidative damage by generation of ROS in the body. Many pharmacological properties of N. sativa are known to be attributed to the presence of thymoquinone and its antioxidant effects. Thymoquinone protects liver from injury via different mechanisms including inhibition of iron-dependent lipid peroxidation, elevation in total thiol content and glutathione level, radical scavengering, increasing the activity of quinone reductase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione transferase, inhibition of NF-κB activity and inhibition of both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. Therefore, this review aimed to highlight the roles of ROS in liver diseases and the mechanisms of N. sativa in prevention of liver injury.

  12. Nigella sativa: reduces the risk of various maladies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef

    2010-08-01

    Coinage of terms like nutraceuticals, functional, and pharma foods has diverted the attention of human beings to where they are seeking more natural cures. Though pharmaceutical drugs have been beneficial for human health and have cured various diseases but they also impart some side effects. Numerous plants have been tested for their therapeutic potential; Nigella sativa, commonly known as black cumin, is one of them. It possesses a nutritional dense profile as its fixed oil (lipid fraction), is rich in unsaturated fatty acids while essential oil contains thymoquinone and carvacrol as antioxidants. N. sativa seeds also contain proteins, alkaloids (nigellicines and nigelledine), and saponins (alpha-hederin) in substantial amounts. Recent pharmacological investigations suggested its potential role, especially for the amelioration of oxidative stress through free radical scavenging activity, the induction of apoptosis to cure various cancer lines, the reduction of blood glucose, and the prevention of complications from diabetes. It regulates hematological and serological aspects and can be effective in dyslipidemia and respiratory disorders. Moreover, its immunopotentiating and immunomodulating role brings balance in the immune system. Evidence is available supporting the utilization of Nigella sativa and its bioactive components in a daily diet for health improvement. This review is intended to focus on the composition of Nigella sativa and to elaborate its possible therapeutic roles as a functional food to prevent an array of maladies.

  13. Analysis of nodule meristem persistence and ENOD40 functioning in Medicago truncatula nodule formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wan Xi,

    2007-01-01

    Medicago root nodules are formed as a result of the interaction of the plant with the soil-borne bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti. Several plant genes are induced during nodule formation and MtENOD40 is one of the earliest genes activated. The precise function as well as the molecule

  14. Evaluation of Oryza sativa x O. glaberrima derived progenies for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... The genus Oryza has two cultivated species, Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.) and African rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud.) and 22 wild species. O. glaberrima is low yielding but has useful genes for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Introgression lines derived from backcrossing of O. sativa x O. glaberrima,.

  15. Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals from Soil Polluted with Waste Mining by Using Forage Plants in Successive Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Pricop

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available During two years, was studied the phytoextraction potential of some perennial species (Medicago sativa and Trifolium pretense, Festuca arundinacea and Lolium perenne, for Zn, Cd, and Pb from soils polluted with waste mining. The experiment was done on kernozem soil with adding of 20 kg waste mining/m2 and 8 kg biosolid/m2. The results showed that in all experiments, rye-grass is a good extractor for Zn and Cd, and leguminous species for Pb. Both leguminous species, especially M. sativa, presented a high tolerance for lead toxicity, even with 3-4 times greater values than maximum allowable level from actual legislation. In all cases, regardless of the experimental variant, raygrass (Lolium perenne is a good accumulator of Zn and Cd, and red clover (Trifolium pratense of Pb. The values of metal bioaccumulation increase gradually with their concentration in soil. Quality of very good extractor of Pb displayed by Trifolium pratense species are kept even in case of excessive pollution with Pb, when it exceed 3.4 times the maximum permissible norms. This proves, as Medicago sativa species, a good tolerance and resistance to toxicity of this metal. In case of addition of natural zeolite-volcanic tuff there was no increase in the rate of Zn bioaccumulation. Only in case of Cd at Lolium perenne and Pb at Trifolium pratense appear the favourable effect of metallic ions bioavailability in soil for plants.

  16. Toxicological and safety evaluation of Nigella sativa lipid and volatile fractions in streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tauseef Sultan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the toxicological aspects of Nigella sativa (N. sativa lipid and volatile fractions in streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus. Methods: National Institute of Health (NIH, Islamabad provided us thirty Sprague Dawley rats that were further divided into three groups, i.e. control, N. sativa lipid fraction (4% and N. sativa volatile fraction (0.3%, respectively. The serological and haematological indices were evaluated at 4-week intervals during 56 d study. Results: The results indicated that the diabetes mellitus imparted negative effects on various serological and haematological attributes. However, supplementation of the N. sativa lipid fraction and N. sativa volatile fraction ameliorated the adverse consequences of diabetes mellitus. The diabetes induced renal toxicity and imbalanced serum chemistry were slightly modulated by experimental diets. However, the impact of essential oil was more significant as compared to the fixed oil. Conclusions: In a nutshell, experimental diets containing N. sativa lipid fraction and N. sativa volatile fraction are effective without having any toxicological effects, and experimental diets reduced toxicological and adverse consequences of diabetes mellitus.

  17. [Sensitization to Castanea sativa pollen and pollinosis in northern Extremadura (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmes Martín, P M; Moreno Ancillo, A; Domínguez Noche, C; Gutiérrez Vivas, A; Belmonte Soler, J; Roure Nolla, J M

    2005-01-01

    Castanea sativa pollen allergy has generally been considered to be uncommon and clinically insignificant. In our geographical area (Plasencia, Cáceres, Spain) Castanea sativa pollen is a major pollen. To determine the atmospheric fluctuations and prevalence of patients sensitized to Castanea pollen in our region and to compare this sensitization with sensitizations to other pollens. Patients with respiratory symptoms attending our outpatient clinic for the first time in 2003 were studied. The patients underwent skin prick tests with commercial extracts of a battery of inhalants including Castanea sativa pollen. Serologic specific IgE to Castanea sativa pollen was determined using the CAP system (Pharmacia and Upjohn, Uppsala, Sweden). Airborne pollen counts in our city were obtained using Cour collection apparatus over a 4-year period (2000 to 2003). The most predominant pollens detected were (mean of the maximal weekly concentrations over 4 years in pollen grains/m3): Quercus 968, Poacea 660, Olea 325, Platanus 229, Pinus 126, Cupresaceae 117, Plantago 109, Alnus 41, Populus 40, Castanea 32. We studied 346 patients (mean age: 24.1 years). In 210 patients with a diagnosis of pollinosis, the percentages of sensitization were: Dactylis glomerata 80.4%, Olea europea 71.9%, Fraxinus excelsior 68%, Plantago lanceolata 62.8%, Chenopodium album 60.9%, Robinia pseudoacacia 49%, Artemisia vulgaris 43.8%, Platanus acerifolia 36.6%, Parietaria judaica 36.1%, Populus nigra 32.3%, Betula alba 27.6%, Quercus ilex 21.4%, Alnus glutinosa 20.9%, Cupressus arizonica 7.6% and Castanea sativa 7.1%. Fifteen patients were sensitized to Castanea sativa and 14 had seasonal rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma. Ten patients had serum specific IgE to Castanea pollen (maximum value: 17.4 Ku/l). Castanea pollen is present in our area in large amounts from the 23rd to the 28th weeks of the year, with a peak pollen count in the 25th week. The most important allergenic pollens in northern Extremadura

  18. Evaluation of Effect of Silicon on NaCl Tolerance in Annual Medicago scutellata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Azizi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Salinity is one of the most important stress resulting depletion of vegetation in large areas of the world including some regions of Iran. Reduction of plant growth due to salinity occurs with a range of mechanisms, including low external water potential, ion toxicity and interfere with the uptake. Silicon (Si is the second most abundant element in soil and could efficiently mitigate the effects of various biotic and abiotic stresses, such as drought, heavy metal toxicity and salinity on plants. Medicago scutellata is an important leguminous forage crop throughout the world that could increase soil nitrogen content via reduction of atmospheric nitrogen. To our knowledge, no study have examined the interaction of salinity and Si nutrition in Medicago scutellata or how the beneficial effects of Si in salt-stressed M. scutellata plants (if any are exerted. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of silicon nutrition on salt tolerance of Medicago scutellata. Materials and Methods Seeds of alfalfa (Medicago scutellata L. were sterilized with a 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution and were incubated in a moistened paper towel. Then, they germinated in the dark at 255  C for 48 h. Healthy seedlings of uniform sizes were selected for hydroponic culture (Hoagland solution in a 10×15×15 cm plastic pots. A factorial experiment carried out based on a completely randomized design with two factors. The first factor was salinity, including 0 and 100 mM NaCl and the second was silicon nutrition, including 0, 0.75 and 1.5 m.M sodium silicate. The pH of the nutrient solution was adjusted daily at 6.4  0.2 and nutrient solution was refreshed weekly. During the experiment, maximum and minimum air temperatures were 30ºC and 21ºC respectively, and the mean relative humidity was 67%. Four weeks after exerting the treatments, plants were harvested and used for the assessment of growth parameters and chemical analyses

  19. Adaptive evolution of the symbiotic gene NORK is not correlated with shifts of rhizobial specificity in the genus Medicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronfort Joëlle

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The NODULATION RECEPTOR KINASE (NORK gene encodes a Leucine-Rich Repeat (LRR-containing receptor-like protein and controls the infection by symbiotic rhizobia and endomycorrhizal fungi in Legumes. The occurrence of numerous amino acid changes driven by directional selection has been reported in this gene, using a limited number of messenger RNA sequences, but the functional reason of these changes remains obscure. The Medicago genus, where changes in rhizobial associations have been previously examined, is a good model to test whether the evolution of NORK is influenced by rhizobial interactions. Results We sequenced a region of 3610 nucleotides (encoding a 392 amino acid-long region of the NORK protein in 32 Medicago species. We confirm that positive selection in NORK has occurred within the Medicago genus and find that the amino acid positions targeted by selection occur in sites outside of solvent-exposed regions in LRRs, and other sites in the N-terminal region of the protein. We tested if branches of the Medicago phylogeny where changes of rhizobial symbionts occurred displayed accelerated rates of amino acid substitutions. Only one branch out of five tested, leading to M. noeana, displays such a pattern. Among other branches, the most likely for having undergone positive selection is not associated with documented shift of rhizobial specificity. Conclusion Adaptive changes in the sequence of the NORK receptor have involved the LRRs, but targeted different sites than in most previous studies of LRR proteins evolution. The fact that positive selection in NORK tends not to be associated to changes in rhizobial specificity indicates that this gene was probably not involved in evolving rhizobial preferences. Other explanations (e.g. coevolutionary arms race must be tested to explain the adaptive evolution of NORK.

  20. Polyploid genome of Camelina sativa revealed by isolation of fatty acid synthesis genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shewmaker Christine K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Camelina sativa, an oilseed crop in the Brassicaceae family, has inspired renewed interest due to its potential for biofuels applications. Little is understood of the nature of the C. sativa genome, however. A study was undertaken to characterize two genes in the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, fatty acid desaturase (FAD 2 and fatty acid elongase (FAE 1, which revealed unexpected complexity in the C. sativa genome. Results In C. sativa, Southern analysis indicates the presence of three copies of both FAD2 and FAE1 as well as LFY, a known single copy gene in other species. All three copies of both CsFAD2 and CsFAE1 are expressed in developing seeds, and sequence alignments show that previously described conserved sites are present, suggesting that all three copies of both genes could be functional. The regions downstream of CsFAD2 and upstream of CsFAE1 demonstrate co-linearity with the Arabidopsis genome. In addition, three expressed haplotypes were observed for six predicted single-copy genes in 454 sequencing analysis and results from flow cytometry indicate that the DNA content of C. sativa is approximately three-fold that of diploid Camelina relatives. Phylogenetic analyses further support a history of duplication and indicate that C. sativa and C. microcarpa might share a parental genome. Conclusions There is compelling evidence for triplication of the C. sativa genome, including a larger chromosome number and three-fold larger measured genome size than other Camelina relatives, three isolated copies of FAD2, FAE1, and the KCS17-FAE1 intergenic region, and three expressed haplotypes observed for six predicted single-copy genes. Based on these results, we propose that C. sativa be considered an allohexaploid. The characterization of fatty acid synthesis pathway genes will allow for the future manipulation of oil composition of this emerging biofuel crop; however, targeted manipulations of oil composition and general

  1. Impact of cytomixis on meiosis, pollen viability and pollen size in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srinivas

    mother cells of Medicago sativa L.; J. Heredity 94 512–516. Bhat T A, Parveen S and Khan A H 2006 MMS-induced cytomixis in pollen mother cells of broad bean (Vicia faba L.); Turk. J. Bot. 30 273–279. Bione N C P, Pagliarini M S and de Toledo J F F 2000 Meiotic behavior of several Brazilian soybean varieties; Genet.

  2. Biological effect of aerospace environment on alfalfa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuexue; Liu Jielin; Han Weibo; Tang Fenglan; Hao Ruochao; Shang Chen; DuYouying; Li Jikai; Wang Changshan

    2009-01-01

    The biological effect of aerospace environment on two varieties of Medicago sativa L. was studied. In M 1 germination results showed that aerospace environment increased cell division and the number of micronucleus, changed germination rate, caused seedling aberrations. Cytogenetical and seedling aberration of Zhaodong showed more sensitivity than Longmu 803. Branches and fresh weight of Zhaodong had shown more serious damage than control and Longmu 803. (authors)

  3. Prevalence of sensitization to Cannabis sativa. Lipid-transfer and thaumatin-like proteins are relevant allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larramendi, Carlos H; López-Matas, M Ángeles; Ferrer, Angel; Huertas, Angel Julio; Pagán, Juan Antonio; Navarro, Luis Ángel; García-Abujeta, José Luis; Andreu, Carmen; Carnés, Jerónimo

    2013-01-01

    Although allergy to Cannabis sativa was first reported over 40 years ago, the allergenicity has scarcely been studied. The objectives of this study were to investigate the frequency of sensitization to this plant, to analyze the clinical characteristics and allergenic profile of sensitized individuals and to identify the allergens involved. Five hundred and forty-five individuals in Spain attending allergy clinics with respiratory or cutaneous symptoms underwent a skin-prick test (SPT) with C. sativa leaf extract. The extract was characterized by SDS-PAGE and 2-dimensional electrophoresis. Specific IgE to C. sativa was measured in positive SPT individuals. The clinical and allergenic profiles of sensitized individuals were investigated and the most-recognized allergens sequenced and characterized by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. Of this preselected population, 44 individuals had positive SPT to C. sativa (prevalence 8.1%). Prevalence was higher in individuals who were C. sativa smokers (14.6%). Two individuals reported mild symptoms with C. sativa. Twenty-one individuals from 32 available sera (65.6%) had positive specific IgE to C. sativa. Twelve sera recognized at least 6 different bands in a molecular-weight range of between 10 and 60 kDa. Six of them recognized a 10-kDa band, identified as a lipid transfer protein (LTP) and 8 recognized a 38-kDa band, identified as a thaumatin-like protein. There is a high prevalence of sensitization to C. sativa leaves. The clinical symptoms directly attributed to C. sativa were uncommon and mild. The sensitization profile observed suggests that C. sativa sensitization may be mediated by two mechanisms, i.e. cross-reactivity, mainly with LTP and thaumatin-like protein, and exposure-related 'de novo' sensitization. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Managed grassland alters soil N dynamics and N2O emissions in temperate steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lijun; Xu, Xingliang; Tang, Xuejuan; Xin, Xiaoping; Ye, Liming; Yang, Guixia; Tang, Huajun; Lv, Shijie; Xu, Dawei; Zhang, Zhao

    2018-04-01

    Reclamation of degraded grasslands as managed grasslands has been increasingly accelerated in recent years in China. Land use change affects soil nitrogen (N) dynamics and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions. However, it remains unclear how large-scale grassland reclamation will impact the grassland ecosystem as a whole. Here, we investigated the effects of the conversion from native to managed grasslands on soil N dynamics and N2O emissions by field experiments in Hulunber in northern China. Soil (0-10cm), nitrate (NO 3 - ), ammonium (NH 4 + ), and microbial N were measured in plots in a temperate steppe (Leymus chinensis grassland) and two managed grasslands (Medicago sativa and Bromus inermis grasslands) in 2011 and 2012. The results showed conversion of L. chinensis grassland to M. sativa or B. inermis grasslands decreased concentrations of NO 3 - -N, but did not change NH 4 + -N. Soil microbial N was slightly decreased by the conversion of L. chinensis grassland to M. sativa, but increased by the conversion to B. inermis. The conversion of L. chinensis grassland to M. sativa (i.e., a legume grass) increased N 2 O emissions by 26.2%, while the conversion to the B. inermis (i.e., a non-legume grass) reduced N 2 O emissions by 33.1%. The conversion from native to managed grasslands caused large created variations in soil NO 3 - -N and NH 4 + -N concentrations. Net N mineralization rates did not change significantly in growing season or vegetation type, but to net nitrification rate. These results provide evidence on how reclamation may impact the grassland ecosystem in terms of N dynamics and N 2 O emissions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Identification of IgE- binding pollen protein from Cannabis sativa in pollen-hypersensitive patients from north Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Shazia; Murad, Sheeba; Hayat, Muhammad Qasim; Shakoor, Zahid; Arshad, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis sativa (C.sativa) is well-known for its medicinal, industrial and recreational use. However, allergies in relation to Cannabis sativa (C.sativa) are rarely reported. C. sativa is one of the common weeds found in Pakistan and its pollen grains are common in spring and fall season. Although categorized as an aeroallergen, there are limited number of reports regarding allergenic potential in C. sativa. Therefore, the current study is aimed at exploring the IgE- binding potential among the C. sativa pollen in local pollen allergic patients. Initial screening of C. sativa sensitized individuals was carried out by dot blot from the sera of pollen allergic patients. Proteins from the pollen grains were extracted and resolved on 10% gel. Eight bands were visible on gel however only one protein fragment i.e. of 14KDa size was found to bind to IgE as analyzed through protein gel blot analysis. Strong IgE affinity of a 14 kDa protein fragment from C. sativa pollen extract suggests its allergenic potential. Further study is required to find the exact nature of this protein fragment.

  6. Evaluation of three endemic Mediterranean plant species Atriplex halimus, Medicago lupulina and Portulaca oleracea for Phytoremediation of Ni, Pb and Zn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chami, Ziad Al; Amer, Nasser; Bitar, Lina Al; Mondelli, Donato; Dumontet, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    The success of phytoremediation depends upon the identification of suitable plants species that hyperaccumulate/tolerate heavy metals and produce large amounts of biomass. In this study, three endemic Mediterranean plant species Atriplex halimus, Medicago lupulina and Portulaca oleracea, were grown hydroponically to assess their potential use in phytoremediation of Ni, Pb and Zn and biomass production. The objective of this research is to improve phytoremediation procedures by searching for a new endemic Mediterranean plant species which can be used for phytoremediation of low/moderate contamination in the Mediterranean arid and semiarid conditions and bioenergy production. The hydroponics experiment was carried out in a growth chamber using half strength Hoagland's solution as control (CTR) and 5 concentrations for Pb and Zn (5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg L-1) and 3 concentrations for Ni (1, 2, and 5 mg L-1). Complete randomized design with five replications was adopted. Main growth parameters (shoot and root dry weight, shoot and root length and chlorophyll content) were determined. Shoots and roots were analyzed for their metals contents. Some interesting contributions of this research are: (i) plant metal uptake efficiency ranked as follows: A. halimus > M. lupulina > P. oleracea, whereas heavy metal toxicity ranked as follows: Ni > Zn > Pb, (ii) none of the plant species was identified as hyperaccumulator, (iii) Atriplex halimus and Medicago lupulina can accumulate Ni, Pb and Zn in their roots, (iv) translocate small fraction to their above ground biomass, and (v) indicate moderate pollution levels of the environment. In addition, as they are a good biomass producer, they can be used in phytostabilisation of marginal lands and their above ground biomass can be used for livestock feeding as well for bioenergy production.

  7. Origin of Oryza sativa in China inferred by nucleotide polymorphisms of organelle DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wei

    Full Text Available China is rich of germplasm resources of common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff. and Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa L. which consists of two subspecies, indica and japonica. Previous studies have shown that China is one of the domestication centers of O. sativa. However, the geographic origin and the domestication times of O. sativa in China are still under debate. To settle these disputes, six chloroplast loci and four mitochondrial loci were selected to examine the relationships between 50 accessions of Asian cultivated rice and 119 accessions of common wild rice from China based on DNA sequence analysis in the present study. The results indicated that Southern China is the genetic diversity center of O. rufipogon and it might be the primary domestication region of O. sativa. Molecular dating suggested that the two subspecies had diverged 0.1 million years ago, much earlier than the beginning of rice domestication. Genetic differentiations and phylogeography analyses indicated that indica was domesticated from tropical O. rufipogon while japonica was domesticated from O. rufipogon which located in higher latitude. These results provided molecular evidences for the hypotheses of (i Southern China is the origin center of O. sativa in China and (ii the two subspecies of O. sativa were domesticated multiple times.

  8. Effect of administering black cumin (Nigella sativa) toward postpartum mice (MusMusculus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imelda, F.; Darti, N. A.

    2018-03-01

    The period of childbirth is a period for the health provider monitoring that less monitoring can cause the mother to suffer a variety of problemsandcomplications during childbirth such as post-partum infections. This type of research was an experimental group P0: control group, treatment groups by administering Nigella sativa P1:2.6mg/day, P2:3.9mg/day, P3:5.2mg/day, and P4:6.5mg/day, which each group 5 samples. The average amount of leukocytes after given Nigella sativa 2.6mg/day for seven days (P1) which was 7:10±0:57 (x103cells/mm3), and at least in female mice after given Nigella sativa 6.5mg/day for sevendays (P4) which was 6.62±0.52 (x103cells/mm3). The average amount lymphocytes after given Nigella sativa 2.6mg/day for seven days (P1) which was 63.40±4.77 (x103cells/mm3), and least in female mice after given Nigella sativa 3.9 mg/day for seven days (P3) which was 47.00±14:58 (x103cells/mm3). Amount of monocytes after given Nigella sativa 5.2mg/day for seven days (P3) which was 5.40±0.55 (x103cells/mm3), and least in female mice after given Nigella sativa 2.6mg/day for seven days (P1) which was 4.80±1.30 (x103cells/mm3).

  9. The Protective Effects of Nigella sativa and Its Constituents on Induced Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Khazdair

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa (N. sativa is an annual plant and widely used as medicinal plant throughout the world. The seeds of the plant have been used traditionally in various disorders and as a spice to ranges of Persian foods. N. sativa has therapeutic effects on tracheal responsiveness (TR and lung inflammation on induced toxicity by Sulfur mustard. N. sativa has been widely used in treatment of various nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer disease, epilepsy, and neurotoxicity. Most of the therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of some phenolic compounds especially thymoquinone (TQ, which is major bioactive component of the essential oil. The present review is an effort to provide a comprehensive study of the literature on scientific researches of pharmacological activities of the seeds of this plant on induced neurotoxicity.

  10. Pharmacology of Marihuana (Cannabis sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maickel, Roger P.

    1973-01-01

    A detailed discussion of marihuana (Cannabis sativa) providing the modes of use, history, chemistry, and physiologic properties of the drug. Cites research results relating to the pharmacologic effects of marihuana. These effects are categorized into five areas: behavioral, cardiovascular-respiratory, central nervous system, toxicity-toxicology,…

  11. Microsatellite diversity and broad scale geographic structure in a model legume: building a set of nested core collection for studying naturally occurring variation in Medicago truncatula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronfort, Joelle; Bataillon, Thomas; Santoni, Sylvain

    2006-01-01

    at representing the genetic diversity of this species with a minimum of repetitiveness. We investigate the patterns of genetic diversity and population structure in a collection of 346 inbred lines representing the breadth of naturally occurring diversity in the Legume plant model Medicago truncatula using 13...... of inbred lines and the core collections are publicly available and will help coordinating efforts for the study of naturally occurring variation in the growing Medicago truncatula community....

  12. Toxicological responses in alfalfa ( Medicago sativa ) under joint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Joint effects of Cd2+ and napropamide in seeds, roots or leaves of alfalfa were investigated under different treatments. It was shown that single stress of Cd2+ or napropamide decreased chlorophyll content after 30 days of treatment in different concentrations. The decrease in chlorophyll content became insignificant under ...

  13. Biochemical responses of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-21

    Sep 21, 2011 ... cultivars, as shown by the increase in lipid peroxidation. However, the level of lipid ..... Moreover, salinity perturbs plant hormone balances. (Khan and Rizvi, 1994) and ..... water deficit and desiccation. New Phytol. 125: 27-58.

  14. Toxicological responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) under joint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL-021

    2012-11-13

    Nov 13, 2012 ... 1School of Chemical Engineering, Huaihai Institute of Technology, Lianyungang City, ... would aggravate the toxic effects on chlorophyll synthesis in ... O2. •− was also higher in the napropamide treatments than in the control.

  15. Evaluation the impact of habitat quality on the soil fauna in Jajarm region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Rassam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of land use, crop type and crop management on soil fauna were investigated with survey of four habitats in Jajarm. The habitats included rangelands, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. fields and low-input and high-input of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. fields, each with four sample units. In each sample unit, the macrofauna collected with pitfall traps, sorted and counted in terms of family. The analysis of data conducted using of contrast analysis, analysis of similarities and principal component analysis (PCA. In rangelands the taxonomic richness, Simpson diversity index and abundance of macrofauna families tremendously were lower than agricultural habitats. These were attributed to low of plant diversity and pressure of livestock grazing. In alfalfa fields, increased abundance of beneficial macrofauna than wheat fields due to use not of chemical inputs, low disturbance and perennial of alfalfa. The crop management dad not has any significant impact on soil macrofauna. However, soil important macrofauna showed great tendency to occupancy in low-input wheat fields.

  16. Why develop O. sativa x O. rufipogon chromosome segment substitution line libraries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgressive variation has been observed in rice (Oryza sativa) as an increase in grain yield in advanced backcross mapping populations derived from crosses between several adapted O. sativa varieties and a single accession (IRGC105491) of the ancestral parent, O. rufipogon. The phenomena of hybrid...

  17. Green Fodder Production and Water Use Efficiency of Some Forage Crops under Hydroponic Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazi N. Al-Karaki; M. Al-Hashimi

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate five forage crops (alfalfa (Medicago sativa), barley (Hordeum vulgare), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and wheat (Triticum aestivum)) for green fodder production and water use efficiency under hydroponic conditions. The experiment has been conducted under temperature-controlled conditions (24 ± 1°C) and natural window illumination at growth room of Soilless Culture Laboratory, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain. The r...

  18. Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of eruca sativa seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulfraz, M.; Sadiq, A.; Tariq, H.; Imran, M.; Qureshi, R.; Zeenat, A.

    2011-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of various solvent extracts of Eruca sativa seed as well as seed oil was investigated against Gram+ve and Gram-ve bacterial strains. Maximum zone of inhibition was observed from seed oil followed by methanolic seed extracts from all bacterial strains compared with broad spectrum antibiotics gentamicine. MIC values of seed oil were within the ranges of 52-72 mu g/ml as compared to 56-70 mu g/ml standard antibiotic Gentamicine). Proximate and Phytochemical analysis of seed of E. sativa showed presence of all essential phyto constituents required for promising traditional medicine. Analysis of seed oil by gas chromatography revealed that there was high concentration of Erucic acid (51.2%) followed by oleic acid (15.1%) and cis-11-eicosenoic acid (12.5%). In addition, minor quantities of other essential and non essential fatty acids were also present. Therefore the present study supports effectiveness of E. sativa seeds for it use in traditional medicine used in various human disorders. (author)

  19. A review on therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa: A miracle herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aftab; Husain, Asif; Mujeeb, Mohd; Khan, Shah Alam; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Siddique, Nasir Ali; Damanhouri, Zoheir A; Anwar, Firoz

    2013-05-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) (Family Ranunculaceae) is a widely used medicinal plant throughout the world. It is very popular in various traditional systems of medicine like Unani and Tibb, Ayurveda and Siddha. Seeds and oil have a long history of folklore usage in various systems of medicines and food. The seeds of N. sativa have been widely used in the treatment of different diseases and ailments. In Islamic literature, it is considered as one of the greatest forms of healing medicine. It has been recommended for using on regular basis in Tibb-e-Nabwi (Prophetic Medicine). It has been widely used as antihypertensive, liver tonics, diuretics, digestive, anti-diarrheal, appetite stimulant, analgesics, anti-bacterial and in skin disorders. Extensive studies on N. sativa have been carried out by various researchers and a wide spectrum of its pharmacological actions have been explored which may include antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulator, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, bronchodilator, hepato-protective, renal protective, gastro-protective, antioxidant properties, etc. Due to its miraculous power of healing, N. sativa has got the place among the top ranked evidence based herbal medicines. This is also revealed that most of the therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of thymoquinone which is major bioactive component of the essential oil. The present review is an effort to provide a detailed survey of the literature on scientific researches of pharmacognostical characteristics, chemical composition and pharmacological activities of the seeds of this plant.

  20. A review on the inhibitory potential of Nigella sativa against pathogenic and toxigenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, Hojjatollah

    2016-01-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) grows in various parts of the world, particularly in Iran. It has been traditionally used as a folk remedy to treat a number of diseases. The seeds of this plant contain moisture, proteins, carbohydrates, crude fiber, alkaloids, saponins, ash, fixed oils and essential oil. The major components of the essential oil are thymoquinone, p-cymene, trans-anethole, 2-methyl-5(1-methyl ethyl)-Bicyclo[3.1.0]hex-2-en and γ-terpinene. So far, several pharmacological effects such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-microbial have been reported for N. sativa or its active compounds. Thymoquinone, thymohydroquinone and thymol are the most active constituents which have different beneficial properties. The oil, extracts and some of N. sativa active components possessed moderate in vitro and in vivo inhibitory activity against pathogenic yeasts, dermatophytes, non-dermatophytic filamentous fungi and aflatoxin-producing fungi. The main morphological changes of pathogenic and toxigenic fungi treated with N. sativa oil were observed in the cell wall, plasma membrane and membranous organelles, particularly in the nuclei and mitochondria. Although this review represents first step in the search for a new anti-fungal drug, the full potential of N. sativa as a fungitoxic agent has not been exploited and necessitates further investigations.

  1. The Medicago truncatula lysine motif-receptor-like kinase gene family includes NFP and new nodule-expressed genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrighi, J.F.; Barre, A.; Amor, Ben B.; Bersoult, A.; Campos Soriano, L.; Mirabella, R.; Carvalho-Niebel, de F.; Journet, E.P.; Ghérardi, M.; Huguet, T.; Geurts, R.; Dénarié, J.; Rougé, P.; Gough, C.

    2006-01-01

    Rhizobial Nod factors are key symbiotic signals responsible for starting the nodulation process in host legume plants. Of the six Medicago truncatula genes controlling a Nod factor signaling pathway, Nod Factor Perception (NFP) was reported as a candidate Nod factor receptor gene. Here, we provide

  2. Phytochemistry, pharmacology, and therapeutic uses of black seed (Nigella sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooti, Wesam; Hasanzadeh-Noohi, Zahra; Sharafi-Ahvazi, Naim; Asadi-Samani, Majid; Ashtary-Larky, Damoon

    2016-10-01

    Black seed (Nigella sativa) is an annual flowering plant from Ranunculaceae family, native to southwest Asia. This plant has many food and medicinal uses. The use of its seeds and oil is common for treatment of many diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, inflammatory diseases, diabetes and digestive diseases. The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive review on the scientific reports that have been published about N. sativa. The facts and statistics presented in this review article were gathered from the journals accessible in creditable databases such as Science Direct, Medline, PubMed, Scopus, EBSCO, EMBASE, SID and IranMedex. The keywords searched in Persian and English books on medicinal plants and traditional medicine, as well as the above reputable databases were "Black seed", "Nigella sativa", "therapeutic effect", and "medicinal plant". The results showed that N. sativa has many biological effects such as anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-microbial, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, and wound healing activities. It also has effects on reproductive, digestive, immune and central nervous systems, such as anticonvulsant and analgesic activities. In summary, it can be used as a valuable plant for production of new drugs for treatment of many diseases. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Polyketide synthases in Cannabis sativa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores Sanchez, Isvett Josefina

    2008-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. plants produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites, which have been grouped in cannabinoids, flavonoids, stilbenoids, terpenoids, alkaloids and lignans; the cannabinoids are the best known group of natural products from this plant. The pharmacological aspects of this

  4. Inhibitory effect of marine green algal extracts on germination of Lactuca sativa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Choi, In Soon

    2016-03-01

    The allelopathic potential of nine green seaweed species was examined based on germination and seedling growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Out of nine methanol extracts, Capsosiphon fulvescens and Monostroma nitidum extracts completely inhibited germination of L. sativa at 4 mg/filter paper after 24 hr of treatment. Water extracts of these seaweeds generally showed low anti-germination activities than methanol extracts. Of the nine water extracts, Enteromorpha linza extract completely inhibited L. sativa germination at 16 mg/filter paper after 24 hrs. To identify the primary active compounds, C. fulvescens. powder was successively fractionated according to polarity, and the main active agents against L. sativa were determined to be lipids (0.0% germination at 0.5 mg of lipids/paper disc). According to these results, extracts of C. fulvescens can be used to develop natural herbicidal agents and manage terrestrial weeds.

  5. A Review on the Cosmeceutical and External Applications of Nigella sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Eid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated by the World Health Organization (WHO that most of the world’s population depends on herbal medicine for their health care. Nigella sativa (N. sativa, also known as black-caraway and as “Kalonji,” is a well-known seed all over the world. It is one of the most common medicinal plants worldwide and contains many useful chemical constituents that we can find in its fixed oil, such as thymoquinone, thymohydroquinone, dithymoquinone, thymol, nigellicine, carvacrol, nigellimine, nigellicine, nigellidine, and alpha-hederin. Due to these numerous important ingredients it was found that it affects different areas of our body and has many pharmacological effects as antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and wound healing effect and also for acne vulgaris, skin cancer, pigmentation, and many cosmeceutical applications. Based on the folklore usage of N. sativa seeds and oil, they are used in various systems of food and medicines. The aim of this article is to provide a detailed survey of the literature of cosmeceutical and external applications of N. sativa which is expected to stimulate further studies on this subject.

  6. A Hypersensitivity-Like Response to Meloidogyne graminicola in Rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Ngan Thi; De Waele, Dirk; Lorieux, Mathias; Xiong, Lizhong; Bellafiore, Stephane

    2018-04-01

    Meloidogyne graminicola is a major plant-parasitic nematode affecting rice cultivation in Asia. Resistance to this nematode was found in the African rice genotypes Oryza glaberrima and O. longistaminata; however, due to interspecific hybrid sterility, the introgression of resistance genes in the widely consumed O. sativa varieties remains challenging. Recently, resistance was found in O. sativa and, here, we report for the first time the histological and genetic characterization of the resistance to M. graminicola in Zhonghua 11, an O. sativa variety. Bright-light microscopy and fluorescence observations of the root tissue of this variety revealed that the root cells surrounding the nematode displayed a hypersensitivity-like reaction with necrotic cells at early stages of infection when nematodes are migrating in the root's mesoderm. An accumulation of presumably phenolic compounds in the nematodes' neighboring root cells was also observed. In addition, at a later stage of infection, not only were few feeding sites observed but also the giant cells were underdeveloped, underlining an incompatible interaction. Furthermore, we generated a hybrid O. sativa population by crossing Zhonghua 11 with the susceptible O. sativa variety IR64 in order to describe the genetic background of this resistance. Our data suggested that the resistance to M. graminicola infection was qualitative rather than quantitative and, therefore, major resistance genes must be involved in this infection process. The full characterization of the defense mechanism and the preliminary study of the genetic inheritance of novel sources of resistance to Meloidogyne spp. in rice constitute a major step toward their use in crop breeding.

  7. ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF ALFALFA (MEDICAGO VARIA L.) GENETICLALY ENGINEERED TO EXPRESS A HUMAN METALLOTHIONEIN (HMT) GENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of these studies were two-fold: (1) to determine efficacy of low and high expression hMT gene constructs by assessing accumulation of Cu in shoots of parental and transgenic plants of alfalfa (Medicago varia L.) exposed to different concentrations of CuSO4 by addit...

  8. Nigella sativa improves the carbon tetrachloride-induced lung damage in rats through repression of erk/akt pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Aslan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine whether Nigella sativa plays a protective role against the damage in the lung by administering carbon tetra-chloride (CCl4 to rats. Male Wistar albino (n=28, 8 weeks old rats were divided into 4 groups: a negative control: Normal water consuming group to which no CCl4 and N. sativa was administered; b Positive control: Normal water consuming group to which no CCl4 was administered but N. sativa was administered; c CCl4 Group: Normal water consuming and group to which CCl4 was administered (1.5 mL/kg, ip; d N. sativa plus CCl4 group: CCl4 and N. sativa administered group (1.5 mL/kg, ip. Caspase-3, caspase -9, erk, akt protein syntheses were examined via Western blotting. Malondialdehyde determination in lung tissue was made using spectrophotometer. As a results, malondialdehyde amount was decreased in the CCl4 plus N. sativa group in comparison to CCl4 group whereas caspase-3, caspase-9 was increased and erk, akt had decreased. These results show that N. sativa protects the lung against oxidative damage.

  9. Sensitization and allergy to Cannabis sativa leaves in a population of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)-sensitized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Larramendi, Carlos Hernando; Carnés, Jerónimo; García-Abujeta, José Luís; García-Endrino, Ana; Muñoz-Palomino, Elena; Huertas, Angel Julio; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Ferrer, Angel

    2008-01-01

    Cases of allergy to Cannabis sativa have occasionally been reported, but both the allergenic profile and eventual cross-reactivity pattern remain unknown. To analyze the allergenic profile of a population of patients from Spain sensitized to C. sativa and to characterize the C. sativa leaf extract. A total of 32 subjects were enrolled in the study: group A, 10 individuals sensitized to tomato, reporting reactions by contact or inhalation to Cannabis; group B, 14 individuals sensitized to tomato, without reactions to Cannabis; group C, 8 individuals not sensitized to tomato and without reactions to Cannabis. Sensitivity to Cannabis, tomato and peach peel, Platanus hybrida and Artemisia vulgaris pollen extracts was measured by skin tests and specific IgE. Individual immunoblots and inhibition experiments with a pool of sera were conducted. All tomato-sensitized subjects (and 1 negative) had positive skin tests to C. sativa leaves and hashish. Specific IgE to C. sativa and peach peel was more common than to tomato. Immunoblot experiments showed 2 prominent bands of 10 and 14 kDa and 2 weakly recognized bands of 30 and 45 kDa. Tomato, peach and A. vulgaris extracts inhibited most of the bands present in C. sativa. P. hybrida inhibited only the high-molecular-weight bands. Sensitization to C. sativa with or without symptoms is frequent among patients in Spain sensitized to tomato. C. sativa leaves are a potential allergenic source and their allergens may cross-react with other allergenic sources from plants (fruit peels and pollen). (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  10. Allelopathic effect of medicinal plant Cannabis sativa L. on Lactuca sativa L. seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa MAHMOODZADEH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine allelopathic effect of Cannabis sativa L. on germination capability and seedling growth of Lactuca sativa L., a study was performed in laboratory conditions. Treatments were set up in randomised block design in four replications for each of four concentration ranges of 25, 50, 75 and 100 % of aqueous extract made of shoot parts and 4 identical extract concentrations made of root of cannabis. Control variant was lettuce seed treated by distilled water. During the studies shoot and seminal root length of lettuce seedlings were measured after treatments with different concentrations of extracts made of root and shoot parts of cannabis, and the obtained values were compared with the control. The obtained results suggest that the extract from the shoot parts of cannabis in high concentrations of 75 and 100 % had inhibiting effect to the germination indices while the extract from the root had no statistically significant effect on germination of lettuce seeds. Extract made of root part of cannabis showed also stimulatory effect to shoot and seminal root length of lettuce seedlings in extract concentrations of 50, 75 and 100 %.

  11. Gastrointestinal effects of Nigella sativa and its main constituent, thymoquinone: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Shakeri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI diseases affect a large number of people all over the world. Uncontrolled acid secretion and occurrence of gastric ulcers are common disorders of GI tract which pose serious problems to human health. Many synthetic drugs have been used to treat GI disorders but a definite cure has not been discovered so far and the available medications cause several side effects. Nigella sativa (N. sativa (Ranunculacea has several therapeutic effects which are attributed to its constituents like nigellicine, nigellidine, thymoquinone, dithymoquinone, thymol and carvacrol. Several beneficial pharmacological properties of this plant such as anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-histaminic, anti-hypertensive, hypoglycemic, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and immunomodulatory effects were reported and different therapeutic properties such as reliving bronchial asthma, jaundice, hydrophobia, paralysis, conjunctivitis, piles, skin diseases, anorexia, headache, dysentery, infections, obesity, back pain, hypertension and gastrointestinal problems, have been described for the seeds of N. sativa and its oil. The present review provides a detailed summery of scientific researches regarding gastrointestinal effect of N. sativa and its main constituent, thymoquinone.

  12. Roughage digestion evaluation in horses with total feces collection and mobile nylon bags

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Liziana Maria; Almeida, Fernando Queiroz de; Pereira, Marcos Barreto; Miranda, Ana Cláudia Tavares; Guimarães, Andresa; Andrade, Agnaldo Machado de

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of roughages in horses with total feces collection and mobile bags. Two trials were carried out simultaneously. The first trial evaluated the digestibility of nutrients of coastcross hay (Cynodon dactylon cv. coastcross) with total feces collection. The second trial assessed the digestibility of nutrients of alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa), peanut (Arachis pintoi) and coastcross hay with mobile bags. This trial was conducted with gastric i...

  13. Correlations of Glomalin Contents and PAHs Removal in Alfalfa-vegetated Soils with Inoculation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    YANG Zhen-ya; ZONG Jiong; ZHU Xue-zhu; LING Wan-ting

    2016-01-01

    The correlations of glomalin contents and removal of phenanthrene and pyrene as representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils with inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi(AMF) were investigated. The test AMF included Glomus etunicatum(Ge), Glomus mosseae(Gm), and Glomus lamellosum(Gla), and the host plant was alfalfa(Medicago sativa L.). The AMF hyphal density and contents of easily extractable glomalin and total glomalin in AMF-inoculated soils were observed to increase...

  14. Medicago truncatula-derived calcium oxalate crystals have a negative impact on chewing insect performance via their physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant structural traits often act as defenses against herbivorous insects, causing them to avoid feeding on a given plant or tissue. Mineral crystals of calcium oxalate in Medicago truncatula Gaertn. (Fabaceae) leaves have previously been shown to be effective deterrents of lepidopteran insect feedi...

  15. Survival and growth of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa l.) inoculated with an am fungus (Glomus intraradices) in contaminated soils treated with two different remediation technologies (bio-pile and thermal desorption)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norini, M.P.; Beguiristain, Th.; Leyval, C.

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a group of persistent and toxic soil pollutants that are of major public concern due to their mutagenic and carcinogenic property. Phyto-remediation is the use of plants and their associated microorganisms for remediation of polluted soils. Phyto-remediation could be used in conjunction with other remediation technologies to reduce the contamination to safe levels and maintain or restore soil physico-chemical and biological properties. Most plant species form mycorrhizas with symbiotic fungi. It was shown that AM fungi enhance survival and plant growth in PAH contaminated soils. Mycorrhizal fungi also enhance the biotransformation or biodegradation of PAH, although the effect differed between soils. A rhizosphere and myco-rhizosphere gradient of PAH concentrations was observed, with decreased PAH concentration with decreased distance to roots. Different microbial communities were found in the rhizosphere of AM and non-mycorrhizal plants in comparison to bulk soil, suggesting that AM could affect PAH degradation by changing microbial communities. We investigated the effect of mycorrhizal fungi and nutrients on the ability of alfalfa to grow on soil contaminated with PAHs before and after two remediation treatments. We used soil from an industrial site (Homecourt, North East part of France) highly contaminated with PAH (2000 mg kg -1 ), which has been partially treated by two different remediation technologies (bio-pile and thermal desorption). The bio-pile treatment consisted of piling the contaminated soil with stimulation of aerobic microbial activity by aeration and addition of nutrient solution, and reduced PAH concentration to around 300 mg kg-1. With the thermal desorption treatment the soil was heated to around 500 deg. C so that PAH vaporized and were separated from the soil. The residual PAH concentration in soil was 40 mg kg -1 . Treated and non-treated contaminated soil was planted with alfalfa (Medicago

  16. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of Camelina sativa to mine drought stress-responsive genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanth, Bashistha Kumar; Kumari, Shipra; Choi, Seo Hee; Ha, Hye-Jeong; Lee, Geung-Joo

    2015-11-06

    Camelina sativa is an oil-producing crop belonging to the family of Brassicaceae. Due to exceptionally high content of omega fatty acid, it is commercially grown around the world as edible oil, biofuel, and animal feed. A commonly referred 'false flax' or gold-of-pleasure Camelina sativa has been interested as one of biofuel feedstocks. The species can grow on marginal land due to its superior drought tolerance with low requirement of agricultural inputs. This crop has been unexploited due to very limited transcriptomic and genomic data. Use of gene-specific molecular markers is an important strategy for new cultivar development in breeding program. In this study, Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and bioinformatics tools were used to obtain expression profiling of genes responding to drought stress in Camelina sativa BN14. A total of more than 60,000 loci were assembled, corresponding to approximately 275 K transcripts. When the species was exposed to 10 kPa drought stress, 100 kPa drought stress, and rehydrated conditions, a total of 107, 2,989, and 982 genes, respectively, were up-regulated, while 146, 3,659, and 1189 genes, respectively, were down-regulated compared to control condition. Some unknown genes were found to be highly expressed under drought conditions, together with some already reported gene families such as senescence-associated genes, CAP160, and LEA under 100 kPa soil water condition, cysteine protease, 2OG, Fe(II)-dependent oxygenase, and RAD-like 1 under rehydrated condition. These genes will be further validated and mapped to determine their function and loci. This EST library will be favorably applied to develop gene-specific molecular markers and discover genes responsible for drought tolerance in Camelina species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dual inoculation with an Aarbuscular Mycorrhizal fungus and Rhizobium to facilitate the growth of alfalfa on coal mine substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, F.Y.; Bi, Y.L.; Wong, M.H. [China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing (China)

    2009-07-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Glomus mosseae and Rhizobium on Medicago sativa grown on three types of coal mine substrates, namely a mixture of coal wastes and sands (CS), coal wastes and fly ash (CF), and fly ash (FA). Inoculation with Rhizobium alone did not result in any growth response but G. mosseae alone displayed a significant effect on plant growth. G. mosseae markedly increased the survival rate of M. sativa in CS substrate. In CF and FA substrates the respective oven dry weights of M. sativa inoculated with G. mosseae were 1.8 and 5.1 times higher than those without inoculation. Based on nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) uptake and legume growth, the results also show that dual inoculation in CS and CF substrates elicited a synergistic effect. This indicates that inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi may be a promising approach for revegetation of coal mine substrates.

  18. Silymarin and Nigella sativa extract ameliorate paracetamol induced oxidative stress and renal dysfunction in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reham Zakaria Hamza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the ameliorative role of silymarin or/and Nigella sativa (N. sativa water extract against N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP-induced renal function deterioration in male mice at the biochemical levels. Methods: The mice were divided into seven groups (10/group. The first group was served as control. The second group was treated with dose of APAP. The third and fourth groups were treated with silymarin alone and N. sativa water extract alone, respectively. The fifth and sixth groups were treated with combination of APAP with silymarin and APAP with N. sativa water extract, respectively. The seventh group was treated with a combination of both ameliorative compounds (silymarin and N. sativa water extract with APAP and all animals were treated for a period of 30 days. Results: Exposure to APAP at the treated dose for mice led to an alteration of kidney function parameters, increase in the level of serum urea and creatinine. Also, paracetamol administration induced oxidative stress in kidney homogenates by increasing malondialdhyde level and decreasing superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and this stress was ameliorated by administration of either silymarin or N. sativa water extract. Conclusions: Administration of silymarin or/and N. sativa water extract to APAP-treated mice alleviate the toxicity of APAP, and this appeared clearly by biochemical improvement of kidney function parameters and antioxidant parameters. But, the alleviation is more pronounced with the both antioxidants. Thus, the pronounce effect of silymarin and N. sativa water extract is most effective in reducing the toxicity induced by APAP and improving the kidney function parameters and antioxidant status of kidney of male mice.

  19. A Novel Role of Eruca sativa Mill. (Rocket Extract: Antiplatelet (NF-κB Inhibition and Antithrombotic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fuentes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological studies have shown the prevention of cardiovascular diseases through the regular consumption of vegetables. Eruca sativa Mill., commonly known as rocket, is a leafy vegetable that has anti-inflammatory activity. However, its antiplatelet and antithrombotic activities have not been described. Methods: Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract (0.1 to 1 mg/mL, was evaluated on human platelets: (i P-selectin expression by flow cytometry; (ii platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen and arachidonic acid; (iii IL-1β, TGF-β1, CCL5 and thromboxane B2 release; and (iv activation of NF-κB and PKA by western blot. Furthermore, (v antithrombotic activity (200 mg/kg and (vi bleeding time in murine models were evaluated. Results: Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract (0.1 to 1 mg/mL inhibited P-selectin expression and platelet aggregation induced by ADP. The release of platelet inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, TGF-β1, CCL5 and thromboxane B2 induced by ADP was inhibited by Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract. Furthermore, Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract inhibited NF-κB activation. Finally, in murine models, Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract showed significant antithrombotic activity and a slight effect on bleeding time. Conclusion: Eruca sativa Mill. presents antiplatelet and antithrombotic activity.

  20. Origin and domestication of Lactuca sativa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de I.M.

    1997-01-01

    The domestication of lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. is described on the basis of literature study. The centre of origin is discussed. A historical survey is made of the distribution of the groups of Lactuca cultivars over the world.

  1. Anxiolytic property of hydro-alcohol extract of Lactuca sativa and its effect on behavioral activities of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsha, Singapura Nagesh; Anilakumar, Kandangath Raghavan

    2013-01-01

    Lactuca sativa, belonging to the Asteraceae family, is a leafy vegetable known for its medicinal properties. This study aimed to understand the mechanism of Lactuca sativa extract with respect to pharmacological action.We investigated the anxiolytic effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of leaves of Lactuca sativa on mice. The behavioral tests performed on mice models to assess anti-anxiety properties were: open field test (OFT), elevated plus maze test (EPM), elevated T maze test, and marble burying test. Increased locomotor activity and time spent in the "open-arm" were observed in extract fed group. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite levels were decreased, catalase and glutathione levels were increased in Lactuca sativa treated mice. The data obtained in the present study suggests that the extract of Lactuca sativa can afford significant protection against anxiolytic activity.

  2. TOXICITY OF METHYL-TERT BYTYL ETHER (MTBE) TO PLANTS (AVENA SATIVA, ZEA MAYS, TRITICUM AESTIVUM, AND LACTUCA SATIVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) on the germination of seeds and growth of the plant were studied in some laboratory experiments. Test plants were wild oat (Avena sative), sweet corn (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Seed germination,...

  3. PENINGKATAN PRODUKSI DAN KECERNAAN BAHAN KERING ALFALFA DENGAN PEMUPUKAN FOSFAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Sunarni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago    sativa    L. as one of legume forage crops for ruminant livestock is very sensitive to the phosphorus deficiency. Phosphorus fertilizers have been used widely to overcome those problem. However, the high cost of superphosphate (SP is now focusing attention on cheaper rock phosphate (RP fertilizer. A field experiment was conducted on a latosolic soil (low pH, and low available Bray II extractable P. The objective of the research is to evaluate the effect of phosphorus fertilizer from difference sources on dry matter production, and in    vitro dry matter digestibility of alfalfa. Completely randomized block design with 7 treatments in 3 replicates was used in this field experiment. The treatments were T0 (control, T1 (SP, 100 kg P2O5/ha, T2 (SP, 200 kg P2O5/ha, T3 (SP, 300 kg P2O5/ha, T4 (RP, 100 kg P2O5/ha, T5 (RP, 200 kg P2O5/ha, T6 (RP, 300 kg P2O5/ha. Size of each plot was 2 m x 2 m, and fertilized with P fertilizer (SP, RP according to the assigned treatment. All plot received basal fertilizer of urea (50 kg N/ha, KCl (100 kg K2O/ha and poultry manure (2 ton/ha. Medicago    sativa was defoliated on 12 weeks after planting and analyzed for dry matter (DM production and in    vitro DM digestibility. Result showed that DM production significantly influenced by the treatments. Superphosphate fertilization resulted DM production significantly higher compared to control and RP, except on RP 300 kg P2O5/ha was non-significant difference. In    vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of alfalfa was not affected by the treatment. There was non-significant difference in IVDMD between the treatments. Therefore, RP (300 kg P2O5/ha could replace SP to increased DM production and not affected for IVDMD of Medicago    sativa in acid latosolic soil.

  4. Aspectos terapêuticos de compostos da planta Cannabis sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honório Káthia Maria

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Several cannabinoid compounds present therapeutic properties, but also have psychotropic effects, limiting their use as medicine. Nowadays, many important discoveries on the compounds extracted from the plant Cannabis sativa (cannabinoids have contributed to understand the therapeutic properties of these compounds. The main discoveries in the last years on the cannabinoid compounds were: the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, the endogenous cannabinoids and the possible mechanisms of action involved in the interaction between cannabinoid compounds and the biological receptors. So, from the therapeutical aspects presented in this work, we intended to show the evolution of the Cannabis sativa research and the possible medicinal use of cannabinoid compounds.

  5. Could abiotic stress tolerance in wild relatives of rice be used to improve Oryza sativa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, Brian J; Wang, Han; Scafaro, Andrew P

    2014-02-01

    Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima have been selected to acquire and partition resources efficiently as part of the process of domestication. However, genetic diversity in cultivated rice is limited compared to wild Oryza species, in spite of 120,000 genotypes being held in gene banks. By contrast, there is untapped diversity in the more than 20 wild species of Oryza, some having been collected from just a few coastal locations (e.g. Oryza schlechteri), while others are widely distributed (e.g. Oryza nivara and Oryza rufipogon). The extent of DNA sequence diversity and phenotypic variation is still being established in wild Oryza, with genetic barriers suggesting a vast range of morphologies and function even within species, such as has been demonstrated for Oryza meridionalis. With increasing climate variability and attempts to make more marginal land arable, abiotic and biotic stresses will be managed over the coming decades by tapping into the genetic diversity of wild relatives of O. sativa. To help create a more targeted approach to sourcing wild rice germplasm for abiotic stress tolerance, we have created a climate distribution map by plotting the natural occurrence of all Oryza species against corresponding temperature and moisture data. We then discuss interspecific variation in phenotype and its significance for rice, followed by a discussion of ways to integrate germplasm from wild relatives into domesticated rice. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Role of Proanthocyanidins Complex in Structure and Nutrition Interaction in Alfalfa Forage

    OpenAIRE

    Jonker, Arjan; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the main forages grown in the world. Alfalfa is a winter hardy, drought tolerant, N-fixing legume with a good longevity, high yield, high nutrient levels, high digestibility, unique structural to non-structural components ratio, high dry matter intake, and high animal productivity per hectare. However, its main limitation is its excessively rapid initial rate of protein degradation in the rumen, which results in pasture bloat and inefficient use of prote...

  7. Nitrogen replacement value of alfalfa to corn and wheat under irrigated Mediterranean conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ballesta, A.; Lloveras, J.

    2010-01-01

    In crop rotations that include alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), agronomic and environmental concerns mean that it is important to determine the N fertilizer contribution of this legume for subsequent crops in order to help to increase the sustainability of cropping systems. To determine the N fertilizer replacement value (FRV) of a 2-yr alfalfa crop on subsequent crops of corn (Zea mays L.) followed by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under irrigated Mediterranean conditions, two 4-yr rotations (alf...

  8. Antifungal (Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici) activity of various glycosides of medicagenic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Martyniuk; Marian Jurzysta

    2012-01-01

    Different concentrations of medicagenic acid and five glycosides of this acid isolated from alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were added to agar medium (corn meal agar, CMA) inoculated with cultures of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt). After 7 days of incubation at 25oC colony radius was measured and % of inhibition calculated in relation to the control medium (CMA enriched with the solvent of the tested compounds). Within the tested concentrations, only 3-O-β -D -glucopiranoside medicagena...

  9. Are plant endogenous factors like ethylene modulators of the early oxidative stress induced by mercury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Belén eMontero-Palmero

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The induction of oxidative stress is one of the quickest symptoms appearing in plants subjected to metal stress. A transcriptional analysis of the early responses of alfalfa (Medicago sativa seedlings to mercury (Hg; 3 µM for 3, 6 and 24 h showed that up-regulation of genes responding to ethylene were up-regulated, a phytohormone known to mediate in the cellular redox homeostasis. In this mini-review we have compared these quick responses with two other concurrent transcriptomic analysis in Barrel medic (Medicago truncatula and barley (Hordeum vulgare under Hg stress. Besides ethylene, ABA and jasmonate related genes were up-regulated, all of them are endogenous factors known to intervene in oxidative stress responses. The information obtained may target future work to understand the cellular mechanisms triggered by Hg, enabling biotechnological approaches to diminish Hg-induced phytotoxicity.

  10. Quantification of the Volume and Surface Area of Symbiosomes and Vacuoles of Infected Cells in Root Nodules of Medicago truncatula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gavrin, A.Y.; Fedorova, E.

    2015-01-01

    Legumes are able to form endosymbiotic interactions with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia. Endosymbiosis takes shape in formation of a symbiotic organ, the root nodule. Medicago truncatula (M. truncatula) nodules contain several zones representing subsequent stages of development. The apical part of the

  11. Genetic identification of female Cannabis sativa plants at early developmental stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techen, Natascha; Chandra, Suman; Lata, Hemant; Elsohly, Mahmoud A; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2010-11-01

    Sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers were used to identify female plants at an early developmental stage in four different varieties of Cannabis sativa. Using the cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method, DNA was isolated from two-week-old plants of three drug-type varieties (Terbag W1, Terbag K2, and Terbag MX) and one fiber-type variety (Terbag Fedora A7) of C. sativa grown under controlled environmental conditions through seeds. Attempts to use MADC2 (male-associated DNA from Cannabis sativa) primers as a marker to identify the sex of Cannabis sativa plants were successful. Amplification of genomic DNA using MADC2-F and MADC2-R primers produced two distinct fragments, one with a size of approximately 450 bp for female plants and one for male plants with a size of approximately 300 bp. After harvesting the tissues for DNA extraction, plants were subjected to a flowering photoperiod (i.e., 12-h light cycle), and the appearance of flowers was compared with the DNA analysis. The results of the molecular analysis were found to be concordant with the appearance of male or female flowers. The results of this study represent a quick and reliable technique for the identification of sex in Cannabis plants using SCAR markers at a very early developmental stage. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Transcriptome Analysis of Two Vicia sativa Subspecies: Mining Molecular Markers to Enhance Genomic Resources for Vetch Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Sung Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The vetch (Vicia sativa is one of the most important annual forage legumes globally due to its multiple uses and high nutritional content. Despite these agronomical benefits, many drawbacks, including cyano-alanine toxin, has reduced the agronomic value of vetch varieties. Here, we used 454 technology to sequence the two V. sativa subspecies (ssp. sativa and ssp. nigra to enrich functional information and genetic marker resources for the vetch research community. A total of 86,532 and 47,103 reads produced 35,202 and 18,808 unigenes with average lengths of 735 and 601 bp for V. sativa sativa and V. sativa nigra, respectively. Gene Ontology annotations and the cluster of orthologous gene classes were used to annotate the function of the Vicia transcriptomes. The Vicia transcriptome sequences were then mined for simple sequence repeat (SSR and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. About 13% and 3% of the Vicia unigenes contained the putative SSR and SNP sequences, respectively. Among those SSRs, 100 were chosen for the validation and the polymorphism test using the Vicia germplasm set. Thus, our approach takes advantage of the utility of transcriptomic data to expedite a vetch breeding program.

  13. Evaluation of phenolic profile, enzyme inhibitory and antimicrobial activities of Nigella sativa L. seed extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anela Topcagic

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Black cumin (Nigella sativa L. [N.sativa] seed extracts demonstrated numerous beneficial biological effects including, among others, antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, and antioxidant activity. To better understand the phytochemical composition of N. sativa seeds, methanol seed extracts were analyzed for phenolic acid and flavonoid content. Furthermore, we tested N. sativa methanol, n-hexane, and aqueous seed extracts for their inhibitory activity against butyrylcholinesterase (BChE and catalase (CAT as well as for antimicrobial activity against several bacterial and a yeast strains. The phenolic content of N. sativa was analyzed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS. The inhibition of BChE was assessed by modified Ellman’s method, and the inhibition of CAT was determined by monitoring hydrogen peroxide consumption. The extracts were tested against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, and Escherichia coli using the agar diffusion method. The UHPLC-MS/MS method allowed the identification and quantification of 23 phenolic compounds within 15 minutes. The major components found in N. sativa seed extract were sinapinic acid (7.22 ± 0.73 µg/mg as a phenolic acid and kaempferol (11.74 ± 0.92 µg/mg as a flavonoid. All extracts showed inhibitory activity against BChE, with methanol seed extract demonstrating the highest inhibitory activity (inhibitory concentration 50% [IC50] 79.11 ± 6.06 µg/ml. The methanol seed extract also showed strong inhibitory activity against CAT with an IC50 value of 6.61 ± 0.27 µg/ml. Finally, the methanol extract exhibited considerable inhibitory activity against the tested microbial strains. Overall, this is the first study to investigate the ability of black cumin seed extracts to inhibit CAT. Our results indicate that N. sativa seed can be considered as an effective inhibitor

  14. Genetic analysis of tolerance to boron toxicity in the legume Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacki, Paul; Peck, David M; Nair, Ramakrishnan M; Howie, Jake; Oldach, Klaus H

    2013-03-27

    Medicago truncatula Gaertn. (barrel medic) is cultivated as a pasture legume for its high protein content and ability to improve soils through nitrogen fixation. Toxic concentrations of the micronutrient Boron (B) in agricultural soils hamper the production of cereal and leguminous crops. In cereals, the genetic analysis of B tolerance has led to the development of molecular selection tools to introgress and maintain the B tolerance trait in breeding lines. There is a comparable need for selection tools in legumes that grow on these toxic soils, often in rotation with cereals. Genetic variation for B tolerance in Medicago truncatula was utilised to generate two F2 populations from crosses between tolerant and intolerant parents. Phenotyping under B stress revealed a close correlation between B tolerance and biomass production and a segregation ratio explained by a single dominant locus. M. truncatula homologues of the Arabidopsis major intrinsic protein (MIP) gene AtNIP5;1 and the efflux-type transporter gene AtBOR1, both known for B transport, were identified and nearby molecular markers screened across F2 lines to verify linkage with the B-tolerant phenotype. Most (95%) of the phenotypic variation could be explained by the SSR markers h2_6e22a and h2_21b19a, which flank a cluster of five predicted MIP genes on chromosome 4. Three CAPS markers (MtBtol-1,-2,-3) were developed to dissect the region further. Expression analysis of the five predicted MIPs indicated that only MtNIP3 was expressed when leaf tissue and roots were assessed. MtNIP3 showed low and equal expression in the roots of tolerant and intolerant lines but a 4-fold higher expression level in the leaves of B-tolerant cultivars. The expression profile correlates closely with the B concentration measured in the leaves and roots of tolerant and intolerant plants. Whereas no significant difference in B concentration exists between roots of tolerant and intolerant plants, the B concentration in the leaves

  15. Medicago truncatula copper transporter 1 (MtCOPT1) delivers copper for symbiotic nitrogen fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senovilla, Marta; Castro-Rodríguez, Rosario; Abreu, Isidro; Escudero, Viviana; Kryvoruchko, Igor; Udvardi, Michael K; Imperial, Juan; González-Guerrero, Manuel

    2018-04-01

    Copper is an essential nutrient for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. This element is delivered by the host plant to the nodule, where membrane copper (Cu) transporter would introduce it into the cell to synthesize cupro-proteins. COPT family members in the model legume Medicago truncatula were identified and their expression determined. Yeast complementation assays, confocal microscopy and phenotypical characterization of a Tnt1 insertional mutant line were carried out in the nodule-specific M. truncatula COPT family member. Medicago truncatula genome encodes eight COPT transporters. MtCOPT1 (Medtr4g019870) is the only nodule-specific COPT gene. It is located in the plasma membrane of the differentiation, interzone and early fixation zones. Loss of MtCOPT1 function results in a Cu-mitigated reduction of biomass production when the plant obtains its nitrogen exclusively from symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Mutation of MtCOPT1 results in diminished nitrogenase activity in nodules, likely an indirect effect from the loss of a Cu-dependent function, such as cytochrome oxidase activity in copt1-1 bacteroids. These data are consistent with a model in which MtCOPT1 transports Cu from the apoplast into nodule cells to provide Cu for essential metabolic processes associated with symbiotic nitrogen fixation. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. [Analysis of essential oil extracted from Lactuca sativa seeds growing in Xinjiang by GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang; Wang, Qiang; Haji, Akber Aisa

    2011-12-01

    To analyze the components of essential oil from Lactuca sativa seeds growing in Xinjiang. The components of essential oil from Lactuca sativa seeds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 62 components were identified from 71 separated peaks,amounting to total mass fraction 95.07%. The dominant compounds were n-Hexanol (36.31%), n-Hexanal (13.71%), trans-2-Octen-l-ol (8.09%) and 2-n-Pentylfuran (4.41%). The research provides a theoretical basis for the exploitation and use of Lactuca sativa seeds resource.

  17. Determination of Nutrient Contents and Gas Production Values of Some Legume Forages Grown in the Harran Plain Saline Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the nutritive value of some legume species in salt-affected soils of South-East Anatolian region using chemical composition and in vitro gas production kinetics. In this study, Lotus corniculatus, Trifolium alexandrinum, Medicago sativa were sown and tested in four different locations. A 3 by 4 factorial design with 3 legume species and 4 salt levels (non salty electrical conductivity (ECECECEC was used in the study. Results indicated that salinity and plants had no significant effect on ash and ether extract. Dry matter (DM, acid detergent fiber, digestible dry matter, dry matter intake (DMI were affected by plant, salinity and plant×salinity interaction. On the other hand neutral detergent fiber, relative feed value (RFV, and DMI were affected by salinity and plant×salinity interaction. Mineral contents were affected by plant species, salinity and salinity×plants interactions. In vitro gas production, their kinetics and estimated parameters such as were not affected by salinity whereas the gas production up to 48 h, organic matter digestibility, metabolizable energy (ME, and net energy lactation (NEL were affected by plant and plant×salt interaction. Generally RFVs of all species ranged from 120 to 210 and were quite satisfactory in salty conditions. Current results show that the feed value of Medicago sativa is higher compared to Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium alexandrinum.

  18. Gamma-Ray Doses Affected on Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, E.M; Tarrad, M.M.; Abd El-Daem, G.A.N.A.

    2013-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted at the experimental from, Nuclear Research Center at Inshas. Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) at Egypt during 2011– 2012 growing seasons on alfalfa genotype. The aim of this investigation to evaluate the effect of different gamma ray doses (100-300 Gy) on the alfalfa yield and related traits. Seeds lots of alfalfa genotype were subjected to five gamma ray treatments (100,150,200,250 and 300 Gray). Over all cuts, the dose treatment 300 Gy increased the majority of studied traits i.e., plant height, No. of shoots/plant, fresh weight/plant, fresh yield/Fadden and dry weight yield/fed. The results observed indicated that. In addition, dose of 200 and 250 Gy increased No. of leaves /plant, No. of shoots/plant, stem diameter and fresh weight /plant. However, the plant dry weight was decreased by all doses used and over all cuts, but the dose of 100 and 150 Gy increased leaves /stem ratio. Meanwhile, the later cuts were more affected by irradiation treatments than the earlier ones. In general, the low doses had negative effects on yield traits, but, the relatively high doses exhibited an increase in yield traits

  19. Studi tentang pola produksi alfalfa tropis (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Dwi Wahyuni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The research aims to determine the growth pattern of alfalfa in the tropical region, which later can be used as a source of information for the people needed. Research methods used are experimental; the data acquired during the 90 days was showed in a graph and then analyzed using regression analysis with two variables, namely independent variables (cutting age and dependent variables (the nutritive value, height of plants, and production of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, and crude protein (CP. The growth pattern of alfalfa in the range 20 to 90 days was quadratic, with the equation of y= -0.0092x2 + 1.6113x – 19.257. At that range of time the alfalfa was still in vegetative growth phase. With increasing age of cutting, the alfalfa chemical compositions of DM and OM increased, but the content of CP decreased.While the production of DM, OM, and CP increased with increasing cutting age. Key words: nutrition, growth, alfalfa, tropics

  20. Evaluation of Selection Indices for Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan MONIRIFAR

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the efficiency of selection indices in alfalfa improvement, an experiment was conducted from 2000 to 2007 at East Azarbaijan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, Iran. A set of 29 native ecotypes, which were collected in 2000 and 2001 from Azerbaijan (Iran, together with one improved variety were used to conduct a polycross nursery. For the purpose of random mating, a randomized complete block design was used with 12 replications arranged in this nursery. The resulting 30 half-sib families were planted individually in pots and the 30 days old seedlings were transplanted to the field in May, 2004. Each 3-row plot consisted of 45 HS plants. Several traits, such as individual plants� fresh weight and individual plants� dry weight (IPFW, IPDW, number of shoots per plant (NS and plant height (PH in each harvest and also, days until 10% flowering, the ratio of fresh and dry weight of leaves/plant and size of trifoliate leaves were measured for three cropping seasons. The results of analysis of variance showed large variation among polycross progenies. Six selection indices (Ii with different number of traits at adult plant stage were evaluated. Based on the result of this investigation, if number of shoots and height of adult plant, excluding yield, are recorded, I2 is suggested. If, in addition to fresh yield, height of adult plant is measured, I6 is recommended. I4 is useful when number of shoots and plant height with dry yield are included in the index. In conclusion, the importance of mature plant traits in selection indices was in the order of yield > plant height > number of shoots. The results provided more evidence that selection indices incorporating the component of dry yield are more advantageous. The most efficient selection index consisted of NS, IPDW and PH, having a relative efficiency of 280%.

  1. The Medicago truncatula GRAS protein RAD1 supports arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis and Phytophthora palmivora susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Thomas; Bonhomme, Maxime; Chatterjee, Abhishek; Gavrin, Aleksandr; Toulotte, Justine; Yang, Weibing; André, Olivier; Jacquet, Christophe; Schornack, Sebastian

    2017-12-16

    The roots of most land plants are colonized by symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi. To facilitate this symbiosis, plant genomes encode a set of genes required for microbial perception and accommodation. However, the extent to which infection by filamentous root pathogens also relies on some of these genes remains an open question. Here, we used genome-wide association mapping to identify genes contributing to colonization of Medicago truncatula roots by the pathogenic oomycete Phytophthora palmivora. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers most significantly associated with plant colonization response were identified upstream of RAD1, which encodes a GRAS transcription regulator first negatively implicated in root nodule symbiosis and recently identified as a positive regulator of AM symbiosis. RAD1 transcript levels are up-regulated both in response to AM fungus and, to a lower extent, in infected tissues by P. palmivora where its expression is restricted to root cortex cells proximal to pathogen hyphae. Reverse genetics showed that reduction of RAD1 transcript levels as well as a rad1 mutant are impaired in their full colonization by AM fungi as well as by P. palmivora. Thus, the importance of RAD1 extends beyond symbiotic interactions, suggesting a general involvement in M. truncatula microbe-induced root development and interactions with unrelated beneficial and detrimental filamentous microbes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  2. A review of Neuropharmacology Effects of Nigella sativa and Its Main Component, Thymoquinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi, Soheila; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-08-01

    Neuropharmacology is the scientific study of drug effect on nervous system. In the last few years, different natural plants and their active constituents have been used in neurological therapy. The availability, lower price, and less toxic effects of herbal medicines compared with synthetic agents make them as simple and excellent choice in the treatment of nervous diseases. Nigella sativa, which belongs to the botanical family of Ranunculaceae, is a widely used medicinal plant all over the world. In traditional and modern medicines several beneficial properties have been attributed to N. sativa and its main component, thymoquinone (TQ). In this review, various studies in scientific databases regarding the neuropharmacological aspects of N. sativa and TQ have been introduced. Results of these studies showed that N. sativa and TQ have several properties including anticonvulsant, antidepressant, anxiolytic, anti-ischemic, analgesic, antipsychotic, and memory enhancer. Furthermore, its protective effects against neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer, Parkinson and multiple sclerosis have been discussed. Although there are many studies indicating the beneficial actions of this plant in nervous system, the number of research projects relating to the human reports is rare. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Comparative transcriptional profiling provides insights into the evolution and development of the zygomorphic flower of Vicia sativa (Papilionoideae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vicia sativa (the common vetch possesses a predominant zygomorphic flower and belongs to the subfamily Papilionoideae, which is related to Arabidopsis thaliana in the eurosid II clade of the core eudicots. Each vetch flower consists of 21 concentrically arranged organs: the outermost five sepals, then five petals and ten stamens, and a single carpel in the center. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We explored the floral transcriptome to examine a genome-scale genetic model of the zygomorphic flower of vetch. mRNA was obtained from an equal mixture of six floral organs, leaves and roots. De novo assembly of the vetch transcriptome using Illumina paired-end technology produced 71,553 unigenes with an average length of 511 bp. We then compared the expression changes in the 71,553 unigenes in the eight independent organs through RNA-Seq Quantification analysis. We predominantly analyzed gene expression patterns specific to each floral organ and combinations of floral organs that corresponded to the traditional ABC model domains. Comparative analyses were performed in the floral transcriptomes of vetch and Arabidopsis, and genomes of vetch and Medicago truncatula. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our comparative analysis of vetch and Arabidopsis showed that the vetch flowers conform to a strict ABC model. We analyzed the evolution and expression of the TCP gene family in vetch at a whole-genome level, and several unigenes specific to three different vetch petals, which might offer some clues toward elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying floral zygomorphy. Our results provide the first insights into the genome-scale molecular regulatory network that controls the evolution and development of the zygomorphic flower in Papilionoideae.

  4. Role of N-glycosylation sites and CXC motifs in trafficking of Medicago trunculata Nod Factor Perception protein to the plasma membrane.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefebvre, B.; Klaus-Heisen, D.; Pietraszewska-Bogiel, A.; Hervé, M.; Camut, S.; Auriac, M.C.; Gasciolli, V.; Nurisso, A.; Gadella, T.W.; Cullimore, J.

    2012-01-01

    The lysin motif receptor like kinase, NFP, is a key protein in the legume Medicago truncatula for the perception of lipochitooligosaccharidic Nod Factors, which are secreted bacterial signals essential for establishing the nitrogen-fixing legume-rhizobia symbiosis. Predicted structural and genetic

  5. Interaction of Medicago truncatula Lysin Motif Receptor-Like Kinases, NFP and LYK3, Produced in Nicotiana benthamiana Induces Defence-Like Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietraszewska-Bogiel, A.; Lefebvre, B.; Koini, A.M.; Klaus-Heisen, D.; Takken, F.L.W.; Geurts, R.; Cullimore, J.V.; Gadella, Th.W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Receptor(-like) kinases with Lysin Motif (LysM) domains in their extracellular region play crucial roles during plant interactions with microorganisms; e.g. Arabidopsis thaliana CERK1 activates innate immunity upon perception of fungal chitin/chitooligosaccharides, whereas Medicago truncatula NFP

  6. The effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Cannabis Sativa on appetite hormone in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Baghban Taraghdari, Sara; Rezaee, Peyman; Kamgar, Maryam; Jomezadeh, Mohammad Reza; Akbarieh Hasani, Omid; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Gholamnezhad, Zahra; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Norouzy, Abdolreza; Esmaily, Habibollah; Patterson, Michael; Nematy, Mohsen

    2014-12-01

    Ghrelin is an orexigenic peptide which is secreted from stomach. Cannabis sativa is known as an orexigenic herb in Iranian traditional medicine. Little evidence is published about its effect on energy intake and its mechanism. In the current study, the possible effect of hydroalcoholic extract of C. sativa on appetite and ghrelin is evaluated. Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. Two control groups were selected, the first group received 0.5 mL water per day (vehicle group) and another group did not receive anything (control group). The other three groups were treated daily with 50, 100 or 150 mg/kg of C. sativa for 7 days, respectively. Daily energy intake of the rats was calculated for 10 days prior to the> intervention and for the 7 day intervention. To investigate changes in plasma ghrelin as a potential mechanism, an orexigenic dose (150 mg/kg) of C. sativa or distilled water (vehicle) was fed to two separate groups of six rats by gavage. Total ghrelin levels in plasma were measured for 3 h post-gavage. There was no significant difference in energy intake between control and vehicle groups. Treatment with 100 and 150 mg/kg of the extract significantly increased energy intake vs the other groups (psativa group vs vehicle 30 and 60 min post-gavage. This study showed that C. sativa had both positive and dose-related effects on appetite of rats. Future studies are warranted to evaluate the orexigenic effect of this plant in human.

  7. Effect of nigella sativa seeds extract on serum c-reactive protein in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, M.U.; Qureshi, H.

    2014-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein. It predicts future risk of cardiovascular diseases. Different medicinal plants and their active ingredients possess the ability to reduce serum CRP levels and hence inflammatory disorders and cardiovascular diseases. In our study, ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds was evaluated in albino rats for its possible effect on serum CRP levels. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds on an acute inflammatory biomarker/mediator, C-reactive protein (CRP) in albino rats. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial (RCT). Place and Duration of Study: Physiology Department, Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Lahore; from September to November, 2009. Subjects and Methods: The study was carried out on 90 male albino rats. Five percent (5%) formalin in a dose of 50 meu1 was injected into sub-plantar surface of right hind paw of each rat to produce inflammation. The rats were randomly divided into three groups of thirty each. Group A was given normal saline (control); group B was given Nigella sativa seed extract; and group C received diclofenac sodium, as a reference drug. CRP levels in each group were measured from blood samples taken 25 hours after giving formalin. Results: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds, given intraperitoneally, caused highly significant (p<0.001) reduction in serum CRP levels as compared to control group. The reduction in CRP levels by ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa was also significantly (p<0.05) more than that produced by diclofenac sodium. Conclusion: Our results suggest that Nigella sativa possesses ability to reduce serum CRP levels significantly, after production of artificial inflammation, in albino rats. (author)

  8. Pemanfaatan Ekstrak Tanaman Ketan Hitam (Oryza Sativa Glutinosa) sebagai Indikator Asam Basa

    OpenAIRE

    Hasibuan, Muhammad Arief; Amran, Elva Yasmi; ', Susilawati

    2016-01-01

    Research was conducted with the aims to determine pH range, percentage acid base indicator titration error, and stability of Oryza sativa Glutinosa extract as acid base indicator. Oryza sativa Glutinosa grains respectively extracted with maseration using ethanol (HCl 1%). pH range determined by added the extract into buffer solutions pH 1-9. Percentage acid base indicator titration error determined by applied the extract in strong acid-strong base, weak acid-strong base, strong acid-weak base...

  9. PlantTribes: a gene and gene family resource for comparative genomics in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Wall, P. Kerr; Leebens-Mack, Jim; Müller, Kai F.; Field, Dawn; Altman, Naomi S.; dePamphilis, Claude W.

    2007-01-01

    The PlantTribes database (http://fgp.huck.psu.edu/tribe.html) is a plant gene family database based on the inferred proteomes of five sequenced plant species: Arabidopsis thaliana, Carica papaya, Medicago truncatula, Oryza sativa and Populus trichocarpa. We used the graph-based clustering algorithm MCL [Van Dongen (Technical Report INS-R0010 2000) and Enright et al. (Nucleic Acids Res. 2002; 30: 1575–1584)] to classify all of these species’ protein-coding genes into putative gene families, ca...

  10. Molecular improvement of alfalfa for enhanced productivity and adaptability in a changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Stacy D; Hannoufa, Abdelali; Acharya, Surya

    2017-10-18

    Due to an expanding world population and increased buying power, the demand for ruminant products such as meat and milk is expected to grow substantially in coming years, and high levels of forage crop production will therefore be a necessity. Unfortunately, urbanization of agricultural land, intensive agricultural practices, and climate change are all predicted to limit crop production in the future, which means that the development of forage cultivars with improved productivity and adaptability will be essential. Because alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most widely cultivated perennial forage crops, it has been the target of much research in this field. In this review, we discuss progress that has been made towards the improvement of productivity, abiotic stress tolerance, and nutrient-use efficiency, as well as disease and pest resistance, in alfalfa using biotechnological techniques. Furthermore, we consider possible future priorities and avenues for attaining further enhancements in this crop as a means of contributing to the realization of food security in a changing environment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effects of nigella sativa on various parameters in patients of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.; Shaikh, G.S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of progressive liver disorders worldwide. Drug options are limited with varying results. Nigella sativa in the form of herbal medicine could be another option because of its strong historical background. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect Nigella sativa on various parameters in patients of NAFLD. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted at outpatient clinic of medical unit-1 of Sheikh Zayed Medical College/Hospital, Rahim Yar Khan, in which seventy patients of NAFLD were divided in to interventional and non-interventional groups. The interventional group was given cap Nigella sativa 1g twice a day while non-interventional group was given cap placebo in a same way for three months. Body weight, BMI, liver enzymes and ultrasound finding of fatty liver were assayed before and after treatment. Results: After 12 weeks treatment with Nigella sativa body weight decreased significantly from 86±13.8 to76±12.6 kg vs placebo (p=0.041). BMI also reduced significantly from 29.06±4.6 to 26.25±6.2kg/m2 vs placebo(p=0.012). There is remarkable reduction in aminotransferases level after treatment with Nigella sativa vs placebo (ALT: 78.05±5.52 to 52.6±5.65 IU/L vs 76.48±4.95-74.32±5.58 IU/L (p=0.036). AST: 65.54±4.56-44.56±5.52 IU/L vs 63.25±5.43-59.43±3.39 IU/L (p=0.021). There was overall 57.14 % patient had normal fatty liver grading on ultrasound after 12 weeks treatment with Nigella sativa as compared to placebo (p=0.002). Conclusion: Nigella sativa improves bio chemical and fatty liver changes in NAFLD patients. Its use in early stages of NAFLD is recommended in order to prevent its life-threatening complication. (author)

  12. COMPARISON OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF NIGELLA SATIVA AND DICLOFENAC SODIUM IN ALBINO RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Muhammad Usman; Qureshi, Hamid Javaid; Saleem, Tahira

    2015-01-01

    Nigella sativa or "Kalonji" is a naturally occurring plant in Pakistan and other countries which possesses a wide range of medicinal properties, the anti-inflammatory property being one of these. Diclofenac sodium is a commonly used anti-inflammatory drug. The purpose of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds with that of diclofenac sodium in albino rats. This laboratory randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in the Physiology Department, Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Lahore. The study was carried out on 90 male albino rats. Five percent formalin in a dose of 50 µl was injected into sub-plantar surface of right hind paw of each rat to produce inflammation. The rats were randomly divided into three groups of thirty each. Group A was given normal saline (control); group B was given Nigella sativa seed extract; and group C received diclofenac sodium, as a reference drug. Increase in paw diameter, and total and differential leukocyte counts were measured as markers of inflammation. Nigella sativa seeds extract caused significant (pdiclofenac sodium; however, the extract was comparatively less potent than diclofenac sodium. The extract had no significant effect (p>0.05) on the total or differential leukocyte counts. Our results suggest that ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds possesses potent anti-inflammatory effect, in albino rats however, this effect is comparatively less but prolonged than that produced by diclofenac sodium.

  13. Microsynteny between the Medicago truncatula SYM2-orthologous genomic region and another region located on the same chromosome arm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gualtieri, G.; Bisseling, T.

    2002-01-01

    A synteny based positional cloning approach was started to clone the pea SYM2 gene by using locally conserved genome structure with the model plant Medicago truncatula. We reported that a pea marker tightly linked to SYM2 was used to screen a M. truncatula BAC library, and two contigs named C1/C2

  14. Advice of the Italian CCTN on the toxicity of Cannabis sativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camoni, I [ed.; Istituto Superiore di Sanita` , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata; Mucci, N [ed.; ISPESL, Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy). Dip. di Medicina del Lavoro; Paroli, E [ed.; Rome, Univ. ` La Sapienza` (Italy). Fac. di Medicina, Ist. di Farmacologia

    1998-06-01

    This recommendation of the Italian National Toxicological Committee (CCTN) regards the possible toxic effects of some products derived from Cannabis sativa, indica variety. The CCTN has especially evaluated genotoxic, immunological and toxic to reproduction effects of these substances, on the basis of the results from both experimental studies and observations on humans. [Italiano] Il documento contiene il parere della CCTN sui potenziali effetti tossici di alcuni derivati della Cannabis sativa, varieta` indica. Il parere e` stato elaborato sulla base dei risultati sia di studi sperimentali sia dei limitati studi sull`uomo, prendendo in particolare considerazione gli effetti genotossici, tossico-riproduttivi ed immunologici.

  15. Analysis of cannabinoids in laser-microdissected trichomes of medicinal Cannabis sativa using LCMS and cryogenic NMR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Happyana, Nizar; Agnolet, Sara; Muntendam, Remco; Van Dam, Annie; Schneider, Bernd; Kayser, Oliver

    Trichomes, especially the capitate-stalked glandular hairs, are well known as the main sites of cannabinoid and essential oil production of Cannabis sativa. In this study the distribution and density of various types of Cannabis sativa L trichomes, have been investigated by scanning electron

  16. Nigella Sativa Concoction induced sustained seroreversion in HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines ... Abstract. Nigella sativa had been documented to possess many therapeutic functions in medicine but the least expected is sero-reversion in HIV infection which is very rare despite extensive therapy with highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART).

  17. Medicago Scutellata Seed Dormancy Breaking by Ultrasonic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazari Meisam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study dormancy breaking of a hard-coated plant seed, Medicago scutellata, was investigated. The ultrasonic waves effect on the seed germination percentage, germination rate, radicle length and stalk length growth was assessed. Six treatments of waves exposure periods including 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 minutes were tested under laboratorial conditions. Statistical analyses were done at probability level of 0.01. Results revealed that the ultrasonic waves have a significantly positive effect on the seed dormancy breaking, but there was no linear correlation between the increasing times of exposure with any of the growth features. The best treatment for germination percentage and germination rate was the 7-minute one and the 3-minute one was the best for radicle length growth. Treatments of 3, 5 and 7 minutes had the same effect on stalk length growth and were better than all other treatments. The 9-minute treatment had a negative effect, even lessening the growth of all of the assessed features in comparison with the control treatment.

  18. Review on the Potential Therapeutic Roles of Nigella sativa in the Treatment of Patients with Cancer: Involvement of Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mollazadeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa (N. sativa, family Ranunculaceae is a medicinal plant that has been widely used for centuries throughout the world as a natural remedy. A wide range of chemical compounds found in N. sativa expresses its vast therapeutic effects. Thymoquinone (TQ is the main component (up to 50% in the essential oil of N. sativa. Also, pinene (up to 15%, p-cymene (40%, thymohydroquinone (THQ, thymol (THY, and dithymoquinone (DTQ are other pharmacologically active compounds of its oil. Other terpenoid compounds, such as carvacrol, carvone, 4-terpineol, limonenes, and citronellol, are also found in small quantities in its oil. The main pharmacological characteristics of this plant are immune system stimulatory, anti- inflammatory, hypotensive, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, anti-cancer, hypoglycemic, anti- tussive, milk production, uricosuric, choleretic, anti-fertility, and spasmolytic properties. In this regard, we have searched the scientific databases PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar with keywords of N. sativa, anti-cancer, apoptotic effect, antitumor, antioxidant, and malignancy over the period from 2000 to 2017. The effectiveness of N. sativa against cancer in the blood system, kidneys, lungs, prostate, liver, and breast and on many malignant cell lines has been shown in many studies, but the molecular mechanisms behind that anti-cancer role are still not clearly understood. From among the many effects of N. sativa, including its anti-proliferative effect, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis induction, ROS generation, anti-metastasis/anti-angiogenesis effects, Akt pathway control, modulation of multiple molecular targets, including p53, p73, STAT-3, PTEN, and PPAR-γ, and activation of caspases, the main suggestive anti-cancer mechanisms of N. sativa are its free radical scavenger activity and the preservation of various anti-oxidant enzyme activities, such as glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and glutathione-S- transferase. In this review

  19. Local and distal effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization on direct pathway Pi uptake and root growth in Medicago truncatula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watts-Williams, Stephanie J.; Jakobsen, Iver; Cavagnaro, Timothy R.

    2015-01-01

    and root growth, at different soil P levels. Medicago truncatula was grown at three soil P levels in split-pots with or without AM fungal inoculation and where one root half grew into soil labelled with 33P. Plant genotypes included the A17 wild type and the mtpt4 mutant. The mtpt4 mutant, colonized by AM...

  20. Medicago truncatula transporter database: a comprehensive database resource for M. truncatula transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Zhenyan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicago truncatula has been chosen as a model species for genomic studies. It is closely related to an important legume, alfalfa. Transporters are a large group of membrane-spanning proteins. They deliver essential nutrients, eject waste products, and assist the cell in sensing environmental conditions by forming a complex system of pumps and channels. Although studies have effectively characterized individual M. truncatula transporters in several databases, until now there has been no available systematic database that includes all transporters in M. truncatula. Description The M. truncatula transporter database (MTDB contains comprehensive information on the transporters in M. truncatula. Based on the TransportTP method, we have presented a novel prediction pipeline. A total of 3,665 putative transporters have been annotated based on International Medicago Genome Annotated Group (IMGAG V3.5 V3 and the M. truncatula Gene Index (MTGI V10.0 releases and assigned to 162 families according to the transporter classification system. These families were further classified into seven types according to their transport mode and energy coupling mechanism. Extensive annotations referring to each protein were generated, including basic protein function, expressed sequence tag (EST mapping, genome locus, three-dimensional template prediction, transmembrane segment, and domain annotation. A chromosome distribution map and text-based Basic Local Alignment Search Tools were also created. In addition, we have provided a way to explore the expression of putative M. truncatula transporter genes under stress treatments. Conclusions In summary, the MTDB enables the exploration and comparative analysis of putative transporters in M. truncatula. A user-friendly web interface and regular updates make MTDB valuable to researchers in related fields. The MTDB is freely available now to all users at http://bioinformatics.cau.edu.cn/MtTransporter/.

  1. Protective effect of Nigella sativa extract and thymoquinone on serum/glucose deprivation-induced PC12 cells death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, S H; Tayarani-Najaran, Z; Asghari, M; Sadeghnia, H R

    2010-05-01

    The serum/glucose deprivation (SGD)-induced cell death in cultured PC12 cells represents a useful in vitro model for the study of brain ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Nigella sativa L. (family Ranunculaceae) and its active component thymoquinone (TQ) has been known as a source of antioxidants. In the present study, the protective effects of N. sativa and TQ on cell viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in cultured PC12 cells were investigated under SGD conditions. PC12 cells were cultured in DMEM medium containing 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum, 100 units/ml penicillin, and 100 microg/ml streptomycin. Cells were seeded overnight and then deprived of serum/glucose for 6 and 18 h. Cells were pretreated with different concentrations of N. sativa extract (15.62-250 microg/ml) and TQ (1.17-150 microM) for 2 h. Cell viability was quantitated by MTT assay. Intracellular ROS production was measured by flow cytometry using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCF-DA) as a probe. SGD induced significant cells toxicity after 6, 18, or 24 h (P < 0.001). Pretreatment with N. sativa (15.62-250 microg/ml) and TQ (1.17-37.5 microM) reduced SGD-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells after 6 and 18 h. A significant increase in intracellular ROS production was seen following SGD (P < 0.001). N. sativa (250 microg/ml, P < 0.01) and TQ (2.34, 4.68, 9.37 microM, P < 0.01) pretreatment reversed the increased ROS production following ischemic insult. The experimental results suggest that N. sativa extract and TQ protects the PC12 cells against SGD-induced cytotoxicity via antioxidant mechanisms. Our findings might raise the possibility of potential therapeutic application of N. sativa extract and TQ for managing cerebral ischemic and neurodegenerative disorders.

  2. Metabolic engineering Camelina sativa with fish oil-like levels of DHA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Petrie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Omega-3 long-chain (≥C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA are critical for human health and development [corrected].. Numerous studies have indicated that deficiencies in these fatty acids can increase the risk or severity of cardiovascular, inflammatory and other diseases or disorders. EPA and DHA are predominantly sourced from marine fish although the primary producers are microalgae. Much work has been done to engineer a sustainable land-based source of EPA and DHA to reduce pressure on fish stocks in meeting future demand, with previous studies describing the production of fish oil-like levels of DHA in the model plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we describe the production of fish oil-like levels (>12% of DHA in the oilseed crop species Camelina sativa achieving a high ω3/ω6 ratio. The construct previously transformed in Arabidopsis as well as two modified construct versions designed to increase DHA production were used. DHA was found to be stable to at least the T5 generation and the EPA and DHA were found to be predominantly at the sn-1,3 positions of triacylglycerols. Transgenic and parental lines did not have different germination or seedling establishment rates. CONCLUSIONS: DHA can be produced at fish oil-like levels in industrially-relevant oilseed crop species using multi-gene construct designs which are stable over multiple generations. This study has implications for the future of sustainable EPA and DHA production from land-based sources.

  3. Various extraction and analytical techniques for isolation and identification of secondary metabolites from Nigella sativa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shim, J-H

    2011-10-01

    Nigella sativa L. (black cumin), commonly known as black seed, is a member of the Ranunculaceae family. This seed is used as a natural remedy in many Middle Eastern and Far Eastern countries. Extracts prepared from N. sativa have, for centuries, been used for medical purposes. Thus far, the organic compounds in N. sativa, including alkaloids, steroids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, fatty acids, etc. have been fairly well characterized. Herein, we summarize some new extraction techniques, including microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical extraction techniques (SFE), in addition to the classical method of hydrodistillation (HD), which have been employed for isolation and various analytical techniques used for the identification of secondary metabolites in black seed. We believe that some compounds contained in N. sativa remain to be identified, and that high-throughput screening could help to identify new compounds. A study addressing environmentally-friendly techniques that have minimal or no environmental effects is currently underway in our laboratory.

  4. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi decrease radiocesium accumulation in Medicago truncatula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyuricza, Veronika; Declerck, Stephane; Dupre de Boulois, Herve

    2010-01-01

    The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in plant radiocesium uptake and accumulation remains ambiguous. This is probably due to the presence of other soil microorganisms, the variability of soil characteristics and plant nutritional status or the availability of its chemical analogue, potassium (K). Here, we used an in vitro culture system to study the impact of increased concentration of K on radiocesium accumulation in non K-starved mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Medicago truncatula plants. In the presence of AMF radiocesium uptake decreased regardless of the concentration of K, and its translocation from root to shoot was also significantly lower. Potassium also reduced the accumulation of radiocesium in plants but to a lesser extent than mycorrhization, and without any effect on translocation. These results suggest that AMF in combination with K can play a key role in reducing radiocesium uptake and its subsequent translocation to plant shoots, thereby representing good potential for improved phytomanagement of contaminated areas.

  5. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi decrease radiocesium accumulation in Medicago truncatula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyuricza, Veronika; Declerck, Stephane [Universite catholique de Louvain, Earth and Life Institute (ELI), Laboratoire de Mycologie, Croix du Sud 3, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Dupre de Boulois, Herve, E-mail: herve.dupre@uclouvain.b [Universite catholique de Louvain, Earth and Life Institute (ELI), Laboratoire de Mycologie, Croix du Sud 3, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2010-08-15

    The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in plant radiocesium uptake and accumulation remains ambiguous. This is probably due to the presence of other soil microorganisms, the variability of soil characteristics and plant nutritional status or the availability of its chemical analogue, potassium (K). Here, we used an in vitro culture system to study the impact of increased concentration of K on radiocesium accumulation in non K-starved mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Medicago truncatula plants. In the presence of AMF radiocesium uptake decreased regardless of the concentration of K, and its translocation from root to shoot was also significantly lower. Potassium also reduced the accumulation of radiocesium in plants but to a lesser extent than mycorrhization, and without any effect on translocation. These results suggest that AMF in combination with K can play a key role in reducing radiocesium uptake and its subsequent translocation to plant shoots, thereby representing good potential for improved phytomanagement of contaminated areas.

  6. Effect of dietary vitamin A and Nigella sativa on the performance of broiler chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sideeg, Rasha Mohamed

    2000-02-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effect of feeding different added levels of vitamin A and Nigella sativa seeds on broiler performance, blood chemistry and carcass characteristics. One- hundred forty four, one-day old unsexed (Lohman) broiler chicks were divided randomly into eight groups, each represented a treatment (18 birds/treatment), with 2 replicates for each treatment 2x4 factorial arrangement in a completely randomised design was used. The experimental basal rations were formulated to meet requirement for essential nutrients for broiler chicks according to NCR (1984) recommendation. Four graded levels of added vitamin A (0,3000,4500 and 9000 IU/kg) and two levels of Nigella sativa (0, 0.25%) were used. The experiment lasted for eight weeks. Body weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were determined. In addition blood chemistry, absolute weight of internal organs and carcass characteristics were measured. The added level 3000 IU of vitamin A significantly increased weight gain (P≤ 0.01) decreased feed conversion ratio (P≤ 0.01) and increased muscle: bone ratio (P≤ 0.05). The level 0.25% of Nigella sativa with no added vitamin A significantly (P ≤ 0.01) increased body weight and weight gain. High level of added vitamin A decreased absolute weight of liver (P≤ 0.01), and increased fat content of muscles (P≤ 0.01) and abdominal fat (P≤ 0.01). Vitamin A and Nigella sativa significantly affect serum Ca (which was determined according to the calorimetric method), P, Zn , and alkaline phosphates(alk.ase) and cholesterol (P≤ 0.05) which was determined according to the Enzymatic Calometric Test . Addition of 0.25% Nigella sativa significantly affect serum cholestrol (P ≤0.01). The treatments had no significant affect on serum glucose and ash content of meat. Significant interaction between vitamin A and Nigella sativa were observed on body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, feed intake (P≤ 0.01, P≤0.05, and P≤0

  7. Effect of dietary vitamin A and Nigella sativa on the performance of broiler chicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sideeg, Rasha Mohamed [Faculty of Animal Production, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2000-02-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effect of feeding different added levels of vitamin A and Nigella sativa seeds on broiler performance, blood chemistry and carcass characteristics. One- hundred forty four, one-day old unsexed (Lohman) broiler chicks were divided randomly into eight groups, each represented a treatment (18 birds/treatment), with 2 replicates for each treatment 2x4 factorial arrangement in a completely randomised design was used. The experimental basal rations were formulated to meet requirement for essential nutrients for broiler chicks according to NCR (1984) recommendation. Four graded levels of added vitamin A (0,3000,4500 and 9000 IU/kg) and two levels of Nigella sativa (0, 0.25%) were used. The experiment lasted for eight weeks. Body weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were determined. In addition blood chemistry, absolute weight of internal organs and carcass characteristics were measured. The added level 3000 IU of vitamin A significantly increased weight gain (P{<=} 0.01) decreased feed conversion ratio (P{<=} 0.01) and increased muscle: bone ratio (P{<=} 0.05). The level 0.25% of Nigella sativa with no added vitamin A significantly (P {<=} 0.01) increased body weight and weight gain. High level of added vitamin A decreased absolute weight of liver (P{<=} 0.01), and increased fat content of muscles (P{<=} 0.01) and abdominal fat (P{<=} 0.01). Vitamin A and Nigella sativa significantly affect serum Ca (which was determined according to the calorimetric method), P, Zn , and alkaline phosphates(alk.ase) and cholesterol (P{<=} 0.05) which was determined according to the Enzymatic Calometric Test . Addition of 0.25% Nigella sativa significantly affect serum cholestrol (P {<=}0.01). The treatments had no significant affect on serum glucose and ash content of meat. Significant interaction between vitamin A and Nigella sativa were observed on body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, feed intake (P{<=} 0.01, P{<=}0.05, and P

  8. Crop physiology of fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, van der H.

    1994-01-01

    Fibre hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) may be an alternative to wood as a raw material for the production of paper pulp. The effects of enviromnental factors and cultural measures on the functioning, yield and quality of fibre hemp crops in the

  9. Study of agronomic characteristics and advantage indices in intercropping of additive series of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    esmaeil rezaei-chiyaneh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Study of agronomic characteristics and advantage indices in intercropping of additive series of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L. Abstract In order to evaluate quantitive and qualitive yield of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L. in intercropping of additive series, a field experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications in West Azerbaijan province- city Nagadeh, Iran during growing reason of 2012-2013. Treatments included 100% Black Cumin + 10% Chickpea, 100% Black Cumin + 20% Chickpea, 100% Black Cumin + 30% Chickpea, 100% Black Cumin + 40% Chickpea and 100% Black Cumin + 50% Chickpea and sole cropping of Chickpea and Black Cumin. Different Planting Ratio had significant effect on studied traits of Chickpea and Black Cumin (exception Essential oil yield of Black Cumin. Yield and components yield in monoculture of each crop was more than other treatments. The highest grain yield and biological yield of chickpea were achieved in monoculture with 1105 and 14479 kg.ha-1, respectively. The results showed that the maximum seed yield and biological yield of Black Cumin were obtained at monoculture with 750 and 2310 kg.ha-1, respectively. The highest of percentage of grain protein (23% and essential oil percentage (1.47% were related to treatment 100% Black Cumin + 50% Chickpea, respectively. Based on this results, the highest land equivalent ratio (LER=1.74, actual yield loss (AYL=6.45 and intercropping advantage (IA=1.70 were obtained by treatment 100% Black Cumin + 10% Chickpea, respectively. Therefore, it seems that treatment 100% Black Cumin + 10% Chickpea is remarkably effective to increase the economic income and land use efficiency.

  10. Delice(Olea europea var. oleaster L.) ile zeytin (Olea europea var.sativa) arasında anatomik ve palinojik ayrıcalıklar (The Anatomic And Palynological Differences Between Olea europea var. oleaster L. AND Olea europea var.sativa)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, Zafer

    1991-01-01

    Delice(Olea europea var. oleaster L.) ile zeytin (Olea europea var.sativa) arasında anatomik ve palinojik ayrıcalıklar (The Anatomic And Palynological Differences Between Olea europea var. oleaster L. AND Olea europea var.sativa)

  11. Analysis and antibacterial activity of Nigella sativa essential oil formulated in microemulsion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban, Hamdy A; Sadek, Zainab; Edris, Amr E; Saad-Hussein, Amal

    2015-01-01

    The Essential oil (EO) of Nigella sativa (black cumin) was extracted from the crude oil and the volatile constituents were characterized using gas chromatographic analysis. The EO was formulated in water-based microemulsion system and its antibacterial activity against six pathogenic bacteria was evaluated using the agar well diffusion method. This activity was compared with two other well known biologically active natural and synthetic antimicrobials namely eugenol and Ceftriaxone(®). Results showed that N. sativa EO microemulsion was highly effective against S. aureus, B. cereus and S. typhimurium even at the lowest tested concentration of that EO in the microemulsion (100.0 μg/well). Interestingly, the EO microemulsion showed higher antibacterial activity than Ceftriaxone solution against S. typhimurium at 400.0 μg/well and almost comparable activity against E. coli at 500.0 μg/well. No activity was detected for the EO microemulsion against L. monocytogenes and P. aeruginosa. Eugenol which was also formulated in microemulsion was less effective than N. sativa EO microemulsion except against P. aeruginosa. The synthetic antibiotic (Ceftriaxone) was effective against most of the six tested bacterial strains. This work is the first report revealing the formulation of N. sativa EO in microemulsion system and investigating its antibacterial activity. The results may offer potential application of that water-based microemulsion in controlling the prevalence of some pathogenic bacteria.

  12. The adaptability of upland rice waxy mutant (Oryza sativa L.) to marginal land in Batumarta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwimahyani, Ita; Mitrosuhardjo, M.M.

    1998-01-01

    A field experiment had been conducted at Batumarta, Lampung Province to test the adaptability of upland rice waxy mutant (DT 20.11.84) at marginal land. Similar experiments had also been conducted in fertilize soil at Ps. Jumat, Jakarta and Citayam, Kabupaten Bogor. Agronomic evaluation such as number of tiller, panicle length number of seeds per tiller, and weight of 1000 grains from waxy mutant line, which were cultivated at Batumarta showed adaptability was better than the original variety (Danau Tempe). Grains yield of waxy mutant line per ha at marginal land (Batubara) was higher than Danau Tempe i.e 2,34 and 1,89 ton/ha respectively. In addition to grain yield of waxy mutant line at Psr Jumat, Jakarta and Citayam, Bogor was lower than Danau Tempe. The Low of grain yield that waxy mutant compared with the original variety line was caused by number of tiller and panicle length of waxy mutant line also low. Results of experiment can be concluded that waxy mutant line was favourable growing at marginal land when compared with the original variety. (author)

  13. Adriamycin-induced oxidative stress is prevented by mixed hydro-alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa and Curcuma longa in rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbati, Reza; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Mohammadian Roshan, Noema; Khajavi Rad, Abolfazl; Anaeigoudari, Akbar; Hosseinian, Sara; Karimi, Sareh; Beheshti, Farimah

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress is considered to have a crucial role in induction of nephropathy. Curcuma longa (C. longa) and Nigella sativa (N. sativa) have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. This study was designed to investigate the effect of mixed hydro-alcoholic extract of N.sativa and C. longa on the oxidative stress induced by Adriamycin (ADR) in rat kidney. The animals were divided into 6 groups: control (CO), ADR, Adriamycin+ Vitamin C (ADR+VIT C), C. longa extract+ Adriamycin (C.LE+ADR), N. sativa extract+ Adriamycin (N.SE+ADR) and C. longa extract+ N. sativa extract + Adriamycin (N.S+C.L+ADR). ADR (5mg/kg) was injected intravenously, whereas VITC (100mg/kg) and extract of C. longa (1000mg/kg) and N. sativa (200mg/kg) were administrated orally. Finally, the renal tissue, urine and blood samples were collected and submitted to measure of redox markers, osmolarity and renal index. The renal content of total thiol and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity significantly decreased and Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration increased in Adriamycin group compared to control group. The renal content of total thiol and SOD activity significantly enhanced and MDA concentration reduced in treated-mixed extract of C. longa and N. sativa along with ADR group compared to ADR group. The mixed extract did not restore increased renal index percentage induced by ADR. There also was no significant difference in urine and serum osmolarity between the groups. hydro-alcoholic extracts of N.sativa and C.longa led to an improvement in ADR-induced oxidative stress and mixed administration of the extracts enhanced the aforementioned therapeutic effect.

  14. Mycorrhiza Symbiosis Increases the Surface for Sunlight Capture in Medicago truncatula for Better Photosynthetic Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolfsson, Lisa; Keresztes, Áron; Uddling, Johan; Schoefs, Benoît; Spetea, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi play a prominent role in plant nutrition by supplying mineral nutrients, particularly inorganic phosphate (Pi), and also constitute an important carbon sink. AM stimulates plant growth and development, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, Medicago truncatula plants were grown with Rhizophagus irregularis BEG141 inoculum (AM), mock inoculum (control) or with Pi fertilization. We hypothesized that AM stimulates plant growth through either modifications of leaf anatomy or photosynthetic activity per leaf area. We investigated whether these effects are shared with Pi fertilization, and also assessed the relationship between levels of AM colonization and these effects. We found that increased Pi supply by either mycorrhization or fertilization led to improved shoot growth associated with increased nitrogen uptake and carbon assimilation. Both mycorrhized and Pi-fertilized plants had more and longer branches with larger and thicker leaves than the control plants, resulting in an increased photosynthetically active area. AM-specific effects were earlier appearance of the first growth axes and increased number of chloroplasts per cell section, since they were not induced by Pi fertilization. Photosynthetic activity per leaf area remained the same regardless of type of treatment. In conclusion, the increase in growth of mycorrhized and Pi-fertilized Medicago truncatula plants is linked to an increase in the surface for sunlight capture, hence increasing their photosynthetic production, rather than to an increase in the photosynthetic activity per leaf area. PMID:25615871

  15. Mycorrhiza symbiosis increases the surface for sunlight capture in Medicago truncatula for better photosynthetic production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Adolfsson

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi play a prominent role in plant nutrition by supplying mineral nutrients, particularly inorganic phosphate (Pi, and also constitute an important carbon sink. AM stimulates plant growth and development, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, Medicago truncatula plants were grown with Rhizophagus irregularis BEG141 inoculum (AM, mock inoculum (control or with P(i fertilization. We hypothesized that AM stimulates plant growth through either modifications of leaf anatomy or photosynthetic activity per leaf area. We investigated whether these effects are shared with P(i fertilization, and also assessed the relationship between levels of AM colonization and these effects. We found that increased P(i supply by either mycorrhization or fertilization led to improved shoot growth associated with increased nitrogen uptake and carbon assimilation. Both mycorrhized and P(i-fertilized plants had more and longer branches with larger and thicker leaves than the control plants, resulting in an increased photosynthetically active area. AM-specific effects were earlier appearance of the first growth axes and increased number of chloroplasts per cell section, since they were not induced by P(i fertilization. Photosynthetic activity per leaf area remained the same regardless of type of treatment. In conclusion, the increase in growth of mycorrhized and P(i-fertilized Medicago truncatula plants is linked to an increase in the surface for sunlight capture, hence increasing their photosynthetic production, rather than to an increase in the photosynthetic activity per leaf area.

  16. Comparison of anti-inflammatory activity of nigella sativa and diclofenac sodium in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, M.U.; Qureshi, H.J.; Saleem, T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nigella sativa or Kalonji is a naturally occurring plant in Pakistan and other countries which possesses a wide range of medicinal properties, the anti-inflammatory property being one of these. Diclofenac sodium is a commonly used anti-inflammatory drug. The purpose of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds with that of diclofenac sodium in albino rats. Method: This laboratory randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in the Physiology Department, Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Lahore. The study was carried out on 90 male albino rats. Five percent formalin in a dose of 50 meu was injected into sub-plantar surface of right hind paw of each rat to produce inflammation. The rats were randomly divided into three groups of thirty each. Group A was given normal saline (control); group B was given Nigella sativa seed extract; and group C received diclofenac sodium, as a reference drug. Increase in paw diameter, and total and differential leukocyte counts were measured as markers of inflammation. Results: Nigella sativa seeds extract caused significant (p<0.05) reduction in the paw inflammatory response in albino rats. The effect was longer in duration than the effect caused by diclofenac sodium; however, the extract was comparatively less potent than diclofenac sodium. The extract had no significant effect (p>0.05) on the total or differential leukocyte counts. Conclusion: Our results suggest that ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds possesses potent anti-inflammatory effect, in albino rats however, this effect is comparatively less but prolonged than that produced by diclofenac sodium. (author)

  17. The response of some common Egyptian plants to ozone and their use as biomonitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khatib, A A

    2003-01-01

    Relative sensitivity of five common Egyptian plant species namely, Senecio vulgaris, Malva parviflora, Sonchus oleraceus, Medicago sativa and Melilotus indicus to elevated levels of ozone has been studied. The plants were exposed to charcoal filtered air (CFA) and different levels of O3 (50 and 100 ppb) for 5 h per day. The studied parameters were recorded for five consecutive days after fumigation. The foliar injury varied significantly among species in a dose-dependent manner. Severe injury symptoms were recorded on the leaves of M. sativa. With the exception of M. parviflora, all species exhibited significant increases in the percentage reduction of the above-ground dry weight as a result of reductions in both leaf and stem dry weights. M. sativa showed a marked reduction in its relative growth rate at elevated levels of O3. The extent of chlorophyll a destruction was higher in both M. sativa and S. oleraceus than in the other species tested. No differences in the sensitivity of chlorophylls a+b and carotenoids to ozone levels were recorded in this work. Percentage reduction of ascorbic acid was higher in M. sativa and S. oleraceus, compared with the other species studied. With respect to relative percentages of proline, there was a significant difference in the responses of plants to ozone. According to the ozone resistance (R%), measured as relative growth rate, the test species were arranged in the descending order: M. parviflora>M. Indicus>S. Vulgaris>S. Oleraceus>M. sativa. In M. sativa, both determinant and correlation coefficients are well reflected in the relationship between its physiological response, its performance and ozone levels, supporting its recommendation as a candidate for biomonitoring in Egypt.

  18. Effect of Rhizosphere Enzymes on Phytoremediation in PAH-Contaminated Soil Using Five Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Dai, Yuanyuan; Sun, Libo

    2015-01-01

    A pot experiment was performed to study the effectiveness of remediation using different plant species and the enzyme response involved in remediating PAH-contaminated soil. The study indicated that species Echinacea purpurea, Festuca arundinacea Schred, Fire Phoenix (a combined F. arundinacea), and Medicago sativa L. possess the potential for remediation in PAH-contaminated soils. The study also determined that enzymatic reactions of polyphenol oxidase (except Fire Phoenix), dehydrogenase (except Fire Phoenix), and urease (except Medicago sativa L.) were more prominent over cultivation periods of 60d and 120d than 150d. Urease activity of the tested species exhibited prominently linear negative correlations with alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content after the tested plants were cultivated for 150d (R2 = 0.9592). The experiment also indicated that alkaline phosphatase activity in four of the five tested species (Echinacea purpurea, Callistephus chinensis, Festuca arundinacea Schred and Fire Phoenix) was inhibited during the cultivation process (at 60d and 120d). At the same time, the study determined that the linear relationship between alkaline phosphatase activity and effective phosphorus content in plant rhizosphere soil exhibited a negative correlation after a growing period of 120d (R2 = 0.665). Phytoremediation of organic contaminants in the soil was closely related to specific characteristics of particular plant species, and the catalyzed reactions were the result of the action of multiple enzymes in the plant rhizosphere soil. PMID:25822167

  19. Allelopathic effect of Raphanus sativus on Urochloa decumbens and Lactuca sativa = Efeito alelopático de Raphanus sativus em Urochloa decumbens e Lactuca sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Navas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic potential of an extract from the leaves and roots of Raphanus sativus, on the species Urochloa decumbens and Lactuca sativa L. To obtain the extract, the leaves and roots of R. sativus were used separately, crushed at a proportion of 200 g of leaves to 1 L of water to give a crude aqueous extract (100%. Dilutions of 60%, 40% and 20%, and the control were produced from this extract. Seeds of U. decumbens and L. sativa were evenly distributed over two sheets of germitest paper, with four replications of 40 seeds each. Germination was evaluated at 7 and 14 days after sowing, together with the germination speed index (GSI, length of the shoots and roots, and dry weight. The design was completely randomised, and the values submitted to analysis of variance by F-test and regression analysis. The leaf extract gave a reduction in the germination of L. sativa at all tested doses. With application of the root extract, an increase was seen in germination, in the GSI and length of the radicle in U. decumbens at doses of from 40%. Moreover, with application of the leaf extract, the length of the shoot and radicle were also greater, irrespective of the dose applied. There was no effect from the treatments on the dry mass of the species. = Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o potencial alelopático de extrato de folhas e raízes de Raphanus sativus, nas espécies Urochloa decumbens e Lactuca sativa L. Para obtenção do extrato, foram utilizadas separadamente folhas e raízes de R. sativus, trituradas na proporção de 200 g de folhas para 1 L de água, resultando no extrato aquoso bruto (100%. A partir desse extrato, foram realizadas as diluições de 60%, 40% e 20% e testemunha. Sementes de U. decumbens e L. sativa foram distribuídas uniformemente sobre duas folhas de papel germitest, com quatro repetições, com 40 sementes cada. As avaliações de germinação foram realizadas aos 7 e aos 14 dias

  20. Protection by Nigella sativa against carbon tetrachloride-induced downregulation of hepatic cytochrome P450 isozymes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Zein S; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Soliman, Mohamed; ElBohi, Khlood; Sobhy, Wageh; Muzandu, Kaampwe; Elkattawy, Azza M; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Fujita, Shoichi

    2008-11-01

    Nigella sativa (family Ranunculaceae) is an annual plant that has been traditionally used on the Indian subcontinent and in Middle Eastern countries. In this study, we investigated the effect of N. sativa oil on the drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and whether it has a protective effect against the acute hepatotoxicity of CCl4. Intraperitoneal injection of rats with CCl4 drastically decreased CYP2E1, CYP2B, CYP3A2, CYP2C11, and CYP1A2 mRNA and protein expressions. Oral administration of 1 ml/kg N. sativa oil every day for one week prior to CCl4 injection alleviated CCl4-induced suppression of CYP2B, CYP3A2, CYP2C11, and CYP1A2. Moreover, CCl4 increased iNOS and TNFalpha mRNA, while N. sativa oil administration for one week prior to CCl4 injection downregulated the CCl4-induced iNOS mRNA and up-regulated IL-10 mRNA. These results indicate that N. sativa oil administration has a protective effect against the CCl4-mediated suppression of hepatic CYPs and that this protective effect is partly due to the downregulation of NO production and up-regulation of the anti-inflammatory IL-10.

  1. Antioxidant property of Nigella sativa (black cumin) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) in rats during aflatoxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wahhab, M A; Aly, S E

    2005-01-01

    Aflatoxins, a group of closely related, extremely toxic mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, can occur as natural contaminants of foods and feeds. Aflatoxins have been shown to be hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic to different animal species. Nigella sativa (black cumin) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oil are used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and have antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of these volatile oils to scavenge free radicals generated during aflatoxicosis. Sixty male rats were divided into six treatment groups, including a control group, and the groups were treated for 30 days with Nigella sativa and Syzygium aromaticum oils with or without aflatoxin. Blood samples were collected at the end of the experimental period for haematological and biochemical analysis. The results indicated that exposure to aflatoxins resulted in haematological and biochemical changes typical for aflatoxicosis. Treatment with Nigella sativa and Syzygium aromaticum oil of rats fed an aflatoxin-contaminated diet resulted in significant protection against aflatoxicosis. Moreover, Nigella sativa oil was found to be more effective than Syzygium aromaticum oil in restoring the parameters that were altered by aflatoxin in rats. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  2. Biochemical and Histopathological Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Nigella sativa and Mentha piperita Oils to Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian H. Ghaly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the biochemical and histopathological effects of dietary supplementation of Nigella sativa and Mentha piperita oils to broilers for 6 weeks. A total 80 unsexed one day old Cobb broiler chicks was obtained from Cairo Company with average body weight 55g were used .The chicks were taken and randomly allocated into 4 equal groups (20 each named control, Nigella sativa oil treated group, Mentha piperita oil treated group and Nigella sativa + Mentha piperita oils treated group. Serum samples and tissue samples (liver and kidney were obtained at 21 and 42 days old for some serum biochemical analysis (ALT, AST and ALP activities; creatinine, Urea, Total protein and Albumin levels and histopathological examination (Liver and Kidney processed slide sections. The obtained results indicated that dietary supplementation of broilers diet with Nigella sativa, Mentha piperita and their combination for long period (6 weeks couldn’t alter liver and kidney functions as cleared from biochemical findings but could caused slight hepatic and renal histopathological changes as showed from histopathological examination.

  3. Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Patrício Macedo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America. Insects associated with a seizure of Cannabis sativa L. may indicate the origin of the illicit drug. Nevertheless, no work regarding this subject has been previously published for South America. In the present investigation, seven kilograms of vegetal material (C. sativa were inspected for insect fragments. Three species were identified and used to test the origin of the seizure of cannabis plant material: Euschistus heros (Fabricius, 1794, Thyanta perditor (Fabricius, 1794 (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae, and Cephalotes pusillus (Klug, 1824 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. These insect species restricted the geographic origin of the drug to the Neotropical region, and their distribution patterns showed an overlap of the State of Mato Grosso (Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay. Based on this information, two of the three major C. sativa growing areas in South America were excluded: (1 the Colombian territory and (2 northeastern Brazil.

  4. Nigella sativa L. and its bioactive constituents as hepatoprotectant: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Heena; Ahmad, Asad; Ahmad, Iffat Zareen

    2018-04-26

    The pharmacological properties of Nigella sativa L. are well attributed to the presence of bioactive compounds, mainly, thymoquinone (TQ), thymol (THY) and α hederin and their antioxidant effects. TQ,THY and alpha-hederin (α-hederin) provide protection to liver from injury via different mechanisms including inhibition of iron-dependent lipid peroxidation, elevation in total thiol content and (GSH) level, radical scavenging, increasing the activity of quinone reductase, catalase, superoxide dismutase(SOD) and glutathione transferase (GST), inhibition of NF-κB activity and inhibition of both (COX) and (LOX) protects liver from injuries. The main aim of this literature review is to reflect the relevant role of ROS in inducing hepatic diseases and also the preventive role of N. sativa L. in hepatic diseases. The present article is directed towards highlighting the beneficial contribution of researchers to explore the pharmacological actions with therapeutic potential of this precious natural herb and its bioactive compounds pertaining to the hepatoprotective effects. We systematically searched for research literature through well-framed review question and presented the data in the tabular forms for the convenience of the readers. Two hundred forty-one papers were embodied in this review, oxidative effect and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to be the major causes of many diseases such as hepatic cancer. Many drugs and chemicals have shown to incite oxidative damage by generation of ROS in the body. Therefore, this review intent to focus the role of ROS in liver diseases and the mechanisms through which N. sativa prevents hepatic diseases. The mechanisms by which N. sativa impede progression in chronic liver diseases should be used as a preventive medicine in patients with hepatic disorders. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Melatonin and vitamin C exacerbate Cannabis sativa-induced testicular damage when administered separately but ameliorate it when combined in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagbonsi, Isiaka A; Olayaki, Luqman A; Salman, Toyin M

    2016-05-01

    The mechanisms involved in the spermatotoxic effect of Cannabis sativa are inconclusive. The involvement of oxidative stress in male factor infertility has been well documented, and the antioxidative potential of melatonin and vitamin C in many oxidative stress conditions has been well reported. This study sought to investigate whether melatonin and vitamin C will ameliorate C. sativa-induced spermatotoxicity or not. Fifty-five (55) male albino rats (250-300 g) were randomly divided in a blinded fashion into five oral treatment groups as follows: group I (control, n=5) received 1 mL/kg of 10% ethanol for 30 days; groups IIa, IIb, and IIc (n=5 each) received 2 mg/kg C. sativa for 20, 30, and 40 days, respectively; groups IIIa, IIIb, and IIIc (n=5 each) received a combination of 2 mg/kg C. sativa and 4 mg/kg melatonin for 20, 30, and 40 days, respectively; groups IVa, IVb, and IVc (n=5 each) received a combination of 2 mg/kg C. sativa and 1.25 g/kg vitamin C for 20, 30, and 40 days, respectively; group V (n=5) received a combination of 2 mg/kg C. sativa, 4 mg/kg melatonin, and 1.25 g/kg vitamin C for 30 days. Cannabis treatments reduced the Johnsen score, sperm count, motility, morphology, paired testicular/body weight ratio, and total antioxidant capacity, but increased lactate dehydrogenase activity. In addition, supplementation of cannabis-treated rats with either melatonin or vitamin C exacerbates the effect of cannabis on those parameters, whereas combination of melatonin and vitamin C reversed the trend to the level comparable to control. This study further showed the gonadotoxic effect of C. sativa, which could be mediated by oxidative stress. It also showed that melatonin and vitamin C exacerbate C. sativa-induced testicular damage when administered separately but ameliorate it when combined in rats.

  6. MtCAS31 Aids Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation by Protecting the Leghemoglobin MtLb120-1 Under Drought Stress in Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF in legume root nodules injects millions of tons of nitrogen into agricultural lands and provides ammonia to non-legume crops under N-deficient conditions. During plant growth and development, environmental stresses, such as drought, salt, cold, and heat stress are unavoidable. This raises an interesting question as to how the legumes cope with the environmental stress along with SNF. Under drought stress, dehydrin proteins are accumulated, which function as protein protector and osmotic substances. In this study, we found that the dehydrin MtCAS31 (cold-acclimation-specific 31 functions in SNF in Medicago truncatula during drought stress. We found that MtCAS31 is expressed in nodules and interacts with leghemoglobin MtLb120-1. The interaction between the two proteins protects MtLb120-1 from denaturation under thermal stress in vivo. Compared to wild type, cas31 mutants display a lower nitrogenase activity, a lower ATP/ADP ratio, higher expression of nodule senescence genes and higher accumulation of amyloplasts under dehydration conditions. The results suggested that MtCAS31 protects MtLb120-1 from the damage of drought stress. We identified a new function for dehydrins in SNF under drought stress, which enriches the understanding of the molecular mechanism of dehydrins.

  7. Chemotaxonomy of the genus Stemphylium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kresten Jon Kromphardt; Andersen, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungal genus Stemphylium (Anamophic Pleospora) is often found on various crops, and especially the common animal feed plant Medicago sativa (alfalfa) is often infected by this plant pathogen. With this in mind it is important to consider what consequences such a contamination can...... have, e.g. production of mycotoxins. (Firsvad et al. (2009)) A clade of Stemphylium spp. i.e. S. herbarum, S. alfalfae, S. sedicola, S. tomatonis and S. vesicariumare troublesome to distinguish as they share both morphological and molecular characteristics. This study has focused on using chemotaxonomy...

  8. Evaluation for dinitrogen fixation of alfalfa in field based on δ15N value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Yunyin; Chen Ming; Zhang Xizhong

    1992-12-01

    The dinitrogen fixation rate of alfalfa was estimated grown in pot and field experiments. β values (isotope fraction factor) of 7 cultivars of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) grown in N-free liquid culture medium were examined. Variations in the δ 15 N values of varieties of alfalfa at growing seasons and forage grasses grown under various conditions were measured. %Ndfa of alfalfa was estimated using the natural 15 N abundance method, 15 N isotope dilution method and total N difference, and their accuracy was compared

  9. Analysis of Ag nanoparticles synthesized by bioreduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavera-Davila, L; Liu, H B; Herrera-Becerra, R; Canizal, G; Balcazar, M; Ascencio, J A

    2009-03-01

    Based on a green chemistry mechanism, small silver clusters were obtained by using biosynthesis with alfalfa (medicago sativa), controlling the size of the nanoparticles base don different pH conditions. The analysis of the samples was made with help of transmission electron microscopy methods, mainly with high angle annular dark field and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The optimal conditions were identified when the sample was obtained at pH10, which allowed obtaining an average size of 4.09 nm and a standard deviation of 1.59, mainly based on cubic like structures.

  10. Effects of agrochemical measures on plutonium 239,240 and americium 24 accumulation in some legume plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budkevich, T.A.; Zabolotnyj, A.I.; Kudryashov, V.P.

    2002-01-01

    During 1998-2000 in field experiments at territories contaminated with transuranic elements (TUE) the mineral fertilizers were studied as means of decreasing the TUE accumulation in legume plants ( Lupinus luteus L., Lupinus angustifolius L., Trifolium pratense L., Medicago sativa L.). Under the action of lime Pu 239, 240 and Am 241 accumulation in green parts and seeds of Lupinus decreased in 1,5-5 times, and in overground mass of legume grasses in 1,5-2,5 times. The combined action of PK-fertilizes and lime didn't decrease TUE transfer into legume plants

  11. Molecular diversity study of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vostro 2520

    2015-05-06

    May 6, 2015 ... Nigella sativa L. (commonly known as black cumin) belonging to family Rannunculaceae is an ...... landraces under drought stress and non-stress conditions. Afr. J. ... distances among DNA haplotypes: Application to human.

  12. Induction of apoptosis in HeLa cells by chloroform fraction of seed extracts of Nigella sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alshatwi Ali A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer remains one of the most dreaded diseases causing an astonishingly high death rate, second only to cardiac arrest. The fact that conventional and newly emerging treatment procedures like chemotherapy, catalytic therapy, photodynamic therapy and radiotherapy have not succeeded in reverting the outcome of the disease to any drastic extent, has made researchers investigate alternative treatment options. The extensive repertoire of traditional medicinal knowledge systems from various parts of the world are being re-investigated for their healing properties. This study progresses in the direction of identifying component(s from Nigella sativa with anti cancer acitivity. In the present study we investigated the efficacy of Organic extracts of Nigella sativa seed powder for its clonogenic inhibition and induction of apoptosis in HeLa cancer cell. Results Methanolic, n-Hexane and chloroform extracts of Nigella sativa seedz effectively killed HeLa cells. The IC50 values of methanolic, n-hexane, and chloroform extracts of Nigella sativa were 2.28 μg/ml, 2.20 μg/ml and 0.41 ng/ml, respectively. All three extracts induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. Apoptosis was confirmed by DNA fragmentation, western blot and terminal transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin-end labeling (TUNEL assay. Conclusion Western Blot and TUNEL results suggested that Nigella sativa seed extracts regulated the expression of pro- and anti- apoptotic genes, indicating its possible development as a potential therapeutic agent for cervical cancer upon further investigation.

  13. Cannabis sativa L. genetically transformed root based culture via Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnoush Berahmand

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is an increased interest in the therapeutic potential of Cannabis sativa L. (marijuana for treatment of multiple sclerosis and HIV neuropathy. Because of limitation in cultivation of this plant, an efficient hairy root induction system for Cannabis sativa L. was developed in the present study. Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated transformation performed by two different co-cultivation mediums and four different bacterial strains including A4, ATCC15834, MSU440, and A13 (MAFF-02-10266. Genomic DNA from putative transgenic hairy root lines and the control root was extracted using a modified CTAB protocol. Molecular analysis of transformed root lines was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction using specific primers of the rolB gene. The transformation frequency by Murashige and Skoog co-cultivation medium resulting in hairy root induction frequencies of 42.3%, 46.3%, 68.6% and 39.3% by A4, ATCC15834, MSU440, and A13 strains, respectively. There was no significant difference between MS or ½ MS co-cultivation mediums.  This study established a reliable protocol for induction of hairy roots of C. sativa. The best A. rhisogenes strain was MSU440. It was observed no significant difference between MS and ½ MS co-cultivation mediums on transformation frequency.

  14. Estimation of larval density of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to develop sequential sampling plans to estimate larval density of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) at three precision levels in cucumber greenhouse. The within- greenhouse spatial patterns of larvae were aggregated. The slopes and intercepts of both Iwao's patchiness ...

  15. Potencial de espécies vegetais para a remediação do herbicida trifloxysulfuron-sodium Potential of plant species for remediation of trifloxysulfuron-sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Procópio

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de espécies vegetais na remediação do herbicida trifloxysulfuron-sodium em solos, utilizando o feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris como planta indicadora. Os tratamentos foram compostos pela combinação entre as espécies Calopogonium mucunoides, Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis, Vicia sativa, Cajanus cajan, Canavalia ensiformis, Medicago sativa, Dolichus lab lab, Penisetum glaucum, Stylosantes guianensis, Mucuna deeringiana, Mucuna cinereum, Mucuna aterrima, Raphanus sativus e Lupinus albus. Todas as espécies foram semeadas em vasos no dia seguinte à aplicação do trifloxysulfuron-sodium em três doses (0,00; 3,75; e 15,00 g ha-1. Após 80 dias da semeadura, as espécies vegetais foram cortadas na altura do coleto e a parte aérea destas descartada. A seguir, foi realizada a semeadura do feijão (cultivar Pérola. Aos 45 dias após a emergência das plantas de feijão avaliaram-se a altura e a massa seca da parte aérea das plantas. Melhor eficiência na descontaminação do trifloxysulfuron-sodium em solo foi obtida pelas espécies M. aterrima e C. ensiformis.This work aimed to evaluate the efficiency of vegetable species in the remediation of the herbicide trifloxysulfuron-sodium in soils using the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris as a bio indicator. The treatments were composed by the combination of the species Calopogonium mucunoides,Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis, Vicia sativa, Cajanus cajan, Canavalia ensiformis, Medicago sativa, Dolichus lab lab, Penisetum glaucum, Stylosantes guianensis, Mucuna deeringiana, Mucuna cinereum, Mucuna aterrima, Raphanus sativus and Lupinus albus, sown in vases the day following application of the herbicide at three doses (0.00; 3.75; and 15.00 g ha-1. Eighty days after sowing, the plants were cut and the shoot discarded, followed by bean ("Perola" cultivar sowing. At 45 days post emergence, bean height and shoot dry matter were

  16. An expression database for roots of the model legume Medicago truncatula under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daofeng; Su, Zhen; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2009-11-11

    Medicago truncatula is a model legume whose genome is currently being sequenced by an international consortium. Abiotic stresses such as salt stress limit plant growth and crop productivity, including those of legumes. We anticipate that studies on M. truncatula will shed light on other economically important legumes across the world. Here, we report the development of a database called MtED that contains gene expression profiles of the roots of M. truncatula based on time-course salt stress experiments using the Affymetrix Medicago GeneChip. Our hope is that MtED will provide information to assist in improving abiotic stress resistance in legumes. The results of our microarray experiment with roots of M. truncatula under 180 mM sodium chloride were deposited in the MtED database. Additionally, sequence and annotation information regarding microarray probe sets were included. MtED provides functional category analysis based on Gene and GeneBins Ontology, and other Web-based tools for querying and retrieving query results, browsing pathways and transcription factor families, showing metabolic maps, and comparing and visualizing expression profiles. Utilities like mapping probe sets to genome of M. truncatula and In-Silico PCR were implemented by BLAT software suite, which were also available through MtED database. MtED was built in the PHP script language and as a MySQL relational database system on a Linux server. It has an integrated Web interface, which facilitates ready examination and interpretation of the results of microarray experiments. It is intended to help in selecting gene markers to improve abiotic stress resistance in legumes. MtED is available at http://bioinformatics.cau.edu.cn/MtED/.

  17. An expression database for roots of the model legume Medicago truncatula under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Jiangli

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicago truncatula is a model legume whose genome is currently being sequenced by an international consortium. Abiotic stresses such as salt stress limit plant growth and crop productivity, including those of legumes. We anticipate that studies on M. truncatula will shed light on other economically important legumes across the world. Here, we report the development of a database called MtED that contains gene expression profiles of the roots of M. truncatula based on time-course salt stress experiments using the Affymetrix Medicago GeneChip. Our hope is that MtED will provide information to assist in improving abiotic stress resistance in legumes. Description The results of our microarray experiment with roots of M. truncatula under 180 mM sodium chloride were deposited in the MtED database. Additionally, sequence and annotation information regarding microarray probe sets were included. MtED provides functional category analysis based on Gene and GeneBins Ontology, and other Web-based tools for querying and retrieving query results, browsing pathways and transcription factor families, showing metabolic maps, and comparing and visualizing expression profiles. Utilities like mapping probe sets to genome of M. truncatula and In-Silico PCR were implemented by BLAT software suite, which were also available through MtED database. Conclusion MtED was built in the PHP script language and as a MySQL relational database system on a Linux server. It has an integrated Web interface, which facilitates ready examination and interpretation of the results of microarray experiments. It is intended to help in selecting gene markers to improve abiotic stress resistance in legumes. MtED is available at http://bioinformatics.cau.edu.cn/MtED/.

  18. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Elicit a Novel Intracellular Apparatus in Medicago truncatula Root Epidermal Cells before InfectionW⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genre, Andrea; Chabaud, Mireille; Timmers, Ton; Bonfante, Paola; Barker, David G.

    2005-01-01

    The penetration of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi through the outermost root tissues of the host plant is a critical step in root colonization, ultimately leading to the establishment of this ecologically important endosymbiotic association. To evaluate the role played by the host plant during AM infection, we have studied in vivo cellular dynamics within Medicago truncatula root epidermal cells using green fluorescent protein labeling of both the plant cytoskeleton and the endoplasmic reticulum. Targeting roots with Gigaspora hyphae has revealed that, before infection, the epidermal cell assembles a transient intracellular structure with a novel cytoskeletal organization. Real-time monitoring suggests that this structure, designated the prepenetration apparatus (PPA), plays a central role in the elaboration of the apoplastic interface compartment through which the fungus grows when it penetrates the cell lumen. The importance of the PPA is underlined by the fact that M. truncatula dmi (for doesn't make infections) mutants fail to assemble this structure. Furthermore, PPA formation in the epidermis can be correlated with DMI-dependent transcriptional activation of the Medicago early nodulin gene ENOD11. These findings demonstrate how the host plant prepares and organizes AM infection of the root, and both the plant–fungal signaling mechanisms involved and the mechanistic parallels with Rhizobium infection in legume root hairs are discussed. PMID:16284314

  19. Modeling of desorption of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) stems and leaves.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ArabHosseini, A.; Huisman, W.; Müller, J.

    2011-01-01

    The equilibrium moisture content of agricultural products is necessary to optimize drying process and helps to keep the quality of the product during the period of storage. The main aim of this research was to find the best model which could define well, the exchange of moisture between alfalfa

  20. The effect of lucerne ( Medicago sativa ) hay quality on milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of lucerne hay quality on the milk production potential and milk composition of Jersey cows was investigated. Three different grades of lucerne hay (Prime, Grade 1, Grade 2; selected according to the New Lucerne Quality Index) were included in a total mixed ration (TMR) and fed to lactating cows. The three ...

  1. Metabolic responses of alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L.) leaves to low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-14

    Feb 14, 2011 ... and relative water content (RWC) in leaves under low and high temperature ... age of its supply as pasture, thus affecting development ..... te leak ag e (%. ) ) A. B. Figure 3. Effects of LT and HT stresses on MDA content and ...

  2. The effect of lucerne (Medicago sativa) hay quality on milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Van Zyl, Marike

    2014-08-23

    Aug 23, 2014 ... 46th Congress of the South African Society for Animal Science ... After a dietary adaptation period of 14 days, each treatment received ... as the primary roughage source, was the best parameter to predict potential milk yield.

  3. Sample preparation of Medicago sativa L. hay for chemical analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UFS Campus

    wavelength region (De Boever et al., 1996; Williams & Norris, 2001). Therefore, it could affect the predicted results of all the other parameters (CP, ADF, NDF, etc.). The grinding ... (September 2006 to May 2007). The samples represented lots that were selected at different stages of maturity. A moisture range as broad as ...

  4. IDENTIFICATION AND OCCURRENCE OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ON SEEDS OF COMMON WETCH, WHITE LUPINE AND SOME WILD LEGUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir Miličević

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence and occurrence of Fusarium species was examined on the seeds of cultivated legumes – common vetch (Vicia sativa, white lupine (Lupinus albus, and wild legumes: bird’s-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus, wild alfalfa (Medicago sativa, black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia, honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos, sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis, bird vetch (Vicia cracca and meadow vetchling (Lathyrus pratensis. Thirteen Fusarium species were identified - F. verticillioides, F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum F. oxysporum, F. scirpi, F. semitectum, F. culmorum, F. proliferatum, F. pseudograminearum, F. sporotrichioides, F. sambucinum and F. heterosporum. Species F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum were determined on seeds of the cultivated legumes (common vetch and white lupine. Other 11 Fusarium species were determined on seeds of wild legumes (bird’s-foot trefoil, wild alfalfa, sweet clover and bird vetch among which the most prevalent were species F. avenaceum and F. acuminatum.

  5. Microencapsulation of Nigella sativa oleoresin by spray drying for food and nutraceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edris, Amr E; Kalemba, Danuta; Adamiec, Janusz; Piątkowski, Marcin

    2016-08-01

    Oleoresin of Nigella sativa L. (Black cumin) was obtained from the seeds using hexane extraction at room temperature. The oleoresin was emulsified in an aqueous solution containing gum Arabic/maltodextrin (1:1 w/w) and then encapsulated in powder form by spray drying. The characteristics of the obtained powder including moisture content, bulk density, wettability, morphology, encapsulation efficiency were evaluated. The effect of the spray drying on the chemical composition of the volatile oil fraction of N. sativa oleoresin was also evaluated using gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopic analysis. Results indicated that the encapsulation efficiency of the whole oleoresin in the powder can range from 84.2±1.5% to 96.2±0.2% depending on the conditions of extracting the surface oil from the powder. On the other hand the encapsulation efficiency of the volatile oil fraction was 86.2% ±4.7. The formulated N. sativa L. oleoresin powder can be used in the fortification of processed food and nutraceuticals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Avena sativa L. Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Amini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Nowadays, nanoparticles bio production, considering their performance in medicine and biological science, is increasing. Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using organisms has emerged as a nontoxic and ecofriendly method for synthesis of metal nanoparticles The objectives of this study were the production of silver nanoparticles using Avena sativa L. extract and optimization of the biosynthesis process. The effects of quantity of substrate (silver nitrate (AgNo3 and temperature on the formation of silver nanoparticles are studied. Methods: In this work, silver nanoparticles were synthesized from an extract of Avena sativa L. at different temperatures (30° C, 60° C, 90° C  and AgNo3 concentrations( 1 mM, 2mM, 4mM . The morphology and size of the nanoparticles were determined using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS. Results: SEM images showed that by increasing temperature nanoparticles size were decreased and by increasing concentrations of AgNo3 the number of nanoparticles was increased. Conclusions: The results indicated that by increasing the reaction temperature, the size of the nanoparticles would decrease. Also by increasing the concentrations of AgNo3, the amount of produced nanoparticles would be increased, but won't have a significant effect on its size. The preparation of nano- structured silver particles using Avena sativa L. extract provides an environmentally friendly option as compared to currently available chemical/ physical methods.

  7. Phyotoxicity of diesel soil contamination on the germination of Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatokun, Kayode; Lewu, Francis Bayo; Zharare, Godfrey Elijah

    2015-11-01

    Phytotoxic effect of diesel contaminated soil on germination rate of Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas, at two concentrations ranges (0-6ml and 0-30ml), were investigated and compared. Diesel soil contamination was simulated and soil samples were taken from contaminated soil at 1, 5,10, 15, 25, 50, 75 and 100 days should be after planting. The result showed that in both plant species, diesel inhibited germination in a concentration dependent manner, Also, the influence of diesel contamination diminished with increased time duration; suggesting possible reduction in diesel toxicity over time. However, germination of lettuce was significant and negatively correlated (r2 = -0.941) with diesel contamination as compared to sweet potato (r2 = -0.638).Critical concentration of diesel in relation to seed germination of L. sativa was lower than vegetative germination of I. batatas, indicating that germination of I. batatas was less sensitive to diesel contamination as compared to L. sativa.

  8. A genome browser database for rice (Oryza sativa) and Chinese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... sativa) and Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) genomes. The genome ... tant staple food for a large part of the world's human population. .... some banding region for selection and the overview panel shows the location of ...

  9. Testing the toxicity of metals, phenol, effluents, and receiving waters by root elongation in Lactuca sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Jie; Park, Jihae; Kumar Pandey, Lalit; Choi, Soyeon; Lee, Hojun; De Saeger, Jonas; Depuydt, Stephen; Han, Taejun

    2018-03-01

    Phytotoxicity tests using higher plants are among the most simple, sensitive, and cost-effective of the methods available for ecotoxicity testing. In the present study, a hydroponic-based phytotoxicity test using seeds of Lactuca sativa was used to evaluate the water quality of receiving waters and effluents near two industrial sites (Soyo and Daejon) in Korea with respect to the toxicity of 10 metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Zn) and phenol, and of the receiving waters and effluents themselves. First, the L. sativa hydroponic bioassay was used to determine whether the receiving water or effluents were toxic; then, the responsible toxicant was identified. The results obtained with the L. sativa bioassay ranked the EC 50 toxicities of the investigated metal ions and phenol as: Cd > Ni > Cu > Zn > Hg > phenol > As > Mn > Cr > Pb > Fe. We found that Zn was the toxicant principally responsible for toxicity in Daejeon effluents. The Daejeon field effluent had a higher Zn concentration than permitted by the effluent discharge criteria of the Ministry of Environment of Korea. Our conclusion on the importance of Zn toxicity was supported by the results of the L. sativa hydroponic assay, which showed that the concentration of Zn required to inhibit root elongation in L. sativa by 50% (EC 50 ) was higher in the Daejeon field effluent than that of pure Zn. More importantly, we proved that the L. sativa hydroponic test method can be applied not only as an alternative tool for determining whether a given waste is acceptable for discharge into public water bodies, but also as an alternative method for measuring the safety of aquatic environments using EC 20 values, with respect to the water pollutants investigated (i.e., Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Zn, and phenol). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Agronomy and photosynthesis physiology of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Kailei

    2018-01-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a sustainable high-yielding crop that delivers valuable fibres, seeds and psychoactive substances. However, there is a lack of field experimental data on the cultivation of hemp because its production was largely abandoned in the last century. Hemp is now

  11. Genetic transformation of lettuce ( Lactuca sativa ): A review | Dan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is a globally important leafy vegetable that can be grown worldwide. Due to the rapid growth of population and the human desire to progress, there have been a lot of studies made by researchers, especially in genetic engineering. Improvements in regeneration system and transformation ...

  12. The response of some common Egyptian plants to ozone and their use as biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khatib, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Growth and physiological response of plants was shown to be an effective tool for O 3 -biomonitoring. - Relative sensitivity of five common Egyptian plant species namely, Senecio vulgaris, Malva parviflora, Sonchus oleraceus, Medicago sativa and Melilotus indicus to elevated levels of ozone has been studied. The plants were exposed to charcoal filtered air (CFA) and different levels of O 3 (50 and 100 ppb) for 5 h per day. The studied parameters were recorded for five consecutive days after fumigation. The foliar injury varied significantly among species in a dose-dependent manner. Severe injury symptoms were recorded on the leaves of M. sativa. With the exception of M. parviflora, all species exhibited significant increases in the percentage reduction of the above-ground dry weight as a result of reductions in both leaf and stem dry weights. M. sativa showed a marked reduction in its relative growth rate at elevated levels of O 3 . The extent of chlorophyll a destruction was higher in both M. sativa and S. oleraceus than in the other species tested. No differences in the sensitivity of chlorophylls a+b and carotenoids to ozone levels were recorded in this work. Percentage reduction of ascorbic acid was higher in M. sativa and S. oleraceus, compared with the other species studied. With respect to relative percentages of proline, there was a significant difference in the responses of plants to ozone. According to the ozone resistance (R%), measured as relative growth rate, the test species were arranged in the descending order: M. parviflora>M. Indicus>S. Vulgaris>S. Oleraceus>M. sativa. In M. sativa, both determinant and correlation coefficients are well reflected in the relationship between its physiological response, its performance and ozone levels, supporting its recommendation as a candidate for biomonitoring in Egypt

  13. The response of some common Egyptian plants to ozone and their use as biomonitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Khatib, A A

    2003-08-01

    Growth and physiological response of plants was shown to be an effective tool for O{sub 3}-biomonitoring. - Relative sensitivity of five common Egyptian plant species namely, Senecio vulgaris, Malva parviflora, Sonchus oleraceus, Medicago sativa and Melilotus indicus to elevated levels of ozone has been studied. The plants were exposed to charcoal filtered air (CFA) and different levels of O{sub 3} (50 and 100 ppb) for 5 h per day. The studied parameters were recorded for five consecutive days after fumigation. The foliar injury varied significantly among species in a dose-dependent manner. Severe injury symptoms were recorded on the leaves of M. sativa. With the exception of M. parviflora, all species exhibited significant increases in the percentage reduction of the above-ground dry weight as a result of reductions in both leaf and stem dry weights. M. sativa showed a marked reduction in its relative growth rate at elevated levels of O{sub 3}. The extent of chlorophyll a destruction was higher in both M. sativa and S. oleraceus than in the other species tested. No differences in the sensitivity of chlorophylls a+b and carotenoids to ozone levels were recorded in this work. Percentage reduction of ascorbic acid was higher in M. sativa and S. oleraceus, compared with the other species studied. With respect to relative percentages of proline, there was a significant difference in the responses of plants to ozone. According to the ozone resistance (R%), measured as relative growth rate, the test species were arranged in the descending order: M. parviflora>M. Indicus>S. Vulgaris>S. Oleraceus>M. sativa. In M. sativa, both determinant and correlation coefficients are well reflected in the relationship between its physiological response, its performance and ozone levels, supporting its recommendation as a candidate for biomonitoring in Egypt.

  14. Nigella sativa EXTRACT IMPROVES SEMINIFEROUS TUBULE EPITHELIAL THICKNESS IN LEAD ACETATE-EXPOSED BALB/C MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Diana, Alis Nur; I’tishom, Reny; Sudjarwo, Sri Agus

    2017-01-01

    Lead that enters the body may lead to increased production of ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) that may affect reproductive system. Black cumin (Nigella sativa) extract contains high antioxidant, tymoquinone, that may be used to suppress oxidative stress induced by lead in animal experiments. This study aimed to prove that black cumin (Nigella sativa) extract improves the thickness of seminiferous tubular epithelium in Balb/c mice exposed to lead (Pb) acetate. This study used post-test only cont...

  15. Environmental risks of farmed and barren alkaline coal ash landfills in Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellantonio, Alex; Fitz, Walter J.; Custovic, Hamid; Repmann, Frank; Schneider, Bernd U.; Gruenewald, Holger; Gruber, Valeria; Zgorelec, Zeljka; Zerem, Nijaz; Carter, Claudia; Markovic, Mihajlo; Puschenreiter, Markus; Wenzel, Walter W.

    2008-01-01

    The disposal of coal combustion residues (CCR) has led to a significant consumption of land in the West Balkan region. In Tuzla (Bosnia and Herzegovina) we studied previously soil-covered (farmed) and barren CCR landfills including management practises, field ageing of CCR and the transfer of trace elements into crops, wild plants and wastewaters. Soil tillage resulted in mixing of cover soil with CCR. Medicago sativa showed very low Cu:Mo ratios (1.25) which may cause hypocuprosis in ruminants. Total loads of inorganic pollutants in the CCR transport water, but not pH (∼12), were below regulatory limits of most EU countries. Arsenic concentrations in CCR transport water were -1 whereas reductive conditions in an abandoned landfill significantly enhanced concentrations in leachates (44 μg l -1 ). The opposite pattern was found for Cr likely due to large initial leaching of CrVI. Public use of landfills, including farming, should be based on a prior risk assessment due to the heterogeneity of CCR. - Uncontrolled farming and tillage of previously soil-covered coal ash landfills resulted in exposure of ash on the surface

  16. Toxicity Effect of Cr Stress on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth in Lactuca Sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wan Zheng; Ma, Wan Min; Du, Ying Ying; Dan, Qiong Peng; Yin, Bing; Dai, Shan Shan; Hao, Xiang

    2018-03-01

    The impact of Cr6+ on the growth of lactuca sativa in Greenhouse Cucumber was investigated. The seeds of lacuna sativa Italian bolting resistance lettuce were treated by different Cr6+ concentration to study the effects on its seed germination and seedling growth. The results showed that the seed germination rate, vigor index of seedlings decreased with increment of Cr6+ concentration to varying degrees, and vigor germination, vigor index, raw weight, root length significantly lower. The absorption of lettuce seedlings on different nutrient elements is impacted by the concentration of Cr6+.

  17. Wild parsnip (Pastinaca sativa)-induced photosensitization in goats and horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild parsnip (Pastinaca sativa is a European biennial weed that was inadvertently introduced and has subsequently spread through many parts of North America. Though it is generally considered a nuisance as it displaces beneficial forages. It has also been sporadically associated with photosensitiza...

  18. The effects of Nigella sativa powder (black seed) and Echinacea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... was supplemented with EP at the rate of 0.25 ml/kg body weight (BW). Body ..... values in laying hen with references to fertility in cockerels. Proc of 7th ... under high temperature conditions 2- black cumin (Nigella Sativa) or.

  19. A segment of rbcL gene as a potential tool for forensic discrimination of Cannabis sativa seized at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, I C T; Ribeiro, A S D; Dias, V H G; Silva, R; Sabino, B D; Garrido, R G; Seldin, L; de Moura Neto, Rodrigo Soares

    2016-03-01

    Cannabis sativa, known by the common name marijuana, is the psychoactive drug most widely distributed in the world. Identification of Cannabis cultivars may be useful for association to illegal crops, which may reveal trafficking routes and related criminal groups. This study provides evidence for the performance of a segment of the rbcL gene, through genetic signature, as a tool for identification for C. sativa samples apprehended by the Rio de Janeiro Police, Brazil. The PCR amplified and further sequenced the fragment of approximately 561 bp of 24 samples of C. sativa rbcL gene and showed the same nucleotide sequences, suggesting a possible genetic similarity or identical varieties. Comparing with other Cannabaceae family sequences, we have found 99% of similarity between the Rio de Janeiro sequence and three other C. sativa rbcL genes. These findings suggest that the fragment utilized at this study is efficient in identifying C. sativa samples, therefore, useful in genetic discrimination of samples seized in forensic cases.

  20. New developments in fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salentijn, E.M.J.; Zhang, Qingying; Amaducci, Stefano; Yang, Ming; Trindade, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a sustainable and high yielding industrial crop that can help to meet the high global demand for fibers. Hemp can be grown for fiber, seeds, and/or for dual purpose in a wide range of geographic zones and climates. Currently the main hemp producing regions in

  1. Molecular and genetic characterization of OSH6 ( Oryza sativa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic studies of dissociation (Ds) insertion mutant rice plants indicated that ectopic expression of truncated OSH6 (Oryza sativa Homeobox 6) mRNA may be responsible for the mutant phenotype of knotted leaf formation at the peduncle. Additionally, ectopic expression of truncated OSH6 mRNA in the OSH6-Ds mutant ...

  2. Growth responses of NaCl stressed rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... 3Department of Statistics, University of Sindh Jamshoro, Pakistan. 4Mityari Sugar Mills ... Key words: Oryza sativa L., seedling biomass, epidermal cells, proline content. ... Attempts to reduce the soil salinity, using mechanical.

  3. Effects of X-ray irradiation to genetic transformation of Eruca sativa Mill mediated by agrobacterium rhizogenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhenhua; Zhang Hong; Liu Bin; Li Ning; Niu Bingtao; Wang Genxuan; Li Sha; Sun Peng

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the effects of X-ray irradiation to the hairy root induction of Eruca sativa Mill, and to provide basic experimental data for concerted reaction of irradiation to the Genetic transformation technology. The aseptic cotyledons of Eruca sativa Mill were jointly treated with the X-ray at dose of 5, 10, 15, 20 Gy respectively and the different infected time, then the influence of explant age, pre-culturing time, dose of X-ray and infected time were studied. Furthermore, the hairy roots were testified in molecular level by the polymerase chain reaction(PCR). The irradiation of X-ray at dose of 15 Gy can improve the frequency of Eruca sativa Mill hairy root induction in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the transformation frequency in pre-infection plus irradiation group is higher than that in pre-irradiation plus infection group at the same irradiation dose. In addition, the PCR analysis also demonstrated that rolB gene of T-DNA from Ri plasmid had been integrated into the genome of the transformed roots. The irradiation of X-ray has some positive effects on the hairy root induction of Eruca sativa Mill, and the optimal revulsive dose is 15 Gy ora little bit more. (authors)

  4. Effect of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa alcoholic extract on spermatogenesis in the adult wistar male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R Sailani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of alcohol extracts of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa that were used traditionally in medieval Persian medicine as male contraceptive drugs, on spermatogenesis in the adult male rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extracts of these plants were obtained by the maceration method. The male rats were injected intraperitionaly with C. sativa and R. graveolens 5% ethanol extracts at dose of 20 mg/day for 20 consecutive days, respectively. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, testicular function was assessed by epididymal sperm count. Result: The statistical results showed that the ethanol extracts of these plants reduced the number of sperms significantly ( P =0.00 in the treatment groups in comparison to the control group. The results also showed that the group, treated by extract of R. graveolens reduced spermatogenesis more than the group treated by extracts of C. sativa . Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the spermatogenesis reducing properties of the ethanol extracts of R. graveolens and C. sativa in the adult male wistar rats but more studies are necessary to reveal the mechanism of action that is involved in spermatogenesis.

  5. Medicago truncatula CYP716A12 is a multifunctional oxidase involved in the biosynthesis of hemolytic saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carelli, Maria; Biazzi, Elisa; Panara, Francesco; Tava, Aldo; Scaramelli, Laura; Porceddu, Andrea; Graham, Neil; Odoardi, Miriam; Piano, Efisio; Arcioni, Sergio; May, Sean; Scotti, Carla; Calderini, Ornella

    2011-08-01

    Saponins, a group of glycosidic compounds present in several plant species, have aglycone moieties that are formed using triterpenoid or steroidal skeletons. In spite of their importance as antimicrobial compounds and their possible benefits for human health, knowledge of the genetic control of saponin biosynthesis is still poorly understood. In the Medicago genus, the hemolytic activity of saponins is related to the nature of their aglycone moieties. We have identified a cytochrome P450 gene (CYP716A12) involved in saponin synthesis in Medicago truncatula using a combined genetic and biochemical approach. Genetic loss-of-function analysis and complementation studies showed that CYP716A12 is responsible for an early step in the saponin biosynthetic pathway. Mutants in CYP716A12 were unable to produce hemolytic saponins and only synthetized soyasaponins, and were thus named lacking hemolytic activity (lha). In vitro enzymatic activity assays indicate that CYP716A12 catalyzes the oxidation of β-amyrin and erythrodiol at the C-28 position, yielding oleanolic acid. Transcriptome changes in the lha mutant showed a modulation in the main steps of triterpenic saponin biosynthetic pathway: squalene cyclization, β-amyrin oxidation, and glycosylation. The analysis of CYP716A12 expression in planta is reported together with the sapogenin content in different tissues and stages. This article provides evidence for CYP716A12 being a key gene in hemolytic saponin biosynthesis.

  6. Effects of Lactuca sativa extract on exploratory behavior pattern, locomotor activity and anxiety in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Harsha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate antianxiety property of Lactuca sativa, an important and commonly used leafy vegetable known for its medicinal properties belongs to Asteraceae family. Methods: Elevated plus maze (EPM, open field test (OFT, rat exposure test, hyponeophagia and marble burying test were performed in mice models to assess the exploratory behaviour and to assess anxiolytic property of hydro-alcohol extract of Lactuca sativa. Diazepam (1 mg/kg body wt. served as the standard anxiolytic agent for all the tests. The dried extract of the plant leaf in doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight was administered orally to mice for duration of 15 or 30 days and evaluated exploratory behaviour, locomotor and anxiolytic activities. Results: Time spent and number of entries into the open arm was measured in EPM followed by total locomotor activity in OFT and latency to enter the food zone in hyponeophagia. Conclusions: The study suggested that hydro-alcohol extract of Lactuca sativa leaves possess potent anxiolytic property.

  7. Protein estimation and palynlogical studies of cannabis sativa l. pollen in relation to respiratory allergies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinwari, Z.K.; Tanvir, M.; Yusuf, O.

    2015-01-01

    Airborne pollen allergies and asthma are on a rise in the metropolitan city of Islamabad. Knowledge of allergenic pollen is limited in the area. Cannabis sativa L. or commonly known as Hemp is widely spread weed in the city. Morphological studies performed via light microscopy and SEM have shown that the pollen of Cannabis sativa are 21 micro m long having triporate aperture, spheroidal in shape and scaberate exine. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of pollen proteins has also be done in to recognize allergenic protein bands. Bradford's analysis for proteins quantification has shown that the hemp pollen has 30.69 mg/g protein in fresh weight of pollen. While SDS-PAGE analysis showed 11 bands of various protein size ranging from 17kDa to 150kDa. The research findings indicate that Cannabis sativa, could be a potent allergenic pollen-producing weed that might cause serious health problems in the population of Islamabad. (author)

  8. Rhizobia from Lanzarote, the Canary Islands, That Nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris Have Characteristics in Common with Sinorhizobium meliloti Isolates from Mainland Spain▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurdo-Piñeiro, José Luis; García-Fraile, Paula; Rivas, Raúl; Peix, Alvaro; León-Barrios, Milagros; Willems, Anne; Mateos, Pedro Francisco; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Velázquez, Encarna; van Berkum, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The stable, low-molecular-weight (LMW) RNA fractions of several rhizobial isolates of Phaseolus vulgaris grown in the soil of Lanzarote, an island of the Canary Islands, were identical to a less-common pattern found within Sinorhizobium meliloti (assigned to group II) obtained from nodules of alfalfa and alfalfa-related legumes grown in northern Spain. The P. vulgaris isolates and the group II LMW RNA S. meliloti isolates also were distinguishable in that both had two conserved inserts of 20 and 46 bp in the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region that were not present in other strains of S. meliloti. The isolates from P. vulgaris nodulated bean but not Medicago sativa, while those recovered from Medicago, Melilotus, and Trigonella spp. nodulated both host legumes. The bean isolates also were distinguished from those of Medicago, Melilotus, and Trigonella spp. by nodC sequence analysis. The nodC sequences of the bean isolates were most similar to those reported for S. meliloti bv. mediterranense and Sinorhizobium fredii bv. mediterranense (GenBank accession numbers DQ333891 and AF217267, respectively). None of the evidence placed the bean isolates from Lanzarote in the genus Rhizobium, which perhaps is inconsistent with seed-borne transmission of Rhizobium etli from the Americas to the Canaries as an explanation for the presence of bean-nodulating rhizobia in soils of Lanzarote. PMID:19218416

  9. Rhizobia from Lanzarote, the Canary Islands, that nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris have characteristics in common with Sinorhizobium meliloti isolates from mainland Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurdo-Piñeiro, José Luis; García-Fraile, Paula; Rivas, Raúl; Peix, Alvaro; León-Barrios, Milagros; Willems, Anne; Mateos, Pedro Francisco; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Velázquez, Encarna; van Berkum, Peter

    2009-04-01

    The stable, low-molecular-weight (LMW) RNA fractions of several rhizobial isolates of Phaseolus vulgaris grown in the soil of Lanzarote, an island of the Canary Islands, were identical to a less-common pattern found within Sinorhizobium meliloti (assigned to group II) obtained from nodules of alfalfa and alfalfa-related legumes grown in northern Spain. The P. vulgaris isolates and the group II LMW RNA S. meliloti isolates also were distinguishable in that both had two conserved inserts of 20 and 46 bp in the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region that were not present in other strains of S. meliloti. The isolates from P. vulgaris nodulated bean but not Medicago sativa, while those recovered from Medicago, Melilotus, and Trigonella spp. nodulated both host legumes. The bean isolates also were distinguished from those of Medicago, Melilotus, and Trigonella spp. by nodC sequence analysis. The nodC sequences of the bean isolates were most similar to those reported for S. meliloti bv. mediterranense and Sinorhizobium fredii bv. mediterranense (GenBank accession numbers DQ333891 and AF217267, respectively). None of the evidence placed the bean isolates from Lanzarote in the genus Rhizobium, which perhaps is inconsistent with seed-borne transmission of Rhizobium etli from the Americas to the Canaries as an explanation for the presence of bean-nodulating rhizobia in soils of Lanzarote.

  10. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Mistianne; Punja, Zamir K

    2015-01-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) suspension culture cells were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 carrying the binary plasmid pNOV3635. The plasmid contains a phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) selectable marker gene. Cells transformed with PMI are capable of metabolizing the selective agent mannose, whereas cells not expressing the gene are incapable of using the carbon source and will stop growing. Callus masses proliferating on selection medium were screened for PMI expression using a chlorophenol red assay. Genomic DNA was extracted from putatively transformed callus lines, and the presence of the PMI gene was confirmed using PCR and Southern hybridization. Using this method, an average transformation frequency of 31.23% ± 0.14 was obtained for all transformation experiments, with a range of 15.1-55.3%.

  11. A snapshot of functional genetic studies in Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Kang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the current context of food security, increase of plant protein production in a sustainable manner represents one of the major challenges of agronomic research, which could be partially resolved by increased cultivation of legume crops. Medicago truncatula is now a well-established model for legume genomic and genetic studies. With the establishment of genomics tools and mutant populations in M. truncatula, it has become an important resource to answer some of the basic biological questions related to plant development and stress tolerance. This review has an objective to overview a decade of genetic studies in this model plant from generation of mutant populations to nowadays. To date, the three biological fields, which have been extensively studied in M. truncatula, are the symbiotic nitrogen fixation, the seed development, and the abiotic stress tolerance, due to their significant agronomic impacts. In this review, we summarize functional genetic studies related to these three major biological fields. We integrated analyses of a nearly exhaustive list of genes into their biological contexts in order to provide an overview of the forefront research advances in this important legume model plant.

  12. Nutraceutical potential of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seeds and sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassinetti, Stefania; Moccia, Eleonora; Caltavuturo, Leonardo; Gabriele, Morena; Longo, Vincenzo; Bellani, Lorenza; Giorgi, Gianluca; Giorgetti, Lucia

    2018-10-01

    In this study the antioxidant effect of Cannabis sativa L. seeds and sprouts (3 and 5 days of germination) was evaluated. Total polyphenols, flavonoids and flavonols content, when expressed on dry weight basis, were highest in sprouts; ORAC and DPPH (in vitro assays), CAA-RBC (cellular antioxidant activity in red blood cells) and hemolysis test (ex vivo assays) evidenced a good antioxidant activity higher in sprouts than in seeds. Untargeted analysis by high resolution mass spectrometry in negative ion mode allowed the identification of main polyphenols (caffeoyltyramine, cannabisin A, B, C) in seeds and of ω-6 (linoleic acid) in sprouts. Antimutagenic effect of seeds and sprouts extracts evidenced a significant decrease of mutagenesis induced by hydrogen peroxide in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 strain. In conclusion our results show that C. sativa seeds and sprouts exert beneficial effects on yeast and human cells and should be further investigated as a potential functional food. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Nigella sativa (black seed) extract improves spatial learning abilityin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess the memory enhancing effect of Nigella sativa Extract on mice using Morris Water Maze. The study was conducted on 30 Albino mice of both sexes randomly divided into 5 groups with 6 animals each. Group 1 served as control and was treated with oral distilled water, Groups 2, 3 and 4 ...

  14. Bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Apiformes in the Agricultural Landscape of Bulgaria: Species Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banaszak Józef

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wild bees (Apiformes were studied in 4 crop fields and 8 refuge habitats for 2 - 5 years in agricultural landscapes in the Pleven and Plovdiv regions of Bulgaria. In total, 233 bee species were recorded. Bee forage plants visited by the honey bee and wild Apiformes are listed for each refuge habitat. Species composition is given for individual habitats, including fields of alfalfa (Medicago sativa, oilseed rape (Brassica napus, sunflower (Helianthus annuus, and radish (Raphanus sativus. Species richness and dominance structure of bee communities in the 2 regions are compared, and species responsible for significant differences are identified.

  15. Germination and root elongation bioassays in six different plant species for testing Ni contamination in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visioli, Giovanna; Conti, Federica D; Gardi, Ciro; Menta, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    In vitro short-term chronic phytotoxicity germination and root elongation test were applied to test the effects of nickel (Ni) in seed germination and root elongation in six plants species: Cucumis sativus (Cucurbitaceae), Lepidium sativum and Brassica nigra (Brassicaceae), Trifolium alexandrinum and Medicago sativa (Fabaceae), Phacelia tanacetifolia (Boraginaceae). A naturally Ni rich soil was used to compare the results obtained. Unlike root elongation, germination was not affected by Ni in any of the six species tested. EC50 values, calculated on the root elongation, showed that Ni toxicity decreases in the following order: P. tanacetifolia > B. nigra > C. sativus > L. sativum > M. sativa > T. alexandrinum. The test conducted using soil elutriate revealed a significantly lower effect in both seed germination and root elongation when compared to the results obtained using untreated soil. Conversely, the test performed on soil confirmed the high sensitivity of C. sativus, P. tanacetifolia and L. sativum to Ni.

  16. Phosphomannose isomerase gene for selection in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) transformation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bříza, Jindřich; Růžičková, N.; Niedermeierová, Hana; Dusbábková, Jana; Vlasák, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 1 (2010), s. 63-68 ISSN 0001-527X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : pmi * npt II * Lactuca sativa Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.234, year: 2010

  17. Influence of Salicylic Acid on the Growth of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    2018-04-10

    Apr 10, 2018 ... Keywords: Water stress, Salicylic acid, Growth, Lactuca sativa. Water stress in plant is an ... processes in plant adaptation to drought stress as it synthesis and ... manure was added to the soil in the preparation for planting.

  18. Beneficial therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale in HCV patients in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Moneim, Adel; Morsy, Basant M.; Mahmoud, Ayman M.; Abo-Seif, Mohamed A.; Zanaty, Mohamed I.

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C is a major global health burden and Egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. The current study was designed to evaluate the beneficial therapeutic effects of ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa, Zingiber officinale and their mixture in Egyptian HCV patients. Sixty volunteer patients with proven HCV and fifteen age matched healthy subjects were included in this study. Exclusion criteria included patients on interferon alpha (IFN-α) therapy, infection with hepatitis B virus, drug-induced liver diseases, advanced cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or other malignancies, blood picture abnormalities and major severe illness. Liver function enzymes, albumin, total bilirubin, prothrombin time and concentration, international normalized ratio, alpha fetoprotein and viral load were all assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. Ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa and Zingiber officinale were prepared and formulated into gelatinous capsules, each containing 500 mg of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale. Clinical response and incidence of adverse drug reactions were assessed initially, periodically, and at the end of the study. Both extracts as well as their mixture significantly ameliorated the altered viral load, alpha fetoprotein, liver function parameters; with more potent effect for the combined therapy. In conclusion, administration of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale ethanolic extracts to HCV patients exhibited potential therapeutic benefits via decreasing viral load and alleviating the altered liver function, with more potent effect offered by the mixture. PMID:27298610

  19. Beneficial therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale in HCV patients in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Moneim, Adel; Morsy, Basant M; Mahmoud, Ayman M; Abo-Seif, Mohamed A; Zanaty, Mohamed I

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C is a major global health burden and Egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. The current study was designed to evaluate the beneficial therapeutic effects of ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa, Zingiber officinale and their mixture in Egyptian HCV patients. Sixty volunteer patients with proven HCV and fifteen age matched healthy subjects were included in this study. Exclusion criteria included patients on interferon alpha (IFN-α) therapy, infection with hepatitis B virus, drug-induced liver diseases, advanced cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or other malignancies, blood picture abnormalities and major severe illness. Liver function enzymes, albumin, total bilirubin, prothrombin time and concentration, international normalized ratio, alpha fetoprotein and viral load were all assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. Ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa and Zingiber officinale were prepared and formulated into gelatinous capsules, each containing 500 mg of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale. Clinical response and incidence of adverse drug reactions were assessed initially, periodically, and at the end of the study. Both extracts as well as their mixture significantly ameliorated the altered viral load, alpha fetoprotein, liver function parameters; with more potent effect for the combined therapy. In conclusion, administration of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale ethanolic extracts to HCV patients exhibited potential therapeutic benefits via decreasing viral load and alleviating the altered liver function, with more potent effect offered by the mixture.

  20. An integrated interspecific AFLP map of lettuce (Lactuca) based on two L. Saligna x L. sativa F2-populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuken, M.; Wijk, van R.; Peleman, J.; Lindhout, P.

    2001-01-01

    AFLP markers were obtained with 12 EcoRI/ MseI primer combinations on two independent F2 populations of Lactuca sativa 2 Lactuca saligna. The polymorphism rates of the AFLP products between the two different L. saligna lines was 39°between the two different L. sativa cultivars 13 nd between the L.

  1. Complete sequence of a cryptic virus from hemp (Cannabis sativa)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ziegler, A.; Matoušek, Jaroslav; Steger, G.; Schubert, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 157, č. 2 (2012), s. 383-385 ISSN 0304-8608 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP501/10/J018 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Cannabis sativa * Partitivirus * cryptic virus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.030, year: 2012

  2. Comparative analysis of the small RNA transcriptomes of Pinus contorta and Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Ryan D; Aksay, Gozde; Dolgosheina, Elena; Ebhardt, H Alexander; Magrini, Vincent; Mardis, Elaine R; Sahinalp, S Cenk; Unrau, Peter J

    2008-04-01

    The diversity of microRNAs and small-interfering RNAs has been extensively explored within angiosperms by focusing on a few key organisms such as Oryza sativa and Arabidopsis thaliana. A deeper division of the plants is defined by the radiation of the angiosperms and gymnosperms, with the latter comprising the commercially important conifers. The conifers are expected to provide important information regarding the evolution of highly conserved small regulatory RNAs. Deep sequencing provides the means to characterize and quantitatively profile small RNAs in understudied organisms such as these. Pyrosequencing of small RNAs from O. sativa revealed, as expected, approximately 21- and approximately 24-nt RNAs. The former contained known microRNAs, and the latter largely comprised intergenic-derived sequences likely representing heterochromatin siRNAs. In contrast, sequences from Pinus contorta were dominated by 21-nt small RNAs. Using a novel sequence-based clustering algorithm, we identified sequences belonging to 18 highly conserved microRNA families in P. contorta as well as numerous clusters of conserved small RNAs of unknown function. Using multiple methods, including expressed sequence folding and machine learning algorithms, we found a further 53 candidate novel microRNA families, 51 appearing specific to the P. contorta library. In addition, alignment of small RNA sequences to the O. sativa genome revealed six perfectly conserved classes of small RNA that included chloroplast transcripts and specific types of genomic repeats. The conservation of microRNAs and other small RNAs between the conifers and the angiosperms indicates that important RNA silencing processes were highly developed in the earliest spermatophytes. Genomic mapping of all sequences to the O. sativa genome can be viewed at http://microrna.bcgsc.ca/cgi-bin/gbrowse/rice_build_3/.

  3. Growth responses of NaCl stressed rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... Growth responses of NaCl stressed rice (Oryza sativa. L.) plants ... 2008), which is a real threat to human's food security. Existed situation may ..... content and composition of essential oil and minerals in black cumin. (Nigella ...

  4. Transformation of Medicago truncatula via infiltration of seedlings or flowering plants with Agrobacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trieu, A.T.; Burleigh, S.H.; Kardailsky, I.V.

    2000-01-01

    Two rapid and simple in planta transformation methods have been developed for the model legume Medicago truncatula. The first approach is based on a method developed for transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana and involves infiltration of flowering plants with a suspension of Agrobacterium....... The second method involves infiltration of young seedlings with Agrobacterium. In both cases a proportion of the progeny of the infiltrated plants is transformed. The transformation frequency ranges from 4.7 to 76% for the flower infiltration method, and from 2.9 to 27.6% for the seedling infiltration method....... Both procedures resulted in a mixture of independent transformants and sibling transformants. The transformants were genetically stable, and analysis of the T-2 generation indicates that the transgenes are inherited in a Mendelian fashion. These transformation systems will increase the utility of M...

  5. Root and Nodulation Phenotypes of the Ethylene-Insensitive Sickle Mutant of Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOKO PRAYITNO

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The sickle (skl mutant of the model legume Medicago truncatula is an ethylene-sensitive mutant that have a ten-fold increase in nodule numbers. The nodulation and root phenotypes of the skl mutant were investigated and further characterised. The skl mutant had longer roots than the wild type, but when inoculated with Sinorhizobium, its root length was reduced to the level of wild type. Furthermore, lateral root numbers in uninoculated skl were similar to those in uninoculated wild type. However, when the root tips were decapitated, fewer lateral roots formed in skl than in wild type. Nodule numbers of the skl mutant were significantly reduced by low nitrate concentration (2.5 mM. These results suggest that skl mutant has alterations in both root and nodule development.

  6. Assessment of the use and misuse of Cannabis sativa amongst some residents of Jos metropolis, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N S Jimam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cannabis can be used for its medicinal properties when used appropriately. However, the misuse of the product can cause some unwanted effects such as psychological dependence, and therefore addiction. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the extent of misuse of Cannabis sativa in Jos and environs. Materials and Methods: The use and misuse of C. sativa in Jos metropolis was studied using a structured self-administered questionnaire which was administered to 400 respondents in the metropolis. Result: The result showed that 59.9% of the participants were male while 40.1% were female with 88.2% of the population being youth between the ages of 20-35 years. The result also shows that at least 31.3% of the studied population had used C. sativa, for different reasons including among others: to boost confidence (11.4%, 5.1% take it to increase alertness, 5.1% take it to decrease fatigue, 0.3% take it to decrease stress, 5.4% take it to get high while 4% take it for other reasons. Conclusion: The result of the study showed an observed high incidence of C. sativa intake among the study population who were mostly youths for different purposes, including to: Boost confidence, feel high, increase alertness, and decrease fatigue. Similarly, a high percentage of the respondents said the drug is used for hair treatment.

  7. Freqüência de enteroparasitas em amostras de alface (Lactuca sativa comercializadas em Lavras, Minas Gerais Frequency of intestinal parasites in samples of lettuce (Lactuca sativa commercialized in Lavras, Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Marcos Guimarães

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma avaliação parasitológica em amostras de alface (Lactuca sativa comercializadas em Lavras, MG. As amostras de alfaces apresentaram baixos padrões higiênicos, indicados pela presença de formas parasitológicas de origem animal ou humana e alta concentração de coliformes fecais.The aim of this study was to evaluate the parasitological contamination in samples of lettuce (Lactuca sativa commercialized in Lavras city, Minas Gerais. The samples of lettuce showed low hygienic conditions, indicated by the presence of parasites of animal or human origin and high concentration of fecal coliforms.

  8. Plant Age Affects Wound-Induced Senescense in Lactuca Sativa L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witkowska, I.M.; Woltering, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the performance of dark-stored wounded leaf discs and pieces (to some extent mimicking fresh-cut product) of Lactuca sativa L. in relation to the physiological maturity at harvest. We used two related genotypes, i.e. a green (cv. Troubadour) and a red butterhead

  9. Interspecific somatic hybridization between lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and wild species L. virosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, E

    1991-02-01

    Somatic hybrids between cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and a wild species L. virosa were produced by protoplast electrofusion. Hybrid selection was based on inactivation of L. sativa with 20mM iodoacetamide for 15 min, and the inability of L. virosa protoplasts to divide in the culture conditions used. Protoplasts were cultured in agarose beads in a revised MS media. In all 71 calli were formed and 21 of them differentiated shoots on LS medium containing 0.1mg/l NAA and 0.2mg/l BA. Most regenerated plants exhibited intermediate morphology. These plants were confirmed as hybrids by isoenzyme analysis. The majority of somatic hybrids had 2n=4x=36 chromosomes, and had more vigorous growth than either parent. Hybrids had normal flower morphology, but all were sterile.

  10. Can rice (Oryza sativa) mitigate pesticides and nutrients in agricultural runoff?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoremediation of nutrients and pesticides in runoff is a growing conservation effort, particularly in agriculturally intensive areas such as the lower Mississippi River Valley. In the current study, rice (Oryza sativa) was examined for its mitigation capacity of nitrogen, phosphorus, diazinon, a...

  11. Loss of function of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase 1 leads to unconventional lignin and a temperature-sensitive growth defect in Medicago truncatula

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Qiao; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Zhou, Rui; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Gallego-Giraldo, Lina; Fu, Chunxiang; Jackson, Lisa A.; Hahn, Michael G.; Kim, Hoon; Chen, Fang; Ralph, John; Dixon, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable debate over the capacity of the cell wall polymer lignin to incorporate unnatural monomer units. We have identified Tnt1 retrotransposon insertion mutants of barrel medic (Medicago truncatula) that show reduced lignin autofluorescence under UV microscopy and red coloration in interfascicular fibers. The phenotype is caused by insertion of retrotransposons into a gene annotated as encoding cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, here designated M. truncatula CAD1. NMR analysis in...

  12. Medicago truncatula CYP716A12 Is a Multifunctional Oxidase Involved in the Biosynthesis of Hemolytic Saponins[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carelli, Maria; Biazzi, Elisa; Panara, Francesco; Tava, Aldo; Scaramelli, Laura; Porceddu, Andrea; Graham, Neil; Odoardi, Miriam; Piano, Efisio; Arcioni, Sergio; May, Sean; Scotti, Carla; Calderini, Ornella

    2011-01-01

    Saponins, a group of glycosidic compounds present in several plant species, have aglycone moieties that are formed using triterpenoid or steroidal skeletons. In spite of their importance as antimicrobial compounds and their possible benefits for human health, knowledge of the genetic control of saponin biosynthesis is still poorly understood. In the Medicago genus, the hemolytic activity of saponins is related to the nature of their aglycone moieties. We have identified a cytochrome P450 gene (CYP716A12) involved in saponin synthesis in Medicago truncatula using a combined genetic and biochemical approach. Genetic loss-of-function analysis and complementation studies showed that CYP716A12 is responsible for an early step in the saponin biosynthetic pathway. Mutants in CYP716A12 were unable to produce hemolytic saponins and only synthetized soyasaponins, and were thus named lacking hemolytic activity (lha). In vitro enzymatic activity assays indicate that CYP716A12 catalyzes the oxidation of β-amyrin and erythrodiol at the C-28 position, yielding oleanolic acid. Transcriptome changes in the lha mutant showed a modulation in the main steps of triterpenic saponin biosynthetic pathway: squalene cyclization, β-amyrin oxidation, and glycosylation. The analysis of CYP716A12 expression in planta is reported together with the sapogenin content in different tissues and stages. This article provides evidence for CYP716A12 being a key gene in hemolytic saponin biosynthesis. PMID:21821776

  13. Development of a GAL4-VP16/UAS trans-activation system for tissue specific expression in Medicago truncatula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie Sevin-Pujol

    Full Text Available Promoters with tissue-specific activity are very useful to address cell-autonomous and non cell autonomous functions of candidate genes. Although this strategy is widely used in Arabidopsis thaliana, its use to study tissue-specific regulation of root symbiotic interactions in legumes has only started recently. Moreover, using tissue specific promoter activity to drive a GAL4-VP16 chimeric transcription factor that can bind short upstream activation sequences (UAS is an efficient way to target and enhance the expression of any gene of interest. Here, we developed a collection of promoters with different root cell layers specific activities in Medicago truncatula and tested their abilities to drive the expression of a chimeric GAL4-VP16 transcription factor in a trans-activation UAS: β-Glucuronidase (GUS reporter gene system. By developing a binary vector devoted to modular Golden Gate cloning together with a collection of adapted tissue specific promoters and coding sequences we could test the activity of four of these promoters in trans-activation GAL4/UAS systems and compare them to "classical" promoter GUS fusions. Roots showing high levels of tissue specific expression of the GUS activity could be obtained with this trans-activation system. We therefore provide the legume community with new tools for efficient modular Golden Gate cloning, tissue specific expression and a trans-activation system. This study provides the ground work for future development of stable transgenic lines in Medicago truncatula.

  14. Macromolecular Traits in the African Rice Oryza glaberrima and in Glaberrima/Sativa Crosses, and Their Relevance to Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Mauro; Barbiroli, Alberto; Bonomi, Francesco; Casiraghi, Maria Cristina; Marti, Alessandra; Pagani, Maria Ambrogina; Manful, John; Graham-Acquaah, Seth; Ragg, Enzio; Fessas, Dimitrios; Hogenboom, Johannes A; Iametti, Stefania

    2017-10-01

    Molecular properties of proteins and starch were investigated in 2 accessions of Oryza glaberrima and Oryza sativa, and in one NERICA cross between the 2 species, to assess traits that could be relevant to transformation into specific foods. Protein nature and organization in O. glaberrima were different from those in O. sativa and in NERICA. Despite the similar cysteine content in all samples, thiol accessibility in O. glaberrima proteins was higher than in NERICA or in O. sativa. Inter-protein disulphide bonds were important for the formation of protein aggregates in O. glaberrima, whereas non-covalent protein-protein interactions were relevant in NERICA and O. sativa. DSC and NMR studies indicated only minor differences in the structure of starch in these species, as also made evident by their microstructural features. Nevertheless, starch gelatinization in O. glaberrima was very different from what was observed in O. sativa and NERICA. The content of soluble species in gelatinized starch from the various species in the presence/absence of treatments with specific enzymes indicated that release of small starch breakdown products was lowest in O. glaberrima, in particular from the amylopectin component. These findings may explain the low glycemic index of O. glaberrima, and provide a rationale for extending the use of O. glaberrima in the production of specific rice-based products, thus improving the economic value and the market appeal of African crops. The structural features of proteins and starch in O. glaberrima are very different from those in O. sativa and in the NERICA cross. These results appear useful as for extending the use of O. glaberrima cultivars in the design and production of specific rice-based products (for example, pasta), that might, in turn, improve the economic value and the market appeal of locally sourced raw materials, by introducing added-value products on the African market. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. Standardized Cannabis sativa extract attenuates tau and stathmin gene expression in the melanoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaseghi, Golnaz; Taki, Mohamad Javad; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy

    2017-10-01

    Metastasis is the main cause of death in patients with melanoma. Cannabis-based medicines are effective adjunctive drugs in cancer patients. Tau and Stathmin proteins are the key proteins in cancer metastasis. Here we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract on cell migration and Tau and Stathmin gene expression in the melanoma cell line. In the treatment group, melanoma (B1617) was treated 48 hr with various concentrations of standardized C. sativa extract. Cells with no treatment were considered as the control group, then study was followed by Quantitative RT-Real Time PCR assay. Relative gene expression was calculated by the ΔΔct method. Migration assay was used to evaluate cancer metastasis. Tau and stathmin gene expression was significantly decreased compared to the control group. Cell migration was also significantly reduced compared to controls. C. sativa decreased tau and stathmin gene expression and cancer metastasis. The results may have some clinical relevance for the use of cannabis-based medicines in patients with metastatic melanoma.

  16. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of the dioecious Cannabis sativa with an XY chromosome sex determination system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divashuk, Mikhail G; Alexandrov, Oleg S; Razumova, Olga V; Kirov, Ilya V; Karlov, Gennady I

    2014-01-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) was karyotyped using by DAPI/C-banding staining to provide chromosome measurements, and by fluorescence in situ hybridization with probes for 45 rDNA (pTa71), 5S rDNA (pCT4.2), a subtelomeric repeat (CS-1) and the Arabidopsis telomere probes. The karyotype has 18 autosomes plus a sex chromosome pair (XX in female and XY in male plants). The autosomes are difficult to distinguish morphologically, but three pairs could be distinguished using the probes. The Y chromosome is larger than the autosomes, and carries a fully heterochromatic DAPI positive arm and CS-1 repeats only on the less intensely DAPI-stained, euchromatic arm. The X is the largest chromosome of all, and carries CS-1 subtelomeric repeats on both arms. The meiotic configuration of the sex bivalent locates a pseudoautosomal region of the Y chromosome at the end of the euchromatic CS-1-carrying arm. Our molecular cytogenetic study of the C. sativa sex chromosomes is a starting point for helping to make C. sativa a promising model to study sex chromosome evolution.

  17. Variation of photosynthetic tolerance of rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-01

    Mar 1, 2010 ... (Oryza sativa L.) to chilling temperature in the light. Xia Li*, Kun Cao, Chao .... 2 mol) formed red-brown trimethine that can be detected quantitatively with spectrophoto- ..... ses through the generation of appropriate signals (H2O2) and the balance ..... was under weak light intensity (Murata, 1989). Light.

  18. Monitoring Metabolite Profiles of Cannabis sativa L. Trichomes during Flowering Period Using 1H NMR-Based Metabolomics and Real-Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happyana, Nizar; Kayser, Oliver

    2016-08-01

    Cannabis sativa trichomes are glandular structures predominantly responsible for the biosynthesis of cannabinoids, the biologically active compounds unique to this plant. To the best of our knowledge, most metabolomic works on C. sativa that have been reported previously focused their investigations on the flowers and leaves of this plant. In this study, (1)H NMR-based metabolomics and real-time PCR analysis were applied for monitoring the metabolite profiles of C. sativa trichomes, variety Bediol, during the last 4 weeks of the flowering period. Partial least squares discriminant analysis models successfully classified metabolites of the trichomes based on the harvest time. Δ (9)-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (1) and cannabidiolic acid (2) constituted the vital differential components of the organic preparations, while asparagine, glutamine, fructose, and glucose proved to be their water-extracted counterparts. According to RT-PCR analysis, gene expression levels of olivetol synthase and olivetolic acid cyclase influenced the accumulation of cannabinoids in the Cannabis trichomes during the monitoring time. Moreover, quantitative (1)H NMR and RT-PCR analysis of the Cannabis trichomes suggested that the gene regulation of cannabinoid biosynthesis in the C. sativa variety Bediol is unique when compared with other C. sativa varieties. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Effect of Nigella sativa (seed and oil on the bacteriological quality of soft white cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Alsawaf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Nigella sativa seed (1% and 3% and oil (0.3% and 1% on some food poisoning and pathogenic bacteria as well as on the total bacterial count TBC (cfu/g in soft white cheese prepared from raw ewe's milk and labratory pasteurized ewe's milk inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus, Brucella melitensis and Escherichia coli at a concentration of 1×106 cfu/ml were carried out. Cheese samples were examined for bacterial count at: zero, 2nd, 4th and 6th days of storage at refrigerator temp. Results showed that there was Significant decrease (P<0.05 in TBC, Staphylococcus aureus, Brucella melitensis and Escherichia coli count in cheese samples treated with N. sativa seed (1% and 3% and oil (0.3% and 1% with pronounced concentration dependent inhibition in contrast to control cheese samples which exerted significant increase in bacterial counts as it reached 2.8×107, 2.95×106, 2.22×106 and 2.885×106 cfu/g for TBC, Staph. aureus, Br. melitensis and E. coli respectively at the 6th day of storage at refrigerator temp. N. sativa oil (0.3% and 1% was significantly more affective (P<0.05 as antibacterial agent than seed (1% and 3% respectively. No significant differences (P<0.05 in the susceptibility of Staph. aureus, Br.melitensis and E. coli to the antibacterial effect of N. sativa seed (1% and 3% and oil (0.3% and 1% were observed in treated soft white cheese.

  20. Exploiting Illumina Sequencing for the Development of 95 Novel Polymorphic EST-SSR Markers in Common Vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The common vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa, a self-pollinating and diploid species, is one of the most important annual legumes in the world due to its short growth period, high nutritional value, and multiple usages as hay, grain, silage, and green manure. The available simple sequence repeat (SSR markers for common vetch, however, are insufficient to meet the developing demand for genetic and molecular research on this important species. Here, we aimed to develop and characterise several polymorphic EST-SSR markers from the vetch Illumina transcriptome. A total number of 1,071 potential EST-SSR markers were identified from 1025 unigenes whose lengths were greater than 1,000 bp, and 450 primer pairs were then designed and synthesized. Finally, 95 polymorphic primer pairs were developed for the 10 common vetch accessions, which included 50 individuals. Among the 95 EST-SSR markers, the number of alleles ranged from three to 13, and the polymorphism information content values ranged from 0.09 to 0.98. The observed heterozygosity values ranged from 0.00 to 1.00, and the expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.11 to 0.98. These 95 EST-SSR markers developed from the vetch Illumina transcriptome could greatly promote the development of genetic and molecular breeding studies pertaining to in this species.

  1. Eruca sativa Might Influence the Growth, Survival under Simulated Gastrointestinal Conditions and Some Biological Features of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Fratianni, Florinda; Pepe, Selenia; Cardinale, Federica; Granese, Tiziana; Cozzolino, Autilia; Coppola, Raffaele; Nazzaro, Filomena

    2014-01-01

    The growth and viability of three Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, after their passage through simulated gastric and pancreatic juices were studied as a function of their presence in the growth medium of rocket salad (Eruca sativa). The presence of E. sativa affected some of the biological properties of the strains. For example, L. acidophilus and L. plantarum worked more efficiently in the presence of E. sativa, increasing...

  2. Immunomodulatory and therapeutic properties of the Nigella sativa L. seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Mohamed Labib

    2005-12-01

    A larger number of medicinal plants and their purified constituents have been shown beneficial therapeutic potentials. Seeds of Nigella sativa, a dicotyledon of the Ranunculaceae family, have been employed for thousands of years as a spice and food preservative. The oil and seed constituents, in particular thymoquinine (TQ), have shown potential medicinal properties in traditional medicine. In view of the recent literature, this article lists and discusses different immunomodulatory and immunotherapeutic potentials for the crude oil of N. sativa seeds and its active ingredients. The published findings provide clear evidence that both the oil and its active ingredients, in particular TQ, possess reproducible anti-oxidant effects through enhancing the oxidant scavenger system, which as a consequence lead to antitoxic effects induced by several insults. The oil and TQ have shown also potent anti-inflammatory effects on several inflammation-based models including experimental encephalomyelitis, colitis, peritonitis, oedama, and arthritis through suppression of the inflammatory mediators prostaglandins and leukotriens. The oil and certain active ingredients showed beneficial immunomodulatory properties, augmenting the T cell- and natural killer cell-mediated immune responses. Most importantly, both the oil and its active ingredients expressed anti-microbial and anti-tumor properties toward different microbes and cancers. Coupling these beneficial effects with its use in folk medicine, N. sativa seed is a promising source for active ingredients that would be with potential therapeutic modalities in different clinical settings. The efficacy of the active ingredients, however, should be measured by the nature of the disease. Given their potent immunomodulatory effects, further studies are urgently required to explore bystander effects of TQ on the professional antigen presenting cells, including macrophages and dendritic cells, as well as its modulatory effects upon Th1

  3. Influence of Feed Supplementation with Cannabis Sativa on Quality of Broilers Carcass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifat Ullah Khan1*, F. R. Durrani1, Naila Chand1 and Haseeb Anwar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A project was planned to study the effect of feeding powdered seeds of Cannabis sativa on the carcass quality of broiler chicks. A total of 160 day-old broiler chicks of equal weight were randomly divided into four equal groups A, B, C and D. Each group was further divided into four replicates with 10 chicks in each replicate. Dried crushed Cannabis sativa seeds were added to the feed of groups B, C and D at the rate of 5, 10 and 20% of offered feed respectively, while group A served as a control. The studied parameters were body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR, dressing percentage, mortality and economics. After an experimental period of 42 days, the data were analyzed statistically. It was revealed from the results that body weight gain was significantly higher (P<0.05, while feed intake was significantly lower (P<0.05, in group D compared to the control. FCR was significantly better in birds of group D compared to controls. Differences in dressing percentage and mortality were non significant between the treated and control groups. Return per chick (in rupees was significantly higher in group D compared to groups A and B (P<0.05. It was concluded from these results that seeds of Cannabis sativa have remarkable impact on growth of broiler chicks and can help in alleviating feed expenditure incurred on raising broiler chicks.

  4. Phytotoxicity of citric acid and Tween® 80 for potential use as soil amendments in enhanced phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnello, A C; Huguenot, D; van Hullebusch, E D; Esposito, G

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced phytoremediation adding biodegradable amendments like low molecular weight organic acids and surfactants is an interesting area of current research to overcome the limitation that represents low bioavailability of pollutants in soils. However, prior to their use in assisted phytoremediation, it is necessary to test if amendments per se exert any toxic effect to plants and to optimize their application mode. In this context, the present study assessed the effects of citric acid and Tween® 80 (polyethylene glycol sorbitan monooleate) on the development of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) plants, as influenced by their concentration and frequency of application, in order to evaluate the feasibility for their future use in enhanced phytoremediation of multi-contaminated soils. The results showed that citric acid negatively affected plant germination, while it did not have any significant effect on biomass or chlorophyll content. In turn, Tween® 80 did not affect plant germination and showed a trend to increase biomass, as well as it did not have any significant effect on chlorophyll levels. M. sativa appeared to tolerate citric acid and Tween® 80 at the tested concentrations, applied weekly. Consequently, citric acid and Tween® 80 could potentially be utilized to assist phytoremediation of contaminated soils vegetated with M. sativa.

  5. Uptake of perfluorinated alkyl acids by hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felizeter, S.; McLachlan, M.; de Voogt, P.

    2012-01-01

    An uptake study was carried out to assess the potential human exposure to perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) through the ingestion of vegetables. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) was grown in PFAA-spiked nutrient solutions at four different concentrations, ranging from 10 ng/L to 10 μg/L. Eleven

  6. Bioinformatics Analysis of MAPKKK Family Genes in Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mitogen‐activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK is a component of the MAPK cascade pathway that plays an important role in plant growth, development, and response to abiotic stress, the functions of which have been well characterized in several plant species, such as Arabidopsis, rice, and maize. In this study, we performed genome‐wide and systemic bioinformatics analysis of MAPKKK family genes in Medicago truncatula. In total, there were 73 MAPKKK family members identified by search of homologs, and they were classified into three subfamilies, MEKK, ZIK, and RAF. Based on the genomic duplication function, 72 MtMAPKKK genes were located throughout all chromosomes, but they cluster in different chromosomes. Using microarray data and high‐throughput sequencing‐data, we assessed their expression profiles in growth and development processes; these results provided evidence for exploring their important functions in developmental regulation, especially in the nodulation process. Furthermore, we investigated their expression in abiotic stresses by RNA‐seq, which confirmed their critical roles in signal transduction and regulation processes under stress. In summary, our genome‐wide, systemic characterization and expressional analysis of MtMAPKKK genes will provide insights that will be useful for characterizing the molecular functions of these genes in M. truncatula.

  7. Effect of Nigella sativa on ischemia-reperfusion induced rat kidney damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Havakhah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:There are a few previously reported studies about the effect of Nigella sativa oil on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis whether pre- or post-treatment with N. sativa hydroalcoholic extract (NSE would reduce tissue injury and oxidative damages in a clinically relevant rat model of renal IRI.    Materials and Methods: IRI was induced by clamping of bilateral renal arteries for 40 min fallowed by reperfusion for 180 min. NSE was prepared in a Soxhlet extractor and administrated with doses of 150 mg/kg or 300 mg/kg at 1 hr before ischemia induction (P-150 and 300 or at the beginning of reperfusion phase (T-150 and 300, via jugular catheter intravenously. The kidneys were then removed and subjected to biochemical analysis, comet assay or histopathological examination. Results: The kidneys of untreated IRI rats had a higher histopathological score (P

  8. The Antidiabetic Activity of Nigella sativa and Propolis on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes and Diabetic Nephropathy in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddad A. El Rabey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare the ameliorative effect of Nigella sativa and propolis methanol extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats and treating diabetic nephropathy. Forty male Albino rats were divided into four groups; the first group was the negative control fed standard diet. The other 30 rats were injected with streptozotocin to induce diabetes by a single intravenous injection and then divided equally into three groups; the second group was the positive diabetic control; the third and the fourth groups were treated orally with 20% w/w Nigella sativa seeds methanol extract and propolis methanol extract (20% w/w, respectively. The rats of the second group showed increased glucose levels and lipid peroxide accompanied with reduction in superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione-S-transferase enzyme activities compared with the negative control. Carboxymethyl lysine, interleukin-6, and immunoglobulins were also increased as a result of diabetes. Kidney function parameters were also elevated, while potassium and sodium levels were decreased. Moreover, tissues of kidney and pancreas showed severe histopathological changes. Treating the diabetic rats with Nigella sativa and propolis methanol extract in the third and fourth groups, respectively, ameliorated all altered biochemical and pathological examinations approaching the negative control. Propolis was more effective than Nigella sativa.

  9. Development and Identification of Introgression Lines from Cross of Oryza sativa and Oryza minuta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Si-bin; WEI Yu; LI Xiao-qiong; LIU Kai-qiang; HUANG Feng-kuan; CHEN Cai-hong; GAO Guo-qing

    2013-01-01

    Introgression line population is effectively used in mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs),identifying favorable genes,discovering hidden genetic variation,evaluating the action or interaction of QTLs in multiple conditions and providing the favorable experimental materials for plant breeding and genetic research.In this study,an advanced backcross and consecutive selfing strategy was used to develop introgression lines (ILs),which derived from an accession of Oryza minuta (accession No.101133) with BBCC genome,as the donor,and an elite indica cultivar IR24 (O.sativa),as the recipient.Introgression segments from O.minuta were screened using 164 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in the genome of each IL.Introgressed segments carried by 131 ILs covered the whole O.sativa genome.The average number of homozygous O.minuta segments per introgression line was about 9.99.The average length of introgressed segments was approximate 14.78 cM,and about 79.64%of these segments had sizes less than 20 cM.In the genome of each introgression line,the O.minuta chromosomal segments harbored chromosomal fragments of O.sativa ranging from 1.15% to 27.6%,with an overall average of 8.57%.At each locus,the ratio of substitution of O.minuta alleles had a range of 1.5%-25.2%,with an average of 8.3% Based on the evaluation of the phenotype of these ILs,a wide range of alterations in morphological and yield-related traits were found.After inoculation,ILs 41,11 and 7 showed high resistance to bacterial blight,brown planthopper and whitebacked planthopper,respectively.These O.minuta-O.sativa ILs will serve as genetic materials for identifying and using favorable genes from O.minuta.

  10. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in Medicago sativa by hydrogen-rich water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Weiti; Gao, Cunyi; Fang, Peng [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Lin, Guoqing [Laboratory Center of Life Sciences, Co. Laboratory of Nanjing Agricultural University and Carl Zeiss Far East, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Shen, Wenbiao, E-mail: wbshenh@njau.edu.cn [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • HRW can alleviate Cd-induced alfalfa seedling growth inhibition and DNA laddering. • HRW alleviates Cd-induced oxidative stress by activating antioxidant enzymes. • Cd uptake in alfalfa seedling roots was decreased by HRW. • HRW can re-establish glutathione homeostasis under Cd stress. -- Abstract: Hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}) induces plant tolerance to several abiotic stresses, including salinity and paraquat exposure. However, the role of H{sub 2} in cadmium (Cd)-induced stress amelioration is largely unknown. Here, pretreatment with hydrogen-rich water (HRW) was used to characterize physiological roles and molecular mechanisms of H{sub 2} in the alleviation of Cd toxicity in alfalfa plants. Our results showed that the addition of HRW at 10% saturation significantly decreased contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) caused by Cd, and inhibited the appearance of Cd toxicity symptoms, including the improvement of root elongation and seedling growth. These responses were related to a significant increase in the total or isozymatic activities of representative antioxidant enzymes, or their corresponding transcripts. In vivo imaging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the detection of lipid peroxidation and the loss of plasma membrane integrity provided further evidence for the ability of HRW to improve Cd tolerance significantly, which was consistent with a significant enhancement of the ratio of reduced/oxidized (homo)glutathione ((h)GSH). Additionally, plants pretreated with HRW accumulated less amounts of Cd. Together, this study suggested that the usage of HRW could be an effective approach for Cd detoxification and could be explored in agricultural production systems.

  11. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in Medicago sativa by hydrogen-rich water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Weiti; Gao, Cunyi; Fang, Peng; Lin, Guoqing; Shen, Wenbiao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • HRW can alleviate Cd-induced alfalfa seedling growth inhibition and DNA laddering. • HRW alleviates Cd-induced oxidative stress by activating antioxidant enzymes. • Cd uptake in alfalfa seedling roots was decreased by HRW. • HRW can re-establish glutathione homeostasis under Cd stress. -- Abstract: Hydrogen gas (H 2 ) induces plant tolerance to several abiotic stresses, including salinity and paraquat exposure. However, the role of H 2 in cadmium (Cd)-induced stress amelioration is largely unknown. Here, pretreatment with hydrogen-rich water (HRW) was used to characterize physiological roles and molecular mechanisms of H 2 in the alleviation of Cd toxicity in alfalfa plants. Our results showed that the addition of HRW at 10% saturation significantly decreased contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) caused by Cd, and inhibited the appearance of Cd toxicity symptoms, including the improvement of root elongation and seedling growth. These responses were related to a significant increase in the total or isozymatic activities of representative antioxidant enzymes, or their corresponding transcripts. In vivo imaging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the detection of lipid peroxidation and the loss of plasma membrane integrity provided further evidence for the ability of HRW to improve Cd tolerance significantly, which was consistent with a significant enhancement of the ratio of reduced/oxidized (homo)glutathione ((h)GSH). Additionally, plants pretreated with HRW accumulated less amounts of Cd. Together, this study suggested that the usage of HRW could be an effective approach for Cd detoxification and could be explored in agricultural production systems

  12. Protective Effect of Nigella Sativa Black Seed Oil And Freshly Crushed Seeds In Rats During Tumour Induction And Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, N.M.; Eldosoky, H.M.; Mohamed, H.E.; Noaman, E.

    2006-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the potency of Nigella sativa freshly crushed seeds (0.42 g/ kg body weight) or oil (2.5 ml/kg body weight) for preventing tumor induction through exposure of rats to a common pollutant (1,4- Dioxane) as a promoter under condition of the presence of an initiator (N-nitrosodiethylamine). The antitumor effect was evaluated alone or in combination with low doses of irradiation as a route of cancer treatment. Female Swiss albino rats were administrated orally twice weekly with Nigella sativa before and during exposure of rats to the carcinogenic compounds. Animals were exposed to 3 doses of radiation (3 Gy/ dose) day after day 2 weeks before the end of the experiment. The animals were scarified after one week of radiation. Homocysteine,'glutathione, lipid peroxide, GGT activity, nitric oxide, total protein, albumin and bilirubin levels were estimated in blood after 7 and 12 months from the start of the experiment. Rats injected with the carcinogenic compounds showed marked elevation in homocysteine, GGT activity, nitric oxide, bilirubin and lipid peroxide levels accompanied by a significant decrease in glutathione, total proteins and albumin levels. Pretreatment with Nigella sativa alone or combined with γ- irradiation potentially reversed the investigated parameters. Moreover, Nigella sativa significantly suppressed the growth of the tumor and efficiently produced synergistic effect with γ-irradiation. Therefore, Nigella sativa may be a good candidate to prevent tumor induction and so, it is advicable to use freshly crushed seeds during irradiation treatment in cancer patients as they gave more effective protection than the oil extract.

  13. The allelopathic effects of invasive plant Solidago canadensis on seed germination and growth of Lactuca sativa enhanced by different types of acid deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congyan; Xiao, Hongguang; Zhao, Lulu; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Fei; Shi, Yanchun; Du, Daolin

    2016-04-01

    Invasive species can exhibit allelopathic effects on native species. Meanwhile, the types of acid deposition are gradually changing. Thus, the allelopathic effects of invasive species on seed germination and growth of native species may be altered or even enhanced under conditions with diversified acid deposition. This study aims to assess the allelopathic effects (using leaves extracts) of invasive plant Solidago canadensis on seed germination and growth of native species Lactuca sativa treated with five types of acid deposition with different SO4(2-) to NO3(-) ratios (1:0, sulfuric acid; 5:1, sulfuric-rich acid; 1:1, mixed acid; 1:5, nitric-rich acid; 0:1, nitric acid). Solidago canadensis leaf extracts exhibited significantly allelopathic effects on germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. High concentration of S. canadensis leaf extracts also similarly exhibited significantly allelopathic effects on root length of L. sativa. This may be due to that S. canadensis could release allelochemicals and then trigger allelopathic effects on seed germination and growth of L. sativa. Acid deposition exhibited significantly negative effects on seedling biomass, root length, seedling height, germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. This may be ascribed to the decreased soil pH values mediated by acid deposition which could produce toxic effects on seedling growth. Sulfuric acid deposition triggered more toxic effects on seedling biomass and vigor index of L. sativa than nitric acid deposition. This may be attributing to the difference in exchange capacity with hydroxyl groups (OH(-)) between SO4(2-) and NO3(-) as well as the fertilizing effects mediated by nitric deposition. All types of acid deposition significantly enhanced the allelopathic effects of S. canadensis on root length, germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. This may be due to the negatively synergistic effects of

  14. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia caused by Nigella sativa oil – A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bouti

    2013-10-01

    The patient was advised to stop taking N. sativa oil. The only treatment that was instituted was N-acetylcysteine. A clinically significant change in symptoms and chest radiograph was observed. The patient has remained stable 18 months after the diagnosis.

  15. [Genome-wide identification and analysis of WRKY transcription factors in Medicago truncatula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hui; Nan, Zhibiao

    2014-02-01

    WRKY gene family plays important roles in plant by involving in transcriptional regulations during various physiologically processes such as development, metabolism and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. WRKY genes have been identified in various plants. However, only few WRKY genes in Medicago truncatula have been identified with systematic analysis and comparison. In this study, we identified 93 WRKY genes through analyses of M. truncatula genome. These genes include 19 type-I genes, 49 type II genes and 13 type-III genes, and 12 non-regular type genes. All of these genes were characterized through analyses of gene duplication, chromosomal locations, structural diversity, conserved protein motifs and phylogenetic relations. The results showed that 11 times of gene duplication event occurred in WRKY gene family involving 24 genes. WRKY genes, containing 6 gene clusters, are unevenly distributed into chromosome 1 to 6, and there is the purifying selection pressure in WRKY group III genes.

  16. Allelopathic Effect of Dodder on Different Varieties of Lucerne and Bird’s Foot-Trefoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valcheva Ekaterina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic effect of cold aqueous extracts, both fresh and dry biomass of dodder (Cuscuta epithymum L. on lucerne (Medicago sativa L. and bird’s foot-trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.. Four different varieties of lucerne “Pleven 6”, “Dara”, “Roly”, “Multifoliolate” and bird’s foot-trefoil (“Gran San Gabriele”, “Leo”, “Local population 1”, “Local population 2” were studied in order to find some varieties with allelopathic tolerance. Ex-situ experiment was carried out as follows: 100 seeds of each variety were put in Petri dishes between filter paper, both cold extracts of parasitic weed biomass were pipetted at a ratio of 1:20 as against the seed mass and then were placed in a thermostat-operated device at a temperature of 22 ± 2°С. Distilled water was used as a control. Percentage inhibition, Index of tolerance and Index of plant development were calculated for assessment of the allelopathic effect of dodder on the early seedling growth, biomass synthesis and initial development of experimental varieties. As a whole, dry weed biomass was found as more toxic for the tested plants than the fresh one. Medicago sativa var. multifoliolate and Lotus corniculatus var. Local population 1 and Local population 2 showed a significant tolerance to the allelopathic influence of Cuscuta epithymum in all studied concentrations of aqueous extract of fresh weed biomass (25, 50 and 100 g l−1 and medium tolerance to aqueous extract of dry weed biomass (concentrations of 25 and 50 g l−1.

  17. Comparación de dos índices cuantitativos de estimación del estado de desarrollo de la alfalfa Comparison of two quantitative indexes for the estimation of alfalfa development stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Bernáldez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El estado de desarrollo de la alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. es una variable de estudio común en evaluaciones de cultivares, dada su relación con la composición química y la tasa de crecimiento de la pastura. La determinación de los índices cuantitativos "estado medio por conteo" y "estado medio por peso" (EMC y EMP respectivamente permite la descripción del estado de desarrollo en pasturas de alfalfa de una manera objetiva y reproducible. Los índices EMC y EMP describen igualmente el estado de desarrollo de la alfalfa cuando la pastura se encuentra próxima al momento de utilización recomendado en la práctica. La ventaja de estimar EMC en relación a EMP, se basa en la rapidez operativa que ofrece la generación de datos para el cálculo del primero.The developmental stage of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is an usual variable of study when evaluating cultivars because of its relationship with chemical composition and pasture growth rate. Determination of quantitative indexes such as "mean stage by count" and "mean stage by weight" (MSC and MSW respectively makes it possible to describe the developmental phenological stages of alfalfa pastures in a more objective and reproducible way. Likewise, both the MSC and MSW indexes, describe the developmental stages of alfalfa when the pasture is close to the recommended utilisation time in practice. The advantage of estimating MSC in relation to MSW is based on the higher operative efficiency offered by the former in data generation for its calculation.

  18. Standardized Cannabis sativa extract attenuates tau and stathmin gene expression in the melanoma cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnaz Vaseghi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Metastasis is the main cause of death in patients with melanoma. Cannabis-based medicines are effective adjunctive drugs in cancer patients. Tau and Stathmin proteins are the key proteins in cancer metastasis. Here we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract on cell migration and Tau and Stathmin gene expression in the melanoma cell line. Materials and Methods: In the treatment group, melanoma (B1617 was treated 48 hr with various concentrations of standardized C. sativa extract. Cells with no treatment were considered as the control group, then study was followed by Quantitative RT-Real Time PCR assay. Relative gene expression was calculated by the ΔΔct method. Migration assay was used to evaluate cancer metastasis. Results: Tau and stathmin gene expression was significantly decreased compared to the control group. Cell migration was also significantly reduced compared to controls.  Conclusion: C. sativa decreased tau and stathmin gene expression and cancer metastasis.  The results may have some clinical relevance for the use of cannabis-based medicines in patients with metastatic melanoma.

  19. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of the dioecious Cannabis sativa with an XY chromosome sex determination system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail G Divashuk

    Full Text Available Hemp (Cannabis sativa L. was karyotyped using by DAPI/C-banding staining to provide chromosome measurements, and by fluorescence in situ hybridization with probes for 45 rDNA (pTa71, 5S rDNA (pCT4.2, a subtelomeric repeat (CS-1 and the Arabidopsis telomere probes. The karyotype has 18 autosomes plus a sex chromosome pair (XX in female and XY in male plants. The autosomes are difficult to distinguish morphologically, but three pairs could be distinguished using the probes. The Y chromosome is larger than the autosomes, and carries a fully heterochromatic DAPI positive arm and CS-1 repeats only on the less intensely DAPI-stained, euchromatic arm. The X is the largest chromosome of all, and carries CS-1 subtelomeric repeats on both arms. The meiotic configuration of the sex bivalent locates a pseudoautosomal region of the Y chromosome at the end of the euchromatic CS-1-carrying arm. Our molecular cytogenetic study of the C. sativa sex chromosomes is a starting point for helping to make C. sativa a promising model to study sex chromosome evolution.

  20. Genome-Wide Identification of Glyoxalase Genes in Medicago truncatula and Their Expression Profiling in Response to Various Developmental and Environmental Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Ghosh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Glyoxalase is an evolutionary highly conserved pathway present in all organisms. Conventional glyoxalase pathway has two enzymes, glyoxalase I (GLYI and glyoxalase II (GLYII that act sequentially to detoxify a highly cytotoxic compound methylglyoxal (MG to D-lactate with the help of reduced glutathione. Recently, proteins with DJ-1/PfpI domain have been reported to perform the same conversion in a single step without the help of any cofactor and thus termed as “unique glyoxalase III” enzyme. Genome-wide analysis of glyoxalase genes have been previously conducted in Arabidopsis, rice and Soybean plants, but no such study was performed for one of the agricultural important model legume species, Medicago truncatula. A comprehensive genome-wide analysis of Medicago identified a total of putative 29 GLYI, 14 GLYII genes, and 5 glyoxalase III (DJ-1 genes. All these identified genes and their corresponding proteins were analyzed in detail including their chromosomal distribution, gene duplication, phylogenetic relationship, and the presence of conserved domain(s. Expression of all these genes was analyzed in different tissues as well as under two devastating abiotic stresses- salinity and drought using publicly available transcript data. This study revealed that MtGLYI-4, MtGLYII-6, and MtDJ-1A are the constitutive members with a high level of expression at all 17 analyzed tissues; while MtGLYI-1, MtGLYI-11, MtGLYI-5, MtGLYI-7, and MtGLYII-13 showed tissue-specific expression. Moreover, most of the genes displayed similar pattern of expression in response to both salinity and drought stress, irrespective of stress duration and tissue type. MtGLYI-8, MtGLYI-11, MtGLYI-6, MtGLYI-16, MtGLYI-21, and MtGLYII-9 showed up-regulation, while MtGLYI-17 and MtGLYI-7/9 showed down-regulation in response to both stresses. Interestingly, MtGLYI-14/15 showed completely opposite pattern of expression in these two stresses. This study provides an initial basis

  1. [Therapeutic potential of Cannabis sativa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avello L, Marcia; Pastene N, Edgar; Fernández R, Pola; Córdova M, Pia

    2017-03-01

    Cannabis sativa (marihuana) is considered an illicit drug due to its psychoactive properties. Recently, the Chilean government opened to the use cannabis in the symptomatic treatment of some patients. The biological effects of cannabis render it useful for the complementary treatment of specific clinical situations such as chronic pain. We retrieved scientific information about the analgesic properties of cannabis, using it as a safe drug. The drug may block or inhibit the transmission of nervous impulses at different levels, an effect associated with pain control. Within this context and using adequate doses, forms and administration pathways, it can be used for chronic pain management, considering its effectiveness and low cost. It could also be considered as an alternative in patients receiving prolonged analgesic therapies with multiple adverse effects.

  2. Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on the growth, physiology and cannabinoid production of Cannabis sativa L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lydon, J.

    1986-01-01

    The concentration of cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L. is correlated with high ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation environments. Δ 9 -Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid and cannabidiolic acid, both major secondary products of C. sativa, absorb UV-B radiation and may function as solar screens. The object of this study was to test the effects of UV-B radiation on the physiology and cannabinoid production of C. sativa. Drug and fiber-type C. sativa were irradiated with three levels of UV-B radiation for 40 days in greenhouse experiments. Physiological measurements on leaf tissues were made by infra-red gas analysis. Drug and fiber-type control plants had similar CO 2 assimilation rates from 26 to 32 0 C. Drug-type control plant had higher dark respiration rates and stomatal conductances than fiber-type control plants. The concentration of Δ 9 -THC, but not of other cannabinoids) in both vegetative and reproductive tissues increased with UV-B dose in drug-type plants. None of the cannabinoids in fiber-type plants were affected by UV-B radiation. The increased level of Δ 9 -THC found in leaves after irradiation may account for the physiological and morphological insensitivity to UV-B radiation in the drug-type plants. However, fiber plants showed no comparable change in the level of cannabidoil (CBD). Resin stripped form fresh fiber-type floral tissue by sonication was spotted on filter paper and irradiated continuously for 7 days. Cannabidiol (CBD) gradually decreased when irradiated but Δ 9 -THC and cannabichromene did not

  3. Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on the growth, physiology and cannabinoid production of Cannabis sativa L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lydon, J.

    1986-01-01

    The concentration of cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L. is correlated with high ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation environments. ..delta../sup 9/-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid and cannabidiolic acid, both major secondary products of C. sativa, absorb UV-B radiation and may function as solar screens. The object of this study was to test the effects of UV-B radiation on the physiology and cannabinoid production of C. sativa. Drug and fiber-type C. sativa were irradiated with three levels of UV-B radiation for 40 days in greenhouse experiments. Physiological measurements on leaf tissues were made by infra-red gas analysis. Drug and fiber-type control plants had similar CO/sub 2/ assimilation rates from 26 to 32/sup 0/C. Drug-type control plant had higher dark respiration rates and stomatal conductances than fiber-type control plants. The concentration of ..delta../sup 9/-THC, but not of other cannabinoids) in both vegetative and reproductive tissues increased with UV-B dose in drug-type plants. None of the cannabinoids in fiber-type plants were affected by UV-B radiation. The increased level of ..delta../sup 9/-THC found in leaves after irradiation may account for the physiological and morphological insensitivity to UV-B radiation in the drug-type plants. However, fiber plants showed no comparable change in the level of cannabidoil (CBD). Resin stripped form fresh fiber-type floral tissue by sonication was spotted on filter paper and irradiated continuously for 7 days. Cannabidiol (CBD) gradually decreased when irradiated but ..delta../sup 9/-THC and cannabichromene did not.

  4. Hybridization rates between lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and its wild relative (L. serriola) under field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    D'Andrea, Luigi; Felber, François; Guadagnuolo, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Hybridization and introgression between crops and wild relatives may have important evolutionary and ecological consequences such as gene swamping or increased invasiveness. In the present study, we investigated hybridization under field conditions between crop lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and its wild relative prickly lettuce (L. serriola), two cross-compatible, predominantly autogamous and insect pollinated species. In 2003 and 2004, we estimated the rates of hybridization between L. sativa and...

  5. Microstructure and ultrastructure of alfalfa seeds with different moisture contents after satellite carrying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Peng; Li Jian; Zhang Yunwei; Liu Ruohan

    2009-01-01

    Seeds with different moisture contents (9%, 11%, 13%, 15%, 17%) of Medicago sativa L. cv. Zhongmu No. 1 were boarded on the Shijian-8 satellite and then the microscopic and ultrastructure were observed. The results showed that spongy tissue and leaf palisade of plant after space flight were different to their control. The impact of on spongy cells was more obvious than the palisade cells; greater chloroplasts, empty and crack overflow mitochondria were observed. More starch grain were found at the samples cultured from 15% and 17% moisture content treatment, which was analyzed that starch grains in leaf cell was affected by the moisture content of seeds. (authors)

  6. GeneBins: a database for classifying gene expression data, with application to plant genome arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiller Georg

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To interpret microarray experiments, several ontological analysis tools have been developed. However, current tools are limited to specific organisms. Results We developed a bioinformatics system to assign the probe set sequences of any organism to a hierarchical functional classification modelled on KEGG ontology. The GeneBins database currently supports the functional classification of expression data from four Affymetrix arrays; Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Glycine max and Medicago truncatula. An online analysis tool to identify relevant functions is also provided. Conclusion GeneBins provides resources to interpret gene expression results from microarray experiments. It is available at http://bioinfoserver.rsbs.anu.edu.au/utils/GeneBins/

  7. Alfalfa variety selection for maximum fiber content, protein and nitrogen fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhland, Christopher T. [Minnesota State Univ., Mankato, MN (United States); Knox, John [Minnesota State Univ., Mankato, MN (United States); Ward, Susan [Minnesota State Univ., Mankato, MN (United States); Agarwal, V. J. [Minnesota State Univ., Mankato, MN (United States); Frey, John [Minnesota State Univ., Mankato, MN (United States); Carrow, Duane [Minnesota State Univ., Mankato, MN (United States); Jones, Bruce [Minnesota State Univ., Mankato, MN (United States); Rife, James [Minnesota State Univ., Mankato, MN (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The fertile soils of Southern Minnesota are highly productive from both a natural and agricultural standpoint. We chose to examine potential feedstock in both of these settings as a focus for our study. In part one of this report we detail our findings examining potential feedstock in prairie and wetlands in the Mankato, MN area in 2009. We were able to familiarize ourselves with techniques used to isolate and quantify concentrations of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in both a classroom and laboratory setting. These techniques were then used for our experiments that examined the effects of harvest regime, irrigation and salinity on eight potential-feedstock varieties of alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

  8. In Vitro Propagation of Cannabis sativa L. and Evaluation of Regenerated Plants for Genetic Fidelity and Cannabinoids Content for Quality Assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, Hemant; Chandra, Suman; Khan, Ikhlas A; ElSohly, Mahmoud A

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. (Marijuana; Cannabaceae), one of the oldest medicinal plants in the world, has been used throughout history for fiber, food, as well as for its psychoactive properties. The dioecious and allogamous nature of C. sativa is the major constraint to maintain the consistency in chemical profile and overall efficacy if grown from seed. Therefore, the present optimized in vitro propagation protocol of the selected elite germplasm via direct organogenesis and quality assurance protocols using genetic and chemical profiling provide an ideal pathway for ensuring the efficacy of micropropagated Cannabis sativa germplasm. A high frequency shoot organogenesis of C. sativa was obtained from nodal segments in 0.5 μM thidiazuron medium and 95 % in vitro rhizogenesis is obtained on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 500 mg/L activated charcoal and 2.5 μM indole-3-butyric acid. Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) and Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID) are successfully used to monitor the genetic stability in micropropagated plants up to 30 passages in culture and hardened in soil for 8 months.

  9. GC-MS study of Nigella sativa (seeds fatty oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta, B. K.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The GC-MS study of N. sativa (seeds fatty oil revealed the presence of 26 compounds which were identified as methyl hept-6-enoate,1-phenylhepta-2,4-dione, pentadecane, hexadec-1-ene, 1-phenyldecan-2-one, octadec-1-ene, octadecane, methyl pentadecanoate, bis(3-chlorophenyl ketone, diethyl phthalate, ethyl octadec-7-enoate, methyl octadecanoate, tricos-9-ene, octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, methyl hexadecanoate, methyl octadec-15-enoate, henicosan-10-one, 2-methyl octadecanoic acid, docos-1-ene, ethyl octadecanoate, methyl octadecanoate, pentacos-5-ene,12-methyltricosane, dibutyl phthalate and 2-methyltetracosane.El estudio por GC-MS del aceite de la semilla de Nigella sativa reveló la presencia de 26 compuestos los cuales fueron identificados como: hept-6-enoato de metilo, 1-fenilhepta-2,4-diona, pentadecano, hexadec-1-eno, 1-fenildecan-2-ona, octadec-1-eno, octadecano, pentadecanoato de metilo, bis(3-clorofenil cetona, ftalato de dietilo, octadec-7-enoato de etilo, octadecanoato de metilo, tricos-9-eno, ácido octadeca-9,12-dienoico, ácido hexadecanoico, hexadecanoato de metilo, octadec-15-enoato de metilo, henicosan-10-ona, ácido 2-metil octadecanoico, docos-1-eno, octadecanoato de etilo, octadecanoato de metilo, pentacos-5-eno, 12-metiltricosano, ftalato de dibutilo y 2-metiltetracosano.

  10. The Effect of Essential Oil of Nigella sativa and Satureia hortensis on Promastigot Stage of Lishmania major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KH Pirali-Kheirabadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania. Traditionally, medicinal plants have been used for topical effects of leishmaniasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the essential oil of Satureia hortensis and Nigella sativa on the Leishmania major. Methods: In this experimental study, the effects of the plant’s essential oils and savory black beans on the Leishmania major form were studied. Evaluation was determined based on the average of Leishmania parasites form survival after exposure to different concentrations of herbs and chemical drugs MA dose at different intervals. For this purpose, different extracts with ratios of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, and 2% were added. Different groups of this study were kept in the same condition (incubated at 26 ° C. The parasites were removed from the incubator and the numbers of viable parasites were counted after 24hours. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Tukey test and GM. Results: There was a significant difference in reducing parasites on groups receiving Satureia hortensis and Nigella sativa with Glucantime (p <0.05. Conclusion: Due to the increasing drug resistance of Leishmania, plant oils such as Satureia hortensis and Nigella sativa could be used as an alternative treatment for controlling leishmaniasis. Key words: Essential oil, Leishmaniasis, Nigella sativa, Satureia hortensis

  11. Nod Factor Effects on Root Hair-Specific Transcriptome of Medicago truncatula: Focus on Plasma Membrane Transport Systems and Reactive Oxygen Species Networks.

    OpenAIRE

    Damiani , Isabelle; Drain , Alice; Guichard , Marjorie; Balzergue , Sandrine; Boscari , Alexandre; Boyer , Jean-Christophe; Brunaud , Véronique; Cottaz , Sylvain; Rancurel , Corinne; Da Rocha , Martine; Fizames , Cécile; Fort , Sébastien; Gaillard , Isabelle; MAILLOL , Vincent; Danchin , Etienne G J

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Root hairs are involved in water and nutrient uptake, and thereby in plant autotrophy. In legumes, they also play a crucial role in establishment of rhizobial symbiosis. To obtain a holistic view of Medicago truncatula genes expressed in root hairs and of their regulation during the first hours of the engagement in rhizobial symbiotic interaction, a high throughput RNA sequencing on isolated root hairs from roots challenged or not with lipochitooligosaccharides Nod fac...

  12. Bioassay Screening of the Essential Oil and Various Extracts of Nigella sativa L. Seeds Using Brine Shrimp Toxicity Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Sharififar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Since cytotoxicity screening is the first step necessary for any new drug development, this study was designed to find out and compare the cytotoxicity effects of the essential oil and various extracts of Nigella sativa L. seeds using Brine Shrimp Lethality (BSL assay. Materials and Methods: Essential oils and various extracts of N. sativa were assessed by two methods of disk and solution of BSL. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS statistical package version 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, 250 USA. Data were processed in probit-analysis program to estimate LC50 values. Results: All of the tested fractions demonstrated more cytotoxicity in the solution method. Petroleum ether and chloroform extract of N. sativa showed the most cytotoxicity with LC50 values 7 and 21 μg/ml respectively; while aqueous and ethanolic had no significant cytotoxicity. Moreover, the GC/MS analysis of the essential oil of N. sativa showed the p-cymene (48.1%, α-thujone (14.38% and dihydro carveol (9.11% as the main compounds. Conclusion: These results suggest some limitation for using this spice in diet. Furthermore, this plant could be considered as a source of cytotoxic compounds which should be studied in details.

  13. Effect of aqueous seed extract of Nigella sativa on lead-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is used in the manufacture of batteries, metal products, paints and other domestic substances. This study investigated the effect of aqueous seed extract of Nigella sativa on leadinduced cerebral cortex toxicity in Long Evan's rats. Twenty five Long Evans rats divided into five groups of five animals were used for the study.

  14. Detection of Alien Oryza punctata Kotschy Chromosomes in Rice, Oryza sativa L., by Genomic in situ Hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Yasui, Hideshi; Nonomura, Ken-ichi; Iwata, Nobuo; 安井, 秀; 野々村, 賢一; 岩田, 伸夫

    1997-01-01

    Genomic in situ hybridization (GIS H) using total Oryza punctata Kotschy genomic DNA as a probe was applied to detect alien chromosomes transferred from O. punctata (W1514: 2n=2x=24: BB) to O. sativa Japonica cultivar, Nipponbare (2n=2x=24: AA). Only 12 chromosomes in the interspecific hybrids (2n=3x=36: AAB) between autotetraploid of O. sativa cultivar Nipponbare and a diploid strain of O. punctata (W1514) showed intense staining by FITC in mitotic metaphase spreads. Only one homologous pair...

  15. Evaluation of a 13-loci STR multiplex system for Cannabis sativa genetic identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Rachel; Birck, Matthew; Hughes-Stamm, Sheree; Gangitano, David

    2016-05-01

    Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) is the most commonly used illicit substance in the USA. The development of a validated method using Cannabis short tandem repeats (STRs) could aid in the individualization of samples as well as serve as an intelligence tool to link multiple cases. For this purpose, a modified 13-loci STR multiplex method was optimized and evaluated according to ISFG and SWGDAM guidelines. A real-time PCR quantification method for C. sativa was developed and validated, and a sequenced allelic ladder was also designed to accurately genotype 199 C. sativa samples from 11 U.S. Customs and Border Protection seizures. Distinguishable DNA profiles were generated from 127 samples that yielded full STR profiles. Four duplicate genotypes within seizures were found. The combined power of discrimination of this multilocus system is 1 in 70 million. The sensitivity of the multiplex STR system is 0.25 ng of template DNA. None of the 13 STR markers cross-reacted with any of the studied species, except for Humulus lupulus (hops) which generated unspecific peaks. Phylogenetic analysis and case-to-case pairwise comparison of 11 cases using F st as genetic distance revealed the genetic association of four groups of cases. Moreover, due to their genetic similarity, a subset of samples (N = 97) was found to form a homogeneous population in Hardy-Weinberg and linkage equilibrium. The results of this research demonstrate the applicability of this 13-loci STR system in associating Cannabis cases for intelligence purposes.

  16. Green Biodiesel Synthesis Using Waste Shells as Sustainable Catalysts with Camelina sativa Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelda Hangun-Balkir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste utilization is an essential component of sustainable development and waste shells are rarely used to generate practical products and processes. Most waste shells are CaCO3 rich, which are converted to CaO once calcined and can be employed as inexpensive and green catalysts for the synthesis of biodiesel. Herein, we utilized lobster and eggshells as green catalysts for the transesterification of Camelina sativa oil as feedstock into biodiesel. Camelina sativa oil is an appealing crop option as feedstock for biodiesel production because it has high tolerance of cold weather, drought, and low-quality soils and contains approximately 40% oil content. The catalysts from waste shells were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscope. The product, biodiesel, was studied by 1H NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The effects of methanol to oil ratio, reaction time, reaction temperature, and catalyst concentration were investigated. Optimum biodiesel yields were attained at a 12 : 1 (alcohol : oil molar ratio with 1 wt.% heterogeneous catalysts in 3 hours at 65°C. The experimental results exhibited a first-order kinetics and rate constants and activation energy were calculated for the transesterification reaction at different temperatures. The fuel properties of the biodiesel produced from Camelina sativa oil and waste shells were compared with those of the petroleum-based diesel by using American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM standards.

  17. Phytohormone profile in Lactuca sativa and Brassica oleracea plants grown under Zn deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-León, Eloy; Albacete, Alfonso; Torre-González, Alejandro de la; Ruiz, Juan M; Blasco, Begoña

    2016-10-01

    Phytohormones, structurally diverse compounds, are involved in multiple processes within plants, such as controlling plant growth and stress response. Zn is an essential micronutrient for plants and its deficiency causes large economic losses in crops. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyse the role of phytohormones in the Zn-deficiency response of two economically important species, i.e. Lactuca sativa and Brassica oleracea. For this, these two species were grown hydroponically with different Zn-application rates: 10 μM Zn as control and 0.1 μM Zn as deficiency treatment and phytohormone concentration was determined by U-HPLC-MS. Zn deficiency resulted in a substantial loss of biomass in L. sativa plants that was correlated with a decline in growth-promoting hormones such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinins (CKs), and gibberellins (GAs). However these hormones increased or stabilized their concentrations in B. oleracea and could help to maintain the biomass in this species. A lower concentration of stress-signaling hormones such as ethylene precursor aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) and also CKs might be involved in Zn uptake in L. sativa while a rise in GA4, isopentenyl adenine (iP), and ACC and a fall in JA and SA might contribute to a better Zn-utilization efficiency (ZnUtE), as observed in B. oleracea plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Transgenic Alfalfa Plants Expressing the Sweetpotato Orange Gene Exhibit Enhanced Abiotic Stress Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Ke, Qingbo; Kim, Myoung Duck; Kim, Sun Ha; Ji, Chang Yoon; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Park, Woo Sung; Ahn, Mi-Jeong; Li, Hongbing; Xu, Bingcheng; Deng, Xiping; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Lim, Yong Pyo; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), a perennial forage crop with high nutritional content, is widely distributed in various environments worldwide. We recently demonstrated that the sweetpotato Orange gene (IbOr) is involved in increasing carotenoid accumulation and enhancing resistance to multiple abiotic stresses. In this study, in an effort to improve the nutritional quality and environmental stress tolerance of alfalfa, we transferred the IbOr gene into alfalfa (cv. Xinjiang Daye) under the control of an oxidative stress-inducible peroxidase (SWPA2) promoter through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Among the 11 transgenic alfalfa lines (referred to as SOR plants), three lines (SOR2, SOR3, and SOR8) selected based on their IbOr transcript levels were examined for their tolerance to methyl viologen (MV)-induced oxidative stress in a leaf disc assay. The SOR plants exhibited less damage in response to MV-mediated oxidative stress and salt stress than non-transgenic plants. The SOR plants also exhibited enhanced tolerance to drought stress, along with higher total carotenoid levels. The results suggest that SOR alfalfa plants would be useful as forage crops with improved nutritional value and increased tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses, which would enhance the development of sustainable agriculture on marginal lands. PMID:25946429

  19. New robust sensitive fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with PLSR for estimation of quercetin in Ziziphus mucronata and Ziziphus sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Javid; Mabood, Fazal; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Ali, Liaqat; Rizvi, Tania Shamim; Jabeen, Farah; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Shinwari, Shehla; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Alabri, Zahra Khalfan; Al Ghawi, Said Hamood Salim

    2018-04-01

    Flavonoids are natural antioxidants derived from plants and commonly found in a variety of foods to sequester free radicals. Quercetin, belonging to flavonol subclass of flavonoids, has received considerable attention because of its wide uses as a nutritional supplement as well as a phytochemical remedy for a number of diseases. In the current study, quantification of quercetin was carried out in two medicinally important flavonoid rich plant Ziziphus mucronata and Ziziphus sativa. Emission spectroscopy was utilized as a new method coupled with Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) and the cross validation was done by UV-Visible spectroscopy. The results indicated the higher quercetin content in Z. mucronata (1.50 ± 0.034%) than Z. sativa (1.21 ± 0.052%), and were further verified through Folin-Ciocalteu Colorimetric method (Z. mucronata; 1.41 ± 0.26% and Z. sativa; 1.13 ± 0.136%). In this study the sensitivity was explained in term of slope i.e. Slope = 0.9973.

  20. Crystallization of Δ1-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase from Cannabis sativa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoyama, Yoshinari; Takeuchi, Ayako; Taura, Futoshi; Tamada, Taro; Adachi, Motoyasu; Kuroki, Ryota; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Morimoto, Satoshi

    2005-01-01

    Δ 1 -Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase from C. sativa was crystallized. The crystal diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution with sufficient quality for further structure determination. Δ 1 -Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase is a novel oxidoreductase that catalyzes the biosynthesis of the psychoactive compound THCA in Cannabis sativa (Mexican strain). In order to investigate the structure–function relationship of THCA synthase, this enzyme was overproduced in insect cells, purified and finally crystallized in 0.1 M HEPES buffer pH 7.5 containing 1.4 M sodium citrate. A single crystal suitable for X-ray diffraction measurement was obtained in 0.09 M HEPES buffer pH 7.5 containing 1.26 M sodium citrate. The crystal diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution at beamline BL41XU, SPring-8. The crystal belonged to the primitive cubic space group P432, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 178.2 Å. The calculated Matthews coefficient was approximately 4.1 or 2.0 Å 3 Da −1 assuming the presence of one or two molecules of THCA synthase in the asymmetric unit, respectively