WorldWideScience

Sample records for mediating transient links

  1. Specificity in mediated pathways by anxiety symptoms linking adolescent stress profiles to depressive symptoms: Results of a moderated mediation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyan, Frederick; Bizumic, Boris; Hjemdal, Odin

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the specificity in mediated pathways that separately link specific stress dimensions through anxiety to depressive symptoms and the protective utility of resilience. Thus, this study goes beyond lumping together potential mediating and moderating processes that can explain the relations between stress and (symptoms of) psychopathology and the buffering effect of resilience. Ghanaian adolescents between 13 and 17 years (female = 285; male = 244) completed the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ), Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Short Mood Feeling Questionnaire (SMFQ) and the Resilience Scale for Adolescents (READ). Independent samples t-test, multivariate analysis of covariance with follow-up tests and moderated mediation analyses were performed. Evidences were found for specificity in the associations between dimensions of adolescent stressors and depressive symptoms independent of transient anxiety. Transient anxiety partly accounted for the indirect effects of eight stress dimensions on depressive symptoms. Except stress of school attendance and school/leisure conflict, resilience moderated the indirect effects of specific stress dimensions on depressive symptoms. Results suggested differences in how Ghanaian adolescents view the various stress dimensions, and mediated pathways associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms. Use of cross-sectional data does not show causal process and temporal changes over time. Findings support and clarify the specificity in the interrelations and mediated pathways among dimensions of adolescent stress, transient anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Conditional process analyses shows that resilience does not only buffer direct, but also indirect psychological adversities. Interventions for good mental health may focus on low resilience subgroups in specific stress dimensions while minimizing transient anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Transient plant transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens: Principles, methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenek, Pavel; Samajova, Olga; Luptovciak, Ivan; Doskocilova, Anna; Komis, George; Samaj, Jozef

    2015-11-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is widely used as a versatile tool for development of stably transformed model plants and crops. However, the development of Agrobacterium based transient plant transformation methods attracted substantial attention in recent years. Transient transformation methods offer several applications advancing stable transformations such as rapid and scalable recombinant protein production and in planta functional genomics studies. Herein, we highlight Agrobacterium and plant genetics factors affecting transfer of T-DNA from Agrobacterium into the plant cell nucleus and subsequent transient transgene expression. We also review recent methods concerning Agrobacterium mediated transient transformation of model plants and crops and outline key physical, physiological and genetic factors leading to their successful establishment. Of interest are especially Agrobacterium based reverse genetics studies in economically important crops relying on use of RNA interference (RNAi) or virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technology. The applications of Agrobacterium based transient plant transformation technology in biotech industry are presented in thorough detail. These involve production of recombinant proteins (plantibodies, vaccines and therapeutics) and effectoromics-assisted breeding of late blight resistance in potato. In addition, we also discuss biotechnological potential of recombinant GFP technology and present own examples of successful Agrobacterium mediated transient plant transformations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. AGROBEST: an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression method for versatile gene function analyses in Arabidopsis seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Transient gene expression via Agrobacterium-mediated DNA transfer offers a simple and fast method to analyze transgene functions. Although Arabidopsis is the most-studied model plant with powerful genetic and genomic resources, achieving highly efficient and consistent transient expression for gene function analysis in Arabidopsis remains challenging. Results We developed a highly efficient and robust Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression system, named AGROBEST (Agrobacterium-mediated enhanced seedling transformation), which achieves versatile analysis of diverse gene functions in intact Arabidopsis seedlings. Using β-glucuronidase (GUS) as a reporter for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation assay, we show that the use of a specific disarmed Agrobacterium strain with vir gene pre-induction resulted in homogenous GUS staining in cotyledons of young Arabidopsis seedlings. Optimization with AB salts in plant culture medium buffered with acidic pH 5.5 during Agrobacterium infection greatly enhanced the transient expression levels, which were significantly higher than with two existing methods. Importantly, the optimized method conferred 100% infected seedlings with highly increased transient expression in shoots and also transformation events in roots of ~70% infected seedlings in both the immune receptor mutant efr-1 and wild-type Col-0 seedlings. Finally, we demonstrated the versatile applicability of the method for examining transcription factor action and circadian reporter-gene regulation as well as protein subcellular localization and protein–protein interactions in physiological contexts. Conclusions AGROBEST is a simple, fast, reliable, and robust transient expression system enabling high transient expression and transformation efficiency in Arabidopsis seedlings. Demonstration of the proof-of-concept experiments elevates the transient expression technology to the level of functional studies in Arabidopsis seedlings in addition to previous

  4. Optimization of Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression of heterologous genes in spinach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Dang Viet; Pamplona, Reniel S.; Kim, Jiwon

    2017-01-01

    The Agrobacterium-mediated transient assay is a relatively rapid technique and a promising approach for assessing the expression of a gene of interest. Despite the successful application of this transient expression system in several plant species, it is not well understood in spinach. In this st...

  5. A Novel Phenolic Compound, Chloroxynil, Improves Agrobacterium-Mediated Transient Transformation in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Mitsuhiro; Cutler, Sean; Isobe, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is a commonly used method for plant genetic engineering. However, the limitations of Agrobacterium host-plant interactions and the complexity of plant tissue culture often make the production of transgenic plants difficult. Transformation efficiency in many legume species, including soybean and the common bean, has been reported to be quite low. To improve the transformation procedure in legumes, we screened for chemicals that increase the transformation efficiency of Lotus japonicus, a model legume species. A Chemical library was screened and chemicals that increase in transient transformation efficiency of L. japonicus accession, Miyakojima MG-20 were identified. The transient transformation efficiency was quantified by reporter activity in which an intron-containing reporter gene produces the GUS protein only when the T-DNA is expressed in the plant nuclei. We identified a phenolic compound, chloroxynil, which increased the genetic transformation of L. japonicus by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105. Characterization of the mode of chloroxynil action indicated that it enhanced Agrobacterium-mediated transformation through the activation of the Agrobacterium vir gene expression, similar to acetosyringone, a phenolic compound known to improve Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiency. Transient transformation efficiency of L. japonicus with 5 μM chloroxynil was 60- and 6- fold higher than that of the control and acetosyringone treatment, respectively. In addition, transgenic L. japonicus lines were successfully generated by 5 μM chloroxynil treatment.Furthermore, we show that chloroxynil improves L. japonicus transformation by Agrobacterium strain GV3101 and rice transformation. Our results demonstrate that chloroxynil significantly improves Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation efficiency of various agriculturally important crops.

  6. Testing the utility of fluorescent proteins in Mimulus lewisii by an Agrobacterium-mediated transient assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Baoqing; Yuan, Yao-Wu

    2016-04-01

    The Agrobacterium -mediated transient expression assay by leaf infiltration in Mimulus lewisii is robust. Fluorescent proteins EGFP, EYFP and DsRed give bright fluorescence signals in the infiltrated tissue. Mimulus lewisii is an emerging developmental genetic model system. Recently developed genomic and genetic resources and a stable transformation protocol have greatly facilitated the identification and functional characterization of genes controlling the development of ecologically important floral traits using this species. To further expedite gene and protein function analyses in M. lewisii, we adopted and simplified the Agrobacterium-mediated transient gene expression method routinely used in tobacco plants. With the validated transient assay, we examined the performance of fluorescent proteins EGFP, EYFP and DsRed in M. lewisii. All three proteins gave bright fluorescence signals when transiently expressed in agroinfiltrated leaves. Furthermore, we demonstrated the utility of fluorescent proteins in M. lewisii by showing the nuclear localization of Reduced Carotenoid Pigmentation 1 (RCP1), a recently discovered R2R3-MYB transcription factor that regulates carotenoid pigmentation during flower development. Both the transient assay and the fluorescent proteins are valuable additions to the M. lewisii toolbox, making this emerging genetic and developmental model system even more powerful.

  7. Harm mediates the disgust-immorality link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Chelsea; Ritter, Ryan S; Gray, Kurt

    2016-09-01

    Many acts are disgusting, but only some of these acts are immoral. Dyadic morality predicts that disgusting acts should be judged as immoral to the extent that they seem harmful. Consistent with this prediction, 3 studies reveal that perceived harm mediates the link between feelings of disgust and moral condemnation-even for ostensibly harmless "purity" violations. In many cases, accounting for perceived harm completely eliminates the link between disgust and moral condemnation. Analyses also reveal the predictive power of anger and typicality/weirdness in moral judgments of disgusting acts. The mediation of disgust by harm holds across diverse acts including gay marriage, sex acts, and religious blasphemy. Revealing the endogenous presence and moral relevance of harm within disgusting-but-ostensibly harmless acts argues against modular accounts of moral cognition such as moral foundations theory. Instead, these data support pluralistic conceptions of harm and constructionist accounts of morality and emotion. Implications for moral cognition and the concept of "purity" are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Agrobacterium-mediated transient MaFT expression in mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Su-Li; Yang, Xiao-Bing; Liu, Li-Qun; Jiang, Tao; Wu, Hai; Su, Chao; Qian, Yong-Hua; Jiao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    To optimize Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation assay in mulberry (Morus alba L.), various infiltration methods, Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens) strains, and bacterial concentrations were tested in mulberry seedlings. Compared with LBA4404, GV3101 harboring pBE2133 plasmids presented stronger GUS signals at 3 days post infiltration using syringe. Recombinant plasmids pBE2133:GFP and pBE2133:GFP:MaFT were successfully constructed. Transient expression of MaFT:GFP protein was found in leaves, petiole (cross section), and shoot apical meristem (SAM) of mulberry according to the GFP signal. Moreover, MaFT:GFP mRNA was also detected in leaves and SAM via RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. An efficient transient transformation system could be achieved in mulberry seedlings by syringe using A. tumefaciens GV3101 at the OD600 of 0.5. The movement of MaFT expression from leaves to SAM might trigger the precocious flowering of mulberry.

  9. A Rapid, Highly Efficient and Economical Method of Agrobacterium-Mediated In planta Transient Transformation in Living Onion Epidermis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kedong; Huang, Xiaohui; Wu, Manman; Wang, Yan; Chang, Yunxia; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Ju; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Fuli; Yi, Liming; Li, Tingting; Wang, Ruiyue; Tan, Guangxuan; Li, Chengwei

    2014-01-01

    Transient transformation is simpler, more efficient and economical in analyzing protein subcellular localization than stable transformation. Fluorescent fusion proteins were often used in transient transformation to follow the in vivo behavior of proteins. Onion epidermis, which has large, living and transparent cells in a monolayer, is suitable to visualize fluorescent fusion proteins. The often used transient transformation methods included particle bombardment, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Particle bombardment in onion epidermis was successfully established, however, it was expensive, biolistic equipment dependent and with low transformation efficiency. We developed a highly efficient in planta transient transformation method in onion epidermis by using a special agroinfiltration method, which could be fulfilled within 5 days from the pretreatment of onion bulb to the best time-point for analyzing gene expression. The transformation conditions were optimized to achieve 43.87% transformation efficiency in living onion epidermis. The developed method has advantages in cost, time-consuming, equipment dependency and transformation efficiency in contrast with those methods of particle bombardment in onion epidermal cells, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in leaf epidermal cells of other plants. It will facilitate the analysis of protein subcellular localization on a large scale. PMID:24416168

  10. Spontaneous calcium transients in human neural progenitor cells mediated by transient receptor potential channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Peter J; Hübner, Rayk; Rolfs, Arndt; Frech, Moritz J

    2013-09-15

    Calcium signals affect many developmental processes, including proliferation, migration, survival, and apoptosis, processes that are of particular importance in stem cells intended for cell replacement therapies. The mechanisms underlying Ca(2+) signals, therefore, have a role in determining how stem cells respond to their environment, and how these responses might be controlled in vitro. In this study, we examined the spontaneous Ca(2+) activity in human neural progenitor cells during proliferation and differentiation. Pharmacological characterization indicates that in proliferating cells, most activity is the result of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels that are sensitive to Gd(3+) and La(3+), with the more subtype selective antagonist Ruthenium red also reducing activity, suggesting the involvement of transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels. In differentiating cells, Gd(3+) and La(3+)-sensitive TRP channels also appear to underlie the spontaneous activity; however, no sub-type-specific antagonists had any effect. Protein levels of TRPV2 and TRPV3 decreased in differentiated cells, which is demonstrated by western blot. Thus, it appears that TRP channels represent the main route of Ca(2+) entry in human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs), but the responsible channel types are subject to substitution under differentiating conditions. The level of spontaneous activity could be increased and decreased by lowering and raising the extracellular K(+) concentration. Proliferating cells in low K(+) slowed the cell cycle, with a disproportionate increased percentage of cells in G1 phase and a reduction in S phase. Taken together, these results suggest a link between external K(+) concentration, spontaneous Ca(2+) transients, and cell cycle distribution, which is able to influence the fate of stem and progenitor cells.

  11. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 Expression Mediates Capsaicin-Induced Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ramírez-Barrantes

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The transient receptor potential (TRP ion channel family consists of a broad variety of non-selective cation channels that integrate environmental physicochemical signals for dynamic homeostatic control. Involved in a variety of cellular physiological processes, TRP channels are fundamental to the control of the cell life cycle. TRP channels from the vanilloid (TRPV family have been directly implicated in cell death. TRPV1 is activated by pain-inducing stimuli, including inflammatory endovanilloids and pungent exovanilloids, such as capsaicin (CAP. TRPV1 activation by high doses of CAP (>10 μM leads to necrosis, but also exhibits apoptotic characteristics. However, CAP dose–response studies are lacking in order to determine whether CAP-induced cell death occurs preferentially via necrosis or apoptosis. In addition, it is not known whether cytosolic Ca2+ and mitochondrial dysfunction participates in CAP-induced TRPV1-mediated cell death. By using TRPV1-transfected HeLa cells, we investigated the underlying mechanisms involved in CAP-induced TRPV1-mediated cell death, the dependence of CAP dose, and the participation of mitochondrial dysfunction and cytosolic Ca2+ increase. Together, our results contribute to elucidate the pathophysiological steps that follow after TRPV1 stimulation with CAP. Low concentrations of CAP (1 μM induce cell death by a mechanism involving a TRPV1-mediated rapid and transient intracellular Ca2+ increase that stimulates plasma membrane depolarization, thereby compromising plasma membrane integrity and ultimately leading to cell death. Meanwhile, higher doses of CAP induce cell death via a TRPV1-independent mechanism, involving a slow and persistent intracellular Ca2+ increase that induces mitochondrial dysfunction, plasma membrane depolarization, plasma membrane loss of integrity, and ultimately, cell death.

  12. Production of human interferon alfa 2b in plants of Nicotiana excelsior by Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindarovska, Y R; Gerasymenko, I M; Sheludko, Y V; Olevinskaya, Z M; Spivak, N Y; Kuchuk, N V

    2010-01-01

    Human interferon alpha2b gene was transiently expressed in Nicotiana excelsior plants. Fusion with N. plumbaginifolia calreticulin signal peptide for improved apoplast targeting and carrying out the expression under optimized conditions resulted in maximal interferon activity of 3.2 x 10(3) IU/g fresh weight (FW) with an average of 2.1 +/- 0.8 x 10(3) IU/g FW. It proves that N. excelsior is a suitable host for Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression of genes encoding physiologically active human proteins. The transient expression conditions optimized for GFP marker protein were confirmed to be preferable for hIFN alpha2b.

  13. X-ray-mediated cross linking of protein and DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minsky, B.D.; Braun, A.

    1977-01-01

    Using a simple filter assay for the binding of BSA or lysozyme to DNA, two mechanisms of x-ray-mediated cross linking are shown to occur. One, a fast reaction, appears to involve a radical intermediate, is inhibited by high pH and salt, and seems to be enhanced by deoxygenation. The second mechanism, a slow time-dependent component, differs from the fast reaction in its stimulation by histidine, its inhibition by catalase, and the lack of an oxygen effect. Separate irradiation of DNA or water does not lead to cross linking. However, separate irradiation of protein leads to cross linking which proceeds with slow-component kinetics

  14. Short-term increases in transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 mediate stress-induced enhancement of neuronal excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitlauf, Carl; Ward, Nicholas J; Lambert, Wendi S; Sidorova, Tatiana N; Ho, Karen W; Sappington, Rebecca M; Calkins, David J

    2014-11-12

    Progression of neurodegeneration in disease and injury is influenced by the response of individual neurons to stressful stimuli and whether this response includes mechanisms to counter declining function. Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels transduce a variety of disease-relevant stimuli and can mediate diverse stress-dependent changes in physiology, both presynaptic and postsynaptic. Recently, we demonstrated that knock-out or pharmacological inhibition of the TRP vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) capsaicin-sensitive subunit accelerates degeneration of retinal ganglion cell neurons and their axons with elevated ocular pressure, the critical stressor in the most common optic neuropathy, glaucoma. Here we probed the mechanism of the influence of TRPV1 on ganglion cell survival in mouse models of glaucoma. We found that induced elevations of ocular pressure increased TRPV1 in ganglion cells and its colocalization at excitatory synapses to their dendrites, whereas chronic elevation progressively increased ganglion cell Trpv1 mRNA. Enhanced TRPV1 expression in ganglion cells was transient and supported a reversal of the effect of TRPV1 on ganglion cells from hyperpolarizing to depolarizing, which was also transient. Short-term enhancement of TRPV1-mediated activity led to a delayed increase in axonal spontaneous excitation that was absent in ganglion cells from Trpv1(-/-) retina. In isolated ganglion cells, pharmacologically activated TRPV1 mobilized to discrete nodes along ganglion cell dendrites that corresponded to sites of elevated Ca(2+). These results suggest that TRPV1 may promote retinal ganglion cell survival through transient enhancement of local excitation and axonal activity in response to ocular stress. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3415369-13$15.00/0.

  15. The link between perceived human resource management practices, engagement and employee behaviour : A moderated mediation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfes, K.; Shantz, A.D.; Truss, C.; Soane, E.C.

    2013-01-01

    This study contributes to our understanding of the mediating and moderating processes through which human resource management (HRM) practices are linked with behavioural outcomes. We developed and tested a moderated mediation model linking perceived HRM practices to organisational citizenship

  16. Linking and Psychological Functioning in a Chinese Sample: The Multiple Mediation of Response to Positive Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongfei; Li, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the associations between linking, response to positive affect, and psychological functioning in Chinese college students. The results of conducting multiple mediation analyses indicated that emotion- and self-focused positive rumination mediated the relationship between linking and psychological functioning, whereas…

  17. Cross-Linking Mast Cell Specific Gangliosides Stimulates the Release of Newly Formed Lipid Mediators and Newly Synthesized Cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edismauro Garcia Freitas Filho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are immunoregulatory cells that participate in inflammatory processes. Cross-linking mast cell specific GD1b derived gangliosides by mAbAA4 results in partial activation of mast cells without the release of preformed mediators. The present study examines the release of newly formed and newly synthesized mediators following ganglioside cross-linking. Cross-linking the gangliosides with mAbAA4 released the newly formed lipid mediators, prostaglandins D2 and E2, without release of leukotrienes B4 and C4. The effect of cross-linking these gangliosides on the activation of enzymes in the arachidonate cascade was then investigated. Ganglioside cross-linking resulted in phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2. Translocation of 5-lipoxygenase from the cytosol to the nucleus was not induced by ganglioside cross-linking. Cross-linking of GD1b derived gangliosides also resulted in the release of the newly synthesized mediators, interleukin-4, interleukin-6, and TNF-α. The effect of cross-linking the gangliosides on the MAP kinase pathway was then investigated. Cross-linking the gangliosides induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38 as well as activating both NFκB and NFAT in a Syk-dependent manner. Therefore, cross-linking the mast cell specific GD1b derived gangliosides results in the activation of signaling pathways that culminate with the release of newly formed and newly synthesized mediators.

  18. Systematic identification of core transcription factors mediating dysregulated links bridging inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Xiao

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence shows a tight link between inflammation and cancer. However, comprehensive identification of pivotal transcription factors (i.e., core TFs mediating the dysregulated links remains challenging, mainly due to a lack of samples that can effectively reflect the connections between inflammation and tumorigenesis. Here, we constructed a series of TF-mediated regulatory networks from a large compendium of expression profiling of normal colonic tissues, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs and colorectal cancer (CRC, which contains 1201 samples in total, and then proposed a network-based approach to characterize potential links bridging inflammation and cancer. For this purpose, we computed significantly dysregulated relationships between inflammation and their linked cancer networks, and then 24 core TFs with their dysregulated genes were identified. Collectively, our approach provides us with quite important insight into inflammation-associated tumorigenesis in colorectal cancer, which could also be applied to identify functionally dysregulated relationships mediating the links between other different disease phenotypes.

  19. Does Anger Regulation Mediate the Discrimination-Mental Health Link among Mexican-Origin Adolescents? A Longitudinal Mediation Analysis Using Multilevel Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Irene J. K.; Wang, Lijuan; Williams, David R.; Alegría, Margarita

    2017-01-01

    Although prior research has consistently documented the association between racial/ethnic discrimination and poor mental health outcomes, the mechanisms that underlie this link are still unclear. The present 3-wave longitudinal study tested the mediating role of anger regulation in the discrimination-mental health link among 269 Mexican-origin…

  20. TLR4 links podocytes with the innate immune system to mediate glomerular injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banas, Miriam C; Banas, Bernhard; Hudkins, Kelly L

    2008-01-01

    profile of chemokines. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that TLR4 is constitutively expressed by podocytes and is upregulated in MPGN, where it may mediate glomerular injury by modulating expression of chemokines; therefore, TLR4 may link podocytes with the innate immune system to mediate MPGN triggered...... by the deposition of immune complexes....

  1. Amyloid β-mediated Zn2+ influx into dentate granule cells transiently induces a short-term cognitive deficit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Takeda

    Full Text Available We examined an idea that short-term cognition is transiently affected by a state of confusion in Zn2+ transport system due to a local increase in amyloid-β (Aβ concentration. A single injection of Aβ (25 pmol into the dentate gyrus affected dentate gyrus long-term potentiation (LTP 1 h after the injection, but not 4 h after the injection. Simultaneously, 1-h memory of object recognition was affected when the training was performed 1 h after the injection, but not 4 h after the injection. Aβ-mediated impairments of LTP and memory were rescued in the presence of zinc chelators, suggesting that Zn2+ is involved in Aβ action. When Aβ was injected into the dentate gyrus, intracellular Zn2+ levels were increased only in the injected area in the dentate gyrus, suggesting that Aβ induces the influx of Zn2+ into cells in the injected area. When Aβ was added to hippocampal slices, Aβ did not increase intracellular Zn2+ levels in the dentate granule cell layer in ACSF without Zn2+, but in ACSF containing Zn2+. The increase in intracellular Zn2+ levels was inhibited in the presence of CaEDTA, an extracellular zinc chelator, but not in the presence of CNQX, an AMPA receptor antagonist. The present study indicates that Aβ-mediated Zn2+ influx into dentate granule cells, which may occur without AMPA receptor activation, transiently induces a short-term cognitive deficit. Extracellular Zn2+ may play a key role for transiently Aβ-induced cognition deficits.

  2. Amyloid β-mediated Zn2+ influx into dentate granule cells transiently induces a short-term cognitive deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Atsushi; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Fujii, Hiroaki; Uematsu, Chihiro; Minamino, Tatsuya; Adlard, Paul A; Bush, Ashley I; Tamano, Haruna

    2014-01-01

    We examined an idea that short-term cognition is transiently affected by a state of confusion in Zn2+ transport system due to a local increase in amyloid-β (Aβ) concentration. A single injection of Aβ (25 pmol) into the dentate gyrus affected dentate gyrus long-term potentiation (LTP) 1 h after the injection, but not 4 h after the injection. Simultaneously, 1-h memory of object recognition was affected when the training was performed 1 h after the injection, but not 4 h after the injection. Aβ-mediated impairments of LTP and memory were rescued in the presence of zinc chelators, suggesting that Zn2+ is involved in Aβ action. When Aβ was injected into the dentate gyrus, intracellular Zn2+ levels were increased only in the injected area in the dentate gyrus, suggesting that Aβ induces the influx of Zn2+ into cells in the injected area. When Aβ was added to hippocampal slices, Aβ did not increase intracellular Zn2+ levels in the dentate granule cell layer in ACSF without Zn2+, but in ACSF containing Zn2+. The increase in intracellular Zn2+ levels was inhibited in the presence of CaEDTA, an extracellular zinc chelator, but not in the presence of CNQX, an AMPA receptor antagonist. The present study indicates that Aβ-mediated Zn2+ influx into dentate granule cells, which may occur without AMPA receptor activation, transiently induces a short-term cognitive deficit. Extracellular Zn2+ may play a key role for transiently Aβ-induced cognition deficits.

  3. Chinese Beliefs in Luck are Linked to Gambling Problems via Strengthened Cognitive Biases: A Mediation Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Matthew S M; Rogers, Robert D

    2017-12-01

    Problematic patterns of gambling and their harms are known to have culturally specific expressions. For ethnic Chinese people, patterns of superstitious belief in this community appear to be linked to the elevated rates of gambling-related harms; however, little is known about the mediating psychological mechanisms. To address this issue, we surveyed 333 Chinese gamblers residing internationally and used a mediation analysis to explore how gambling-related cognitive biases, gambling frequency and variety of gambling forms ('scope') mediate the association between beliefs in luck and gambling problems. We found that cognitive biases and scope were significant mediators of this link but that the former is a stronger mediator than the latter. The mediating erroneous beliefs were not specific to any particular type of cognitive bias. These results suggest that Chinese beliefs in luck are expressed as gambling cognitive biases that increase the likelihood of gambling problems, and that biases that promote gambling (and its harms) are best understood within their socio-cultural context.

  4. Linking of FRAP-T, FRAPCON and RELAP-4 codes for transient analysis and accidents of light water reactors fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marra Neto, A.; Silva, A.T. e; Sabundjian, G.; Freitas, R.L.; Neves Conti, T. das.

    1991-09-01

    The computer codes FRAP-T, FRAPCON and RELAP-4 have been linked for the fuel rod behavior analysis under transients and hypothetical accidents in light water reactors. The results calculated by thermal hydraulic code RELAP-4 give input in file format into the transient fuel analysis code FRAP-T. If the effect of fuel burnup is taken into account, the fuel performance code FRAPCON should provide the initial steady state data for thhe transient analysis. With the thermal hydraulic boundary conditions provided by RELAP-4 (MOD3), FRAP-T6 is used to analyse pressurized water reactor fuel rod behavior during the blowdown phase under large break loss of coolant accident conditions. Two cases have been analysed: without and with initialization from FRAPCON-2 steady state data. (author)

  5. Mood as a mediator of the link between child sexual abuse and psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, S; Bebbington, P

    2015-04-01

    The significance of affective changes in psychosis is increasingly acknowledged, as is the role of early traumatic events. In a previous paper, using data from the English Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (APMS2007), strong associations between child sexual abuse (CSA) and psychosis were demonstrated, with some evidence of mediation by affect. In the current paper, we subjected the same dataset to formal tests of mediation. For CSA involving sexual intercourse, 38.5% of the link was mediated, 30.0% by depression and 8.5% by anxiety. For all forms of contact abuse, 38.2% was mediated, 29.1% by depression and 9.1% by anxiety.

  6. Cytoskeletal dynamics in interphase, mitosis and cytokinesis analysed through Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation of tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, H; Green, P; Sambade, A; Doonan, J H; Lloyd, C W

    2011-04-01

    Transient transformation with Agrobacterium is a widespread tool allowing rapid expression analyses in plants. However, the available methods generate expression in interphase and do not allow the routine analysis of dividing cells. Here, we present a transient transformation method (termed 'TAMBY2') to enable cell biological studies in interphase and cell division. Agrobacterium-mediated transient gene expression in tobacco BY-2 was analysed by Western blotting and quantitative fluorescence microscopy. Time-lapse microscopy of cytoskeletal markers was employed to monitor cell division. Double-labelling in interphase and mitosis enabled localization studies. We found that the transient transformation efficiency was highest when BY-2/Agrobacterium co-cultivation was performed on solid medium. Transformants produced in this way divided at high frequency. We demonstrated the utility of the method by defining the behaviour of a previously uncharacterized microtubule motor, KinG, throughout the cell cycle. Our analyses demonstrated that TAMBY2 provides a flexible tool for the transient transformation of BY-2 with Agrobacterium. Fluorescence double-labelling showed that KinG localizes to microtubules and to F-actin. In interphase, KinG accumulates on microtubule lagging ends, suggesting a minus-end-directed function in vivo. Time-lapse studies of cell division showed that GFP-KinG strongly labels preprophase band and phragmoplast, but not the metaphase spindle. © 2010 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2010 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Plant Cell Division Analyzed by Transient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Tobacco BY-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The continuing analysis of plant cell division will require additional protein localization studies. This is greatly aided by GFP-technology, but plant transformation and the maintenance of transgenic lines can present a significant technical bottleneck. In this chapter I describe a method for the Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of tobacco BY-2 cells. The method allows for the microscopic analysis of fluorescence-tagged proteins in dividing cells in within 2 days after starting a coculture. This transient transformation procedure requires only standard laboratory equipment. It is hoped that this rapid method would aid researchers conducting live-cell localization studies in plant mitosis and cytokinesis.

  8. Optimization and utilization of Agrobacterium-mediated transient protein production in Nicotiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloul, Moneim; Trusa, Jason; Mett, Vadim; Yusibov, Vidadi

    2014-04-19

    Agrobacterium-mediated transient protein production in plants is a promising approach to produce vaccine antigens and therapeutic proteins within a short period of time. However, this technology is only just beginning to be applied to large-scale production as many technological obstacles to scale up are now being overcome. Here, we demonstrate a simple and reproducible method for industrial-scale transient protein production based on vacuum infiltration of Nicotiana plants with Agrobacteria carrying launch vectors. Optimization of Agrobacterium cultivation in AB medium allows direct dilution of the bacterial culture in Milli-Q water, simplifying the infiltration process. Among three tested species of Nicotiana, N. excelsiana (N. benthamiana × N. excelsior) was selected as the most promising host due to the ease of infiltration, high level of reporter protein production, and about two-fold higher biomass production under controlled environmental conditions. Induction of Agrobacterium harboring pBID4-GFP (Tobacco mosaic virus-based) using chemicals such as acetosyringone and monosaccharide had no effect on the protein production level. Infiltrating plant under 50 to 100 mbar for 30 or 60 sec resulted in about 95% infiltration of plant leaf tissues. Infiltration with Agrobacterium laboratory strain GV3101 showed the highest protein production compared to Agrobacteria laboratory strains LBA4404 and C58C1 and wild-type Agrobacteria strains at6, at10, at77 and A4. Co-expression of a viral RNA silencing suppressor, p23 or p19, in N. benthamiana resulted in earlier accumulation and increased production (15-25%) of target protein (influenza virus hemagglutinin).

  9. Does anger regulation mediate the discrimination-mental health link among Mexican-origin adolescents? A longitudinal mediation analysis using multilevel modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Irene J K; Wang, Lijuan; Williams, David R; Alegría, Margarita

    2017-02-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 53(2) of Developmental Psychology (see record 2017-04475-001). In the article, there were several typographical errors in the Recruitment and Procedures section. The percentage of mothers who responded to survey items should have been 99.3%. Additionally, the youths surveyed at T2 and T3 should have been n 246. Accordingly, the percentage of youths surveyed in T2 and T3 should have been 91.4% and the percentage of mothers surveyed at T2 and T3 should have been 90.7%. Finally, the youths missing at T2 should have been n 23, and therefore the attrition rate for youth participants should have been 8.6. All versions of this article have been corrected.] Although prior research has consistently documented the association between racial/ethnic discrimination and poor mental health outcomes, the mechanisms that underlie this link are still unclear. The present 3-wave longitudinal study tested the mediating role of anger regulation in the discrimination-mental health link among 269 Mexican-origin adolescents ( M age = 14.1 years, SD = 1.6; 57% girls), 12 to 17 years old. Three competing anger regulation variables were tested as potential mediators: outward anger expression, anger suppression, and anger control. Longitudinal mediation analyses were conducted using multilevel modeling that disaggregated within-person effects from between-person effects. Results indicated that outward anger expression was a significant mediator; anger suppression and anger control were not significant mediators. Within a given individual, greater racial/ethnic discrimination was associated with more frequent outward anger expression. In turn, more frequent outward anger expression was associated with higher levels of anxiety and depression at a given time point. Gender, age, and nativity status were not significant moderators of the hypothesized mediation models. By identifying outward anger expression as an explanatory

  10. Synthetic cold-inducible promoter enhances recombinant protein accumulation during Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression in Nicotiana excelsior at chilling temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasymenko, I M; Sheludko, Y V

    2017-07-01

    To exploit cold-inducible biochemical processes beneficial for foreign mRNA transcription, translation and storage, as well as protein product stability, during Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression. The efficiency of three different 5'-regulatory sequences to achieve transient expression of the GFP-based reporter gene under chilling conditions (6-8 °C since the 3rd day post inoculation) was compared. We studied the upstream sequences of a cold-inducible Arabidopsis thaliana cor15a gene, the core element of 35S CaMV promoter fused to the TMV omega 5'-UTR, and the synthetic promoter including the 35S core sequence and two binding sites for cold-inducible CBF transcription factors (P_DRE::35S). Cultivation of plants transiently expressing reporter gene under control of the synthetic P_DRE::35S promoter under chilling conditions since the 3rd dpi led to the reliably higher reporter accumulation as compared to the other tested regulatory sequences under chilling or greenhouse conditions. Reporter protein fluorescence under chilling conditions using P_DRE::35S reached 160% as compared to the transient expression in the greenhouse. Period of transient expression considerably extended if plants were cultivated at chilling temperature since the 3rd dpi: reporter protein fluorescence reached its maximum at the 20th dpi and was detected in leaves up to the 65th dpi. The enhanced protein accumulation at low temperature was accompanied by the prolonged period of corresponding mRNA accumulation. Transient expression under chilling conditions using synthetic cold-inducible promoter enhances target protein accumulation and may decrease greenhouse heating expenses.

  11. Role of solvent-mediated carbodiimide cross-linking in fabrication of electrospun gelatin nanofibrous membranes as ophthalmic biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Shih-Feng; Luo, Li-Jyuan; Lai, Jui-Yang; Ma, David Hui-Kang

    2017-01-01

    Due to their ability to mimic the structure of extracellular matrix, electrospun gelatin nanofibers are promising cell scaffolding materials for tissue engineering applications. However, the hydrophilic gelatin molecules usually need stabilization before use in aqueous physiological environment. Considering that biomaterials cross-linked via film immersion technique may have a more homogeneous cross-linked structure than vapor phase cross-linking, this work aims to investigate the chemical modification of electrospun gelatin nanofibrous membranes by liquid phase carbodiimide in the presence of ethanol/water co-solvents with varying ethanol concentrations ranging from 80 to 99.5 vol%. The results of characterization showed that increasing water content in the binary reaction solvent system increases the extent of cross-linking of gelatin nanofibers, but simultaneously promotes the effect of biopolymer swelling and distortion in fiber mat structure. As compared to non-cross-linked counterparts, carbodiimide treated gelatin nanofibrous mats exhibited better thermal and biological stability where the shrinkage temperature and resistance to enzymatic degradation varied in response to ethanol/water solvent composition-mediated generation of cross-links. Irrespective of their cross-linking density, all studied membrane samples did not induce any responses in ocular epithelial cell cultures derived from cornea, lens, and retina. Unlike many other cross-linking agents and/or methods (e.g., excessive vapor phase cross-linking) that may pose a risk of toxicity, our study demonstrated that these nanofibrous materials are well tolerated by anterior segment tissues. These findings also indicate the safety of using ethanol/water co-solvents for chemical cross-linking of gelatin to engineer nanofibrous materials with negligible biological effects. In summary, the present results suggest the importance of solvent-mediated carbodiimide cross-linking in modulating structure

  12. Role of solvent-mediated carbodiimide cross-linking in fabrication of electrospun gelatin nanofibrous membranes as ophthalmic biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Shih-Feng [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Tyler, Tyler, TX 75799 (United States); Luo, Li-Jyuan [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lai, Jui-Yang, E-mail: jylai@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Institute of Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Biomedical Engineering Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Center for Tissue Engineering, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan 33305, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Ophthalmology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan 33305, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, New Taipei City 24301, Taiwan, ROC (China); Ma, David Hui-Kang [Center for Tissue Engineering, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan 33305, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Ophthalmology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan 33305, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2017-02-01

    Due to their ability to mimic the structure of extracellular matrix, electrospun gelatin nanofibers are promising cell scaffolding materials for tissue engineering applications. However, the hydrophilic gelatin molecules usually need stabilization before use in aqueous physiological environment. Considering that biomaterials cross-linked via film immersion technique may have a more homogeneous cross-linked structure than vapor phase cross-linking, this work aims to investigate the chemical modification of electrospun gelatin nanofibrous membranes by liquid phase carbodiimide in the presence of ethanol/water co-solvents with varying ethanol concentrations ranging from 80 to 99.5 vol%. The results of characterization showed that increasing water content in the binary reaction solvent system increases the extent of cross-linking of gelatin nanofibers, but simultaneously promotes the effect of biopolymer swelling and distortion in fiber mat structure. As compared to non-cross-linked counterparts, carbodiimide treated gelatin nanofibrous mats exhibited better thermal and biological stability where the shrinkage temperature and resistance to enzymatic degradation varied in response to ethanol/water solvent composition-mediated generation of cross-links. Irrespective of their cross-linking density, all studied membrane samples did not induce any responses in ocular epithelial cell cultures derived from cornea, lens, and retina. Unlike many other cross-linking agents and/or methods (e.g., excessive vapor phase cross-linking) that may pose a risk of toxicity, our study demonstrated that these nanofibrous materials are well tolerated by anterior segment tissues. These findings also indicate the safety of using ethanol/water co-solvents for chemical cross-linking of gelatin to engineer nanofibrous materials with negligible biological effects. In summary, the present results suggest the importance of solvent-mediated carbodiimide cross-linking in modulating structure

  13. The Mediating Role of School Motivation in Linking Student Victimization and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weihua; Dempsey, Allison G.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the mediating role of student school motivation in linking student victimization experiences and academic achievement among a nationally representative sample of students in 10th grade. Structural equation modeling supported that there were significant associations between student victimization and academic achievement for high…

  14. Testing a mediation framework for the link between perceived discrimination and psychological distress among sexual minority individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Kashubeck-West, Susan; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Deitz, Cori

    2015-04-01

    Perceived discrimination is a risk factor for mental health problems among sexual minority individuals. An increasing number of research studies have investigated the mechanisms through which stigma-related stressors such as perceived discrimination are linked with adverse mental health outcomes for sexual minority populations. The integrative mediation framework proposed by Hatzenbuehler (2009) underscores the importance of identifying mediators in the association between stigma-related stressors and mental health outcomes. This study tested 3 mediators--expectations of rejection, anger rumination, and self-compassion--in the perceived discrimination-distress link. Moreover, it examined associations among these mediators. A nationwide sample of 265 sexual minorities responded to an online survey. Structural equation modeling results supported the mediator roles of expectations of rejection, anger rumination, and self-compassion. More specifically, perceived discrimination was associated with expectations of rejection, which, in turn, was associated with increased anger rumination and less self-compassion, resulting in greater psychological distress. The findings suggest several avenues for prevention and intervention with sexual minority individuals. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Effects of plant density on recombinant hemagglutinin yields in an Agrobacterium-mediated transient gene expression system using Nicotiana benthamiana plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiuchi, Naomichi; Matsuda, Ryo; Matoba, Nobuyuki; Fujiwara, Kazuhiro

    2017-08-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression systems enable plants to rapidly produce a wide range of recombinant proteins. To achieve economically feasible upstream production and downstream processing, it is beneficial to obtain high levels of two yield-related quantities of upstream production: recombinant protein content per fresh mass of harvested biomass (g gFM -1 ) and recombinant protein productivity per unit area-time (g m -2 /month). Here, we report that the density of Nicotiana benthamiana plants during upstream production had significant impacts on the yield-related quantities of recombinant hemagglutinin (HA). The two quantities were smaller at a high plant density of 400 plants m -2 than at a low plant density of 100 plants m -2 . The smaller quantities at the high plant density were attributed to: (i) a lower HA content in young leaves, which usually have high HA accumulation potentials; (ii) a lower biomass allocation to the young leaves; and (iii) a high area-time requirement for plants. Thus, plant density is a key factor for improving upstream production in Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression systems. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1762-1770. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The central nervous system phenotype of X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: a transient disorder of children and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mateen, Majeed; Craig, Alexa Kanwit; Chance, Phillip F

    2014-03-01

    We describe 2 patients with X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 1 (CMTX1) disease and central nervous system manifestations and review 19 cases from the literature. Our first case had not been previously diagnosed with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, and the second case, although known to have Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, was suspected of having CMTX1 after presentation with central nervous system manifestations. The most common central nervous system manifestations were transient and included dysarthria, ataxia, hemiparesis, and tetraparesis resembling periodic paralysis. Of the 21 patients, 19 presented at 21 years of age or younger, implicating CMTX1 with transient central nervous system manifestations as a disorder that predominantly affects children and adolescents. CMTX1 should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients who present with transient central nervous system phenomena, including stroke-like episodes, tetraparesis suggestive of periodic paralysis, dysarthria, ataxia, or combinations of these deficits. Reversible, bilateral, nonenhancing white matter lesions and restricted diffusion on magnetic resonance imaging are characteristic features of the central nervous system phenotype of CMTX1.

  17. The therapeutic CD38 monoclonal antibody daratumumab induces programmed cell death via fcg receptor-mediated cross-linking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overdijk, Marije B.; Jansen, J. H. Marco; Nederend, Maaike

    2016-01-01

    RIIb as well as activating FcgRs induce DARA cross-linking-mediated PCD. In conclusion, our in vitro and in vivo data show that FcgRmediated cross-linking of DARA induces PCD of CD38-expressing multiple myeloma tumor cells, which potentially contributes to the depth of response observed in DARA......Emerging evidence suggests that FcgR-mediated cross-linking of tumor-bound mAbs may induce signaling in tumor cells that contributes to their therapeutic activity. In this study, we show that daratumumab (DARA), a therapeutic human CD38 mAb with a broad-spectrum killing activity, is able to induce...... programmed cell death (PCD) of CD38+ multiple myeloma tumor cell lines when cross-linked in vitro by secondary Abs or via an FcgR. By comparing DARA efficacy in a syngeneic in vivo tumor model using FcRg-chain knockout or NOTAM mice carrying a signaling-inactive FcRg-chain, we found that the inhibitory Fcg...

  18. "Does anger regulation mediate the discrimination-mental health link among Mexican-origin adolescents? A longitudinal mediation analysis using multilevel modeling": Correction to Park et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Reports an error in "Does Anger Regulation Mediate the Discrimination-Mental Health Link Among Mexican-Origin Adolescents? A Longitudinal Mediation Analysis Using Multilevel Modeling" by Irene J. K. Park, Lijuan Wang, David R. Williams and Margarita Alegría ( Developmental Psychology , Advanced Online Publication, Nov 28, 2016, np). In the article, there were several typographical errors in the Recruitment and Procedures section. The percentage of mothers who responded to survey items should have been 99.3%. Additionally, the youths surveyed at T2 and T3 should have been n=246 . Accordingly, the percentage of youths surveyed in T2 and T3 should have been 91.4% and the percentage of mothers surveyed at T2 and T3 should have been 90.7%. Finally, the youths missing at T2 should have been n= 23, and therefore the attrition rate for youth participants should have been 8.6. All versions of this article have been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-57671-001.) Although prior research has consistently documented the association between racial/ethnic discrimination and poor mental health outcomes, the mechanisms that underlie this link are still unclear. The present 3-wave longitudinal study tested the mediating role of anger regulation in the discrimination-mental health link among 269 Mexican-origin adolescents ( M age = 14.1 years, SD = 1.6; 57% girls), 12 to 17 years old. Three competing anger regulation variables were tested as potential mediators: outward anger expression, anger suppression, and anger control. Longitudinal mediation analyses were conducted using multilevel modeling that disaggregated within-person effects from between-person effects. Results indicated that outward anger expression was a significant mediator; anger suppression and anger control were not significant mediators. Within a given individual, greater racial/ethnic discrimination was associated with more frequent outward anger expression. In turn

  19. VEGFR1-mediated pericyte ablation links VEGF and PlGF to cancer-associated retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Renhai; Xue, Yuan; Hedlund, Eva-Maria

    2010-01-01

    . Moreover, blockade of VEGFR1 but not VEGFR2 significantly restores pericyte saturation in mature retinal vessels. Our findings link VEGF and PlGF to cancer-associated retinopathy, reveal the molecular mechanisms of VEGFR1 ligand-mediated retinopathy, and define VEGFR1 as an important target......, and adenoviral vectors ablates pericytes from the mature retinal vasculature through the VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1)-mediated signaling pathway, leading to increased vascular leakage. In contrast, we demonstrate VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) is primarily expressed in nonvascular photoreceptors and ganglion cells...

  20. Linking optical and infrared observations with gravitational wave sources through transient variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubbs, C W

    2008-01-01

    Optical and infrared observations have thus far detected more celestial cataclysms than have been seen in gravity waves (GW). This argues that we should search for gravity wave signatures that correspond to transient variables seen at optical wavelengths, at precisely known positions. There is an unknown time delay between the optical and gravitational transient, but knowing the source location precisely specifies the corresponding time delays across the gravitational antenna network as a function of the GW-to-optical arrival time difference. Optical searches should detect virtually all supernovae that are plausible gravitational radiation sources. The transient optical signature expected from merging compact objects is not as well understood, but there are good reasons to expect detectable transient optical/IR emission from most of these sources as well. The next generation of deep wide-field surveys (for example PanSTARRS and LSST) will be sensitive to subtle optical variability, but we need to fill the 'blind spots' that exist in the galactic plane, and for optically bright transient sources. In particular, a galactic plane variability survey at λ∼ 2 μm seems worthwhile. Science would benefit from closer coordination between the various optical survey projects and the gravity wave community

  1. Gender-specific mediational links between parenting styles, parental monitoring, impulsiveness, drinking control, and alcohol-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; King, Kevin M; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A; Ulloa, Emilio C; Moses, Jennifer M Filson

    2011-03-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that traits may dynamically change as conditions change. One possible mechanism that may influence impulsiveness is parental monitoring. Parental monitoring reflects a knowledge regarding one's offspring's whereabouts and social connections. The aim of this investigation was to examine potential gender-specific parental influences to impulsiveness (general behavioral control), control over one's own drinking (specific behavioral control), and alcohol-related problems among individuals in a period of emerging adulthood. Direct and mediational links between parenting styles (permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative), parental monitoring, impulsiveness, drinking control, and alcohol-related problems were investigated. A multiple-group, SEM model with (316 women, 265 men) university students was examined. In general, the overall pattern among male and female respondents was distinct. For daughters, perceptions of a permissive father were indirectly linked to more alcohol-related problems through lower levels of monitoring by fathers and more impulsive symptoms. Perceptions of an authoritative father were also indirectly linked to fewer impulsive symptoms through higher levels of monitoring by fathers among daughters. For men, perceptions of a permissive mother were indirectly linked to more alcohol-related problems through lower levels of monitoring by mothers and more impulsive symptoms. For sons, perceptions of mother authoritativeness were indirectly linked to fewer alcohol-related problems through more monitoring by mothers and fewer impulsive symptoms. Monitoring by an opposite-gender parent mediated the link between parenting styles (i.e., permissive, authoritative) on impulsiveness.

  2. Transient magnetic tunneling mediated by a molecular bridge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalvová, Anděla; Špička, Václav; Velický, B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 3 (2015), 1087-1091 ISSN 1557-1939 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0897 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : non-equilibrium * initial conditions * transient currents * molecular islands Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.100, year: 2015

  3. Design, Construction, and Validation of Artificial MicroRNA Vectors Using Agrobacterium-Mediated Transient Expression System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwat, Basdeo; Chi, Ming; Han, Dianwei; Tang, Haifeng; Tang, Guiliang; Xiang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Artificial microRNA (amiRNA) technology utilizes microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis pathway to produce artificially selected small RNAs using miRNA gene backbone. It provides a feasible strategy for inducing loss of gene function, and has been applied in functional genomics study, improvement of crop quality and plant virus disease resistance. A big challenge in amiRNA applications is the unpredictability of silencing efficacy of the designed amiRNAs and not all constructed amiRNA candidates would be expressed effectively in plant cells. We and others found that high efficiency and specificity in RNA silencing can be achieved by designing amiRNAs with perfect or almost perfect sequence complementarity to their targets. In addition, we recently demonstrated that Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression system can be used to validate amiRNA constructs, which provides a simple, rapid and effective method to select highly expressible amiRNA candidates for stable genetic transformation. Here, we describe the methods for design of amiRNA candidates with perfect or almost perfect base-pairing to the target gene or gene groups, incorporation of amiRNA candidates in miR168a gene backbone by one step inverse PCR amplification, construction of plant amiRNA expression vectors, and assay of transient expression of amiRNAs in Nicotiana benthamiana through agro-infiltration, small RNA extraction, and amiRNA Northern blot.

  4. Interpersonal Mediators Linking Acculturation Stressors to Subsequent Internalizing Symptoms and Self-Esteem in Latino Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul Richard; Bacallao, Martica; Buchanan, Rachel Lee

    2009-01-01

    The specific aim of this study was to examine pathways leading to internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in Latino adolescents. Adolescent feelings of interpersonal humiliation, family conflict and commitment, and friendships with peers were investigated as potential mediators linking acculturation stress to subsequent adolescent self-esteem and…

  5. Pain and functional impairment as mediators of the link between medical symptoms and depression in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, William P; Bykowski, Cathy A; Mayhew, Laura L

    2013-03-01

    Among people with diabetes, depression is more common and is associated with greater morbidity and mortality. A better understanding of mechanisms underlying the link between poor health and depression is needed. Pain and functional impairment may account for the effect of poor health on depression in diabetes. The purpose of the study was to examine whether pain and functional impairment mediate the association between diabetes-related medical symptoms and depression in type 2 diabetes. Adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (N = 77) completed the following measures: Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ), Diabetes Symptom Checklist (DSC), and Medical Outcomes Study 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). Body mass index (BMI) was computed using height and weight data from medical records. Mediation and linear regression analyses were conducted. Pain and functional impairment made significant, independent contributions to depression. Functional impairment mediated the link between diabetes-related medical symptoms and depression. Pain mediated the association between higher BMI and depression. Pain and functional impairment appear to play important, independent roles in depression in type 2 diabetes. Mediation analyses suggest the following: 1. diabetes-related medical problems increase functional impairment, which in turn leads to greater depression; and 2. the burden of carrying greater body mass (higher BMI) increases pain, which leads to increased depression.

  6. Super-transient scaling in time-delay autonomous Boolean network motifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Huys, Otti, E-mail: otti.dhuys@phy.duke.edu; Haynes, Nicholas D. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Lohmann, Johannes [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Gauthier, Daniel J. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Autonomous Boolean networks are commonly used to model the dynamics of gene regulatory networks and allow for the prediction of stable dynamical attractors. However, most models do not account for time delays along the network links and noise, which are crucial features of real biological systems. Concentrating on two paradigmatic motifs, the toggle switch and the repressilator, we develop an experimental testbed that explicitly includes both inter-node time delays and noise using digital logic elements on field-programmable gate arrays. We observe transients that last millions to billions of characteristic time scales and scale exponentially with the amount of time delays between nodes, a phenomenon known as super-transient scaling. We develop a hybrid model that includes time delays along network links and allows for stochastic variation in the delays. Using this model, we explain the observed super-transient scaling of both motifs and recreate the experimentally measured transient distributions.

  7. College drinking behaviors: mediational links between parenting styles, parental bonds, depression, and alcohol problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A

    2007-09-01

    Mediational links between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), parental bond (positive, negative), depression, alcohol use and abuse were tested. A 2-group, multiple-indicator, multiple-cause structural equation model with 441 (216 female, 225 male) college students was examined. In general, a poor parental bond with one's father was highly predictive of depression, a well-known predictor of alcohol abuse and related problems for both genders. In contrast, a positive parental bond with one's father significantly mediated the positive effects of authoritative fathering on depression, which then decreased alcohol use problems for both genders. For women, a negative parental bond with one's father significantly mediated the effect of having an authoritarian father on depression, which increased alcohol use problems. These findings suggest that parental influences on pathways to alcohol abuse through depression (primarily through fathers for both genders) are distinct from pathways stemming from poor impulse control (with influences primarily from the same-sex parents for both genders).

  8. The Pyrexia transient receptor potential channel mediates circadian clock synchronization to low temperature cycles in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang, Werner; Simoni, Alekos; Gentile, Carla; Stanewsky, Ralf

    2013-10-07

    Circadian clocks are endogenous approximately 24 h oscillators that temporally regulate many physiological and behavioural processes. In order to be beneficial for the organism, these clocks must be synchronized with the environmental cycles on a daily basis. Both light : dark and the concomitant daily temperature cycles (TCs) function as Zeitgeber ('time giver') and efficiently entrain circadian clocks. The temperature receptors mediating this synchronization have not been identified. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels function as thermo-receptors in animals, and here we show that the Pyrexia (Pyx) TRP channel mediates temperature synchronization in Drosophila melanogaster. Pyx is expressed in peripheral sensory organs (chordotonal organs), which previously have been implicated in temperature synchronization. Flies deficient for Pyx function fail to synchronize their behaviour to TCs in the lower range (16-20°C), and this deficit can be partially rescued by introducing a wild-type copy of the pyx gene. Synchronization to higher TCs is not affected, demonstrating a specific role for Pyx at lower temperatures. In addition, pyx mutants speed up their clock after being exposed to TCs. Our results identify the first TRP channel involved in temperature synchronization of circadian clocks.

  9. College drinking behaviors: mediational links between parenting styles, impulse control, and alcohol-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A

    2006-06-01

    Mediational links between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), impulsiveness (general control), drinking control (specific control), and alcohol use and abuse were tested. A pattern-mixture approach (for modeling non-ignorable missing data) with multiple-group structural equation models with 421 (206 female, 215 male) college students was used. Gender was examined as a potential moderator of parenting styles on control processes related to drinking. Specifically, the parent-child gender match was found to have implications for increased levels of impulsiveness (a significant mediator of parenting effects on drinking control). These findings suggest that a parent with a permissive parenting style who is the same gender as the respondent can directly influence control processes and indirectly influence alcohol use and abuse.

  10. Altered Cross-linking of HSP27 by Zerumbone as a Novel Strategy for Overcoming HSP27- mediated Resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seo Hyun; Lee, Yoon Jin; Lee, Hae June; Lee, Yun Sil; Kim, Joon; Seo, Woo Duck; Nam, Joo Won; Lee, Yoo Jin; Seo, Eun Kyung

    2010-01-01

    HSPs have diverse roles in the regulation of signal transduction and in numerous aspects of cell growth and death. Indeed, HSP90, HSP70, and HSP27 have each been implicated in promoting cancer. Most HSP27 exists as large oligomeric complexes ranging from 100- 800 kDa, which are probably stabilized by complex interactions between dimeric building blocks. The functional properties of HSP27 are dependent on the quaternary structure of the protein. For example, HSP27 acts as a chaperone and binds to cytochrome c or Daxx as a dimer. Therefore, the oligomerization pattern of HPS27 is believed to have HSP27-mediated protective functions. In this study, zerumbone (ZER), the cytotoxic component isolated from Zingiber zerumbet Smith, induced cross-linking of HSP27 protein by its insertion between the disulfide bond of HSP27, and ZERmediated altered cross-linking of HSP27 modified normal HSP27 dimerization, which resulted in a sensitizing effect to tumors after treatment with radiation. Therefore, altered cross-linking by ZER may be a novel strategy for inhibition of HSP27-mediated resistance

  11. Repetitive Transient Ischemia-Induced Cardiac Angiogenesis is Mediated by Camkii Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuobin Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Coronary angiogenesis is an important protective mechanism in response to myocardial ischemia in coronary artery disease. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. Here, we investigated the role of CaMKII activation in ischemia-induced cardiac angiogenesis. Methods: Repetitive transient ischemia model was established in C57/BL6 mice by daily multiple episodes (3 times/day of short time (5 min occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 7 days. Coronary angiogenesis was detected by immunofluorescent staining. RT-qPCR and Western blot analyses were used to detect the mRNA and protein levels of CaMKII, p-CaMKII and VEGF. Primary cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs were isolated to investigate the effects of KN93 on cell proliferation and migration in hypoxic condition. Results: We found that angiogenesis was induced in the ischemic myocardium and suppressed by chronic intraperitoneal injection of CaMKII inhibitor KN93. RT-qPCR and Western blot analyses showed that myocardial ischemia induced an increased expression and autophosphorylation of CaMKII. VEGF expression was increased in the ischemia model but blunted by KN93. Moreover, KN93 suppressed the proliferation and migration of cardiac endothelial cells in hypoxic condition in which the protein expression of CaMKII, p-CaMKII and VEGF was increased. Conclusion: CaMKII is an important mediator for the ischemia-induced coronary angiogenesis, in which CaMKII-triggered VEGF expression plays a key role.

  12. Repeated Transient Jets from a Warped Disk in the Symbiotic Prototype Z And: A Link to the Long-lasting Active Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skopal, Augustin; Tarasova, Taya. N.; Wolf, Marek; Dubovský, Pavol A.; Kudzej, Igor

    2018-05-01

    Active phases of some symbiotic binaries survive for a long time, from years to decades. The accretion process onto a white dwarf (WD) sustaining long-lasting activity, and sometimes leading to collimated ejection, is not well understood. We present the repeated emergence of highly collimated outflows (jets) from the symbiotic prototype Z And during its 2008 and 2009–10 outbursts and suggest their link to the current long-lasting (from 2000) active phase. We monitored Z And with high-resolution spectroscopy, multicolor UBVR C—and high time resolution—photometry. The well-pronounced bipolar jets were ejected again during the 2009–10 outburst together with the simultaneous emergence of the rapid photometric variability (Δm ≈ 0.06 mag) on the timescale of hours, showing similar properties as those during the 2006 outburst. These phenomena and the measured disk–jets connection could be caused by the radiation-induced warping of the inner disk due to a significant increase of the burning WD luminosity. Ejection of transient jets by Z And around outburst maxima signals a transient accretion at rates above the upper limit of the stable hydrogen burning on the WD surface, and thus proves the nature of Z And-type outbursts. The enhanced accretion through the disk warping, supplemented by the accretion from the giant’s wind, can keep a high luminosity of the WD for a long time, until depletion of the disk. In this way, the jets provide a link to long-lasting active phases of Z And.

  13. Mediational links among parenting styles, perceptions of parental confidence, self-esteem, and depression on alcohol-related problems in emerging adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A

    2009-03-01

    Depression is often found to be comorbid with alcohol-related problems. Parental overprotection, which may be of particular importance during emerging adulthood, has been linked to internalizing symptoms in offspring. This article evaluates the impact of parenting styles and parental confidence in their offspring on an internalizing pathway to alcohol-related problems through self-esteem and depression. Mediational links were tested among parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), parental confidence (overprotection, autonomy), self-esteem, depression, and alcohol-related problems. A two-group, multiple indicator multiple-cause structural equation model with 441 (216 female, 225 male) college students was examined. Overall, having a father who was confident in his child's ability to make autonomous decisions was protective against depression for both genders. Perceptions of paternal autonomy mediated the impact of the fathers' parenting styles (authoritative, permissive) on depression for both genders. For men, parental overprotection mediated the impact of an authoritarian father on self-esteem, and self-esteem mediated the impact of parental overprotection on depression. Moreover, among men, perceptions of maternal autonomy mediated the impact of the mothers' parenting styles (authoritative, permissive) on self-esteem, and self-esteem mediated the impact of maternal autonomy on depression. The current pattern of findings is distinct from pathways through behavioral undercontrol with influences from the same-sex parent for both genders. These findings indicate that parenting may have differential influences on internalizing pathways to alcohol-related problems.

  14. Mediational Links Among Parenting Styles, Perceptions of Parental Confidence, Self-Esteem, and Depression on Alcohol-Related Problems in Emerging Adulthood*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Depression is often found to be comorbid with alcohol-related problems. Parental overprotection, which may be of particular importance during emerging adulthood, has been linked to internalizing symptoms in offspring. This article evaluates the impact of parenting styles and parental confidence in their offspring on an internalizing pathway to alcohol-related problems through self-esteem and depression. Method: Mediational links were tested among parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), parental confidence (overprotection, autonomy), self-esteem, depression, and alcohol-related problems. A two-group, multiple indicator multiple-cause structural equation model with 441 (216 female, 225 male) college students was examined. Results: Overall, having a father who was confident in his child's ability to make autonomous decisions was protective against depression for both genders. Perceptions of paternal autonomy mediated the impact of the fathers' parenting styles (authoritative, permissive) on depression for both genders. For men, parental overprotection mediated the impact of an authoritarian father on self-esteem, and self-esteem mediated the impact of parental overprotection on depression. Moreover, among men, perceptions of maternal autonomy mediated the impact of the mothers' parenting styles (authoritative, permissive) on self-esteem, and self-esteem mediated the impact of maternal autonomy on depression. Conclusions: The current pattern of findings is distinct from pathways through behavioral undercontrol with influences from the same-sex parent for both genders. These findings indicate that parenting may have differential influences on internalizing pathways to alcohol-related problems. PMID:19261233

  15. Experiential avoidance mediates the link between maternal attachment style and theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanwoerden, Salome; Kalpakci, Allison H; Sharp, Carla

    2015-02-01

    Theoretical and empirical models suggest a relation between attachment style and theory of mind (ToM) in childhood and adulthood; however, this link has not been evaluated to the same extent in adolescence. Additionally, these models typically fail to consider mechanisms by which attachment style affects ToM abilities. The present study sought to test a mediational model in which experiential avoidance mediates the relation between maternal attachment style and ToM. A sample of 282 adolescents (Mage=15.42years, SD=1.44, 62.8% female) was recruited from an inpatient psychiatric hospital. Findings revealed that maternal attachment style in females was related to ToM, through experiential avoidance. Specifically, those with a disorganized maternal attachment were most likely to engage in experiential avoidant cognitive and emotional strategies, which in turn related to lower levels of ToM ability. Implications and areas for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Transient Voltage Stability Analysis and Improvement of A Network with different HVDC Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yan; Chen, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents transient voltage stability analysis of an AC system with multi-infeed HVDC links including a traditional LCC HVDC link and a VSC HVDC link. It is found that the voltage supporting capability of the VSC-HVDC link is significantly influenced by the tie-line distance between the...

  17. Linking Childhood Maltreatment to Substance Use in College Students: The Mediating Role of Self-Worth Contingencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungmeen; Williams, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the link between childhood maltreatment and substance use focusing on examining contingencies of self-worth (CSW) as mediators among college students (N = 513). Structural equation modeling indicated that childhood sexual abuse among females was related to lower God's love CSW, which in turn was related to higher levels of cigarette, marijuana, and other illicit drug use, supporting the mediational role of God's love CSW. Correlational analyses demonstrated that, for both male and female students, external contingency of appearance was related to higher substance use, whereas internal contingencies of God's love and virtue were related to lower substance use. The findings highlight the protective role of internal CSW in substance use among females with childhood sexual abuse.

  18. Kin28 regulates the transient association of Mediator with core promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeronimo, Célia; Robert, François

    2014-05-01

    Mediator is an essential, broadly used eukaryotic transcriptional coactivator. How and what Mediator communicates from activators to RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) remains an open question. Here we performed genome-wide location profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mediator subunits. Mediator is not found at core promoters but rather occupies the upstream activating sequence, upstream of the pre-initiation complex. In the absence of Kin28 (CDK7) kinase activity or in cells in which the RNAPII C-terminal domain is mutated to replace Ser5 with alanine, however, Mediator accumulates at core promoters together with RNAPII. We propose that Mediator is released quickly from promoters after phosphorylation of Ser5 by Kin28 (CDK7), which also allows for RNAPII to escape from the promoter.

  19. Links between Maternal and Child Psychopathology Symptoms: Mediation through Child Emotion Regulation and Moderation through Maternal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology symptoms with 7-12 year-old children (N = 97; 44 boys, 53 girls, M age = 9.14, SD = 1.38) and their mothers (M age = 38.46, SD = 6.86). Child emotion regulation mediated the links between maternal psychopathology and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms. In turn,…

  20. Single-cell analysis reveals a link between CD3- and CD59-mediated signaling pathways in Jurkat T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipp, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Elevation of intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) is a key signal during T cell activation and is commonly used as a read-out parameter for stimulation of T cell signaling. Upon T cell stimulation a variety of calcium signals is produced by individual cells of the T cell population and the type of calcium signal strongly influences cell fate decisions. The heterogeneous nature of T cells is masked in ensemble measurements, which highlights the need for single-cell measurements. In this study we used single-cell calcium measurements in Jurkat cells to investigate signaling pathways, which are triggered by different proteins, namely CD3 and CD59. By application of an automated cluster algorithm the presented assay provides unbiased analysis of a large data set of individual calcium time traces generated by the whole cell population. By using this method we could demonstrate that the Jurkat population generates heterogeneous calcium signals in a stimulus-dependent manner. Furthermore, our data revealed the existence of a link between CD3- and CD59-mediated signaling pathways. Single-cell calcium measurements in Jurkat cells expressing different levels of the T cell receptor (TCR) complex indicated that CD59-mediated calcium signaling is critically dependent on TCR surface expression levels. In addition, triggering CD59-mediated calcium signaling resulted in down-regulation of TCR surface expression levels, which is known to happen upon direct TCR triggering too. Moreover, by using siRNA-mediated protein knock-downs and protein knock-out Jurkat mutants we could show that CD3- and CD59-mediated calcium signaling require identical key proteins. We therefore explored by which mechanism CD59-mediated signaling couples into TCR-mediated signaling. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments and live-cell protein-protein interaction assays provided no evidence of a direct physical interaction between CD3- and CD59-mediated signaling pathways

  1. Agrobacterium mediated transient gene silencing (AMTS in Stevia rebaudiana: insights into steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Guleria

    Full Text Available Steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway has emerged as bifurcation from ent-kaurenoic acid, substrate of methyl erythritol phosphate pathway that also leads to gibberellin biosynthesis. However, the genetic regulation of steviol glycoside biosynthesis has not been studied. So, in present study RNA interference (RNAi based Agrobacterium mediated transient gene silencing (AMTS approach was followed. SrKA13H and three SrUGTs (SrUGT85C2, SrUGT74G1 and SrUGT76G1 genes encoding ent-kaurenoic acid-13 hydroxylase and three UDP glycosyltransferases of steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway were silenced in Stevia rebaudiana to understand its molecular mechanism and association with gibberellins.RNAi mediated AMTS of SrKA13H and three SrUGTs has significantly reduced the expression of targeted endogenous genes as well as total steviol glycoside accumulation. While gibberellins (GA3 content was significantly enhanced on AMTS of SrUGT85C2 and SrKA13H. Silencing of SrKA13H and SrUGT85C2 was found to block the metabolite flux of steviol glycoside pathway and shifted it towards GA3 biosynthesis. Further, molecular docking of three SrUGT proteins has documented highest affinity of SrUGT76G1 for the substrates of alternate pathways synthesizing steviol glycosides. This could be a plausible reason for maximum reduction in steviol glycoside content on silencing of SrUGT76G1 than other genes.SrKA13H and SrUGT85C2 were identified as regulatory genes influencing carbon flux between steviol glycoside and gibberellin biosynthesis. This study has also documented the existence of alternate steviol glycoside biosynthesis route.

  2. Seed-mediated synthesis of cross-linked Pt-NiO nanochains for methanol oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Zhulan; Bin, Duan; Feng, Yue; Zhang, Ke; Wang, Jin; Yan, Bo; Li, Shumin; Xiong, Zhiping; Wang, Caiqin; Shiraishi, Yukihide; Du, Yukou, E-mail: duyk@suda.edu.cn

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • Cross-linked Pt-NiO nanochains using seed-mediated growth method are synthesized. • The as-prepared catalysts exhibit higher electrocatalytic activity than Pt/C for MOR. • The Pt-NiO(1:1 by molar) catalyst shows the best electrocatalytic property towards MOR. - Abstract: A simple method was reported for employing NiO nanoparticles act as seeds and then different amounts of Pt{sup 2+} were reduced on the NiO nanoparticles, forming a cross-linked Pt-NiO nanocatalysts. These as-prepared catalysts were characterized using different physical-chemical techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that the morphology of the cross-linked Pt-NiO nanochain was successfully produced regardless of the molar ratio of Pt{sup 2+} to NiO precursors. The electrochemical characteristics of Pt-NiO nanochain catalysts were evaluated for the oxidation of methanol as a model reaction, which verify that the Pt-NiO catalysts show enhanced activity and high stability in comparison with the commercial Pt/C catalyst. The optimized ratio of Pt to NiO is 1:1, then tuned by simple adjusting the feed ratio of the precursors as well. The synthesized nanocatalysts will be found the great potential applications as electrocatalysts for fuel cells owe to their enhanced catalytic performance and long-term stability.

  3. Seed-mediated synthesis of cross-linked Pt-NiO nanochains for methanol oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Zhulan; Bin, Duan; Feng, Yue; Zhang, Ke; Wang, Jin; Yan, Bo; Li, Shumin; Xiong, Zhiping; Wang, Caiqin; Shiraishi, Yukihide; Du, Yukou

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Cross-linked Pt-NiO nanochains using seed-mediated growth method are synthesized. • The as-prepared catalysts exhibit higher electrocatalytic activity than Pt/C for MOR. • The Pt-NiO(1:1 by molar) catalyst shows the best electrocatalytic property towards MOR. - Abstract: A simple method was reported for employing NiO nanoparticles act as seeds and then different amounts of Pt 2+ were reduced on the NiO nanoparticles, forming a cross-linked Pt-NiO nanocatalysts. These as-prepared catalysts were characterized using different physical-chemical techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that the morphology of the cross-linked Pt-NiO nanochain was successfully produced regardless of the molar ratio of Pt 2+ to NiO precursors. The electrochemical characteristics of Pt-NiO nanochain catalysts were evaluated for the oxidation of methanol as a model reaction, which verify that the Pt-NiO catalysts show enhanced activity and high stability in comparison with the commercial Pt/C catalyst. The optimized ratio of Pt to NiO is 1:1, then tuned by simple adjusting the feed ratio of the precursors as well. The synthesized nanocatalysts will be found the great potential applications as electrocatalysts for fuel cells owe to their enhanced catalytic performance and long-term stability.

  4. Transient receptor potential channel superfamily: Role in lower urinary tract function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Teruyuki; Imamura, Tetsuya; Nakazawa, Masaki; Hiragata, Shiro; Nagai, Takashi; Minagawa, Tomonori; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Ishikawa, Masakuni; Domen, Takahisa; Ishizuka, Osamu

    2015-11-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms associated with neurogenic bladder and overactive bladder syndrome are mediated in part by members of the transient receptor potential channel superfamily. The best studied member of this superfamily is the vanilloid receptor. Other transient receptor potential channels, such as the melastatin receptor and the ankyrin receptor, are also active in the pathogenesis of lower urinary tract dysfunction. However, the detailed mechanisms by which the transient receptor potential channels contribute to lower urinary tract symptoms are still not clear, and the therapeutic benefits of modulating transient receptor potential channel activity have not been proved in the clinical setting. In the present review, to better understand the pathophysiology and therapeutic potential for lower urinary tract symptoms, we summarize the presence and role of different members of the transient receptor potential channel superfamily in the lower urinary tract. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  5. Links between Local Language Competence and Peer Relations among Swiss and Immigrant Children: The Mediating Role of Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Grunigen, Renate; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky; Perren, Sonja; Alsaker, Francoise D.

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of this investigation was to evaluate a model in which children's social behaviors, including prosocial behavior, setting limits, and social withdrawal, were hypothesized to mediate the links between local language competence (LLC) and peer acceptance and victimization. Longitudinal data were collected via teacher and peer reports…

  6. Synaptotagmin-11 is a critical mediator of parkin-linked neurotoxicity and Parkinson’s disease-like pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Changhe; Kang, Xinjiang; Zhou, Li; Chai, Zuying; Wu, Qihui; Huang, Rong; Xu, Huadong; Hu, Meiqin; Sun, Xiaoxuan; Sun, Suhua; Li, Jie; Jiao, Ruiying; Zuo, Panli; Zheng, Lianghong; Yue, Zhenyu

    2018-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in Parkin are the most common causes of autosomal recessive Parkinson’s disease (PD). Many putative substrates of parkin have been reported; their pathogenic roles, however, remain obscure due to poor characterization, particularly in vivo. Here, we show that synaptotagmin-11, encoded by a PD-risk gene SYT11, is a physiological substrate of parkin and plays critical roles in mediating parkin-linked neurotoxicity. Unilateral overexpression of full-length, but not C2B...

  7. Agrobacterium Mediated Transient Gene Silencing (AMTS) in Stevia rebaudiana: Insights into Steviol Glycoside Biosynthesis Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guleria, Praveen; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background Steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway has emerged as bifurcation from ent-kaurenoic acid, substrate of methyl erythritol phosphate pathway that also leads to gibberellin biosynthesis. However, the genetic regulation of steviol glycoside biosynthesis has not been studied. So, in present study RNA interference (RNAi) based Agrobacterium mediated transient gene silencing (AMTS) approach was followed. SrKA13H and three SrUGTs (SrUGT85C2, SrUGT74G1 and SrUGT76G1) genes encoding ent-kaurenoic acid-13 hydroxylase and three UDP glycosyltransferases of steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway were silenced in Stevia rebaudiana to understand its molecular mechanism and association with gibberellins. Methodology/Principal Findings RNAi mediated AMTS of SrKA13H and three SrUGTs has significantly reduced the expression of targeted endogenous genes as well as total steviol glycoside accumulation. While gibberellins (GA3) content was significantly enhanced on AMTS of SrUGT85C2 and SrKA13H. Silencing of SrKA13H and SrUGT85C2 was found to block the metabolite flux of steviol glycoside pathway and shifted it towards GA3 biosynthesis. Further, molecular docking of three SrUGT proteins has documented highest affinity of SrUGT76G1 for the substrates of alternate pathways synthesizing steviol glycosides. This could be a plausible reason for maximum reduction in steviol glycoside content on silencing of SrUGT76G1 than other genes. Conclusions SrKA13H and SrUGT85C2 were identified as regulatory genes influencing carbon flux between steviol glycoside and gibberellin biosynthesis. This study has also documented the existence of alternate steviol glycoside biosynthesis route. PMID:24023961

  8. 4T1 Murine Mammary Carcinoma Cells Enhance Macrophage-Mediated Innate Inflammatory Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Madera

    Full Text Available Tumor progression and the immune response are intricately linked. While it is known that cancers alter macrophage inflammatory responses to promote tumor progression, little is known regarding how cancers affect macrophage-dependent innate host defense. In this study, murine bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM were exposed to murine carcinoma-conditioned media prior to assessment of the macrophage inflammatory response. BMDMs exposed to 4T1 mammary carcinoma-conditioned medium demonstrated enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6, and CCL2 in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS while production of interleukin-10 remained unchanged. The increased LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was transient and correlated with enhanced cytokine production in response to other Toll-like receptor agonists, including peptidoglycan and flagellin. In addition, 4T1-conditioned BMDMs exhibited strengthened LPS-induced nitric oxide production and enhanced phagocytosis of Escherichia coli. 4T1-mediated augmentation of macrophage responses to LPS was partially dependent on the NFκB pathway, macrophage-colony stimulating factor, and actin polymerization, as well as the presence of 4T1-secreted extracellular vesicles. Furthermore, peritoneal macrophages obtained from 4T1 tumor-bearing mice displayed enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to LPS. These results suggest that uptake of 4T1-secreted factors and actin-mediated ingestion of 4T1-secreted exosomes by macrophages cause a transient enhancement of innate inflammatory responses. Mammary carcinoma-mediated regulation of innate immunity may have significant implications for our understanding of host defense and cancer progression.

  9. Epidermal growth factor induction of front–rear polarity and migration in keratinocytes is mediated by integrin-linked kinase and ELMO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ernest; Dagnino, Lina

    2012-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a potent chemotactic and mitogenic factor for epidermal keratinocytes, and these properties are central for normal epidermal regeneration after injury. The involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases as mediators of the proliferative effects of EGF is well established. However, the molecular mechanisms that mediate motogenic responses to this growth factor are not clearly understood. An obligatory step for forward cell migration is the development of front–rear polarity and formation of lamellipodia at the leading edge. We show that stimulation of epidermal keratinocytes with EGF, but not with other growth factors, induces development of front–rear polarity and directional migration through a pathway that requires integrin-linked kinase (ILK), Engulfment and Cell Motility-2 (ELMO2), integrin β1, and Rac1. Furthermore, EGF induction of front–rear polarity and chemotaxis require the tyrosine kinase activity of the EGF receptor and are mediated by complexes containing active RhoG, ELMO2, and ILK. Our findings reveal a novel link between EGF receptor stimulation, ILK-containing complexes, and activation of small Rho GTPases necessary for acquisition of front–rear polarity and forward movement. PMID:22160594

  10. Epidermal growth factor induction of front-rear polarity and migration in keratinocytes is mediated by integrin-linked kinase and ELMO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ernest; Dagnino, Lina

    2012-02-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a potent chemotactic and mitogenic factor for epidermal keratinocytes, and these properties are central for normal epidermal regeneration after injury. The involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases as mediators of the proliferative effects of EGF is well established. However, the molecular mechanisms that mediate motogenic responses to this growth factor are not clearly understood. An obligatory step for forward cell migration is the development of front-rear polarity and formation of lamellipodia at the leading edge. We show that stimulation of epidermal keratinocytes with EGF, but not with other growth factors, induces development of front-rear polarity and directional migration through a pathway that requires integrin-linked kinase (ILK), Engulfment and Cell Motility-2 (ELMO2), integrin β1, and Rac1. Furthermore, EGF induction of front-rear polarity and chemotaxis require the tyrosine kinase activity of the EGF receptor and are mediated by complexes containing active RhoG, ELMO2, and ILK. Our findings reveal a novel link between EGF receptor stimulation, ILK-containing complexes, and activation of small Rho GTPases necessary for acquisition of front-rear polarity and forward movement.

  11. Transient and stationary eddies in differing GCM climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, N.M.J.; Valdes, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    The response of transients to changing forcing/boundary conditions can be just as striking as the response of mean fields such as surface temperature. Indeed the two are intimately linked and the extent to which the transients are either controlled by, or shape the mean flow is difficult to quantify. Diagnostics are presented from several GCM equilibrium climate simulations using the UGAMP GCM. These include representations of the present climate: The Last Glacial Maximum and the Jurassic climate (150 M years ago). Changes in the distribution of transient eddy activity are compared with changes in low level baroclinicity to assess the direct response of the storm tracks to local conditions. Budget calculations are also presented to identify the changing roles of different components of the atmospheric circulation in transporting heat and moisture from equator to pole

  12. Meteorological interpretation of transient LOD changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Y.

    2008-04-01

    The Earth’s spin rate is mainly changed by zonal winds. For example, seasonal changes in global atmospheric circulation and episodic changes accompanied with El Nĩ os are clearly detected n in the Length-of-day (LOD). Sub-global to regional meteorological phenomena can also change the wind field, however, their effects on the LOD are uncertain because such LOD signals are expected to be subtle and transient. In our previous study (Masaki, 2006), we introduced atmospheric pressure gradients in the upper atmosphere in order to obtain a rough picture of the meteorological features that can change the LOD. In this presentation, we compare one-year LOD data with meteorological elements (winds, temperature, pressure, etc.) and make an attempt to link transient LOD changes with sub-global meteorological phenomena.

  13. Optimizing conditions for calcium phosphate mediated transient transfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Guo

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: Calcium phosphate mediated transfection is the most low-cost approach to introduce recombinant DNA into culture cells. However, the utility of this procedure is limited in highly-differentiated cells. Here we describe the specific HBS-buffered saline, PH, glycerol shock, vortex strength, transfection medium, and particle concentrations conditions necessary to optimize this transfection method in highly differentiated cells.

  14. Transient Antiphospholipid Syndrome Associated with Primary Cytomegalovirus Infection: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Nakayama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral infection is known to induce transient autoimmunity in humans. Acute cytomegalovirus (CMV infection is implicated in occasional thrombosis formation. We here, for the first time, report a 19-year-old female who had an acute CMV infection, leading to a deep venous thrombosis and a pulmonary embolism along with transient appearance of lupus anticoagulant. The pathological role of antiphospholipid antibodies in CMV-mediated thrombosis is discussed.

  15. LEGAL CULTURES AND MEDIATION. INTERACTIONS AND EVOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Ramon D. BUTCULESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mediation, as an alternative dispute resolution method, is closely connected with the system of legal cultures. Mediation is an important link between legal culture and the judicial system. Mediation also acts as an interface between internal legal culture and external legal culture. This paper addresses the issues regarding the links and interactions between mediation and legal cultures, as well as the effects that arise from these interactions.

  16. Lysosomal ceramide generated by acid sphingomyelinase triggers cytosolic cathepsin B-mediated degradation of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein in natural killer/T lymphoma cell apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Taniguchi, M; Ogiso, H; Takeuchi, T; Kitatani, K; Umehara, H; Okazaki, T

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that IL-2 deprivation induced acid sphingomyelinase-mediated (ASM-mediated) ceramide elevation and apoptosis in an NK/T lymphoma cell line KHYG-1. However, the molecular mechanism of ASM?ceramide-mediated apoptosis during IL-2 deprivation is poorly understood. Here, we showed that IL-2 deprivation induces caspase-dependent apoptosis characterized by phosphatidylserine externalization, caspase-8, -9, and -3 cleavage, and degradation of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis pro...

  17. Preparation of Thermo-Responsive and Cross-Linked Fluorinated Nanoparticles via RAFT-Mediated Aqueous Polymerization in Nanoreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiachen; Zhang, Luqing; Geng, Bing; Azhar, Umair; Xu, Anhou; Zhang, Shuxiang

    2017-01-25

    In this work, a thermo-responsive and cross-linked fluoropolymer poly(2,2,2-Trifluoroethyl) methacrylate (PTFEMA) was successfully prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) mediated aqueous polymerization with a thermo-responsive diblock poly(dimethylacrylamide- b - N -isopropylacrylamide) (PDMA- b -PNIPAM) that performed a dual function as both a nanoreactor and macro-RAFT agent. The cross-linked polymer particles proved to be in a spherical-like structure of about 50 nm in diameter and with a relatively narrow particle size distribution. ¹H-NMR and 19 F-NMR spectra showed that thermo-responsive diblock P(DMA- b -NIPAM) and cross-linked PTFEMA particles were successfully synthesized. Influence of the amount of ammonium persulfate (APS), the molar ratio of monomers to RAFT agent, influence of the amount of cross-linker on aqueous polymerization and thermo-responsive characterization of the particles are investigated. Monomer conversion increased from 44% to 94% with increasing the molar ratio of APS and P(DMA- b -NIPAM) from 1:9 to1:3. As the reaction proceeded, the particle size increased from 29 to 49 nm due to the consumption of TFEMA monomer. The size of cross-linked nanoparticles sharply decreased from 50.3 to 40.5 nm over the temperature range 14-44 °C, suggesting good temperature sensitivity for these nanoparticles.

  18. Protoplast isolation, transient transformation of leaf mesophyll protoplasts and improved Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc infiltration of Phaseolus vulgaris: tools for rapid gene expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjareddy, Kalpana; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Blanco, Lourdes; Arellano, Elizabeth S; Lara, Miguel

    2016-06-24

    Phaseolus vulgaris is one of the most extensively studied model legumes in the world. The P. vulgaris genome sequence is available; therefore, the need for an efficient and rapid transformation system is more imperative than ever. The functional characterization of P. vulgaris genes is impeded chiefly due to the non-amenable nature of Phaseolus sp. to stable genetic transformation. Transient transformation systems are convenient and versatile alternatives for rapid gene functional characterization studies. Hence, the present work focuses on standardizing methodologies for protoplast isolation from multiple tissues and transient transformation protocols for rapid gene expression analysis in the recalcitrant grain legume P. vulgaris. Herein, we provide methodologies for the high-throughput isolation of leaf mesophyll-, flower petal-, hypocotyl-, root- and nodule-derived protoplasts from P. vulgaris. The highly efficient polyethylene glycol-mannitol magnesium (PEG-MMG)-mediated transformation of leaf mesophyll protoplasts was optimized using a GUS reporter gene. We used the P. vulgaris SNF1-related protein kinase 1 (PvSnRK1) gene as proof of concept to demonstrate rapid gene functional analysis. An RT-qPCR analysis of protoplasts that had been transformed with PvSnRK1-RNAi and PvSnRK1-OE vectors showed the significant downregulation and ectopic constitutive expression (overexpression), respectively, of the PvSnRK1 transcript. We also demonstrated an improved transient transformation approach, sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (SAAT), for the leaf disc infiltration of P. vulgaris. Interestingly, this method resulted in a 90 % transformation efficiency and transformed 60-85 % of the cells in a given area of the leaf surface. The constitutive expression of YFP further confirmed the amenability of the system to gene functional characterization studies. We present simple and efficient methodologies for protoplast isolation from multiple P

  19. Transient Treg depletion enhances therapeutic anti‐cancer vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, Wayne J.; Chee, Jonathan; Khong, Andrea; Cleaver, Amanda L.; Solin, Jessica N.; Ma, Shaokang; Lesterhuis, W. Joost; Dick, Ian; Holt, Robert A.; Creaney, Jenette; Boon, Louis; Robinson, Bruce; Lake, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Regulatory T cells (Treg) play an important role in suppressing anti‐ immunity and their depletion has been linked to improved outcomes. To better understand the role of Treg in limiting the efficacy of anti‐cancer immunity, we used a Diphtheria toxin (DTX) transgenic mouse model to specifically target and deplete Treg. Methods Tumor bearing BALB/c FoxP3.dtr transgenic mice were subjected to different treatment protocols, with or without Treg depletion and tumor growth and survival monitored. Results DTX specifically depleted Treg in a transient, dose‐dependent manner. Treg depletion correlated with delayed tumor growth, increased effector T cell (Teff) activation, and enhanced survival in a range of solid tumors. Tumor regression was dependent on Teffs as depletion of both CD4 and CD8 T cells completely abrogated any survival benefit. Severe morbidity following Treg depletion was only observed, when consecutive doses of DTX were given during peak CD8 T cell activation, demonstrating that Treg can be depleted on multiple occasions, but only when CD8 T cell activation has returned to base line levels. Finally, we show that even minimal Treg depletion is sufficient to significantly improve the efficacy of tumor‐peptide vaccination. Conclusions BALB/c.FoxP3.dtr mice are an ideal model to investigate the full therapeutic potential of Treg depletion to boost anti‐tumor immunity. DTX‐mediated Treg depletion is transient, dose‐dependent, and leads to strong anti‐tumor immunity and complete tumor regression at high doses, while enhancing the efficacy of tumor‐specific vaccination at low doses. Together this data highlight the importance of Treg manipulation as a useful strategy for enhancing current and future cancer immunotherapies. PMID:28250921

  20. Theoretical basis for a transient thermal elastic-plastic stress analysis of nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, T.R.; Bertels, A.W.M.; Banerjee, S.; Harrison, W.C.

    1976-07-01

    This report presents the theoretical basis for a transient thermal elastic-plastic stress analysis of a nuclear reactor fuel element subject to severe transient thermo-mechanical loading. A finite element formulation is used for both the non-linear stress analysis and thermal analysis. These two major components are linked together to form an integrated program capable of predicting fuel element transient behaviour in two dimensions. Specific case studies are presented to illustrate capabilities of the analysis. (author)

  1. Light-induced cross-linking and post-cross-linking modification of polyglycidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, F; Bruns, M; Keul, H; Yagci, Y; Möller, M

    2018-02-08

    The photoinduced radical generation process has received renewed interest due to its economic and ecological appeal. Herein the light-induced cross-linking of functional polyglycidol and its post-cross-linking modification are presented. Linear polyglycidol was first functionalized with a tertiary amine in a two-step reaction. Dimethylaminopropyl functional polyglycidol was cross-linked in a UV-light mediated reaction with camphorquinone as a type II photoinitiator. The cross-linked polyglycidol was further functionalized by quaternization with various organoiodine compounds. Aqueous dispersions of the cross-linked polymers were investigated by means of DLS and zeta potential measurements. Polymer films were evaluated by DSC and XPS.

  2. The role of pain behaviour and family caregiver responses in the link between pain catastrophising and pain intensity : A moderated mediation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi, Somayyeh; Dehghani, Mohsen; Sanderman, Robbert; Hagedoorn, Mariët

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the mediating role of pain behaviours in the association between pain catastrophising and pain intensity and explored the moderating role of family caregivers’ responses to pain in the link between pain behaviours and pain intensity. Methods: The sample consisted

  3. The role of pain behaviour and family caregiver responses in the link between pain catastrophising and pain intensity : A moderated mediation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi, Somayyeh; Dehghani, Mohsen; Sanderman, Robbert; Hagedoorn, Mariet

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the mediating role of pain behaviours in the association between pain catastrophising and pain intensity and explored the moderating role of family caregivers' responses to pain in the link between pain behaviours and pain intensity. Methods: The sample consisted

  4. Transient fuel melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, L.; Schmitz, F.

    1982-10-01

    The observation of micrographic documents from fuel after a CABRI test leads to postulate a specific mode of transient fuel melting during a rapid nuclear power excursion. When reaching the melt threshold, the bands which are characteristic for the solid state are broken statistically over a macroscopic region. The time of maintaining the fuel at the critical enthalpy level between solid and liquid is too short to lead to a phase separation. A significant life-time (approximately 1 second) of this intermediate ''unsolide'' state would have consequences on the variation of physical properties linked to the phase transition solid/liquid: viscosity, specific volume and (for the irradiated fuel) fission gas release [fr

  5. Context-dependent links between song production and opioid-mediated analgesia in male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia A Kelm-Nelson

    Full Text Available Little is known about the neural mechanisms that ensure appropriate vocal behaviors within specific social contexts. Male songbirds produce spontaneous (undirected songs as well as female-directed courtship songs. Opioid neuropeptide activity in specific brain regions is rewarding, at least in mammals, and past studies suggest that the opioid met-enkephalin in such areas is more tightly linked to undirected than female-directed song. Recent data using a song-associated place preference paradigm further suggest that production of undirected but not directed song is tightly linked to intrinsic reward. Opioids have analgesic properties. Therefore, if production of undirected song is closely linked to opioid-mediated reward, the production of undirected but not directed song should be associated with analgesia. Consistent with this prediction, in male starlings we identified a positive correlation between analgesia (decreased reactivity to a hot water bath and undirected song (in non-breeding season condition males in affiliative flocks but not female-directed song (in breeding season condition males presented with females. When breeding condition males were divided according to social status, a negative correlation was found in subordinate males (i.e. males that failed to acquire a nest box. These data are consistent with the hypotheses 1 that the production of undirected song is facilitated or maintained by opioids (and/or other neuromodulators that also induce analgesia and 2 that production of female-directed song is not linked in the same way to release of the same neuromodulators. Results also demonstrate a link between analgesia and song in subordinate individuals lacking a nesting territory within the breeding season. Overall, the findings indicate that distinct neural mechanisms regulate communication in different social contexts and support the working hypothesis that undirected but not directed song is tightly linked to opioid release.

  6. Development of three dimensional transient analysis code STTA for SCWR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lianjie; Zhao, Wenbo; Chen, Bingde; Yao, Dong; Yang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A coupled three dimensional neutronics/thermal-hydraulics code STTA is developed for SCWR core transient analysis. • The Dynamic Link Libraries method is adopted for coupling computation for SCWR multi-flow core transient analysis. • The NEACRP-L-335 PWR benchmark problems are studied to verify STTA. • The SCWR rod ejection problems are studied to verify STTA. • STTA meets what is expected from a code for SCWR core 3-D transient preliminary analysis. - Abstract: A coupled three dimensional neutronics/thermal-hydraulics code STTA (SCWR Three dimensional Transient Analysis code) is developed for SCWR core transient analysis. Nodal Green’s Function Method based on the second boundary condition (NGFMN-K) is used for solving transient neutron diffusion equation. The SCWR sub-channel code ATHAS is integrated into NGFMN-K through the serial integration coupling approach. The NEACRP-L-335 PWR benchmark problem and SCWR rod ejection problems are studied to verify STTA. Numerical results show that the PWR solution of STTA agrees well with reference solutions and the SCWR solution is reasonable. The coupled code can be well applied to the core transients and accidents analysis with 3-D core model during both subcritical pressure and supercritical pressure operation

  7. Linking transformational leadership to nurses' extra-role performance: the mediating role of self-efficacy and work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salanova, Marisa; Lorente, Laura; Chambel, Maria J; Martínez, Isabel M

    2011-10-01

    This paper is a report of a social cognitive theory-guided study about the link between supervisors' transformational leadership and staff nurses' extra-role performance as mediated by nurse self-efficacy and work engagement. Past research has acknowledged the positive influence that transformational leaders have on employee (extra-role) performance. However, less is known about the psychological mechanisms that may explain the links between transformational leaders and extra-role performance, which encompasses behaviours that are not considered formal job requirements, but which facilitate the smooth functioning of the organization as a social system. Seventeen supervisors evaluated nurses' extra-role performance, the data generating a sample consisting of 280 dyads. The nurses worked in different health services in a large Portuguese hospital and the participation rate was 76·9% for nurses and 100% for supervisors. Data were collected during 2009. A theory-driven model of the relationships between transformation leadership, self-efficacy, work engagement and nurses' extra-role performance was tested using Structural Equation Modelling. Data analysis revealed a full mediation model in which transformational leadership explained extra-role performance through self-efficacy and work engagement. A direct relationship between transformational leadership and work engagement was also found. Nurses' supervisors with a transformational leadership style enhance different 'extra-role' performance in nurses and this increases hospital efficacy. They do so by establishing a sense of self-efficacy but also by amplifying their levels of engagement in the workplace. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Linking shallow, Linking deep : how scientific intermediaries use the Web for their network of collaborators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasileiadou, E.; Besselaar, van den P.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we explore the possibility of using Web links to study collaborations between organisations, combining the results of qualitative analysis of interviews and quantitative analysis of linking patterns. We use case studies of scientific intermediaries, that is, organisations that mediate

  9. Cytosolic Pellino-1-Mediated K63-Linked Ubiquitination of IRF5 in M1 Macrophages Regulates Glucose Intolerance in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghyun Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available IRF5 is a signature transcription factor that induces M1 macrophage polarization. However, little is known regarding cytosolic proteins that induce IRF5 activation for M1 polarization. Here, we report the interaction between ubiquitin E3 ligase Pellino-1 and IRF5 in the cytoplasm, which increased nuclear translocation of IRF5 by K63-linked ubiquitination in human and mouse M1 macrophages. LPS and/or IFN-γ increased Pellino-1 expression, and M1 polarization was attenuated in Pellino-1-deficient macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Defective M1 polarization in Pellino-1-deficient macrophages improved glucose intolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet. Furthermore, macrophages in adipose tissues from obese humans exhibited increased Pellino-1 expression and IRF5 nuclear translocation compared with nonobese subjects, and these changes are associated with insulin resistance index. This study demonstrates that cytosolic Pellino-1-mediated K63-linked ubiquitination of IRF5 in M1 macrophages regulates glucose intolerance in obesity, suggesting a cytosolic mediator function of Pellino-1 in TLR4/IFN-γ receptor-IRF5 axis during M1 polarization.

  10. Bifunctional alkylating agent-mediated MGMT-DNA cross-linking and its proteolytic cleavage in 16HBE cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Jin; Ye, Feng; Dan, Guorong; Zhao, Yuanpeng; Wang, Bin; Zhao, Jiqing; Sai, Yan; Zou, Zhongmin

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen mustard (NM), a bifunctional alkylating agent (BAA), contains two alkyl arms and can act as a cross-linking bridge between DNA and protein to form a DNA-protein cross-link (DPC). O 6 -methylguanine–DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), a DNA repair enzyme for alkyl adducts removal, is found to enhance cell sensitivity to BAAs and to promote damage, possibly due to its stable covalent cross-linking with DNA mediated by BAAs. To investigate MGMT-DNA cross-link (mDPC) formation and its possible dual roles in NM exposure, human bronchial epithelial cell line 16HBE was subjected to different concentrations of HN2, a kind of NM, and we found mDPC was induced by HN2 in a concentration-dependent manner, but the mRNA and total protein of MGMT were suppressed. As early as 1 h after HN2 treatment, high mDPC was achieved and the level maintained for up to 24 h. Quick total DPC (tDPC) and γ-H2AX accumulation were observed. To evaluate the effect of newly predicted protease DVC1 on DPC cleavage, we applied siRNA of MGMT and DVC1, MG132 (proteasome inhibitor), and NMS-873 (p97 inhibitor) and found that proteolysis plays a role. DVC1 was proven to be more important in the cleavage of mDPC than tDPC in a p97-dependent manner. HN2 exposure induced DVC1 upregulation, which was at least partially contributed to MGMT cleavage by proteolysis because HN2-induced mDPC level and DNA damage was closely related with DVC1 expression. Homologous recombination (HR) was also activated. Our findings demonstrated that MGMT might turn into a DNA damage promoter by forming DPC when exposed to HN2. Proteolysis, especially DVC1, plays a crucial role in mDPC repair. - Highlights: • Nitrogen mustard-induced MGMT-DNA cross-linking was detected in a living cell. • Concentration- and time-dependent manners of MGMT-DNA cross-linking were revealed. • Proteolysis played an important role in protein (MGMT)-DNA cross-linking repair. • DVC1 acts as a proteolytic enzyme in cross-linking repair in a p

  11. Emotion Regulation Feeding Practices Link Parents' Emotional Eating to Children's Emotional Eating: A Moderated Mediation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cin Cin; Holub, Shayla C

    2015-08-01

    Past research suggests an association between parents' and children's emotional eating, but research has yet to examine mechanisms underlying this association. The current study examined whether feeding for emotion regulation mediates the association between parents' and children's emotional eating, and whether this association is moderated by children's self-regulation in eating. 95 parents reported on their own and their children's emotional eating, their children's self-regulation in eating, as well as their feeding practices. Findings revealed that feeding for emotion regulation mediated the association between parents' and children's emotional eating when children's self-regulation in eating was low, but not when self-regulation in eating was high. The current findings demonstrate the complexity of the link between parents' and children's emotional eating, suggesting practitioners should consider both feeding practices and children's self-regulation in eating when designing intervention programs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved.For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) transient responses induced by hypercapnia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    CSF transient responses to CO 2 inhalation were measured before and after facilitated perfusate flow through subarachnoid spaces of anesthetized cats during ventriculocisternal perfusion with artificial CSF containing 14 C-dextran. Convective mixing of perfusate in subarachnoid spaces was augmented while infusion constant, either by impeding cisternal efflux of perfusate by raising the cisternal outflow cannula (high CSF pressure), or by preventing CSF outflow by clamping the cisternal outflow cannula (stopflow; S-F). CSF transients were also measured before and after systemic administration of phenoxybenzamine (PBZ) in order to evaluate the contribution of sympatho-adrenergic activity to craniospinal CSF redistribution and mixing. Results from high CSF pressure and S-F experiments indicate that unequilibrated CSF contributes significantly to the reduced tracer concentration in CSF volume (Vd) since SCF effluent tracer concentration (Cd) was decreased after subarachnoid facilitated flow. Further, results from S-F studies indicate that at least 50% of Cd is due to craniospinal fluid redistribution, a process which, along with CSF outflow transients, was unaffected by PBZ. Conversely, PBZ administration decreased steady state SCF formation and absorption through alpha-mediated cerebrovascular responses and/or through beta-adrenoceptor inhibition of metabolism of CSF secretory epithelium

  13. RodZ links MreB to cell wall synthesis to mediate MreB rotation and robust morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstein, Randy M; Bratton, Benjamin P; Nguyen, Jeffrey P; Ouzounov, Nikolay; Shaevitz, Joshua W; Gitai, Zemer

    2015-10-06

    The rod shape of most bacteria requires the actin homolog, MreB. Whereas MreB was initially thought to statically define rod shape, recent studies found that MreB dynamically rotates around the cell circumference dependent on cell wall synthesis. However, the mechanism by which cytoplasmic MreB is linked to extracytoplasmic cell wall synthesis and the function of this linkage for morphogenesis has remained unclear. Here we demonstrate that the transmembrane protein RodZ mediates MreB rotation by directly or indirectly coupling MreB to cell wall synthesis enzymes. Furthermore, we map the RodZ domains that link MreB to cell wall synthesis and identify mreB mutants that suppress the shape defect of ΔrodZ without restoring rotation, uncoupling rotation from rod-like growth. Surprisingly, MreB rotation is dispensable for rod-like shape determination under standard laboratory conditions but is required for the robustness of rod shape and growth under conditions of cell wall stress.

  14. Perceptions as the crucial link? The mediating role of neighborhood perceptions in the relationship between the neighborhood context and neighborhood cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laméris, Joran; Hipp, John R; Tolsma, Jochem

    2018-05-01

    This study examines the effects of neighborhood racial in-group size, economic deprivation and the prevalence of crime on neighborhood cohesion among U.S. whites. We explore to what extent residents' perceptions of their neighborhood mediate these macro-micro relationships. We use a recent individual-level data set, the American Social Fabric Study (2012/2013), enriched with contextual-level data from the U.S. Census Bureau (2010) and employ multi-level structural equation models. We show that the racial in-group size is positively related to neighborhood cohesion and that neighborhood cohesion is lower in communities with a high crime rate. Individuals' perceptions of the racial in-group size partly mediate the relationship between the objective racial in-group size and neighborhood cohesion. Residents' perceptions of unsafety from crime also appear to be a mediating factor, not only for the objective crime rate but also for the objective racial in-group size. This is in line with our idea that racial stereotypes link racial minorities to crime whereby neighborhoods with a large non-white population are perceived to be more unsafe. Residents of the same neighborhood differ in how they perceive the degree of economic decay of the neighborhood and this causes them to evaluate neighborhood cohesion differently, however perceptions of neighborhood economic decay do not explain the link between the objective neighborhood context and neighborhood cohesion. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Safe and effective error rate monitors for SS7 signaling links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Douglas C.

    1994-04-01

    This paper describes SS7 error monitor characteristics, discusses the existing SUERM (Signal Unit Error Rate Monitor), and develops the recently proposed EIM (Error Interval Monitor) for higher speed SS7 links. A SS7 error monitor is considered safe if it ensures acceptable link quality and is considered effective if it is tolerant to short-term phenomena. Formal criteria for safe and effective error monitors are formulated in this paper. This paper develops models of changeover transients, the unstable component of queue length resulting from errors. These models are in the form of recursive digital filters. Time is divided into sequential intervals. The filter's input is the number of errors which have occurred in each interval. The output is the corresponding change in transmit queue length. Engineered EIM's are constructed by comparing an estimated changeover transient with a threshold T using a transient model modified to enforce SS7 standards. When this estimate exceeds T, a changeover will be initiated and the link will be removed from service. EIM's can be differentiated from SUERM by the fact that EIM's monitor errors over an interval while SUERM's count errored messages. EIM's offer several advantages over SUERM's, including the fact that they are safe and effective, impose uniform standards in link quality, are easily implemented, and make minimal use of real-time resources.

  16. Viewing the world through “blood-red tinted glasses”: The hostile expectation bias mediates the link between violent video game exposure and aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasan, Y.; Bègue, L.; Bushman, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Research has clearly shown that violent video games can increase aggression. It is less clear why they do. This study investigates the mediating effect of the hostile expectation bias (i.e., tendency to perceive hostile intent on the part of others) on the link between violent video game exposure

  17. What carries a mediation process? Configural analysis of mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Eye, Alexander; Mun, Eun Young; Mair, Patrick

    2009-09-01

    Mediation is a process that links a predictor and a criterion via a mediator variable. Mediation can be full or partial. This well-established definition operates at the level of variables even if they are categorical. In this article, two new approaches to the analysis of mediation are proposed. Both of these approaches focus on the analysis of categorical variables. The first involves mediation analysis at the level of configurations instead of variables. Thus, mediation can be incorporated into the arsenal of methods of analysis for person-oriented research. Second, it is proposed that Configural Frequency Analysis (CFA) can be used for both exploration and confirmation of mediation relationships among categorical variables. The implications of using CFA are first that mediation hypotheses can be tested at the level of individual configurations instead of variables. Second, this approach leaves the door open for different types of mediation processes to exist within the same set. Using a data example, it is illustrated that aggregate-level analysis can overlook mediation processes that operate at the level of individual configurations.

  18. Good partner, good parent: responsiveness mediates the link between romantic attachment and parenting style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millings, Abigail; Walsh, Judi; Hepper, Erica; O'Brien, Margaret

    2013-02-01

    This cross-sectional, dyadic questionnaire study examined the contribution of romantic attachment and responsive caregiving to parenting style, investigating both gender and partner effects. One hundred and twenty-five couples with children aged 7 to 8 years completed measures of attachment styles, responsive caregiving toward partner, and parenting styles. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine the intra- and interpersonal associations between romantic attachment, caregiving responsiveness, and parenting styles. Attachment avoidance and anxiety were both negatively associated with responsive caregiving to partner, which in turn was positively associated with authoritative (optimal) parenting styles and negatively associated with authoritarian and permissive (nonoptimal) parenting styles. Responsive caregiving mediated all links between attachment and parenting, with an additional direct association between attachment anxiety and nonoptimal parenting styles that was not explained by caregiving responsiveness. Findings are discussed with reference to attachment theory.

  19. Causal mediation analysis with a binary outcome and multiple continuous or ordinal mediators: Simulations and application to an alcohol intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Trang Quynh; Webb-Vargas, Yenny; Koning, Ina M.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a method to estimate the combined effect of multiple continuous/ordinal mediators on a binary outcome: 1) fit a structural equation model with probit link for the outcome and identity/probit link for continuous/ordinal mediators, 2) predict potential outcome probabilities, and 3) compute natural direct and indirect effects. Step 2 involves rescaling the latent continuous variable underlying the outcome to address residual mediator variance/covariance. We evaluate the estimation...

  20. Increased rhythmicity in hypertensive arterial smooth muscle is linked to transient receptor potential canonical channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiaoping; Yang, Dachun; Ma, Shuangtao

    2010-01-01

    Vasomotion describes oscillations of arterial vascular tone due to synchronized changes of intracellular calcium concentrations. Since increased calcium influx into vascular smooth muscle cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) has been associated with variances of transient receptor pot...

  1. Control of a hybrid HVDC link to increase inter-regional power transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotb, Omar; Ghandhari, Mehrdad; Eriksson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the application of a hybrid HVDC link in a two area power system with the purpose of increasing the inter-regional power transfer. A hybrid HVDC system combines both LCCs and VSCs, and hence it is capable of combining the benefits of both converter technologies, such as reduced...... cost and power losses due to the LCCs, and ability to connect to weak AC grids due to the VSCs. The mathematical model of the power system including the HVDC link is presented. The increase in inter-area power transfer is demonstrated and compared to the case when the hybrid HVDC link is not used....... Furthermore, the transient stability of the AC/DC power system was enhanced using auxiliary controllers for Power Oscillation Damping (POD). The results show the ability of the hybrid HVDC link to increase the unidirectional inter-area power transfer, while enhancing the transient stability of the power...

  2. Periodic transients linked to a variation in reactivity; Transitoires de periode lies a une variation de reactivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furet, J; Weil, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    We study here the influence of the transient, linked to a variation in reactivity, on the measurement of the period, this measurement being made from the logarithmic differential of the power and being defined by 1/T 1/p(dp/dt). We show that the adjustment of the thresholds of period safety is often incompatible with the velocities of liberation of reactivity. A compromise is then necessary between the speed of response of the periodimeter and the speed with which the reactivity is liberated. This makes it necessary to have rapid security devices for the power levels in the piles in which the speeds of liberation of the reactivity are high. (author) [French] On etudie ici l'influence du transitoire lie a une variation de la reactivite sur la mesure de la periode, cette mesure etant faite a partir de la derivee logarithmique de la puissance et etant definie par 1/T 1/p(dp/dt). On montre que le reglage des seuils de securite periode est souvent incompatible avec les vitesses de liberation de reactivite. Il y a alors un compromis a faire entre la vitesse de reponse du periodemetre et la vitesse de liberation de reactivite. Ceci impose de disposer de securites rapides sur les niveaux de puissance, dans les piles ou les vitesses de liberation de reactivite sont importantes. (auteur)

  3. Psychosocial health mediates the gratitude-physical health link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Brenda H; Killeen-Byrt, Mary

    2018-04-29

    There is now a growing body of research demonstrating the physical health benefits of being grateful. However, research has only just began to explore the mechanisms accounting for this gratitude-health relationship. This study examines the relationship between dispositional gratitude and self-reported physical health symptoms, and explores whether this relationship is explained through reduced levels of perceived loneliness and stress. This study employed a cross-sectional design with a sample of 607 healthy adults. Serial mediation analysis revealed that the positive effect of gratitude on physical health was significantly mediated by lower reported levels of perceived loneliness and stress. These findings are important given evidence that gratitude can be cultivated, and may serve to buffer against stress and loneliness and improve somatic health symptoms in the general population.

  4. Feasibility analysis of WDM links for radar applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Meena

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Active phased array antennas enhances the performance of modern radars by using multiple low power transmit/receive modules in place of a high power transmitter in conventional radars. Fully distributed phased array radars demand the distribution of various signals in radio frequency (RF and digital domain for real time operation. This is normally achieved through complex and bulky coaxial distribution networks. In this work, we intend to tap the inherent advantages of fiber links with wavelength division multiplexed (WDM technology and a feasibility study to adapt these links for radar applications is carried out. This is done by analysing various parameters like amplitude, delay, frequency and phase variation response of various radar waveforms over WDM links. This also includes performance evaluation of non-linear frequency modulation (NLFM signals, known for better signal to noise ratio (SNR to specific side lobe levels. NLFM waveforms are further analysed using pulse compression (PC technique. Link evaluation is also carried out using a standard simulation environment and is then experimentally verified with other waveforms like RF continuous wave (CW, pulsed RF and digital signals. Synchronization signals are generated from this variable duty cycle digital signals during real time radar operation. During evaluation of digital signals, variable transient effects for different duty cycles are observed from an amplifier configuration. A suppression method is proposed to eliminate this transient effects. Further, the link delay response is investigated using different lengths of fiber spools. It can be inferred from the experimental results that WDM links are capable of handling various signals significant to radar applications.

  5. On the empirical relevance of the transient in opinion models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banisch, Sven; Araujo, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    While the number and variety of models to explain opinion exchange dynamics is huge, attempts to justify the model results using empirical data are relatively rare. As linking to real data is essential for establishing model credibility, this Letter develops an empirical confirmation experiment by which an opinion model is related to real election data. The model is based on a representation of opinions as a vector of k bits. Individuals interact according to the principle that similarity leads to interaction and interaction leads to still more similarity. In the comparison to real data we concentrate on the transient opinion profiles that form during the dynamic process. An artificial election procedure is introduced which allows to relate transient opinion configurations to the electoral performance of candidates for which data are available. The election procedure based on the well-established principle of proximity voting is repeatedly performed during the transient period and remarkable statistical agreement with the empirical data is observed.

  6. On the empirical relevance of the transient in opinion models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banisch, Sven, E-mail: sven.banisch@universecity.d [Mathematical Physics, Physics Department, Bielefeld University, 33501 Bielefeld (Germany); Institute for Complexity Science (ICC), 1249-078 Lisbon (Portugal); Araujo, Tanya, E-mail: tanya@iseg.utl.p [Research Unit on Complexity in Economics (UECE), ISEG, TULisbon, 1249-078 Lisbon (Portugal); Institute for Complexity Science (ICC), 1249-078 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2010-07-12

    While the number and variety of models to explain opinion exchange dynamics is huge, attempts to justify the model results using empirical data are relatively rare. As linking to real data is essential for establishing model credibility, this Letter develops an empirical confirmation experiment by which an opinion model is related to real election data. The model is based on a representation of opinions as a vector of k bits. Individuals interact according to the principle that similarity leads to interaction and interaction leads to still more similarity. In the comparison to real data we concentrate on the transient opinion profiles that form during the dynamic process. An artificial election procedure is introduced which allows to relate transient opinion configurations to the electoral performance of candidates for which data are available. The election procedure based on the well-established principle of proximity voting is repeatedly performed during the transient period and remarkable statistical agreement with the empirical data is observed.

  7. Equivalent modeling of PMSG-based wind power plants considering LVRT capabilities: electromechanical transients in power systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ming; Zhu, Qianlong

    2016-01-01

    Hardware protection and control action are two kinds of low voltage ride-through technical proposals widely used in a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). This paper proposes an innovative clustering concept for the equivalent modeling of a PMSG-based wind power plant (WPP), in which the impacts of both the chopper protection and the coordinated control of active and reactive powers are taken into account. First, the post-fault DC link voltage is selected as a concentrated expression of unit parameters, incoming wind and electrical distance to a fault point to reflect the transient characteristics of PMSGs. Next, we provide an effective method for calculating the post-fault DC link voltage based on the pre-fault wind energy and the terminal voltage dip. Third, PMSGs are divided into groups by analyzing the calculated DC link voltages without any clustering algorithm. Finally, PMSGs of the same group are equivalent as one rescaled PMSG to realize the transient equivalent modeling of the PMSG-based WPP. Using the DIgSILENT PowerFactory simulation platform, the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed equivalent model are tested against the traditional equivalent WPP and the detailed WPP. The simulation results show the proposed equivalent model can be used to analyze the offline electromechanical transients in power systems.

  8. ATM and SIRT6/SNF2H Mediate Transient H2AX Stabilization When DSBs Form by Blocking HUWE1 to Allow Efficient γH2AX Foci Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Atsumi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, H2AX is rapidly phosphorylated at Ser139 to promote DSB repair. Here we show that H2AX is rapidly stabilized in response to DSBs to efficiently generate γH2AX foci. This mechanism operated even in quiescent cells that barely expressed H2AX. H2AX stabilization resulted from the inhibition of proteasome-mediated degradation. Synthesized H2AX ordinarily underwent degradation through poly-ubiquitination mediated by the E3 ligase HUWE1; however, H2AX ubiquitination was transiently halted upon DSB formation. Such rapid H2AX stabilization by DSBs was associated with chromatin incorporation of H2AX and halting of its poly-ubiquitination mediated by the ATM kinase, the sirtuin protein SIRT6, and the chromatin remodeler SNF2H. H2AX Ser139, the ATM phosphorylation site, was essential for H2AX stabilization upon DSB formation. Our results reveal a pathway controlled by ATM, SIRT6, and SNF2H to block HUWE1, which stabilizes H2AX and induces its incorporation into chromatin only when cells are damaged.

  9. Transient and localized processes in the magnetotail: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Sharma

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Many phenomena in the Earth's magnetotail have characteristic temporal scales of several minutes and spatial scales of a few Earth radii (RE. Examples of such transient and localized mesoscale phenomena are bursty bulk flows, beamlets, energy dispersed ion beams, flux ropes, traveling compression regions, night-side flux transfer events, and rapid flappings of the current sheet. Although most of these observations are linked to specific interpretations or theoretical models they are inter-related and can be the different aspects of a physical process or origin. Recognizing the inter-connected nature of the different transient and localized phenomena in the magnetotail, this paper reviews their observations by highlighting their important characteristics, with emphasis on the new results from Cluster multipoint observations. The multi-point Cluster measurements have provided, for the first time, the ability to distinguish between temporal and spatial variations, and to resolve spatial structures. Some examples of the new results are: flux ropes with widths of 0.3 RE, transient field aligned currents associated with bursty bulk flows and connected to the Hall current at the magnetic reconnection, flappings of the magnetotail current sheet with time scales of 100 s–10 min and thickness of few thousand km, and particle energization including velocity and time dispersed ion structures with the latter having durations of 1–3 min. The current theories of these transient and localized processes are based largely on magnetic reconnection, although the important role of the interchange and other plasma modes are now well recognized. On the kinetic scale, the energization of particles takes place near the magnetic X-point by non-adiabatic processes and wave-particle interactions. The theory, modeling and simulations of the plasma and field signatures are reviewed and the links among the different observational

  10. Transient and localized processes in the magnetotail: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Sharma

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Many phenomena in the Earth's magnetotail have characteristic temporal scales of several minutes and spatial scales of a few Earth radii (RE. Examples of such transient and localized mesoscale phenomena are bursty bulk flows, beamlets, energy dispersed ion beams, flux ropes, traveling compression regions, night-side flux transfer events, and rapid flappings of the current sheet. Although most of these observations are linked to specific interpretations or theoretical models they are inter-related and can be the different aspects of a physical process or origin. Recognizing the inter-connected nature of the different transient and localized phenomena in the magnetotail, this paper reviews their observations by highlighting their important characteristics, with emphasis on the new results from Cluster multipoint observations. The multi-point Cluster measurements have provided, for the first time, the ability to distinguish between temporal and spatial variations, and to resolve spatial structures. Some examples of the new results are: flux ropes with widths of 0.3 RE, transient field aligned currents associated with bursty bulk flows and connected to the Hall current at the magnetic reconnection, flappings of the magnetotail current sheet with time scales of 100 s–10 min and thickness of few thousand km, and particle energization including velocity and time dispersed ion structures with the latter having durations of 1–3 min. The current theories of these transient and localized processes are based largely on magnetic reconnection, although the important role of the interchange and other plasma modes are now well recognized. On the kinetic scale, the energization of particles takes place near the magnetic X-point by non-adiabatic processes and wave-particle interactions. The theory, modeling and simulations of the plasma and field signatures are reviewed and the links among the different observational concepts and the theoretical frameworks

  11. Altered Cross-Linking of HSP27 by Zerumbone as a Novel Strategy for Overcoming HSP27-Mediated Radioresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seo-Hyun; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Seo, Woo Duck; Lee, Hae-June; Nam, Joo-Won; Lee, Yoo Jin; Kim, Joon; Seo, Eun-Kyoung; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: HSP27 or HSP25 negatively regulates apoptosis pathways after radiation or chemotherapeutic agents. Abrogation of HSP27 function may be a candidate target for overcoming radio- and chemoresistance. Methods and Materials: Zerumbone (ZER), a cytotoxic component isolated from Zingiber zerumbet smith. Clonogenic survival assay and flow cytometry after Annexin V staining were performed to determine in vitro sensitization effects of ZER with ionizing radiation. A nude mouse xenografting system was also applied to detect in vivo radiosensitizing effects of ZER. Results: ZER produced cross-linking of HSP27, which was dependent on inhibition of the monomeric form of HSP27. ZER was directly inserted between the disulfide bond in the HSP27 dimer and modified normal HSP27 dimerization. Pretreatment with ZER before radiation inhibited the binding affinity between HSP27 and apoptotic molecules, such as cytochrome c and PKCδ, and induced sensitization in vitro and in an in vivo xenografted nude mouse system. Structural analogs lacking only the carbonyl group in ZER, such as α-humulene (HUM) and 8-hydroxy-humulen (8-OH-HUM), did not affect normal cross-linking of HSP27 and did not induce radiosensitization. Conclusions: We suggest that altered cross-linking of HSP27 by ZER is a good strategy for abolishing HSP27-mediated resistance.

  12. Genomic and Transcriptomic Analysis of Escherichia coli Strains Associated with Persistent and Transient Bovine Mastitis and the Role of Colanic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippolis, John D; Holman, Devin B; Brunelle, Brian W; Thacker, Tyler C; Bearson, Bradley L; Reinhardt, Timothy A; Sacco, Randy E; Casey, Thomas A

    2018-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a leading cause of bacterial mastitis in dairy cattle. It is most often transient in nature, causing an infection that lasts 2 to 3 days. However, E. coli has been shown to cause a persistent infection in a minority of cases. Mechanisms that allow for a persistent E. coli infection are not fully understood. The goal of this work was to determine differences between E. coli strains originally isolated from dairy cattle with transient and persistent mastitis. Using RNA sequencing, we show gene expression differences in nearly 200 genes when bacteria from the two clinical phenotypes are compared. We sequenced the genomes of the E. coli strains and report genes unique to the two phenotypes. Differences in the wca operon, which encodes colanic acid, were identified by DNA as well as RNA sequencing and differentiated the two phenotypes. Previous work demonstrated that E. coli strains that cause persistent infections were more motile than those that cause transient infections. Deletion of genes in the wca operon from a persistent-infection strain resulted in a reduction of motility as measured in swimming and swarming assays. Furthermore, colanic acid has been shown to protect bacteria from complement-mediated killing. We show that transient-infection E. coli strains were more sensitive to complement-mediated killing. The deletion of genes from the wca operon caused a persistent-infection E. coli strain to become sensitive to complement-mediated killing. This work identifies important differences between E. coli strains that cause persistent and transient mammary infections in dairy cattle. This is a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Foreign copyrights may apply.

  13. Transcription regulation by the Mediator complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soutourina, Julie

    2018-04-01

    Alterations in the regulation of gene expression are frequently associated with developmental diseases or cancer. Transcription activation is a key phenomenon in the regulation of gene expression. In all eukaryotes, mediator of RNA polymerase II transcription (Mediator), a large complex with modular organization, is generally required for transcription by RNA polymerase II, and it regulates various steps of this process. The main function of Mediator is to transduce signals from the transcription activators bound to enhancer regions to the transcription machinery, which is assembled at promoters as the preinitiation complex (PIC) to control transcription initiation. Recent functional studies of Mediator with the use of structural biology approaches and functional genomics have revealed new insights into Mediator activity and its regulation during transcription initiation, including how Mediator is recruited to transcription regulatory regions and how it interacts and cooperates with PIC components to assist in PIC assembly. Novel roles of Mediator in the control of gene expression have also been revealed by showing its connection to the nuclear pore and linking Mediator to the regulation of gene positioning in the nuclear space. Clear links between Mediator subunits and disease have also encouraged studies to explore targeting of this complex as a potential therapeutic approach in cancer and fungal infections.

  14. Screening Chinese soybean genotypes for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation suitability*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhang-yue; Tian, Jing-luan; Fu, Wei-zhe; Li, Lin; Lu, Ling-hong; Zhou, Lian; Shan, Zhi-hui; Tang, Gui-xiang; Shou, Hui-xia

    2013-01-01

    The Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system is the most commonly used method in soybean transformation. Screening of soybean genotypes favorable for Agrobacterium-infection and tissue regeneration is the most important step to establish an efficient genetic transformation system. In this study, twenty soybean genotypes that originated from different soybean production regions in China were screened for transient infection, regeneration capacity, and stable transgenic efficiency. Three genotypes, Yuechun 04-5, Yuechun 03-3, and Tianlong 1, showed comparable stable transgenic efficiencies with that of the previously reported American genotypes Williams 82 and Jack in our experimental system. For the Tianlong 1, the average stable transformation efficiency is 4.59%, higher than that of control genotypes (Jack and Williams 82), which is enough for further genomic research and genetic engineering. While polymerase chain reaction (PCR), LibertyLink strips, and β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining assays were used to detect the insertion and expression of the transgene, leaves painted with 135 mg/L Basta could efficiently identify the transformants. PMID:23549846

  15. Transient Stability Assessment of Power System with Large Amount of Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Leo; Chen, Zhe; Bak, Claus Leth

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the security and stability of power system with large amount of wind power are the concerned issues, especially the transient stability. In Denmark, the onshore and offshore wind farms are connected to distribution system and transmission system respectively. The control and protection...... methodologies of onshore and offshore wind farms definitely affect the transient stability of power system. In this paper, the onshore and offshore wind farms are modeled in detail in order to assess the transient stability of western Danish power system. Further, the computation of critical clearing time (CCT...... plants, load consumption level and high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission links are taken into account. The results presented in this paper are able to provide an early awareness of power system security condition of the western Danish power system....

  16. Mediator links transcription and DNA repair by facilitating Rad2/XPG recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyboulet, Fanny; Cibot, Camille; Eychenne, Thomas; Neil, Helen; Alibert, Olivier; Werner, Michel; Soutourina, Julie

    2013-12-01

    Mediator is a large multiprotein complex conserved in all eukaryotes. The crucial function of Mediator in transcription is now largely established. However, we found that this complex also plays an important role by connecting transcription with DNA repair. We identified a functional contact between the Med17 Mediator subunit and Rad2/XPG, the 3' endonuclease involved in nucleotide excision DNA repair. Genome-wide location analyses revealed that Rad2 is associated with RNA polymerase II (Pol II)- and Pol III-transcribed genes and telomeric regions in the absence of exogenous genotoxic stress. Rad2 occupancy of Pol II-transcribed genes is transcription-dependent. Genome-wide Rad2 occupancy of class II gene promoters is well correlated with that of Mediator. Furthermore, UV sensitivity of med17 mutants is correlated with reduced Rad2 occupancy of class II genes and concomitant decrease of Mediator interaction with Rad2 protein. Our results suggest that Mediator is involved in DNA repair by facilitating Rad2 recruitment to transcribed genes.

  17. Transient Go: A Mobile App for Transient Astronomy Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, D.; Mahabal, A.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Drake, A.; Early, J.; Ivezic, Z.; Jacoby, S.; Kanbur, S.

    2016-12-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) is set to revolutionize human interaction with the real world as demonstrated by the phenomenal success of `Pokemon Go'. That very technology can be used to rekindle the interest in science at the school level. We are in the process of developing a prototype app based on sky maps that will use AR to introduce different classes of astronomical transients to students as they are discovered i.e. in real-time. This will involve transient streams from surveys such as the Catalina Real-time Transient Survey (CRTS) today and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) in the near future. The transient streams will be combined with archival and latest image cut-outs and other auxiliary data as well as historical and statistical perspectives on each of the transient types being served. Such an app could easily be adapted to work with various NASA missions and NSF projects to enrich the student experience.

  18. Protocol for Lipid-Mediated Transient Transfection in A549 Epithelial Lung Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-Vadillo, Elena; García-Sánchez, Asunción

    2016-01-01

    Trials of transfection in eukaryotic cells are essential tools for the study of gene and protein function. They have been used in a wide range of research fields. In this chapter, a method of transient transfection of the A549 cell line, human lung cells of alveolar epithelium, with an expression plasmid is described. In addition, the fundamental characteristics of this experimental procedure are addressed.

  19. Causal mediation analysis with a binary outcome and multiple continuous or ordinal mediators: Simulations and application to an alcohol intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trang Quynh; Webb-Vargas, Yenny; Koning, Ina M; Stuart, Elizabeth A

    We investigate a method to estimate the combined effect of multiple continuous/ordinal mediators on a binary outcome: 1) fit a structural equation model with probit link for the outcome and identity/probit link for continuous/ordinal mediators, 2) predict potential outcome probabilities, and 3) compute natural direct and indirect effects. Step 2 involves rescaling the latent continuous variable underlying the outcome to address residual mediator variance/covariance. We evaluate the estimation of risk-difference- and risk-ratio-based effects (RDs, RRs) using the ML, WLSMV and Bayes estimators in Mplus. Across most variations in path-coefficient and mediator-residual-correlation signs and strengths, and confounding situations investigated, the method performs well with all estimators, but favors ML/WLSMV for RDs with continuous mediators, and Bayes for RRs with ordinal mediators. Bayes outperforms WLSMV/ML regardless of mediator type when estimating RRs with small potential outcome probabilities and in two other special cases. An adolescent alcohol prevention study is used for illustration.

  20. DC-Link Protection and Control in Modular Uninterruptible Power Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jinghang; Savaghebi, Mehdi; Guan, Yajuan

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a DC-link voltage protection (DCVP) control method is proposed to address the DC-link overvoltage issue due to power back-feeding in parallel Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) system. The proposed control method is able to protect the inverter against the excessive DC-link voltage...... by the line impedance mismatching or power back-feeding issue in the UPS system. In addition, an improved consensus-based distributed controller is proposed to alleviate the overshoot issue during the transient process in voltage amplitude and frequency restoration. Finally, the feasibility of the proposed...

  1. Mimicking mechanical response of natural tissues. Strain hardening induced by transient reticulation in lactose-modified chitosan (chitlac).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cok, Michela; Sacco, Pasquale; Porrelli, Davide; Travan, Andrea; Borgogna, Massimiliano; Marsich, Eleonora; Paoletti, Sergio; Donati, Ivan

    2018-01-01

    The effect of transient cross-links has been explored on a lactose-modified chitosan, which previously had shown interesting biological features. The presence of galactose side chains and of the polyol spacer resulted particularly appealing for the reticulation by borate ions. The interaction between chitlac and borax was investigated by means of 11 B NMR while rheology pointed to a marked non-linear behavior depending on the amount of borax added to the system. The presence of limited amount of cross-linking ion led to dilatant behavior when the steady flow curve was measured. In addition, strain stiffening was noticed on elastic response upon exceeding a critical stress, indicating a transient nature in the formation of the cross-links. The non-linear response of chitlac in the presence of borax compared surprisingly well with the one showed by proteins composing the natural ECM pointing at a possible role of mechanotransduction in the biological significance of the modified chitosan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Combating oncogene activation associated with retrovirus-mediated gene therapy of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.E. Strauss

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A successful gene therapy clinical trial that also encountered serious adverse effects has sparked extensive study and debate about the future directions for retrovirus-mediated interventions. Treatment of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency with an oncoretrovirus harboring a normal copy of the gc gene was applied in two clinical trials, essentially curing 13 of 16 infants, restoring a normal immune system without the need for additional immune-related therapies. Approximately 3 years after their gene therapy, tragically, 3 of these children, all from the same trial, developed leukemia as a result of this experimental treatment. The current understanding of the mechanism behind this leukemogenesis involves three critical and cooperating factors, i.e., viral integration, oncogene activation, and the function of the therapeutic gene. In this review, we will explore the causes of this unwanted event and some of the possibilities for reducing the risk of its reoccurrence.

  3. Transient cardio-respiratory responses to visually induced tilt illusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, S. J.; Ramsdell, C. D.; Mullen, T. J.; Oman, C. M.; Harm, D. L.; Paloski, W. H.

    2000-01-01

    Although the orthostatic cardio-respiratory response is primarily mediated by the baroreflex, studies have shown that vestibular cues also contribute in both humans and animals. We have demonstrated a visually mediated response to illusory tilt in some human subjects. Blood pressure, heart and respiration rate, and lung volume were monitored in 16 supine human subjects during two types of visual stimulation, and compared with responses to real passive whole body tilt from supine to head 80 degrees upright. Visual tilt stimuli consisted of either a static scene from an overhead mirror or constant velocity scene motion along different body axes generated by an ultra-wide dome projection system. Visual vertical cues were initially aligned with the longitudinal body axis. Subjective tilt and self-motion were reported verbally. Although significant changes in cardio-respiratory parameters to illusory tilts could not be demonstrated for the entire group, several subjects showed significant transient decreases in mean blood pressure resembling their initial response to passive head-up tilt. Changes in pulse pressure and a slight elevation in heart rate were noted. These transient responses are consistent with the hypothesis that visual-vestibular input contributes to the initial cardiovascular adjustment to a change in posture in humans. On average the static scene elicited perceived tilt without rotation. Dome scene pitch and yaw elicited perceived tilt and rotation, and dome roll motion elicited perceived rotation without tilt. A significant correlation between the magnitude of physiological and subjective reports could not be demonstrated.

  4. Origin of switching current transients in TIPS-pentacene based organic thin-film transistor with polymer dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Subhash; Mohapatra, Y. N.

    2017-06-01

    We have investigated switch-on drain-source current transients in fully solution-processed thin film transistors based on 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS-pentacene) using cross-linked poly-4-vinylphenol as a dielectric. We show that the nature of the transient (increasing or decreasing) depends on both the temperature and the amplitude of the switching pulse at the gate. The isothermal transients are analyzed spectroscopically in a time domain to extract the degree of non-exponentiality and its possible origin in trap kinetics. We propose a phenomenological model in which the exchange of electrons between interfacial ions and traps controls the nature of the drain current transients dictated by the Fermi level position. The origin of interfacial ions is attributed to the essential fabrication step of UV-ozone treatment of the dielectric prior to semiconductor deposition.

  5. NOD2 Down-Regulates Colonic Inflammation by IRF4-Mediated Inhibition of K63-Linked Polyubiquitination of RICK and TRAF6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tomohiro; Asano, Naoki; Meng, Guangxun; Yamashita, Kouhei; Arai, Yasuyuki; Sakurai, Toshiharu; Kudo, Masatoshi; Fuss, Ivan J; Kitani, Atsushi; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Chiba, Tsutomu; Strober, Warren

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that polymorphisms of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) gene, a major risk factor in Crohn's disease (CD), lead to loss of NOD2 function. However, a molecular explanation of how such loss of function leads to increased susceptibility to CD has remained unclear. In a previous study exploring this question we reported that activation of NOD2 in human dendritic cells by its ligand, muramyl dipeptide (MDP) negatively regulates Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated inflammatory responses. Here we show that NOD2 activation results in increased interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) expression and binding to TNF receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and receptor interacting serine-threonine kinase (RICK). We then show that such binding leads to IRF4-mediated inhibition of Lys63-linked polyubiquitination of TRAF6 and RICK and thus to down-regulation of NF-κB activation. Finally, we demonstrate that protection of mice from the development of experimental colitis by MDP or IRF4 administration is accompanied by similar IRF4-mediated effects on polyubiquitination of TRAF6 and RICK in colonic lamina propria mononuclear cells. These findings thus define a mechanism of NOD2-mediated regulation of innate immune responses to intestinal microflora that could explain the relation of NOD2 polymorphisms and resultant NOD2 dysfunction to CD. PMID:24670424

  6. P2Y receptor-mediated transient relaxation of rat longitudinal ileum preparations involves phospholipase C activation, intracellular Ca(2+) release and SK channel activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Felix; Krause, Ludwig; Tokay, Tursonjan; Hakenberg, Oliver W; Köhling, Rüdiger; Kirschstein, Timo

    2016-05-01

    Purinergic signaling plays a major role in the enteric nervous system, where it governs gut motility through a number of P2X and P2Y receptors. The aim of this study was to investigate the P2Y receptor-mediated motility in rat longitudinal ileum preparations. Ileum smooth muscle strips were prepared from rats, and fixed in an organ bath. Isometric contraction and relaxation responses of the muscle strips were measured with force transducers. Drugs were applied by adding of stock solutions to the organ bath to yield the individual final concentrations. Application of the non-hydrolyzable P2 receptor agonists α,β-Me-ATP or 2-Me-S-ADP (10, 100 μmol/L) dose-dependently elicited a transient relaxation response followed by a sustained contraction. The relaxation response was largely blocked by SK channel blockers apamin (500 nmol/L) and UCL1684 (10 μmol/L), PLC inhibitor U73122 (100 μmol/L), IP3 receptor blocker 2-APB (100 μmol/L) or sarcoendoplasmic Ca(2+) ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin (1 μmol/L), but not affected by atropine, NO synthase blocker L-NAME or tetrodotoxin. Furthermore, α,β-Me-ATP-induced relaxation was suppressed by P2Y1 receptor antagonist MRS2179 (50 μmol/L) or P2Y13 receptor antagonist MRS2211 (100 μmol/L), and was abolished by co-application of the two antagonists, whereas 2-Me-S-ADP-induced relaxation was abolished by P2Y6 receptor antagonist MRS2578 (50 μmol/L). In addition, P2Y1 receptor antagonist MRS2500 (1 μmol/L) not only abolished α,β-Me-ATP-induced relaxation, but also suppressed 2-Me-S-ADP-induced relaxation. P2Y receptor agonist-induced transient relaxation of rat ileum smooth muscle strips is mediated predominantly by P2Y1 receptor, but also by P2Y6 and P2Y13 receptors, and involves PLC, IP3, Ca(2+) release and SK channel activation, but is independent of acetylcholine and NO release.

  7. Current interruption transients calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Peelo, David F

    2014-01-01

    Provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins, and the circuits involved, and how they can be calculated Current Interruption Transients Calculationis a comprehensive resource for the understanding, calculation and analysis of the transient recovery voltages (TRVs) and related re-ignition or re-striking transients associated with fault current interruption and the switching of inductive and capacitive load currents in circuits. This book provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins,

  8. Glycolytic metabolite methylglyoxal inhibits cold and menthol activation of the transient receptor potential melastatin type 8 channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciobanu, A C; Selescu, T; Gasler, I; Soltuzu, L; Babes, A

    2016-03-01

    Methylglyoxal (MG) is a reactive dicarbonyl compound involved in protein modifications linked to diabetes mellitus. The plasma level of MG is elevated in diabetic patients, particularly those with painful diabetic neuropathy. Diabetic neuropathy is often associated with spontaneous pain and altered thermal perception. This study assesses effects of MG on TRPM8, an ion channel involved in innocuous cold sensing and cold allodynia and also in cold-mediated analgesia. Acute treatment with MG inhibited the activation of recombinant rat and human transient receptor potential melastatin type 8 (TRPM8) by cold and chemical agonists. A similar effect was observed when native TRPM8 was investigated in cultured rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. DRG neurons treated with MG for 16-24 hr displayed a significant reduction in the fraction of cold- and menthol-sensitive neurons, most likely expressing TRPM8. The fraction of allyl isothiocyanate-sensitive neurons was also reduced, and the coexpression among different neuronal populations was affected. The same prolonged exposure to MG significantly reduced the expression of TRPM8 at the mRNA level. Overall, our data provide evidence for decreased activity and expression level of TRPM8 in the presence of MG, which may be linked to some of the alterations in pain and temperature sensing reported by diabetic patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Mast cell histamine-mediated transient inflammation following exposure to nickel promotes nickel allergy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinbara, Masayuki; Bando, Kanan; Shiraishi, Daisuke; Kuroishi, Toshinobu; Nagai, Yasuhiro; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Sugawara, Shunji; Endo, Yasuo

    2016-06-01

    We previously reported that allergic responses to nickel (Ni) were minimal in mice deficient in the histamine-forming enzyme histidine decarboxylase (HDC-KO), suggesting an involvement of histamine in allergic responses to Ni. However, it remains unclear how histamine is involved in the process of Ni allergy. Here, we examined the role of histamine in Ni allergy using a murine model previously established by us. Mice were sensitized to Ni by intraperitoneal injection of a NiCl2 -lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mixture. Ten days later, allergic inflammation was elicited by challenging ear-pinnas intradermally with NiCl2 . Then, ear-swelling was measured. Pyrilamine (histamine H1-receptor antagonist) or cromoglicate (mast cell stabilizer) was intravenously injected 1 h before the sensitization or the challenge. In cell-transfer experiments, spleen cells from Ni-sensitized donor mice were intravenously transferred into non-sensitized recipient mice. In both sensitized and non-sensitized mice, 1 mm or more NiCl2 (injected into ear-pinnas) induced transient non-allergic inflammation (Ni-TI) with accompanying mast cell degranulation. LPS did not affect the magnitude of this Ni-TI. Pyrilamine and cromoglicate reduced either the Ni-TI or the ensuing allergic inflammation when administered before Ni-TI (at either the sensitization or elicitation step), but not if administered when the Ni-TI had subsided. Experiments on HDC-KO and H1-receptor-KO mice, and also cell-transfer experiments using these mice, demonstrated histamine's involvement in both the sensitization and elicitation steps. These results suggest that mast cell histamine-mediated Ni-TI promotes subsequent allergic inflammatory responses to Ni, raising the possibility that control of Ni-TI by drugs may be effective at preventing or reducing Ni allergy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Transient ischemic attack presenting in an elderly patient with transient ophthalmic manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparshi Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient ischemic attack (TIA is a transient neurological deficit of cerebrovascular origin without infarction which may last only for a short period and can have varying presentations. We report a case of 58-year-old male with presenting features of sudden onset transient vertical diplopia and transient rotatory nystagmus which self-resolved within 12 h. Patient had no history of any systemic illness. On investigating, hematological investigations and neuroimaging could not explain these sudden and transient findings. A TIA could possibly explain these sudden and transient ocular findings in our patient. This case report aims to highlight the importance of TIA for ophthalmologists. We must not ignore these findings as these could be warning signs of an impending stroke which may or may not be detected on neuroimaging. Thus, early recognition, primary prevention strategies, and timely intervention are needed.

  11. Understanding the Links Between Self-Report Emotional Intelligence and Suicide Risk: Does Psychological Distress Mediate This Relationship Across Time and Samples?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Mérida-López

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the last decades, increasing attention has been paid to examining psychological resources that might contribute to our understanding of suicide risk. Although Emotional Intelligence (EI is one dimension that has been linked with decreased suicidal ideation and behaviors, we detected several gaps in the literature in this area regarding the research designs and samples involved. In this research, we aimed to test a mediator model considering self-report EI, psychological distress and suicide risk across samples adopting both cross-sectional and prospective designs in two independent studies.Method: In Study 1, our purpose was to examine the potential role of psychological distress as a mediator in the relationship between self-report EI and suicide risk in a community sample comprised of 438 adults (270 women; mean age: 33.21 years. In Study 2, we sought to examine the proposed mediator model considering a 2-month prospective design in a sample of college students (n = 330 in T1; n = 311 in T2; 264 women; mean age: 22.22 years.Results: In Study 1, we found that psychological distress partially mediated the effect of self-report EI on suicide risk. More interestingly, findings from Study 2 showed that psychological distress fully mediated the relationship between self-report EI and suicide risk at Time 2.Conclusion: These results point out the role of psychological distress as a mediator in the association between self-report EI and suicide risk. These findings suggest an underlying process by which self-report EI may act as a protective factor against suicidal ideation and behaviors. In line with the limitations of our work, plausible avenues for future research and interventions are discussed.

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation on Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Japanese lawngrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Anhui Agricultural Univ., Hefei; Hu Fanrong; Zhang Linlin; Wang Xueyan; Wu Dianxing; Ma Chuanxi

    2004-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation were investigated in the current paper, using embryonic calli derived from the mature seeds of Japanese lawngrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.). The result indicated that the GUS transient expression rates were enhanced with the increasing doses when treated by doses lower than 4 Gy, however it would be decreased when treated by doses higher than 4 Gy. Based on the survival rate and GUS transient expression rate, 2 Gy is the optimal dose for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Further observation found that 36 hours reculture after gamma irradiation is the most appropriate for agrobacterium infection. (authors)

  13. Transient analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, M.D.

    1975-01-01

    The design and design philosophy of a high performance, extremely versatile transient analyzer is described. This sub-system was designed to be controlled through the data acquisition computer system which allows hands off operation. Thus it may be placed on the experiment side of the high voltage safety break between the experimental device and the control room. This analyzer provides control features which are extremely useful for data acquisition from PPPL diagnostics. These include dynamic sample rate changing, which may be intermixed with multiple post trigger operations with variable length blocks using normal, peak to peak or integrate modes. Included in the discussion are general remarks on the advantages of adding intelligence to transient analyzers, a detailed description of the characteristics of the PPPL transient analyzer, a description of the hardware, firmware, control language and operation of the PPPL transient analyzer, and general remarks on future trends in this type of instrumentation both at PPPL and in general

  14. Mitochondrial Alterations and Oxidative Stress in an Acute Transient Mouse Model of Muscle Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadasan-Nair, Renjini; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Mishra, Sudha; Sunitha, Balaraju; Mythri, Rajeswara Babu; Nalini, Atchayaram; Subbannayya, Yashwanth; Harsha, Hindalahalli Chandregowda; Kolthur-Seetharam, Ullas; Bharath, Muchukunte Mukunda Srinivas

    2014-01-01

    Muscular dystrophies (MDs) and inflammatory myopathies (IMs) are debilitating skeletal muscle disorders characterized by common pathological events including myodegeneration and inflammation. However, an experimental model representing both muscle pathologies and displaying most of the distinctive markers has not been characterized. We investigated the cardiotoxin (CTX)-mediated transient acute mouse model of muscle degeneration and compared the cardinal features with human MDs and IMs. The CTX model displayed degeneration, apoptosis, inflammation, loss of sarcolemmal complexes, sarcolemmal disruption, and ultrastructural changes characteristic of human MDs and IMs. Cell death caused by CTX involved calcium influx and mitochondrial damage both in murine C2C12 muscle cells and in mice. Mitochondrial proteomic analysis at the initial phase of degeneration in the model detected lowered expression of 80 mitochondrial proteins including subunits of respiratory complexes, ATP machinery, fatty acid metabolism, and Krebs cycle, which further decreased in expression during the peak degenerative phase. The mass spectrometry (MS) data were supported by enzyme assays, Western blot, and histochemistry. The CTX model also displayed markers of oxidative stress and a lowered glutathione reduced/oxidized ratio (GSH/GSSG) similar to MDs, human myopathies, and neurogenic atrophies. MS analysis identified 6 unique oxidized proteins from Duchenne muscular dystrophy samples (n = 6) (versus controls; n = 6), including two mitochondrial proteins. Interestingly, these mitochondrial proteins were down-regulated in the CTX model thereby linking oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. We conclude that mitochondrial alterations and oxidative damage significantly contribute to CTX-mediated muscle pathology with implications for human muscle diseases. PMID:24220031

  15. Linking mind wandering tendency to risky driving in young male drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Derek A; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Jarret, Julien; Cloutier, Marie-Soleil; Paquette, Martin; Badeau, Nancy; Brown, Thomas G

    2018-02-01

    Risky driving is a significant contributor to road traffic crashes, especially in young drivers. Transient mind wandering states, an internal form of distraction, are associated with faster driving, reduced headway distance, slower response times, reduced driver vigilance, and increased crash risk. It is unclear whether a trait tendency to mind wander predicts risky driving, however. Mind wandering is also associated with poor executive control, but whether this capacity moderates the putative link between mind wandering tendency and risky driving is uncertain. The present study tested whether mind wandering tendency predicts risky driving behaviour in young male drivers aged 18-21 (N=30) and whether this relationship is mediated by driver vigilance and moderated by executive control capacity. Mind wandering was measured with the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) and the Daydreaming Frequency Scale (DDFS). Risky driving was assessed by mean speed in a driving simulator and driver vigilance was quantified by horizontal eye movements measured with eye tracking. Results showed that greater mind wandering tendency based on SART performance significantly predicts faster mean speed, confirming the main hypothesis. Neither driver vigilance mediated nor executive control capacity moderated this relationship as hypothesized. These findings speak to the complexity of individual differences in mind wandering. Overall, mind wandering tendency is a significant marker of risky driving in young drivers, which could guide the development of targeted interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A novel technique with enhanced detection and quantitation of HPV-16 E1- and E2-mediated DNA replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Ewan R.; Morgan, Iain M.

    2003-01-01

    Transient DNA replication assays to detect papillomavirus E1/E2-mediated DNA replication have depended upon Southern blotting. This technique is hazardous (radioactive), labour intensive, semiquantitative, and physically limited in the number of samples that can be processed at any one time. We have overcome these problems by developing a real-time PCR protocol for the detection of E1/E2-mediated transient DNA replication. The results demonstrate detection of replication at levels not seen using Southern blotting demonstrating enhanced sensitivity. This technique is also, by definition, highly quantitative. Therefore, the real-time PCR technique is the optimal method for the detection of E1/E2-mediated DNA replication

  17. Methods for transient assay of gene function in floral tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathirana Nilangani N

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is considerable interest in rapid assays or screening systems for assigning gene function. However, analysis of gene function in the flowers of some species is restricted due to the difficulty of producing stably transformed transgenic plants. As a result, experimental approaches based on transient gene expression assays are frequently used. Biolistics has long been used for transient over-expression of genes of interest, but has not been exploited for gene silencing studies. Agrobacterium-infiltration has also been used, but the focus primarily has been on the transient transformation of leaf tissue. Results Two constructs, one expressing an inverted repeat of the Antirrhinum majus (Antirrhinum chalcone synthase gene (CHS and the other an inverted repeat of the Antirrhinum transcription factor gene Rosea1, were shown to effectively induce CHS and Rosea1 gene silencing, respectively, when introduced biolistically into petal tissue of Antirrhinum flowers developing in vitro. A high-throughput vector expressing the Antirrhinum CHS gene attached to an inverted repeat of the nos terminator was also shown to be effective. Silencing spread systemically to create large zones of petal tissue lacking pigmentation, with transmission of the silenced state spreading both laterally within the affected epidermal cell layer and into lower cell layers, including the epidermis of the other petal surface. Transient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of petal tissue of tobacco and petunia flowers in situ or detached was also achieved, using expression of the reporter genes GUS and GFP to visualise transgene expression. Conclusion We demonstrate the feasibility of using biolistics-based transient RNAi, and transient transformation of petal tissue via Agrobacterium infiltration to study gene function in petals. We have also produced a vector for high throughput gene silencing studies, incorporating the option of using T-A cloning to

  18. Transient drainage summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This report summarizes the history of transient drainage issues on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. It defines and describes the UMTRA Project disposal cell transient drainage process and chronicles UMTRA Project treatment of the transient drainage phenomenon. Section 4.0 includes a conceptual cross section of each UMTRA Project disposal site and summarizes design and construction information, the ground water protection strategy, and the potential for transient drainage

  19. TRANSIENT ELECTRONICS CATEGORIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-24

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2017-0169 TRANSIENT ELECTRONICS CATEGORIZATION Dr. Burhan Bayraktaroglu Devices for Sensing Branch Aerospace Components & Subsystems...SUBTITLE TRANSIENT ELECTRONICS CATEGORIZATION 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr. Burhan...88ABW-2017-3747, Clearance Date 31 July 2017. Paper contains color. 14. ABSTRACT Transient electronics is an emerging technology area that lacks proper

  20. Cross-link guided molecular modeling with ROSETTA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Kahraman

    Full Text Available Chemical cross-links identified by mass spectrometry generate distance restraints that reveal low-resolution structural information on proteins and protein complexes. The technology to reliably generate such data has become mature and robust enough to shift the focus to the question of how these distance restraints can be best integrated into molecular modeling calculations. Here, we introduce three workflows for incorporating distance restraints generated by chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry into ROSETTA protocols for comparative and de novo modeling and protein-protein docking. We demonstrate that the cross-link validation and visualization software Xwalk facilitates successful cross-link data integration. Besides the protocols we introduce XLdb, a database of chemical cross-links from 14 different publications with 506 intra-protein and 62 inter-protein cross-links, where each cross-link can be mapped on an experimental structure from the Protein Data Bank. Finally, we demonstrate on a protein-protein docking reference data set the impact of virtual cross-links on protein docking calculations and show that an inter-protein cross-link can reduce on average the RMSD of a docking prediction by 5.0 Å. The methods and results presented here provide guidelines for the effective integration of chemical cross-link data in molecular modeling calculations and should advance the structural analysis of particularly large and transient protein complexes via hybrid structural biology methods.

  1. Polymodal Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid (TRPV Ion Channels in Chondrogenic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csilla Szűcs Somogyi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mature and developing chondrocytes exist in a microenvironment where mechanical load, changes of temperature, osmolarity and acidic pH may influence cellular metabolism. Polymodal Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid (TRPV receptors are environmental sensors mediating responses through activation of linked intracellular signalling pathways. In chondrogenic high density cultures established from limb buds of chicken and mouse embryos, we identified TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV3, TRPV4 and TRPV6 mRNA expression with RT-PCR. In both cultures, a switch in the expression pattern of TRPVs was observed during cartilage formation. The inhibition of TRPVs with the non-selective calcium channel blocker ruthenium red diminished chondrogenesis and caused significant inhibition of proliferation. Incubating cell cultures at 41 °C elevated the expression of TRPV1, and increased cartilage matrix production. When chondrogenic cells were exposed to mechanical load at the time of their differentiation into matrix producing chondrocytes, we detected increased mRNA levels of TRPV3. Our results demonstrate that developing chondrocytes express a full palette of TRPV channels and the switch in the expression pattern suggests differentiation stage-dependent roles of TRPVs during cartilage formation. As TRPV1 and TRPV3 expression was altered by thermal and mechanical stimuli, respectively, these are candidate channels that contribute to the transduction of environmental stimuli in chondrogenic cells.

  2. Identification of core components and transient interactors of the peroxisomal importomer by dual-track stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeljeklaus, Silke; Reinartz, Benedikt S; Wolf, Janina; Wiese, Sebastian; Tonillo, Jason; Podwojski, Katharina; Kuhlmann, Katja; Stephan, Christian; Meyer, Helmut E; Schliebs, Wolfgang; Brocard, Cécile; Erdmann, Ralf; Warscheid, Bettina

    2012-04-06

    The importomer complex plays an essential role in the biogenesis of peroxisomes by mediating the translocation of matrix proteins across the organellar membrane. A central part of this highly dynamic import machinery is the docking complex consisting of Pex14p, Pex13p, and Pex17p that is linked to the RING finger complex (Pex2p, Pex10p, Pex12p) via Pex8p. To gain detailed knowledge on the molecular players governing peroxisomal matrix protein import and, thus, the integrity and functionality of peroxisomes, we aimed at a most comprehensive investigation of stable and transient interaction partners of Pex14p, the central component of the importomer. To this end, we performed a thorough quantitative proteomics study based on epitope tagging of Pex14p combined with dual-track stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture-mass spectrometry (SILAC-MS) analysis of affinity-purified Pex14p complexes and statistics. The results led to the establishment of the so far most extensive Pex14p interactome, comprising 9 core and further 12 transient components. We confirmed virtually all known Pex14p interaction partners including the core constituents of the importomer as well as Pex5p, Pex11p, Pex15p, and Dyn2p. More importantly, we identified new transient interaction partners (Pex25p, Hrr25p, Esl2p, prohibitin) that provide a valuable resource for future investigations on the functionality, dynamics, and regulation of the peroxisomal importomer.

  3. The Mediator Complex: At the Nexus of RNA Polymerase II Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeronimo, Célia; Robert, François

    2017-10-01

    Mediator is an essential, large, multisubunit, transcriptional co-activator highly conserved across eukaryotes. Mediator interacts with gene-specific transcription factors at enhancers as well as with the RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) transcription machinery bound at promoters. It also interacts with several other factors involved in various aspects of transcription, chromatin regulation, and mRNA processing. Hence, Mediator is at the nexus of RNAPII transcription, regulating its many steps and connecting transcription with co-transcriptional events. To achieve this flexible role, Mediator, which is divided into several functional modules, reorganizes its conformation and composition while making transient contacts with other components. Here, we review the mechanisms of action of Mediator and propose a unifying model for its function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Transient receptor potential channel polymorphisms are associated with the somatosensory function in neuropathic pain patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Binder

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential channels are important mediators of thermal and mechanical stimuli and play an important role in neuropathic pain. The contribution of hereditary variants in the genes of transient receptor potential channels to neuropathic pain is unknown. We investigated the frequency of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1, transient receptor potential melastin 8 and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 single nucleotide polymorphisms and their impact on somatosensory abnormalities in neuropathic pain patients. Within the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (Deutscher Forscbungsverbund Neuropathischer Schmerz 371 neuropathic pain patients were phenotypically characterized using standardized quantitative sensory testing. Pyrosequencing was employed to determine a total of eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms in transient receptor potential channel genes of the neuropathic pain patients and a cohort of 253 German healthy volunteers. Associations of quantitative sensory testing parameters and single nucleotide polymorphisms between and within groups and subgroups, based on sensory phenotypes, were analyzed. Single nucleotide polymorphisms frequencies did not differ between both the cohorts. However, in neuropathic pain patients transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 710G>A (rs920829, E179K was associated with the presence of paradoxical heat sensation (p = 0.03, and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 1911A>G (rs8065080, I585V with cold hypoalgesia (p = 0.0035. Two main subgroups characterized by preserved (1 and impaired (2 sensory function were identified. In subgroup 1 transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 1911A>G led to significantly less heat hyperalgesia, pinprick hyperalgesia and mechanical hypaesthesia (p = 0.006, p = 0.005 and pG (rs222747, M315I to cold hypaesthesia (p = 0.002, but there was absence of associations in subgroup 2. In this study we found no evidence that genetic

  5. PSH Transient Simulation Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-21

    PSH Transient Simulation Modeling presentation from the WPTO FY14 - FY16 Peer Review. Transient effects are an important consideration when designing a PSH system, yet numerical techniques for hydraulic transient analysis still need improvements for adjustable-speed (AS) reversible pump-turbine applications.

  6. Meaningful mediation analysis : Plausible causal inference and informative communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Rik

    2017-01-01

    Statistical mediation analysis has become the technique of choice in consumer research to make causal inferences about the influence of a treatment on an outcome via one or more mediators. This tutorial aims to strengthen two weak links that impede statistical mediation analysis from reaching its

  7. Heat transfer in turbocharger turbines under steady, pulsating and transient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, R.D.; Vagg, C.R.M.; Chalet, D.; Chesse, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Compare turbine heat transfer correlations from different studies. • Compare heat transfer for a same turbine on-engine and on gas-stand. • Analyse heat transfer under steady and transient operating conditions. • Gas stand heat transfer correlations are transferrable to engine conditions. • Heat flows can be reversed compared to steady conditions during transients. - Abstract: Heat transfer is significant in turbochargers and a number of mathematical models have been proposed to account for the heat transfer, however these have predominantly been validated under steady flow conditions. A variable geometry turbocharger from a 2.2 L Diesel engine was studied, both on gas stand and on-engine, under steady and transient conditions. The results showed that heat transfer accounts for at least 20% of total enthalpy change in the turbine and significantly more at lower mechanical powers. A convective heat transfer correlation was derived from experimental measurements to account for heat transfer between the gases and the turbine housing and proved consistent with those published from other researchers. This relationship was subsequently shown to be consistent between engine and gas stand operation: using this correlation in a 1D gas dynamics simulation reduced the turbine outlet temperature error from 33 °C to 3 °C. Using the model under transient conditions highlighted the effect of housing thermal inertia. The peak transient heat flow was strongly linked to the dynamics of the turbine inlet temperature: for all increases, the peak heat flow was higher than under thermally stable conditions due to colder housing. For all decreases in gas temperature, the peak heat flow was lower and for temperature drops of more than 100 °C the heat flow was reversed during the transient

  8. Transient analysis on the SMART-P anticipated transients without scram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, S. H.; Bae, K. H.; Kim, H. C.; Zee, S. Q.

    2005-01-01

    Anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) are anticipated operational occurrences accompanied by a failure of an automatic reactor trip when required. Although the occurrence probability of the ATWS events is considerably low, these events can result in unacceptable consequences, i.e. the pressurization of the reactor coolant system (RCS) up to an unacceptable range and a core-melting situation. Therefore, the regulatory body requests the installation of a protection system against the ATWS events. According to the request, a diverse protection system (DPS) is installed in the SMART-P (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor-Pilot). This paper presents the results of the transient analysis performed to identify the performance of the SMART-P against the ATWS. In the analysis, the TASS/SMR (Transients And Setpoint Simulation/Small and Medium Reactor) code is applied to identify the thermal hydraulic response of the RCS during the transients

  9. Children’s Perceptions of Maternal Hostility as a Mediator of the Link between Discipline and Children’s Adjustment in Four Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Malone, Patrick S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Chang, Lei; Chaudhary, Nandita; Tapanya, Sombat; Oburu, Paul; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2010-01-01

    Using data from 195 dyads of mothers and children (age range = 8–12 years; M = 10.63) in four countries (China, India, the Philippines, and Thailand), this study examined children’s perceptions of maternal hostility as a mediator of the links between physical discipline and harsh verbal discipline and children’s adjustment. Both physical discipline and harsh verbal discipline had direct effects on mothers’ reports of children’s anxiety and aggression; three of these four links were mediated by children’s perceptions of maternal hostility. In contrast, there were no significant direct effects of physical discipline and harsh verbal discipline on children’s reports of their own anxiety and aggression. Instead, both physical discipline and harsh verbal discipline had indirect effects on the outcomes through children’s perceptions of maternal hostility. We identified a significant interaction between perceived normativeness and use of harsh verbal discipline on children’s perception of maternal hostility, but children’s perception of the normativeness of physical discipline did not moderate the relation between physical discipline and perceived maternal hostility. The effects of harsh verbal discipline were more adverse when children perceived that form of discipline as being nonnormative than when children perceived that form of discipline as being normative. Results are largely consistent with a theoretical model positing that the meaning children attach to parents’ discipline strategies is important in understanding associations between discipline and children’s adjustment, and that cultural context is associated with children’s interpretations of their parents’ behavior. PMID:20823943

  10. Transient flow combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacina, R. R.

    1984-01-01

    Non-steady combustion problems can result from engine sources such as accelerations, decelerations, nozzle adjustments, augmentor ignition, and air perturbations into and out of the compressor. Also non-steady combustion can be generated internally from combustion instability or self-induced oscillations. A premixed-prevaporized combustor would be particularly sensitive to flow transients because of its susceptability to flashback-autoignition and blowout. An experimental program, the Transient Flow Combustion Study is in progress to study the effects of air and fuel flow transients on a premixed-prevaporized combustor. Preliminary tests performed at an inlet air temperature of 600 K, a reference velocity of 30 m/s, and a pressure of 700 kPa. The airflow was reduced to 1/3 of its original value in a 40 ms ramp before flashback occurred. Ramping the airflow up has shown that blowout is more sensitive than flashback to flow transients. Blowout occurred with a 25 percent increase in airflow (at a constant fuel-air ratio) in a 20 ms ramp. Combustion resonance was found at some conditions and may be important in determining the effects of flow transients.

  11. A robust nonlinear stabilizer as a controller for improving transient stability in micro-grids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Seyed Mohammad; Afsharnia, Saeed

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a parametric-Lyapunov approach to the design of a stabilizer aimed at improving the transient stability of micro-grids (MGs). This strategy is applied to electronically-interfaced distributed resources (EI-DRs) operating with a unified control configuration applicable to all operational modes (i.e. grid-connected mode, islanded mode, and mode transitions). The proposed approach employs a simple structure compared with other nonlinear controllers, allowing ready implementation of the stabilizer. A new parametric-Lyapunov function is proposed rendering the proposed stabilizer more effective in damping system transition transients. The robustness of the proposed stabilizer is also verified based on both time-domain simulations and mathematical proofs, and an ultimate bound has been derived for the frequency transition transients. The proposed stabilizer operates by deploying solely local information and there are no needs for communication links. The deteriorating effects of the primary resource delays on the transient stability are also treated analytically. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed stabilizer is evaluated through time-domain simulations and compared with the recently-developed stabilizers performed on a multi-resource MG. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Elaborative Retrieval: Do Semantic Mediators Improve Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Melissa; Karpicke, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    The elaborative retrieval account of retrieval-based learning proposes that retrieval enhances retention because the retrieval process produces the generation of semantic mediators that link cues to target information. We tested 2 assumptions that form the basis of this account: that semantic mediators are more likely to be generated during…

  13. Dispositional optimism and sleep quality: a test of mediating pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Bert N; Cribbet, Matthew; de Grey, Robert G Kent; Cronan, Sierra; Trettevik, Ryan; Smith, Timothy W

    2017-04-01

    Dispositional optimism has been related to beneficial influences on physical health outcomes. However, its links to global sleep quality and the psychological mediators responsible for such associations are less studied. This study thus examined if trait optimism predicted global sleep quality, and if measures of subjective well-being were statistical mediators of such links. A community sample of 175 participants (93 men, 82 women) completed measures of trait optimism, depression, and life satisfaction. Global sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Results indicated that trait optimism was a strong predictor of better PSQI global sleep quality. Moreover, this association was mediated by depression and life satisfaction in both single and multiple mediator models. These results highlight the importance of optimism for the restorative process of sleep, as well as the utility of multiple mediator models in testing distinct psychological pathways.

  14. Low transient storage and uptake efficiencies in seven agricultural streams: implications for nutrient demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, Richard W; Duff, John H; Tesoriero, Anthony J

    2014-11-01

    We used mass load budgets, transient storage modeling, and nutrient spiraling metrics to characterize nitrate (NO), ammonium (NH), and inorganic phosphorus (SRP) demand in seven agricultural streams across the United States and to identify in-stream services that may control these conditions. Retention of one or all nutrients was observed in all but one stream, but demand for all nutrients was low relative to the mass in transport. Transient storage metrics (/, , , and ) correlated with NO retention but not NH or SRP retention, suggesting in-stream services associated with transient storage and stream water residence time could influence reach-scale NO demand. However, because the fraction of median reach-scale travel time due to transient storage () was ≤1.2% across the sites, only a relatively small demand for NO could be generated by transient storage. In contrast, net uptake of nutrients from the water column calculated from nutrient spiraling metrics were not significant at any site because uptake lengths calculated from background nutrient concentrations were statistically insignificant and therefore much longer than the study reaches. These results suggest that low transient storage coupled with high surface water NO inputs have resulted in uptake efficiencies that are not sufficient to offset groundwater inputs of N. Nutrient retention has been linked to physical and hydrogeologic elements that drive flow through transient storage areas where residence time and biotic contact are maximized; however, our findings indicate that similar mechanisms are unable to generate a significant nutrient demand in these streams relative to the loads. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  15. Mechanism for transient migration of xenon in UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.-Y.; Uberuaga, B. P.; Andersson, D. A.; Stanek, C. R.; Sickafus, K. E.

    2011-01-01

    In this letter, we report recent work on atomistic modeling of diffusion migration events of the fission gas product xenon in UO 2 nuclear fuel. Under nonequilibrium conditions, Xe atoms can occupy the octahedral interstitial site, in contrast to the thermodynamically most stable uranium substitutional site. A transient migration mechanism involving Xe and two oxygen atoms is identified using basin constrained molecular dynamics employing a Buckingham type interatomic potential. This mechanism is then validated using density functional theory calculations using the nudged elastic band method. An overall reduction in the migration barrier of 1.6-2.7 eV is obtained compared to vacancy-mediated diffusion on the uranium sublattice.

  16. Canonical Transient Receptor Potential Channels and Their Link with Cardio/Cerebro-Vascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiong; Liu, Hui-Xia; Shen, Kuo; Cao, Wei; Li, Xiao-Qiang

    2017-09-01

    The canonical transient receptor potential channels (TRPCs) constitute a series of nonselective cation channels with variable degrees of Ca 2+ selectivity. TRPCs consist of seven mammalian members, TRPC1, TRPC2, TRPC3, TRPC4, TRPC5, TRPC6, and TRPC7, which are further divided into four subtypes, TRPC1, TRPC2, TRPC4/5, and TRPC3/6/7. These channels take charge of various essential cell functions such as contraction, relaxation, proliferation, and dysfunction. This review, organized into seven main sections, will provide an overview of current knowledge about the underlying pathogenesis of TRPCs in cardio/cerebrovascular diseases, including hypertension, pulmonary arterial hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, atherosclerosis, arrhythmia, and cerebrovascular ischemia reperfusion injury. Collectively, TRPCs could become a group of drug targets with important physiological functions for the therapy of human cardio/cerebro-vascular diseases.

  17. Acute Elevated Glucose Promotes Abnormal Action Potential-Induced Ca2+ Transients in Cultured Skeletal Muscle Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick O. Hernández-Ochoa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A common comorbidity of diabetes is skeletal muscle dysfunction, which leads to compromised physical function. Previous studies of diabetes in skeletal muscle have shown alterations in excitation-contraction coupling (ECC—the sequential link between action potentials (AP, intracellular Ca2+ release, and the contractile machinery. Yet, little is known about the impact of acute elevated glucose on the temporal properties of AP-induced Ca2+ transients and ionic underlying mechanisms that lead to muscle dysfunction. Here, we used high-speed confocal Ca2+ imaging to investigate the temporal properties of AP-induced Ca2+ transients, an intermediate step of ECC, using an acute in cellulo model of uncontrolled hyperglycemia (25 mM, 48 h.. Control and elevated glucose-exposed muscle fibers cultured for five days displayed four distinct patterns of AP-induced Ca2+ transients (phasic, biphasic, phasic-delayed, and phasic-slow decay; most control muscle fibers show phasic AP-induced Ca2+ transients, while most fibers exposed to elevated D-glucose displayed biphasic Ca2+ transients upon single field stimulation. We hypothesize that these changes in the temporal profile of the AP-induced Ca2+ transients are due to changes in the intrinsic excitable properties of the muscle fibers. We propose that these changes accompany early stages of diabetic myopathy.

  18. Optimization of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Transformation Systems in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianru LV

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an efficient plant regeneration protocol in vitro and transformation by Agrobacterium-mediated method of Camellia sinensis was achieved, which would lay the foundation for genetic improvement of tea plant by genetic engineering technology. The cotyledon callus of C. sinensis were used as the receptors for transformation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 containing PS1aG-3. Some factors which affected the result of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of C. sinensis were studied on the basis of GUS transient expression system. The optimum system of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was that the cotyledon callus were pre-cultured for 3 d, and then infected by EHA105 for 15 min followed by 3 d co-culture in the dark on the YEB medium containing 150 µmol⋅L−1 acetosyringone (AS. The transient expression rate of GUS gene was 62.6%. After being delayed selective culture for 3 d, infected callus were transferred into the differentiation medium and the root induction medium both of which were supplemented with 100 mg⋅L−1 spectinomycin, and then resistant seedlings of C. sinensis were obtained. The conversion rate was 3.6%.

  19. Delay time and tunneling transient phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Calderon, Gaston; Villavicencio, Jorge

    2002-01-01

    Analytic solutions to the time-dependent Schroedinger equation for cutoff wave initial conditions are used to investigate the time evolution of the transmitted probability density for tunneling. For a broad range of values of the potential barrier opacity α, we find that the probability density exhibits two evolving structures. One refers to the propagation of a forerunner related to a time domain resonance [Phys. Rev. A 64, 0121907 (2001)], while the other consists of a semiclassical propagating wave front. We find a regime where the forerunners are absent, corresponding to positive time delays, and show that this regime is characterized by opacities α c . The critical opacity α c is derived from the analytical expression for the delay time, which reflects a link between transient effects in tunneling and the delay time

  20. Lysosomal ceramide generated by acid sphingomyelinase triggers cytosolic cathepsin B-mediated degradation of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein in natural killer/T lymphoma cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, M; Ogiso, H; Takeuchi, T; Kitatani, K; Umehara, H; Okazaki, T

    2015-04-09

    We previously reported that IL-2 deprivation induced acid sphingomyelinase-mediated (ASM-mediated) ceramide elevation and apoptosis in an NK/T lymphoma cell line KHYG-1. However, the molecular mechanism of ASM-ceramide-mediated apoptosis during IL-2 deprivation is poorly understood. Here, we showed that IL-2 deprivation induces caspase-dependent apoptosis characterized by phosphatidylserine externalization, caspase-8, -9, and -3 cleavage, and degradation of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). IL-2 re-supplementation rescued apoptosis via inhibition of XIAP degradation without affecting caspase cleavage. However, IL-2 deprivation induced ceramide elevation via ASM in lysosomes and activated lysosomal cathepsin B (CTSB) but not cathepsin D. A CTSB inhibitor CA-074 Me and knockdown of CTSB inhibited ceramide-mediated XIAP degradation and apoptosis. Inhibition of ceramide accumulation in lysosomes using an ASM inhibitor, desipramine, decreased cytosolic activation of CTSB by inhibiting its transfer into cytosol from the lysosome. Knockdown of ASM also inhibited XIAP degradation and apoptosis. Furthermore, cell permeable N-acetyl sphingosine (C2-ceramide), which increases mainly endogenous d18:1/16:0 and d18:1/24:1 ceramide-like IL-2 deprivation, induced caspase-dependent apoptosis with XIAP degradation through CTSB. These findings suggest that lysosomal ceramide produced by ASM mediates XIAP degradation by activation of cytosolic CTSB and caspase-dependent apoptosis. The ASM-ceramide-CTSB signaling axis is a novel pathway of ceramide-mediated apoptosis in IL-2-deprived NK/T lymphoma cells.

  1. Transients: The regulator's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheron, B.W.; Speis, T.P.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter attempts to clarify the basis for the regulator's concerns for transient events. Transients are defined as both anticipated operational occurrences and postulated accidents. Recent operational experience, supplemented by improved probabilistic risk analysis methods, has demonstrated that non-LOCA transient events can be significant contributors to overall risk. Topics considered include lessons learned from events and issues, the regulations governing plant transients, multiple failures, different failure frequencies, operator errors, and public pressure. It is concluded that the formation of Owners Groups and Regulatory Response Groups within the owners groups are positive signs of the industry's concern for safety and responsible dealing with the issues affecting both the US NRC and the industry

  2. Flavorful hybrid anomaly-gravity mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, Christian; Hiller, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    We consider supersymmetric models where anomaly and gravity mediation give comparable contributions to the soft terms and discuss how this can be realized in a five-dimensional brane world. The gaugino mass pattern of anomaly mediation is preserved in such a hybrid setup. The flavorful gravity-mediated contribution cures the tachyonic slepton problem of anomaly mediation. The supersymmetric flavor puzzle is solved by alignment. We explicitly show how a working flavor-tachyon link can be realized with Abelian flavor symmetries and give the characteristic signatures of the framework, including O(1) slepton mass splittings between different generations and between doublets and singlets. This provides opportunities for same flavor dilepton edge measurements with missing energy at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Rare lepton decay rates could be close to their current experimental limit. Compared to pure gravity mediation, the hybrid model is advantageous because it features a heavy gravitino which can avoid the cosmological gravitino problem of gravity-mediated models combined with leptogenesis.

  3. The Azospirillum brasilense Che1 chemotaxis pathway controls swimming velocity, which affects transient cell-to-cell clumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Amber; Russell, Matthew H; Alexandre, Gladys

    2012-07-01

    The Che1 chemotaxis-like pathway of Azospirillum brasilense contributes to chemotaxis and aerotaxis, and it has also been found to contribute to regulating changes in cell surface adhesive properties that affect the propensity of cells to clump and to flocculate. The exact contribution of Che1 to the control of chemotaxis and flocculation in A. brasilense remains poorly understood. Here, we show that Che1 affects reversible cell-to-cell clumping, a cellular behavior in which motile cells transiently interact by adhering to one another at their nonflagellated poles before swimming apart. Clumping precedes and is required for flocculation, and both processes appear to be independently regulated. The phenotypes of a ΔaerC receptor mutant and of mutant strains lacking cheA1, cheY1, cheB1, or cheR1 (alone or in combination) or with che1 deleted show that Che1 directly mediates changes in the flagellar swimming velocity and that this behavior directly modulates the transient nature of clumping. Our results also suggest that an additional receptor(s) and signaling pathway(s) are implicated in mediating other Che1-independent changes in clumping identified in the present study. Transient clumping precedes the transition to stable clump formation, which involves the production of specific extracellular polysaccharides (EPS); however, production of these clumping-specific EPS is not directly controlled by Che1 activity. Che1-dependent clumping may antagonize motility and prevent chemotaxis, thereby maintaining cells in a metabolically favorable niche.

  4. Rapid transient expression of human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in two industrial cultivars of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. by agroinfiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Vojta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the production of hGM-CSF cytokine in leaves of industrial tobacco cultivars DH-17 and DH-27 by using Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression. We prove the concept that very high biomass industrial tobacco plants are suitable platforms for rapid, low cost production of foreign proteins. Successful transient expression of the GM-CSF was achieved in less than three months, opening the possibility for future applications of this approach in rapid response production of various proteins of non-plant origin in industrial tobacco.

  5. Hydrogen peroxide and ferulic acid-mediated oxidative cross-linking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... G250 in a 4.5:4.5:1 (v/v) mixture of deionized water, methanol and glacial acetic ... mixture of 1:1:8 (v/v) methanol, glacial acetic acid and deionized water until the ..... Cross-linking of tyrosine-containing peptides by hydrogen.

  6. Streptococcus thermophilus bacteraemia in a patient with transient bowel ischaemia secondary to polycythaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, Joanna; Turner, David P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The ability of Streptococcus thermophilus to convert lactose into lactic acid has long been utilised by the dairy industry. A seemingly low-pathogenicity organism, there have been no previously published reports linking the consumption of foodstuffs to bacteraemia with this bacterium.\\ud Case Presentation: Here we present a case of a regular consumer of Activia yoghurt who developed S. thermophilus bacteraemia probably due to transient bowel ischaemia secondary to polycythaemia....

  7. Investigation of transient melting of tungsten by ELMs in ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieger, K; Sieglin, B; Balden, M; De Marne, P; Nille, D; Rohde, V; Faitsch, M; Giannone, L; Herrmann, A; Coenen, J W; Göths, B; Laggner, F; Matthews, G F; Dejarnac, R; Horacek, J; Komm, M; Pitts, R A; Ratynskaia, S; Thoren, E; Tolias, P

    2017-01-01

    Repetitive melting of tungsten by power transients originating from edge localized modes (ELMs) has been studied in the tokamak experiment ASDEX Upgrade. Tungsten samples were exposed to H-mode discharges at the outer divertor target plate using the Divertor Manipulator II system. The exposed sample was designed with an elevated sloped surface inclined against the incident magnetic field to increase the projected parallel power flux to a level were transient melting by ELMs would occur. Sample exposure was controlled by moving the outer strike point to the sample location. As extension to previous melt studies in the new experiment both the current flow from the sample to vessel potential and the local surface temperature were measured with sufficient time resolution to resolve individual ELMs. The experiment provided for the first time a direct link of current flow and surface temperature during transient ELM events. This allows to further constrain the MEMOS melt motion code predictions and to improve the validation of its underlying model assumptions. Post exposure ex situ analysis of the retrieved samples confirms the decreased melt motion observed at shallower magnetic field line to surface angles compared to that at leading edges exposed to the parallel power flux. (paper)

  8. Activation of Phosphatidylinositol-Linked Dopamine Receptors Induces a Facilitation of Glutamate-Mediated Synaptic Transmission in the Lateral Entorhinal Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Glovaci

    Full Text Available The lateral entorhinal cortex receives strong inputs from midbrain dopamine neurons that can modulate its sensory and mnemonic function. We have previously demonstrated that 1 µM dopamine facilitates synaptic transmission in layer II entorhinal cortex cells via activation of D1-like receptors, increased cAMP-PKA activity, and a resulting enhancement of AMPA-receptor mediated currents. The present study assessed the contribution of phosphatidylinositol (PI-linked D1 receptors to the dopaminergic facilitation of transmission in layer II of the rat entorhinal cortex, and the involvement of phospholipase C activity and release of calcium from internal stores. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of glutamate-mediated evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents were obtained from pyramidal and fan cells. Activation of D1-like receptors using SKF38393, SKF83959, or 1 µM dopamine induced a reversible facilitation of EPSCs which was abolished by loading cells with either the phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122 or the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA. Neither the L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine, nor the L/N-type channel blocker cilnidipine, blocked the facilitation of synaptic currents. However, the facilitation was blocked by blocking Ca2+ release from internal stores via inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3 receptors or ryanodine receptors. Follow-up studies demonstrated that inhibiting CaMKII activity with KN-93 failed to block the facilitation, but that application of the protein kinase C inhibitor PKC(19-36 completely blocked the dopamine-induced facilitation. Overall, in addition to our previous report indicating a role for the cAMP-PKA pathway in dopamine-induced facilitation of synaptic transmission, we demonstrate here that the dopaminergic facilitation of synaptic responses in layer II entorhinal neurons also relies on a signaling cascade dependent on PI-linked D1 receptors, PLC, release of Ca2+ from internal stores, and PKC activation which is

  9. Searching for MHz Transients with the VLA Low-band Ionosphere and Transient Experiment (VLITE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polisensky, Emil; Peters, Wendy; Giacintucci, Simona; Clarke, Tracy; Kassim, Namir E.; hyman, Scott D.; van der Horst, Alexander; Linford, Justin; Waldron, Zach; Frail, Dale

    2018-01-01

    NRL and NRAO have expanded the low frequency capabilities of the VLA through the VLA Low-band Ionosphere and Transient Experiment (VLITE, http://vlite.nrao.edu/ ), effectively making the instrument two telescopes in one. VLITE is a commensal observing system that harvests data from the prime focus in parallel with normal Cassegrain focus observing on a subset of VLA antennas. VLITE provides over 6000 observing hours per year in a > 5 square degree field-of-view using 64 MHz bandwidth centered on 352 MHz. By operating in parallel, VLITE offers invaluable low frequency data to targeted observations of transient sources detected at higher frequencies. With arcsec resolution and mJy sensitivity, VLITE additionally offers great potential for blind searches of rarer radio-selected transients. We use catalog matching software on the imaging products from the daily astrophysics pipeline and the LOFAR Transients Pipeline (TraP) on repeated observations of the same fields to search for coherent and incoherent astronomical transients on timescales of a few seconds to years. We present the current status of the VLITE transient science program from its initial deployment on 10 antennas in November 2014 through its expansion to 16 antennas in the summer of 2017. Transient limits from VLITE’s first year of operation (Polisensky et al. 2016) are updated per the most recent analysis.

  10. The Multiscale Material Point Method for Simulating Transient Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Su, Yu-Chen; Zhang, Hetao; Jiang, Shan; Sewell, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    To effectively simulate multiscale transient responses such as impact and penetration without invoking master/slave treatment, the multiscale material point method (Multi-MPM) is being developed in which molecular dynamics at nanoscale and dissipative particle dynamics at mesoscale might be concurrently handled within the framework of the original MPM at microscale (continuum level). The proposed numerical scheme for concurrently linking different scales is described in this paper with simple examples for demonstration. It is shown from the preliminary study that the mapping and re-mapping procedure used in the original MPM could coarse-grain the information at fine scale and that the proposed interfacial scheme could provide a smooth link between different scales. Since the original MPM is an extension from computational fluid dynamics to solid dynamics, the proposed Multi-MPM might also become robust for dealing with multiphase interactions involving failure evolution. This work is supported in part by DTRA and NSFC.

  11. Proteomic Analysis of the Mediator Complex Interactome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthe, Henriette; Vanselow, Jens T; Schlosser, Andreas

    2017-02-27

    Here we present the most comprehensive analysis of the yeast Mediator complex interactome to date. Particularly gentle cell lysis and co-immunopurification conditions allowed us to preserve even transient protein-protein interactions and to comprehensively probe the molecular environment of the Mediator complex in the cell. Metabolic 15 N-labeling thereby enabled stringent discrimination between bona fide interaction partners and nonspecifically captured proteins. Our data indicates a functional role for Mediator beyond transcription initiation. We identified a large number of Mediator-interacting proteins and protein complexes, such as RNA polymerase II, general transcription factors, a large number of transcriptional activators, the SAGA complex, chromatin remodeling complexes, histone chaperones, highly acetylated histones, as well as proteins playing a role in co-transcriptional processes, such as splicing, mRNA decapping and mRNA decay. Moreover, our data provides clear evidence, that the Mediator complex interacts not only with RNA polymerase II, but also with RNA polymerases I and III, and indicates a functional role of the Mediator complex in rRNA processing and ribosome biogenesis.

  12. Modelling and transient simulation of water flow in pipelines using WANDA Transient software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.U. Akpan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pressure transients in conduits such as pipelines are unsteady flow conditions caused by a sudden change in the flow velocity. These conditions might cause damage to the pipelines and its fittings if the extreme pressure (high or low is experienced within the pipeline. In order to avoid this occurrence, engineers usually carry out pressure transient analysis in the hydraulic design phase of pipeline network systems. Modelling and simulation of transients in pipelines is an acceptable and cost effective method of assessing this problem and finding technical solutions. This research predicts the pressure surge for different flow conditions in two different pipeline systems using WANDA Transient simulation software. Computer models were set-up in WANDA Transient for two different systems namely; the Graze experiment (miniature system and a simple main water riser system based on some initial laboratory data and system parameters. The initial laboratory data and system parameters were used for all the simulations. Results obtained from the computer model simulations compared favourably with the experimental results at Polytropic index of 1.2.

  13. RFI flagging implications for short-duration transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendes, Y.; Prasad, P.; Rowlinson, A.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Swinbank, J. D.; Law, C. J.; van der Horst, A. J.; Carbone, D.; Broderick, J. W.; Staley, T. D.; Stewart, A. J.; Huizinga, F.; Molenaar, G.; Alexov, A.; Bell, M. E.; Coenen, T.; Corbel, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Fender, R.; Grießmeier, J.-M.; Jonker, P.; Kramer, M.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Pietka, M.; Stappers, B.; Wise, M.; Zarka, P.

    2018-04-01

    With their wide fields of view and often relatively long coverage of any position in the sky in imaging survey mode, modern radio telescopes provide a data stream that is naturally suited to searching for rare transients. However, Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) can show up in the data stream in similar ways to such transients, and thus the normal pre-treatment of filtering RFI (flagging) may also remove astrophysical transients from the data stream before imaging. In this paper we investigate how standard flagging affects the detectability of such transients by examining the case of transient detection in an observing mode used for Low Frequency Array (LOFAR; van Haarlem et al., 2013) surveys. We quantify the fluence range of transients that would be detected, and the reduction of their SNR due to partial flagging. We find that transients with a duration close to the integration sampling time, as well as bright transients with durations on the order of tens of seconds, are completely flagged. For longer transients on the order of several tens of seconds to minutes, the flagging effects are not as severe, although part of the signal is lost. For these transients, we present a modified flagging strategy which mitigates the effect of flagging on transient signals. We also present a script which uses the differences between the two strategies, and known differences between transient RFI and astrophysical transients, to notify the observer when a potential transient is in the data stream.

  14. Pathway Linking Internet Health Information Seeking to Better Health: A Moderated Mediation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shaohai; Street, Richard L

    2017-08-01

    The Internet increasingly has been recognized as an important medium with respect to population health. However, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie the potential impact of health-related Internet use on health outcomes. Based on the three-stage model of health promotion using interactive media, this study empirically tested a moderated mediation pathway model. Results showed that the effect of Internet health information seeking on three health outcomes (general, emotional, and physical) was completely mediated by respondents' access to social support resources. In addition, users' online health information seeking experience positively moderated this mediation path. The findings have significant theoretical and practical implications for the design of Internet-based health promotion resources to improve health outcomes.

  15. Parental dysphoria and children's internalizing symptoms: marital conflict styles as mediators of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina D; Cummings, E Mark

    2003-01-01

    Parents' marital conflict styles were investigated as mediators in the associations between parental dysphoria and children's internalizing symptoms. A community sample of 267 children, ages 8 to 16, participated with their parents. Behavioral observations were made of parents' interactions during marital conflict resolution tasks. Questionnaires assessed parents' dysphoria and children's internalizing problems. Structural equation modeling indicated that marital discord, in particular, depressive conflict styles, mediated the relationship between parental dysphoria and children's internalizing problems. Furthermore, whereas for dysphoric mothers, depressive conflict styles partially mediated the links with children's internalizing, for fathers, depressive conflict styles fully mediated the links. Destructive and constructive marital conflict were associated with parental dysphoria (positively and negatively, respectively) but did not mediate the relations with children's internalizing.

  16. LLL transient-electromagnetics-measurement facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deadrick, F.J.; Miller, E.K.; Hudson, H.G.

    1975-01-01

    The operation and hardware of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's transient-electromagnetics (EM)-measurement facility are described. The transient-EM range is useful for determining the time-domain transient responses of structures to incident EM pulses. To illustrate the accuracy and utility of the EM-measurement facility, actual experimental measurements are compared to numerically computed values

  17. Transient coupled calculations of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor using the Transient Fission Matrix approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laureau, A., E-mail: laureau.axel@gmail.com; Heuer, D.; Merle-Lucotte, E.; Rubiolo, P.R.; Allibert, M.; Aufiero, M.

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Neutronic ‘Transient Fission Matrix’ approach coupled to the CFD OpenFOAM code. • Fission Matrix interpolation model for fast spectrum homogeneous reactors. • Application for coupled calculations of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor. • Load following, over-cooling and reactivity insertion transient studies. • Validation of the reactor intrinsic stability for normal and accidental transients. - Abstract: In this paper we present transient studies of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR). This generation IV reactor is characterized by a liquid fuel circulating in the core cavity, requiring specific simulation tools. An innovative neutronic approach called “Transient Fission Matrix” is used to perform spatial kinetic calculations with a reduced computational cost through a pre-calculation of the Monte Carlo spatial and temporal response of the system. Coupled to this neutronic approach, the Computational Fluid Dynamics code OpenFOAM is used to model the complex flow pattern in the core. An accurate interpolation model developed to take into account the thermal hydraulics feedback on the neutronics including reactivity and neutron flux variation is presented. Finally different transient studies of the reactor in normal and accidental operating conditions are detailed such as reactivity insertion and load following capacities. The results of these studies illustrate the excellent behavior of the MSFR during such transients.

  18. Transient coupled calculations of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor using the Transient Fission Matrix approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laureau, A.; Heuer, D.; Merle-Lucotte, E.; Rubiolo, P.R.; Allibert, M.; Aufiero, M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Neutronic ‘Transient Fission Matrix’ approach coupled to the CFD OpenFOAM code. • Fission Matrix interpolation model for fast spectrum homogeneous reactors. • Application for coupled calculations of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor. • Load following, over-cooling and reactivity insertion transient studies. • Validation of the reactor intrinsic stability for normal and accidental transients. - Abstract: In this paper we present transient studies of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR). This generation IV reactor is characterized by a liquid fuel circulating in the core cavity, requiring specific simulation tools. An innovative neutronic approach called “Transient Fission Matrix” is used to perform spatial kinetic calculations with a reduced computational cost through a pre-calculation of the Monte Carlo spatial and temporal response of the system. Coupled to this neutronic approach, the Computational Fluid Dynamics code OpenFOAM is used to model the complex flow pattern in the core. An accurate interpolation model developed to take into account the thermal hydraulics feedback on the neutronics including reactivity and neutron flux variation is presented. Finally different transient studies of the reactor in normal and accidental operating conditions are detailed such as reactivity insertion and load following capacities. The results of these studies illustrate the excellent behavior of the MSFR during such transients.

  19. Asteroids in the High Cadence Transient Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, J.; Fuentes, C.; Förster, F.; Maureira, J. C.; San Martín, J.; Littín, J.; Huijse, P.; Cabrera-Vives, G.; Estévez, P. A.; Galbany, L.; González-Gaitán, S.; Martínez, J.; de Jaeger, Th.; Hamuy, M.

    2018-03-01

    We report on the serendipitous observations of solar system objects imaged during the High cadence Transient Survey 2014 observation campaign. Data from this high-cadence wide-field survey was originally analyzed for finding variable static sources using machine learning to select the most-likely candidates. In this work, we search for moving transients consistent with solar system objects and derive their orbital parameters. We use a simple, custom motion detection algorithm to link trajectories and assume Keplerian motion to derive the asteroid’s orbital parameters. We use known asteroids from the Minor Planet Center database to assess the detection efficiency of the survey and our search algorithm. Trajectories have an average of nine detections spread over two days, and our fit yields typical errors of {σ }a∼ 0.07 {au}, σ e ∼ 0.07 and σ i ∼ 0.°5 in semimajor axis, eccentricity, and inclination, respectively, for known asteroids in our sample. We extract 7700 orbits from our trajectories, identifying 19 near-Earth objects, 6687 asteroids, 14 Centaurs, and 15 trans-Neptunian objects. This highlights the complementarity of supernova wide-field surveys for solar system research and the significance of machine learning to clean data of false detections. It is a good example of the data-driven science that Large Synoptic Survey Telescope will deliver.

  20. Momentum integral network method for thermal-hydraulic transient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.

    1983-01-01

    A new momentum integral network method has been developed, and tested in the MINET computer code. The method was developed in order to facilitate the transient analysis of complex fluid flow and heat transfer networks, such as those found in the balance of plant of power generating facilities. The method employed in the MINET code is a major extension of a momentum integral method reported by Meyer. Meyer integrated the momentum equation over several linked nodes, called a segment, and used a segment average pressure, evaluated from the pressures at both ends. Nodal mass and energy conservation determined nodal flows and enthalpies, accounting for fluid compression and thermal expansion

  1. High-efficiency Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenck, A. R.; Quinn, M.; Whetten, R. W.; Pullman, G.; Sederoff, R.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is the method of choice for many plant biotechnology laboratories; however, large-scale use of this organism in conifer transformation has been limited by difficult propagation of explant material, selection efficiencies and low transformation frequency. We have analyzed co-cultivation conditions and different disarmed strains of Agrobacterium to improve transformation. Additional copies of virulence genes were added to three common disarmed strains. These extra virulence genes included either a constitutively active virG or extra copies of virG and virB, both from pTiBo542. In experiments with Norway spruce, we increased transformation efficiencies 1000-fold from initial experiments where little or no transient expression was detected. Over 100 transformed lines expressing the marker gene beta-glucuronidase (GUS) were generated from rapidly dividing embryogenic suspension-cultured cells co-cultivated with Agrobacterium. GUS activity was used to monitor transient expression and to further test lines selected on kanamycin-containing medium. In loblolly pine, transient expression increased 10-fold utilizing modified Agrobacterium strains. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is a useful technique for large-scale generation of transgenic Norway spruce and may prove useful for other conifer species.

  2. The supermassive black hole coincident with the luminous transient ASASSN-15lh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krühler, T.; Fraser, M.; Leloudas, G.; Schulze, S.; Stone, N. C.; van Velzen, S.; Amorin, R.; Hjorth, J.; Jonker, P. G.; Kann, D. A.; Kim, S.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Mehner, A.; Nicuesa Guelbenzu, A.

    2018-02-01

    The progenitors of astronomical transients are linked to a specific stellar population and galactic environment, and observing their host galaxies hence constrains the physical nature of the transient itself. Here, we use imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope, and spatially resolved, medium-resolution spectroscopy from the Very Large Telescope obtained with X-shooter and MUSE to study the host of the very luminous transient ASASSN-15lh. The dominant stellar population at the transient site is old (around 1 to 2 Gyr) without signs of recent star formation. We also detect emission from ionized gas, originating from three different, time invariable, narrow components of collisionally excited metal and Balmer lines. The ratios of emission lines in the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich diagnostic diagram indicate that the ionization source is a weak active galactic nucleus with a black hole mass of M• = 5-3+8 × 108 M⊙, derived through the M•-σ relation. The narrow line components show spatial and velocity offsets on scales of 1 kpc and 500 km s-1, respectively; these offsets are best explained by gas kinematics in the narrow-line region. The location of the central component, which we argue is also the position of the supermassive black hole, aligns with that of the transient within an uncertainty of 170 pc. Using this positional coincidence as well as other similarities with the hosts of tidal disruption events, we strengthen the argument that the transient emission observed as ASASSN-15lh is related to the disruption of a star around a supermassive black hole, most probably spinning with a Kerr parameter a• ≳ 0.5. Based on observations at ESO, Program IDs: 097.D-1054, 297.B-5035, 099.D-0115.The data used in this manuscript are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/610/A14

  3. MHD aspects of coronal transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzer, U.

    1979-10-01

    If one defines coronal transients as events which occur in the solar corona on rapid time scales (< approx. several hours) then one would have to include a large variety of solar phenomena: flares, sprays, erupting prominences, X-ray transients, white light transients, etc. Here we shall focus our attention on the latter two phenomena. (orig.) 891 WL/orig. 892 RDG

  4. Nonequilibrium Chromosome Looping via Molecular Slip Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackley, C. A.; Johnson, J.; Michieletto, D.; Morozov, A. N.; Nicodemi, M.; Cook, P. R.; Marenduzzo, D.

    2017-09-01

    We propose a model for the formation of chromatin loops based on the diffusive sliding of molecular slip links. These mimic the behavior of molecules like cohesin, which, along with the CTCF protein, stabilize loops which contribute to organizing the genome. By combining 3D Brownian dynamics simulations and 1D exactly solvable nonequilibrium models, we show that diffusive sliding is sufficient to account for the strong bias in favor of convergent CTCF-mediated chromosome loops observed experimentally. We also find that the diffusive motion of multiple slip links along chromatin is rectified by an intriguing ratchet effect that arises if slip links bind to the chromatin at a preferred "loading site." This emergent collective behavior favors the extrusion of loops which are much larger than the ones formed by single slip links.

  5. Curcumin protects microglia and primary rat cortical neurons against HIV-1 gp120-mediated inflammation and apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyan Guo

    Full Text Available Curcumin is a molecule found in turmeric root that has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-tumor properties and has been widely used as both an herbal drug and a food additive to treat or prevent neurodegenerative diseases. To explore whether curcumin is able to ameliorate HIV-1-associated neurotoxicity, we treated a murine microglial cell line (N9 and primary rat cortical neurons with curcumin in the presence or absence of neurotoxic HIV-1 gp120 (V3 loop protein. We found that HIV-1 gp120 profoundly induced N9 cells to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1. HIV-1 gp120 also induced apoptosis of primary rat cortical neurons. Curcumin exerted a powerful inhibitory effect against HIV-1 gp120-induced neuronal damage, reducing the production of ROS, TNF-α and MCP-1 by N9 cells and inhibiting apoptosis of primary rat cortical neurons. Curcumin may exert its biological activities through inhibition of the delayed rectification and transient outward potassium (K(+ current, as curcumin effectively reduced HIV-1 gp120-mediated elevation of the delayed rectification and transient outward K(+ channel current in neurons. We conclude that HIV-1 gp120 increases ROS, TNF-α and MCP-1 production in microglia, and induces cortical neuron apoptosis by affecting the delayed rectification and transient outward K(+ channel current. Curcumin reduces production of ROS and inflammatory mediators in HIV-1-gp120-stimulated microglia, and protects cortical neurons against HIV-1-mediated apoptosis, most likely through inhibition of HIV-1 gp120-induced elevation of the delayed rectification and transient outward K(+ current.

  6. Cerebrovascular endothelin-1 hyper-reactivity is associated with transient receptor potential canonical channels 1 and 6 activation and delayed cerebral hypoperfusion after forebrain ischaemia in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, S E; Andersen, X E D R; Hansen, R H

    2015-01-01

    . METHODS: Experimental forebrain ischaemia was induced in Wistar male rats by a two-vessel occlusion model, and the cerebral blood flow was measured by magnetic resonance imaging two days after reperfusion. In vitro vasoreactivity studies, immunofluorescence and quantitative PCR were performed on cerebral...... in the vascular smooth muscle cells was enhanced and correlated with decreased cerebral blood flow two days after forebrain ischaemia. Furthermore, under conditions when voltage-dependent calcium channels were inhibited, endothelin-1-induced cerebrovascular contraction was enhanced and this enhancement...... was presumably mediated by Ca(2+) influx via upregulated transient receptor potential canonical channels 1 and 6. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrates that endothelin-1-mediated influx of extracellular Ca(2+) activates transient receptor potential canonical channels 1 and 6 in cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells...

  7. Mediator Recruitment to Heat Shock Genes Requires Dual Hsf1 Activation Domains and Mediator Tail Subunits Med15 and Med16*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunyoung; Gross, David S.

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Mediator complex is central to the regulation of gene transcription in eukaryotes because it serves as a physical and functional interface between upstream regulators and the Pol II transcriptional machinery. Nonetheless, its role appears to be context-dependent, and the detailed mechanism by which it governs the expression of most genes remains unknown. Here we investigate Mediator involvement in HSP (heat shock protein) gene regulation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We find that in response to thermal upshift, subunits representative of each of the four Mediator modules (Head, Middle, Tail, and Kinase) are rapidly, robustly, and selectively recruited to the promoter regions of HSP genes. Their residence is transient, returning to near-background levels within 90 min. Hsf1 (heat shock factor 1) plays a central role in recruiting Mediator, as indicated by the fact that truncation of either its N- or C-terminal activation domain significantly reduces Mediator occupancy, whereas removal of both activation domains abolishes it. Likewise, ablation of either of two Mediator Tail subunits, Med15 or Med16, reduces Mediator recruitment to HSP promoters, whereas deletion of both abolishes it. Accompanying the loss of Mediator, recruitment of RNA polymerase II is substantially diminished. Interestingly, Mediator antagonizes Hsf1 occupancy of non-induced promoters yet facilitates enhanced Hsf1 association with activated ones. Collectively, our observations indicate that Hsf1, via its dual activation domains, recruits holo-Mediator to HSP promoters in response to acute heat stress through cooperative physical and/or functional interactions with the Tail module. PMID:23447536

  8. Physical Activity and Health Perception in Aging: Do Body Mass and Satisfaction Matter? A Three-Path Mediated Link.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Condello

    Full Text Available Although ageing people could benefit from healthy diet and physical activity to maintain health and quality of life, further understandings of the diet- and physical activity-related mechanisms that may cause changes in health and quality of life perception are necessary. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of eating attitudes, body mass and image satisfaction, and exercise dependence in the relationship between physical activity and health and quality of life perception in older individuals. Hundred and seventy-nine late middle-aged, (55-64 yrs, young-old (65-74 yrs, and old (75-84 yrs senior athletes (n = 56, physically active (n = 58 or sedentary adults (n = 65 were submitted to anthropometric evaluations (body mass, height and self-reported questionnaires: Body Image Dimensional Assessment, Exercise Dependence Scale, Eating Attitude Test, and Short Form Health Survey (Physical Component Summary [PCS] and Mental Component Summary [MCS] of and health and quality of life perception. Senior athletes, physically active, and sedentary participants subgroups differed (P<0.05 from each other in body mass index (BMI and several components of body image and exercise dependence. Senior athletes showed, compared to their sedentary counterparts, further differences (P<0.05 in eating attitudes and in both PCS and MCS. Mediation analysis showed that the relationship between physical activity habit and MCS, but not PCS, was indirectly explained by a serial mediation chain composed of objective BMI and subjective body image (dissatisfaction. Findings confirm the relevant role of physically active life habits for older individuals to perceive good physical and mental health. The novelty of the three-path mediated link between physical activity level and mental health perception suggests that the beneficial effect of a physically active lifestyle on weight control can positively impinge on the cognitive-emotional dimension of mental health

  9. Transient-Switch-Signal Suppressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Circuit delays transmission of switch-opening or switch-closing signal until after preset suppression time. Used to prevent transmission of undesired momentary switch signal. Basic mode of operation simple. Beginning of switch signal initiates timing sequence. If switch signal persists after preset suppression time, circuit transmits switch signal to external circuitry. If switch signal no longer present after suppression time, switch signal deemed transient, and circuit does not pass signal on to external circuitry, as though no transient switch signal. Suppression time preset at value large enough to allow for damping of underlying pressure wave or other mechanical transient.

  10. Summary of transient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, P.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter reviews the papers on the pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) transient analyses given at the American Nuclear Society Topical Meeting on Anticipated and Abnormal Plant Transients in Light Water Reactors. Most of the papers were based on the systems calculations performed using the TRAC-PWR, RELAP5 and RETRAN codes. The status of the nuclear industry in the code applications area is discussed. It is concluded that even though comprehensive computer codes are available for plant transient analysis, there is still a need to exercise engineering judgment, simpler tools and even hand calculations to supplement these codes

  11. Experience with transients in German NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindauer, E.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter examines reactor accidents in the Federal Republic of Germany based on the formal reporting system for licensee event reports (LERs) and a special investigation on all unplanned power variations in 3 PWRs. The significant transients experienced by BWR type reactors are analyzed. The main goal is to find weak points which caused the transient or influenced its course in an unfavorable way in order to improve the affected plant and others. The complete survey of all transients, with normally little or no safety relevance, allows statistical evaluations and the analysis of trends. It is concluded that significant transients were mainly experienced at older plants, whereas plants of an advanced design produced very few significant transients. The most frequent human errors which lead to transients are failure search in electronic systems and errors during design and commissioning

  12. Endorphin mediation of post-ictal effects of kindled seizures in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, J E; Belluzzi, J D

    1982-12-16

    Brief electrical stimulation of the enkephalin-rich globus pallidus at 1-h intervals produced kindled, clonic seizures in rats as rapidly as similar stimulation of the amygdala. Massing the kindling trials at 10-min intervals inhibited the occurrence of subsequent seizures, especially following globus pallidus stimulation. Naloxone (20 mg/kg), an opiate receptor antagonist, reversed this post-ictal inhibition of seizures following massed trials, but had no effect on seizures kindled at 1-h intervals. Thus, endorphin-released during seizures do not appear to mediate the production of kindled seizures, but do appear to mediate the transient posts ictal inhibition of seizures.

  13. Ultrafast Control of Magnetism in Ferromagnetic Semiconductors via Photoexcited Transient Carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotoros, Ingrid A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-12-01

    The field of spintronics offers perspectives for seamless integration of coupled and inter-tunable electrical and magnetic properties in a single device. For integration of the spin degree of freedom with current electronic technology, new semiconductors are needed that show electrically-tunable magnetic properties at room temperature and above. Dilute magnetic semiconductors derived from III-V compounds, like GaMnAs and InMnAs, show coupled and tunable magnetic, transport, and optical properties, due to the fact that their ferromagnetism is hole-mediated. These unconventional materials are ideal systems for manipulating the magnetic order by changing the carrier polarization, population density, and energy band distribution of the complementary subsystem of holes. This is the main theme we cover in this thesis. In particular, we develop a unique setup by use of ultraviolet pump, near-infrared probe femtosecond laser pulses, that allows for magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) spectroscopy experiments. We photo-excite transient carriers in our samples, and measure the induced transient magnetization dynamics. One set of experiments performed allowed us to observe for the first time enhancement of the ferromagnetic order in GaMnAs, on an ultrafast time scale of hundreds of picoseconds. The corresponding transient increase of Curie temperature (Tc, the temperature above which a ferromagnetic material loses its permanent magnetism) of about 1 K for our experimental conditions is a very promising result for potential spintronics applications, especially since it is seconded by observation of an ultrafast ferromagnetic to paramagnetic phase transition above Tc. In a different set of experiments, we "write" the magnetization in a particular orientation in the sample plane. Using an ultrafast scheme, we alter the distribution of holes in the system and detect signatures of the particular memory state in the subsequent magnetization dynamics, with unprecedented hundreds of

  14. Nuclear power plant transients: where are we

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, D.

    1984-05-01

    This document is in part a postconference review and summary of the American Nuclear Society sponsored Anticipated and Abnormal Plant Transients in Light Water Reactors Conference held in Jackson, Wyoming, September 26-29, 1983, and in part a reflection upon the issues of plant transients and their impact on the viability of nuclear power. This document discusses state-of-the-art knowledge, deficiencies, and future directions in the plant transients area as seen through this conference. It describes briefly what was reported in this conference, emphasizes areas where it is felt there is confidence in the nuclear industry, and also discusses where the experts did not have a consensus. Areas covered in the document include major issues in operational transients, transient management, transient events experience base, the status of the analytical tools and their capabilities, probabilistic risk assessment applications in operational transients, and human factors impact on plant transients management

  15. PWR systems transient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, M.F.; Peeler, G.B.; Abramson, P.B.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of transients in pressurized water reactor (PWR) systems involves the assessment of the response of the total plant, including primary and secondary coolant systems, steam piping and turbine (possibly including the complete feedwater train), and various control and safety systems. Transient analysis is performed as part of the plant safety analysis to insure the adequacy of the reactor design and operating procedures and to verify the applicable plant emergency guidelines. Event sequences which must be examined are developed by considering possible failures or maloperations of plant components. These vary in severity (and calculational difficulty) from a series of normal operational transients, such as minor load changes, reactor trips, valve and pump malfunctions, up to the double-ended guillotine rupture of a primary reactor coolant system pipe known as a Large Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LBLOCA). The focus of this paper is the analysis of all those transients and accidents except loss of coolant accidents

  16. Transient osteoporosis of the hip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWalter, Patricia; Hassan Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    Transient osteoporosis of the hip is an uncommon cause of hip pain, mostly affecting healthy middle-aged men and also women in the third trimester of pregnancy. We present a case of transient osteoporosis of the hip in a 33-year-old non-pregnant female patient. This case highlights the importance of considering a diagnosis of transient osteoporosis of the hip in patients who present with hip pain. (author)

  17. A COMETHE version with transient capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vliet, J. van; Lebon, G.; Mathieu, P.

    1980-01-01

    A version of the COMETHE code is under development to simulate transient situations. This paper focuses on some aspects of the transient heat transfer models. Initially the coupling between transient heat transfer and other thermomechanical models is discussed. An estimation of the thermal characteristic times shows that the cladding temperatures are often in quasi-steady state. In order to reduce the computing time, calculations are therefore switched from a transient to a quasi-static numerical procedure as soon as such a quasi-equilibrium is detected. The temperature calculation is performed by use of the Lebon-Lambermont restricted variational principle, with piecewise polynoms as trial functions. The method has been checked by comparison with some exact results and yields good agreement for transient as well as for quasi-static situations. This method therefore provides a valuable tool for the simulation of the transient behaviour of nuclear reactor fuel rods. (orig.)

  18. Compassionate love as a mechanism linking sacred qualities of marriage to older couples' marital satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabey, Allen K; Rauer, Amy J; Jensen, Jakob F

    2014-10-01

    Previous work has underscored the robust links between sanctification of marriage and marital outcomes, and recent developments in the literature suggest that compassionate love, which is important for intimate relationships, may act as a mediator of that relationship. Accordingly, the current study used actor-partner interdependence models to examine the relationship between a spiritual cognition (i.e., perceived sacred qualities of marriage) and marital satisfaction, and to determine whether that relationship is mediated by compassionate love, in a sample of older married couples (N = 64). Results revealed that wives' greater sacred qualities of marriage were significantly and positively linked to marital satisfaction on the part of both spouses, and that these links were partially mediated by couples' reports of compassionate love. These findings highlight the importance of moving beyond simply establishing the existence of the link between global markers of involvement of religion and marriage to understanding how specific spiritual cognitions may foster better relationship quality, especially among older couples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Effect of Transient Maternal Hypotension on Apoptotic Cell Death in Foetal Rat Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamit Özyürek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intrauterine perfusion insufficiency induced by transient maternal hypotension has been reported to be associated with foetal brain malformations. However, the effects of maternal hypotension on apoptotic processes in the foetal brain have not been investigated experimentally during the intrauterine period. Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of transient maternal hypotension on apoptotic cell death in the intrauterine foetal brain. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Three-month-old female Wistar albino rats were allocated into four groups (n=5 each. The impact of hypoxic/ischemic injury induced by transient maternal hypotension on the 15th day of pregnancy (late gestation in rats was investigated at 48 (H17 group or 96 hours (H19 group after the insult. Control groups underwent the same procedure except for induction of hypotension (C17 and H17 groups. Brain sections of one randomly selected foetus from each pregnant rat were histopathologically evaluated for hypoxic/ischemic injury in the metencephalon, diencephalon, and telencephalon by terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling and active cysteine-dependent aspartate-directed protease-3 (caspase-3 positivity for cell death. Results: The number of terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (+ cells in all the areas examined was comparable in both hypotension and control groups. The H17 group had active caspase-3 (+ cells in the metencephalon and telencephalon, sparing diencephalon, whereas the C19 and H19 groups had active caspase-3 (+ cells in all three regions. The number of active caspase-3 (+ cells in the telencephalon in the H19 group was higher compared with the metencephalon and diencephalon and compared with H17 group (p<0.05. Conclusion: Our results suggest that prenatal hypoxic/ischemic injury triggers apoptotic mechanisms. Therefore, blockade of apoptotic pathways, considering the time pattern of the insult, may

  20. Coparenting Behaviors as Mediators Between Postpartum Parental Depressive Symptoms and Toddler’s Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Tissot

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum parental depression, even of mild intensity and short duration, has negative consequences on child development, including increased externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Studies revealed that the links between parental depression and child development are mediated by parenting difficulties. On the other hand, the mediating role of problematic family-level relationships, such as low coparenting support and high conflict between the parents, has rarely been considered, although coparenting difficulties have been linked with both increased depressive symptoms in parents and increased symptoms in toddlers. In the present study, we proposed testing a comprehensive mediation model linking parental depression, coparenting, and child symptoms. At 3 months postpartum, a convenience sample of 69 parental couples completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. In addition, we assessed levels of coparenting support and conflict during a mother–father–infant play situation, the Lausanne Trilogue Play. At 18 months postpartum, both parents assessed child symptoms with the Symptom Checklist Questionnaire. The results showed that coparenting support mediated the links between parental depressive symptoms and child symptoms, but only for mothers: Maternal depressive symptoms were linked with lower coparenting support, which in turn predicted increased psychofunctional symptoms and behavior problems assessed by mothers. Although coparenting conflict behaviors were not predicted by parents’ depressive symptoms, higher conflict was unexpectedly linked with fewer behavior problems assessed by both parents. The present study allowed us to unveil complex pathways between mild parental mood disturbances, family-level relationships, and child development in the first months of the child’s life.

  1. Optimization of Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation in Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuxuan; Cong, Yahui; Liu, Yaping; Wang, Tingting; Shuai, Qin; Chen, Nana; Gai, Junyi; Li, Yan

    2017-01-01

    High transformation efficiency is a prerequisite for study of gene function and molecular breeding. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is a preferred method in many plants. However, the transformation efficiency in soybean is still low. The objective of this study is to optimize Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in soybean by improving the infection efficiency of Agrobacterium and regeneration efficiency of explants. Firstly, four factors affecting Agrobacterium infection efficiency were investigated by estimation of the rate of GUS transient expression in soybean cotyledonary explants, including Agrobacterium concentrations, soybean explants, Agrobacterium suspension medium, and co-cultivation time. The results showed that an infection efficiency of over 96% was achieved by collecting the Agrobacterium at a concentration of OD650 = 0.6, then using an Agrobacterium suspension medium containing 154.2 mg/L dithiothreitol to infect the half-seed cotyledonary explants (from mature seeds imbibed for 1 day), and co-cultured them for 5 days. The Agrobacterium infection efficiencies for soybean varieties Jack Purple and Tianlong 1 were higher than the other six varieties. Secondly, the rates of shoot elongation were compared among six different concentration combinations of gibberellic acid (GA3) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The shoot elongation rate of 34 and 26% was achieved when using the combination of 1.0 mg/L GA3 and 0.1 mg/L IAA for Jack Purple and Tianlong 1, respectively. This rate was higher than the other five concentration combinations of GA3 and IAA, with an 18 and 11% increase over the original laboratory protocol (a combination of 0.5 mg/L GA3 and 0.1 mg/L IAA), respectively. The transformation efficiency was 7 and 10% for Jack Purple and Tianlong 1 at this optimized hormone concentration combination, respectively, which was 2 and 6% higher than the original protocol, respectively. Finally, GUS histochemical staining, PCR, herbicide

  2. Mediators Linking Childhood Adversities and Trauma to Suicidality in Individuals at Risk for Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie J. Schmidt

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Suicidality is highly prevalent in patients at clinical high risk (CHR for psychosis. Childhood adversities and trauma are generally predictive of suicidality. However, the differential effects of adversity/trauma-domains and CHR-criteria, i.e., ultra-high risk and basic symptom criteria, on suicidality remain unclear. Furthermore, the underlying mechanisms and, thus, worthwhile targets for suicide-prevention are still poorly understood. Therefore, structural equation modeling was used to test theory-driven models in 73 CHR-patients. Mediators were psychological variables, i.e., beliefs about one’s own competencies as well as the controllability of events and coping styles. In addition, symptomatic variables (depressiveness, basic symptoms, attenuated psychotic symptoms were hypothesized to mediate the effect of psychological mediators on suicidality as the final outcome variable. Results showed two independent pathways. In the first pathway, emotional and sexual but not physical adversity/trauma was associated with suicidality, which was mediated by dysfunctional competence/control beliefs, a lack of positive coping-strategies and depressiveness. In the second pathway, cognitive basic symptoms but not attenuated psychotic symptoms mediated the relationship between trauma/adversity and suicidality. CHR-patients are, thus, particularly prone to suicidality if adversity/trauma is followed by the development of depressiveness. Regarding the second pathway, this is the first study showing that adversity/trauma led to suicidality through an increased risk for psychosis as indicated by cognitive basic symptoms. As insight is generally associated with suicidality, this may explain why self-experienced basic symptoms increase the risk for it. Consequently, these mediators should be monitored regularly and targeted by integrated interventions as early as possible to enhance resilience against suicidality.

  3. Transient heat transfer in a directly-irradiated solar chemical reactor for the thermal dissociation of ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, R.; Lipinski, W.; Steinfeld, A.

    2008-01-01

    A numerical and experimental investigation is carried out in a solar thermochemical reactor for the thermal dissociation of ZnO at 2000 K using concentrated solar energy. The reactor consists of a cavity-receiver lined with ZnO particles and directly exposed to high-flux irradiation. A transient heat transfer model is formulated to link the rate of radiation, convection, and conduction heat transfer to the reaction kinetics. The radiosity and Monte Carlo methods are applied to obtain the distribution of net radiative fluxes at the internal surfaces of the reactor cavity and at the surface of the ZnO bed. Validation is accomplished in terms of the calculated and measured transient temperature profiles and chemical reaction rates

  4. BID links ferroptosis to mitochondrial cell death pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neitemeier, Sandra; Jelinek, Anja; Laino, Vincenzo; Hoffmann, Lena; Eisenbach, Ina; Eying, Roman; Ganjam, Goutham K; Dolga, Amalia M; Oppermann, Sina; Culmsee, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Ferroptosis has been defined as an oxidative and iron-dependent pathway of regulated cell death that is distinct from caspase-dependent apoptosis and established pathways of death receptor-mediated regulated necrosis. While emerging evidence linked features of ferroptosis induced e.g. by

  5. Research of the transient management in TQNPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Longzhang; Lin Chuanqing

    2008-01-01

    Transient management is the basic technical subject in nuclear power plant. Since the Third Qinshan nuclear power company (TQNPC) successful completes the commissioning in 2003, the transient management work start at the transient management item selection and the flow definition. Now TQNPC have a complete transient management system and the management flow. In the last two years, TNQPC have finished the historic transient data collection for two units, and confirmed that the plant's key systems and equipments are at safe state. The development of the transient management subject would build a reliable foundation for the plant safe operation, plant lifetime management and periodic safety review. (author)

  6. Compressive Transient Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Qilin

    2017-04-01

    High resolution transient/3D imaging technology is of high interest in both scientific research and commercial application. Nowadays, all of the transient imaging methods suffer from low resolution or time consuming mechanical scanning. We proposed a new method based on TCSPC and Compressive Sensing to achieve a high resolution transient imaging with a several seconds capturing process. Picosecond laser sends a serious of equal interval pulse while synchronized SPAD camera\\'s detecting gate window has a precise phase delay at each cycle. After capturing enough points, we are able to make up a whole signal. By inserting a DMD device into the system, we are able to modulate all the frames of data using binary random patterns to reconstruct a super resolution transient/3D image later. Because the low fill factor of SPAD sensor will make a compressive sensing scenario ill-conditioned, We designed and fabricated a diffractive microlens array. We proposed a new CS reconstruction algorithm which is able to denoise at the same time for the measurements suffering from Poisson noise. Instead of a single SPAD senor, we chose a SPAD array because it can drastically reduce the requirement for the number of measurements and its reconstruction time. Further more, it not easy to reconstruct a high resolution image with only one single sensor while for an array, it just needs to reconstruct small patches and a few measurements. In this thesis, we evaluated the reconstruction methods using both clean measurements and the version corrupted by Poisson noise. The results show how the integration over the layers influence the image quality and our algorithm works well while the measurements suffer from non-trival Poisson noise. It\\'s a breakthrough in the areas of both transient imaging and compressive sensing.

  7. The roles of special proresolving mediators in pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lan-Yu; Jia, Ming-Rui; Sun, Tao

    2018-02-08

    The resolution of acute inflammation, once thought to be a passive process, is now recognized as an active one. The productions of endogenous special proresolving mediators (SPMs) are involved in this process. SPMs, including lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, and maresins, are endogenous lipid mediators generated from ω-6 arachidonic acid or ω-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids during the resolution phase of acute inflammation. They have potent anti-inflammatory and proresolving actions in various inflammatory disorders. Due to the potent proresolving and anti-inflammatory effects, SPMs are also used for pain relief. This review focuses on the mechanisms by which SPMs act on their respective G-protein-coupled receptors in immune cells and nerve cells to normalize pain via regulating inflammatory mediators, transient receptor potential ion channels, and central sensitization. SPMs may offer novel therapeutic approaches for preventing and treating pain conditions associated with inflammation.

  8. Multiple repair pathways mediate tolerance to chemotherapeutic cross-linking agents in vertebrate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojima, Kuniharu; Hochegger, Helfrid; Saberi, Alihossein; Fukushima, Toru; Kikuchi, Koji; Yoshimura, Michio; Orelli, Brian J; Bishop, Douglas K; Hirano, Seiki; Ohzeki, Mioko; Ishiai, Masamichi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Takata, Minoru; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Buerstedde, Jean-Marie; Yamazoe, Mitsuyoshi; Kawamoto, Takuo; Araki, Kasumi; Takahashi, Jun A; Hashimoto, Nobuo; Takeda, Shunichi; Sonoda, Eiichiro

    2005-12-15

    Cross-linking agents that induce DNA interstrand cross-links (ICL) are widely used in anticancer chemotherapy. Yeast genetic studies show that nucleotide excision repair (NER), Rad6/Rad18-dependent postreplication repair, homologous recombination, and cell cycle checkpoint pathway are involved in ICL repair. To study the contribution of DNA damage response pathways in tolerance to cross-linking agents in vertebrates, we made a panel of gene-disrupted clones from chicken DT40 cells, each defective in a particular DNA repair or checkpoint pathway, and measured the sensitivities to cross-linking agents, including cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (cisplatin), mitomycin C, and melphalan. We found that cells harboring defects in translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), Fanconi anemia complementation groups (FANC), or homologous recombination displayed marked hypersensitivity to all the cross-linking agents, whereas NER seemed to play only a minor role. This effect of replication-dependent repair pathways is distinctively different from the situation in yeast, where NER seems to play a major role in dealing with ICL. Cells deficient in Rev3, the catalytic subunit of TLS polymerase Polzeta, showed the highest sensitivity to cisplatin followed by fanc-c. Furthermore, epistasis analysis revealed that these two mutants work in the same pathway. Our genetic comprehensive study reveals a critical role for DNA repair pathways that release DNA replication block at ICLs in cellular tolerance to cross-linking agents and could be directly exploited in designing an effective chemotherapy.

  9. The Role of Canonical Transient Receptor Potential Channels in Seizure and Excitotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zheng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC channels are a family of polymodal cation channels with some degree of Ca2+ permeability. Although initially thought to be channels mediating store-operated Ca2+ influx, TRPC channels can be activated by stimulation of Gq-coupled G-protein coupled receptors, or by an increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration. Thus, activation of TRPC channels could be a common downstream event of many signaling pathways that contribute to seizure and excitotoxicity, such as N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor-mediated Ca2+ influx, or metabotropic glutamate receptor activation. Recent studies with genetic ablation of various TRPC family members have demonstrated that TRPC channels, in particular heteromeric TRPC1/4 channels and homomeric TRPC5 channels, play a critical role in both pilocarpine-induced acute seizures and neuronal cell death. However, exact underlying mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated, and selective TRPC modulators and antibodies with better specificity are urgently needed for future research.

  10. Shear-mediated dilation of the internal carotid artery occurs independent of hypercapnia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoiland, Ryan L; Smith, Kurt J; Carter, Howard Henry

    2017-01-01

    preceded increases in diameter in both transient (time: 16.8 ± 13.2 vs. 59.4 ± 60.3 s, P time: 18.2 ± 14.2 vs. 110.3 ± 79.6 s, P dilation was positively correlated with shear rate area under the curve in the transient (r2 = 0.44, P ...Evidence for shear stress as a regulator of carotid artery dilation in response to increased arterial CO2 was recently demonstrated in humans during sustained elevations in CO2 (hypercapnia); however, the relative contributions of CO2 and shear stress to this response remains unclear. We examined...... the hypothesis that, after a 30-s transient increase in arterial CO2 tension and consequent increase in internal carotid artery shear stress, internal carotid artery diameter would increase, indicating shear-mediated dilation, in the absence of concurrent hypercapnia. In 27 healthy participants, partial...

  11. A transient absorption study of allophycocyanin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transient dynamics of allophycocyanin trimers and monomers are observed by using the pump-probe, transient absorption technique. The origin of spectral components of the transient absorption spectra is discussed in terms of both kinetics and spectroscopy. We find that the energy gap between the ground and excited ...

  12. The joy of transient chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tél, Tamás [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Eötvös University, and MTA-ELTE Theoretical Physics Research Group, Pázmány P. s. 1/A, Budapest H-1117 (Hungary)

    2015-09-15

    We intend to show that transient chaos is a very appealing, but still not widely appreciated, subfield of nonlinear dynamics. Besides flashing its basic properties and giving a brief overview of the many applications, a few recent transient-chaos-related subjects are introduced in some detail. These include the dynamics of decision making, dispersion, and sedimentation of volcanic ash, doubly transient chaos of undriven autonomous mechanical systems, and a dynamical systems approach to energy absorption or explosion.

  13. The joy of transient chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tél, Tamás

    2015-09-01

    We intend to show that transient chaos is a very appealing, but still not widely appreciated, subfield of nonlinear dynamics. Besides flashing its basic properties and giving a brief overview of the many applications, a few recent transient-chaos-related subjects are introduced in some detail. These include the dynamics of decision making, dispersion, and sedimentation of volcanic ash, doubly transient chaos of undriven autonomous mechanical systems, and a dynamical systems approach to energy absorption or explosion.

  14. The ZTF Bright Transient Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremling, C.; Sharma, Y.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Miller, A. A.; Taggart, K.; Perley, D. A.; Gooba, A.

    2018-06-01

    As a supplement to the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF; ATel #11266) public alerts (ATel #11685) we plan to report (following ATel #11615) bright probable supernovae identified in the raw alert stream from the ZTF Northern Sky Survey ("Celestial Cinematography"; see Bellm & Kulkarni, 2017, Nature Astronomy 1, 71) to the Transient Name Server (https://wis-tns.weizmann.ac.il) on a daily basis; the ZTF Bright Transient Survey (BTS; see Kulkarni et al., 2018; arXiv:1710.04223).

  15. Expression of ALS/FTD-linked mutant CCNF in zebrafish leads to increased cell death in the spinal cord and an aberrant motor phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Alison L; Don, Emily K; Rayner, Stephanie L; Lee, Albert; Laird, Angela S; Watchon, Maxinne; Winnick, Claire; Tarr, Ingrid S; Morsch, Marco; Fifita, Jennifer A; Gwee, Serene S L; Formella, Isabel; Hortle, Elinor; Yuan, Kristy C; Molloy, Mark P; Williams, Kelly L; Nicholson, Garth A; Chung, Roger S; Blair, Ian P; Cole, Nicholas J

    2017-07-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive, fatal neurodegenerative disease characterised by the death of upper and lower motor neurons. Approximately 10% of cases have a known family history of ALS and disease-linked mutations in multiple genes have been identified. ALS-linked mutations in CCNF were recently reported, however the pathogenic mechanisms associated with these mutations are yet to be established. To investigate possible disease mechanisms, we developed in vitro and in vivo models based on an ALS-linked missense mutation in CCNF. Proteomic analysis of the in vitro models identified the disruption of several cellular pathways in the mutant model, including caspase-3 mediated cell death. Transient overexpression of human CCNF in zebrafish embryos supported this finding, with fish expressing the mutant protein found to have increased levels of cleaved (activated) caspase-3 and increased cell death in the spinal cord. The mutant CCNF fish also developed a motor neuron axonopathy consisting of shortened primary motor axons and increased frequency of aberrant axonal branching. Importantly, we demonstrated a significant correlation between the severity of the CCNF-induced axonopathy and a reduced motor response to a light stimulus (photomotor response). This is the first report of an ALS-linked CCNF mutation in vivo and taken together with the in vitro model identifies the disruption of cell death pathways as a significant consequence of this mutation. Additionally, this study presents a valuable new tool for use in ongoing studies investigating the pathobiology of ALS-linked CCNF mutations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. A case study on support for students' thinking through computer-mediated communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannomiya, M; Kawaguchi, A

    2000-08-01

    This is a case study on support for thinking through computer-mediated communication. Two graduate students were supervised in their research using computer-mediated communication, which was asynchronous and written; the supervisor was not present. The students' reports pointed out there was more planning and editing and low interactivity in this approach relative to face-to-face communication. These attributes were confirmed by their supervisor's report. The students also suggested that the latter was effective in support of a production stage of thinking in research, while the former approach was effective in support of examination of thinking. For distance education to be successful, an appropriate combination of communication media must consider students' thinking stages. Finally, transient and permanent effects should be discriminated in computer-mediated communication.

  17. Transiently disordered tails accelerate folding of globular proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Saurav; Ray, Tanaya; Kundu, Sudip

    2017-07-01

    Numerous biological proteins exhibit intrinsic disorder at their termini, which are associated with multifarious functional roles. Here, we show the surprising result that an increased percentage of terminal short transiently disordered regions with enhanced flexibility (TstDREF) is associated with accelerated folding rates of globular proteins. Evolutionary conservation of predicted disorder at TstDREFs and drastic alteration of folding rates upon point-mutations suggest critical regulatory role(s) of TstDREFs in shaping the folding kinetics. TstDREFs are associated with long-range intramolecular interactions and the percentage of native secondary structural elements physically contacted by TstDREFs exhibit another surprising positive correlation with folding kinetics. These results allow us to infer probable molecular mechanisms behind the TstDREF-mediated regulation of folding kinetics that challenge protein biochemists to assess by direct experimental testing. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  18. Explosive and radio-selected Transients: Transient Astronomy with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    40

    sitive measurements will lead to very accurate mass loss estimation in these supernovae. .... transients are powerful probes of intervening media owing to dispersion ...... A., & Chandra, P. 2011, Nature Communications,. 2, 175. Chakraborti, S.

  19. Modelling of an ULOF transient in a sodium fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droin, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-01-01

    particular attention is paid to stabilize boiling occurrence which leads to minimize severe accident consequences.The phenomena occurring during the various ULOF transients are modelled in accordance to the level of details required to catch all the possible bifurcations of the transient. The tool coupled different (2D, 1D and 0D) models of thermics, thermo-hydraulics, core degradation (material melting and motions) and neutronics. The assumptions associated to these models are highlighted, discussed and validated. The physical tool capability of simulating the various realistic ULOF transients (without boiling, with stabilized boiling or flow excursion after boiling) is demonstrated by comparisons to experimental results (GR19, SCARABEE experiments) and to mechanistic simulations (CATHARE2 and SIMMER III).Parametric studies are then carried out on two variables: the fuel burn-up and the model of neutronic feedbacks. They underline the important influence of these parameters on the transient and the final core state. Finally, a preliminary sensitivity analysis (2000 simulations) is performed on 26 uncertain parameters (linked to initial core configuration, accident features, model uncertainties and radial nodalization). The variability of the final core state is underlined and quantified; only around 25% of cases lead to core degradation. The main influent parameters on transient phenomena are also identified, enabling to prioritize core design and safety studies. In the future, this tool will be used for safety-informed design and stability analyses of fast reactor systems, allowing to emphasize the main dominant phenomena and trends of significance for safety assessment. (author) [fr

  20. TLR-mediated albuminuria needs TNFα-mediated cooperativity between TLRs present in hematopoietic tissues and CD80 present on non-hematopoietic tissues in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Jain

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Transient albuminuria induced by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs in mice through engagement of Toll-like receptors (TLRs is widely studied as a partial model for some forms of human nephrotic syndrome (NS. In addition to TLRs, CD80 has been shown to be essential for PAMP-mediated albuminuria. However, the mechanistic relationships between TLRs, CD80 and albuminuria remain unclear. Here, we show that albuminuria and CD80-uria induced in mice by many TLR ligands are dependent on the expression of TLRs and their downstream signalling intermediate MyD88 exclusively in hematopoietic cells and, conversely, on CD80 expression exclusively in non-hematopoietic cells. TNFα is crucial for TLR-mediated albuminuria and CD80-uria, and induces CD80 expression in cultured renal podocytes. IL-10 from hematopoietic cells ameliorates TNFα production, albuminuria and CD80-uria but does not prevent TNFα-mediated induction of podocyte CD80 expression. Chitohexaose, a small molecule originally of parasite origin, mediates TLR4-dependent anti-inflammatory responses, and blocks TLR-mediated albuminuria and CD80-uria through IL-10. Thus, TNFα is a prominent mediator of renal CD80 induction and resultant albuminuria in this model, and small molecules modulating TLR-mediated inflammatory activation might have contributory or adjunct therapeutic potential in some contexts of NS development.

  1. Ultrafast triggered transient energy storage by atomic layer deposition into porous silicon for integrated transient electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Anna; Muralidharan, Nitin; Carter, Rachel; Share, Keith; Pint, Cary L.

    2016-03-01

    Here we demonstrate the first on-chip silicon-integrated rechargeable transient power source based on atomic layer deposition (ALD) coating of vanadium oxide (VOx) into porous silicon. A stable specific capacitance above 20 F g-1 is achieved until the device is triggered with alkaline solutions. Due to the rational design of the active VOx coating enabled by ALD, transience occurs through a rapid disabling step that occurs within seconds, followed by full dissolution of all active materials within 30 minutes of the initial trigger. This work demonstrates how engineered materials for energy storage can provide a basis for next-generation transient systems and highlights porous silicon as a versatile scaffold to integrate transient energy storage into transient electronics.Here we demonstrate the first on-chip silicon-integrated rechargeable transient power source based on atomic layer deposition (ALD) coating of vanadium oxide (VOx) into porous silicon. A stable specific capacitance above 20 F g-1 is achieved until the device is triggered with alkaline solutions. Due to the rational design of the active VOx coating enabled by ALD, transience occurs through a rapid disabling step that occurs within seconds, followed by full dissolution of all active materials within 30 minutes of the initial trigger. This work demonstrates how engineered materials for energy storage can provide a basis for next-generation transient systems and highlights porous silicon as a versatile scaffold to integrate transient energy storage into transient electronics. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: (i) Experimental details for ALD and material fabrication, ellipsometry film thickness, preparation of gel electrolyte and separator, details for electrochemical measurements, HRTEM image of VOx coated porous silicon, Raman spectroscopy for VOx as-deposited as well as annealed in air for 1 hour at 450 °C, SEM and transient behavior dissolution tests of uniformly coated VOx on

  2. Transient increase in Zn2+ in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons causes reversible memory deficit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Takeda

    Full Text Available The translocation of synaptic Zn(2+ to the cytosolic compartment has been studied to understand Zn(2+ neurotoxicity in neurological diseases. However, it is unknown whether the moderate increase in Zn(2+ in the cytosolic compartment affects memory processing in the hippocampus. In the present study, the moderate increase in cytosolic Zn(2+ in the hippocampus was induced with clioquinol (CQ, a zinc ionophore. Zn(2+ delivery by Zn-CQ transiently attenuated CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP in hippocampal slices prepared 2 h after i.p. injection of Zn-CQ into rats, when intracellular Zn(2+ levels was transiently increased in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer, followed by object recognition memory deficit. Object recognition memory was transiently impaired 30 min after injection of ZnCl(2 into the CA1, but not after injection into the dentate gyrus that did not significantly increase intracellular Zn(2+ in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus. Object recognition memory deficit may be linked to the preferential increase in Zn(2+ and/or the preferential vulnerability to Zn(2+ in CA1 pyramidal neurons. In the case of the cytosolic increase in endogenous Zn(2+ in the CA1 induced by 100 mM KCl, furthermore, object recognition memory was also transiently impaired, while ameliorated by co-injection of CaEDTA to block the increase in cytosolic Zn(2+. The present study indicates that the transient increase in cytosolic Zn(2+ in CA1 pyramidal neurons reversibly impairs object recognition memory.

  3. Transient increase in Zn2+ in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons causes reversible memory deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Atsushi; Takada, Shunsuke; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Miki; Tamano, Haruna; Ando, Masaki; Oku, Naoto

    2011-01-01

    The translocation of synaptic Zn(2+) to the cytosolic compartment has been studied to understand Zn(2+) neurotoxicity in neurological diseases. However, it is unknown whether the moderate increase in Zn(2+) in the cytosolic compartment affects memory processing in the hippocampus. In the present study, the moderate increase in cytosolic Zn(2+) in the hippocampus was induced with clioquinol (CQ), a zinc ionophore. Zn(2+) delivery by Zn-CQ transiently attenuated CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampal slices prepared 2 h after i.p. injection of Zn-CQ into rats, when intracellular Zn(2+) levels was transiently increased in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer, followed by object recognition memory deficit. Object recognition memory was transiently impaired 30 min after injection of ZnCl(2) into the CA1, but not after injection into the dentate gyrus that did not significantly increase intracellular Zn(2+) in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus. Object recognition memory deficit may be linked to the preferential increase in Zn(2+) and/or the preferential vulnerability to Zn(2+) in CA1 pyramidal neurons. In the case of the cytosolic increase in endogenous Zn(2+) in the CA1 induced by 100 mM KCl, furthermore, object recognition memory was also transiently impaired, while ameliorated by co-injection of CaEDTA to block the increase in cytosolic Zn(2+). The present study indicates that the transient increase in cytosolic Zn(2+) in CA1 pyramidal neurons reversibly impairs object recognition memory.

  4. Discrimination, Subjective Wellbeing, and the Role of Gender: A Mediation Model of LGB Minority Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlin, Sarah E; Douglass, Richard P; Ouch, Staci

    2017-10-26

    The present study examined the link between discrimination and the three components of subjective wellbeing (positive and negative affect and life satisfaction) among a cisgender sample of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults. Specifically, we investigated internalized homonegativity and expectations of rejection as potential mediators of the links between discrimination and subjective wellbeing among a sample of 215 participants. Results from our structural equation model demonstrated a strong, positive direct link between discrimination and negative affect. Discrimination also had small, negative indirect effects on life satisfaction through our two mediators. Interestingly, neither discrimination nor our two mediators were related with positive affect, demonstrating the need for future research to uncover potential buffers of this link. Finally, our model evidenced configural, metric, and scalar invariance, suggesting that our model applies well for both women and men. Practical implications and future directions for research are discussed.

  5. Electromagnetic transients in power cables

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Filipe Faria

    2013-01-01

    From the more basic concepts to the most advanced ones where long and laborious simulation models are required, Electromagnetic Transients in Power Cables provides a thorough insight into the study of electromagnetic transients and underground power cables. Explanations and demonstrations of different electromagnetic transient phenomena are provided, from simple lumped-parameter circuits to complex cable-based high voltage networks, as well as instructions on how to model the cables.Supported throughout by illustrations, circuit diagrams and simulation results, each chapter contains exercises,

  6. A new multicompartmental reaction-diffusion modeling method links transient membrane attachment of E. coli MinE to E-ring formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Satya Nanda Vel; Tomita, Masaru

    2010-03-01

    Many important cellular processes are regulated by reaction-diffusion (RD) of molecules that takes place both in the cytoplasm and on the membrane. To model and analyze such multicompartmental processes, we developed a lattice-based Monte Carlo method, Spatiocyte that supports RD in volume and surface compartments at single molecule resolution. Stochasticity in RD and the excluded volume effect brought by intracellular molecular crowding, both of which can significantly affect RD and thus, cellular processes, are also supported. We verified the method by comparing simulation results of diffusion, irreversible and reversible reactions with the predicted analytical and best available numerical solutions. Moreover, to directly compare the localization patterns of molecules in fluorescence microscopy images with simulation, we devised a visualization method that mimics the microphotography process by showing the trajectory of simulated molecules averaged according to the camera exposure time. In the rod-shaped bacterium Escherichia coli, the division site is suppressed at the cell poles by periodic pole-to-pole oscillations of the Min proteins (MinC, MinD and MinE) arising from carefully orchestrated RD in both cytoplasm and membrane compartments. Using Spatiocyte we could model and reproduce the in vivo MinDE localization dynamics by accounting for the previously reported properties of MinE. Our results suggest that the MinE ring, which is essential in preventing polar septation, is largely composed of MinE that is transiently attached to the membrane independently after recruited by MinD. Overall, Spatiocyte allows simulation and visualization of complex spatial and reaction-diffusion mediated cellular processes in volumes and surfaces. As we showed, it can potentially provide mechanistic insights otherwise difficult to obtain experimentally. The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11693-009-9047-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to

  7. Spectroscopic classification of transients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stritzinger, M. D.; Fraser, M.; Hummelmose, N. N.

    2017-01-01

    We report the spectroscopic classification of several transients based on observations taken with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) equipped with ALFOSC, over the nights 23-25 August 2017.......We report the spectroscopic classification of several transients based on observations taken with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) equipped with ALFOSC, over the nights 23-25 August 2017....

  8. The Mediator Complex and Lipid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiaoping; Yang, Fajun

    2013-03-01

    The precise control of gene expression is essential for all biological processes. In addition to DNA-binding transcription factors, numerous transcription cofactors contribute another layer of regulation of gene transcription in eukaryotic cells. One of such transcription cofactors is the highly conserved Mediator complex, which has multiple subunits and is involved in various biological processes through directly interacting with relevant transcription factors. Although the current understanding on the biological functions of Mediator remains incomplete, research in the past decade has revealed an important role of Mediator in regulating lipid metabolism. Such function of Mediator is dependent on specific transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), which represent the master regulators of lipid metabolism. The medical significance of these findings is apparent, as aberrant lipid metabolism is intimately linked to major human diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Here, we briefly review the functions and molecular mechanisms of Mediator in regulation of lipid metabolism.

  9. Transient or permanent fisheye views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mikkel Rønne; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Transient use of information visualization may support specific tasks without permanently changing the user interface. Transient visualizations provide immediate and transient use of information visualization close to and in the context of the user’s focus of attention. Little is known, however......, about the benefits and limitations of transient visualizations. We describe an experiment that compares the usability of a fisheye view that participants could call up temporarily, a permanent fisheye view, and a linear view: all interfaces gave access to source code in the editor of a widespread...... programming environment. Fourteen participants performed varied tasks involving navigation and understanding of source code. Participants used the three interfaces for between four and six hours in all. Time and accuracy measures were inconclusive, but subjective data showed a preference for the permanent...

  10. An acid-sensing ion channel from shark (Squalus acanthias) mediates transient and sustained responses to protons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springauf, Andreas; Gründer, Stefan

    2010-03-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-gated Na(+) channels. They are implicated in synaptic transmission, detection of painful acidosis, and possibly sour taste. The typical ASIC current is a transient, completely desensitizing current that can be blocked by the diuretic amiloride. ASICs are present in chordates but are absent in other animals. They have been cloned from urochordates, jawless vertebrates, cartilaginous shark and bony fish, from chicken and different mammals. Strikingly, all ASICs that have so far been characterized from urochordates, jawless vertebrates and shark are not gated by protons, suggesting that proton gating evolved relatively late in bony fish and that primitive ASICs had a different and unknown gating mechanism. Recently, amino acids that are crucial for the proton gating of rat ASIC1a have been identified. These residues are completely conserved in shark ASIC1b (sASIC1b), prompting us to re-evaluate the proton sensitivity of sASIC1b. Here we show that, contrary to previous findings, sASIC1b is indeed gated by protons with half-maximal activation at pH 6.0. sASIC1b desensitizes quickly but incompletely, efficiently encoding transient as well as sustained proton signals. Our results show that the conservation of the amino acids crucial for proton gating can predict proton sensitivity of an ASIC and increase our understanding of the evolution of ASICs.

  11. Studies on an Electromagnetic Transient Model of Offshore Wind Turbines and Lightning Transient Overvoltage Considering Lightning Channel Wave Impedance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with the rapid development of offshore wind turbines (WTs, the problem of lightning strikes has become more and more prominent. In order to reduce the failure rate caused by the transient overvoltage of lightning struck offshore WTs, the influencing factors and the response rules of transient overvoltage are analyzed. In this paper, a new integrated electromagnetic transient model of offshore WTs is established by using the numerical calculation method of the electromagnetic field first. Then, based on the lightning model and considering the impedance of the lightning channel, the transient overvoltage of lightning is analyzed. Last, the electromagnetic transient model of offshore WTs is simulated and analyzed by using the alternative transients program electro-magnetic transient program (ATP-EMTP software. The influence factors of lightning transient overvoltage are studied. The main influencing factors include the sea depth, the blade length, the tower height, the lightning flow parameters, the lightning strike point, and the blade rotation position. The simulation results show that the influencing factors mentioned above have different effects on the lightning transient overvoltage. The results of the study have some guiding significance for the design of the lightning protection of the engine room.

  12. Exposure to peer delinquency as a mediator between self-report pubertal timing and delinquency: A longitudinal study of mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negriff, Sonya; Ji, Juye; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined exposure to peer delinquency as a mediator between pubertal timing and self-reported delinquency longitudinally and whether this mediational model was moderated by either gender or maltreatment experience. Data were obtained from Time 1, 2, and 3 of a longitudinal study of maltreatment and development. At Time 1 the sample comprised 454 children aged 9–13 years. Analyses via structural equation modeling supported full mediation. Gender did not moderate this mediational relationship, but maltreatment experience did. The results show that early maturing males and females are both at risk for being exposed to peers that may draw them into delinquent behavior. Additionally, the mechanism linking early pubertal timing to delinquency differs depending on maltreatment experience. PMID:21262055

  13. Marital Processes Linking Gender Role Attitudes and Marital Satisfaction Among Mexican-Origin Couples: Application of an Actor-Partner Interdependence Mediation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Heather M; Supple, Andrew J; Hengstebeck, Natalie D; Wood, Claire A; Rodriguez, Yuliana

    2018-01-24

    Informed by dyadic approaches and culturally informed, ecological perspectives of marriage, we applied an actor-partner interdependence mediation model (APIMeM) in a sample of 120 Mexican-origin couples to examine (a) the associations linking Mexican immigrant husbands' and wives' gender role attitudes to marital satisfaction directly and indirectly through marital processes (i.e., warmth and negativity) and (b) whether the associations between spouses' gender role attitudes and marital processes were moderated by wives' employment. Although previous research has identified spouses' gender role attitudes as potential predictors of spouses' marital satisfaction, no study has examined these links in a dyadic model that elucidates how gender role attitudes may operate through processes to shape marital satisfaction and conditions under which associations may differ. We found that when spouses reported less sex-typed attitudes, their partners reported feeling more connected to them and more satisfied with the marriage, regardless of whether wives were employed. Our results suggest that marital satisfaction was highest for those Mexican-origin couples in which marital partners were less sex-typed in their attitudes about marital roles to the extent that partners' attitudinal role flexibility promoted spouses' feelings of warmth and connection to their partner. © 2018 Family Process Institute.

  14. Linking CATHENA with other computer codes through a remote process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasic, A.; Hanna, B.N.; Waddington, G.M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Sabourin, G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Girard, R. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    'Full text:' CATHENA (Canadian Algorithm for THErmalhydraulic Network Analysis) is a computer code developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). The code uses a transient, one-dimensional, two-fluid representation of two-phase flow in piping networks. CATHENA is used primarily for the analysis of postulated upset conditions in CANDU reactors; however, the code has found a wider range of applications. In the past, the CATHENA thermalhydraulics code included other specialized codes, i.e. ELOCA and the Point LEPreau CONtrol system (LEPCON) as callable subroutine libraries. The combined program was compiled and linked as a separately named code. This code organizational process is not suitable for independent development, maintenance, validation and version tracking of separate computer codes. The alternative solution to provide code development independence is to link CATHENA to other computer codes through a Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) interface process. PVM is a public domain software package, developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and enables a heterogeneous collection of computers connected by a network to be used as a single large parallel machine. The PVM approach has been well accepted by the global computing community and has been used successfully for solving large-scale problems in science, industry, and business. Once development of the appropriate interface for linking independent codes through PVM is completed, future versions of component codes can be developed, distributed separately and coupled as needed by the user. This paper describes the coupling of CATHENA to the ELOCA-IST and the TROLG2 codes through a PVM remote process as an illustration of possible code connections. ELOCA (Element Loss Of Cooling Analysis) is the Industry Standard Toolset (IST) code developed by AECL to simulate the thermo-mechanical response of CANDU fuel elements to transient thermalhydraulics boundary conditions. A separate ELOCA driver program

  15. Linking CATHENA with other computer codes through a remote process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasic, A.; Hanna, B.N.; Waddington, G.M.; Sabourin, G.; Girard, R.

    2005-01-01

    'Full text:' CATHENA (Canadian Algorithm for THErmalhydraulic Network Analysis) is a computer code developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). The code uses a transient, one-dimensional, two-fluid representation of two-phase flow in piping networks. CATHENA is used primarily for the analysis of postulated upset conditions in CANDU reactors; however, the code has found a wider range of applications. In the past, the CATHENA thermalhydraulics code included other specialized codes, i.e. ELOCA and the Point LEPreau CONtrol system (LEPCON) as callable subroutine libraries. The combined program was compiled and linked as a separately named code. This code organizational process is not suitable for independent development, maintenance, validation and version tracking of separate computer codes. The alternative solution to provide code development independence is to link CATHENA to other computer codes through a Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) interface process. PVM is a public domain software package, developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and enables a heterogeneous collection of computers connected by a network to be used as a single large parallel machine. The PVM approach has been well accepted by the global computing community and has been used successfully for solving large-scale problems in science, industry, and business. Once development of the appropriate interface for linking independent codes through PVM is completed, future versions of component codes can be developed, distributed separately and coupled as needed by the user. This paper describes the coupling of CATHENA to the ELOCA-IST and the TROLG2 codes through a PVM remote process as an illustration of possible code connections. ELOCA (Element Loss Of Cooling Analysis) is the Industry Standard Toolset (IST) code developed by AECL to simulate the thermo-mechanical response of CANDU fuel elements to transient thermalhydraulics boundary conditions. A separate ELOCA driver program starts, ends

  16. Quantification of metabolically active transient storage (MATS) in two reaches with contrasting transient storage and ecosystem respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba Argerich; Roy Haggerty; Eugènia Martí; Francesc Sabater; Jay. Zarnetske

    2011-01-01

    Water transient storage zones are hotspots for metabolic activity in streams although the contribution of different types of transient storage zones to the whole�]reach metabolic activity is difficult to quantify. In this study we present a method to measure the fraction of the transient storage that is metabolically active (MATS) in two consecutive reaches...

  17. Transient magnetoviscosity of dilute ferrofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto-Aquino, Denisse; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The magnetic field induced change in the viscosity of a ferrofluid, commonly known as the magnetoviscous effect and parameterized through the magnetoviscosity, is one of the most interesting and practically relevant aspects of ferrofluid phenomena. Although the steady state behavior of ferrofluids under conditions of applied constant magnetic fields has received considerable attention, comparatively little attention has been given to the transient response of the magnetoviscosity to changes in the applied magnetic field or rate of shear deformation. Such transient response can provide further insight into the dynamics of ferrofluids and find practical application in the design of devices that take advantage of the magnetoviscous effect and inevitably must deal with changes in the applied magnetic field and deformation. In this contribution Brownian dynamics simulations and a simple model based on the ferrohydrodynamics equations are applied to explore the dependence of the transient magnetoviscosity for two cases: (I) a ferrofluid in a constant shear flow wherein the magnetic field is suddenly turned on, and (II) a ferrofluid in a constant magnetic field wherein the shear flow is suddenly started. Both simulations and analysis show that the transient approach to a steady state magnetoviscosity can be either monotonic or oscillatory depending on the relative magnitudes of the applied magnetic field and shear rate. - Research Highlights: →Rotational Brownian dynamics simulations were used to study the transient behavior of the magnetoviscosity of ferrofluids. →Damped and oscillatory approach to steady state magnetoviscosity was observed for step changes in shear rate and magnetic field. →A model based on the ferrohydrodynamics equations qualitatively captured the damped and oscillatory features of the transient response →The transient behavior is due to the interplay of hydrodynamic, magnetic, and Brownian torques on the suspended particles.

  18. Linked lives: the intergenerational transmission of antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberry, Terence P; Freeman-Gallant, Adrienne; Lizotte, Alan J; Krohn, Marvin D; Smith, Carolyn A

    2003-04-01

    There is a strong assumption of intergenerational continuity in behavior patterns, including antisocial behavior. Using a 3-generation, prospective study design, we examine the level of behavioral continuity between Generation 2 (G2) and Generation 3 (G3), and the role of economic disadvantage and parenting behaviors as mediating links. We estimate separate models for G2 fathers and G2 mothers. Data are drawn from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study begun in 1988 during G2's early adolescence (n = 1,000), which has collected prospective data on G2, their parents (G1), and now their G3 children. Results show that intergenerational continuity in antisocial behavior is evident, albeit somewhat modest. Parenting styles and financial stress do play a mediating role, although their effects vary by G2's gender. In general, adolescent delinquency plays a larger role in linking the generations for G2 fathers, whereas parenting behaviors and financial stress play a larger role for G2 mothers.

  19. Mass spectrometric and mutational analyses reveal Lys-6-linked polyubiquitin chains catalyzed by BRCA1-BARD1 ubiquitin ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Hiroyuki; Ooka, Seido; Sato, Ko; Arima, Kei; Okamoto, Joji; Klevit, Rachel E; Fukuda, Mamoru; Ohta, Tomohiko

    2004-02-06

    The breast and ovarian cancer suppressor BRCA1 acquires significant ubiquitin ligase activity when bound to BARD1 as a RING heterodimer. Although the activity may well be important for the role of BRCA1 as a tumor suppressor, the biochemical consequence of the activity is not yet known. Here we report that BRCA1-BARD1 catalyzes Lys-6-linked polyubiquitin chain formation. K6R mutation of ubiquitin dramatically reduces the polyubiquitin products mediated by BRCA1-BARD1 in vitro. BRCA1-BARD1 preferentially utilizes ubiquitin with a single Lys residue at Lys-6 or Lys-29 to mediate autoubiquitination of BRCA1 in vivo. Furthermore, mass spectrometry analysis identified the Lys-6-linked branched ubiquitin fragment from the polyubiquitin chain produced by BRCA1-BARD1 using wild type ubiquitin. The BRCA1-BARD1-mediated Lys-6-linked polyubiquitin chains are deubiquitinated by 26 S proteasome in vitro, whereas autoubiquitinated CUL1 through Lys-48-linked polyubiquitin chains is degraded. Proteasome inhibitors do not alter the steady state level of the autoubiquitinated BRCA1 in vivo. Hence, the results indicate that BRCA1-BARD1 mediates novel polyubiquitin chains that may be distinctly edited by 26 S proteasome from conventional Lys-48-linked polyubiquitin chains.

  20. Pressure transients across HEPA filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, W.; Reynolds, G.; Ricketts, C.; Smith, P.R.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle facilities require ventilation for health and safety reasons. High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters are located within ventilation systems to trap radioactive dust released in reprocessing and fabrication operations. Pressure transients within the air cleaning systems may be such that the effectiveness of the filtration system is questioned under certain accident conditions. These pressure transients can result from both natural and man-caused phenomena: atmospheric pressure drop caused by a tornado or explosions and nuclear excursions initiate pressure pulses that could create undesirable conditions across HEPA filters. Tornado depressurization is a relatively slow transient as compared to pressure pulses that result from combustible hydrogen-air mixtures. Experimental investigation of these pressure transients across air cleaning equipment has been undertaken by Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory and New Mexico State University. An experimental apparatus has been constructed to impose pressure pulses across HEPA filters. The experimental equipment is described as well as preliminary results using variable pressurization rates. Two modes of filtration of an aerosol injected upstream of the filter is examined. A laser instrumentation for measuring the aerosol release, during the transient, is described

  1. Recent development of transient electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanyu Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient electronics are an emerging class of electronics with the unique characteristic to completely dissolve within a programmed period of time. Since no harmful byproducts are released, these electronics can be used in the human body as a diagnostic tool, for instance, or they can be used as environmentally friendly alternatives to existing electronics which disintegrate when exposed to water. Thus, the most crucial aspect of transient electronics is their ability to disintegrate in a practical manner and a review of the literature on this topic is essential for understanding the current capabilities of transient electronics and areas of future research. In the past, only partial dissolution of transient electronics was possible, however, total dissolution has been achieved with a recent discovery that silicon nanomembrane undergoes hydrolysis. The use of single- and multi-layered structures has also been explored as a way to extend the lifetime of the electronics. Analytical models have been developed to study the dissolution of various functional materials as well as the devices constructed from this set of functional materials and these models prove to be useful in the design of the transient electronics.

  2. Conflict Resolution in the Clinical Setting: A Story Beyond Bioethics Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreim, Haavi

    2015-01-01

    Because ethics consults are often more about conflict than moral puzzlement, the skills of conflict resolution and communication facilitation are now deemed a core competency for ethics consultants. Those skills range beyond the traditional ambit of "bioethics mediation," as illustrated here by a recent mediation regarding a difficult discharge. As conflict permeates healthcare, often spawning downstream ethical issues, conflict resolution services might be deemed a genre of preventive ethics suitably offered by ethics committees. If so, a strong distinction must be made. "Bioethics mediation" as historically defined is a curious amalgam between a consultant who recommends, and a mediator who facilitates consensus among the parties at the table. On closer examination this approach is problematic, particularly in the clinical setting. A mediator who acts as consultant, telling parties what they should do or directly circumscribing the limits of an "acceptable" decision, quickly becomes just another pair of fists in the fight. At that point the odds for reaching genuine agreement, as opposed to a transient acquiescence, diminish markedly. Accordingly, those who undertake conflict resolution in the clinical setting need to distinguish quite sharply between facilitative mediation, versus a consultant's role. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  3. Gender Differences in Perceptions of Resources and Turnover Intentions of Work-Linked Couples in Masculine Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Ann Hergatt; Olson, Kristine J

    2017-10-01

    Employees in work-linked marriages have spouses that share the same family and the same workplace and/or occupation. Whereas, in recent years, there has been increasingly more research on dual-career marriages (i.e. both spouses work, but not necessarily at the same workplace and/or occupation), there has been very little research on work-linked marriages. The current study focuses on work resources (i.e. family supportive supervisor behaviour and job control) as key mediating processes that explain the effect of gender on turnover intentions among work-linked employees in masculine occupations (i.e. military). Investigating gender differences is important because, compared with men, women are more likely to be in work-linked marriages and to leave their jobs. Based on role theory and conservation of resource theory, we predicted that gender was related to turnover intentions, and this relationship would be mediated by key explanatory variables (i.e. family supportive supervisor behaviours, job control and psychological distress). Mediation analyses, conducted on a sample of men and women in work-linked marriages (n = 309), provide support for the hypothesized model. These findings offer guidance for understanding gender differences among work-linked employees in masculine occupations, and how these differences can affect important outcomes such as turnover intentions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Mediator MED23 Links Pigmentation and DNA Repair through the Transcription Factor MITF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Min; Chen, Kun; Yao, Xiao; Xu, Yichi; Yao, Jiaying; Yan, Jun; Shao, Zhen; Wang, Gang

    2017-08-22

    DNA repair is related to many physiological and pathological processes, including pigmentation. Little is known about the role of the transcriptional cofactor Mediator complex in DNA repair and pigmentation. Here, we demonstrate that Mediator MED23 plays an important role in coupling UV-induced DNA repair to pigmentation. The loss of Med23 specifically impairs the pigmentation process in melanocyte-lineage cells and in zebrafish. Med23 deficiency leads to enhanced nucleotide excision repair (NER) and less DNA damage following UV radiation because of the enhanced expression and recruitment of NER factors to chromatin for genomic stability. Integrative analyses of melanoma cells reveal that MED23 controls the expression of a melanocyte master regulator, Mitf, by modulating its distal enhancer activity, leading to opposing effects on pigmentation and DNA repair. Collectively, the Mediator MED23/MITF axis connects DNA repair to pigmentation, thus providing molecular insights into the DNA damage response and skin-related diseases. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Effects decomposition in mediation analysis: a numerical example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugna, Daniela; Richiardi, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    Mediation analysis aims to decompose the total effect of the exposure on the outcome into a direct effect (unmediated) and an indirect effect (mediated by a mediator). When the interest also lies on understanding whether the exposure effect differs in different sub-groups of study population or under different scenarios, the mediation analysis needs to be integrated with interaction analysis. In this setting it is necessary to decompose the total effect not only into two components, the direct and indirect effects, but other two components linked to interaction. The interaction between the exposure and the mediator in their effect on the outcome could indeed act through the effect of the exposure on the mediator or through the mediator when the mediator is not totally explained by the exposure. We describe options for decomposition, proposed in literature, of the total effect and we illustrate them through a hypothetical example of the effect of age at diagnosis of cancer on survival, mediated and unmediated by the therapeutical approach, and a numerical example.

  6. Nuclear reactors transients identification and classification system; Sistema de identificacao e classificacao de transientes em reatores nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, Paulo Henrique

    2008-07-01

    This work describes the study and test of a system capable to identify and classify transients in thermo-hydraulic systems, using a neural network technique of the self-organizing maps (SOM) type, with the objective of implanting it on the new generations of nuclear reactors. The technique developed in this work consists on the use of multiple networks to do the classification and identification of the transient states, being each network a specialist at one respective transient of the system, that compete with each other using the quantization error, that is a measure given by this type of neural network. This technique showed very promising characteristics that allow the development of new functionalities in future projects. One of these characteristics consists on the potential of each network, besides responding what transient is in course, could give additional information about that transient. (author)

  7. Integrin-mediated signal transduction linked to Ras pathway by GRB2 binding to focal adhesion kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaepfer, D D; Hanks, S K; Hunter, T; van der Geer, P

    The cytoplasmic focal adhesion protein-tyrosine kinase (FAK) localizes with surface integrin receptors at sites where cells attach to the extracellular matrix. Increased FAK tyrosine phosphorylation occurs upon integrin engagement with fibronectin. Here we show that adhesion of murine NIH3T3 fibroblasts to fibronectin promotes SH2-domain-mediated association of the GRB2 adaptor protein and the c-Src protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) with FAK in vivo, and also results in activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In v-Src-transformed NIH3T3, the association of v-Src, GRB2 and Sos with FAK is independent of cell adhesion to fibronectin. The GRB2 SH2 domain binds directly to tyrosine-phosphorylated FAK. Mutation of tyrosine residue 925 of FAK (YENV motif) to phenylalanine blocks GRB2 SH2-domain binding to FAK in vitro. Our results show that fibronectin binding to integrins on NIH3T3 fibroblasts promotes c-Src and FAK association and formation of an integrin-activated signalling complex. Phosphorylation of FAK at Tyr 925 upon fibronectin stimulation creates an SH2-binding site for GRB2 which may link integrin engagement to the activation of the Ras/MAPK signal transduction pathway.

  8. MicroRNA-Mediated Myostatin Silencing in Caprine Fetal Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Bushuai; Zhang, Yanli; Yan, Yibo; Wang, Ziyu; Ying, Shijia; Huang, Mingrui; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Myostatin functions as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth by suppressing proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts. Dysfunction of the myostatin gene, either due to natural mutation or genetic manipulations such as knockout or knockdown, has been reported to increase muscle mass in mammalian species. RNA interference (RNAi) mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs) is a promising method for gene knockdown studies. In the present study, transient and stable silencing of the myostatin gene in caprine fetal fibroblasts (CFF) was evaluated using the two most effective constructs selected from four different miRNA expression constructs screened in 293FT cells. Using these two miRNA constructs, we achieved up to 84% silencing of myostatin mRNA in transiently transfected CFF cells and up to 31% silencing in stably transfected CFF cells. Moreover, off-target effects due to induction of interferon (IFN) response genes, such as interferon beta (IFN-β) and 2′-5′-oligoadenylate synthetase 2 (OAS2), were markedly fewer in stably transfected CFF cells than in transiently transfected cells. Stable expression of anti-myostatin miRNA with minimal induction of interferon shows great promise for increasing muscle mass in transgenic goats. PMID:25244645

  9. MicroRNA-mediated myostatin silencing in caprine fetal fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushuai Zhong

    Full Text Available Myostatin functions as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth by suppressing proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts. Dysfunction of the myostatin gene, either due to natural mutation or genetic manipulations such as knockout or knockdown, has been reported to increase muscle mass in mammalian species. RNA interference (RNAi mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs is a promising method for gene knockdown studies. In the present study, transient and stable silencing of the myostatin gene in caprine fetal fibroblasts (CFF was evaluated using the two most effective constructs selected from four different miRNA expression constructs screened in 293FT cells. Using these two miRNA constructs, we achieved up to 84% silencing of myostatin mRNA in transiently transfected CFF cells and up to 31% silencing in stably transfected CFF cells. Moreover, off-target effects due to induction of interferon (IFN response genes, such as interferon beta (IFN-β and 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 2 (OAS2, were markedly fewer in stably transfected CFF cells than in transiently transfected cells. Stable expression of anti-myostatin miRNA with minimal induction of interferon shows great promise for increasing muscle mass in transgenic goats.

  10. Attachment's Links With Adolescents' Social Emotions: The Roles of Negative Emotionality and Emotion Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Tia Panfile; Laible, Deborah J; Augustine, Mairin; Robeson, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has attempted to explain the mechanisms through which parental attachment affects social and emotional outcomes (e.g., Burnette, Taylor, Worthington, & Forsyth, 2007 ; Panfile & Laible, 2012 ). The authors' goal was to examine negative emotionality and emotion regulation as mediators of the associations that attachment has with empathy, forgiveness, guilt, and jealousy. One hundred forty-eight adolescents reported their parental attachment security, general levels of negative emotionality and abilities to regulate emotional responses, and tendencies to feel empathy, forgiveness, guilt, and jealousy. Results revealed that attachment security was associated with higher levels of empathy, forgiveness, and guilt, but lower levels of jealousy. In addition, emotion regulation mediated the links attachment shared with both empathy and guilt, such that higher levels of attachment security were linked with greater levels of emotion regulation, which led to greater levels of empathy and guilt. Alternatively, negative emotionality mediated the links attachment shared with both forgiveness and jealousy, such that higher levels of attachment security were associated with lower levels of negative emotionality, which in turn was linked to lower levels of forgiveness and higher levels of jealousy. This study provides a general picture of how attachment security may play a role in shaping an individual's levels of social emotions.

  11. Mindfulness facets, trait emotional intelligence, emotional distress, and multiple health behaviors: A serial two-mediator model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ingo; Wollny, Anna; Sim, Chu-Won; Horsch, Antje

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, we tested a serial mindfulness facets-trait emotional intelligence (TEI)-emotional distress-multiple health behaviors mediation model in a sample of N = 427 German-speaking occupational therapists. The mindfulness facets-TEI-emotional distress section of the mediation model revealed partial mediation for the mindfulness facets Act with awareness (Act/Aware) and Accept without judgment (Accept); inconsistent mediation was found for the Describe facet. The serial two-mediator model included three mediational pathways that may link each of the four mindfulness facets with multiple health behaviors. Eight out of 12 indirect effects reached significance and fully mediated the links between Act/Aware and Describe to multiple health behaviors; partial mediation was found for Accept. The mindfulness facet Observe was most relevant for multiple health behaviors, but its relation was not amenable to mediation. Implications of the findings will be discussed. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Transient performance of EBR-II driver fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzzell, J.A.; Hudman, G.D.; Porter, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    The first phases of qualification of the EBR-II driver fuel for repeated transient overpower operation have recently been completed. The accomplishments include prediction of the transient fuel and cladding performance through ex-core testing and fuel-element modeling studies, localized in-core power testing during steady-state operation, and whole-core multiple transient testing. The metallic driver fuel successfully survived 56 transients, spaced over a 45-day period, with power increases of approx. 160% at rates of approx. 1%/s with a 720-second hold at full power. The performance results obtained from both ex-core and n-core tests indicate that the fuel is capable of repeated transient operation

  13. Transient elastography with the XL probe rapidly identifies patients with nonhepatic ascites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueller S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Anna Kohlhaas1, Esteban Durango1, Gunda Millonig1, Cecile Bastard2, Laurent Sandrin2, Mohammad Golriz3, Arianeb Mehrabi3, Markus W Büchler3, Helmut Karl Seitz1, Sebastian Mueller11Department of Medicine and Center for Alcohol Research, Liver Disease and Nutrition, Salem Medical Center, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; 2Department of Research and Development, Echosens, Paris, France; 3Department of General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, GermanyBackground: In contrast with other elastographic techniques, ascites is considered an exclusion criterion for assessment of fibrosis stage by transient elastography. However, a normal liver stiffness could rule out hepatic causes of ascites at an early stage. The aim of the present study was to determine whether liver stiffness can be generally determined by transient elastography through an ascites layer, to determine whether the ascites-mediated increase in intra-abdominal pressure affects liver stiffness, and to provide initial data from a pilot cohort of patients with various causes of ascites.Methods and results: Using the XL probe in an artificial ascites model, we demonstrated (copolymer phantoms surrounded by water that a transient elastography-generated shear wave allows accurate determination of phantom stiffness up to a water lamella of 20 mm. We next showed in an animal ascites model that increased intra-abdominal pressure does not affect liver stiffness. Liver stiffness was then determined in 24 consecutive patients with ascites due to hepatic (n = 18 or nonhepatic (n = 6 causes. The cause of ascites was eventually clarified using routine clinical, imaging, laboratory, and other tools. Valid (75% or acceptable (25% liver stiffness data could be obtained in 23 patients (95.8% with ascites up to an ascites lamella of 39 mm. The six patients (25% with nonhepatic causes of ascites (eg, pancreatitis, peritoneal carcinomatosis had a

  14. The Disclosure-Intimacy Link in Computer-Mediated Communication: An Attributional Extension of the Hyperpersonal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, L. Crystal; Bazarova, Natalie N.; Hancock, Jeffrey T.

    2011-01-01

    The present research investigated whether the attribution process through which people explain self-disclosures differs in text-based computer-mediated interactions versus face to face, and whether differences in causal attributions account for the increased intimacy frequently observed in mediated communication. In the experiment participants…

  15. Biolistic-mediated transient gene expression in shoot apical meristems of the prickly-pear (Opuntia ficus-indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romulo Marino Llamoca-Zárate

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated the transient expression of the GUS gene in cells of the meristematic apical dome of Opuntia ficus-indica. DNA delivery into the cells was achieved using a biolistic PDS-1000He instrument from Bio-Rad Laboratories. The transforming DNA was coated in tungsten particles with diameter of 1.3 m m and the distance between the flying disk and the target tissue was 7.5cm and the shooting pressure was adjusted to 1200 psi. This is the first demonstration that the biolistic transformation system can be used to express a transgene in a member of the Cactaceae.Nós demonstramos a expressão transiente do gene GUS nas células do meristema apical de Opuntia ficus-indica. A introdução do DNA nas células foi realizada através de um sistema de biolística PDS-1000He da Bio-Rad Laboratories. Para transformação, partículas de tungstenio com diâmetro de 1,3 µm foram cobertas com DNA e a distância entre o disco das partículas e o tecido alvo foi de 7,5cm, a pressão de tiro foi 1200 psi. Esta é a primeira demonstração que o sistema de biolística de transformação pode ser usado para a expressão de transgenes nas cactáceas.

  16. Supernovae 2016bdu and 2005gl, and their link with SN 2009ip-like transients: another piece of the puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastorello, A.; Kochanek, C. S.; Fraser, M.

    2018-01-01

    Supernova (SN) 2016bdu is an unusual transient resembling SN 2009ip. SN 2009ip-like events are characterized by a long-lasting phase of erratic variability which ends with two luminous outbursts a few weeks apart. The second outburst is significantly more luminous (about 3 mag) than the first. In...

  17. Histone modifications influence mediator interactions with chromatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuefeng; Zhang, Yongqiang; Bjornsdottir, Gudrun; Liu, Zhongle; Quan, Amy; Costanzo, Michael; Dávila López, Marcela; Westholm, Jakub Orzechowski; Ronne, Hans; Boone, Charles; Gustafsson, Claes M.; Myers, Lawrence C.

    2011-01-01

    The Mediator complex transmits activation signals from DNA bound transcription factors to the core transcription machinery. Genome wide localization studies have demonstrated that Mediator occupancy not only correlates with high levels of transcription, but that the complex also is present at transcriptionally silenced locations. We provide evidence that Mediator localization is guided by an interaction with histone tails, and that this interaction is regulated by their post-translational modifications. A quantitative, high-density genetic interaction map revealed links between Mediator components and factors affecting chromatin structure, especially histone deacetylases. Peptide binding assays demonstrated that pure wild-type Mediator forms stable complexes with the tails of Histone H3 and H4. These binding assays also showed Mediator—histone H4 peptide interactions are specifically inhibited by acetylation of the histone H4 lysine 16, a residue critical in transcriptional silencing. Finally, these findings were validated by tiling array analysis that revealed a broad correlation between Mediator and nucleosome occupancy in vivo, but a negative correlation between Mediator and nucleosomes acetylated at histone H4 lysine 16. Our studies show that chromatin structure and the acetylation state of histones are intimately connected to Mediator localization. PMID:21742760

  18. A novel transient rotor current control scheme of a doubly-fed induction generator equipped with superconducting magnetic energy storage for voltage and frequency support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yang-Wu; Ke, De-Ping; Sun, Yuan-Zhang; Daniel, Kirschen; Wang, Yi-Shen; Hu, Yuan-Chao

    2015-07-01

    A novel transient rotor current control scheme is proposed in this paper for a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) equipped with a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) device to enhance its transient voltage and frequency support capacity during grid faults. The SMES connected to the DC-link capacitor of the DFIG is controlled to regulate the transient dc-link voltage so that the whole capacity of the grid side converter (GSC) is dedicated to injecting reactive power to the grid for the transient voltage support. However, the rotor-side converter (RSC) has different control tasks for different periods of the grid fault. Firstly, for Period I, the RSC injects the demagnetizing current to ensure the controllability of the rotor voltage. Then, since the dc stator flux degenerates rapidly in Period II, the required demagnetizing current is low in Period II and the RSC uses the spare capacity to additionally generate the reactive (priority) and active current so that the transient voltage capability is corroborated and the DFIG also positively responds to the system frequency dynamic at the earliest time. Finally, a small amount of demagnetizing current is provided after the fault clearance. Most of the RSC capacity is used to inject the active current to further support the frequency recovery of the system. Simulations are carried out on a simple power system with a wind farm. Comparisons with other commonly used control methods are performed to validate the proposed control method. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51307124) and the Major Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51190105).

  19. The OECD/NEA/NSC PBMR 400 MW coupled neutronics thermal hydraulics transient benchmark: transient results - 290

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strydom, G.; Reitsma, F.; Ngeleka, P.T.; Ivanov, K.N.

    2010-01-01

    The PBMR is a High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) concept developed to be built in South Africa. The analysis tools used for core neutronic design and core safety analysis need to be verified and validated, and code-to-code comparisons are an essential part of the V and V plans. As part of this plan the PBMR 400 MWth design and a representative set of transient exercises are defined as an OECD benchmark. The scope of the benchmark is to establish a series of well defined multi-dimensional computational benchmark problems with a common given set of cross sections, to compare methods and tools in coupled neutronics and thermal hydraulics analysis with a specific focus on transient events. This paper describes the current status of the benchmark project and shows the results for the six transient exercises, consisting of three Loss of Cooling Accidents, two Control Rod Withdrawal transients, a power load-follow transient, and a Helium over-cooling Accident. The participants' results are compared using a statistical method and possible areas of future code improvement are identified. (authors)

  20. Irradiation creep transients in Ni-4 at.% Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagakawa, J.

    1983-01-01

    In the course of irradiation creep experiments on Ni-4 at.% Si alloy, two types of creep transients were observed on the termination of irradiation. The short term transient was completed within one minute while the long term transient persisted for nearly ten hours. A change in the temperature distribution was excluded from the possible causes, partly because the stress dependence of the observed transient strains was not linear, and partly because the strain increase expected from the temperature change was much smaller than the observed value. Transient behavior of point defects was examined in conjunction with the climb-glide mechanism and the steady-state irradiation creep data. Calculated creep transient due to excess vacancy flux to dislocations was in good agreement with the observed short term transient. The long term transient appears to be a result of dislocation microstructure change. The present results suggest an enhanced irradiation creep under cyclic irradiation conditions which will be encountered in the early generations of fusion reactors. (orig.)

  1. Meaning in Life: One Link in the Chain from Religiousness to Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Michael F.; Frazier, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Meaning in life has been identified as a potential mediator of the link between religiousness and psychological health. The authors tested this hypothesis in 2 studies, using multiple methods and measures of religiousness and well-being. In the studies, meaning in life mediated the relation between religiousness and life satisfaction (Study 1A),…

  2. Wide Field Radio Transient Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Geoffrey

    2011-04-01

    The time domain of the radio wavelength sky has been only sparsely explored. Nevertheless, serendipitous discovery and results from limited surveys indicate that there is much to be found on timescales from nanoseconds to years and at wavelengths from meters to millimeters. These observations have revealed unexpected phenomena such as rotating radio transients and coherent pulses from brown dwarfs. Additionally, archival studies have revealed an unknown class of radio transients without radio, optical, or high-energy hosts. The new generation of centimeter-wave radio telescopes such as the Allen Telescope Array (ATA) will exploit wide fields of view and flexible digital signal processing to systematically explore radio transient parameter space, as well as lay the scientific and technical foundation for the Square Kilometer Array. Known unknowns that will be the target of future transient surveys include orphan gamma-ray burst afterglows, radio supernovae, tidally-disrupted stars, flare stars, and magnetars. While probing the variable sky, these surveys will also provide unprecedented information on the static radio sky. I will present results from three large ATA surveys (the Fly's Eye survey, the ATA Twenty CM Survey (ATATS), and the Pi GHz Survey (PiGSS)) and several small ATA transient searches. Finally, I will discuss the landscape and opportunities for future instruments at centimeter wavelengths.

  3. The mediator complex in genomic and non-genomic signaling in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Hannah; Garabedian, Michael J

    2018-05-01

    Mediator is a conserved, multi-subunit macromolecular machine divided structurally into head, middle, and tail modules, along with a transiently associating kinase module. Mediator functions as an integrator of transcriptional regulatory activity by interacting with DNA-bound transcription factors and with RNA polymerase II (Pol II) to both activate and repress gene expression. Mediator has been shown to affect multiple steps in transcription, including chromatin looping between enhancers and promoters, pre-initiation complex formation, transcriptional elongation, and mRNA splicing. Individual Mediator subunits participate in regulation of gene expression by the estrogen and androgen receptors and are altered in a number of endocrine cancers, including breast and prostate cancer. In addition to its role in genomic signaling, MED12 has been implicated in non-genomic signaling by interacting with and activating TGF-beta receptor 2 in the cytoplasm. Recent structural studies have revealed extensive inter-domain interactions and complex architecture of the Mediator-Pol II complex, suggesting that Mediator is capable of reorganizing its conformation and composition to fit cellular needs. We propose that alterations in Mediator subunit expression that occur in various cancers could impact the organization and function of Mediator, resulting in changes in gene expression that promote malignancy. A better understanding of the role of Mediator in cancer could reveal new approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of Mediator-dependent endocrine cancers, especially in settings of therapy resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Transient multivariable sensor evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilim, Richard B.; Heifetz, Alexander

    2017-02-21

    A method and system for performing transient multivariable sensor evaluation. The method and system includes a computer system for identifying a model form, providing training measurement data, generating a basis vector, monitoring system data from sensor, loading the system data in a non-transient memory, performing an estimation to provide desired data and comparing the system data to the desired data and outputting an alarm for a defective sensor.

  5. Principal Empowering Leadership and Teacher Innovative Behavior: A Moderated Mediation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkorezis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to extant literature by linking principal empowering leadership to teachers' innovative work behavior. By doing so, the author attempts to provide a more nuanced understanding of this relationship by examining a moderated mediation model which encompasses exploration as a mediator and role…

  6. Transient analysis for resolving safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, J.; Layman, W.

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Analysis Center (NSAC) has a Generic Safety Analysis Program to help resolve high priority generic safety issues. This paper describes several high priority safety issues considered at NSAC and how they were resolved by transient analysis using thermal hydraulics and neutronics codes. These issues are pressurized thermal shock (PTS), anticipated transients without scram (ATWS), steam generator tube rupture (SGTR), and reactivity transients in light of the Chernobyl accident

  7. Positron deep-level transient spectroscopy in semi-insulating-GaAs using the positron velocity transient method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsia, M.; Fung, S.; Beling, C.D.

    2001-01-01

    Recently a new semiconductor defect spectroscopy, namely positron deep level transient spectroscopy (PDLTS) has been proposed that combines the energy selectivity of deep level transient spectroscopy with the structural sensitivity of positron annihilation spectroscopy. This paper focuses on one variant of PDLTS, namely positron velocity PDLTS, which has no sensitivity towards vacancy defects but nevertheless is useful in studying deep levels in semi-insulators. In the present study the electric field within the depletion region of semi-insulating GaAs is monitored through the measurement of the small Doppler shift in the annihilation radiation that comes from this region as a result of positron drift. The drift is the result of an increasing electric field produced by space charge building up from ionizing deep level defects. Doppler shift transients are measured between 50-300 K. The EL2 level emission transients are clearly seen at temperatures around 300 K that yield E C -0.78±0.08eV for the energy of EL2. The EL2 electron capture rate is found to have an activation energy of 0.61±0.08eV which most probably arises from freeze out of conduction electrons. We find the surprising result that emission and capture transients can be seen at temperatures below 200 K. Possible reasons for these transients are discussed. (orig.)

  8. Pressure transients in pipeline systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    This text is to give an overview of the necessary background to do investigation of pressure transients via simulations. It will describe briefly the Method of Characteristics which is the defacto standard for simulating pressure transients. Much of the text has been adopted from the book Pressur...

  9. Corticosterone mediated costs of reproduction link current to future breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossin, Glenn T; Phillips, Richard A; Lattin, Christine R; Romero, L Michael; Williams, Tony D

    2013-11-01

    Life-history theory predicts that costs are associated with reproduction. One possible mediator of costs involves the secretion of glucocorticoid hormones, which in birds can be measured in feathers grown during the breeding period. Glucocorticoids mediate physiological responses to unpredictable environmental or other stressors, but they can also function as metabolic regulators during more predictable events such as reproduction. Here we show that corticosterone ("Cort") in feathers grown during the breeding season reflects reproductive effort in two Antarctic seabird species (giant petrels, Macronectes spp.). In females of both species, but not males, feather Cort ("fCort") was nearly 1.5-fold higher in successful than failed breeders (those that lost their eggs/chicks), suggesting a cost of successful reproduction, i.e., high fCort levels in females reflect the elevated plasma Cort levels required to support high metabolic demands of chick-rearing. Successful breeding also led to delayed moult prior to winter migration. The fCort levels and pre-migration moult score that we measured at the end of current breeding were predictive of subsequent reproductive effort in the following year. Birds with high fCort and a delayed initiation of moult were much more likely to defer breeding in the following year. Cort levels and the timing of moult thus provide a potential mechanism for the tradeoff between current and future reproduction. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Flow transients experiments with refrigerant-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celata, G.P.; D'Annibale, F.; Farello, G.E.; Setaro, T.

    1986-01-01

    Flow transients have been investigated in a wide range of thermal-hydraulics situations with Refrigerannt-12. Six pressures (including the reference to PWR and BWR characteristic liquid to vapour densities ratios), several periods of the flowrate transients coastdown during the simulated flow decays, and different specific mass flowrate have been studied emploiyng a circular duct test section (Dsub(i)=7,5 mm). Two heated lengths of the test section have been considered (L = 2300 and 1180 mm). Experimental data have shown the complete inadequacy of steady-state critical heat flux correlations in predicting the onset of boiling crisis during fast flow transients (half-flow decay time, tsub(h)lt5.0-6.0 s). The flow transient does not show dependence, in terms of DNB conditions ,upon the length of the test section: the ratio between transient and steady-state critical mass flowrate is not dependent on the tested geometry. The time interval from the start of the flowrate transient to the onset of DNB (time to crisis), has been experimentally determined for all the runs. Data analysis for a better theoretical prediction of the phenomenon has been accomplished, and a design correlation for DNB conditons and time to crisis prediction has been proposed

  11. Reduced blood brain barrier breakdown in P-selectin deficient mice following transient ischemic stroke: a future therapeutic target for treatment of stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petterson Jodie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The link between early blood- brain barrier (BBB breakdown and endothelial cell activation in acute stroke remain poorly defined. We hypothesized that P-selectin, a mediator of the early phase of leukocyte recruitment in acute ischemia is also a major contributor to early BBB dysfunction following stroke. This was investigated by examining the relationship between BBB alterations following transient ischemic stroke and expression of cellular adhesion molecule P-selectin using a combination of magnetic resonance molecular imaging (MRMI, intravital microscopy and immunohistochemistry. MRMI was performed using the contrast, gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA conjugated to Sialyl Lewis X (Slex where the latter is known to bind to activated endothelium via E- or P selectins. Middle cerebral artery occlusion was induced in male C57/BL 6 wild-type (WT mice and P-selectin-knockout (KO mice. At 24 hours following middle cerebral artery occlusion, T1 maps were acquired prior to and following contrast injection. In addition to measuring P- and E-selectin expression in brain homogenates, alterations in BBB function were determined immunohistochemically by assessing the extravasation of immunoglobulin G (IgG or staining for polymorphonuclear (PMN leukocytes. In vivo assessment of BBB dysfunction was also investigated optically using intravital microscopy of the pial circulation following the injection of Fluorescein Isothiocyanate (FITC-dextran (MW 2000 kDa. Results MRI confirmed similar infarct sizes and T1 values at 24 hours following stroke for both WT and KO animals. However, the blood to brain transfer constant for Gd DTPA (Kgd demonstrated greater tissue extravasation of Gd DTPA in WT animals than KO mice (P 1 stroke -Δ T1 contralateral control cortex, decreased significantly in the Gd-DTPA(sLeX group compared to Gd-DTPA, indicative of sLeX mediated accumulation of the targeted contrast agent. Regarding BBB

  12. Selective ultrafast probing of transient hot chemisorbed and precursor states of CO on Ru(0001)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beye, M.; Anniyev, T.; Coffee, R.

    2013-01-01

    to hot-electron-driven vibrational excitations. This process is faster than, but occurs in parallel with, the transition into the precursor state. With resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy, we probe each of these states selectively and determine the respective transient populations depending on optical...... (2013)SCIEAS0036-8075] a phonon-mediated transition into a weakly adsorbed precursor state occurring on a time scale of >2 ps prior to desorption. Here we focus on processes within the first picosecond after laser excitation and show that the metal-adsorbate coordination is initially increased due...

  13. Transient two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Y.Y.

    1974-01-01

    The following papers related to two-phase flow are summarized: current assumptions made in two-phase flow modeling; two-phase unsteady blowdown from pipes, flow pattern in Laval nozzle and two-phase flow dynamics; dependence of radial heat and momentum diffusion; transient behavior of the liquid film around the expanding gas slug in a vertical tube; flooding phenomena in BWR fuel bundles; and transient effects in bubble two-phase flow. (U.S.)

  14. A follow-up of transients. Stage 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enekull, Aa.; Wallner, B.

    1981-09-01

    A follow-up of the transients of temperature and pressure in the primary pressurized system of a nuclear power plant has been completed for the Barsebaeck-1 reactor. The investigation consists of the following steps:- the collation of transients - drawing up load data based on transients-analyses of stress - recommendations for future programs. It was found that the lifetime of the system will exceed 40 years excluding some of the pipes for feed water. The appendices give a detailed description of the transients.(G.B.)

  15. Characterizing transient noise in the LIGO detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, L. K.

    2018-05-01

    Data from the LIGO detectors typically contain many non-Gaussian noise transients which arise due to instrumental and environmental conditions. These non-Gaussian transients can be an issue for the modelled and unmodelled transient gravitational-wave searches, as they can mask or mimic a true signal. Data quality can change quite rapidly, making it imperative to track and find new sources of transient noise so that data are minimally contaminated. Several examples of transient noise and the tools used to track them are presented. These instances serve to highlight the diverse range of noise sources present at the LIGO detectors during their second observing run. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue `The promises of gravitational-wave astronomy'.

  16. Plant Mediator complex and its critical functions in transcription regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Li, Ling; Qu, Li-Jia

    2016-02-01

    The Mediator complex is an important component of the eukaryotic transcriptional machinery. As an essential link between transcription factors and RNA polymerase II, the Mediator complex transduces diverse signals to genes involved in different pathways. The plant Mediator complex was recently purified and comprises conserved and specific subunits. It functions in concert with transcription factors to modulate various responses. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in understanding the plant Mediator complex and its diverse roles in plant growth, development, defense, non-coding RNA production, response to abiotic stresses, flowering, genomic stability and metabolic homeostasis. In addition, the transcription factors interacting with the Mediator complex are also highlighted. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Transient Expression and Purification of Horseradish Peroxidase C in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddy, Suzanne M; Hitzeroth, Inga I; Meyers, Ann E; Weber, Brandon; Rybicki, Edward P

    2018-01-01

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is a commercially important reagent enzyme used in molecular biology and in the diagnostic product industry. It is typically purified from the roots of the horseradish ( Armoracia rusticana ); however, this crop is only available seasonally, yields are variable and often low, and the product is a mixture of isoenzymes. Engineering high-level expression in transiently transformed tobacco may offer a solution to these problems. In this study, a synthetic Nicotiana benthamiana codon-adapted full-length HRP isoenzyme gene as well as C-terminally truncated and both N- and C-terminally truncated versions of the HRP C gene were synthesized, and their expression in N. benthamiana was evaluated using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transient expression system. The influence on HRP C expression levels of co-infiltration with a silencing suppressor (NSs) construct was also evaluated. Highest HRP C levels were consistently obtained using either the full length or C-terminally truncated HRP C constructs. HRP C purification by ion exchange chromatography gave an overall yield of 54% with a Reinheitszahl value of >3 and a specific activity of 458 U/mg. The high level of HRP C production in N. benthamiana in just five days offers an alternative, viable, and scalable system for production of this commercially significant enzyme.

  18. Relationship between Cerebral Microbleeds and Liver Stiffness Determined by Transient Elastography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Dae Kim

    Full Text Available Liver fibrosis is a multifactorial disease that can affect the development of cerebral small vessel diseases (SVDs including cerebral microbleeds (CMBs, leukoaraiosis, and silent infarctions. Transient elastography can accurately assess the degree of liver fibrosis by measuring liver stiffness (LS. In the present study, we investigated the association between SVDs and LS values.We recruited 300 participants (mean age 56 years, 170 men who underwent a comprehensive medical health check-up between January 2011 and December 2012. Transient elastography was taken on the right lobe of the liver through intercostal space with patients lying in the dorsal decubitus position with the right arm in maximal abduction. Mild and significant fibrosis were defined as LS values >5.6 and >8.0 kPa, respectively. The presence of each SVD was determined using the FLAIR, GRE MR imaging as well as T1-, T2-weighted MR images. We tested whether the presence and burden of each type of SVD were different by LS values.Of the different types of SVDs, only the presence (p = 0.001 and number of CMBs (p8.0 kPa was an independent predictor of CMBs (odds ratio 6.079, 95% confidence interval 1.489-24.819, p = 0.012. However, leukoaraiosis and silent infarctions were not associated with LS values (all p>0.05.The degree of liver fibrosis, as assessed using transient elastography, was independently associated with the presence and burden of CMBs in healthy, asymptomatic participants. Understanding the link between the brain and liver may advance future research on the pathomechanisms of CMBs.

  19. Mitochondrial alterations and oxidative stress in an acute transient mouse model of muscle degeneration: implications for muscular dystrophy and related muscle pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadasan-Nair, Renjini; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Mishra, Sudha; Sunitha, Balaraju; Mythri, Rajeswara Babu; Nalini, Atchayaram; Subbannayya, Yashwanth; Harsha, Hindalahalli Chandregowda; Kolthur-Seetharam, Ullas; Srinivas Bharath, Muchukunte Mukunda

    2014-01-03

    Muscular dystrophies (MDs) and inflammatory myopathies (IMs) are debilitating skeletal muscle disorders characterized by common pathological events including myodegeneration and inflammation. However, an experimental model representing both muscle pathologies and displaying most of the distinctive markers has not been characterized. We investigated the cardiotoxin (CTX)-mediated transient acute mouse model of muscle degeneration and compared the cardinal features with human MDs and IMs. The CTX model displayed degeneration, apoptosis, inflammation, loss of sarcolemmal complexes, sarcolemmal disruption, and ultrastructural changes characteristic of human MDs and IMs. Cell death caused by CTX involved calcium influx and mitochondrial damage both in murine C2C12 muscle cells and in mice. Mitochondrial proteomic analysis at the initial phase of degeneration in the model detected lowered expression of 80 mitochondrial proteins including subunits of respiratory complexes, ATP machinery, fatty acid metabolism, and Krebs cycle, which further decreased in expression during the peak degenerative phase. The mass spectrometry (MS) data were supported by enzyme assays, Western blot, and histochemistry. The CTX model also displayed markers of oxidative stress and a lowered glutathione reduced/oxidized ratio (GSH/GSSG) similar to MDs, human myopathies, and neurogenic atrophies. MS analysis identified 6 unique oxidized proteins from Duchenne muscular dystrophy samples (n = 6) (versus controls; n = 6), including two mitochondrial proteins. Interestingly, these mitochondrial proteins were down-regulated in the CTX model thereby linking oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. We conclude that mitochondrial alterations and oxidative damage significantly contribute to CTX-mediated muscle pathology with implications for human muscle diseases.

  20. SPARC regulates extracellular matrix organization through its modulation of integrin-linked kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Thomas H; Baneyx, Gretchen; Cardó-Vila, Marina; Workman, Gail A; Weaver, Matt; Menon, Priya M; Dedhar, Shoukat; Rempel, Sandra A; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata; Vogel, Viola; Sage, E Helene

    2005-10-28

    SPARC, a 32-kDa matricellular glycoprotein, mediates interactions between cells and their extracellular matrix, and targeted deletion of Sparc results in compromised extracellular matrix in mice. Fibronectin matrix provides provisional tissue scaffolding during development and wound healing and is essential for the stabilization of mature extracellular matrix. Herein, we report that SPARC expression does not significantly affect fibronectin-induced cell spreading but enhances fibronectin-induced stress fiber formation and cell-mediated partial unfolding of fibronectin molecules, an essential process in fibronectin matrix assembly. By phage display, we identify integrin-linked kinase as a potential binding partner of SPARC and verify the interaction by co-immunoprecipitation and colocalization in vitro. Cells lacking SPARC exhibit diminished fibronectin-induced integrin-linked kinase activation and integrin-linked kinase-dependent cell-contractile signaling. Furthermore, induced expression of SPARC in SPARC-null fibroblasts restores fibronectin-induced integrin-linked kinase activation, downstream signaling, and fibronectin unfolding. These data further confirm the function of SPARC in extracellular matrix organization and identify a novel mechanism by which SPARC regulates extracellular matrix assembly.

  1. NMDAR-mediated calcium transients elicited by glutamate co-release at developing inhibitory synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Kalmbach

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Before hearing onset, the topographic organization of the inhibitory sound localization pathway from the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB to the lateral superior olive (LSO is refined by means of synaptic silencing and strengthening. During this refinement period MNTB-LSO synapses not only release GABA and glycine but also release glutamate. This co-released glutamate can elicit postsynaptic currents that are predominantly mediated by NMDA receptors (NMDARs. To gain a better understanding of how glutamate contributes to synaptic signaling at developing MNTB-LSO inhibitory synapse, we investigated to what degree and under what conditions NMDARs contribute to postsynaptic calcium responses. Our results demonstrate that MNTB-LSO synapses can elicit compartmentalized calcium responses along aspiny LSO dendrites. These responses are significantly attenuated by the NMDARs antagonist APV. APV, however, has no effect on somatically recorded electrical postsynaptic responses, indicating little, if any, contribution of NMDARs to spike generation. Small NMDAR-mediated calcium responses were also observed under physiological levels of extracellular magnesium concentrations indicating that MNTB-LSO synapses activate magnesium sensitive NMDAR on immature LSO dendrites. In Fura-2 AM loaded neurons, blocking GABAA and glycine receptors decreased NMDAR contribution to somatic calcium responses suggesting that GABA and glycine, perhaps by shunting backpropagating action potentials, decrease the level of NMDAR activation under strong stimulus conditions.

  2. Transient Analysis and Dosimetry of the Tokaimura Criticality Incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pain, Christopher C.; Oliveira, Cassiano R.E. de; Goddard, Antony J. H.; Eaton, Matthew D.; Gundry, Sarah; Umpleby, Adrian P.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes research on the application of the finite element transient criticality (FETCH) code to modeling and neutron dosimetry of the Tokaimura criticality incident. FETCH has been developed to model criticality transients in single and multiphase media and is applied here to fissile solution transient criticality. Since the initial transient behavior has different time scales and physics to the longer transient behavior, the transient modeling is divided into two parts: modeling the initial transient over a time scale of seconds in which radiolytic gases and free-surface sloshing play an important role in the transient - this provides information about the dose to workers; and modeling the long-term transient behavior following the initial transient that has a time scale over hours.The neutron dosimetry of worker A who received the largest dose during the Tokaimura criticality incident is also investigated here. This dose was received mainly in the first few seconds of the ensuing nuclear criticality transient. In addition to the multiorgan dosimetry of worker A, this work provides a method of helping to evaluate the yield in the initial phase of the criticality incident; it also shows how kinetic simulations can be calibrated so that they can be applied to investigate the physics behind the incident

  3. Relationships Between Stress, Negative Emotions, Resilience, and Smoking: Testing a Moderated Mediation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Chen, Xinguang; Gong, Jie; Yan, Yaqiong

    2016-01-01

    More effective tobacco prevention and cessation programs require in-depth understanding of the mechanism by which multiple factors interact with each other to affect smoking behaviors. Stress has long been recognized as a risk factor for smoking. However, the underlying mediation and moderation mechanisms are far from clear. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of negative emotions in mediating the link between stress and smoking and whether this indirect link was modified by resilience. Survey data were collected using audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) from a large random sample of urban residents (n = 1249, mean age = 35.1, 45.3% male) in Wuhan, China. Perceived stress, negative emotions (anxiety, depression), resilience were measured with reliable instruments also validated in China. Self-reported smoking was validated with exhaled carbon monoxide. Mediation analysis indicated that two negative emotions fully mediated the link between stress and intensity of smoking (assessed by number of cigarettes smoked per day, effect =.082 for anxiety and.083 for depression) and nicotine dependence (assessed by DSM-IV standard, effect =.134 for anxiety and.207 for depression). Moderated mediation analysis demonstrated that the mediation effects of negative emotions were negatively associated with resilience. Results suggest resilience interacts with stress and negative emotions to affect the risk of tobacco use and nicotine dependence among Chinese adults. Further research with longitudinal data is needed to verify the findings of this study and to estimate the effect size of resilience in tobacco intervention and cessation programs.

  4. Activation of acid-sensing ion channels by localized proton transient reveals their role in proton signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei-Zheng; Liu, Di-Shi; Liu, Lu; She, Liang; Wu, Long-Jun; Xu, Tian-Le

    2015-09-15

    Extracellular transients of pH alterations likely mediate signal transduction in the nervous system. Neuronal acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) act as sensors for extracellular protons, but the mechanism underlying ASIC activation remains largely unknown. Here, we show that, following activation of a light-activated proton pump, Archaerhodopsin-3 (Arch), proton transients induced ASIC currents in both neurons and HEK293T cells co-expressing ASIC1a channels. Using chimera proteins that bridge Arch and ASIC1a by a glycine/serine linker, we found that successful coupling occurred within 15 nm distance. Furthermore, two-cell sniffer patch recording revealed that regulated release of protons through either Arch or voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 activated neighbouring cells expressing ASIC1a channels. Finally, computational modelling predicted the peak proton concentration at the intercellular interface to be at pH 6.7, which is acidic enough to activate ASICs in vivo. Our results highlight the pathophysiological role of proton signalling in the nervous system.

  5. LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK OF MEDIATION IN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andon Majhoshev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mediation as an alternative dispute resolution enables faster, more efficient and less costly resolution of disputes in relation to the proceedings. Its operation is based on the following principles: voluntary, equality of the parties, neutrality of the mediator, exclusion of the public, efficiency of the procedure, confidentiality of information, fairness. In Macedonia the mediation as an alternative dispute resolution was introduced by the Law on Mediation in 2006. However, besides this law, the resolution of disputes by mediation is regulated by other special laws such as the Family Law Act, Consumer Law, the Juvenile Justice, Law for the peaceful resolution of labor disputes, etc.. For effective functioning of the mediation, except legal regulation of mediation, and established appropriate institutional framework is an important link for a successful mediation. The institutional framework of mediation includes: Ministry of Justice - Sector for Mediation, Board for Mediation, the Mediators Chamber of Macedonia and mediator. All the above institutions have proper function in the system of mediation and their jurisdiction is governed normative-legal. The legal and institutional framework actually consists of mediation system in the country and represent a whole.

  6. Photoinduced dynamics of a cyanine dye: parallel pathways of non-radiative deactivation involving multiple excited-state twisted transients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyayula, Srigokul; Nuñez, Vicente; Espinoza, Eli M; Larsen, Jillian M; Bao, Duoduo; Shi, Dewen; Mac, Jenny T; Anvari, Bahman; Vullev, Valentine I

    2015-04-01

    Cyanine dyes are broadly used for fluorescence imaging and other photonic applications. 3,3'-Diethylthiacyanine (THIA) is a cyanine dye composed of two identical aromatic heterocyclic moieties linked with a single methine, -CH 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 . The torsional degrees of freedom around the methine bonds provide routes for non-radiative decay, responsible for the inherently low fluorescence quantum yields. Using transient absorption spectroscopy, we determined that upon photoexcitation, the excited state relaxes along two parallel pathways producing three excited-state transients that undergo internal conversion to the ground state. The media viscosity impedes the molecular modes of ring rotation and preferentially affects one of the pathways of non-radiative decay, exerting a dominant effect on the emission

  7. HEDL experimental transient overpower program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hikido, T.; Culley, G.E.

    1976-01-01

    HEDL is conducting a series of experiments to evaluate the performance of Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) prototypic fuel pins up to the point of cladding breach. A primary objective of the program is to demonstrate the adequacy of fuel pin and Plant Protective System (PPS) designs for terminated transients. Transient tests of prototypic FFTF fuel pins previously irradiated in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) have demonstrated the adequacy of the PPS and fuel pin designs and indicate that a very substantial margin exists between PPS-terminated transients and that required to produce fuel pin cladding failure. Additional experiments are planned to extend the data base to high burnup, high fluence fuel pin specimens

  8. Learning from anticipated and abnormal plant transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varnado, B.

    1983-01-01

    A report is given of the American Nuclear Society topical meeting on Anticipated and Abnormal Transients in Light Water Reactors held in Jackson, Wyoming in September 1983. Industry involvement in the evaluation of operating experience, human error contributions, transient management, thermal hydraulic modelling, the role of probabilistic risk assessment and the cost of transient incidents are discussed. (U.K.)

  9. Biphasic decay of the Ca transient results from increased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca leak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Rajiv; Li, Yatong; Greensmith, David J.; Eisner, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Ca leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum through the ryanodine receptor (RyR) reduces the amplitude of the Ca transient and slows its rate of decay.In the presence of β‐adrenergic stimulation, RyR‐mediated Ca leak produces a biphasic decay of the Ca transient with a fast early phase and a slow late phase.Two forms of Ca leak have been studied, Ca‐sensitising (induced by caffeine) and non‐sensitising (induced by ryanodine) and both induce biphasic decay of the Ca transient.Only Ca‐sensitising leak can be reversed by traditional RyR inhibitors such as tetracaine.Ca leak can also induce Ca waves. At low levels of leak, waves occur. As leak is increased, first biphasic decay and then slowed monophasic decay is seen. The level of leak has major effects on the shape of the Ca transient. Abstract In heart failure, a reduction in Ca transient amplitude and contractile dysfunction can by caused by Ca leak through the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca channel (ryanodine receptor, RyR) and/or decreased activity of the SR Ca ATPase (SERCA). We have characterised the effects of two forms of Ca leak (Ca‐sensitising and non‐sensitising) on calcium cycling and compared with those of SERCA inhibition. We measured [Ca2+]i with fluo‐3 in voltage‐clamped rat ventricular myocytes. Increasing SR leak with either caffeine (to sensitise the RyR to Ca activation) or ryanodine (non‐sensitising) had similar effects to SERCA inhibition: decreased systolic [Ca2+]i, increased diastolic [Ca2+]i and slowed decay. However, in the presence of isoproterenol, leak produced a biphasic decay of the Ca transient in the majority of cells while SERCA inhibition produced monophasic decay. Tetracaine reversed the effects of caffeine but not of ryanodine. When caffeine (1 mmol l−1) was added to a cell which displayed Ca waves, the wave frequency initially increased before waves disappeared and biphasic decay developed. Eventually (at higher caffeine concentrations), the

  10. Human intracranial recordings link suppressed transients rather than 'filling-in' to perceptual continuity across blinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Tal; Davidesco, Ido; Meshulam, Meir; Groppe, David M; Mégevand, Pierre; Yeagle, Erin M; Goldfinger, Matthew S; Harel, Michal; Melloni, Lucia; Schroeder, Charles E; Deouell, Leon Y; Mehta, Ashesh D; Malach, Rafael

    2016-09-29

    We hardly notice our eye blinks, yet an externally generated retinal interruption of a similar duration is perceptually salient. We examined the neural correlates of this perceptual distinction using intracranially measured ECoG signals from the human visual cortex in 14 patients. In early visual areas (V1 and V2), the disappearance of the stimulus due to either invisible blinks or salient blank video frames ('gaps') led to a similar drop in activity level, followed by a positive overshoot beyond baseline, triggered by stimulus reappearance. Ascending the visual hierarchy, the reappearance-related overshoot gradually subsided for blinks but not for gaps. By contrast, the disappearance-related drop did not follow the perceptual distinction - it was actually slightly more pronounced for blinks than for gaps. These findings suggest that blinks' limited visibility compared with gaps is correlated with suppression of blink-related visual activity transients, rather than with "filling-in" of the occluded content during blinks.

  11. Single-event transients (SET) in analog circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Panxun; Zhou Kaiming

    2006-01-01

    A new phenomenon of single- event upset is introduced. The transient signal is produced in the output of analog circuits after a heavy ion strikes. The transient upset can influence the circuit connected with the output of analog circuits. For example, the output of operational amplifier can be connected with the input of a digital counter, and the pulse of sufficiently high transient output induced by an ion can increase counts of the counter. On the other hand, the transient voltage signal at the output of analog circuits can change the stage of other circuits. (authors)

  12. Transient phenomena in electrical power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Venikov, V A; Higinbotham, W

    1964-01-01

    Electronics and Instrumentation, Volume 24: Transient Phenomena in Electrical Power Systems presents the methods for calculating the stability and the transient behavior of systems with forced excitation control. This book provides information pertinent to the analysis of transient phenomena in electro-mechanical systems.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the principal requirements in an excitation system. This text then explains the electromagnetic and electro-mechanical phenomena, taking into account the mutual action between the components of the system. Ot

  13. Transient burnout in flow reduction condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamura, Takamichi; Kuroyanagi, Toshiyuki

    1981-01-01

    A transient flow reduction burnout experiment was conducted with water in a uniformly heated, vertically oriented tube. Test pressures ranged from 0.5 to 3.9 MPa. An analytical method was developed to obtain transient burnout conditions at the exit. A simple correlation to predict the deviation of the transient burnout mass velocity at the tube exit from the steady state mass velocity obtained as a function of steam-water density ratio and flow reduction rate. The correlation was also compared with the other data. (author)

  14. Characterizing SI Engine Transient Fuel Consumption in ALPHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Examine typical transient engine operation encountered over the EPA's vehicle and engine testing drive cycles to characterize that transient fuel usage, and then describe the changes made to ALPHA to better model transient engine operation.

  15. Optimization of Formaldehyde Cross-Linking for Protein Interaction Analysis of Non-Tagged Integrin β1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordula Klockenbusch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde cross-linking of protein complexes combined with immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis is a promising technique for analysing protein-protein interactions, including those of transient nature. Here we used integrin β1 as a model to describe the application of formaldehyde cross-linking in detail, particularly focusing on the optimal parameters for cross-linking, the detection of formaldehyde cross-linked complexes, the utility of antibodies, and the identification of binding partners. Integrin β1 was found in a high molecular weight complex after formaldehyde cross-linking. Eight different anti-integrin β1 antibodies were used for pull-down experiments and no loss in precipitation efficiency after cross-linking was observed. However, two of the antibodies could not precipitate the complex, probably due to hidden epitopes. Formaldehyde cross-linked complexes, precipitated from Jurkat cells or human platelets and analyzed by mass spectrometry, were found to be composed of integrin β1, α4 and α6 or β1, α6, α2, and α5, respectively.

  16. Optimization of Formaldehyde Cross-Linking for Protein Interaction Analysis of Non-Tagged Integrin β1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockenbusch, Cordula; Kast, Juergen

    2010-01-01

    Formaldehyde cross-linking of protein complexes combined with immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis is a promising technique for analysing protein-protein interactions, including those of transient nature. Here we used integrin β1 as a model to describe the application of formaldehyde cross-linking in detail, particularly focusing on the optimal parameters for cross-linking, the detection of formaldehyde cross-linked complexes, the utility of antibodies, and the identification of binding partners. Integrin β1 was found in a high molecular weight complex after formaldehyde cross-linking. Eight different anti-integrin β1 antibodies were used for pull-down experiments and no loss in precipitation efficiency after cross-linking was observed. However, two of the antibodies could not precipitate the complex, probably due to hidden epitopes. Formaldehyde cross-linked complexes, precipitated from Jurkat cells or human platelets and analyzed by mass spectrometry, were found to be composed of integrin β1, α4 and α6 or β1, α6, α2, and α5, respectively. PMID:20634879

  17. Nuclear reactors transients identification and classification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, Paulo Henrique

    2008-01-01

    This work describes the study and test of a system capable to identify and classify transients in thermo-hydraulic systems, using a neural network technique of the self-organizing maps (SOM) type, with the objective of implanting it on the new generations of nuclear reactors. The technique developed in this work consists on the use of multiple networks to do the classification and identification of the transient states, being each network a specialist at one respective transient of the system, that compete with each other using the quantization error, that is a measure given by this type of neural network. This technique showed very promising characteristics that allow the development of new functionalities in future projects. One of these characteristics consists on the potential of each network, besides responding what transient is in course, could give additional information about that transient. (author)

  18. 5-HMF attenuates striatum oxidative damage via Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway following transient global cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya, Bai-Liu; Li, Hong-Fang; Wang, Hai-Ying; Wu, Fei; Xin, Qing; Cheng, Hong-Ju; Li, Wen-Juan; Lin, Na; Ba, Zai-Hua; Zhang, Ru-Juan; Liu, Qian; Li, Ya-Nan; Bai, Bo; Ge, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have shown 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF) has favorable biological effects, and its neuroprotection in a variety of neurological diseases has been noted. Our previous study showed that treatment of 5-HMF led to protection against permanent global cerebral ischemia. However, the underlying mechanisms in cerebral ischemic injury are not fully understood. This study was conducted to investigate the neuroprotective effect of 5-HMF and elucidate the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway mechanism in the striatum after transient global cerebral ischemia. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion for 20 min and sacrificed 24 h after reperfusion. 5-HMF (12 mg/kg) or an equal volume of vehicle was intraperitoneally injected 30 min before ischemia and 5 min after the onset of reperfusion. At 24 h after reperfusion, neurological function was evaluated by neurological disability status scale, locomotor activity test and inclined beam walking test. Histological injury of the striatum was observed by cresyl violet staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dNTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. Oxidative stress was evaluated by the carbonyl groups introduced into proteins, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based measurement was used to detect Nrf2 DNA binding activity. Nrf2 and its downstream ARE pathway protein expression such as heme oxygenase-1, NAD (P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit and glutamate-cysteine ligase modulatory subunit were detected by western blot. Our results showed that 5-HMF treatment significantly ameliorated neurological deficits, reduced brain water content, attenuated striatum neuronal damage, decreased the carbonyl groups and MDA levels, and activated Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway. Taken together, these results demonstrated that

  19. Why some people discount more than others: Baseline activation in the dorsal PFC mediates the link between COMT genotype and impatient choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena R. R. Gianotti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Individuals differ widely in how steeply they discount future rewards. The sources of these stable individual differences in delay discounting (DD are largely unknown. One candidate is the COMT Val158Met polymorphism, known to modulate prefrontal dopamine levels and affect DD. To identify possible neural mechanisms by which this polymorphism may contribute to stable individual DD differences, we measured 73 participants’ neural baseline activation using resting electroencephalogram (EEG. Such neural baseline activation measures are highly heritable and stable over time, thus an ideal endophenotype candidate to explain how genes may influence behavior via individual differences in neural function. After EEG-recording, participants made a series of incentive-compatible intertemporal choices to determine the steepness of their DD. We found that COMT significantly affected DD and that this effect was mediated by baseline activation level in the left dorsal prefrontal cortex (DPFC: (i COMT had a significant effect on DD such that the number of Val alleles was positively correlated with steeper DD (higher numbers of Val alleles means greater COMT activity and thus lower dopamine levels. (ii A whole-brain search identified a cluster in left DPFC where baseline activation was correlated with DD; lower activation was associated with steeper DD. (iii COMT had a significant effect on the baseline activation level in this left DPFC cluster such that a higher number of Val alleles was associated with lower baseline activation. (iv The effect of COMT on DD was explained by the mediating effect of neural baseline activation in the left DPFC cluster. Our study thus establishes baseline activation level in left DPFC as salient neural signature in the form of an endophenotype that mediates the link between COMT and DD.

  20. Gold nanoparticle mediated laser transfection for efficient siRNA mediated gene knock down.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Heinemann

    Full Text Available Laser based transfection methods have proven to be an efficient and gentle alternative to established molecule delivery methods like lipofection or electroporation. Among the laser based methods, gold nanoparticle mediated laser transfection bears the major advantage of high throughput and easy usability. This approach uses plasmon resonances on gold nanoparticles unspecifically attached to the cell membrane to evoke transient and spatially defined cell membrane permeabilization. In this study, we explore the parameter regime for gold nanoparticle mediated laser transfection for the delivery of molecules into cell lines and prove its suitability for siRNA mediated gene knock down. The developed setup allows easy usage and safe laser operation in a normal lab environment. We applied a 532 nm Nd:YAG microchip laser emitting 850 ps pulses at a repetition rate of 20.25 kHz. Scanning velocities of the laser spot over the sample of up to 200 mm/s were tested without a decline in perforation efficiency. This velocity leads to a process speed of ∼8 s per well of a 96 well plate. The optimal particle density was determined to be ∼6 particles per cell using environmental scanning electron microscopy. Applying the optimized parameters transfection efficiencies of 88% were achieved in canine pleomorphic adenoma ZMTH3 cells using a fluorescent labeled siRNA while maintaining a high cell viability of >90%. Gene knock down of d2-EGFP was demonstrated and validated by fluorescence repression and western blot analysis. On basis of our findings and established mathematical models we suppose a mixed transfection mechanism consisting of thermal and multiphoton near field effects. Our findings emphasize that gold nanoparticle mediated laser transfection provides an excellent tool for molecular delivery for both, high throughput purposes and the transfection of sensitive cells types.

  1. Gold nanoparticle mediated laser transfection for efficient siRNA mediated gene knock down.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Dag; Schomaker, Markus; Kalies, Stefan; Schieck, Maximilian; Carlson, Regina; Murua Escobar, Hugo; Ripken, Tammo; Meyer, Heiko; Heisterkamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Laser based transfection methods have proven to be an efficient and gentle alternative to established molecule delivery methods like lipofection or electroporation. Among the laser based methods, gold nanoparticle mediated laser transfection bears the major advantage of high throughput and easy usability. This approach uses plasmon resonances on gold nanoparticles unspecifically attached to the cell membrane to evoke transient and spatially defined cell membrane permeabilization. In this study, we explore the parameter regime for gold nanoparticle mediated laser transfection for the delivery of molecules into cell lines and prove its suitability for siRNA mediated gene knock down. The developed setup allows easy usage and safe laser operation in a normal lab environment. We applied a 532 nm Nd:YAG microchip laser emitting 850 ps pulses at a repetition rate of 20.25 kHz. Scanning velocities of the laser spot over the sample of up to 200 mm/s were tested without a decline in perforation efficiency. This velocity leads to a process speed of ∼8 s per well of a 96 well plate. The optimal particle density was determined to be ∼6 particles per cell using environmental scanning electron microscopy. Applying the optimized parameters transfection efficiencies of 88% were achieved in canine pleomorphic adenoma ZMTH3 cells using a fluorescent labeled siRNA while maintaining a high cell viability of >90%. Gene knock down of d2-EGFP was demonstrated and validated by fluorescence repression and western blot analysis. On basis of our findings and established mathematical models we suppose a mixed transfection mechanism consisting of thermal and multiphoton near field effects. Our findings emphasize that gold nanoparticle mediated laser transfection provides an excellent tool for molecular delivery for both, high throughput purposes and the transfection of sensitive cells types.

  2. Gold Nanoparticle Mediated Laser Transfection for Efficient siRNA Mediated Gene Knock Down

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Dag; Schomaker, Markus; Kalies, Stefan; Schieck, Maximilian; Carlson, Regina; Escobar, Hugo Murua; Ripken, Tammo; Meyer, Heiko; Heisterkamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Laser based transfection methods have proven to be an efficient and gentle alternative to established molecule delivery methods like lipofection or electroporation. Among the laser based methods, gold nanoparticle mediated laser transfection bears the major advantage of high throughput and easy usability. This approach uses plasmon resonances on gold nanoparticles unspecifically attached to the cell membrane to evoke transient and spatially defined cell membrane permeabilization. In this study, we explore the parameter regime for gold nanoparticle mediated laser transfection for the delivery of molecules into cell lines and prove its suitability for siRNA mediated gene knock down. The developed setup allows easy usage and safe laser operation in a normal lab environment. We applied a 532 nm Nd:YAG microchip laser emitting 850 ps pulses at a repetition rate of 20.25 kHz. Scanning velocities of the laser spot over the sample of up to 200 mm/s were tested without a decline in perforation efficiency. This velocity leads to a process speed of ∼8 s per well of a 96 well plate. The optimal particle density was determined to be ∼6 particles per cell using environmental scanning electron microscopy. Applying the optimized parameters transfection efficiencies of 88% were achieved in canine pleomorphic adenoma ZMTH3 cells using a fluorescent labeled siRNA while maintaining a high cell viability of >90%. Gene knock down of d2-EGFP was demonstrated and validated by fluorescence repression and western blot analysis. On basis of our findings and established mathematical models we suppose a mixed transfection mechanism consisting of thermal and multiphoton near field effects. Our findings emphasize that gold nanoparticle mediated laser transfection provides an excellent tool for molecular delivery for both, high throughput purposes and the transfection of sensitive cells types. PMID:23536802

  3. Localization of mGluR5, GABAB, GABAA, and cannabinoid receptors on the vago-vagal reflex pathway responsible for transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation in humans: an immunohistochemical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohof, W. O.; Aronica, E.; Beaumont, H.; Troost, D.; Boeckxstaens, G. E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) are the predominant mechanisms underlying gastro-esophageal reflux. TLESRs are mediated by a vago-vagal reflex, which can be blocked by interaction with metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 (mGluR5), ?-aminobutyric acid type B

  4. Do sleep problems mediate the link between adverse childhood experiences and delinquency in preadolescent children in foster care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambrick, Erin P; Rubens, Sonia L; Brawner, Thomas W; Taussig, Heather N

    2018-02-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with multiple mental and physical health problems. Yet, mechanisms by which ACEs confer risk for specific problems are largely unknown. Children in foster care typically have multiple ACEs and high rates of negative sequelae, including delinquent behaviors. Mechanisms explaining this link have not been explored in this population. Impaired sleep has been identified as a potential mechanism by which ACEs lead to delinquency in adolescents, because inadequate sleep may lead to poor executive function and cognitive control - known risk factors for delinquency. Interviews were conducted with 516 maltreated children in foster care, ages 9-11 years, and their caregivers regarding child exposure to ACEs, sleep problems, engagement in delinquent acts, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, and current psychotropic medication use. ACEs data were also obtained from child welfare case records. After controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, placement type (residential, kin, foster), length of time in placement, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and current psychotropic medication use, sleep partially mediated the association between ACEs and delinquency. Although delinquency is likely multiply determined in this population, improving sleep may be one important strategy to reduce delinquency. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  5. Advanced Instrumentation for Transient Reactor Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, Michael L.; Anderson, Mark; Imel, George; Blue, Tom; Roberts, Jeremy; Davis, Kurt

    2018-01-31

    Transient testing involves placing fuel or material into the core of specialized materials test reactors that are capable of simulating a range of design basis accidents, including reactivity insertion accidents, that require the reactor produce short bursts of intense highpower neutron flux and gamma radiation. Testing fuel behavior in a prototypic neutron environment under high-power, accident-simulation conditions is a key step in licensing nuclear fuels for use in existing and future nuclear power plants. Transient testing of nuclear fuels is needed to develop and prove the safety basis for advanced reactors and fuels. In addition, modern fuel development and design increasingly relies on modeling and simulation efforts that must be informed and validated using specially designed material performance separate effects studies. These studies will require experimental facilities that are able to support variable scale, highly instrumented tests providing data that have appropriate spatial and temporal resolution. Finally, there are efforts now underway to develop advanced light water reactor (LWR) fuels with enhanced performance and accident tolerance. These advanced reactor designs will also require new fuel types. These new fuels need to be tested in a controlled environment in order to learn how they respond to accident conditions. For these applications, transient reactor testing is needed to help design fuels with improved performance. In order to maximize the value of transient testing, there is a need for in-situ transient realtime imaging technology (e.g., the neutron detection and imaging system like the hodoscope) to see fuel motion during rapid transient excursions with a higher degree of spatial and temporal resolution and accuracy. There also exists a need for new small, compact local sensors and instrumentation that are capable of collecting data during transients (e.g., local displacements, temperatures, thermal conductivity, neutron flux, etc.).

  6. A polycystin-type transient receptor potential (Trp channel that is activated by ATP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Traynor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ATP and ADP are ancient extra-cellular signalling molecules that in Dictyostelium amoebae cause rapid, transient increases in cytosolic calcium due to an influx through the plasma membrane. This response is independent of hetero-trimeric G-proteins, the putative IP3 receptor IplA and all P2X channels. We show, unexpectedly, that it is abolished in mutants of the polycystin-type transient receptor potential channel, TrpP. Responses to the chemoattractants cyclic-AMP and folic acid are unaffected in TrpP mutants. We report that the DIF morphogens, cyclic-di-GMP, GABA, glutamate and adenosine all induce strong cytoplasmic calcium responses, likewise independently of TrpP. Thus, TrpP is dedicated to purinergic signalling. ATP treatment causes cell blebbing within seconds but this does not require TrpP, implicating a separate purinergic receptor. We could detect no effect of ATP on chemotaxis and TrpP mutants grow, chemotax and develop almost normally in standard conditions. No gating ligand is known for the human homologue of TrpP, polycystin-2, which causes polycystic kidney disease. Our results now show that TrpP mediates purinergic signalling in Dictyostelium and is directly or indirectly gated by ATP.

  7. Transient survivability of LMR oxide fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, E.T.; Pitner, A.L.; Bard, F.E.; Culley, G.E.; Hunter, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    Fuel pin integrity during transient events must be assessed for both the core design and safety analysis phases of a reactor project. A significant increase in the experience related to limits of integrity for oxide fuel pins in transient overpower events has been realized from testing of fuel pins irradiated in FFTF and PFR. Fourteen FFTF irradiated fuel pins were tested in TREAT, representing a range of burnups, overpower ramp rates and maximum overpower conditions. Results of these tests along with similar testing in the PFR/TREAT program, provide a demonstration of significant safety margins for oxide fuel pins. Useful information applied in analytical extrapolation of fuel pin test data have been developed from laboratory transient tests on irradiated fuel cladding (FCTT) and on unirradiated fuel pellet deformation. These refinements in oxide fuel transient performance are being applied in assessment of transient capabilities of long lifetime fuel designs using ferritic cladding

  8. Web-based, Interactive, Nuclear Reactor Transient Analyzer using LabVIEW and RELAP5 (ATHENA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. D.; Chung, B. D.; Rizwan-uddin

    2006-01-01

    In nuclear engineering, large system analysis codes such as RELAP5, TRAC-M, etc. play an important role in evaluating a reactor system behavior during a wide range of transient conditions. One limitation that restricts their use on a wider scale is that these codes often have a complicated I/O structure. This has motivated the development of GUI tools for best estimate codes, such as SNAP and ViSA, etc. In addition to a user interface, a greater degree of freedom in simulation and analyses of nuclear transient phenomena can be achieved if computer codes and their outputs are accessible from anywhere through the web. Such a web-based interactive interface can be very useful for geographically distributed groups when there is a need to share real-time data. Using mostly off-the-shelf technology, such a capability - a web-based transient analyzer based on a best-estimate code - has been developed. Specifically, the widely used best-estimate code RELAP5 is linked with a graphical interface. Moreover, a capability to web-cast is also available. This has been achieved by using the LabVIEW virtual instruments (VIs). In addition to the graphical display of the results, interactive control functions have also been added that allow operator's actions as well as, if permitted, by a distant user through the web

  9. Optimizing transient processes with AVL-GCA for a highly flexible gasoline engine; Optimierung transienter Vorgaenge mit AVL-GCA an einem Otto-Motor hoher Flexibilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leifert, Thomas; Moreno Nevado, Fernando; Fairbrother, Robert; Prevedel, Kurt [AVL List GmbH, Graz (Austria)

    2011-07-01

    Optimizing the dynamic operation of a gasoline engine with high flexibility by means of AVL-GCA. Downsizing and Downspeeding are considered being the most promising approaches to significantly reduce CO{sub 2} emission. Because of synergy effects between its technologies, downsized Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection (TGDI) engines have the highest potential for fuel economy. The key for high market penetration of such concepts requires customer acceptance and this is closely linked to driver satisfaction. For the drivability rating of vehicles fitted with turbocharged engines, tip-in behavior is of paramount importance. A combined combustion analysis and gas-exchange analysis was performed with AVL GCA (Gas exchange and Combustion Analysis) on a ''beyond-state-of-the-art'' TGDI engine, namely a variable compression ratio engine featuring MCE-5 VCRi technology. With variable compression ratio and 2-stage boosting this engine features an unusually high level of flexibility. Therefore the analysis is used to examine the thermodynamic processes taking place in the cylinders not only in steady state operation but also under highly transient boundary conditions and on a ''cycle-by-cycle'' basis in order to examine hints for optimizing transient response. An established numerical approach for analysis was applied to measurement data acquired on an engine dynamometer thanks to a dedicated measurement chain that will be described in detail. (orig.)

  10. Fission gas behavior during fast thermal transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteves, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    The behavior of non-equilibrium fission in fuel elements undergoing fast thermal transients is analyzed. To facilitate the analysis, a new variable, the equilibrium variable (EV) is defined. This variable, together with bubble radius, completely specifies a bubble with respect to its size and equilibrium condition. The analysis is coded using a two-variable (radius and EV) multigroup numerical approximation that accepts as input the time-temperature history, the time-fission rate history, and the time-thermal gradient history of the fuel element. Studies were performed to test the code for convergence with respect to the time interval and the number of groups chosen. For a series of transient simulation studies, the measurements obtained at HEDL (microscopic examination of intragranular porosity in oxide fuel transient-tested in TREAT) are used. Two different transient histories were selected; the first, a high-temperature transient (HTT) with a peak at 2477 0 K and the second, a low-temperature transient (LTT) with a peak-temperature at 2000 0 K. The LTT was simulated for three different conditions: Bubbles were allowed to move via (a) only biased migration, (b) via random migration, and (c) via both mechanisms. The HTT was also run for both mechanisms. The agreement with HEDL microscopic observations was fair for bubbles smaller than 964 A in diameter, and poor for larger bubbles. Bubbles that grew during the heat-up part of the transient were frozen at a larger size during the cool down

  11. The economic impact of reactor transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossin, A.D.; Vine, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses the cost estimation of transients and the causal relationship between transients and accidents. It is suggested that the calculation of the actual cost of a transient that has occurred is impossible without computerized records. Six months of operating experience reports, based on a survey of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and boiling water reactors (BWRs) conducted by the Nuclear Safety Analysis Center (NSAC), are analyzed. The significant costs of a reactor transient are the repair costs resulting from severe damage to plant equipment, the cost of scrams (the actions the system is designed to take to avoid safety risks), US NRC fines, negative publicity, utility rates and revenues. It is estimated that the Three Mile Island-2 accident cost the US over $100 billion in nuclear plant delays and cancellations, more expensive fuel, oil imports, backfits, bureaucratic, administrative and legal costs, and lost productivity

  12. Chernobyl reactor transient simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaber, F.A.; El Messiry, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper deals with the Chernobyl nuclear power station transient simulation study. The Chernobyl (RBMK) reactor is a graphite moderated pressure tube type reactor. It is cooled by circulating light water that boils in the upper parts of vertical pressure tubes to produce steam. At equilibrium fuel irradiation, the RBMK reactor has a positive void reactivity coefficient. However, the fuel temperature coefficient is negative and the net effect of a power change depends upon the power level. Under normal operating conditions the net effect (power coefficient) is negative at full power and becomes positive under certain transient conditions. A series of dynamic performance transient analysis for RBMK reactor, pressurized water reactor (PWR) and fast breeder reactor (FBR) have been performed using digital simulator codes, the purpose of this transient study is to show that an accident of Chernobyl's severity does not occur in PWR or FBR nuclear power reactors. This appears from the study of the inherent, stability of RBMK, PWR and FBR under certain transient conditions. This inherent stability is related to the effect of the feed back reactivity. The power distribution stability in the graphite RBMK reactor is difficult to maintain throughout its entire life, so the reactor has an inherent instability. PWR has larger negative temperature coefficient of reactivity, therefore, the PWR by itself has a large amount of natural stability, so PWR is inherently safe. FBR has positive sodium expansion coefficient, therefore it has insufficient stability it has been concluded that PWR has safe operation than FBR and RBMK reactors

  13. BID links ferroptosis to mitochondrial cell death pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Neitemeier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ferroptosis has been defined as an oxidative and iron-dependent pathway of regulated cell death that is distinct from caspase-dependent apoptosis and established pathways of death receptor-mediated regulated necrosis. While emerging evidence linked features of ferroptosis induced e.g. by erastin-mediated inhibition of the Xc- system or inhibition of glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4 to an increasing number of oxidative cell death paradigms in cancer cells, neurons or kidney cells, the biochemical pathways of oxidative cell death remained largely unclear. In particular, the role of mitochondrial damage in paradigms of ferroptosis needs further investigation.In the present study, we find that erastin-induced ferroptosis in neuronal cells was accompanied by BID transactivation to mitochondria, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced mitochondrial fragmentation and reduced ATP levels. These hallmarks of mitochondrial demise are also established features of oxytosis, a paradigm of cell death induced by Xc- inhibition by millimolar concentrations of glutamate. Bid knockout using CRISPR/Cas9 approaches preserved mitochondrial integrity and function, and mediated neuroprotective effects against both, ferroptosis and oxytosis. Furthermore, the BID-inhibitor BI-6c9 inhibited erastin-induced ferroptosis, and, in turn, the ferroptosis inhibitors ferrostatin-1 and liproxstatin-1 prevented mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in the paradigm of oxytosis. These findings show that mitochondrial transactivation of BID links ferroptosis to mitochondrial damage as the final execution step in this paradigm of oxidative cell death. Keywords: Ferroptosis, BID, Mitochondria, CRISPR, Oxytosis, Neuronal death

  14. Photoisomerization of ethyl ferulate: A solution phase transient absorption study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horbury, Michael D.; Baker, Lewis A.; Rodrigues, Natércia D. N.; Quan, Wen-Dong; Stavros, Vasilios G.

    2017-04-01

    Ethyl ferulate (ethyl 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamate) is currently used as a sunscreening agent in commercial sunscreen blends. Recent time-resolved gas-phase measurements have demonstrated that it possesses long-lived (>ns) electronic excited states, counterintuitive to what one might anticipate for an effective sunscreening agent. In the present work, the photodynamics of ethyl ferulate in cyclohexane, are explored using time-resolved transient electronic absorption spectroscopy, upon photoexcitation to the 11ππ∗ and 21ππ∗ states. We demonstrate that ethyl ferulate undergoes efficient non-radiative decay to repopulate the electronic ground state, mediated by trans-cis isomerization. These results strongly suggest that even mild perturbations induced by a non-polar solvent, as may be found in a closer-to-market sunscreen blend, may contribute to our understanding of ethyl ferulate's role as a sunscreening agent.

  15. Synchronizing noisy nonidentical oscillators by transient uncoupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandon, Aditya, E-mail: adityat@iitk.ac.in; Mannattil, Manu, E-mail: mmanu@iitk.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208016 (India); Schröder, Malte, E-mail: malte@nld.ds.mpg.de [Network Dynamics, Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization (MPIDS), 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Timme, Marc, E-mail: timme@nld.ds.mpg.de [Network Dynamics, Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization (MPIDS), 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Department of Physics, Technical University of Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Chakraborty, Sagar, E-mail: sagarc@iitk.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208016 (India); Mechanics and Applied Mathematics Group, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208016 (India)

    2016-09-15

    Synchronization is the process of achieving identical dynamics among coupled identical units. If the units are different from each other, their dynamics cannot become identical; yet, after transients, there may emerge a functional relationship between them—a phenomenon termed “generalized synchronization.” Here, we show that the concept of transient uncoupling, recently introduced for synchronizing identical units, also supports generalized synchronization among nonidentical chaotic units. Generalized synchronization can be achieved by transient uncoupling even when it is impossible by regular coupling. We furthermore demonstrate that transient uncoupling stabilizes synchronization in the presence of common noise. Transient uncoupling works best if the units stay uncoupled whenever the driven orbit visits regions that are locally diverging in its phase space. Thus, to select a favorable uncoupling region, we propose an intuitive method that measures the local divergence at the phase points of the driven unit's trajectory by linearizing the flow and subsequently suppresses the divergence by uncoupling.

  16. EAAC1 Gene Deletion Increases Neuronal Death and Blood Brain Barrier Disruption after Transient Cerebral Ischemia in Female Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Young Choi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available EAAC1 is important in modulating brain ischemic tolerance. Mice lacking EAAC1 exhibit increased susceptibility to neuronal oxidative stress in mice after transient cerebral ischemia. EAAC1 was first described as a glutamate transporter but later recognized to also function as a cysteine transporter in neurons. EAAC1-mediated transport of cysteine into neurons contributes to neuronal antioxidant function by providing cysteine substrates for glutathione synthesis. Here we evaluated the effects of EAAC1 gene deletion on hippocampal blood vessel disorganization after transient cerebral ischemia. EAAC1−/− female mice subjected to transient cerebral ischemia by common carotid artery occlusion for 30 min exhibited twice as much hippocampal neuronal death compared to wild-type female mice as well as increased reduction of neuronal glutathione, blood–brain barrier (BBB disruption and vessel disorganization. Pre-treatment of N-acetyl cysteine, a membrane-permeant cysteine prodrug, increased basal glutathione levels in the EAAC1−/− female mice and reduced ischemic neuronal death, BBB disruption and vessel disorganization. These findings suggest that cysteine uptake by EAAC1 is important for neuronal antioxidant function under ischemic conditions.

  17. Profound regulation of Na/K pump activity by transient elevations of cytoplasmic calcium in murine cardiac myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fang-Min; Deisl, Christine; Hilgemann, Donald W

    2016-09-14

    Small changes of Na/K pump activity regulate internal Ca release in cardiac myocytes via Na/Ca exchange. We now show conversely that transient elevations of cytoplasmic Ca strongly regulate cardiac Na/K pumps. When cytoplasmic Na is submaximal, Na/K pump currents decay rapidly during extracellular K application and multiple results suggest that an inactivation mechanism is involved. Brief activation of Ca influx by reverse Na/Ca exchange enhances pump currents and attenuates current decay, while repeated Ca elevations suppress pump currents. Pump current enhancement reverses over 3 min, and results are similar in myocytes lacking the regulatory protein, phospholemman. Classical signaling mechanisms, including Ca-activated protein kinases and reactive oxygen, are evidently not involved. Electrogenic signals mediated by intramembrane movement of hydrophobic ions, such as hexyltriphenylphosphonium (C6TPP), increase and decrease in parallel with pump currents. Thus, transient Ca elevation and Na/K pump inactivation cause opposing sarcolemma changes that may affect diverse membrane processes.

  18. Analysis of transient signals by Wavelet transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penha, Rosani Libardi da; Silva, Aucyone A. da; Ting, Daniel K.S.; Oliveira Neto, Jose Messias de

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this work is to apply the Wavelet Transform in transient signals. The Wavelet technique can outline the short time events that are not easily detected using traditional techniques. In this work, the Wavelet Transform is compared with Fourier Transform, by using simulated data and rotor rig data. This data contain known transients. The wavelet could follow all the transients, what do not happen to the Fourier techniques. (author)

  19. Pressurizer and steam-generator behavior under PWR transient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahba, A.B.; Berta, V.T.; Pointner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) pressurized water reactor (PWR), at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in which transient phenomena arising from accident events with and without reactor scram were studied. The main purpose of the LOFT facility is to provide data for the development of computer codes for PWR transient analyses. Significant thermal-hydraulic differences have been observed between the measured and calculated results for those transients in which the pressurizer and steam generator strongly influence the dominant transient phenomena. Pressurizer and steam generator phenomena that occurred during four specific PWR transients in the LOFT facility are discussed. Two transients were accompanied by pressurizer inflow and a reduction of the heat transfer in the steam generator to a very small value. The other two transients were accompanied by pressurizer outflow while the steam generator behavior was controlled

  20. Transient analysis capabilities at ABB-CE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kling, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    The transient capabilities at ABB-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) Nuclear Power are a function of the computer hardware and related network used, the computer software that has evolved over the years, and the commercial technical exchange agreements with other related organizations and customers. ABB-CEA is changing from a mainframe/personal computer network to a distributed workstation/personal computer local area network. The paper discusses computer hardware, mainframe computing, personal computers, mainframe/personal computer networks, workstations, transient analysis computer software, design/operation transient analysis codes, safety (licensed) analysis codes, cooperation with ABB-Atom, and customer support

  1. Transient analysis of DTT rakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, P.S.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical model for the determination of the cross-sectionally averaged transient mass flux of a two-phase fluid flowing in a conduit instrumented by a Drag-Disk Turbine Transducer (DTT) Rake and a multibeam gamma densitometer. Parametric studies indicate that for a typical blowdown transient, dynamic effects such as rotor inertia can be important for the turbine-meter. In contrast, for the drag-disk, a frequency response analysis showed that the quasisteady solution is valid below a forcing frequency of about 10 Hz, which is faster than the time scale normally encountered during blowdowns. The model showed reasonably good agreement with full scale transient rake data, where the flow regimes were mostly homogeneous or stratified, thus indicating that the model is suitable for the analysis of a DTT rake. (orig.)

  2. Fuel cladding mechanical properties for transient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.D.; Hunter, C.W.; Hanson, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    Out-of-pile simulated transient tests have been conducted on irradiated fast-reactor fuel pin cladding specimens at heating rates of 10 0 F/s (5.6 0 K/s) and 200 0 F/s (111 0 K/s) to generate mechanical property information for use in describing cladding behavior during off-normal events. Mechanical property data were then analyzed, applying the Larson-Miller Parameter to the effects of heating rate and neutron fluence. Data from simulated transient tests on TREAT-tested fuel pins demonstrate that Plant Protective System termination of 3$/s transients prevents significant damage to cladding. The breach opening produced during simulated transient testing is shown to decrease in size with increasing neutron fluence

  3. RFSP simulations of Darlington FINCH refuelling transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carruthers, E.V.; Chow, H.C.

    1997-01-01

    Immediately after refuelling of a channel, the fresh bundles are free of fission products. Xenon-135, the most notable of the saturating fission products, builds up to an equilibrium level in about 30 h. The channel power of the refuelled channel would therefore initially peak and then drop to a steady-state level. The RFSP code can track saturating-fission-product transients and power transients. The Fully INstrumented CHannels (FINCHs) in Darlington NGS provides channel power data on the refuelling power transients. In this paper, such data has been used to identify the physical evidence of the fission-product transient effect on channel power, and to validate RFSP fission-product-driver calculation results. (author)

  4. Emotional competence relating to perceived stress and burnout in Spanish teachers: a mediator model

    OpenAIRE

    Lourdes Rey; Natalio Extremera; Mario Pena

    2016-01-01

    This study examined direct associations between emotional competence, perceived stress and burnout in 489 Spanish teachers. In addition, a model in which perceived stress mediated pathways linking emotional competence to teacher burnout symptoms was also examined. Results showed that emotional competence and stress were significantly correlated with teacher burnout symptoms in the expected direction. Moreover, mediational analysis indicated that perceived stress partly mediated the relationsh...

  5. TRACMAB. A computer code to form part of the link between the codes TRAC and MABEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newbon, S.

    1982-05-01

    This report describes the function of the link program TRACMAB and provides a guide for users. The program is required to convert the thermal disequilibrium data output by the transient code TRAC into equilibrium data in a format compatible with the input data required by the code CAIN which in turn produces input data for MABEL. (author)

  6. Amorphous Phase Mediated Crystallization: Fundamentals of Biomineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Jin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many biomineralization systems start from transient amorphous precursor phases, but the exact crystallization pathways and mechanisms remain largely unknown. The study of a well-defined biomimetic crystallization system is key for elucidating the possible mechanisms of biomineralization and monitoring the detailed crystallization pathways. In this review, we focus on amorphous phase mediated crystallization (APMC pathways and their crystallization mechanisms in bio- and biomimetic-mineralization systems. The fundamental questions of biomineralization as well as the advantages and limitations of biomimetic model systems are discussed. This review could provide a full landscape of APMC systems for biomineralization and inspire new experiments aimed at some unresolved issues for understanding biomineralization.

  7. Applying causal mediation analysis to personality disorder research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D

    2018-01-01

    This article is designed to address fundamental issues in the application of causal mediation analysis to research on personality disorders. Causal mediation analysis is used to identify mechanisms of effect by testing variables as putative links between the independent and dependent variables. As such, it would appear to have relevance to personality disorder research. It is argued that proper implementation of causal mediation analysis requires that investigators take several factors into account. These factors are discussed under 5 headings: variable selection, model specification, significance evaluation, effect size estimation, and sensitivity testing. First, care must be taken when selecting the independent, dependent, mediator, and control variables for a mediation analysis. Some variables make better mediators than others and all variables should be based on reasonably reliable indicators. Second, the mediation model needs to be properly specified. This requires that the data for the analysis be prospectively or historically ordered and possess proper causal direction. Third, it is imperative that the significance of the identified pathways be established, preferably with a nonparametric bootstrap resampling approach. Fourth, effect size estimates should be computed or competing pathways compared. Finally, investigators employing the mediation method are advised to perform a sensitivity analysis. Additional topics covered in this article include parallel and serial multiple mediation designs, moderation, and the relationship between mediation and moderation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The LOFAR Transients Key Science Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stappers, B.; Fender, R.; Wijers, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Transients Key Science Project (TKP) is one of six Key Science Projects of the next generation radio telescope LOFAR. Its aim is the study of transient and variable low-frequency radio sources with an extremely broad science case ranging from relativistic jet sources to pulsars, exoplanets,

  9. Transient dynamic and inelastic analysis of shells of revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svalbonas, V.

    1975-01-01

    Advances in the limits of structural use in the aerospace and nuclear power industries over the past years have increased the requirements upon the applicable analytical computer programs to include accurate capabilities for inelastic and transient dynamic analyses. In many minds, however, this advanced capability is unequivocally linked with the large scale, general purpose, finite element programs. This idea is also combined with the view that, therefore, such analyses are prohibitively expensive and should be relegated to the 'last resort' classification. While this, in the general sense, may indeed be the case, if however, the user needs only to analyze structures falling into limited categories, he may find that a variety of smaller special purpose programs are available, which do not put an undue strain upon his resources. One such structural category is shells of revolution. This survey of programs will concentrate upon the analytical tools which have been developed predominantly for shells of revolution. The survey will be subdivided into three parts: a) consideration of programs for transient dynamic analysis, b) consideration of programs for inelastic analysis, and finally, c) consideration of programs capable of dynamic plasticity analysis. In each part, programs based upon finite difference, finite element, and numerical integration methods will be considered. The programs will be compared on the basis of analytical capabilities, and ease of idealization and use. In each part of the survey sample problems will be utilized to exemplify the state-of-the-art. (orig.) [de

  10. Principles of femtosecond X-ray/optical cross-correlation with X-ray induced transient optical reflectivity in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, S., E-mail: sebastian.eckert@helmholtz-berlin.de, E-mail: martin.beye@helmholtz-berlin.de; Beye, M., E-mail: sebastian.eckert@helmholtz-berlin.de, E-mail: martin.beye@helmholtz-berlin.de; Pietzsch, A.; Quevedo, W.; Hantschmann, M. [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation in Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Ochmann, M.; Huse, N. [Institute for Nanostructure and Solid State Physics, University of Hamburg, Jungiusstr. 11, 20355 Hamburg, Germany and Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Ross, M.; Khalil, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Box 351700, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Minitti, M. P.; Turner, J. J.; Moeller, S. P.; Schlotter, W. F.; Dakovski, G. L. [LCLS, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Föhlisch, A. [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation in Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut für Physik und Astronomie, Universität Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24/25, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2015-02-09

    The discovery of ultrafast X-ray induced optical reflectivity changes enabled the development of X-ray/optical cross correlation techniques at X-ray free electron lasers worldwide. We have now linked through experiment and theory the fundamental excitation and relaxation steps with the transient optical properties in finite solid samples. Therefore, we gain a thorough interpretation and an optimized detection scheme of X-ray induced changes to the refractive index and the X-ray/optical cross correlation response.

  11. Understanding the Link Between Pubertal Timing in Girls and the Development of Depressive Symptoms: The Role of Sexual Harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Therése; Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi; Stattin, Håkan

    2016-02-01

    The link between sexual maturation, or pubertal timing, in girls and adolescent depressive symptoms is well-documented, but the underlying processes remain unclear. We examined whether sexual harassment, which has previously been linked to both pubertal timing and depressive symptoms, mediates this link, using a two-wave longitudinal study including 454 girls in 7th (M age  = 13.42, SD = .53) and 8th grade (M age  = 14.42, SD = .55). Pubertal timing was linked to depressive symptoms in both age groups, and predicted an increase in depressive symptoms among the 7th graders. Sexual harassment significantly mediated the link between pubertal timing and depressive symptoms among the 7th, but not the 8th grade girls. Together, our findings suggest that one way to prevent depressive symptoms among early-maturing girls could be to address sexual harassment in preventive intervention in early adolescence.

  12. Transient cognitive dynamics, metastability, and decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail I Rabinovich

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea that cognitive activity can be understood using nonlinear dynamics has been intensively discussed at length for the last 15 years. One of the popular points of view is that metastable states play a key role in the execution of cognitive functions. Experimental and modeling studies suggest that most of these functions are the result of transient activity of large-scale brain networks in the presence of noise. Such transients may consist of a sequential switching between different metastable cognitive states. The main problem faced when using dynamical theory to describe transient cognitive processes is the fundamental contradiction between reproducibility and flexibility of transient behavior. In this paper, we propose a theoretical description of transient cognitive dynamics based on the interaction of functionally dependent metastable cognitive states. The mathematical image of such transient activity is a stable heteroclinic channel, i.e., a set of trajectories in the vicinity of a heteroclinic skeleton that consists of saddles and unstable separatrices that connect their surroundings. We suggest a basic mathematical model, a strongly dissipative dynamical system, and formulate the conditions for the robustness and reproducibility of cognitive transients that satisfy the competing requirements for stability and flexibility. Based on this approach, we describe here an effective solution for the problem of sequential decision making, represented as a fixed time game: a player takes sequential actions in a changing noisy environment so as to maximize a cumulative reward. As we predict and verify in computer simulations, noise plays an important role in optimizing the gain.

  13. Model experiments on the sensitization of polyethylene cross-linking of oligobutadienes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brede, O.; Beckert, D.; Hoesselbarth, B.; Specht, W.; Tannert, F.; Wunsch, K.

    1988-01-01

    In presence of ≥ 1 % of 1,2-oligobutadiene the efficiency of the radiation-induced cross-linking of polyethylene was found to be increased in comparison to the pure matrix. Model experiments with solutions of the sensitizer in long chain n-alkanes showed that after addition of alkyl radicals onto the oligobutadiene (reaction with the vinyl groups) the sensitizer forms an own network which is grafted by the alkyl groups. In comparison to this grafting reaction proceeding with G of about 5 the vinyl consumption happened with about the threefold of it indicating a short (intra- and intermolecular) vinyl reaction chain. Pulse radiolysis measurements in solutions of the 1,2-oligobutadiene in n-hexadecane and in molten PE blends resulted in the observation of radical transients of the cross-linking reaction. (author)

  14. Relationships between the Advertising Appeal and Behavioral Intention: The Mediating role of the Attitude towards Advertising Appeal

    OpenAIRE

    Raza Syed Hassan; Abu Bakar Hassan; Mohamad Bahtiar

    2017-01-01

    The link between the advertising appeal, attitude and behavioral intention is dynamic in nature, however, little research has been pursued towards explaining the mediating role of attitude towards the advertising in link of the advertising appeal with the behavioral intention. Researchers have identified the importance of the attitude in the connection of the advertising appeal within the framework of the (TPB) which remains unaddressed in the explicating the mediation of the attitude in rela...

  15. Transient analysis for Laguna Verde nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Pablos, J.C. et.al.

    1991-01-01

    Relationship between transients analysis and safety of Laguna Verde nuclear power plant is described a general panorama of safety thermal limits of a nuclear station, as well as transients classification and events simulation codes are exposed. Activities of a group of transients analysis of electrical research institute are also mentioned (Author)

  16. Youth Engagement and Suicide Risk: Testing a Mediated Model in a Canadian Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Heather L.; Busseri, Michael A.; Khanna, Nishad; Rose-Krasnor, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents in many industrialized countries. We report evidence from a mediation model linking greater youth activity engagement, spanning behavioral and psychological components, with lower suicide risk through five hypothesized intrapersonal and interpersonal mediating factors. Self-report survey data…

  17. Directly Transforming PCR-Amplified DNA Fragments into Plant Cells Is a Versatile System That Facilitates the Transient Expression Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuming; Chen, Xi; Wu, Yuxuan; Wang, Yanping; He, Yuqing; Wu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    A circular plasmid containing a gene coding sequence has been broadly used for studying gene regulation in cells. However, to accommodate a quick screen plasmid construction and preparation can be time consuming. Here we report a PCR amplified dsDNA fragments (PCR-fragments) based transient expression system (PCR-TES) for suiting in the study of gene regulation in plant cells. Instead of transforming plasmids into plant cells, transient expression of PCR-fragments can be applicable. The transformation efficiency and expression property of PCR-fragments are comparable to transformation using plasmids. We analyzed the transformation efficiency in PCR-TES at transcription and protein levels. Our results indicate that the PCR-TES is as versatile as the conventional transformation system using plasmid DNA. Through reconstituting PYR1-mediated ABA signaling pathway in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts, we were not only validating the practicality of PCR-TES but also screening potential candidates of CDPK family members which might be involved in the ABA signaling. Moreover, we determined that phosphorylation of ABF2 by CPK4 could be mediated by ABA-induced PYR1 and ABI1, demonstrating a crucial role of CDPKs in the ABA signaling. In summary, PCR-TES can be applicable to facilitate analyzing gene regulation and for the screen of putative regulatory molecules at the high throughput level in plant cells. PMID:23468926

  18. Directly transforming PCR-amplified DNA fragments into plant cells is a versatile system that facilitates the transient expression assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuming Lu

    Full Text Available A circular plasmid containing a gene coding sequence has been broadly used for studying gene regulation in cells. However, to accommodate a quick screen plasmid construction and preparation can be time consuming. Here we report a PCR amplified dsDNA fragments (PCR-fragments based transient expression system (PCR-TES for suiting in the study of gene regulation in plant cells. Instead of transforming plasmids into plant cells, transient expression of PCR-fragments can be applicable. The transformation efficiency and expression property of PCR-fragments are comparable to transformation using plasmids. We analyzed the transformation efficiency in PCR-TES at transcription and protein levels. Our results indicate that the PCR-TES is as versatile as the conventional transformation system using plasmid DNA. Through reconstituting PYR1-mediated ABA signaling pathway in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts, we were not only validating the practicality of PCR-TES but also screening potential candidates of CDPK family members which might be involved in the ABA signaling. Moreover, we determined that phosphorylation of ABF2 by CPK4 could be mediated by ABA-induced PYR1 and ABI1, demonstrating a crucial role of CDPKs in the ABA signaling. In summary, PCR-TES can be applicable to facilitate analyzing gene regulation and for the screen of putative regulatory molecules at the high throughput level in plant cells.

  19. Relationship between mediation analysis and the structured life course approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Laura D; Smith, Andrew D; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Anderson, Emma L; Galobardes, Bruna; Lawlor, Debbie A; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Hardy, Rebecca; Cooper, Rachel; Tilling, Kate; Fraser, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Many questions in life course epidemiology involve mediation and/or interaction because of the long latency period between exposures and outcomes. In this paper, we explore how mediation analysis (based on counterfactual theory and implemented using conventional regression approaches) links with a structured approach to selecting life course hypotheses. Using theory and simulated data, we show how the alternative life course hypotheses assessed in the structured life course approach correspond to different combinations of mediation and interaction parameters. For example, an early life critical period model corresponds to a direct effect of the early life exposure, but no indirect effect via the mediator and no interaction between the early life exposure and the mediator. We also compare these methods using an illustrative real-data example using data on parental occupational social class (early life exposure), own adult occupational social class (mediator) and physical capability (outcome). PMID:27681097

  20. Mediator and Cohesin Connect Gene Expression and Chromatin Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagey, Michael H.; Newman, Jamie J.; Bilodeau, Steve; Zhan, Ye; Orlando, David A.; van Berkum, Nynke L.; Ebmeier, Christopher C.; Goossens, Jesse; Rahl, Peter B.; Levine, Stuart S.; Taatjes, Dylan J.; Dekker, Job; Young, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Transcription factors control cell specific gene expression programs through interactions with diverse coactivators and the transcription apparatus. Gene activation may involve DNA loop formation between enhancer-bound transcription factors and the transcription apparatus at the core promoter, but this process is not well understood. We report here that Mediator and Cohesin physically and functionally connect the enhancers and core promoters of active genes in embryonic stem cells. Mediator, a transcriptional coactivator, forms a complex with Cohesin, which can form rings that connect two DNA segments. The Cohesin loading factor Nipbl is associated with Mediator/Cohesin complexes, providing a means to load Cohesin at promoters. DNA looping is observed between the enhancers and promoters occupied by Mediator and Cohesin. Mediator and Cohesin occupy different promoters in different cells, thus generating cell-type specific DNA loops linked to the gene expression program of each cell. PMID:20720539

  1. [Transient amnesia in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellal, François

    2006-03-01

    The two main aetiologies of transient amnesia in the elderly are idiopathic transient global amnesia (TGA) and iatrogenic or toxic amnesia. Vascular and epileptic amnesia are less common. According to the literature, transient psychogenic amnesia, which is a frequent cause of amnesia at age 30 to 50, is very rare in the elderly. TGA is the prototypical picture of transient amnesia. It occurs more often after age 50, with no identified cause, even if some authors accept emotional stress or minor head trauma as occasional precipitants. The mechanism of TGA remains a matter of discussion. It may be the consequence of a spreading depression similar to that described in migraine with aura, but other arguments support an ischemic mechanism. Iatrogenic amnesias are mainly caused by benzodiazepines (BZs) or anticholinergics. The former may occur in a non-anxious subject, who is not a usual consumer of BZ and takes a single dose. The latter are more often due to a hypersensitivity to anticholinergic drugs, in particular in patients presenting with a covert, incipient Alzheimer's disease. A vascular origin must be considered when amnesia is accompanied by other neurological symptoms, and when the regression of the amnesic disorder is slow, lasting several days. It results from lesions involving various mechanisms and locations, mainly subcortical. Partial seizures, most often mesio-temporal, more rarely frontal, may be the cause of transient amnesia in the elderly, in the absence of a past history of epilepsy. The red flag supportive of an epileptic origin is the repetition of stereotyped amnesic episodes. EEG demonstration of seizures may be difficult and the response to antiepileptic drugs effective on partial seizures is usually good.

  2. Fast relaxation transients in a kicked damped oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urquizu, Merce [Laboratori d' Estudis Geofisics ' Eduard Fontsere' , IEC, Barcelona (Spain); Correig, Antoni M. [Departament d' Astronomical i Meteorologia, Laboratori d' Estudis Geofisics Eduard Fontsere, UB Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain) and Laboratori d' Estudis Geofisics ' Eduard Fontsere' , IEC, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: ton.correig@am.ub.es

    2007-08-15

    Although nonlinear relaxation transients are very common in nature, very few studies are devoted to its characterization, mainly due to its short time duration. In this paper, we present a study about the nature of relaxation transients in a kicked damped oscillator, in which transients are generated in terms of continuous fast changes in the parameters of the system. We have found that transient dynamics can be described, rather than in terms of bifurcation dynamics, in terms of instantaneous stretching factors, which are related to the stability of fixed points of the corresponding stroboscopic maps.

  3. Development of a transient criticality evaluation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pain, C.C.; Eaton, M.D.; Miles, B.; Ziver, A.K.; Gomes, J.L.M.A.; Umpleby, A.P.; Piggott, M.D.; Goddard, A.J.H.; Oliveira, C.R.E. de

    2005-01-01

    In developing a transient criticality evaluation method we model, in full spatial/temporal detail, the neutron fluxes and consequent power and the evolving material properties - their flows, energies, phase changes etc. These methods are embodied in the generic method FETCH code which is based as far as possible on basic principles and is capable of use in exploring safety-related situations somewhat beyond the range of experiment. FETCH is a general geometry code capable of addressing a range of criticality issues in fissile materials. The code embodies both transient radiation transport and transient fluid dynamics. Work on powders, granular materials, porous media and solutions is reviewed. The capability for modelling transient criticality for chemical plant, waste matrices and advanced reactors is also outlined. (author)

  4. Transient hypothyroidism after 131I treatment of Graves disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianfeng; Fang Yi; Zhang Xiuli; Ye Genyao; Xing Jialiu; Zhang Youren

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the results of the transient hypothyroidism after 131 I treatment of Graves disease. Methods: A total of 32 transient hypothyroidism patients treated with 131 I for Graves disease were studied and followed up. Results: Transient hypothyroidism occurred within 2-6 months after 131 I treatment and 19 patients were symptomatic. At diagnosis of transient hypothyroidism, T 3 and T 4 levels were decreased had normal, TSH levels were increased, normal or low. Follow-up examination found that 20 patients were normal and 12 patients had relapse of hyperthyroidism. Conclusions: Therapy of Graves disease with low doses of 131 I causes a high incidence of transient hypothyroidism. After recovery of transient hypothyroidism, some patients have relapse of hyperthyroidism

  5. Transients in the Vivitron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, C.M.; Frick, G.; Roumie, M.

    1993-01-01

    Electrical measurements are presented for the construction of a model for the study of transients in the Vivitron. Observation of the transmission of electrical pulses in the porticos clearly shows transmission-line behaviour. Measurements of the vector impedance of the outer porticos show the same transmission-line properties, but also gives a description of the modification from a pure transmission line due to the circular electrodes. The results of this investigation should allow the construction of a computer model which predicts the evolution of the transients in the case of a spark in the Vivitron. (orig.)

  6. The missing link between values and behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen

    For a long time human values have been perceived as abstrat cognitions representing desired goals or end-states which motivate humnan behaviour. A number of studies have tried to explore the link between values and behaviour, but often different constructs are included as intermediate links between...... values and specific behaviour, since values may be too abstract to influence behaviour directly. We propose the concept of lifestyle as a mediator between values and behaviour, and present our approach to lifestyle based on principles from cognitive psychology, where we distinguish between values...... and lifestyle and behaviour. Based on this appraoch we collected data covering values, lifestyle and behaviour, and estimated the cogntiive hierarchy from values to lifestyle to behaviour by structural equation models....

  7. LWR fuel performance during anticipated transients with scram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinson, Z.R.; McCardell, R.K.; MacDonanl, P.E.; Rowland, T.C.; Tokar, M.

    1983-01-01

    Operational transients occur occasionally in light water reactors when minor malfunctions of certain system components affect the reactor core. Potential effects of such malfunctions include a loss of the secondary heat sink, an increase in system pressure, and, in boiling water reactors, void collapse and a brief increase in reactor power. The most severe postulated Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) anticipated transient is characterized by a power peak of up to 495% rated power for about 1 second (according to a recent General Electric Co., generic analysis). The results of a series of fuel behaviour tests in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory are presented in this paper. Four progressively higher and broader power transients at a constant coolant flow rate were performed. The first transient simulated a BWR-5 turbine trip without steam bypass with fuel rods operating at BWR-6 core average rod powers. The second transient simulated a generator load rejection without steam bypass with fuel rods operating at above core average powers. The last two transients were performed at higher powers than safety analysis predicts to be possible in commercial reactors to be defined failure threshold margins. The test rods did not fail and were not damaged during any of the four transients. (author)

  8. Instrument response during overpower transients at TREAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meek, C.C.; Bauer, T.H.; Hill, D.J.; Froehle, P.H.; Klickman, A.E.; Tylka, J.P.; Doerner, R.C.; Wright, A.E.

    1982-01-01

    A program to empirically analyze data residuals or noise to determine instrument response that occurs during in-pile transient tests is out-lined. As an example, thermocouple response in the Mark III loop during a severe overpower transient in TREAT is studied both in frequency space and in real-time. Time intervals studied included both constant power and burst portions of the power transient. Thermocouple time constants were computed. Benefits and limitations of the method are discussed

  9. Gamma-ray transients and related astrophysical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingenfelter, R.E.; Hudson, H.S.; Worrall, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    The workshop covered the study of the explosive phenomena responsible for the various gamma ray transients. X-ray burster observations and theories were also reviewed with emphasis on their relationship to gamma ray bursts. Recent observational data, particularly from the SMM, HEAO, and VENERA satellites made the workshop especially timely. Major headings include: gamma-ray transients, x-ray bursts, solar transients, and instrumental concepts. Individual items from the workshop were prepared separately for the data base

  10. Factors linking childhood experiences to adult romantic relationships among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L; Landor, Antoinette M; Bryant, Chalandra M; Beach, Steven R H

    2014-06-01

    It is well known that a high-quality relationship with a romantic partner is related to a variety of positive outcomes associated with health and well-being. Establishing such relationships is an important developmental task for young adults, and past research indicates that there is a link between experiences in the family of origin and the success of later intimate relationships. It has been suggested that this association can be explained by the acquisition of social competencies (e.g., emotions, schemas, traits) that are acquired during childhood in the family of origin and, in turn, influence interaction with adult romantic partners. The current study builds on this foundation by identifying particular competencies expected to explain the association between childhood exposure to supportive and harsh parenting and later patterns of interaction with romantic partners. Specifically, we examine anger management, attachment style, hostile attribution bias, and self-control as potential mediators using prospective, longitudinal data from a sample of 345 African American young adults. Results from structural equation modeling indicate that each of the mediators in our study accounts for a significant portion of the effect of parenting on the quality of adult romantic relationships, although the constructs linking parenting to warm interactions with romantic partners are somewhat different from those that link parenting to hostile interactions with romantic partners. Even after accounting for the effect of the mediators, there is still a direct effect of parenting on both warm/loving and hostile/aggressive interactions with romantic partner. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Factors Linking Childhood Experiences to Adult Romantic Relationships among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.; Landor, Antoinette M.; Bryant, Chalandra M.; Beach, Steven R.H.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that a high quality relationship with a romantic partner is related to a variety of positive outcomes associated with health and well-being. Establishing such relationships is an important developmental task for young adults and past research indicates that there is a link between experiences in the family of origin and the success of later intimate relationships. It has been suggested that this association can be explained by the acquisition of social competencies (e.g., emotions, schemas, traits) that are acquired during childhood in the family of origin and, in turn, influence interaction with adult romantic partners. The current study builds on this foundation by identifying particular competencies expected to explain the association between childhood exposure to supportive and harsh parenting and later patterns of interaction with romantic partners. Specifically, we examine anger management, attachment style, hostile attribution bias, and self-control as potential mediators using prospective, longitudinal data from a sample of 345 African American young adults. Results from structural equation modeling indicate that each of the mediators in our study accounts for a significant portion of the effect of parenting on the quality of adult romantic relationships although the constructs linking parenting to warm interactions with romantic partners are somewhat different from those that link parenting to hostile interactions with romantic partners. Even after accounting for the effect of the mediators, there is still a direct effect of parenting on both warm/loving and hostile/aggressive interactions with romantic partner. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:24730381

  12. Redox regulation of the MED28 and MED32 mediator subunits is important for development and senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikhali, Jehad; Davoine, Céline; Björklund, Stefan; Wingsle, Gunnar

    2016-05-01

    Mediator is a conserved multi-protein complex that acts as a bridge between promoter-bound transcriptional regulators and RNA polymerase II. While redox signaling is important in adjusting plant metabolism and development, the involvement of Mediator in redox homeostasis and regulation only recently started to emerge. Our previous results show that the MED10a, MED28, and MED32 Mediator subunits form various types of covalent oligomers linked by intermolecular disulfide bonds in vitro. To link that with biological significance we have characterized Arabidopsis med32 and med28 mutants and found that they are affected in root development and senescence, phenotypes possibly associated to redox changes.

  13. Twenty-five years of transient counting experience in French PWR units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelet, B. [Electricite de France (EDF DPN), 93 - Saint-Denis (France); Savoldelli, D.; Fritz, R. [Electricite de France (EDF DPN), 93 - Noisy le Grand (France)

    2001-07-01

    For nearly twenty five years, EDF has been checking that the actual operating transients are neither more severe nor more numerous than the design basis transients. This activity of transient cycle counting and bookkeeping has enabled EDF to own a database of more than 800 reactor.years for the PWR units. The current method of transient cycle counting is presented. In the paper, we will point out the main results of transient cycle counting and lessons learned. In general, the frequencies of transients are lower than the design frequencies. In few cases, they are higher, such as the transient frequencies of the RCS lines connected to auxiliary systems often due to operating procedures or particular periodic testing. Few periodic tests were not taken into account in the design basis transient file ; they have been detected thanks to the transient cycle counting. In the last 1980's, we achieved the first updating of the design basis transient file for the PWR 900 MWe series. In the early 1990's, we updated the design basis transient file of the PWR 1300 MWe series. In fact, since design and start-up, the operating conditions have been modified (fuel cycle with stretch-out, modification of the hot leg and cold leg temperatures for the PWR 1300 MWe,...). This was the cause of many unclassified transients. In the new design basis transient file, we have created new transients and increased the frequencies of some of them. This has enabled to consider the updated design basis transient file more representative of actual operating transients. For some years, we have increasingly associated the operators with the transient cycle counting concern. We noticed progress (decreased frequencies of most transients). (authors)

  14. Twenty-five years of transient counting experience in French PWR units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelet, B.; Savoldelli, D.; Fritz, R.

    2001-01-01

    For nearly twenty five years, EDF has been checking that the actual operating transients are neither more severe nor more numerous than the design basis transients. This activity of transient cycle counting and bookkeeping has enabled EDF to own a database of more than 800 reactor.years for the PWR units. The current method of transient cycle counting is presented. In the paper, we will point out the main results of transient cycle counting and lessons learned. In general, the frequencies of transients are lower than the design frequencies. In few cases, they are higher, such as the transient frequencies of the RCS lines connected to auxiliary systems often due to operating procedures or particular periodic testing. Few periodic tests were not taken into account in the design basis transient file ; they have been detected thanks to the transient cycle counting. In the last 1980's, we achieved the first updating of the design basis transient file for the PWR 900 MWe series. In the early 1990's, we updated the design basis transient file of the PWR 1300 MWe series. In fact, since design and start-up, the operating conditions have been modified (fuel cycle with stretch-out, modification of the hot leg and cold leg temperatures for the PWR 1300 MWe,...). This was the cause of many unclassified transients. In the new design basis transient file, we have created new transients and increased the frequencies of some of them. This has enabled to consider the updated design basis transient file more representative of actual operating transients. For some years, we have increasingly associated the operators with the transient cycle counting concern. We noticed progress (decreased frequencies of most transients). (authors)

  15. Technological, mediatic and cultural hybridisation: Cultural mediations in the context of globalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laan Mendes de Barros

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We live in a context of borders that are dissolving in many senses, of the convergence and hybridisation of technologies, mass media and cultures. The context is the resizing of practical time, of movements and links between the local and the global. In these times of interculturality, communication plays a very important role; not so much in its technological media dimension, but particularly in the dynamics of cultural mediations that are dividing off from mediatised relations. This article aims to reflect on the transformations in present-day communication processes, marked by strong movements of hybridisation, as well as examining how to consider interculturality in the context of cultural mediations, based on dialogue between Latin American and French authors. Also, using media material, the article presents illustrations of the Brazilian cultural scene, which is marked by a long history of hybridisation that is filled with intercultural dynamics.

  16. RNF4-mediated polyubiquitination regulates the Fanconi anemia/BRCA pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jenny; Kim, Hyungjin; Moreau, Lisa A; Puhalla, Shannon; Garber, Judy; Al Abo, Muthana; Takeda, Shunichi; D'Andrea, Alan D

    2015-04-01

    The Fanconi anemia/BRCA (FA/BRCA) pathway is a DNA repair pathway that is required for excision of DNA interstrand cross-links. The 17 known FA proteins, along with several FA-associated proteins (FAAPs), cooperate in this pathway to detect, unhook, and excise DNA cross-links and to subsequently repair the double-strand breaks generated in the process. In the current study, we identified a patient with FA with a point mutation in FANCA, which encodes a mutant FANCA protein (FANCAI939S). FANCAI939S failed to bind to the FAAP20 subunit of the FA core complex, leading to decreased stability. Loss of FAAP20 binding exposed a SUMOylation site on FANCA at amino acid residue K921, resulting in E2 SUMO-conjugating enzyme UBC9-mediated SUMOylation, RING finger protein 4-mediated (RNF4-mediated) polyubiquitination, and proteasome-mediated degradation of FANCA. Mutation of the SUMOylation site of FANCA rescued the expression of the mutant protein. Wild-type FANCA was also subject to SUMOylation, RNF4-mediated polyubiquitination, and degradation, suggesting that regulated release of FAAP20 from FANCA is a critical step in the normal FA pathway. Consistent with this model, cells lacking RNF4 exhibited interstrand cross-linker hypersensitivity, and the gene encoding RNF4 was epistatic with the other genes encoding members of the FA/BRCA pathway. Together, the results from our study underscore the importance of analyzing unique patient-derived mutations for dissecting complex DNA repair processes.

  17. COMETHE III-M for transient fuel rod behaviour prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billaux, M.; Vliet, J. van

    1983-01-01

    The COMETHE III-M version is being developed in order to provide fuel rod behaviour prediction capability both in steady-state and in transient situations. It also allows to estimate the fuel rod enthalpy evolution versus time or burnup which may be important in core-related safety studies. This paper describes the transient heat transfer models, including transient heat conduction inside the fuel rod, and a subchannel model providing transient flow as well as enthalpy calculation capability. Transient fission gas release is also modelled on basis of the change rate of oxide temperature. The models are illustrated by a few calculation examples. (author)

  18. Pathways from Religion to Health: Mediation by Psychosocial and Lifestyle Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Kelly R; Lee, Jerry W; Martin, Leslie R

    2017-02-01

    Religiosity, often measured as attendance at religious services, is linked to better physical health and longevity though the mechanisms linking the two are debated. Potential explanations include: a healthier lifestyle, increased social support from congregational members, and/or more positive emotions. Thus far, these mechanisms have not been tested simultaneously in a single model though they likely operate synergistically. We test this model predicting all-cause mortality in Seventh-day Adventists, a denomination that explicitly promotes a healthy lifestyle. This allows the more explicit health behaviors linked to the religious doctrine (e.g., healthy diet) to be compared with other mechanisms not specific to religious doctrine (e.g., social support and positive emotions). Finally, this study examines both Church Activity (including worship attendance and church responsibilities) and Religious Engagement (coping, importance, and intrinsic beliefs). Religious Engagement is more is more inner-process focused (vs. activity-based) and less likely to be confounded with age and its associated functional status limitations, although it should be noted that age is controlled in the present study. The findings suggest that Religious Engagement and Church Activity operate through the mediators of health behavior, emotion, and social support to decrease mortality risk. All links between Religious Engagement and mortality are positive but indirect through positive Religious Support, Emotionality, and lifestyle mediators. However, Church Activity has a direct positive effect on mortality as well as indirect effects through, Religious Support, Emotionality, and lifestyle mediators (diet and exercise). The models were invariant by gender and for both Blacks and Whites.

  19. Search for Transient Gravitational Waves in Coincidence with Short-Duration Radio Transients During 2007-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Hughey, Brennan; Zanolin, Michele; Szczepanczyk, Marek; Gill, Kiranjyot; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present an archival search for transient gravitational-wave bursts in coincidence with 27 single-pulse triggers from Green Bank Telescope pulsar surveys, using the LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory), Virgo (Variability of Solar Irradiance and Gravity Oscillations) and GEO (German-UK Interferometric Detector) interferometer network. We also discuss a check for gravitational-wave signals in coincidence with Parkes fast radio bursts using similar methods. Data analyzed in these searches were collected between 2007 and 2013. Possible sources of emission of both short-duration radio signals and transient gravitational-wave emission include star quakes on neutron stars, binary coalescence of neutron stars, and cosmic string cusps. While no evidence for gravitational-wave emission in coincidence with these radio transients was found, the current analysis serves as a prototype for similar future searches using more sensitive second-generation interferometers.

  20. New developments in French transient monitoring: SYSFAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'huby, Y.; Genette, P.; Faidy, C.; Kappler, F.; Balley, J.; Bimont, G.

    1991-01-01

    After more than ten years of experience with Transient Monitoring and Logging Procedure (TMLP) and six years of successfully experience with Fatiguemeters, EDF has decided to study a new concept of Fatigue Monitoring System: SYSFAC. This new automatic system which is developed to be operating in all the French PWR units is composed of three modules: mechanical transient logging, functional transient logging and fatiguemeters. This application must be connected to the on-site data acquisition system without complementary instrumentation on the plant. (author)

  1. Emergence delirium with transient associative agnosia and expressive aphasia reversed by flumazenil in a pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobish, Julie K; Kelz, Max B; DiPuppo, Patricia M; Cook-Sather, Scott D

    2015-06-01

    Multiple factors may contribute to the development of emergence delirium in a child. We present the case of a healthy 12-year-old girl who received preoperative midazolam with the desired anxiolytic effect, underwent a brief general anesthetic, and then exhibited postoperative delirium, consisting of a transient associative agnosia and expressive aphasia. Administration of flumazenil led to immediate and lasting resolution of her symptoms. We hypothesize that γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor-mediated effects, most likely related to an atypical offset of midazolam, are an important subset of emergence delirium that is amenable to pharmacologic therapy with flumazenil.

  2. Climatic feedbacks between stationary and transient eddies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branscome, L.E.

    1994-01-01

    Stationary eddies make a significant contribution to poleward heat transport during Northern Hemisphere winter, equaling the transport by transient eddies. On the other hand, stationary eddy transport during the summer is negligible. The effect of topography on time-mean stationary waves and low-frequency variability has been widely studied. In contrast, little attention has been given to the climatic feedbacks associated with stationary eddies. Furthermore, the relationship between stationary and transient eddies in the context of global and regional climate is not well understood. The response of the climate system to anthropogenic forcing is likely to have some dependence on stationary wave transport and its interaction with transient eddies. Some early GCM simulations and observational analyses indicate a strong feedback between the meridional heat fluxes of stationary and transient eddies

  3. Types of prayer and depressive symptoms among cancer patients: the mediating role of rumination and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, John E; Rex Smith, Amy; Norris, Rebecca L; Canenguez, Katia M; Tracey, Elizabeth F; Decristofaro, Susan B

    2011-12-01

    We examined the association between different types of prayer and depressive symptoms--with rumination and social support as potential mediators--in a sample of predominantly White, Christian, and female ambulatory cancer patients. In a cross-sectional design, 179 adult cancer outpatients completed measures of prayer, rumination, social support, depressive symptoms, and demographic variables. Type and stage of cancer were collected from electronic medical charts. Depressive symptoms were negatively correlated with adoration prayer (r = -.15), reception prayer (r = -.17), thanksgiving prayer (r = -.29), and prayer for the well-being of others (r = -.26). In the path analysis, rumination fully mediated the link between thanksgiving prayer and depressive symptoms (β for indirect effect = -.05), whereas social support partially mediated the link between prayer for others and depressive symptoms (β for indirect effect = -.05). These findings suggest that unique mechanisms may link different prayer types to lower depressive symptoms among cancer patients.

  4. Transient Seepage for Levee Engineering Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, F. T.

    2017-12-01

    Historically, steady-state seepage analyses have been a key tool for designing levees by practicing engineers. However, with the advances in computer modeling, transient seepage analysis has become a potentially viable tool. A complication is that the levees usually have partially saturated flow, and this is significantly more complicated in transient flow. This poster illustrates four elements of our research in partially saturated flow relating to the use of transient seepage for levee design: (1) a comparison of results from SEEP2D, SEEP/W, and SLIDE for a generic levee cross section common to the southeastern United States; (2) the results of a sensitivity study of varying saturated hydraulic conductivity, the volumetric water content function (as represented by van Genuchten), and volumetric compressibility; (3) a comparison of when soils do and do not exhibit hysteresis, and (4) a description of proper and improper use of transient seepage in levee design. The variables considered for the sensitivity and hysteresis studies are pore pressure beneath the confining layer at the toe, the flow rate through the levee system, and a levee saturation coefficient varying between 0 and 1. Getting results for SEEP2D, SEEP/W, and SLIDE to match proved more difficult than expected. After some effort, the results matched reasonably well. Differences in results were caused by various factors, including bugs, different finite element meshes, different numerical formulations of the system of nonlinear equations to be solved, and differences in convergence criteria. Varying volumetric compressibility affected the above test variables the most. The levee saturation coefficient was most affected by the use of hysteresis. The improper use of pore pressures from a transient finite element seepage solution imported into a slope stability computation was found to be the most grievous mistake in using transient seepage in the design of levees.

  5. Transient voltage oscillations in coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhuri, P.

    1985-01-01

    Magnet coils may be excited into internal voltage oscillations by transient voltages. Such oscillations may electrically stress the magnet's dielectric components to many times its normal stress. This may precipitate a dielectric failure, and the attendant prolonged loss of service and costly repair work. Therefore, it is important to know the natural frequencies of oscillations of a magnet during the design stage, and to determine whether the expected switching transient voltages can excite the magnet into high-voltage internal oscillations. The series capacitance of a winding significantly affects its natural frequencies. However, the series capacitance is difficult to calculate, because it may comprise complex capacitance network, consisting of intra- and inter-coil turn-to-turn capacitances of the coil sections. A method of calculating the series capacitance of a winding is proposed. This method is rigorous but simple to execute. The time-varying transient voltages along the winding are also calculated

  6. Interpreting signals from astrophysical transient experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Paul T; Smartt, Stephen J

    2013-06-13

    Time-domain astronomy has come of age with astronomers now able to monitor the sky at high cadence, both across the electromagnetic spectrum and using neutrinos and gravitational waves. The advent of new observing facilities permits new science, but the ever-increasing throughput of facilities demands efficient communication of coincident detections and better subsequent coordination among the scientific community so as to turn detections into scientific discoveries. To discuss the revolution occurring in our ability to monitor the Universe and the challenges it brings, on 25-26 April 2012, a group of scientists from observational and theoretical teams studying transients met with representatives of the major international transient observing facilities at the Kavli Royal Society International Centre, UK. This immediately followed the Royal Society Discussion Meeting 'New windows on transients across the Universe' held in London. Here, we present a summary of the Kavli meeting at which the participants discussed the science goals common to the transient astronomy community and analysed how to better meet the challenges ahead as ever more powerful observational facilities come on stream.

  7. RETRAN sensitivity studies of light water reactor transients. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrell, N.S.; Gose, G.C.; Harrison, J.F.; Sawtelle, G.R.

    1977-06-01

    This report presents the results of sensitivity studies performed using the RETRAN/RELAP4 transient analysis code to identify critical parameters and models which influence light water reactor transient predictions. Various plant transients for both boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors are examined. These studies represent the first detailed evaluation of the RETRAN/RELAP4 transient code capability in predicting a variety of plant transient responses. The wide range of transients analyzed in conjunction with the parameter and modeling studies performed identify several sensitive areas as well as areas requiring future study and model development

  8. Scanning ion deep level transient spectroscopy: I. Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laird, J S; Jagadish, C; Jamieson, D N; Legge, G J F

    2006-01-01

    Theoretical aspects of a new technique for the MeV ion microbeam are described in detail for the first time. The basis of the technique, termed scanning ion deep level transient spectroscopy (SIDLTS), is the imaging of defect distributions within semiconductor devices. The principles of SIDLTS are similar to those behind other deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) techniques with the main difference stemming from the injection of carriers into traps using the localized energy-loss of a focused MeV ion beam. Energy-loss of an MeV ion generates an electron-hole pair plasma, providing the equivalent of a DLTS trap filling pulse with a duration which depends on space-charge screening of the applied electric field and ambipolar erosion of the plasma for short ranging ions. Some nanoseconds later, the detrapping current transient is monitored as a charge transient. Scanning the beam in conjunction with transient analysis allows the imaging of defect levels. As with DLTS, the temperature dependence of the transient can be used to extract trap activation levels. In this, the first of a two-part paper, we introduce the various stages of corner capture and derive a simple expression for the observed charge transient. The second paper will illustrate the technique on a MeV ion implanted Au-Si Schottky junction

  9. Timing of transients: quantifying reaching times and transient behavior in complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, Tim; Heitzig, Jobst; Webster, Kevin; Kurths, Jürgen

    2017-08-01

    In dynamical systems, one may ask how long it takes for a trajectory to reach the attractor, i.e. how long it spends in the transient phase. Although for a single trajectory the mathematically precise answer may be infinity, it still makes sense to compare different trajectories and quantify which of them approaches the attractor earlier. In this article, we categorize several problems of quantifying such transient times. To treat them, we propose two metrics, area under distance curve and regularized reaching time, that capture two complementary aspects of transient dynamics. The first, area under distance curve, is the distance of the trajectory to the attractor integrated over time. It measures which trajectories are ‘reluctant’, i.e. stay distant from the attractor for long, or ‘eager’ to approach it right away. Regularized reaching time, on the other hand, quantifies the additional time (positive or negative) that a trajectory starting at a chosen initial condition needs to approach the attractor as compared to some reference trajectory. A positive or negative value means that it approaches the attractor by this much ‘earlier’ or ‘later’ than the reference, respectively. We demonstrated their substantial potential for application with multiple paradigmatic examples uncovering new features.

  10. Transient osteoporosis: Not just the hip to worry about

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Berman, MD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Transient osteoporosis (TO is a clinical syndrome characterized by joint pain and the presence of bone marrow edema on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, both of which spontaneously resolve over time. Transient osteoporosis most commonly affects the hip, but also may involve other lower extremity sites. TO likely represents a disorder that may be monoarticular or “migratory” with involvement of two or more lower extremity sites sequentially affected over a number of months. We report on two cases of transient osteoporosis, one involving the knee and one involving the hip, demonstrating the utility of serial bone mineral density measurements at both sites. Additionally, we are able to report on the microarchitectural changes seen at the distal femur on ultra-high resolution (7 T MRI. Case #1 describes a recurrence of transient osteoporosis of the hip three years after a similar presentation at the contralateral hip and highlights the findings of rapidly changing bone mineral density in this clinical syndrome. In contrast to the spine, hip and forearm, peripheral bone density measurements at the knee are rarely reported and to our knowledge Case #2 represents the first report of transient osteoporosis of the knee demonstrating bone density findings similar to that seen in the hip. We postulate that transient osteoporosis of the knee is part of a clinical spectrum most commonly seen in the hip and one that is marked by lower extremity joint pain, bone marrow edema on MRI and transient decreases in bone mineral density all of which spontaneously resolve without sequelae. Keywords: Transient osteoporosis, Transient osteoporosis of the hip, Transient osteoporosis of the knee, Bone marrow edema, High resolution 7 T MRI

  11. Fuel-pin cladding transient failure strain criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bard, F.E.; Duncan, D.R.; Hunter, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    A criterion for cladding failure based on accumulated strain was developed for mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuel pins and used to interpret the calculated strain results from failed transient fuel pin experiments conducted in the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility. The new STRAIN criterion replaced a stress-based criterion that depends on the DORN parameter and that incorrectly predicted fuel pin failure for transient tested fuel pins. This paper describes the STRAIN criterion and compares its prediction with those of the stress-based criterion

  12. Relationship between mediation analysis and the structured life course approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Laura D; Smith, Andrew D; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Anderson, Emma L; Galobardes, Bruna; Lawlor, Debbie A; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Hardy, Rebecca; Cooper, Rachel; Tilling, Kate; Fraser, Abigail

    2016-08-01

    Many questions in life course epidemiology involve mediation and/or interaction because of the long latency period between exposures and outcomes. In this paper, we explore how mediation analysis (based on counterfactual theory and implemented using conventional regression approaches) links with a structured approach to selecting life course hypotheses. Using theory and simulated data, we show how the alternative life course hypotheses assessed in the structured life course approach correspond to different combinations of mediation and interaction parameters. For example, an early life critical period model corresponds to a direct effect of the early life exposure, but no indirect effect via the mediator and no interaction between the early life exposure and the mediator. We also compare these methods using an illustrative real-data example using data on parental occupational social class (early life exposure), own adult occupational social class (mediator) and physical capability (outcome). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  13. BID links ferroptosis to mitochondrial cell death pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitemeier, Sandra; Jelinek, Anja; Laino, Vincenzo; Hoffmann, Lena; Eisenbach, Ina; Eying, Roman; Ganjam, Goutham K; Dolga, Amalia M; Oppermann, Sina; Culmsee, Carsten

    2017-08-01

    Ferroptosis has been defined as an oxidative and iron-dependent pathway of regulated cell death that is distinct from caspase-dependent apoptosis and established pathways of death receptor-mediated regulated necrosis. While emerging evidence linked features of ferroptosis induced e.g. by erastin-mediated inhibition of the X c - system or inhibition of glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) to an increasing number of oxidative cell death paradigms in cancer cells, neurons or kidney cells, the biochemical pathways of oxidative cell death remained largely unclear. In particular, the role of mitochondrial damage in paradigms of ferroptosis needs further investigation. In the present study, we find that erastin-induced ferroptosis in neuronal cells was accompanied by BID transactivation to mitochondria, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced mitochondrial fragmentation and reduced ATP levels. These hallmarks of mitochondrial demise are also established features of oxytosis, a paradigm of cell death induced by X c - inhibition by millimolar concentrations of glutamate. Bid knockout using CRISPR/Cas9 approaches preserved mitochondrial integrity and function, and mediated neuroprotective effects against both, ferroptosis and oxytosis. Furthermore, the BID-inhibitor BI-6c9 inhibited erastin-induced ferroptosis, and, in turn, the ferroptosis inhibitors ferrostatin-1 and liproxstatin-1 prevented mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in the paradigm of oxytosis. These findings show that mitochondrial transactivation of BID links ferroptosis to mitochondrial damage as the final execution step in this paradigm of oxidative cell death. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An UPF3-based nonsense-mediated decay in Paramecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Julia; Begley, Victoria; Macias, Sandra; Villalobo, Eduardo

    2014-12-01

    Nonsense-mediated decay recognises mRNAs containing premature termination codons. One of its components, UPF3, is a molecular link bridging through its binding to the exon junction complex nonsense-mediated decay and splicing. In protists UPF3 has not been identified yet. We report that Paramecium tetraurelia bears an UPF3 gene and that it has a role in nonsense-mediated decay. Interestingly, the identified UPF3 has not conserved the essential amino acids required to bind the exon junction complex. Though, our data indicates that this ciliate bears genes coding for core proteins of the exon junction complex. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Self-assembled nanogaps via seed-mediated growth of end-to-end linked gold nanorods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Titoo; Westerlund, Axel Rune Fredrik; Johnson, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Gold nanorods (AuNRs) are of interest for a wide range of applications, ranging from imaging to molecular electronics, and they have been studied extensively for the past decade. An important issue in AuNR applications is the ability to self-assemble the rods in predictable structures...... on the nanoscale. We here present a new way to end-to-end link AuNRs with a single or few linker molecules. Whereas methods reported in the literature so far rely on modification of the AuNRs after the synthesis, we here dimerize gold nanoparticle seeds with a water-soluble dithiol-functionalized polyethylene...... that a large fraction of the rods are flexible around the hinging molecule in solution, as expected for a molecularly linked nanogap. By using excess of gold nanoparticles relative to the linking dithiol molecule, this method can provide a high probability that a single molecule is connecting the two rods...

  16. Transient hardened power FETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawes, W.R. Jr.; Fischer, T.A.; Huang, C.C.C.; Meyer, W.J.; Smith, C.S.; Blanchard, R.A.; Fortier, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    N-channel power FETs offer significant advantages in power conditioning circuits. Similiarily to all MOS technologies, power FET devices are vulnerable to ionizing radiation, and are particularily susceptible to burn-out in high dose rate irradiations (>1E10 rads(Si)/sec.), which precludes their use in many military environments. This paper will summarize the physical mechanisms responsible for burn-out, and discuss various fabrication techniques designed to improve the transient hardness of power FETs. Power FET devices were fabricated with several of these techniques, and data will be presented which demonstrates that transient hardness levels in excess of 1E12 rads(Si)/sec. are easily achievable

  17. Efficient production of antibody Fab fragment by transient gene expression in insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Keita; Hamada, Hirotsugu; Ogawa, Takafumi; Ohmuro-Matsuyama, Yuki; Katsuda, Tomohisa; Yamaji, Hideki

    2017-08-01

    Transient gene expression allows a rapid production of diverse recombinant proteins in early-stage preclinical and clinical developments of biologics. Insect cells have proven to be an excellent platform for the production of functional recombinant proteins. In the present study, the production of an antibody Fab fragment by transient gene expression in lepidopteran insect cells was investigated. The DNA fragments encoding heavy-chain (Hc; Fd fragment) and light-chain (Lc) genes of an Fab fragment were individually cloned into the plasmid vector pIHAneo, which contained the Bombyx mori actin promoter downstream of the B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) IE-1 transactivator and the BmNPV HR3 enhancer for high-level expression. Trichoplusia ni BTI-TN-5B1-4 (High Five) cells were co-transfected with the resultant plasmid vectors using linear polyethyleneimine. When the transfection efficiency was evaluated, a plasmid vector encoding an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene was also co-transfected. Transfection and culture conditions were optimized based on both the flow cytometry of the EGFP expression in transfected cells and the yield of the secreted Fab fragments determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Under optimal conditions, a yield of approximately 120 mg/L of Fab fragments was achieved in 5 days in a shake-flask culture. Transient gene expression in insect cells may offer a promising approach to the high-throughput production of recombinant proteins. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Bias and Bias Correction in Multisite Instrumental Variables Analysis of Heterogeneous Mediator Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Sean F.; Unlu, Fatih; Zhu, Pei; Bloom, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the use of instrumental variables (IV) analysis with a multisite randomized trial to estimate the effect of a mediating variable on an outcome in cases where it can be assumed that the observed mediator is the only mechanism linking treatment assignment to outcomes, an assumption known in the IV literature as the exclusion restriction.…

  19. Four RNA families with functional transient structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing Yun A; Meyer, Irmtraud M

    2015-01-01

    Protein-coding and non-coding RNA transcripts perform a wide variety of cellular functions in diverse organisms. Several of their functional roles are expressed and modulated via RNA structure. A given transcript, however, can have more than a single functional RNA structure throughout its life, a fact which has been previously overlooked. Transient RNA structures, for example, are only present during specific time intervals and cellular conditions. We here introduce four RNA families with transient RNA structures that play distinct and diverse functional roles. Moreover, we show that these transient RNA structures are structurally well-defined and evolutionarily conserved. Since Rfam annotates one structure for each family, there is either no annotation for these transient structures or no such family. Thus, our alignments either significantly update and extend the existing Rfam families or introduce a new RNA family to Rfam. For each of the four RNA families, we compile a multiple-sequence alignment based on experimentally verified transient and dominant (dominant in terms of either the thermodynamic stability and/or attention received so far) RNA secondary structures using a combination of automated search via covariance model and manual curation. The first alignment is the Trp operon leader which regulates the operon transcription in response to tryptophan abundance through alternative structures. The second alignment is the HDV ribozyme which we extend to the 5' flanking sequence. This flanking sequence is involved in the regulation of the transcript's self-cleavage activity. The third alignment is the 5' UTR of the maturation protein from Levivirus which contains a transient structure that temporarily postpones the formation of the final inhibitory structure to allow translation of maturation protein. The fourth and last alignment is the SAM riboswitch which regulates the downstream gene expression by assuming alternative structures upon binding of SAM. All

  20. Parental rearing style: examining for links with personality vulnerability factors for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G

    1993-07-01

    Recent research provides evidence of links between anomalous parenting experiences in childhood and subsequent depression. A study was designed to pursue the possibility that anomalous parenting effects a diathesis to depression by inducing a vulnerable cognitive style rather than by disposing directly to depression. Possible mediating personality style variables were explored in a study of 123 depressed subjects who scored their parents on the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), as well as completing a state depression and several relevant personality measures. Low self-esteem and a related dysfunction cognitive style were the personality variables most clearly linked with PBI scores, with links persisting after partialling out state levels of depression. Failure to find links between PBI scores and depression levels limited explication of the diathesis stress model.

  1. Are interplanetary magnetic clouds manifestations of coronal transients at 1 AU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.M.; Hildner, E.

    1984-01-01

    Using proxy data for the occurrence of those mass ejections from the solar corona which are directed earthward, we investigate the association between the post-1970 interplanetary magnetic clouds of Klein and Burlaga (1982) and coronal mass ejections. The evidence linking magnetic clouds following shocks with coronal mass ejections is striking; six of nine clouds observed at Earth were preceded an appropriate time earlier by meter-wave type II radio bursts indicative of coronal shock waves and coronal mass ejections occurring near central meridian. During the selected control periods when no clouds were detected near Earth, the only type II bursts reported were associated with solar activity near the limbs. Where the proxy solar data to be sought are not so clearly suggested, that is, for clouds preceding interaction regions and clouds within cold magnetic enhancements, the evidence linking the clouds and coronal mass ejections is not as clear; proxy data usually suggest many candidate mass-ejection events for each cloud. Overall, the data are consistent with and support the hypothesis suggested by Klein and Burlaga that magnetic clouds observed with spacecraft at 1 AU are manifestations of solar coronal mass ejection transients. (orig.)

  2. AAV-Mediated Gene Targeting Is Significantly Enhanced by Transient Inhibition of Nonhomologous End Joining or the Proteasome In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulk, Nicole K.; Loza, Laura Marquez; Finegold, Milton J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors have clear potential for use in gene targeting but low correction efficiencies remain the primary drawback. One approach to enhancing efficiency is a block of undesired repair pathways like nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) to promote the use of homologous recombination. The natural product vanillin acts as a potent inhibitor of NHEJ by inhibiting DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). Using a homology containing rAAV vector, we previously demonstrated in vivo gene repair frequencies of up to 0.1% in a model of liver disease hereditary tyrosinemia type I. To increase targeting frequencies, we administered vanillin in combination with rAAV. Gene targeting frequencies increased up to 10-fold over AAV alone, approaching 1%. Fah−/−Ku70−/− double knockout mice also had increased gene repair frequencies, genetically confirming the beneficial effects of blocking NHEJ. A second strategy, transient proteasomal inhibition, also increased gene-targeting frequencies but was not additive to NHEJ inhibition. This study establishes the benefit of transient NHEJ inhibition with vanillin, or proteasome blockage with bortezomib, for increasing hepatic gene targeting with rAAV. Functional metabolic correction of a clinically relevant disease model was demonstrated and provided evidence for the feasibility of gene targeting as a therapeutic strategy. PMID:22486314

  3. Switching transients in a superconducting coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, E.W.; Shimer, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    A study is made of the transients caused by the fast dump of large superconducting coils. Theoretical analysis, computer simulation, and actual measurements are used. Theoretical analysis can only be applied to the simplest of models. In the computer simulations two models are used, one in which the coil is divided into ten segments and another in which a single coil is employed. The circuit breaker that interrupts the current to the power supply, causing a fast dump, is represented by a time and current dependent conductance. Actual measurements are limited to measurements made incidental to performance tests on the MFTF Yin-yang coils. It is found that the breaker opening time is the critical factor in determining the size and shape of the transient. Instantaneous opening of the breaker causes a lightly damped transient with large amplitude voltages to ground. Increasing the opening time causes the transient to become a monopulse of decreasing amplitude. The voltages at the external terminals are determined by the parameters of the external circuit. For fast opening times the frequency depends on the dump resistor inductance, the circuit capacitance, and the amplitude on the coil current. For slower openings the dump resistor inductance and the current determine the amplitude of the voltage to ground at the terminals. Voltages to ground are less in the interior of the coil, where transients related to the parameters of the coil itself are observed

  4. Congestion management enhancing transient stability of power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaili, Masoud; Shayanfar, Heidar Ali; Amjady, Nima

    2010-01-01

    In a competitive electricity market, where market parties try to maximize their profits, it is necessary to keep an acceptable level of power system security to retain the continuity of electricity services to customers at a reasonable cost. Congestion in a power system is turned up due to network limits. After relieving congestion, the network may be operated with a reduced transient stability margin because of increasing the contribution of risky participants. In this paper, a novel congestion management method based on a new transient stability criterion is introduced. Using the sensitivity of corrected transient stability margin with respect to generations and demands, the proposed method so alleviates the congestion that the network can more retain its transient security compared with earlier methods. The proposed transient stability index is constructed considering the likelihood of credible faults. Indeed, market parties participate by their security-effective bids rather than raw bids. Results of testing the proposed method along with the earlier ones on the New-England test system elaborate the efficiency of the proposed method from the viewpoint of providing a better transient stability margin with a lower security cost. (author)

  5. Exploring the link between clinical managers involvement in budgeting and performance: Insights from the Italian public health care sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macinati, Manuela S; Rizzo, Marco G

    2016-01-01

    The public health care sector has had an increase in initiatives, mostly inspired by New Public Management principles, aimed at assigning financial accountability to clinical managers. However, clinical managers might experience a scarce alignment between professional values and organizational requirements, which is a potentially important phenomena that may result in negative consequences on clinical managers' job performance. Building on Psychological Ownership Theory and adopting a psychology-based management accounting research approach, we focus on the managerial (nonmedical) role the clinical manager fulfills and explore the budgetary participation-performance link via the indirect effects of job-based psychological ownership, role clarity, and clinical managers' affective commitment toward managerial roles. The data were collected by a survey conducted in an Italian hospital. The research hypotheses were tested employing a path model. Our study revealed new insights that shed some light on underexplored processes through which mental states mediate the participation-performance link. Among these latter, the findings demonstrate that (a) budgetary participation has a direct effect on job-based psychological ownership; (b) role clarity mediates participation- and job-based psychological ownership link; (c) role clarity and job-based psychological ownership partially mediate the participation-commitment link; and (d) job-based psychological ownership, role clarity, and commitment fully mediate the participation-performance link. From a managerial viewpoint, an understanding of how clinical managers' feelings of ownership toward managerial roles could be enhanced is imperative in health care because ownership accounts for important attitudinal and organizational consequences. Results suggest that health care organizations that invest in budgetary participation will directly and indirectly affect clinical managers' psychological ownership, and this, along with

  6. Transient formation of forbidden lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosmej, F.B.; Rosmej, O.N.

    1996-01-01

    An explanation of anomalously long time scales in the transient formation of forbidden lines is proposed. The concept is based on a collisionally induced density dependence of the relaxation times of metastable level populations in transient plasma. Generalization leads to an incorporation of diffusion phenomena. We demonstrate this new concept for the simplest atomic system: the He-like isoelectronic sequence. A new interpretation of the observed long duration and anomalously high intensity of spin-forbidden emission in hot plasmas is given. (author)

  7. Transient formation of forbidden lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosmej, F.B. [Bochum Univ., Ruhr (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik V; Rosmej, O.N. [VNIIFTRI, Moscow Region (Russian Federation). MISDC

    1996-05-14

    An explanation of anomalously long time scales in the transient formation of forbidden lines is proposed. The concept is based on a collisionally induced density dependence of the relaxation times of metastable level populations in transient plasma. Generalization leads to an incorporation of diffusion phenomena. We demonstrate this new concept for the simplest atomic system: the He-like isoelectronic sequence. A new interpretation of the observed long duration and anomalously high intensity of spin-forbidden emission in hot plasmas is given. (author).

  8. Transient Heat Conduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    Analytical theory of transient heat conduction.Fourier's law. General heat conducation equation. Thermal diffusivity. Biot and Fourier numbers. Lumped analysis and time constant. Semi-infinite body: fixed surface temperature, convective heat transfer at the surface, or constant surface heat flux...

  9. EBR-II high-ramp transients under computer control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrester, R.J.; Larson, H.A.; Christensen, L.J.; Booty, W.F.; Dean, E.M.

    1983-01-01

    During reactor run 122, EBR-II was subjected to 13 computer-controlled overpower transients at ramps of 4 MWt/s to qualify the facility and fuel for transient testing of LMFBR oxide fuels as part of the EBR-II operational-reliability-testing (ORT) program. A computer-controlled automatic control-rod drive system (ACRDS), designed by EBR-II personnel, permitted automatic control on demand power during the transients

  10. Spontaneous Ca2+ transients in interstitial cells of Cajal located within the deep muscular plexus of the murine small intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Salah A.; Drumm, Bernard T.; Saur, Dieter; Hennig, Grant W.; Ward, Sean M.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Interstitial cells of Cajal at the level of the deep muscular plexus (ICC‐DMP) in the small intestine generate spontaneous Ca2+ transients that consist of localized Ca2+ events and limited propagating Ca2+ waves.Ca2+ transients in ICC‐DMP display variable characteristics: from discrete, highly localized Ca2+ transients to regionalized Ca2+ waves with variable rates of occurrence, amplitude, duration and spatial spread.Ca2+ transients fired stochastically, with no cellular or multicellular rhythmic activity being observed. No correlation was found between the firing sites in adjacent cells.Ca2+ transients in ICC‐DMP are suppressed by the ongoing release of inhibitory neurotransmitter(s).Functional intracellular Ca2+ stores are essential for spontaneous Ca2+ transients, and the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+‐ATPase (SERCA) pump is necessary for maintenance of spontaneity.Ca2+ release mechanisms involve both ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inositol triphosphate receptors (InsP3Rs). Release from these channels is interdependent.ICC express transcripts of multiple RyRs and InsP3Rs, with Itpr1 and Ryr2 subtypes displaying the highest expression. Abstract Interstitial cells of Cajal in the deep muscular plexus of the small intestine (ICC‐DMP) are closely associated with varicosities of enteric motor neurons and generate responses contributing to neural regulation of intestinal motility. Responses of ICC‐DMP are mediated by activation of Ca2+‐activated Cl− channels; thus, Ca2+ signalling is central to the behaviours of these cells. Confocal imaging was used to characterize the nature and mechanisms of Ca2+ transients in ICC‐DMP within intact jejunal muscles expressing a genetically encoded Ca2+ indicator (GCaMP3) selectively in ICC. ICC‐DMP displayed spontaneous Ca2+ transients that ranged from discrete, localized events to waves that propagated over variable distances. The occurrence of Ca2+ transients was highly variable, and it was

  11. Spontaneous Ca(2+) transients in interstitial cells of Cajal located within the deep muscular plexus of the murine small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Salah A; Drumm, Bernard T; Saur, Dieter; Hennig, Grant W; Ward, Sean M; Sanders, Kenton M

    2016-06-15

    Interstitial cells of Cajal at the level of the deep muscular plexus (ICC-DMP) in the small intestine generate spontaneous Ca(2+) transients that consist of localized Ca(2+) events and limited propagating Ca(2+) waves. Ca(2+) transients in ICC-DMP display variable characteristics: from discrete, highly localized Ca(2+) transients to regionalized Ca(2+) waves with variable rates of occurrence, amplitude, duration and spatial spread. Ca(2+) transients fired stochastically, with no cellular or multicellular rhythmic activity being observed. No correlation was found between the firing sites in adjacent cells. Ca(2+) transients in ICC-DMP are suppressed by the ongoing release of inhibitory neurotransmitter(s). Functional intracellular Ca(2+) stores are essential for spontaneous Ca(2+) transients, and the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) -ATPase (SERCA) pump is necessary for maintenance of spontaneity. Ca(2+) release mechanisms involve both ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inositol triphosphate receptors (InsP3 Rs). Release from these channels is interdependent. ICC express transcripts of multiple RyRs and InsP3 Rs, with Itpr1 and Ryr2 subtypes displaying the highest expression. Interstitial cells of Cajal in the deep muscular plexus of the small intestine (ICC-DMP) are closely associated with varicosities of enteric motor neurons and generate responses contributing to neural regulation of intestinal motility. Responses of ICC-DMP are mediated by activation of Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) channels; thus, Ca(2+) signalling is central to the behaviours of these cells. Confocal imaging was used to characterize the nature and mechanisms of Ca(2+) transients in ICC-DMP within intact jejunal muscles expressing a genetically encoded Ca(2+) indicator (GCaMP3) selectively in ICC. ICC-DMP displayed spontaneous Ca(2+) transients that ranged from discrete, localized events to waves that propagated over variable distances. The occurrence of Ca(2+) transients was highly variable, and it

  12. BAX channel activity mediates lysosomal disruption linked to Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bové, Jordi; Martínez-Vicente, Marta; Dehay, Benjamin; Perier, Celine; Recasens, Ariadna; Bombrun, Agnes; Antonsson, Bruno; Vila, Miquel

    2014-05-01

    Lysosomal disruption is increasingly regarded as a major pathogenic event in Parkinson disease (PD). A reduced number of intraneuronal lysosomes, decreased levels of lysosomal-associated proteins and accumulation of undegraded autophagosomes (AP) are observed in PD-derived samples, including fibroblasts, induced pluripotent stem cell-derived dopaminergic neurons, and post-mortem brain tissue. Mechanistic studies in toxic and genetic rodent PD models attribute PD-related lysosomal breakdown to abnormal lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying PD-linked LMP and subsequent lysosomal defects remain virtually unknown, thereby precluding their potential therapeutic targeting. Here we show that the pro-apoptotic protein BAX (BCL2-associated X protein), which permeabilizes mitochondrial membranes in PD models and is activated in PD patients, translocates and internalizes into lysosomal membranes early following treatment with the parkinsonian neurotoxin MPTP, both in vitro and in vivo, within a time-frame correlating with LMP, lysosomal disruption, and autophagosome accumulation and preceding mitochondrial permeabilization and dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Supporting a direct permeabilizing effect of BAX on lysosomal membranes, recombinant BAX is able to induce LMP in purified mouse brain lysosomes and the latter can be prevented by pharmacological blockade of BAX channel activity. Furthermore, pharmacological BAX channel inhibition is able to prevent LMP, restore lysosomal levels, reverse AP accumulation, and attenuate mitochondrial permeabilization and overall nigrostriatal degeneration caused by MPTP, both in vitro and in vivo. Overall, our results reveal that PD-linked lysosomal impairment relies on BAX-induced LMP, and point to small molecules able to block BAX channel activity as potentially beneficial to attenuate both lysosomal defects and neurodegeneration occurring in PD.

  13. Mediation of the bidirectional relations between obesity and depression among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittengl, Jeffrey R

    2018-06-01

    Past research established that obesity increases risk for development of depression, and depression increases risk for development of obesity. The current study tested physical impairment (difficulty with instrumental activities of daily living), social dysfunction (low social support and high social strain), and emotional eating (using food to cope with stress) as mediators of the bidirectional, longitudinal relations between depression and obesity. A national sample of mid-life adults in the United States (N = 7108) was assessed at three time points over 18 years. Depression predicted increases in obesity, and obesity predicted increases in depression, for women but not for men. Among women, path analyses revealed that physical impairment, social dysfunction, and emotional eating mediated development of obesity from depression, and that physical impairment and emotional eating mediated development of depression from obesity. These results suggest that prevention or treatment of obesity-linked depression and depression-linked obesity in women may need to address multiple connections between these disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychosocial mechanisms linking the social environment to mental health in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African Amer...

  15. Plasma transport studies using transient techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonen, T.C.; Brower, D.L.; Efthimion, P.

    1991-01-01

    Selected topics from the Transient Transport sessions of the Transport Task Force Workshop, held February 19-23, 1990, in Hilton Head, South Carolina are summarized. Presentations on sawtooth propagation, ECH modulation, particle modulation, and H-mode transitions are included. The research results presented indicated a growing theoretical understanding and experimental sophistication in the application of transient techniques to transport studies. (Author)

  16. MR imaging of transient synovitis: differentiation from septic arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.J.; Im, S.A.; Lim, G.Y.; Chun, H.J.; Jung, N.Y.; Sung, M.S.; Choi, B.G.

    2006-01-01

    Transient synovitis is the most common cause of acute hip pain in children. However, MR imaging findings in transient synovitis and the role of MR imaging in differentiating transient synovitis from septic arthritis have not been fully reported. To describe the MR findings of transient synovitis and to determine whether the MR characteristics can differentiate this disease entity from septic arthritis. Clinical findings and MR images of 49 patients with transient synovitis (male/female 36/13, mean age 6.1 years) and 18 patients with septic arthritis (male/female 10/8, mean age 4.9 years) were retrospectively reviewed. MR findings of transient synovitis were symptomatic joint effusion, synovial enhancement, contralateral joint effusion, synovial thickening, and signal intensity (SI) alterations and enhancement in surrounding soft tissue. Among these, SI alterations and enhancement in bone marrow and soft tissue, contralateral joint effusion, and synovial thickening were statistically significant MR findings in differentiating transient synovitis from septic arthritis. The statistically significant MR findings in transient synovitis are contralateral (asymptomatic) joint effusions and the absence of SI abnormalities of the bone marrow. It is less common to have SI alterations and contrast enhancement of the soft tissues. The statistically significant MR findings in septic arthritis are SI alterations of the bone marrow, and SI alterations and contrast enhancement of the soft tissue. Ipsilateral effusion and synovial thickening and enhancement are present in both diseases

  17. Mood instability as a precursor to depressive illness: A prospective and mediational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, Steven; Balbuena, Lloyd; Winsper, Catherine; Bowen, Rudy

    2015-06-01

    Mood instability levels are high in depression, but temporal precedence and potential mechanisms are unknown. Hypotheses tested were as follows: (1) mood instability is associated with depression cross-sectionally, (2) mood instability predicts new onset and maintenance of depression prospectively and (3) the mood instability and depression link are mediated by sleep problems, alcohol abuse and life events. Data from the National Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2000 at baseline (N = 8580) and 18-month follow-up (N = 2413) were used. Regression modeling controlling for socio-demographic factors, anxiety and hypomanic mood was conducted. Multiple mediational analyses were used to test our conceptual path model. Mood instability was associated with depression cross-sectionally (odds ratio: 5.28; 95% confidence interval: [3.67, 7.59]; p depression inception (odds ratio: 2.43; 95% confidence interval: [1.03-5.76]; p = 0.042) after controlling for important confounders. Mood instability did not predict maintenance of depression. Sleep difficulties and severe problems with close friends and family significantly mediated the link between mood instability and new onset depression (23.05% and 6.19% of the link, respectively). Alcohol abuse and divorce were not important mediators in the model. Mood instability is a precursor of a depressive episode, predicting its onset. Difficulties in sleep are a significant part of the pathway. Interventions targeting mood instability and sleep problems have the potential to reduce the risk of depression. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  18. Helping yourself helps others: Linking children's emotion regulation to prosocial behavior through sympathy and trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ju-Hyun; Colasante, Tyler; Malti, Tina

    2018-06-01

    Although emotionally well-regulated children are more likely to behave prosocially, the psychological processes that connect their emotion regulation abilities and prosocial behavior are less clear. We tested if other-oriented sympathy and trust mediated the links between emotion regulation capacities (i.e., resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA], negative emotional intensity, and sadness regulation) and prosocial behavior in an ethnically diverse sample of 4- and 8-year-olds (N = 131; 49% girls). Resting RSA was calculated from children's electrocardiogram data in response to a nondescript video. Sympathy was child and caregiver reported, whereas negative emotional intensity, sadness regulation, trust, and prosocial behavior were caregiver reported. Regardless of age, higher resting RSA was linked to higher sympathy, which was associated with higher prosocial behavior. The positive link between sadness regulation and prosocial behavior was mediated by higher sympathy and trust. Children's other-oriented psychological processes may play important roles in translating certain emotion regulation capacities into prosocial behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Transient radiative transfer in a scattering slab considering polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hongliang; Ben, Xun; Tan, Heping

    2013-11-04

    The characteristics of the transient and polarization must be considered for a complete and correct description of short-pulse laser transfer in a scattering medium. A Monte Carlo (MC) method combined with a time shift and superposition principle is developed to simulate transient vector (polarized) radiative transfer in a scattering medium. The transient vector radiative transfer matrix (TVRTM) is defined to describe the transient polarization behavior of short-pulse laser propagating in the scattering medium. According to the definition of reflectivity, a new criterion of reflection at Fresnel surface is presented. In order to improve the computational efficiency and accuracy, a time shift and superposition principle is applied to the MC model for transient vector radiative transfer. The results for transient scalar radiative transfer and steady-state vector radiative transfer are compared with those in published literatures, respectively, and an excellent agreement between them is observed, which validates the correctness of the present model. Finally, transient radiative transfer is simulated considering the polarization effect of short-pulse laser in a scattering medium, and the distributions of Stokes vector in angular and temporal space are presented.

  20. Oncogenic exon 2 mutations in Mediator subunit MED12 disrupt allosteric activation of cyclin C-CDK8/19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min Ju; Shen, Hailian; Spaeth, Jason M; Tolvanen, Jaana H; Failor, Courtney; Knudtson, Jennifer F; McLaughlin, Jessica; Halder, Sunil K; Yang, Qiwei; Bulun, Serdar E; Al-Hendy, Ayman; Schenken, Robert S; Aaltonen, Lauri A; Boyer, Thomas G

    2018-03-30

    Somatic mutations in exon 2 of the RNA polymerase II transcriptional Mediator subunit MED12 occur at high frequency in uterine fibroids (UFs) and breast fibroepithelial tumors as well as recurrently, albeit less frequently, in malignant uterine leimyosarcomas, chronic lymphocytic leukemias, and colorectal cancers. Previously, we reported that UF-linked mutations in MED12 disrupt its ability to activate cyclin C (CycC)-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8) in Mediator, implicating impaired Mediator-associated CDK8 activity in the molecular pathogenesis of these clinically significant lesions. Notably, the CDK8 paralog CDK19 is also expressed in myometrium, and both CDK8 and CDK19 assemble into Mediator in a mutually exclusive manner, suggesting that CDK19 activity may also be germane to the pathogenesis of MED12 mutation-induced UFs. However, whether and how UF-linked mutations in MED12 affect CDK19 activation is unknown. Herein, we show that MED12 allosterically activates CDK19 and that UF-linked exon 2 mutations in MED12 disrupt its CDK19 stimulatory activity. Furthermore, we find that within the Mediator kinase module, MED13 directly binds to the MED12 C terminus, thereby suppressing an apparent UF mutation-induced conformational change in MED12 that otherwise disrupts its association with CycC-CDK8/19. Thus, in the presence of MED13, mutant MED12 can bind, but cannot activate, CycC-CDK8/19. These findings indicate that MED12 binding is necessary but not sufficient for CycC-CDK8/19 activation and reveal an additional step in the MED12-dependent activation process, one critically dependent on MED12 residues altered by UF-linked exon 2 mutations. These findings confirm that UF-linked mutations in MED12 disrupt composite Mediator-associated kinase activity and identify CDK8/19 as prospective therapeutic targets in UFs. © 2018 Park et al.

  1. Accelerating transient drainage from UMTRA Project tailings piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    The period between the completion of construction of the tailings disposal cell and the establishment of equilibrium moisture content and seepage conditions is considered to be the period of transient drainage. Transient drainage may be due to factors such as construction water, precipitation, or residual water from the milling process. Transient seepage rates usually exceed steady state seepage rates. If the transient seepage rate causes contaminant levels to exceed groundwater compliance standards, then an alternative groundwater compliance strategy or technical approach to reduce or mitigate the effects of the drainage must be adopted. This study examines methods to accelerate the transient drainage of soils and hence to remove excess pore water from tailings in UMTRA Project disposal cells. The technical and economic feasibility of possible methods is examined. In order to perform comparative economical analyses of the various methods, an example tailings pile is postulated. This pile is considered to be 300 meters by 300 meters by 10 meters in thickness

  2. CosmoQuest Transient Tracker: Opensource Photometry & Astrometry software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Joseph L.; Lehan, Cory; Gay, Pamela; Richardson, Matthew; CosmoQuest Team

    2018-01-01

    CosmoQuest is moving from online citizen science, to observational astronomy with the creation of Transient Trackers. This open source software is designed to identify asteroids and other transient/variable objects in image sets. Transient Tracker’s features in final form will include: astrometric and photometric solutions, identification of moving/transient objects, identification of variable objects, and lightcurve analysis. In this poster we present our initial, v0.1 release and seek community input.This software builds on the existing NIH funded ImageJ libraries. Creation of this suite of opensource image manipulation routines is lead by Wayne Rasband and is released primarily under the MIT license. In this release, we are building on these libraries to add source identification for point / point-like sources, and to do astrometry. Our materials released under the Apache 2.0 license on github (http://github.com/CosmoQuestTeam) and documentation can be found at http://cosmoquest.org/TransientTracker.

  3. Understanding Epileptiform After-Discharges as Rhythmic Oscillatory Transients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Gerold; Taylor, Peter N; Wang, Yujiang

    2017-01-01

    Electro-cortical activity in patients with epilepsy may show abnormal rhythmic transients in response to stimulation. Even when using the same stimulation parameters in the same patient, wide variability in the duration of transient response has been reported. These transients have long been considered important for the mapping of the excitability levels in the epileptic brain but their dynamic mechanism is still not well understood. To investigate the occurrence of abnormal transients dynamically, we use a thalamo-cortical neural population model of epileptic spike-wave activity and study the interaction between slow and fast subsystems. In a reduced version of the thalamo-cortical model, slow wave oscillations arise from a fold of cycles (FoC) bifurcation. This marks the onset of a region of bistability between a high amplitude oscillatory rhythm and the background state. In vicinity of the bistability in parameter space, the model has excitable dynamics, showing prolonged rhythmic transients in response to suprathreshold pulse stimulation. We analyse the state space geometry of the bistable and excitable states, and find that the rhythmic transient arises when the impending FoC bifurcation deforms the state space and creates an area of locally reduced attraction to the fixed point. This area essentially allows trajectories to dwell there before escaping to the stable steady state, thus creating rhythmic transients. In the full thalamo-cortical model, we find a similar FoC bifurcation structure. Based on the analysis, we propose an explanation of why stimulation induced epileptiform activity may vary between trials, and predict how the variability could be related to ongoing oscillatory background activity. We compare our dynamic mechanism with other mechanisms (such as a slow parameter change) to generate excitable transients, and we discuss the proposed excitability mechanism in the context of stimulation responses in the epileptic cortex.

  4. Analytical Assessment for Transient Stability Under Stochastic Continuous Disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Ping [Hohai Univ., Nanjing (China); Li, Hongyu [Hohai Univ., Nanjing (China); Gan, Chun [The Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Liu, Yong [The Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Yu, Yiping [Hohai Univ., Nanjing (China); Liu, Yilu [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2017-06-28

    Here, with the growing integration of renewable power generation, plug-in electric vehicles, and other sources of uncertainty, increasing stochastic continuous disturbances are brought to power systems. The impact of stochastic continuous disturbances on power system transient stability attracts significant attention. To address this problem, this paper proposes an analytical assessment method for transient stability of multi-machine power systems under stochastic continuous disturbances. In the proposed method, a probability measure of transient stability is presented and analytically solved by stochastic averaging. Compared with the conventional method (Monte Carlo simulation), the proposed method is many orders of magnitude faster, which makes it very attractive in practice when many plans for transient stability must be compared or when transient stability must be analyzed quickly. Also, it is found that the evolution of system energy over time is almost a simple diffusion process by the proposed method, which explains the impact mechanism of stochastic continuous disturbances on transient stability in theory.

  5. Diagnosing transient plasma status: from solar atmosphere to tokamak divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giunta, A.S.; Henderson, S.; O'Mullane, M.; Summers, H.P.; Harrison, J.; Doyle, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    This work strongly exploits the interdisciplinary links between astrophysical (such as the solar upper atmosphere) and laboratory plasmas (such as tokamak devices) by sharing the development of a common modelling for time-dependent ionisation. This is applied to the interpretation of solar flare data observed by the UVSP (Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter), on-board the Solar Maximum Mission and the IRIS (Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph), and also to data from B2-SOLPS (Scrape Off Layer Plasma Simulations) for MAST (Mega Ampère Spherical Tokamak) Super-X divertor upgrade. The derived atomic data, calculated in the framework of the ADAS (Atomic Data and Analysis Structure) project, allow equivalent prediction in non-stationary transport regimes and transients of both the solar atmosphere and tokamak divertors, except that the tokamak evolution is about one thousand times faster.

  6. Analysis of the FFTF primary pipe rupture transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, K.R.; Bari, R.A.; Chen, L.C.; Albright, D.C.

    1979-01-01

    The response of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) to hypothetical ruptures of the high pressure primary piping has been analyzed using two LMFBR plant systems codes, namely IANUS and DEMO. Comparisons of the average channel temperatures predicted by the two codes show good agreement for identical transients. However, the hot channel temperatures predicted by DEMO are about 60K higher than the corresponding IANUS predictions for severe transients. This difference is attributed to the dynamic hot channel factors employed in DEMO which discount the thermal inertia of the duct walls for rapid transients. DEMO also predicts more severe transients for hot-leg ruptures in FFTF than previously reported analyses for the CRBR

  7. A new transiently chaotic flow with ellipsoid equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Shirin; Aram, Zainab; Jafari, Sajad; Pham, Viet-Thanh; Volos, Christos; Rajagopal, Karthikeyan

    2018-03-01

    In this article, a simple autonomous transiently chaotic flow with cubic nonlinearities is proposed. This system represents some unusual features such as having a surface of equilibria. We shall describe some dynamical properties and behaviours of this system in terms of eigenvalue structures, bifurcation diagrams, time series, and phase portraits. Various behaviours of this system such as periodic and transiently chaotic dynamics can be shown by setting special parameters in proper values. Our system belongs to a newly introduced category of transiently chaotic systems: systems with hidden attractors. Transiently chaotic behaviour of our proposed system has been implemented and tested by the OrCAD-PSpise software. We have found a proper qualitative similarity between circuit and simulation results.

  8. Transient receptor potential channels in essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Daoyan; Scholze, Alexandra; Zhu, Zhiming

    2006-01-01

    The role of nonselective cation channels of the transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) family in essential hypertension has not yet been investigated.......The role of nonselective cation channels of the transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) family in essential hypertension has not yet been investigated....

  9. Transient Diagnosis and Prognosis for Secondary System in Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangjun Park

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the development of a transient monitoring system to detect the early stage of a transient, to identify the type of the transient scenario, and to inform an operator with the remaining time to turbine trip when there is no operator's relevant control. This study focused on the transients originating from a secondary system in nuclear power plants (NPPs, because the secondary system was recognized to be a more dominant factor to make unplanned turbine-generator trips which can ultimately result in reactor trips. In order to make the proposed methodology practical forward, all the transient scenarios registered in a simulator of a 1,000 MWe pressurized water reactor were archived in the transient pattern database. The transient patterns show plant behavior until turbine-generator trip when there is no operator's intervention. Meanwhile, the operating data periodically captured from a plant computer is compared with an individual transient pattern in the database and a highly matched section among the transient patterns enables isolation of the type of transient and prediction of the expected remaining time to trip. The transient pattern database consists of hundreds of variables, so it is difficult to speedily compare patterns and to draw a conclusion in a timely manner. The transient pattern database and the operating data are, therefore, converted into a smaller dimension using the principal component analysis (PCA. This paper describes the process of constructing the transient pattern database, dealing with principal components, and optimizing similarity measures.

  10. PC-Reactor-core transient simulation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, H.

    1989-10-01

    PC-REATOR, a reactor core transient simulation code has been developed for the real-time operator training on a IBM-PC microcomputer. The program presents capabilities for on-line exchange of the operating parameters during the transient simulation, by friendly keyboard instructions. The model is based on the point-kinetics approximation, with 2 delayed neutron percursors and up to 11 decay power generating groups. (author) [pt

  11. SPIRITS: Uncovering Unusual Infrared Transients with Spitzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Jencson, Jacob E.; Tinyanont, Samaporn; Cao, Yi; Cook, David; Bally, John; Masci, Frank; Armus, Lee; Cody, Ann Marie; Bond, Howard E.; Contreras, Carlos; Dykhoff, Devin A.; Amodeo, Samuel; Carlon, Robert L.; Cass, Alexander C.; Corgan, David T.; Faella, Joseph; Boyer, Martha; Cantiello, Matteo; Fox, Ori D.

    2017-01-01

    We present an ongoing, five-year systematic search for extragalactic infrared transients, dubbed SPIRITS—SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey. In the first year, using Spitzer /IRAC, we searched 190 nearby galaxies with cadence baselines of one month and six months. We discovered over 1958 variables and 43 transients. Here, we describe the survey design and highlight 14 unusual infrared transients with no optical counterparts to deep limits, which we refer to as SPRITEs (eSPecially Red Intermediate-luminosity Transient Events). SPRITEs are in the infrared luminosity gap between novae and supernovae, with [4.5] absolute magnitudes between −11 and −14 (Vega-mag) and [3.6]–[4.5] colors between 0.3 mag and 1.6 mag. The photometric evolution of SPRITEs is diverse, ranging from <0.1 mag yr −1 to >7 mag yr −1 . SPRITEs occur in star-forming galaxies. We present an in-depth study of one of them, SPIRITS 14ajc in Messier 83, which shows shock-excited molecular hydrogen emission. This shock may have been triggered by the dynamic decay of a non-hierarchical system of massive stars that led to either the formation of a binary or a protostellar merger.

  12. SPIRITS: Uncovering Unusual Infrared Transients with Spitzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Jencson, Jacob E.; Tinyanont, Samaporn; Cao, Yi; Cook, David [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bally, John [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Masci, Frank; Armus, Lee [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cody, Ann Marie [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Bond, Howard E. [Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Contreras, Carlos [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Dykhoff, Devin A.; Amodeo, Samuel; Carlon, Robert L.; Cass, Alexander C.; Corgan, David T.; Faella, Joseph [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S. E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Boyer, Martha [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MC 665, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Cantiello, Matteo [Center for Computational Astrophysics, Flatiron Institute, 162 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010 (United States); Fox, Ori D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2017-04-20

    We present an ongoing, five-year systematic search for extragalactic infrared transients, dubbed SPIRITS—SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey. In the first year, using Spitzer /IRAC, we searched 190 nearby galaxies with cadence baselines of one month and six months. We discovered over 1958 variables and 43 transients. Here, we describe the survey design and highlight 14 unusual infrared transients with no optical counterparts to deep limits, which we refer to as SPRITEs (eSPecially Red Intermediate-luminosity Transient Events). SPRITEs are in the infrared luminosity gap between novae and supernovae, with [4.5] absolute magnitudes between −11 and −14 (Vega-mag) and [3.6]–[4.5] colors between 0.3 mag and 1.6 mag. The photometric evolution of SPRITEs is diverse, ranging from <0.1 mag yr{sup −1} to >7 mag yr{sup −1}. SPRITEs occur in star-forming galaxies. We present an in-depth study of one of them, SPIRITS 14ajc in Messier 83, which shows shock-excited molecular hydrogen emission. This shock may have been triggered by the dynamic decay of a non-hierarchical system of massive stars that led to either the formation of a binary or a protostellar merger.

  13. State of the art of CATHARE model for transient safety analysis of ASTRID SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavastre, R.; Conti, A.; Marsault, Ph.; Chenaud, M.S.; Tosello, A.

    2014-01-01

    Within the framework of the ASTRID project (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration), the conceptual design studies are being conducted in accordance with the GEN IV reactor objectives, particularly in terms of improving safety. This involves enhancing the general design in order to : - increase the safety margins for all unprotected-loss-of-flow (ULOF) and unprotected-loss-of-heat-sink (ULOHS) transients, - identify the need for additional safety devices that would complement core natural behavior so that temperature criteria on coolant, core and primary circuit structures can remain under the safety criteria. For this purpose, the use of CATHARE system code has been very important from the early stage of design in order to ensure a feedback for design teams to improve behavior during unprotected transients. Until 2012, CATHARE ULOxx transient calculations have been used mainly to compare different core designs. They contributed to lead to the choice of CFV core (axially heterogeneous core with an upper sodium plenum employed to achieve a negative sodium void reactivity worth). Meanwhile, models for an accurate core description and transients have been developed in CATHARE to improve the calculations towards best estimate calculations for safety analysis. This paper therefore presents these main developments in core modeling achieved for the 2 past years. For instance, we will focus on the way of dealing with fuel assemblies that have to be grouped together in the CATHARE code to form a channel with similar neutronic physics and thermal-hydraulics characteristics. We will also explain the way we deal with heterogeneity of fuel pin to obtain the accurate fuel temperature along the axis and to take into account pellet-cladding gap state. These two points have a great importance on feedback effects linked to the fuel, mainly the Doppler effect. The paper will finally introduce the upcoming improvements that are under development nowadays

  14. Review of HEDL fuel pin transient analyses analytical programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.H.; Baars, R.E.

    1975-05-01

    Methods for analysis of transient fuel pin performance are described, as represented by the steady-state SIEX code and the PECT series of codes used for steady-state and transient mechanical analyses. The empirical fuel failure correlation currently in use for analysis of transient overpower accidents is described. (U.S.)

  15. Transient analysis of multicavity klystrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavine, T.L.; Miller, R.H.; Morton, P.L.; Ruth, R.D.

    1988-09-01

    We describe a model for analytic analysis of transients in multicavity klystron output power and phase. Cavities are modeled as resonant circuits, while bunching of the beam is modeled using linear space-charge wave theory. Our analysis has been implemented in a computer program which we use in designing multicavity klystrons with stable output power and phase. We present as examples transient analysis of a relativistic klystron using a magnetic pulse compression modulator, and of a conventional klystron designed to use phase shifting techniques for RF pulse compression. 4 refs., 4 figs

  16. Effects of transients in LIGO suspensions on searches for gravitational waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, M; Abbott, T D; Aston, S M; González, G; Macleod, D M; McIver, J; Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Adams, C; Adhikari, R X; Anderson, S B; Ananyeva, A; Appert, S; Arai, K; Ballmer, S W; Barker, D; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Bartlett, J; Bartos, I; Batch, J C; Bell, A S; Betzwieser, J; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biscans, S; Biwer, C; Blair, C D; Bork, R; Brooks, A F; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Countryman, S T; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Danzmann, K; Da Silva Costa, C F; Daw, E J; DeBra, D; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Driggers, J C; Dwyer, S E; Effler, A; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Factourovich, M; Fair, H; Fernández Galiana, A; Fisher, R P; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gras, S; Gray, C; Grote, H; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hall, E D; Hammond, G; Hanks, J; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harry, G M; Heintze, M C; Heptonstall, A W; Hough, J; Izumi, K; Jones, R; Kandhasamy, S; Karki, S; Kasprzack, M; Kaufer, S; Kawabe, K; Kijbunchoo, N; King, E J; King, P J; Kissel, J S; Korth, W Z; Kuehn, G; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Lockerbie, N A; Lormand, M; Lundgren, A P; MacInnis, M; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A S; Maros, E; Martin, I W; Martynov, D V; Mason, K; Massinger, T J; Matichard, F; Mavalvala, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McIntyre, G; Mendell, G; Merilh, E L; Meyers, P M; Miller, J; Mittleman, R; Moreno, G; Mueller, G; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Nuttall, L K; Oberling, J; Oliver, M; Oppermann, P; Oram, Richard J; O'Reilly, B; Ottaway, D J; Overmier, H; Palamos, J R; Paris, H R; Parker, W; Pele, A; Penn, S; Phelps, M; Pierro, V; Pinto, I; Principe, M; Prokhorov, L G; Puncken, O; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E A; Raab, F J; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Robertson, N A; Rollins, J G; Roma, V J; Romie, J H; Rowan, S; Ryan, K; Sadecki, T; Sanchez, E J; Sandberg, V; Savage, R L; Schofield, R M S; Sellers, D; Shaddock, D A; Shaffer, T J; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sigg, D; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, B; Smith, J R; Sorazu, B; Staley, A; Strain, K A; Tanner, D B; Taylor, R; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thrane, E; Torrie, C I; Traylor, G; Tuyenbayev, D; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; van Veggel, A A; Vecchio, A; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Vo, T; Vorvick, C; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Weaver, B; Weiss, R; Weßels, P; Willke, B; Wipf, C C; Worden, J; Wu, G; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Zhang, L; Zucker, M E; Zweizig, J

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the transient behavior of the Advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory) suspensions used to seismically isolate the optics. We have characterized the transients in the longitudinal motion of the quadruple suspensions during Advanced LIGO's first observing run. Propagation of transients between stages is consistent with modeled transfer functions, such that transient motion originating at the top of the suspension chain is significantly reduced in amplitude at the test mass. We find that there are transients seen by the longitudinal motion monitors of quadruple suspensions, but they are not significantly correlated with transient motion above the noise floor in the gravitational wave strain data, and therefore do not present a dominant source of background noise in the searches for transient gravitational wave signals. Using the suspension transfer functions, we compared the transients in a week of gravitational wave strain data with transients from a quadruple suspension. Of the strain transients between 10 and 60 Hz, 84% are loud enough that they would have appeared above the sensor noise in the top stage quadruple suspension monitors if they had originated at that stage at the same frequencies. We find no significant temporal correlation with the suspension transients in that stage, so we can rule out suspension motion originating at the top stage as the cause of those transients. However, only 3.2% of the gravitational wave strain transients are loud enough that they would have been seen by the second stage suspension sensors, and none of them are above the sensor noise levels of the penultimate stage. Therefore, we cannot eliminate the possibility of transient noise in the detectors originating in the intermediate stages of the suspension below the sensing noise.

  17. Computational modeling reveals dendritic origins of GABA(A-mediated excitation in CA1 pyramidal neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Lewin

    Full Text Available GABA is the key inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult central nervous system, but in some circumstances can lead to a paradoxical excitation that has been causally implicated in diverse pathologies from endocrine stress responses to diseases of excitability including neuropathic pain and temporal lobe epilepsy. We undertook a computational modeling approach to determine plausible ionic mechanisms of GABA(A-dependent excitation in isolated post-synaptic CA1 hippocampal neurons because it may constitute a trigger for pathological synchronous epileptiform discharge. In particular, the interplay intracellular chloride accumulation via the GABA(A receptor and extracellular potassium accumulation via the K/Cl co-transporter KCC2 in promoting GABA(A-mediated excitation is complex. Experimentally it is difficult to determine the ionic mechanisms of depolarizing current since potassium transients are challenging to isolate pharmacologically and much GABA signaling occurs in small, difficult to measure, dendritic compartments. To address this problem and determine plausible ionic mechanisms of GABA(A-mediated excitation, we built a detailed biophysically realistic model of the CA1 pyramidal neuron that includes processes critical for ion homeostasis. Our results suggest that in dendritic compartments, but not in the somatic compartments, chloride buildup is sufficient to cause dramatic depolarization of the GABA(A reversal potential and dominating bicarbonate currents that provide a substantial current source to drive whole-cell depolarization. The model simulations predict that extracellular K(+ transients can augment GABA(A-mediated excitation, but not cause it. Our model also suggests the potential for GABA(A-mediated excitation to promote network synchrony depending on interneuron synapse location - excitatory positive-feedback can occur when interneurons synapse onto distal dendritic compartments, while interneurons projecting to the perisomatic

  18. Bias and Bias Correction in Multi-Site Instrumental Variables Analysis of Heterogeneous Mediator Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Sean F.; Unlu, Faith; Zhu, Pei; Bloom, Howard

    2013-01-01

    We explore the use of instrumental variables (IV) analysis with a multi-site randomized trial to estimate the effect of a mediating variable on an outcome in cases where it can be assumed that the observed mediator is the only mechanism linking treatment assignment to outcomes, as assumption known in the instrumental variables literature as the…

  19. Towards a better understanding of the link between participation in decision-making and organizational citizenship behaviour : A multilevel analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.; van den Berg, A.E.; Willering, M.C

    In the present study, two models were tested that can improve understanding of the link between participation in decision-making and organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB). In Model 1, it is assumed that perceived supervisory support mediates the link between participation in decision-making and

  20. Towards a better understanding of the link between participation in decision-making and organizational citizenship behaviour: a multilevel analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yperen, van N.W.; Berg, van den A.E.; Willering, M.C.

    1999-01-01

    In the present study, two models were tested that can improve understanding of the link between participation in decision-making and organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB). In Model 1, it is assumed that perceived supervisory support mediates the link between participation in decision-making and

  1. Maternal Depression Mediates the Link Between Therapeutic Alliance and Improvements in Adolescent Externalizing Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granic, I.; Otten, R.; Blokland, K.; Solomon, T.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Ferguson, B.

    2012-01-01

    The current study: (1) examined the relation between therapeutic alliance and changes in adolescent externalizing behavior in Multisystemic Therapy; (2) tested whether maternal depression mediates this relation; and (3) determined whether mothers' and clinicians' perceptions of the alliance

  2. NS5806 partially restores action potential duration but fails to ameliorate calcium transient dysfunction in a computational model of canine heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maleckar, Mary M; Lines, Glenn T; Koivumäki, Jussi T

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: The study investigates how increased Ito, as mediated by the activator NS5806, affects excitation-contraction coupling in chronic heart failure (HF). We hypothesized that restoring spike-and-dome morphology of the action potential (AP) to a healthy phenotype would be insufficient to restore...... the intracellular Ca(2) (+) transient (CaT), due to HF-induced remodelling of Ca(2+) handling. METHODS AND RESULTS: An existing mathematical model of the canine ventricular myocyte was modified to incorporate recent experimental data from healthy and failing myocytes, resulting in models of both healthy and HF...... ionic processes with a focus on calcium transients (CaT), how these were altered in HF across the ventricular wall, and the subsequent effects of varying compound concentration in HF. Heart failure model variants recapitulated a characteristic increase in AP duration (APD) in the disease...

  3. Social Networks and Health Among Older Adults in Lebanon: The Mediating Role of Support and Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Toni C.; Ajrouch, Kristine J.; Abdulrahim, Sawsan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Despite a growing body of literature documenting the influence of social networks on health, less is known in other parts of the world. The current study investigates this link by clustering characteristics of network members nominated by older adults in Lebanon. We then identify the degree to which various types of people exist within the networks. This study further examines how network composition as measured by the proportion of each type (i.e., type proportions) is related to health; and the mediating role of positive support and trust in this process. Method. Data are from the Family Ties and Aging Study (2009). Respondents aged ≥60 were selected (N = 195) for analysis. Results. Three types of people within the networks were identified: Geographically Distant Male Youth, Geographically Close/Emotionally Distant Family, and Close Family. Having more Geographically Distant Male Youth in one’s network was associated with health limitations, whereas more Close Family was associated with no health limitations. Positive support mediated the link between type proportions and health limitations, whereas trust mediated the link between type proportions and depressive symptoms. Discussion. Results document links between the social networks and health of older adults in Lebanon within the context of ongoing demographic transitions. PMID:25324295

  4. Simple Identification of Human Taenia Species by Multiplex Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification in Combination with Dot Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

    2016-01-01

    For differential detection of Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, and Taenia asiatica, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene has been recently developed and shown to be sensitive, specific, and effective. However, to achieve differential identification, one specimen requires three reaction mixtures containing a primer set of each Taenia species separately, which is complex and time consuming and increases the risk of cross-contamination. In this study, we developed a simple differential identification of human Taenia species using multiplex LAMP (mLAMP) in combination with dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA). Forward inner primers of T. solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), digoxigenin (DIG), and tetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA), respectively, and biotin-labeled backward inner primers were used in mLAMP. The mLAMP assay succeeded in specific amplification of each respective target gene in a single tube. Furthermore, the mLAMP product from each species was easily distinguished by dot-ELISA with an antibody specific for FITC, DIG, or TAMRA. The mLAMP assay in combination with dot-ELISA will make identification of human Taenia species simpler, easier, and more practical. PMID:27044566

  5. Transient Exciplex Formation Electron Transfer Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Michael G. Kuzmin; Irina V. Soboleva; Elena V. Dolotova

    2011-01-01

    Transient exciplex formation mechanism of excited-state electron transfer reactions is analyzed in terms of experimental data on thermodynamics and kinetics of exciplex formation and decay. Experimental profiles of free energy, enthalpy, and entropy for transient exciplex formation and decay are considered for several electron transfer reactions in various solvents. Strong electronic coupling in contact pairs of reactants causes substantial decrease of activation energy relative to that for c...

  6. Transient Wave Scattering and Its Influence on Transient Analysis and Leak Detection in Urban Water Supply Systems: Theoretical Analysis and Numerical Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Feng Duan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impacts of non-uniformities of pipe diameter (i.e., an inhomogeneous cross-sectional area along pipelines on transient wave behavior and propagation in water supply pipelines. The multi-scale wave perturbation method is firstly used to derive analytical solutions for the amplitude evolution of transient pressure wave propagation in pipelines, considering regular and random variations of cross-sectional area, respectively. The analytical analysis is based on the one-dimensional (1D transient wave equation for pipe flow. Both derived results show that transient waves can be attenuated and scattered significantly along the longitudinal direction of the pipeline due to the regular and random non-uniformities of pipe diameter. The obtained analytical results are then validated by extensive 1D numerical simulations under different incident wave and non-uniform pipe conditions. The comparative results indicate that the derived analytical solutions are applicable and useful to describe the wave scattering effect in complex pipeline systems. Finally, the practical implications and influence of wave scattering effects on transient flow analysis and transient-based leak detection in urban water supply systems are discussed in the paper.

  7. A fast reactor transient analysis methodology for PCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, K.O.

    1991-10-01

    This Manual describes a PC program for LMR Transient Calculations, LTC, written in GW-BASIC. It calculates the power and temperature trajectories for unscrammed TOP and LOHS transients. The LOF transient treatment is not operational in the GW-BASIC program because of storage limitations. The corresponding mathematical model, which allows a rapid treatment of the kinetics and the various feedback effects, is described in Ref. 1. It is briefly reviewed in Sec. 1. The program structure is outlined in Sec. 2, followed by a more detailed description in Sec. 3. Computational details are presented in Appendix A. A complete listing of the GW-BASIC program is given in Appendix B. Appendix C shows input-echo and output for a TOP sample problem, and Appendix D is a Glossary of all quantities used in the LTC program. The limitations of the GW-BASIC storage (to about 60K) are removed if it is run within Quick-BASIC. This then allows the extension of this program to treat LOF transients. Running LTC in Quick-BASIC permits also larger ''Dimensions'' for TOP and LOHS transients

  8. Adaptive sampling of AEM transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Massa, Domenico; Florio, Giovanni; Viezzoli, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    This paper focuses on the sampling of the electromagnetic transient as acquired by airborne time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) systems. Typically, the sampling of the electromagnetic transient is done using a fixed number of gates whose width grows logarithmically (log-gating). The log-gating has two main benefits: improving the signal to noise (S/N) ratio at late times, when the electromagnetic signal has amplitudes equal or lower than the natural background noise, and ensuring a good resolution at the early times. However, as a result of fixed time gates, the conventional log-gating does not consider any geological variations in the surveyed area, nor the possibly varying characteristics of the measured signal. We show, using synthetic models, how a different, flexible sampling scheme can increase the resolution of resistivity models. We propose a new sampling method, which adapts the gating on the base of the slope variations in the electromagnetic (EM) transient. The use of such an alternative sampling scheme aims to get more accurate inverse models by extracting the geoelectrical information from the measured data in an optimal way.

  9. Transient performance of S-prism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubberley, A.E.; Boardman, C.E.; Gamble, R.E.; Hiu, M.M.; Lipps, A.J.; Wu, T.

    2001-01-01

    S-PRISM is an advanced Fast Reactor plant design that utilizes compact modular pool-type reactors sized to enable factory fabrication and an affordable prototype test of a single Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) for design certification at minimum cost and risk. Based on the success of the previous DOE sponsored Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) program GE has continued to develop and assess the technical viability and economic potential of an up-rated plant called SuperPRISM (S-PRISM). This paper presents the results of transient analyses performed to assess the ability of S-PRISM to accommodate severe accident initiator events. A unique safety capability of S-PRISM is accommodation of the ''higher probability'' accident initiators that led to core melt accidents in prior large LMRs. These events, the Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) events, are thus the focus of passive safety confirmation analyses. The events included in this assessment are: Unprotected Loss of Flow, Unprotected Loss of Heat Sink, Unprotected Loss of Flow and Heat sink, Unprotected Transient Overpower and Unprotected Safe Shutdown Earthquake. (author)

  10. Mussel-inspired histidine-based transient network metal coordination hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullenkamp, Dominic E.; He, Lihong; Barrett, Devin G.; Burghardt, Wesley R.; Messersmith, Phillip B.

    2013-01-01

    Transient network hydrogels cross-linked through histidine-divalent cation coordination bonds were studied by conventional rheologic methods using histidine-modified star poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) polymers. These materials were inspired by the mussel, which is thought to use histidine-metal coordination bonds to impart self-healing properties in the mussel byssal thread. Hydrogel viscoelastic mechanical properties were studied as a function of metal, pH, concentration, and ionic strength. The equilibrium metal-binding constants were determined by dilute solution potentiometric titration of monofunctional histidine-modified methoxy-PEG and were found to be consistent with binding constants of small molecule analogs previously studied. pH-dependent speciation curves were then calculated using the equilibrium constants determined by potentiometric titration, providing insight into the pH dependence of histidine-metal ion coordination and guiding the design of metal coordination hydrogels. Gel relaxation dynamics were found to be uncorrelated with the equilibrium constants measured, but were correlated to the expected coordination bond dissociation rate constants. PMID:23441102

  11. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Treatment of Newborns with Transient Myocardial Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia N. Dovnar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study: a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of the treatment of newborns with transient myocardial ischemia in the intensive care unit.Materials and methods. 102 newborns with transient myocardial ischemia, with a history of ante- and/or intranatal hypoxia, at the age of 1 to 7 days, with a gestational age from 29 to 42 weeks, underwent a clinical and instrumental examination of the heart before and during the treatment. The Group 1 consisted of 30 infants with 1 degree circulatory failure (CF; the Group 2 was comprised of 39 infants with 2A degree of CF, and the Group 3 included 33 infants with the 2B degree of CF. All children received cardiotropic drugs; infants from Groups 2 and 3 received cardiotonic drugs.Results. The study demonstrated an increase in biochemical parameters of blood (myocardial CPK, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, de Ritis ratio, manifestations of subendocardial ischemia in the electrocardiogram (depression of ST segment in one or more leads in combination with a T-wave defect, changes in systolic cardiac function during echocardiography (stroke volume, ejection and shortening factions, left ventricular TEI index, cardiac output, and cardiac index that correlated with the severity of myocardial ischemia and circulatory failure and their reverse development during the treatment. Various correlative links between parameters of left ventricular systolic function and blood biochemistry before and during the treatment reflecting the myocardial dysfunction with a gradual reverse development have been found.Conclusion. Infants with transient myocardial ischemia suffered from disorders of the clinical and functional state of the heart depending on the degree of ischemia and circulatory failure. Most infants exebited gradual reverse development during a complex intensive therapy. 

  12. Family incivility and job performance: a moderated mediation model of psychological distress and core self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sandy; Tai, Kenneth

    2014-03-01

    This study extends the stress literature by exploring the relationship between family incivility and job performance. We examine whether psychological distress mediates the link between family incivility and job performance. We also investigate how core self-evaluation might moderate this mediated relationship. Data from a 2-wave study indicate that psychological distress mediates the relationship between family incivility and job performance. In addition, core self-evaluation moderates the relationship between family incivility and psychological distress but not the relationship between psychological distress and job performance. The results hold while controlling for general job stress, family-to-work conflict, and work-to-family conflict. The findings suggest that family incivility is linked to poor performance at work, and psychological distress and core self-evaluation are key mechanisms in the relationship.

  13. The fast transient sky with Gaia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wevers, Thomas; Jonker, Peter G.; Hodgkin, Simon T.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Zuzanna; Harrison, Diana L.; Rixon, Guy; Nelemans, Gijs; Roelens, Maroussia; Eyer, Laurent; van Leeuwen, Floor; Yoldas, Abdullah

    2018-01-01

    The ESA Gaia satellite scans the whole sky with a temporal sampling ranging from seconds and hours to months. Each time a source passes within the Gaia field of view, it moves over 10 charge coupled devices (CCDs) in 45 s and a light curve with 4.5 s sampling (the crossing time per CCD) is registered. Given that the 4.5 s sampling represents a virtually unexplored parameter space in optical time domain astronomy, this data set potentially provides a unique opportunity to open up the fast transient sky. We present a method to start mining the wealth of information in the per CCD Gaia data. We perform extensive data filtering to eliminate known onboard and data processing artefacts, and present a statistical method to identify sources that show transient brightness variations on ≲2 h time-scales. We illustrate that by using the Gaia photometric CCD measurements, we can detect transient brightness variations down to an amplitude of 0.3 mag on time-scales ranging from 15 s to several hours. We search an area of ∼23.5 deg2 on the sky and find four strong candidate fast transients. Two candidates are tentatively classified as flares on M-dwarf stars, while one is probably a flare on a giant star and one potentially a flare on a solar-type star. These classifications are based on archival data and the time-scales involved. We argue that the method presented here can be added to the existing Gaia Science Alerts infrastructure for the near real-time public dissemination of fast transient events.

  14. Crystal nucleation initiated by transient ion-surface interactions at aerosol interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ryan D; Tolbert, Margaret A

    2017-07-01

    Particle collisions are a common occurrence in the atmosphere, but no empirical observations exist to fully predict the potential effects of these collisions on air quality and climate projections. The current consensus of heterogeneous crystal nucleation pathways relevant to the atmosphere dictates that collisions with amorphous particles have no effect on the crystallization relative humidity (RH) of aqueous inorganic aerosols because there is no stabilizing ion-surface interaction to facilitate the formation of crystal nuclei. In contrast to this view of heterogeneous nucleation, we report laboratory observations demonstrating that collisions with hydrophobic amorphous organic aerosols induced crystallization of aqueous inorganic microdroplets at high RH, the effect of which was correlated with destabilizing water-mediated ion-specific surface interactions. These same organic aerosols did not induce crystallization once internally mixed in the droplet, pointing toward a previously unconsidered transient ion-specific crystal nucleation pathway that can promote aerosol crystallization via particle collisions.

  15. Serotonin-induced vasodilatation in the human forearm is mediated by the "nitric oxide-pathway": no evidence for involvement of the 5-HT3-receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruning, T. A.; Chang, P. C.; Blauw, G. J.; Vermeij, P.; van Zwieten, P. A.

    1993-01-01

    The "nitric oxide (NO)-pathway" is presumed to be involved in acetylcholine (ACh)- and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)-mediated vasodilatation. In addition, both the 5-HT-induced transient and persistent vasodilator responses in the forearm vascular bed are abolished by the

  16. DETECTION OF FAST TRANSIENTS WITH RADIO INTERFEROMETRIC ARRAYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, N. D. R.; Chengalur, J. N.; Gupta, Y.; Prasad, J.; Roy, J.; Kudale, S. S.; Cox, P. J.; Bailes, M.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Van Straten, W.

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation radio arrays, including the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and its pathfinders, will open up new avenues for exciting transient science at radio wavelengths. Their innovative designs, comprising a large number of small elements, pose several challenges in digital processing and optimal observing strategies. The Giant Metre-wave Radio Telescope (GMRT) presents an excellent test-bed for developing and validating suitable observing modes and strategies for transient experiments with future arrays. Here we describe the first phase of the ongoing development of a transient detection system for GMRT that is planned to eventually function in a commensal mode with other observing programs. It capitalizes on the GMRT's interferometric and sub-array capabilities, and the versatility of a new software backend. We outline considerations in the plan and design of transient exploration programs with interferometric arrays, and describe a pilot survey that was undertaken to aid in the development of algorithms and associated analysis software. This survey was conducted at 325 and 610 MHz, and covered 360 deg 2 of the sky with short dwell times. It provides large volumes of real data that can be used to test the efficacies of various algorithms and observing strategies applicable for transient detection. We present examples that illustrate the methodologies of detecting short-duration transients, including the use of sub-arrays for higher resilience to spurious events of terrestrial origin, localization of candidate events via imaging, and the use of a phased array for improved signal detection and confirmation. In addition to demonstrating applications of interferometric arrays for fast transient exploration, our efforts mark important steps in the roadmap toward SKA-era science.

  17. Detection of Fast Transients with Radio Interferometric Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, N. D. R.; Chengalur, J. N.; Cox, P. J.; Gupta, Y.; Prasad, J.; Roy, J.; Bailes, M.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Kudale, S. S.; van Straten, W.

    2013-05-01

    Next-generation radio arrays, including the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and its pathfinders, will open up new avenues for exciting transient science at radio wavelengths. Their innovative designs, comprising a large number of small elements, pose several challenges in digital processing and optimal observing strategies. The Giant Metre-wave Radio Telescope (GMRT) presents an excellent test-bed for developing and validating suitable observing modes and strategies for transient experiments with future arrays. Here we describe the first phase of the ongoing development of a transient detection system for GMRT that is planned to eventually function in a commensal mode with other observing programs. It capitalizes on the GMRT's interferometric and sub-array capabilities, and the versatility of a new software backend. We outline considerations in the plan and design of transient exploration programs with interferometric arrays, and describe a pilot survey that was undertaken to aid in the development of algorithms and associated analysis software. This survey was conducted at 325 and 610 MHz, and covered 360 deg2 of the sky with short dwell times. It provides large volumes of real data that can be used to test the efficacies of various algorithms and observing strategies applicable for transient detection. We present examples that illustrate the methodologies of detecting short-duration transients, including the use of sub-arrays for higher resilience to spurious events of terrestrial origin, localization of candidate events via imaging, and the use of a phased array for improved signal detection and confirmation. In addition to demonstrating applications of interferometric arrays for fast transient exploration, our efforts mark important steps in the roadmap toward SKA-era science.

  18. Transient Phenomena in Multiphase and Multicomponent Systems: Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zur Beurteilung von Stoffen in der Landwirtschaft, Senatskommission

    2000-09-01

    Due to the reinforced risk and safety-analysis of industrial plants in chemical and energy-engineering there has been increased demand in industry for more information on thermo- and fluiddynamic effects of non-equilibria during strong transients. Therefore, the 'Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft' initiated a special research program focusing on the study of transient phenomena in multiphase systems with one or several components. This book describes macroscopic as well as microscopic transient situations. A large part of the book deals with numerical methods for describing transients in two-phase mixtures. New developments in measuring techniques are also presented.

  19. Transient particle emission measurement with optical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez, Vicente; Luján, José M.; Serrano, José R.; Pla, Benjamín

    2008-06-01

    Particulate matter is responsible for some respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. In addition, it is one of the most important pollutants of high-speed direct injection (HSDI) passenger car engines. Current legislation requires particulate dilution tunnels for particulate matter measuring. However for development work, dilution tunnels are expensive and sometimes not useful since they are not able to quantify real-time particulate emissions during transient operation. In this study, the use of a continuous measurement opacimeter and a fast response HFID is proven to be a good alternative to obtain instantaneous particle mass emissions during transient operation (due to particulate matter consisting mainly of soot and SOF). Some methods and correlations available from literature, but developed for steady conditions, are evaluated during transient operation by comparing with mini-tunnel measurements during the entire MVEG-A transient cycle. A new correlation was also derived from this evaluation. Results for soot and SOF (obtained from the new correlation proposed) are compared with soot and SOF captured with particulate filters, which have been separated by means of an SOF extraction method. Finally, as an example of ECU design strategies using these sort of correlations, the EGR valve opening is optimized during transient operation. The optimization is performed while simultaneously taking into account instantaneous fuel consumption, particulate emissions (calculated with the proposed correlation) and other regulated engine pollutants.

  20. NALAP: an LMFBR system transient code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, B.A.; Agrawal, A.K.; Albright, D.C.; Epel, L.G.; Maise, G.

    1975-07-01

    NALAP is a LMFBR system transient code. This code, adapted from the light water reactor transient code RELAP 3B, simulates thermal-hydraulic response of sodium cooled fast breeder reactors when subjected to postulated accidents such as a massive pipe break as well as a variety of other upset conditions that do not disrupt the system geometry. Various components of the plant are represented by control volumes. These control volumes are connected by junctions some of which may be leak or fill junctions. The fluid flow equations are modeled as compressible, single-stream flow with momentum flux in one dimension. The transient response is computed by integrating the thermal-hydraulic conservation equations from user-initialized operating conditions by an implicit numerical scheme. Point kinetics approximation is used to represent the time dependent heat generation in the reactor core

  1. Transient Exciplex Formation Electron Transfer Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Kuzmin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient exciplex formation mechanism of excited-state electron transfer reactions is analyzed in terms of experimental data on thermodynamics and kinetics of exciplex formation and decay. Experimental profiles of free energy, enthalpy, and entropy for transient exciplex formation and decay are considered for several electron transfer reactions in various solvents. Strong electronic coupling in contact pairs of reactants causes substantial decrease of activation energy relative to that for conventional long-range ET mechanism, especially for endergonic reactions, and provides the possibility for medium reorganization concatenated to gradual charge shift in contrast to conventional preliminary medium and reactants reorganization. Experimental criteria for transient exciplex formation (concatenated mechanism of excited-state electron transfer are considered. Available experimental data show that this mechanism dominates for endergonic ET reactions and provides a natural explanation for a lot of known paradoxes of ET reactions.

  2. Mediation Analysis with Multiple Mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWeele, T J; Vansteelandt, S

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in the causal inference literature on mediation have extended traditional approaches to direct and indirect effects to settings that allow for interactions and non-linearities. In this paper, these approaches from causal inference are further extended to settings in which multiple mediators may be of interest. Two analytic approaches, one based on regression and one based on weighting are proposed to estimate the effect mediated through multiple mediators and the effects through other pathways. The approaches proposed here accommodate exposure-mediator interactions and, to a certain extent, mediator-mediator interactions as well. The methods handle binary or continuous mediators and binary, continuous or count outcomes. When the mediators affect one another, the strategy of trying to assess direct and indirect effects one mediator at a time will in general fail; the approach given in this paper can still be used. A characterization is moreover given as to when the sum of the mediated effects for multiple mediators considered separately will be equal to the mediated effect of all of the mediators considered jointly. The approach proposed in this paper is robust to unmeasured common causes of two or more mediators.

  3. Depression and pain: testing of serial multiple mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongpakaran, Tinakon; Wongpakaran, Nahathai; Tanchakvaranont, Sitthinant; Bookkamana, Putipong; Pinyopornpanish, Manee; Wannarit, Kamonporn; Satthapisit, Sirina; Nakawiro, Daochompu; Hiranyatheb, Thanita; Thongpibul, Kulvadee

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that pain is related to depression, few studies have been conducted to investigate the variables that mediate between the two conditions. In this study, the authors explored the following mediators: cognitive function, self-sacrificing interpersonal problems, and perception of stress, and the effects they had on pain symptoms among patients with depressive disorders. An analysis was performed on the data of 346 participants with unipolar depressive disorders. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Mini-Mental State Examination, the pain subscale of the health-related quality of life (SF-36), the self-sacrificing subscale of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, and the Perceived Stress Scale were used. Parallel multiple mediator and serial multiple mediator models were used. An alternative model regarding the effect of self-sacrificing on pain was also proposed. Perceived stress, self-sacrificing interpersonal style, and cognitive function were found to significantly mediate the relationship between depression and pain, while controlling for demographic variables. The total effect of depression on pain was significant. This model, with an additional three mediators, accounted for 15% of the explained variance in pain compared to 9% without mediators. For the alternative model, after controlling for the mediators, a nonsignificant total direct effect level of self-sacrificing was found, suggesting that the effect of self-sacrificing on pain was based only on an indirect effect and that perceived stress was found to be the strongest mediator. Serial mediation may help us to see how depression and pain are linked and what the fundamental mediators are in the chain. No significant, indirect effect of self-sacrificing on pain was observed, if perceived stress was not part of the depression and/or cognitive function mediational chain. The results shown here have implications for future research, both in terms of testing the model and in

  4. PWR plant transient analyses using TRAC-PF1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ireland, J.R.; Boyack, B.E.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes some of the pressurized water reactor (PWR) transient analyses performed at Los Alamos for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission using the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC-PF1). Many of the transient analyses performed directly address current PWR safety issues. Included in this paper are examples of two safety issues addressed by TRAC-PF1. These examples are pressurized thermal shock (PTS) and feed-and-bleed cooling for Oconee-1. The calculations performed were plant specific in that details of both the primary and secondary sides were modeled in addition to models of the plant integrated control systems. The results of these analyses show that for these two transients, the reactor cores remained covered and cooled at all times posing no real threat to the reactor system nor to the public

  5. Transient analysis of house load operation for LNPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Junying; Zheng Bin

    2000-01-01

    The author analysis the transient of house load operation for Ling'ao Nuclear Power Plant by using the methods of dynamic simulation and closed loops of primary and secondary system. The transient of house load operation from 100% FP is the most severe that can occur on the unit in normal operation because it causes immediately shedding of 95% of turbine load and requires the unit to operate steadily at reduced power. The results show that the transient can be successful both at beginning of core life and manual house load operation. However, more attentions must be paid to automatic house load operation caused by grid fault at toward end of core life because the success of the transient could be threatened by the actuation of the protection of high flux and high flux rate

  6. Transiently Active Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Is Not Required but Must Be Silenced for Stem Cell Function during Muscle Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malea M. Murphy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Adult muscle’s exceptional capacity for regeneration is mediated by muscle stem cells, termed satellite cells. As with many stem cells, Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been proposed to be critical in satellite cells during regeneration. Using new genetic reagents, we explicitly test in vivo whether Wnt/β-catenin signaling is necessary and sufficient within satellite cells and their derivatives for regeneration. We find that signaling is transiently active in transit-amplifying myoblasts, but is not required for regeneration or satellite cell self-renewal. Instead, downregulation of transiently activated β-catenin is important to limit the regenerative response, as continuous regeneration is deleterious. Wnt/β-catenin activation in adult satellite cells may simply be a vestige of their developmental lineage, in which β-catenin signaling is critical for fetal myogenesis. In the adult, surprisingly, we show that it is not activation but rather silencing of Wnt/β-catenin signaling that is important for muscle regeneration.

  7. Predicting the decision to pursue mediation in civil disputes: a hierarchical classes analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Warren A; Kressel, Kenneth; Scanlon, Kathleen M; Weiner, Gary A

    2007-11-01

    Clients (N = 185) involved in civil court cases completed the CPR Institute's Mediation Screen, which is designed to assist in making a decision about pursuing mediation. The authors modeled data using hierarchical classes analysis (HICLAS), a clustering algorithm that places clients into 1 set of classes and CPRMS items into another set of classes. HICLAS then links the sets of classes so that any class of clients can be identified in terms of the classes of items they endorsed. HICLAS-derived item classes reflected 2 underlying themes: (a) suitability of the dispute for a problem-solving process and (b) potential benefits of mediation. All clients who perceived that mediation would be beneficial also believed that the context of their conflict was favorable to mediation; however, not all clients who saw a favorable context believed they would benefit from mediation. The majority of clients who agreed to pursue mediation endorsed items reflecting both contextual suitability and perceived benefits of mediation.

  8. NF-κB functions as a molecular link between tumor cells and Th1/Tc1 T cells in the tumor microenvironment to exert radiation-mediated tumor suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Priscilla S.; Bardhan, Kankana; Chen, May R.; Paschall, Amy V.; Lu, Chunwan; Bollag, Roni J.; Kong, Feng-Chong; Jin, JianYue; Kong, Feng-Ming; Waller, Jennifer L.; Pollock, Raphael E.; Liu, Kebin

    2016-01-01

    Radiation modulates both tumor cells and immune cells in the tumor microenvironment to exert its anti-tumor activity; however, the molecular connection between tumor cells and immune cells that mediates radiation-exerted tumor suppression activity in the tumor microenvironment is largely unknown. We report here that radiation induces rapid activation of the p65/p50 and p50/p50 NF-κB complexes in human soft tissue sarcoma (STS) cells. Radiation-activated p65/p50 and p50/p50 bind to the TNFα promoter to activate its transcription in STS cells. Radiation-induced TNFα induces tumor cell death in an autocrine manner. A sublethal dose of Smac mimetic BV6 induces cIAP1 and cIAP2 degradation to increase tumor cell sensitivity to radiation-induced cell death in vitro and to enhance radiation-mediated suppression of STS xenografts in vivo. Inhibition of caspases, RIP1, or RIP3 blocks radiation/TNFα-induced cell death, whereas inhibition of RIP1 blocks TNFα-induced caspase activation, suggesting that caspases and RIP1 act sequentially to mediate the non-compensatory cell death pathways. Furthermore, we determined in a syngeneic sarcoma mouse model that radiation up-regulates IRF3, IFNβ, and the T cell chemokines CCL2 and CCL5 in the tumor microenvironment, which are associated with activation and increased infiltration of Th1/Tc1 T cells in the tumor microenvironment. Moreover, tumor-infiltrating T cells are in their active form since both the perforin and FasL pathways are activated in irradiated tumor tissues. Consequently, combined BV6 and radiation completely suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Therefore, radiation-induced NF-κB functions as a molecular link between tumor cells and immune cells in the tumor microenvironment for radiation-mediated tumor suppression. PMID:27014915

  9. Effective immobilization of redox mediators in a poly (vinyl alcohol) matrix by using gamma-irradiation cross-linking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galiatsatos, C.; Mark, J.E.; Heineman, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    The development of electrodes with specific chemical properties by coating them with polymeric networks is the long-range goal of this research. Polymeric networks result from inserting chemical bonds between segments of different poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVAL) chains using gamma irradiation. The resulting three dimensional network adheres to the surface of graphite electrodes and therefore can be used as a convenient polymer matrix for the attachment and immobilization of electroactive redox molecules such as mediators. Two mediators, methyl viologen (MV) and 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCIP) were dissolved in aqueous solutions of PVAL and applied on electrode surfaces. The resulting electrodes were subjected to different irradiation doses. The irradiated PVAL/MV and PVAL/DCIP electrodes were evaluated for the following features: 1) effect of irradiation dose, 2) film thickness, 3) polymer/mediator ratio and 4) lifetime. For the radiation dose range 0-80 Mrad the PVAL/MV electrode exhibited a % BE varying between 14.3 (0 Mrads) and Mrads) and 52.0 (40 Mrads) while the PVAL/DCIP electrode varied between 5.3 (80 Mrads) and 31.3 (20 Mrads). This study suggests a way of immobilizing redox mediators in a PVAL matrix on surfaces of graphite electrodes

  10. TRPC6 channel-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells and hippocampal neurons involves activation of RAS/MEK/ERK, PI3K, and CAMKIV signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Jeanine H; Schuwald, Anita M; Sillani, Giacomo; Ye, Lian; Müller, Walter E; Leuner, Kristina

    2013-11-01

    The non-selective cationic transient receptor canonical 6 (TRPC6) channels are involved in synaptic plasticity changes ranging from dendritic growth, spine morphology changes and increase in excitatory synapses. We previously showed that the TRPC6 activator hyperforin, the active antidepressant component of St. John's wort, induces neuritic outgrowth and spine morphology changes in PC12 cells and hippocampal CA1 neurons. However, the signaling cascade that transmits the hyperforin-induced transient rise in intracellular calcium into neuritic outgrowth is not yet fully understood. Several signaling pathways are involved in calcium transient-mediated changes in synaptic plasticity, ranging from calmodulin-mediated Ras-induced signaling cascades comprising the mitogen-activated protein kinase, PI3K signal transduction pathways as well as Ca(2+) /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMKII) and CAMKIV. We show that several mechanisms are involved in TRPC6-mediated synaptic plasticity changes in PC12 cells and primary hippocampal neurons. Influx of calcium via TRPC6 channels activates different pathways including Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinases, phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B, and CAMKIV in both cell types, leading to cAMP-response element binding protein phosphorylation. These findings are interesting not only in terms of the downstream targets of TRPC6 channels but also because of their potential to facilitate further understanding of St. John's wort extract-mediated antidepressant activity. Alterations in synaptic plasticity are considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of depression. Beside several other proteins, TRPC6 channels regulate synaptic plasticity. This study demonstrates that different pathways including Ras/MEK/ERK, PI3K/Akt, and CAMKIV are involved in the improvement of synaptic plasticity by the TRPC6 activator hyperforin, the antidepressant active constituent of St. John

  11. Met1-linked Ubiquitination in Immune Signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiil, Berthe Katrine; Gyrd-Hansen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    Methionine 1-linked ubiquitin chains (Met1-Ub), or linear ubiquitin, has emerged as a central post-translational modification in innate immune signalling. Molecular machinery that assembles, senses and, more recently, disassembles Met1-Ub has been identified, and technical advances have enabled...... identification of physiological substrates for Met1-Ub in response to activation of innate immune receptors. These discoveries have significantly advanced our understanding of how non-degradative ubiquitin modifications control pro-inflammatory responses mediated by nuclear factor κB and mitogen...

  12. Transient Liquid Water as a Mechanism for Induration of Soil Crusts on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, G. A.; Blaney, D.; Cabrol, N.; Clark, B. C.; Farmer, J.; Grotzinger, J.; Greeley, R.; McLennan, S. M.; Richter, L.; Yen, A.

    2004-01-01

    The Viking and the Mars Exploration Rover missions observed that the surface of Mars is encrusted by a thinly cemented layer tagged as "duricrust". A hypothesis to explain the formation of duricrust on Mars should address not only the potential mechanisms by which these materials become cemented, but also the textural and compositional components of cemented Martian soils. Elemental analyzes at five sites on Mars show that these soils have sulfur content of up to 4%, and chlorine content of up to 1%. This is consistent with the presence of sulfates and halides as mineral cements. . For comparison, the rock "Adirondack" at the MER site, after the exterior layer was removed, had nearly five times lower sulfur and chlorine content , and the Martian meteorites have ten times lower sulfur and chlorine content, showing that the soil is highly enriched in the saltforming elements compared with rock.Here we propose two alternative models to account for the origin of these crusts, each requiring the action of transient liquid water films to mediate adhesion and cementation of grains. Two alternative versions of the transient water hypothesis are offered, a top down hypothesis that emphasizes the surface deposition of frost, melting and downward migration of liquid water and a bottom up alternative that proposes the presence of interstitial ice/brine, with the upward capillary migration of liquid water.

  13. Mitochondrial Porin Isoform AtVDAC1 Regulates the Competence of Arabidopsis thaliana to Agrobacterium-Mediated Genetic Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Tackmin

    2016-09-01

    The efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in plants depends on the virulence of Agrobacterium strains, the plant tissue culture conditions, and the susceptibility of host plants. Understanding the molecular interactions between Agrobacterium and host plant cells is crucial when manipulating the susceptibility of recalcitrant crop plants and protecting orchard trees from crown gall disease. It was discovered that Arabidopsis voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (atvdac1) mutant has drastic effects on Agrobacterium-mediated tumorigenesis and growth developmental phenotypes, and that these effects are dependent on a Ws-0 genetic background. Genetic complementation of Arabidopsis vdac1 mutants and yeast porin1-deficient strain with members of the AtVDAC gene family revealed that AtVDAC1 is required for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and there is weak functional redundancy between AtVDAC1 and AtVDAC3, which is independent of porin activity. Furthermore, atvdac1 mutants were deficient in transient and stable transformation by Agrobacterium, suggesting that AtVDAC1 is involved in the early stages of Agrobacterium infection prior to transferred-DNA (T-DNA) integration. Transgenic plants overexpressing AtVDAC1 not only complemented the phenotypes of the atvdac1 mutant, but also showed high efficiency of transient T-DNA gene expression; however, the efficiency of stable transformation was not affected. Moreover, the effect of phytohormone treatment on competence to Agrobacterium was compromised in atvdac1 mutants. These data indicate that AtVDAC1 regulates the competence of Arabidopsis to Agrobacterium infection.

  14. Transient neonatal myasthenia gravis due to a mother with ocular onset of anti-muscle specific kinase myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Yeun; Min, Ju-Hong; Han, Sueng-Han; Han, Jinu

    2017-07-01

    We describe a 27-year-old pregnant female with new onset of conjugate gaze deficit during the third trimester of pregnancy. Repetitive nerve stimulation tests, neostigmine tests, and acetylcholine receptor antibody assays were all negative. The patient delivered a normal healthy baby at a local clinic via cesarean section. The baby became hypotonic and had respiratory failure several minutes after birth. The result of acetylcholine receptor antibody was negative in the neonate. The neonate became healthy spontaneously and was extubated after 21 days of ventilation care. Two months after delivery, the mother developed ptosis and generalized symptoms and subsequent workup revealed she was muscle specific kinase (MuSK) antibody positive. The neonate was presumed to have an anti-MuSK-mediated transient neonatal myasthenia gravis. Although MuSK antibody testing is rarely indicated in ocular myasthenia gravis, MuSK antibody testing is necessary in pregnant women who are presumed ocular myasthenia gravis to warn occurrence of transient neonatal myasthenia gravis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Transient coupling relationships of the Holocene Australian monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRobie, F. H.; Stemler, T.; Wyrwoll, K.-H.

    2015-08-01

    The northwest Australian summer monsoon owes a notable degree of its interannual variability to interactions with other regional monsoon systems. Therefore, changes in the nature of these relationships may contribute to variability in monsoon strength over longer time scales. Previous attempts to evaluate how proxy records from the Indonesian-Australian monsoon region correspond to other records from the Indian and East Asian monsoon regions, as well as to El Niño-related proxy records, have been qualitative, relying on 'curve-fitting' methods. Here, we seek a quantitative approach for identifying coupling relationships between paleoclimate proxy records, employing statistical techniques to compute the interdependence of two paleoclimate time series. We verify the use of complex networks to identify coupling relationships between modern climate indices. This method is then extended to a set of paleoclimate proxy records from the Asian, Australasian and South American regions spanning the past 9000 years. The resulting networks demonstrate the existence of coupling relationships between regional monsoon systems on millennial time scales, but also highlight the transient nature of teleconnections during this period. In the context of the northwest Australian summer monsoon, we recognise a shift in coupling relationships from strong interhemispheric links with East Asian and ITCZ-related proxy records in the mid-Holocene to significantly weaker coupling in the later Holocene. Although the identified links cannot explain the underlying physical processes leading to coupling between regional monsoon systems, this method provides a step towards understanding the role that changes in teleconnections play in millennial-to orbital-scale climate variability.

  16. A transient overpower experiment in EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, J.P.; Tsai, H.; Dean, E.M.; Aoyama, T.; Yamamoto, K.

    1994-01-01

    The TOPI-IE test was a transient overpower test on irradiate mixed-oxide fuel pins in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II). The test, the fifth in a series, was part of a cooperative program between the US Department of Energy and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan to conduct operational transient testing on mixed-oxide fuel pins in the metal-fueled EBR-II. The principle objective of the TOPI-1E test was to assess breaching margins for irradiated mixed-oxide fuel pins over the Plant Protection System (PPS) thresholds during a slow, extended overpower transient. This paper describes the effect of the TOPI-1E experiment on reactor components and the impact of the experiment on the long-term operability of the reactor. The paper discusses the role that SASSYS played in the pre-test safety analysis of the experiment. The ability of SASSYS to model transient overpower events is detailed by comparisons of data from the experiment with computed reactor variables from a SASSYS post-test simulation of the experiment

  17. Transient eddy feedback and low-frequency variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    Superposed on any externally driven secular climatic change are fluctuations that arise from the internal nonlinear dynamics of the climate system. These internally generated variations may involve interactions between the atmosphere and the ocean, as in the case of El Nino, or they may arise from the dynamics of the atmosphere alone. Here we discuss the dynamics of interactions between transient eddies and lower-frequency motions in the atmosphere. The interactions between more transient and more persistent motions can be divided into two types. Nonlinear interactions among the transient motions can act as an essentially random source of low-frequency motion. The idea that the low-frequencies respond in a linear way to stochastic forcing from higher frequencies has been applied to the generation of planetary waves and to the forcing of changes in global angular momentum. In addition to stochastic coupling, there are systematic interactions, denoted feedbacks, through which the persistent motions modulate their own forcing by the transient eddies. This paper discusses the dynamics of these feedbacks

  18. A fast reactor transient analysis methodology for personal computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, K.O.

    1993-01-01

    A simplified model for a liquid-metal-cooled reactor (LMR) transient analysis, in which point kinetics as well as lumped descriptions of the heat transfer equations in all components are applied, is converted from a differential into an integral formulation. All 30 differential balance equations are implicitly solved in terms of convolution integrals. The prompt jump approximation is applied as the strong negative feedback effectively keeps the net reactivity well below prompt critical. After implicit finite differencing of the convolution integrals, the kinetics equation assumes a new form, i.e., the quadratic dynamics equation. In this integral formulation, the initial value problem of typical LMR transients can be solved with large item steps (initially 1 s, later up to 256 s). This then makes transient problems amenable to a treatment on personal computer. The resulting mathematical model forms the basis for the GW-BASIC program LMR transient calculation (LTC) program. The LTC program has also been converted to QuickBASIC. The running time for a 10-h transient overpower transient is then ∼40 to 10 s, depending on the hardware version (286, 386, or 486 with math coprocessors)

  19. M. I. T. studies of transient X-ray phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canizares, C R [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1976-06-01

    A variety of transient X-ray phenomena have been studied by the M.I.T. X-ray Astronomy Group. Data from the OSO-7 satellite reveal both long and short time-scale transients. Extensive observations have been made of the Lupus X-ray Nova (3U1543-47) and of GX339-4 (MX1658-48) which may represent a very different type of transient source. A unique, intense X-ray flare lasting ten minutes was also recorded, and the X-ray emission from the active galaxy Cen A was found to vary significantly over a period of several days. In a recent balloon flight the Crab pulsar, NP0532, was observed to exhibit a transient pulsed component distinct from the usual main pulse and interpulse. A sounding-rocket experiment detected an ultrasoft transient X-ray source tentatively associated with SS Cygni, and preliminary results from SAS-3 show a very hard spectrum for the new source A0535+26. On the other hand, extensive OSO-7 null observations of both Type I and II supernovae and of the flaring radio star Algol make it unlikely that these types of objects are potent transient X-ray emitters.

  20. Direct and Indirect Effects of Five Factor Personality and Gender on Depressive Symptoms Mediated by Perceived Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Song E.; Cho, Juhee; Kwon, Min-Jung; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Shin, Hocheol

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate associations among five factor personality traits, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms and to examine the roles of personality and perceived stress in the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. The participants (N = 3,950) were part of a cohort study for health screening and examination at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital. Personality was measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Perceived stress level was evaluated with a self-reported stress questionnaire developed for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A higher degree of neuroticism and lower degrees of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were significantly associated with greater perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Neuroticism and extraversion had significant direct and indirect effects (via stress as a mediator) on depressive symptoms in both genders. Agreeableness and conscientiousness had indirect effects on depression symptoms in both genders. Multiple mediation models were used to examine the mediational roles of each personality factor and perceived stress in the link between gender and depressive symptoms. Four of the personality factors (except openness) were significant mediators, along with stress, on the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that the links between personality factors and depressive symptoms are mediated by perceived stress. As such, personality is an important factor to consider when examining the link between gender and depression. PMID:27120051

  1. Direct and Indirect Effects of Five Factor Personality and Gender on Depressive Symptoms Mediated by Perceived Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Song E; Kim, Han-Na; Cho, Juhee; Kwon, Min-Jung; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate associations among five factor personality traits, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms and to examine the roles of personality and perceived stress in the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. The participants (N = 3,950) were part of a cohort study for health screening and examination at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital. Personality was measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Perceived stress level was evaluated with a self-reported stress questionnaire developed for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A higher degree of neuroticism and lower degrees of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were significantly associated with greater perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Neuroticism and extraversion had significant direct and indirect effects (via stress as a mediator) on depressive symptoms in both genders. Agreeableness and conscientiousness had indirect effects on depression symptoms in both genders. Multiple mediation models were used to examine the mediational roles of each personality factor and perceived stress in the link between gender and depressive symptoms. Four of the personality factors (except openness) were significant mediators, along with stress, on the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that the links between personality factors and depressive symptoms are mediated by perceived stress. As such, personality is an important factor to consider when examining the link between gender and depression.

  2. Stressful Life Events and Child Anxiety: Examining Parent and Child Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Rheanna; Williams, Sarah R.; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2015-01-01

    While a number of factors have been linked with excessive anxiety (e.g., parenting, child temperament), the impact of stressful life events remains under-studied. Moreover, much of this literature has examined bivariate associations rather than testing more complex theoretical models. The current study extends the literature on life events and child anxiety by testing a theory-driven meditational model. Specifically, one child factor (child cognitions/locus of control), two parent factors (parent psychopathology and parenting stress), and two parent-child relationship factors (parent-child dysfunctional interaction and parenting style) were examined as mediators in the relationship between stressful life events and severity of child anxiety. One hundred and thirty anxious parents and their nonanxious, high-risk children (ages ranged from 7 to 13 years) participated in this study. Results indicated that levels of parenting stress, parental anxious rearing, and dysfunctional parent-child interaction mediated the association between stressful life events and severity of anxiety symptoms. Child cognition and parent psychopathology factors failed to emerge as mediators. Findings provide support for more complex theoretical models linking life events and child anxiety and suggest potential targets of intervention. PMID:25772523

  3. Efficacy of navigation may be influenced by retrosplenial cortex-mediated learning of landmark stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Stephen D; Zeidman, Peter; Maguire, Eleanor A

    2017-09-01

    Human beings differ considerably in their ability to orient and navigate within the environment, but it has been difficult to determine specific causes of these individual differences. Permanent, stable landmarks are thought to be crucial for building a mental representation of an environment. Poor, compared to good, navigators have been shown to have difficulty identifying permanent landmarks, with a concomitant reduction in functional MRI (fMRI) activity in the retrosplenial cortex. However, a clear association between navigation ability and the learning of permanent landmarks has not been established. Here we tested for such a link. We had participants learn a virtual reality environment by repeatedly moving through it during fMRI scanning. The environment contained landmarks of which participants had no prior experience, some of which remained fixed in their locations while others changed position each time they were seen. After the fMRI learning phase, we divided participants into good and poor navigators based on their ability to find their way in the environment. The groups were closely matched on a range of cognitive and structural brain measures. Examination of the learning phase during scanning revealed that, while good and poor navigators learned to recognise the environment's landmarks at a similar rate, poor navigators were impaired at registering whether landmarks were stable or transient, and this was associated with reduced engagement of the retrosplenial cortex. Moreover, a mediation analysis showed that there was a significant effect of landmark permanence learning on navigation performance mediated through retrosplenial cortex activity. We conclude that a diminished ability to process landmark permanence may be a contributory factor to sub-optimal navigation, and could be related to the level of retrosplenial cortex engagement. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationships between the Advertising Appeal and Behavioral Intention: The Mediating role of the Attitude towards Advertising Appeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raza Syed Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The link between the advertising appeal, attitude and behavioral intention is dynamic in nature, however, little research has been pursued towards explaining the mediating role of attitude towards the advertising in link of the advertising appeal with the behavioral intention. Researchers have identified the importance of the attitude in the connection of the advertising appeal within the framework of the (TPB which remains unaddressed in the explicating the mediation of the attitude in relationship of advertising appeal and behavioral intention. This paper aims to provide insight of the attitude towards the advertising as the mediating factor in explaining the relationship between the advertising appeal and behavioral intention. In addition, this paper is only a theoretical exploration, it is expected that this work lead towards an explanation of the mediating role of the attitude to address the relation of advertising appeal and intention which may be studied further to determine the empirical finding about the other dynamic of the (TPB.

  5. The transient radiation effects and hardness of programmed device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Chuanhua; Xu Xianguo; Zhao Hailin

    2014-01-01

    A review and summary of research and development in the investigation of transient ionizing radiation effects in device and cirviut is presented. The transient ionizing radiation effects in two type of programmed device, that's 32 bit Microcontroller and antifuse FPGA, were studied. The expeiment test data indicate: The transient ionizing radiation effects of 32 bit Microcontroller manifested self-motion restart and Latchup, the Latchup threshold was 5 × 10"7 Gy (Si)/s. The transient ionizing radiation effects of FPGA was reset, no Latchup. The relationship of circuit effects to physical mechanisms was analized. A new method of hardness in circiut design was put forward. (authors)

  6. Transient Ischemic Attack Caused by Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Emre

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Transient Ischemic Attack Caused by Iron Deficiency Anemia Transient ischemic attacks are episodes of transient focal ischemia involving the brain or brainstem. They are commonly two to thirty minutes in duration and lasting less than 24 hours. Anemia of iron deficiency isn’t frequently cause for transient ischemic attack. It has been reported as a risk factor for childhood ischemic strokes. In the iron deficiency anemia, T‹A may develop as result of hypercoagulable state and increased viscosity that is caused by anemic hypoxia that is result of reduce hemoglobine level, seconder thrombosis and microcytose As iron deficiency anemia has been reported so rarely in adult patients with transient ischemic attacks as a cause, we aimed to discuss the clinical and outcome features of two cases with iron deficiency anemia and transient ischemic attacks in this study. Materials and methods: Routine neurologic examination, biochemical screen, serological tests, vasculitic markers, thyroid function tests, vitamin B 12 level, cranial imaging, vertebral carotid doppler USG examination was conducted in the two patients. Anemia of iron deficiency was found as the only risk factor for TIA and the two patients were treated with replacement of iron and antiagregan therapy. Neurological examination revealed no abnormality through the two years of follow-up. The iron deficiency anemia may be cause of many neurologic problems such a irritability, lethargy, headache, development retardation except from T‹A. In the iron deficiency anemia, early diagnosis and treatment is important

  7. Preliminary Evaluations of CSPACE for a Station Blackout Transient in APR1400

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T. B.; Lee, D. K.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, G. W.; Choi, T. S. [KEPCO, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, R. J.; Kim, D. H. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This paper discusses the preliminary results of the simulated station blackout (SBO) transients using the CSPACE code and presents the information pertinent to the related safety issues. CSPACE is a merged program of a master processer of Safety and Performance Analysis Code (SPACE) for nuclear power plants and a child processer of Core Meltdown Progression Accident Simulation Software (COMPASS) generated as a dynamic-link library (DLL) codes. It has been developed to predict the best-estimate transient in the pressurized water reactor (PWR) for severe accidents. SPACE and COMPASS codes take charge of the thermal-hydraulic response of PWRs and the analysis of the severe accident progression in a vessel, respectively. The initial phase is estimated starting from time zero when the loss of off-site and on-site powers occurs simultaneously. Shortly after the RCS pressure initially falls and rises slightly due to the effects of the reactor and turbine trips, the RCS pressure declines in response to the cooling provided by heat removed to the SGs. During the period of the primary heat-up and boil-off, the RCS pressure increase is limited by two cycles of the POSRV. The RCS fluid mass is lost through the pressurizer POSRV and then the core uncovers and superheated steam flows out from the RV into the coolant loops starting at 5513.0 seconds.

  8. Self-Regulation Mediates the Link between Family Context and Socioemotional Competence in Turkish Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Gizem; Yagmurlu, Bilge; Harma, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: In this study, we examined self-regulatory skills, namely, effortful control and executive function, in Turkish preschoolers (N = 217) and their mediating roles in the associations between parenting and children's socioemotional competence. We also investigated the role of family socioeconomic status and maternal psychological…

  9. High temperature transient deformation of mixed oxide fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slagle, O.D.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present recent experimental results on fuel creep under transient conditions at high temperatures. The effect of temperature, stress, heating rate, density and grain size were considered. An empirical formulation is derived for the relationship between strain, stress, temperature and heating rate. This relationship provides a means for incorporating stress relief into the analysis of fuel-cladding interaction during an overpower transient. The effect of sample density and initial grain size is considered by varying the sample parameters. Previously derived steady-state creep relationships for the high temperature creep of mixed oxide fuel were combined with the time dependency of creep found for UO 2 to calculate a transient creep relationship for mixed oxide fuel. These calculated results were found to be in good agreement with the measured high temperature transient creep results

  10. Response of steam-water mixtures to pressure transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    During the transition phase of a hypothetical core-disruptive accident in a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor, melting fuel-steel mixtures may begin to boil, resulting in a two-phase mixture of molten reactor fuel and steel vapor. Dispersal of this mixture by pressure transients may prevent recriticality of the fuel material. This paper describes the results of a series of experiments that investigated the response of two-phase mixtures to pressure transients. Simulant fluids (steam/water) were used in a transparent 10.2-cm-dia, 63.5-cm-long acrylic tube. The pressure transient was provided by releasing pressurized nitrogen from a supply tank. The data obtained are in the form of pressure-time records and high-speed movies. The varied parameters are initial void fraction (10% and 40%) and transient pressure magnitude (3.45 and 310 kPa)

  11. Transient analysis for PWR reactor core using neural networks predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueray, B.S.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, transient analysis for a Pressurized Water Reactor core has been performed. A lumped parameter approximation is preferred for that purpose, to describe the reactor core together with mechanism which play an important role in dynamic analysis. The dynamic behavior of the reactor core during transients is analyzed considering the transient initiating events, wich are an essential part of Safety Analysis Reports. several transients are simulated based on the employed core model. Simulation results are in accord the physical expectations. A neural network is developed to predict the future response of the reactor core, in advance. The neural network is trained using the simulation results of a number of representative transients. Structure of the neural network is optimized by proper selection of transfer functions for the neurons. Trained neural network is used to predict the future responses following an early observation of the changes in system variables. Estimated behaviour using the neural network is in good agreement with the simulation results for various for types of transients. Results of this study indicate that the designed neural network can be used as an estimator of the time dependent behavior of the reactor core under transient conditions

  12. Use of plant operating history to define transient loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedy, K.K.

    1996-01-01

    Fatigue and crack growth analyses of components subjected to transient loads have been under continuous development during the recent past to include effects of environment on the components. The accuracy of the evaluation method on the predicted reliability of the components in the operating environment has become a focus of attention. Methods have integrated available material/component test data to improve evaluation techniques. However, in the area of definition of thermal transient loads the analyst still has to remain conservative, because no realistic guidelines have been developed to define thermal transients and their sequences. Fatigue re-evaluations of components are becoming increasingly necessary in operating plants as they age due to two reasons: (1) Components show age related degradation and cannot be repaired/replaced due to economic/logistic reasons. (2) Components experience transient conditions which were not considered in the original design. In either case, the evaluation of remaining life of components involves definition of transients and their sequence from the time the component was put in service until the end of life. As a common practice, initial plant design transients are used in a conservative definition of sequences to obtain results unrealistic for the situation, which sometimes leads to inaccurate estimate of the remaining life of components. The objective of this paper is to use plant operating history and plant monitoring data to provide procedures and techniques to define realistic transients for evaluation

  13. Future Expectations, Attitude Toward Violence, and Bullying Perpetration During Early Adolescence: A Mediation Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Sarah A; Varela, Jorge J; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2015-01-01

    Hopeful future expectations have been linked to positive developmental outcomes in adolescence; however, the association between future expectations and bullying perpetration has received less attention. We examined the relationship between future expectations and physical and relational bullying perpetration and tested a mediation model that linked future expectations with bullying through attitude toward violence. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationship between future expectations and bullying perpetration (relational and physical) and to test whether these relationships were mediated by attitude toward violence in a sample of U.S. seventh-grade students (Mage = 12.86 years, N = 196, 60% female, 46% African American). Attitude toward violence fully mediated the relationship between future expectations and physical bullying (indirect effects = -0.08, 95% CI [-0.15, -0.01], R = .17). The relationship between future expectations and relational bullying was partially mediated by attitudes toward violence (indirect effects = -0.07, 95% CI [-0.14, -0.002], R = .20). Our findings suggest that future expectations can play a role in reducing attitude toward violence and physical and relational bullying perpetration among youth. Interventions that help support the development of future goals and aspirations could play a vital role in bullying prevention efforts.

  14. Analysis of control alternatives for offshore wind farms connected through a VSC-HVDC link

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belenguer, Enrique; Vidal, Ricardo; Beltran, Hector [Jaume I Univ., Castellon de la Plana (Spain). Dept. of Industrial Engineering Systems; Blasco-Gimenez, Ramon [Univ. Politecnica de Valencia (Spain). Dept. of Systems Engineering and Control

    2012-07-01

    The use of VSC-HVDC transmission systems for the connection of offshore wind power plants increases the control capabilities of the whole system with respect to the use of standard LCC-HVDC systems. In this paper two different control strategies for an offshore wind farm connected through a VSC-HVDC link have been developed and analyzed through PSCAD simulations. Both, steady state and transient behavior have been simulated in order to find the best control strategy for such a system. (orig.)

  15. Experimental Setup with Transient Behavior of Fuel Cladding of SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sang Hun; Kim, Jun Hwan; Kim, June-Hyung; Ryu, Woo Seog; Park, Sang Gyu; Kim, Sung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Nowadays, in Korea, advanced cladding such as FC92 is developed and its transient behaviors are required for the safety analysis of SFR. Design and safety analyses of sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) require understanding fuel pin responses to a wide range of off-normal events. In a loss-of-flow (LOF) or transient over-power (TOP), the temperature of the cladding is rapidly increased above its steady-state service temperature. Transient tests have been performed in sections of fuel pin cladding and a large data base has been established for austenitic stainless steel such as 20% cold-worked 316 SS and ferritic/martensitic steels such as HT9. This paper summarizes the technical status of transient testing facilities and their results. Previous researches showed the transient behaviors of HT9 cladding. For the safety analyses in SFR in Korea, simulated transient tests with newly developed FC92 as well as HT9 cladding are being carried out.

  16. One nuclear calcium transient induced by a single burst of action potentials represents the minimum signal strength in activity-dependent transcription in hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan; Oberlaender, Kristin; Bengtson, C Peter; Bading, Hilmar

    2017-07-01

    Neurons undergo dramatic changes in their gene expression profiles in response to synaptic stimulation. The coupling of neuronal excitation to gene transcription is well studied and is mediated by signaling pathways activated by cytoplasmic and nuclear calcium transients. Despite this, the minimum synaptic activity required to induce gene expression remains unknown. To address this, we used cultured hippocampal neurons and cellular compartment analysis of temporal activity by fluorescence in situ hybridization (catFISH) that allows detection of nascent transcripts in the cell nucleus. We found that a single burst of action potentials, consisting of 24.4±5.1 action potentials during a 6.7±1.9s depolarization of 19.5±2.0mV causing a 9.3±0.9s somatic calcium transient, is sufficient to activate transcription of the immediate early gene arc (also known as Arg3.1). The total arc mRNA yield produced after a single burst-induced nuclear calcium transient was very small and, compared to unstimulated control neurons, did not lead to a significant increase in arc mRNA levels measured using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) of cell lysates. Significantly increased arc mRNA levels became detectable in hippocampal neurons that had undergone 5-8 consecutive burst-induced nuclear calcium transients at 0.05-0.15Hz. These results indicate that a single burst-induced nuclear calcium transient can activate gene expression and that transcription is rapidly shut off after synaptic stimulation has ceased. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Social networks and health among older adults in Lebanon: the mediating role of support and trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Noah J; Antonucci, Toni C; Ajrouch, Kristine J; Abdulrahim, Sawsan

    2015-01-01

    Despite a growing body of literature documenting the influence of social networks on health, less is known in other parts of the world. The current study investigates this link by clustering characteristics of network members nominated by older adults in Lebanon. We then identify the degree to which various types of people exist within the networks. This study further examines how network composition as measured by the proportion of each type (i.e., type proportions) is related to health; and the mediating role of positive support and trust in this process. Data are from the Family Ties and Aging Study (2009). Respondents aged ≥60 were selected (N = 195) for analysis. Three types of people within the networks were identified: Geographically Distant Male Youth, Geographically Close/Emotionally Distant Family, and Close Family. Having more Geographically Distant Male Youth in one's network was associated with health limitations, whereas more Close Family was associated with no health limitations. Positive support mediated the link between type proportions and health limitations, whereas trust mediated the link between type proportions and depressive symptoms. Results document links between the social networks and health of older adults in Lebanon within the context of ongoing demographic transitions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. VO2 OFF TRANSIENT KINETICS IN EXTREME INTENSITY SWIMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sousa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Inconsistencies about dynamic asymmetry between the on- and off- transient responses in oxygen uptake are found in the literature. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to characterize the oxygen uptake off-transient kinetics during a maximal 200-m front crawl effort, as examining the degree to which the on/off regularity of the oxygen uptake kinetics response was preserved. Eight high level male swimmers performed a 200-m front crawl at maximal speed during which oxygen uptake was directly measured through breath-by-breath oxymetry (averaged every 5 s. This apparatus was connected to the swimmer by a low hydrodynamic resistance respiratory snorkel and valve system. Results: The on- and off-transient phases were symmetrical in shape (mirror image once they were adequately fitted by a single-exponential regression models, and no slow component for the oxygen uptake response was developed. Mean (± SD peak oxygen uptake was 69.0 (± 6.3 mL·kg-1·min-1, significantly correlated with time constant of the off- transient period (r = 0.76, p < 0.05 but not with any of the other oxygen off-transient kinetic parameters studied. A direct relationship between time constant of the off-transient period and mean swimming speed of the 200-m (r = 0.77, p < 0.05, and with the amplitude of the fast component of the effort period (r = 0.72, p < 0.05 were observed. The mean amplitude and time constant of the off-transient period values were significantly greater than the respective on- transient. In conclusion, although an asymmetry between the on- and off kinetic parameters was verified, both the 200-m effort and the respectively recovery period were better characterized by a single exponential regression model

  19. Core-Collapse Supernova Progenitors In The Era Of Untargeted Transient Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Nathan Edward

    2014-04-01

    Core-collapse supernovae (SNe) are the highly energetic explosions of massive stars (≳ 8 M⊙) that are pervasive in their influence throughout astrophysics. They are the phenomenon with primary responsibility for enriching the universe with many of the heavy elements (like carbon and oxygen) that are needed for life, provide a critical feedback pressure which helps to shape the galaxies that host them, and are the likely formation mechanism for stellar mass black holes. In the past decade, the study of these explosions has been revolutionized by the advent of wide field, untargeted transient searches like Pan-STARRS1 (PS1). These new searches permit the discovery of SNe at unprecedented rates, and absent of many of the selection effects that have enforced biases on past, targeted transient searches. This thesis presents a broad survey of core-collapse SN phenomenology exhibited in the discoveries of untargeted searches, and statistically quantifies population properties of these explosions that link them to distinct classes of progenitor stars. Through studies of the host galaxy and explosion properties of extreme PS1-discovered events, and controlled samples of specific classes of core-collapse objects, we constrain the effect of progenitor star chemical composition (metallicity) on their eventual death states. We provide a new observational, photometric tool which lowers the cost of precisely and accurately measuring the metallicities of distant galaxies and supernova host environments. Moreover, we develop and apply a novel, multi-level Bayesian model for optical transient light curves which we apply to simultaneously interpret more than 20,000 PS1 images. This study illustrates how population-level modeling of data from large photometric surveys can yield improved physical inference on their progenitor stars through comparison to physical models. In the coming era, as next-generation facilities like the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope come online, the

  20. Muscle intermediate filaments and their links to membranes and membranous organelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capetanaki, Yassemi; Bloch, Robert J.; Kouloumenta, Asimina; Mavroidis, Manolis; Psarras, Stelios

    2007-01-01

    Intermediate filaments (IFs) play a key role in the integration of structure and function of striated muscle, primarily by mediating mechanochemical links between the contractile apparatus and mitochondria, myonuclei, the sarcolemma and potentially the vesicle trafficking apparatus. Linkage of all these membranous structures to the contractile apparatus, mainly through the Z-disks, supports the integration and coordination of growth and energy demands of the working myocyte, not only with force transmission, but also with de novo gene expression, energy production and efficient protein and lipid trafficking and targeting. Desmin, the most abundant and intensively studied muscle intermediate filament protein, is linked to proper costamere organization, myoblast and stem cell fusion and differentiation, nuclear shape and positioning, as well as mitochondrial shape, structure, positioning and function. Similar links have been established for lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles, consistent with the presence of widespread links between IFs and membranous structures and the regulation of their fusion, morphology and stabilization necessary for cell survival

  1. Simulation of photoreactive transients and of photochemical transformation of organic pollutants in sunlit boreal lakes across 14 degrees of latitude: A photochemical mapping of Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Birgit; Barsotti, Francesco; Minella, Marco; Landelius, Tomas; Minero, Claudio; Tranvik, Lars J; Vione, Davide

    2018-02-01

    Lake water constituents, such as chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and nitrate, absorb sunlight which induces an array of photochemical reactions. Although these reactions are a substantial driver of pollutant degradation in lakes they are insufficiently understood, in particular on large scales. Here, we provide for the first time comprehensive photochemical maps covering a large geographic region. Using photochemical kinetics modeling for 1048 lakes across Sweden we simulated the steady-state concentrations of four photoreactive transient species, which are continuously produced and consumed in sunlit lake waters. We then simulated the transient-induced photochemical transformation of organic pollutants, to gain insight into the relevance of the different photoreaction pathways. We found that boreal lakes were often unfavorable environments for photoreactions mediated by hydroxyl radicals (OH) and carbonate radical anions (CO 3 - ), while photoreactions mediated by CDOM triplet states ( 3 CDOM*) and, to a lesser extent, singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) were the most prevalent. These conditions promote the photodegradation of phenols, which are used as plastic, medical drug and herbicide precursors. When CDOM concentrations increase, as is currently commonly the case in boreal areas such as Sweden, 3 CDOM* will also increase, promoting its importance in photochemical pathways even more. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. On transient events in the upper atmosphere generated away of thunderstorm regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozenko, V.; Garipov, G.; Khrenov, B.; Klimov, P.; Panasyuk, M.; Sharakin, S.; Zotov, M.

    2011-12-01

    Experimental data on transient events in UV and Red-IR ranges obtained in the MSU missions "Unversitetsky-Tatiana" (wavelengths 300-400 nm) and "Unversitetsky-Tatiana-2" (wavelengths 300-400 nm and 600-800 nm), published by Garipov et al, in 2010 at COSPAR session http://www.cospar2010.org, at TEPA conference http://www.aragats.am/Conferences/tepa2010 and in 2011 by Sadovnichy et al, Solar System Research, 45, #1, 3-29 (2011); Vedenkin et al, JETP, v. 140, issue 3(9), 1-11 (2011) demonstrated existence of transients at large distances (up to thousands km) away of cloud thunderstorm regions. Those "remote" transients are short (1-5 msec) and are less luminous than the transients above thunderstorm regions. The ratio of Red-IR to UV photon numbers in those transients indicates high altitude of their origin (~70 km). Important observation facts are also: 1. a change of the exponent in transient distribution on luminosity Q ("-1" for photon numbers Q=1020 -1023 to "-2" for Q>1023), 2. a change of global distribution of transient with their luminosity (transients with Q>1023 are concentrated in equatorial range above continents, while transients with low luminosity are distributed more uniformly), 3. a phenomenon of transient sequences in one satellite orbit which is close to geomagnetic meridian. In the present paper phenomenological features of transients are explained in assumption that the observed transients have to be divided in two classes: 1. transients related to local, lower in the atmosphere, lightning at distance not more than hundreds km from satellite detector field of view in the atmosphere and 2. transients generated by far away lightning. Local transients are luminous and presumably are events called "transient luminous events" (TLE). In distribution on luminosity those events have some threshold Q~1023 and their differential luminosity distribution is approximated by power law exponent "-2". Remote transients have to be considered separately. Their

  3. Rejection Sensitivity Mediates the Relationship between Social Anxiety and Body Dysmorphic Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Angela; Asnaani, Anu; Gutner, Cassidy; Cook, Courtney; Wilhelm, Sabine; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the role of rejection sensitivity in the relationship between social anxiety and body dysmorphic concerns. To test our hypothesis that rejection sensitivity mediates the link between social anxiety and body dysmorphic concerns, we administered self-report questionnaires to 209 student volunteers. Consistent with our prediction, rejection sensitivity partially mediated the relationship between social anxiety symptoms and body dysmorphic concerns. The implications of the overlap between these constructs are discussed. PMID:21741203

  4. Transient fault tolerant control for vehicle brake-by-wire systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Shuang; Zhou, Chunjie; Yang, Lili; Qin, Yuanqing; Huang, Xiongfeng; Hu, Bowen

    2016-01-01

    Brake-by-wire (BBW) systems that have no mechanical linkage between the brake pedal and the brake mechanism are expected to improve vehicle safety through better braking capability. However, transient faults in BBW systems can cause dangerous driving situations. Most existing research in this area focuses on the brake control mechanism, but very few studies try to solve the problem associated with transient fault propagation and evolution in the brake control system hierarchy. In this paper, a hierarchical transient fault tolerant scheme with embedded intelligence and resilient coordination for BBW system is proposed based on the analysis of transient fault propagation characteristics. In this scheme, most transient faults are tackled rapidly by a signature-based detection method at the node level, and the remaining transient faults, which cannot be detected directly at the node level and could degrade the system performance through fault propagation and evolution, are detected and recovered through function and structure models at the system level. To jointly accommodate these BBW transient faults at the system level, a sliding mode control algorithm and a task reallocation strategy are designed. A simulation platform based on Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) is established to evaluate the task reallocation strategy, and a hardware-in-the-loop simulation is carried out to validate the proposed scheme systematically. Experimental results show the effectiveness of this new approach to BBW systems. - Highlights: • We propose a hierarchical transient fault tolerant scheme for BBW systems. • A sliding mode algorithm and a task strategy are designed to tackle transient fault. • The effectiveness of the scheme is verified in both simulation and HIL environments.

  5. Gain reduction measurements in transient stimulated Raman scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeman, R.J.; Godfried, H.P

    1995-01-01

    Threshold energy measurements of transient rotational stimulated Raman scattering are compared to Raman conversion calculations from semiclassical theories using a simple concept of a gain reduction factor which expresses the reduction of the gain from its steady-state value due to transient

  6. The relationship between line manager behavior, perceived HRM practices and individual performance : Examining the mediating role of engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfes, K.; Truss, C.; Soane, E.; Rees, C.; Gatenby, M.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the role played by line managers in the link between HRM practices and individual performance outcomes. Drawing on social exchange theory, the authors test a mediated model linking perceived line manager behavior and perceived human resource management practices with employee

  7. Characterization of electrical appliances in transient state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Augustyn; Winiecki, Wiesław

    2017-08-01

    The article contains the study about electrical appliance characterization on the basis of power grid signals. To represent devices, parameters of current and voltage signals recorded during transient states are used. In this paper only transients occurring as a result of switching on devices are considered. The way of data acquisition performed in specialized measurement setup developed for electricity load monitoring is described. The paper presents the method of transients detection and the method of appliance parameters calculation. Using the set of acquired measurement data and appropriate software the set of parameters for several household appliances operating in different operating conditions was processed. Usefulness of appliances characterization in Non-Intrusive Appliance Load Monitoring System (NIALMS) with the use of proposed method is discussed focusing on obtained results.

  8. Radio and white-light observations of coronal transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulk, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    Optical, radio and X-ray evidence of violent mass motions in the corona has existed for some years but only recently have the form, nature, frequency and implication of the transients become obvious. The author reviews the observed properties of coronal transients, concentrating on the white-light and radio manifestations. The classification according to speeds seems to be meaningful, with the slow transients having thermal emissions at radio wavelengths and the fast ones non-thermal. The possible mechanisms involved in the radio bursts are discussed and the estimates of various forms of energy are reviewed. It appears that the magnetic energy transported from the Sun by the transient exceeds that of any other form, and that magnetic forces dominate in the dynamics of the motions. The conversion of magnetic energy into mechanical energy, by expansion of the fields, provides a possible driving force for the coronal and interplanetary shock waves. (Auth.)

  9. Feedback Inhibition of Starch Degradation in Arabidopsis Leaves Mediated by Trehalose 6-Phosphate1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Marina Camara Mattos; Hejazi, Mahdi; Fettke, Joerg; Steup, Martin; Feil, Regina; Krause, Ursula; Arrivault, Stéphanie; Vosloh, Daniel; Figueroa, Carlos María; Ivakov, Alexander; Yadav, Umesh Prasad; Piques, Maria; Metzner, Daniela; Stitt, Mark; Lunn, John Edward

    2013-01-01

    Many plants accumulate substantial starch reserves in their leaves during the day and remobilize them at night to provide carbon and energy for maintenance and growth. In this paper, we explore the role of a sugar-signaling metabolite, trehalose-6-phosphate (Tre6P), in regulating the accumulation and turnover of transitory starch in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves. Ethanol-induced overexpression of trehalose-phosphate synthase during the day increased Tre6P levels up to 11-fold. There was a transient increase in the rate of starch accumulation in the middle of the day, but this was not linked to reductive activation of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. A 2- to 3-fold increase in Tre6P during the night led to significant inhibition of starch degradation. Maltose and maltotriose did not accumulate, suggesting that Tre6P affects an early step in the pathway of starch degradation in the chloroplasts. Starch granules isolated from induced plants had a higher orthophosphate content than granules from noninduced control plants, consistent either with disruption of the phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle that is essential for efficient starch breakdown or with inhibition of starch hydrolysis by β-amylase. Nonaqueous fractionation of leaves showed that Tre6P is predominantly located in the cytosol, with estimated in vivo Tre6P concentrations of 4 to 7 µm in the cytosol, 0.2 to 0.5 µm in the chloroplasts, and 0.05 µm in the vacuole. It is proposed that Tre6P is a component in a signaling pathway that mediates the feedback regulation of starch breakdown by sucrose, potentially linking starch turnover to demand for sucrose by growing sink organs at night. PMID:24043444

  10. Transient selection in multicellular immune networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanchenko, M. V.

    2011-03-01

    We analyze the dynamics of a multi-clonotype naive T-cell population competing for survival signals from antigen-presenting cells. We find that this competition provides with an efficacious selection of clonotypes, making the less able and more repetitive get extinct. We uncover the scaling principles for large systems the extinction rate obeys and calibrate the model parameters to their experimental counterparts. For the first time, we estimate the physiological values of the T-cell receptor-antigen presentation profile recognition probability and T-cell clonotypes niche overlap. We demonstrate that, while the ultimate state is a stable fixed point, sequential transients dominate the dynamics over large timescales that may span over years, if not decades, in real time. We argue that what is currently viewed as "homeostasis" is a complex sequential transient process, while being quasi-stationary in the total number of T-cells only. The discovered type of sequential transient dynamics in large random networks is a novel alternative to the stable heteroclinic channel mechanism.

  11. Turbofan compressor dynamics during afterburner transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkov, A. P.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of afterburner light-off and shut-down transients on the compressor stability are investigated. The reported experimental results are based on detailed high response pressure and temperature measurements on the TF30-P-3 turbofan engine. The tests were performed in an altitude test chamber simulating high altitude engine operation. It is shown that during both types of transients, flow breaks down in the forward part of the fan bypass duct. At a sufficiently low engine inlet pressure this resulted in a compressor stall. Complete flow breakdown within the compressor was preceded by a rotating stall. At some locations in the compressor, rotating stall cells initially extended only through part of the blade span. For the shutdown transient the time between first and last detected occurrence of rotating stall is related to the flow Reynolds number. An attempt was made to deduce the number and speed of propagation of rotating stall cells.

  12. Self-Stigma Mediates the Impact of Insight on Current Suicide Ideation in Suicide Attempters with Schizophrenia: Results of a Moderated Mediation Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Yin-Ju; Chang, Hsin-An; Kao, Yu-Chen; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Loh, Ching-Hui

    2017-09-04

    This study examined the relationships among insight, self-stigma, self-esteem, hope, quality of life, and suicidal behavior in individuals diagnosed as having schizophrenia. Hypotheses concerning mediating and moderating effects were examined. A total of 170 community-dwelling patients with schizophrenia participated in the study. The results revealed a negative association between insight and suicide ideation, which was partially mediated by self-stigma. Moreover, this indirect link was stronger among patients with suicide attempts than among those without attempts. We discuss the implications of these results for preventing or reducing the considerable risks of suicide in this population. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.

  13. Impulsivity as a mechanism linking child abuse and neglect with substance use in adolescence and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Kogan, Steve M; Kwon, Josephine A; Wickrama, K A S; Vanderbroek, Lauren; Palmer, Abraham A; MacKillop, James

    2018-05-01

    Emerging developmental perspectives suggest that adverse rearing environments promote neurocognitive adaptations that heighten impulsivity and increase vulnerability to risky behavior. Although studies document links between harsh rearing environments and impulsive behavior on substance use, the developmental hypothesis that impulsivity acts as mechanism linking adverse rearing environments to downstream substance use remains to be investigated. The present study investigated the role of impulsivity in linking child abuse and neglect with adult substance use using data from (a) a longitudinal sample of youth (Study 1, N = 9,421) and (b) a cross-sectional sample of adults (Study 2, N = 1,011). In Study 1, the links between child abuse and neglect and young adult smoking and marijuana use were mediated by increases in adolescent impulsivity. In Study 2, indirect links between child abuse and neglect and substance use were evidenced via delayed reward discounting and impulsivity traits. Among impulsivity subcomponents, robust indirect effects connecting childhood experiences to cigarette use emerged for negative urgency. Negative urgency, positive urgency, and sensation seeking mediated the effect of child abuse and neglect on cannabis and alcohol use. Results suggest that child abuse and neglect increases risk for substance use in part, due to effects on impulsivity. Individuals with adverse childhood experiences may benefit from substance use preventive intervention programs that target impulsive behaviors.

  14. Study and program implementation of transient curves' piecewise linearization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yang; Zu Hongbiao

    2014-01-01

    Background: Transient curves are essential for the stress analysis of related equipment in nuclear power plant (NPP). The actually operating data or the design transient data of a NPP usually consist of a large number of data points with very short time intervals. To simplify the analysis, transient curves are generally piecewise linearized in advance. Up to now, the piecewise linearization of transient curves is accomplished manually, Purpose: The aim is to develop a method for the piecewise linearization of transient curves, and to implement it by programming. Methods: First of all, the fitting line of a number of data points was obtained by the least square method. The segment of the fitting line is set while the accumulation error of linearization exceeds the preset limit with the increasing number of points. Then the linearization of subsequent data points was begun from the last point of the preceding curve segment to get the next segment in the same way, and continue until the final data point involved. Finally, averaging of junction points is taken for the segment connection. Results: A computer program named PLTC (Piecewise Linearization for Transient Curves) was implemented and verified by the linearization of the standard sine curve and typical transient curves of a NPP. Conclusion: The method and the PLTC program can be well used to the piecewise linearization of transient curves, with improving efficiency and precision. (authors)

  15. Physical Activity and Health Perception in Aging: Do Body Mass and Satisfaction Matter? A Three-Path Mediated Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condello, Giancarlo; Capranica, Laura; Stager, Joel; Forte, Roberta; Falbo, Simone; Di Baldassarre, Angela; Segura-Garcia, Cristina; Pesce, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Although ageing people could benefit from healthy diet and physical activity to maintain health and quality of life, further understandings of the diet- and physical activity-related mechanisms that may cause changes in health and quality of life perception are necessary. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of eating attitudes, body mass and image satisfaction, and exercise dependence in the relationship between physical activity and health and quality of life perception in older individuals. Hundred and seventy-nine late middle-aged, (55-64 yrs), young-old (65-74 yrs), and old (75-84 yrs) senior athletes (n = 56), physically active (n = 58) or sedentary adults (n = 65) were submitted to anthropometric evaluations (body mass, height) and self-reported questionnaires: Body Image Dimensional Assessment, Exercise Dependence Scale, Eating Attitude Test, and Short Form Health Survey (Physical Component Summary [PCS] and Mental Component Summary [MCS] of and health and quality of life perception). Senior athletes, physically active, and sedentary participants subgroups differed (Psatisfaction. Findings confirm the relevant role of physically active life habits for older individuals to perceive good physical and mental health. The novelty of the three-path mediated link between physical activity level and mental health perception suggests that the beneficial effect of a physically active lifestyle on weight control can positively impinge on the cognitive-emotional dimension of mental health by ensuring the maintenance, also at older age, of a satisfactory body image.

  16. O-Linked N-Acetylglucosamine Transiently Elevates in HeLa Cells during Mitosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktória Fisi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc is a dynamic post-translational modification of serine and threonine residues on nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. O-GlcNAc modification influences many cellular mechanisms, including carbohydrate metabolism, signal transduction and protein degradation. Multiple studies also showed that cell cycle might be modulated by O-GlcNAc. Although the role of O-GlcNAc in the regulation of some cell cycle processes such as mitotic spindle organization or histone phosphorylation is well established, the general behaviour of O-GlcNAc regulation during cell cycle is still controversial. In this study, we analysed the dynamic changes of overall O-GlcNAc levels in HeLa cells using double thymidine block. O-GlcNAc levels in G1, S, G2 and M phase were measured. We observed that O-GlcNAc levels are significantly increased during mitosis in comparison to the other cell cycle phases. However, this change could only be detected when mitotic cells were enriched by harvesting round shaped cells from the G2/M fraction of the synchronized cells. Our data verify that O-GlcNAc is elevated during mitosis, but also emphasize that O-GlcNAc levels can significantly change in a short period of time. Thus, selection and collection of cells at specific cell-cycle checkpoints is a challenging, but necessary requirement for O-GlcNAc studies.

  17. The mediating role of job satisfaction between leader-member exchange and turnover intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guohong Helen; Jekel, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether job satisfaction mediates between leader-member exchange and nurse turnover intentions. Limited knowledge is available on the mediating role of job satisfaction between leader-member exchange and turnover intentions in the nursing field. This is a cross-sectional survey study. Data were collected in a US hospital. Higher leader-member exchange was associated with lower turnover intentions (β=-0.41, PLeader-member exchange was positively related to one's job satisfaction (β=0.50, Pleader-member exchange and job satisfaction were both controlled for, the link between leader-member exchange and turnover intentions was no longer significant (β=-0.12, P>0.05). Job satisfaction mediates the link between leader-member exchange and turnover intentions. The present study reinforces the significant role of managers. Nurse managers can try to cultivate a good relationship with the nurses. This can enhance nurses' job satisfaction and in turn lower their turnover intentions. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Novel covalently linked insulin dimer engineered to investigate the function of insulin dimerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Tine N.; Norrman, Mathias; Strauss, Holger M.

    2012-01-01

    An ingenious system evolved to facilitate insulin binding to the insulin receptor as a monomer and at the same time ensure sufficient stability of insulin during storage. Insulin dimer is the cornerstone of this system. Insulin dimer is relatively weak, which ensures dissociation into monomers...... in the circulation, and it is stabilized by hexamer formation in the presence of zinc ions during storage in the pancreatic ß-cell. Due to the transient nature of insulin dimer, direct investigation of this important form is inherently difficult. To address the relationship between insulin oligomerization...... and insulin stability and function, we engineered a covalently linked insulin dimer in which two monomers were linked by a disulfide bond. The structure of this covalent dimer was identical to the self-association dimer of human insulin. Importantly, this covalent dimer was capable of further oligomerization...

  19. Parental bonding and depression: personality as a mediating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avagianou, Penelope-Alexia; Zafiropoulou, Maria

    2008-01-01

    According to Bowlby's theory of attachment, the role of early experience and parenting is of crucial importance to child development and mental health. In addition, several research findings suggest that parental bonding and different types of attachment play a crucial role in personality development. The present study examines the association between parental bonding experiences (lack of parental care, overprotection or both) and depression during adulthood. The objective of the present study was to evaluate different personality dimensions as possible mediators of the relation between perceptions of parental bonding and depressive symptoms in adult life. 181 participants (15- 49-years-old) completed the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF). The results show that lack of parental care and overprotection is linked with depressive symptoms and a number of personality characteristics, such as low self-esteem, introversion, distress and emotional instability. In contrast, high care and low protection (optimal bonding) is linked with increased self-confidence, less distress and less depressive symptoms. The results presented here are in line with Bowlby's theory of attachment and show that parental bonding is linked with problematic personality development and psychopathology. The present study provided evidence that personality factors may mediate the observed relationship between parental rearing style and depression. The potential causal mechanisms warrant longitudinal evaluation.

  20. OGLE-IV Transient Search report 26 August 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrzykowski, L.; Sitek, M.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Udalski, A.; K