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Sample records for mediated protein-protein attraction

  1. Catching the PEG-induced attractive interaction between proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivarès, D; Belloni, L; Tardieu, A; Bonneté, F

    2002-09-01

    We present the experimental and theoretical background of a method to characterize the protein-protein attractive potential induced by one of the mostly used crystallizing agents in the protein-field, the poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). This attractive interaction is commonly called, in colloid physics, the depletion interaction. Small-Angle X-ray Scattering experiments and numerical treatments based on liquid-state theories were performed on urate oxidase-PEG mixtures with two different PEGs (3350 Da and 8000 Da). A "two-component" approach was used in which the polymer-polymer, the protein-polymer and the protein-protein pair potentials were determined. The resulting effective protein-protein potential was characterized. This potential is the sum of the free-polymer protein-protein potential and of the PEG-induced depletion potential. The depletion potential was found to be hardly dependent upon the protein concentration but strongly function of the polymer size and concentration. Our results were also compared with two models, which give an analytic expression for the depletion potential.

  2. Molecular simulations of lipid-mediated protein-protein interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meyer, F.J.M.; Venturoli, M.; Smit, B.

    2008-01-01

    Recent experimental results revealed that lipid-mediated interactions due to hydrophobic forces may be important in determining the protein topology after insertion in the membrane, in regulating the protein activity, in protein aggregation and in signal transduction. To gain insight into the

  3. Concentration-Induced Association in a Protein System Caused by a Highly Directional Patch Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weimin; Persson, Björn A; Lund, Mikael; Bergenholtz, Johan; Zackrisson Oskolkova, Malin

    2016-09-01

    Self-association of the protein lactoferrin is studied in solution using small-angle X-ray scattering techniques. Effective static structure factors have been shown to exhibit either a monotonic or a nonmonotonic dependence on protein concentration in the small wavevector limit, depending on salt concentration. The behavior correlates with a nonmonotonic dependence of the second virial coefficient on salt concentration, such that a maximum appears in the structure factor at a low protein concentration when the second virial coefficient is negative and close to a minimum. The results are interpreted in terms of an integral equation theory with explicit dimers, formulated by Wertheim, which provides a consistent framework able to explain the behavior in terms of a monomer-dimer equilibrium that appears because of a highly directional patch attraction. Short attraction ranges preclude trimer formation, which explains why the protein system behaves as if it were subject to a concentration-dependent isotropic protein-protein attraction. Superimposing an isotropic interaction, comprising screened Coulomb repulsion and van der Waals attraction, on the patch attraction allows for a semiquantitative modeling of the complete transition pathway from monomers in the dilute limit to monomer-dimer systems at somewhat higher protein concentrations.

  4. Proteins mediating intra- and intercellular transport of lipids and lipid-modified proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, S.

    2008-01-01

    Proteins mediating intra- and intercellular transport of lipids and lipid-modified proteins In this thesis, I studied the intra- and intercellular transport of lipidic molecules, in particular glycosphingolipids and lipid-modified proteins. The first part focuses on the intracellular transport of

  5. Novel fusion protein approach for efficient high-throughput screening of small molecule-mediating protein-protein interactions in cells and living animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Gambhir, Sanjiv S

    2005-08-15

    Networks of protein interactions execute many different intracellular pathways. Small molecules either synthesized within the cell or obtained from the external environment mediate many of these protein-protein interactions. The study of these small molecule-mediated protein-protein interactions is important in understanding abnormal signal transduction pathways in a variety of disorders, as well as in optimizing the process of drug development and validation. In this study, we evaluated the rapamycin-mediated interaction of the human proteins FK506-binding protein (FKBP12) rapamycin-binding domain (FRB) and FKBP12 by constructing a fusion of these proteins with a split-Renilla luciferase or a split enhanced green fluorescent protein (split-EGFP) such that complementation of the reporter fragments occurs in the presence of rapamycin. Different linker peptides in the fusion protein were evaluated for the efficient maintenance of complemented reporter activity. This system was studied in both cell culture and xenografts in living animals. We found that peptide linkers with two or four EAAAR repeat showed higher protein-protein interaction-mediated signal with lower background signal compared with having no linker or linkers with amino acid sequences GGGGSGGGGS, ACGSLSCGSF, and ACGSLSCGSFACGSLSCGSF. A 9 +/- 2-fold increase in signal intensity both in cell culture and in living mice was seen compared with a system that expresses both reporter fragments and the interacting proteins separately. In this fusion system, rapamycin induced heterodimerization of the FRB and FKBP12 moieties occurred rapidly even at very lower concentrations (0.00001 nmol/L) of rapamycin. For a similar fusion system employing split-EGFP, flow cytometry analysis showed significant level of rapamycin-induced complementation.

  6. HaloTag protein-mediated specific labeling of living cells with quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, Min-kyung; Yao Hequan; Rao Jianghong

    2008-01-01

    Quantum dots emerge as an attractive alternative to small molecule fluorophores as fluorescent tags for in vivo cell labeling and imaging. This communication presents a method for specific labeling of live cells using quantum dots. The labeling is mediated by HaloTag protein expressed at the cell surface which forms a stable covalent adduct with its ligand (HaloTag ligand). The labeling can be performed in one single step with quantum dot conjugates that are functionalized with HaloTag ligand, or in two steps with biotinylated HaloTag ligand first and followed by streptavidin coated quantum dots. Live cell fluorescence imaging indicates that the labeling is specific and takes place at the cell surface. This HaloTag protein-mediated cell labeling method should facilitate the application of quantum dots for live cell imaging

  7. The pepATTRACT web server for blind, large-scale peptide-protein docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Sjoerd J; Rey, Julien; Schindler, Christina E M; Zacharias, Martin; Tuffery, Pierre

    2017-07-03

    Peptide-protein interactions are ubiquitous in the cell and form an important part of the interactome. Computational docking methods can complement experimental characterization of these complexes, but current protocols are not applicable on the proteome scale. pepATTRACT is a novel docking protocol that is fully blind, i.e. it does not require any information about the binding site. In various stages of its development, pepATTRACT has participated in CAPRI, making successful predictions for five out of seven protein-peptide targets. Its performance is similar or better than state-of-the-art local docking protocols that do require binding site information. Here we present a novel web server that carries out the rigid-body stage of pepATTRACT. On the peptiDB benchmark, the web server generates a correct model in the top 50 in 34% of the cases. Compared to the full pepATTRACT protocol, this leads to some loss of performance, but the computation time is reduced from ∼18 h to ∼10 min. Combined with the fact that it is fully blind, this makes the web server well-suited for large-scale in silico protein-peptide docking experiments. The rigid-body pepATTRACT server is freely available at http://bioserv.rpbs.univ-paris-diderot.fr/services/pepATTRACT. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. Mitogen-activated protein kinases mediate Mycobacterium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... CD44, an adhesion molecule, has been reported to be a binding site for ... receptors in mediating mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. ... surface expression and tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels, ... Abbreviations used: Abs, antibodies; ANOVA, analysis of variance; AP-1, activator protein -1; BCG, ...

  9. When Heterotrimeric G Proteins Are Not Activated by G Protein-Coupled Receptors: Structural Insights and Evolutionary Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiacomo, Vincent; Marivin, Arthur; Garcia-Marcos, Mikel

    2018-01-23

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are signal-transducing switches conserved across eukaryotes. In humans, they work as critical mediators of intercellular communication in the context of virtually any physiological process. While G protein regulation by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is well-established and has received much attention, it has become recently evident that heterotrimeric G proteins can also be activated by cytoplasmic proteins. However, this alternative mechanism of G protein regulation remains far less studied than GPCR-mediated signaling. This Viewpoint focuses on recent advances in the characterization of a group of nonreceptor proteins that contain a sequence dubbed the "Gα-binding and -activating (GBA) motif". So far, four proteins present in mammals [GIV (also known as Girdin), DAPLE, CALNUC, and NUCB2] and one protein in Caenorhabditis elegans (GBAS-1) have been described as possessing a functional GBA motif. The GBA motif confers guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity on Gαi subunits in vitro and activates G protein signaling in cells. The importance of this mechanism of signal transduction is highlighted by the fact that its dysregulation underlies human diseases, such as cancer, which has made the proteins attractive new candidates for therapeutic intervention. Here we discuss recent discoveries on the structural basis of GBA-mediated activation of G proteins and its evolutionary conservation and compare them with the better-studied mechanism mediated by GPCRs.

  10. Gcn4-Mediator Specificity Is Mediated by a Large and Dynamic Fuzzy Protein-Protein Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Lisa M; Pacheco, Derek; Warfield, Linda; Luo, Jie; Ranish, Jeff; Hahn, Steven; Klevit, Rachel E

    2018-03-20

    Transcription activation domains (ADs) are inherently disordered proteins that often target multiple coactivator complexes, but the specificity of these interactions is not understood. Efficient transcription activation by yeast Gcn4 requires its tandem ADs and four activator-binding domains (ABDs) on its target, the Mediator subunit Med15. Multiple ABDs are a common feature of coactivator complexes. We find that the large Gcn4-Med15 complex is heterogeneous and contains nearly all possible AD-ABD interactions. Gcn4-Med15 forms via a dynamic fuzzy protein-protein interface, where ADs bind the ABDs in multiple orientations via hydrophobic regions that gain helicity. This combinatorial mechanism allows individual low-affinity and specificity interactions to generate a biologically functional, specific, and higher affinity complex despite lacking a defined protein-protein interface. This binding strategy is likely representative of many activators that target multiple coactivators, as it allows great flexibility in combinations of activators that can cooperate to regulate genes with variable coactivator requirements. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nuclear pore complex protein mediated nuclear localization of dicer protein in human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinari Ando

    Full Text Available Human DICER1 protein cleaves double-stranded RNA into small sizes, a crucial step in production of single-stranded RNAs which are mediating factors of cytoplasmic RNA interference. Here, we clearly demonstrate that human DICER1 protein localizes not only to the cytoplasm but also to the nucleoplasm. We also find that human DICER1 protein associates with the NUP153 protein, one component of the nuclear pore complex. This association is detected predominantly in the cytoplasm but is also clearly distinguishable at the nuclear periphery. Additional characterization of the NUP153-DICER1 association suggests NUP153 plays a crucial role in the nuclear localization of the DICER1 protein.

  12. Singlet oxygen-mediated damage to proteins and its consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    by the transfer of energy to ground state (triplet) molecular oxygen by either protein-bound, or other, chromophores. Singlet oxygen can also be generated by a range of other enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions including processes mediated by heme proteins, lipoxygenases, and activated leukocytes, as well...... the absorption of UV radiation by the protein, or bound chromophore groups, thereby generating excited states (singlet or triplets) or radicals via photo-ionisation. The second major process involves indirect oxidation of the protein via the formation and subsequent reactions of singlet oxygen generated...... as radical termination reactions. This paper reviews the data available on singlet oxygen-mediated protein oxidation and concentrates primarily on the mechanisms by which this excited state species brings about changes to both the side-chains and backbone of amino acids, peptides, and proteins. Recent work...

  13. Gcn4-Mediator Specificity Is Mediated by a Large and Dynamic Fuzzy Protein-Protein Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Tuttle

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Transcription activation domains (ADs are inherently disordered proteins that often target multiple coactivator complexes, but the specificity of these interactions is not understood. Efficient transcription activation by yeast Gcn4 requires its tandem ADs and four activator-binding domains (ABDs on its target, the Mediator subunit Med15. Multiple ABDs are a common feature of coactivator complexes. We find that the large Gcn4-Med15 complex is heterogeneous and contains nearly all possible AD-ABD interactions. Gcn4-Med15 forms via a dynamic fuzzy protein-protein interface, where ADs bind the ABDs in multiple orientations via hydrophobic regions that gain helicity. This combinatorial mechanism allows individual low-affinity and specificity interactions to generate a biologically functional, specific, and higher affinity complex despite lacking a defined protein-protein interface. This binding strategy is likely representative of many activators that target multiple coactivators, as it allows great flexibility in combinations of activators that can cooperate to regulate genes with variable coactivator requirements. : Tuttle et al. report a “fuzzy free-for-all” interaction mechanism that explains how seemingly unrelated transcription activators converge on a limited number of coactivator targets. The mechanism provides a rationale for the observation that individually weak and low-specificity interactions can combine to produce biologically critical function without requiring highly ordered structure. Keywords: transcription activation, intrinsically disordered proteins, fuzzy binding

  14. Orm family proteins mediate sphingolipid homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breslow, David K; Collins, Sean R; Bodenmiller, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    a conserved complex with serine palmitoyltransferase, the first and rate-limiting enzyme in sphingolipid production. We also define a regulatory pathway in which phosphorylation of Orm proteins relieves their inhibitory activity when sphingolipid production is disrupted. Changes in ORM gene expression...... or mutations to their phosphorylation sites cause dysregulation of sphingolipid metabolism. Our work identifies the Orm proteins as critical mediators of sphingolipid homeostasis and raises the possibility that sphingolipid misregulation contributes to the development of childhood asthma....

  15. DomPep--a general method for predicting modular domain-mediated protein-protein interactions.

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    Lei Li

    Full Text Available Protein-protein interactions (PPIs are frequently mediated by the binding of a modular domain in one protein to a short, linear peptide motif in its partner. The advent of proteomic methods such as peptide and protein arrays has led to the accumulation of a wealth of interaction data for modular interaction domains. Although several computational programs have been developed to predict modular domain-mediated PPI events, they are often restricted to a given domain type. We describe DomPep, a method that can potentially be used to predict PPIs mediated by any modular domains. DomPep combines proteomic data with sequence information to achieve high accuracy and high coverage in PPI prediction. Proteomic binding data were employed to determine a simple yet novel parameter Ligand-Binding Similarity which, in turn, is used to calibrate Domain Sequence Identity and Position-Weighted-Matrix distance, two parameters that are used in constructing prediction models. Moreover, DomPep can be used to predict PPIs for both domains with experimental binding data and those without. Using the PDZ and SH2 domain families as test cases, we show that DomPep can predict PPIs with accuracies superior to existing methods. To evaluate DomPep as a discovery tool, we deployed DomPep to identify interactions mediated by three human PDZ domains. Subsequent in-solution binding assays validated the high accuracy of DomPep in predicting authentic PPIs at the proteome scale. Because DomPep makes use of only interaction data and the primary sequence of a domain, it can be readily expanded to include other types of modular domains.

  16. Biochemistry and pathology of radical-mediated protein oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, R T; Fu, S; Stocker, R

    1997-01-01

    Radical-mediated damage to proteins may be initiated by electron leakage, metal-ion-dependent reactions and autoxidation of lipids and sugars. The consequent protein oxidation is O2-dependent, and involves several propagating radicals, notably alkoxyl radicals. Its products include several catego...

  17. Protein-mediated surface structuring in biomembranes

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    Maggio B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipids and proteins of biomembranes exhibit highly dissimilar conformations, geometrical shapes, amphipathicity, and thermodynamic properties which constrain their two-dimensional molecular packing, electrostatics, and interaction preferences. This causes inevitable development of large local tensions that frequently relax into phase or compositional immiscibility along lateral and transverse planes of the membrane. On the other hand, these effects constitute the very codes that mediate molecular and structural changes determining and controlling the possibilities for enzymatic activity, apposition and recombination in biomembranes. The presence of proteins constitutes a major perturbing factor for the membrane sculpturing both in terms of its surface topography and dynamics. We will focus on some results from our group within this context and summarize some recent evidence for the active involvement of extrinsic (myelin basic protein, integral (Folch-Lees proteolipid protein and amphitropic (c-Fos and c-Jun proteins, as well as a membrane-active amphitropic phosphohydrolytic enzyme (neutral sphingomyelinase, in the process of lateral segregation and dynamics of phase domains, sculpturing of the surface topography, and the bi-directional modulation of the membrane biochemical reactivity.

  18. Tat-mediated protein delivery in living Caenorhabditis elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delom, Frederic; Fessart, Delphine; Caruso, Marie-Elaine; Chevet, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The Tat protein from HIV-1 fused with heterologous proteins traverses biological membranes in a transcellular process called: protein transduction. This has already been successfully exploited in various biological models, but never in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans. TAT-eGFP or GST-eGFP proteins were fed to C. elegans worms, which resulted in the specific localization of Tat-eGFP to epithelial intestinal cells. This system represents an efficient tool for transcellular transduction in C. elegans intestinal cells. Indeed, this approach avoids the use of tedious purification steps to purify the TAT fusion proteins and allows for rapid analyses of the transduced proteins. In addition, it may represent an efficient tool to functionally analyze the mechanisms of protein transduction as well as to complement RNAi/KO in the epithelial intestinal system. To sum up, the advantage of this technology is to combine the potential of bacterial expression system and the Tat-mediated transduction technique in living worm

  19. Detergent-Mediated Reconstitution of Membrane Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, J; Sjollema, K.A; Poolman, B.

    1998-01-01

    The efficiency of reconstitution of the lactose transport protein (LacS) of Streptococcus thermophilus is markedly higher with Triton X-100 than with other detergents commonly employed to mediate the membrane insertion. To rationalize these differences, the lipid/detergent structures that are formed

  20. Attractants in plant protein-based diets for the carnivorous largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides

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    Oliveira Ana Maria Barretto de Menezes Sampaio de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Adding attractants can improve acceptability of artificial diets by carnivorous fish fry and fingerlings, increasing intake of unpalatable feeds and improving growth rate, while reducing feeding time and feeding wastes. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of levels of inclusion of different attractants in plant protein-based diets on the performance of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides. Nine hundred juvenile largemouth bass (26.54 ± 1.53 g conditioned to accept dry, artificial feed were stocked in 60, 90-L polyethylene tanks (15 fish per group in a completely randomized design trial (n=3. Fish were fed two daily meals ad libitum at 7h00 and 17h00, for 13 days, with a diet (100% plant protein source containing either soluble fish protein - SFP (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0%; FisharonTM - FA (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10, 0.12%; fish silage - FS (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, and 6.0%; a positive control diet - pCD (10% fish meal and a negative control diet - nCD (basal diet without attractants. DL-methionine (98% and L-lysine (80% were added automatically by the formulation software to adjust available amino-acid profile of diets. Recorded performance data were: final weight, feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio. Fish fed diet FA0.02 presented the best growth rate, best weight gain and best feed conversion ratio. Fish fed diets containing FS as attractant presented the poorest performance.

  1. Tuning structure of oppositely charged nanoparticle and protein complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sugam, E-mail: sugam@barc.gov.in; Aswal, V. K., E-mail: sugam@barc.gov.in [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Callow, P. [Institut Laue Langevin, DS/LSS, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2014-04-24

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to probe the structures of anionic silica nanoparticles (LS30) and cationic lyszyme protein (M.W. 14.7kD, I.P. ∼ 11.4) by tuning their interaction through the pH variation. The protein adsorption on nanoparticles is found to be increasing with pH and determined by the electrostatic attraction between two components as well as repulsion between protein molecules. We show the strong electrostatic attraction between nanoparticles and protein molecules leads to protein-mediated aggregation of nanoparticles which are characterized by fractal structures. At pH 5, the protein adsorption gives rise to nanoparticle aggregation having surface fractal morphology with close packing of nanoparticles. The surface fractals transform to open structures of mass fractal morphology at higher pH (7 and 9) on approaching isoelectric point (I.P.)

  2. ABC-F Proteins Mediate Antibiotic Resistance through Ribosomal Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Liam K R; Edwards, Thomas A; O'Neill, Alex J

    2016-03-22

    Members of the ABC-F subfamily of ATP-binding cassette proteins mediate resistance to a broad array of clinically important antibiotic classes that target the ribosome of Gram-positive pathogens. The mechanism by which these proteins act has been a subject of long-standing controversy, with two competing hypotheses each having gained considerable support: antibiotic efflux versus ribosomal protection. Here, we report on studies employing a combination of bacteriological and biochemical techniques to unravel the mechanism of resistance of these proteins, and provide several lines of evidence that together offer clear support to the ribosomal protection hypothesis. Of particular note, we show that addition of purified ABC-F proteins to anin vitrotranslation assay prompts dose-dependent rescue of translation, and demonstrate that such proteins are capable of displacing antibiotic from the ribosomein vitro To our knowledge, these experiments constitute the first direct evidence that ABC-F proteins mediate antibiotic resistance through ribosomal protection.IMPORTANCEAntimicrobial resistance ranks among the greatest threats currently facing human health. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which microorganisms resist the effect of antibiotics is central to understanding the biology of this phenomenon and has the potential to inform the development of new drugs capable of blocking or circumventing resistance. Members of the ABC-F family, which includelsa(A),msr(A),optr(A), andvga(A), collectively yield resistance to a broader range of clinically significant antibiotic classes than any other family of resistance determinants, although their mechanism of action has been controversial since their discovery 25 years ago. Here we present the first direct evidence that proteins of the ABC-F family act to protect the bacterial ribosome from antibiotic-mediated inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Sharkey et al.

  3. Protein-protein interactions: an application of Tus-Ter mediated protein microarray system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitaraman, Kalavathy; Chatterjee, Deb K

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, we present a novel, cost-effective microarray strategy that utilizes expression-ready plasmid DNAs to generate protein arrays on-demand and its use to validate protein-protein interactions. These expression plasmids were constructed in such a way so as to serve a dual purpose of synthesizing the protein of interest as well as capturing the synthesized protein. The microarray system is based on the high affinity binding of Escherichia coli "Tus" protein to "Ter," a 20 bp DNA sequence involved in the regulation of DNA replication. The protein expression is carried out in a cell-free protein synthesis system, with rabbit reticulocyte lysates, and the target proteins are detected either by labeled incorporated tag specific or by gene-specific antibodies. This microarray system has been successfully used for the detection of protein-protein interaction because both the target protein and the query protein can be transcribed and translated simultaneously in the microarray slides. The utility of this system for detecting protein-protein interaction is demonstrated by a few well-known examples: Jun/Fos, FRB/FKBP12, p53/MDM2, and CDK4/p16. In all these cases, the presence of protein complexes resulted in the localization of fluorophores at the specific sites of the immobilized target plasmids. Interestingly, during our interactions studies we also detected a previously unknown interaction between CDK2 and p16. Thus, this Tus-Ter based system of protein microarray can be used for the validation of known protein interactions as well as for identifying new protein-protein interactions. In addition, it can be used to examine and identify targets of nucleic acid-protein, ligand-receptor, enzyme-substrate, and drug-protein interactions.

  4. Delivery of proteins to mammalian cells via gold nanoparticle mediated laser transfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinemann, D; Kalies, S; Schomaker, M; Ertmer, W; Meyer, H; Ripken, T; Murua Escobar, H

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticle laser interactions are in widespread use in cell manipulation. In particular, molecular medicine needs techniques for the directed delivery of molecules into mammalian cells. Proteins are the final mediator of most cellular cascades. However, despite several methodical approaches, the efficient delivery of proteins to cells remains challenging. This paper presents a new protein transfection technique via laser scanning of cells previously incubated with gold nanoparticles. The laser-induced plasmonic effects on the gold nanoparticles cause a transient permeabilization of the cellular membrane, allowing proteins to enter the cell. Applying this technique, it was possible to deliver green fluorescent protein into mammalian cells with an efficiency of 43%, maintaining a high level of cell viability. Furthermore, a functional delivery of Caspase 3, an apoptosis mediating protein, was demonstrated and evaluated in several cellular assays. Compared to conventional protein transfection techniques such as microinjection, the methodical approach presented here enables high-throughput transfection of about 10 000 cells per second. Moreover, a well-defined point in time of delivery is guaranteed by gold nanoparticle mediated laser transfection, allowing the detailed temporal analysis of cellular pathways and protein trafficking. (papers)

  5. Yarrowia lipolytica vesicle-mediated protein transport pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beckerich Jean-Marie

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein secretion is a universal cellular process involving vesicles which bud and fuse between organelles to bring proteins to their final destination. Vesicle budding is mediated by protein coats; vesicle targeting and fusion depend on Rab GTPase, tethering factors and SNARE complexes. The Génolevures II sequencing project made available entire genome sequences of four hemiascomycetous yeasts, Yarrowia lipolytica, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces lactis and Candida glabrata. Y. lipolytica is a dimorphic yeast and has good capacities to secrete proteins. The translocation of nascent protein through the endoplasmic reticulum membrane was well studied in Y. lipolytica and is largely co-translational as in the mammalian protein secretion pathway. Results We identified S. cerevisiae proteins involved in vesicular secretion and these protein sequences were used for the BLAST searches against Génolevures protein database (Y. lipolytica, C. glabrata, K. lactis and D. hansenii. These proteins are well conserved between these yeasts and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We note several specificities of Y. lipolytica which may be related to its good protein secretion capacities and to its dimorphic aspect. An expansion of the Y. lipolytica Rab protein family was observed with autoBLAST and the Rab2- and Rab4-related members were identified with BLAST against NCBI protein database. An expansion of this family is also found in filamentous fungi and may reflect the greater complexity of the Y. lipolytica secretion pathway. The Rab4p-related protein may play a role in membrane recycling as rab4 deleted strain shows a modification of colony morphology, dimorphic transition and permeability. Similarly, we find three copies of the gene (SSO encoding the plasma membrane SNARE protein. Quantification of the percentages of proteins with the greatest homology between S. cerevisiae, Y. lipolytica and animal homologues involved in vesicular

  6. Differential effects of vasopressin and phenylephrine on protein kinase C-mediated protein phosphorylations in isolated hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.H.; Johanson, R.A.; Wiliamson, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Receptor-mediated breakdown of inositol lipids produces two intracellular signals, diacylglycerol, which activates protein kinase C, and inositol trisphosphate, which causes release of intracellular vesicular Ca 2+ . This study examined the effects of Ca 2+ -ionophores, vasopressin, phenylephrine, and phorbol ester (PMA) on hepatocyte protein phosphorylations. [ 32 P] Phosphoproteins from hepatocytes prelabeled with 32 P were resolved by 2-dimensional SDS-PAGE and corresponding autoradiographs were quantitated by densitometric analysis. The phosphorylation of five proteins, a plasma membrane bound 16 kDa protein with pI 6.4, a cytosolic 16 kDa protein with pI 5.8, and proteins with Mr's of 36 kDa, 52 kDa, and 68 kDa, could be attributed to phosphorylation by protein kinase C since the phosphorylation was stimulated by PMA. When the vasopressin concentration was varied, low vasopressin stimulated the phosphorylation of only the membrane bound 16 kDa protein of the above set of proteins, while higher vasopressin concentrations were required to stimulate the phosphorylation of all five proteins. Phenylephrine, even at supramaximal concentrations, stimulated the phosphorylation of only the membrane bound 16 kDa protein. These results suggest that phenylephrine is a less potent activator of protein kinase C than vasopressin by virtue of limited or localized diacylglycerol production

  7. Shc adaptor proteins are key transducers of mitogenic signaling mediated by the G protein-coupled thrombin receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Y; Grall, D; Salcini, A E

    1996-01-01

    The serine protease thrombin activates G protein signaling systems that lead to Ras activation and, in certain cells, proliferation. Whereas the steps leading to Ras activation by G protein-coupled receptors are not well defined, the mechanisms of Ras activation by receptor tyrosine kinases have......-insensitive proteins appear to mediate this effect, since (i) pertussis toxin pre-treatment of cells does not blunt the action of thrombin and (ii) Shc phosphorylation on tyrosine can be stimulated by the muscarinic m1 receptor. Shc phosphorylation does not appear to involve protein kinase C, since the addition of 4...

  8. Phagocytosis by macrophages mediated by receptors for denatured proteins - dependence on tyrosine protein kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Hespanhol

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that some components of the leukocyte cell membrane, CR3 (Mac-1, CD11b/CD18 and p150/95, are able to bind to denatured proteins. Thus, it is of interest to know which effector functions of these cells can be triggered by these receptors when they interact with particles or surfaces covered with denatured proteins. In the present study we analyzed their possible role as mediators of phagocytosis of red cells covered with denatured bovine serum albumin (BSA by mouse peritoneal macrophages. We observed that a macrophages are able to recognize (bind to these red cells, b this interaction can be inhibited by denatured BSA in the fluid phase, c there is no phagocytosis of these particles by normal macrophages, d phagocytosis mediated by denatured BSA can be, however, effectively triggered in inflammatory macrophages induced by glycogen or in macrophages activated in vivo with LPS, and e this phagocytic capacity is strongly dependent on the activity of tyrosine protein kinases in its signal transduction pathway, as demonstrated by using three kinds of enzyme inhibitors (genistein, quercetin and herbimycin A.

  9. F-Box Protein FBXO22 Mediates Polyubiquitination and Degradation of CD147 to Reverse Cisplatin Resistance of Tumor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Liu, Zhen-Yu; Cui, Jian; Yang, Xiang-Min; Jing, Lin; Zhou, Yang; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Jiang, Jian-Li

    2017-01-20

    Drug resistance remains a major clinical obstacle to successful treatment of cancer. As posttranslational modification is becoming widely recognized to affect the function of oncoproteins, targeting specific posttranslational protein modification provides an attractive strategy for anticancer drug development. CD147 is a transmembrane glycoprotein contributing to chemo-resistance of cancer cells in a variety of human malignancies. Ubiquitination is an important posttranslational modification mediating protein degradation. Degradation of oncoproteins, CD147 included, emerges as an attractive alternative for tumor inhibition. However, the ubiquitination of CD147 remains elusive. Here in this study, we found that deletion of the CD147 intracellular domain (CD147-ICD) prolonged the half-life of CD147 in HEK293T cells, and we identified that CD147-ICD interacts with FBXO22 using mass spectrometry and Western blot. Then, we demonstrated that FBXO22 mediates the polyubiquitination and degradation of CD147 by recognizing CD147-ICD. While knocking down of FBXO22 prolonged the half-life of CD147 in HEK293T cells, we found that FBXO22 regulates CD147 protein turnover in SMMC-7721, Huh-7 and A549 cells. Moreover, we found that the low level of FBXO22 contributes to the accumulation of CD147 and thereafter the cisplatin resistance of A549/DDP cells. To conclude, our study demonstrated that FBXO22 mediated the polyubiquitination and degradation of CD147 by interacting with CD147-ICD, and CD147 polyubiquitination by FBXO22 reversed cisplatin resistance of tumor cells.

  10. F-Box Protein FBXO22 Mediates Polyubiquitination and Degradation of CD147 to Reverse Cisplatin Resistance of Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance remains a major clinical obstacle to successful treatment of cancer. As posttranslational modification is becoming widely recognized to affect the function of oncoproteins, targeting specific posttranslational protein modification provides an attractive strategy for anticancer drug development. CD147 is a transmembrane glycoprotein contributing to chemo-resistance of cancer cells in a variety of human malignancies. Ubiquitination is an important posttranslational modification mediating protein degradation. Degradation of oncoproteins, CD147 included, emerges as an attractive alternative for tumor inhibition. However, the ubiquitination of CD147 remains elusive. Here in this study, we found that deletion of the CD147 intracellular domain (CD147-ICD prolonged the half-life of CD147 in HEK293T cells, and we identified that CD147-ICD interacts with FBXO22 using mass spectrometry and Western blot. Then, we demonstrated that FBXO22 mediates the polyubiquitination and degradation of CD147 by recognizing CD147-ICD. While knocking down of FBXO22 prolonged the half-life of CD147 in HEK293T cells, we found that FBXO22 regulates CD147 protein turnover in SMMC-7721, Huh-7 and A549 cells. Moreover, we found that the low level of FBXO22 contributes to the accumulation of CD147 and thereafter the cisplatin resistance of A549/DDP cells. To conclude, our study demonstrated that FBXO22 mediated the polyubiquitination and degradation of CD147 by interacting with CD147-ICD, and CD147 polyubiquitination by FBXO22 reversed cisplatin resistance of tumor cells.

  11. Singlet oxygen-mediated formation of protein peroxides within cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, A.; Policarpio, V.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Singlet oxygen is generated by a number of cellular, enzymatic and chemical reactions as well as by exposure to UV, or visible light in the presence of a sensitizer; as a consequence this oxidant has been proposed as a damaging agent in a number of pathologies including photo-aging and skin cancer. Proteins are major targets for singlet oxygen as a result of their abundance and high rate constants for reaction. In this study it is shown that illumination of viable, sensitizer-loaded, THP-1 (human monocyte-like) cells with visible light gives rise to intra-cellular protein-derived peroxides. The peroxide yield increases with illumination time, requires the presence of the sensitizer, is enhanced in D 2 O, and decreased by azide; these data are consistent with the mediation of singlet oxygen. The concentration of peroxides detected, which is not affected by glucose or ascorbate loading of the cells, corresponds to ca. 1.5 nmoles peroxide per 10 6 cells using rose bengal as sensitizer, or 10 nmoles per mg cell protein and account for up to ca. 15% of the O 2 consumed by the cells. Similar peroxides have been detected on isolated cellular proteins exposed to light in the presence of rose bengal and oxygen. After cessation of illumination, the cellular protein peroxide levels decreases with t 1/2 ca. 4 hrs at 37 deg C, and this is associated with increased cell lysis. Decomposition of protein peroxides formed within cells, or on isolated cellular proteins, by metal ions, gives rise to radicals as detected by EPR spin trapping. These protein peroxides, and radicals derived from them, can inactivate key cellular enzymes (including caspases, GAPDH and glutathione reductase) and induce DNA base oxidation, strand breaks and DNA-protein cross-links. These studies demonstrate that exposure of intact cells to visible light in the presence of a sensitizer gives rise to novel long-lived, but reactive, intra-cellular protein peroxides via singlet oxygen-mediated

  12. Quinone-induced protein handling changes: Implications for major protein handling systems in quinone-mediated toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Rui; Siegel, David; Ross, David

    2014-01-01

    Para-quinones such as 1,4-Benzoquinone (BQ) and menadione (MD) and ortho-quinones including the oxidation products of catecholamines, are derived from xenobiotics as well as endogenous molecules. The effects of quinones on major protein handling systems in cells; the 20/26S proteasome, the ER stress response, autophagy, chaperone proteins and aggresome formation, have not been investigated in a systematic manner. Both BQ and aminochrome (AC) inhibited proteasomal activity and activated the ER stress response and autophagy in rat dopaminergic N27 cells. AC also induced aggresome formation while MD had little effect on any protein handling systems in N27 cells. The effect of NQO1 on quinone induced protein handling changes and toxicity was examined using N27 cells stably transfected with NQO1 to generate an isogenic NQO1-overexpressing line. NQO1 protected against BQ–induced apoptosis but led to a potentiation of AC- and MD-induced apoptosis. Modulation of quinone-induced apoptosis in N27 and NQO1-overexpressing cells correlated only with changes in the ER stress response and not with changes in other protein handling systems. These data suggested that NQO1 modulated the ER stress response to potentiate toxicity of AC and MD, but protected against BQ toxicity. We further demonstrated that NQO1 mediated reduction to unstable hydroquinones and subsequent redox cycling was important for the activation of the ER stress response and toxicity for both AC and MD. In summary, our data demonstrate that quinone-specific changes in protein handling are evident in N27 cells and the induction of the ER stress response is associated with quinone-mediated toxicity. - Highlights: • Unstable hydroquinones contributed to quinone-induced ER stress and toxicity

  13. Quinone-induced protein handling changes: Implications for major protein handling systems in quinone-mediated toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Rui; Siegel, David; Ross, David, E-mail: david.ross@ucdenver.edu

    2014-10-15

    Para-quinones such as 1,4-Benzoquinone (BQ) and menadione (MD) and ortho-quinones including the oxidation products of catecholamines, are derived from xenobiotics as well as endogenous molecules. The effects of quinones on major protein handling systems in cells; the 20/26S proteasome, the ER stress response, autophagy, chaperone proteins and aggresome formation, have not been investigated in a systematic manner. Both BQ and aminochrome (AC) inhibited proteasomal activity and activated the ER stress response and autophagy in rat dopaminergic N27 cells. AC also induced aggresome formation while MD had little effect on any protein handling systems in N27 cells. The effect of NQO1 on quinone induced protein handling changes and toxicity was examined using N27 cells stably transfected with NQO1 to generate an isogenic NQO1-overexpressing line. NQO1 protected against BQ–induced apoptosis but led to a potentiation of AC- and MD-induced apoptosis. Modulation of quinone-induced apoptosis in N27 and NQO1-overexpressing cells correlated only with changes in the ER stress response and not with changes in other protein handling systems. These data suggested that NQO1 modulated the ER stress response to potentiate toxicity of AC and MD, but protected against BQ toxicity. We further demonstrated that NQO1 mediated reduction to unstable hydroquinones and subsequent redox cycling was important for the activation of the ER stress response and toxicity for both AC and MD. In summary, our data demonstrate that quinone-specific changes in protein handling are evident in N27 cells and the induction of the ER stress response is associated with quinone-mediated toxicity. - Highlights: • Unstable hydroquinones contributed to quinone-induced ER stress and toxicity.

  14. Mechanisms of Coronavirus Cell Entry Mediated by the Viral Spike Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary R. Whittaker

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Coronaviruses are enveloped positive-stranded RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm. To deliver their nucleocapsid into the host cell, they rely on the fusion of their envelope with the host cell membrane. The spike glycoprotein (S mediates virus entry and is a primary determinant of cell tropism and pathogenesis. It is classified as a class I fusion protein, and is responsible for binding to the receptor on the host cell as well as mediating the fusion of host and viral membranes—A process driven by major conformational changes of the S protein. This review discusses coronavirus entry mechanisms focusing on the different triggers used by coronaviruses to initiate the conformational change of the S protein: receptor binding, low pH exposure and proteolytic activation. We also highlight commonalities between coronavirus S proteins and other class I viral fusion proteins, as well as distinctive features that confer distinct tropism, pathogenicity and host interspecies transmission characteristics to coronaviruses.

  15. Structural and functional analysis of Aplysia attractins, a family of water-borne protein pheromones with interspecific attractiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Painter, S.D.; Cummins, S.F.; Nichols, A.E.; Akalal, D.B.G.; Schein, C.H.; Braun, W.; Smith, J.S.; Susswein, A.J.; Levy, M.; de Boer, P.A.C.M.; ter Maat, A.; Miller, M.W.; Scanlan, C.; Milberg, R.M.; Sweedler, J.V.; Nagle, G.T.

    2004-01-01

    Mate attraction in Aplysia involves a long-distance water-borne signal (the protein pheromone attractin), which is released during egg laying. Aplysia californica attractin attracts species that produce closely related attractins, such as Aplysia brasiliana, whose geographic distribution does not

  16. Role of protein disulfide isomerase and other thiol-reactive proteins in HIV-1 envelope protein-mediated fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Wu; Silver, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Cell-surface protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) has been proposed to promote disulfide bond rearrangements in HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) that accompany Env-mediated fusion. We evaluated the role of PDI in ways that have not been previously tested by downregulating PDI with siRNA and by overexpressing wild-type or variant forms of PDI in transiently and stably transfected cells. These manipulations, as well as treatment with anti-PDI antibodies, had only small effects on infection or cell fusion mediated by NL4-3 or AD8 strains of HIV-1. However, the cell-surface thiol-reactive reagent 5, 5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) had a much stronger inhibitory effect in our system, suggesting that cell-surface thiol-containing molecules other than PDI, acting alone or in concert, have a greater effect than PDI on HIV-1 Env-mediated fusion. We evaluated one such candidate, thioredoxin, a PDI family member reported to reduce a labile disulfide bond in CD4. We found that the ability of thioredoxin to reduce the disulfide bond in CD4 is enhanced in the presence of HIV-1 Env gp120 and that thioredoxin also reduces disulfide bonds in gp120 directly in the absence of CD4. We discuss the implications of these observations for identification of molecules involved in disulfide rearrangements in Env during fusion

  17. Intracellular localisation of proteins to specific cellular areas by nanocapsule mediated delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huabin; Chen, Ligang; Sun, Xianchao; Fu, Ailing

    2017-09-01

    Nanocapsules are promising carriers with great potential for intracellular protein transport. Although many studies have intended to improve cell uptake efficacy, there is an increasing interest in understanding of subcellular distribution of cargoes inside cells, which is essential for purposeful delivery of biomolecules into specific sites within cells. Herein, we interrogate the intracellular localisation of exogenous proteins, including fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled bovine serum albumin (BSA) and green fluorescent protein (GFP), mediated by specially designed nanocapsules. The results show that the designed nanocapsules can deliver the two types of fluorescent proteins into different cellular destinations (cytosol, nucleus or the whole cell), depending on the composition of nanocapsules. Meanwhile, several impact factors that influence the distribution of proteins in cells have also been investigated, and the results suggest that the localisation of capsule-mediated proteins in cells is strongly affected by the surface properties of nanocapsules, the types of stabilisers and proteins, and environmental temperatures. The rational control of intracellular localised delivery of exogenous proteins as we demonstrated in this study might open new avenues to obtain desired magnitude of drug effects for modulating cell activity.

  18. The role of electrostatics in protein-protein interactions of a monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D; Keeling, R; Tracka, M; van der Walle, C F; Uddin, S; Warwicker, J; Curtis, R

    2014-07-07

    Understanding how protein-protein interactions depend on the choice of buffer, salt, ionic strength, and pH is needed to have better control over protein solution behavior. Here, we have characterized the pH and ionic strength dependence of protein-protein interactions in terms of an interaction parameter kD obtained from dynamic light scattering and the osmotic second virial coefficient B22 measured by static light scattering. A simplified protein-protein interaction model based on a Baxter adhesive potential and an electric double layer force is used to separate out the contributions of longer-ranged electrostatic interactions from short-ranged attractive forces. The ionic strength dependence of protein-protein interactions for solutions at pH 6.5 and below can be accurately captured using a Deryaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) potential to describe the double layer forces. In solutions at pH 9, attractive electrostatics occur over the ionic strength range of 5-275 mM. At intermediate pH values (7.25 to 8.5), there is a crossover effect characterized by a nonmonotonic ionic strength dependence of protein-protein interactions, which can be rationalized by the competing effects of long-ranged repulsive double layer forces at low ionic strength and a shorter ranged electrostatic attraction, which dominates above a critical ionic strength. The change of interactions from repulsive to attractive indicates a concomitant change in the angular dependence of protein-protein interaction from isotropic to anisotropic. In the second part of the paper, we show how the Baxter adhesive potential can be used to predict values of kD from fitting to B22 measurements, thus providing a molecular basis for the linear correlation between the two protein-protein interaction parameters.

  19. SOCS proteins in regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazi, Julhash U.; Kabir, Nuzhat N.; Flores Morales, Amilcar

    2014-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are a family of cell surface receptors that play critical roles in signal transduction from extracellular stimuli. Many in this family of kinases are overexpressed or mutated in human malignancies and thus became an attractive drug target for cancer treatment....... The signaling mediated by RTKs must be tightly regulated by interacting proteins including protein-tyrosine phosphatases and ubiquitin ligases. The suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family proteins are well-known negative regulators of cytokine receptors signaling consisting of eight structurally similar...

  20. Substantial conformational change mediated by charge-triad residues of the death effector domain in protein-protein interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C Twomey

    Full Text Available Protein conformational changes are commonly associated with the formation of protein complexes. The non-catalytic death effector domains (DEDs mediate protein-protein interactions in a variety of cellular processes, including apoptosis, proliferation and migration, and glucose metabolism. Here, using NMR residual dipolar coupling (RDC data, we report a conformational change in the DED of the phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes, 15 kDa (PEA-15 protein in the complex with a mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase, extracellular regulated kinase 2 (ERK2, which is essential in regulating ERK2 cellular distribution and function in cell proliferation and migration. The most significant conformational change in PEA-15 happens at helices α2, α3, and α4, which also possess the highest flexibility among the six-helix bundle of the DED. This crucial conformational change is modulated by the D/E-RxDL charge-triad motif, one of the prominent structural features of DEDs, together with a number of other electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions on the protein surface. Charge-triad motif promotes the optimal orientation of key residues and expands the binding interface to accommodate protein-protein interactions. However, the charge-triad residues are not directly involved in the binding interface between PEA-15 and ERK2.

  1. Cooperative DNA Recognition Modulated by an Interplay between Protein-Protein Interactions and DNA-Mediated Allostery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Merino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Highly specific transcriptional regulation depends on the cooperative association of transcription factors into enhanceosomes. Usually, their DNA-binding cooperativity originates from either direct interactions or DNA-mediated allostery. Here, we performed unbiased molecular simulations followed by simulations of protein-DNA unbinding and free energy profiling to study the cooperative DNA recognition by OCT4 and SOX2, key components of enhanceosomes in pluripotent cells. We found that SOX2 influences the orientation and dynamics of the DNA-bound configuration of OCT4. In addition SOX2 modifies the unbinding free energy profiles of both DNA-binding domains of OCT4, the POU specific and POU homeodomain, despite interacting directly only with the first. Thus, we demonstrate that the OCT4-SOX2 cooperativity is modulated by an interplay between protein-protein interactions and DNA-mediated allostery. Further, we estimated the change in OCT4-DNA binding free energy due to the cooperativity with SOX2, observed a good agreement with experimental measurements, and found that SOX2 affects the relative DNA-binding strength of the two OCT4 domains. Based on these findings, we propose that available interaction partners in different biological contexts modulate the DNA exploration routes of multi-domain transcription factors such as OCT4. We consider the OCT4-SOX2 cooperativity as a paradigm of how specificity of transcriptional regulation is achieved through concerted modulation of protein-DNA recognition by different types of interactions.

  2. Electron-mediating Cu(A) centers in proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epel, Boris; Slutter, Claire S; Neese, Frank

    2002-01-01

    High field (W-band, 95 GHz) pulsed electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) measurements were carried out on a number of proteins that contain the mixed-valence, binuclear electron-mediating Cu(A) center. These include nitrous oxide reductase (N(2)OR), the recombinant water-soluble fragment...... of subunit II of Thermus thermophilus cytochrome c oxidase (COX) ba(3) (M160T9), its M160QT0 mutant, where the weak axial methionine ligand has been replaced by a glutamine, and the engineered "purple" azurin (purpAz). The three-dimensional (3-D) structures of these proteins, apart from the mutant, are known...... indicates differences in the positions of the imidazole rings relative to the Cu(2)S(2) core. Comparison of the spectral features of the weakly coupled protons of M160QT0 with those of the other investigated proteins shows that they are very similar to those of purpAz, where the Cu(A) center is the most...

  3. A newly identified protein of Leptospira interrogans mediates binding to laminin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Mariana T; Oliveira, Tatiane R; Romero, Eliete C; Gonçales, Amane P; de Morais, Zenaide M; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Nascimento, Ana L T O

    2009-10-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira is the aetiological agent of leptospirosis, a life-threatening disease that affects populations worldwide. The search for novel antigens that could be relevant in host-pathogen interactions is being pursued. These antigens have the potential to elicit several activities, including adhesion. This study focused on a hypothetical predicted lipoprotein of Leptospira, encoded by the gene LIC12895, thought to mediate attachment to extracellular matrix (ECM) components. The gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 Star (DE3)pLys by using the expression vector pAE. The recombinant protein tagged with N-terminal hexahistidine was purified by metal-charged chromatography and characterized by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The capacity of the protein to mediate attachment to ECM components was evaluated by binding assays. The leptospiral protein encoded by LIC12895, named Lsa27 (leptospiral surface adhesin, 27 kDa), bound strongly to laminin in a dose-dependent and saturable fashion. Moreover, Lsa27 was recognized by antibodies from serum samples of confirmed leptospirosis specimens in both the initial and the convalescent phases of the disease. Lsa27 is most likely a surface protein of Leptospira as revealed in liquid-phase immunofluorescence assays with living organisms. Taken together, these data indicate that this newly identified membrane protein is expressed during natural infection and may play a role in mediating adhesion of L. interrogans to its host.

  4. Chemical Methods to Knock Down the Amyloid Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Gao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid proteins are closely related with amyloid diseases and do tremendous harm to human health. However, there is still a lack of effective strategies to treat these amyloid diseases, so it is important to develop novel methods. Accelerating the clearance of amyloid proteins is a favorable method for amyloid disease treatment. Recently, chemical methods for protein reduction have been developed and have attracted much attention. In this review, we focus on the latest progress of chemical methods that knock down amyloid proteins, including the proteolysis-targeting chimera (PROTAC strategy, the “recognition-cleavage” strategy, the chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA strategy, the selectively light-activatable organic and inorganic molecules strategy and other chemical strategies.

  5. The F-box Protein FBXO44 Mediates BRCA1 Ubiquitination and Degradation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yunzhe; Li, Jiezhi; Cheng, Dongmei; Parameswaran, Balaji; Zhang, Shaohua; Jiang, Zefei; Yew, P. Renee; Peng, Junmin; Ye, Qinong; Hu, Yanfen

    2012-01-01

    BRCA1 mutations account for a significant proportion of familial breast and ovarian cancers. In addition, reduced BRCA1 protein is associated with sporadic cancer cases in these tissues. At the cellular level, BRCA1 plays a critical role in multiple cellular functions such as DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint control. Its protein level is regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner. However, regulation of BRCA1 protein stability is not fully understood. Our earlier study showed that the amino terminus of BRCA1 harbors a degron sequence that is sufficient and necessary for conferring BRCA1 degradation. In the current study, we used mass spectrometry to identify Skp1 that regulates BRCA1 protein stability. Small interfering RNA screening that targets all human F-box proteins uncovered FBXO44 as an important protein that influences BRCA1 protein level. The Skp1-Cul1-F-box-protein44 (SCFFBXO44) complex ubiquitinates full-length BRCA1 in vitro. Furthermore, the N terminus of BRCA1 mediates the interaction between BRCA1 and FBXO44. Overexpression of SCFFBXO44 reduces BRCA1 protein level. Taken together, our work strongly suggests that SCFFBXO44 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase responsible for BRCA1 degradation. In addition, FBXO44 expression pattern in breast carcinomas suggests that SCFFBXO44-mediated BRCA1 degradation might contribute to sporadic breast tumor development. PMID:23086937

  6. Megalin binds and mediates cellular internalization of folate binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birn, Henrik; Zhai, Xiaoyue; Holm, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Folate is an essential vitamin involved in a number of biological processes. High affinity folate binding proteins (FBPs) exist both as glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked, membrane associated folate binding proteins and as soluble FBPs in plasma and some secretory fluids such as milk, saliva...... to express high levels of megalin, is inhibitable by excess unlabeled FBP and by receptor associated protein, a known inhibitor of binding to megalin. Immortalized rat yolk sac cells, representing an established model for studying megalin-mediated uptake, reveal (125)I-labeled FBP uptake which is inhibited...

  7. Aptamer-mediated indirect quantum dot labeling and fluorescent imaging of target proteins in living cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jianbo; Zhang, Pengfei; Yang, Xiaohai; Wang, Kemin; Guo, Qiuping; Huang, Jin; Li, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Protein labeling for dynamic living cell imaging plays a significant role in basic biological research, as well as in clinical diagnostics and therapeutics. We have developed a novel strategy in which the dynamic visualization of proteins within living cells is achieved by using aptamers as mediators for indirect protein labeling of quantum dots (QDs). With this strategy, the target protein angiogenin was successfully labeled with fluorescent QDs in a minor intactness model, which was mediated by the aptamer AL6-B. Subsequent living cell imaging analyses indicated that the QDs nanoprobes were selectively bound to human umbilical vein endothelial cells, gradually internalized into the cytoplasm, and mostly localized in the lysosome organelle, indicating that the labeled protein retained high activity. Compared with traditional direct protein labeling methods, the proposed aptamer-mediated strategy is simple, inexpensive, and provides a highly selective, stable, and intact labeling platform that has shown great promise for future biomedical labeling and intracellular protein dynamic analyses. (paper)

  8. Proteins mediating DNA loops effectively block transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vörös, Zsuzsanna; Yan, Yan; Kovari, Daniel T; Finzi, Laura; Dunlap, David

    2017-07-01

    Loops are ubiquitous topological elements formed when proteins simultaneously bind to two noncontiguous DNA sites. While a loop-mediating protein may regulate initiation at a promoter, the presence of the protein at the other site may be an obstacle for RNA polymerases (RNAP) transcribing a different gene. To test whether a DNA loop alters the extent to which a protein blocks transcription, the lac repressor (LacI) was used. The outcome of in vitro transcription along templates containing two LacI operators separated by 400 bp in the presence of LacI concentrations that produced both looped and unlooped molecules was visualized with scanning force microscopy (SFM). An analysis of transcription elongation complexes, moving for 60 s at an average of 10 nt/s on unlooped DNA templates, revealed that they more often surpassed LacI bound to the lower affinity O2 operator than to the highest affinity Os operator. However, this difference was abrogated in looped DNA molecules where LacI became a strong roadblock independently of the affinity of the operator. Recordings of transcription elongation complexes, using magnetic tweezers, confirmed that they halted for several minutes upon encountering a LacI bound to a single operator. The average pause lifetime is compatible with RNAP waiting for LacI dissociation, however, the LacI open conformation visualized in the SFM images also suggests that LacI could straddle RNAP to let it pass. Independently of the mechanism by which RNAP bypasses the LacI roadblock, the data indicate that an obstacle with looped topology more effectively interferes with transcription. © 2017 The Authors Protein Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Protein Society.

  9. Coat protein-mediated resistance against an Indian isolate of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coat protein (CP)-mediated resistance against an Indian isolate of the Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) subgroup IB was demonstrated in transgenic lines of Nicotiana benthamiana through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Out of the fourteen independently transformed lines developed, two lines were ...

  10. TMV-Cg Coat Protein stabilizes DELLA proteins and in turn negatively modulates salicylic acid-mediated defense pathway during Arabidopsis thaliana viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Maria Cecilia; Conti, Gabriela; Zavallo, Diego; Manacorda, Carlos Augusto; Asurmendi, Sebastian

    2014-08-03

    Plant viral infections disturb defense regulatory networks during tissue invasion. Emerging evidence demonstrates that a significant proportion of these alterations are mediated by hormone imbalances. Although the DELLA proteins have been reported to be central players in hormone cross-talk, their role in the modulation of hormone signaling during virus infections remains unknown. This work revealed that TMV-Cg coat protein (CgCP) suppresses the salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway without altering defense hormone SA or jasmonic acid (JA) levels in Arabidopsis thaliana. Furthermore, it was observed that the expression of CgCP reduces plant growth and delays the timing of floral transition. Quantitative RT-qPCR analysis of DELLA target genes showed that CgCP alters relative expression of several target genes, indicating that the DELLA proteins mediate transcriptional changes produced by CgCP expression. Analyses by fluorescence confocal microscopy showed that CgCP stabilizes DELLA proteins accumulation in the presence of gibberellic acid (GA) and that the DELLA proteins are also stabilized during TMV-Cg virus infections. Moreover, DELLA proteins negatively modulated defense transcript profiles during TMV-Cg infection. As a result, TMV-Cg accumulation was significantly reduced in the quadruple-DELLA mutant Arabidopsis plants compared to wild type plants. Taken together, these results demonstrate that CgCP negatively regulates the salicylic acid-mediated defense pathway by stabilizing the DELLA proteins during Arabidopsis thaliana viral infection, suggesting that CgCP alters the stability of DELLAs as a mechanism of negative modulation of antiviral defense responses.

  11. The Role of Cgrp-Receptor Component Protein (Rcp in Cgrp-Mediated Signal Transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Prado

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP-receptor component protein (RCP is a 17-kDa intracellular peripheral membrane protein required for signal transduction at CGRP receptors. To determine the role of RCP in CGRP-mediated signal transduction, RCP was depleted from NIH3T3 cells using antisense strategy. Loss of RCP protein correlated with loss of cAMP production by CGRP in the antisense cells. In contrast, loss of RCP had no effect on CGRP-mediated binding; therefore RCP is not acting as a chaperone for the CGRP receptor. Instead, RCP is a novel signal transduction molecule that couples the CGRP receptor to the cellular signal transduction machinery. RCP thus represents a prototype for a new class of signal transduction proteins that are required for regulation of G protein-coupled receptors.

  12. Protein phosphatase 5 is necessary for ATR-mediated DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yoonsung; Cheong, Hyang-Min; Lee, Jung-Hee; Song, Peter I.; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Sang-Yong; Jun, Jae Yeoul; You, Ho Jin

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Serine/threonine protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) has been shown to participate in ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)- and ATR (ATM- and Rad3-related)-mediated checkpoint pathways, which plays an important role in the DNA damage response and maintenance of genomic stability. → However, it is not clear exactly how PP5 participates in this process. → Our results indicate that PP5 is more closely related with ATR-mediated pathway than ATM-mediated pathway in DNA damage repair. -- Abstract: Several recent studies have shown that protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) participates in cell cycle arrest after DNA damage, but its roles in DNA repair have not yet been fully characterized. We investigated the roles of PP5 in the repair of ultraviolet (UV)- and neocarzinostatin (NCS)-induced DNA damage. The results of comet assays revealed different repair patterns in UV- and NCS-exposed U2OS-PS cells. PP5 is only essential for Rad3-related (ATR)-mediated DNA repair. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of 53BP1 and BRCA1, important mediators of DNA damage repair, and substrates of ATR and ATM decreased in U2OS-PS cells exposed to UV radiation. In contrast, the cell cycle arrest proteins p53, CHK1, and CHK2 were normally phosphorylated in U2OS and U2OS-PS cells exposed to UV radiation or treated with NCS. In view of these results, we suggest that PP5 plays a crucial role in ATR-mediated repair of UV-induced DNA damage.

  13. Protein tyrosine kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways contribute to differences in heterophil-mediated innate immune responsiveness between two lines of broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation mediates signal transduction of cellular processes, with protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) regulating virtually all signaling events. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) super-family consists of three conserved pathways that convert receptor activation into ce...

  14. Negative regulation of RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling by TRK-fused gene (TFG) protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Na-Rae; Shin, Han-Bo; Kim, Hye-In; Choi, Myung-Soo; Inn, Kyung-Soo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •TRK-fused gene product (TFG) interacts with TRIM25 upon viral infection. •TFG negatively regulates RIG-I mediated antiviral signaling. •TFG depletion leads to enhanced viral replication. •TFG act downstream of MAVS. -- Abstract: RIG-I (retinoic acid inducible gene I)-mediated antiviral signaling serves as the first line of defense against viral infection. Upon detection of viral RNA, RIG-I undergoes TRIM25 (tripartite motif protein 25)-mediated K63-linked ubiquitination, leading to type I interferon (IFN) production. In this study, we demonstrate that TRK-fused gene (TFG) protein, previously identified as a TRIM25-interacting protein, binds TRIM25 upon virus infection and negatively regulates RIG-I-mediated type-I IFN signaling. RIG-I-mediated IFN production and nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathways were upregulated by the suppression of TFG expression. Furthermore, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replication was significantly inhibited by small inhibitory hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of TFG, supporting the suppressive role of TFG in RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling. Interestingly, suppression of TFG expression increased not only RIG-I-mediated signaling but also MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein)-induced signaling, suggesting that TFG plays a pivotal role in negative regulation of RNA-sensing, RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) family signaling pathways

  15. The Tlo Proteins Are Stoichiometric Components of Candida albicans Mediator Anchored via the Med3 Subunit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anda; Petrov, Kostadin O.; Hyun, Emily R.; Liu, Zhongle; Gerber, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    The amplification of the TLO (for telomere-associated) genes in Candida albicans, compared to its less pathogenic, close relative Candida dubliniensis, suggests a role in virulence. Little, however, is known about the function of the Tlo proteins. We have purified the Mediator coactivator complex from C. albicans (caMediator) and found that Tlo proteins are a stoichiometric component of caMediator. Many members of the Tlo family are expressed, and each is a unique member of caMediator. Protein expression analysis of individual Tlo proteins, as well as the purification of tagged Tlo proteins, demonstrate that there is a large free population of Tlo proteins in addition to the Mediator-associated population. Coexpression and copurification of Tloα12 and caMed3 in Escherichia coli established a direct physical interaction between the two proteins. We have also made a C. albicans med3Δ/Δ strain and purified an intact Mediator from this strain. The analysis of the composition of the med3Δ Mediator shows that it lacks a Tlo subunit. Regarding Mediator function, the med3Δ/Δ strain serves as a substitute for the difficult-to-make tloΔ/Δ C. albicans strain. A potential role of the TLO and MED3 genes in virulence is supported by the inability of the med3Δ/Δ strain to form normal germ tubes. This study of caMediator structure provides initial clues to the mechanism of action of the Tlo genes and a platform for further mechanistic studies of caMediator's involvement in gene regulatory patterns that underlie pathogenesis. PMID:22562472

  16. The F-box protein FBXO44 mediates BRCA1 ubiquitination and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yunzhe; Li, Jiezhi; Cheng, Dongmei; Parameswaran, Balaji; Zhang, Shaohua; Jiang, Zefei; Yew, P Renee; Peng, Junmin; Ye, Qinong; Hu, Yanfen

    2012-11-30

    BRCA1 mutations account for a significant proportion of familial breast and ovarian cancers. In addition, reduced BRCA1 protein is associated with sporadic cancer cases in these tissues. At the cellular level, BRCA1 plays a critical role in multiple cellular functions such as DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint control. Its protein level is regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner. However, regulation of BRCA1 protein stability is not fully understood. Our earlier study showed that the amino terminus of BRCA1 harbors a degron sequence that is sufficient and necessary for conferring BRCA1 degradation. In the current study, we used mass spectrometry to identify Skp1 that regulates BRCA1 protein stability. Small interfering RNA screening that targets all human F-box proteins uncovered FBXO44 as an important protein that influences BRCA1 protein level. The Skp1-Cul1-F-box-protein44 (SCF(FBXO44)) complex ubiquitinates full-length BRCA1 in vitro. Furthermore, the N terminus of BRCA1 mediates the interaction between BRCA1 and FBXO44. Overexpression of SCF(FBXO44) reduces BRCA1 protein level. Taken together, our work strongly suggests that SCF(FBXO44) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase responsible for BRCA1 degradation. In addition, FBXO44 expression pattern in breast carcinomas suggests that SCF(FBXO44)-mediated BRCA1 degradation might contribute to sporadic breast tumor development.

  17. Neuronal Orphan G-Protein Coupled Receptor Proteins Mediate Plasmalogens-Induced Activation of ERK and Akt Signaling.

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    Md Shamim Hossain

    Full Text Available The special glycerophospholipids plasmalogens (Pls are enriched in the brain and reported to prevent neuronal cell death by enhancing phosphorylation of Akt and ERK signaling in neuronal cells. Though the activation of Akt and ERK was found to be necessary for the neuronal cells survival, it was not known how Pls enhanced cellular signaling. To answer this question, we searched for neuronal specific orphan GPCR (G-protein coupled receptor proteins, since these proteins were believed to play a role in cellular signal transduction through the lipid rafts, where both Pls and some GPCRs were found to be enriched. In the present study, pan GPCR inhibitor significantly reduced Pls-induced ERK signaling in neuronal cells, suggesting that Pls could activate GPCRs to induce signaling. We then checked mRNA expression of 19 orphan GPCRs and 10 of them were found to be highly expressed in neuronal cells. The knockdown of these 10 neuronal specific GPCRs by short hairpin (sh-RNA lentiviral particles revealed that the Pls-mediated phosphorylation of ERK was inhibited in GPR1, GPR19, GPR21, GPR27 and GPR61 knockdown cells. We further found that the overexpression of these GPCRs enhanced Pls-mediated phosphorylation of ERK and Akt in cells. Most interestingly, the GPCRs-mediated cellular signaling was reduced significantly when the endogenous Pls were reduced. Our cumulative data, for the first time, suggest a possible mechanism for Pls-induced cellular signaling in the nervous system.

  18. Lipid-mediated protein functionalization of electrospun polycaprolactone fibers

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    C. Cohn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL fibers are plasma-treated and chemically conjugated with cholesteryl succinyl silane (CSS. In addition to Raman spectroscopy, an immobilization study of DiO as a fluorescent probe of lipid membranes provides evidence supporting the CSS coating of plasma-treated PCL fibers. Further, anti-CD20 antibodies are used as a model protein to evaluate the potential of lipid-mediated protein immobilization as a mechanism to functionalize the CSS-PCL fiber scaffolds. Upon anti-CD20 functionalization, the CSS-PCL fiber scaffolds capture Granta-22 cells 2.4 times more than the PCL control does, although the two fiber scaffolds immobilize a comparable amount of anti-CD20. Taken together, results from the present study demonstrate that the CSS coating and CSS-mediated antibody immobilization offers an appealing strategy to functionalize electrospun synthetic polymer fibers and confer cell-specific functions on the fiber scaffolds, which can be mechanically robust but often lack biological functions.

  19. The BRO proteins of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus are nucleocytoplasmic shuttling proteins that utilize the CRM1-mediated nuclear export pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Won Kyung; Kurihara, Masaaki; Matsumoto, Shogo

    2006-01-01

    The BRO proteins of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) display a biphasic pattern of intracellular localization during infection. At early times, they reside in the nucleus but then show both cytoplasmic and nuclear localization as the infection proceeds. Therefore, we examined the possibility of nuclear export. Using inhibitors, we reveal that BmNPV BRO proteins shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Mutations on the leucine-rich region of BRO proteins resulted in nuclear accumulation of transiently expressed proteins, suggesting that this region functions as a CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal (NES). On the contrary, mutant BRO-D with an altered NES did not show nuclear accumulation in infected cells, although protein production seemed to be reduced. RT-PCR analysis showed that the lower level of protein production was due to a reduction in RNA synthesis. Taken together, our results suggest that BRO proteins are nucleocytoplasmic shuttling proteins that utilize the CRM1-mediated nuclear export pathway

  20. A single peroxisomal targeting signal mediates matrix protein import in diatoms.

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    Nicola H Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Peroxisomes are single membrane bound compartments. They are thought to be present in almost all eukaryotic cells, although the bulk of our knowledge about peroxisomes has been generated from only a handful of model organisms. Peroxisomal matrix proteins are synthesized cytosolically and posttranslationally imported into the peroxisomal matrix. The import is generally thought to be mediated by two different targeting signals. These are respectively recognized by the two import receptor proteins Pex5 and Pex7, which facilitate transport across the peroxisomal membrane. Here, we show the first in vivo localization studies of peroxisomes in a representative organism of the ecologically relevant group of diatoms using fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. By expression of various homologous and heterologous fusion proteins we demonstrate that targeting of Phaeodactylum tricornutum peroxisomal matrix proteins is mediated only by PTS1 targeting signals, also for proteins that are in other systems imported via a PTS2 mode of action. Additional in silico analyses suggest this surprising finding may also apply to further diatoms. Our data suggest that loss of the PTS2 peroxisomal import signal is not reserved to Caenorhabditis elegans as a single exception, but has also occurred in evolutionary divergent organisms. Obviously, targeting switching from PTS2 to PTS1 across different major eukaryotic groups might have occurred for different reasons. Thus, our findings question the widespread assumption that import of peroxisomal matrix proteins is generally mediated by two different targeting signals. Our results implicate that there apparently must have been an event causing the loss of one targeting signal even in the group of diatoms. Different possibilities are discussed that indicate multiple reasons for the detected targeting switching from PTS2 to PTS1.

  1. Chaperone-Mediated Autophagy Protein BAG3 Negatively Regulates Ebola and Marburg VP40-Mediated Egress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jingjing; Sagum, Cari A; Bedford, Mark T; Sidhu, Sachdev S; Sudol, Marius; Han, Ziying; Harty, Ronald N

    2017-01-01

    Ebola (EBOV) and Marburg (MARV) viruses are members of the Filoviridae family which cause outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever. The filovirus VP40 matrix protein is essential for virus assembly and budding, and its PPxY L-domain motif interacts with WW-domains of specific host proteins, such as Nedd4 and ITCH, to facilitate the late stage of virus-cell separation. To identify additional WW-domain-bearing host proteins that interact with VP40, we used an EBOV PPxY-containing peptide to screen an array of 115 mammalian WW-domain-bearing proteins. Using this unbiased approach, we identified BCL2 Associated Athanogene 3 (BAG3), a member of the BAG family of molecular chaperone proteins, as a specific VP40 PPxY interactor. Here, we demonstrate that the WW-domain of BAG3 interacts with the PPxY motif of both EBOV and MARV VP40 and, unexpectedly, inhibits budding of both eVP40 and mVP40 virus-like particles (VLPs), as well as infectious VSV-EBOV recombinants. BAG3 is a stress induced protein that regulates cellular protein homeostasis and cell survival through chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). Interestingly, our results show that BAG3 alters the intracellular localization of VP40 by sequestering VP40 away from the plasma membrane. As BAG3 is the first WW-domain interactor identified that negatively regulates budding of VP40 VLPs and infectious virus, we propose that the chaperone-mediated autophagy function of BAG3 represents a specific host defense strategy to counteract the function of VP40 in promoting efficient egress and spread of virus particles.

  2. Chaperone-Mediated Autophagy Protein BAG3 Negatively Regulates Ebola and Marburg VP40-Mediated Egress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Liang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola (EBOV and Marburg (MARV viruses are members of the Filoviridae family which cause outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever. The filovirus VP40 matrix protein is essential for virus assembly and budding, and its PPxY L-domain motif interacts with WW-domains of specific host proteins, such as Nedd4 and ITCH, to facilitate the late stage of virus-cell separation. To identify additional WW-domain-bearing host proteins that interact with VP40, we used an EBOV PPxY-containing peptide to screen an array of 115 mammalian WW-domain-bearing proteins. Using this unbiased approach, we identified BCL2 Associated Athanogene 3 (BAG3, a member of the BAG family of molecular chaperone proteins, as a specific VP40 PPxY interactor. Here, we demonstrate that the WW-domain of BAG3 interacts with the PPxY motif of both EBOV and MARV VP40 and, unexpectedly, inhibits budding of both eVP40 and mVP40 virus-like particles (VLPs, as well as infectious VSV-EBOV recombinants. BAG3 is a stress induced protein that regulates cellular protein homeostasis and cell survival through chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA. Interestingly, our results show that BAG3 alters the intracellular localization of VP40 by sequestering VP40 away from the plasma membrane. As BAG3 is the first WW-domain interactor identified that negatively regulates budding of VP40 VLPs and infectious virus, we propose that the chaperone-mediated autophagy function of BAG3 represents a specific host defense strategy to counteract the function of VP40 in promoting efficient egress and spread of virus particles.

  3. Methods for the Analysis of Protein Phosphorylation-Mediated Cellular Signaling Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Forest M.; Wolf-Yadlin, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    Protein phosphorylation-mediated cellular signaling networks regulate almost all aspects of cell biology, including the responses to cellular stimulation and environmental alterations. These networks are highly complex and comprise hundreds of proteins and potentially thousands of phosphorylation sites. Multiple analytical methods have been developed over the past several decades to identify proteins and protein phosphorylation sites regulating cellular signaling, and to quantify the dynamic response of these sites to different cellular stimulation. Here we provide an overview of these methods, including the fundamental principles governing each method, their relative strengths and weaknesses, and some examples of how each method has been applied to the analysis of complex signaling networks. When applied correctly, each of these techniques can provide insight into the topology, dynamics, and regulation of protein phosphorylation signaling networks.

  4. Molecular imaging of drug-modulated protein-protein interactions in living subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Massoud, Tarik F; Huang, Jing; Gambhir, Sanjiv S

    2004-03-15

    Networks of protein interactions mediate cellular responses to environmental stimuli and direct the execution of many different cellular functional pathways. Small molecules synthesized within cells or recruited from the external environment mediate many protein interactions. The study of small molecule-mediated interactions of proteins is important to understand abnormal signal transduction pathways in cancer and in drug development and validation. In this study, we used split synthetic renilla luciferase (hRLUC) protein fragment-assisted complementation to evaluate heterodimerization of the human proteins FRB and FKBP12 mediated by the small molecule rapamycin. The concentration of rapamycin required for efficient dimerization and that of its competitive binder ascomycin required for dimerization inhibition were studied in cell lines. The system was dually modulated in cell culture at the transcription level, by controlling nuclear factor kappaB promoter/enhancer elements using tumor necrosis factor alpha, and at the interaction level, by controlling the concentration of the dimerizer rapamycin. The rapamycin-mediated dimerization of FRB and FKBP12 also was studied in living mice by locating, quantifying, and timing the hRLUC complementation-based bioluminescence imaging signal using a cooled charged coupled device camera. This split reporter system can be used to efficiently screen small molecule drugs that modulate protein-protein interactions and also to assess drugs in living animals. Both are essential steps in the preclinical evaluation of candidate pharmaceutical agents targeting protein-protein interactions, including signaling pathways in cancer cells.

  5. Novel Technology for Protein-Protein Interaction-based Targeted Drug Discovery

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    Jung Me Hwang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a simple but highly efficient in-cell protein-protein interaction (PPI discovery system based on the translocation properties of protein kinase C- and its C1a domain in live cells. This system allows the visual detection of trimeric and dimeric protein interactions including cytosolic, nuclear, and/or membrane proteins with their cognate ligands. In addition, this system can be used to identify pharmacological small compounds that inhibit specific PPIs. These properties make this PPI system an attractive tool for screening drug candidates and mapping the protein interactome.

  6. Identification of the proteins related to SET-mediated hepatic cytotoxicity of trichloroethylene by proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaohu; Yang, Xifei; Hong, Wen-Xu; Huang, Peiwu; Wang, Yong; Liu, Wei; Ye, Jinbo; Huang, Haiyan; Huang, Xinfeng; Shen, Liming; Yang, Linqing; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Liu, Jianjun

    2014-05-16

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an effective solvent for a variety of organic materials. Since the wide use of TCE as industrial degreasing of metals, adhesive paint and polyvinyl chloride production, TCE has turned into an environmental and occupational toxicant. Exposure to TCE could cause severe hepatotoxicity; however, the toxic mechanisms of TCE remain poorly understood. Recently, we reported that SET protein mediated TCE-induced cytotoxicity in L-02 cells. Here, we further identified the proteins related to SET-mediated hepatic cytotoxicity of TCE using the techniques of DIGE (differential gel electrophoresis) and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS. Among the 20 differential proteins identified, 8 were found to be modulated by SET in TCE-induced cytotoxicity and three of them (cofilin-1, peroxiredoxin-2 and S100-A11) were validated by Western-blot analysis. The functional analysis revealed that most of the identified SET-modulated proteins are apoptosis-associated proteins. These data indicated that these proteins may be involved in SET-mediated hepatic cytotoxicity of TCE in L-02 cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Multi-PAS domain-mediated protein oligomerization of PpsR from Rhodobacter sphaeroides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heintz, Udo; Meinhart, Anton; Winkler, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Crystal structures of two truncated variants of the transcription factor PpsR from R. sphaeroides are presented that enabled the phasing of a triple PAS domain construct. Together, these structures reveal the importance of α-helical PAS extensions for multi-PAS domain-mediated protein oligomerization and function. Per–ARNT–Sim (PAS) domains are essential modules of many multi-domain signalling proteins that mediate protein interaction and/or sense environmental stimuli. Frequently, multiple PAS domains are present within single polypeptide chains, where their interplay is required for protein function. Although many isolated PAS domain structures have been reported over the last decades, only a few structures of multi-PAS proteins are known. Therefore, the molecular mechanism of multi-PAS domain-mediated protein oligomerization and function is poorly understood. The transcription factor PpsR from Rhodobacter sphaeroides is such a multi-PAS domain protein that, in addition to its three PAS domains, contains a glutamine-rich linker and a C-terminal helix–turn–helix DNA-binding motif. Here, crystal structures of two N-terminally and C-terminally truncated PpsR variants that comprise a single (PpsR Q-PAS1 ) and two (PpsR N-Q-PAS1 ) PAS domains, respectively, are presented and the multi-step strategy required for the phasing of a triple PAS domain construct (PpsR ΔHTH ) is illustrated. While parts of the biologically relevant dimerization interface can already be observed in the two shorter constructs, the PpsR ΔHTH structure reveals how three PAS domains enable the formation of multiple oligomeric states (dimer, tetramer and octamer), highlighting that not only the PAS cores but also their α-helical extensions are essential for protein oligomerization. The results demonstrate that the long helical glutamine-rich linker of PpsR results from a direct fusion of the N-cap of the PAS1 domain with the C-terminal extension of the N-domain that plays an important

  8. Protein- mediated enamel mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Enamel is a hard nanocomposite bioceramic with significant resilience that protects the mammalian tooth from external physical and chemical damages. The remarkable mechanical properties of enamel are associated with its hierarchical structural organization and its thorough connection with underlying dentin. This dynamic mineralizing system offers scientists a wealth of information that allows the study of basic principals of organic matrix-mediated biomineralization and can potentially be utilized in the fields of material science and engineering for development and design of biomimetic materials. This chapter will provide a brief overview of enamel hierarchical structure and properties as well as the process and stages of amelogenesis. Particular emphasis is given to current knowledge of extracellular matrix protein and proteinases, and the structural chemistry of the matrix components and their putative functions. The chapter will conclude by discussing the potential of enamel for regrowth. PMID:22652761

  9. Attraction of Bactrocera cucurbitae and B.dorsalis(Diptera: Tephritidae) to beer waste and other protein sources laced with ammonium acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is known that adult tephritid fruit fly females require protein sources for adequate egg production and that ammonia and its derivatives serve as volatile cues to locate protein-rich food. The attractiveness of beer waste and the commercially available baits Nulure, Buminal, and Bugs 4 Bugs Fruit...

  10. Intracellular cholesterol-binding proteins enhance HDL-mediated cholesterol uptake in cultured primary mouse hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Stephen M; McIntosh, Avery L; Huang, Huan; Landrock, Kerstin K; Martin, Gregory G; Landrock, Danilo; Payne, H Ross; Atshaves, Barbara P; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2012-04-15

    A major gap in our knowledge of rapid hepatic HDL cholesterol clearance is the role of key intracellular factors that influence this process. Although the reverse cholesterol transport pathway targets HDL to the liver for net elimination of free cholesterol from the body, molecular details governing cholesterol uptake into hepatocytes are not completely understood. Therefore, the effects of sterol carrier protein (SCP)-2 and liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), high-affinity cholesterol-binding proteins present in hepatocyte cytosol, on HDL-mediated free cholesterol uptake were examined using gene-targeted mouse models, cultured primary hepatocytes, and 22-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)-amino]-23,24-bisnor-5-cholen-3β-ol (NBD-cholesterol). While SCP-2 overexpression enhanced NBD-cholesterol uptake, counterintuitively, SCP-2/SCP-x gene ablation also 1) enhanced the rapid molecular phase of free sterol uptake detectable in rate and maximal uptake of HDL free cholesterol and 2) differentially enhanced free cholesterol uptake mediated by the HDL3, rather than the HDL2, subfraction. The increased HDL free cholesterol uptake was not due to increased expression or distribution of the HDL receptor [scavenger receptor B1 (SRB1)], proteins regulating SRB1 [postsynaptic density protein (PSD-95)/Drosophila disk large tumor suppressor (dlg)/tight junction protein (ZO1) and 17-kDa membrane-associated protein], or other intracellular cholesterol trafficking proteins (steroidogenic acute response protein D, Niemann Pick C, and oxysterol-binding protein-related proteins). However, expression of L-FABP, the single most prevalent hepatic cytosolic protein that binds cholesterol, was upregulated twofold in SCP-2/SCP-x null hepatocytes. Double-immunogold electron microscopy detected L-FABP sufficiently close to SRB1 for direct interaction, similar to SCP-2. These data suggest a role for L-FABP in HDL cholesterol uptake, a finding confirmed with SCP-2/SCP-x/L-FABP null

  11. Emerging functions of multi-protein complex Mediator with special emphasis on plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Naveen; Agarwal, Pinky; Tyagi, Akhilesh

    2017-10-01

    Mediator is a multi-subunit protein complex which is involved in transcriptional regulation in yeast and other eukaryotes. As a co-activator, it connects information from transcriptional activators/repressors to transcriptional machinery including RNA polymerase II and general transcription factors. It is not only involved in transcription initiation but also has important roles to play in transcription elongation and termination. Functional attributes of different Mediator subunits have been largely defined in yeast and mammalian systems earlier, while such studies in plants have gained momentum recently. Mediator regulates various processes related to plant development and is also involved in biotic and abiotic stress response. Thus, plant Mediator, like yeast and mammalian Mediator complex, is indispensable for plant growth and survival. Interaction of its multiple subunits with other regulatory proteins and their ectopic expression or knockdown in model plant like Arabidopsis and certain crop plants are paving the way to biochemical analysis and unravel molecular mechanisms of action of Mediator in plants.

  12. Phage-Mediated Immuno-PCR for Ultrasensitive Detection of Cry1Ac Protein Based on Nanobody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Dongjian; Lu, Xin; Wang, Wei; Xu, Yang; He, Qinghua

    2016-10-11

    The widespread use of Cry proteins in transgenic plants for insect control has raised concerns about the environment and food safety in the public. An effective detection method for introduced Cry proteins is of significance for environmental risk assessment and product quality control. This paper describes a novel phage mediated immuno-PCR (iPCR) for the ultrasensitive determination of Cry proteins based on nanobodies. Three nanobodies against Cry1Ac protein were obtained from a naı̈ve phage displayed nanobody library without animal immunization process and were applied to the iPCR assay for Cry1Ac. The phage-mediated iPCR for Cry1Ac based on nanobodies showed a dynamic range of 0.001-100 ng/mL and a limit detection of 0.1 pg/mL. Specific measurement of this established method was performed by testing cross-reativity of other Cry1Ac analogues, and the result showed negligible cross-reactivity with other test Cry proteins (Cry1Ab, Cry1F, Cry3B). Furthermore, the phage-mediated iPCR based on nanobody should be easily applicable to the detection of many other Cry proteins.

  13. Model of OSBP-Mediated Cholesterol Supply to Aichi Virus RNA Replication Sites Involving Protein-Protein Interactions among Viral Proteins, ACBD3, OSBP, VAP-A/B, and SAC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa-Sasaki, Kumiko; Nagashima, Shigeo; Taniguchi, Koki; Sasaki, Jun

    2018-04-15

    Positive-strand RNA viruses, including picornaviruses, utilize cellular machinery for genome replication. Previously, we reported that each of the 2B, 2BC, 2C, 3A, and 3AB proteins of Aichi virus (AiV), a picornavirus, forms a complex with the Golgi apparatus protein ACBD3 and phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIβ (PI4KB) at viral RNA replication sites (replication organelles [ROs]), enhancing PI4KB-dependent phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) production. Here, we demonstrate AiV hijacking of the cellular cholesterol transport system involving oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP), a PI4P-binding cholesterol transfer protein. AiV RNA replication was inhibited by silencing cellular proteins known to be components of this pathway, OSBP, the ER membrane proteins VAPA and VAPB (VAP-A/B), the PI4P-phosphatase SAC1, and PI-transfer protein β. OSBP, VAP-A/B, and SAC1 were present at RNA replication sites. We also found various previously unknown interactions among the AiV proteins (2B, 2BC, 2C, 3A, and 3AB), ACBD3, OSBP, VAP-A/B, and SAC1, and the interactions were suggested to be involved in recruiting the component proteins to AiV ROs. Importantly, the OSBP-2B interaction enabled PI4P-independent recruitment of OSBP to AiV ROs, indicating preferential recruitment of OSBP among PI4P-binding proteins. Protein-protein interaction-based OSBP recruitment has not been reported for other picornaviruses. Cholesterol was accumulated at AiV ROs, and inhibition of OSBP-mediated cholesterol transfer impaired cholesterol accumulation and AiV RNA replication. Electron microscopy showed that AiV-induced vesicle-like structures were close to ER membranes. Altogether, we conclude that AiV directly recruits the cholesterol transport machinery through protein-protein interactions, resulting in formation of membrane contact sites between the ER and AiV ROs and cholesterol supply to the ROs. IMPORTANCE Positive-strand RNA viruses utilize host pathways to modulate the lipid composition of

  14. The human protein disulfide isomerase gene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galligan James J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Enzyme-mediated disulfide bond formation is a highly conserved process affecting over one-third of all eukaryotic proteins. The enzymes primarily responsible for facilitating thiol-disulfide exchange are members of an expanding family of proteins known as protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs. These proteins are part of a larger superfamily of proteins known as the thioredoxin protein family (TRX. As members of the PDI family of proteins, all proteins contain a TRX-like structural domain and are predominantly expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum. Subcellular localization and the presence of a TRX domain, however, comprise the short list of distinguishing features required for gene family classification. To date, the PDI gene family contains 21 members, varying in domain composition, molecular weight, tissue expression, and cellular processing. Given their vital role in protein-folding, loss of PDI activity has been associated with the pathogenesis of numerous disease states, most commonly related to the unfolded protein response (UPR. Over the past decade, UPR has become a very attractive therapeutic target for multiple pathologies including Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease, and type-2 diabetes. Understanding the mechanisms of protein-folding, specifically thiol-disulfide exchange, may lead to development of a novel class of therapeutics that would help alleviate a wide range of diseases by targeting the UPR.

  15. Adenovirus DNA binding protein inhibits SrCap-activated CBP and CREB-mediated transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiequn; Tarakanova, Vera; Chrivia, John; Yaciuk, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The SNF2-related CBP activator protein (SrCap) is a potent activator of transcription mediated by CBP and CREB. We have previously demonstrated that the Adenovirus 2 DNA Binding Protein (DBP) binds to SrCap and inhibits the transcription mediated by the carboxyl-terminal region of SrCap (amino acids 1275-2971). We report here that DBP inhibits the ability of full-length SrCap (1-2971) to activate transcription mediated by Gal-CREB and Gal-CBP. In addition, DBP also inhibits the ability of SrCap to enhance Protein Kinase A (PKA) activated transcription of the enkaphalin promoter. DBP was found to dramatically inhibit transcription of a mammalian two-hybrid system that was dependent on the interaction of SrCap and CBP binding domains. We also found that DBP has no effect on transcription mediated by a transcriptional activator that is not related to SrCap, indicating that our reported transcriptional inhibition is specific for SrCap and not due to nonspecific effects of DBP's DNA binding activity on the CAT reporter plasmid. Taken together, these results suggest a model in which DBP inhibits cellular transcription mediated by the interaction between SrCap and CBP

  16. The Development of Protein Microarrays and Their Applications in DNA-Protein and Protein-Protein Interaction Analyses of Arabidopsis Transcription Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wei; He, Kun; Covington, Mike; Dinesh-Kumar, S. P.; Snyder, Michael; Harmer, Stacey L.; Zhu, Yu-Xian; Deng, Xing Wang

    2009-01-01

    We used our collection of Arabidopsis transcription factor (TF) ORFeome clones to construct protein microarrays containing as many as 802 TF proteins. These protein microarrays were used for both protein-DNA and protein-protein interaction analyses. For protein-DNA interaction studies, we examined AP2/ERF family TFs and their cognate cis-elements. By careful comparison of the DNA-binding specificity of 13 TFs on the protein microarray with previous non-microarray data, we showed that protein microarrays provide an efficient and high throughput tool for genome-wide analysis of TF-DNA interactions. This microarray protein-DNA interaction analysis allowed us to derive a comprehensive view of DNA-binding profiles of AP2/ERF family proteins in Arabidopsis. It also revealed four TFs that bound the EE (evening element) and had the expected phased gene expression under clock-regulation, thus providing a basis for further functional analysis of their roles in clock regulation of gene expression. We also developed procedures for detecting protein interactions using this TF protein microarray and discovered four novel partners that interact with HY5, which can be validated by yeast two-hybrid assays. Thus, plant TF protein microarrays offer an attractive high-throughput alternative to traditional techniques for TF functional characterization on a global scale. PMID:19802365

  17. Nitrosative stress and nitrated proteins in trichloroethene-mediated autoimmunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangduo Wang

    Full Text Available Exposure to trichloroethene (TCE, a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, has been linked to a variety of autoimmune diseases (ADs including SLE, scleroderma and hepatitis. Mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of ADs are largely unknown. Earlier studies from our laboratory in MRL+/+ mice suggested the contribution of oxidative/nitrosative stress in TCE-induced autoimmunity, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC supplementation provided protection by attenuating oxidative stress. This study was undertaken to further evaluate the contribution of nitrosative stress in TCE-mediated autoimmunity and to identify proteins susceptible to nitrosative stress. Groups of female MRL +/+ mice were given TCE, NAC or TCE + NAC for 6 weeks (TCE, 10 mmol/kg, i.p., every 4th day; NAC, ∼ 250 mg/kg/day via drinking water. TCE exposure led to significant increases in serum anti-nuclear and anti-histone antibodies together with significant induction of iNOS and increased formation of nitrotyrosine (NT in sera and livers. Proteomic analysis identified 14 additional nitrated proteins in the livers of TCE-treated mice. Furthermore, TCE exposure led to decreased GSH levels and increased activation of NF-κB. Remarkably, NAC supplementation not only ameliorated TCE-induced nitrosative stress as evident from decreased iNOS, NT, nitrated proteins, NF-κB p65 activation and increased GSH levels, but also the markers of autoimmunity, as evident from decreased levels of autoantibodies in the sera. These findings provide support to the role of nitrosative stress in TCE-mediated autoimmune response and identify specific nitrated proteins which could have autoimmune potential. Attenuation of TCE-induced autoimmunity in mice by NAC provides an approach for designing therapeutic strategies.

  18. Identification of odorant binding proteins and chemosensory proteins in Microplitis mediator as well as functional characterization of chemosensory protein 3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Peng

    Full Text Available Odorant binding proteins (OBPs and chemosensory proteins (CSPs play important roles in transporting semiochemicals through the sensillar lymph to olfactory receptors in insect antennae. In the present study, twenty OBPs and three CSPs were identified from the antennal transcriptome of Microplitis mediator. Ten OBPs (MmedOBP11-20 and two CSPs (MmedCSP2-3 were newly identified. The expression patterns of these new genes in olfactory and non-olfactory tissues were investigated by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR measurement. The results indicated that MmedOBP14, MmedOBP18, MmedCSP2 and MmedCSP3 were primarily expressed in antennae suggesting potential olfactory roles in M. mediator. However, other genes including MmedOBP11-13, 15-17, 19-20 appeared to be expressed at higher levels in body parts than in antennae. Focusing on the functional characterization of MmedCSP3, immunocytochemistry and fluorescent competitive binding assays were conducted indoors. It was found that MmedCSP3 was specifically located in the sensillum lymph of olfactory sensilla basiconca type 2. The recombinant MmedCSP3 could bind several types of host insects odors and plant volatiles. Interestingly, three sex pheromone components of Noctuidae insects, cis-11-hexadecenyl aldehyde (Z11-16: Ald, cis-11-hexadecanol (Z11-16: OH, and trans-11-tetradecenyl acetate (E11-14: Ac, showed high binding affinities (Ki = 17.24-18.77 μM. The MmedCSP3 may be involved in locating host insects. Our data provide a base for further investigating the physiological roles of OBPs and CSPs in M. mediator, and extend the function of MmedCSP3 in chemoreception of M. mediator.

  19. Regulation of Sirtuin-Mediated Protein Deacetylation by Cardioprotective Phytochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niria Treviño-Saldaña

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modulation of posttranslational modifications (PTMs, such as protein acetylation, is considered a novel therapeutic strategy to combat the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Protein hyperacetylation is associated with the development of numerous cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure. In addition, decreased expression and activity of the deacetylases Sirt1, Sirt3, and Sirt6 have been linked to the development and progression of cardiac dysfunction. Several phytochemicals exert cardioprotective effects by regulating protein acetylation levels. These effects are mainly exerted via activation of Sirt1 and Sirt3 and inhibition of acetyltransferases. Numerous studies support a cardioprotective role for sirtuin activators (e.g., resveratrol, as well as other emerging modulators of protein acetylation, including curcumin, honokiol, oroxilyn A, quercetin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, bakuchiol, tyrosol, and berberine. Studies also point to a cardioprotective role for various nonaromatic molecules, such as docosahexaenoic acid, alpha-lipoic acid, sulforaphane, and caffeic acid ethanolamide. Here, we review the vast evidence from the bench to the clinical setting for the potential cardioprotective roles of various phytochemicals in the modulation of sirtuin-mediated deacetylation.

  20. Regulation of Sirtuin-Mediated Protein Deacetylation by Cardioprotective Phytochemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Modulation of posttranslational modifications (PTMs), such as protein acetylation, is considered a novel therapeutic strategy to combat the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Protein hyperacetylation is associated with the development of numerous cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure. In addition, decreased expression and activity of the deacetylases Sirt1, Sirt3, and Sirt6 have been linked to the development and progression of cardiac dysfunction. Several phytochemicals exert cardioprotective effects by regulating protein acetylation levels. These effects are mainly exerted via activation of Sirt1 and Sirt3 and inhibition of acetyltransferases. Numerous studies support a cardioprotective role for sirtuin activators (e.g., resveratrol), as well as other emerging modulators of protein acetylation, including curcumin, honokiol, oroxilyn A, quercetin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, bakuchiol, tyrosol, and berberine. Studies also point to a cardioprotective role for various nonaromatic molecules, such as docosahexaenoic acid, alpha-lipoic acid, sulforaphane, and caffeic acid ethanolamide. Here, we review the vast evidence from the bench to the clinical setting for the potential cardioprotective roles of various phytochemicals in the modulation of sirtuin-mediated deacetylation. PMID:29234485

  1. Mitochondrial protein acetylation mediates nutrient sensing of mitochondrial protein synthesis and mitonuclear protein balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Domenico, Antonella; Hofer, Annette; Tundo, Federica; Wenz, Tina

    2014-11-01

    Changes in nutrient supply require global metabolic reprogramming to optimize the utilization of the nutrients. Mitochondria as a central component of the cellular metabolism play a key role in this adaptive process. Since mitochondria harbor their own genome, which encodes essential enzymes, mitochondrial protein synthesis is a determinant of metabolic adaptation. While regulation of cytoplasmic protein synthesis in response to metabolic challenges has been studied in great detail, mechanisms which adapt mitochondrial translation in response to metabolic challenges remain elusive. Our results suggest that the mitochondrial acetylation status controlled by Sirt3 and its proposed opponent GCN5L1 is an important regulator of the metabolic adaptation of mitochondrial translation. Moreover, both proteins modulate regulators of cytoplasmic protein synthesis as well as the mitonuclear protein balance making Sirt3 and GCN5L1 key players in synchronizing mitochondrial and cytoplasmic translation. Our results thereby highlight regulation of mitochondrial translation as a novel component in the cellular nutrient sensing scheme and identify mitochondrial acetylation as a new regulatory principle for the metabolic competence of mitochondrial protein synthesis. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  2. Structural Insights into Triglyceride Storage Mediated by Fat Storage-Inducing Transmembrane (FIT) Protein 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, David A.; Snapp, Erik L.; Silver, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Fat storage-Inducing Transmembrane proteins 1 & 2 (FIT1/FITM1 and FIT2/FITM2) belong to a unique family of evolutionarily conserved proteins localized to the endoplasmic reticulum that are involved in triglyceride lipid droplet formation. FIT proteins have been shown to mediate the partitioning of cellular triglyceride into lipid droplets, but not triglyceride biosynthesis. FIT proteins do not share primary sequence homology with known proteins and no structural information is available to inform on the mechanism by which FIT proteins function. Here, we present the experimentally-solved topological models for FIT1 and FIT2 using N-glycosylation site mapping and indirect immunofluorescence techniques. These methods indicate that both proteins have six-transmembrane-domains with both N- and C-termini localized to the cytosol. Utilizing this model for structure-function analysis, we identified and characterized a gain-of-function mutant of FIT2 (FLL(157-9)AAA) in transmembrane domain 4 that markedly augmented the total number and mean size of lipid droplets. Using limited-trypsin proteolysis we determined that the FLL(157-9)AAA mutant has enhanced trypsin cleavage at K86 relative to wild-type FIT2, indicating a conformational change. Taken together, these studies indicate that FIT2 is a 6 transmembrane domain-containing protein whose conformation likely regulates its activity in mediating lipid droplet formation. PMID:20520733

  3. Structural insights into triglyceride storage mediated by fat storage-inducing transmembrane (FIT protein 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Gross

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Fat storage-Inducing Transmembrane proteins 1 & 2 (FIT1/FITM1 and FIT2/FITM2 belong to a unique family of evolutionarily conserved proteins localized to the endoplasmic reticulum that are involved in triglyceride lipid droplet formation. FIT proteins have been shown to mediate the partitioning of cellular triglyceride into lipid droplets, but not triglyceride biosynthesis. FIT proteins do not share primary sequence homology with known proteins and no structural information is available to inform on the mechanism by which FIT proteins function. Here, we present the experimentally-solved topological models for FIT1 and FIT2 using N-glycosylation site mapping and indirect immunofluorescence techniques. These methods indicate that both proteins have six-transmembrane-domains with both N- and C-termini localized to the cytosol. Utilizing this model for structure-function analysis, we identified and characterized a gain-of-function mutant of FIT2 (FLL(157-9AAA in transmembrane domain 4 that markedly augmented the total number and mean size of lipid droplets. Using limited-trypsin proteolysis we determined that the FLL(157-9AAA mutant has enhanced trypsin cleavage at K86 relative to wild-type FIT2, indicating a conformational change. Taken together, these studies indicate that FIT2 is a 6 transmembrane domain-containing protein whose conformation likely regulates its activity in mediating lipid droplet formation.

  4. Toward the description of electrostatic interactions between globular proteins: potential of mean force in the primitive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahirel, Vincent; Jardat, Marie; Dufrêche, Jean-François; Turq, Pierre

    2007-09-07

    Monte Carlo simulations are used to calculate the exact potential of mean force between charged globular proteins in aqueous solution. The aim of the present paper is to study the influence of the ions of the added salt on the effective interaction between these nanoparticles. The charges of the model proteins, either identical or opposite, are either central or distributed on a discrete pattern. Contrarily to Poisson-Boltzmann predictions, attractive, and repulsive direct forces between proteins are not screened similarly. Moreover, it has been shown that the relative orientations of the charge patterns strongly influence salt-mediated interactions. More precisely, for short distances between the proteins, ions enhance the difference of the effective forces between (i) like-charged and oppositely charged proteins, (ii) attractive and repulsive relative orientations of the proteins, which may affect the selectivity of protein/protein recognition. Finally, such results observed with the simplest models are applied to a more elaborate one to demonstrate their generality.

  5. Protein Kinase C-{delta} mediates down-regulation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K protein: involvement in apoptosis induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Feng-Hou [NO.3 People' s Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Shanghai 201900 (China); The Department of Pathophysiology, Key Laboratory of Cell Differentiation and Apoptosis of National Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Shanghai 200025 (China); Wu, Ying-Li [The Department of Pathophysiology, Key Laboratory of Cell Differentiation and Apoptosis of National Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Shanghai 200025 (China); Zhao, Meng [Institute of Health Science, SJTU-SM/Shanghai Institutes for Biological Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Liu, Chuan-Xu; Wang, Li-Shun [The Department of Pathophysiology, Key Laboratory of Cell Differentiation and Apoptosis of National Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Shanghai 200025 (China); Chen, Guo-Qiang, E-mail: chengq@shsmu.edu.cn [The Department of Pathophysiology, Key Laboratory of Cell Differentiation and Apoptosis of National Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Shanghai 200025 (China); Institute of Health Science, SJTU-SM/Shanghai Institutes for Biological Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China)

    2009-11-15

    We reported previously that NSC606985, a camptothecin analogue, induces apoptosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells through proteolytic activation of protein kinase C delta ({Delta}PKC-{delta}). By subcellular proteome analysis, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) was identified as being significantly down-regulated in NSC606985-treated leukemic NB4 cells. HnRNP K, a docking protein for DNA, RNA, and transcriptional or translational molecules, is implicated in a host of processes involving the regulation of gene expression. However, the molecular mechanisms of hnRNP K reduction and its roles during apoptosis are still not understood. In the present study, we found that, following the appearance of the {Delta}PKC-{delta}, hnRNP K protein was significantly down-regulated in NSC606985, doxorubicin, arsenic trioxide and ultraviolet-induced apoptosis. We further provided evidence that {Delta}PKC-{delta} mediated the down-regulation of hnRNP K protein during apoptosis: PKC-{delta} inhibitor could rescue the reduction of hnRNP K; hnRNP K failed to be decreased in PKC-{delta}-deficient apoptotic KG1a cells; conditional induction of {Delta}PKC-{delta} in U937T cells directly down-regulated hnRNP K protein. Moreover, the proteasome inhibitor also inhibited the down-regulation of hnRNP K protein by apoptosis inducer and the conditional expression of {Delta}PKC-{delta}. More intriguingly, the suppression of hnRNP K with siRNA transfection significantly induced apoptosis. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that proteolytically activated PKC-{delta} down-regulates hnRNP K protein in a proteasome-dependent manner, which plays an important role in apoptosis induction.

  6. The role of atomic level steric effects and attractive forces in protein folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammert, Heiko; Wolynes, Peter G; Onuchic, José N

    2012-02-01

    Protein folding into tertiary structures is controlled by an interplay of attractive contact interactions and steric effects. We investigate the balance between these contributions using structure-based models using an all-atom representation of the structure combined with a coarse-grained contact potential. Tertiary contact interactions between atoms are collected into a single broad attractive well between the C(β) atoms between each residue pair in a native contact. Through the width of these contact potentials we control their tolerance for deviations from the ideal structure and the spatial range of attractive interactions. In the compact native state dominant packing constraints limit the effects of a coarse-grained contact potential. During folding, however, the broad attractive potentials allow an early collapse that starts before the native local structure is completely adopted. As a consequence the folding transition is broadened and the free energy barrier is decreased. Eventually two-state folding behavior is lost completely for systems with very broad attractive potentials. The stabilization of native-like residue interactions in non-perfect geometries early in the folding process frequently leads to structural traps. Global mirror images are a notable example. These traps are penalized by the details of the repulsive interactions only after further collapse. Successful folding to the native state requires simultaneous guidance from both attractive and repulsive interactions. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The role of shape vs. patches in protein crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Jens; Glotzer, Sharon C.

    Proteins fold into a multitude of three-dimensional native structures. The structures of over 100,000 known proteins are deposited in the protein data bank, and most of them have been determined through X-ray crystallography. We ask the question if the role of shape in protein crystallization can be isolated using simulation. Current computational studies show that patchy complementary contacts stabilize experimentally observed P212121 crystal structures for relatively globular protein using spherical protein models. Here we study an anisotropic rigid shape model of green fluorescent protein based on a coarse-grained representation of the atomic coordinates. Using GPU-accelerated molecular dynamics simulations, we find that the experimentally found crystal structure can be stabilized in self-assembly by using complementary attractive patches, confirming the earlier findings. However, we discuss the additional roles of solvent mediated and electrostatic interactions, depletion effects and the self-assembly properties of a purely hard shape model in stabilizing different assemblies. Our findings shed light on fundamental assembly mechanisms in colloidal systems with many competing interactions.

  8. Reverse Phase Protein Arrays for High-Throughput Protein Measurements in Mammospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marlene Lemvig; Block, Ines; List, Markus

    Protein Array (RPPA)-based readout format integrated into robotic siRNA screening. This technique would allow post-screening high-throughput quantification of protein changes. Recently, breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) have attracted much attention, as a tumor- and metastasis-driving subpopulation...

  9. The molecular mechanism of mediation of adsorbed serum proteins to endothelial cells adhesion and growth on biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dayun; Lü, Xiaoying; Hong, Ying; Xi, Tingfei; Zhang, Deyuan

    2013-07-01

    To explore molecular mechanism of mediation of adsorbed proteins to cell adhesion and growth on biomaterials, this study examined endothelial cell adhesion, morphology and viability on bare and titanium nitride (TiN) coated nickel titanium (NiTi) alloys and chitosan film firstly, and then identified the type and amount of serum proteins adsorbed on the three surfaces by proteomic technology. Subsequently, the mediation role of the identified proteins to cell adhesion and growth was investigated with bioinformatics analyses, and further confirmed by a series of cellular and molecular biological experiments. Results showed that the type and amount of adsorbed serum proteins associated with cell adhesion and growth was obviously higher on the alloys than on the chitosan film, and these proteins mediated endothelial cell adhesion and growth on the alloys via four ways. First, proteins such as adiponectin in the adsorbed protein layer bound with cell surface receptors to generate signal transduction, which activated cell surface integrins through increasing intracellular calcium level. Another way, thrombospondin 1 in the adsorbed protein layer promoted TGF-β signaling pathway activation and enhanced integrins expression. The third, RGD sequence containing proteins such as fibronectin 1, vitronectin and thrombospondin 1 in the adsorbed protein layer bound with activated integrins to activate focal adhesion pathway, increased focal adhesion formation and actin cytoskeleton organization and mediated cell adhesion and spreading. In addition, the activated focal adhesion pathway promoted the expression of cell growth related genes and resulted in cell proliferation. The fourth route, coagulation factor II (F2) and fibronectin 1 in the adsorbed protein layer bound with cell surface F2 receptor and integrin, activated regulation of actin cytoskeleton pathway and regulated actin cytoskeleton organization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ciliopathy proteins regulate paracrine signaling by modulating proteasomal degradation of mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangfan P.; Tsai, I-Chun; Morleo, Manuela; Oh, Edwin C.; Leitch, Carmen C.; Massa, Filomena; Lee, Byung-Hoon; Parker, David S.; Finley, Daniel; Zaghloul, Norann A.; Franco, Brunella; Katsanis, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Cilia are critical mediators of paracrine signaling; however, it is unknown whether proteins that contribute to ciliopathies converge on multiple paracrine pathways through a common mechanism. Here, we show that loss of cilopathy-associated proteins Bardet-Biedl syndrome 4 (BBS4) or oral-facial-digital syndrome 1 (OFD1) results in the accumulation of signaling mediators normally targeted for proteasomal degradation. In WT cells, several BBS proteins and OFD1 interacted with proteasomal subunits, and loss of either BBS4 or OFD1 led to depletion of multiple subunits from the centrosomal proteasome. Furthermore, overexpression of proteasomal regulatory components or treatment with proteasomal activators sulforaphane (SFN) and mevalonolactone (MVA) ameliorated signaling defects in cells lacking BBS1, BBS4, and OFD1, in morphant zebrafish embryos, and in induced neurons from Ofd1-deficient mice. Finally, we tested the hypothesis that other proteasome-dependent pathways not known to be associated with ciliopathies are defective in the absence of ciliopathy proteins. We found that loss of BBS1, BBS4, or OFD1 led to decreased NF-κB activity and concomitant IκBβ accumulation and that these defects were ameliorated with SFN treatment. Taken together, our data indicate that basal body proteasomal regulation governs paracrine signaling pathways and suggest that augmenting proteasomal function might benefit ciliopathy patients. PMID:24691443

  11. Phosphorylation of the human respiratory syncytial virus P protein mediates M2-2 regulation of viral RNA synthesis, a process that involves two P proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asenjo, Ana; Villanueva, Nieves

    2016-01-04

    The M2-2 protein regulates the balance between human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) transcription and replication. Here it is shown that M2-2 mediated transcriptional inhibition is managed through P protein phosphorylation. Transcription inhibition by M2-2 of the HRSV based minigenome pRSVluc, required P protein phosphorylation at serines (S) in positions 116, 117, 119 and increased inhibition is observed if S232 or S237 is also phosphorylated. Phosphorylation of these residues is required for viral particle egression from infected cells. Viral RNA synthesis complementation assays between P protein variants, suggest that two types of P proteins participate in the process as components of RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Type I is only functional when, as a homotetramer, it is bound to N and L proteins through residues 203-241. Type II is functionally independent of these interactions and binds to N protein at a region outside residues 232-241. P protein type I phosphorylation at S116, S117 and S119, did not affect the activity of RdRp but this phosphorylation in type II avoids its interaction with N protein and impairs RdRp functionality for transcription and replication. Structural changes in the RdRp, mediated by phosphorylation turnover at the indicated residues, in the two types of P proteins, may result in a fine adjustment, late in the infectious cycle, of transcription, replication and progression in the morphogenetic process that ends in egression of the viral particles from infected cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Memory formation for trace fear conditioning requires ubiquitin-proteasome mediated protein degradation in the prefrontal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Reis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The cellular mechanisms supporting plasticity during memory consolidation have been a subject of considerable interest. De novo protein and mRNA synthesis in several brain areas are critical, and more recently protein degradation, mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS, has been shown to be important. Previous work clearly establishes a relationship between protein synthesis and protein degradation in the amygdala, but it is unclear whether cortical mechanisms of memory consolidation are similar to those in the amygdala. Recent work demonstrating a critical role for prefrontal cortex (PFC in the acquisition and consolidation of fear memory allows us to address this question. Here we use a PFC-dependent fear conditioning protocol to determine whether UPS mediated protein degradation is necessary for memory consolidation in PFC. Groups of rats were trained with auditory delay or trace fear conditioning and sacrificed 60 min after training. PFC tissue was then analyzed to quantify the amount of polyubiquinated protein. Other animals were trained with similar procedures but were infused with either a proteasome inhibitor (clasto-lactacystin β-lactone or a translation inhibitor (anisomycin in the PFC immediately after training. Our results show increased UPS-mediated protein degradation in the PFC following trace but not delay fear conditioning. Additionally, post-training proteasome or translation inhibition significantly impaired trace but not delay fear memory when tested the next day. Our results further support the idea that the PFC is critical for trace but not delay fear conditioning highlight the role of UPS-mediated degradation as critical for synaptic plasticity.

  13. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK mediates nutrient regulation of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP in pancreatic beta-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maayan Shaked

    Full Text Available Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP regulates critical biological processes including inflammation, stress and apoptosis. TXNIP is upregulated by glucose and is a critical mediator of hyperglycemia-induced beta-cell apoptosis in diabetes. In contrast, the saturated long-chain fatty acid palmitate, although toxic to the beta-cell, inhibits TXNIP expression. The mechanisms involved in the opposing effects of glucose and fatty acids on TXNIP expression are unknown. We found that both palmitate and oleate inhibited TXNIP in a rat beta-cell line and islets. Palmitate inhibition of TXNIP was independent of fatty acid beta-oxidation or esterification. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK has an important role in cellular energy sensing and control of metabolic homeostasis; therefore we investigated its involvement in nutrient regulation of TXNIP. As expected, glucose inhibited whereas palmitate stimulated AMPK. Pharmacologic activators of AMPK mimicked fatty acids by inhibiting TXNIP. AMPK knockdown increased TXNIP expression in presence of high glucose with and without palmitate, indicating that nutrient (glucose and fatty acids effects on TXNIP are mediated in part via modulation of AMPK activity. TXNIP is transcriptionally regulated by carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP. Palmitate inhibited glucose-stimulated ChREBP nuclear entry and recruitment to the Txnip promoter, thereby inhibiting Txnip transcription. We conclude that AMPK is an important regulator of Txnip transcription via modulation of ChREBP activity. The divergent effects of glucose and fatty acids on TXNIP expression result in part from their opposing effects on AMPK activity. In light of the important role of TXNIP in beta-cell apoptosis, its inhibition by fatty acids can be regarded as an adaptive/protective response to glucolipotoxicity. The finding that AMPK mediates nutrient regulation of TXNIP may have important implications for the pathophysiology and treatment

  14. Proteomic analysis of the signaling pathway mediated by the heterotrimeric Gα protein Pga1 of Penicillium chrysogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Navarro, Ulises; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Zúñiga-León, Eduardo; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; Fernández, Francisco J; Fierro, Francisco

    2016-10-06

    The heterotrimeric Gα protein Pga1-mediated signaling pathway regulates the entire developmental program in Penicillium chrysogenum, from spore germination to the formation of conidia. In addition it participates in the regulation of penicillin biosynthesis. We aimed to advance the understanding of this key signaling pathway using a proteomics approach, a powerful tool to identify effectors participating in signal transduction pathways. Penicillium chrysogenum mutants with different levels of activity of the Pga1-mediated signaling pathway were used to perform comparative proteomic analyses by 2D-DIGE and LC-MS/MS. Thirty proteins were identified which showed differences in abundance dependent on Pga1 activity level. By modifying the intracellular levels of cAMP we could establish cAMP-dependent and cAMP-independent pathways in Pga1-mediated signaling. Pga1 was shown to regulate abundance of enzymes in primary metabolic pathways involved in ATP, NADPH and cysteine biosynthesis, compounds that are needed for high levels of penicillin production. An in vivo phosphorylated protein containing a pleckstrin homology domain was identified; this protein is a candidate for signal transduction activity. Proteins with possible roles in purine metabolism, protein folding, stress response and morphogenesis were also identified whose abundance was regulated by Pga1 signaling. Thirty proteins whose abundance was regulated by the Pga1-mediated signaling pathway were identified. These proteins are involved in primary metabolism, stress response, development and signal transduction. A model describing the pathways through which Pga1 signaling regulates different cellular processes is proposed.

  15. Protein mediated synthesis of fluorescent Au-nanoclusters for metal sensory coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Manja; Raff, Johannes [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Biogeochemistry

    2017-06-01

    Fluorescent Au-nanocluster were successfully synthesized and used for the selective detection of Cu{sup 2} {sup +}. The synthesized Au-BSA-nanoclusters remain functional also after immobilization and show high thermal stability. Additionally, the transfer of the protein mediated Au-nanocluster synthesis route to S-layer proteins was achieved. (The presented work is part of the project BIONEWS dealing with long-term stable cells for the set-up and regeneration of sensor and actor materials for strategic relevant metals, in particular rare earth elements).

  16. Reversible assembly of protein-DNA nanostructures triggered by mediated electron transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, Stephan; Wenderhold-Reeb, Sabine; Nöll, Gilbert

    2017-01-01

    Stable protein-DNA nanostructures have been assembled by reconstitution of the multi-ligand binding flavoprotein dodecin on top of flavin-terminated dsDNA monolayers on gold electrodes. These structures could be disassembled by electrochemical flavin reduction via mediated electron transfer. For this purpose a negative potential was applied at the Au working electrode in the presence of the redox mediator bis-(ammoniumethyl)-4,4′-bipyridinium tetrabromide. The stepwise formation of the flavin-terminated dsDNA monolayers as well as the binding and electrochemically triggered release of apododecin were monitored by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements. The assembly and disassembly of the protein-DNA nanostructures were fully reversible processes, which could be carried out multiple times at the same flavin-dsDNA modified surface. When a negative potential was applied in the absence of a redox mediator apododecin could not be released, i.e. direct electron transfer was not possible. As alternative redox mediators also methylene blue and phenosafranine were studied, but in the presence of these molecules apododecin was released without applying a potential, probably because the tricyclic aromatic compounds are able to replace the flavins at the binding sites.

  17. DIBS: a repository of disordered binding sites mediating interactions with ordered proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schad, Eva; Fichó, Erzsébet; Pancsa, Rita; Simon, István; Dosztányi, Zsuzsanna; Mészáros, Bálint

    2018-02-01

    Intrinsically Disordered Proteins (IDPs) mediate crucial protein-protein interactions, most notably in signaling and regulation. As their importance is increasingly recognized, the detailed analyses of specific IDP interactions opened up new opportunities for therapeutic targeting. Yet, large scale information about IDP-mediated interactions in structural and functional details are lacking, hindering the understanding of the mechanisms underlying this distinct binding mode. Here, we present DIBS, the first comprehensive, curated collection of complexes between IDPs and ordered proteins. DIBS not only describes by far the highest number of cases, it also provides the dissociation constants of their interactions, as well as the description of potential post-translational modifications modulating the binding strength and linear motifs involved in the binding. Together with the wide range of structural and functional annotations, DIBS will provide the cornerstone for structural and functional studies of IDP complexes. DIBS is freely accessible at http://dibs.enzim.ttk.mta.hu/. The DIBS application is hosted by Apache web server and was implemented in PHP. To enrich querying features and to enhance backend performance a MySQL database was also created. dosztanyi@caesar.elte.hu or bmeszaros@caesar.elte.hu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Peptide and protein delivery using new drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ashish; Jain, Aviral; Gulbake, Arvind; Shilpi, Satish; Hurkat, Pooja; Jain, Sanjay K

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical and biotechnological research sorts protein drug delivery systems by importance based on their various therapeutic applications. The effective and potent action of the proteins/peptides makes them the drugs of choice for the treatment of numerous diseases. Major research issues in protein delivery include the stabilization of proteins in delivery devices and the design of appropriate target-specific protein carriers. Many efforts have been made for effective delivery of proteins/peptidal drugs through various routes of administrations for successful therapeutic effects. Nanoparticles made of biodegradable polymers such as poly lactic acid, polycaprolactone, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), the poly(fumaric-co-sebacic) anhydride chitosan, and modified chitosan, as well as solid lipids, have shown great potential in the delivery of proteins/peptidal drugs. Moreover, scientists also have used liposomes, PEGylated liposomes, niosomes, and aquasomes, among others, for peptidal drug delivery. They also have developed hydrogels and transdermal drug delivery systems for peptidal drug delivery. A receptor-mediated delivery system is another attractive strategy to overcome the limitation in drug absorption that enables the transcytosis of the protein across the epithelial barrier. Modification such as PEGnology is applied to various proteins and peptides of the desired protein and peptides also increases the circulating life, solubility and stability, pharmacokinetic properties, and antigenicity of protein. This review focuses on various approaches for effective protein/peptidal drug delivery, with special emphasis on insulin delivery.

  19. Phosphorylation of the Usher syndrome 1G protein SANS controls Magi2-mediated endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauß, Katharina; Knapp, Barbara; Jores, Pia; Roepman, Ronald; Kremer, Hannie; Wijk, Erwin V; Märker, Tina; Wolfrum, Uwe

    2014-08-01

    The human Usher syndrome (USH) is a complex ciliopathy with at least 12 chromosomal loci assigned to three clinical subtypes, USH1-3. The heterogeneous USH proteins are organized into protein networks. Here, we identified Magi2 (membrane-associated guanylate kinase inverted-2) as a new component of the USH protein interactome, binding to the multifunctional scaffold protein SANS (USH1G). We showed that the SANS-Magi2 complex assembly is regulated by the phosphorylation of an internal PDZ-binding motif in the sterile alpha motif domain of SANS by the protein kinase CK2. We affirmed Magi2's role in receptor-mediated, clathrin-dependent endocytosis and showed that phosphorylated SANS tightly regulates Magi2-mediated endocytosis. Specific depletions by RNAi revealed that SANS and Magi2-mediated endocytosis regulates aspects of ciliogenesis. Furthermore, we demonstrated the localization of the SANS-Magi2 complex in the periciliary membrane complex facing the ciliary pocket of retinal photoreceptor cells in situ. Our data suggest that endocytotic processes may not only contribute to photoreceptor cell homeostasis but also counterbalance the periciliary membrane delivery accompanying the exocytosis processes for the cargo vesicle delivery. In USH1G patients, mutations in SANS eliminate Magi2 binding and thereby deregulate endocytosis, lead to defective ciliary transport modules and ultimately disrupt photoreceptor cell function inducing retinal degeneration. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. A pp32-retinoblastoma protein complex modulates androgen receptor-mediated transcription and associates with components of the splicing machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adegbola, Onikepe; Pasternack, Gary R.

    2005-01-01

    We have previously shown pp32 and the retinoblastoma protein interact. pp32 and the retinoblastoma protein are nuclear receptor transcriptional coregulators: the retinoblastoma protein is a coactivator for androgen receptor, the major regulator of prostate cancer growth, while pp32, which is highly expressed in prostate cancer, is a corepressor of the estrogen receptor. We now show pp32 increases androgen receptor-mediated transcription and the retinoblastoma protein modulates this activity. Using affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identify members of the pp32-retinoblastoma protein complex as PSF and nonO/p54nrb, proteins implicated in coordinate regulation of nuclear receptor-mediated transcription and splicing. We show that the pp32-retinoblastoma protein complex is modulated during TPA-induced K562 differentiation. Present evidence suggests that nuclear receptors assemble multiprotein complexes to coordinately regulate transcription and mRNA processing. Our results suggest that pp32 and the retinoblastoma protein may be part of a multiprotein complex that coordinately regulates nuclear receptor-mediated transcription and mRNA processing

  1. Hot-spot analysis for drug discovery targeting protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Mireia; Fernández-Recio, Juan

    2018-04-01

    Protein-protein interactions are important for biological processes and pathological situations, and are attractive targets for drug discovery. However, rational drug design targeting protein-protein interactions is still highly challenging. Hot-spot residues are seen as the best option to target such interactions, but their identification requires detailed structural and energetic characterization, which is only available for a tiny fraction of protein interactions. Areas covered: In this review, the authors cover a variety of computational methods that have been reported for the energetic analysis of protein-protein interfaces in search of hot-spots, and the structural modeling of protein-protein complexes by docking. This can help to rationalize the discovery of small-molecule inhibitors of protein-protein interfaces of therapeutic interest. Computational analysis and docking can help to locate the interface, molecular dynamics can be used to find suitable cavities, and hot-spot predictions can focus the search for inhibitors of protein-protein interactions. Expert opinion: A major difficulty for applying rational drug design methods to protein-protein interactions is that in the majority of cases the complex structure is not available. Fortunately, computational docking can complement experimental data. An interesting aspect to explore in the future is the integration of these strategies for targeting PPIs with large-scale mutational analysis.

  2. Testing the utility of fluorescent proteins in Mimulus lewisii by an Agrobacterium-mediated transient assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Baoqing; Yuan, Yao-Wu

    2016-04-01

    The Agrobacterium -mediated transient expression assay by leaf infiltration in Mimulus lewisii is robust. Fluorescent proteins EGFP, EYFP and DsRed give bright fluorescence signals in the infiltrated tissue. Mimulus lewisii is an emerging developmental genetic model system. Recently developed genomic and genetic resources and a stable transformation protocol have greatly facilitated the identification and functional characterization of genes controlling the development of ecologically important floral traits using this species. To further expedite gene and protein function analyses in M. lewisii, we adopted and simplified the Agrobacterium-mediated transient gene expression method routinely used in tobacco plants. With the validated transient assay, we examined the performance of fluorescent proteins EGFP, EYFP and DsRed in M. lewisii. All three proteins gave bright fluorescence signals when transiently expressed in agroinfiltrated leaves. Furthermore, we demonstrated the utility of fluorescent proteins in M. lewisii by showing the nuclear localization of Reduced Carotenoid Pigmentation 1 (RCP1), a recently discovered R2R3-MYB transcription factor that regulates carotenoid pigmentation during flower development. Both the transient assay and the fluorescent proteins are valuable additions to the M. lewisii toolbox, making this emerging genetic and developmental model system even more powerful.

  3. Specificity and affinity quantification of protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhiqiang; Guo, Liyong; Hu, Liang; Wang, Jin

    2013-05-01

    Most biological processes are mediated by the protein-protein interactions. Determination of the protein-protein structures and insight into their interactions are vital to understand the mechanisms of protein functions. Currently, compared with the isolated protein structures, only a small fraction of protein-protein structures are experimentally solved. Therefore, the computational docking methods play an increasing role in predicting the structures and interactions of protein-protein complexes. The scoring function of protein-protein interactions is the key responsible for the accuracy of the computational docking. Previous scoring functions were mostly developed by optimizing the binding affinity which determines the stability of the protein-protein complex, but they are often lack of the consideration of specificity which determines the discrimination of native protein-protein complex against competitive ones. We developed a scoring function (named as SPA-PP, specificity and affinity of the protein-protein interactions) by incorporating both the specificity and affinity into the optimization strategy. The testing results and comparisons with other scoring functions show that SPA-PP performs remarkably on both predictions of binding pose and binding affinity. Thus, SPA-PP is a promising quantification of protein-protein interactions, which can be implemented into the protein docking tools and applied for the predictions of protein-protein structure and affinity. The algorithm is implemented in C language, and the code can be downloaded from http://dl.dropbox.com/u/1865642/Optimization.cpp.

  4. A subset of FG-nucleoporins is necessary for efficient Msn5-mediated nuclear protein export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Erin M.; DeRoo, Elise P.; Clement, George W.; Rao, Sheila; Kruse, Sarah E.; Kokanovich, Kate M.; Belanger, Kenneth D.

    2013-01-01

    The transport of proteins between the cytoplasm and nucleus requires interactions between soluble transport receptors (karyopherins) and phenylalanine-glycine (FG) repeat domains on nuclear pore complex proteins (nucleoporins). However, the role of specific FG repeat-containing nucleoporins in nuclear protein export has not been carefully investigated. We have developed a novel kinetic assay to investigate the relative export kinetics mediated by the karyopherin Msn5/Kap142 in yeast containing specific FG-Nup mutations. Using the Msn5 substrate Crz1 as a marker for Msn5-mediated protein export, we observe that deletions of NUP100 or NUP2 result in decreased rates of Crz1 export, while nup60Δ and nup42Δ mutants do not vary significantly from wild type. The decreased Msn5 export rate in nup100Δ was confirmed using Mig1-GFP as a transport substrate. A nup100ΔGLFG mutant shows defects in nuclear export kinetics similar to a nup100Δ deletion. Removal of FG-repeats from Nsp1 also decreases export kinetics, while a loss of Nup1 FXFGs does not. To confirm that our export data reflected functional differences in protein localization, we performed Crz1 transcription activation assays using a CDRE::LacZ reporter gene that is upregulated upon increased transcription activation by Crz1 in vivo. We observe that expression from this reporter increases in nup100ΔGLFG and nsp1ΔFGΔFXFG strains that exhibit decreased Crz1 export kinetics but resembles wild-type levels in nup1ΔFXFG strains that do not exhibit export defects. These data provide evidence that the export of Msn5 is likely mediated by a specific subset of FG-Nups and that the GLFG repeat domain of Nup100 is important for Msn5-mediated nuclear protein export. PMID:23295456

  5. Integrin αvβ1 Modulation Affects Subtype B Avian Metapneumovirus Fusion Protein-mediated Cell-Cell Fusion and Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Bing-Ling; Guan, Xiao-Lu; Liu, Yong-Zhen; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Yong-Qiang; Qi, Xiao-Le; Cui, Hong-Yu; Liu, Chang-Jun; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Gao, Hong-Lei; Gao, Li; Li, Kai; Gao, Yu-Long; Wang, Xiao-Mei

    2016-07-08

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) fusion (F) protein mediates virus-cell membrane fusion to initiate viral infection, which requires F protein binding to its receptor(s) on the host cell surface. However, the receptor(s) for aMPV F protein is still not identified. All known subtype B aMPV (aMPV/B) F proteins contain a conserved Arg-Asp-Asp (RDD) motif, suggesting that the aMPV/B F protein may mediate membrane fusion via the binding of RDD to integrin. When blocked with integrin-specific peptides, aMPV/B F protein fusogenicity and viral replication were significantly reduced. Specifically we identified integrin αv and/or β1-mediated F protein fusogenicity and viral replication using antibody blocking, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) knockdown, and overexpression. Additionally, overexpression of integrin αv and β1 in aMPV/B non-permissive cells conferred aMPV/B F protein binding and aMPV/B infection. When RDD was altered to RAE (Arg-Ala-Glu), aMPV/B F protein binding and fusogenic activity were profoundly impaired. These results suggest that integrin αvβ1 is a functional receptor for aMPV/B F protein-mediated membrane fusion and virus infection, which will provide new insights on the fusogenic mechanism and pathogenesis of aMPV. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Integrin αvβ1 Modulation Affects Subtype B Avian Metapneumovirus Fusion Protein-mediated Cell-Cell Fusion and Virus Infection*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Bing-Ling; Guan, Xiao-Lu; Liu, Yong-Zhen; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Yong-Qiang; Qi, Xiao-Le; Cui, Hong-Yu; Liu, Chang-Jun; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Gao, Hong-Lei; Gao, Li; Li, Kai; Gao, Yu-Long; Wang, Xiao-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) fusion (F) protein mediates virus-cell membrane fusion to initiate viral infection, which requires F protein binding to its receptor(s) on the host cell surface. However, the receptor(s) for aMPV F protein is still not identified. All known subtype B aMPV (aMPV/B) F proteins contain a conserved Arg-Asp-Asp (RDD) motif, suggesting that the aMPV/B F protein may mediate membrane fusion via the binding of RDD to integrin. When blocked with integrin-specific peptides, aMPV/B F protein fusogenicity and viral replication were significantly reduced. Specifically we identified integrin αv and/or β1-mediated F protein fusogenicity and viral replication using antibody blocking, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) knockdown, and overexpression. Additionally, overexpression of integrin αv and β1 in aMPV/B non-permissive cells conferred aMPV/B F protein binding and aMPV/B infection. When RDD was altered to RAE (Arg-Ala-Glu), aMPV/B F protein binding and fusogenic activity were profoundly impaired. These results suggest that integrin αvβ1 is a functional receptor for aMPV/B F protein-mediated membrane fusion and virus infection, which will provide new insights on the fusogenic mechanism and pathogenesis of aMPV. PMID:27226547

  7. Impact of protein uptake and degradation on recombinant protein secretion in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyo, Keith E. J.; Liu, Zihe; Magnusson, Ylva

    2014-01-01

    Protein titers, a key bioprocessing metric, depend both on the synthesis of protein and the degradation of protein. Secreted recombinant protein production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an attractive platform as minimal media can be used for cultivation, thus reducing fermentation costs...... and transcriptomics, we identify metabolic and regulatory markers that are consistent with uptake of whole proteins by endocytosis, followed by intracellular degradation and catabolism of substituent amino acids. Uptake and degradation of recombinant protein products may be common in S. cerevisiae protein secretion...... and simplifying downstream purification, compared to other systems that require complex media. As such, engineering S. cerevisiae to improve titers has been then the subject of significant attention, but the majority of previous efforts have been focused on improving protein synthesis. Here, we characterize...

  8. DNA and protein co-administration induces tolerogenic dendritic cells through DC-SIGN mediated negative signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinyao; Geng, Shuang; Liu, Xiuping; Liu, Hu; Jin, Huali; Liu, Chang-Gong; Wang, Bin

    2013-10-01

    We previously demonstrated that DNA and protein co-administration induced differentiation of immature dendritic cells (iDCs) into CD11c(+)CD40(low)IL-10(+) regulatory DCs (DCregs) via the caveolin-1 (Cav-1) -mediated signal pathway. Here, we demonstrate that production of IL-10 and the low expression of CD40 play a critical role in the subsequent induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs) by the DCregs. We observed that DNA and protein were co-localized with DC-SIGN in caveolae and early lysosomes in the treated DCs, as indicated by co-localization with Cav-1 and EEA-1 compartment markers. DNA and protein also co-localized with LAMP-2. Gene-array analysis of gene expression showed that more than a thousand genes were significantly changed by the DC co-treatment with DNA + protein compared with controls. Notably, the level of DC-SIGN expression was dramatically upregulated in pOVA + OVA co-treated DCs. The expression levels of Rho and Rho GNEF, the down-stream molecules of DC-SIGN mediated signal pathway, were also greatly upregulated. Further, the level of TLR9, the traditional DNA receptor, was significantly downregulated. These results suggest that DC-SIGN as the potential receptor for DNA and protein might trigger the negative pathway to contribute the induction of DCreg combining with Cav-1 mediated negative signal pathway.

  9. Polycomb group protein-mediated repression of transcription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morey, Lluís; Helin, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    The polycomb group (PcG) proteins are essential for the normal development of multicellular organisms. They form multi-protein complexes that work as transcriptional repressors of several thousand genes controlling differentiation pathways during development. How the PcG proteins work as transcri......The polycomb group (PcG) proteins are essential for the normal development of multicellular organisms. They form multi-protein complexes that work as transcriptional repressors of several thousand genes controlling differentiation pathways during development. How the PcG proteins work...... as transcriptional repressors is incompletely understood, but involves post-translational modifications of histones by two major PcG protein complexes: polycomb repressive complex 1 and polycomb repressive complex 2....

  10. Nectar protein content and attractiveness to Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens in plants with nectar/insect associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongyuan; Kearney, Christopher M

    2015-06-01

    We chose five easily propagated garden plants previously shown to be attractive to mosquitoes, ants or other insects and tested them for attractiveness to Culex pipiens and Aedes aegypti. Long term imbibition was tested by survival on each plant species. Both mosquito species survived best on Impatiens walleriana, the common garden impatiens, followed by Asclepias curassavica, Campsis radicans and Passiflora edulis, which sponsored survival as well as the 10% sucrose control. Immediate preference for imbibition was tested with nectar dyed in situ on each plant. In addition, competition studies were performed with one dyed plant species in the presence of five undyed plant species to simulate a garden setting. In both preference studies I. walleriana proved superior. Nectar from all plants was then screened for nectar protein content by SDS-PAGE, with great variability being found between species, but with I. walleriana producing the highest levels. The data suggest that I. walleriana may have value as a model plant for subsequent studies exploring nectar delivery of transgenic mosquitocidal proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Enlightened protein: Fhit tumor suppressor protein structure and function and its role in the toxicity of protoporphyrin IX-mediated photodynamic reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawacka-Pankau, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    The Fhit tumor suppressor protein possesses Ap 3 A (diadenosine triphosphate - ApppA) hydrolytic activity in vitro and its gene is found inactive in many pre-malignant states due to gene inactivation. For several years Fhit has been a widely investigated protein as its cellular function still remains largely unsolved. Fhit was shown to act as a molecular 'switch' of cell death via cascade operating on the influence of ATR-Chk1 pathway but also through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Notably, Fhit was reported by our group to enhance the overall eradication effect of porphyrin-mediated photodynamic treatment (PDT). In this review the up-to-date findings on Fhit protein as a tumor suppressor and its role in PDT are presented.

  12. The E5 Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    DiMaio, Daniel; Petti, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The E5 proteins are short transmembrane proteins encoded by many animal and human papillomaviruses. These proteins display transforming activity in cultured cells and animals, and they presumably also play a role in the productive virus life cycle. The E5 proteins are thought to act by modulating the activity of cellular proteins. Here, we describe the biological activities of the best-studied E5 proteins and discuss the evidence implicating specific protein targets and pathways in mediating ...

  13. Campylobacter jejuni transducer like proteins: Chemotaxis and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekhar, Kshipra; Kassem, Issmat I; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2017-07-04

    Chemotaxis, a process that mediates directional motility toward or away from chemical stimuli (chemoeffectors/ligands that can be attractants or repellents) in the environment, plays an important role in the adaptation of Campylobacter jejuni to disparate niches. The chemotaxis system consists of core signal transduction proteins and methyl-accepting-domain-containing Transducer like proteins (Tlps). Ligands binding to Tlps relay a signal to chemotaxis proteins in the cytoplasm which initiate a signal transduction cascade, culminating into a directional flagellar movement. Tlps facilitate substrate-specific chemotaxis in C. jejuni, which plays an important role in the pathogen's adaptation, pathobiology and colonization of the chicken gastrointestinal tract. However, the role of Tlps in C. jejuni's host tissue specific colonization, physiology and virulence remains not completely understood. Based on recent studies, it can be predicted that Tlps might be important targets for developing strategies to control C. jejuni via vaccines and antimicrobials.

  14. USP21 regulates Hippo pathway activity by mediating MARK protein turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thanh Hung; Kugler, Jan-Michael; Loya, Anand Chainsukh

    2017-01-01

    observed in cancer and often correlates with worse survival. The activity and stability of Hippo pathway components, including YAP/TAZ, AMOT and LATS1/2, are regulated by ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. Aberrant expression of ubiquitin ligase complexes that regulate the turnover of Hippo components...

  15. C-reactive protein enhances IgG-mediated phagocyte responses and thrombocytopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapur, Rick; Heitink-Polle, Katja M. J.; Porcelijn, Leendert; Bentlage, Arthur E. H.; Bruin, MCA; Visser, Remco; Roos, Dirk; Schasfoort, Richard B. M.; de Haas, Masja; van der Schoot, C. Ellen; Vidarsson, Gestur

    2015-01-01

    Immune-mediated platelet destruction is most frequently caused by allo-or autoantibodies via Fc gamma receptor-dependent phagocytosis. Disease severity can be predicted neither by antibody isotype nor by titer, indicating that other factors play a role. Here we show that the acute phase protein

  16. Optimization and utilization of Agrobacterium-mediated transient protein production in Nicotiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloul, Moneim; Trusa, Jason; Mett, Vadim; Yusibov, Vidadi

    2014-04-19

    Agrobacterium-mediated transient protein production in plants is a promising approach to produce vaccine antigens and therapeutic proteins within a short period of time. However, this technology is only just beginning to be applied to large-scale production as many technological obstacles to scale up are now being overcome. Here, we demonstrate a simple and reproducible method for industrial-scale transient protein production based on vacuum infiltration of Nicotiana plants with Agrobacteria carrying launch vectors. Optimization of Agrobacterium cultivation in AB medium allows direct dilution of the bacterial culture in Milli-Q water, simplifying the infiltration process. Among three tested species of Nicotiana, N. excelsiana (N. benthamiana × N. excelsior) was selected as the most promising host due to the ease of infiltration, high level of reporter protein production, and about two-fold higher biomass production under controlled environmental conditions. Induction of Agrobacterium harboring pBID4-GFP (Tobacco mosaic virus-based) using chemicals such as acetosyringone and monosaccharide had no effect on the protein production level. Infiltrating plant under 50 to 100 mbar for 30 or 60 sec resulted in about 95% infiltration of plant leaf tissues. Infiltration with Agrobacterium laboratory strain GV3101 showed the highest protein production compared to Agrobacteria laboratory strains LBA4404 and C58C1 and wild-type Agrobacteria strains at6, at10, at77 and A4. Co-expression of a viral RNA silencing suppressor, p23 or p19, in N. benthamiana resulted in earlier accumulation and increased production (15-25%) of target protein (influenza virus hemagglutinin).

  17. The TIM Barrel Architecture Facilitated the Early Evolution of Protein-Mediated Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Aaron David; Beatty, Joshua T; Landweber, Laura F

    2016-01-01

    The triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel protein fold is a structurally repetitive architecture that is present in approximately 10% of all enzymes. It is generally assumed that this ubiquity in modern proteomes reflects an essential historical role in early protein-mediated metabolism. Here, we provide quantitative and comparative analyses to support several hypotheses about the early importance of the TIM barrel architecture. An information theoretical analysis of protein structures supports the hypothesis that the TIM barrel architecture could arise more easily by duplication and recombination compared to other mixed α/β structures. We show that TIM barrel enzymes corresponding to the most taxonomically broad superfamilies also have the broadest range of functions, often aided by metal and nucleotide-derived cofactors that are thought to reflect an earlier stage of metabolic evolution. By comparison to other putatively ancient protein architectures, we find that the functional diversity of TIM barrel proteins cannot be explained simply by their antiquity. Instead, the breadth of TIM barrel functions can be explained, in part, by the incorporation of a broad range of cofactors, a trend that does not appear to be shared by proteins in general. These results support the hypothesis that the simple and functionally general TIM barrel architecture may have arisen early in the evolution of protein biosynthesis and provided an ideal scaffold to facilitate the metabolic transition from ribozymes, peptides, and geochemical catalysts to modern protein enzymes.

  18. Covalent attachment of proteins to solid supports and surfaces via Sortase-mediated ligation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilyan Chan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in the attachment of proteins to solid supports for the development of supported catalysts, affinity matrices, and micro devices as well as for the development of planar and bead based protein arrays for multiplexed assays of protein concentration, interactions, and activity. A critical requirement for these applications is the generation of a stable linkage between the solid support and the immobilized, but still functional, protein. METHODOLOGY: Solid supports including crosslinked polymer beads, beaded agarose, and planar glass surfaces, were modified to present an oligoglycine motif to solution. A range of proteins were ligated to the various surfaces using the Sortase A enzyme of S. aureus. Reactions were carried out in aqueous buffer conditions at room temperature for times between one and twelve hours. CONCLUSIONS: The Sortase A transpeptidase of S. aureus provides a general, robust, and gentle approach to the selective covalent immobilization of proteins on three very different solid supports. The proteins remain functional and accessible to solution. Sortase mediated ligation is therefore a straightforward methodology for the preparation of solid supported enzymes and bead based assays, as well as the modification of planar surfaces for microanalytical devices and protein arrays.

  19. Water Transport Mediated by Other Membrane Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Boyue; Wang, Hongkai; Yang, Baoxue

    2017-01-01

    Water transport through membrane is so intricate that there are still some debates. (Aquaporins) AQPs are entirely accepted to allow water transmembrane movement depending on osmotic gradient. Cotransporters and uniporters , however, are also concerned in water homeotatsis. Urea transporter B (UT-B) has a single-channel water permeability that is similar to AQP1. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR ) was initially thought as a water channel but now not believed to transport water directly. By cotranporters, water is transported by water osmosis coupling with substrates, which explains how water is transported across the isolated small intestine. This chapter provides information about water transport mediated by other membrane proteins except AQPs .

  20. PEG-Immobilized Keratin for Protein Drug Sequestration and pH-Mediated Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roche C. de Guzman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein drugs like growth factors are promising therapeutics for damaged-tissue repair. Their local delivery often requires biomaterial carriers for achieving the therapeutic dose range while extending efficacy. In this study, polyethylene glycol (PEG and keratin were crosslinked and used as sponge-like scaffolds (KTN-PEG to absorb test proteins with different isoelectric points (pI: albumin (~5, hemoglobin (~7, and lysozyme (~11. The protein release kinetics was influenced by charge at physiological pH 7.4. The keratin network, with pI 5.3, electrostatically attracted lysozyme and repulsed albumin generating the release rate profile: albumin > hemoglobin > lysozyme. However, under acidic conditions (pH 4, all proteins including keratins were positively charged and consequently intermolecular repulsion altered the release hierarchy, now determined by size (MW diffusion: lysozyme (14 kDa > hemoglobin (64 kDa > albumin (66 kDa. Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C, with properties comparable to lysozyme, was absorbed into the KTN-PEG scaffold. Endothelial cells cultured on this substrate had significantly larger numbers than on scaffolds without VEGF-C suggesting that the ionically bound and retained growth factor at neutral pH indirectly increased acute cell attachment and viability. PEG and keratin based sequestrations of proteins with basic pIs are therefore a feasible strategy with potential applications for selective biologics delivery.

  1. Morphological changes of plasma membrane and protein assembly during clathrin-mediated endocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Aiko; Sakai, Nobuaki; Uekusa, Yoshitsugu; Imaoka, Yuka; Itagaki, Yoshitsuna; Suzuki, Yuki

    2018-01-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) proceeds through a series of morphological changes of the plasma membrane induced by a number of protein components. Although the spatiotemporal assembly of these proteins has been elucidated by fluorescence-based techniques, the protein-induced morphological changes of the plasma membrane have not been fully clarified in living cells. Here, we visualize membrane morphology together with protein localizations during CME by utilizing high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) combined with a confocal laser scanning unit. The plasma membrane starts to invaginate approximately 30 s after clathrin starts to assemble, and the aperture diameter increases as clathrin accumulates. Actin rapidly accumulates around the pit and induces a small membrane swelling, which, within 30 s, rapidly covers the pit irreversibly. Inhibition of actin turnover abolishes the swelling and induces a reversible open–close motion of the pit, indicating that actin dynamics are necessary for efficient and irreversible pit closure at the end of CME. PMID:29723197

  2. Evaluation of protein adsorption onto a polyurethane nanofiber surface having different segment distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Yuko; Koizumi, Gaku [Frontier Fiber Technology and Science, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Fukui (Japan); Sakamoto, Hiroaki, E-mail: hi-saka@u-fukui.ac.jp [Tenure-Track Program for Innovative Research, University of Fukui (Japan); Suye, Shin-ichiro [Frontier Fiber Technology and Science, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Fukui (Japan)

    2017-02-01

    Electrospinning is well known to be an effective method for fabricating polymeric nanofibers with a diameter of several hundred nanometers. Recently, the molecular-level orientation within nanofibers has attracted particular attention. Previously, we used atomic force microscopy to visualize the phase separation between soft and hard segments of a polyurethane (PU) nanofiber surface prepared by electrospinning. The unstretched PU nanofibers exhibited irregularly distributed hard segments, whereas hard segments of stretched nanofibers prepared with a high-speed collector exhibited periodic structures along the long-axis direction. PU was originally used to inhibit protein adsorption, but because the surface segment distribution was changed in the stretched nanofiber, here, we hypothesized that the protein adsorption property on the stretched nanofiber might be affected. We investigated protein adsorption onto PU nanofibers to elucidate the effects of segment distribution on the surface properties of PU nanofibers. The amount of adsorbed protein on stretched PU nanofibers was increased compared with that of unstretched nanofibers. These results indicate that the hard segment alignment on stretched PU nanofibers mediated protein adsorption. It is therefore expected that the amount of protein adsorption can be controlled by rotation of the collector. - Highlights: • The hard segments of stretched PU nanofibers exhibit periodic structures. • The adsorbed protein on stretched PU nanofibers was increased compared with PU film. • The hard segment alignment on stretched PU nanofibers mediated protein adsorption.

  3. Partner-Mediated Polymorphism of an Intrinsically Disordered Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignon, Christophe; Troilo, Francesca; Gianni, Stefano; Longhi, Sonia

    2017-11-29

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) recognize their partners through molecular recognition elements (MoREs). The MoRE of the C-terminal intrinsically disordered domain of the measles virus nucleoprotein (N TAIL ) is partly pre-configured as an α-helix in the free form and undergoes α-helical folding upon binding to the X domain (XD) of the viral phosphoprotein. Beyond XD, N TAIL also binds the major inducible heat shock protein 70 (hsp70). So far, no structural information is available for the N TAIL /hsp70 complex. Using mutational studies combined with a protein complementation assay based on green fluorescent protein reconstitution, we have investigated both N TAIL /XD and N TAIL /hsp70 interactions. Although the same N TAIL region binds the two partners, the binding mechanisms are different. Hsp70 binding is much more tolerant of MoRE substitutions than XD, and the majority of substitutions lead to an increased N TAIL /hsp70 interaction strength. Furthermore, while an increased and a decreased α-helicity of the MoRE lead to enhanced and reduced interaction strength with XD, respectively, the impact on hsp70 binding is negligible, suggesting that the MoRE does not adopt an α-helical conformation once bound to hsp70. Here, by showing that the α-helical conformation sampled by the free form of the MoRE does not systematically commit it to adopt an α-helical conformation in the bound form, we provide an example of partner-mediated polymorphism of an IDP and of the relative insensitiveness of the bound structure to the pre-recognition state. The present results therefore contribute to shed light on the molecular mechanisms by which IDPs recognize different partners. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular design and nanoparticle-mediated intracellular delivery of functional proteins to target cellular pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Dhiral Ashwin

    Intracellular delivery of specific proteins and peptides represents a novel method to influence stem cells for gain-of-function and loss-of-function. Signaling control is vital in stem cells, wherein intricate control of and interplay among critical pathways directs the fate of these cells into either self-renewal or differentiation. The most common route to manipulate cellular function involves the introduction of genetic material such as full-length genes and shRNA into the cell to generate (or prevent formation of) the target protein, and thereby ultimately alter cell function. However, viral-mediated gene delivery may result in relatively slow expression of proteins and prevalence of oncogene insertion into the cell, which can alter cell function in an unpredictable fashion, and non-viral delivery may lead to low efficiency of genetic delivery. For example, the latter case plagues the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and hinders their use for in vivo applications. Alternatively, introducing proteins into cells that specifically recognize and influence target proteins, can result in immediate deactivation or activation of key signaling pathways within the cell. In this work, we demonstrate the cellular delivery of functional proteins attached to hydrophobically modified silica (SiNP) nanoparticles to manipulate specifically targeted cell signaling proteins. In the Wnt signaling pathway, we have targeted the phosphorylation activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) by designing a chimeric protein and delivering it in neural stem cells. Confocal imaging indicates that the SiNP-chimeric protein conjugates were efficiently delivered to the cytosol of human embryonic kidney cells and rat neural stem cells, presumably via endocytosis. This uptake impacted the Wnt signaling cascade, indicated by the elevation of beta-catenin levels, and increased transcription of Wnt target genes, such as c-MYC. The results presented here suggest that

  5. Role of bacterial virulence proteins in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Aspergillus awamori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielse, C.B.; Ram, A.F.J.; Hooykaas, P.J.J.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den

    2004-01-01

    The Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Aspergillus awamori was optimized using defined co-cultivation conditions, which resulted in a reproducible and efficient transformation system. Optimal co-cultivation conditions were used to study the role of Agrobacterium tumefaciens virulence proteins

  6. G-protein mediates voltage regulation of agonist binding to muscarinic receptors: effects on receptor-Na+ channel interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen-Armon, M.; Garty, H.; Sokolovsky, M.

    1988-01-01

    The authors previous experiments in membranes prepared from rat heart and brain led them to suggest that the binding of agonist to the muscarinic receptors and to the Na + channels is a coupled event mediated by guanine nucleotide binding protein(s) [G-protein(s)]. These in vitro findings prompted us to employ synaptoneurosomes from brain stem tissue to examine (i) the binding properties of [ 3 H] acetylcholine at resting potential and under depolarization conditions in the absence and presence of pertussis toxin; (ii) the binding of [ 3 H]batrachotoxin to Na + channel(s) in the presence of the muscarinic agonists; and (iii) muscarinically induced 22 Na + uptake in the presence and absence of tetrodotoxin, which blocks Na + channels. The findings indicate that agonist binding to muscarinic receptors is voltage dependent, that this process is mediated by G-protein(s), and that muscarinic agonists induce opening of Na + channels. The latter process persists even after pertussis toxin treatment, indicating that it is not likely to be mediated by pertussis toxin sensitive G-protein(s). The system with its three interacting components-receptor, G-protein, and Na + channel-is such that at resting potential the muscarinic receptor induces opening of Na + channels; this property may provide a possible physiological mechanism for the depolarization stimulus necessary for autoexcitation or repetitive firing in heart or brain tissues

  7. Detecting protein-protein interactions in living cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottschalk, Marie; Bach, Anders; Hansen, Jakob Lerche

    2009-01-01

    to the endogenous C-terminal peptide of the NMDA receptor, as evaluated by a cell-free protein-protein interaction assay. However, it is important to address both membrane permeability and effect in living cells. Therefore a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) assay was established, where the C......-terminal of the NMDA receptor and PDZ2 of PSD-95 were fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Renilla luciferase (Rluc) and expressed in COS7 cells. A robust and specific BRET signal was obtained by expression of the appropriate partner proteins and subsequently, the assay was used to evaluate a Tat......The PDZ domain mediated interaction between the NMDA receptor and its intracellular scaffolding protein, PSD-95, is a potential target for treatment of ischemic brain diseases. We have recently developed a number of peptide analogues with improved affinity for the PDZ domains of PSD-95 compared...

  8. Non-Identity-Mediated CRISPR-Bacteriophage Interaction Mediated via the Csy and Cas3 Proteins ▿#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Kyle C.; O'Toole, George A.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of the Escherichia, Neisseria, Thermotoga, and Mycobacteria clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) subtypes have resulted in a model whereby CRISPRs function as a defense system against bacteriophage infection and conjugative plasmid transfer. In contrast, we previously showed that the Yersinia-subtype CRISPR region of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain UCBPP-PA14 plays no detectable role in viral immunity but instead is required for bacteriophage DMS3-dependent inhibition of biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa. The goal of this study is to define the components of the Yersinia-subtype CRISPR region required to mediate this bacteriophage-host interaction. We show that the Yersinia-subtype-specific CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins Csy4 and Csy2 are essential for small CRISPR RNA (crRNA) production in vivo, while the Csy1 and Csy3 proteins are not absolutely required for production of these small RNAs. Further, we present evidence that the core Cas protein Cas3 functions downstream of small crRNA production and that this protein requires functional HD (predicted phosphohydrolase) and DEXD/H (predicted helicase) domains to suppress biofilm formation in DMS3 lysogens. We also determined that only spacer 1, which is not identical to any region of the DMS3 genome, mediates the CRISPR-dependent loss of biofilm formation. Our evidence suggests that gene 42 of phage DMS3 (DMS3-42) is targeted by CRISPR2 spacer 1 and that this targeting tolerates multiple point mutations between the spacer and DMS3-42 target sequence. This work demonstrates how the interaction between P. aeruginosa strain UCBPP-PA14 and bacteriophage DMS3 can be used to further our understanding of the diverse roles of CRISPR system function in bacteria. PMID:21398535

  9. Synthesis and structural characterization of carboxyethylpyrrole-modified proteins: mediators of age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Liang; Gu, Xiaorong; Hong, Li; Laird, James; Jaffe, Keeve; Choi, Jaewoo; Crabb, John; Salomon, Robert G

    2009-11-01

    Protein modifications in which the epsilon-amino group of lysyl residues is incorporated into a 2-(omega-carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP) are mediators of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). They promote both angiogenesis into the retina ('wet AMD') and geographic retinal atrophy ('dry AMD'). Blood levels of CEPs are biomarkers for clinical prognosis of the disease. To enable mechanistic studies of their role in promoting AMD, for example, through the activation of B- and T-cells, interaction with receptors, or binding with complement proteins, we developed an efficient synthesis of CEP derivatives, that is especially effective for proteins. The structures of tryptic peptides derived from CEP-modified proteins were also determined. A key finding is that 4,7-dioxoheptanoic acid 9-fluorenylmethyl ester reacts with primary amines to provide 9-fluorenylmethyl esters of CEP-modified proteins that can be deprotected in situ with 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene without causing protein denaturation. The introduction of multiple CEP-modifications with a wide variety of CEP:protein ratios is readily achieved using this strategy.

  10. Systematic comparison of the response properties of protein and RNA mediated gene regulatory motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Bharat Ravi; Pillai, Beena; Venkatesh, K V; Gadgil, Chetan J

    2017-05-30

    We present a framework enabling the dissection of the effects of motif structure (feedback or feedforward), the nature of the controller (RNA or protein), and the regulation mode (transcriptional, post-transcriptional or translational) on the response to a step change in the input. We have used a common model framework for gene expression where both motif structures have an activating input and repressing regulator, with the same set of parameters, to enable a comparison of the responses. We studied the global sensitivity of the system properties, such as steady-state gain, overshoot, peak time, and peak duration, to parameters. We find that, in all motifs, overshoot correlated negatively whereas peak duration varied concavely with peak time. Differences in the other system properties were found to be mainly dependent on the nature of the controller rather than the motif structure. Protein mediated motifs showed a higher degree of adaptation i.e. a tendency to return to baseline levels; in particular, feedforward motifs exhibited perfect adaptation. RNA mediated motifs had a mild regulatory effect; they also exhibited a lower peaking tendency and mean overshoot. Protein mediated feedforward motifs showed higher overshoot and lower peak time compared to the corresponding feedback motifs.

  11. HTLV-1 Tax-mediated TAK1 activation involves TAB2 adapter protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Qingsheng; Minoda, Yasumasa; Yoshida, Ryoko; Yoshida, Hideyuki; Iha, Hidekatsu; Kobayashi, Takashi; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Takaesu, Giichi

    2008-01-01

    Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax is an oncoprotein that plays a crucial role in the proliferation and transformation of HTLV-1-infected T lymphocytes. It has recently been reported that Tax activates a MAPKKK family, TAK1. However, the molecular mechanism of Tax-mediated TAK1 activation is not well understood. In this report, we investigated the role of TAK1-binding protein 2 (TAB2) in Tax-mediated TAK1 activation. We found that TAB2 physically interacts with Tax and augments Tax-induced NF-κB activity. Tax and TAB2 cooperatively activate TAK1 when they are coexpressed. Furthermore, TAK1 activation by Tax requires TAB2 binding as well as ubiquitination of Tax. We also found that the overexpression of TRAF2, 5, or 6 strongly induces Tax ubiquitination. These results suggest that TAB2 may be critically involved in Tax-mediated activation of TAK1 and that NF-κB-activating TRAF family proteins are potential cellular E3 ubiquitin ligases toward Tax

  12. Modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 3 by hepatitis C virus core protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, HT; Pham, Long; Kim, JW

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly dependent on cellular proteins for its own propagation. In order to identify the cellular factors involved in HCV propagation, we performed protein microarray assays using the HCV core protein as a probe. Of ~9,000 host proteins immobilized in a microarray...... inducers. Binding of HCV core to MAPKAPK3 was confirmed by in vitro pulldown assay and further verified by coimmunoprecipitation assay. HCV core protein interacted with MAPKAPK3 through amino acid residues 41 to 75 of core and the N-terminal half of kinase domain of MAPKAPK3. In addition, both RNA...... increased HCV IRES-mediated translation and MAPKAPK3-dependent HCV IRES activity was further increased by core protein. These data suggest that HCV core may modulate MAPKAPK3 to facilitate its own propagation....

  13. Free radical-mediated stimulation of tyrosine-specific protein kinase in rat liver plasma membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, T.M.; Tatoyan, A.; Cheng, E.; Shargill, N.S.; Pleta, M.

    1986-01-01

    Incorporation of 32 P from (γ- 32 P)-ATP into endogenous proteins of plasma membranes isolated from rat liver was significantly increased by several naphthoquinones including menadione. This apparent stimulation of membrane-associated protein kinase activity by these compounds was most striking (up to 6-7 fold) when the synthetic copolymers containing glutamate and tyrosine residues (4:1) was used as substrate. Since tyrosine residues are the only possible phosphate acceptor in the copolymers, the quinone-stimulated liver membrane protein kinase is most likely tyrosine specific. Although not required for protein kinase activity, dithiothreitol (DTT) was necessary for its stimulation by these quinonoid compounds. Hydrolysis of ATP was not significantly affected by quinones under the experimental conditions. Both menadione and vitamin k 5 increased phosphorylation of plasma membrane proteins of molecular weight 45 and 60 kd. The stimulatory effect of menadione on protein phosphorylation was prevented by the addition of superoxide dismutase. Dihydroxyfumerate, which spontaneously produces various radical species, and H 2 O 2 , also stimulated tyrosine-specific protein phosphorylation. DTT was also required for their full effect. It, therefore, appears that quinonone stimulation of tyrosine-specific protein phosphorylation is mediated by oxygen radicals

  14. Characterization of Mediator Complex and its Associated Proteins from Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Subhasis; Thakur, Jitendra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The Mediator complex is a multi-protein complex that acts as a molecular bridge conveying transcriptional messages from the cis element-bound transcription factor to the RNA Polymerase II machinery. It is found in all eukaryotes including members of the plant kingdom. Increasing number of reports from plants regarding different Mediator subunits involved in a multitude of processes spanning from plant development to environmental interactions have firmly established it as a central hub of plant regulatory networks. Routine isolation of Mediator complex in a particular species is a necessity because of many reasons. First, composition of the Mediator complex varies from species to species. Second, the composition of the Mediator complex in a particular species is not static under all developmental and environmental conditions. Besides this, at times, Mediator complex is used in in vitro transcription systems. Rice, a staple food crop of the world, is used as a model monocot crop. Realizing the need of a reliable protocol for the isolation of Mediator complex from plants, we describe here the isolation of Mediator complex from rice.

  15. Dissociation of activated protein C functions by elimination of protein S cofactor enhancement.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harmon, Shona

    2008-11-07

    Activated protein C (APC) plays a critical anticoagulant role in vivo by inactivating procoagulant factor Va and factor VIIIa and thus down-regulating thrombin generation. In addition, APC bound to the endothelial cell protein C receptor can initiate protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1)-mediated cytoprotective signaling. Protein S constitutes a critical cofactor for the anticoagulant function of APC but is not known to be involved in regulating APC-mediated protective PAR-1 signaling. In this study we utilized a site-directed mutagenesis strategy to characterize a putative protein S binding region within the APC Gla domain. Three single amino acid substitutions within the APC Gla domain (D35T, D36A, and A39V) were found to mildly impair protein S-dependent anticoagulant activity (<2-fold) but retained entirely normal cytoprotective activity. However, a single amino acid substitution (L38D) ablated the ability of protein S to function as a cofactor for this APC variant. Consequently, in assays of protein S-dependent factor Va proteolysis using purified proteins or in the plasma milieu, APC-L38D variant exhibited minimal residual anticoagulant activity compared with wild type APC. Despite the location of Leu-38 in the Gla domain, APC-L38D interacted normally with endothelial cell protein C receptor and retained its ability to trigger PAR-1 mediated cytoprotective signaling in a manner indistinguishable from that of wild type APC. Consequently, elimination of protein S cofactor enhancement of APC anticoagulant function represents a novel and effective strategy by which to separate the anticoagulant and cytoprotective functions of APC for potential therapeutic gain.

  16. Protein kinase substrate identification on functional protein arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Fang

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last decade, kinases have emerged as attractive therapeutic targets for a number of different diseases, and numerous high throughput screening efforts in the pharmaceutical community are directed towards discovery of compounds that regulate kinase function. The emerging utility of systems biology approaches has necessitated the development of multiplex tools suitable for proteomic-scale experiments to replace lower throughput technologies such as mass spectroscopy for the study of protein phosphorylation. Recently, a new approach for identifying substrates of protein kinases has applied the miniaturized format of functional protein arrays to characterize phosphorylation for thousands of candidate protein substrates in a single experiment. This method involves the addition of protein kinases in solution to arrays of immobilized proteins to identify substrates using highly sensitive radioactive detection and hit identification algorithms. Results To date, the factors required for optimal performance of protein array-based kinase substrate identification have not been described. In the current study, we have carried out a detailed characterization of the protein array-based method for kinase substrate identification, including an examination of the effects of time, buffer compositions, and protein concentration on the results. The protein array approach was compared to standard solution-based assays for assessing substrate phosphorylation, and a correlation of greater than 80% was observed. The results presented here demonstrate how novel substrates for protein kinases can be quickly identified from arrays containing thousands of human proteins to provide new clues to protein kinase function. In addition, a pooling-deconvolution strategy was developed and applied that enhances characterization of specific kinase-substrate relationships and decreases reagent consumption. Conclusion Functional protein microarrays are an

  17. Overexpression of PLK3 Mediates the Degradation of Abnormal Prion Proteins Dependent on Chaperone-Mediated Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Tian, Chan; Sun, Jing; Chen, Li-Na; Lv, Yan; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Xiao, Kang; Wang, Jing; Chen, Cao; Shi, Qi; Shao, Qi-Xiang; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2017-08-01

    Polo-like kinase 3 (PLK3) is the main cause of cell cycle reentry-related neuronal apoptosis which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of prion diseases. Previous work also showed the regulatory activity of exogenous PLK3 on the degradation of PrP (prion protein) mutants and pathogenic PrP Sc ; however, the precise mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we identified that the overexpression of PLK3-mediated degradation of PrP mutant and PrP Sc was repressed by lysosome rather than by proteasomal and macroautophagy inhibitors. Core components of chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) effectors, lysosome-associated membrane protein type 2A (LAMP2a), and heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70) are markedly decreased in the HEK293T cells expressing PrP mutant and scrapie-infected cell line SMB-S15. Meanwhile, PrP mutant showed ability to interact with LAMP2a and Hsc70. Overexpression of PLK3 sufficiently increased the cellular levels of LAMP2a and Hsc70, accompanying with declining the accumulations of PrP mutant and PrP Sc . The kinase domain (KD) of PLK3 was responsible for elevating LAMP2a and Hsc70. Knockdown of endogenous PLK3 enhanced the activity of macroautophagy in the cultured cells. Moreover, time-dependent reductions of LAMP2a and Hsc70 were also observed in the brain tissues of hamster-adapted scrapie agent 263K-infected hamsters, indicating an impairment of CMA during prion infection. Those data indicate that the overexpression of PLK3-mediated degradation of abnormal PrP is largely dependent on CMA pathway.

  18. Phosphorylation and mRNA splicing of collapsin response mediator protein-2 determine inhibition of rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) II function in carcinoma cell migration and invasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan-Fisher, Marie; Couchman, John R; Yoneda, Atsuko

    2013-01-01

    The Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCK I and II) are central regulators of important cellular processes such as migration and invasion downstream of the GTP-Rho. Recently, we reported collapsin response mediator protein (CRMP)-2 as an endogenous ROCK II inhibitor. To reveal how the CRMP-2-ROCK II......, the presented data show that CRMP-2-dependent regulation of ROCK II activity is mediated through interaction of the CRMP-2L N terminus with the ROCK II catalytic domain as well as by GSK3-dependent phosphorylation of CRMP-2....

  19. Kinetics of protein unfolding at interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Yohko F

    2012-01-01

    The conformation of protein molecules is determined by a balance of various forces, including van der Waals attraction, electrostatic interaction, hydrogen bonding, and conformational entropy. When protein molecules encounter an interface, they are often adsorbed on the interface. The conformation of an adsorbed protein molecule strongly depends on the interaction between the protein and the interface. Recent time-resolved investigations have revealed that protein conformation changes during the adsorption process due to the protein-protein interaction increasing with increasing interface coverage. External conditions also affect the protein conformation. This review considers recent dynamic observations of protein adsorption at various interfaces and their implications for the kinetics of protein unfolding at interfaces. (topical review)

  20. Singlet oxygen-mediated protein oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, Adam; Bubb, William A; Hawkins, Clare Louise

    2002-01-01

    Singlet oxygen (1O2) is generated by a number of enzymes as well as by UV or visible light in the presence of a sensitizer and has been proposed as a damaging agent in a number of pathologies including cataract, sunburn, and skin cancers. Proteins, and Cys, Met, Trp, Tyr and His side chains...... in particular, are major targets for 1O2 as a result of their abundance and high rate constants for reaction. In this study it is shown that long-lived peroxides are formed on free Tyr, Tyr residues in peptides and proteins, and model compounds on exposure to 1O2 generated by both photochemical and chemical....... These studies demonstrate that long-lived Tyr-derived peroxides are formed on proteins exposed to 1O2 and that these may promote damage to other targets via further radical generation....

  1. Salt-bridge networks within globular and disordered proteins: characterizing trends for designable interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sankar; Mukharjee, Debasish

    2017-07-01

    There has been considerable debate about the contribution of salt bridges to the stabilization of protein folds, in spite of their participation in crucial protein functions. Salt bridges appear to contribute to the activity-stability trade-off within proteins by bringing high-entropy charged amino acids into close contacts during the course of their functions. The current study analyzes the modes of association of salt bridges (in terms of networks) within globular proteins and at protein-protein interfaces. While the most common and trivial type of salt bridge is the isolated salt bridge, bifurcated salt bridge appears to be a distinct salt-bridge motif having a special topology and geometry. Bifurcated salt bridges are found ubiquitously in proteins and interprotein complexes. Interesting and attractive examples presenting different modes of interaction are highlighted. Bifurcated salt bridges appear to function as molecular clips that are used to stitch together large surface contours at interacting protein interfaces. The present work also emphasizes the key role of salt-bridge-mediated interactions in the partial folding of proteins containing long stretches of disordered regions. Salt-bridge-mediated interactions seem to be pivotal to the promotion of "disorder-to-order" transitions in small disordered protein fragments and their stabilization upon binding. The results obtained in this work should help to guide efforts to elucidate the modus operandi of these partially disordered proteins, and to conceptualize how these proteins manage to maintain the required amount of disorder even in their bound forms. This work could also potentially facilitate explorations of geometrically specific designable salt bridges through the characterization of composite salt-bridge networks. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  2. Efficient mutagenesis by Cas9 protein-mediated oligonucleotide insertion and large-scale assessment of single-guide RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, James A; Valen, Eivind; Thyme, Summer B; Huang, Peng; Akhmetova, Laila; Ahkmetova, Laila; Pauli, Andrea; Montague, Tessa G; Zimmerman, Steven; Richter, Constance; Schier, Alexander F

    2014-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system has been implemented in a variety of model organisms to mediate site-directed mutagenesis. A wide range of mutation rates has been reported, but at a limited number of genomic target sites. To uncover the rules that govern effective Cas9-mediated mutagenesis in zebrafish, we targeted over a hundred genomic loci for mutagenesis using a streamlined and cloning-free method. We generated mutations in 85% of target genes with mutation rates varying across several orders of magnitude, and identified sequence composition rules that influence mutagenesis. We increased rates of mutagenesis by implementing several novel approaches. The activities of poor or unsuccessful single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs) initiating with a 5' adenine were improved by rescuing 5' end homogeneity of the sgRNA. In some cases, direct injection of Cas9 protein/sgRNA complex further increased mutagenic activity. We also observed that low diversity of mutant alleles led to repeated failure to obtain frame-shift mutations. This limitation was overcome by knock-in of a stop codon cassette that ensured coding frame truncation. Our improved methods and detailed protocols make Cas9-mediated mutagenesis an attractive approach for labs of all sizes.

  3. Functional Roles of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a natural host defensive process that is largely regulated by macrophages during the innate immune response. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs are proline-directed serine and threonine protein kinases that regulate many physiological and pathophysiological cell responses. p38 MAPKs are key MAPKs involved in the production of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2. p38 MAPK signaling plays an essential role in regulating cellular processes, especially inflammation. In this paper, we summarize the characteristics of p38 signaling in macrophage-mediated inflammation. In addition, we discuss the potential of using inhibitors targeting p38 expression in macrophages to treat inflammatory diseases.

  4. Rho GTPase activity modulates paramyxovirus fusion protein-mediated cell-cell fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schowalter, Rachel M.; Wurth, Mark A.; Aguilar, Hector C.; Lee, Benhur; Moncman, Carole L.; McCann, Richard O.; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2006-01-01

    The paramyxovirus fusion protein (F) promotes fusion of the viral envelope with the plasma membrane of target cells as well as cell-cell fusion. The plasma membrane is closely associated with the actin cytoskeleton, but the role of actin dynamics in paramyxovirus F-mediated membrane fusion is unclear. We examined cell-cell fusion promoted by two different paramyxovirus F proteins in three cell types in the presence of constitutively active Rho family GTPases, major cellular coordinators of actin dynamics. Reporter gene and syncytia assays demonstrated that expression of either Rac1 V12 or Cdc42 V12 could increase cell-cell fusion promoted by the Hendra or SV5 glycoproteins, though the effect was dependent on the cell type expressing the viral glycoproteins. In contrast, RhoA L63 decreased cell-cell fusion promoted by Hendra glycoproteins but had little affect on SV5 F-mediated fusion. Also, data suggested that GTPase activation in the viral glycoprotein-containing cell was primarily responsible for changes in fusion. Additionally, we found that activated Cdc42 promoted nuclear rearrangement in syncytia

  5. Calpain activation by ROS mediates human ether-a-go-go-related gene protein degradation by intermittent hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N; Kang, H S; Ahmmed, G; Khan, S A; Makarenko, V V; Prabhakar, N R; Nanduri, J

    2016-03-01

    Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channels conduct delayed rectifier K(+) current. However, little information is available on physiological situations affecting hERG channel protein and function. In the present study we examined the effects of intermittent hypoxia (IH), which is a hallmark manifestation of sleep apnea, on hERG channel protein and function. Experiments were performed on SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, which express hERG protein. Cells were exposed to IH consisting of alternating cycles of 30 s of hypoxia (1.5% O2) and 5 min of 20% O2. IH decreased hERG protein expression in a stimulus-dependent manner. A similar reduction in hERG protein was also seen in adrenal medullary chromaffin cells from IH-exposed neonatal rats. The decreased hERG protein was associated with attenuated hERG K(+) current. IH-evoked hERG protein degradation was not due to reduced transcription or increased proteosome/lysomal degradation. Rather it was mediated by calcium-activated calpain proteases. Both COOH- and NH2-terminal sequences of the hERG protein were the targets of calpain-dependent degradation. IH increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i), calpain enzyme activity, and hERG protein degradation, and all these effects were prevented by manganese-(111)-tetrakis-(1-methyl-4-pyridyl)-porphyrin pentachloride, a membrane-permeable ROS scavenger. These results demonstrate that activation of calpains by ROS-dependent elevation of [Ca(2+)]i mediates hERG protein degradation by IH. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways promote low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1-mediated internalization of beta-amyloid protein in primary cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei-Na; Ma, Kai-Ge; Qian, Yi-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Shui; Feng, Gai-Feng; Shi, Li-Li; Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Liu, Zhao-Hui

    2015-07-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are caused by the intraneuronal accumulation of beta-amyloid protein (Aβ). Reuptake of extracellular Aβ is believed to contribute significantly to the intraneuronal Aβ pool in the early stages of AD. Published reports have claimed that the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) mediates Aβ1-42 uptake and lysosomal trafficking in GT1-7 neuronal cells and mouse embryonic fibroblast non-neuronal cells. However, there is no direct evidence supporting the role of LRP1 in Aβ internalization in primary neurons. Our recent study indicated that p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways are involved in regulating α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR)-mediated Aβ1-42 uptake in SH-SY5Y cells. This study was designed to explore the regulation of MAPK signaling pathways on LRP1-mediated Aβ internalization in neurons. We found that extracellular Aβ1-42 oligomers could be internalized into endosomes/lysosomes and mitochondria in cortical neurons. Aβ1-42 and LRP1 were also found co-localized in neurons during Aβ1-42 internalization, and they could form Aβ1-42-LRP1 complex. Knockdown of LRP1 expression significantly decreased neuronal Aβ1-42 internalization. Finally, we identified that p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways regulated the internalization of Aβ1-42 via LRP1. Therefore, these results demonstrated that LRP1, p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 mediated the internalization of Aβ1-42 in neurons and provided evidence that blockade of LRP1 or inhibitions of MAPK signaling pathways might be a potential approach to lowering brain Aβ levels and served a potential therapeutic target for AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Structural study of the AOT reverse micellar system. Influence of attractive interactions induced by the solubilisation of native and modified proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassin, Guillaume

    1994-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the influence of intra-micellar attractions on the thermodynamic behaviour of reverse micellar systems, as well as of the effects induced by the solubilisation of natives or modified proteins. The author proposes a model to explain the decrease of attractions between droplets when the volume fraction occupied by reverse micelles increases. This model which highlights the importance of depletion forces between reverse micelles, allows the building up of a theoretical relationship between the bonding parameter and the volume fraction of reverse micelles. In order to understand the appearance of an attractive term related to the solubilisation of native cytochrome-c in these systems, this protein has been chemically modified. The author highlights the role of the charge born by a micellar probe on the thermodynamic behaviour of micro-emulsions. Then, the author applies the model of dimerizing adhesive spheres to reverse micellar systems containing native cytochrome-c. He shows that theoretical predictions of this model are in agreement with obtained experimental results [fr

  8. A lower isoelectric point increases signal sequence-mediated secretion of recombinant proteins through a bacterial ABC transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Hyunjong; Park, Jiyeon; Kim, Sun Chang; Ahn, Jung Hoon

    2017-12-01

    Efficient protein production for industrial and academic purposes often involves engineering microorganisms to produce and secrete target proteins into the culture. Pseudomonas fluorescens has a TliDEF ATP-binding cassette transporter, a type I secretion system, which recognizes C-terminal LARD3 signal sequence of thermostable lipase TliA. Many proteins are secreted by TliDEF in vivo when recombined with LARD3, but there are still others that cannot be secreted by TliDEF even when LARD3 is attached. However, the factors that determine whether or not a recombinant protein can be secreted through TliDEF are still unknown. Here, we recombined LARD3 with several proteins and examined their secretion through TliDEF. We found that the proteins secreted via LARD3 are highly negatively charged with highly-acidic isoelectric points (pI) lower than 5.5. Attaching oligo-aspartate to lower the pI of negatively-charged recombinant proteins improved their secretion, and attaching oligo-arginine to negatively-charged proteins blocked their secretion by LARD3. In addition, negatively supercharged green fluorescent protein (GFP) showed improved secretion, whereas positively supercharged GFP did not secrete. These results disclosed that proteins' acidic pI and net negative charge are major factors that determine their secretion through TliDEF. Homology modeling for TliDEF revealed that TliD dimer forms evolutionarily-conserved positively-charged clusters in its pore and substrate entrance site, which also partially explains the pI dependence of the TliDEF-dependent secretions. In conclusion, lowering the isoelectric point improved LARD3-mediated protein secretion, both widening the range of protein targets for efficient production via secretion and signifying an important aspect of ABC transporter-mediated secretions. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Trypsin- and low pH-mediated fusogenicity of avian metapneumovirus fusion proteins is determined by residues at positions 100, 101 and 294.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Bingling; Guan, Xiaolu; Liu, Yongzhen; Gao, Yanni; Wang, Yongqiang; Qi, Xiaole; Cui, Hongyu; Liu, Changjun; Zhang, Yanping; Gao, Li; Li, Kai; Gao, Honglei; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Xiaomei

    2015-10-26

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are members of the genus Metapneumovirus in the subfamily Pneumovirinae. Metapneumovirus fusion (F) protein mediates the fusion of host cells with the virus membrane for infection. Trypsin- and/or low pH-induced membrane fusion is a strain-dependent phenomenon for hMPV. Here, we demonstrated that three subtypes of aMPV (aMPV/A, aMPV/B, and aMPV/C) F proteins promoted cell-cell fusion in the absence of trypsin. Indeed, in the presence of trypsin, only aMPV/C F protein fusogenicity was enhanced. Mutagenesis of the amino acids at position 100 and/or 101, located at a putative cleavage region in aMPV F proteins, revealed that the trypsin-mediated fusogenicity of aMPV F proteins is regulated by the residues at positions 100 and 101. Moreover, we demonstrated that aMPV/A and aMPV/B F proteins mediated cell-cell fusion independent of low pH, whereas the aMPV/C F protein did not. Mutagenesis of the residue at position 294 in the aMPV/A, aMPV/B, and aMPV/C F proteins showed that 294G played a critical role in F protein-mediated fusion under low pH conditions. These findings on aMPV F protein-induced cell-cell fusion provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying membrane fusion and pathogenesis of aMPV.

  10. Potential disruption of protein-protein interactions by graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Mei; Kang, Hongsuk; Luan, Binquan; Yang, Zaixing; Zhou, Ruhong

    2016-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a promising novel nanomaterial with a wide range of potential biomedical applications due to its many intriguing properties. However, very little research has been conducted to study its possible adverse effects on protein-protein interactions (and thus subsequent toxicity to human). Here, the potential cytotoxicity of GO is investigated at molecular level using large-scale, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to explore the interaction mechanism between a protein dimer and a GO nanosheet oxidized at different levels. Our theoretical results reveal that GO nanosheet could intercalate between the two monomers of HIV-1 integrase dimer, disrupting the protein-protein interactions and eventually lead to dimer disassociation as graphene does [B. Luan et al., ACS Nano 9(1), 663 (2015)], albeit its insertion process is slower when compared with graphene due to the additional steric and attractive interactions. This study helps to better understand the toxicity of GO to cell functions which could shed light on how to improve its biocompatibility and biosafety for its wide potential biomedical applications.

  11. Potential disruption of protein-protein interactions by graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Mei [Department of Physics, Institute of Quantitative Biology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Kang, Hongsuk; Luan, Binquan [Computational Biological Center, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Yang, Zaixing [Institute of Quantitative Biology and Medicine, SRMP and RAD-X, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zhou, Ruhong, E-mail: ruhong@us.ibm.com [Department of Physics, Institute of Quantitative Biology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Computational Biological Center, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2016-06-14

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a promising novel nanomaterial with a wide range of potential biomedical applications due to its many intriguing properties. However, very little research has been conducted to study its possible adverse effects on protein-protein interactions (and thus subsequent toxicity to human). Here, the potential cytotoxicity of GO is investigated at molecular level using large-scale, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to explore the interaction mechanism between a protein dimer and a GO nanosheet oxidized at different levels. Our theoretical results reveal that GO nanosheet could intercalate between the two monomers of HIV-1 integrase dimer, disrupting the protein-protein interactions and eventually lead to dimer disassociation as graphene does [B. Luan et al., ACS Nano 9(1), 663 (2015)], albeit its insertion process is slower when compared with graphene due to the additional steric and attractive interactions. This study helps to better understand the toxicity of GO to cell functions which could shed light on how to improve its biocompatibility and biosafety for its wide potential biomedical applications.

  12. Ku proteins function as corepressors to regulate farnesoid X receptor-mediated gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Masae; Kunimoto, Masaaki; Nishizuka, Makoto; Osada, Shigehiro; Imagawa, Masayoshi

    2009-01-01

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR; NR1H4) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and regulates the expression of genes involved in enterohepatic circulation and the metabolism of bile acids. Based on functional analyses, nuclear receptors are divided into regions A-F. To explore the cofactors interacting with FXR, we performed a pull-down assay using GST-fused to the N-terminal A/B region and the C region, which are required for the ligand-independent transactivation and DNA-binding, respectively, of FXR, and nuclear extracts from HeLa cells. We identified DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), Ku80, and Ku70 as FXR associated factors. These proteins are known to have an important role in DNA repair, recombination, and transcription. DNA-PKcs mainly interacted with the A/B region of FXR, whereas the Ku proteins interacted with the C region and with the D region (hinge region). Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that the Ku proteins associated with FXR on the bile salt export pump (BSEP) promoter. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ectopic expression of the Ku proteins decreased the promoter activity and expression of BSEP gene mediated by FXR. These results suggest that the Ku proteins function as corepressors for FXR.

  13. Heat shock protein 90β: A novel mediator of vitamin D action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelo, Giana; Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Sonna, Larry A.; Lindauer, Meghan L.; Wood, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the role of Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) in vitamin D action in Caco-2 cells using geldanamycin (GA) to block Hsp90 function and RNA interference to reduce Hsp90β expression. When cells were exposed to GA, vitamin D-mediated gene expression and transcriptional activity were inhibited by 69% and 54%, respectively. Gel shift analysis indicated that GA reduced vitamin D-mediated DNA binding activity of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). We tested the specific role of Hsp90β by knocking down its expression with stably expressed short hairpin RNA. Vitamin D-induced gene expression and transcriptional activity were reduced by 90% and 80%, respectively, in Hsp90β-deficient cells. Nuclear protein for VDR and RXRα, its heterodimer partner, were not reduced in Hsp90β-deficient cells. These findings indicate that Hsp90β is needed for optimal vitamin D responsiveness in the enterocyte and demonstrate a specific role for Hsp90β in VDR signaling

  14. Protein phosphatase 5 promotes hepatocarcinogenesis through interaction with AMP-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao-Li; Hung, Man-Hsin; Chu, Pei-Yi; Chao, Tzu-I; Tsai, Ming-Hsien; Chen, Li-Ju; Hsiao, Yung-Jen; Shih, Chih-Ting; Hsieh, Feng-Shu; Chen, Kuen-Feng

    2017-08-15

    The serine-threonine protein phosphatase family members are known as critical regulators of various cellular functions, such as survival and transformation. Growing evidence suggests that pharmacological manipulation of phosphatase activity exhibits therapeutic benefits. Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) is known to participate in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and stress-induced signaling cascades that regulate cell growth and apoptosis, and has been shown to be overexpressed in various human malignant diseases. However, the role of PP5 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and whether PP5 may be a viable therapeutic target for HCC treatment are unknown. Here, by analyzing HCC clinical samples obtained from 215 patients, we found that overexpression of PP5 is tumor specific and associated with worse clinical outcomes. We further characterized the oncogenic properties of PP5 in HCC cells. Importantly, both silencing of PP5 with lentiviral-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) and chemical inhibition of PP5 phosphatase activity using the natural compound cantharidin/norcantharidin markedly suppressed the growth of HCC cells and tumors in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we identified AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as a novel downstream target of oncogenic PP5 and demonstrated that the antitumor mechanisms underlying PP5 inhibition involve activation of AMPK signaling. Overall, our results establish a pathological function of PP5 in hepatocarcinogenesis via affecting AMPK signaling and suggest that PP5 inhibition is an attractive therapeutic approach for HCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. DMPD: Protein kinase C epsilon: a new target to control inflammation andimmune-mediated disorders. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 14643884 Protein kinase C epsilon: a new target to control inflammation andimmune-m...g) (.html) (.csml) Show Protein kinase C epsilon: a new target to control inflammation andimmune-mediated di...sorders. PubmedID 14643884 Title Protein kinase C epsilon: a new target to contro

  16. A genome-wide screen identifies conserved protein hubs required for cadherin-mediated cell–cell adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toret, Christopher P.; D’Ambrosio, Michael V.; Vale, Ronald D.; Simon, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Cadherins and associated catenins provide an important structural interface between neighboring cells, the actin cytoskeleton, and intracellular signaling pathways in a variety of cell types throughout the Metazoa. However, the full inventory of the proteins and pathways required for cadherin-mediated adhesion has not been established. To this end, we completed a genome-wide (∼14,000 genes) ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi) screen that targeted Ca2+-dependent adhesion in DE-cadherin–expressing Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells in suspension culture. This novel screen eliminated Ca2+-independent cell–cell adhesion, integrin-based adhesion, cell spreading, and cell migration. We identified 17 interconnected regulatory hubs, based on protein functions and protein–protein interactions that regulate the levels of the core cadherin–catenin complex and coordinate cadherin-mediated cell–cell adhesion. Representative proteins from these hubs were analyzed further in Drosophila oogenesis, using targeted germline RNAi, and adhesion was analyzed in Madin–Darby canine kidney mammalian epithelial cell–cell adhesion. These experiments reveal roles for a diversity of cellular pathways that are required for cadherin function in Metazoa, including cytoskeleton organization, cell–substrate interactions, and nuclear and cytoplasmic signaling. PMID:24446484

  17. Failure of protein quality control in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabashi, Edor; Durham, Heather D

    2006-01-01

    The protein chaperoning and ubiquitin-proteasome systems perform many homeostatic functions within cells involving protein folding, transport and degradation. Of paramount importance is ridding cells of mutant or post-translationally modified proteins that otherwise tend to aggregate into insoluble complexes and form inclusions. Such inclusions are characteristic of many neurodegenerative diseases and implicate protein misfolding and aggregation as common aspects of pathogenesis. In the most common familial form of ALS, mutations in SOD1 promote misfolding of the protein and target it for degradation by proteasomes. Although proteasomes can degrade the mutant proteins efficiently, altered solubility and aggregation of mutant SOD1 are features of the disease and occur most prominently in the most vulnerable cells and tissues. Indeed, lumbar spinal cord of mutant SOD1 transgenic mice show early reduction in their capacity for protein chaperoning and proteasome-mediated hydrolysis of substrates, and motor neurons are particularly vulnerable to aggregation of mutant SOD1. A high threshold for upregulating key pathways in response to the stress of added substrate load may contribute to this vulnerability. The broad spectrum neuroprotective capability and efficacy of some chaperone-based therapies in preclinical models makes these pathways attractive as targets for therapy in ALS, as well as other neurodegenerative diseases. A better understanding of the mechanisms governing the regulation of protein chaperones and UPS components would facilitate development of treatments that upregulate these pathways in a coordinated manner in neural tissue without long term toxicity.

  18. Arraying proteins by cell-free synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingyue; Wang, Ming-Wei

    2007-10-01

    Recent advances in life science have led to great motivation for the development of protein arrays to study functions of genome-encoded proteins. While traditional cell-based methods have been commonly used for generating protein arrays, they are usually a time-consuming process with a number of technical challenges. Cell-free protein synthesis offers an attractive system for making protein arrays, not only does it rapidly converts the genetic information into functional proteins without the need for DNA cloning, but also presents a flexible environment amenable to production of folded proteins or proteins with defined modifications. Recent advancements have made it possible to rapidly generate protein arrays from PCR DNA templates through parallel on-chip protein synthesis. This article reviews current cell-free protein array technologies and their proteomic applications.

  19. Protein splicing and its evolution in eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starokadomskyy P. L.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Inteins, or protein introns, are parts of protein sequences that are post-translationally excised, their flanking regions (exteins being spliced together. This process was called protein splicing. Originally inteins were found in prokaryotic or unicellular eukaryotic organisms. But the general principles of post-translation protein rearrangement are evolving yielding different post-translation modification of proteins in multicellular organisms. For clarity, these non-intein mediated events call either protein rearrangements or protein editing. The most intriguing example of protein editing is proteasome-mediated splicing of antigens in vertebrates that may play important role in antigen presentation. Other examples of protein rearrangements are maturation of Hg-proteins (critical receptors in embryogenesis as well as maturation of several metabolic enzymes. Despite a lack of experimental data we try to analyze some intriguing examples of protein splicing evolution.

  20. The TULIP superfamily of eukaryotic lipid-binding proteins as a mediator of lipid sensing and transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva, Vikram; Lupas, Andrei N

    2016-08-01

    The tubular lipid-binding (TULIP) superfamily has emerged in recent years as a major mediator of lipid sensing and transport in eukaryotes. It currently encompasses three protein families, SMP-like, BPI-like, and Takeout-like, which share a common fold. This fold consists of a long helix wrapped in a highly curved anti-parallel β-sheet, enclosing a central, lipophilic cavity. The SMP-like proteins, which include subunits of the ERMES complex and the extended synaptotagmins (E-Syts), appear to be mainly located at membrane contacts sites (MCSs) between organelles, mediating inter-organelle lipid exchange. The BPI-like proteins, which include the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), the LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-binding protein (LBP), the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), and the phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), are either involved in innate immunity against bacteria through their ability to sense lipopolysaccharides, as is the case for BPI and LBP, or in lipid exchange between lipoprotein particles, as is the case for CETP and PLTP. The Takeout-like proteins, which are comprised of insect juvenile hormone-binding proteins and arthropod allergens, transport, where known, lipid hormones to target tissues during insect development. In all cases, the activity of these proteins is underpinned by their ability to bind large, hydrophobic ligands in their central cavity and segregate them away from the aqueous environment. Furthermore, where they are involved in lipid exchange, recent structural studies have highlighted their ability to establish lipophilic, tubular channels, either between organelles in the case of SMP domains or between lipoprotein particles in the case of CETP. Here, we review the current knowledge on the structure, versatile functions, and evolution of the TULIP superfamily. We propose a deep evolutionary split in this superfamily, predating the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor, between the SMP-like proteins, which act on

  1. Proteins Encoded in Genomic Regions Associated with Immune-Mediated Disease Physically Interact and Suggest Underlying Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossin, Elizabeth J.; Hansen, Kasper Lage; Raychaudhuri, Soumya

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have defined over 150 genomic regions unequivocally containing variation predisposing to immune-mediated disease. Inferring disease biology from these observations, however, hinges on our ability to discover the molecular processes being perturbed by these r......Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have defined over 150 genomic regions unequivocally containing variation predisposing to immune-mediated disease. Inferring disease biology from these observations, however, hinges on our ability to discover the molecular processes being perturbed...... in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and Crohn's disease (CD) GWAS, we build protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks for genes within associated loci and find abundant physical interactions between protein products of associated genes. We apply multiple permutation approaches to show that these networks are more...... that the RA and CD networks have predictive power by demonstrating that proteins in these networks, not encoded in the confirmed list of disease associated loci, are significantly enriched for association to the phenotypes in question in extended GWAS analysis. Finally, we test our method in 3 non...

  2. Annexin A2 Mediates the Localization of Measles Virus Matrix Protein at the Plasma Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Ritsuko; Kubota, Marie; Hashiguchi, Takao; Yanagi, Yusuke; Ohno, Shinji

    2018-02-28

    Annexins are a family of structurally related proteins that bind negatively charged membrane phospholipids in a Ca 2+ -dependent manner. Annexin A2 (AnxA2), a member of the family, has been implicated in a variety of cellular functions including the organization of membrane domains, vesicular trafficking and cell-cell adhesion. AnxA2 generally forms the heterotetrameric complex with a small Ca 2+ -binding protein S100A10. Measles virus (MV), a member of the family Paramyxoviridae , is an enveloped virus with a nonsegmented negative strand RNA genome. Knockdown of AnxA2 greatly reduced MV growth in cells, without affecting its entry and viral RNA production. In MV-infected, AnxA2-knockdown cells, the expression level of the matrix (M) protein, but not other viral proteins, was reduced compared with that in control cells, and the distribution of the M protein at the plasma membrane was decreased. The M protein lines the inner surface of the envelope and plays an important role in virus assembly by connecting the nucleocapsid to the envelope proteins. The M protein bound to AnxA2 independently of AnxA2's phosphorylation or its association with S100A10, and was co-localized with AnxA2 within cells. Truncation of the N-terminal 10 amino acid residues, but not the N-terminal 5 residues, compromised the ability of the M protein to interact with AnxA2 and localize at the plasma membrane. These results indicate that AnxA2 mediates the localization of the MV M protein at the plasma membrane by interacting with its N-terminal region (especially residues at positions 6-10), thereby aiding in MV assembly. IMPORTANCE Measles virus (MV) is an important human pathogen, still claiming ∼ 100,000 lives per year despite the presence of effective vaccines, and causes occasional outbreaks even in developed countries. Replication of viruses largely relies on the functions of host cells. Our study revealed that the reduction of the host protein annexin A2 compromises the replication of

  3. Cross-system excision of chaperone-mediated proteolysis in chaperone-assisted recombinant protein production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alonso, Mónica; Villaverde, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Main Escherichia coli cytosolic chaperones such as DnaK are key components of the control quality network designed to minimize the prevalence of polypeptides with aberrant conformations. This is achieved by both favoring refolding activities but also stimulating proteolytic degradation of folding reluctant species. This last activity is responsible for the decrease of the proteolytic stability of recombinant proteins when co-produced along with DnaK, where an increase in solubility might be associated to a decrease in protein yield. However, when DnaK and its co-chaperone DnaJ are co-produced in cultured insect cells or whole insect larvae (and expectedly, in other heterologous hosts), only positive, folding-related effects of these chaperones are observed, in absence of proteolysis-mediated reduction of recombinant protein yield. PMID:21326941

  4. PDZ domain-mediated interactions of G protein-coupled receptors with postsynaptic density protein 95

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Thor C; Wirth, Volker F; Roberts, Nina Ingerslev

    2013-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest family of membrane proteins in the human genome. Their signaling is regulated by scaffold proteins containing PDZ domains, but although these interactions are important for GPCR function, they are still poorly understood. We here present...

  5. Glucose regulated proteins 78 and 75 bind to the receptor for hyaluronan mediated motility in interphase microtubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwabara, Hiroko; Yoneda, Masahiko; Hayasaki, Hana; Nakamura, Toshiya; Mori, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    The receptor for hyaluronan mediated motility (RHAMM), which is a hyaluronan-binding protein, is a centrosomal and microtubal protein. Here, we have identified two RHAMM-binding proteins, glucose regulated protein (GRP) 78 and GRP75, using co-immunoprecipitation analysis. These two proteins directly bound to glutathione-S-transferase-RHAMM fusion proteins. By double immunostaining, GRP78 and GRP75 colocalized with RHAMM in interphase microtubules, but were separated in mitotic spindles. Prevention of microtubule polymerization by TN-16 and vincristine sulfate induced RHAMM overexpression without a significant change in GRP78/75. Taken together, GRP78/75 and RHAMM complexes may stabilize microtubules in the interphase, associated with a downregulation of RHAMM. These results reveal a new biochemical activity of RHAMM

  6. Catalysis by a de novo zinc-mediated protein interface: implications for natural enzyme evolution and rational enzyme engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der, Bryan S; Edwards, David R; Kuhlman, Brian

    2012-05-08

    Here we show that a recent computationally designed zinc-mediated protein interface is serendipitously capable of catalyzing carboxyester and phosphoester hydrolysis. Although the original motivation was to design a de novo zinc-mediated protein-protein interaction (called MID1-zinc), we observed in the homodimer crystal structure a small cleft and open zinc coordination site. We investigated if the cleft and zinc site at the designed interface were sufficient for formation of a primitive active site that can perform hydrolysis. MID1-zinc hydrolyzes 4-nitrophenyl acetate with a rate acceleration of 10(5) and a k(cat)/K(M) of 630 M(-1) s(-1) and 4-nitrophenyl phosphate with a rate acceleration of 10(4) and a k(cat)/K(M) of 14 M(-1) s(-1). These rate accelerations by an unoptimized active site highlight the catalytic power of zinc and suggest that the clefts formed by protein-protein interactions are well-suited for creating enzyme active sites. This discovery has implications for protein evolution and engineering: from an evolutionary perspective, three-coordinated zinc at a homodimer interface cleft represents a simple evolutionary path to nascent enzymatic activity; from a protein engineering perspective, future efforts in de novo design of enzyme active sites may benefit from exploring clefts at protein interfaces for active site placement.

  7. Protein enrichment of familiar foods as an innovative strategy to increase protein intake in institutionalized elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelen, J.; Roos, de N.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective
    To increase the protein intake of older adults, protein enrichment of familiar foods and drinks might be an effective and attractive alternative for oral nutritional supplements (ONS). We performed a pilot study to test whether these products could help institutionalized elderly to

  8. Identification of an intracellular protein that specifically interacts with photoaffinity-labeled oncogenic p21 protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, G.; Ronai, Z.A.; Pincus, M.R.; Brandt-Rauf, P.W.; Weinstein, I.B.; Murphy, R.B.; Delohery, T.M.; Nishimura, S.; Yamaizumi, Z.

    1989-01-01

    An oncogenic 21-kDa (p21) protein (Harvey RAS protein with Val-12) has been covalently modified with a functional reagent that contains a photoactivatable aromatic azide group. This modified p21 protein has been introduced quantitatively into NIH 3T3 cells using an erythrocyte-mediated fusion technique. The introduced p21 protein was capable of inducing enhanced pinocytosis and DNA synthesis in the recipient cells. To identify the putative intracellular protein(s) that specifically interact with modified p21 protein, the cells were pulsed with [ 35 S]methionine at selected times after fusion and then UV-irradiated to activate the azide group. The resulting nitrene covalently binds to amino acid residues in adjacent proteins, thus linking the p21 protein to these proteins. The cells were then lysed, and the lysate was immunoprecipitated with the anti-p21 monoclonal antibody Y13-259. The immunoprecipitate was analyzed by SDS/PAGE to identify p21 - protein complexes. By using this technique, the authors found that three protein complexes of 51, 64, and 82 kDa were labeled specifically and reproducibly. The most prominent band is the 64-kDa protein complex that shows a time-dependent rise and fall, peaking within a 5-hr period after introduction of the p21 protein the cells. These studies provide evidence that in vitro the p21 protein becomes associated with a protein whose mass is about 43 kDa. They suggest that the formation of this complex may play a role in mediating early events involved with cell transformation induced by RAS oncogenes

  9. Aquaporin Protein-Protein Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Virginia Roche

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins are tetrameric membrane-bound channels that facilitate transport of water and other small solutes across cell membranes. In eukaryotes, they are frequently regulated by gating or trafficking, allowing for the cell to control membrane permeability in a specific manner. Protein–protein interactions play crucial roles in both regulatory processes and also mediate alternative functions such as cell adhesion. In this review, we summarize recent knowledge about aquaporin protein–protein interactions; dividing the interactions into three types: (1 interactions between aquaporin tetramers; (2 interactions between aquaporin monomers within a tetramer (hetero-tetramerization; and (3 transient interactions with regulatory proteins. We particularly focus on the structural aspects of the interactions, discussing the small differences within a conserved overall fold that allow for aquaporins to be differentially regulated in an organism-, tissue- and trigger-specific manner. A deep knowledge about these differences is needed to fully understand aquaporin function and regulation in many physiological processes, and may enable design of compounds targeting specific aquaporins for treatment of human disease.

  10. Characterizing alpha helical properties of Ebola viral proteins as potential targets for inhibition of alpha-helix mediated protein-protein interactions [v3; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/50u

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chakraborty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola, considered till recently as a rare and endemic disease, has dramatically transformed into a potentially global humanitarian crisis. The genome of Ebola, a member of the Filoviridae family, encodes seven proteins. Based on the recently implemented software (PAGAL for analyzing the hydrophobicity and amphipathicity properties of alpha helices (AH in proteins, we characterize the helices in the Ebola proteome. We demonstrate that AHs with characteristically unique features are involved in critical interactions with the host proteins. For example, the Ebola virus membrane fusion subunit, GP2, from the envelope glycoprotein ectodomain has an AH with a large hydrophobic moment. The neutralizing antibody (KZ52 derived from a human survivor of the 1995 Kikwit outbreak recognizes a protein epitope on this AH, emphasizing the critical nature of this secondary structure in the virulence of the Ebola virus. Our method ensures a comprehensive list of such `hotspots'. These helices probably are or can be the target of molecules designed to inhibit AH mediated protein-protein interactions. Further, by comparing the AHs in proteins of the related Marburg viruses, we are able to elicit subtle changes in the proteins that might render them ineffective to previously successful drugs. Such differences are difficult to identify by a simple sequence or structural alignment. Thus, analyzing AHs in the small Ebola proteome can aid rational design aimed at countering the `largest Ebola epidemic, affecting multiple countries in West Africa' (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/index.html.

  11. Translation initiation mediated by nuclear cap-binding protein complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Incheol; Kim, Yoon Ki

    2017-04-01

    In mammals, cap-dependent translation of mRNAs is initiated by two distinct mechanisms: cap-binding complex (CBC; a heterodimer of CBP80 and 20)-dependent translation (CT) and eIF4E-dependent translation (ET). Both translation initiation mechanisms share common features in driving cap- dependent translation; nevertheless, they can be distinguished from each other based on their molecular features and biological roles. CT is largely associated with mRNA surveillance such as nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), whereas ET is predominantly involved in the bulk of protein synthesis. However, several recent studies have demonstrated that CT and ET have similar roles in protein synthesis and mRNA surveillance. In a subset of mRNAs, CT preferentially drives the cap-dependent translation, as ET does, and ET is responsible for mRNA surveillance, as CT does. In this review, we summarize and compare the molecular features of CT and ET with a focus on the emerging roles of CT in translation. [BMB Reports 2017; 50(4): 186-193].

  12. Protein kinase C mediates platelet secretion and thrombus formation through protein kinase D2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopatskaya, Olga; Matthews, Sharon A; Harper, Matthew T; Gilio, Karen; Cosemans, Judith M E M; Williams, Christopher M; Navarro, Maria N; Carter, Deborah A; Heemskerk, Johan W M; Leitges, Michael; Cantrell, Doreen; Poole, Alastair W

    2011-07-14

    Platelets are highly specialized blood cells critically involved in hemostasis and thrombosis. Members of the protein kinase C (PKC) family have established roles in regulating platelet function and thrombosis, but the molecular mechanisms are not clearly understood. In particular, the conventional PKC isoform, PKCα, is a major regulator of platelet granule secretion, but the molecular pathway from PKCα to secretion is not defined. Protein kinase D (PKD) is a family of 3 kinases activated by PKC, which may represent a step in the PKC signaling pathway to secretion. In the present study, we show that PKD2 is the sole PKD member regulated downstream of PKC in platelets, and that the conventional, but not novel, PKC isoforms provide the upstream signal. Platelets from a gene knock-in mouse in which 2 key phosphorylation sites in PKD2 have been mutated (Ser707Ala/Ser711Ala) show a significant reduction in agonist-induced dense granule secretion, but not in α-granule secretion. This deficiency in dense granule release was responsible for a reduced platelet aggregation and a marked reduction in thrombus formation. Our results show that in the molecular pathway to secretion, PKD2 is a key component of the PKC-mediated pathway to platelet activation and thrombus formation through its selective regulation of dense granule secretion.

  13. Dityrosine, 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), and radical formation from tyrosine residues on milk proteins with globular and flexible structures as a result of riboflavin-mediated photo-oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Trine Kastrup; Nielsen, Jacob Holm; Brown, Bronwyn

    2011-01-01

    Riboflavin-mediated photo-oxidative damage to protein Tyr residues has been examined to determine whether protein structure influences competing protein oxidation pathways in single proteins and protein mixtures. EPR studies resulted in the detection of Tyr-derived o-semiquione radicals, with thi......Riboflavin-mediated photo-oxidative damage to protein Tyr residues has been examined to determine whether protein structure influences competing protein oxidation pathways in single proteins and protein mixtures. EPR studies resulted in the detection of Tyr-derived o-semiquione radicals...

  14. Prolonged exposure to particulate chromate inhibits RAD51 nuclear import mediator proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Cynthia L; Wise, John Pierce

    2017-09-15

    Particulate hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a human lung carcinogen and a human health concern. The induction of structural chromosome instability is considered to be a driving mechanism of Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis. Homologous recombination repair protects against Cr(VI)-induced chromosome damage, due to its highly accurate repair of Cr(VI)-induced DNA double strand breaks. However, recent studies demonstrate Cr(VI) inhibits homologous recombination repair through the misregulation of RAD51. RAD51 is an essential protein in HR repair that facilitates the search for a homologous sequence. Recent studies show prolonged Cr(VI) exposure prevents proper RAD51 subcellular localization, causing it to accumulate in the cytoplasm. Since nuclear import of RAD51 is crucial to its function, this study investigated the effect of Cr(VI) on the RAD51 nuclear import mediators, RAD51C and BRCA2. We show acute (24h) Cr(VI) exposure induces the proper localization of RAD51C and BRCA2. In contrast, prolonged (120h) exposure increased the cytoplasmic localization of both proteins, although RAD51C localization was more severely impaired. These results correlate temporally with the previously reported Cr(VI)-induced RAD51 cytoplasmic accumulation. In addition, we found Cr(VI) does not inhibit interaction between RAD51 and its nuclear import mediators. Altogether, our results suggest prolonged Cr(VI) exposure inhibits the nuclear import of RAD51C, and to a lesser extent, BRCA2, which results in the cytoplasmic accumulation of RAD51. Cr(VI)-induced inhibition of nuclear import may play a key role in its carcinogenic mechanism since the nuclear import of many tumor suppressor proteins and DNA repair proteins is crucial to their function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Can understanding the packing of side chains improve the design of protein-protein interactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Alice; O'Hern, Corey; Regan, Lynne

    2011-03-01

    With the long-term goal to improve the design of protein-protein interactions, we have begun extensive computational studies to understand how side-chains of key residues of binding partners geometrically fit together at protein-peptide interfaces, e.g. the tetratrico-peptide repeat protein and its cognate peptide). We describe simple atomic-scale models of hydrophobic dipeptides, which include hard-core repulsion, bond length and angle constraints, and Van der Waals attraction. By completely enumerating all minimal energy structures in these systems, we are able to reproduce important features of the probability distributions of side chain dihedral angles of hydrophic residues in the protein data bank. These results are the crucial first step in developing computational models that can predict the side chain conformations of residues at protein-peptide interfaces. CSO acknowledges support from NSF grant no. CMMT-1006527.

  16. Identification of an intracellular protein that specifically interacts with photoaffinity-labeled oncogenic p21 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, G; Ronai, Z A; Pincus, M R; Brandt-Rauf, P W; Murphy, R B; Delohery, T M; Nishimura, S; Yamaizumi, Z; Weinstein, I B

    1989-11-01

    An oncogenic 21-kDa (p21) protein (Harvey RAS protein with Val-12) has been covalently modified with a functional reagent that contains a photoactivatable aromatic azide group. This modified p21 protein has been introduced quantitatively into NIH 3T3 cells using an erythrocyte-mediated fusion technique. The introduced p21 protein was capable of inducing enhanced pinocytosis and DNA synthesis in the recipient cells. To identify the putative intracellular protein(s) that specifically interact with the modified p21 protein, the cells were pulsed with [35S]methionine at selected times after fusion and then UV-irradiated to activate the azide group. The resulting nitrene covalently binds to amino acid residues in adjacent proteins, thus linking the p21 protein to these proteins. The cells were then lysed, and the lysate was immunoprecipitated with the anti-p21 monoclonal antibody Y13-259. The immunoprecipitate was analyzed by SDS/PAGE to identify p21-protein complexes. By using this technique, we found that three protein complexes of 51, 64, and 82 kDa were labeled specifically and reproducibly. The most prominent band is the 64-kDa protein complex that shows a time-dependent rise and fall, peaking within a 5-hr period after introduction of the p21 protein into the cells. These studies provide evidence that in vitro the p21 protein becomes associated with a protein whose mass is about 43 kDa. We suggest that the formation of this complex may play a role in mediating early events involved with cell transformation induced by RAS oncogenes.

  17. Neutrophils and the calcium-binding protein MRP-14 mediate carrageenan-induced antinociception in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana L. Pagano

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We have previously shown that the calcium-binding protein MRP-14 secreted by neutrophils mediates the antinociceptive response in an acute inflammatory model induced by the intraperitoneal injection of glycogen in mice.

  18. Short-hairpin RNA-mediated Heat shock protein 90 gene silencing inhibits human breast cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Keqiang; Li, Dan; Pulli, Benjamin; Yu, Fei; Cai, Haidong; Yuan, Xueyu; Zhang, Xiaoping; Lv, Zhongwei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hsp90 is over-expressed in human breast cancer. ► The shRNA-mediated gene silencing of Hsp90 resulted in inhibition of cell growth. ► Akt and NF-kB were down-regulation after transfection due to Hsp90 silencing. ► The tumor growth ratio was decline due to Hsp90 silencing. ► The PCNA expression was down-regulation due to Hsp90 silencing. -- Abstract: Hsp90 interacts with proteins that mediate signaling pathways involved in the regulation of essential processes such as proliferation, cell cycle control, angiogenesis and apoptosis. Hsp90 inhibition is therefore an attractive strategy for blocking abnormal pathways that are crucial for cancer cell growth. In the present study, the role of Hsp90 in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells was examined by stably silencing Hsp90 gene expression with an Hsp90-silencing vector (Hsp90-shRNA). RT-PCR and Western blot analyses showed that Hsp90-shRNA specifically and markedly down-regulated Hsp90 mRNA and protein expression. NF-kB and Akt protein levels were down-regulated in Hsp90-shRNA transfected cells, indicating that Hsp90 knockout caused a reduction of survival factors and induced apoptosis. Treatment with Hsp90-shRNA significantly increased apoptotic cell death and caused cell cycle arrest in the G1/S phase in MCF-7 cells, as shown by flow cytometry. Silencing of Hsp90 also reduced cell viability, as determined by MTT assay. In vivo experiments showed that MCF-7 cells stably transfected with Hsp90-shRNA grew slowly in nude mice as compared with control groups. In summary, the Hsp90-shRNA specifically silenced the Hsp90 gene, and inhibited MCF-7 cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Possible molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of Hsp90-shRNA include the degradation of Hsp90 breast cancer-related client proteins, the inhibition of survival signals and the upregulation of apoptotic pathways. shRNA-mediated interference may have potential therapeutic utility in human breast cancer.

  19. Identification of Secreted Proteins Involved in Nonspecific dsRNA-Mediated Lutzomyia longipalpis LL5 Cell Antiviral Response

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    Andrea Martins-da-Silva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematophagous insects transmit infectious diseases. Sand flies are vectors of leishmaniasis, but can also transmit viruses. We have been studying immune responses of Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. We identified a non-specific antiviral response in L. longipalpis LL5 embryonic cells when treated with non-specific double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs. This response is reminiscent of interferon response in mammals. We are investigating putative effectors for this antiviral response. Secreted molecules have been implicated in immune responses, including interferon-related responses. We conducted a mass spectrometry analysis of conditioned medium from LL5 cells 24 and 48 h after dsRNA or mock treatment. We identified 304 proteins. At 24 h, 19 proteins had an abundance equal or greater than 2-fold change, while the levels of 17 proteins were reduced when compared to control cells. At the 48 h time point, these numbers were 33 and 71, respectively. The two most abundant secreted peptides at 24 h in the dsRNA-transfected group were phospholipid scramblase, an interferon-inducible protein that mediates antiviral activity, and forskolin-binding protein (FKBP, a member of the immunophilin family, which mediates the effect of immunosuppressive drugs. The transcription profile of most candidates did not follow the pattern of secreted protein abundance.

  20. The K Domain Mediates Homologous and Heterologous Interactions Between FLC and SVP Proteins of Brassica juncea

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    Ma Guanpeng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The transcription factors FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC and SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP can interact to form homologous and heterologous protein complexes that regulate flowering time in Brassica juncea Coss. (Mustard.Previous studies showed that protein interactions were mediated by the K domain, which contains the subdomains K1, K2 and K3. However, it remains unknown how the subdomains mediate the interactions between FLC and SVP. In the present study, we constructed several mutants of subdomains K1–K3 and investigated the mechanisms involved in the heterologous interaction of BjFLC/BjSVP and in the homologous interaction of BjFLC/BjFLC or BjSVP/BjSVP. Yeast two-hybrid and β-Galactosidase activity assays showed that the 19 amino acids of the K1 subdomain in BjSVP and the 17 amino acids of the K1 subdomain in BjFLC were functional subdomains that interact with each other to mediate hetero-dimerization. The heterologous interaction was enhanced by the K2 subdomain of BjSVP protein, but weakened by its interhelical domain L2. The heterologous interaction was also enhanced by the K2 subdomain of BjFLC protein, but weakened by its K3 subdomain. The homologous interaction of BjSVP was mediated by the full K-domain. However, the homologous interaction of BjFLC was regulated only by its K1 and weakened by its K2 and K3 subdomains. The results provided new insights into the interactions between FLC and SVP, which will be valuable for further studies on the molecular regulation mechanisms of the regulation of flowering time in B. juncea and other Brassicaceae.

  1. IBR5 Modulates Temperature-Dependent, R Protein CHS3-Mediated Defense Responses in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyan Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant responses to low temperature are tightly associated with defense responses. We previously characterized the chilling-sensitive mutant chs3-1 resulting from the activation of the Toll and interleukin 1 receptor-nucleotide binding-leucine-rich repeat (TIR-NB-LRR-type resistance (R protein harboring a C-terminal LIM (Lin-11, Isl-1 and Mec-3 domains domain. Here we report the identification of a suppressor of chs3, ibr5-7 (indole-3-butyric acid response 5, which largely suppresses chilling-activated defense responses. IBR5 encodes a putative dual-specificity protein phosphatase. The accumulation of CHS3 protein at chilling temperatures is inhibited by the IBR5 mutation. Moreover, chs3-conferred defense phenotypes were synergistically suppressed by mutations in HSP90 and IBR5. Further analysis showed that IBR5, with holdase activity, physically associates with CHS3, HSP90 and SGT1b (Suppressor of the G2 allele of skp1 to form a complex that protects CHS3. In addition to the positive role of IBR5 in regulating CHS3, IBR5 is also involved in defense responses mediated by R genes, including SNC1 (Suppressor of npr1-1, Constitutive 1, RPS4 (Resistance to P. syringae 4 and RPM1 (Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola 1. Thus, the results of the present study reveal a role for IBR5 in the regulation of multiple R protein-mediated defense responses.

  2. HIV protein sequence hotspots for crosstalk with host hub proteins.

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    Mahdi Sarmady

    Full Text Available HIV proteins target host hub proteins for transient binding interactions. The presence of viral proteins in the infected cell results in out-competition of host proteins in their interaction with hub proteins, drastically affecting cell physiology. Functional genomics and interactome datasets can be used to quantify the sequence hotspots on the HIV proteome mediating interactions with host hub proteins. In this study, we used the HIV and human interactome databases to identify HIV targeted host hub proteins and their host binding partners (H2. We developed a high throughput computational procedure utilizing motif discovery algorithms on sets of protein sequences, including sequences of HIV and H2 proteins. We identified as HIV sequence hotspots those linear motifs that are highly conserved on HIV sequences and at the same time have a statistically enriched presence on the sequences of H2 proteins. The HIV protein motifs discovered in this study are expressed by subsets of H2 host proteins potentially outcompeted by HIV proteins. A large subset of these motifs is involved in cleavage, nuclear localization, phosphorylation, and transcription factor binding events. Many such motifs are clustered on an HIV sequence in the form of hotspots. The sequential positions of these hotspots are consistent with the curated literature on phenotype altering residue mutations, as well as with existing binding site data. The hotspot map produced in this study is the first global portrayal of HIV motifs involved in altering the host protein network at highly connected hub nodes.

  3. The Role of the Multifunctional BAG3 Protein in Cellular Protein Quality Control and in Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stürner, Elisabeth; Behl, Christian

    2017-01-01

    In neurons, but also in all other cells the complex proteostasis network is monitored and tightly regulated by the cellular protein quality control (PQC) system. Beyond folding of newly synthesized polypeptides and their refolding upon misfolding the PQC also manages the disposal of aberrant proteins either by the ubiquitin-proteasome machinery or by the autophagic-lysosomal system. Aggregated proteins are primarily degraded by a process termed selective macroautophagy (or aggrephagy). One such recently discovered selective macroautophagy pathway is mediated by the multifunctional HSP70 co-chaperone BAG3 ( BCL-2-associated athanogene 3 ). Under acute stress and during cellular aging, BAG3 in concert with the molecular chaperones HSP70 and HSPB8 as well as the ubiquitin receptor p62/SQSTM1 specifically targets aggregation-prone proteins to autophagic degradation. Thereby, BAG3-mediated selective macroautophagy represents a pivotal adaptive safeguarding and emergency system of the PQC which is activated under pathophysiological conditions to ensure cellular proteostasis. Interestingly, BAG3-mediated selective macroautophagy is also involved in the clearance of aggregated proteins associated with age-related neurodegenerative disorders, like Alzheimer's disease (tau-protein), Huntington's disease (mutated huntingtin/polyQ proteins), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (mutated SOD1). In addition, based on its initial description BAG3 is an anti-apoptotic protein that plays a decisive role in other widespread diseases, including cancer and myopathies. Therefore, in the search for novel therapeutic intervention avenues in neurodegeneration, myopathies and cancer BAG3 is a promising candidate.

  4. Proximity hybridization-mediated isothermal exponential amplification for ultrasensitive electrochemical protein detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Y

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Yanyan Yu, Gaoxing Su, Hongyan Zhu, Qing Zhu, Yong Chen, Bohui Xu, Yuqin Li, Wei Zhang School of Pharmacy, Nantong University, Nantong, People’s Republic of China Abstract: In this study, we fabricated a novel electrochemical biosensing platform on the basis of target-triggered proximity hybridization-mediated isothermal exponential amplification reaction (EXPAR for ultrasensitive protein analysis. Through rational design, the aptamers for protein recognition were integrated within two DNA probes. Via proximity hybridization principle, the affinity protein-binding event was converted into DNA assembly process. The recognition of protein by aptamers can trigger the strand displacement through the increase of the local concentrations of the involved probes. As a consequence, the output DNA was displaced, which can hybridize with the duplex probes immobilized on the electrode surface subsequently, leading to the initiation of the EXPAR as well as the cleavage of duplex probes. Each cleavage will release the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs binding sequence. With the modification of G-quadruplex sequence, electrochemical signals were yielded by the AuNPs through oxidizing 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine in the presence of H2O2. The study we proposed exhibited high sensitivity toward platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB with the detection limit of 52 fM. And, this method also showed great selectivity among the PDGF isoforms and performed well in spiked human serum samples. Keywords: electrochemical biosensor, proximity hybridization, PDGF-BB, isothermal exponential amplification, G-quadruplex 

  5. Tetratricopeptide-motif-mediated interaction of FANCG with recombination proteins XRCC3 and BRCA2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shobbir; Wilson, James B; Blom, Eric; Thompson, Larry H; Sung, Patrick; Gordon, Susan M; Kupfer, Gary M; Joenje, Hans; Mathew, Christopher G; Jones, Nigel J

    2006-05-10

    Fanconi anaemia is an inherited chromosomal instability disorder characterised by cellular sensitivity to DNA interstrand crosslinkers, bone-marrow failure and a high risk of cancer. Eleven FA genes have been identified, one of which, FANCD1, is the breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA2. At least eight FA proteins form a nuclear core complex required for monoubiquitination of FANCD2. The BRCA2/FANCD1 protein is connected to the FA pathway by interactions with the FANCG and FANCD2 proteins, both of which co-localise with the RAD51 recombinase, which is regulated by BRCA2. These connections raise the question of whether any of the FANC proteins of the core complex might also participate in other complexes involved in homologous recombination repair. We therefore tested known FA proteins for direct interaction with RAD51 and its paralogs XRCC2 and XRCC3. FANCG was found to interact with XRCC3, and this interaction was disrupted by the FA-G patient derived mutation L71P. FANCG was co-immunoprecipitated with both XRCC3 and BRCA2 from extracts of human and hamster cells. The FANCG-XRCC3 and FANCG-BRCA2 interactions did not require the presence of other FA proteins from the core complex, suggesting that FANCG also participates in a DNA repair complex that is downstream and independent of FANCD2 monoubiquitination. Additionally, XRCC3 and BRCA2 proteins co-precipitate in both human and hamster cells and this interaction requires FANCG. The FANCG protein contains multiple tetratricopeptide repeat motifs (TPRs), which function as scaffolds to mediate protein-protein interactions. Mutation of one or more of these motifs disrupted all of the known interactions of FANCG. We propose that FANCG, in addition to stabilising the FA core complex, may have a role in building multiprotein complexes that facilitate homologous recombination repair.

  6. Receptor-mediated oral delivery of a bioencapsulated green fluorescent protein expressed in transgenic chloroplasts into the mouse circulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Arati; Koya, Vijay; Samsam, Mohtashem; Daniell, Henry

    2006-05-01

    Oral delivery of biopharmaceutical proteins expressed in plant cells should reduce their cost of production, purification, processing, cold storage, transportation, and delivery. However, poor intestinal absorption of intact proteins is a major challenge. To overcome this limitation, we investigate here the concept of receptor-mediated oral delivery of chloroplast-expressed foreign proteins. Therefore, the transmucosal carrier cholera toxin B-subunit and green fluorescent protein (CTB-GFP), separated by a furin cleavage site, was expressed via the tobacco chloroplast genome. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analyses confirmed site-specific transgene integration and homoplasmy. Immunoblot analysis and ELISA confirmed expression of monomeric and pentameric forms of CTB-GFP, up to 21.3% of total soluble proteins. An in vitro furin cleavage assay confirmed integrity of the engineered furin cleavage site, and a GM1 binding assay confirmed the functionality of CTB-GFP pentamers. Following oral administration of CTB-GFP expressing leaf material to mice, GFP was observed in the mice intestinal mucosa, liver, and spleen in fluorescence and immunohistochemical studies, while CTB remained in the intestinal cell. This report of receptor-mediated oral delivery of a foreign protein into the circulatory system opens the door for low-cost production and delivery of human therapeutic proteins.

  7. Protein-protein interactions in the regulation of WRKY transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yingjun; Yang, Yan; Zhou, Yuan; Zhou, Jie; Fan, Baofang; Yu, Jing-Quan; Chen, Zhixiang

    2013-03-01

    It has been almost 20 years since the first report of a WRKY transcription factor, SPF1, from sweet potato. Great progress has been made since then in establishing the diverse biological roles of WRKY transcription factors in plant growth, development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stress. Despite the functional diversity, almost all analyzed WRKY proteins recognize the TTGACC/T W-box sequences and, therefore, mechanisms other than mere recognition of the core W-box promoter elements are necessary to achieve the regulatory specificity of WRKY transcription factors. Research over the past several years has revealed that WRKY transcription factors physically interact with a wide range of proteins with roles in signaling, transcription, and chromatin remodeling. Studies of WRKY-interacting proteins have provided important insights into the regulation and mode of action of members of the important family of transcription factors. It has also emerged that the slightly varied WRKY domains and other protein motifs conserved within each of the seven WRKY subfamilies participate in protein-protein interactions and mediate complex functional interactions between WRKY proteins and between WRKY and other regulatory proteins in the modulation of important biological processes. In this review, we summarize studies of protein-protein interactions for WRKY transcription factors and discuss how the interacting partners contribute, at different levels, to the establishment of the complex regulatory and functional network of WRKY transcription factors.

  8. Dop1 enhances conspecific olfactory attraction by inhibiting miR-9a maturation in locusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaojiao; Ma, Zongyuan; Du, Baozhen; Li, Ting; Li, Wudi; Xu, Lingling; He, Jing; Kang, Le

    2018-03-22

    Dopamine receptor 1 (Dop1) mediates locust attraction behaviors, however, the mechanism by which Dop1 modulates this process remains unknown to date. Here, we identify differentially expressed small RNAs associated with locust olfactory attraction after activating and inhibiting Dop1. Small RNA transcriptome analysis and qPCR validation reveal that Dop1 activation and inhibition downregulates and upregulates microRNA-9a (miR-9a) expression, respectively. miR-9a knockdown in solitarious locusts increases their attraction to gregarious volatiles, whereas miR-9a overexpression in gregarious locusts reduces olfactory attraction. Moreover, miR-9a directly targets adenylyl cyclase 2 (ac2), causing its downregulation at the mRNA and protein levels. ac2 responds to Dop1 and mediates locust olfactory attraction. Mechanistically, Dop1 inhibits miR-9a expression through inducing the dissociation of La protein from pre-miR-9a and resulting in miR-9a maturation inhibition. Our results reveal a Dop1-miR-9a-AC2 circuit that modulates locust olfactory attraction underlying aggregation. This study suggests that miRNAs act as key messengers in the GPCR signaling.

  9. Comparison of adenovirus fiber, protein IX, and hexon capsomeres as scaffolds for vector purification and cell targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Samuel K.; Barry, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    The direct genetic modification of adenoviral capsid proteins with new ligands is an attractive means to confer targeted tropism to adenoviral vectors. Although several capsid proteins have been reported to tolerate the genetic fusion of foreign peptides and proteins, direct comparison of cell targeting efficiencies through the different capsomeres has been lacking. Likewise, direct comparison of with one or multiple ligands has not been performed due to a lack of capsid-compatible ligands available for retargeting. Here we utilize a panel of metabolically biotinylated Ad vectors to directly compare targeted transduction through the fiber, protein IX, and hexon capsomeres using a variety of biotinylated ligands including antibodies, transferrin, EGF, and cholera toxin B. These results clearly demonstrate that cell targeting with a variety of high affinity receptor-binding ligands is only effective when transduction is redirected through the fiber protein. In contrast, protein IX and hexon-mediated targeting by the same set of ligands failed to mediate robust vector targeting, perhaps due to aberrant trafficking at the cell surface or inside targeted cells. These data suggest that vector targeting by genetic incorporation of high affinity ligands will likely be most efficient through modification of the adenovirus fiber rather than the protein IX and hexon capsomeres. In contrast, single-step monomeric avidin affinity purification of Ad vectors using the metabolic biotinylation system is most effective through capsomeres like protein IX and hexon

  10. CNPY2 inhibits MYLIP-mediated AR protein degradation in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Saya; Ueno, Akihisa; Ueda, Takashi; Nakagawa, Hideo; Taniguchi, Hidefumi; Kayukawa, Naruhiro; Fujihara-Iwata, Atsuko; Hongo, Fumiya; Okihara, Koji; Ukimura, Osamu

    2018-04-03

    The androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that promotes prostate cancer (PC) cell growth through control of target gene expression. This report suggests that Canopy FGF signaling regulator 2 (CNPY2) controls AR protein levels in PC cells. We found that AR was ubiquitinated by an E3 ubiquitin ligase, myosin regulatory light chain interacting protein (MYLIP) and then degraded through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. CNPY2 decreased the ubiquitination activity of MYLIP by inhibition of interaction between MYLIP and UBE2D1, an E2 ubiquitin ligase. CNPY2 up-regulated gene expression of AR target genes such as KLK3 gene which encodes the prostate specific antigen (PSA) and promoted cell growth of PC cells. The cell growth inhibition by CNPY2 knockdown was rescued by AR overexpression. Furthermore, positive correlation of expression levels between CNPY2 and AR/AR target genes was observed in tissue samples from human prostate cancer patients. Together, these results suggested that CNPY2 promoted cell growth of PC cells by inhibition of AR protein degradation through MYLIP-mediated AR ubiquitination.

  11. Protein degradation and protein synthesis in long-term memory formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Jarome

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term memory (LTM formation requires transient changes in the activity of intracellular signaling cascades that are thought to regulate new gene transcription and de novo protein synthesis in the brain. Consistent with this, protein synthesis inhibitors impair LTM for a variety of behavioral tasks when infused into the brain around the time of training or following memory retrieval, suggesting that protein synthesis is a critical step in LTM storage in the brain. However, evidence suggests that protein degradation mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system may also be a critical regulator of LTM formation and stability following retrieval. This requirement for increased protein degradation has been shown in the same brain regions in which protein synthesis is required for LTM storage. Additionally, increases in the phosphorylation of proteins involved in translational control parallel increases in protein polyubiquitination and the increased demand for protein degradation is regulated by intracellular signaling molecules thought to regulate protein synthesis during LTM formation. In some cases inhibiting proteasome activity can rescue memory impairments that result from pharmacological blockade of protein synthesis, suggesting that protein degradation may control the requirement for protein synthesis during the memory storage process. Results such as these suggest that protein degradation and synthesis are both critical for LTM formation and may interact to properly consolidate and store memories in the brain. Here, we review the evidence implicating protein synthesis and degradation in LTM storage and highlight the areas of overlap between these two opposing processes. We also discuss evidence suggesting these two processes may interact to properly form and store memories. LTM storage likely requires a coordinated regulation between protein degradation and synthesis at multiple sites in the mammalian brain.

  12. Chemotaxis to cyclic AMP and folic acid is mediated by different G proteins in Dictyostelium discoideum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kesbeke, Fanja; Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Wit, René J.W. de; Snaar-Jagalska, B. Ewa

    1990-01-01

    Mutant Frigid A (fgdA) of Dictyostelium discoideum is defective in a functional Gα2 subunit of a G protein and is characterized by a complete blockade of the cyclic AMP-mediated sensory transduction steps, including cyclic AMP relay, chemotaxis and the cyclic GMP response. Folic acid-mediated

  13. Protein phosphatase 2A mediates JS-K-induced apoptosis by affecting Bcl-2 family proteins in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Huang, Zile; Chen, Jingjing; Wang, Jiangang; Wang, Shuying

    2018-04-25

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is an important enzyme within various signal transduction pathways. The present study was investigated PP2A mediates JS-K-induced apoptosis by affecting Bcl-2 family protein. JS-K showed diverse inhibitory effects in five HCC cell lines, especially HepG2 cells. JS-K caused a dose- and time-dependent reduction in cell viability and increased in levels of LDH release. Meanwhile, JS-K- induced apoptosis was characterized by mitochondrial membrane potential reduction, Hoechst 33342 + /PI + dual staining, release of cytochrome c (Cyt c), and activation of cleaved caspase-9/3. Moreover, JS-K-treatment could lead to the activation of protein phosphatase 2A-C (PP2A-C), decrease of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family-protein expression including p-Bcl-2 (Ser70), Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1 as well as the increase of pro-apoptosis Bcl-2 family-protein including Bim, Bad, Bax, and Bak. Furthermore, JS-K caused a marked increase of intracellular NO levels while pre-treatment with Carboxy-PTIO (a NO scavenger) reduced the cytotoxicity effects and the apoptosis rate. Meanwhile, pre-treatment with Carboxy-PTIO attenuated the JS-K-induced up-regulation of PP2A, Cyt c, and cleaved-caspase-9/3 activation. The silencing PP2A-C by siRNA could abolish the activation of PP2A-C, down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family-protein (p-Bcl-2, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1), increase of pro-apoptosis Bcl-2 family-protein (Bim, Bad, Bax, and Bak) and apoptotic-related protein (Cyt c, cleaved caspase-9/3) that were caused by JS-K in HepG2 cells. In addition, pre-treatment with OA (a PP2A inhibitor) also attenuated the above effects induced by JS-K. In summary, NO release from JS-K induces apoptosis through PP2A activation, which contributed to the regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Insulin receptors mediate growth effects in cultured fetal neurons. I. Rapid stimulation of protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidenreich, K.A.; Toledo, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    In this study we have examined the effects of insulin on protein synthesis in cultured fetal chick neurons. Protein synthesis was monitored by measuring the incorporation of [3H]leucine (3H-leu) into trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-precipitable protein. Upon addition of 3H-leu, there was a 5-min lag before radioactivity occurred in protein. During this period cell-associated radioactivity reached equilibrium and was totally recovered in the TCA-soluble fraction. After 5 min, the incorporation of 3H-leu into protein was linear for 2 h and was inhibited (98%) by the inclusion of 10 micrograms/ml cycloheximide. After 24 h of serum deprivation, insulin increased 3H-leu incorporation into protein by approximately 2-fold. The stimulation of protein synthesis by insulin was dose dependent (ED50 = 70 pM) and seen within 30 min. Proinsulin was approximately 10-fold less potent than insulin on a molar basis in stimulating neuronal protein synthesis. Insulin had no effect on the TCA-soluble fraction of 3H-leu at any time and did not influence the uptake of [3H]aminoisobutyric acid into neurons. The isotope ratio of 3H-leu/14C-leu in the leucyl tRNA pool was the same in control and insulin-treated neurons. Analysis of newly synthesized proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that insulin uniformly increased the incorporation of 14C-leu into all of the resolved neuronal proteins. We conclude from these data that (1) insulin rapidly stimulates overall protein synthesis in fetal neurons independent of amino acid uptake and aminoacyl tRNA precursor pools; (2) stimulation of protein synthesis is mediated by the brain subtype of insulin receptor; and (3) insulin is potentially an important in vivo growth factor for fetal central nervous system neurons

  15. Laser tissue welding mediated with a protein solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Ward, IV; Heredia, Nicholas J.; Celliers, Peter M.; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Eder, David C.; Glinsky, Michael E.; London, Richard A.; Maitland, Duncan J.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Soltz, Barbara A.

    1996-05-01

    A study of laser tissue welding mediated with an indocyanine green dye-enhanced protein solder was performed. Freshly obtained sections of porcine artery were used for the experiments. Sample arterial wall thickness ranged from two to three millimeters. Incisions approximately four millimeters in length were treated using an 805 nanometer continuous- wave diode laser coupled to a one millimeter diameter fiber. Controlled parameters included the power delivered by the laser, the duration of the welding process, and the concentration of dye in the solder. A two-color infrared detection system was constructed to monitor the surface temperatures achieved at the weld site. Burst pressure measurements were made to quantify the strengths of the welds immediately following completion of the welding procedure.

  16. Protein-protein interaction inference based on semantic similarity of Gene Ontology terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Bo; Tang, Qiang-Rong

    2016-07-21

    Identifying protein-protein interactions is important in molecular biology. Experimental methods to this issue have their limitations, and computational approaches have attracted more and more attentions from the biological community. The semantic similarity derived from the Gene Ontology (GO) annotation has been regarded as one of the most powerful indicators for protein interaction. However, conventional methods based on GO similarity fail to take advantage of the specificity of GO terms in the ontology graph. We proposed a GO-based method to predict protein-protein interaction by integrating different kinds of similarity measures derived from the intrinsic structure of GO graph. We extended five existing methods to derive the semantic similarity measures from the descending part of two GO terms in the GO graph, then adopted a feature integration strategy to combines both the ascending and the descending similarity scores derived from the three sub-ontologies to construct various kinds of features to characterize each protein pair. Support vector machines (SVM) were employed as discriminate classifiers, and five-fold cross validation experiments were conducted on both human and yeast protein-protein interaction datasets to evaluate the performance of different kinds of integrated features, the experimental results suggest the best performance of the feature that combines information from both the ascending and the descending parts of the three ontologies. Our method is appealing for effective prediction of protein-protein interaction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Inter-DNA Attraction Mediated by Divalent Counterions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Xiangyun; Andresen, Kurt; Kwok, Lisa W.; Lamb, Jessica S.; Park, Hye Yoon; Pollack, Lois

    2007-01-01

    Can nonspecifically bound divalent counterions induce attraction between DNA strands? Here, we present experimental evidence demonstrating attraction between short DNA strands mediated by Mg 2+ ions. Solution small angle x-ray scattering data collected as a function of DNA concentration enable model independent extraction of the second virial coefficient. As the [Mg 2+ ] increases, this coefficient turns from positive to negative reflecting the transition from repulsive to attractive inter-DNA interaction. This surprising observation is corroborated by independent light scattering experiments. The dependence of the observed attraction on experimental parameters including DNA length provides valuable clues to its origin

  18. The Role of the Multifunctional BAG3 Protein in Cellular Protein Quality Control and in Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Stürner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In neurons, but also in all other cells the complex proteostasis network is monitored and tightly regulated by the cellular protein quality control (PQC system. Beyond folding of newly synthesized polypeptides and their refolding upon misfolding the PQC also manages the disposal of aberrant proteins either by the ubiquitin-proteasome machinery or by the autophagic-lysosomal system. Aggregated proteins are primarily degraded by a process termed selective macroautophagy (or aggrephagy. One such recently discovered selective macroautophagy pathway is mediated by the multifunctional HSP70 co-chaperone BAG3 (BCL-2-associated athanogene 3. Under acute stress and during cellular aging, BAG3 in concert with the molecular chaperones HSP70 and HSPB8 as well as the ubiquitin receptor p62/SQSTM1 specifically targets aggregation-prone proteins to autophagic degradation. Thereby, BAG3-mediated selective macroautophagy represents a pivotal adaptive safeguarding and emergency system of the PQC which is activated under pathophysiological conditions to ensure cellular proteostasis. Interestingly, BAG3-mediated selective macroautophagy is also involved in the clearance of aggregated proteins associated with age-related neurodegenerative disorders, like Alzheimer’s disease (tau-protein, Huntington’s disease (mutated huntingtin/polyQ proteins, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (mutated SOD1. In addition, based on its initial description BAG3 is an anti-apoptotic protein that plays a decisive role in other widespread diseases, including cancer and myopathies. Therefore, in the search for novel therapeutic intervention avenues in neurodegeneration, myopathies and cancer BAG3 is a promising candidate.

  19. Protein restriction and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Ren, Wenkai; Huang, Xingguo; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2018-03-26

    Protein restriction without malnutrition is currently an effective nutritional intervention known to prevent diseases and promote health span from yeast to human. Recently, low protein diets are reported to be associated with lowered cancer incidence and mortality risk of cancers in human. In murine models, protein restriction inhibits tumor growth via mTOR signaling pathway. IGF-1, amino acid metabolic programing, FGF21, and autophagy may also serve as potential mechanisms of protein restriction mediated cancer prevention. Together, dietary intervention aimed at reducing protein intake can be beneficial and has the potential to be widely adopted and effective in preventing and treating cancers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Tyrosine phosphorylation of WW proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuven, Nina; Shanzer, Matan

    2015-01-01

    A number of key regulatory proteins contain one or two copies of the WW domain known to mediate protein–protein interaction via proline-rich motifs, such as PPxY. The Hippo pathway components take advantage of this module to transduce tumor suppressor signaling. It is becoming evident that tyrosine phosphorylation is a critical regulator of the WW proteins. Here, we review the current knowledge on the involved tyrosine kinases and their roles in regulating the WW proteins. PMID:25627656

  1. Infectious Entry Pathway Mediated by the Human Endogenous Retrovirus K Envelope Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lindsey R; Whelan, Sean P J

    2016-01-20

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), the majority of which exist as degraded remnants of ancient viruses, comprise approximately 8% of the human genome. The youngest human ERVs (HERVs) belong to the HERV-K(HML-2) subgroup and were endogenized within the past 1 million years. The viral envelope protein (ENV) facilitates the earliest events of endogenization (cellular attachment and entry), and here, we characterize the requirements for HERV-K ENV to mediate infectious cell entry. Cell-cell fusion assays indicate that a minimum of two events are required for fusion, proteolytic processing by furin-like proteases and exposure to acidic pH. We generated an infectious autonomously replicating recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in which the glycoprotein was replaced by HERV-K ENV. HERV-K ENV imparts an endocytic entry pathway that requires dynamin-mediated membrane scission and endosomal acidification but is distinct from clathrin-dependent or macropinocytic uptake pathways. The lack of impediments to the replication of the VSV core in eukaryotic cells allowed us to broadly survey the HERV-K ENV-dictated tropism. Unlike extant betaretroviral envelopes, which impart a narrow species tropism, we found that HERV-K ENV mediates broad tropism encompassing cells from multiple mammalian and nonmammalian species. We conclude that HERV-K ENV dictates an evolutionarily conserved entry pathway and that the restriction of HERV-K to primate genomes reflects downstream stages of the viral replication cycle. Approximately 8% of the human genome is of retroviral origin. While many of those viral genomes have become inactivated, some copies of the most recently endogenized human retrovirus, HERV-K, can encode individual functional proteins. Here, we characterize the envelope protein (ENV) of the virus to define how it mediates infection of cells. We demonstrate that HERV-K ENV undergoes a proteolytic processing step and triggers membrane fusion in response to acidic pH--a strategy

  2. Intravascular local gene transfer mediated by protein-coated metallic stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, J; Gao, R; Shi, R; Song, L; Tang, J; Li, Y; Tang, C; Meng, L; Yuan, W; Chen, Z

    2001-10-01

    To assess the feasibility, efficiency and selectivity of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer to local arterial wall by protein-coated metallic stent. A replication-defective recombinant adenovirus carrying the Lac Z reporter gene for nuclear-specific beta-galactosidase (Ad-beta gal) was used in this study. The coating for metallic stent was made by immersing it in a gelatin solution containing crosslinker. The coated stents were mounted on a 4.0 or 3.0 mm percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) balloon and submersed into a high-titer Ad-beta gal viral stock (2 x 10(10) pfu/ml) for 3 min, and then implanted into the carotid arteries in 4 mini-swines and into the left anterior descending branch of the coronary artery in 2 mini-swines via 8F large lumen guiding catheters. The animals were sacrificed 7 (n = 4), 14 (n = 1) and 21 (n = 1) days after implantation, respectively. The beta-galactosidase expression was assessed by X-gal staining. The results showed that the expression of transgene was detected in all animal. In 1 of carotid artery with an intact intima, the beta-gal expression was limited to endothelial cells. In vessels with denuded endothelium, gene expression was found in the sub-intima, media and adventitia. The transfection efficiency of medial smooth muscle cells was 38.6%. In 2 animals sacrificed 7 days after transfection, a microscopic examination of X-gal-stained samples did not show evidence of transfection in remote organs and arterial segments adjacent to the treated arterial site. Adenovirus-mediated arterial gene transfer to endothelial, smooth muscle cells and adventitia by protein-coated metallic stent is feasible. The transfection efficiency is higher. The coated stent may act as a good carrier of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer and have a potential to prevent restenosis following PTCA.

  3. Collagen targeting using multivalent protein-functionalized dendrimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breurken, M.; Lempens, E.H.M.; Temming, R.P.; Helms, B.A.; Meijer, E.W.; Merkx, M.

    2011-01-01

    Collagen is an attractive marker for tissue remodeling in a variety of common disease processes. Here we report the preparation of protein dendrimers as multivalent collagen targeting ligands by native chemical ligation of the collagen binding protein CNA35 to cysteine-functionalized dendritic

  4. X-ray-mediated cross linking of protein and DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minsky, B.D.; Braun, A.

    1977-01-01

    Using a simple filter assay for the binding of BSA or lysozyme to DNA, two mechanisms of x-ray-mediated cross linking are shown to occur. One, a fast reaction, appears to involve a radical intermediate, is inhibited by high pH and salt, and seems to be enhanced by deoxygenation. The second mechanism, a slow time-dependent component, differs from the fast reaction in its stimulation by histidine, its inhibition by catalase, and the lack of an oxygen effect. Separate irradiation of DNA or water does not lead to cross linking. However, separate irradiation of protein leads to cross linking which proceeds with slow-component kinetics

  5. Protein-mediated efficient synergistic "antenna effect" in a ternary system in D₂O medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorai, Shyamal Kr; Samanta, Swarna Kamal; Mukherjee, Manini; Ghosh, Sanjib

    2012-08-16

    A ternary system consisting of a protein, catechin (either + or - epimer), and Tb(III) in suitable aqueous buffer medium at physiological pH (= 6.8) has been shown to exhibit highly efficient "antenna effect". Steady state and time-resolved emission studies of each component in the binary complexes (protein with Tb(III) and (+)- or (-)-catechin with Tb(III)) and the ternary systems along with the molecular docking studies reveal that the efficient sensitization could be ascribed to the effective shielding of microenvironment of Tb(III) from O-H oscillator and increased Tb-C (+/-) interaction in the ternary systems in aqueous medium. The ternary system exhibits protein-mediated efficient antenna effect in D(2)O medium due to synergistic ET from both the lowest ππ* triplet state of Trp residue in protein and that of catechin apart from protection of the Tb(III) environment from matrix vibration. The simple system consisting of (+)- or (-)-catechin and Tb(III) in D(2)O buffer at pH 6.8 has been prescribed to be a useful biosensor.

  6. Cdk1-cyclin B1-mediated phosphorylation of tumor-associated microtubule-associated protein/cytoskeleton-associated protein 2 in mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kyung Uk; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Hyo-Sil; Seong, Yeon-Sun; Hong, Kyeong-Man; Bae, Chang-Dae; Park, Joobae

    2009-06-12

    During mitosis, establishment of structurally and functionally sound bipolar spindles is necessary for maintaining the fidelity of chromosome segregation. Tumor-associated microtubule-associated protein (TMAP), also known as cytoskeleton-associated protein 2 (CKAP2), is a mitotic spindle-associated protein whose level is frequently up-regulated in various malignancies. Previous reports have suggested that TMAP is a potential regulator of mitotic spindle assembly and dynamics and that it is required for chromosome segregation to occur properly. So far, there have been no reports on how its mitosis-related functions are regulated. Here, we report that TMAP is hyper-phosphorylated at the C terminus specifically during mitosis. At least four different residues (Thr-578, Thr-596, Thr-622, and Ser-627) were responsible for the mitosis-specific phosphorylation of TMAP. Among these, Thr-622 was specifically phosphorylated by Cdk1-cyclin B1 both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, compared with the wild type, a phosphorylation-deficient mutant form of TMAP, in which Thr-622 had been replaced with an alanine (T622A), induced a significant increase in the frequency of metaphase cells with abnormal bipolar spindles, which often displayed disorganized, asymmetrical, or narrow and elongated morphologies. Formation of these abnormal bipolar spindles subsequently resulted in misalignment of metaphase chromosomes and ultimately caused a delay in the entry into anaphase. Moreover, such defects resulting from the T622A mutation were associated with a decrease in the rate of protein turnover at spindle microtubules. These findings suggest that Cdk1-cyclin B1-mediated phosphorylation of TMAP is important for and contributes to proper regulation of microtubule dynamics and establishment of functional bipolar spindles during mitosis.

  7. Cdk1-Cyclin B1-mediated Phosphorylation of Tumor-associated Microtubule-associated Protein/Cytoskeleton-associated Protein 2 in Mitosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uk Hong, Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Hyo-Sil; Seong, Yeon-Sun; Hong, Kyeong-Man; Bae, Chang-Dae; Park, Joobae

    2009-01-01

    During mitosis, establishment of structurally and functionally sound bipolar spindles is necessary for maintaining the fidelity of chromosome segregation. Tumor-associated microtubule-associated protein (TMAP), also known as cytoskeleton-associated protein 2 (CKAP2), is a mitotic spindle-associated protein whose level is frequently up-regulated in various malignancies. Previous reports have suggested that TMAP is a potential regulator of mitotic spindle assembly and dynamics and that it is required for chromosome segregation to occur properly. So far, there have been no reports on how its mitosis-related functions are regulated. Here, we report that TMAP is hyper-phosphorylated at the C terminus specifically during mitosis. At least four different residues (Thr-578, Thr-596, Thr-622, and Ser-627) were responsible for the mitosis-specific phosphorylation of TMAP. Among these, Thr-622 was specifically phosphorylated by Cdk1-cyclin B1 both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, compared with the wild type, a phosphorylation-deficient mutant form of TMAP, in which Thr-622 had been replaced with an alanine (T622A), induced a significant increase in the frequency of metaphase cells with abnormal bipolar spindles, which often displayed disorganized, asymmetrical, or narrow and elongated morphologies. Formation of these abnormal bipolar spindles subsequently resulted in misalignment of metaphase chromosomes and ultimately caused a delay in the entry into anaphase. Moreover, such defects resulting from the T622A mutation were associated with a decrease in the rate of protein turnover at spindle microtubules. These findings suggest that Cdk1-cyclin B1-mediated phosphorylation of TMAP is important for and contributes to proper regulation of microtubule dynamics and establishment of functional bipolar spindles during mitosis. PMID:19369249

  8. In situ synthesis of protein arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingyue; Stoevesandt, Oda; Taussig, Michael J

    2008-02-01

    In situ or on-chip protein array methods use cell free expression systems to produce proteins directly onto an immobilising surface from co-distributed or pre-arrayed DNA or RNA, enabling protein arrays to be created on demand. These methods address three issues in protein array technology: (i) efficient protein expression and availability, (ii) functional protein immobilisation and purification in a single step and (iii) protein on-chip stability over time. By simultaneously expressing and immobilising many proteins in parallel on the chip surface, the laborious and often costly processes of DNA cloning, expression and separate protein purification are avoided. Recently employed methods reviewed are PISA (protein in situ array) and NAPPA (nucleic acid programmable protein array) from DNA and puromycin-mediated immobilisation from mRNA.

  9. Integrin-mediated targeting of protein polymer nanoparticles carrying a cytostatic macrolide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pu

    Cytotoxicity, low water solubility, rapid clearance from circulation, and offtarget side-effects are common drawbacks of conventional small-molecule drugs. To overcome these shortcomings, many multifunctional nanocarriers have been proposed to enhance drug delivery. In concept, multifunctional nanoparticles might carry multiple agents, control release rate, biodegrade, and utilize target-mediated drug delivery; however, the design of these particles presents many challenges at the stage of pharmaceutical development. An emerging solution to improve control over these particles is to turn to genetic engineering. Genetically engineered nanocarriers are precisely controlled in size and structure and can provide specific control over sites for chemical attachment of drugs. Genetically engineered drug carriers that assemble nanostructures including nanoparticles and nanofibers can be polymeric or nonpolymeric. This chapter summarizes the recent development of applications in drug and gene delivery utilizing nanostructures of polymeric genetically engineered drug carriers such as elastin-like polypeptides, silk-like polypeptides, and silk-elastin-like protein polymers, and non-polymeric genetically engineered drug carriers such as vault proteins and viral proteins. This chapter explores an alternative encapsulation strategy based on high-specificity avidity between a small molecule drug and its cognate protein target fused to the corona of protein polymer nanoparticles. With the new strategy, the drug associates tightly to the carrier and releases slowly, which may decrease toxicity and promote tumor accumulation via the enhanced permeability and retention effect. To test this hypothesis, the drug Rapamycin (Rapa) was selected for its potent anti-proliferative properties, which give it immunosuppressant and anti-tumor activity. Despite its potency, Rapa has low solubility, low oral bioavailability, and rapid systemic clearance, which make it an excellent candidate for

  10. The Effect of Protein PEGylation on Physical Stability in Liquid Formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Louise Stenstrup; Mcumber, Aaron; Rasmussen, Jakob Ewald

    2014-01-01

    The presence of micron aggregates in protein formulations has recently attracted increased interest from regulatory authorities, industry, and academia because of the potential undesired side effects of their presence. In this study, we characterized the micron aggregate formation of hen egg...... approximately half as many particles as Lyz, despite its lower apparent thermodynamic stability and more loose protein fold. Further characterization showed that the PEGylation led to a change from attractive to repulsive protein-protein interactions, which may partly explain the reduced particle formation...

  11. Natural products induce a G protein-mediated calcium pathway activating p53 in cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginkel, Paul R. van; Yan, Michael B. [UW Carbone Cancer Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Bhattacharya, Saswati [UW Carbone Cancer Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Polans, Arthur S., E-mail: aspolans@wisc.edu [UW Carbone Cancer Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Kenealey, Jason D. [UW Carbone Cancer Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Department of Nutrition, Dietetics and Food Science, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Paclitaxel, etoposide, vincristine and doxorubicin are examples of natural products being used as chemotherapeutics but with adverse side effects that limit their therapeutic window. Natural products derived from plants and having low toxicity, such as quercetin, resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate and piceatannol, have been shown to inhibit tumor cell growth both in vitro and in pre-clinical models of cancer, but their mechanisms of action have not been fully elucidated, thus restricting their use as prototypes for developing synthetic analogs with improved anti-cancer properties. We and others have demonstrated that one of the earliest and consistent events upon exposure of tumor cells to these less toxic natural products is a rise in cytoplasmic calcium, activating several pro-apoptotic pathways. We describe here a G protein/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate pathway (InsP3) in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells that mediates between these less toxic natural products and the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum. Further, we demonstrate that this elevation of intracellular calcium modulates p53 activity and the subsequent transcription of several pro-apoptotic genes encoding PIG8, CD95, PIDD, TP53INP, RRM2B, Noxa, p21 and PUMA. We conclude from our findings that less toxic natural products likely bind to a G protein coupled receptor that activates a G protein-mediated and calcium-dependent pathway resulting selectively in tumor cell death. - Highlights: • Natural products having low toxicity increase cytoplasmic calcium in cancer cells. • A G-protein/IP{sub 3} pathway mediates the release of calcium from the ER. • The elevation of intracellular calcium modulates p53 activity. • p53 and other Ca{sup 2+}-dependent pro-apoptotic pathways inhibit cancer cell growth.

  12. Natural products induce a G protein-mediated calcium pathway activating p53 in cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginkel, Paul R. van; Yan, Michael B.; Bhattacharya, Saswati; Polans, Arthur S.; Kenealey, Jason D.

    2015-01-01

    Paclitaxel, etoposide, vincristine and doxorubicin are examples of natural products being used as chemotherapeutics but with adverse side effects that limit their therapeutic window. Natural products derived from plants and having low toxicity, such as quercetin, resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate and piceatannol, have been shown to inhibit tumor cell growth both in vitro and in pre-clinical models of cancer, but their mechanisms of action have not been fully elucidated, thus restricting their use as prototypes for developing synthetic analogs with improved anti-cancer properties. We and others have demonstrated that one of the earliest and consistent events upon exposure of tumor cells to these less toxic natural products is a rise in cytoplasmic calcium, activating several pro-apoptotic pathways. We describe here a G protein/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate pathway (InsP3) in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells that mediates between these less toxic natural products and the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum. Further, we demonstrate that this elevation of intracellular calcium modulates p53 activity and the subsequent transcription of several pro-apoptotic genes encoding PIG8, CD95, PIDD, TP53INP, RRM2B, Noxa, p21 and PUMA. We conclude from our findings that less toxic natural products likely bind to a G protein coupled receptor that activates a G protein-mediated and calcium-dependent pathway resulting selectively in tumor cell death. - Highlights: • Natural products having low toxicity increase cytoplasmic calcium in cancer cells. • A G-protein/IP 3 pathway mediates the release of calcium from the ER. • The elevation of intracellular calcium modulates p53 activity. • p53 and other Ca 2+ -dependent pro-apoptotic pathways inhibit cancer cell growth.

  13. Particulate matter air pollution disrupts endothelial cell barrier via calpain-mediated tight junction protein degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ting

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to particulate matter (PM is a significant risk factor for increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. The mechanism of PM-mediated pathophysiology remains unknown. However, PM is proinflammatory to the endothelium and increases vascular permeability in vitro and in vivo via ROS generation. Objectives We explored the role of tight junction proteins as targets for PM-induced loss of lung endothelial cell (EC barrier integrity and enhanced cardiopulmonary dysfunction. Methods Changes in human lung EC monolayer permeability were assessed by Transendothelial Electrical Resistance (TER in response to PM challenge (collected from Ft. McHenry Tunnel, Baltimore, MD, particle size >0.1 μm. Biochemical assessment of ROS generation and Ca2+ mobilization were also measured. Results PM exposure induced tight junction protein Zona occludens-1 (ZO-1 relocation from the cell periphery, which was accompanied by significant reductions in ZO-1 protein levels but not in adherens junction proteins (VE-cadherin and β-catenin. N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC, 5 mM reduced PM-induced ROS generation in ECs, which further prevented TER decreases and atteneuated ZO-1 degradation. PM also mediated intracellular calcium mobilization via the transient receptor potential cation channel M2 (TRPM2, in a ROS-dependent manner with subsequent activation of the Ca2+-dependent protease calpain. PM-activated calpain is responsible for ZO-1 degradation and EC barrier disruption. Overexpression of ZO-1 attenuated PM-induced endothelial barrier disruption and vascular hyperpermeability in vivo and in vitro. Conclusions These results demonstrate that PM induces marked increases in vascular permeability via ROS-mediated calcium leakage via activated TRPM2, and via ZO-1 degradation by activated calpain. These findings support a novel mechanism for PM-induced lung damage and adverse cardiovascular outcomes.

  14. Protective features of resveratrol on human spermatozoa cryopreservation may be mediated through 5' AMP-activated protein kinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani Nashtaei, M; Amidi, F; Sedighi Gilani, M A; Aleyasin, A; Bakhshalizadeh, Sh; Naji, M; Nekoonam, S

    2017-03-01

    motility parameters. These findings, although preliminary, suggest that resveratrol-induced improvement of cryopreserved sperm functions may be mediated through activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, indicating the importance of AMP-activated protein kinase activity for human spermatozoa functions. Further investigations are required to elucidate the mechanism by which resveratrol ameliorates oxidative stress-mediated damages in an AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent mechanism. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  15. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 mediates trafficking of α5β1 integrin to the plasma membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, Nazarul; Hu, Chuan

    2010-01-01

    Integrins are major receptors for cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM). As transmembrane proteins, the levels of integrins at the plasma membrane or the cell surface are ultimately determined by the balance between two vesicle trafficking events: endocytosis of integrins at the plasma membrane and exocytosis of the vesicles that transport integrins. Here, we report that vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2), a SNARE protein that mediates vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane, is involved in the trafficking of α5β1 integrin. VAMP2 was present on vesicles containing endocytosed β1 integrin. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing of VAMP2 markedly reduced cell surface α5β1 and inhibited cell adhesion and chemotactic migration to fibronectin, the ECM ligand of α5β1, without altering cell surface expression of α2β1 integrin or α3β1 integrin. By contrast, silencing of VAMP8, another SNARE protein, had no effect on cell surface expression of the integrins or cell adhesion to fibronectin. In addition, VAMP2-mediated trafficking is involved in cell adhesion to collagen but not to laminin. Consistent with disruption of integrin functions in cell proliferation and survival, VAMP2 silencing diminished proliferation and triggered apoptosis. Collectively, these data indicate that VAMP2 mediates the trafficking of α5β1 integrin to the plasma membrane and VAMP2-dependent integrin trafficking is critical in cell adhesion, migration and survival.

  16. Myeloperoxidase-mediated protein lysine oxidation generates 2-aminoadipic acid and lysine nitrile in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongqiao; Levison, Bruce S; Buffa, Jennifer A; Huang, Ying; Fu, Xiaoming; Wang, Zeneng; Gogonea, Valentin; DiDonato, Joseph A; Hazen, Stanley L

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies reveal 2-aminoadipic acid (2-AAA) is both elevated in subjects at risk for diabetes and mechanistically linked to glucose homeostasis. Prior studies also suggest enrichment of protein-bound 2-AAA as an oxidative post-translational modification of lysyl residues in tissues associated with degenerative diseases of aging. While in vitro studies suggest redox active transition metals or myeloperoxidase (MPO) generated hypochlorous acid (HOCl) may produce protein-bound 2-AAA, the mechanism(s) responsible for generation of 2-AAA during inflammatory diseases are unknown. In initial studies we observed that traditional acid- or base-catalyzed protein hydrolysis methods previously employed to measure tissue 2-AAA can artificially generate protein-bound 2-AAA from an alternative potential lysine oxidative product, lysine nitrile (LysCN). Using a validated protease-based digestion method coupled with stable isotope dilution LC/MS/MS, we now report protein bound 2-AAA and LysCN are both formed by hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and the MPO/H 2 O 2 /Cl - system of leukocytes. At low molar ratio of oxidant to target protein N ε -lysine moiety, 2-AAA is formed via an initial N ε -monochloramine intermediate, which ultimately produces the more stable 2-AAA end-product via sequential generation of transient imine and semialdehyde intermediates. At higher oxidant to target protein N ε -lysine amine ratios, protein-bound LysCN is formed via initial generation of a lysine N ε -dichloramine intermediate. In studies employing MPO knockout mice and an acute inflammation model, we show that both free and protein-bound 2-AAA, and in lower yield, protein-bound LysCN, are formed by MPO in vivo during inflammation. Finally, both 2-AAA and to lesser extent LysCN are shown to be enriched in human aortic atherosclerotic plaque, a tissue known to harbor multiple MPO-catalyzed protein oxidation products. Collectively, these results show that MPO-mediated oxidation of protein lysyl

  17. Defective Proteasome Delivery of Polyubiquitinated Proteins by Ubiquilin-2 Proteins Containing ALS Mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Chang

    Full Text Available Ubiquilin proteins facilitate delivery of ubiquitinated proteins to the proteasome for degradation. Interest in the proteins has been heightened by the discovery that gene mutations in UBQLN2 cause dominant inheritance of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. However, the mechanisms by which the mutations cause ALS are not known. Here we report on the underlying defect of ubiquilin-2 proteins containing ALS-linked mutations in affecting proteasome-mediated degradation. We found that overexpression of ubiquilin-2 proteins containing any one of five different ALS mutations slow degradation of Myc, a prototypic proteasome substrate. Examination of coprecipitating proteins indicated that the mutant proteins are generally capable of binding polyubiquitinated proteins, but defective in binding the proteasome. GST-pulldown studies revealed that many of the mutants bind weaker to the S5a subunit of the proteasome, compared with wild type (WT ubiquilin-2 protein. The results suggest the mutant proteins are unable to deliver their captured cargo to the proteasome for degradation, which presumably leads to toxicity. Quantification of cell death is consistent with this idea. Measurement of protein turnover further indicated the mutant proteins have longer half-lives than WT ubiquilin-2. Our studies provide novel insight into the mechanism by which ALS-linked mutations in UBQLN2 interfere with protein degradation.

  18. Nurturance and Imitation: The Mediating Role of Attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parton, David A.; Siebold, James R.

    1975-01-01

    Describes two experiments which examine the relationship between nurturance, attraction, and imitation. The results showed a significant relationship between nurturance and attraction and no relationship between nurturance and imitation. This suggests that positive relationships between nurturance and imitation are mediated by the child's…

  19. Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Analysis of Bacteriophasge T4 UvsY Recombination Mediator Protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, H.; Beernink, H.; Rould, M.; Morrical, S.

    2006-01-01

    Bacteriophage T4 UvsY protein is considered to be the prototype of recombination mediator proteins, a class of proteins which assist in the loading of recombinases onto DNA. Wild-type and Se-substituted UvsY protein have been expressed and purified and crystallized by hanging-drop vapor diffusion. The crystals diffract to 2.4 (angstrom) using in-house facilities and to 2.2 (angstrom) at NSLS, Brookhaven National Laboratory. The crystals belong to space group P422, P4 2 22, P42 1 2 or P4 2 2 1 2, the ambiguity arising from pseudo-centering, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 76.93, c = 269.8 (angstrom). Previous biophysical characterization of UvsY indicates that it exists primarily as a hexamer in solution. Along with the absence of a crystallographic threefold, this suggests that the asymmetric unit of these crystals is likely to contain either three monomers, giving a solvent content of 71%, or six monomers, giving a solvent content of 41%

  20. Protein Kinase G facilitates EGFR-mediated cell death in MDA-MB-468 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Nicole M.; Ceresa, Brian P., E-mail: brian.ceresa@louisville.edu

    2016-08-15

    The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase with critical implications in cell proliferation, migration, wound healing and the regulation of apoptosis. However, the EGFR has been shown to be hyper-expressed in a number of human malignancies. The MDA-MB-468 metastatic breast cell line is one example of this. This particular cell line hyper-expresses the EGFR and undergoes EGFR-mediated apoptosis in response to EGF ligand. The goal of this study was to identify the kinases that could be potential intermediates for the EGFR-mediated induction of apoptosis intracellularly. After identifying Cyclic GMP-dependent Protein Kinase G (PKG) as a plausible intermediate, we wanted to determine the temporal relationship of these two proteins in the induction of apoptosis. We observed a dose-dependent decrease in MDA-MB-468 cell viability, which was co-incident with increased PKG activity as measured by VASPSer239 phosphorylation. In addition, we observed a dose dependent decrease in cell viability, as well as an increase in apoptosis, in response to two different PKG agonists, 8-Bromo-cGMP and 8-pCPT-cGMP. MDA-MB-468 cells with reduced PKG activity had attenuated EGFR-mediated apoptosis. These findings indicate that PKG does not induce cell death via transphosphorylation of the EGFR. Instead, PKG activity occurs following EGFR activation. Together, these data indicate PKG as an intermediary in EGFR-mediated cell death, likely via apoptotic pathway.

  1. Recombinant fusion protein of albumin-retinol binding protein inactivates stellate cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Soyoung; Park, Sangeun; Kim, Suhyun; Lim, Chaeseung; Kim, Jungho; Cha, Dae Ryong; Oh, Junseo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We designed novel recombinant albumin-RBP fusion proteins. ► Expression of fusion proteins inactivates pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). ► Fusion proteins are successfully internalized into and inactivate PSCs. ► RBP moiety mediates cell specific uptake of fusion protein. -- Abstract: Quiescent pancreatic- (PSCs) and hepatic- (HSCs) stellate cells store vitamin A (retinol) in lipid droplets via retinol binding protein (RBP) receptor and, when activated by profibrogenic stimuli, they transform into myofibroblast-like cells which play a key role in the fibrogenesis. Despite extensive investigations, there is, however, currently no appropriate therapy available for tissue fibrosis. We previously showed that the expression of albumin, composed of three homologous domains (I–III), inhibits stellate cell activation, which requires its high-affinity fatty acid-binding sites asymmetrically distributed in domain I and III. To attain stellate cell-specific uptake, albumin (domain I/III) was coupled to RBP; RBP-albumin domain III (R-III) and albumin domain I -RBP-albumin III (I-R-III). To assess the biological activity of fusion proteins, cultured PSCs were used. Like wild type albumin, expression of R-III or I-R-III in PSCs after passage 2 (activated PSCs) induced phenotypic reversal from activated to fat-storing cells. On the other hand, R-III and I-R-III, but not albumin, secreted from transfected 293 cells were successfully internalized into and inactivated PSCs. FPLC-purified R-III was found to be internalized into PSCs via caveolae-mediated endocytosis, and its efficient cellular uptake was also observed in HSCs and podocytes among several cell lines tested. Moreover, tissue distribution of intravenously injected R-III was closely similar to that of RBP. Therefore, our data suggest that albumin-RBP fusion protein comprises of stellate cell inactivation-inducing moiety and targeting moiety, which may lead to the development of effective anti

  2. Clusters of proteins in bio-membranes: insights into the roles of interaction potential shapes and of protein diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Meilhac, Nicolas; Destainville, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    It has recently been proposed that proteins embedded in lipidic bio-membranes can spontaneously self-organize into stable small clusters, or membrane nano-domains, due to the competition between short-range attractive and longer-range repulsive forces between proteins, specific to these systems. In this paper, we carry on our investigation, by Monte Carlo simulations, of different aspects of cluster phases of proteins in bio-membranes. First, we compare different long-range potentials (includ...

  3. Receptor Interacting Protein 3-Mediated Necroptosis Promotes Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Wang

    Full Text Available Necrosis amplifies inflammation and plays important roles in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Necroptosis is a newly identified programmed necrosis that is mediated by receptor interacting protein 3 (RIP3. However, the potential involvement and impact of necroptosis in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced ARDS remains unknown. We therefore explored the role and mechanism of RIP3-mediated necroptosis in LPS-induced ARDS. Mice were instilled with increasing doses of LPS intratracheally to induce different degrees of ARDS. Lung tissues were harvested for histological and TUNEL staining and western blot for RIP3, p-RIP3, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP, mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL, total and cleaved caspases-3/8. Then, wild-type and RIP3 knock-out mice were induced ARDS with 30 mg/kg LPS. Pulmonary cellular necrosis was labeled by the propidium Iodide (PI staining. Levels of TNF-a, Interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-1α, IL-10 and HMGB1, tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, neutrophil counts and total protein concentration were measured. Results showed that in high dose LPS (30mg/kg and 40mg/kg -induced severe ARDS, RIP3 protein was increased significantly, accompanied by increases of p-RIP3 and MLKL, while in low dose LPS (10mg/kg and 20mg/kg -induced mild ARDS, apoptosis was remarkably increased. In LPS-induced severe ARDS, RIP3 knock-out alleviated the hypothermia symptom, increased survival rate and ameliorated the lung tissue injury RIP3 depletion also attenuated LPS-induced increase in IL-1α/β, IL-6 and HMGB1 release, decreased tissue MPO activity, and reduced neutrophil influx and total protein concentration in BALF in severe ARDS. Further, RIP3 depletion reduced the necrotic cells in the lung and decreased the expression of MLKL, but had no impact on cleaved caspase-3 in LPS-induced ARDS. It is concluded that RIP3-mediated necroptosis is a major mechanism of enhanced inflammation and lung tissue injury in

  4. Functional structural motifs for protein-ligand, protein-protein, and protein-nucleic acid interactions and their connection to supersecondary structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, Akira R; Nakamura, Haruki

    2013-01-01

    Protein functions are mediated by interactions between proteins and other molecules. One useful approach to analyze protein functions is to compare and classify the structures of interaction interfaces of proteins. Here, we describe the procedures for compiling a database of interface structures and efficiently comparing the interface structures. To do so requires a good understanding of the data structures of the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Therefore, we also provide a detailed account of the PDB exchange dictionary necessary for extracting data that are relevant for analyzing interaction interfaces and secondary structures. We identify recurring structural motifs by classifying similar interface structures, and we define a coarse-grained representation of supersecondary structures (SSS) which represents a sequence of two or three secondary structure elements including their relative orientations as a string of four to seven letters. By examining the correspondence between structural motifs and SSS strings, we show that no SSS string has particularly high propensity to be found interaction interfaces in general, indicating any SSS can be used as a binding interface. When individual structural motifs are examined, there are some SSS strings that have high propensity for particular groups of structural motifs. In addition, it is shown that while the SSS strings found in particular structural motifs for nonpolymer and protein interfaces are as abundant as in other structural motifs that belong to the same subunit, structural motifs for nucleic acid interfaces exhibit somewhat stronger preference for SSS strings. In regard to protein folds, many motif-specific SSS strings were found across many folds, suggesting that SSS may be a useful description to investigate the universality of ligand binding modes.

  5. Phloem proteomics reveals new lipid-binding proteins with a putative role in lipid-mediated signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Marie Barbaglia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Global climate changes inversely affect our ability to grow the food required for an increasing world population. To combat future crop loss due to abiotic stress, we need to understand the signals responsible for changes in plant development and the resulting adaptations, especially the signaling molecules traveling long-distance through the plant phloem. Using a proteomics approach, we had identified several putative lipid-binding proteins in the phloem exudates. Simultaneously, we identified several complex lipids as well as jasmonates. These findings prompted us to propose that phloem (phospho- lipids could act as long-distance developmental signals in response to abiotic stress, and that they are released, sensed, and moved by phloem lipid-binding proteins (Benning et al., 2012. Indeed, the proteins we identified include lipases that could release a signaling lipid into the phloem, putative receptor components, and proteins that could mediate lipid-movement. To test this possible protein-based lipid-signaling pathway, three of the proteins, which could potentially act in a relay, are characterized here: (I a putative GDSL-motif lipase (II a PIG-P-like protein, with a possible receptor-like function; (III and PLAFP (phloem lipid-associated family protein, a predicted lipid-binding protein of unknown function. Here we show that all three proteins bind lipids, in particular phosphatidic acid (PtdOH, which is known to participate in intracellular stress signaling. Genes encoding these proteins are expressed in the vasculature, a prerequisite for phloem transport. Cellular localization studies show that the proteins are not retained in the endoplasmic reticulum but surround the cell in a spotted pattern that has been previously observed with receptors and plasmodesmatal proteins. Abiotic signals that induce the production of PtdOH also regulate the expression of GDSL-lipase and PLAFP, albeit in opposite patterns. Our findings suggest that while

  6. Light-induced, GTP-binding protein mediated membrane currents of Xenopus oocytes injected with rhodopsin of cephalopods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, H; Seidou, M; Kito, Y

    1991-01-01

    Xenopus oocytes that were injected with rhabdomeric membranes of squid and octopus photoreceptors acquired light sensitivity. The injected oocytes showed a light-induced current having characteristics similar to other G-protein-mediated Cl- currents induced by the activation of other membrane receptors. Pretreatment of the oocytes with pertussis toxin before the injection suppressed the generation of the light-induced current, indicating an ability of cephalopod rhodopsin to cross-react with an endogenous G-protein of Xenopus oocytes.

  7. Regulators of G-protein signaling 4: modulation of 5-HT1A-mediated neurotransmitter release in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Chad E; Ghavami, Afshin; Lin, Qian; Sung, Amy; Rhodes, Kenneth J; Dawson, Lee A; Schechter, Lee E; Young, Kathleen H

    2004-10-01

    Regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) play a key role in the signal transduction of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Specifically, RGS proteins function as GTPase accelerating proteins (GAPs) to dampen or "negatively regulate" GPCR-mediated signaling. Our group recently showed that RGS4 effectively GAPs Galpha(i)-mediated signaling in CHO cells expressing the serotonin-1A (5-HT(1A)) receptor. However, whether a similar relationship exists in vivo has yet to be identified. In present studies, a replication-deficient herpes simplex virus (HSV) was used to elevate RGS4 mRNA in the rat dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN) while extracellular levels of 5-HT in the striatum were monitored by in vivo microdialysis. Initial experiments conducted with noninfected rats showed that acute administration of 8-OH-DPAT (0.01-0.3 mg/kg, subcutaneous [s.c.]) dose dependently decreased striatal levels of 5-HT, an effect postulated to result from activation of somatodendritic 5-HT(1A) autoreceptors in the DRN. In control rats receiving a single intra-DRN infusion of HSV-LacZ, 8-OH-DPAT (0.03 mg/kg, s.c.) decreased 5-HT levels to an extent similar to that observed in noninfected animals. Conversely, rats infected with HSV-RGS4 in the DRN showed a blunted neurochemical response to 8-OH-DPAT (0.03 mg/kg, s.c.); however, increasing the dose to 0.3 mg/kg reversed this effect. Together, these findings represent the first in vivo evidence demonstrating that RGS4 functions to GAP Galpha(i)-coupled receptors and suggest that drug discovery efforts targeting RGS proteins may represent a novel mechanism to manipulate 5-HT(1A)-mediated neurotransmitter release.

  8. Protein permeation through an electrically tunable membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jou, Ining A; Melnikov, Dmitriy V; Gracheva, Maria E

    2016-01-01

    Protein filtration is important in many fields of science and technology such as medicine, biology, chemistry, and engineering. Recently, protein separation and filtering with nanoporous membranes has attracted interest due to the possibility of fast separation and high throughput volume. This, however, requires understanding of the protein’s dynamics inside and in the vicinity of the nanopore. In this work, we utilize a Brownian dynamics approach to study the motion of the model protein insulin in the membrane–electrolyte electrostatic potential. We compare the results of the atomic model of the protein with the results of a coarse-grained and a single-bead model, and find that the coarse-grained representation of protein strikes the best balance between the accuracy of the results and the computational effort required. Contrary to common belief, we find that to adequately describe the protein, a single-bead model cannot be utilized without a significant effort to tabulate the simulation parameters. Similar to results for nanoparticle dynamics, our findings also indicate that the electric field and the electro-osmotic flow due to the applied membrane and electrolyte biases affect the capture and translocation of the biomolecule by either attracting or repelling it to or from the nanopore. Our computational model can also be applied to other types of proteins and separation conditions. (paper)

  9. Protein-protein docking using region-based 3D Zernike descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatraman, Vishwesh; Yang, Yifeng D; Sael, Lee; Kihara, Daisuke

    2009-12-09

    Protein-protein interactions are a pivotal component of many biological processes and mediate a variety of functions. Knowing the tertiary structure of a protein complex is therefore essential for understanding the interaction mechanism. However, experimental techniques to solve the structure of the complex are often found to be difficult. To this end, computational protein-protein docking approaches can provide a useful alternative to address this issue. Prediction of docking conformations relies on methods that effectively capture shape features of the participating proteins while giving due consideration to conformational changes that may occur. We present a novel protein docking algorithm based on the use of 3D Zernike descriptors as regional features of molecular shape. The key motivation of using these descriptors is their invariance to transformation, in addition to a compact representation of local surface shape characteristics. Docking decoys are generated using geometric hashing, which are then ranked by a scoring function that incorporates a buried surface area and a novel geometric complementarity term based on normals associated with the 3D Zernike shape description. Our docking algorithm was tested on both bound and unbound cases in the ZDOCK benchmark 2.0 dataset. In 74% of the bound docking predictions, our method was able to find a near-native solution (interface C-alphaRMSD 3D Zernike descriptors are adept in capturing shape complementarity at the protein-protein interface and useful for protein docking prediction. Rigorous benchmark studies show that our docking approach has a superior performance compared to existing methods.

  10. Monoaminylation of Fibrinogen and Glia-Derived Proteins: Indication for Similar Mechanisms in Posttranslational Protein Modification in Blood and Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummerich, René; Costina, Victor; Findeisen, Peter; Schloss, Patrick

    2015-07-15

    Distinct proteins have been demonstrated to be posttranslationally modified by covalent transamidation of serotonin (5-hydropxytryptamin) to glutamine residues of the target proteins. This process is mediated by transglutaminase (TGase) and has been termed "serotonylation." It has also been shown that other biogenic amines, including the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine, can substitute for serotonin, implying a more general mechanism of "monoaminylation" for this kind of protein modification. Here we transamidated the autofluorescent monoamine monodansylcadaverine (MDC) to purified plasma fibrinogen and to proteins from a primary glia cell culture. Electrophoretic separation of MDC-conjugated proteins followed by mass spectrometry identified three fibrinogen subunits (Aα, Bβ, γ), a homomeric Aα2 dimer, and adducts of >250 kDa molecular weight, as well as several glial proteins. TGase-mediated MDC incorporation was strongly reduced by serotonin, underlining the general mechanism of monoaminylation.

  11. Protein Electrochemistry: Questions and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourmond, V; Léger, C

    This chapter presents the fundamentals of electrochemistry in the context of protein electrochemistry. We discuss redox proteins and enzymes that are not photoactive. Of course, the principles described herein also apply to photobioelectrochemistry, as discussed in later chapters of this book. Depending on which experiment is considered, electron transfer between proteins and electrodes can be either direct or mediated, and achieved in a variety of configurations: with the protein and/or the mediator free to diffuse in solution, immobilized in a thick, hydrated film, or adsorbed as a sub-monolayer on the electrode. The experiments can be performed with the goal to study the protein or to use it. Here emphasis is on mechanistic studies, which are easier in the configuration where the protein is adsorbed and electron transfer is direct, but we also explain the interpretation of signals obtained when diffusion processes affect the response.This chapter is organized as a series of responses to questions. Questions 1-5 are related to the basics of electrochemistry: what does "potential" or "current" mean, what does an electrochemical set-up look like? Questions 6-9 are related to the distinction between adsorbed and diffusive redox species. The answers to questions 10-13 explain the interpretation of slow and fast scan voltammetry with redox proteins. Questions 14-19 deal with catalytic electrochemistry, when the protein studied is actually an enzyme. Questions 20, 21 and 22 are general.

  12. Fusion protein based on Grb2-SH2 domain for cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Yuriko; Furukawa, Takako; Arano, Yasushi; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa; Saga, Tsuneo

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Grb2 mediates EGFR signaling through binding to phosphorylate EGFR with SH2 domain. → We generated fusion proteins containing 1 or 2 SH2 domains of Grb2 added with TAT. → The one with 2 SH2 domains (TSSF) interfered ERK phosphorylation. → TSSF significantly delayed the growth of EGFR overexpressing tumor in a mouse model. -- Abstract: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is one of the very attractive targets for cancer therapy. In this study, we generated fusion proteins containing one or two Src-homology 2 (SH2) domains of growth factor receptor bound protein 2 (Grb2), which bind to phosphorylated EGFR, added with HIV-1 transactivating transcription for cell membrane penetration (termed TSF and TSSF, respectively). We examined if they can interfere Grb2-mediated signaling pathway and suppress tumor growth as expected from the lack of SH3 domain, which is necessary to intermediate EGFR-Grb2 cell signaling, in the fusion proteins. The transduction efficiency of TSSF was similar to that of TSF, but the binding activity of TSSF to EGFR was higher than that of TSF. Treatment of EGFR-overexpressing cells showed that TSSF decreased p42-ERK phosphorylation, while TSF did not. Both the proteins delayed cell growth but did not induce cell death in culture. TSSF also significantly suppressed tumor growth in vivo under consecutive administration. In conclusion, TSSF showed an ability to inhibit EGFR-Grb2 signaling and could have a potential to treat EGFR-activated cancer.

  13. Kinome signaling through regulated protein-protein interactions in normal and cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawson, Tony; Kofler, Michael

    2009-04-01

    The flow of molecular information through normal and oncogenic signaling pathways frequently depends on protein phosphorylation, mediated by specific kinases, and the selective binding of the resulting phosphorylation sites to interaction domains present on downstream targets. This physical and functional interplay of catalytic and interaction domains can be clearly seen in cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases such as Src, Abl, Fes, and ZAP-70. Although the kinase and SH2 domains of these proteins possess similar intrinsic properties of phosphorylating tyrosine residues or binding phosphotyrosine sites, they also undergo intramolecular interactions when linked together, in a fashion that varies from protein to protein. These cooperative interactions can have diverse effects on substrate recognition and kinase activity, and provide a variety of mechanisms to link the stimulation of catalytic activity to substrate recognition. Taken together, these data have suggested how protein kinases, and the signaling pathways in which they are embedded, can evolve complex properties through the stepwise linkage of domains within single polypeptides or multi-protein assemblies.

  14. Gc protein (vitamin D-binding protein): Gc genotyping and GcMAF precursor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Hideko; Uto, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Hideyuki; Okamura, Natsuko; Murakami, Aya; Kubo, Shinichi; Kirk, Kenneth L; Hori, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    The Gc protein (human group-specific component (Gc), a vitamin D-binding protein or Gc globulin), has important physiological functions that include involvement in vitamin D transport and storage, scavenging of extracellular G-actin, enhancement of the chemotactic activity of C5a for neutrophils in inflammation and macrophage activation (mediated by a GalNAc-modified Gc protein (GcMAF)). In this review, the structure and function of the Gc protein is focused on especially with regard to Gc genotyping and GcMAF precursor activity. A discussion of the research strategy "GcMAF as a target for drug discovery" is included, based on our own research.

  15. Small-angle neutron scattering study of differences in phase behavior of silica nanoparticles in the presence of lysozyme and bovine serum albumin proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Indresh; Kumar, Sugam; Aswal, V. K.; Kohlbrecher, J.

    2014-03-01

    The differences in phase behavior of anionic silica nanoparticles (88 Å) in the presence of two globular proteins [cationic lysozyme (molecular weight (MW) 14.7 kD) and anionic bovine serum albumin (BSA) (MW 66.4 kD)] have been studied by small-angle neutron scattering. The measurements were carried out on a fixed concentration (1 wt %) of Ludox silica nanoparticles with varying concentrations of proteins (0-5 wt %) at pH = 7. It is found that, despite having different natures (opposite charges), both proteins can render to the same kind of aggregation of silica nanoparticles. However, the concentration regions over which the aggregation is observed are widely different for the two proteins. Lysozyme with very small amounts (e.g., 0.01 wt %) leads to the aggregation of silica nanoparticles. On the other hand, silica nanoparticles coexist with BSA as independent entities at low protein concentrations and turn to aggregates at high protein concentrations (>1 wt %). In the case of lysozyme, the charge neutralization by the protein on the nanoparticles gives rise to the protein-mediated aggregation of the nanoparticles. The nanoparticle aggregates coexist with unaggregated nanoparticles at low protein concentrations, whereas, they coexist with a free protein at higher protein concentrations. For BSA, the nonadsorbing nature of the protein produces the depletion force that causes the aggregation of the nanoparticles at higher protein concentrations. The evolution of the interaction is modeled by the two Yukawa potential, taking account of both attractive and repulsive terms of the interaction in these systems. The nanoparticle aggregation is found to be governed by the short-range attraction for lysozyme and the long-range attraction for BSA. The aggregates are characterized by the diffusion limited aggregate type of mass fractal morphology.

  16. Destabilization of Heterologous Proteins Mediated by the GSK3β Phosphorylation Domain of the β-Catenin Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhan Kong

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays important roles in development and cellular processes. The hallmark of canonical Wnt signaling activation is the stabilization of β-catenin protein in cytoplasm and/or nucleus. The stability of β-catenin is the key to its biological functions and is controlled by the phosphorylation of its amino-terminal degradation domain. Aberrant activation of β-catenin signaling has been implicated in the development of human cancers. It has been recently suggested that GSK3βmay play an essential role in regulating global protein turnover. Here, we investigate if the GSK3β phosphorylation site-containing degradation domain of β-catenin is sufficient to destabilize heterologous proteins. Methods and Results: We engineer chimeric proteins by fusing β-catenin degradation domain at the N- and/or C-termini of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP. In both transient and stable expression experiments, the chimeric GFP proteins exhibit a significantly decreased stability, which can be effectively antagonized by lithium and Wnt1. An activating mutation in the destruction domain significantly stabilizes the fusion protein. Furthermore, GSK3 inhibitor SB-216763 effectively increases the GFP signal of the fusion protein. Conversely, the inhibition of Wnt signaling with tankyrase inhibitor XAV939 results in a decrease in GFP signal of the fusion proteins, while these small molecules have no significant effects on the mutant destruction domain-GFP fusion protein. Conclusion: Our findings strongly suggest that the β-catenin degradation domain may be sufficient to destabilize heterologous proteins in Wnt signaling-dependent manner. It is conceivable that the chimeric GFP proteins may be used as a functional reporter to measure the dynamic status of β-catenin signaling, and to identify potential anticancer drugs that target β-catenin signaling.

  17. Lipotoxicity induces hepatic protein inclusions through TBK1-mediated p62/SQSTM1 phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chun-Seok; Park, Hwan-Woo; Ho, Allison; Semple, Ian A; Kim, Boyoung; Jang, Insook; Park, Haeli; Reilly, Shannon; Saltiel, Alan R; Lee, Jun Hee

    2017-12-18

    Obesity commonly leads to hepatic steatosis, which often provokes lipotoxic injuries to hepatocytes that cause non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH in turn is associated with the accumulation of insoluble protein aggregates that are composed of ubiquitinated proteins and ubiquitin adaptor p62/sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1). The formation of p62 inclusions in hepatocytes is the critical marker that distinguishes simple fatty liver from NASH and predicts a poor prognostic outcome for subsequent liver carcinogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism by which lipotoxicity induces protein aggregation is currently unknown. Here we show that upon saturated fatty acid-induced lipotoxicity, Tank-binding protein kinase 1 (TBK1) is activated and phosphorylates p62. The TBK1-mediated p62 phosphorylation is important for lipotoxicity-induced aggregation of ubiquitinated proteins and the formation of large protein inclusions in hepatocytes. In addition, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) and stimulator of interferon genes (STING), upstream regulators of TBK1, are involved in the lipotoxic activation of TBK1 and subsequent p62 phosphorylation in hepatocytes. Furthermore, TBK1 inhibition prevented formation of the ubiquitin-p62 aggregates, not only in cultured hepatocytes, but also in mouse models of obesity and NASH. These results suggest that lipotoxic activation of TBK1 and subsequent p62 phosphorylation are critical steps in the NASH pathology of protein inclusion accumulation in hepatocytes. This mechanism can provide an explanation for how hypernutrition and obesity promote the development of severe liver pathologies, such as steatohepatitis and liver cancer, by facilitating the formation of p62 inclusions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  18. Two novel WD40 domain–containing proteins, Ere1 and Ere2, function in the retromer-mediated endosomal recycling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yufeng; Stefan, Christopher J.; Rue, Sarah M.; Teis, David; Emr, Scott D.

    2011-01-01

    Regulated secretion, nutrient uptake, and responses to extracellular signals depend on cell-surface proteins that are internalized and recycled back to the plasma membrane. However, the underlying mechanisms that govern membrane protein recycling to the cell surface are not fully known. Using a chemical-genetic screen in yeast, we show that the arginine transporter Can1 is recycled back to the cell surface via two independent pathways mediated by the sorting nexins Snx4/41/42 and the retromer complex, respectively. In addition, we identify two novel WD40-domain endosomal recycling proteins, Ere1 and Ere2, that function in the retromer pathway. Ere1 is required for Can1 recycling via the retromer-mediated pathway, but it is not required for the transport of other retromer cargoes, such as Vps10 and Ftr1. Biochemical studies reveal that Ere1 physically interacts with internalized Can1. Ere2 is present in a complex containing Ere1 on endosomes and functions as a regulator of Ere1. Taken together, our results suggest that Snx4/41/42 and the retromer comprise two independent pathways for the recycling of internalized cell-surface proteins. Moreover, a complex containing the two novel proteins Ere1 and Ere2 mediates cargo-specific recognition by the retromer pathway. PMID:21880895

  19. Protein kinase A-induced internalization of Slack channels from the neuronal membrane occurs by adaptor protein-2/clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gururaj, Sushmitha; Evely, Katherine M; Pryce, Kerri D; Li, Jun; Qu, Jun; Bhattacharjee, Arin

    2017-11-24

    The sodium-activated potassium (K Na ) channel Kcnt1 (Slack) is abundantly expressed in nociceptor (pain-sensing) neurons of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), where they transmit the large outward conductance I KNa and arbitrate membrane excitability. Slack channel expression at the DRG membrane is necessary for their characteristic firing accommodation during maintained stimulation, and reduced membrane channel density causes hyperexcitability. We have previously shown that in a pro-inflammatory state, a decrease in membrane channel expression leading to reduced Slack-mediated I KNa expression underlies DRG neuronal sensitization. An important component of the inflammatory milieu, PKA internalizes Slack channels from the DRG membrane, reduces I KNa , and produces DRG neuronal hyperexcitability when activated in cultured primary DRG neurons. Here, we show that this PKA-induced retrograde trafficking of Slack channels also occurs in intact spinal cord slices and that it is carried out by adaptor protein-2 (AP-2) via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. We provide mass spectrometric and biochemical evidence of an association of native neuronal AP-2 adaptor proteins with Slack channels, facilitated by a dileucine motif housed in the cytoplasmic Slack C terminus that binds AP-2. By creating a competitive peptide blocker of AP-2-Slack binding, we demonstrated that this interaction is essential for clathrin recruitment to the DRG membrane, Slack channel endocytosis, and DRG neuronal hyperexcitability after PKA activation. Together, these findings uncover AP-2 and clathrin as players in Slack channel regulation. Given the significant role of Slack in nociceptive neuronal excitability, the AP-2 clathrin-mediated endocytosis trafficking mechanism may enable targeting of peripheral and possibly, central neuronal sensitization. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Role of macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha in T-cell-mediated immunity to viral infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Andreas N; Nansen, Anneline; Christensen, Jan P

    2003-01-01

    The immune response to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in mice lacking macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) was evaluated. Generation of virus-specific effector T cells is unimpaired in MIP-1alpha-deficient mice. Furthermore, MIP-1alpha is not required for T-cell-mediated virus...... control or virus-induced T-cell-dependent inflammation. Thus, MIP-1alpha is not mandatory for T-cell-mediated antiviral immunity....

  1. The secretory endometrial protein, placental protein 14, in women with ectopic gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruge, S; Sørensen, Steen; Vejtorp, M

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the serum level of the secretory endometrial protein, placental protein 14 (PP14) and progesterone (P) in women with ectopic gestation. DESIGN: Blood samples were collected prospectively and preoperatively. Reference range was determined from a prospective population of 98......: These findings suggest that the regulation of the PP14 production involves either a control mechanism from the ovary or is mediated by paracrine secretion....

  2. Electron attraction mediated by Coulomb repulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamo, A; Benyamini, A; Shapir, I; Khivrich, I; Waissman, J; Kaasbjerg, K; Oreg, Y; von Oppen, F; Ilani, S

    2016-07-21

    One of the defining properties of electrons is their mutual Coulomb repulsion. However, in solids this basic property may change; for example, in superconductors, the coupling of electrons to lattice vibrations makes the electrons attract one another, leading to the formation of bound pairs. Fifty years ago it was proposed that electrons can be made attractive even when all of the degrees of freedom in the solid are electronic, by exploiting their repulsion from other electrons. This attraction mechanism, termed 'excitonic', promised to achieve stronger and more exotic superconductivity. Yet, despite an extensive search, experimental evidence for excitonic attraction has yet to be found. Here we demonstrate this attraction by constructing, from the bottom up, the fundamental building block of the excitonic mechanism. Our experiments are based on quantum devices made from pristine carbon nanotubes, combined with cryogenic precision manipulation. Using this platform, we demonstrate that two electrons can be made to attract each other using an independent electronic system as the 'glue' that mediates attraction. Owing to its tunability, our system offers insights into the underlying physics, such as the dependence of the emergent attraction on the underlying repulsion, and the origin of the pairing energy. We also demonstrate transport signatures of excitonic pairing. This experimental demonstration of excitonic pairing paves the way for the design of exotic states of matter.

  3. Depletion-induced instability in protein-DNA mixtures: Influence of protein charge and size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de R.J.

    2006-01-01

    While there is abundant experimental and theoretical work on polymer-induced DNA condensation, it is still unclear whether globular proteins can condense linear DNA or not. We develop a simple analytical approximation for the depletion attraction between rodlike segments of semiflexible

  4. TET proteins regulate the lineage specification and TCR-mediated expansion of iNKT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsagaratou, Ageliki; González-Avalos, Edahí; Rautio, Sini; Scott-Browne, James P; Togher, Susan; Pastor, William A; Rothenberg, Ellen V; Chavez, Lukas; Lähdesmäki, Harri; Rao, Anjana

    2017-01-01

    TET proteins oxidize 5-methylcytosine in DNA to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and other oxidation products. We found that simultaneous deletion of Tet2 and Tet3 in mouse CD4 + CD8 + double-positive thymocytes resulted in dysregulated development and proliferation of invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells). Tet2-Tet3 double-knockout (DKO) iNKT cells displayed pronounced skewing toward the NKT17 lineage, with increased DNA methylation and impaired expression of genes encoding the key lineage-specifying factors T-bet and ThPOK. Transfer of purified Tet2-Tet3 DKO iNKT cells into immunocompetent recipient mice resulted in an uncontrolled expansion that was dependent on the nonclassical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein CD1d, which presents lipid antigens to iNKT cells. Our data indicate that TET proteins regulate iNKT cell fate by ensuring their proper development and maturation and by suppressing aberrant proliferation mediated by the T cell antigen receptor (TCR).

  5. Mediator binds to boundaries of chromosomal interaction domains and to proteins involved in DNA looping, RNA metabolism, chromatin remodeling, and actin assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chereji, Razvan V; Bharatula, Vasudha; Elfving, Nils; Blomberg, Jeanette; Larsson, Miriam; Morozov, Alexandre V; Broach, James R; Björklund, Stefan

    2017-09-06

    Mediator is a multi-unit molecular complex that plays a key role in transferring signals from transcriptional regulators to RNA polymerase II in eukaryotes. We have combined biochemical purification of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mediator from chromatin with chromatin immunoprecipitation in order to reveal Mediator occupancy on DNA genome-wide, and to identify proteins interacting specifically with Mediator on the chromatin template. Tandem mass spectrometry of proteins in immunoprecipitates of mediator complexes revealed specific interactions between Mediator and the RSC, Arp2/Arp3, CPF, CF 1A and Lsm complexes in chromatin. These factors are primarily involved in chromatin remodeling, actin assembly, mRNA 3'-end processing, gene looping and mRNA decay, but they have also been shown to enter the nucleus and participate in Pol II transcription. Moreover, we have found that Mediator, in addition to binding Pol II promoters, occupies chromosomal interacting domain (CID) boundaries and that Mediator in chromatin associates with proteins that have been shown to interact with CID boundaries, such as Sth1, Ssu72 and histone H4. This suggests that Mediator plays a significant role in higher-order genome organization. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. A Library of Plasmodium vivax Recombinant Merozoite Proteins Reveals New Vaccine Candidates and Protein-Protein Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Jessica B.; Sharma, Sumana; Bartholdson, S. Josefin; Wright, Gavin J.; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Rayner, Julian C.

    2015-01-01

    Background A vaccine targeting Plasmodium vivax will be an essential component of any comprehensive malaria elimination program, but major gaps in our understanding of P. vivax biology, including the protein-protein interactions that mediate merozoite invasion of reticulocytes, hinder the search for candidate antigens. Only one ligand-receptor interaction has been identified, that between P. vivax Duffy Binding Protein (PvDBP) and the erythrocyte Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC), and strain-specific immune responses to PvDBP make it a complex vaccine target. To broaden the repertoire of potential P. vivax merozoite-stage vaccine targets, we exploited a recent breakthrough in expressing full-length ectodomains of Plasmodium proteins in a functionally-active form in mammalian cells and initiated a large-scale study of P. vivax merozoite proteins that are potentially involved in reticulocyte binding and invasion. Methodology/Principal Findings We selected 39 P. vivax proteins that are predicted to localize to the merozoite surface or invasive secretory organelles, some of which show homology to P. falciparum vaccine candidates. Of these, we were able to express 37 full-length protein ectodomains in a mammalian expression system, which has been previously used to express P. falciparum invasion ligands such as PfRH5. To establish whether the expressed proteins were correctly folded, we assessed whether they were recognized by antibodies from Cambodian patients with acute vivax malaria. IgG from these samples showed at least a two-fold change in reactivity over naïve controls in 27 of 34 antigens tested, and the majority showed heat-labile IgG immunoreactivity, suggesting the presence of conformation-sensitive epitopes and native tertiary protein structures. Using a method specifically designed to detect low-affinity, extracellular protein-protein interactions, we confirmed a predicted interaction between P. vivax 6-cysteine proteins P12 and P41, further

  7. Potato leafroll virus structural proteins manipulate overlapping, yet distinct protein interaction networks during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBlasio, Stacy L; Johnson, Richard; Sweeney, Michelle M; Karasev, Alexander; Gray, Stewart M; MacCoss, Michael J; Cilia, Michelle

    2015-06-01

    Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) produces a readthrough protein (RTP) via translational readthrough of the coat protein amber stop codon. The RTP functions as a structural component of the virion and as a nonincorporated protein in concert with numerous insect and plant proteins to regulate virus movement/transmission and tissue tropism. Affinity purification coupled to quantitative MS was used to generate protein interaction networks for a PLRV mutant that is unable to produce the read through domain (RTD) and compared to the known wild-type PLRV protein interaction network. By quantifying differences in the protein interaction networks, we identified four distinct classes of PLRV-plant interactions: those plant and nonstructural viral proteins interacting with assembled coat protein (category I); plant proteins in complex with both coat protein and RTD (category II); plant proteins in complex with the RTD (category III); and plant proteins that had higher affinity for virions lacking the RTD (category IV). Proteins identified as interacting with the RTD are potential candidates for regulating viral processes that are mediated by the RTP such as phloem retention and systemic movement and can potentially be useful targets for the development of strategies to prevent infection and/or viral transmission of Luteoviridae species that infect important crop species. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Protein: MPB4 [TP Atlas

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MPB4 Sema3A signaling molecules DPYSL2 CRMP2, ULIP2 DPYSL2 Dihydropyrimidinase-related pr...otein 2 Collapsin response mediator protein 2, N2A3, Unc-33-like phosphoprotein 2 9606 Homo sapiens Q16555 1808 2VM8, 2GSE 1808 Q16555 ...

  9. Dissecting water binding sites at protein-protein interfaces: a lesson from the atomic structures in the Protein Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sunandan; Nithin, Chandran; Divakaruni, Yasaswi; Bahadur, Ranjit Prasad

    2018-04-04

    We dissect the protein-protein interfaces into water preservation (WP), water hydration (WH) and water dehydration (WD) sites by comparing the water-mediated hydrogen bonds (H-bond) in the bound and unbound states of the interacting subunits. Upon subunit complexation, if a H-bond between an interface water and a protein polar group is retained, we assign it as WP site; if it is lost, we assign it as WD site and if a new H-bond is created, we assign it as WH site. We find that the density of WD sites is highest followed by WH and WP sites except in antigen and (or) antibody complexes, where the density of WH sites is highest followed by WD and WP sites. Furthermore, we find that WP sites are the most conserved followed by WD and WH sites in all class of complexes except in antigen and (or) antibody complexes, where WD sites are the most conserved followed by WH and WP sites. A significant number of WP and WH sites are involved in water bridges that stabilize the subunit interactions. At WH sites, the residues involved in water bridges are significantly better conserved than the other residues. However, no such difference is observed at WP sites. Interestingly, WD sites are generally replaced with direct H-bonds upon subunit complexation. Significantly, we observe many water-mediated H-bonds remain preserved in spite of large conformational changes upon subunit complexation. These findings have implications in predicting and engineering water binding sites at protein-protein interfaces.

  10. Macrolide Resistance Mediated by a Bifidobacterium breve Membrane Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Margolles, Abelardo; Moreno, José Antonio; van Sinderen, Douwe; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G.

    2005-01-01

    A gene coding for a hypothetical membrane protein from Bifidobacterium breve was expressed in Lactococcus lactis. Immunoblotting demonstrated that this protein is located in the membrane. Phenotypical changes in sensitivity towards 21 antibiotics were determined. The membrane protein-expressing cells showed higher levels of resistance to several macrolides.

  11. Protein kinase C is activated in glomeruli from streptozotocin diabetic rats. Possible mediation by glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craven, P.A.; DeRubertis, F.R.

    1989-01-01

    Glomerular inositol content and the turnover of polyphosphoinositides was reduced by 58% in 1-2 wk streptozotocin diabetic rats. Addition of inositol to the incubation medium increased polyphosphoinositide turnover in glomeruli from diabetic rats to control values. Despite the reduction in inositol content and polyphosphoinositide turnover, protein kinase C was activated in glomeruli from diabetic rats, as assessed by an increase in the percentage of enzyme activity associated with the particulate cell fraction. Total protein kinase C activity was not different between glomeruli from control and diabetic rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with insulin to achieve near euglycemia prevented the increase in particulate protein kinase C. Moreover, incubation of glomeruli from control rats with glucose (100-1,000 mg/dl) resulted in a progressive increase in labeled diacylglycerol production and in the percentage of protein kinase C activity which was associated with the particulate fraction. These results support a role for hyperglycemia per se in the enhanced state of activation of protein kinase C seen in glomeruli from diabetic rats. Glucose did not appear to increase diacylglycerol by stimulating inositol phospholipid hydrolysis in glomeruli. Other pathways for diacylglycerol production, including de novo synthesis and phospholipase C mediated hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidyl-inositol-glycan are not excluded

  12. Recombinant fusion protein of albumin-retinol binding protein inactivates stellate cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Soyoung; Park, Sangeun; Kim, Suhyun [Laboratory of Cellular Oncology, Korea University Graduate School of Medicine, Ansan, Gyeonggi do 425-707 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chaeseung [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul 152-703 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jungho [Department of Life Science, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Dae Ryong [Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan, Gyeonggi do 425-020 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Junseo, E-mail: ohjs@korea.ac.kr [Laboratory of Cellular Oncology, Korea University Graduate School of Medicine, Ansan, Gyeonggi do 425-707 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We designed novel recombinant albumin-RBP fusion proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of fusion proteins inactivates pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fusion proteins are successfully internalized into and inactivate PSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RBP moiety mediates cell specific uptake of fusion protein. -- Abstract: Quiescent pancreatic- (PSCs) and hepatic- (HSCs) stellate cells store vitamin A (retinol) in lipid droplets via retinol binding protein (RBP) receptor and, when activated by profibrogenic stimuli, they transform into myofibroblast-like cells which play a key role in the fibrogenesis. Despite extensive investigations, there is, however, currently no appropriate therapy available for tissue fibrosis. We previously showed that the expression of albumin, composed of three homologous domains (I-III), inhibits stellate cell activation, which requires its high-affinity fatty acid-binding sites asymmetrically distributed in domain I and III. To attain stellate cell-specific uptake, albumin (domain I/III) was coupled to RBP; RBP-albumin{sup domain} {sup III} (R-III) and albumin{sup domain} {sup I}-RBP-albumin{sup III} (I-R-III). To assess the biological activity of fusion proteins, cultured PSCs were used. Like wild type albumin, expression of R-III or I-R-III in PSCs after passage 2 (activated PSCs) induced phenotypic reversal from activated to fat-storing cells. On the other hand, R-III and I-R-III, but not albumin, secreted from transfected 293 cells were successfully internalized into and inactivated PSCs. FPLC-purified R-III was found to be internalized into PSCs via caveolae-mediated endocytosis, and its efficient cellular uptake was also observed in HSCs and podocytes among several cell lines tested. Moreover, tissue distribution of intravenously injected R-III was closely similar to that of RBP. Therefore, our data suggest that albumin-RBP fusion protein comprises

  13. Centrobin-mediated Regulation of the Centrosomal Protein 4.1-associated Protein (CPAP) Level Limits Centriole Length during Elongation Stage*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudi, Radhika; Haycraft, Courtney J.; Bell, P. Darwin; Li, Zihai; Vasu, Chenthamarakshan

    2015-01-01

    Microtubule-based centrioles in the centrosome mediate accurate bipolar cell division, spindle orientation, and primary cilia formation. Cellular checkpoints ensure that the centrioles duplicate only once in every cell cycle and achieve precise dimensions, dysregulation of which results in genetic instability and neuro- and ciliopathies. The normal cellular level of centrosomal protein 4.1-associated protein (CPAP), achieved by its degradation at mitosis, is considered as one of the major mechanisms that limits centriole growth at a predetermined length. Here we show that CPAP levels and centriole elongation are regulated by centrobin. Exogenous expression of centrobin causes abnormal elongation of centrioles due to massive accumulation of CPAP in the cell. Conversely, CPAP was undetectable in centrobin-depleted cells, suggesting that it undergoes degradation in the absence of centrobin. Only the reintroduction of full-length centrobin, but not its mutant form that lacks the CPAP binding site, could restore cellular CPAP levels in centrobin-depleted cells, indicating that persistence of CPAP requires its interaction with centrobin. Interestingly, inhibition of the proteasome in centrobin-depleted cells restored the cellular and centriolar CPAP expression, suggesting its ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation when centrobin is absent. Intriguingly, however, centrobin-overexpressing cells also showed proteasome-independent accumulation of ubiquitinated CPAP and abnormal, ubiquitin-positive, elongated centrioles. Overall, our results show that centrobin interacts with ubiquitinated CPAP and prevents its degradation for normal centriole elongation function. Therefore, it appears that loss of centrobin expression destabilizes CPAP and triggers its degradation to restrict the centriole length during biogenesis. PMID:25616662

  14. Chitosan-based delivery systems for protein therapeutics and antigens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amidi, M.; Mastrobattista, E.; Jiskoot, W.; Hennink, W.E.

    Therapeutic peptides/proteins and protein-based antigens are chemically and structurally labile compounds, which are almost exclusively administered by parenteral injections. Recently, non-invasive mucosal routes have attracted interest for administration of these biotherapeutics. Chitosan-based

  15. Dissecting fragment-based lead discovery at the von Hippel-Lindau protein:hypoxia inducible factor 1α protein-protein interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Molle, Inge; Thomann, Andreas; Buckley, Dennis L; So, Ernest C; Lang, Steffen; Crews, Craig M; Ciulli, Alessio

    2012-10-26

    Fragment screening is widely used to identify attractive starting points for drug design. However, its potential and limitations to assess the tractability of often challenging protein:protein interfaces have been underexplored. Here, we address this question by means of a systematic deconstruction of lead-like inhibitors of the pVHL:HIF-1α interaction into their component fragments. Using biophysical techniques commonly employed for screening, we could only detect binding of fragments that violate the Rule of Three, are more complex than those typically screened against classical druggable targets, and occupy two adjacent binding subsites at the interface rather than just one. Analyses based on ligand and group lipophilicity efficiency of anchored fragments were applied to dissect the individual subsites and probe for binding hot spots. The implications of our findings for targeting protein interfaces by fragment-based approaches are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification, RNAi knockdown, and functional analysis of an ejaculate protein that mediates a postmating, prezygotic phenotype in a cricket.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy L Marshall

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Postmating, prezygotic phenotypes, especially those that underlie reproductive isolation between closely related species, have been a central focus of evolutionary biologists over the past two decades. Such phenotypes are thought to evolve rapidly and be nearly ubiquitous among sexually reproducing eukaryotes where females mate with multiple partners. Because these phenotypes represent interplay between the male ejaculate and female reproductive tract, they are fertile ground for reproductive senescence--as ejaculate composition and female physiology typically change over an individual's life span. Although these phenotypes and their resulting dynamics are important, we have little understanding of the proteins that mediate these phenotypes, particularly for species groups where postmating, prezygotic traits are the primary mechanism of reproductive isolation. Here, we utilize proteomics, RNAi, mating experiments, and the Allonemobius socius complex of crickets, whose members are primarily isolated from one another by postmating, prezygotic phenotypes (including the ability of a male to induce a female to lay eggs, to demonstrate that one of the most abundant ejaculate proteins (a male accessory gland-biased protein similar to a trypsin-like serine protease decreases in abundance over a male's reproductive lifetime and mediates the induction of egg-laying in females. These findings represent one of the first studies to identify a protein that plays a role in mediating both a postmating, prezygotic isolation pathway and reproductive senescence.

  17. Leukemia-Associated Nup214 Fusion Proteins Disturb the XPO1-Mediated Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Transport Pathway and Thereby the NF-κB Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shoko; Cigdem, Sadik; Okuwaki, Mitsuru; Nagata, Kyosuke

    2016-07-01

    Nuclear-cytoplasmic transport through nuclear pore complexes is mediated by nuclear transport receptors. Previous reports have suggested that aberrant nuclear-cytoplasmic transport due to mutations or overexpression of nuclear pore complexes and nuclear transport receptors is closely linked to diseases. Nup214, a component of nuclear pore complexes, has been found as chimeric fusion proteins in leukemia. Among various Nup214 fusion proteins, SET-Nup214 and DEK-Nup214 have been shown to be engaged in tumorigenesis, but their oncogenic mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we examined the functions of the Nup214 fusion proteins by focusing on their effects on nuclear-cytoplasmic transport. We found that SET-Nup214 and DEK-Nup214 interact with exportin-1 (XPO1)/CRM1 and nuclear RNA export factor 1 (NXF1)/TAP, which mediate leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES)-dependent protein export and mRNA export, respectively. SET-Nup214 and DEK-Nup214 decreased the XPO1-mediated nuclear export of NES proteins such as cyclin B and proteins involved in the NF-κB signaling pathway by tethering XPO1 onto nuclear dots where Nup214 fusion proteins are localized. We also demonstrated that SET-Nup214 and DEK-Nup214 expression inhibited NF-κB-mediated transcription by abnormal tethering of the complex containing p65 and its inhibitor, IκB, in the nucleus. These results suggest that SET-Nup214 and DEK-Nup214 perturb the regulation of gene expression through alteration of the nuclear-cytoplasmic transport system. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. A Drosophila protein-tyrosine phosphatase associates with an adapter protein required for axonal guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, J C; Ursuliak, Z; Clemens, K K; Price, J V; Dixon, J E

    1996-07-19

    We have used the yeast two-hybrid system to isolate a novel Drosophila adapter protein, which interacts with the Drosophila protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) dPTP61F. Absence of this protein in Drosophila causes the mutant photoreceptor axon phenotype dreadlocks (dock) (Garrity, P. A., Rao, Y., Salecker, I., and Zipursky, S. L.(1996) Cell 85, 639-650). Dock is similar to the mammalian oncoprotein Nck and contains three Src homology 3 (SH3) domains and one Src homology 2 (SH2) domain. The interaction of dPTP61F with Dock was confirmed in vivo by immune precipitation experiments. A sequence containing five PXXP motifs from the non-catalytic domain of the PTP is sufficient for interaction with Dock. This suggests that binding to the PTP is mediated by one or more of the SH3 domains of Dock. Immune precipitations of Dock also co-precipitate two tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins having molecular masses of 190 and 145 kDa. Interactions between Dock and these tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins are likely mediated by the Dock SH2 domain. These findings identify potential signal-transducing partners of Dock and propose a role for dPTP61F and the unidentified phosphoproteins in axonal guidance.

  19. THE SURFACE-MEDIATED UNFOLDING KINETICS OF GLOBULAR PROTEINS IS DEPENDENT ON MOLECULAR WEIGHT AND TEMPERATURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patananan, A.N.; Goheen, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption and unfolding pathways of proteins on rigid surfaces are essential in numerous complex processes associated with biomedical engineering, nanotechnology, and chromatography. It is now well accepted that the kinetics of unfolding are characterized by chemical and physical interactions dependent on protein deformability and structure, as well as environmental pH, temperature, and surface chemistry. Although this fundamental process has broad implications in medicine and industry, little is known about the mechanism because of the atomic lengths and rapid time scales involved. Therefore, the unfolding kinetics of myoglobin, β-glucosidase, and ovalbumin were investigated by adsorbing the globular proteins to non-porous cationic polymer beads. The protein fractions were adsorbed at different residence times (0, 9, 10, 20, and 30 min) at near-physiological conditions using a gradient elution system similar to that in high-performance liquid chromatography. The elution profi les and retention times were obtained by ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry. A decrease in recovery was observed with time for almost all proteins and was attributed to irreversible protein unfolding on the non-porous surfaces. These data, and those of previous studies, fi t a positively increasing linear trend between percent unfolding after a fi xed (9 min) residence time (71.8%, 31.1%, and 32.1% of myoglobin, β-glucosidase, and ovalbumin, respectively) and molecular weight. Of all the proteins examined so far, only myoglobin deviated from this trend with higher than predicted unfolding rates. Myoglobin also exhibited an increase in retention time over a wide temperature range (0°C and 55°C, 4.39 min and 5.74 min, respectively) whereas ovalbumin and β-glucosidase did not. Further studies using a larger set of proteins are required to better understand the physiological and physiochemical implications of protein unfolding kinetics. This study confi rms that surface-mediated

  20. The epsins define a family of proteins that interact with components of the clathrin coat and contain a new protein module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenthal, J A; Chen, H; Slepnev, V I

    1999-01-01

    Epsin (epsin 1) is an interacting partner for the EH domain-containing region of Eps15 and has been implicated in conjunction with Eps15 in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. We report here the characterization of a similar protein (epsin 2), which we have cloned from human and rat brain libraries. E...... fluorescent protein-epsin 2 mislocalizes components of the clathrin coat and inhibits clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The epsins define a new protein family implicated in membrane dynamics at the cell surface.......Epsin (epsin 1) is an interacting partner for the EH domain-containing region of Eps15 and has been implicated in conjunction with Eps15 in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. We report here the characterization of a similar protein (epsin 2), which we have cloned from human and rat brain libraries...

  1. Arctigenin suppresses unfolded protein response and sensitizes glucose deprivation-mediated cytotoxicity of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shengrong; Wang, Xiong; Wang, Changhua; Nawaz, Ahmed; Wei, Wen; Li, Juanjuan; Wang, Lijun; Yu, De-Hua

    2011-01-01

    The involvement of unfolded protein response (UPR) activation in tumor survival and resistance to chemotherapies suggests a new anticancer strategy targeting UPR pathway. Arctigenin, a natural product, has been recently identified for its antitumor activity with selective toxicity against cancer cells under glucose starvation with unknown mechanism. Here we found that arctigenin specifically blocks the transcriptional induction of two potential anticancer targets, namely glucose-regulated protein-78 (GRP78) and its analog GRP94, under glucose deprivation, but not by tunicamycin. The activation of other UPR pathways, e.g., XBP-1 and ATF4, by glucose deprivation was also suppressed by arctigenin. A further transgene experiment showed that ectopic expression of GRP78 at least partially rescued arctigenin/glucose starvation-mediated cell growth inhibition, suggesting the causal role of UPR suppression in arctigenin-mediated cytotoxicity under glucose starvation. These observations bring a new insight into the mechanism of action of arctigenin and may lead to the design of new anticancer therapeutics. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Comparative analysis of twin-arginine (Tat)-dependent protein secretion of a heterologous model protein (GFP) in three different Gram-positive bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissner, Daniel; Vollstedt, Angela; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Freudl, Roland

    In contrast to the general protein secretion (Sec) system, the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) export pathway allows the translocation of proteins across the bacterial plasma membrane in a fully folded conformation. Due to this feature, the Tat pathway provides an attractive alternative to the

  3. Protein-Mediated Interactions of Pancreatic Islet Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Meda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The islets of Langerhans collectively form the endocrine pancreas, the organ that is soley responsible for insulin secretion in mammals, and which plays a prominent role in the control of circulating glucose and metabolism. Normal function of these islets implies the coordination of different types of endocrine cells, noticeably of the beta cells which produce insulin. Given that an appropriate secretion of this hormone is vital to the organism, a number of mechanisms have been selected during evolution, which now converge to coordinate beta cell functions. Among these, several mechanisms depend on different families of integral membrane proteins, which ensure direct (cadherins, N-CAM, occludin, and claudins and paracrine communications (pannexins between beta cells, and between these cells and the other islet cell types. Also, other proteins (integrins provide communication of the different islet cell types with the materials that form the islet basal laminae and extracellular matrix. Here, we review what is known about these proteins and their signaling in pancreatic β-cells, with particular emphasis on the signaling provided by Cx36, given that this is the integral membrane protein involved in cell-to-cell communication, which has so far been mostly investigated for effects on beta cell functions.

  4. RNA-Binding Proteins in Trichomonas vaginalis: Atypical Multifunctional Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa E. Figueroa-Angulo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron homeostasis is highly regulated in vertebrates through a regulatory system mediated by RNA-protein interactions between the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs that interact with an iron responsive element (IRE located in certain mRNAs, dubbed the IRE-IRP regulatory system. Trichomonas vaginalis, the causal agent of trichomoniasis, presents high iron dependency to regulate its growth, metabolism, and virulence properties. Although T. vaginalis lacks IRPs or proteins with aconitase activity, possesses gene expression mechanisms of iron regulation at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. However, only one gene with iron regulation at the transcriptional level has been described. Recently, our research group described an iron posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism in the T. vaginalis tvcp4 and tvcp12 cysteine proteinase mRNAs. The tvcp4 and tvcp12 mRNAs have a stem-loop structure in the 5'-coding region or in the 3'-UTR, respectively that interacts with T. vaginalis multifunctional proteins HSP70, α-Actinin, and Actin under iron starvation condition, causing translation inhibition or mRNA stabilization similar to the previously characterized IRE-IRP system in eukaryotes. Herein, we summarize recent progress and shed some light on atypical RNA-binding proteins that may participate in the iron posttranscriptional regulation in T. vaginalis.

  5. RNA-Binding Proteins in Trichomonas vaginalis: Atypical Multifunctional Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa E; Calla-Choque, Jaeson S; Mancilla-Olea, Maria Inocente; Arroyo, Rossana

    2015-11-26

    Iron homeostasis is highly regulated in vertebrates through a regulatory system mediated by RNA-protein interactions between the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) that interact with an iron responsive element (IRE) located in certain mRNAs, dubbed the IRE-IRP regulatory system. Trichomonas vaginalis, the causal agent of trichomoniasis, presents high iron dependency to regulate its growth, metabolism, and virulence properties. Although T. vaginalis lacks IRPs or proteins with aconitase activity, possesses gene expression mechanisms of iron regulation at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. However, only one gene with iron regulation at the transcriptional level has been described. Recently, our research group described an iron posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism in the T. vaginalis tvcp4 and tvcp12 cysteine proteinase mRNAs. The tvcp4 and tvcp12 mRNAs have a stem-loop structure in the 5'-coding region or in the 3'-UTR, respectively that interacts with T. vaginalis multifunctional proteins HSP70, α-Actinin, and Actin under iron starvation condition, causing translation inhibition or mRNA stabilization similar to the previously characterized IRE-IRP system in eukaryotes. Herein, we summarize recent progress and shed some light on atypical RNA-binding proteins that may participate in the iron posttranscriptional regulation in T. vaginalis.

  6. Cell-free protein synthesis: applications in proteomics and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingyue

    2008-01-01

    Protein production is one of the key steps in biotechnology and functional proteomics. Expression of proteins in heterologous hosts (such as in E. coli) is generally lengthy and costly. Cell-free protein synthesis is thus emerging as an attractive alternative. In addition to the simplicity and speed for protein production, cell-free expression allows generation of functional proteins that are difficult to produce by in vivo systems. Recent exploitation of cell-free systems enables novel development of technologies for rapid discovery of proteins with desirable properties from very large libraries. This article reviews the recent development in cell-free systems and their application in the large scale protein analysis.

  7. Cyclophilin B induces integrin-mediated cell adhesion by a mechanism involving CD98-dependent activation of protein kinase C-delta and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, Aurélie; Denys, Agnès; Deligny, Audrey; Mazurier, Joël; Allain, Fabrice

    2008-02-01

    Initially identified as a cyclosporin-A binding protein, cyclophilin B (CyPB) is an inflammatory mediator that induces adhesion of T lymphocytes to fibronectin, by a mechanism dependent on CD147 and alpha 4 beta 1 integrins. Recent findings have suggested that another cell membrane protein, CD98, may cooperate with CD147 to regulate beta1 integrin functions. Based on these functional relationships, we examined the contribution of CD98 in the pro-adhesive activity of CyPB, by utilizing the responsive promonocyte cell line THP-1. We demonstrated that cross-linking CD98 with CD98-AHN-18 antibody mimicked the responses induced by CyPB, i.e. homotypic aggregation, integrin-mediated adhesion to fibronectin and activation of p44/42 MAPK. Consistent with previous data, immunoprecipitation confirmed the existence of a heterocomplex wherein CD147, CD98 and beta1 integrins were associated. We then demonstrated that CyPB-induced cell adhesion and p44/42 MAPK activation were dependent on the participation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and subsequent activation of protein kinase C-delta. Finally, silencing the expression of CD98 by RNA interference potently reduced CyPB-induced cell responses, thus confirming the role of CD98 in the pro-adhesive activity of CyPB. Altogether, our results support a model whereby CyPB induces integrin-mediated adhesion via interaction with a multimolecular unit formed by the association between CD147, CD98 and beta1 integrins.

  8. A Collapsin Response Mediator Protein 2 Isoform Controls Myosin II-Mediated Cell Migration and Matrix Assembly by Trapping ROCK II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Fisher, Marie; Wait, Robin; Couchman, John R.; Wewer, Ulla M.

    2012-01-01

    Collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP-2) is known as a regulator of neuronal polarity and differentiation through microtubule assembly and trafficking. Here, we show that CRMP-2 is ubiquitously expressed and a splice variant (CRMP-2L), which is expressed mainly in epithelial cells among nonneuronal cells, regulates myosin II-mediated cellular functions, including cell migration. While the CRMP-2 short form (CRMP-2S) is recognized as a substrate of the Rho-GTP downstream kinase ROCK in neuronal cells, a CRMP-2 complex containing 2L not only bound the catalytic domain of ROCK II through two binding domains but also trapped and inhibited the kinase. CRMP-2L protein levels profoundly affected haptotactic migration and the actin-myosin cytoskeleton of carcinoma cells as well as nontransformed epithelial cell migration in a ROCK activity-dependent manner. Moreover, the ectopic expression of CRMP-2L but not -2S inhibited fibronectin matrix assembly in fibroblasts. Underlying these responses, CRMP-2L regulated the kinase activity of ROCK II but not ROCK I, independent of GTP-RhoA levels. This study provides a new insight into CRMP-2 as a controller of myosin II-mediated cellular functions through the inhibition of ROCK II in nonneuronal cells. PMID:22431514

  9. Isolation and characterization of a tomato non-specific lipid transfer protein involved in polygalacturonase-mediated pectin degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassen, Monic M M; Barrett, Diane M; van der Valk, Henry C P M; Woltering, Ernst J

    2007-01-01

    An important aspect of the ripening process of tomato fruit is softening. Softening is accompanied by hydrolysis of the pectin in the cell wall by pectinases, causing loss of cell adhesion in the middle lamella. One of the most significant pectin-degrading enzymes is polygalacturonase (PG). Previous reports have shown that PG in tomato may exist in different forms (PG1, PG2a, PG2b, and PGx) commonly referred to as PG isoenzymes. The gene product PG2 is differentially glycosylated and is thought to associate with other proteins to form PG1 and PGx. This association is thought to modulate its pectin-degrading activity in planta. An 8 kDa protein that is part of the tomato PG1 multiprotein complex has been isolated, purified, and functionally characterized. This protein, designated 'activator' (ACT), belongs to the class of non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs). ACT is capable of 'converting' the gene product PG2 into a more active and heat-stable form, which increases PG-mediated pectin degradation in vitro and stimulates PG-mediated tissue breakdown in planta. This finding suggests a new, not previously identified, function for nsLTPs in the modification of hydrolytic enzyme activity. It is proposed that ACT plays a role in the modulation of PG activity during tomato fruit softening.

  10. Membranes and mammalian glycolipid transferring proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuuf, Jessica; Mattjus, Peter

    2014-02-01

    Glycolipids are synthesized in and on various organelles throughout the cell. Their trafficking inside the cell is complex and involves both vesicular and protein-mediated machineries. Most important for the bulk lipid transport is the vesicular system, however, lipids moved by transfer proteins are also becoming more characterized. Here we review the latest advances in the glycolipid transfer protein (GLTP) and the phosphoinositol 4-phosphate adaptor protein-2 (FAPP2) field, from a membrane point of view. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effective sampling range of a synthetic protein-based attractant for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epsky, Nancy D; Espinoza, Hernán R; Kendra, Paul E; Abernathy, Robert; Midgarden, David; Heath, Robert R

    2010-10-01

    Studies were conducted in Honduras to determine effective sampling range of a female-targeted protein-based synthetic attractant for the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Multilure traps were baited with ammonium acetate, putrescine, and trimethylamine lures (three-component attractant) and sampled over eight consecutive weeks. Field design consisted of 38 traps (over 0.5 ha) placed in a combination of standard and high-density grids to facilitate geostatistical analysis, and tests were conducted in coffee (Coffea arabica L.),mango (Mangifera indica L.),and orthanique (Citrus sinensis X Citrus reticulata). Effective sampling range, as determined from the range parameter obtained from experimental variograms that fit a spherical model, was approximately 30 m for flies captured in tests in coffee or mango and approximately 40 m for flies captured in orthanique. For comparison, a release-recapture study was conducted in mango using wild (field-collected) mixed sex C. capitata and an array of 20 baited traps spaced 10-50 m from the release point. Contour analysis was used to document spatial distribution of fly recaptures and to estimate effective sampling range, defined by the area that encompassed 90% of the recaptures. With this approach, effective range of the three-component attractant was estimated to be approximately 28 m, similar to results obtained from variogram analysis. Contour maps indicated that wind direction had a strong influence on sampling range, which was approximately 15 m greater upwind compared with downwind from the release point. Geostatistical analysis of field-captured insects in appropriately designed trapping grids may provide a supplement or alternative to release-recapture studies to estimate sampling ranges for semiochemical-based trapping systems.

  12. Identification of Proteins Bound to Dengue Viral RNA In Vivo Reveals New Host Proteins Important for Virus Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacia L. Phillips

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus is the most prevalent cause of arthropod-borne infection worldwide. Due to the limited coding capacity of the viral genome and the complexity of the viral life cycle, host cell proteins play essential roles throughout the course of viral infection. Host RNA-binding proteins mediate various aspects of virus replication through their physical interactions with viral RNA. Here we describe a technique designed to identify such interactions in the context of infected cells using UV cross-linking followed by antisense-mediated affinity purification and mass spectrometry. Using this approach, we identified interactions, several of them novel, between host proteins and dengue viral RNA in infected Huh7 cells. Most of these interactions were subsequently validated using RNA immunoprecipitation. Using small interfering RNA (siRNA-mediated gene silencing, we showed that more than half of these host proteins are likely involved in regulating virus replication, demonstrating the utility of this method in identifying biologically relevant interactions that may not be identified using traditional in vitro approaches.

  13. Steady-state structural fluctuation is a predictor of the necessity of pausing-mediated co-translational folding for small proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenxi; Liu, Wanting; Jin, Jingjie; Xiao, Qilan; Lu, Ruibin; Chen, Wei; Xiong, Sheng; Zhang, Gong

    2018-03-25

    Translational pausing coordinates protein synthesis and co-translational folding. It is a common factor that facilitates the correct folding of large, multi-domain proteins. For small proteins, pausing sites rarely occurs in the gene body, and the 3'-end pausing sites are only essential for the folding of a fraction of proteins. The determinant of the necessity of the pausings remains obscure. In this study, we demonstrated that the steady-state structural fluctuation is a predictor of the necessity of pausing-mediated co-translational folding for small proteins. Validated by experiments with 5 model proteins, we found that the rigid protein structures do not, while the flexible structures do need 3'-end pausings to fold correctly. Therefore, rational optimization of translational pausing can improve soluble expression of small proteins with flexible structures, but not the rigid ones. The rigidity of the structure can be quantitatively estimated in silico using molecular dynamic simulation. Nevertheless, we also found that the translational pausing optimization increases the fitness of the expression host, and thus benefits the recombinant protein production, independent from the soluble expression. These results shed light on the structural basis of the translational pausing and provided a practical tool for industrial protein fermentation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Lysosomal membrane protein SIDT2 mediates the direct uptake of DNA by lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Shu; Contu, Viorica Raluca; Fujiwara, Yuuki; Hase, Katsunori; Kikuchi, Hisae; Kabuta, Chihana; Wada, Keiji; Kabuta, Tomohiro

    2017-01-02

    Lysosomes degrade macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. We previously identified 2 novel types of autophagy, RNautophagy and DNautophagy, where lysosomes directly take up RNA and DNA, in an ATP-dependent manner, for degradation. We have also reported that SIDT2 (SID1 transmembrane family, member 2), an ortholog of the Caenorhabditis elegans putative RNA transporter SID-1 (systemic RNA interference defective-1), mediates RNA translocation during RNautophagy. In this addendum, we report that SIDT2 also mediates DNA translocation in the process of DNautophagy. These findings help elucidate the mechanisms underlying the direct uptake of nucleic acids by lysosomes and the physiological functions of DNautophagy.

  15. SH2/SH3 signaling proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlessinger, J

    1994-02-01

    SH2 and SH3 domains are small protein modules that mediate protein-protein interactions in signal transduction pathways that are activated by protein tyrosine kinases. SH2 domains bind to short phosphotyrosine-containing sequences in growth factor receptors and other phosphoproteins. SH3 domains bind to target proteins through sequences containing proline and hydrophobic amino acids. SH2 and SH3 domain containing proteins, such as Grb2 and phospholipase C gamma, utilize these modules in order to link receptor and cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinases to the Ras signaling pathway and to phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis, respectively. The three-dimensional structures of several SH2 and SH3 domains have been determined by NMR and X-ray crystallography, and the molecular basis of their specificity is beginning to be unveiled.

  16. Comparing side chain packing in soluble proteins, protein-protein interfaces, and transmembrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, J C; Acebes, S; Virrueta, A; Butler, M; Regan, L; O'Hern, C S

    2018-05-01

    We compare side chain prediction and packing of core and non-core regions of soluble proteins, protein-protein interfaces, and transmembrane proteins. We first identified or created comparable databases of high-resolution crystal structures of these 3 protein classes. We show that the solvent-inaccessible cores of the 3 classes of proteins are equally densely packed. As a result, the side chains of core residues at protein-protein interfaces and in the membrane-exposed regions of transmembrane proteins can be predicted by the hard-sphere plus stereochemical constraint model with the same high prediction accuracies (>90%) as core residues in soluble proteins. We also find that for all 3 classes of proteins, as one moves away from the solvent-inaccessible core, the packing fraction decreases as the solvent accessibility increases. However, the side chain predictability remains high (80% within 30°) up to a relative solvent accessibility, rSASA≲0.3, for all 3 protein classes. Our results show that ≈40% of the interface regions in protein complexes are "core", that is, densely packed with side chain conformations that can be accurately predicted using the hard-sphere model. We propose packing fraction as a metric that can be used to distinguish real protein-protein interactions from designed, non-binding, decoys. Our results also show that cores of membrane proteins are the same as cores of soluble proteins. Thus, the computational methods we are developing for the analysis of the effect of hydrophobic core mutations in soluble proteins will be equally applicable to analyses of mutations in membrane proteins. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Imparting albumin-binding affinity to a human protein by mimicking the contact surface of a bacterial binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, Satoshi; Honda, Shinya

    2014-04-18

    Attachment of a bacterial albumin-binding protein module is an attractive strategy for extending the plasma residence time of protein therapeutics. However, a protein fused with such a bacterial module could induce unfavorable immune reactions. To address this, we designed an alternative binding protein by imparting albumin-binding affinity to a human protein using molecular surface grafting. The result was a series of human-derived 6 helix-bundle proteins, one of which specifically binds to human serum albumin (HSA) with adequate affinity (KD = 100 nM). The proteins were designed by transferring key binding residues of a bacterial albumin-binding module, Finegoldia magna protein G-related albumin-binding domain (GA) module, onto the human protein scaffold. Despite 13-15 mutations, the designed proteins maintain the original secondary structure by virtue of careful grafting based on structural informatics. Competitive binding assays and thermodynamic analyses of the best binders show that the binding mode resembles that of the GA module, suggesting that the contacting surface of the GA module is mimicked well on the designed protein. These results indicate that the designed protein may act as an alternative low-risk binding module to HSA. Furthermore, molecular surface grafting in combination with structural informatics is an effective approach for avoiding deleterious mutations on a target protein and for imparting the binding function of one protein onto another.

  18. Patchy proteins, anions and the Hofmeister series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, Mikael; Jungwirth, Pavel [Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Flemingovo namesti 2, 16610 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Center for Complex Molecular Systems and Biomolecules, Flemingovo namesti 2, 16610 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: mikael.lund@uochb.cas.cz

    2008-12-10

    We investigate specific anion binding to a range of patchy protein models and use our results to probe protein-protein interactions for aqueous lysozyme solutions. Our molecular simulation studies show that the ion-protein interaction mechanism and strength largely depend on the nature of the interfacial amino acid residues. Via direct ion pairing, small anions interact with charged side-chains while larger anions are attracted to non-polar residues due to several solvent assisted mechanisms. Incorporating ion and surface specificity into a mesoscopic model for protein-protein interactions we calculate the free energy of interaction between lysozyme molecules in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride and sodium iodide. In agreement with experiment, our finding is that 'salting out' follows the reverse Hofmeister series for pH below the iso-electric point and the direct series for pH above pI.

  19. A computational model of the LGI1 protein suggests a common binding site for ADAM proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Leonardi

    Full Text Available Mutations of human leucine-rich glioma inactivated (LGI1 gene encoding the epitempin protein cause autosomal dominant temporal lateral epilepsy (ADTLE, a rare familial partial epileptic syndrome. The LGI1 gene seems to have a role on the transmission of neuronal messages but the exact molecular mechanism remains unclear. In contrast to other genes involved in epileptic disorders, epitempin shows no homology with known ion channel genes but contains two domains, composed of repeated structural units, known to mediate protein-protein interactions.A three dimensional in silico model of the two epitempin domains was built to predict the structure-function relationship and propose a functional model integrating previous experimental findings. Conserved and electrostatic charged regions of the model surface suggest a possible arrangement between the two domains and identifies a possible ADAM protein binding site in the β-propeller domain and another protein binding site in the leucine-rich repeat domain. The functional model indicates that epitempin could mediate the interaction between proteins localized to different synaptic sides in a static way, by forming a dimer, or in a dynamic way, by binding proteins at different times.The model was also used to predict effects of known disease-causing missense mutations. Most of the variants are predicted to alter protein folding while several other map to functional surface regions. In agreement with experimental evidence, this suggests that non-secreted LGI1 mutants could be retained within the cell by quality control mechanisms or by altering interactions required for the secretion process.

  20. The relationship between protein synthesis and protein degradation in object recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furini, Cristiane R G; Myskiw, Jociane de C; Schmidt, Bianca E; Zinn, Carolina G; Peixoto, Patricia B; Pereira, Luiza D; Izquierdo, Ivan

    2015-11-01

    For decades there has been a consensus that de novo protein synthesis is necessary for long-term memory. A second round of protein synthesis has been described for both extinction and reconsolidation following an unreinforced test session. Recently, it was shown that consolidation and reconsolidation depend not only on protein synthesis but also on protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), a major mechanism responsible for protein turnover. However, the involvement of UPS on consolidation and reconsolidation of object recognition memory remains unknown. Here we investigate in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus the involvement of UPS-mediated protein degradation in consolidation and reconsolidation of object recognition memory. Animals with infusion cannulae stereotaxically implanted in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus, were exposed to an object recognition task. The UPS inhibitor β-Lactacystin did not affect the consolidation and the reconsolidation of object recognition memory at doses known to affect other forms of memory (inhibitory avoidance, spatial learning in a water maze) while the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin impaired the consolidation and the reconsolidation of the object recognition memory. However, β-Lactacystin was able to reverse the impairment caused by anisomycin on the reconsolidation process in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Therefore, it is possible to postulate a direct link between protein degradation and protein synthesis during the reconsolidation of the object recognition memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Dual Role of Ancient Ubiquitous Protein 1 (AUP1) in Lipid Droplet Accumulation and Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Protein Quality Control

    OpenAIRE

    Klemm, Elizabeth J.; Spooner, Eric; Ploegh, Hidde L.

    2011-01-01

    Quality control of endoplasmic reticulum proteins involves the identification and engagement of misfolded proteins, dislocation of the misfolded protein across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, and ubiquitin-mediated targeting to the proteasome for degradation. Ancient ubiquitous protein 1 (AUP1) physically associates with the mammalian HRD1-SEL1L complex, and AUP1 depletion impairs degradation of misfolded ER proteins. One of the functions of AUP1 in ER quality control is to recruit t...

  2. Stoichiometric balance of protein copy numbers is measurable and functionally significant in a protein-protein interaction network for yeast endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, David O; Johnson, Margaret E

    2018-03-01

    Stoichiometric balance, or dosage balance, implies that proteins that are subunits of obligate complexes (e.g. the ribosome) should have copy numbers expressed to match their stoichiometry in that complex. Establishing balance (or imbalance) is an important tool for inferring subunit function and assembly bottlenecks. We show here that these correlations in protein copy numbers can extend beyond complex subunits to larger protein-protein interactions networks (PPIN) involving a range of reversible binding interactions. We develop a simple method for quantifying balance in any interface-resolved PPINs based on network structure and experimentally observed protein copy numbers. By analyzing such a network for the clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) system in yeast, we found that the real protein copy numbers were significantly more balanced in relation to their binding partners compared to randomly sampled sets of yeast copy numbers. The observed balance is not perfect, highlighting both under and overexpressed proteins. We evaluate the potential cost and benefits of imbalance using two criteria. First, a potential cost to imbalance is that 'leftover' proteins without remaining functional partners are free to misinteract. We systematically quantify how this misinteraction cost is most dangerous for strong-binding protein interactions and for network topologies observed in biological PPINs. Second, a more direct consequence of imbalance is that the formation of specific functional complexes depends on relative copy numbers. We therefore construct simple kinetic models of two sub-networks in the CME network to assess multi-protein assembly of the ARP2/3 complex and a minimal, nine-protein clathrin-coated vesicle forming module. We find that the observed, imperfectly balanced copy numbers are less effective than balanced copy numbers in producing fast and complete multi-protein assemblies. However, we speculate that strategic imbalance in the vesicle forming module

  3. Random copolymers that protect proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander-Katz, Alfredo; Van Lehn, Reid C.

    2018-03-01

    Scientists have tried and in some limited cases succeeded to harness proteins to do chemistry (1) or use them in functional materials. However, most proteins only function correctly if they fold into specific conformations, which typically occurs with the assistance of other proteins (such as chaperones, translocons, or transporters) that mediate structure formation, membrane insertion, and intracellular trafficking (2, 3). Several methods have been used to improve protein stability in nonbiological environments—including micelle encapsulation, polymer conjugation, and sol-gel trapping (4)—but for most intended applications, they suffer from low levels of functionality, difficult chemical postfunctionalization, or the requirement of very specific solvent environments. On page 1239 of this issue, Panganiban et al. (5) introduce an approach for stabilizing proteins in disparate solvent environments that does not suffer from these drawbacks.

  4. BAG3 down-modulation reduces anaplastic thyroid tumor growth by enhancing proteasome-mediated degradation of BRAF protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappetta, Gennaro; Basile, Anna; Arra, Claudio; Califano, Daniela; Pasquinelli, Rosa; Barbieri, Antonio; De Simone, Veronica; Rea, Domenica; Giudice, Aldo; Pezzullo, Luciano; De Laurenzi, Vincenzo; Botti, Gerardo; Losito, Simona; Conforti, Daniela; Turco, Maria Caterina

    2012-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid tumors (ATC) express high levels of BAG3, a member of the BAG family of cochaperone proteins that is involved in regulating cell apoptosis through multiple mechanisms. The objective of the study was the investigation of the influence of B-cell lymphoma-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) on ATC growth. We investigated the effects of BAG3 down-modulation, obtained by using a specific small interfering RNA, on in vitro and in vivo growth of the human ATC cell line 8505C. Because BRAF protein plays an important role in ATC cell growth, we analyzed the effects of BAG3 down-modulation on BRAF protein levels. Furthermore, by using a proteasome inhibitor, we verified whether BAG3-mediated regulation of BRAF levels involved a proteasome-dependent mechanism. BAG3 down-modulation significantly inhibits ATC growth in vitro and in vivo. BAG3 coimmunoprecipitates with BRAF protein, and its down-modulation results in a significant reduction of BRAF protein levels, which can be reverted by incubation with the proteasome inhibitor MG132. BAG3 protein sustains ATC growth in vitro and in vivo. The underlying molecular mechanism appears to rely on BAG3 binding to BRAF, thus protecting it from proteasome-dependent degradation. These results are in line with the reported ability of BAG3 to interfere with the proteasomal delivery of a number of other client proteins.

  5. SANS study of understanding mechanism of cold gelation of globular proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinchalikar, A. J.; Kumar, Sugam; Aswal, V. K.; Wagh, A. G.; Kohlbrecher, J.

    2014-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to probe the evolution of interaction and the resultant structures in the cold gelation of globular proteins. The cold gelation involves two steps consisting of irreversible protein deformation by heating followed by some means (e.g. increasing ionic strength) to bring them together at room temperature. We have examined the role of different salts in cold gelation of preheated aqueous Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) protein solutions. The interactions have been modeled by two Yukawa potential combining short-range attraction and long-range repulsion. We show that in step 1 (preheated temperature effect) the deformation of protein increases the magnitude of attractive interaction but not sufficient to induce gel. The attractive interaction is further enhanced in step 2 (salt effect) to result in gel formation. The salt effect is found to be strongly depending on the valency of the counterions. The gel structure has been characterized by the mass fractals

  6. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling regulates arsenic trioxide-mediated macrophage innate immune function disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Li, Changzhao; Chaudhary, Sandeep C.; Ballestas, Mary E.; Elmets, Craig A.; Robbins, David J.; Matalon, Sadis; Deshane, Jessy S.; Afaq, Farrukh; Bickers, David R.; Athar, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic exposure is known to disrupt innate immune functions in humans and in experimental animals. In this study, we provide a mechanism by which arsenic trioxide (ATO) disrupts macrophage functions. ATO treatment of murine macrophage cells diminished internalization of FITC-labeled latex beads, impaired clearance of phagocytosed fluorescent bacteria and reduced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These impairments in macrophage functions are associated with ATO-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway characterized by the enhancement in proteins such as GRP78, p-PERK, p-eIF2α, ATF4 and CHOP. The expression of these proteins is altered both at transcriptional and translational levels. Pretreatment with chemical chaperon, 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) attenuated the ATO-induced activation in UPR signaling and afforded protection against ATO-induced disruption of macrophage functions. This treatment also reduced ATO-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Interestingly, treatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prior to ATO exposure, not only reduced ROS production and UPR signaling but also improved macrophage functions. These data demonstrate that UPR signaling and ROS generation are interdependent and are involved in the arsenic-induced pathobiology of macrophage. These data also provide a novel strategy to block the ATO-dependent impairment in innate immune responses. - Highlights: • Inorganic arsenic to humans and experimental animals disrupt innate immune responses. • The mechanism underlying arsenic impaired macrophage functions involves UPR signaling. • Chemical chaperon attenuates arsenic-mediated macrophage function impairment. • Antioxidant, NAC blocks impairment in arsenic-treated macrophage functions

  7. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling regulates arsenic trioxide-mediated macrophage innate immune function disruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Li, Changzhao; Chaudhary, Sandeep C. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Ballestas, Mary E. [Department of Pediatrics Infectious Disease, Children' s of Alabama, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL (United States); Elmets, Craig A. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Robbins, David J. [Department of Surgery, Molecular Oncology Program, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami (United States); Matalon, Sadis [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Deshane, Jessy S. [Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Afaq, Farrukh [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Bickers, David R. [Department of Dermatology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York (United States); Athar, Mohammad, E-mail: mathar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Arsenic exposure is known to disrupt innate immune functions in humans and in experimental animals. In this study, we provide a mechanism by which arsenic trioxide (ATO) disrupts macrophage functions. ATO treatment of murine macrophage cells diminished internalization of FITC-labeled latex beads, impaired clearance of phagocytosed fluorescent bacteria and reduced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These impairments in macrophage functions are associated with ATO-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway characterized by the enhancement in proteins such as GRP78, p-PERK, p-eIF2α, ATF4 and CHOP. The expression of these proteins is altered both at transcriptional and translational levels. Pretreatment with chemical chaperon, 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) attenuated the ATO-induced activation in UPR signaling and afforded protection against ATO-induced disruption of macrophage functions. This treatment also reduced ATO-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Interestingly, treatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prior to ATO exposure, not only reduced ROS production and UPR signaling but also improved macrophage functions. These data demonstrate that UPR signaling and ROS generation are interdependent and are involved in the arsenic-induced pathobiology of macrophage. These data also provide a novel strategy to block the ATO-dependent impairment in innate immune responses. - Highlights: • Inorganic arsenic to humans and experimental animals disrupt innate immune responses. • The mechanism underlying arsenic impaired macrophage functions involves UPR signaling. • Chemical chaperon attenuates arsenic-mediated macrophage function impairment. • Antioxidant, NAC blocks impairment in arsenic-treated macrophage functions.

  8. Developmental environment mediates male seminal protein investment in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigby, Stuart; Perry, Jennifer C; Kim, Yon-Hee; Sirot, Laura K

    2016-03-01

    Males of many species fine-tune their ejaculates in response to sperm competition risk. Resource availability and the number of competitors during development can also strongly influence sperm production. However, despite the key role of seminal proteins in mediating reproductive processes, it is unclear whether seminal protein investment is dependent on the developmental environment.We manipulated the developmental environment of Drosophila melanogaster by rearing flies at low and high density. As expected, this resulted in large and small (i.e. high and low condition) adult phenotypes, respectively.As predicted, large males produced more of two key seminal proteins, sex peptide (SP) and ovulin, and were more successful at obtaining matings with both virgin and previously mated females. However, there was only a weak and non-significant trend for large males to transfer more absolute quantities of SP at mating, and thus, small males ejaculated proportionally more of their stored accessory gland SP resources.Males transferred more receptivity-inhibiting SP to large females. Despite this, large females remated more quickly than small females and thus responded to their developmental environment over and above the quantity of SP they received.The results are consistent with two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses. First, flies might respond to condition-dependent reproductive opportunities, with (i) small males investing heavily in ejaculates when mating opportunities arise and large males strategically partitioning SP resources and (ii) small females remating at reduced rates because they have higher mating costs or need to replenish sperm less often.Second, flies may be primed by their larval environment to deal with similar adult population densities, with (i) males perceiving high density as signalling increased competition, leading small males to invest proportionally more SP resources at mating and (ii) females perceiving high density as signalling abundant

  9. Protein carbonylation, protein aggregation and neuronal cell death in a murine model of multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Anushka

    Many studies have suggested that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of both multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Yet, the mechanism by which oxidative stress leads to tissue damage in these disorders is unclear. Recent work from our laboratory has revealed that protein carbonylation, a major oxidative modification caused by severe and/or chronic oxidative stress conditions, is elevated in MS and EAE. Furthermore, protein carbonylation has been shown to alter protein structure leading to misfolding/aggregation. These findings prompted me to hypothesize that carbonylated proteins, formed as a consequence of oxidative stress and/or decreased proteasomal activity, promote protein aggregation to mediate neuronal apoptosis in vitro and in EAE. To test this novel hypothesis, I first characterized protein carbonylation, protein aggregation and apoptosis along the spinal cord during the course of myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)35-55 peptide-induced EAE in C57BL/6 mice [Chapter 2]. The results show that carbonylated proteins accumulate throughout the course of the disease, albeit by different mechanisms: increased oxidative stress in acute EAE and decreased proteasomal activity in chronic EAE. I discovered not only that there is a temporal correlation between protein carbonylation and apoptosis but also that carbonyl levels are significantly higher in apoptotic cells. A high number of juxta-nuclear and cytoplasmic protein aggregates containing the majority of the oxidized proteins are also present during the course of EAE, which seems to be due to reduced autophagy. In chapter 3, I show that when gluthathione levels are reduced to those in EAE spinal cord, both neuron-like PC12 (nPC12) cells and primary neuronal cultures accumulate carbonylated proteins and undergo cell death (both by necrosis and apoptosis). Immunocytochemical and biochemical studies also revealed a temporal

  10. Nuclear translocation and regulation of intranuclear distribution of cytoplasmic poly(A-binding protein are distinct processes mediated by two Epstein Barr virus proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Park

    Full Text Available Many viruses target cytoplasmic polyA binding protein (PABPC to effect widespread inhibition of host gene expression, a process termed viral host-shutoff (vhs. During lytic replication of Epstein Barr Virus (EBV we observed that PABPC was efficiently translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Translocated PABPC was diffusely distributed but was excluded from viral replication compartments. Vhs during EBV infection is regulated by the viral alkaline nuclease, BGLF5. Transfection of BGLF5 alone into BGLF5-KO cells or uninfected 293 cells promoted translocation of PAPBC that was distributed in clumps in the nucleus. ZEBRA, a viral bZIP protein, performs essential functions in the lytic program of EBV, including activation or repression of downstream viral genes. ZEBRA is also an essential replication protein that binds to viral oriLyt and interacts with other viral replication proteins. We report that ZEBRA also functions as a regulator of vhs. ZEBRA translocated PABPC to the nucleus, controlled the intranuclear distribution of PABPC, and caused global shutoff of host gene expression. Transfection of ZEBRA alone into 293 cells caused nuclear translocation of PABPC in the majority of cells in which ZEBRA was expressed. Co-transfection of ZEBRA with BGLF5 into BGLF5-KO cells or uninfected 293 cells rescued the diffuse intranuclear pattern of PABPC seen during lytic replication. ZEBRA mutants defective for DNA-binding were capable of regulating the intranuclear distribution of PABPC, and caused PABPC to co-localize with ZEBRA. One ZEBRA mutant, Z(S186E, was deficient in translocation yet was capable of altering the intranuclear distribution of PABPC. Therefore ZEBRA-mediated nuclear translocation of PABPC and regulation of intranuclear PABPC distribution are distinct events. Using a click chemistry-based assay for new protein synthesis, we show that ZEBRA and BGLF5 each function as viral host shutoff factors.

  11. Adaptive compressive learning for prediction of protein-protein interactions from primary sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Nan; Pan, Xiao-Yong; Huang, Yan; Shen, Hong-Bin

    2011-08-21

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play an important role in biological processes. Although much effort has been devoted to the identification of novel PPIs by integrating experimental biological knowledge, there are still many difficulties because of lacking enough protein structural and functional information. It is highly desired to develop methods based only on amino acid sequences for predicting PPIs. However, sequence-based predictors are often struggling with the high-dimensionality causing over-fitting and high computational complexity problems, as well as the redundancy of sequential feature vectors. In this paper, a novel computational approach based on compressed sensing theory is proposed to predict yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae PPIs from primary sequence and has achieved promising results. The key advantage of the proposed compressed sensing algorithm is that it can compress the original high-dimensional protein sequential feature vector into a much lower but more condensed space taking the sparsity property of the original signal into account. What makes compressed sensing much more attractive in protein sequence analysis is its compressed signal can be reconstructed from far fewer measurements than what is usually considered necessary in traditional Nyquist sampling theory. Experimental results demonstrate that proposed compressed sensing method is powerful for analyzing noisy biological data and reducing redundancy in feature vectors. The proposed method represents a new strategy of dealing with high-dimensional protein discrete model and has great potentiality to be extended to deal with many other complicated biological systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bromodomain proteins GTE9 and GTE11 are essential for specific BT2-mediated sugar and ABA responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anjali; McKnight, Thomas D; Mandadi, Kranthi K

    2018-03-01

    Global Transcription Factor Group E proteins GTE9 and GTE11 interact with BT2 to mediate ABA and sugar responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. BT2 is a BTB-domain protein that regulates responses to various hormone, stress and metabolic conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana. Loss of BT2 results in plants that are hypersensitive to inhibition of germination by abscisic acid (ABA) and sugars. Conversely, overexpression of BT2 results in resistance to ABA and sugars. Here, we report the roles of BT2-interacting partners GTE9 and GTE11, bromodomain and extraterminal-domain proteins of Global Transcription Factor Group E, in BT2-mediated responses to sugars and hormones. Loss-of-function mutants, gte9-1 and gte11-1, mimicked the bt2-1-null mutant responses; germination of all three mutants was hypersensitive to inhibition by glucose and ABA. Loss of either GTE9 or GTE11 in a BT2 over-expressing line blocked resistance to sugars and ABA, indicating that both GTE9 and GTE11 were required for BT2 function. Co-immunoprecipitation of BT2 and GTE9 suggested that these proteins physically interact in vivo, and presumably function together to mediate responses to ABA and sugar signals.

  13. Size-dependent interaction of silica nanoparticles with lysozyme and bovine serum albumin proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Indresh; Aswal, Vinod K.; Kohlbrecher, Joachim

    2016-05-01

    The interaction of three different sized (diameter 10, 18, and 28 nm) anionic silica nanoparticles with two model proteins—cationic lysozyme [molecular weight (MW) 14.7 kDa)] and anionic bovine serum albumin (BSA) (MW 66.4 kDa) has been studied by UV-vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The adsorption behavior of proteins on the nanoparticles, measured by UV-vis spectroscopy, is found to be very different for lysozyme and BSA. Lysozyme adsorbs strongly on the nanoparticles and shows exponential behavior as a function of lysozyme concentration irrespective of the nanoparticle size. The total amount of adsorbed lysozyme, as governed by the surface-to-volume ratio, increases on lowering the size of the nanoparticles for a fixed volume fraction of the nanoparticles. On the other hand, BSA does not show any adsorption for all the different sizes of the nanoparticles. Despite having different interactions, both proteins induce similar phase behavior where the nanoparticle-protein system transforms from one phase (clear) to two phase (turbid) as a function of protein concentration. The phase behavior is modified towards the lower concentrations for both proteins with increasing the nanoparticle size. DLS suggests that the phase behavior arises as a result of the nanoparticles' aggregation on the addition of proteins. The size-dependent modifications in the interaction potential, responsible for the phase behavior, have been determined by SANS data as modeled using the two-Yukawa potential accounting for the repulsive and attractive interactions in the systems. The protein-induced interaction between the nanoparticles is found to be short-range attraction for lysozyme and long-range attraction for BSA. The magnitude of attractive interaction irrespective of protein type is enhanced with increase in the size of the nanoparticles. The total (attractive+repulsive) potential leading to two-phase formation is found to be

  14. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YDL239C, YDR273W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available of a Don1p-containing structure at the leading edge of the prospore membrane via interaction with spindle p...it as prey (1) YDR273W DON1 Meiosis-specific component of the spindle pole body, part of the leading... edge protein (LEP) coat, forms a ring-like structure at the leading edge of the prospore...ption Protein required for spore wall formation, thought to mediate assembly of a Don1p-containing structure at the leading...description Meiosis-specific component of the spindle pole body, part of the leading edge protein (LEP) coat

  15. Syntaxin binding protein 1 is not required for allergic inflammation via IgE-mediated mast cell activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengli Wu

    Full Text Available Mast cells play a central role in both innate and acquired immunity. When activated by IgE-dependent FcεRI cross-linking, mast cells rapidly initiate a signaling cascade and undergo an extensive release of their granule contents, including inflammatory mediators. Some SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion factor attachment protein receptor proteins and SM (Sec1/Munc18 family proteins are involved in mast cell degranulation. However, the function of syntaxin binding protein 1 (STXBP1, a member of SM family, in mast cell degranulation is currently unknown. In this study, we examined the role of STXBP1 in IgE-dependent mast cell activation. Liver-derived mast cells (LMCs from wild-type and STXBP1-deficient mice were cultured in vitro for the study of mast cell maturation, degranulation, cytokine and chemokine production, as well as MAPK, IκB-NFκB, and NFAT signaling pathways. In addition, in vivo models of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and late-phase IgE-dependent inflammation were conducted in mast cell deficient W(sh mice that had been reconstituted with wild-type or STXBP1-deficient mast cells. Our findings indicate that STXBP1 is not required for any of these important functional mechanisms in mast cells both in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrate that STXBP1 is dispensable during IgE-mediated mast cell activation and in IgE-dependent allergic inflammatory reactions.

  16. Protein-protein docking using region-based 3D Zernike descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sael Lee

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein interactions are a pivotal component of many biological processes and mediate a variety of functions. Knowing the tertiary structure of a protein complex is therefore essential for understanding the interaction mechanism. However, experimental techniques to solve the structure of the complex are often found to be difficult. To this end, computational protein-protein docking approaches can provide a useful alternative to address this issue. Prediction of docking conformations relies on methods that effectively capture shape features of the participating proteins while giving due consideration to conformational changes that may occur. Results We present a novel protein docking algorithm based on the use of 3D Zernike descriptors as regional features of molecular shape. The key motivation of using these descriptors is their invariance to transformation, in addition to a compact representation of local surface shape characteristics. Docking decoys are generated using geometric hashing, which are then ranked by a scoring function that incorporates a buried surface area and a novel geometric complementarity term based on normals associated with the 3D Zernike shape description. Our docking algorithm was tested on both bound and unbound cases in the ZDOCK benchmark 2.0 dataset. In 74% of the bound docking predictions, our method was able to find a near-native solution (interface C-αRMSD ≤ 2.5 Å within the top 1000 ranks. For unbound docking, among the 60 complexes for which our algorithm returned at least one hit, 60% of the cases were ranked within the top 2000. Comparison with existing shape-based docking algorithms shows that our method has a better performance than the others in unbound docking while remaining competitive for bound docking cases. Conclusion We show for the first time that the 3D Zernike descriptors are adept in capturing shape complementarity at the protein-protein interface and useful for

  17. Phospholipase D1 mediates AMP-activated protein kinase signaling for glucose uptake.

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    Jong Hyun Kim

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Glucose homeostasis is maintained by a balance between hepatic glucose production and peripheral glucose utilization. In skeletal muscle cells, glucose utilization is primarily regulated by glucose uptake. Deprivation of cellular energy induces the activation of regulatory proteins and thus glucose uptake. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is known to play a significant role in the regulation of energy balances. However, the mechanisms related to the AMPK-mediated control of glucose uptake have yet to be elucidated.Here, we found that AMPK-induced phospholipase D1 (PLD1 activation is required for (14C-glucose uptake in muscle cells under glucose deprivation conditions. PLD1 activity rather than PLD2 activity is significantly enhanced by glucose deprivation. AMPK-wild type (WT stimulates PLD activity, while AMPK-dominant negative (DN inhibits it. AMPK regulates PLD1 activity through phosphorylation of the Ser-505 and this phosphorylation is increased by the presence of AMP. Furthermore, PLD1-S505Q, a phosphorylation-deficient mutant, shows no changes in activity in response to glucose deprivation and does not show a significant increase in (14C-glucose uptake when compared to PLD1-WT. Taken together, these results suggest that phosphorylation of PLD1 is important for the regulation of (14C-glucose uptake. In addition, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK is stimulated by AMPK-induced PLD1 activation through the formation of phosphatidic acid (PA, which is a product of PLD. An ERK pharmacological inhibitor, PD98059, and the PLD inhibitor, 1-BtOH, both attenuate (14C-glucose uptake in muscle cells. Finally, the extracellular stresses caused by glucose deprivation or aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR; AMPK activator regulate (14C-glucose uptake and cell surface glucose transport (GLUT 4 through ERK stimulation by AMPK-mediated PLD1 activation.These results suggest that AMPK-mediated PLD1 activation is required for (14C

  18. Protein docking prediction using predicted protein-protein interface

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    Li Bin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many important cellular processes are carried out by protein complexes. To provide physical pictures of interacting proteins, many computational protein-protein prediction methods have been developed in the past. However, it is still difficult to identify the correct docking complex structure within top ranks among alternative conformations. Results We present a novel protein docking algorithm that utilizes imperfect protein-protein binding interface prediction for guiding protein docking. Since the accuracy of protein binding site prediction varies depending on cases, the challenge is to develop a method which does not deteriorate but improves docking results by using a binding site prediction which may not be 100% accurate. The algorithm, named PI-LZerD (using Predicted Interface with Local 3D Zernike descriptor-based Docking algorithm, is based on a pair wise protein docking prediction algorithm, LZerD, which we have developed earlier. PI-LZerD starts from performing docking prediction using the provided protein-protein binding interface prediction as constraints, which is followed by the second round of docking with updated docking interface information to further improve docking conformation. Benchmark results on bound and unbound cases show that PI-LZerD consistently improves the docking prediction accuracy as compared with docking without using binding site prediction or using the binding site prediction as post-filtering. Conclusion We have developed PI-LZerD, a pairwise docking algorithm, which uses imperfect protein-protein binding interface prediction to improve docking accuracy. PI-LZerD consistently showed better prediction accuracy over alternative methods in the series of benchmark experiments including docking using actual docking interface site predictions as well as unbound docking cases.

  19. Protein docking prediction using predicted protein-protein interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Kihara, Daisuke

    2012-01-10

    Many important cellular processes are carried out by protein complexes. To provide physical pictures of interacting proteins, many computational protein-protein prediction methods have been developed in the past. However, it is still difficult to identify the correct docking complex structure within top ranks among alternative conformations. We present a novel protein docking algorithm that utilizes imperfect protein-protein binding interface prediction for guiding protein docking. Since the accuracy of protein binding site prediction varies depending on cases, the challenge is to develop a method which does not deteriorate but improves docking results by using a binding site prediction which may not be 100% accurate. The algorithm, named PI-LZerD (using Predicted Interface with Local 3D Zernike descriptor-based Docking algorithm), is based on a pair wise protein docking prediction algorithm, LZerD, which we have developed earlier. PI-LZerD starts from performing docking prediction using the provided protein-protein binding interface prediction as constraints, which is followed by the second round of docking with updated docking interface information to further improve docking conformation. Benchmark results on bound and unbound cases show that PI-LZerD consistently improves the docking prediction accuracy as compared with docking without using binding site prediction or using the binding site prediction as post-filtering. We have developed PI-LZerD, a pairwise docking algorithm, which uses imperfect protein-protein binding interface prediction to improve docking accuracy. PI-LZerD consistently showed better prediction accuracy over alternative methods in the series of benchmark experiments including docking using actual docking interface site predictions as well as unbound docking cases.

  20. An essential GT motif in the lamin A promoter mediates activation by CREB-binding protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janaki Ramaiah, M.; Parnaik, Veena K.

    2006-01-01

    Lamin A is an important component of nuclear architecture in mammalian cells. Mutations in the human lamin A gene lead to highly degenerative disorders that affect specific tissues. In studies directed towards understanding the mode of regulation of the lamin A promoter, we have identified an essential GT motif at -55 position by reporter gene assays and mutational analysis. Binding of this sequence to Sp transcription factors has been observed in electrophoretic mobility shift assays and by chromatin immunoprecipitation studies. Further functional analysis by co-expression of recombinant proteins and ChIP assays has shown an important regulatory role for CREB-binding protein in promoter activation, which is mediated by the GT motif

  1. C to U RNA editing mediated by APOBEC1 requires RNA-binding protein RBM47.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossat, Nicolas; Tourle, Karin; Radziewic, Tania; Barratt, Kristen; Liebhold, Doreen; Studdert, Joshua B; Power, Melinda; Jones, Vanessa; Loebel, David A F; Tam, Patrick P L

    2014-08-01

    Cytidine (C) to Uridine (U) RNA editing is a post-transcriptional modification that is accomplished by the deaminase APOBEC1 and its partnership with the RNA-binding protein A1CF. We identify and characterise here a novel RNA-binding protein, RBM47, that interacts with APOBEC1 and A1CF and is expressed in tissues where C to U RNA editing occurs. RBM47 can substitute for A1CF and is necessary and sufficient for APOBEC1-mediated editing in vitro. Editing is further impaired in Rbm47-deficient mutant mice. These findings suggest that RBM47 and APOBEC1 constitute the basic machinery for C to U RNA editing. © 2014 The Authors.

  2. Cell-mediated immunity against human retinal extract, S-antigen, and interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein in onchocercal chorioretinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lelij, A.; Rothova, A.; Stilma, J. S.; Hoekzema, R.; Kijlstra, A.

    1990-01-01

    Autoimmune mechanisms are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of onchocercal chorioretinopathy. Cell-mediated immune responses to human retinal S-antigen, interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein (IRBP), and crude retinal extract were investigated in patients with onchocerciasis from

  3. Prediction of Protein-Protein Interactions Related to Protein Complexes Based on Protein Interaction Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for predicting protein-protein interactions based on detected protein complexes is proposed to repair deficient interactions derived from high-throughput biological experiments. Protein complexes are pruned and decomposed into small parts based on the adaptive k-cores method to predict protein-protein interactions associated with the complexes. The proposed method is adaptive to protein complexes with different structure, number, and size of nodes in a protein-protein interaction network. Based on different complex sets detected by various algorithms, we can obtain different prediction sets of protein-protein interactions. The reliability of the predicted interaction sets is proved by using estimations with statistical tests and direct confirmation of the biological data. In comparison with the approaches which predict the interactions based on the cliques, the overlap of the predictions is small. Similarly, the overlaps among the predicted sets of interactions derived from various complex sets are also small. Thus, every predicted set of interactions may complement and improve the quality of the original network data. Meanwhile, the predictions from the proposed method replenish protein-protein interactions associated with protein complexes using only the network topology.

  4. The small envelope protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus possesses ion channel protein-like properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Changhee; Yoo, Dongwan

    2006-01-01

    The small envelope (E) protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a hydrophobic 73 amino acid protein encoded in the internal open reading frame (ORF) of the bicistronic mRNA2. As a first step towards understanding the biological role of E protein during PRRSV replication, E gene expression was blocked in a full-length infectious clone by mutating the ATG translational initiation to GTG, such that the full-length mutant genomic clone was unable to synthesize the E protein. DNA transfection of PRRSV-susceptible cells with the E gene knocked-out genomic clone showed the absence of virus infectivity. P129-ΔE-transfected cells however produced virion particles in the culture supernatant, and these particles contained viral genomic RNA, demonstrating that the E protein is essential for PRRSV infection but dispensable for virion assembly. Electron microscopy suggests that the P129-ΔE virions assembled in the absence of E had a similar appearance to the wild-type particles. Strand-specific RT-PCR demonstrated that the E protein-negative, non-infectious P129-ΔE virus particles were able to enter cells but further steps of replication were interrupted. The entry of PRRSV has been suggested to be via receptor-mediated endocytosis, and lysomotropic basic compounds and known ion-channel blocking agents both inhibited PRRSV replication effectively during the uncoating process. The expression of E protein in Escherichia coli-mediated cell growth arrests and increased the membrane permeability. Cross-linking experiments in cells infected with PRRSV or transfected with E gene showed that the E protein was able to form homo-oligomers. Taken together, our data suggest that the PRRSV E protein is likely an ion-channel protein embedded in the viral envelope and facilitates uncoating of virus and release of the genome in the cytoplasm

  5. LPS-Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Signaling on Expression of Protein S and C4b-Binding Protein in the Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Hayashi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein S (PS, mainly synthesized in hepatocytes and endothelial cells, plays a critical role as a cofactor of anticoagulant activated protein C (APC. PS activity is regulated by C4b-binding protein (C4BP, structurally composed of seven α-chains (C4BPα and a β-chain (C4BPβ. In this paper, based primarily on our previous studies, we review the lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced signaling which affects expression of PS and C4BP in the liver. Our in vivo studies in rats showed that after LPS injection, plasma PS levels are significantly decreased, whereas plasma C4BP levels first are transiently decreased after 2 to 12 hours and then significantly increased after 24 hours. LPS decreases PS antigen and mRNA levels in both hepatocytes and sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs, and decreases C4BP antigen and both C4BPα and C4BPβ mRNA levels in hepatocytes. Antirat CD14 and antirat Toll-like receptor (TLR-4 antibodies inhibited LPS-induced NFκB activation in both hepatocytes and SECs. Furthermore, inhibitors of NFκB and MEK recovered the LPS-induced decreased expression of PS in both cell types and the LPS-induced decreased expression of C4BP in hepatocytes. These data suggest that the LPS-induced decrease in PS expression in hepatocytes and SECs and LPS-induced decrease in C4BP expression in hepatocytes are mediated by MEK/ERK signaling and NFκB activation and that membrane-bound CD14 and TLR-4 are involved in this mechanism.

  6. Signals in hepatitis A virus P3 region proteins recognized by the ubiquitin-mediated proteolytic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losick, Vicki P.; Schlax, Peter E.; Emmons, Rebecca A.; Lawson, T. Glen

    2003-01-01

    The hepatitis A virus 3C protease and 3D RNA polymerase are present in low concentrations in infected cells. The 3C protease was previously shown to be rapidly degraded by the ubiquitin/26S proteasome system and we present evidence here that the 3D polymerase is also subject to ubiquitination-mediated proteolysis. Our results show that the sequence 32 LGVKDDWLLV 41 in the 3C protease serves as a protein destruction signal recognized by the ubiquitin-protein ligase E3α and that the destruction signal for the RNA polymerase does not require the carboxyl-terminal 137 amino acids. Both the viral 3ABCD polyprotein and the 3CD diprotein were also found to be substrates for ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. Attempts to determine if the 3C protease or the 3D polymerase destruction signals trigger the ubiquitination and degradation of these precursors yielded evidence suggesting, but not unequivocally proving, that the recognition of the 3D polymerase by the ubiquitin system is responsible

  7. Cyclin B1 Destruction Box-Mediated Protein Instability: The Enhanced Sensitivity of Fluorescent-Protein-Based Reporter Gene System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Hsun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The periodic expression and destruction of several cyclins are the most important steps for the exact regulation of cell cycle. Cyclins are degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system during cell cycle. Besides, a short sequence near the N-terminal of cyclin B called the destruction box (D-box; CDB is also required. Fluorescent-protein-based reporter gene system is insensitive to analysis because of the overly stable fluorescent proteins. Therefore, in this study, we use human CDB fused with both enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP at C-terminus and red fluorescent protein (RFP, DsRed at N-terminus in the transfected human melanoma cells to examine the effects of CDB on different fluorescent proteins. Our results indicated that CDB-fused fluorescent protein can be used to examine the slight gene regulations in the reporter gene system and have the potential to be the system for screening of functional compounds in the future.

  8. Recombinant Collagenlike Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertala, Andzej

    2007-01-01

    A group of collagenlike recombinant proteins containing high densities of biologically active sites has been invented. The method used to express these proteins is similar to a method of expressing recombinant procollagens and collagens described in U. S. Patent 5,593,859, "Synthesis of human procollagens and collagens in recombinant DNA systems." Customized collagenous proteins are needed for biomedical applications. In particular, fibrillar collagens are attractive for production of matrices needed for tissue engineering and drug delivery. Prior to this invention, there was no way of producing customized collagenous proteins for these and other applications. Heretofore, collagenous proteins have been produced by use of such biological systems as yeasts, bacteria, and transgenic animals and plants. These products are normal collagens that can also be extracted from such sources as tendons, bones, and hides. These products cannot be made to consist only of biologically active, specific amino acid sequences that may be needed for specific applications. Prior to this invention, it had been established that fibrillar collagens consist of domains that are responsible for such processes as interaction with cells, binding of growth factors, and interaction with a number of structural proteins present in the extracellular matrix. A normal collagen consists of a sequence of domains that can be represented by a corresponding sequence of labels, e.g., D1D2D3D4. A collagenlike protein of the present invention contains regions of collagen II that contain multiples of a single domain (e.g., D1D1D1D1 or D4D4D4D4) chosen for its specific biological activity. By virtue of the multiplicity of the chosen domain, the density of sites having that specific biological activity is greater than it is in a normal collagen. A collagenlike protein according to this invention can thus be made to have properties that are necessary for tissue engineering.

  9. Anti-apoptotic effect of heat shock protein 90 on hypoxia-mediated cardiomyocyte damage is mediated via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Peng, Yizhi; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Xiaohui; Yuan, Zhiqiang

    2009-09-01

    1. Hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis contributes significantly to cardiac dysfunction following trauma, shock and burn injury. There is evidence that heat shock protein (HSP) 90 is anti-apoptotic in cardiomyocytes subjected to a variety of apoptotic stimuli. Because HSP90 acts as an upstream regulator of the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt survival pathway during cellular stress, we hypothesized that HSP90 exerts a cardioprotective effect via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt pathway. 2. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were subjected to normoxia or hypoxia in the absence or presence of the HSP90 inhibitor geldanamycin (1 μg/mL). Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was assessed by release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end-labelling (TUNEL) staining and caspase 3 activity. Expression of HSP90, Akt, Bad and cytochrome c release was determined by western blot analysis. 3. Following exposure of cells to hypoxia, HSP90 was markedly elevated in a time-dependent manner, reaching a peak at 6 h (eightfold increase). Geldanamycin significantly increased hypoxia-induced release of LDH by 114%, the percentage of apoptotic cardiomyocytes by 102% and caspase 3 activity by 78%. Pretreatment of cells with geldanamycin also suppressed phosphorylation of both Akt and its downstream target Bad, but promoted the mitochondrial release of cytochrome c. 4. In conclusion, HSP90 activity is enhanced in cardiomyocytes following hypoxic insult. The anti-apoptotic effect of HSP90 on cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia is mediated, at least in part, by the PI3-K/Akt pathway. Key words: apoptosis, cardiomyocyte, heart failure, heat shock protein 90, hypoxia, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signalling pathway, serine/threonine protein kinase Akt.

  10. Unravelling Protein-Protein Interaction Networks Linked to Aliphatic and Indole Glucosinolate Biosynthetic Pathways in Arabidopsis

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    Sebastian J. Nintemann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the cell, biosynthetic pathways are embedded in protein-protein interaction networks. In Arabidopsis, the biosynthetic pathways of aliphatic and indole glucosinolate defense compounds are well-characterized. However, little is known about the spatial orchestration of these enzymes and their interplay with the cellular environment. To address these aspects, we applied two complementary, untargeted approaches—split-ubiquitin yeast 2-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation screens—to identify proteins interacting with CYP83A1 and CYP83B1, two homologous enzymes specific for aliphatic and indole glucosinolate biosynthesis, respectively. Our analyses reveal distinct functional networks with substantial interconnection among the identified interactors for both pathway-specific markers, and add to our knowledge about how biochemical pathways are connected to cellular processes. Specifically, a group of protein interactors involved in cell death and the hypersensitive response provides a potential link between the glucosinolate defense compounds and defense against biotrophic pathogens, mediated by protein-protein interactions.

  11. Chaperone-Mediated Sec61 Channel Gating during ER Import of Small Precursor Proteins Overcomes Sec61 Inhibitor-Reinforced Energy Barrier

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    Sarah Haßdenteufel

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Protein transport into the mammalian endoplasmic reticulum (ER is mediated by the heterotrimeric Sec61 channel. The signal recognition particle (SRP and TRC systems and Sec62 have all been characterized as membrane-targeting components for small presecretory proteins, whereas Sec63 and the lumenal chaperone BiP act as auxiliary translocation components. Here, we report the transport requirements of two natural, small presecretory proteins and engineered variants using semipermeabilized human cells after the depletion of specific ER components. Our results suggest that hSnd2, Sec62, and SRP and TRC receptor each provide alternative targeting pathways for short secretory proteins and define rules of engagement for the actions of Sec63 and BiP during their membrane translocation. We find that the Sec62/Sec63 complex plus BiP can facilitate Sec61 channel opening, thereby allowing precursors that have weak signal peptides or other inhibitory features to translocate. A Sec61 inhibitor can mimic the effect of BiP depletion on Sec61 gating, suggesting that they both act at the same essential membrane translocation step. : Protein transport into the human endoplasmic reticulum (ER is mediated by the heterotrimeric Sec61 channel. Haßdenteufel et al. map the determinants for requirement of different targeting pathways and different auxiliary components of the Sec61 channel in ER import of short presecretory proteins. Different characteristics of precursor polypeptides dictate the engagement of each component. Keywords: endoplasmic reticulum, protein targeting and translocation, Sec61 channel gating, Sec62, Sec63, BiP, CAM741, signal peptide, mature region, cluster of positive charges

  12. Advanced Oxidation Protein Products and Carbonylated Proteins as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Selected Atherosclerosis-Mediated Diseases

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    Bogna Gryszczyńska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The main question of this study was to evaluate the intensity of oxidative protein modification shown as advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP and carbonylated proteins, expressed as protein carbonyl content (C=O in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA, aortoiliac occlusive disease (AIOD, and chronic kidney disease (CKD. Design and Methods. The study was carried out in a group of 35 AAA patients and 13 AIOD patients. However, CKD patients were divided into two groups: predialysis (PRE included 50 patients or hemodialysis (HD consisted of 34 patients. AOPP and C=O were measured using colorimetric assay kit, while C-reactive protein concentration was measured by high-sensitivity assay (hsCRP. Results. The concentration of AOPP in both AAA and AIOD groups was higher than in PRE and HD groups according to descending order: AAA~AIOD > HD > PRE. The content of C=O was higher in the PRE group in comparison to AIOD and AAA according to the descending order: PRE~HD > AAA~AIOD. Conclusions. AAA, AIOD, and CKD-related atherosclerosis (PRE and HD contribute to the changes in the formation of AOPP and C=O. They may promote modification of proteins in a different way, probably due to the various factors that influence oxidative stress here.

  13. Signaling via G proteins mediates tumorigenic effects of GPR87

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arfelt, Kristine Niss; Fares, Suzan; Sparre-Ulrich, Alexander H.

    2017-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a large protein family of seven transmembrane (7TM) spanning proteins that regulate multiple physiological functions. GPR87 is overexpressed in several cancers and plays a role in tumor cell survival. Here, the basal activity of GPR87 was investigated...

  14. Regulation of protease-activated receptor 1 signaling by the adaptor protein complex 2 and R4 subfamily of regulator of G protein signaling proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Buxin; Siderovski, David P; Neubig, Richard R; Lawson, Mark A; Trejo, Joann

    2014-01-17

    The G protein-coupled protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is irreversibly proteolytically activated by thrombin. Hence, the precise regulation of PAR1 signaling is important for proper cellular responses. In addition to desensitization, internalization and lysosomal sorting of activated PAR1 are critical for the termination of signaling. Unlike most G protein-coupled receptors, PAR1 internalization is mediated by the clathrin adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2) and epsin-1, rather than β-arrestins. However, the function of AP-2 and epsin-1 in the regulation of PAR1 signaling is not known. Here, we report that AP-2, and not epsin-1, regulates activated PAR1-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis via two different mechanisms that involve, in part, a subset of R4 subfamily of "regulator of G protein signaling" (RGS) proteins. A significantly greater increase in activated PAR1 signaling was observed in cells depleted of AP-2 using siRNA or in cells expressing a PAR1 (420)AKKAA(424) mutant with defective AP-2 binding. This effect was attributed to AP-2 modulation of PAR1 surface expression and efficiency of G protein coupling. We further found that ectopic expression of R4 subfamily members RGS2, RGS3, RGS4, and RGS5 reduced activated PAR1 wild-type signaling, whereas signaling by the PAR1 AKKAA mutant was minimally affected. Intriguingly, siRNA-mediated depletion analysis revealed a function for RGS5 in the regulation of signaling by the PAR1 wild type but not the AKKAA mutant. Moreover, activation of the PAR1 wild type, and not the AKKAA mutant, induced Gαq association with RGS3 via an AP-2-dependent mechanism. Thus, AP-2 regulates activated PAR1 signaling by altering receptor surface expression and through recruitment of RGS proteins.

  15. Raft-mediated trafficking of apical resident proteins occurs in both direct and transcytotic pathways in polarized hepatic cells : Role of distinct lipid microdomains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slimane, TA; Trugnan, G; van Ijzendoorn, SCD; Hoekstra, D

    In polarized hepatic cells, pathways and molecular principles mediating the flow of resident apical bile canalicular proteins have not yet been resolved. Herein, we have investigated apical trafficking of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked and two single transmembrane domain proteins on the one

  16. Protein-protein interaction networks identify targets which rescue the MPP+ cellular model of Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Harriet; Ryan, Brent J.; Jackson, Brendan; Whitmore, Alan; Wade-Martins, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are complex multifactorial disorders characterised by the interplay of many dysregulated physiological processes. As an exemplar, Parkinson’s disease (PD) involves multiple perturbed cellular functions, including mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagic dysregulation in preferentially-sensitive dopamine neurons, a selective pathophysiology recapitulated in vitro using the neurotoxin MPP+. Here we explore a network science approach for the selection of therapeutic protein targets in the cellular MPP+ model. We hypothesised that analysis of protein-protein interaction networks modelling MPP+ toxicity could identify proteins critical for mediating MPP+ toxicity. Analysis of protein-protein interaction networks constructed to model the interplay of mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagic dysregulation (key aspects of MPP+ toxicity) enabled us to identify four proteins predicted to be key for MPP+ toxicity (P62, GABARAP, GBRL1 and GBRL2). Combined, but not individual, knockdown of these proteins increased cellular susceptibility to MPP+ toxicity. Conversely, combined, but not individual, over-expression of the network targets provided rescue of MPP+ toxicity associated with the formation of autophagosome-like structures. We also found that modulation of two distinct proteins in the protein-protein interaction network was necessary and sufficient to mitigate neurotoxicity. Together, these findings validate our network science approach to multi-target identification in complex neurological diseases.

  17. Adaptor protein complex 2-mediated, clathrin-dependent endocytosis, and related gene activities, are a prominent feature during maturation stage amelogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Brookes, Steven J; Wen, Xin; Jimenez, Jaime M; Vikman, Susanna; Hu, Ping; White, Shane N; Lyngstadaas, S Petter; Okamoto, Curtis T; Smith, Charles E; Paine, Michael L

    2013-03-01

    Molecular events defining enamel matrix removal during amelogenesis are poorly understood. Early reports have suggested that adaptor proteins (AP) participate in ameloblast-mediated endocytosis. Enamel formation involves the secretory and maturation stages, with an increase in resorptive function during the latter. Here, using real-time PCR, we show that the expression of clathrin and adaptor protein subunits are upregulated in maturation stage rodent enamel organ cells. AP complex 2 (AP-2) is the most upregulated of the four distinct adaptor protein complexes. Immunolocalization confirms the presence of AP-2 and clathrin in ameloblasts, with strongest reactivity at the apical pole. These data suggest that the resorptive functions of enamel cells involve AP-2 mediated, clathrin-dependent endocytosis, thus implying the likelihood of specific membrane-bound receptor(s) of enamel matrix protein debris. The mRNA expression of other endocytosis-related gene products is also upregulated during maturation including: lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (Lamp1); cluster of differentiation 63 and 68 (Cd63 and Cd68); ATPase, H(+) transporting, lysosomal V0 subunit D2 (Atp6v0d2); ATPase, H(+) transporting, lysosomal V1 subunit B2 (Atp6v1b2); chloride channel, voltage-sensitive 7 (Clcn7); and cathepsin K (Ctsk). Immunohistologic data confirms the expression of a number of these proteins in maturation stage ameloblasts. The enamel of Cd63-null mice was also examined. Despite increased mRNA and protein expression in the enamel organ during maturation, the enamel of Cd63-null mice appeared normal. This may suggest inherent functional redundancies between Cd63 and related gene products, such as Lamp1 and Cd68. Ameloblast-like LS8 cells treated with the enamel matrix protein complex Emdogain showed upregulation of AP-2 and clathrin subunits, further supporting the existence of a membrane-bound receptor-regulated pathway for the endocytosis of enamel matrix proteins. These data

  18. Lactose intolerance and cow's milk protein allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Henrique do Nascimento RANGEL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adverse reactions to food intake have very diverse etiology and symptomatology. Regarding milk, its food allergy is presented as lactose intolerance, the sugar in milk, or allergy to milk protein. Despite having different symptomatology, confusions among allergic conditions to dairy and its mediators are common. Milk protein allergy originates from protein components present in milk, causing reactions to either the protein fractions in emulsion (caseins or in whey (milk albumin. The allergic reaction is type IV mediated by T lymphocytes. The allergic reaction produces severe cellular damage and it triggers physical, mental and emotional symptomatology that may vary in time, intensity and severity. Lactose intolerance is originated by total or partial absence of the enzyme that digests this disaccharide. Lactose intolerance can be primary or congenital and secondary; the former being more rare and severe, the latter being more common. Lactase deficiency can be diagnosed by symptoms associated with cramping and diarrhea. Thus, the objective of this study was to conduct a review of available literature on cow’s milk protein allergy and lactose intolerance.

  19. The Copper Metabolism MURR1 Domain protein 1 (COMMD1) modulates the aggregation of misfolded protein species in a client-specific manner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.I.M. Vonk (Willianne I.); V. Kakkar (Vaishali); P. Bartuzi (Paulina); D. Jaarsma (Dick); R. Berger (Ruud); M.A. Hofker (Marten); L.W.J. Klomp (Leo W.); C. Wijmenga (Cisca); H. Kampinga (Harm); B. van de Sluis (Bart)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe Copper Metabolism MURR1 domain protein 1 (COMMD1) is a protein involved in multiple cellular pathways, including copper homeostasis, NF-κB and hypoxia signalling. Acting as a scaffold protein, COMMD1 mediates the levels, stability and proteolysis of its substrates (e.g. the

  20. Defatting and Sonication Enhances Protein Extraction from Edible Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Byoung Deug; Wong, Nathan A K; Auh, Joong-Hyuck

    2017-01-01

    Edible insects are attracting growing interest as a sustainable source of protein for addition to processed meat and dairy products. The current study investigated the optimal method for protein extraction from mealworm larvae ( Tenebrio molitor ), cricket adults ( Gryllus bimaculatus ), and silkworm pupae ( Bombyx mori ), for use in further applications. After defatting with n-hexane for up to 48 h, sonication was applied for 1-20 min and the protein yield was measured. All samples showed a total residual fat percentage below 1.36%, and a 35% to 94% improvement in protein yield (%). In conclusion, defatting with n-hexane combined with sonication improves the protein yield from insect samples.

  1. Protein solubility and folding enhancement by interaction with RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Il Choi

    Full Text Available While basic mechanisms of several major molecular chaperones are well understood, this machinery has been known to be involved in folding of only limited number of proteins inside the cells. Here, we report a chaperone type of protein folding facilitated by interaction with RNA. When an RNA-binding module is placed at the N-terminus of aggregation-prone target proteins, this module, upon binding with RNA, further promotes the solubility of passenger proteins, potentially leading to enhancement of proper protein folding. Studies on in vitro refolding in the presence of RNA, coexpression of RNA molecules in vivo and the mutants with impaired RNA binding ability suggests that RNA can exert chaperoning effect on their bound proteins. The results suggest that RNA binding could affect the overall kinetic network of protein folding pathway in favor of productive folding over off-pathway aggregation. In addition, the RNA binding-mediated solubility enhancement is extremely robust for increasing soluble yield of passenger proteins and could be usefully implemented for high-throughput protein expression for functional and structural genomic research initiatives. The RNA-mediated chaperone type presented here would give new insights into de novo folding in vivo.

  2. JNK Signaling: Regulation and Functions Based on Complex Protein-Protein Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeke, András; Misheva, Mariya

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), as members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, mediate eukaryotic cell responses to a wide range of abiotic and biotic stress insults. JNKs also regulate important physiological processes, including neuronal functions, immunological actions, and embryonic development, via their impact on gene expression, cytoskeletal protein dynamics, and cell death/survival pathways. Although the JNK pathway has been under study for >20 years, its complexity is still perplexing, with multiple protein partners of JNKs underlying the diversity of actions. Here we review the current knowledge of JNK structure and isoforms as well as the partnerships of JNKs with a range of intracellular proteins. Many of these proteins are direct substrates of the JNKs. We analyzed almost 100 of these target proteins in detail within a framework of their classification based on their regulation by JNKs. Examples of these JNK substrates include a diverse assortment of nuclear transcription factors (Jun, ATF2, Myc, Elk1), cytoplasmic proteins involved in cytoskeleton regulation (DCX, Tau, WDR62) or vesicular transport (JIP1, JIP3), cell membrane receptors (BMPR2), and mitochondrial proteins (Mcl1, Bim). In addition, because upstream signaling components impact JNK activity, we critically assessed the involvement of signaling scaffolds and the roles of feedback mechanisms in the JNK pathway. Despite a clarification of many regulatory events in JNK-dependent signaling during the past decade, many other structural and mechanistic insights are just beginning to be revealed. These advances open new opportunities to understand the role of JNK signaling in diverse physiological and pathophysiological states. PMID:27466283

  3. Protein C Inhibitor-A Novel Antimicrobial Agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malmström, E.; Mörgelin, M.; Malmsten, M.; Johansson, L.; Norrby-Teglund, A.; Shannon, O.; Schmidtchen, A.; Meijers, J.C.M.; Herwald, H.

    2009-01-01

    Protein C inhibitor (PCI) is a heparin-binding serine proteinase inhibitor belonging to the family of serpin proteins. Here we describe that PCI exerts broad antimicrobial activity against bacterial pathogens. This ability is mediated by the interaction of PCI with lipid membranes, which

  4. Liver and muscle protein metabolism in cachexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, J.A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Up to 50% of cancer patients suffer from progressive weight loss (cachexia). Cachexia is induced by proinflammatory mediators (cytokines), induced by the tumor’s presence. These cytokines induce so-called acute phase protein synthesis by the liver, followed by skeletal muscle protein breakdown.

  5. Induction of viral, 7-methyl-guanosine cap-independent translation and oncolysis by mitogen-activated protein kinase-interacting kinase-mediated effects on the serine/arginine-rich protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael C; Bryant, Jeffrey D; Dobrikova, Elena Y; Shveygert, Mayya; Bradrick, Shelton S; Chandramohan, Vidyalakshmi; Bigner, Darell D; Gromeier, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    Protein synthesis, the most energy-consuming process in cells, responds to changing physiologic priorities, e.g., upon mitogen- or stress-induced adaptations signaled through the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). The prevailing status of protein synthesis machinery is a viral pathogenesis factor, particularly for plus-strand RNA viruses, where immediate translation of incoming viral RNAs shapes host-virus interactions. In this study, we unraveled signaling pathways centered on the ERK1/2 and p38α MAPK-interacting kinases MNK1/2 and their role in controlling 7-methyl-guanosine (m(7)G) "cap"-independent translation at enterovirus type 1 internal ribosomal entry sites (IRESs). Activation of Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 signals induced viral IRES-mediated translation in a manner dependent on MNK1/2. This effect was not due to MNK's known functions as eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4G binding partner or eIF4E(S209) kinase. Rather, MNK catalytic activity enabled viral IRES-mediated translation/host cell cytotoxicity through negative regulation of the Ser/Arg (SR)-rich protein kinase (SRPK). Our investigations suggest that SRPK activity is a major determinant of type 1 IRES competency, host cell cytotoxicity, and viral proliferation in infected cells. We are targeting unfettered enterovirus IRES activity in cancer with PVSRIPO, the type 1 live-attenuated poliovirus (PV) (Sabin) vaccine containing a human rhinovirus type 2 (HRV2) IRES. A phase I clinical trial of PVSRIPO with intratumoral inoculation in patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) is showing early promise. Viral translation proficiency in infected GBM cells is a core requirement for the antineoplastic efficacy of PVSRIPO. Therefore, it is critically important to understand the mechanisms controlling viral cap-independent translation in infected host cells. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein protects cells against locostatin-mediated inhibition of migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne N Shemon

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein (RKIP, also PEBP1, a member of the Phosphatidylethanolamine Binding Protein family, negatively regulates growth factor signaling by the Raf/MAP kinase pathway. Since an organic compound, locostatin, was reported to bind RKIP and inhibit cell migration by a Raf-dependent mechanism, we addressed the role of RKIP in locostatin function.We analyzed locostatin interaction with RKIP and examined the biological consequences of locostatin binding on RKIP function. NMR studies show that a locostatin precursor binds to the conserved phosphatidylethanolamine binding pocket of RKIP. However, drug binding to the pocket does not prevent RKIP association with its inhibitory target, Raf-1, nor affect RKIP phosphorylation by Protein Kinase C at a regulatory site. Similarly, exposure of wild type, RKIP-depleted HeLa cells or RKIP-deficient (RKIP(-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs to locostatin has no effect on MAP kinase activation. Locostatin treatment of wild type MEFs causes inhibition of cell migration following wounding. RKIP deficiency impairs migration further, indicating that RKIP protects cells against locostatin-mediated inhibition of migration. Locostatin treatment of depleted or RKIP(-/- MEFs reveals cytoskeletal disruption and microtubule abnormalities in the spindle.These results suggest that locostatin's effects on cytoskeletal structure and migration are caused through mechanisms independent of its binding to RKIP and Raf/MAP kinase signaling. The protective effect of RKIP against drug inhibition of migration suggests a new role for RKIP in potentially sequestering toxic compounds that may have deleterious effects on cells.

  7. Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein protects cells against locostatin-mediated inhibition of migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemon, Anne N; Eves, Eva M; Clark, Matthew C; Heil, Gary; Granovsky, Alexey; Zeng, Lingchun; Imamoto, Akira; Koide, Shohei; Rosner, Marsha Rich

    2009-06-24

    Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein (RKIP, also PEBP1), a member of the Phosphatidylethanolamine Binding Protein family, negatively regulates growth factor signaling by the Raf/MAP kinase pathway. Since an organic compound, locostatin, was reported to bind RKIP and inhibit cell migration by a Raf-dependent mechanism, we addressed the role of RKIP in locostatin function. We analyzed locostatin interaction with RKIP and examined the biological consequences of locostatin binding on RKIP function. NMR studies show that a locostatin precursor binds to the conserved phosphatidylethanolamine binding pocket of RKIP. However, drug binding to the pocket does not prevent RKIP association with its inhibitory target, Raf-1, nor affect RKIP phosphorylation by Protein Kinase C at a regulatory site. Similarly, exposure of wild type, RKIP-depleted HeLa cells or RKIP-deficient (RKIP(-/-)) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) to locostatin has no effect on MAP kinase activation. Locostatin treatment of wild type MEFs causes inhibition of cell migration following wounding. RKIP deficiency impairs migration further, indicating that RKIP protects cells against locostatin-mediated inhibition of migration. Locostatin treatment of depleted or RKIP(-/-) MEFs reveals cytoskeletal disruption and microtubule abnormalities in the spindle. These results suggest that locostatin's effects on cytoskeletal structure and migration are caused through mechanisms independent of its binding to RKIP and Raf/MAP kinase signaling. The protective effect of RKIP against drug inhibition of migration suggests a new role for RKIP in potentially sequestering toxic compounds that may have deleterious effects on cells.

  8. Tau protein and adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena eFuster-Matanzo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Tau protein is a microtubule associated protein found in the axonal compartment that stabilizes neuronal microtubules under normal physiological conditions. Tau metabolism has attracted much attention because of its role in neurodegenerative disorders called tauopathies, mainly Alzheimer disease. Here, we review recent findings suggesting that axonal outgrowth in subgranular zone during adult hippocampal neurogenesis requires a dynamic microtubule network and tau protein facilitates to maintain that dynamic cytoskeleton. Those functions are carried out in part by tau isoform with only three microtubule-binding domains (without exon 10 and by presence of hypherphosphorylated tau forms. Thus, tau is a good marker and a valuable tool to study new axons in adult neurogenesis.

  9. A simple and reliable approach to docking protein-protein complexes from very sparse NOE-derived intermolecular distance restraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Chun; Clore, G. Marius

    2006-01-01

    A simple and reliable approach for docking protein-protein complexes from very sparse NOE-derived intermolecular distance restraints (as few as three from a single point) in combination with a novel representation for an attractive potential between mapped interaction surfaces is described. Unambiguous assignments of very sparse intermolecular NOEs are obtained using a reverse labeling strategy in which one the components is fully deuterated with the exception of selective protonation of the δ-methyl groups of isoleucine, while the other component is uniformly 13 C-labeled. This labeling strategy can be readily extended to selective protonation of Ala, Leu, Val or Met. The attractive potential is described by a 'reduced' radius of gyration potential applied specifically to a subset of interfacial residues (those with an accessible surface area ≥ 50% in the free proteins) that have been delineated by chemical shift perturbation. Docking is achieved by rigid body minimization on the basis of a target function comprising the sparse NOE distance restraints, a van der Waals repulsion potential and the 'reduced' radius of gyration potential. The method is demonstrated for two protein-protein complexes (EIN-HPr and IIA Glc -HPr) from the bacterial phosphotransferase system. In both cases, starting from 100 different random orientations of the X-ray structures of the free proteins, 100% convergence is achieved to a single cluster (with near identical atomic positions) with an overall backbone accuracy of ∼2 A. The approach described is not limited to NMR, since interfaces can also be mapped by alanine scanning mutagenesis, and sparse intermolecular distance restraints can be derived from double cycle mutagenesis, cross-linking combined with mass spectrometry, or fluorescence energy transfer

  10. Experiences from occupational exposure limits set on aerosols containing allergenic proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar; Larsen, Søren; Hansen, Jitka S

    2012-01-01

    Occupational exposure limits (OELs) together with determined airborne exposures are used in risk assessment based managements of occupational exposures to prevent occupational diseases. In most countries, OELs have only been set for few protein-containing aerosols causing IgE-mediated allergies. ...... is available for setting OELs for proteins and protein-containing aerosols where the critical effect is IgE sensitization and IgE-mediated airway diseases.......Occupational exposure limits (OELs) together with determined airborne exposures are used in risk assessment based managements of occupational exposures to prevent occupational diseases. In most countries, OELs have only been set for few protein-containing aerosols causing IgE-mediated allergies...... for setting OELs. Our aim is to analyse prerequisites for setting OELs for the allergenic protein-containing aerosols. Opposite to the key effect of toxicological reactions, two thresholds, one for the sensitization phase and one for elicitation of IgE-mediated symptoms in sensitized individuals, are used...

  11. Regulation of heterotrimeric G-protein signaling by NDPK/NME proteins and caveolins: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Taha, Issam H; Heijman, Jordi; Feng, Yuxi; Vettel, Christiane; Dobrev, Dobromir; Wieland, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are pivotal mediators of cellular signal transduction in eukaryotic cells and abnormal G-protein signaling plays an important role in numerous diseases. During the last two decades it has become evident that the activation status of heterotrimeric G proteins is both highly localized and strongly regulated by a number of factors, including a receptor-independent activation pathway of heterotrimeric G proteins that does not involve the classical GDP/GTP exchange and relies on nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDPKs). NDPKs are NTP/NDP transphosphorylases encoded by the nme/nm23 genes that are involved in a variety of cellular events such as proliferation, migration, and apoptosis. They therefore contribute, for example, to tumor metastasis, angiogenesis, retinopathy, and heart failure. Interestingly, NDPKs are translocated and/or upregulated in human heart failure. Here we describe recent advances in the current understanding of NDPK functions and how they have an impact on local regulation of G-protein signaling.

  12. Chemical protein synthesis: Inventing synthetic methods to decipher how proteins work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Stephen

    2017-09-15

    Total chemical synthesis of proteins has been rendered practical by the chemical ligation principle: chemoselective condensation of unprotected peptide segments equipped with unique, mutually reactive functional groups, enabled by formation of a non-native replacement for the peptide bond. Ligation chemistries are briefly described, including native chemical ligation - thioester-mediated, amide-forming reaction at Xaa-Cys sites - and its extensions. Case studies from the author's own works are used to illustrate the utility and applications of chemical protein synthesis. Selected recent developments in the field are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hybrid system of semiconductor and photosynthetic protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Younghye; Shin, Seon Ae; Lee, Jaehun; Yang, Ki Dong; Nam, Ki Tae

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthetic protein has the potential to be a new attractive material for solar energy absorption and conversion. The development of semiconductor/photosynthetic protein hybrids is an example of recent progress toward efficient, clean and nanostructured photoelectric systems. In the review, two biohybrid systems interacting through different communicating methods are addressed: (1) a photosynthetic protein immobilized semiconductor electrode operating via electron transfer and (2) a hybrid of semiconductor quantum dots and photosynthetic protein operating via energy transfer. The proper selection of materials and functional and structural modification of the components and optimal conjugation between them are the main issues discussed in the review. In conclusion, we propose the direction of future biohybrid systems for solar energy conversion systems, optical biosensors and photoelectric devices. (topical reviews)

  14. Proteomic analysis of the herpes simplex virus 1 virion protein 16 transactivator protein in infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Hyung; Knipe, David M

    2015-06-01

    The herpes simplex virus 1 virion protein 16 (VP16) tegument protein forms a transactivation complex with the cellular proteins host cell factor 1 (HCF-1) and octamer-binding transcription factor 1 (Oct-1) upon entry into the host cell. VP16 has also been shown to interact with a number of virion tegument proteins and viral glycoprotein H to promote viral assembly, but no comprehensive study of the VP16 proteome has been performed at early times postinfection. We therefore performed a proteomic analysis of VP16-interacting proteins at 3 h postinfection. We confirmed the interaction of VP16 with HCF-1 and a large number of cellular Mediator complex proteins, but most surprisingly, we found that the major viral protein associating with VP16 is the infected cell protein 4 (ICP4) immediate-early (IE) transactivator protein. These results raise the potential for a new function for VP16 in associating with the IE ICP4 and playing a role in transactivation of early and late gene expression, in addition to its well-documented function in transactivation of IE gene expression. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Assembly of spikes into coronavirus particles is mediated by the carboxy-terminal domain of the spike protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godeke, G J; de Haan, Cornelis A M; Rossen, J W; Vennema, H; Rottier, P J

    The type I glycoprotein S of coronavirus, trimers of which constitute the typical viral spikes, is assembled into virions through noncovalent interactions with the M protein. Here we demonstrate that incorporation is mediated by the short carboxy-terminal segment comprising the transmembrane and

  16. Ubiquitin-Mediated Regulation of Endocytosis by Proteins of the Arrestin Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Becuwe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In metazoans, proteins of the arrestin family are key players of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRS signaling and trafficking. Following stimulation, activated receptors are phosphorylated, thus allowing the binding of arrestins and hence an “arrest” of receptor signaling. Arrestins act by uncoupling receptors from G proteins and contribute to the recruitment of endocytic proteins, such as clathrin, to direct receptor trafficking into the endocytic pathway. Arrestins also serve as adaptor proteins by promoting the recruitment of ubiquitin ligases and participate in the agonist-induced ubiquitylation of receptors, known to have impact on their subcellular localization and stability. Recently, the arrestin family has expanded following the discovery of arrestin-related proteins in other eukaryotes such as yeasts or fungi. Surprisingly, most of these proteins are also involved in the ubiquitylation and endocytosis of plasma membrane proteins, thus suggesting that the role of arrestins as ubiquitin ligase adaptors is at the core of these proteins' functions. Importantly, arrestins are themselves ubiquitylated, and this modification is crucial for their function. In this paper, we discuss recent data on the intricate connections between arrestins and the ubiquitin pathway in the control of endocytosis.

  17. Mass spectrometric identification of proteins that interact through specific domains of the poly(A) binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Roy; Denis, Clyde L; Zhang, Chongxu; Nielsen, Maria E O; Chiang, Yueh-Chin; Kierkegaard, Morten; Wang, Xin; Lee, Darren J; Andersen, Jens S; Yao, Gang

    2012-09-01

    Poly(A) binding protein (PAB1) is involved in a number of RNA metabolic functions in eukaryotic cells and correspondingly is suggested to associate with a number of proteins. We have used mass spectrometric analysis to identify 55 non-ribosomal proteins that specifically interact with PAB1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Because many of these factors may associate only indirectly with PAB1 by being components of the PAB1-mRNP structure, we additionally conducted mass spectrometric analyses on seven metabolically defined PAB1 deletion derivatives to delimit the interactions between these proteins and PAB1. These latter analyses identified 13 proteins whose associations with PAB1 were reduced by deleting one or another of PAB1's defined domains. Included in this list of 13 proteins were the translation initiation factors eIF4G1 and eIF4G2, translation termination factor eRF3, and PBP2, all of whose previously known direct interactions with specific PAB1 domains were either confirmed, delimited, or extended. The remaining nine proteins that interacted through a specific PAB1 domain were CBF5, SLF1, UPF1, CBC1, SSD1, NOP77, yGR250c, NAB6, and GBP2. In further study, UPF1, involved in nonsense-mediated decay, was confirmed to interact with PAB1 through the RRM1 domain. We additionally established that while the RRM1 domain of PAB1 was required for UPF1-induced acceleration of deadenylation during nonsense-mediated decay, it was not required for the more critical step of acceleration of mRNA decapping. These results begin to identify the proteins most likely to interact with PAB1 and the domains of PAB1 through which these contacts are made.

  18. A Protein Scaffold Coordinates SRC-Mediated JNK Activation in Response to Metabolic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Shashi; Standen, Claire L; Morel, Caroline; Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Jason K; Swat, Wojciech; Flavell, Richard A; Davis, Roger J

    2017-09-19

    Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. How obesity contributes to metabolic syndrome is unclear. Free fatty acid (FFA) activation of a non-receptor tyrosine kinase (SRC)-dependent cJun NH 2 -terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is implicated in this process. However, the mechanism that mediates SRC-dependent JNK activation is unclear. Here, we identify a role for the scaffold protein JIP1 in SRC-dependent JNK activation. SRC phosphorylation of JIP1 creates phosphotyrosine interaction motifs that bind the SH2 domains of SRC and the guanine nucleotide exchange factor VAV. These interactions are required for SRC-induced activation of VAV and the subsequent engagement of a JIP1-tethered JNK signaling module. The JIP1 scaffold protein, therefore, plays a dual role in FFA signaling by coordinating upstream SRC functions together with downstream effector signaling by the JNK pathway. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Protein Scaffold Coordinates SRC-Mediated JNK Activation in Response to Metabolic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Kant

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. How obesity contributes to metabolic syndrome is unclear. Free fatty acid (FFA activation of a non-receptor tyrosine kinase (SRC-dependent cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK signaling pathway is implicated in this process. However, the mechanism that mediates SRC-dependent JNK activation is unclear. Here, we identify a role for the scaffold protein JIP1 in SRC-dependent JNK activation. SRC phosphorylation of JIP1 creates phosphotyrosine interaction motifs that bind the SH2 domains of SRC and the guanine nucleotide exchange factor VAV. These interactions are required for SRC-induced activation of VAV and the subsequent engagement of a JIP1-tethered JNK signaling module. The JIP1 scaffold protein, therefore, plays a dual role in FFA signaling by coordinating upstream SRC functions together with downstream effector signaling by the JNK pathway.

  20. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 negatively regulates chemokine signaling at a level downstream from G protein subunits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimenez-Sainz, MC; Murga, C; Kavelaars, A; Jurado-Pueyo, M; Krakstad, BF; Heijnen, CJ; Mayor, F; Aragay, AM

    The G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) phosphorylates and desensitizes ligand-activated G protein-coupled-receptors. Here, evidence is shown for a novel role of GRK2 in regulating chemokine-mediated signals. The presence of increased levels of GRK2 in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells

  1. Heterologous protein display on the cell surface of lactic acid bacteria mediated by the s-layer protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Lanlan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have revealed that the C-terminal region of the S-layer protein from Lactobacillus is responsible for the cell wall anchoring, which provide an approach for targeting heterologous proteins to the cell wall of lactic acid bacteria (LAB. In this study, we developed a new surface display system in lactic acid bacteria with the C-terminal region of S-layer protein SlpB of Lactobacillus crispatus K2-4-3 isolated from chicken intestine. Results Multiple sequence alignment revealed that the C-terminal region (LcsB of Lb. crispatus K2-4-3 SlpB had a high similarity with the cell wall binding domains SA and CbsA of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lb. crispatus. To evaluate the potential application as an anchoring protein, the green fluorescent protein (GFP or beta-galactosidase (Gal was fused to the N-terminus of the LcsB region, and the fused proteins were successfully produced in Escherichia coli, respectively. After mixing them with the non-genetically modified lactic acid bacteria cells, the fused GFP-LcsB and Gal-LcsB were functionally associated with the cell surface of various lactic acid bacteria tested. In addition, the binding capacity could be improved by SDS pretreatment. Moreover, both of the fused proteins could simultaneously bind to the surface of a single cell. Furthermore, when the fused DNA fragment of gfp:lcsB was inserted into the Lactococcus lactis expression vector pSec:Leiss:Nuc, the GFP could not be secreted into the medium under the control of the nisA promoter. Western blot, in-gel fluorescence assay, immunofluorescence microscopy and SDS sensitivity analysis confirmed that the GFP was successfully expressed onto the cell surface of L. lactis with the aid of the LcsB anchor. Conclusion The LcsB region can be used as a functional scaffold to target the heterologous proteins to the cell surfaces of lactic acid bacteria in vitro and in vivo, and has also the potential for biotechnological

  2. SOCS proteins in development and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trengove, Monique C; Ward, Alister C

    2013-01-01

    Cytokine and growth factor signaling mediates essential roles in the differentiation, proliferation, survival and function of a number of cell lineages. This is achieved via specific receptors located on the surface of target cells, with ligand binding activating key intracellular signal transduction cascades to mediate the requisite cellular outcome. Effective resolution of receptor signaling is also essential, with excessive signaling having the potential for pathological consequences. The Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family of proteins represent one important mechanism to extinguish cytokine and growth factor receptor signaling. There are 8 SOCS proteins in mammals; SOCS1-7 and the alternatively named Cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein (CISH). SOCS1-3 and CISH are predominantly associated with the regulation of cytokine receptor signaling, while SOCS4-7 are more commonly involved in the control of Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling. Individual SOCS proteins are typically induced by specific cytokines and growth factors, thereby generating a negative feedback loop. As a consequence of their regulatory properties, SOCS proteins have important functions in development and homeostasis, with increasing recognition of their role in disease, particularly their tumor suppressor and anti-inflammatory functions. This review provides a synthesis of our current understanding of the SOCS family, with an emphasis on their immune and hematopoietic roles. PMID:23885323

  3. Recombinant protein production data after expression in the bacterium Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Enrique Cantu-Bustos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fusion proteins have become essential for the expression and purification of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. The metal-binding protein CusF has shown several features that make it an attractive fusion protein and affinity tag: "Expression and purification of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli tagged with the metal-binding protein CusF" (Cantu-Bustos et al., 2016 [1]. Here we present accompanying data from protein expression experiments; we tested different protein tags, temperatures, expression times, cellular compartments, and concentrations of inducer in order to obtain soluble protein and low formation of inclusion bodies. Additionally, we present data from the purification of the green fluorescent protein (GFP tagged with CusF, using Ag(I metal affinity chromatography.

  4. Computer-mediated communication and interpersonal attraction: an experimental test of two explanatory hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antheunis, Marjolijn L; Valkenburg, Patti M; Peter, Jochen

    2007-12-01

    The aims of this study were (a) to investigate the influence of computer-mediated communication (CMC) on interpersonal attraction and (b) to examine two underlying processes in the CMC-interpersonal attraction relationship. We identified two variables that may mediate the influence of CMC on interpersonal attraction: self-disclosure and direct questioning. Focusing on these potential mediating variables, we tested two explanatory hypotheses: the CMC-induced direct questioning hypothesis and the CMC-induced self-disclosure hypothesis. Eighty-one cross-sex dyads were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: text-only CMC, visual CMC, and face-to-face communication. We did not find a direct effect of CMC on interpersonal attraction. However, we did find two positive indirect effects of text-only CMC on interpersonal attraction: text-only CMC stimulated both self-disclosure and direct questioning, both of which in turn enhanced interpersonal attraction. Results are discussed in light of uncertainty reduction theory and CMC theories.

  5. Possible Insecticidal Mechanisms Mediated by Immune-Response-Related Cry-Binding Proteins in the Midgut Juice of Plutella xylostella and Spodoptera exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Keyu; Gu, Yuqing; Liu, Xiaoping; Lin, Yi; Yu, Xiao-Qiang

    2017-03-15

    Cry toxins are insecticidal toxin proteins produced by a spore-forming Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Interactions between the Cry toxins and the receptors from midgut brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs), such as cadherin, alkaline phosphatase, and aminopeptidase, are key steps for the specificity and insecticidal activity of Cry proteins. However, little is known about the midgut juice proteins that may interfere with Cry binding to the receptors. To validate the hypothesis that there exist Cry-binding proteins that can interfere with the insecticidal process of Cry toxins, we applied Cry1Ab1-coupled Sepharose beads to isolate Cry-binding proteins form midgut juice of Plutella xylostella and Spodoptera exigua. Trypsin-like serine proteases and Dorsal were found to be Cry1Ab1-binding proteins in the midgut juice of P. xylostella. Peroxidase-C (POX-C) was found to be the Cry1Ab1-binding protein in the midgut juice of S. exigua. We proposed possible insecticidal mechanisms of Cry1Ab1 mediated by the two immune-related proteins: Dorsal and POX-C. Our results suggested that there exist, in the midgut juice, Cry-binding proteins, which are different from BBMV-specific receptors.

  6. Engineering protein scaffolds for protein separation, biocatalysis and nanotechnology applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang

    Globally, there is growing appreciation for developing a sustainable economy that uses eco-efficient bio-processes. Biotechnology provides an increasing range of tools for industry to help reduce cost and improve environmental performance. Inspired by the naturally evolved machineries of protein scaffolds and their binding ligands, synthetic protein scaffolds were engineered based on cohesin-dockerin interactions and metal chelating peptides to tackle the challenges and make improvements in three specific areas: (1) protein purification, (2) biofuel cells, and (3) nanomaterial synthesis. The first objective was to develop efficient and cost-effective non-chromatographic purification processes to purify recombinant proteins in an effort to meet the dramatically growing market of protein drugs. In our design, the target protein was genetically fused with a dockerin domain from Clostridium thermocellum and direct purification and recovery was achieved using thermo-responsive elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) scaffold containing the cohesin domain from the same species. By exploiting the highly specific interaction between the dockerin and cohesin domain and the reversible aggregation property of ELP, highly purified and active dockerin-tagged proteins, such as endoglucanase CelA, chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) and enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP), were recovered directly from crude cell extracts in a single purification step with yields achieving over 90%. Incorporation of a self-cleaving intein domain enabled rapid removal of the affinity tag from the target proteins by another cycle of thermal precipitation. The purification cost can be further reduced by regenerating and recycling the ELP-cohesin capturing scaffolds. However, due to the high binding affinity between cohesin and dockerin domains, the bound dockerin-intein tag cannot be completely disassociated from ELP-cohesin scaffold after binding. Therefore, a truncated dockerin with the calcium

  7. Protein Crystals as Novel Catalytic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Alexey L.; Navia, Manuel A.

    2001-06-18

    In this era of molecular biology, protein crystallization is often considered to be a necessary first step in obtaining structural information through X-ray diffraction analysis. In a different light, protein crystals can also be thought of as materials, whose chemical and physical properties make them broadly attractive and useful across a larger spectrum of disciplines. The full potential of these protein crystalline materials has been severely restricted in practice, however, both by their inherent fragility, and by strongly held skepticism concerning their routine and predictable growth, formulation, and practical application. Fortunately, these problems have turned out to be solvable. A systematic exploration of the biophysics and biochemistry of protein crystallization has shown that one can dependably create new protein crystalline materials more or less at will. In turn, these crystals can be readily strengthened, both chemically and mechanically, to make them suitable for practical commercialization. Today, these novel materials are used as industrial catalysts on a commercial scale, in bioremediation and "green chemistry" applications, and in enantioselective chromatography of pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals. In the near future, their utility will expand, to include the purification of protein drugs, formulation of direct protein therapeutics, and development of adjuvant-less vaccines.

  8. Bound water at protein-protein interfaces: partners, roles and hydrophobic bubbles as a conserved motif.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa H Ahmed

    Full Text Available There is a great interest in understanding and exploiting protein-protein associations as new routes for treating human disease. However, these associations are difficult to structurally characterize or model although the number of X-ray structures for protein-protein complexes is expanding. One feature of these complexes that has received little attention is the role of water molecules in the interfacial region.A data set of 4741 water molecules abstracted from 179 high-resolution (≤ 2.30 Å X-ray crystal structures of protein-protein complexes was analyzed with a suite of modeling tools based on the HINT forcefield and hydrogen-bonding geometry. A metric termed Relevance was used to classify the general roles of the water molecules.The water molecules were found to be involved in: a (bridging interactions with both proteins (21%, b favorable interactions with only one protein (53%, and c no interactions with either protein (26%. This trend is shown to be independent of the crystallographic resolution. Interactions with residue backbones are consistent for all classes and account for 21.5% of all interactions. Interactions with polar residues are significantly more common for the first group and interactions with non-polar residues dominate the last group. Waters interacting with both proteins stabilize on average the proteins' interaction (-0.46 kcal mol(-1, but the overall average contribution of a single water to the protein-protein interaction energy is unfavorable (+0.03 kcal mol(-1. Analysis of the waters without favorable interactions with either protein suggests that this is a conserved phenomenon: 42% of these waters have SASA ≤ 10 Å(2 and are thus largely buried, and 69% of these are within predominantly hydrophobic environments or "hydrophobic bubbles". Such water molecules may have an important biological purpose in mediating protein-protein interactions.

  9. Fluvastatin mediated breast cancer cell death: a proteomic approach to identify differentially regulated proteins in MDA-MB-231 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantha Koteswararao Kanugula

    Full Text Available Statins are increasingly being recognized as anti-cancer agents against various cancers including breast cancer. To understand the molecular pathways targeted by fluvastatin and its differential sensitivity against metastatic breast cancer cells, we analyzed protein alterations in MDA-MB-231 cells treated with fluvastatin using 2-DE in combination with LC-MS/MS. Results revealed dys-regulation of 39 protein spots corresponding to 35 different proteins. To determine the relevance of altered protein profiles with breast cancer cell death, we mapped these proteins to major pathways involved in the regulation of cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, cell cycle, Rho GDI and proteasomal pathways using IPA analysis. Highly interconnected sub networks showed that vimentin and ERK1/2 proteins play a central role in controlling the expression of altered proteins. Fluvastatin treatment caused proteolysis of vimentin, a marker of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. This effect of fluvastatin was reversed in the presence of mevalonate, a downstream product of HMG-CoA and caspase-3 inhibitor. Interestingly, fluvastatin neither caused an appreciable cell death nor did modulate vimentin expression in normal mammary epithelial cells. In conclusion, fluvastatin alters levels of cytoskeletal proteins, primarily targeting vimentin through increased caspase-3- mediated proteolysis, thereby suggesting a role for vimentin in statin-induced breast cancer cell death.

  10. Co-operative intra-protein structural response due to protein-protein complexation revealed through thermodynamic quantification: study of MDM2-p53 binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Sudipta; Mukherjee, Sanchita

    2017-10-01

    The p53 protein activation protects the organism from propagation of cells with damaged DNA having oncogenic mutations. In normal cells, activity of p53 is controlled by interaction with MDM2. The well understood p53-MDM2 interaction facilitates design of ligands that could potentially disrupt or prevent the complexation owing to its emergence as an important objective for cancer therapy. However, thermodynamic quantification of the p53-peptide induced structural changes of the MDM2-protein remains an area to be explored. This study attempts to understand the conformational free energy and entropy costs due to this complex formation from the histograms of dihedral angles generated from molecular dynamics simulations. Residue-specific quantification illustrates that, hydrophobic residues of the protein contribute maximum to the conformational thermodynamic changes. Thermodynamic quantification of structural changes of the protein unfold the fact that, p53 binding provides a source of inter-element cooperativity among the protein secondary structural elements, where the highest affected structural elements (α2 and α4) found at the binding site of the protein affects faraway structural elements (β1 and Loop1) of the protein. The communication perhaps involves water mediated hydrogen bonded network formation. Further, we infer that in inhibitory F19A mutation of P53, though Phe19 is important in the recognition process, it has less prominent contribution in the stability of the complex. Collectively, this study provides vivid microscopic understanding of the interaction within the protein complex along with exploring mutation sites, which will contribute further to engineer the protein function and binding affinity.

  11. Co-operative intra-protein structural response due to protein-protein complexation revealed through thermodynamic quantification: study of MDM2-p53 binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Sudipta; Mukherjee, Sanchita

    2017-10-01

    The p53 protein activation protects the organism from propagation of cells with damaged DNA having oncogenic mutations. In normal cells, activity of p53 is controlled by interaction with MDM2. The well understood p53-MDM2 interaction facilitates design of ligands that could potentially disrupt or prevent the complexation owing to its emergence as an important objective for cancer therapy. However, thermodynamic quantification of the p53-peptide induced structural changes of the MDM2-protein remains an area to be explored. This study attempts to understand the conformational free energy and entropy costs due to this complex formation from the histograms of dihedral angles generated from molecular dynamics simulations. Residue-specific quantification illustrates that, hydrophobic residues of the protein contribute maximum to the conformational thermodynamic changes. Thermodynamic quantification of structural changes of the protein unfold the fact that, p53 binding provides a source of inter-element cooperativity among the protein secondary structural elements, where the highest affected structural elements (α2 and α4) found at the binding site of the protein affects faraway structural elements (β1 and Loop1) of the protein. The communication perhaps involves water mediated hydrogen bonded network formation. Further, we infer that in inhibitory F19A mutation of P53, though Phe19 is important in the recognition process, it has less prominent contribution in the stability of the complex. Collectively, this study provides vivid microscopic understanding of the interaction within the protein complex along with exploring mutation sites, which will contribute further to engineer the protein function and binding affinity.

  12. Dysregulation of protein degradation pathways may mediate the liver injury and phospholipidosis associated with a cationic amphiphilic antibiotic drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosedale, Merrie; Wu, Hong; Kurtz, C. Lisa; Schmidt, Stephen P.; Adkins, Karissa; Harrill, Alison H.

    2014-01-01

    A large number of antibiotics are known to cause drug-induced liver injury in the clinic; however, interpreting clinical risk is not straightforward owing to a lack of predictivity of the toxicity by standard preclinical species and a poor understanding of the mechanisms of toxicity. An example is PF-04287881, a novel ketolide antibiotic that caused elevations in liver function tests in Phase I clinical studies. In this study, a mouse diversity panel (MDP), comprised of 34 genetically diverse, inbred mouse strains, was utilized to model the toxicity observed with PF-04287881 treatment and investigate potential mechanisms that may mediate the liver response. Significant elevations in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in PF-04287881-treated animals relative to vehicle-treated controls were observed in the majority (88%) of strains tested following a seven day exposure. The average fold elevation in ALT varied by genetic background and correlated with microscopic findings of hepatocellular hypertrophy, hepatocellular single cell necrosis, and Kupffer cell vacuolation (confirmed as phospholipidosis) in the liver. Global liver mRNA expression was evaluated in a subset of four strains to identify transcript and pathway differences that distinguish susceptible mice from resistant mice in the context of PF-04287881 treatment. The protein ubiquitination pathway was highly enriched among genes associated with PF-04287881-induced hepatocellular necrosis. Expression changes associated with PF-04287881-induced phospholipidosis included genes involved in drug transport, phospholipid metabolism, and lysosomal function. The findings suggest that perturbations in genes involved in protein degradation leading to accumulation of oxidized proteins may mediate the liver injury induced by this drug. - Highlights: • Identified susceptible and resistant mouse strains to liver injury induced by a CAD • Liver injury characterized by single cell necrosis, and phospholipidosis

  13. Dysregulation of protein degradation pathways may mediate the liver injury and phospholipidosis associated with a cationic amphiphilic antibiotic drug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosedale, Merrie [Hamner-University of North Carolina Institute for Drug Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Wu, Hong [Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, CT06340 (United States); Kurtz, C. Lisa [Hamner-University of North Carolina Institute for Drug Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Schmidt, Stephen P. [Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, CT06340 (United States); Adkins, Karissa, E-mail: Karissa.Adkins@pfizer.com [Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, CT06340 (United States); Harrill, Alison H. [Hamner-University of North Carolina Institute for Drug Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR72205 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    A large number of antibiotics are known to cause drug-induced liver injury in the clinic; however, interpreting clinical risk is not straightforward owing to a lack of predictivity of the toxicity by standard preclinical species and a poor understanding of the mechanisms of toxicity. An example is PF-04287881, a novel ketolide antibiotic that caused elevations in liver function tests in Phase I clinical studies. In this study, a mouse diversity panel (MDP), comprised of 34 genetically diverse, inbred mouse strains, was utilized to model the toxicity observed with PF-04287881 treatment and investigate potential mechanisms that may mediate the liver response. Significant elevations in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in PF-04287881-treated animals relative to vehicle-treated controls were observed in the majority (88%) of strains tested following a seven day exposure. The average fold elevation in ALT varied by genetic background and correlated with microscopic findings of hepatocellular hypertrophy, hepatocellular single cell necrosis, and Kupffer cell vacuolation (confirmed as phospholipidosis) in the liver. Global liver mRNA expression was evaluated in a subset of four strains to identify transcript and pathway differences that distinguish susceptible mice from resistant mice in the context of PF-04287881 treatment. The protein ubiquitination pathway was highly enriched among genes associated with PF-04287881-induced hepatocellular necrosis. Expression changes associated with PF-04287881-induced phospholipidosis included genes involved in drug transport, phospholipid metabolism, and lysosomal function. The findings suggest that perturbations in genes involved in protein degradation leading to accumulation of oxidized proteins may mediate the liver injury induced by this drug. - Highlights: • Identified susceptible and resistant mouse strains to liver injury induced by a CAD • Liver injury characterized by single cell necrosis, and phospholipidosis

  14. High-level expression of soluble recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli using an HE-maltotriose-binding protein fusion tag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingqian; Guo, Wanying; Su, Bingqian; Guo, Yujie; Wang, Jiang; Chu, Beibei; Yang, Guoyu

    2018-02-01

    Recombinant proteins are commonly expressed in prokaryotic expression systems for large-scale production. The use of genetically engineered affinity and solubility enhancing fusion proteins has increased greatly in recent years, and there now exists a considerable repertoire of these that can be used to enhance the expression, stability, solubility, folding, and purification of their fusion partner. Here, a modified histidine tag (HE) used as an affinity tag was employed together with a truncated maltotriose-binding protein (MBP; consisting of residues 59-433) from Pyrococcus furiosus as a solubility enhancing tag accompanying a tobacco etch virus protease-recognition site for protein expression and purification in Escherichia coli. Various proteins tagged at the N-terminus with HE-MBP(Pyr) were expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) cells to determine expression and solubility relative to those tagged with His6-MBP or His6-MBP(Pyr). Furthermore, four HE-MBP(Pyr)-fused proteins were purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography to assess the affinity of HE with immobilized Ni 2+ . Our results showed that HE-MBP(Pyr) represents an attractive fusion protein allowing high levels of soluble expression and purification of recombinant protein in E. coli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Heme Sensor Proteins*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girvan, Hazel M.; Munro, Andrew W.

    2013-01-01

    Heme is a prosthetic group best known for roles in oxygen transport, oxidative catalysis, and respiratory electron transport. Recent years have seen the roles of heme extended to sensors of gases such as O2 and NO and cell redox state, and as mediators of cellular responses to changes in intracellular levels of these gases. The importance of heme is further evident from identification of proteins that bind heme reversibly, using it as a signal, e.g. to regulate gene expression in circadian rhythm pathways and control heme synthesis itself. In this minireview, we explore the current knowledge of the diverse roles of heme sensor proteins. PMID:23539616

  16. Fem1b, a proapoptotic protein, mediates proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis of human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subauste, M Cecilia; Sansom, Owen J; Porecha, Nehal; Raich, Natacha; Du, Liqin; Maher, Joseph F

    2010-02-01

    In the treatment of colon cancer, the development of resistance to apoptosis is a major factor in resistance to therapy. New molecular approaches to overcome apoptosis resistance, such as selectively upregulating proapoptotic proteins, are needed in colon cancer therapy. In a mouse model with inactivation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) tumor suppressor gene, reflecting the pathogenesis of most human colon cancers, the gene encoding feminization-1 homolog b (Fem1b) is upregulated in intestinal epithelium following Apc inactivation. Fem1b is a proapoptotic protein that interacts with apoptosis-inducing proteins Fas, tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR1), and apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1). Increasing Fem1b expression induces apoptosis of cancer cells, but effects on colon cancer cells have not been reported. Fem1b is a homolog of feminization-1 (FEM-1), a protein in Caenorhabditis elegans that is regulated by proteasomal degradation, but whether Fem1b is likewise regulated by proteasomal degradation is unknown. Herein, we found that Fem1b protein is expressed in primary human colon cancer specimens, and in malignant SW620, HCT-116, and DLD-1 colon cancer cells. Increasing Fem1b expression, by transfection of a Fem1b expression construct, induced apoptosis of these cells. We found that proteasome inhibitor treatment of SW620, HCT-116, and DLD-1 cells caused upregulation of Fem1b protein levels, associated with induction of apoptosis. Blockade of Fem1b upregulation with morpholino antisense oligonucleotide suppressed the proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis of these cells. In conclusion, the proapoptotic protein Fem1b is downregulated by the proteasome in malignant colon cancer cells and mediates proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis of these cells. Therefore, Fem1b could represent a novel molecular target to overcome apoptosis resistance in therapy of colon cancer.

  17. Translational regulation of ribosomal protein S15 drives characteristic patterns of protein-mRNA epistasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Saurav; Basu, Sudipto; Hait, Suman; Kundu, Sudip

    2018-04-21

    Do coding and regulatory segments of a gene co-evolve with each-other? Seeking answers to this question, here we analyze the case of Escherichia coli ribosomal protein S15, that represses its own translation by specifically binding its messenger RNA (rpsO mRNA) and stabilizing a pseudoknot structure at the upstream untranslated region, thus trapping the ribosome into an incomplete translation initiation complex. In the absence of S15, ribosomal protein S1 recognizes rpsO and promotes translation by melting this very pseudoknot. We employ a robust statistical method to detect signatures of positive epistasis between residue site pairs and find that biophysical constraints of translational regulation (S15-rpsO and S1-rpsO recognition, S15-mediated rpsO structural rearrangement, and S1-mediated melting) are strong predictors of positive epistasis. Transforming the epistatic pairs into a network, we find that signatures of two different, but interconnected regulatory cascades are imprinted in the sequence-space and can be captured in terms of two dense network modules that are sparsely connected to each other. This network topology further reflects a general principle of how functionally coupled components of biological networks are interconnected. These results depict a model case, where translational regulation drives characteristic residue-level epistasis-not only between a protein and its own mRNA but also between a protein and the mRNA of an entirely different protein. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. TAT-Mediated Delivery of Tousled Protein to Salivary Glands Protects Against Radiation-Induced Hypofunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunavala-Dossabhoy, Gulshan, E-mail: gsunav@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Palaniyandi, Senthilnathan; Richardson, Charles; De Benedetti, Arrigo [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Schrott, Lisa [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Caldito, Gloria [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Patients treated with radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer invariably suffer its deleterious side effect, xerostomia. Salivary hypofunction ensuing from the irreversible destruction of glands is the most common and debilitating oral complication affecting patients undergoing regional radiotherapy. Given that the current management of xerostomia is palliative and ineffective, efforts are now directed toward preventive measures to preserve gland function. The human homolog of Tousled protein, TLK1B, facilitates chromatin remodeling at DNA repair sites and improves cell survival against ionizing radiation (IR). Therefore, we wanted to determine whether a direct transfer of TLK1B protein to rat salivary glands could protect against IR-induced salivary hypofunction. Methods: The cell-permeable TAT-TLK1B fusion protein was generated. Rat acinar cell line and rat salivary glands were pretreated with TAT peptide or TAT-TLK1B before IR. The acinar cell survival in vitro and salivary function in vivo were assessed after radiation. Results: We demonstrated that rat acinar cells transduced with TAT-TLK1B were more resistant to radiation (D{sub 0} = 4.13 {+-} 1.0 Gy; {alpha}/{beta} = 0 Gy) compared with cells transduced with the TAT peptide (D{sub 0} = 4.91 {+-} 1.0 Gy; {alpha}/{beta} = 20.2 Gy). Correspondingly, retroductal instillation of TAT-TLK1B in rat submandibular glands better preserved salivary flow after IR (89%) compared with animals pretreated with Opti-MEM or TAT peptide (31% and 39%, respectively; p < 0.01). Conclusions: The results demonstrate that a direct transfer of TLK1B protein to the salivary glands effectively attenuates radiation-mediated gland dysfunction. Prophylactic TLK1B-protein therapy could benefit patients undergoing radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer.

  19. Manipulating the glycosylation pathway in bacterial and lower eukaryotes for production of therapeutic proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anyaogu, Diana Chinyere; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro

    2015-01-01

    The medical use of pharmaceutical proteins is rapidly increasing and cheap, fast and efficient production is therefore attractive. Microbial production hosts are promising candidates for development and production of pharmaceutical proteins. However, as most therapeutic proteins are secreted...... to produce proteins with humanlike glycan structures setting the stage for production of pharmaceutical proteins in bacteria, yeasts and algae....

  20. Self-assembling peptide and protein nanodiscs for studies of membrane proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Søren Roi

    Particles containing both lipids and proteins (so-called lipoproteins) are vital to study. They are selfassembling particles that, in the human body, are responsible for the transport of lipids and cholesterol. Due to the increasing problems of obesity and related illnesses in the world, obtaining...... more knowledge about the cholesterol and lipid metabolism is paramount. As an example, in 2012, cardiovascular disease was still the main cause of death in the U.S. This means that the study of lipoproteins is not only of pure academic interest but vital to current world problems. Another reason...... of proteins encoded by the human genome. G-protein coupled receptors mediate the majority of hormone and neurotransmitter signals as well as being responsible for perception of light, smell and taste in the human body, and a number of Nobel prizes has been awarded based on their study. Structural...

  1. Proteomic analysis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elortza, Felix; Nühse, Thomas S; Foster, Leonard J

    2003-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) are a functionally and structurally diverse family of post-translationally modified membrane proteins found mostly in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane in a variety of eukaryotic cells. Although the general role of GPI-APs remains...... unclear, they have attracted attention because they act as enzymes and receptors in cell adhesion, differentiation, and host-pathogen interactions. GPI-APs may represent potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets in humans and are interesting in plant biotechnology because of their key role in root...... and 44 GPI-APs in an Arabidopsis thaliana membrane preparation, representing the largest experimental dataset of GPI-anchored proteins to date....

  2. Identification of in planta protein–protein interactions using IP-MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamge, Suraj; Angenent, Gerco; Bemer, Marian

    2018-01-01

    Gene regulation by transcription factors involves complex protein interaction networks, which include chromatin remodeling and modifying proteins as an integral part. Decoding these protein interactions is crucial for our understanding of chromatin-mediated gene regulation. Here, we describe a

  3. Oligomeric protein structure networks: insights into protein-protein interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brinda KV

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein association is essential for a variety of cellular processes and hence a large number of investigations are being carried out to understand the principles of protein-protein interactions. In this study, oligomeric protein structures are viewed from a network perspective to obtain new insights into protein association. Structure graphs of proteins have been constructed from a non-redundant set of protein oligomer crystal structures by considering amino acid residues as nodes and the edges are based on the strength of the non-covalent interactions between the residues. The analysis of such networks has been carried out in terms of amino acid clusters and hubs (highly connected residues with special emphasis to protein interfaces. Results A variety of interactions such as hydrogen bond, salt bridges, aromatic and hydrophobic interactions, which occur at the interfaces are identified in a consolidated manner as amino acid clusters at the interface, from this study. Moreover, the characterization of the highly connected hub-forming residues at the interfaces and their comparison with the hubs from the non-interface regions and the non-hubs in the interface regions show that there is a predominance of charged interactions at the interfaces. Further, strong and weak interfaces are identified on the basis of the interaction strength between amino acid residues and the sizes of the interface clusters, which also show that many protein interfaces are stronger than their monomeric protein cores. The interface strengths evaluated based on the interface clusters and hubs also correlate well with experimentally determined dissociation constants for known complexes. Finally, the interface hubs identified using the present method correlate very well with experimentally determined hotspots in the interfaces of protein complexes obtained from the Alanine Scanning Energetics database (ASEdb. A few predictions of interface hot

  4. A simple and reliable approach to docking protein-protein complexes from very sparse NOE-derived intermolecular distance restraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Chun; Clore, G. Marius [National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (United States)], E-mail: mariusc@intra.niddk.nih.gov

    2006-09-15

    A simple and reliable approach for docking protein-protein complexes from very sparse NOE-derived intermolecular distance restraints (as few as three from a single point) in combination with a novel representation for an attractive potential between mapped interaction surfaces is described. Unambiguous assignments of very sparse intermolecular NOEs are obtained using a reverse labeling strategy in which one the components is fully deuterated with the exception of selective protonation of the {delta}-methyl groups of isoleucine, while the other component is uniformly {sup 13}C-labeled. This labeling strategy can be readily extended to selective protonation of Ala, Leu, Val or Met. The attractive potential is described by a 'reduced' radius of gyration potential applied specifically to a subset of interfacial residues (those with an accessible surface area {>=} 50% in the free proteins) that have been delineated by chemical shift perturbation. Docking is achieved by rigid body minimization on the basis of a target function comprising the sparse NOE distance restraints, a van der Waals repulsion potential and the 'reduced' radius of gyration potential. The method is demonstrated for two protein-protein complexes (EIN-HPr and IIA{sup Glc}-HPr) from the bacterial phosphotransferase system. In both cases, starting from 100 different random orientations of the X-ray structures of the free proteins, 100% convergence is achieved to a single cluster (with near identical atomic positions) with an overall backbone accuracy of {approx}2 A. The approach described is not limited to NMR, since interfaces can also be mapped by alanine scanning mutagenesis, and sparse intermolecular distance restraints can be derived from double cycle mutagenesis, cross-linking combined with mass spectrometry, or fluorescence energy transfer.

  5. RNA-Binding Proteins Revisited – The Emerging Arabidopsis mRNA Interactome

    KAUST Repository

    Köster, Tino

    2017-04-13

    RNA–protein interaction is an important checkpoint to tune gene expression at the RNA level. Global identification of proteins binding in vivo to mRNA has been possible through interactome capture – where proteins are fixed to target RNAs by UV crosslinking and purified through affinity capture of polyadenylated RNA. In Arabidopsis over 500 RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) enriched in UV-crosslinked samples have been identified. As in mammals and yeast, the mRNA interactomes came with a few surprises. For example, a plethora of the proteins caught on RNA had not previously been linked to RNA-mediated processes, for example proteins of intermediary metabolism. Thus, the studies provide unprecedented insights into the composition of the mRNA interactome, highlighting the complexity of RNA-mediated processes.

  6. RNA-Binding Proteins Revisited – The Emerging Arabidopsis mRNA Interactome

    KAUST Repository

    Kö ster, Tino; Marondedze, Claudius; Meyer, Katja; Staiger, Dorothee

    2017-01-01

    RNA–protein interaction is an important checkpoint to tune gene expression at the RNA level. Global identification of proteins binding in vivo to mRNA has been possible through interactome capture – where proteins are fixed to target RNAs by UV crosslinking and purified through affinity capture of polyadenylated RNA. In Arabidopsis over 500 RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) enriched in UV-crosslinked samples have been identified. As in mammals and yeast, the mRNA interactomes came with a few surprises. For example, a plethora of the proteins caught on RNA had not previously been linked to RNA-mediated processes, for example proteins of intermediary metabolism. Thus, the studies provide unprecedented insights into the composition of the mRNA interactome, highlighting the complexity of RNA-mediated processes.

  7. Four regulatory elements in the human c-fos promoter mediate transactivation by HTLV-1 Tax protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, C; Verrier, B

    1991-04-01

    Expression of the human c-fos proto-oncogene is activated in trans by the Tax protein encoded by human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1). Indeed, we show here that a HeLa clone stably transfected by Tax expresses Fos at a high level. We also show that multiple elements of the human c-fos promoter, i.e. the v-sis conditioned medium inducible element (SIE), the dyad symmetry element (DSE) necessary for growth factor induction, the octanucleotide direct repeat element (DR), and the cyclic AMP response element (CRE) centred at -60, can all mediate Tax transactivation. In the DSE, the 10bp central core that binds the serum response factor (SRF) is, by itself, sufficient to mediate Tax transactivation. Moreover, a CRE-binding protein is involved in Tax activation through the CRE-60 element. Since Fos is a transregulator of cellular genes, our results suggest that the oncoprotein plays a crucial role in T-cell transformation by HTLV-1 in conjunction with other Tax-inducible genes.

  8. Protein as chemical cue: non-nutritional growth enhancement by exogenous protein in Pseudomonas putida KT2440.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiren Joshi

    Full Text Available Research pertaining to microbe-microbe and microbe-plant interactions has been largely limited to small molecules like quorum sensing chemicals. However, a few recent reports have indicated the role of complex molecules like proteins and polysaccharides in microbial communication. Here we demonstrate that exogenous proteins present in culture media can considerably accelerate the growth of Pseudomonas putida KT2440, even when such proteins are not internalized by the cells. The growth enhancement is observed when the exogenous protein is not used as a source of carbon or nitrogen. The data show non-specific nature of the protein inducing growth; growth enhancement was observed irrespective of the protein type. It is shown that growth enhancement is mediated via increased siderophore secretion in response to the exogenous protein, leading to better iron uptake. We highlight the ecological significance of the observation and hypothesize that exogenous proteins serve as chemical cues in the case of P.putida and are perceived as indicator of the presence of competitors in the environment. It is argued that enhanced siderophore secretion in response to exogenous protein helps P.putida establish numerical superiority over competitors by way of enhanced iron assimilation and quicker utilization of aromatic substrates.

  9. S-adenosyl-L-methionine protection of acetaminophen mediated oxidative stress and identification of hepatic 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts by mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, James Mike [Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Toxicology, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, Huntington, WV (United States); Kuhlman, Christopher [Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, AZ (United States); Terneus, Marcus V. [Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Toxicology, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, Huntington, WV (United States); Labenski, Matthew T. [Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, AZ (United States); Lamyaithong, Andre Benja; Ball, John G. [Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Toxicology, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, Huntington, WV (United States); Lau, Serrine S. [Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, AZ (United States); Valentovic, Monica A., E-mail: Valentov@marshall.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Toxicology, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, Huntington, WV (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity is protected by S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) treatment 1 hour (h) after APAP in C57/Bl6 mice. This study examined protein carbonylation as well as mitochondrial and cytosolic protein adduction by 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) using mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. Additional studies investigated the leakage of mitochondrial proteins and 4-HNE adduction of these proteins. Male C57/Bl6 mice (n = 5/group) were divided into the following groups and treated as indicated: Veh (15 ml/kg water, ip), SAMe (1.25 mmol/kg, ip), APAP (250 mg/kg), and SAMe given 1 h after APAP (S + A). APAP toxicity was confirmed by an increase (p < 0.05) in plasma ALT (U/l) and liver weight/10 g body weight relative to the Veh, SAMe and S + A groups 4 h following APAP treatment. SAMe administered 1 h post-APAP partially corrected APAP hepatotoxicity as ALT and liver weight/10 g body weights were lower in the S + A group compared the APAP group. APAP induced leakage of the mitochondrial protein, carbamoyl phosphate synthase-1 (CPS-1) into the cytosol and which was reduced in the S + A group. SAMe further reduced the extent of APAP mediated 4-HNE adduction of CPS-1. MS analysis of hepatic and mitochondrial subcellular fractions identified proteins from APAP treated mice. Site specific 4-HNE adducts were identified on mitochondrial proteins sarcosine dehydrogenase and carbamoyl phosphate synthase-1 (CPS-1). In summary, APAP is associated with 4-HNE adduction of proteins as identified by MS analysis and that CPS-1 leakage was greater in APAP treated mice. SAMe reduced the extent of 4-HNE adduction of proteins as well as leakage of CPS-1. - Highlights: • Acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity protected by S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) • 4-Hydroxynonenal adducted to sarcosine dehydrogenase • 4-Hydroxynonenal adducted to carbamoyl phosphate synthetase-1 • SAMe reduced APAP mediated CPS-1 mitochondrial leakage.

  10. S-adenosyl-L-methionine protection of acetaminophen mediated oxidative stress and identification of hepatic 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts by mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, James Mike; Kuhlman, Christopher; Terneus, Marcus V.; Labenski, Matthew T.; Lamyaithong, Andre Benja; Ball, John G.; Lau, Serrine S.; Valentovic, Monica A.

    2014-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity is protected by S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) treatment 1 hour (h) after APAP in C57/Bl6 mice. This study examined protein carbonylation as well as mitochondrial and cytosolic protein adduction by 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) using mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. Additional studies investigated the leakage of mitochondrial proteins and 4-HNE adduction of these proteins. Male C57/Bl6 mice (n = 5/group) were divided into the following groups and treated as indicated: Veh (15 ml/kg water, ip), SAMe (1.25 mmol/kg, ip), APAP (250 mg/kg), and SAMe given 1 h after APAP (S + A). APAP toxicity was confirmed by an increase (p < 0.05) in plasma ALT (U/l) and liver weight/10 g body weight relative to the Veh, SAMe and S + A groups 4 h following APAP treatment. SAMe administered 1 h post-APAP partially corrected APAP hepatotoxicity as ALT and liver weight/10 g body weights were lower in the S + A group compared the APAP group. APAP induced leakage of the mitochondrial protein, carbamoyl phosphate synthase-1 (CPS-1) into the cytosol and which was reduced in the S + A group. SAMe further reduced the extent of APAP mediated 4-HNE adduction of CPS-1. MS analysis of hepatic and mitochondrial subcellular fractions identified proteins from APAP treated mice. Site specific 4-HNE adducts were identified on mitochondrial proteins sarcosine dehydrogenase and carbamoyl phosphate synthase-1 (CPS-1). In summary, APAP is associated with 4-HNE adduction of proteins as identified by MS analysis and that CPS-1 leakage was greater in APAP treated mice. SAMe reduced the extent of 4-HNE adduction of proteins as well as leakage of CPS-1. - Highlights: • Acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity protected by S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) • 4-Hydroxynonenal adducted to sarcosine dehydrogenase • 4-Hydroxynonenal adducted to carbamoyl phosphate synthetase-1 • SAMe reduced APAP mediated CPS-1 mitochondrial leakage

  11. Viscosity of high concentration protein formulations of monoclonal antibodies of the IgG1 and IgG4 subclass - Prediction of viscosity through protein-protein interaction measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Martin S; Kalonia, Devendra S; Parshad, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to explore the relation between protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and solution viscosity at high protein concentration using three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), two of the IgG4 subclass and one of the IgG1 subclass. A range of methods was used to quantify the PPI...... low or high protein concentration determined using DLS. The PPI measurements were correlated with solution viscosity (measured by DLS using polystyrene nanospheres and ultrasonic shear rheology) as a function of pH (4-9) and ionic strength (10, 50 and 150mM). Our measurements showed that the highest...... solution viscosity was observed under conditions with the most negative kD, the highest apparent radius and the lowest net charge. An increase in ionic strength resulted in a change in the nature of the PPI at low pH from repulsive to attractive. In the neutral to alkaline pH region the mAbs behaved...

  12. Protein Self-Assembly and Protein-Induced DNA Morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawhinney, Matthew T.

    The ability of biomolecules to associate into various structural configurations has a substantial impact on human physiology. The synthesis of protein polypeptide chains using the information encoded by DNA is mediated through the use of regulatory proteins, known as transcription factors. Some transcription factors perform function by inducing local curvature in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) strands, the mechanisms of which are not entirely known. An important architectural protein, eleven zinc finger CTCF (11 ZF CTCF) is involved in genome organization and hypothesized to mediate DNA loop formation. Direct evidence for these CTCF-induced DNA loops has yet to be observed. In this thesis, the effect of 11 ZF CTCF on DNA morphology is examined using atomic force microscopy, a powerful technique for visualizing biomolecules with nanometer resolution. The presence of CTCF is revealed to induce a variety of morphologies deviating from the relaxed state of control DNA samples, including compact circular complexes, meshes, and networks. Images reveal quasi-circular DNA/CTCF complexes consistent with a single DNA molecule twice wrapped around the protein. The structures of DNA and proteins are highly important for operations in the cell. Structural irregularities may lead to a variety of issues, including more than twenty human pathologies resulting from aberrant protein misfolding into amyloid aggregates of elongated fibrils. Insulin deficiency and resistance characterizing type 2 diabetes often requires administration of insulin. Injectable and inhalable delivery methods have been documented to result in the deposition of amyloid fibrils. Oligomers, soluble multiprotein assemblies, are believed to play an important role in this process. Insulin aggregation under physiological conditions is not well understood and oligomers have not yet been fully characterized. In this thesis, in vitro insulin aggregation at acidic and neutral pH is explored using a variety of techniques

  13. Protein nanoparticles for therapeutic protein delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Estrada, L P; Champion, J A

    2015-06-01

    Therapeutic proteins can face substantial challenges to their activity, requiring protein modification or use of a delivery vehicle. Nanoparticles can significantly enhance delivery of encapsulated cargo, but traditional small molecule carriers have some limitations in their use for protein delivery. Nanoparticles made from protein have been proposed as alternative carriers and have benefits specific to therapeutic protein delivery. This review describes protein nanoparticles made by self-assembly, including protein cages, protein polymers, and charged or amphipathic peptides, and by desolvation. It presents particle fabrication and delivery characterization for a variety of therapeutic and model proteins, as well as comparison of the features of different protein nanoparticles.

  14. Protein Enrichment of Familiar Foods as an Innovative Strategy to Increase Protein Intake in Institutionalized Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beelen, J; de Roos, N M; de Groot, L C P G M

    2017-01-01

    To increase the protein intake of older adults, protein enrichment of familiar foods and drinks might be an effective and attractive alternative for oral nutritional supplements (ONS). We performed a pilot study to test whether these products could help institutionalized elderly to reach a protein intake of 1.2 gram per kg body weight per day (g/kg/d). Intervention study with one treatment group (no control group). Dietary assessment was done before and at the end of a 10-day intervention. Two care facilities in Gelderland, the Netherlands: a residential care home and a rehabilitation center. 22 elderly subjects (13 women, 9 men; mean age 83.0±9.4 years). We used a variety of newly developed protein enriched regular foods and drinks, including bread, soups, fruit juices, and instant mashed potatoes. Dietary intake was assessed on two consecutive days before and at the end of the intervention, using food records filled out by research assistants. Energy and macronutrient intake was calculated using the 2013 Dutch food composition database. Changes in protein intake were evaluated using paired t-tests. Protein intake increased by 11.8 g/d (P=0.003); from 0.96 to 1.14 g/kg/d (P=0.002). This increase is comparable to protein provided by one standard portion of ONS. The intake of energy and other macronutrients did not change significantly. At the end of the intervention more elderly reached a protein intake level of 1.2 g/kg/d than before (9 vs 4). Protein intake significantly increased during breakfast (+3.7 g) and during the evening (+2.2 g). Including familiar protein enriched foods and drinks in the menu helped to meet protein recommendations in institutionalized elderly.

  15. Glycosaminoglycans mediate retention of the poxvirus type I interferon binding protein at the cell surface to locally block interferon antiviral responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanuy, Imma; Alejo, Ali; Alcami, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Eradication of smallpox was accomplished 30 yr ago, but poxviral infections still represent a public health concern due to the potential release of variola virus or the emergence of zoonotic poxviruses, such as monkeypox virus. A critical determinant of poxvirus virulence is the inhibition of interferons (IFNs) by the virus-encoded type I IFN-binding protein (IFNα/βBP). This immunomodulatory protein is secreted and has the unique property of interacting with the cell surface in order to prevent IFN-mediated antiviral responses. However, the mechanism of its attachment to the cell surface remains unknown. Using surface plasmon resonance and cell-binding assays, we report that the IFNα/βBP from vaccinia virus, the smallpox vaccine, interacts with cell surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Analysis of the contribution of different regions of the protein to cell surface binding demonstrated that clusters of basic residues in the first immunoglobulin domain mediate GAG interactions. Furthermore, mutation of the GAG-interaction motifs does not affect its IFN-binding and -blocking capacity. Functional conservation of GAG-binding sites is demonstrated for the IFNα/βBP from variola and monkeypox viruses, extending our understanding of immune modulation by the most virulent human poxviruses. These results are relevant for the design of improved vaccines and intervention strategies.—Montanuy, I., Alejo, A., Alcami, A. Glycosaminoglycans mediate retention of the poxvirus type I interferon binding protein at the cell surface to locally block interferon antiviral responses. PMID:21372110

  16. EHD proteins: Key conductors of endocytic transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Regulation of endocytic transport is controlled by an elaborate network of proteins. Rab GTP-binding proteins and their effectors have well-defined roles in mediating specific endocytic transport steps, but until recently, less was known about the four mammalian dynamin-like C-terminal Eps15 Homology Domain (EHD) proteins that also regulate endocytic events. In recent years, however, great strides have been made in understanding the structure and function of these unique proteins. Indeed, a growing body of literature addresses EHD protein structure, interactions with binding partners, functions in mammalian cells, and the generation of various new model systems. Accordingly, this is now an opportune time to pause and review the function and mechanisms of action of EHD proteins, and to highlight some of the challenges and future directions for the field. PMID:21067929

  17. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Maria Cristina Suarez; Petersen, Morten; Mundy, John

    2010-01-01

    crossinhibition, feedback control, and scaffolding. Plant MAPK cascades regulate numerous processes, including stress and hormonal responses, innate immunity, and developmental programs. Genetic analyses have uncovered several predominant MAPK components shared by several of these processes including...... of substrate proteins, whose altered activities mediate a wide array of responses, including changes in gene expression. Cascades may share kinase components, but their signaling specificity is maintained by spaciotemporal constraints and dynamic protein-protein interactions and by mechanisms that include...

  18. [(35)S]-GTPgammaS autoradiography reveals alpha(2) adrenoceptor-mediated G-protein activation in amygdala and lateral septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman-Tancredi, A; Chaput, C; Touzard, M; Millan, M J

    2000-04-03

    alpha(2)-adrenoceptor-mediated G-protein activation was examined by [(35)S]-GTPgammaS autoradiography. In alpha(2)-adrenoceptor-rich regions (amygdala, lateral septum), noradrenaline stimulated [(35)S]-GTPgammaS binding. These actions were abolished by the selective alpha(2) antagonist, atipamezole. Conversely, in caudate nucleus, which expresses few alpha(2) receptors, noradrenaline-induced stimulation was not inhibited by atipamezole, suggesting that it is not mediated by alpha(2)-adrenoceptors.

  19. Interaction study on bovine serum albumin physically binding to silver nanoparticles: Evolution from discrete conjugates to protein coronas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jun; Zhong, Ruibo; Li, Wanrong; Liu, Yushuang; Bai, Zhijun; Yin, Jun; Liu, Jingran; Gong, Pei [Agricultural Nanocenter, School of Life Science, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, 306 Zhaowuda Road, Hohhot 010018 (China); Zhao, Xinmin, E-mail: zhao.xinmin@hotmail.com [School of Foreign Language, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, 306 Zhaowuda Road, Hohhot 010018 (China); Zhang, Feng, E-mail: fengzhang1978@hotmail.com [Agricultural Nanocenter, School of Life Science, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, 306 Zhaowuda Road, Hohhot 010018 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: With the non-uniform coating of amphiphilic polymer, the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) can form protein coronas which can become discrete protein–nanoparticle conjugates when controlling the protein–nanoparticle molar ratios. The protein's conformational changes upon binding NPs was also studied by both circular dichroism and three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy. - Highlights: • The amphiphilic polymer coating can not only transfer hydrophobic NPs into water soluble, but also providing a thick shell responsible for the strong physisorption to proteins without significantly changing their spatial conformations. • NP with discrete proteins can be simply obtained by a simple mixing procedure followed by a gel electrophoresis separation, and the resulting conjugates are robust enough to resist common separation techniques like gel electrophoresis. • In combination with the universal amphiphilic polymer coating strategy and the physisorption mediated protein–NP conjugation, proteins like BSA can be effectively conjugated to different materials such as noble metal, semiconductor and magnetic NPs. • In contrast to chemical coupling methods, the physisorption mediated protein–NP conjugation holds facile, robust and reversible advantages, which may find wide applications in nano-biomedicine field. - Abstract: The nanostructures formed by inorganic nanoparticles together with organic molecules especially biomolecules have attracted increasing attention from both industries and researching fields due to their unique hybrid properties. In this paper, we systemically studied the interactions between amphiphilic polymer coated silver nanoparticles and bovine serum albumins by employing the fluorescence quenching approach in combination with the Stern-Volmer and Hill equations. The binding affinity was determined to 1.30 × 10{sup 7} M{sup −1} and the interaction was spontaneously driven by mainly the van der Waals force and

  20. Interaction of lysozyme protein with different sized silica nanoparticles and their resultant structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Indresh, E-mail: iykumarindresh288@gmail.com; Aswal, V. K. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kohlbrecher, J. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 PSI Villigen (Switzerland)

    2016-05-23

    The interaction of model protein-lysozyme with three different sized anionic silica nanoparticles has been studied by UV-vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The surface area and curvature of the nanoparticles change with size, which significantly influence their interaction with protein. The lysozyme adsorbs on the surface of the nanoparticles due to electrostatic attraction and leads to the phase transformation from one phase (clear) to two-phase (turbid) of the nanoparticle-protein system. The dominance of lysozyme induced short-range attraction over long-range electrostatic repulsion between nanoparticles is responsible for phase transformation and modeled by the two-Yukawa potential. The magnitude of the attractive interaction increases with the size of the nanoparticles as a result the phase transformation commences relatively at lower concentration of lysozyme. The structure of the nanoparticle-protein system in two-phase is characterized by the diffusion limited aggregate type of mass fractal morphology.

  1. Proteomic identification of dysferlin-interacting protein complexes in human vascular endothelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, Cleo; Utokaparch, Soraya; Sharma, Arpeeta; Yu, Carol; Abraham, Thomas; Borchers, Christoph; Bernatchez, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Bi-directional (inward and outward) movement of GFP-dysferlin in COS-7 cells. ► Dysferlin interacts with key signaling proteins for transcytosis in EC. ► Dysferlin mediates trafficking of vesicles carrying protein cargos in EC. -- Abstract: Dysferlin is a membrane-anchored protein known to facilitate membrane repair in skeletal muscles following mechanical injury. Mutations of dysferlin gene impair sarcolemma integrity, a hallmark of certain forms of muscular dystrophy in patients. Dysferlin contains seven calcium-dependent C2 binding domains, which are required to promote fusion of intracellular membrane vesicles. Emerging evidence reveal the unexpected expression of dysferlin in non-muscle, non-mechanically active tissues, such as endothelial cells, which cast doubts over the belief that ferlin proteins act exclusively as membrane repair proteins. We and others have shown that deficient trafficking of membrane bound proteins in dysferlin-deficient cells, suggesting that dysferlin might mediate trafficking of client proteins. Herein, we describe the intracellular trafficking and movement of GFP-dysferlin positive vesicles in unfixed reconstituted cells using live microscopy. By performing GST pull-down assays followed by mass spectrometry, we identified dysferlin binding protein complexes in human vascular endothelial cells. Together, our data further support the claims that dysferlin not only mediates membrane repair but also trafficking of client proteins, ultimately, help bridging dysferlinopathies to aberrant membrane signaling.

  2. Proteomic identification of dysferlin-interacting protein complexes in human vascular endothelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Cleo; Utokaparch, Soraya; Sharma, Arpeeta; Yu, Carol; Abraham, Thomas; Borchers, Christoph [UBC James Hogg Research Centre, Institute for Heart and Lung Health, Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); University of Victoria - Genome BC Proteomics Centre, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Bernatchez, Pascal, E-mail: pbernatc@mail.ubc.ca [UBC James Hogg Research Centre, Institute for Heart and Lung Health, Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); University of Victoria - Genome BC Proteomics Centre, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada)

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bi-directional (inward and outward) movement of GFP-dysferlin in COS-7 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dysferlin interacts with key signaling proteins for transcytosis in EC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dysferlin mediates trafficking of vesicles carrying protein cargos in EC. -- Abstract: Dysferlin is a membrane-anchored protein known to facilitate membrane repair in skeletal muscles following mechanical injury. Mutations of dysferlin gene impair sarcolemma integrity, a hallmark of certain forms of muscular dystrophy in patients. Dysferlin contains seven calcium-dependent C2 binding domains, which are required to promote fusion of intracellular membrane vesicles. Emerging evidence reveal the unexpected expression of dysferlin in non-muscle, non-mechanically active tissues, such as endothelial cells, which cast doubts over the belief that ferlin proteins act exclusively as membrane repair proteins. We and others have shown that deficient trafficking of membrane bound proteins in dysferlin-deficient cells, suggesting that dysferlin might mediate trafficking of client proteins. Herein, we describe the intracellular trafficking and movement of GFP-dysferlin positive vesicles in unfixed reconstituted cells using live microscopy. By performing GST pull-down assays followed by mass spectrometry, we identified dysferlin binding protein complexes in human vascular endothelial cells. Together, our data further support the claims that dysferlin not only mediates membrane repair but also trafficking of client proteins, ultimately, help bridging dysferlinopathies to aberrant membrane signaling.

  3. The role of exon shuffling in shaping protein-protein interaction networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    França Gustavo S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical protein-protein interaction (PPI is a critical phenomenon for the function of most proteins in living organisms and a significant fraction of PPIs are the result of domain-domain interactions. Exon shuffling, intron-mediated recombination of exons from existing genes, is known to have been a major mechanism of domain shuffling in metazoans. Thus, we hypothesized that exon shuffling could have a significant influence in shaping the topology of PPI networks. Results We tested our hypothesis by compiling exon shuffling and PPI data from six eukaryotic species: Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Cryptococcus neoformans and Arabidopsis thaliana. For all four metazoan species, genes enriched in exon shuffling events presented on average higher vertex degree (number of interacting partners in PPI networks. Furthermore, we verified that a set of protein domains that are simultaneously promiscuous (known to interact to multiple types of other domains, self-interacting (able to interact with another copy of themselves and abundant in the genomes presents a stronger signal for exon shuffling. Conclusions Exon shuffling appears to have been a recurrent mechanism for the emergence of new PPIs along metazoan evolution. In metazoan genomes, exon shuffling also promoted the expansion of some protein domains. We speculate that their promiscuous and self-interacting properties may have been decisive for that expansion.

  4. Glucose-6-phosphate mediates activation of the carbohydrate responsive binding protein (ChREBP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ming V.; Chen, Weiqin; Harmancey, Romain N.; Nuotio-Antar, Alli M.; Imamura, Minako; Saha, Pradip; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Chan, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) is a Mondo family transcription factor that activates a number of glycolytic and lipogenic genes in response to glucose stimulation. We have previously reported that high glucose can activate the transcriptional activity of ChREBP independent of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-mediated increase in nuclear entry and DNA binding. Here, we found that formation of glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) is essential for glucose activation of ChREBP. The glucose response of GAL4-ChREBP is attenuated by D-mannoheptulose, a potent hexokinase inhibitor, as well as over-expression of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase); kinetics of activation of GAL4-ChREBP can be modified by exogenously expressed GCK. Further metabolism of G-6-P through the two major glucose metabolic pathways, glycolysis and pentose-phosphate pathway, is not required for activation of ChREBP; over-expression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) diminishes, whereas RNAi knockdown of the enzyme enhances, the glucose response of GAL4-ChREBP, respectively. Moreover, the glucose analogue 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG), which is phosphorylated by hexokinase, but not further metabolized, effectively upregulates the transcription activity of ChREBP. In addition, over-expression of phosphofructokinase (PFK) 1 and 2, synergistically diminishes the glucose response of GAL4-ChREBP. These multiple lines of evidence support the conclusion that G-6-P mediates the activation of ChREBP.

  5. Efficient sortase-mediated N-terminal labeling of TEV protease cleaved recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpong, Kwabena; Bose, Ron

    2017-03-15

    A major challenge in attaching fluorophores or other handles to proteins is the availability of a site-specific labeling strategy that provides stoichiometric modification without compromising protein integrity. We developed a simple approach that combines TEV protease cleavage, sortase modification and affinity purification to N-terminally label proteins. To achieve stoichiometrically-labeled protein, we included a short affinity tag in the fluorophore-containing peptide for post-labeling purification of the modified protein. This strategy can be easily applied to any recombinant protein with a TEV site and we demonstrate this on Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and Membrane Scaffold Protein (MSP) constructs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Underestimated Halogen Bonds Forming with Protein Backbone in Protein Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Xu, Zhijian; Shi, Jiye; Zhu, Weiliang

    2017-07-24

    Halogen bonds (XBs) are attracting increasing attention in biological systems. Protein Data Bank (PDB) archives experimentally determined XBs in biological macromolecules. However, no software for structure refinement in X-ray crystallography takes into account XBs, which might result in the weakening or even vanishing of experimentally determined XBs in PDB. In our previous study, we showed that side-chain XBs forming with protein side chains are underestimated in PDB on the basis of the phenomenon that the proportion of side-chain XBs to overall XBs decreases as structural resolution becomes lower and lower. However, whether the dominant backbone XBs forming with protein backbone are overlooked is still a mystery. Here, with the help of the ratio (R F ) of the observed XBs' frequency of occurrence to their frequency expected at random, we demonstrated that backbone XBs are largely overlooked in PDB, too. Furthermore, three cases were discovered possessing backbone XBs in high resolution structures while losing the XBs in low resolution structures. In the last two cases, even at 1.80 Å resolution, the backbone XBs were lost, manifesting the urgent need to consider XBs in the refinement process during X-ray crystallography study.

  7. Proteins involved in attack and defence in Zygomycete-aphid interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Jensen, Annette Bruun; Lange, Lene

    2009-01-01

    and defense related proteins of the host. Now, selected proteins are being produced in an expression host for further studies. The conservation of the fungal secreted proteins in the species dominating the collected material, namely Pandora neoaphidis, Entomophthora planchoniana and Conidiobolus obscurus......, and additional related fungi are under investigation. We anticipate that our work will shed light on this highly specialized group of fungi that has attracted substantial attention as potential bio-control agents....

  8. Insulin signaling mediates sexual attractiveness in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Han Kuo

    Full Text Available Sexually attractive characteristics are often thought to reflect an individual's condition or reproductive potential, but the underlying molecular mechanisms through which they do so are generally unknown. Insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS is known to modulate aging, reproduction, and stress resistance in several species and to contribute to variability of these traits in natural populations. Here we show that IIS determines sexual attractiveness in Drosophila through transcriptional regulation of genes involved in the production of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC, many of which function as pheromones. Using traditional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS together with newly introduced laser desorption/ionization orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-MS we establish that CHC profiles are significantly affected by genetic manipulations that target IIS. Manipulations that reduce IIS also reduce attractiveness, while females with increased IIS are significantly more attractive than wild-type animals. IIS effects on attractiveness are mediated by changes in CHC profiles. Insulin signaling influences CHC through pathways that are likely independent of dFOXO and that may involve the nutrient-sensing Target of Rapamycin (TOR pathway. These results suggest that the activity of conserved molecular regulators of longevity and reproductive output may manifest in different species as external characteristics that are perceived as honest indicators of fitness potential.

  9. Cyanide-induced death of dopaminergic cells is mediated by uncoupling protein-2 up-regulation and reduced Bcl-2 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.; Li, L.; Zhang, L.; Borowitz, J.L.; Isom, G.E.

    2009-01-01

    Cyanide is a potent inhibitor of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and produces mitochondria-mediated death of dopaminergic neurons and sublethal intoxications that are associated with a Parkinson-like syndrome. Cyanide toxicity is enhanced when mitochondrial uncoupling is stimulated following up-regulation of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2). In this study, the role of a pro-survival protein, Bcl-2, in cyanide-mediated cell death was determined in a rat dopaminergic immortalized mesencephalic cell line (N27 cells). Following pharmacological up-regulation of UCP-2 by treatment with Wy14,643, cyanide reduced cellular Bcl-2 expression by increasing proteasomal degradation of the protein. The increased turnover of Bcl-2 was mediated by an increase of oxidative stress following UCP-2 up-regulation. The oxidative stress involved depletion of mitochondrial glutathione (mtGSH) and increased H 2 O 2 generation. Repletion of mtGSH by loading cells with glutathione ethyl ester reduced H 2 O 2 generation and in turn blocked the cyanide-induced decrease of Bcl-2. To determine if UCP-2 mediated the response, RNAi knock down was conducted. The RNAi decreased cyanide-induced depletion of mtGSH, reduced H 2 O 2 accumulation, and inhibited down-regulation of Bcl-2, thus blocking cell death. To confirm the role of Bcl-2 down-regulation in the cell death, it was shown that over-expression of Bcl-2 by cDNA transfection attenuated the enhancement of cyanide toxicity after UCP-2 up-regulation. It was concluded that UCP-2 up-regulation sensitizes cells to cyanide by increasing cellular oxidative stress, leading to an increase of Bcl-2 degradation. Then the reduced Bcl-2 levels sensitize the cells to cyanide-mediated cell death.

  10. Discovering protein-ligand chalcogen bonding in the protein data bank using endocyclic sulfur-containing heterocycles as ligand search subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Miguel O

    2017-09-24

    The chalcogen bond, the noncovalent, electrostatic attraction between covalently bonded atoms in group 16 and Lewis bases, is present in protein-ligand interactions based on X-ray structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Discovering protein-ligand chalcogen bonding in the PDB employed a strategy that focused on searching the database for protein complexes of five-membered, heterocyclic ligands containing endocyclic sulfur with endo electron-withdrawing groups (isothiazoles; thiazoles; 1,2,3-, 1,2.4-, 1,2,5-, 1,3,4-thiadiazoles) and thiophenes with exo electron-withdrawing groups, e.g., 2-chloro, 2-bromo, 2-amino, 2-alkylthio. Out of 930 ligands investigated, 33 or 3.5% have protein-ligand S---O interactions of which 31 are chalcogen bonds and two appear to be S---HO hydrogen bonds. The bond angles for some of the chalcogen bonds found in the PDB are less than 90°, and an electrostatic model is proposed to explain this phenomenon.

  11. A conserved mammalian protein interaction network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Pérez-Bercoff

    Full Text Available Physical interactions between proteins mediate a variety of biological functions, including signal transduction, physical structuring of the cell and regulation. While extensive catalogs of such interactions are known from model organisms, their evolutionary histories are difficult to study given the lack of interaction data from phylogenetic outgroups. Using phylogenomic approaches, we infer a upper bound on the time of origin for a large set of human protein-protein interactions, showing that most such interactions appear relatively ancient, dating no later than the radiation of placental mammals. By analyzing paired alignments of orthologous and putatively interacting protein-coding genes from eight mammals, we find evidence for weak but significant co-evolution, as measured by relative selective constraint, between pairs of genes with interacting proteins. However, we find no strong evidence for shared instances of directional selection within an interacting pair. Finally, we use a network approach to show that the distribution of selective constraint across the protein interaction network is non-random, with a clear tendency for interacting proteins to share similar selective constraints. Collectively, the results suggest that, on the whole, protein interactions in mammals are under selective constraint, presumably due to their functional roles.

  12. PROTEOTRONICS: The emerging science of protein-based electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfinito, Eleonora; Pousset, Jeremy; Reggiani, Lino

    2015-01-01

    Protein-mediated charge transport is of relevant importance in the design of protein based electronics and in attaining an adequate level of understanding of protein functioning. This is particularly true for the case of transmembrane proteins, like those pertaining to the G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). These proteins are involved in a broad range of biological processes like catalysis, substance transport, etc., thus being the target of a large number of clinically used drugs. This paper briefly reviews a variety of experiments devoted to investigate charge transport in proteins and present a unified theoretical model able to relate macroscopic experimental results with the conformations of the amino acids backbone of the single protein. (paper)

  13. Expression and affinity purification of recombinant proteins from plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Urvee A.; Sur, Gargi; Daunert, Sylvia; Babbitt, Ruth; Li, Qingshun

    2002-01-01

    With recent advances in plant biotechnology, transgenic plants have been targeted as an inexpensive means for the mass production of proteins for biopharmaceutical and industrial uses. However, the current plant purification techniques lack a generally applicable, economic, large-scale strategy. In this study, we demonstrate the purification of a model protein, beta-glucuronidase (GUS), by employing the protein calmodulin (CaM) as an affinity tag. In the proposed system, CaM is fused to GUS. In the presence of calcium, the calmodulin fusion protein binds specifically to a phenothiazine-modified surface of an affinity column. When calcium is removed with a complexing agent, e.g., EDTA, calmodulin undergoes a conformational change allowing the dissociation of the calmodulin-phenothiazine complex and, therefore, permitting the elution of the GUS-CaM fusion protein. The advantages of this approach are the fast, efficient, and economical isolation of the target protein under mild elution conditions, thus preserving the activity of the target protein. Two types of transformation methods were used in this study, namely, the Agrobacterium-mediated system and the viral-vector-mediated transformation system. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  14. Organizing membrane-curving proteins: the emerging dynamical picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunovic, Mijo; Bassereau, Patricia; Voth, Gregory A

    2018-03-30

    Lipid membranes play key roles in cells, such as in trafficking, division, infection, remodeling of organelles, among others. The key step in all these processes is creating membrane curvature, typically under the control of many anchored, adhered or included proteins. However, it has become clear that the membrane itself can mediate the interactions among proteins to produce highly ordered assemblies. Computer simulations are ideally suited to investigate protein organization and the dynamics of membrane remodeling at near-micron scales, something that is extremely challenging to tackle experimentally. We review recent computational efforts in modeling protein-caused membrane deformation mechanisms, specifically focusing on coarse-grained simulations. We highlight work that exposed the membrane-mediated ordering of proteins into lines, meshwork, spirals and other assemblies, in what seems to be a very generic mechanism driven by a combination of short and long-ranged forces. Modulating the mechanical properties of membranes is an underexplored signaling mechanism in various processes deserving of more attention in the near future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Interactions between the Hepatitis C Virus Nonstructural 2 Protein and Host Adaptor Proteins 1 and 4 Orchestrate Virus Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xiao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV spreads via secreted cell-free particles or direct cell-to-cell transmission. Yet, virus-host determinants governing differential intracellular trafficking of cell-free- and cell-to-cell-transmitted virus remain unknown. The host adaptor proteins (APs AP-1A, AP-1B, and AP-4 traffic in post-Golgi compartments, and the latter two are implicated in basolateral sorting. We reported that AP-1A mediates HCV trafficking during release, whereas the endocytic adaptor AP-2 mediates entry and assembly. We demonstrated that the host kinases AAK1 and GAK regulate HCV infection by controlling these clathrin-associated APs. Here, we sought to define the roles of AP-4, a clathrin-independent adaptor; AP-1A; and AP-1B in HCV infection. We screened for interactions between HCV proteins and the μ subunits of AP-1A, AP-1B, and AP-4 by mammalian cell-based protein fragment complementation assays. The nonstructural 2 (NS2 protein emerged as an interactor of these adaptors in this screening and by coimmunoprecipitations in HCV-infected cells. Two previously unrecognized dileucine-based motifs in the NS2 C terminus mediated AP binding and HCV release. Infectivity and coculture assays demonstrated that while all three adaptors mediate HCV release and cell-free spread, AP-1B and AP-4, but not AP-1A, mediate cell-to-cell spread. Live-cell imaging revealed HCV cotrafficking with AP-1A, AP-1B, and AP-4 and that AP-4 mediates HCV trafficking in a post-Golgi compartment. Lastly, HCV cell-to-cell spread was regulated by AAK1 and GAK and thus susceptible to treatment with AAK1 and GAK inhibitors. These data provide a mechanistic understanding of HCV trafficking in distinct release pathways and reveal a requirement for APs in cell-to-cell viral spread.

  16. Human Mediator Enhances Activator-Facilitated Recruitment of RNA Polymerase II and Promoter Recognition by TATA-Binding Protein (TBP) Independently of TBP-Associated Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Shwu-Yuan; Zhou, Tianyuan; Chiang, Cheng-Ming

    2003-01-01

    Mediator is a general cofactor implicated in the functions of many transcriptional activators. Although Mediator with different protein compositions has been isolated, it remains unclear how Mediator facilitates activator-dependent transcription, independent of its general stimulation of basal transcription. To define the mechanisms of Mediator function, we isolated two forms of human Mediator complexes (Mediator-P.5 and Mediator-P.85) and demonstrated that Mediator-P.5 clearly functions by e...

  17. Truly Absorbed Microbial Protein Synthesis, Rumen Bypass Protein, Endogenous Protein, and Total Metabolizable Protein from Starchy and Protein-Rich Raw Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parand, Ehsan; Vakili, Alireza; Mesgaran, Mohsen Danesh; Duinkerken, Van Gert; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to measure truly absorbed microbial protein synthesis, rumen bypass protein, and endogenous protein loss, as well as total metabolizable protein, from starchy and protein-rich raw feed materials with model comparisons. Predictions by the DVE2010 system as a more

  18. Auxin efflux by PIN-FORMED proteins is activated by two different protein kinases, D6 PROTEIN KINASE and PINOID

    KAUST Repository

    Zourelidou, Melina; Absmanner, Birgit; Weller, Benjamin; Barbosa, Inê s CR; Willige, Bjö rn C; Fastner, Astrid; Streit, Verena; Port, Sarah A; Colcombet, Jean; de la Fuente van Bentem, Sergio; Hirt, Heribert; Kuster, Bernhard; Schulze, Waltraud X; Hammes, Ulrich Z; Schwechheimer, Claus

    2014-01-01

    The development and morphology of vascular plants is critically determined by synthesis and proper distribution of the phytohormone auxin. The directed cell-to-cell distribution of auxin is achieved through a system of auxin influx and efflux transporters. PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are proposed auxin efflux transporters, and auxin fluxes can seemingly be predicted based on the-in many cells-asymmetric plasma membrane distribution of PINs. Here, we show in a heterologous Xenopus oocyte system as well as in Arabidopsis thaliana inflorescence stems that PIN-mediated auxin transport is directly activated by D6 PROTEIN KINASE (D6PK) and PINOID (PID)/WAG kinases of the Arabidopsis AGCVIII kinase family. At the same time, we reveal that D6PKs and PID have differential phosphosite preferences. Our study suggests that PIN activation by protein kinases is a crucial component of auxin transport control that must be taken into account to understand auxin distribution within the plant.

  19. Auxin efflux by PIN-FORMED proteins is activated by two different protein kinases, D6 PROTEIN KINASE and PINOID

    KAUST Repository

    Zourelidou, Melina

    2014-06-19

    The development and morphology of vascular plants is critically determined by synthesis and proper distribution of the phytohormone auxin. The directed cell-to-cell distribution of auxin is achieved through a system of auxin influx and efflux transporters. PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are proposed auxin efflux transporters, and auxin fluxes can seemingly be predicted based on the-in many cells-asymmetric plasma membrane distribution of PINs. Here, we show in a heterologous Xenopus oocyte system as well as in Arabidopsis thaliana inflorescence stems that PIN-mediated auxin transport is directly activated by D6 PROTEIN KINASE (D6PK) and PINOID (PID)/WAG kinases of the Arabidopsis AGCVIII kinase family. At the same time, we reveal that D6PKs and PID have differential phosphosite preferences. Our study suggests that PIN activation by protein kinases is a crucial component of auxin transport control that must be taken into account to understand auxin distribution within the plant.

  20. Quantitative structure activity relationship studies on the flavonoid mediated inhibition of multidrug resistance proteins 1 and 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanden, J.J. van; Wortelboer, H.M.; Bijlsma, S.; Punt, A.; Usta, M.; Bladeren, P.J.V.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Cnubben, N.H.P.

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of a large series of flavonoids on multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs) were studied in MRP1 and MRP2 transfected MDCKII cells. The results were used to define the structural requirements of flavonoids necessary for potent inhibition of MRP1- and MRP2-mediated

  1. UV-induced DNA-binding proteins in human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazer, P.M.; Greggio, N.A.; Metherall, J.E.; Summers, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    To investigate the response of human cells to DNA-damaging agents such as UV irradiation, the authors examined nuclear protein extracts of UV-irradiated HeLa cells for the presence of DNA-binding proteins. Electrophoretically separated proteins were transferred to a nitrocellulose filter that was subsequently immersed in a binding solution containing radioactively labeled DNA probes. Several DNA-binding proteins were induced in HeLa cells after UV irradiation. These included proteins that bind predominantly double-stranded DNA and proteins that bind both double-stranded and single-stranded DNA. The binding proteins were induced in a dose-dependent manner by UV light. Following a dose of 12 J/m 2 , the binding proteins in the nuclear extracts increased over time to a peak in the range of 18 hr after irradiation. Experiments with metabolic inhibitors (cycloheximide and actinomycin D) revealed that de novo synthesis of these proteins is not required for induction of the binding activities, suggesting that the induction is mediated by protein modification

  2. Lipid vesicle-mediated affinity chromatography using magnetic activated cell sorting (LIMACS): a novel method to analyze protein-lipid interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieberich, Erhard

    2011-04-26

    The analysis of lipid protein interaction is difficult because lipids are embedded in cell membranes and therefore, inaccessible to most purification procedures. As an alternative, lipids can be coated on flat surfaces as used for lipid ELISA and Plasmon resonance spectroscopy. However, surface coating lipids do not form microdomain structures, which may be important for the lipid binding properties. Further, these methods do not allow for the purification of larger amounts of proteins binding to their target lipids. To overcome these limitations of testing lipid protein interaction and to purify lipid binding proteins we developed a novel method termed lipid vesicle-mediated affinity chromatography using magnetic-activated cell sorting (LIMACS). In this method, lipid vesicles are prepared with the target lipid and phosphatidylserine as the anchor lipid for Annexin V MACS. Phosphatidylserine is a ubiquitous cell membrane phospholipid that shows high affinity to the protein Annexin V. Using magnetic beads conjugated to Annexin V the phosphatidylserine-containing lipid vesicles will bind to the magnetic beads. When the lipid vesicles are incubated with a cell lysate the protein binding to the target lipid will also be bound to the beads and can be co-purified using MACS. This method can also be used to test if recombinant proteins reconstitute a protein complex binding to the target lipid. We have used this method to show the interaction of atypical PKC (aPKC) with the sphingolipid ceramide and to co-purify prostate apoptosis response 4 (PAR-4), a protein binding to ceramide-associated aPKC. We have also used this method for the reconstitution of a ceramide-associated complex of recombinant aPKC with the cell polarity-related proteins Par6 and Cdc42. Since lipid vesicles can be prepared with a variety of sphingo- or phospholipids, LIMACS offers a versatile test for lipid-protein interaction in a lipid environment that resembles closely that of the cell membrane

  3. Extracellular collagenases and the endocytic receptor, urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-associated protein/Endo180, cooperate in fibroblast-mediated collagen degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Daniel H; Engelholm, Lars H; Ingvarsen, Signe

    2007-01-01

    in these events. A recently discovered turnover route with importance for tumor growth involves intracellular collagen degradation and is governed by the collagen receptor, urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-associated protein (uPARAP or Endo180). The interplay between this mechanism and extracellular...... collagenolysis is not known. In this report, we demonstrate the existence of a new, composite collagen breakdown pathway. Thus, fibroblast-mediated collagen degradation proceeds preferentially as a sequential mechanism in which extracellular collagenolysis is followed by uPARAP/Endo180-mediated endocytosis......The collagens of the extracellular matrix are the most abundant structural proteins in the mammalian body. In tissue remodeling and in the invasive growth of malignant tumors, collagens constitute an important barrier, and consequently, the turnover of collagen is a rate-limiting process...

  4. Mechanisms of photosensitization by drugs: Involvement of tyrosines in the photomodification of proteins mediated by tiaprofenic acid in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, M A; Castell, J V; Sarabia, Z; Hernández, D; Puertes, I; Morera, I M; Gómez-Lechón, M J

    1997-10-01

    The photosensitizing potential of drugs must be related to their photoreactivity towards the target biomolecules. In this context, a representative photosensitizing drug (tiaprofenic acid) was co-irradiated with a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA). This led to a significant degree of protein crosslinking and to the formation of trace amounts of drug-BSA photoadducts. Amino acid analysis of the hydrolysed (HC1) protein showed that His and Tyr undergo a dramatic decrease (approx. 90%) as a consequence of drug-mediated photodynamic processes. When the drug was irradiated in the presence of the pure amino acids, extensive phototransformation of the latter was observed. Other photosensitizing drugs gave rise to similar processes when irradiated in the presence of BSA or the isolated amino acids. In conclusion, histidine and tyrosine appear to be key sites for the photosensitized damage to proteins. Photodegradation of the isolated amino acids in vitro may be an indicator of the photosensitizing potential of drugs.

  5. HSV-1 nucleocapsid egress mediated by UL31 in association with UL34 is impeded by cellular transmembrane protein 140

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Ying [Department of Viral Immunology, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medicine Science, Peking Union Medical College, Kunming 650118 (China); Yunnan Academy of Tobacco Science, Kunming, Yunnan 650106 (China); Guo, Lei; Yang, Erxia; Liao, Yun; Liu, Longding; Che, Yanchun; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Lichun; Wang, Jingjing [Department of Viral Immunology, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medicine Science, Peking Union Medical College, Kunming 650118 (China); Li, Qihan, E-mail: imbcams.lq@gmail.com [Department of Viral Immunology, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medicine Science, Peking Union Medical College, Kunming 650118 (China)

    2014-09-15

    During HSV-1 infection, the viral UL31 protein forms a complex with the UL34 protein at the cellular nuclear membrane, where both proteins play important roles in the envelopment of viral nucleocapsids and their egress into the cytoplasm. To characterize the mechanism of HSV-1 nucleocapsid egress, we screened host proteins to identify proteins that interacted with UL31 via yeast two-hybrid analysis. Transmembrane protein 140 (TMEM140), was identified and confirmed to bind to and co-localize with UL31 during viral infection. Further studies indicated that TMEM140 inhibits HSV-1 proliferation through selectively blocking viral nucleocapsid egress during the viral assembly process. The blockage function of TMEM140 is mediated by impeding the formation of the UL31–UL34 complex due to competitive binding to UL31. Collectively, these data suggest the essentiality of the UL31–UL34 interaction in the viral nucleocapsid egress process and provide a new anti-HSV-1 strategy in viral assembly process of nucleocapsid egress. - Highlights: • Cellular TMEM140 protein interacts with HSV-1 UL31 protein during viral infection. • Increasing expression of TMEM140 leads to inhibition of HSV-1 proliferation. • Increasing expression of TMEM140 blocks HSV-1 nucleocapsid egress process. • Binding to UL31 of TMEM140 impedes formation of HSV-1 UL31–UL34 complex.

  6. Diversity of T cell epitopes in Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein likely due to protein-protein interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagesh R Aragam

    Full Text Available Circumsporozoite protein (CS is a leading vaccine antigen for falciparum malaria, but is highly polymorphic in natural parasite populations. The factors driving this diversity are unclear, but non-random assortment of the T cell epitopes TH2 and TH3 has been observed in a Kenyan parasite population. The recent publication of the crystal structure of the variable C terminal region of the protein allows the assessment of the impact of diversity on protein structure and T cell epitope assortment. Using data from the Gambia (55 isolates and Malawi (235 isolates, we evaluated the patterns of diversity within and between epitopes in these two distantly-separated populations. Only non-synonymous mutations were observed with the vast majority in both populations at similar frequencies suggesting strong selection on this region. A non-random pattern of T cell epitope assortment was seen in Malawi and in the Gambia, but structural analysis indicates no intramolecular spatial interactions. Using the information from these parasite populations, structural analysis reveals that polymorphic amino acids within TH2 and TH3 colocalize to one side of the protein, surround, but do not involve, the hydrophobic pocket in CS, and predominately involve charge switches. In addition, free energy analysis suggests residues forming and behind the novel pocket within CS are tightly constrained and well conserved in all alleles. In addition, free energy analysis shows polymorphic residues tend to be populated by energetically unfavorable amino acids. In combination, these findings suggest the diversity of T cell epitopes in CS may be primarily an evolutionary response to intermolecular interactions at the surface of the protein potentially counteracting antibody-mediated immune recognition or evolving host receptor diversity.

  7. Interaction study on bovine serum albumin physically binding to silver nanoparticles: Evolution from discrete conjugates to protein coronas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun; Zhong, Ruibo; Li, Wanrong; Liu, Yushuang; Bai, Zhijun; Yin, Jun; Liu, Jingran; Gong, Pei; Zhao, Xinmin; Zhang, Feng

    2015-12-01

    The nanostructures formed by inorganic nanoparticles together with organic molecules especially biomolecules have attracted increasing attention from both industries and researching fields due to their unique hybrid properties. In this paper, we systemically studied the interactions between amphiphilic polymer coated silver nanoparticles and bovine serum albumins by employing the fluorescence quenching approach in combination with the Stern-Volmer and Hill equations. The binding affinity was determined to 1.30 × 107 M-1 and the interaction was spontaneously driven by mainly the van der Waals force and hydrogen-bond mediated interactions, and negatively cooperative from the point of view of thermodynamics. With the non-uniform coating of amphiphilic polymer, the silver nanoparticles can form protein coronas which can become discrete protein-nanoparticle conjugates when controlling their molar ratios of mixing. The protein's conformational changes upon binding nanoparticles was also studied by using the three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy.

  8. Protein phosphorylation and bacterial chemotaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, J.F.; Bourret, R.B.; Oosawa, K.; Simon, M.I.; Matsumura, P.

    1988-01-01

    Bacteria are able to respond to changes in concentration of a large variety of chemicals and to changes in physical parameters, including viscosity, osmolarity, and temperature, by swimming toward a more favorable location (for review, see Stewart and Dahlquist 1987). Most chemotactic responses are mediated by a series of transmembrane receptor proteins that interact with or bind specific chemicals and thus monitor environmental conditions. Over the past 10 years, work in a number of laboratories has resulted in the identification and characterization of many of the genes and proteins required for the signal transduction process. The authors postulated that rapid and transient covalent modification of the chemotaxis gene products could function to transmit information from the receptor by regulating protein-protein interaction between the chemotaxis gene products. To test this idea, the authors purified the proteins corresponding to the cheA, cheY, cheZ, cheW, and cheB genes and tested the purified polypeptides to determine whether they could be covalently modified and whether they would interact with each other in vitro

  9. An Hfq-like protein in archaea: crystal structure and functional characterization of the Sm protein from Methanococcus jannaschii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper S; Bøggild, Andreas; Andersen, Christian B F

    2007-01-01

    The Sm and Sm-like proteins are conserved in all three domains of life and have emerged as important players in many different RNA-processing reactions. Their proposed role is to mediate RNA-RNA and/or RNA-protein interactions. In marked contrast to eukaryotes, bacteria appear to contain only one...... diameter of the archaeal Hfq hexamer is significantly smaller than its bacterial counterparts. Functional analysis reveals that Escherichia coli and M. jannaschii Hfqs display very similar biochemical and biological properties. It thus appears that the archaeal and bacterial Hfq proteins are largely...

  10. Studying Catabolism of Protein ADP-Ribosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, Luca; James, Dominic I; Waddell, Ian D; Ahel, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Protein ADP-ribosylation is a conserved posttranslational modification that regulates many major cellular functions, such as DNA repair, transcription, translation, signal transduction, stress response, cell division, aging, and cell death. Protein ADP-ribosyl transferases catalyze the transfer of an ADP-ribose (ADPr) group from the β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (β-NAD + ) cofactor onto a specific target protein with the subsequent release of nicotinamide. ADP-ribosylation leads to changes in protein structure, function, stability, and localization, thus defining the appropriate cellular response. Signaling processes that are mediated by modifications need to be finely tuned and eventually silenced and one of the ways to achieve this is through the action of enzymes that remove (reverse) protein ADP-ribosylation in a timely fashion such as PARG, TARG1, MACROD1, and MACROD2. Here, we describe several basic methods used to study the enzymatic activity of de-ADP-ribosylating enzymes.

  11. Identification of a small heat-shock protein associated with a ras-mediated signaling pathway in ectomycorrhizal symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiv Hiremath; Kirsten Lehtoma; Gopi K. Podila

    2009-01-01

    Initiation, development, and establishment of a functional ectomycorrhiza involve a series of biochemical events mediated by a number of genes from the fungus as well as the host plant. We have identified a heat shock protein gene from Laccaria bicolor (Lbhsp) that appears to play a role in these events. The size and...

  12. Adaptor proteins intersectin 1 and 2 bind similar proline-rich ligands but are differentially recognized by SH2 domain-containing proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Novokhatska

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Scaffolding proteins of the intersectin (ITSN family, ITSN1 and ITSN2, are crucial for the initiation stage of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. These proteins are closely related but have implications in distinct pathologies. To determine how these proteins could be separated in certain cell pathways we performed a comparative study of ITSNs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have shown that endogenous ITSN1 and ITSN2 colocalize and form a complex in cells. A structural comparison of five SH3 domains, which mediated most ITSNs protein-protein interactions, demonstrated a similarity of their ligand-binding sites. We showed that the SH3 domains of ITSN2 bound well-established interactors of ITSN1 as well as newly identified ITSNs protein partners. A search for a novel interacting interface revealed multiple tyrosines that could be phosphorylated in ITSN2. Phosphorylation of ITSN2 isoforms but not ITSN1 short isoform was observed in various cell lines. EGF stimulation of HeLa cells enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of ITSN2 isoforms and enabled their recognition by the SH2 domains of the Fyn, Fgr and Abl1 kinases, the regulatory subunit of PI3K, the adaptor proteins Grb2 and Crk, and phospholipase C gamma. The SH2 domains mentioned were unable to bind ITSN1 short isoform. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that during evolution of vertebrates ITSN2 acquired a novel protein-interaction interface that allows its specific recognition by the SH2 domains of signaling proteins. We propose that these data could be important to understand the functional diversity of paralogous ITSN proteins.

  13. Cysteine-rich intestinal protein binds zinc during transmucosal zinc transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempe, J.M.; Cousins, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanism of zinc absorption has not been delineated, but kinetic studies show that both passive and carrier-mediated processes are involved. The authors have identified a low molecular mass zinc-binding protein in the soluble fraction of rat intestinal mucosa that could function as an intracellular zinc carrier. The protein was not detected in liver or pancreas, suggesting a role specific to the intestine. The protein binds zinc during transmucosal zinc transport and shows signs of saturation at higher luminal zinc concentrations, characteristics consistent with a role in carrier-mediated zinc absorption. Microsequence analysis of the protein purified by gel-filtration HPCL and SDS/PAGE showed complete identity within the first 41 N-terminal amino acids with the deduced protein sequence of cysteine-rich intestinal protein. These investigators showed that the gene for this protein is developmentally regulated in neonates during the suckling period, conserved in many vertebrate species, and predominantly expressed in the small intestine. Cysteine-rich intestinal protein contains a recently identified conserved sequence of histidine and cysteine residues, the LIM motif, which our results suggest confers metal-binding properties that are important for zinc transport and/or functions of this micronutrient

  14. Quantitative proteomics reveals new insights into calcium-mediated resistance mechanisms in Aspergillus flavus against the antifungal protein PgAFP in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Josué; Owens, Rebecca A; Doyle, Sean; Núñez, Félix; Asensio, Miguel A

    2017-09-01

    The ability of Aspergillus flavus to produce aflatoxins in dairy products presents a potential hazard. The antifungal protein PgAFP from Penicillium chrysogenum inhibits various foodborne toxigenic fungi, including Aspergillus flavus. However, PgAFP did not inhibit A. flavus growth in cheese, which was related to the associated cation content. CaCl 2 increased A. flavus permeability and prevented PgAFP-mediated inhibition in potato dextrose broth (PDB). PgAFP did not elicit any additional increase in permeability of CaCl 2 -incubated A. flavus. Furthermore, PgAFP did not alter metabolic capability, chitin deposition, or hyphal viability of A. flavus grown with CaCl 2 . Comparative proteomic analysis after PgAFP treatment of A. flavus in calcium-enriched PDB revealed increased abundance of 125 proteins, including oxidative stress-related proteins, as determined by label-free mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics. Seventy proteins were found at lower abundance, with most involved in metabolic pathways and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. These changes do not support the blockage of potential PgAFP receptors in A. flavus by calcium as the main cause of the protective role. A. flavus resistance appears to be mediated by calcineurin, G-protein, and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase that combat oxidative stress and impede apoptosis. These findings could serve to design strategies to improve PgAFP activity against aflatoxigenic moulds in dairy products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Composition of Overlapping Protein-Protein and Protein-Ligand Interfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzianisra Mohamed

    Full Text Available Protein-protein interactions (PPIs play a major role in many biological processes and they represent an important class of targets for therapeutic intervention. However, targeting PPIs is challenging because often no convenient natural substrates are available as starting point for small-molecule design. Here, we explored the characteristics of protein interfaces in five non-redundant datasets of 174 protein-protein (PP complexes, and 161 protein-ligand (PL complexes from the ABC database, 436 PP complexes, and 196 PL complexes from the PIBASE database and a dataset of 89 PL complexes from the Timbal database. In all cases, the small molecule ligands must bind at the respective PP interface. We observed similar amino acid frequencies in all three datasets. Remarkably, also the characteristics of PP contacts and overlapping PL contacts are highly similar.

  16. Importin α-importin β complex mediated nuclear translocation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Min; Long, Juan; Yi, Yuxin; Xia, Wei

    2017-10-28

    Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP)-5 is a secreted protein that binds to IGFs and modulates IGF actions, as well as regulates cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis independent of IGF. Proper cellular localization is critical for the effective function of most signaling molecules. In previous studies, we have shown that the nuclear IGFBP-5 comes from ER-cytosol retro-translocation. In this study, we further investigated the pathway mediating IGFBP-5 nuclear import after it retro-translocation. Importin-α5 was identified as an IGFBP-5-interacting protein with a yeast two-hybrid system, and its interaction with IGFBP-5 was further confirmed by GST pull down and co-immunoprecipitation. Binding affinity of IGFBP-5 and importins were determined by surface plasmon resonance (IGFBP-5/importin-β: K D =2.44e-7, IGFBP-5/importin-α5: K D =3.4e-7). Blocking the importin-α5/importin-β nuclear import pathway using SiRNA or dominant negative impotin-β dramatically inhibited IGFBP-5-EGFP nuclear import, though importin-α5 overexpress does not affect IGFBP-5 nuclear import. Furthermore, nuclear IGFBP-5 was quantified using luciferase report assay. When deleted the IGFBP-5 nuclear localization sequence (NLS), IGFBP-5 ΔNLS loss the ability to translocate into the nucleus and accumulation of IGFBP-5 ΔNLS was visualized in the cytosol. Altogether, our findings provide a substantially evidence showed that the IGFBP-5 nuclear import is mediated by importin-α/importin-β complex, and NLS is critical domain in IGFBP-5 nuclear translocation.

  17. Interaction between a plasma membrane-localized ankyrin-repeat protein ITN1 and a nuclear protein RTV1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Hikaru [Department of Bioproduction, Faculty of Bioindustry, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 196 Yasaka, Abashiri-shi, Hokkaido 093-2422 (Japan); Sakata, Keiko; Kusumi, Kensuke [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi [RIKEN Plant Science Center, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045 (Japan); Iba, Koh, E-mail: koibascb@kyushu-u.org [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2012-06-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ITN1, a plasma membrane ankyrin protein, interacts with a nuclear DNA-binding protein RTV1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nuclear transport of RTV1 is partially inhibited by interaction with ITN1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RTV1 can promote the nuclear localization of ITN1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both overexpression of RTV1 and the lack of ITN1 increase salicylic acids sensitivity in plants. -- Abstract: The increased tolerance to NaCl 1 (ITN1) protein is a plasma membrane (PM)-localized protein involved in responses to NaCl stress in Arabidopsis. The predicted structure of ITN1 is composed of multiple transmembrane regions and an ankyrin-repeat domain that is known to mediate protein-protein interactions. To elucidate the molecular functions of ITN1, we searched for interacting partners using a yeast two-hybrid assay, and a nuclear-localized DNA-binding protein, RTV1, was identified as a candidate. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis revealed that RTV1 interacted with ITN1 at the PM and nuclei in vivo. RTV1 tagged with red fluorescent protein localized to nuclei and ITN1 tagged with green fluorescent protein localized to PM; however, both proteins localized to both nuclei and the PM when co-expressed. These findings suggest that RTV1 and ITN1 regulate the subcellular localization of each other.

  18. Selecting for Fast Protein-Protein Association As Demonstrated on a Random TEM1 Yeast Library Binding BLIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Khait, Ruth; Schreiber, Gideon

    2018-04-27

    Protein-protein interactions mediate the vast majority of cellular processes. Though protein interactions obey basic chemical principles also within the cell, the in vivo physiological environment may not allow for equilibrium to be reached. Thus, in vitro measured thermodynamic affinity may not provide a complete picture of protein interactions in the biological context. Binding kinetics composed of the association and dissociation rate constants are relevant and important in the cell. Therefore, changes in protein-protein interaction kinetics have a significant impact on the in vivo activity of the proteins. The common protocol for the selection of tighter binders from a mutant library selects for protein complexes with slower dissociation rate constants. Here we describe a method to specifically select for variants with faster association rate constants by using pre-equilibrium selection, starting from a large random library. Toward this end, we refine the selection conditions of a TEM1-β-lactamase library against its natural nanomolar affinity binder β-lactamase inhibitor protein (BLIP). The optimal selection conditions depend on the ligand concentration and on the incubation time. In addition, we show that a second sort of the library helps to separate signal from noise, resulting in a higher percent of faster binders in the selected library. Fast associating protein variants are of particular interest for drug development and other biotechnological applications.

  19. Phytochemicals perturb membranes and promiscuously alter protein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingólfsson, Helgi I; Thakur, Pratima; Herold, Karl F; Hobart, E Ashley; Ramsey, Nicole B; Periole, Xavier; de Jong, Djurre H; Zwama, Martijn; Yilmaz, Duygu; Hall, Katherine; Maretzky, Thorsten; Hemmings, Hugh C; Blobel, Carl; Marrink, Siewert J; Koçer, Armağan; Sack, Jon T; Andersen, Olaf S

    2014-08-15

    A wide variety of phytochemicals are consumed for their perceived health benefits. Many of these phytochemicals have been found to alter numerous cell functions, but the mechanisms underlying their biological activity tend to be poorly understood. Phenolic phytochemicals are particularly promiscuous modifiers of membrane protein function, suggesting that some of their actions may be due to a common, membrane bilayer-mediated mechanism. To test whether bilayer perturbation may underlie this diversity of actions, we examined five bioactive phenols reported to have medicinal value: capsaicin from chili peppers, curcumin from turmeric, EGCG from green tea, genistein from soybeans, and resveratrol from grapes. We find that each of these widely consumed phytochemicals alters lipid bilayer properties and the function of diverse membrane proteins. Molecular dynamics simulations show that these phytochemicals modify bilayer properties by localizing to the bilayer/solution interface. Bilayer-modifying propensity was verified using a gramicidin-based assay, and indiscriminate modulation of membrane protein function was demonstrated using four proteins: membrane-anchored metalloproteases, mechanosensitive ion channels, and voltage-dependent potassium and sodium channels. Each protein exhibited similar responses to multiple phytochemicals, consistent with a common, bilayer-mediated mechanism. Our results suggest that many effects of amphiphilic phytochemicals are due to cell membrane perturbations, rather than specific protein binding.

  20. Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Loss of Synaptic Akt1 Signaling Leads to Deficient Activity-Dependent Protein Translation Early in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Faraz; Singh, Kunal; Das, Debajyoti; Gowaikar, Ruturaj; Shaw, Eisha; Ramachandran, Arathy; Rupanagudi, Khader Valli; Kommaddi, Reddy Peera; Bennett, David A; Ravindranath, Vijayalakshmi

    2017-12-01

    Synaptic deficits are known to underlie the cognitive dysfunction seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by β-amyloid has also been implicated in AD pathogenesis. However, it is unclear whether ROS contributes to synaptic dysfunction seen in AD pathogenesis and, therefore, we examined whether altered redox signaling could contribute to synaptic deficits in AD. Activity dependent but not basal translation was impaired in synaptoneurosomes from 1-month old presymptomatic APP Swe /PS1ΔE9 (APP/PS1) mice, and this deficit was sustained till middle age (MA, 9-10 months). ROS generation leads to oxidative modification of Akt1 in the synapse and consequent reduction in Akt1-mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, leading to deficiency in activity-dependent protein translation. Moreover, we found a similar loss of activity-dependent protein translation in synaptoneurosomes from postmortem AD brains. Loss of activity-dependent protein translation occurs presymptomatically early in the pathogenesis of AD. This is caused by ROS-mediated loss of pAkt1, leading to reduced synaptic Akt1-mTOR signaling and is rescued by overexpression of Akt1. ROS-mediated damage is restricted to the synaptosomes, indicating selectivity. We demonstrate that ROS-mediated oxidative modification of Akt1 contributes to synaptic dysfunction in AD, seen as loss of activity-dependent protein translation that is essential for synaptic plasticity and maintenance. Therapeutic strategies promoting Akt1-mTOR signaling at synapses may provide novel target(s) for disease-modifying therapy in AD. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 1269-1280.

  1. Discrete and structurally unique proteins (tāpirins) mediate attachment of extremely thermophilic Caldicellulosiruptor species to cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumer-Schuette, Sara E; Alahuhta, Markus; Conway, Jonathan M; Lee, Laura L; Zurawski, Jeffrey V; Giannone, Richard J; Hettich, Robert L; Lunin, Vladimir V; Himmel, Michael E; Kelly, Robert M

    2015-04-24

    A variety of catalytic and noncatalytic protein domains are deployed by select microorganisms to deconstruct lignocellulose. These extracellular proteins are used to attach to, modify, and hydrolyze the complex polysaccharides present in plant cell walls. Cellulolytic enzymes, often containing carbohydrate-binding modules, are key to this process; however, these enzymes are not solely responsible for attachment. Few mechanisms of attachment have been discovered among bacteria that do not form large polypeptide structures, called cellulosomes, to deconstruct biomass. In this study, bioinformatics and proteomics analyses identified unique, discrete, hypothetical proteins ("tāpirins," origin from Māori: to join), not directly associated with cellulases, that mediate attachment to cellulose by species in the noncellulosomal, extremely thermophilic bacterial genus Caldicellulosiruptor. Two tāpirin genes are located directly downstream of a type IV pilus operon in strongly cellulolytic members of the genus, whereas homologs are absent from the weakly cellulolytic Caldicellulosiruptor species. Based on their amino acid sequence, tāpirins are specific to these extreme thermophiles. Tāpirins are also unusual in that they share no detectable protein domain signatures with known polysaccharide-binding proteins. Adsorption isotherm and trans vivo analyses demonstrated the carbohydrate-binding module-like affinity of the tāpirins for cellulose. Crystallization of a cellulose-binding truncation from one tāpirin indicated that these proteins form a long β-helix core with a shielded hydrophobic face. Furthermore, they are structurally unique and define a new class of polysaccharide adhesins. Strongly cellulolytic Caldicellulosiruptor species employ tāpirins to complement substrate-binding proteins from the ATP-binding cassette transporters and multidomain extracellular and S-layer-associated glycoside hydrolases to process the carbohydrate content of lignocellulose.

  2. Disposable Amperometric Immunosensor for the Determination of Human P53 Protein in Cell Lysates Using Magnetic Micro-Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pedrero

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An amperometric magnetoimmunosensor for the determination of human p53 protein is described in this work using a sandwich configuration involving the covalent immobilization of a specific capture antibody onto activated carboxylic-modified magnetic beads (HOOC-MBs and incubation of the modified MBs with a mixture of the target protein and horseradish peroxidase-labeled antibody (HRP-anti-p53. The resulting modified MBs are captured by a magnet placed under the surface of a disposable carbon screen-printed electrode (SPCE and the amperometric responses are measured at −0.20 V (vs. an Ag pseudo-reference electrode, upon addition of hydroquinone (HQ as a redox mediator and H2O2 as the enzyme substrate. The magnetoimmunosensing platform was successfully applied for the detection of p53 protein in different cell lysates without any matrix effect after a simple sample dilution. The results correlated accurately with those provided by a commercial ELISA kit, thus confirming the immunosensor as an attractive alternative for rapid and simple determination of this protein using portable and affordable instrumentation.

  3. Alzheimer's Disease Brain-Derived Amyloid-{beta}-Mediated Inhibition of LTP In Vivo Is Prevented by Immunotargeting Cellular Prion Protein.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barry, Andrew E

    2011-05-18

    Synthetic amyloid-β protein (Aβ) oligomers bind with high affinity to cellular prion protein (PrP(C)), but the role of this interaction in mediating the disruption of synaptic plasticity by such soluble Aβ in vitro is controversial. Here we report that intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ-containing aqueous extracts of Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD) brain robustly inhibits long-term potentiation (LTP) without significantly affecting baseline excitatory synaptic transmission in the rat hippocampus in vivo. Moreover, the disruption of LTP was abrogated by immunodepletion of Aβ. Importantly, intracerebroventricular administration of antigen-binding antibody fragment D13, directed to a putative Aβ-binding site on PrP(C), prevented the inhibition of LTP by AD brain-derived Aβ. In contrast, R1, a Fab directed to the C terminus of PrP(C), a region not implicated in binding of Aβ, did not significantly affect the Aβ-mediated inhibition of LTP. These data support the pathophysiological significance of SDS-stable Aβ dimer and the role of PrP(C) in mediating synaptic plasticity disruption by soluble Aβ.

  4. Adaptor Protein Complex 2 (AP-2) Mediated, Clathrin Dependent Endocytosis, And Related Gene Activities, Are A Prominent Feature During Maturation Stage Amelogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    LACRUZ, Rodrigo S.; BROOKES, Steven J.; WEN, Xin; JIMENEZ, Jaime M.; VIKMAN, Susanna; HU, Ping; WHITE, Shane N.; LYNGSTADAAS, S. Petter; OKAMOTO, Curtis T.; SMITH, Charles E.; PAINE, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular events defining enamel matrix removal during amelogenesis are poorly understood. Early reports have suggested that adaptor proteins (AP) participate in ameloblast-mediated endocytosis. Enamel formation involves the secretory and maturation stages, with an increase in resorptive function during the latter. Here, using real time PCR, we show that the expression of clathrin and adaptor protein subunits are up-regulated in maturation stage rodent enamel organ cells. AP-2 is the most up-regulated of the four distinct adaptor protein complexes. Immunolocalization confirms the presence of AP-2 and clathrin in ameloblasts with strongest reactivity at the apical pole. These data suggest that the resorptive functions of enamel cells involve AP-2 mediated, clathrin dependent endocytosis, thus implying the likelihood of a specific membrane-bound receptor(s) of enamel matrix protein debris. The mRNA expression of other endocytosis-related gene products is also up-regulated during maturation including: lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (Lamp1), cluster of differentiation 63 and 68 (Cd63 and Cd68), ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal V0 subunit D2 (Atp6v0d2), ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal V1 subunit B2 (Atp6v1b2), chloride channel, voltage-sensitive 7 (Clcn7) and cathepsin K (Ctsk). Immunohistological data confirms the expression of a number of these proteins in maturation stage ameloblasts. The enamel of Cd63-null mice was also examined. Despite increased mRNA and protein expression in the enamel organ during maturation, the enamel of Cd63-null mice appeared normal. This may suggest inherent functional redundancies between Cd63 and related gene products, such as Lamp1 and Cd68. Ameloblast-like LS8 cells treated with the enamel matrix protein complex Emdogain® showed up-regulation of AP-2 and clathrin subunits, further supporting the existence of a membrane-bound receptor regulated pathway for the endocytosis of enamel matrix proteins. These data together

  5. Regulation of Sirtuin-Mediated Protein Deacetylation by Cardioprotective Phytochemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Treviño-Saldaña, Niria; García-Rivas, Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    Modulation of posttranslational modifications (PTMs), such as protein acetylation, is considered a novel therapeutic strategy to combat the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Protein hyperacetylation is associated with the development of numerous cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure. In addition, decreased expression and activity of the deacetylases Sirt1, Sirt3, and Sirt6 have been linked to the developm...

  6. Identification of amino-acid residues in the V protein of peste des petits ruminants essential for interference and suppression of STAT-mediated interferon signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xusheng, E-mail: maxushengtt@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Lanzhou 730030 (China); Yang, Xing [State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Lanzhou 730030 (China); Nian, Xiaofeng [Institute of Pathogen Biology and Immunology, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou 07500 (China); Zhang, Zhidong; Dou, Yongxi [State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Lanzhou 730030 (China); Zhang, Xuehu [Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou (China); Luo, Xuenong; Su, Junhong; Zhu, Qiyun [State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Lanzhou 730030 (China); Cai, Xuepeng, E-mail: caixp@vip.163.com [State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Lanzhou 730030 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a fatal disease in small ruminants. V protein of PPRV plays a pivotal role in interfering with host innate immunity by blocking IFNs signaling through interacting with STAT1 and STAT2. In the present study, the results demonstrated that PPRV V protein blocks IFN actions in a dose dependent manner and restrains the translocation of STAT1/2 proteins. We speculate that the translocation inhibition might be caused by the interfering of the downstream of STAT protein. Mutagenesis defines that Cys cluster and Trp motif of PPRV V protein are essential for STAT-mediated IFN signaling. These findings give a new sight for the further studies to understand the delicate mechanism of PPRV to escape the IFN signaling. - Highlights: • PPRV V protein inhibits type I IFN production and blocks its activation. • PPRV V protein negatively regulates activation of ISRE and GAS promoter. • PPRV V protein inhibits nuclear translocation of STAT protein by non-degradation. • PNT and VCT domain of PPRV V protein inhibit IFN transduction. • PPRV V protein binds with STAT protein via some conserved motifs.

  7. Cdk1-Cyclin B1-mediated Phosphorylation of Tumor-associated Microtubule-associated Protein/Cytoskeleton-associated Protein 2 in Mitosis*

    OpenAIRE

    Uk Hong, Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Hyo-Sil; Seong, Yeon-Sun; Hong, Kyeong-Man; Bae, Chang-Dae; Park, Joobae

    2009-01-01

    During mitosis, establishment of structurally and functionally sound bipolar spindles is necessary for maintaining the fidelity of chromosome segregation. Tumor-associated microtubule-associated protein (TMAP), also known as cytoskeleton-associated protein 2 (CKAP2), is a mitotic spindle-associated protein whose level is frequently up-regulated in various malignancies. Previous reports have suggested that TMAP is a potential regulator of mitotic spindle assembly and dynamics and that it is re...

  8. Protein associations in DnaA-ATP hydrolysis mediated by the Hda-replicase clamp complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su'etsugu, Masayuki; Shimuta, Toh-Ru; Ishida, Takuma; Kawakami, Hironori; Katayama, Tsutomu

    2005-02-25

    In Escherichia coli, the activity of ATP-bound DnaA protein in initiating chromosomal replication is negatively controlled in a replication-coordinated manner. The RIDA (regulatory inactivation of DnaA) system promotes DnaA-ATP hydrolysis to produce the inactivated form DnaA-ADP in a manner depending on the Hda protein and the DNA-loaded form of the beta-sliding clamp, a subunit of the replicase holoenzyme. A highly functional form of Hda was purified and shown to form a homodimer in solution, and two Hda dimers were found to associate with a single clamp molecule. Purified mutant Hda proteins were used in a staged in vitro RIDA system followed by a pull-down assay to show that Hda-clamp binding is a prerequisite for DnaA-ATP hydrolysis and that binding is mediated by an Hda N-terminal motif. Arg(168) in the AAA(+) Box VII motif of Hda plays a role in stable homodimer formation and in DnaA-ATP hydrolysis, but not in clamp binding. Furthermore, the DnaA N-terminal domain is required for the functional interaction of DnaA with the Hda-clamp complex. Single cells contain approximately 50 Hda dimers, consistent with the results of in vitro experiments. These findings and the features of AAA(+) proteins, including DnaA, suggest the following model. DnaA-ATP is hydrolyzed at a binding interface between the AAA(+) domains of DnaA and Hda; the DnaA N-terminal domain supports this interaction; and the interaction of DnaA-ATP with the Hda-clamp complex occurs in a catalytic mode.

  9. Peptide-chaperone-directed transdermal protein delivery requires energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Renquan; Jin, Peipei; Zhang, Li; Wang, Changli; Chen, Chuanjun; Ding, Weiping; Wen, Longping

    2014-11-03

    The biologically inspired transdermal enhanced peptide TD1 has been discovered to specifically facilitate transdermal delivery of biological macromolecules. However, the biological behavior of TD1 has not been fully defined. In this study, we find that energy is required for the TD1-mediated transdermal protein delivery through rat and human skins. Our results show that the permeation activity of TD1-hEGF, a fusion protein composed of human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) and the TD1 sequence connected with a glycine-serine linker (GGGGS), can be inhibited by the energy inhibitor, rotenone or oligomycin. In addition, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the essential energetic molecule in organic systems, can effectively facilitate the TD1 directed permeation of the protein-based drug into the skin in a dose-dependent fashion. Our results here demonstrate a novel energy-dependent permeation process during the TD1-mediated transdermal protein delivery that could be valuable for the future development of promising new transdermal drugs.

  10. Myocardial ischemic preconditioning upregulated protein 1(Mipu1):zinc finger protein 667 - a multifunctional KRAB/C{sub 2}H{sub 2} zinc finger protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, D.; Zhang, C. [Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, Key Lab for Arteriosclerology of Hunan Province, Post-doctoral Mobile Stations for Basic Medicine, University of South China, Hengyang City, Hunan Province (China); Fan, W.J. [Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, Key Lab for Arteriosclerology of Hunan Province, Post-doctoral Mobile Stations for Basic Medicine, University of South China, Hengyang City, Hunan Province (China); The Second Affiliated Hospital, University of South China, Hengyang City, Hunan Province (China); Pan, W.J.; Feng, D.M.; Qu, S.L.; Jiang, Z.S. [Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, Key Lab for Arteriosclerology of Hunan Province, Post-doctoral Mobile Stations for Basic Medicine, University of South China, Hengyang City, Hunan Province (China)

    2014-10-31

    Myocardial ischemic preconditioning upregulated protein 1 (Mipu1) is a newly discovered upregulated gene produced in rats during the myocardial ischemic preconditioning process. Mipu1 cDNA contains a 1824-base pair open reading frame and encodes a 608 amino acid protein with an N-terminal Krüppel-associated box (KRAB) domain and classical zinc finger C{sub 2}H{sub 2} motifs in the C-terminus. Mipu1 protein is located in the cell nucleus. Recent studies found that Mipu1 has a protective effect on the ischemia-reperfusion injury of heart, brain, and other organs. As a nuclear factor, Mipu1 may perform its protective function through directly transcribing and repressing the expression of proapoptotic genes to repress cell apoptosis. In addition, Mipu1 also plays an important role in regulating the gene expression of downstream inflammatory mediators by inhibiting the activation of activator protein-1 and serum response element.

  11. Direct binding of retromer to human papillomavirus type 16 minor capsid protein L2 mediates endosome exit during viral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Popa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Trafficking of human papillomaviruses to the Golgi apparatus during virus entry requires retromer, an endosomal coat protein complex that mediates the vesicular transport of cellular transmembrane proteins from the endosome to the Golgi apparatus or the plasma membrane. Here we show that the HPV16 L2 minor capsid protein is a retromer cargo, even though L2 is not a transmembrane protein. We show that direct binding of retromer to a conserved sequence in the carboxy-terminus of L2 is required for exit of L2 from the early endosome and delivery to the trans-Golgi network during virus entry. This binding site is different from known retromer binding motifs and can be replaced by a sorting signal from a cellular retromer cargo. Thus, HPV16 is an unconventional particulate retromer cargo, and retromer binding initiates retrograde transport of viral components from the endosome to the trans-Golgi network during virus entry. We propose that the carboxy-terminal segment of L2 protein protrudes through the endosomal membrane and is accessed by retromer in the cytoplasm.

  12. Protein- protein interaction detection system using fluorescent protein microdomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2010-02-23

    The invention provides a protein labeling and interaction detection system based on engineered fragments of fluorescent and chromophoric proteins that require fused interacting polypeptides to drive the association of the fragments, and further are soluble and stable, and do not change the solubility of polypeptides to which they are fused. In one embodiment, a test protein X is fused to a sixteen amino acid fragment of GFP (.beta.-strand 10, amino acids 198-214), engineered to not perturb fusion protein solubility. A second test protein Y is fused to a sixteen amino acid fragment of GFP (.beta.-strand 11, amino acids 215-230), engineered to not perturb fusion protein solubility. When X and Y interact, they bring the GFP strands into proximity, and are detected by complementation with a third GFP fragment consisting of GFP amino acids 1-198 (strands 1-9). When GFP strands 10 and 11 are held together by interaction of protein X and Y, they spontaneous association with GFP strands 1-9, resulting in structural complementation, folding, and concomitant GFP fluorescence.

  13. Novel staphylococcal glycosyltransferases SdgA and SdgB mediate immunogenicity and protection of virulence-associated cell wall proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter L W Hazenbos

    Full Text Available Infection of host tissues by Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis requires an unusual family of staphylococcal adhesive proteins that contain long stretches of serine-aspartate dipeptide-repeats (SDR. The prototype member of this family is clumping factor A (ClfA, a key virulence factor that mediates adhesion to host tissues by binding to extracellular matrix proteins such as fibrinogen. However, the biological siginificance of the SDR-domain and its implication for pathogenesis remain poorly understood. Here, we identified two novel bacterial glycosyltransferases, SdgA and SdgB, which modify all SDR-proteins in these two bacterial species. Genetic and biochemical data demonstrated that these two glycosyltransferases directly bind and covalently link N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc moieties to the SDR-domain in a step-wise manner, with SdgB appending the sugar residues proximal to the target Ser-Asp repeats, followed by additional modification by SdgA. GlcNAc-modification of SDR-proteins by SdgB creates an immunodominant epitope for highly opsonic human antibodies, which represent up to 1% of total human IgG. Deletion of these glycosyltransferases renders SDR-proteins vulnerable to proteolysis by human neutrophil-derived cathepsin G. Thus, SdgA and SdgB glycosylate staphylococcal SDR-proteins, which protects them against host proteolytic activity, and yet generates major eptopes for the human anti-staphylococcal antibody response, which may represent an ongoing competition between host and pathogen.

  14. Solvated protein-DNA docking using HADDOCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijk, Marc van; Visscher, Koen M.; Kastritis, Panagiotis L.; Bonvin, Alexandre M. J. J., E-mail: a.m.j.j.bonvin@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research, Faculty of Science-Chemistry (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    Interfacial water molecules play an important role in many aspects of protein-DNA specificity and recognition. Yet they have been mostly neglected in the computational modeling of these complexes. We present here a solvated docking protocol that allows explicit inclusion of water molecules in the docking of protein-DNA complexes and demonstrate its feasibility on a benchmark of 30 high-resolution protein-DNA complexes containing crystallographically-determined water molecules at their interfaces. Our protocol is capable of reproducing the solvation pattern at the interface and recovers hydrogen-bonded water-mediated contacts in many of the benchmark cases. Solvated docking leads to an overall improvement in the quality of the generated protein-DNA models for cases with limited conformational change of the partners upon complex formation. The applicability of this approach is demonstrated on real cases by docking a representative set of 6 complexes using unbound protein coordinates, model-built DNA and knowledge-based restraints. As HADDOCK supports the inclusion of a variety of NMR restraints, solvated docking is also applicable for NMR-based structure calculations of protein-DNA complexes.

  15. Integrin-mediated adhesion of human mesenchymal stem cells to extracellular matrix proteins adsorbed to polymer surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dånmark, S; Mustafa, K; Finne-Wistrand, A; Albertsson, A-C; Patarroyo, M

    2012-01-01

    In vitro, degradable aliphatic polyesters are widely used as cell carriers for bone tissue engineering, despite their lack of biological cues. Their biological active surface is rather determined by an adsorbed layer of proteins from the surrounding media. Initial cell fate, including adhesion and proliferation, which are key properties for efficient cell carriers, is determined by the adsorbed layer of proteins. Herein we have investigated the ability of human bone marrow derived stem cells (hBMSC) to adhere to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, including fibronectin and vitronectin which are present in plasma and serum. hBMSC expressed integrins for collagens, laminins, fibronectin and vitronectin. Accordingly, hBMSC strongly adhered to these purified ECM proteins by using the corresponding integrins. Although purified fibronectin and vitronectin adsorbed to aliphatic polyesters to a lower extent than to cell culture polystyrene, these low levels were sufficient to mediate adhesion of hBMSC. It was found that plasma- and serum-coated polystyrene adsorbed significant levels of both fibronectin and vitronectin, and fibronectin was identified as the major adhesive component of plasma for hBMSC; however, aliphatic polyesters adsorbed minimal levels of fibronectin under similar conditions resulting in impaired cell adhesion. Altogether, the results suggest that the efficiency of aliphatic polyesters cell carriers could be improved by increasing their ability to adsorb fibronectin. (paper)

  16. Fas-associated factor 1 is a scaffold protein that promotes β-transducin repeat-containing protein (β-TrCP)-mediated β-catenin ubiquitination and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Long; Zhou, Fangfang; Li, Yihao; Drabsch, Yvette; Zhang, Juan; van Dam, Hans; ten Dijke, Peter

    2012-08-31

    FAS-associated factor 1 (FAF1) antagonizes Wnt signaling by stimulating β-catenin degradation. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this effect is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the E3 ubiquitin ligase β-transducin repeat-containing protein (β-TrCP) is required for FAF1 to suppress Wnt signaling and that FAF1 specifically associates with the SCF (Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein)-β-TrCP complex. Depletion of β-TrCP reduced FAF1-mediated β-catenin polyubiquitination and impaired FAF1 in antagonizing Wnt/β-catenin signaling. FAF1 was shown to act as a scaffold for β-catenin and β-TrCP and thereby to potentiate β-TrCP-mediated β-catenin ubiquitination and degradation. Data mining revealed that FAF1 expression is statistically down-regulated in human breast carcinoma compared with normal breast tissue. Consistent with this, FAF1 expression is higher in epithelial-like MCF7 than mesenchymal-like MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Depletion of FAF1 in MCF7 cells resulted in increased β-catenin accumulation and signaling. Importantly, FAF1 knockdown promoted a decrease in epithelial E-cadherin and an increase in mesenchymal vimentin expression, indicative for an epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Moreover, ectopic FAF1 expression reduces breast cancer cell migration in vitro and invasion/metastasis in vivo. Thus, our studies strengthen a tumor-suppressive function for FAF1.

  17. Hepatitis B core protein as a therapeutic target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Lung-Yi; Wong, Danny Ka-Ho; Seto, Wai-Kay; Lai, Ching-Lung; Yuen, Man Fung

    2017-12-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is difficult to cure, due to the presence of covalently-closed-circular DNA and virus-mediated blunting of host immune response. Existing therapies with nucleos(t)ide analogue or pegylated-interferon are not sufficient to achieve a high rate of HBV surface antigen seroclearance, a more desirable treatment outcome. Novel therapeutic agents targeting alternative viral replication steps are being developed. In this review, we will discuss the hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) as a therapeutic target. Areas covered: The basic structure and fundamental functions of HBcAg including nucleocapsid assembly, pre-genomic RNA encapsidation, reverse transcription, virion formation, cccDNA amplification, immune response regulation, and HBx protein interaction will be reviewed. Most of these are identified as therapeutic targets and tested in in vitro and in vivo studies, although clinical trials are scanty. Among the different components, the core protein allosteric modulators (CpAM) have been most widely investigated and appear promising in clinical trials. Expert opinion: The multiple and essential functions of HBcAg for HBV life cycle are important and attractive targets for HBV therapeutic interventions. Controlled trials involving CpAM are awaited. Apart from CpAM, drugs directed against different functions of HBcAg may be further explored to maximize the chance of cure.

  18. Zinc-finger proteins in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandri, Matteo; Smirnov, Artem; Novelli, Flavia; Pitolli, Consuelo; Agostini, Massimiliano; Malewicz, Michal; Melino, Gerry; Raschellà, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Zinc-finger proteins (ZNFs) are one of the most abundant groups of proteins and have a wide range of molecular functions. Given the wide variety of zinc-finger domains, ZNFs are able to interact with DNA, RNA, PAR (poly-ADP-ribose) and other proteins. Thus, ZNFs are involved in the regulation of several cellular processes. In fact, ZNFs are implicated in transcriptional regulation, ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation, signal transduction, actin targeting, DNA repair, cell migration, and numerous other processes. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the current state of knowledge of this class of proteins. Firstly, we describe the actual classification of ZNFs, their structure and functions. Secondly, we focus on the biological role of ZNFs in the development of organisms under normal physiological and pathological conditions.

  19. C/EBPβ (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β) mediates progesterone production through transcriptional regulation in co-operation with SF-1 (steroidogenic factor-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Tetsuya; Ju, Yunfeng; Imamichi, Yoshitaka; Osaki, Tsukasa; Yazawa, Takashi; Kawabe, Shinya; Ishikane, Shin; Matsumura, Takehiro; Kanno, Masafumi; Kamiki, Yasue; Kimura, Kohei; Minamino, Naoto; Miyamoto, Kaoru

    2014-06-15

    The transcription factor SF-1 (steroidogenic factor-1) is a master regulator of steroidogenesis. Previously, we have found that SF-1 induces the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into steroidogenic cells. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of SF-1-mediated functions, we attempted to identify protein components of the SF-1 nuclear protein complex in differentiated cells. SF-1 immunoaffinity chromatography followed by MS/MS analysis was performed, and 24 proteins were identified. Among these proteins, we focused on C/EBPβ (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β), which is an essential transcription factor for ovulation and luteinization, as the transcriptional mechanisms of C/EBPβ working together with SF-1 are poorly understood. C/EBPβ knockdown attenuated cAMP-induced progesterone production in granulosa tumour-derived KGN cells by altering STAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein), CYP11A1 (cytochrome P450, family 11, subfamily A, polypeptide 1) and HSD3B2 (hydroxy-δ-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3β- and steroid δ-isomerase 2) expression. EMSA and ChIP assays revealed novel C/EBPβ-binding sites in the upstream regions of the HSD3B2 and CYP11A1 genes. These interactions were enhanced by cAMP stimulation. Luciferase assays showed that C/EBPβ-responsive regions were found in each promoter and C/EBPβ is involved in the cAMP-induced transcriptional activity of these genes together with SF-1. These results indicate that C/EBPβ is an important mediator of progesterone production by working together with SF-1, especially under tropic hormone-stimulated conditions.

  20. Water-mediated ionic interactions in protein structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    oxygen atoms present in the N- and C-terminals of the protein chains were ... program HBPLUS (McDonald and Thornton 1999) to check for hydrogen bonds ..... a crucial role in the communication between the subunits. (Royer et al. 1996).

  1. Protein selectivity with immobilized metal ion-tacn sorbents: chromatographic studies with human serum proteins and several other globular proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, W; Graham, B; Spiccia, L; Hearn, M T

    1998-01-01

    The chromatographic selectivity of the immobilized chelate system, 1,4,7-triazocyclononane (tacn), complexed with the borderline metal ions Cu2+, Cr3+, Mn2+, Co2+, Zn2+, and Ni2+ has been investigated with hen egg white lysozyme, horse heart cytochrome c, and horse skeletal muscle myoglobin, as well as proteins present in partially fractionated preparations of human plasma. The effects of ionic strength and pH of the loading and elution buffers on protein selectivities of these new immobilized metal ion affinity chromatographic (IMAC) systems have been examined. The results confirm that immobilized Mn;pl-tacn sorbents exhibit a novel type of IMAC behavior with proteins. In particular, the chromatographic properties of these immobilized M(n+)-tacn ligand systems were significantly different compared to the IMAC behavior observed with other types of immobilized tri- and tetradentate chelating ligands, such as iminodiacetic acid, O-phosphoserine, or nitrilotriacetic acid, when complexed with borderline metal ions. The experimental results have consequently been evaluated in terms of the additional contributions to the interactive processes mediated by effects other than solely the conventional lone pair Lewis soft acid-Lewis soft base coordination interactions, typically found for the IMAC of proteins with borderline and soft metal ions, such as Cu2+ or Ni2+.

  2. A monomeric G protein-coupled receptor isolated in a high-density lipoprotein particle efficiently activates its G protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whorton, Matthew R; Bokoch, Michael P; Rasmussen, Søren Gøgsig Faarup

    2007-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) respond to a diverse array of ligands, mediating cellular responses to hormones and neurotransmitters, as well as the senses of smell and taste. The structures of the GPCR rhodopsin and several G proteins have been determined by x-ray crystallography, yet...... the organization of the signaling complex between GPCRs and G proteins is poorly understood. The observations that some GPCRs are obligate heterodimers, and that many GPCRs form both homo- and heterodimers, has led to speculation that GPCR dimers may be required for efficient activation of G proteins. However......, technical limitations have precluded a definitive analysis of G protein coupling to monomeric GPCRs in a biochemically defined and membrane-bound system. Here we demonstrate that a prototypical GPCR, the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR), can be incorporated into a reconstituted high-density lipoprotein...

  3. Enhancing endosomal escape of transduced proteins by photochemical internalisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Mellert

    Full Text Available Induced internalisation of functional proteins into cultured cells has become an important aspect in a rising number of in vitro and in vivo assays. The endo-lysosomal entrapment of the transduced proteins remains the major problem in all transduction protocols. In this study we compared the efficiency, cytotoxicity and protein targeting of different commercially available transduction reagents by transducing a well-studied fluorescently labelled protein (Atto488-bovine serum albumin into cultured human sarcoma cells. The amount of internalised protein and toxicity differed between the different reagents, but the percentage of transduced cells was consistently high. Furthermore, in all protocols the signals of the transduced Atto488-BSA were predominantly punctual consistent with an endosomal localisation. To overcome the endosomal entrapment, the transduction protocols were combined with a photochemical internalisation (PCI treatment. Using this combination revealed that an endosomal disruption is highly effective in cell penetrating peptide (CPP mediated transduction, whereas lipid-mediated transductions lead to a lower signal spreading throughout the cytosol. No change in the signal distribution could be achieved in treatments using non-lipid polymers as a transduction reagent. Therefore, the combination of protein transduction protocols based on CPPs with the endosomolytic treatment PCI can facilitate protein transduction experiments in vitro.

  4. Enhancing endosomal escape of transduced proteins by photochemical internalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellert, Kevin; Lamla, Markus; Scheffzek, Klaus; Wittig, Rainer; Kaufmann, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Induced internalisation of functional proteins into cultured cells has become an important aspect in a rising number of in vitro and in vivo assays. The endo-lysosomal entrapment of the transduced proteins remains the major problem in all transduction protocols. In this study we compared the efficiency, cytotoxicity and protein targeting of different commercially available transduction reagents by transducing a well-studied fluorescently labelled protein (Atto488-bovine serum albumin) into cultured human sarcoma cells. The amount of internalised protein and toxicity differed between the different reagents, but the percentage of transduced cells was consistently high. Furthermore, in all protocols the signals of the transduced Atto488-BSA were predominantly punctual consistent with an endosomal localisation. To overcome the endosomal entrapment, the transduction protocols were combined with a photochemical internalisation (PCI) treatment. Using this combination revealed that an endosomal disruption is highly effective in cell penetrating peptide (CPP) mediated transduction, whereas lipid-mediated transductions lead to a lower signal spreading throughout the cytosol. No change in the signal distribution could be achieved in treatments using non-lipid polymers as a transduction reagent. Therefore, the combination of protein transduction protocols based on CPPs with the endosomolytic treatment PCI can facilitate protein transduction experiments in vitro.

  5. Olfactory proteins mediating chemical communication in the navel orangeworm moth, Amyelois transitella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter S Leal

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, is the most serious insect pest of almonds and pistachios in California for which environmentally friendly alternative methods of control--like pheromone-based approaches--are highly desirable. Some constituents of the sex pheromone are unstable and could be replaced with parapheromones, which may be designed on the basis of molecular interaction of pheromones and pheromone-detecting olfactory proteins.By analyzing extracts from olfactory and non-olfactory tissues, we identified putative olfactory proteins, obtained their N-terminal amino acid sequences by Edman degradation, and used degenerate primers to clone the corresponding cDNAs by SMART RACE. Additionally, we used degenerate primers based on conserved sequences of known proteins to fish out other candidate olfactory genes. We expressed the gene encoding a newly identified pheromone-binding protein, which was analyzed by circular dichroism, fluorescence, and nuclear magnetic resonance, and used in a binding assay to assess affinity to pheromone components.We have cloned nine cDNAs encoding olfactory proteins from the navel orangeworm, including two pheromone-binding proteins, two general odorant-binding proteins, one chemosensory protein, one glutathione S-transferase, one antennal binding protein X, one sensory neuron membrane protein, and one odorant receptor. Of these, AtraPBP1 is highly enriched in male antennae. Fluorescence, CD and NMR studies suggest a dramatic pH-dependent conformational change, with high affinity to pheromone constituents at neutral pH and no binding at low pH.

  6. Rational design of FRET-based sensor proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkx, M.

    2008-01-01

    Real-time imaging of molecular events inside living cells is important for understanding the basis of physiological processes and diseases. Genetically encoded sensors that use fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between two fluorescent proteins are attractive in this respect because they

  7. Identification of Protein-Protein Interactions with Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST) Fusion Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarson, Margret B; Pugacheva, Elena N; Orlinick, Jason R

    2007-08-01

    INTRODUCTIONGlutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins have had a wide range of applications since their introduction as tools for synthesis of recombinant proteins in bacteria. GST was originally selected as a fusion moiety because of several desirable properties. First and foremost, when expressed in bacteria alone, or as a fusion, GST is not sequestered in inclusion bodies (in contrast to previous fusion protein systems). Second, GST can be affinity-purified without denaturation because it binds to immobilized glutathione, which provides the basis for simple purification. Consequently, GST fusion proteins are routinely used for antibody generation and purification, protein-protein interaction studies, and biochemical analysis. This article describes the use of GST fusion proteins as probes for the identification of protein-protein interactions.

  8. Identification of Ina proteins from Fusarium acuminatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Jan Frederik; Kunert, Anna Theresa; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2015-04-01

    Freezing of water above -36° C is based on ice nucleation activity (INA) mediated by ice nucleators (IN) which can be of various origins. Beside mineral IN, biological particles are a potentially important source of atmospheric IN. The best-known biological IN are common plant-associated bacteria. The IN activity of these bacteria is induced by a surface protein on the outer cell membrane, which is fully characterized. In contrast, much less is known about the nature of fungal IN. The fungal genus Fusarium is widely spread throughout the earth. It belongs to the Ascomycota and is one of the most severe fungal pathogens. It can affect a variety of organisms from plants to animals including humans. INA of Fusarium was already described about 30 years ago and INA of Fusarium as well as other fungal genera is assumed to be mediated by proteins or at least to contain a proteinaceous compound. Although many efforts were made the precise INA machinery of Fusarium and other fungal species including the proteins and their corresponding genes remain unidentified. In this study preparations from living fungal samples of F. acuminatum were fractionated by liquid chromatography and IN active fractions were identified by freezing assays. SDS-page and de novo sequencing by mass spectrometry were used to identify the primary structure of the protein. Preliminary results show that the INA protein of F. acuminatum is contained in the early size exclusion chromatography fractions indicating a high molecular size. Moreover we could identify a single protein band from IN active fractions at 130-145 kDa corresponding to sizes of IN proteins from bacterial species. To our knowledge this is for the first time an isolation of a single protein from in vivo samples, which can be assigned as IN active from Fusarium.

  9. Sexual attraction enhances glutamate transmission in mammalian anterior cingulate cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Long-Jun

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Functional human brain imaging studies have indicated the essential role of cortical regions, such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, in romantic love and sex. However, the neurobiological basis of how the ACC neurons are activated and engaged in sexual attraction remains unknown. Using transgenic mice in which the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP is controlled by the promoter of the activity-dependent gene c-fos, we found that ACC pyramidal neurons are activated by sexual attraction. The presynaptic glutamate release to the activated neurons is increased and pharmacological inhibition of neuronal activities in the ACC reduced the interest of male mice to female mice. Our results present direct evidence of the critical role of the ACC in sexual attraction, and long-term increases in glutamate mediated excitatory transmission may contribute to sexual attraction between male and female mice.

  10. Wiki-pi: a web-server of annotated human protein-protein interactions to aid in discovery of protein function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Orii

    Full Text Available Protein-protein interactions (PPIs are the basis of biological functions. Knowledge of the interactions of a protein can help understand its molecular function and its association with different biological processes and pathways. Several publicly available databases provide comprehensive information about individual proteins, such as their sequence, structure, and function. There also exist databases that are built exclusively to provide PPIs by curating them from published literature. The information provided in these web resources is protein-centric, and not PPI-centric. The PPIs are typically provided as lists of interactions of a given gene with links to interacting partners; they do not present a comprehensive view of the nature of both the proteins involved in the interactions. A web database that allows search and retrieval based on biomedical characteristics of PPIs is lacking, and is needed. We present Wiki-Pi (read Wiki-π, a web-based interface to a database of human PPIs, which allows users to retrieve interactions by their biomedical attributes such as their association to diseases, pathways, drugs and biological functions. Each retrieved PPI is shown with annotations of both of the participant proteins side-by-side, creating a basis to hypothesize the biological function facilitated by the interaction. Conceptually, it is a search engine for PPIs analogous to PubMed for scientific literature. Its usefulness in generating novel scientific hypotheses is demonstrated through the study of IGSF21, a little-known gene that was recently identified to be associated with diabetic retinopathy. Using Wiki-Pi, we infer that its association to diabetic retinopathy may be mediated through its interactions with the genes HSPB1, KRAS, TMSB4X and DGKD, and that it may be involved in cellular response to external stimuli, cytoskeletal organization and regulation of molecular activity. The website also provides a wiki-like capability allowing users

  11. Protein-Carbohydrate Interaction between Sperm and the Egg-Coating Envelope and Its Regulation by Dicalcin, a Xenopus laevis Zona Pellucida Protein-Associated Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naofumi Miwa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein-carbohydrate interaction regulates multiple important processes during fertilization, an essential biological event where individual gametes undergo intercellular recognition to fuse and generate a zygote. In the mammalian female reproductive tract, sperm temporarily adhere to the oviductal epithelium via the complementary interaction between carbohydrate-binding proteins on the sperm membrane and carbohydrates on the oviductal cells. After detachment from the oviductal epithelium at the appropriate time point following ovulation, sperm migrate and occasionally bind to the extracellular matrix, called the zona pellucida (ZP, which surrounds the egg, thereafter undergoing the exocytotic acrosomal reaction to penetrate the envelope and to reach the egg plasma membrane. This sperm-ZP interaction also involves the direct interaction between sperm carbohydrate-binding proteins and carbohydrates within the ZP, most of which have been conserved across divergent species from mammals to amphibians and echinoderms. This review focuses on the carbohydrate-mediated interaction of sperm with the female reproductive tract, mainly the interaction between sperm and the ZP, and introduces the fertilization-suppressive action of dicalcin, a Xenopus laevis ZP protein-associated protein. The action of dicalcin correlates significantly with a dicalcin-dependent change in the lectin-staining pattern within the ZP, suggesting a unique role of dicalcin as an inherent protein that is capable of regulating the affinity between the lectin and oligosaccharides attached on its target glycoprotein.

  12. Targeted in vivo inhibition of specific protein-protein interactions using recombinant antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Zábrady

    Full Text Available With the growing availability of genomic sequence information, there is an increasing need for gene function analysis. Antibody-mediated "silencing" represents an intriguing alternative for the precise inhibition of a particular function of biomolecules. Here, we describe a method for selecting recombinant antibodies with a specific purpose in mind, which is to inhibit intrinsic protein-protein interactions in the cytosol of plant cells. Experimental procedures were designed for conveniently evaluating desired properties of recombinant antibodies in consecutive steps. Our selection method was successfully used to develop a recombinant antibody inhibiting the interaction of ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE PHOSPHOTRANSFER PROTEIN 3 with such of its upstream interaction partners as the receiver domain of CYTOKININ INDEPENDENT HISTIDINE KINASE 1. The specific down-regulation of the cytokinin signaling pathway in vivo demonstrates the validity of our approach. This selection method can serve as a prototype for developing unique recombinant antibodies able to interfere with virtually any biomolecule in the living cell.

  13. Protein-protein interaction network-based detection of functionally similar proteins within species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Baoxing; Wang, Fen; Guo, Yang; Sang, Qing; Liu, Min; Li, Dengyun; Fang, Wei; Zhang, Deli

    2012-07-01

    Although functionally similar proteins across species have been widely studied, functionally similar proteins within species showing low sequence similarity have not been examined in detail. Identification of these proteins is of significant importance for understanding biological functions, evolution of protein families, progression of co-evolution, and convergent evolution and others which cannot be obtained by detection of functionally similar proteins across species. Here, we explored a method of detecting functionally similar proteins within species based on graph theory. After denoting protein-protein interaction networks using graphs, we split the graphs into subgraphs using the 1-hop method. Proteins with functional similarities in a species were detected using a method of modified shortest path to compare these subgraphs and to find the eligible optimal results. Using seven protein-protein interaction networks and this method, some functionally similar proteins with low sequence similarity that cannot detected by sequence alignment were identified. By analyzing the results, we found that, sometimes, it is difficult to separate homologous from convergent evolution. Evaluation of the performance of our method by gene ontology term overlap showed that the precision of our method was excellent. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The different roles of selective autophagic protein degradation in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da-wei; Peng, Zhen-ju; Ren, Guang-fang; Wang, Guang-xin

    2015-11-10

    Autophagy is an intracellular pathway for bulk protein degradation and the removal of damaged organelles by lysosomes. Autophagy was previously thought to be unselective; however, studies have increasingly confirmed that autophagy-mediated protein degradation is highly regulated. Abnormal autophagic protein degradation has been associated with multiple human diseases such as cancer, neurological disability and cardiovascular disease; therefore, further elucidation of protein degradation by autophagy may be beneficial for protein-based clinical therapies. Macroautophagy and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) can both participate in selective protein degradation in mammalian cells, but the process is quite different in each case. Here, we summarize the various types of macroautophagy and CMA involved in determining protein degradation. For this summary, we divide the autophagic protein degradation pathways into four categories: the post-translational modification dependent and independent CMA pathways and the ubiquitin dependent and independent macroautophagy pathways, and describe how some non-canonical pathways and modifications such as phosphorylation, acetylation and arginylation can influence protein degradation by the autophagy lysosome system (ALS). Finally, we comment on why autophagy can serve as either diagnostics or therapeutic targets in different human diseases.