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Sample records for mediate neuroprotective effects

  1. Ghrelin-AMPK Signaling Mediates the Neuroprotective Effects of Calorie Restriction in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Jacqueline A.; Lemus, Moyra B.; Stark, Romana; Santos, Vanessa V.; Thompson, Aiysha; Rees, Daniel J.; Galic, Sandra; Elsworth, John D.; Kemp, Bruce E.; Davies, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is neuroprotective in Parkinson's disease (PD) although the mechanisms are unknown. In this study we hypothesized that elevated ghrelin, a gut hormone with neuroprotective properties, during CR prevents neurodegeneration in an 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of PD. CR attenuated the MPTP-induced loss of substantia nigra (SN) dopamine neurons and striatal dopamine turnover in ghrelin WT but not KO mice, demonstrating that ghrelin mediates CR's neuroprotective effect. CR elevated phosphorylated AMPK and ACC levels in the striatum of WT but not KO mice suggesting that AMPK is a target for ghrelin-induced neuroprotection. Indeed, exogenous ghrelin significantly increased pAMPK in the SN. Genetic deletion of AMPKβ1 and 2 subunits only in dopamine neurons prevented ghrelin-induced AMPK phosphorylation and neuroprotection. Hence, ghrelin signaling through AMPK in SN dopamine neurons mediates CR's neuroprotective effects. We consider targeting AMPK in dopamine neurons may recapitulate neuroprotective effects of CR without requiring dietary intervention. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The neuroprotective mechanisms of calorie restriction (CR) in Parkinson's disease are unknown. Indeed, the difficulty to adhere to CR necessitates an alternative method to recapitulate the neuroprotective benefits of CR while bypassing dietary constraints. Here we show that CR increases plasma ghrelin, which targets substantia nigra dopamine to maintain neuronal survival. Selective deletion on AMPK beta1 and beta2 subunits only in DAT cre-expressing neurons shows that the ghrelin-induced neuroprotection requires activation of AMPK in substantia nigra dopamine neurons. We have discovered ghrelin as a key metabolic signal, and AMPK in dopamine neurons as its target, which links calorie restriction with neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease. Thus, targeting AMPK in dopamine neurons may provide novel neuroprotective benefits in Parkinson's disease. PMID

  2. Inhalation gases or gaseous mediators as neuroprotectants for cerebral ischaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Brad A; Harrison, Joanne C; Nair, Shiva M; Sammut, Ivan A

    2013-01-01

    Ischaemic stroke is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. While recombinant tissue plasminogen activator can be administered to produce thrombolysis and restore blood flow to the ischaemic brain, therapeutic benefit is only achieved in a fraction of the subset of patients eligible for fibrinolytic intervention. Neuroprotective therapies attempting to restrict the extent of brain injury following cerebral ischaemia have not been successfully translated into the clinic despite overwhelming pre-clinical evidence of neuroprotection. Therefore, an adequate treatment for the majority of acute ischaemic stroke patients remains elusive. In the stroke literature, the use of therapeutic gases has received relatively little attention. Gases such as hyperbaric and normobaric oxygen, xenon, hydrogen, helium and argon all possess biological effects that have shown to be neuroprotective in pre-clinical models of ischaemic stroke. There are significant advantages to using gases including their relative abundance, low cost and feasibility for administration, all of which make them ideal candidates for a translational therapy for stroke. In addition, modulating cellular gaseous mediators including nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulphide may be an attractive option for ischaemic stroke therapy. Inhalation of these gaseous mediators can also produce neuroprotection, but this strategy remains to be confirmed as a viable therapy for ischaemic stroke. This review highlights the neuroprotective potential of therapeutic gas therapy and modulation of gaseous mediators for ischaemic stroke. The therapeutic advantages of gaseous therapy offer new promising directions in breaking the translational barrier for ischaemic stroke.

  3. Epigenetics and Therapeutic Targets Mediating Neuroprotection

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    Qureshi, Irfan A.; Mehler, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly evolving science of epigenetics is transforming our understanding of the nervous system in health and disease and holds great promise for the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches targeting neurological diseases. Increasing evidence suggests that epigenetic factors and mechanisms serve as important mediators of the pathogenic processes that lead to irrevocable neural injury and of countervailing homeostatic and regenerative responses. Epigenetics is, therefore, of considerable translational significance to the field of neuroprotection. In this brief review, we provide an overview of epigenetic mechanisms and highlight the emerging roles played by epigenetic processes in neural cell dysfunction and death and in resultant neuroprotective responses. PMID:26236020

  4. Neuroprotective Effect of Curcumin Against Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Via Mediating Autophagy and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lifa; Chen, Chengwei; Zhang, Xin; Li, Xu; Chen, Zupeng; Yang, Chao; Liang, Xiaolong; Zhu, Guochong; Xu, Zhen

    2018-01-01

    Curcumin, a polyphenolic compound extracted from Curcuma longa, has drawn attention for its effective bioactivities against ischemia-induced injury. This study aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of curcumin and investigate the underlying mechanism that mediates autophagy and inflammation in an animal model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. Curcumin was delivered to Sprague Dawley male rats at a dose of 200 mg/kg curcumin by intraperitoneal injection 30 min after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). LY294002, a specific inhibitor of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, as well as anisomycin, an activator of TLR4/p38/MAPK, was administered by ventricle injection 30 min before MCAO. The same volume of saline was given as a control. Brain infarction and neurological function were determined 24 h post-MCAO. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescence were used to detect alterations in autophagy-relevant proteins Akt, p-Akt, mTOR, p-mTOR, LC3-II, and LC3-I, and inflammation-related proteins TLR4, p-38, p-p38, and IL-1 in the ipsilateral hemisphere. Cerebral I/R injury resulted in significant alterations of LC3-II/LC3-I, IL-1, TLR4, and p-p38. Curcumin in MCAO rats significantly improved brain damage and neurological function by upregulating p-Akt and p-mTOR and downregulating LC3-II/LC3-I, IL-1, TLR4, p-38, and p-p38. However, these protective effects against ischemia could be suppressed when LY294002 or anisomycin was included. Curcumin exerts neuroprotective effects by attenuating autophagic activities through mediating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, while also suppressing an inflammatory reaction by regulating the TLR4/p38/MAPK pathway. Furthermore, this study indicates that curcumin could be an effective therapy for patients afflicted with ischemia.

  5. Neuroprotective effect of bee venom is mediated by reduced astrocyte activation in a subchronic MPTP-induced model of Parkinson's disease.

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    Kim, Mi Eun; Lee, Joo Yeon; Lee, Kyung Moon; Park, Hee Ra; Lee, Eunjin; Lee, Yujeong; Lee, Jun Sik; Lee, Jaewon

    2016-08-01

    Bee venom (BV), also known as apitoxin, is widely used in traditional oriental medicine to treat immune-related diseases. Recent studies suggest that BV could be beneficial for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease next to Alzheimer's disease, and PD pathologies are closely associated with neuroinflammation. Previous studies have suggested the neuroprotective effects of BV in animal models of PD are due to the modulation of inflammation. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the anti-neuroinflammatory effect of BV have not been elucidated in astrocytes. Here, the authors investigated the neuroprotective effects of BV and pramipexole (PPX; a positive control) in a subchronic MPTP-induced murine PD model. Both BV and PPX prevented MPTP-induced impairments in motor performance and reduced dopaminergic neuron loss, and furthermore, these neuroprotective effects of BV and PPX were found to be associated with reduced astroglial activation in vivo PD model. However, in MPP(+) treated primary cultured astrocytes, BV modulated astrocyte activation, whereas PPX did not, indicating that the neuroprotective effects of PPX were not mediated by neuroinflammation. These findings suggest that BV should be considered a potential therapeutic or preventive agent for PD and other neuroinflammatory associated disorders.

  6. Neuroprotective effects of lentivirus-mediated cystathionine-beta-synthase overexpression against 6-OHDA-induced parkinson's disease rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wei-Lan; Yin, Wei-Guo; Huang, Bai-Sheng; Wu, Li-Xiang

    2017-09-14

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is age-related neurodegenerative disorder by a progressive loss of dopaminergic(DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and striatum, which is at least partly associated with α-synuclein protein accumulation in these neurons. Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) plays an important role in the nervous system. Studies have shown that H 2 S has a protective effect on PD. However, as a kind of gas molecules, H 2 S is lively, volatile, and not conducive to scientific research and clinical application. Cystathionine-beta-synthase(CBS) is the main enzymes of synthesis of H 2 S in the brain. In order to examine the neuroprotective effects of CBS on PD, we detected the effects of CBS overexpression on 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned PD rats using lentivirus-mediated gene transfection techniques. In the injured SN of 6-OHDA-induced PD rats, the CBS expression and the endogenous H 2 S level markedly decreased, while administration of lentivirus-mediated CBS overexpression increased the CBS expression and the endogenous H 2 S production.CBS overexpression dramatically reversed apomorphine-induced rotation of the 6-OHDA model rats, decreased the number of TUNEL-positive neurons and the loss of the nigral DA neurons,specifically inhibited 6-OHDA-induced oxidase stress injury, and down-regulated the expression of α-synuclein(α-SYN) in the injured SN. NaHS (an H 2 S donor) had similar effects to CBS overexpression, while Amino-oxyacetate(AOAA, a CBS inhibitor) had opposite effects on PD rats. In summary, we demonstrated that CBS overexpression was able to provide neuroprotective on PD rats and improving the expression of CBS may be a potential therapeutic method for PD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Neuroprotective Effect of Insulin-like Growth Factor-II on 1- Methyl-4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research July 2015; 14 (7): 1191-1197 ... Abstract. Purpose: To evaluate the receptor-mediated neuroprotective effect of insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF- ... catecholamines, reduces levels of dopamine and.

  8. Electroacupuncture preconditioning-induced neuroprotection may be mediated by glutamate transporter type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoling; Yin, Jinbo; Li, Liaoliao; Ma, Lei; Tan, Hongying; Deng, Jiao; Chen, Shaoyang; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2013-10-01

    Electroacupuncture has been shown to induce a preconditioning effect in the brain. The mechanisms for this protection are not fully elucidated. We hypothesize that this protection is mediated by excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) that have been shown to be neuroprotective. To test this hypothesis, two-month old male Sprague-Dawley rats and EAAT type 3 (EAAT3) knockout mice received or did not receive 30-min electroacupuncture once a day for five consecutive days. They were subjected to a 120-min middle cerebral arterial occlusion (MCAO) at 24h after the last electroacupuncture. Neurological outcome was assessed 2days after the MCAO. Brain tissues were harvested at 24h after the last electroacupuncture for Western blotting. Rats subjected to electroacupuncture at the Baihui acupoint had smaller brain infarct volumes and better neurological deficit scores than control rats. Electroacupuncture increased EAAT type 2 (EAAT2) in the cerebral cortex, tended to increase EAAT3 in the hippocampus, and had no effect on EAAT type 1 expression. Dihydrokainate, an EAAT2 inhibitor, worsened the neurological outcome of rats with electroacupuncture pretreatment. Electroacupuncture pretreatment at the Baihui acupoint increased EAAT2 in the cerebral cortex and improved the neurological outcome of EAAT3 knockout mice. Together, our results suggest that EAAT2 may mediate the electroacupuncture preconditioning-induced neuroprotection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Electroacupuncture preconditioning-induced neuroprotection may be mediated by glutamate transporter type 2

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Xiaoling; Yin, Jinbo; Li, Liaoliao; Ma, Lei; Tan, Hongying; Deng, Jiao; Chen, Shaoyang; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2013-01-01

    Electroacupuncture has been shown to induce a preconditioning effect in the brain. The mechanisms for this protection are not fully elucidated. We hypothesize that this protection is mediated by excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) that have been shown to be neuroprotective. To test this hypothesis, two-month old male Sprague-Dawley rats and EAAT type 3 (EAAT3) knockout mice received or did not receive 30-min electroacupuncture once a day for 5 consecutive days. They were subjected to a...

  10. Neuroprotective effect corilagin in spinal cord injury rat model by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Neurological functions get altered in a patient suffering from spinal cord injury (SCI). Present study evaluates the neuroprotective effect of corilagin in spinal cord injury rats by inhibiting nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), inflammatory mediators and apoptosis. Materials and method: Spinal cord injury was ...

  11. Differential effects of synthetic progestagens on neuron survival and estrogen neuroprotection in cultured neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Anusha; Pike, Christian J

    2014-03-25

    Progesterone and other progestagens are used in combination with estrogens for clinical purposes, including contraception and postmenopausal hormone therapy. Progesterone and estrogens have interactive effects in brain, however interactions between synthetic progestagens and 17β-estradiol (E2) in neurons are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of seven clinically relevant progestagens on estrogen receptor (ER) mRNA expression, E2-induced neuroprotection, and E2-induced BDNF mRNA expression. We found that medroxyprogesterone acetate decreased both ERα and ERβ expression and blocked E2-mediated neuroprotection and BDNF expression. Conversely, levonorgestrel and nesterone increased ERα and or ERβ expression, were neuroprotective, and failed to attenuate E2-mediated increases in neuron survival and BDNF expression. Other progestagens tested, including norethindrone, norethindrone acetate, norethynodrel, and norgestimate, had variable effects on the measured endpoints. Our results demonstrate a range of qualitatively different actions of progestagens in cultured neurons, suggesting significant variability in the neural effects of clinically utilized progestagens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Neuroprotective Effect of Curcumin Against Nicotine-Induced Neurotoxicity is Mediated by CREB-BDNF Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Motevalian, Manijeh; Fatima, Sulail; Faraji, Fahimeh; Mozaffari, Shiva

    2017-10-01

    Nicotine abuse adversely affects brain and causes apoptotic neurodegeneration. Curcumin- a bright yellow chemical compound found in turmeric is associated with neuroprotective properties. The current study was designed to evaluate the role of CREB-BDNF signaling in mediating the neuroprotective effects of curcumin against nicotine-induced apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammation in rats. Sixty adult male rats were divided randomly into six groups. Group 1 received 0.7 ml/rat normal saline, group 2 received 6 mg/kg nicotine. Groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 were treated concurrently with nicotine (6 mg/kg) and curcumin (10, 20, 40 and 60 mg/kg i.p. respectively) for 21 days. Open Field Test (OFT) was used to evaluate the motor activity. Hippocampal oxidative, anti-oxidant, inflammatory and apoptotic factors were evaluated. Furthermore, phosphorylated brain cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding protein (P-CREB) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were studied at gene and protein levels. We found that nicotine disturbed the motor activity in OFT and simultaneous treatment with curcumin (40 and 60 mg/kg) reduced the nicotine-induced motor activity disturbances. In addition, nicotine treatment increased lipid peroxidation and the levels of GSH, IL-1β, TNF-α and Bax, while reducing Bcl-2, P-CREB and BDNF levels in the hippocampus. Nicotine also reduced the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in hippocampus. In contrast, various doses of curcumin attenuated nicotine-induced apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammation; while elevating P-CREB and BDNF levels. Thus, curcumin via activation of P-CREB/BDNF signaling pathway, confers neuroprotection against nicotine-induced inflammation, apoptosis and oxidative stress.

  13. Neuroprotective effects of curcumin on endothelin-1 mediated cell death in hippocampal neurons.

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    Stankowska, Dorota L; Krishnamoorthy, Vignesh R; Ellis, Dorette Z; Krishnamoorthy, Raghu R

    2017-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of hippocampal neurons leading to memory deficits and cognitive decline. Studies suggest that levels of the vasoactive peptide endothelin-1 (ET-1) are increased in the brain tissue of Alzheimer's patients. Curcumin, the main ingredient of the spice turmeric, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and neuroprotective effects. However, the mechanisms underlying some of these beneficial effects are not completely understood. The objective of this study was to determine if curcumin could protect hippocampal neurons from ET-1 mediated cell death and examine the involvement of c-Jun in this pathway. Primary hippocampal neurons from rat pups were isolated using a previously published protocol. Viability of the cells was measured by the live/dead assay. Immunoblot and immunohistochemical analyses were performed to analyze c-Jun levels in hippocampal neurons treated with either ET-1 or a combination of ET-1 and curcumin. Apoptotic changes were evaluated by immunoblot detection of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved fodrin, and a caspase 3/7 activation assay. ET-1 treatment produced a 2-fold increase in the levels of c-Jun as determined by an immunoblot analysis in hippocampal neurons. Co-treatment with curcumin significantly attenuated the ET-1 mediated increase in c-Jun levels. ET-1 caused increased neuronal cell death of hippocampal neurons indicated by elevation of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved fodrin and an increased activity of caspases 3 and 7 which was attenuated by co-treatment with curcumin. Blockade of JNK, an upstream effector of c-Jun by specific inhibitor SP600125 did not fully protect from ET-1 mediated activation of pro-apoptotic enzymes in primary hippocampal cells. Our data suggests that one mechanism by which curcumin protects against ET-1-mediated cell death is through blocking an increase in c-Jun levels. Other possible mechanisms include decreasing pro

  14. Neuroprotective effect of a new variant of Epo nonhematopoietic against oxidative stress

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    C. Castillo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Human erythropoietin is mainly recognized for its hematopoietic function; however, by binding to its receptor (EpoR, it can activate different signaling pathways as STAT, PI3K, MAPK and RAS to increase cellular differentiation or provide neuroprotective effects, among others. A recombinant human erythropoietin variant with low glycosylation and without hematopoietic effect (EpoL was purified from skimmed goat milk. Recombinant human erythropoietin (Epo was obtained from CHO cell line and used as control to compare EpoL effects. Neuroprotection studies were performed in PC12 cells and rat hippocampal slices. Cells were pretreated during 1 h with EpoL or Epo and exposed to oxidative agents (H2O2 or FCCP; cell viability was assayed at the end of the experiment by the MTT method. Hippocampal slices were exposed to 15 min of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD and the neuroprotective drugs EpoL or Epo were incubated for 2 h post-OGD in re-oxygenated medium. Cell cultures stressed with oxidative agents, and pretreated with EpoL, showed neuroprotective effects of 30% at a concentration 10 times lower than that of Epo. Moreover, similar differences were observed in OGD ex vivo assays. Neuroprotection elicited by EpoL was lost when an antibody against EpoR was present, indicating that its effect is EpoR-dependent. In conclusion, our results suggest that EpoL has a more potent neuroprotective profile than Epo against oxidative stress, mediated by activation of EpoR, thus EpoL represents an important target to develop a potential biopharmaceutical to treat different central nervous system pathologies related to oxidative stress such as stroke or neurodegenerative diseases. Keywords: Erythropoietin, Erythropoietin receptor, Neuroprotection, Oxidative stress

  15. Neuroprotection of rat retinal ganglion cells mediated through alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

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    Iwamoto, K; Mata, D; Linn, D M; Linn, C L

    2013-05-01

    Glutamate-induced excitotoxicity is thought to play an important role in several neurodegenerative diseases in the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, neuroprotection against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity was analyzed using acetylcholine (ACh), nicotine and the α7 specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) agonist, N-[(3R)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl]-4-chlorobenzamide hydrochloride (PNU-282987), in cultured adult rat retinal neurons. Adult Long Evans rat retinas were dissociated and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were isolated from all other retinal tissue using a two-step panning technique. Once isolated, RGCs were cultured under various pharmacological conditions to demonstrate excitotoxicity and neuroprotection against excitotoxicity. After 3 days, RGCs were immunostained with antibodies against the glycoprotein, Thy 1.1, counted and cell survival was assessed relative to control untreated conditions. 500 μM glutamate induced excitotoxicity in large and small RGCs in an adult rat dissociated culture. After 3 days in culture with glutamate, the cell survival of large RGCs decreased by an average of 48.16% while the cell survival of small RGCs decreased by an average of 42.03%. Using specific glutamate receptor agonists and antagonists, we provide evidence that the excitotoxic response was mediated through α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)/kainic acid (KA) and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors through an apoptotic mechanism. However, the excitotoxic effect of glutamate on all RGCs was eliminated if cells were cultured for an hour with 10 μM ACh, 100 μM nicotine or 100 nM of the α7 nAChR agonist, PNU-282987, before the glutamate insult. Inhibition studies using 10nM methyllycaconitine (MLA) or α-bungarotoxin (α-Bgt) supported the hypothesis that neuroprotection against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity on rat RGCs was mediated through α7 nAChRs. In immunocytochemical studies, double

  16. A redox-based mechanism for the neuroprotective and neurodestructive effects of nitric oxide and related nitroso-compounds.

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    Lipton, S A; Choi, Y B; Pan, Z H; Lei, S Z; Chen, H S; Sucher, N J; Loscalzo, J; Singel, D J; Stamler, J S

    1993-08-12

    Congeners of nitrogen monoxide (NO) are neuroprotective and neurodestructive. To address this apparent paradox, we considered the effects on neurons of compounds characterized by alternative redox states of NO: nitric oxide (NO.) and nitrosonium ion (NO+). Nitric oxide, generated from NO. donors or synthesized endogenously after NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor activation, can lead to neurotoxicity. Here, we report that NO.- mediated neurotoxicity is engendered, at least in part, by reaction with superoxide anion (O2.-), apparently leading to formation of peroxynitrite (ONOO-), and not by NO. alone. In contrast, the neuroprotective effects of NO result from downregulation of NMDA-receptor activity by reaction with thiol group(s) of the receptor's redox modulatory site. This reaction is not mediated by NO. itself, but occurs under conditions supporting S-nitrosylation of NMDA receptor thiol (reaction or transfer of NO+). Moreover, the redox versatility of NO allows for its interconversion from neuroprotective to neurotoxic species by a change in the ambient redox milieu. The details of this complex redox chemistry of NO may provide a mechanism for harnessing neuroprotective effects and avoiding neurotoxicity in the central nervous system.

  17. Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 mediates erythropoietin-induced neuroprotection in hypoxia ischemia.

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    Souvenir, Rhonda; Fathali, Nancy; Ostrowski, Robert P; Lekic, Tim; Zhang, John H; Tang, Jiping

    2011-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that erythropoietin (EPO) is neuroprotective in both in vivo and in vitro models of hypoxia ischemia. However these studies hold limited clinical translations because the underlying mechanism remains unclear and the key molecules involved in EPO-induced neuroprotection are still to be determined. This study investigated if tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and its upstream regulator signaling molecule Janus kinase-2 (JAK-2) are critical in EPO-induced neuroprotection. Hypoxia ischemia (HI) was modeled in-vitro by oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) and in-vivo by a modified version of Rice-Vannucci model of HI in 10-day-old rat pups. EPO treated cells were exposed to AG490, an inhibitor of JAK-2 or TIMP-1 neutralizing antibody for 2h with OGD. Cell death, phosphorylation of JAK-2 and signal transducers and activators of transcription protein-3 (STAT-3), TIMP-1 expression, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity were measured and compared with normoxic group. Hypoxic ischemic animals were treated one hour following HI and evaluated 48 h after. Our data showed that EPO significantly increased cell survival, associated with increased TIMP-1 activity, phosphorylation of JAK-2 and STAT-3, and decreased MMP-9 activity in vivo and in vitro. EPO's protective effects were reversed by inhibition of JAK-2 or TIMP-1 in both models. We concluded that JAK-2, STAT-3 and TIMP-1 are key mediators of EPO-induced neuroprotection during hypoxia ischemia injury. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Neuroprotection in glaucoma

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    Azadeh Doozandeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is a degenerative optic neuropathy characterized by retinal ganglion cell (RGC loss and visual field defects. It is known that in some glaucoma patients, death of RGCs continues despite intraocular pressure (IOP reduction. Neuroprotection in the field of glaucoma is defined as any treatment, independent of IOP reduction, which prevents RGC death. Glutamate antagonists, ginkgo biloba extract, neurotrophic factors, antioxidants, calcium channel blockers, brimonidine, glaucoma medications with blood regulatory effect and nitric oxide synthase inhibitors are among compounds with possible neuroprotective activity in preclinical studies. A few agents (such as brimonidine or memantine with neuroprotective effects in experimental studies have advanced to clinical trials; however the results of clinical trials for these agents have not been conclusive. Nevertheless, lack of compelling clinical evidence has not prevented the off-label use of some of these compounds in glaucoma practice. Stem cell transplantation has been reported to halt experimental neurodegenerative disease processes in the absence of cell replacement. It has been hypothesized that transplantation of some types of stem cells activates multiple neuroprotective pathways via secretion of various factors. The advantage of this approach is a prolonged and targeted effect. Important concerns in this field include the secretion of unwanted harmful mediators, graft survival issues and tumorigenesis. Neuroprotection in glaucoma, pharmacologically or by stem cell transplantation, is an interesting subject waiting for broad and multidisciplinary collaborative studies to better clarify its role in clinical practice.

  19. Neuroprotective Effect of Insulin-like Growth Factor-II on 1- Methyl-4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the receptor-mediated neuroprotective effect of insulin-like growth factor-II (IGFII) on 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium (MPP) induced oxidative damage in adult cortical neuronal cultures. Methods: Adult rats were randomly divided into 5 groups. Cortical neurons were prepared from rats. The cells were ...

  20. Neuroprotective effects of 17β-estradiol rely on estrogen receptor membrane initiated signals

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    Marco eFiocchetti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 17β-estradiol (E2 exerts protective effects in the central nervous system besides its crucial role in many physiological and pathological events. E2 effects are not restricted to the brain areas related with the control of the reproductive function, but rather are widespread throughout the developing and the adult brain. E2 actions are mediated by estrogen receptors (i.e., ERα and ERβ belonging to the nuclear receptor super family. As members of the ligand-regulated transcription factor family, the actions of ERs in the brain were thought to mediate only the E2 long-term transcriptional effects. However, a growing body of evidence has emerged indicating the presence of rapid, membrane initiated E2 effects in the brain which result independent from ER transcriptional activities and involved in E2-induced neuroprotection. Aim of this review is to focus on the rapid effects of E2 in the brain taking into account the specific contribution of the signaling pathway of ERβ subtype in neuroprotective actions of E2.

  1. [Neuroprotective effects of curcumin].

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    Li, Yong; Wang, Pengwen

    2009-12-01

    Traditionally, turmeric has been put to use as a food additive and herbal medicine in Asia. Curcumin is an active principle of the perennial herb curcuma longa (commonly known as turmeric). Recent evidence suggests that curcumin has activities with potential for neuroprotective efficacy, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiprotein-aggregate activities. In the current review, we provide the newly evidence for the potential role of curcumin in the neuroprotective effects of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD).

  2. Valproic acid potentiates curcumin-mediated neuroprotection in Lipopolysaccharide induced rats

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    Amira eZaky

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of neuroinflammation is complex and comprises multifactorial, involving both genetic and environmental factors during which diverse genetic and epigenetic modulations are implicated. Curcumin (Cur, and valproic acid (VPA, histone deacetylase 1 inhibitor, have neuroprotective effects. The present study was designed with an aim to investigate the ability of co-treatment of both compounds (Cur or VPA (200mg/kg for four weeks to augment neuroprotection and enhance brain recovery from intra-peritoneal (IP injection of (250 µg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated neuroinflammatory condition on rat brain cortex. Cortex activation and the effects of combined treatment and production of proinflammatory mediators, COX-2, APE1 and nitric oxide/iNOS were investigated. Neuroinflammation development was assessed by histological analyses and by investigating associated indices (BACE1, APP, PSEN-1 and PSEN-2. Furthermore we measured the expression profile of let-7 miRNAs members a, b, c, e and f in all groups, a highly abundant regulator of gene expression in the CNS. Protein and mRNA levels of neuroinflammation markers COX-2, BACE1, APP and iNOS were also attenuated by combined therapy. On the other hand, assessment of the indicated five let-7 members, showed distinct expression profile pattern in the different groups. Let-7 a, b and c disappeared in the induced group, an effect that was partially suppressed by co-addition of either Cur or VPA. These data suggest that the combined treatment induced significantly the expression of the five members when compared to rats treated with Cur or VPA only as well as to self-recovery group, which indicates a possible benefit from the synergistic effect of Cur-VPA combination as therapeutic agents for neuroinflammation and its associated disorders. The mechanism elucidated here highlights the particular drug-induced expression profile of let-7 family as new targets for future pharmacological development.

  3. Neuroprotective effects of edaravone-administration on 6-OHDA-treated dopaminergic neurons

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    Wang Feifei

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parkinson's disease (PD is a neurological disorder characterized by the degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic systems. Free radicals induced by oxidative stress are involved in the mechanisms of cell death in PD. This study clarifies the neuroprotective effects of edaravone (MCI-186, 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one, which has already been used for the treatment of cerebral ischemia in Japan, on TH-positive dopaminergic neurons using PD model both in vitro and in vivo. 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, a neurotoxin for dopaminergic neurons, was added to cultured dopaminergic neurons derived from murine embryonal ventral mesencephalon with subsequet administration of edaravone or saline. The number of surviving TH-positive neurons and the degree of cell damage induced by free radicals were analyzed. In parallel, edaravone or saline was intravenously administered for PD model of rats receiving intrastriatal 6-OHDA lesion with subsequent behavioral and histological analyses. Results In vitro study showed that edaravone significantly ameliorated the survival of TH-positive neurons in a dose-responsive manner. The number of apoptotic cells and HEt-positive cells significantly decreased, thus indicating that the neuroprotective effects of edaravone might be mediated by anti-apoptotic effects through the suppression of free radicals by edaravone. In vivo study demonstrated that edaravone-administration at 30 minutes after 6-OHDA lesion reduced the number of amphetamine-induced rotations significantly than edaravone-administration at 24 hours. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH staining of the striatum and substantia nigra pars compacta revealed that edaravone might exert neuroprotective effects on nigrostriatal dopaminergic systems. The neuroprotective effects were prominent when edaravone was administered early and in high concentration. TUNEL, HEt and Iba-1 staining in vivo might demonstrate the involvement of anti-apoptotic, anti

  4. Neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 against oxygen–glucose deprivation in cultured hippocampal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing He

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Ginsenoside Rg1 has neuroprotective effect on ischemia–reperfusion injury in cultured hippocampal cells mediated by blocking calcium over-influx into neuronal cells and decreasing the nNOS activity after OGD exposure. We infer that ginsenoside Rg1 may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for cerebral ischemia injury.

  5. Neuroprotective effect of the endogenous neural peptide apelin in cultured mouse cortical neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Xiang Jun; Yu, Shan Ping; Zhang, Like; Wei, Ling

    2010-01-01

    The adipocytokine apelin and its G protein-coupled APJ receptor were initially isolated from a bovine stomach and have been detected in the brain and cardiovascular system. Recent studies suggest that apelin can protect cardiomyocytes from ischemic injury. Here, we investigated the effect of apelin on apoptosis in mouse primary cultures of cortical neurons. Exposure of the cortical cultures to a serum-free medium for 24 h induced nuclear fragmentation and apoptotic death; apelin-13 (1.0-5.0 nM) markedly prevented the neuronal apoptosis. Apelin neuroprotective effects were mediated by multiple mechanisms. Apelin-13 reduced serum deprivation (SD)-induced ROS generation, mitochondria depolarization, cytochrome c release and activation of caspase-3. Apelin-13 prevented SD-induced changes in phosphorylation status of Akt and ERK1/2. In addition, apelin-13 attenuated NMDA-induced intracellular Ca 2+ accumulation. These results indicate that apelin is an endogenous neuroprotective adipocytokine that may block apoptosis and excitotoxic death via cellular and molecular mechanisms. It is suggested that apelins may be further explored as a potential neuroprotective reagent for ischemia-induced brain damage.

  6. 3-(Fur-2-yl)-10-(2-phenylethyl)-[1,2,4]triazino[4,3-a]benzimidazol-4(10H)-one, a novel adenosine receptor antagonist with A(2A)-mediated neuroprotective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scatena, Alessia; Fornai, Francesco; Trincavelli, Maria Letizia; Taliani, Sabrina; Daniele, Simona; Pugliesi, Isabella; Cosconati, Sandro; Martini, Claudia; Da Settimo, Federico

    2011-09-21

    In this study, compound FTBI (3-(2-furyl)-10-(2-phenylethyl)[1,2,4]triazino[4,3-a]benzimidazol-4(10H)-one) was selected from a small library of triazinobenzimidazole derivatives as a potent A(2A) adenosine receptor (AR) antagonist and tested for its neuroprotective effects against two different kinds of dopaminergic neurotoxins, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) and methamphetamine (METH), in rat PC12 and in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell lines. FTBI, in a concentration range corresponding to its affinity for A(2A) AR subtype, significantly increased the number of viable PC12 cells after their exposure to METH and, to a similar extent, to MPP+, as demonstrated in both trypan blue exclusion assay and in cytological staining. These neuroprotective effects were also observed with a classical A(2A) AR antagonist, ZM241385, and appeared to be completely counteracted by the AR agonist, NECA, supporting A(2A) ARs are directly involved in FTBI-mediated effects. Similarly, in human SH-SY5Y cells, FTBI was able to prevent cell toxicity induced by MPP+ and METH, showing that this A(2A) AR antagonist has a neuroprotective effect independently by the specific cell model. Altogether these results demonstrate that the A(2A) AR blockade mediates cell protection against neurotoxicity induced by dopaminergic neurotoxins in dopamine containing cells, supporting the potential use of A(2A) AR antagonists in dopaminergic degenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease.

  7. Ketogenic Diet Provides Neuroprotective Effects against Ischemic Stroke Neuronal Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheida Shaafi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death and disability in the world. Many mechanisms contribute in cell death in ischemic stroke. Ketogenic diet which has been successfully used in the drug-resistant epilepsy has been shown to be effective in many other neurologic disorders. The mechanisms underlying of its effects are not well studied, but it seems that its neuroprotective ability is mediated at least through alleviation of excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and apoptosis events. On the basis of these mechanisms, it is postulated that ketogenic diet could provide benefits to treatment of cerebral ischemic injuries.

  8. Neuroprotective effects of testosterone metabolites and dependency on receptor action on the morphology of somatic motoneurons following the death of neighboring motoneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yi; Chew, Cory; Muñoz, Fernando; Sengelaub, Dale R

    2017-06-01

    Partial depletion of spinal motoneuron populations induces dendritic atrophy in neighboring motoneurons, and treatment with testosterone is neuroprotective, attenuating induced dendritic atrophy. In this study we examined whether the protective effects of testosterone could be mediated via its androgenic or estrogenic metabolites. Furthermore, to assess whether these neuroprotective effects were mediated through steroid hormone receptors, we used receptor antagonists to attempt to prevent the neuroprotective effects of hormones after partial motoneuron depletion. Motoneurons innervating the vastus medialis muscles of adult male rats were selectively killed by intramuscular injection of cholera toxin-conjugated saporin. Simultaneously, some saporin-injected rats were treated with either dihydrotestosterone or estradiol, alone or in combination with their respective receptor antagonists, or left untreated. Four weeks later, motoneurons innervating the ipsilateral vastus lateralis muscle were labeled with cholera toxin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase, and dendritic arbors were reconstructed in three dimensions. Compared with intact normal animals, partial motoneuron depletion resulted in decreased dendritic length in remaining quadriceps motoneurons. Dendritic atrophy was attenuated with both dihydrotestosterone and estradiol treatment to a degree similar to that seen with testosterone, and attenuation of atrophy was prevented by receptor blockade. Together, these findings suggest that neuroprotective effects on motoneurons can be mediated by either androgenic or estrogenic hormones and require action via steroid hormone receptors, further supporting a role for hormones as neurotherapeutic agents in the injured nervous system. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 691-707, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Acupuncture elicits neuroprotective effect by inhibiting NAPDH oxidase-mediated reactive oxygen species production in cerebral ischaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guang-Xia; Wang, Xue-Rui; Yan, Chao-Qun; He, Tian; Yang, Jing-Wen; Zeng, Xiang-Hong; Xu, Qian; Zhu, Wen; Du, Si-Qi; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2015-12-10

    In the current study, we aimed to investigate whether NADPH oxidase, a major ROS-producing enzyme, was involved in the antioxidant effect of acupuncture on cognitive impairment after cerebral ischaemia. The cognitive function, infract size, neuron cell loss, level of superoxide anion and expression of NADPH oxidase subunit in hippocampus of two-vessel occlusion (2VO) rats were determined after 2-week acupuncture. Furthermore, the cognitive function and production of O2(-) were determined in the presence and absence of NADPH oxidase agonist (TBCA) and antagonist (Apocynin). The effect of acupuncture on cognitive function after cerebral ischaemia in gp91phox-KO mice was evaluated by Morris water maze. Acupuncture reduced infarct size, attenuated overproduction of O2(-), and reversed consequential cognitive impairment and neuron cell loss in 2VO rats. The elevations of gp91phox and p47phox after 2VO were significantly decreased after acupuncture treatment. However, no differences of gp91phox mRNA were found among any experimental groups. Furthermore, these beneficial effects were reversed by TBCA, whereas apocynin mimicked the effect of acupuncture by improving cognitive function and decreasing O2(-) generation. Acupuncture failed to improve the memory impairment in gp91phox KO mice. Full function of the NADPH oxidase enzyme plays an important role in neuroprotective effects against cognitive impairment via inhibition of NAPDH oxidase-mediated oxidative stress.

  10. GPER1 mediates estrogen-induced neuroprotection against oxygen-glucose deprivation in the primary hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tian-Zhi; Shi, Fei; Hu, Jun; He, Shi-Ming; Ding, Qian; Ma, Lian-Ting

    2016-07-22

    It is well-known that the neuroprotective effects of estrogen have potential in the prevention and amelioration of ischemic and degenerative neurological disorders, while the underlying mechanisms for estrogen actions are undefined. As an important mediator for the non-genomic functions of estrogen, GPER1 (G Protein-coupled Estrogen Receptor 1) has been suggested to involve in the beneficial roles of estrogen in neural cells. Here our studies on primary hippocampal neurons have focused on GPER1 in an in vitro model of ischemia using oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). GPER1 expression in the primary hippocampal neurons was stimulated by the OGD treatments. Both E2 (estradiol) and E2-BSA (membrane impermeable estradiol by covalent conjugation of bovine serum albumin) attenuated OGD-induced cell death in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons. Importantly, this membrane-mediated estrogen function requires GPER1 protein. Knocking down of GPER1 diminished, while overexpression of GPER1 potentiated, the protective roles of E2/E2-BSA following OGD. Additionally, the downstream mechanisms employed by membrane-associated estrogen signaling were found to include PI3K/Akt-dependent Ask1 inhibition in the primary hippocampal neurons. Overall, these research results could enhance our understanding of the neuroprotective actions for estrogen, and provide a new therapeutic target for improving stroke outcome and ameliorating degenerative neurological diseases. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Putative neuroprotective actions of N-acyl-ethanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Moesgaard, B.; Petersen, G.

    2002-01-01

    when other phospholipids are subjected to rapid degradation. This is an important biosynthetic aspect of NAPE and NAE, as NAEs may be neuroprotective by a number of different mechanisms involving both receptor activation and non-receptor-mediated effects, e.g. by binding to cannabinoid receptors...

  12. Opposing effects of sirtuins on neuronal survival: SIRT1-mediated neuroprotection is independent of its deacetylase activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A Pfister

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that sirtuins, a family of seven distinct NAD-dependent enzymes, are involved in the regulation of neuronal survival. Indeed, SIRT1 has been reported to protect against neuronal death, while SIRT2 promotes neurodegeneration. The effect of SIRTs 3-7 on the regulation of neuronal survival, if any, has yet to be reported. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the effect of expressing each of the seven SIRT proteins in healthy cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs or in neurons induced to die by low potassium (LK treatment. We report that SIRT1 protects neurons from LK-induced apoptosis, while SIRT2, SIRT3 and SIRT6 induce apoptosis in otherwise healthy neurons. SIRT5 is generally localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm of CGNs and exerts a protective effect. In a subset of neurons, however, SIRT5 localizes to the mitochondria and in this case it promotes neuronal death. Interestingly, the protective effect of SIRT1 in neurons is not reduced by treatments with nicotinamide or sirtinol, two pharmacological inhibitors of SIRT1. Neuroprotection was also observed with two separate mutant forms of SIRT1, H363Y and H355A, both of which lack deacetylase activity. Furthermore, LK-induced neuronal death was not prevented by resveratrol, a pharmacological activator of SIRT1, at concentrations at which it activates SIRT1. We extended our analysis to HT-22 neuroblastoma cells which can be induced to die by homocysteic acid treatment. While the effects of most of the SIRT proteins were similar to that observed in CGNs, SIRT6 was modestly protective against homocysteic acid toxicity in HT-22 cells. SIRT5 was generally localized in the mitochondria of HT-22 cells and was apoptotic. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, our study makes three contributions - (a it represents the first analysis of SIRT3-7 in the regulation of neuronal survival, (b it shows that neuroprotection by SIRT1 can be mediated by a novel, non

  13. HSP60 mediates the neuroprotective effects of curcumin by suppressing microglial activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Feijia; Li, Fan; Li, Yunhong; Hou, Xiaolin; Ma, Yi; Zhang, Nan; Ma, Jiao; Zhang, Rui; Lang, Bing; Wang, Hongyan; Wang, Yin

    2016-08-01

    Curcumin has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and has been widely used to treat or prevent neurodegenerative diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of curcumin are not well known. In the present study, the effect of curcumin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 mouse microglia cells was investigated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of the culture medium and western blotting of cell lysates. The results showed that curcumin significantly inhibited the LPS-induced expression and release of heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) in the BV2 cells. The level of heat shock factor (HSF)-1 was upregulated in LPS-activated BV2 microglia, indicating that the increased expression of HSP60 was driven by HSF-1 activation. However, the increased HSF-1 level was downregulated by curcumin. Extracellular HSP60 is a ligand of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), and the level of the latter was increased in the LPS-activated BV2 microglia and inhibited by curcumin. The activation of TLR-4 is known to be associated with the activation of myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB, with the subsequent production of proinflammatory and neurotoxic factors. In the present study, curcumin demonstrated marked suppression of the LPS-induced expression of MyD88, NF-κB, caspase-3, inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in the microglia. These results indicate that curcumin may exert its neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting microglial activation through the HSP60/TLR-4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling wpathway. Therefore, curcumin may be useful for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases that are associated with microglial activation.

  14. Inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α suppresses neuroprotective endogenous erythropoietin from astrocytes mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor-2α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaya, Yoshiaki; Aoyama, Mineyoshi; Tamura, Tetsuya; Kakita, Hiroki; Kato, Shin; Hida, Hideki; Saitoh, Shinji; Asai, Kiyofumi

    2014-12-01

    Interest in erythropoietin (EPO) as a neuroprotective mediator has grown since it was found that systemically administered EPO is protective in several animal models of disease. However, given that the blood-brain barrier limits EPO entry into the brain, alternative approaches that induce endogenous EPO production in the brain may be more effective clinically and associated with fewer untoward side-effects. Astrocytes are the main source of EPO in the central nervous system. In the present study we investigated the effect of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) on hypoxia-induced upregulation of EPO in rat brain. Hypoxia significantly increased EPO mRNA expression in the brain and kidney, and this increase was suppressed by TNFα in vivo. In cultured astrocytes exposed to hypoxic conditions for 6 and 12 h, TNFα suppressed the hypoxia-induced increase in EPO mRNA expression in a concentration-dependent manner. TNFα inhibition of hypoxia-induced EPO expression was mediated primarily by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2α rather than HIF-1α. The effects of TNFα in reducing hypoxia-induced upregulation of EPO mRNA expression probably involve destabilization of HIF-2α, which is regulated by the nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway. TNFα treatment attenuated the protective effects of astrocytes on neurons under hypoxic conditions via EPO signaling. The effective blockade of TNFα signaling may contribute to the maintenance of the neuroprotective effects of EPO even under hypoxic conditions with an inflammatory response. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The neuroprotective effect of lovastatin on MPP(+)-induced neurotoxicity is not mediated by PON2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Vidal, Yoshajandith; Montes, Sergio; Tristan-López, Luis; Anaya-Ramos, Laura; Teiber, John; Ríos, Camilo; Baron-Flores, Verónica; Monroy-Noyola, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of the pigmented dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta with subsequent striatal dopamine (DA) deficiency and increased lipid peroxidation. The etiology of the disease is still unclear and it is thought that PD may be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. In the search of new pharmacological options, statins have been recognized for their potential application to treat PD, due to their antioxidant effect. The aim of this work is to contribute in the characterization of the neuroprotective effect of lovastatin in a model of PD induced by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)). Male Wistar rats (200-250 g) were randomly allocated into 4 groups and administered for 7 days with different pharmacological treatments. Lovastatin administration (5 mg/kg) diminished 40% of the apomorphine-induced circling behavior, prevented the striatal DA depletion and lipid peroxides formation by MPP(+) intrastriatal injection, as compared to the group of animals treated only with MPP(+). Lovastatin produced no change in paraoxonase-2 (PON2) activity. It is evident that lovastatin conferred neuroprotection against MPP(+)-induced protection but this effect was not associated with the induction of PON2 in the rat striatum. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. The Neuroprotection Effect of Oxygen Therapy: A Systematic Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-04

    Apr 4, 2018 ... investigating the neuroprotective effect of oxygen, but the outcomes as well as ...... Neuroprotective gases – Fantasy or reality for clinical use? Prog .... of oxygen on brain tissue oxygen tension in children with severe traumatic ...

  17. Neuroprotective effects of a novel single compound 1-methoxyoctadecan-1-ol isolated from Uncaria sinensis in primary cortical neurons and a photothrombotic ischemia model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yeon Jang

    Full Text Available We identified a novel neuroprotective compound, 1-methoxyoctadecan-1-ol, from Uncaria sinensis (Oliv. Havil and investigated its effects and mechanisms in primary cortical neurons and in a photothrombotic ischemic model. In primary rat cortical neurons against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity, pretreatment with 1-methoxyoctadecan-1-ol resulted in significantly reduced neuronal death in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, treatment with 1-methoxyoctadecan-1-ol resulted in decreased neuronal apoptotic death, as assessed by nuclear morphological approaches. To clarify the neuroprotective mechanism of 1-methoxyoctadecan-1-ol, we explored the downstream signaling pathways of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR with calpain activation. Treatment with glutamate leads to early activation of NMDAR, which in turn leads to calpain-mediated cleavage of striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP and subsequent activation of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK. However, pretreatment with 1-methoxyoctadecan-1-ol resulted in significantly attenuated activation of GluN2B-NMDAR and a decrease in calpain-mediated STEP cleavage, leading to subsequent attenuation of p38 MAPK activation. We confirmed the critical role of p38 MAPK in neuroprotective effects of 1-methoxyoctadecan-1-ol using specific inhibitor SB203580. In the photothrombotic ischemic injury in mice, treatment with 1-methoxyoctadecan-1-ol resulted in significantly reduced infarct volume, edema size, and improved neurological function. 1-methoxyoctadecan-1-ol effectively prevents cerebral ischemic damage through down-regulation of calpain-mediated STEP cleavage and activation of p38 MAPK. These results suggest that 1-methoxyoctadecan-1-ol showed neuroprotective effects through down-regulation of calpain-mediated STEP cleavage with activation of GluN2B-NMDAR, and subsequent alleviation of p38 MAPK activation. In addition, 1-methoxyoctadecan-1-ol might be a useful therapeutic agent for

  18. Astrocyte truncated-TrkB mediates BDNF antiapoptotic effect leading to neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Julieta; Turati, Juan; Ramírez, Delia; Carniglia, Lila; Durand, Daniela; Lasaga, Mercedes; Caruso, Carla

    2018-05-31

    Astrocytes are glial cells that help maintain brain homeostasis and become reactive in neurodegenerative processes releasing both harmful and beneficial factors. We have demonstrated that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression is induced by melanocortins in astrocytes but BDNF actions in astrocytes are largely unknown. We hypothesize that BDNF may prevent astrocyte death resulting in neuroprotection. We found that BDNF increased astrocyte viability, preventing apoptosis induced by serum deprivation by decreasing active caspase-3 and p53 expression. The antiapoptotic action of BDNF was abolished by ANA-12 (a specific TrkB antagonist) and by K252a (a general Trk antagonist). Astrocytes only express the BDNF receptor TrkB truncated isoform 1, TrkB-T1. BDNF induced ERK, Akt and Src (a non-receptor tyrosine kinase) activation in astrocytes. Blocking ERK and Akt pathways abolished BDNF protection in serum deprivation-induced cell death. Moreover, BDNF protected astrocytes from death by 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP), an effect also blocked by ANA-12, K252a, and inhibitors of ERK, calcium and Src. BDNF reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels induced in astrocytes by 3-NP and increased xCT expression and glutathione levels. Astrocyte conditioned media (ACM) from untreated astrocytes partially protected PC12 neurons whereas ACM from BDNF-treated astrocytes completely protected PC12 neurons from 3-NP-induced apoptosis. Both ACM from control and BDNF-treated astrocytes markedly reduced ROS levels induced by 3-NP in PC12 cells. Our results demonstrate that BDNF protects astrocytes from cell death through TrkB-T1 signaling, exerts an antioxidant action, and induces release of neuroprotective factors from astrocytes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Are purines mediators of the anticonvulsant/neuroprotective effects of ketogenic diets?

    OpenAIRE

    Masino, Susan A.; Geiger, Jonathan D.

    2008-01-01

    Abnormal neuronal signaling caused by metabolic changes characterizes several neurological disorders, and in some instances metabolic interventions provide therapeutic benefits. Indeed, altering metabolism either by fasting or by maintaining a low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diet might reduce epileptic seizures and offer neuroprotection in part because the diet increases mitochondrial biogenesis and brain energy levels. Here we focus on a novel hypothesis that a ketogenic diet-induced change in ...

  20. Neurotropic and neuroprotective activities of the earthworm peptide Lumbricusin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Hong; Lee, Ik Hwan; Nam, Seung Taek; Hong, Ji; Zhang, Peng; Hwang, Jae Sam; Seok, Heon; Choi, Hyemin; Lee, Dong Gun; Kim, Jae Il; Kim, Ho

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 11-mer peptide Lumbricusin, a defensin like peptide, is isolated from earthworm. • We here demonstrated that Lumbricusin has neurotropic and neuroprotective effects. • p27 degradation by Lumbricusin mediates effects of Lumbricusin on neuronal cells. - Abstract: We recently isolated a polypeptide from the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris that is structurally similar to defensin, a well-known antibacterial peptide. An 11-mer antibacterial peptide (NH 2 -RNRRWCIDQQA), designated Lumbricusin, was synthesized based on the amino acid sequence of the isolated polypeptide. Since we previously reported that CopA3, a dung beetle peptide, enhanced neuronal cell proliferation, we here examined whether Lumbricusin exerted neurotropic and/or neuroprotective effects. Lumbricusin treatment induced a time-dependent increase (∼51%) in the proliferation of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Lumbricusin also significantly inhibited the apoptosis and decreased viability induced by treatment with 6-hydroxy dopamine, a Parkinson’s disease-mimicking agent. Immunoblot analyses revealed that Lumbricusin treatment increased ubiquitination of p27 Kip1 protein, a negative regulator of cell-cycle progression, in SH-SY5Y cells, and markedly promoted its degradation. Notably, adenoviral-mediated over-expression of p27 Kip1 significantly blocked the antiapoptotic effect of Lumbricusin in 6-hydroxy dopamine-treated SH-SY5Y cells. These results suggest that promotion of p27 Kip1 degradation may be the main mechanism underlying the neuroprotective and neurotropic effects of Lumbricusin

  1. Neurotropic and neuroprotective activities of the earthworm peptide Lumbricusin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Hong; Lee, Ik Hwan; Nam, Seung Taek; Hong, Ji; Zhang, Peng [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Science, Daejin University, Pocheon, Gyeonggido 487-711 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jae Sam [Department of Agricultural Biology, National Academy of Agricultural Science, RDA, Suwon 441-707 (Korea, Republic of); Seok, Heon [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Jungwon University, Goesan, Chungcheongbukdo 367-700 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyemin; Lee, Dong Gun [School of Life Sciences, KNU Creative Bioresearch Group (BK21 Plus Program), College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daehak-ro 80, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Il [School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ho, E-mail: hokim@daejin.ac.kr [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Science, Daejin University, Pocheon, Gyeonggido 487-711 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-06

    Highlights: • 11-mer peptide Lumbricusin, a defensin like peptide, is isolated from earthworm. • We here demonstrated that Lumbricusin has neurotropic and neuroprotective effects. • p27 degradation by Lumbricusin mediates effects of Lumbricusin on neuronal cells. - Abstract: We recently isolated a polypeptide from the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris that is structurally similar to defensin, a well-known antibacterial peptide. An 11-mer antibacterial peptide (NH{sub 2}-RNRRWCIDQQA), designated Lumbricusin, was synthesized based on the amino acid sequence of the isolated polypeptide. Since we previously reported that CopA3, a dung beetle peptide, enhanced neuronal cell proliferation, we here examined whether Lumbricusin exerted neurotropic and/or neuroprotective effects. Lumbricusin treatment induced a time-dependent increase (∼51%) in the proliferation of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Lumbricusin also significantly inhibited the apoptosis and decreased viability induced by treatment with 6-hydroxy dopamine, a Parkinson’s disease-mimicking agent. Immunoblot analyses revealed that Lumbricusin treatment increased ubiquitination of p27{sup Kip1} protein, a negative regulator of cell-cycle progression, in SH-SY5Y cells, and markedly promoted its degradation. Notably, adenoviral-mediated over-expression of p27{sup Kip1} significantly blocked the antiapoptotic effect of Lumbricusin in 6-hydroxy dopamine-treated SH-SY5Y cells. These results suggest that promotion of p27{sup Kip1} degradation may be the main mechanism underlying the neuroprotective and neurotropic effects of Lumbricusin.

  2. Neuroprotective and Cognition-Enhancing Effects of Compound K Isolated from Red Ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ji Yeon; Ju, Sung Hee; Oh, Jisun; Lee, Seung Kwon; Kim, Jong-Sang

    2016-04-13

    The present study was aimed at elucidating the effect of compound K derived from red ginseng on memory function in mouse model and glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells. Compound K induced antioxidant enzymes in nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)-mediated manner, and effectively attenuated cytotoxicity and mitochondrial damage induced by glutamate in HT22 cells. However, the cytoprotective effect by compound K was abolished by heme oxygenase-1 inhibitor, tin protophorphyrin IX, suggesting that neuroprotective effect of compound K was caused by its Nrf2-mediated induction of antioxidant enzymes. Further, memory deficit induced by scopolamine was restored by compound K, which did not inhibit acetylcholine esterase, in C57BL/6 mice but not in Nrf2 knockout mice as assessed by passive avoidance test, Y-maze and water maze tests, suggesting that scopolamine-induced memory impairment was overcome by the induction of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant enzymes by the compound K. Overall, our data indicate that compound K could be useful in prevention and treatment of reactive oxygen species-induced neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease.

  3. Intranasal mucoadhesivemicroemulsion for neuroprotective effect of curcuminin mptp induced Parkinson model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snigdha Das Mandal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of curcumin against inflammation-mediated dopaminergic neurodegeneration in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP mice model of Parkinson's disease (PD. Curcumin loaded sodium hyaluronate based mucoadhesive microemulsion (CMME was developed by using Box Behnken design of Response surface method (RSM and was characterized. Male C57BL/6 mice were first treated with four intraperitoneal injections of MPTP (20 mg/kg of body weight at 2 h intervals followed CMME intranasal administration for 14 days at 2.86 mg of curcumin/kg of body weight per once a day. Optimal CMME containing 3% Capmul MCM as oil phase, 37 % of Accenon CC and Transcutol HP at 2.5:1 ratio and 0.5% sodium hyaluronate was stable, non-ciliotoxic with 57.66 nm±3.46 as average globule size. PdI value (0.190 ± 0.19 and TEM result depicted the narrow size distribution of CMME.All three independent variables had a significant effect (p<0.05 on the responses and the designed model was significant for all taken responses. In-vivo results revealed significant reduction of MPTP-mediated dopamine depletion after nasal administration of CMME. MPTP intoxication significantly decreased striatal DA content to 21.29 % which was then elevated to 55.37% after intranasal curcumin treatment. Significant improvement in motor performance as well as gross behavioural activity of mice was observed from rota-rod and open field test findings. Findings of the investigation revealed the symptomatic neuroprotection of curcumin against MPTP-induced neurodegradation in the striatum and hence could be considered as a promising approach to treat PD.

  4. Aquaporin-4 inhibition mediates piroxicam-induced neuroprotection against focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Pallab; Pandey, Anand Kumar; Paul, Sudip; Patnaik, Ranjana; Yavagal, Dileep R

    2013-01-01

    Aquaporin-4(AQP4) is an abundant water channel protein in brain that regulates water transport to maintain homeostasis. Cerebral edema resulting from AQP4 over expression is considered to be one of the major determinants for progressive neuronal insult during cerebral ischemia. Although, both upregulation and downregulation of AQP4 expression is associated with brain pathology, over expression of AQP4 is one of the chief contributors of water imbalance in brain during ischemic pathology. We have found that Piroxicam binds to AQP4 with optimal binding energy value. Thus, we hypothesized that Piroxicam is neuroprotective in the rodent cerebral ischemic model by mitigating cerebral edema via AQP4 regulation. Rats were treated with Piroxicam OR placebo at 30 min prior, 2 h post and 4 h post 60 minutes of MCAO followed by 24 hour reperfusion. Rats were evaluated for neurological deficits and motor function just before sacrifice. Brains were harvested for infarct size estimation, water content measurement, biochemical analysis, RT-PCR and western blot experiments. Piroxicam pretreatment thirty minutes prior to ischemia and four hour post reperfusion afforded neuroprotection as evident through significant reduction in cerebral infarct volume, improvement in motor behavior, neurological deficit and reduction in brain edema. Furthermore, ischemia induced surge in levels of nitrite and malondialdehyde were also found to be significantly reduced in ischemic brain regions in treated animals. This neuroprotection was found to be associated with inhibition of acid mediated rise in intracellular calcium levels and also downregulated AQP4 expression. Findings of the present study provide significant evidence that Piroxicam acts as a potent AQP4 regulator and renders neuroprotection in focal cerebral ischemia. Piroxicam could be clinically exploited for the treatment of brain stroke along with other anti-stroke therapeutics in future.

  5. Does the intrathecal propofol have a neuroprotective effect on spinal cord ischemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Murat; Gullu, Huriye; Peker, Kemal; Sayar, Ilyas; Binici, Orhan; Yildiz, Huseyin

    2015-11-01

    The neuroprotective effects of propofol have been confirmed. However, it remains unclear whether intrathecal administration of propofol exhibits neuroprotective effects on spinal cord ischemia. At 1 hour prior to spinal cord ischemia, propofol (100 and 300 µg) was intrathecally administered in rats with spinal cord ischemia. Propofol pre-treatment greatly improved rat pathological changes and neurological function deficits at 24 hours after spinal cord ischemia. These results suggest that intrathecal administration of propofol exhibits neuroprotective effects on spinal cord structural and functional damage caused by ischemia.

  6. Neuroprotective effects of metabotropic glutamate receptor group II and III activators against MPP(+)-induced cell death in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells: the impact of cell differentiation state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantas, D; Greda, A; Golda, S; Korostynski, M; Grygier, B; Roman, A; Pilc, A; Lason, W

    2014-08-01

    Recent studies have documented that metabotropic glutamate receptors from group II and III (mGluR II/III) are a potential target in the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), however, the neuroprotective effects of particular mGluR II/III subtypes in relation to PD pathology are recognized only partially. In the present study, we investigated the effect of various mGluR II/III activators in the in vitro model of PD using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line and mitochondrial neurotoxin MPP(+). We demonstrated that all tested mGluR ligands: mGluR II agonist - LY354740, mGluR III agonist - ACPT-I, mGluR4 PAM - VU0361737, mGluR8 agonist - (S)-3,4-DCPG, mGluR8 PAM - AZ12216052 and mGluR7 allosteric agonist - AMN082 were protective against MPP(+)-evoked cell damage in undifferentiated (UN-) SH-SY5Y cells with the highest neuroprotection mediated by mGluR8-specific agents. However, in retinoic acid- differentiated (RA-) SH-SY5Y cells we found protection mediated only by mGluR8 activators. We also demonstrated the cell proliferation stimulating effect for mGluR4 and mGluR8 PAMs. Next, we showed that the protection mediated by mGluR II/III activators in UN-SH-SY5Y was not accompanied by the modulation of caspase-3 activity, however, a decrease in the number of apoptotic nuclei was found. Finally, we showed that the inhibitor of necroptosis, necrostatin-1 blocked the mGluR III-mediated protection. Altogether our comparative in vitro data add a further proof to neuroprotective effects of mGluR agonists or PAMs and point to mGluR8 as a promising target for neuroprotective interventions in PD. The results also suggest the participation of necroptosis-related molecular pathways in neuroprotective effects of mGluR III activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Does the intrathecal propofol have a neuroprotective effect on spinal cord ischemia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Sahin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The neuroprotective effects of propofol have been confirmed. However, it remains unclear whether intrathecal administration of propofol exhibits neuroprotective effects on spinal cord ischemia. At 1 hour prior to spinal cord ischemia, propofol (100 and 300 µg was intrathecally administered in rats with spinal cord ischemia. Propofol pre-treatment greatly improved rat pathological changes and neurological function deficits at 24 hours after spinal cord ischemia. These results suggest that intrathecal administration of propofol exhibits neuroprotective effects on spinal cord structural and functional damage caused by ischemia.

  8. Neuroprotective capabilities of TSA against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Hui; Gao, Qiang; Jia, Zhen; Zhang, Ze-Wei

    2015-02-01

    Hundreds of previous studies demonstrated the cytoprotective effect of trichostatin-A (TSA), a kind of histone deacetylases inhibitors (HDACIs), against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion insult. Meanwhile, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) is a well-known, important signaling pathway that mediates neuroprotection. However, it should be remains unclear whether the neuroprotective capabilities of TSA against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion is mediated by activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Five groups rats (n = 12 each), with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) except sham group, were used to investigate the neuroprotective effect of certain concentration (0.05 mg/kg) of TSA, and whether the neuroprotective effect of TSA is associated with activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway through using of wortmannin (0.25 mg/kg). TSA significantly increased the expression of p-Akt protein, reduced infarct volume, and attenuated neurological deficit in rats with transient MCAO, wortmannin weakened such effect of TSA dramatically. TSA could significantly decrease the neurological deficit scores and reduce the cerebral infarct volume during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, which was achieved partly by activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway via upgrading of p-Akt protein.

  9. Neuroprotective Effects of Lipoxin A4 in Central Nervous System Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Cadete Martini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many diseases of the central nervous system are characterized and sometimes worsened by an intense inflammatory response in the affected tissue. It is now accepted that resolution of inflammation is an active process mediated by a group of mediators that can act in synchrony to switch the phenotype of cells, from a proinflammatory one to another that favors the return to homeostasis. This new genus of proresolving mediators includes resolvins, protectins, maresins, and lipoxins, the first to be discovered. In this short review we provide an overview of current knowledge into the cellular and molecular interactions of lipoxins in diseases of the central nervous system in which they appear to facilitate the resolution of inflammation, thus exerting a neuroprotective action.

  10. The neuroprotective effects of α-iso-cubebene on dopaminergic cell death: involvement of CREB/Nrf2 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun Young; Son, Beung Gu; Park, Young Hoon; Kim, Cheol-Min; Park, Geuntae; Choi, Young-Whan

    2014-09-01

    As a part of ongoing studies to elucidate pharmacologically active components of Schisandra chinensis, we isolated and studied α-iso-cubebene. The neuroprotective mechanisms of α-iso-cubebene in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were investigated. α-Iso-cubebene significantly inhibited cytotoxicity and apoptosis due to 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells. Pretreatment of cells with α-iso-cubebene reduced intracellular accumulation of ROS and calcium in response to 6-OHDA. The neuroprotective effects of α-iso-cubebene were found to result from protecting the mitochondrial membrane potential. Notably, α-iso-cubebene inhibited the release of apoptosis-inducing factor from the mitochondria into the cytosol and nucleus after 6-OHDA treatment. α-Iso-cubebene also induced the activation of PKA/PKB/CREB/Nrf2 and suppressed 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity. α-Iso-cubebene was found to induce phosphorylation of PKA and PKB and activate Nrf2 and CREB signaling pathways in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, α-iso-cubebene stimulated the expression of the antioxidant response genes NQO1 and HO-1. Finally, α-iso-cubebene-mediated neuroprotective effects were found to be reversible after transfection with CREB and Nrf2 small interfering RNAs.

  11. Neuroprotection of Scutellarin is mediated by inhibition of microglial inflammatory activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Wang, H; Guo, H; Kang, L; Gao, X; Hu, L

    2011-06-30

    Inhibition of microglial over-reaction and the inflammatory processes may represent a therapeutic target to alleviate the progression of neurological diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases and stroke. Scutellarin is the major active component of Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand-Mazz, a herbal medicine in treatment of cerebrovascular diseases for a long time in the Orient. In this study, we explored the mechanisms of neuroprotection by Scutellarin, particularly its anti-inflammatory effects in microglia. We observed that Scutellarin inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of proinflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), suppressed LPS-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), TNFα, and IL-1β mRNA expression in rat primary microglia or BV-2 mouse microglial cell line. Scutellarin inhibited LPS-induced nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). It repressed the LPS-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 phosphorylation without affecting the activity of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinase. Moreover, Scutellarin also inhibited interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-induced NO production, iNOS mRNA expression and transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 1α (STAT1α) activation. Concomitantly, conditioned media from Scutellarin pretreated BV-2 cells significantly reduced neurotoxicity compared with conditioned media from LPS treated alone. Together, the present study reported the anti-inflammatory activity of Scutellarin in microglial cells along with their underlying molecular mechanisms, and suggested Scutellarin might have therapeutic potential for various microglia mediated neuroinflammation. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. α-Iso-cubebene exerts neuroprotective effects in amyloid beta stimulated microglia activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun Young; Park, Se Jin; Park, Nan Jeong; Joo, Woo Hong; Lee, Sang-Joon; Choi, Young-Whan

    2013-10-25

    Schisandra chinensis is commonly used for food and as a traditional remedy for the treatment of neuronal disorders. However, it is unclear which component of S. chinensis is responsible for its neuropharmacological effects. To answer this question, we isolated α-iso-cubebene, a dibenzocyclooctadiene lignin, from S. chinensis and determined if it has any anti-neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective properties against amyloid β-induced neuroinflammation in microglia. Microglia that are stimulated by amyloid β increased their production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the enzymatic activity of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). We found this was all inhibited by α-iso-cubebene. Consistent with these results, α-iso-cubebene inhibited the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and MMP-9 in amyloid β-stimulated microglia. Subsequent mechanistic studies revealed that α-iso-cubebene inhibited the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB-α, the phosphorylation and transactivity of NF-κB, and the phosphorylation of MAPK in amyloid β-stimulated microglia. These results suggest that α-iso-cubebene impairs the amyloid β-induced neuroinflammatory response of microglia by inhibiting the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. Importantly, α-iso-cubebene can provide critical neuroprotection for primary cortical neurons against amyloid β-stimulated microglia-mediated neurotoxicity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing that α-iso-cubebene can provide neuroprotection against, and influence neuroinflammation triggered by, amyloid β activation of microglia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The GABAA receptor agonist THIP is neuroprotective in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bjarne Winther; Noraberg, Jens; Zimmer, Jens

    2003-01-01

    The potential neuroprotective effects of the GABA(A) receptor agonists THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol) and muscimol, and the selective GluR5 kainate receptor agonist ATPA ((RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-tert-butylisoxazol-4-yl)propanoic acid), which activates GABAergic interneu......The potential neuroprotective effects of the GABA(A) receptor agonists THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol) and muscimol, and the selective GluR5 kainate receptor agonist ATPA ((RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-tert-butylisoxazol-4-yl)propanoic acid), which activates GABAergic...... interneurons, were examined in hippocampal slice cultures exposed to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). The NMDA-induced excitotoxicity was quantified by densitometric measurements of propidium iodide (PI) uptake. THIP (100-1000 microM) was neuroprotective in slice cultures co-exposed to NMDA (10 microM) for 48 h......, while muscimol (100-1000 microM) and ATPA (1-3 microM) were without effect. The results demonstrate that direct GABA(A) agonism can mediate neuroprotection in the hippocampus in vitro as previously suggested in vivo....

  14. Paradigms and mechanisms of inhalational anesthetics mediated neuroprotection against cerebral ischemic stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hailian; Li, Peiying; Xu, Na; Zhu, Ling; Cai, Mengfei; Yu, Weifeng; Gao, Yanqin

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral ischemic stroke is a leading cause of serious long-term disability and cognitive dysfunction. The high mortality and disability of cerebral ischemic stroke is urging the health providers, including anesthesiologists and other perioperative professioners, to seek effective protective strategies, which are extremely limited, especially for those perioperative patients. Intriguingly, several commonly used inhalational anesthetics are recently suggested to possess neuroprotective effects...

  15. Progranulin and Its Related MicroRNAs after Status Epilepticus: Possible Mechanisms of Neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körtvelyessy, Peter; Huchtemann, Tessa; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Bittner, Daniel M

    2017-02-24

    The current knowledge about neuroprotective mechanisms in humans after status epilepticus is scarce. One reason is the difficulty to measure possible mediators of these neuroprotective mechanisms. The dawn of microRNA detection in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the recent advancements in measuring proteins in the CSF such as progranulin, which is, e.g., responsible for neurite outgrowth and limiting exceeding neuroinflammatory responses, have given us new insights into putative neuroprotective mechanisms following status epilepticus. This should complement the animal data. In this review, we cover what is known about the role of progranulin as well as the links between microRNA changes and the progranulin pathway following status epilepticus in humans and animals hypothesizing neuroprotective and neurorehabilitative effects. Progranulin has also been found to feature prominently in the neuroprotective processes under hypoxic conditions and initiating neurorehabilitative processes. These properties may be used therapeutically, e.g., through drugs that raise the progranulin levels and therefore the cerebral progranulin levels as well with the goal of improving the outcome after status epilepticus.

  16. Progranulin and Its Related MicroRNAs after Status Epilepticus: Possible Mechanisms of Neuroprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Körtvelyessy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The current knowledge about neuroprotective mechanisms in humans after status epilepticus is scarce. One reason is the difficulty to measure possible mediators of these neuroprotective mechanisms. The dawn of microRNA detection in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and the recent advancements in measuring proteins in the CSF such as progranulin, which is, e.g., responsible for neurite outgrowth and limiting exceeding neuroinflammatory responses, have given us new insights into putative neuroprotective mechanisms following status epilepticus. This should complement the animal data. In this review, we cover what is known about the role of progranulin as well as the links between microRNA changes and the progranulin pathway following status epilepticus in humans and animals hypothesizing neuroprotective and neurorehabilitative effects. Progranulin has also been found to feature prominently in the neuroprotective processes under hypoxic conditions and initiating neurorehabilitative processes. These properties may be used therapeutically, e.g., through drugs that raise the progranulin levels and therefore the cerebral progranulin levels as well with the goal of improving the outcome after status epilepticus.

  17. Role of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript in estradiol-mediated neuroprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yun; Zhang, Wenri; Klaus, Judith; Young, Jennifer; Koerner, Ines; Sheldahl, Laird C.; Hurn, Patricia D.; Martínez-Murillo, Francisco; Alkayed, Nabil J.

    2006-09-01

    Estrogen reduces brain injury after experimental cerebral ischemia in part through a genomic mechanism of action. Using DNA microarrays, we analyzed the genomic response of the brain to estradiol, and we identified a transcript, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), that is highly induced in the cerebral cortex by estradiol under ischemic conditions. Using in vitro and in vivo models of neural injury, we confirmed and characterized CART mRNA and protein up-regulation by estradiol in surviving neurons, and we demonstrated that i.v. administration of a rat CART peptide is protective against ischemic brain injury in vivo. We further demonstrated binding of cAMP response element (CRE)-binding protein to a CART promoter CRE site in ischemic brain and rapid activation by CART of ERK in primary cultured cortical neurons. The findings suggest that CART is an important player in estrogen-mediated neuroprotection and a potential therapeutic agent for stroke and other neurodegenerative diseases. ischemia | stroke | estrogen

  18. Enhancing hippocampal blood flow after cerebral ischemia and vasodilating basilar arteries: in vivo and in vitro neuroprotective effect of antihypertensive DDPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 1-(2,6-Dimethylphenoxy-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenylethylamino-propane hydrochloride (DDPH is a novel antihypertensive agent based on structural characteristics of mexiletine and verapamine. We investigated the effect of DDPH on vasodilatation and neuroprotection in a rat model of cerebral ischemia in vivo, and a rabbit model of isolated basilar arteries in vitro. Our results show that DDPH (10 mg/kg significantly increased hippocampal blood flow in vivo in cerebral ischemic rats, and exerted dose-dependent relaxation of isolated basilar arteries contracted by histamine or KCl in the in vitro rabbit model. DDPH (3 × 10 -5 M also inhibited histamine-stimulated extracellular calcium influx and intracellular calcium release. Our findings suggest that DDPH has a vasodilative effect both in vivo and in vitro, which mediates a neuroprotective effect on ischemic nerve tissue.

  19. Paradigms and mechanisms of inhalational anesthetics mediated neuroprotection against cerebral ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailian; Li, Peiying; Xu, Na; Zhu, Ling; Cai, Mengfei; Yu, Weifeng; Gao, Yanqin

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral ischemic stroke is a leading cause of serious long-term disability and cognitive dysfunction. The high mortality and disability of cerebral ischemic stroke is urging the health providers, including anesthesiologists and other perioperative professioners, to seek effective protective strategies, which are extremely limited, especially for those perioperative patients. Intriguingly, several commonly used inhalational anesthetics are recently suggested to possess neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia. This review introduces multiple paradigms of inhalational anesthetic treatments that have been investigated in the setting of cerebral ischemia, such as preconditioning, proconditioning and postconditioning with a variety of inhalational anesthetics. The pleiotropic mechanisms underlying these inhalational anesthetics-afforded neuroprotection against stroke are also discussed in detail, including the common pathways shared by most of the inhalational anesthetic paradigms, such as anti-excitotoxicity, anti-apoptosis and anti-inflammation. There are also distinct mechanisms involved in specific paradigms, such as preserving blood brain barrier integrity, regulating cerebral blood flow and catecholamine release. The ready availability of these inhalational anesthetics bedside and renders them a potentially translatable stroke therapy attracting great efforts for understanding of the underlying mechanisms.

  20. Curcumin produces neuroprotective effects via activating brain-derived neurotrophic factor/TrkB-dependent MAPK and PI-3K cascades in rodent cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Li, Yu-Hua; Xu, Ying; Li, Ying-Bo; Wu, Hong-Li; Guo, Hao; Zhang, Jian-Zhao; Zhang, Jing-Jie; Pan, Xue-Yang; Li, Xue-Jun

    2010-02-01

    Curcumin is a major constituent of curcuma longa, a traditional medicine used to manage mental disorders effectively in China. The neuroprotective effects of curcumin have been demonstrated in our previous studies. In the present research, we confirmed this effect by showing that curcumin application promoted the viability of cultured rodent cortical neurons. Moreover, when neurons were pretreated with tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) antibody, known to inhibit the activity of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the protective effect of curcumin was blocked. Additionally, treatment of curcumin increased BDNF and phosphor-TrkB and both of these enhancements can be suppressed by ERK and PI-3K inhibitors. The administration of curcumin led to increased levels of phosphor-ERK and AKT, which were each blocked by MAPK and PI-3K inhibitors. Furthermore, the curcumin-induced increase in phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB), which has been implicated as a possible mediator of antidepressant actions, was prevented by MAPK and PI-3K inhibitors. Therefore, we hypothesize the neuroprotection of curcumin might be mediated via BDNF/TrkB-MAPK/PI-3K-CREB signaling pathway. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Novel neuroprotective function of apical-basal polarity gene crumbs in amyloid beta 42 (aβ42 mediated neurodegeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Steffensmeier

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD, OMIM: 104300, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with no cure to date, is caused by the generation of amyloid-beta-42 (Aβ42 aggregates that trigger neuronal cell death by unknown mechanism(s. We have developed a transgenic Drosophila eye model where misexpression of human Aβ42 results in AD-like neuropathology in the neural retina. We have identified an apical-basal polarity gene crumbs (crb as a genetic modifier of Aβ42-mediated-neuropathology. Misexpression of Aβ42 caused upregulation of Crb expression, whereas downregulation of Crb either by RNAi or null allele approach rescued the Aβ42-mediated-neurodegeneration. Co-expression of full length Crb with Aβ42 increased severity of Aβ42-mediated-neurodegeneration, due to three fold induction of cell death in comparison to the wild type. Higher Crb levels affect axonal targeting from the retina to the brain. The structure function analysis identified intracellular domain of Crb to be required for Aβ42-mediated-neurodegeneration. We demonstrate a novel neuroprotective role of Crb in Aβ42-mediated-neurodegeneration.

  2. Neuroprotective Compound from an Endophytic Fungus, Colletotrichum sp. JS-0367.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ji Hoon; Lee, Changyeol; Lee, Dahae; Kim, Soonok; Bang, Sunghee; Shin, Myoung-Sook; Lee, Jun; Kang, Ki Sung; Shim, Sang Hee

    2018-05-23

    Colletotrichum sp. JS-0367 was isolated from Morus alba (mulberry), identified, and cultured on a large scale for chemical investigation. One new anthraquinone (1) and three known anthraquinones (2-4) were isolated and identified using spectroscopic methods including 1D/2D-NMR and HRESIMS. Although the neuroprotective effects of some anthraquinones have been reported, the biological activities of the four anthraquinones isolated in this study have not been reported. Therefore, the neuroprotective effects of these compounds were determined against murine hippocampal HT22 cell death induced by glutamate. Compound 4, evariquinone, showed strong protective effects against HT22 cell death induced by glutamate by the inhibition of intracellular ROS accumulation and Ca 2+ influx triggered by glutamate. Immunoblot analysis revealed that compound 4 reduced the phosphorylation of MAPKs (JNK, ERK1/2, and p38) induced by glutamate. Furthermore, compound 4 strongly attenuated glutamate-mediated apoptotic cell death.

  3. Additive Neuroprotective Effect of Borneol with Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Ischemic Stroke in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Guang Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous stem cell transplantation initiates neuroprotection related to the secretion of trophic factor. Borneol, a potential herbal neuroprotective agent, is a penetration enhancer. Here, we aimed to investigate whether they have additive neuroprotective effect on cerebral ischemia. Borneol was given to mice by gavage 3 days before middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO induction until the day when the mice were sacrificed. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs were intravenously injected at 24 h after MCAO induction. Neurological deficits, infarct volume, cell death, and neurogenesis were evaluated. Combined use of MSCs and borneol could more effectively reduce infarction volume and cell apoptosis, enhance neurogenesis, and improve the functional recovery than that of MSCs alone. The findings showed that combined use of borneol and stem cells provided additive neuroprotective effect on cerebral ischemia. However, the supposed effect of borneol on the improved MSC penetration still needs further direct evidence.

  4. Proliferative Activity and Neuroprotective Effect of Ligustrazene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proliferative Activity and Neuroprotective Effect of. Ligustrazene Derivative by Irritation of Vascular. Endothelial Growth Factor Expression in Middle Cerebral. Artery Occlusion Rats. Zhang Huazheng1, Wang Penglong2, Ren Liwei1, Wang Xiaobo2, Li Guoliang2,. Wang Mina1, Chu Fuhao2, Gong Yan2, Xu Bing2, Bi Siling1, ...

  5. Neuroprotective effects of female sex steroids in cerebral ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drača Sanja

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The central and peripheral nervous system are important targets of sex steroids. Sex steroids affect the brain development and differentiation, and influence neuronal functions. Recent evidence emphasizes a striking sex-linked difference in brain damage after experimental stroke, as well as the efficacy of hormones in treating cerebral stroke injury. Several different models of cerebral ischemia have been utilized for hormone neuroprotection studies, including transient or permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, transient global ischemia, and transient forebrain ischemia. Extensive experimental studies have shown that female sex steroids such as progesterone and 176-estradiol exert neuroprotective effects in the experimental models of stroke, although deleterious effects have also been reported. Also, a significance of numerous factors, including gender and age of experimental animals, localization of brain lesion, duration of ischemia and precise dose of steroids has been pointed out. There are multiple potential mechanisms that might be invoked to explain the beneficial effects of female sex steroids in brain injury, involving neuroprotection, anti-inflammatory properties, effects on vasculature and altered transcriptional regulation. A several clinical trials on the effects of sex hormones to traumatic brain injury have been performed, suggesting that hormone therapy may represent a new therapeutic tool to combat certain diseases, such as traumatic brain injury. Further basic science studies and randomized clinical trials are necessary to reveal a potential application of these molecules as a new therapeutic strategy.

  6. Paradigms and mechanisms of inhalational anesthetics mediated neuroprotection against cerebral ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral ischemic stroke is a leading cause of serious long-term disability and cognitive dysfunction. The high mortality and disability of cerebral ischemic stroke is urging the health providers, including anesthesiologists and other perioperative professioners, to seek effective protective strategies, which are extremely limited, especially for those perioperative patients. Intriguingly, several commonly used inhalational anesthetics are recently suggested to possess neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia. This review introduces multiple paradigms of inhalational anesthetic treatments that have been investigated in the setting of cerebral ischemia, such as preconditioning, proconditioning and postconditioning with a variety of inhalational anesthetics. The pleiotropic mechanisms underlying these inhalational anesthetics-afforded neuroprotection against stroke are also discussed in detail, including the common pathways shared by most of the inhalational anesthetic paradigms, such as anti-excitotoxicity, anti-apoptosis and anti-inflammation. There are also distinct mechanisms involved in specific paradigms, such as preserving blood brain barrier integrity, regulating cerebral blood flow and catecholamine release. The ready availability of these inhalational anesthetics bedside and renders them a potentially translatable stroke therapy attracting great efforts for understanding of the underlying mechanisms.

  7. Neuroprotective effects of NAP against excitotoxic brain damage in the newborn mice: implications for cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowska, P; Passemard, S; Mok, A; Schwendimann, L; Gozes, I; Gressens, P

    2011-01-26

    Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) was shown to be essential for embryogenesis and brain development while NAP, an active motif of ADNP, is neuroprotective in a broad range of neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study, we examined the protective potential of ADNP/NAP in a mouse model of excitotoxic brain lesion mimicking brain damage associated with cerebral palsy. We demonstrated that NAP had a potent neuroprotective effect against ibotenate-induced excitotoxic damage in the cortical plate and the white matter of P5 mice, and moderate against brain lesions of P0 mice. In contrast, endogenous ADNP appears not to be involved in the response to excitotoxic challenge in the studied model. Our findings further show that NAP reduced the number of apoptotic neurons through activation of PI-3K/Akt pathway in the cortical plate or both PI-3K/Akt and MAPK/MEK1 kinases in the white matter. In addition, NAP prevented ibotenate-induced loss of pre-oligodendrocytes without affecting the number of astrocytes or activated microglia around the site of injection. These findings indicate that protective actions of NAP are mediated by triggering transduction pathways that are crucial for neuronal and oligodendroglial survival, thus, NAP might be a promising therapeutic agent for treating developing brain damage. © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Neuroprotective effect of melatonin on soluble Aβ1-42-induced cortical neurodegeneration via Reelin-Dab1 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chunli; Wang, Pan; Zhang, Shuman; Ren, Lili; Lv, Yiheng; Yin, Rui; Bi, Jing

    2017-07-01

    Soluble Aβ 1-42 oligomers play a vital role in the development and pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Melatonin could delay the progress of AD through multiple mechanisms. Reelin-Dab1 signaling plays an important role in AD, including neuronal function and synaptic plasticity. However, whether melatonin could exert its neuroprotective function against soluble Aβ 1-42 -induced neurotoxicity during AD development through regulating Reelin-Dab1 signaling remains poorly understood. AD rat model was established by soluble Aβ 1-42 repeated intracerebroventricular injection. Using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses, the effect of melatonin on synaptic plasticity, neuritic degeneration, and astrocyte activation was investigated in cerebral cortex. Meanwhile, the expression of Reelin and Dab1 was also examined in cerebral cortex. In our in vitro study, Reelin-Dab1 signaling was inhibited by Reelin antibody, and neuroprotective effect of melatonin against Aβ 1-42 was further determined. Melatonin ameliorated the neurotoxiciy and astrocyte activation induced by Aβ 1-42 in the cerebral cortex. Melatonin also blocked the reduction in Reelin and Dab1 expression induced by Aβ 1-42 . Using in vitro study, Reelin inactivation completely abolished the protective effect of melatonin against Aβ 1-42 -induced neurotoxicity. Melatonin might play its neuroprotective role against Aβ 1-42 through mediating Reelin-Dab1 signaling pathway. Melatonin could be a safe and remarkable therapeutic candidate for AD and other aged-associated neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α mediates neuroprotection of hypoxic postconditioning against global cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tingna; Zhan, Lixuan; Liang, Donghai; Hu, Jiaoyue; Lu, Zhiwei; Zhu, Xinyong; Sun, Weiwen; Liu, Liu; Xu, En

    2014-10-01

    Hypoxia administered after transient global cerebral ischemia (tGCI) has been shown to induce neuroprotection in adult rats, but the underlying mechanisms for this protection are unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that hypoxic postconditioning (HPC) induces neuroprotection through upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and that this involves phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) pathways. The expression of HIF-1α, VEGF, and cleaved caspase-9 were determined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. As pharmacologic interventions, the HIF-1α inhibitor 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2), PI3K inhibitor LY294002, p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580, and MEK inhibitor U0126 were administered before HPC or after tGCI. We found that HPC maintained the higher expression of HIF-1α and VEGF and decreased cleaved caspase-9 levels in CA1 after tGCI. These effects were reversed by 2ME2 administered before HPC, and the neuroprotection of HPC was abolished. LY294002 and SB203580 decreased the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF after HPC, whereas U0126 increased HIF-1α and VEGF after tGCI. These findings suggested that HIF-1α exerts neuroprotection induced by HPC against tGCI through VEGF upregulation and cleaved caspase-9 downregulation, and that the PI3K, p38 MAPK, and MEK pathways are involved in the regulation of HIF-1α and VEGF.

  10. Predicting Natural Neuroprotection in Marine Mammals: Environmental and Biological Factors Affecting the Vulnerability to Acoustically Mediated Tissue Trauma in Marine Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    comparing both globin deposition profiles from carcasses ranging in age from neonates to adults, as well as the change in mass-specific metabolic demands...to acoustically mediated trauma, 1) molecular and biochemical evaluation of neuroprotection at the tissue level, and 2) whole animal /physiological...Noren, UCSC.) The second component of this study examined the susceptibility of marine mammals to decompression illness at the whole animal

  11. 2-(4-Methoxyphenyl)ethyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-D-pyranoside confers neuroprotection in cell and animal models of ischemic stroke through calpain1/PKA/CREB-mediated induction of neuronal glucose transporter 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Shu; Cheng, Qiong; Li, Lu; Liu, Mei; Yang, Yumin; Ding, Fei, E-mail: dingfei@ntu.edu.cn

    2014-06-15

    Salidroside is proven to be a neuroprotective agent of natural origin, and its analog, 2-(4-Methoxyphenyl)ethyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-D-pyranoside (named SalA-4 g), has been synthesized in our lab. In this study, we showed that SalA-4 g promoted neuronal survival and inhibited neuronal apoptosis in primary hippocampal neurons exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) and in rats subjected to ischemia by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), respectively, and that SalA-4 g was more neuroprotective than salidroside. We further found that SalA-4 g elevated glucose uptake in OGD-injured primary hippocampal neurons and increased the expression and recruitment of glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) in ischemic brain. Signaling analysis revealed that SalA-4 g triggered the phosphorylation of CREB, and increased the expression of PKA RII in primary hippocampal neurons exposed to OGD injury, while inhibition of PKA/CREB by H-89 alleviated the elevation in glucose uptake and GLUT3 expression, and blocked the protective effects of SalA-4 g. Moreover, SalA-4 g was noted to inhibit intracellular Ca{sup 2+} influx and calpain1 activation in OGD-injured primary hippocampal neurons. Our results suggest that SalA-4 g neuroprotection might be mediated by increased glucose uptake and elevated GLUT3 expression through calpain1/PKA/CREB pathway. - Highlights: • A salidroside (Sal) analog (SalA-4 g) is prepared to be more neuroprotective than Sal. • SalA-4 g protected hippocampal neurons from oxygen and glucose deprivation insult. • SalA-4 g reduced ischemic injury after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. • Neuroprotection of SalA-4 g was mediated by GLUT3 level via calpain/PKA/CREB pathway.

  12. 2-(4-Methoxyphenyl)ethyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-D-pyranoside confers neuroprotection in cell and animal models of ischemic stroke through calpain1/PKA/CREB-mediated induction of neuronal glucose transporter 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Shu; Cheng, Qiong; Li, Lu; Liu, Mei; Yang, Yumin; Ding, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Salidroside is proven to be a neuroprotective agent of natural origin, and its analog, 2-(4-Methoxyphenyl)ethyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-D-pyranoside (named SalA-4 g), has been synthesized in our lab. In this study, we showed that SalA-4 g promoted neuronal survival and inhibited neuronal apoptosis in primary hippocampal neurons exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) and in rats subjected to ischemia by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), respectively, and that SalA-4 g was more neuroprotective than salidroside. We further found that SalA-4 g elevated glucose uptake in OGD-injured primary hippocampal neurons and increased the expression and recruitment of glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) in ischemic brain. Signaling analysis revealed that SalA-4 g triggered the phosphorylation of CREB, and increased the expression of PKA RII in primary hippocampal neurons exposed to OGD injury, while inhibition of PKA/CREB by H-89 alleviated the elevation in glucose uptake and GLUT3 expression, and blocked the protective effects of SalA-4 g. Moreover, SalA-4 g was noted to inhibit intracellular Ca 2+ influx and calpain1 activation in OGD-injured primary hippocampal neurons. Our results suggest that SalA-4 g neuroprotection might be mediated by increased glucose uptake and elevated GLUT3 expression through calpain1/PKA/CREB pathway. - Highlights: • A salidroside (Sal) analog (SalA-4 g) is prepared to be more neuroprotective than Sal. • SalA-4 g protected hippocampal neurons from oxygen and glucose deprivation insult. • SalA-4 g reduced ischemic injury after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. • Neuroprotection of SalA-4 g was mediated by GLUT3 level via calpain/PKA/CREB pathway

  13. Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ⁹-THC) exerts a direct neuroprotective effect in a human cell culture model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, C B; Zeissler, M-L; Hanemann, C O; Zajicek, J P

    2012-10-01

    Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ⁹-THC) is neuroprotective in models of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although CB1 receptors are increased within the basal ganglia of PD patients and animal models, current evidence suggests a role for CB1 receptor-independent mechanisms. Here, we utilized a human neuronal cell culture PD model to further investigate the protective properties of Δ⁹-THC. Differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were exposed to PD-relevant toxins: 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), lactacystin and paraquat. Changes in CB1 receptor level were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Cannabinoids and modulatory compounds were co-administered with toxins for 48 h and the effects on cell death, viability, apoptosis and oxidative stress assessed. We found CB1 receptor up-regulation in response to MPP+, lactacystin and paraquat and a protective effect of Δ⁹-THC against all three toxins. This neuroprotective effect was not reproduced by the CB1 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 or blocked by the CB1 antagonist AM251. Furthermore, the antioxidants α-tocopherol and butylhydroxytoluene as well as the antioxidant cannabinoids, nabilone and cannabidiol were unable to elicit the same neuroprotection as Δ⁹-THC. However, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) antagonist T0070907 dose-dependently blocked the neuroprotective, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects of Δ⁹-THC, while the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone resulted in protection from MPP+-induced neurotoxicity. Furthermore, Δ⁹-THC increased PPARγ expression in MPP+-treated SH-SY5Y cells, another indicator of PPARγ activation. We have demonstrated up-regulation of the CB1 receptor in direct response to neuronal injury in a human PD cell culture model, and a direct neuronal protective effect of Δ⁹-THC that may be mediated through PPARγ activation. © 2011 The Authors. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology © 2011 British Neuropathological

  14. The neuroprotective effects of milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 against oligomeric amyloid β toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Endong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphatidylserine receptor is a key molecule that mediates the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8 is a phosphatidylserine receptor that is expressed on various macrophage lineage cells, including microglia in the central nervous system (CNS. Targeted clearance of degenerated neurons by microglia is essential to maintain healthy neural networks. We previously showed that the CX3C chemokine fractalkine is secreted from degenerated neurons and accelerates microglial clearance of neuronal debris via inducing the release of MFG-E8. However, the mechanisms by which microglia produce MFG-E8 and the precise functions of MFG-E8 are unknown. Methods The release of MFG-E8 from microglia treated with conditioned medium from neurons exposed to neurotoxic substances, glutamate or oligomeric amyloid β (oAβ was measured by ELISA. The neuroprotective effects of MFG-E8 and MFG-E8 − induced microglial phagocytosis of oAβ were assessed by immunocytochemistry. The effects of MFG-E8 on the production of the anti-oxidative enzyme hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1 were determined by ELISA and immunocytochemisty. Results MFG-E8 was induced in microglia treated with conditioned medium from neurons that had been exposed to neurotoxicants, glutamate or oAβ. MFG-E8 significantly attenuated oAβ-induced neuronal cell death in a primary neuron − microglia coculture system. Microglial phagocytosis of oAβ was accelerated by MFG-E8 treatment due to increased CD47 expression in the absence of neurotoxic molecule production, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, nitric oxide, and glutamate. MFG-E8 − treated microglia induced nuclear factor E(2 − related factor 2 (Nrf2 − mediated HO-1 production, which also contributed to neuroprotection. Conclusions These results suggest that microglia release MFG-E8 in response to signals from degenerated neurons and that MFG-E8 protects oAβ-induced neuronal cell death

  15. 3-hydroxymorphinan is neurotrophic to dopaminergic neurons and is also neuroprotective against LPS-induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Qin, Liya; Wang, Tongguang; Wei, Sung-Jen; Gao, Hui-ming; Liu, Jie; Wilson, Belinda; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Wanqin; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). We recently reported that dextromethorphan (DM), an active ingredient in a variety of widely used anticough remedies, protected dopaminergic neurons in rat primary mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated degeneration and provided potent protection for dopaminergic neurons in a MPTP mouse model. The underlying mechanism for the protective effect of DM was attributed to its anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of microglia activation. In an effort to develop more potent compounds for the treatment of PD, we have screened a series of analogs of DM, and 3-hydroxymorphinan (3-HM) emerged as a promising candidate for this purpose. Our study using primary mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures showed that 3-HM provided more potent neuroprotection against LPS-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity than its parent compound. The higher potency of 3-HM was attributed to its neurotrophic effect in addition to the anti-inflammatory effect shared by both DM and 3-HM. First, we showed that 3-HM exerted potent neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects on dopaminergic neurons in rat primary mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures treated with LPS. The neurotrophic effect of 3-HM was glia-dependent since 3-HM failed to show any protective effect in the neuron-enriched cultures. We subsequently demonstrated that it was the astroglia, not the microglia, that contributed to the neurotrophic effect of 3-HM. This conclusion was based on the reconstitution studies, in which we added different percentages of microglia (10-20%) or astroglia (40-50%) back to the neuron-enriched cultures and found that 3-HM was neurotrophic after the addition of astroglia, but not microglia. Furthermore, 3-HM-treated astroglia-derived conditioned media exerted a significant neurotrophic effect on dopaminergic neurons. It appeared likely that 3-HM caused the release of neurotrophic factor

  16. The Neuroprotective Effect Of Electro-Acupuncture Against Ischemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Neuroprotective Effect Of Electro-Acupuncture Against Ischemic Stroke In Animal Model: A Review. ... Conclusion: An awareness of the benefits of acupuncture might lead more patients into accepting acupuncture therapy for the management of patients with ischemic stroke and patients with high risk of ischemic stroke.

  17. Treadmill exercise promotes neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia–reperfusion injury via downregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Y

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ying Zhang,1,* Richard Y Cao,2,* Xinling Jia,3,* Qing Li,1 Lei Qiao,1 Guofeng Yan,4 Jian Yang1 1Department of Rehabilitation, 2Laboratory of Immunology, Shanghai Xuhui Central Hospital, Shanghai Clinical Research Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3School of Life sciences, Shanghai University, 4School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Stroke is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, which is associated with serious physical deficits that affect daily living and quality of life and produces immense public health and economic burdens. Both clinical and experimental data suggest that early physical training after ischemic brain injury may reduce the extent of motor dysfunction. However, the exact mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on neuroprotection and understand the underlying mechanisms.Materials and methods: Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO was conducted to establish a rat model of cerebral ischemia–reperfusion injury to mimic ischemic stroke. Experimental animals were divided into the following three groups: sham (n=34, MCAO (n=39, and MCAO plus treadmill exercise (n=28. The effects of aerobic exercise intervention on ischemic brain injury were evaluated using functional scoring, histological analysis, and Bio-Plex Protein Assays.Results: Early aerobic exercise intervention was found to improve motor function, prevent death of neuronal cells, and suppress the activation of microglial cells and astrocytes. Furthermore, it was observed that aerobic exercise downregulated the expression of the cytokine interleukin-1β and the chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 after transient MCAO in experimental rats.Conclusion: This study demonstrates that treadmill exercise rehabilitation promotes neuroprotection against cerebral

  18. Neuroprotective effects of anticonvulsants in rat hippocampal slice cultures exposed to oxygen/glucose deprivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rekling, Jens C

    2003-01-01

    cell death induced by OGD. The newer anticonvulsants carbamazepine, felbamate, lamotrigine, tiagabine, and oxcarbazepine also had significant neuroprotective effects, but gabapentin, valproic acid (10 mM), levetiracetam and retigabine were not neuroprotective at a concentration up to 300 micro...

  19. Neuroprotective effect of Terminalia chebula extracts and ellagic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the common neurodegenerative disorders among elderly. The purpose of this study was to determine the neuroprotective effect and mechanisms of action underlying the Terminalia chebula extracts and ellagic acid by using beta-amyloid25-35 (Aβ25-35)-induced cell toxicity ...

  20. Neuroprotective effect of ketamine/xylazine on two rat models of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Ferro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a great concern in the literature for the development of neuroprotectant drugs to treat Parkinson's disease. Since anesthetic drugs have hyperpolarizing properties, they can possibly act as neuroprotectants. In the present study, we have investigated the neuroprotective effect of a mixture of ketamine (85 mg/kg and xylazine (3 mg/kg (K/X on the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA rat models of Parkinson's disease. The bilateral infusion of MPTP (100 µg/side or 6-OHDA (10 µg/side into the substantia nigra pars compacta of adult male Wistar rats under thiopental anesthesia caused a modest (~67% or severe (~91% loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunostained cells, respectively. On the other hand, an apparent neuroprotective effect was observed when the rats were anesthetized with K/X, infused 5 min before surgery. This treatment caused loss of only 33% of the nigral tyrosine hydroxylase-immunostained cells due to the MPTP infusion and 51% due to the 6-OHDA infusion. This neuroprotective effect of K/X was also suggested by a less severe reduction of striatal dopamine levels in animals treated with these neurotoxins. In the working memory version of the Morris water maze task, both MPTP- and 6-OHDA-lesioned animals spent nearly 10 s longer to find the hidden platform in the groups where the neurotoxins were infused under thiopental anesthesia, compared to control animals. This amnestic effect was not observed in rats infused with the neurotoxins under K/X anesthesia. These results suggest that drugs with a pharmacological profile similar to that of K/X may be useful to delay the progression of Parkinson's disease.

  1. Cortical spreading depression produces a neuroprotective effect activating mitochondrial uncoupling protein-5

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    Viggiano E

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Emanuela Viggiano,1,2 Vincenzo Monda,1 Antonietta Messina,1 Fiorenzo Moscatelli,3 Anna Valenzano,3 Domenico Tafuri,4 Giuseppe Cibelli,3 Bruno De Luca,1 Giovanni Messina,1,3 Marcellino Monda1 1Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Human Physiology and Unit of Dietetics and Sports Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, 2Department of Medicine, University of Padua, Padua, 3Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia, 4Department of Motor Sciences and Wellness, University of Naples “Parthenope”, Naples, Italy Abstract: Depression of electrocorticogram propagating over the cortex surface results in cortical spreading depression (CSD, which is probably related to the pathophysiology of stroke, epilepsy, and migraine. However, preconditioning with CSD produces neuroprotection to subsequent ischemic episodes. Such effects require the expression or activation of several genes, including neuroprotective ones. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the expression of the uncoupling proteins (UCPs 2 and 5 is amplified during brain ischemia and their expression exerts a long-term effect upon neuron protection. To evaluate the neuroprotective consequence of CSD, the expression of UCP-5 in the brain cortex was measured following CSD induction. CSD was evoked in four samples of rats, which were sacrificed after 2 hours, 4 hours, 6 hours, and 24 hours. Western blot analyses were carried out to measure UCP-5 concentrations in the prefrontal cortices of both hemispheres, and immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the localization of UCP-5 in the brain cortex. The results showed a significant elevation in UCP-5 expression at 24 hours in all cortical strata. Moreover, UCP-5 was triggered by CSD, indicating that UCP-5 production can have a neuroprotective effect. Keywords: cortical spreading depression, neuroprotective effect, uncoupling protein-5

  2. microRNA-21a-5p/PDCD4 axis regulates mesenchymal stem cell-induced neuroprotection in acute glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wenru; Li, Zuohong; Jia, Y; Zhu, Yingting; Cai, Wenjia; Wan, Peixing; Zhang, Yingying; Zheng, Song Guo; Zhuo, Yehong

    2017-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated to have promising therapeutic benefits for a variety of neurological diseases; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we showed that intravitreal infusion of MSCs promoted retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival in a mouse model of acute glaucoma, with significant inhibition of microglial activation, production of TNF-α, IL-1β, and reactive oxygen species, as well as caspase-8 and caspase-3 activation. In vitro, MSCs inhibited both caspase-8-mediated RGC apoptosis and microglial activation, partly via the action of stanniocalcin 1 (STC1). Furthermore, we found that microRNA-21a-5p (miR-21) and its target, PDCD4, were essential for STC1 production and the neuroprotective property of MSCs in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, miR-21 overexpression or PDCD4 knockdown augmented MSC-mediated neuroprotective effects on acute glaucoma. These data highlight a previously unrecognized neuroprotective mechanism by which the miR-21/PDCD4 axis induces MSCs to secrete STC1 and other factors that exert neuroprotective effects. Therefore, modulating the miR-21/PDCD4 axis might be a promising strategy for clinical treatment of acute glaucoma and other neurological diseases. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of the catechol group in the antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of virgin olive oil components in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Cruz, J P; Ruiz-Moreno, M I; Guerrero, A; López-Villodres, J A; Reyes, J J; Espartero, J L; Labajos, M T; González-Correa, J A

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the role of the catechol group in the antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of minor components of virgin olive oil in rat brain tissue. Hydroxytyrosol ethyl ether (HT, 2 OH), tyrosol ethyl ether (Ty, 1 OH) and 3,4-di-ortho-methylidene-hydroxytyrosol ethyl ether (MET, no OH) were compared. Oxidative stress was induced with ferrous salts (lipid peroxidation induction), diethylmaleate (depletion of glutathione) and hypoxia-reoxygenation in brain slices. Lipid peroxidation was inhibited in direct proportion to the number of OH groups: HT>Ty>MET. Exposure to HT led to partial recovery of the glutathione system after chemical inhibition or hypoxia-reoxygenation. All three compounds inhibited cell death in hypoxia-reoxygenation experiments (HT≥Ty>MET). Peroxynitrite formation (3-nitrotyrosine) and inflammatory mediators (prostaglandin E2 and interleukin 1ß) were inhibited by all three compounds. In conclusion, the presence of OH groups in the molecule of these phenolic compounds from virgin olive oil is a determinant factor in their antioxidant effect in brain tissue, but this antioxidant effect is not the only explanation for their neuroprotective effect. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Both systemic and local application of Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF is neuroprotective after retinal ganglion cell axotomy

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    Dietz Gunnar PH

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hematopoietic Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF plays a crucial role in controlling the number of neutrophil progenitor cells. Its function is mediated via the G-CSF receptor, which was recently found to be expressed also in the central nervous system. In addition, G-CSF provided neuroprotection in models of neuronal cell death. Here we used the retinal ganglion cell (RGC axotomy model to compare effects of local and systemic application of neuroprotective molecules. Results We found that the G-CSF receptor is robustly expressed by RGCs in vivo and in vitro. We thus evaluated G-CSF as a neuroprotectant for RGCs and found a dose-dependent neuroprotective effect of G-CSF on axotomized RGCs when given subcutaneously. As stem stell mobilization had previously been discussed as a possible contributor to the neuroprotective effects of G-CSF, we compared the local treatment of RGCs by injection of G-CSF into the vitreous body with systemic delivery by subcutaneous application. Both routes of application reduced retinal ganglion cell death to a comparable extent. Moreover, G-CSF enhanced the survival of immunopurified RGCs in vitro. Conclusion We thus show that G-CSF neuroprotection is at least partially independent of potential systemic effects and provide further evidence that the clinically applicable G-CSF could become a treatment option for both neurodegenerative diseases and glaucoma.

  5. Neuroprotective Effect of the Ginsenoside Rg1 on Cerebral Ischemic Injury In Vivo and In Vitro Is Mediated by PPARγ-Regulated Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Pathways

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    Yang Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ginsenoside Rg1 exerts a neuroprotective effect during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Rg1 has been previously reported to improve PPARγ expression and signaling, consequently enhancing its regulatory processes. Due to PPARγ’s role in the suppression of oxidative stress and inflammation, Rg1’s PPARγ-normalizing capacity may play a role in the observed neuroprotective action of Rg1 during ischemic brain injury. We utilized a middle cerebral artery ischemia/reperfusion injury model in rats in addition to an oxygen glucose deprivation model in cortical neurons to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of Rg1. We found that Rg1 significantly increased PPARγ expression and reduced multiple indicators of oxidative stress and inflammation. Ultimately, Rg1 treatment improved neurological function and diminished brain edema, indicating that Rg1 may exert its neuroprotective action on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through the activation of PPARγ signaling. In addition, the present findings suggested that Rg1 was a potent PPARγ agonist in that it upregulated PPARγ expression and was inhibited by GW9662, a selective PPARγ antagonist. These findings expand our previous understanding of the molecular basis of the therapeutic action of Rg1 in cerebral ischemic injury, laying the ground work for expanded study and clinical optimization of the compound.

  6. Neuroprotective effects of glyceryl nonivamide against microglia-like cells and 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y human dopaminergic neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Chin; Uang, Hao-Wei; Lin, Rong-Jyh; Chen, Ing-Jun; Lo, Yi-Ching

    2007-12-01

    Glyceryl nonivamide (GLNVA), a vanilloid receptor (VR) agonist, has been reported to have calcitonin gene-related peptide-associated vasodilatation and to prevent subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced cerebral vasospasm. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of GLNVA on activated microglia-like cell mediated- and proparkinsonian neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity in human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. In coculture conditions, we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 cells as a model of activated microglia. LPS-induced neuronal death was significantly inhibited by diphenylene iodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. However, capsazepine, the selective VR1 antagonist, did not block the neuroprotective effects of GLNVA. GLNVA reduced LPS-activated microglia-mediated neuronal death, but it lacked protection in DPI-pretreated cultures. GLNVA also decreased LPS activated microglia induced overexpression of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase (nNOS) and glycoprotein 91 phagocyte oxidase (gp91(phox)) on SH-SY5Y cells. Pretreatment of BV-2 cells with GLNVA diminished LPS-induced nitric oxide production, overexpression of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS), and gp91(phox) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (iROS). GLNVA also reduced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression, inhibitor of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB (IkappaB)alpha/IkappaBbeta degradation, NF-kappaB activation, and the overproduction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and prostaglandin E2 in BV-2 cells. However, GLNVA augmented anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 production on LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. Furthermore, in 6-OHDA-treated SH-SY5Y cells, GLNVA rescued the changes in condensed nuclear and apoptotic bodies, prevented the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, and reduced cells death. GLNVA also suppressed accumulation of iROS and up-regulated heme oxygenase-1 expression. 6-OHDA-induced overexpression of nNOS, i

  7. Particular phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt on Thr308 via PDK-1 and PTEN mediates melatonin's neuroprotective activity after focal cerebral ischemia in mice

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    Ulkan Kilic

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Apart from its potent antioxidant property, recent studies have revealed that melatonin promotes PI3K/Akt phosphorylation following focal cerebral ischemia (FCI in mice. However, it is not clear (i whether increased PI3K/Akt phosphorylation is a concomitant event or it directly contributes to melatonin's neuroprotective effect, and (ii how melatonin regulates PI3K/Akt signaling pathway after FCI. In this study, we showed that Akt was intensively phosphorylated at the Thr308 activation loop as compared with Ser473 by melatonin after FCI. Melatonin treatment reduced infarct volume, which was reversed by PI3K/Akt inhibition. However, PI3K/Akt inhibition did not inhibit melatonin's positive effect on brain swelling and IgG extravasation. Additionally, phosphorylation of mTOR, PTEN, AMPKα, PDK1 and RSK1 were increased, while phosphorylation of 4E-BP1, GSK-3α/β, S6 ribosomal protein were decreased in melatonin treated animals. In addition, melatonin decreased apoptosis through reduced p53 phosphorylation by the PI3K/Akt pathway. In conclusion, we demonstrated the activation profiles of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway components in the pathophysiological aspect of ischemic stroke and melatonin's neuroprotective activity. Our data suggest that Akt phosphorylation, preferably at the Thr308 site of the activation loop via PDK1 and PTEN, mediates melatonin's neuroprotective activity and increased Akt phosphorylation leads to reduced apoptosis. Keywords: PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, PI3K inhibition, Melatonin, Brain injury

  8. Neuroprotective effects of estrogen in CNS injuries: insights from animal models

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    Raghava N

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Narayan Raghava,1 Bhaskar C Das,2 Swapan K Ray1 1Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Among the estrogens that are biosynthesized in the human body, 17β-estradiol (estradiol or E2 is the most common and the best estrogen for neuroprotection in animal models of the central nervous system (CNS injuries such as spinal cord injury (SCI, traumatic brain injury (TBI, and ischemic brain injury (IBI. These CNS injuries are not only serious health problems, but also enormous economic burden on the patients, their families, and the society at large. Studies from animal models of these CNS injuries provide insights into the multiple neuroprotective mechanisms of E2 and also suggest the possibility of translating the therapeutic efficacy of E2 in the treatment SCI, TBI, and IBI in humans in the near future. The pathophysiology of these injuries includes loss of motor function in the limbs, arms and their extremities, cognitive deficit, and many other serious consequences including life-threatening paralysis, infection, and even death. The potential application of E2 therapy to treat the CNS injuries may become a trend as the results are showing significant therapeutic benefits of E2 for neuroprotection when administered into the animal models of SCI, TBI, and IBI. This article describes the plausible mechanisms how E2 works with or without the involvement of estrogen receptors and provides an overview of the known neuroprotective effects of E2 in these three CNS injuries in different animal models. Because activation of estrogen receptors has profound implications in maintaining and also affecting normal physiology, there are notable impediments in translating E2 therapy to the clinics for neuroprotection in CNS injuries in humans. While E2 may not yet be the sole molecule for

  9. Getting to NO Alzheimer’s Disease: Neuroprotection versus Neurotoxicity Mediated by Nitric Oxide

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    Rachelle Balez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder involving the loss of neurons in the brain which leads to progressive memory loss and behavioral changes. To date, there are only limited medications for AD and no known cure. Nitric oxide (NO has long been considered part of the neurotoxic insult caused by neuroinflammation in the Alzheimer’s brain. However, focusing on early developments, prior to the appearance of cognitive symptoms, is changing that perception. This has highlighted a compensatory, neuroprotective role for NO that protects synapses by increasing neuronal excitability. A potential mechanism for augmentation of excitability by NO is via modulation of voltage-gated potassium channel activity (Kv7 and Kv2. Identification of the ionic mechanisms and signaling pathways that mediate this protection is an important next step for the field. Harnessing the protective role of NO and related signaling pathways could provide a therapeutic avenue that prevents synapse loss early in disease.

  10. Involvement of PPAR-γ in the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of angiotensin type 1 receptor inhibition: effects of the receptor antagonist telmisartan and receptor deletion in a mouse MPTP model of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrido-Gil Pablo

    2012-02-01

    -administration of GW9662. Conclusion The results suggest that telmisartan provides effective neuroprotection against dopaminergic cell death and that the neuroprotective effect is mediated by PPAR-γ activation. However, the results in AT1-deficient mice show that blockage of AT1, unrelated to the pharmacological properties of AT1 blockers, also protects against dopaminergic cell death and neuroinflammation. Furthermore, the results show that PPAR-γ activation is involved in the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of AT1 deletion.

  11. Intranasal Delivery of Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Enhances Its Neuroprotective Effects Against Ischemic Brain Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bao-Liang; He, Mei-Qing; Han, Xiang-Yu; Sun, Jing-Yi; Yang, Ming-Feng; Yuan, Hui; Fan, Cun-Dong; Zhang, Shuai; Mao, Lei-Lei; Li, Da-Wei; Zhang, Zong-Yong; Zheng, Cheng-Bi; Yang, Xiao-Yi; Li, Yang V; Stetler, R Anne; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a hematopoietic growth factor with strong neuroprotective properties. However, it has limited capacity to cross the blood-brain barrier and thus potentially limiting its protective capacity. Recent studies demonstrated that intranasal drug administration is a promising way in delivering neuroprotective agents to the central nervous system. The current study therefore aimed at determining whether intranasal administration of G-CSF increases its delivery to the brain and its neuroprotective effect against ischemic brain injury. Transient focal cerebral ischemia in rat was induced with middle cerebral artery occlusion. Our resulted showed that intranasal administration is 8-12 times more effective than subcutaneous injection in delivering G-CSF to cerebrospinal fluid and brain parenchyma. Intranasal delivery enhanced the protective effects of G-CSF against ischemic injury in rats, indicated by decreased infarct volume and increased recovery of neurological function. The neuroprotective mechanisms of G-CSF involved enhanced upregulation of HO-1 and reduced calcium overload following ischemia. Intranasal G-CSF application also promoted angiogenesis and neurogenesis following brain ischemia. Taken together, G-CSF is a legitimate neuroprotective agent and intranasal administration of G-CSF is more effective in delivery and neuroprotection and could be a practical approach in clinic.

  12. Neuroprotective effects of Resveratrol in Alzheimer Disease Pathology

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    Shraddha D Rege

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive loss of cognitive and behavioral abilities. Extracellular senile plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles are hallmarks of AD. Researchers aim to analyze the molecular mechanisms underlying AD pathogenesis; however, the therapeutic options available to treat this disease are inadequate. In the past few years, several studies have reported interesting insights about the neuroprotective properties of the polyphenolic compound resveratrol (3, 5, 4’-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene when used with in vitro and in vivo models of AD. The aim of this review is to focus on the neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of resveratrol on AD and its multiple potential mechanisms of action. In addition, because the naturally occurring forms of resveratrol have a very limited half-life in plasma, a description of potential analogues aimed at increasing bioavailability in plasma is also discussed.

  13. Neuroprotective Effect of Puerarin on Glutamate-Induced Cytotoxicity in Differentiated Y-79 Cells via Inhibition of ROS Generation and Ca(2+) Influx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Zhu, Xue; Zhang, Kai; Wu, Zhifeng; Sun, Song; Zhou, Fanfan; Zhu, Ling

    2016-07-11

    Glutamate toxicity is estimated to be the key cause of photoreceptor degeneration in the pathogenesis of retinal degenerative diseases. Oxidative stress and Ca(2+) influx induced by glutamate are responsible for the apoptosis process of photoreceptor degeneration. Puerarin, a primary component of Kudzu root, has been widely used in the clinical treatment of retinal degenerative diseases in China for decades; however, the detailed molecular mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. In this study, the neuroprotective effect of puerarin against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in the differentiated Y-79 cells was first investigated through cytotoxicity assay. Then the molecular mechanism of this effect regarding anti-oxidative stress and Ca(2+) hemostasis was further explored with indirect immunofluorescence, flow cytometric analysis and western blot analysis. Our study showed that glutamate induced cell viability loss, excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, calcium overload and up-regulated cell apoptosis in differentiated Y-79 cells, which effect was significantly attenuated with the pre-treatment of puerarin in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, our data indicated that the neuroprotective effect of puerarin was potentially mediated through the inhibition of glutamate-induced activation of mitochondrial-dependent signaling pathway and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-dependent apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1(ASK-1)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/p38 signaling pathway. The present study supports the notion that puerarin may be a promising neuroprotective agent in the prevention of retinal degenerative diseases.

  14. Neuroprotective effects of statins against amyloid β-induced neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hua Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that disruption of the homeostasis of lipid metabolism affects the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. In particular, dysregulation of cholesterol homeostasis in the brain has been reported to considerably increase the risk of developing AD. Thus, dysregulation of lipid homeostasis may increase the amyloid β (Aβ levels by affecting amyloid precursor protein (APP cleavage, which is the most important risk factor involved in the pathogenesis of AD. Previous research demonstrated that Aβ can trigger neuronal insulin resistance, which plays an important role in response to Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in AD. Epidemiological studies also suggested that statin use is associated with a decreased incidence of AD. Therefore, statins are believed to be a good candidate for conferring neuroprotective effects against AD. Statins may play a beneficial role in reducing Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. Their effect involves a putative mechanism beyond its cholesterol-lowering effects in preventing Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of the protective effect of statins have not been clearly determined in Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. Given that statins may provide benefits beyond the inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase, these drugs may also improve the brain. Thus, statins may have beneficial effects on impaired insulin signaling by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK in neuronal cells. They play a potential therapeutic role in targeting Aβ-mediated neurotoxicity.

  15. Palmitoylethanolamide exerts neuroprotective effects in mixed neuroglial cultures and organotypic hippocampal slices via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scuderi Caterina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to cytotoxic mechanisms directly impacting neurons, β-amyloid (Aβ-induced glial activation also promotes release of proinflammatory molecules that may self-perpetuate reactive gliosis and damage neighbouring neurons, thus amplifying neuropathological lesions occurring in Alzheimer's disease (AD. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA has been studied extensively for its anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiepileptic and neuroprotective effects. PEA is a lipid messenger isolated from mammalian and vegetable tissues that mimics several endocannabinoid-driven actions, even though it does not bind to cannabinoid receptors. Some of its pharmacological properties are considered to be dependent on the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-α (PPARα. Findings In the present study, we evaluated the effect of PEA on astrocyte activation and neuronal loss in models of Aβ neurotoxicity. To this purpose, primary rat mixed neuroglial co-cultures and organotypic hippocampal slices were challenged with Aβ1-42 and treated with PEA in the presence or absence of MK886 or GW9662, which are selective PPARα and PPARγ antagonists, respectively. The results indicate that PEA is able to blunt Aβ-induced astrocyte activation and, subsequently, to improve neuronal survival through selective PPARα activation. The data from organotypic cultures confirm that PEA anti-inflammatory properties implicate PPARα mediation and reveal that the reduction of reactive gliosis subsequently induces a marked rebound neuroprotective effect on neurons. Conclusions In line with our previous observations, the results of this study show that PEA treatment results in decreased numbers of infiltrating astrocytes during Aβ challenge, resulting in significant neuroprotection. PEA could thus represent a promising pharmacological tool because it is able to reduce Aβ-evoked neuroinflammation and attenuate its neurodegenerative consequences.

  16. Equol, a Dietary Daidzein Gut Metabolite Attenuates Microglial Activation and Potentiates Neuroprotection In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalita Subedi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen deficiency has been well characterized in inflammatory disorders including neuroinflammation. Daidzein, a dietary alternative phytoestrogen found in soy (Glycine max as primary isoflavones, possess anti‐inflammatory activity, but the effect of its active metabolite Equol (7‐hydroxy‐3‐(4′‐hydroxyphenyl‐chroman has not been well established. In this study, we investigated the anti‐neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective effect of Equol in vitro. To evaluate the potential effects of Equol, three major types of central nervous system (CNS cells, including microglia (BV‐2, astrocytes (C6, and neurons (N2a, were used. Effects of Equol on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase (COX‐2, Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling proteins, and apoptosis‐related proteins were measured by western blot analysis. Equol inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS‐induced TLR4 activation, MAPK activation, NF‐kB‐mediated transcription of inflammatory mediators, production of nitric oxide (NO, release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE‐2, secretion of tumor necrosis factor‐α (TNF‐α and interleukin 6 (IL‐6, in Lipopolysaccharide (LPS‐activated murine microglia cells. Additionally, Equol protects neurons from neuroinflammatory injury mediated by LPS‐activated microglia through downregulation of neuronal apoptosis, increased neurite outgrowth in N2a cell and neurotrophins like nerve growth factor (NGF production through astrocytes further supporting its neuroprotective potential. These findings provide novel insight into the anti‐neuroinflammatory effects of Equol on microglial cells, which may have clinical significance in cases of neurodegeneration.

  17. Neuroprotective effect of asiatic acid on rotenone-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis in differentiated SH-SYS5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataraj, Jagatheesan; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan; Justin Thenmozhi, Arokiasamy; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed

    2017-07-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease, manifested due to the loss of dopaminergic neurons, which ultimately leads to impaired movement in elderly populations. The pathogenesis of PD is associated with numerous factors including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. There is no effective therapy available to cure or halt the progression of this disease still now. Asiatic acid (AA) is a triterpene extracted from Centella asiatica has been reported as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, that offers neuroprotection against glutamate toxicity. Therefore, in this study, we have investigated the effect of AA in a rotenone (an inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I) induced in vitro model of PD. Following the exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to rotenone, there was a marked overproduction of ROS, mitochondrial dysfunction (as indexed by the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential) and apoptosis (Hoechst and dual staining, comet assay; expressions of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic indices). Pre-treatment with AA reversed these changes might be due to its antioxidant, mitoprotective and anti-apoptotic properties. However further extensive studies on in vivo models of PD are warranted to prove AA neuroprotective effect before entering into the clinical trial.

  18. Neuroprotective Effect of Fisetin Against Amyloid-Beta-Induced Cognitive/Synaptic Dysfunction, Neuroinflammation, and Neurodegeneration in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ali, Tahir; Park, Hyun Young; Badshah, Haroon; Rehman, Shafiq Ur; Kim, Myeong Ok

    2017-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating and progressive neurodegenerative disease and is characterized pathologically by the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) and the hyperphosphorylation of tau proteins in the brain. The deposition of Aβ aggregates triggers synaptic dysfunction, hyperphosphorylation of tau, and neurodegeneration, which lead to cognitive disorders. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of fisetin in the Aβ 1-42 mouse model of AD. Single intracerebroventricular injections of Aβ 1-42 (3 μl/5 min/mouse) markedly induced memory/synaptic deficits, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. Intraperitoneal injections of fisetin at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks starting 24 h after Aβ 1-42 injection significantly decreased the Aβ 1-42 -induced accumulation of Aβ, BACE-1 expression, and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein at serine 413. Fisetin treatment also markedly reversed Aβ 1-42 -induced synaptic dysfunction by increasing the levels of both presynaptic (SYN and SNAP-25) and postsynaptic proteins (PSD-95, SNAP-23, p-GluR1 (Ser 845), p-CREB (Ser 133) and p-CAMKII (Thr 286) and ultimately improved mouse memory, as observed in the Morris water maze test. Fisetin significantly activated p-PI3K, p-Akt (Ser 473), and p-GSK3β (Ser 9) expression in Aβ 1-42 -treated mice. Moreover, fisetin prevented neuroinflammation by suppressing various activated neuroinflammatory mediators and gliosis; it also suppressed the apoptotic neurodegeneration triggered by Aβ 1-42 injections in the mouse hippocampus. Fluorojade-B and immunohistochemical staining for caspase-3 revealed that fisetin prevented neurodegeneration in Aβ 1-42 -treated mice. Our results suggest that fisetin has a potent neuroprotective effect against Aβ 1-42 -induced neurotoxicity. These results demonstrate that polyphenolic flavonoids such as fisetin could be a beneficial, effective and safe neuroprotective agent for preventing neurological disorders such as AD.

  19. Neuroprotective effect of curcumin on hippocampal injury in 6-OHDA-induced Parkinson's disease rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiaqing; Song, Shilei; Li, Jian; Liang, Tao

    2014-06-01

    Clinically, Parkinson's disease (PD)-related neuronal lesions commonly occur. The purpose of this study is to investigate potential therapeutic effect of curcumin against hippocampal damage of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-PD rat model. These results showed that curcumin significantly increased the body weight of 6-OHDA-impaired rats (Pcurcumin-treated PD rats were effectively ameliorated as shown in open field test (Pcurcumin increased the contents of monoaminergic neurotransmitters (PCurcumin effectively alleviated the 6-OHDA-induced hippocampal damage as observed in hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining. Furthermore, curcumin obviously up-regulated hippocampal brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), TrkB, phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) protein expressions, respectively as shown in Western blot analysis. These findings demonstrated that curcumin mediated the neuroprotection against 6-OHDA-induced hippocampus neurons in rats, which the underlying mechanism is involved in activating BDNF/TrkB-dependent pathway for promoting neural regeneration of hippocampal tissue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Paracrine effect of carbon monoxide - astrocytes promote neuroprotection through purinergic signaling in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroga, Cláudia S F; Alves, Raquel M A; Conde, Sílvia V; Alves, Paula M; Vieira, Helena L A

    2016-08-15

    The neuroprotective role of carbon monoxide (CO) has been studied in a cell-autonomous mode. Herein, a new concept is disclosed - CO affects astrocyte-neuron communication in a paracrine manner to promote neuroprotection. Neuronal survival was assessed when co-cultured with astrocytes that had been pre-treated or not with CO. The CO-pre-treated astrocytes reduced neuronal cell death, and the cellular mechanisms were investigated, focusing on purinergic signaling. CO modulates astrocytic metabolism and extracellular ATP content in the co-culture medium. Moreover, several antagonists of P1 adenosine and P2 ATP receptors partially reverted CO-induced neuroprotection through astrocytes. Likewise, knocking down expression of the neuronal P1 adenosine receptor A2A-R (encoded by Adora2a) reverted the neuroprotective effects of CO-exposed astrocytes. The neuroprotection of CO-treated astrocytes also decreased following prevention of ATP or adenosine release from astrocytic cells and inhibition of extracellular ATP metabolism into adenosine. Finally, the neuronal downstream event involves TrkB (also known as NTRK2) receptors and BDNF. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of TrkB receptors reverts neuroprotection triggered by CO-treated astrocytes. Furthermore, the neuronal ratio of BDNF to pro-BDNF increased in the presence of CO-treated astrocytes and decreased whenever A2A-R expression was silenced. In summary, CO prevents neuronal cell death in a paracrine manner by targeting astrocytic metabolism through purinergic signaling. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Interaction between neuropeptide Y (NPY) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in NPY-mediated neuroprotection against excitotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xapelli, S; Bernardino, L; Ferreira, R

    2008-01-01

    The neuroprotective effect of neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor activation was investigated in organotypic mouse hippocampal slice cultures exposed to the glutamate receptor agonist alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA). Exposure of 2-week-old slice cultures, derived from 7-...

  2. Neuroprotective effect of creatine against propionic acid toxicity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    edoja

    2013-07-31

    Jul 31, 2013 ... Full Length Research Paper. Neuroprotective effect of creatine against propionic acid toxicity in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells in culture. Afaf El-Ansary*, Ghada Abu-Shmais and Abeer Al-Dbass. Biochemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 22452, Zip code 11495, Riyadh, ...

  3. Nanoencapsulation of the sasanquasaponin from Camellia oleifera, its photo responsiveness and neuroprotective effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Y

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Yong Ye, Haiting Xing, Yue Li Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Sasanquasaponin, a bioactive compound isolated from seeds of Camellia oleifera, shows central effects in our previous research. In order to investigate its neuroprotective effects, a new kind of nanocapsule with photo responsiveness was designed to deliver sasanquasaponin into the brain and adjusted by red light. The nanocapsule was prepared using sasanquasaponin emulsified with soybean lecithin and cholesterol solution. The natural phaeophorbide from silkworm excrement as a photosensitizer was added in the lipid phase to make the nanocapsules photo responsive. The physicochemical properties of encapsulation efficiency, size distribution, morphology and stability were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography, particle size analyzer, transmission electron microscope, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry. Photo responsiveness was determined by the sasanquasaponin release in pH 7.5 phosphate buffer under the laser at 670 nm. The neuroprotective effects were evaluated by the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, decrease of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1ß in the brain, and amelioration of kainic acid-induced behavioral disorder in mice. The nanocapsules had higher encapsulation efficiency and stability when the phaeophorbide content was 2% of lecithin weight. The average size was 172.2 nm, distributed in the range of 142–220 nm. The phaeophorbide was scattered sufficiently in the outer lecithin layer of the nanocapsules and increased the drug release after irradiation. TH expression in brain tissues and locomotive activities in mice were reduced by kainic acid, but could be improved by the sasanquasaponin nanocapsules after tail vein injection with 15 minutes of irradiation at the nasal cavity. The

  4. Encapsulation of curcumin in polyelectrolyte nanocapsules and their neuroprotective activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanowicz, Krzysztof; Jantas, Danuta; Piotrowski, Marek; Staroń, Jakub; Leśkiewicz, Monika; Regulska, Magdalena; Lasoń, Władysław; Warszyński, Piotr

    2016-09-01

    Poor water solubility and low bioavailability of lipophilic drugs can be potentially improved with the use of delivery systems. In this study, encapsulation of nanoemulsion droplets was utilized to prepare curcumin nanocarriers. Nanosize droplets containing the drug were encapsulated in polyelectrolyte shells formed by the layer-by-layer (LbL) adsorption of biocompatible polyelectrolytes: poly-L-lysine (PLL) and poly-L-glutamic acid (PGA). The size of synthesized nanocapsules was around 100 nm. Their biocompatibility and neuroprotective effects were evaluated on the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line using cell viability/toxicity assays (MTT reduction, LDH release). Statistically significant toxic effect was clearly observed for PLL coated nanocapsules (reduction in cell viability about 20%-60%), while nanocapsules with PLL/PGA coating did not evoke any detrimental effects on SH-SY5Y cells. Curcumin encapsulated in PLL/PGA showed similar neuroprotective activity against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell damage, as did 5 μM curcumin pre-dissolved in DMSO (about 16% of protection). Determination of concentration of curcumin in cell lysate confirmed that curcumin in nanocapsules has cell protective effect in lower concentrations (at least 20 times) than when given alone. Intracellular mechanisms of encapsulated curcumin-mediated protection engaged the prevention of the H2O2-induced decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) but did not attenuate Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) formation. The obtained results indicate the utility of PLL/PGA shell nanocapsules as a promising, alternative way of curcumin delivery for neuroprotective purposes with improved efficiency and reduced toxicity.

  5. Decreased extracellular adenosine levels lead to loss of hypoxia-induced neuroprotection after repeated episodes of exposure to hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Cui

    Full Text Available Achieving a prolonged neuroprotective state following transient ischemic attacks (TIAs is likely to effectively reduce the brain damage and neurological dysfunction associated with recurrent stroke. HPC is a phenomenon in which advanced exposure to mild hypoxia reduces the stroke volume produced by a subsequent TIA. However, this neuroprotection is not long-lasting, with the effects reaching a peak after 3 days. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the use of multiple episodes of hypoxic exposure at different time intervals to induce longer-term protection in a mouse stroke model. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to different hypoxic preconditioning protocols: a single episode of HPC or five identical episodes at intervals of 3 days (E3d HPC or 6 days (E6d HPC. Three days after the last hypoxic exposure, temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO was induced. The effects of these HPC protocols on hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF regulated gene mRNA expression were measured by quantitative PCR. Changes in extracellular adenosine concentrations, known to exert neuroprotective effects, were also measured using in vivo microdialysis and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC. Neuroprotection was provided by E6d HPC but not E3d HPC. HIF-regulated target gene expression increased significantly following all HPC protocols. However, E3d HPC significantly decreased extracellular adenosine and reduced cerebral blood flow in the ischemic region with upregulated expression of the adenosine transporter, equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1. An ENT1 inhibitor, propentofylline increased the cerebral blood flow and re-established neuroprotection in E3d HPC. Adenosine receptor specific antagonists showed that adenosine mainly through A1 receptor mediates HPC induced neuroprotection. Our data indicate that cooperation of HIF-regulated genes and extracellular adenosine is necessary for HPC-induced neuroprotection.

  6. Neuroprotective efficacy of aminopropyl carbazoles in a mouse model of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesús-Cortés, Héctor; Xu, Pin; Drawbridge, Jordan; Estill, Sandi Jo; Huntington, Paula; Tran, Stephanie; Britt, Jeremiah; Tesla, Rachel; Morlock, Lorraine; Naidoo, Jacinth; Melito, Lisa M; Wang, Gelin; Williams, Noelle S; Ready, Joseph M; McKnight, Steven L; Pieper, Andrew A

    2012-10-16

    We previously reported the discovery of P7C3, an aminopropyl carbazole having proneurogenic and neuroprotective properties in newborn neural precursor cells of the dentate gyrus. Here, we provide evidence that P7C3 also protects mature neurons in brain regions outside of the hippocampus. P7C3 blocks 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-mediated cell death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of adult mice, a model of Parkinson disease (PD). Dose-response studies show that the P7C3 analog P7C3A20 blocks cell death with even greater potency and efficacy, which parallels the relative potency and efficacy of these agents in blocking apoptosis of newborn neural precursor cells of the dentate gyrus. P7C3 and P7C3A20 display similar relative effects in blocking 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-mediated death of dopaminergic neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans, as well as in preserving C. elegans mobility following MPP(+) exposure. Dimebon, an antihistaminergic drug that is weakly proneurogenic and neuroprotective in the dentate gyrus, confers no protection in either the mouse or the worm models of PD. We further demonstrate that the hippocampal proneurogenic efficacy of eight additional analogs of P7C3 correlates with their protective efficacy in MPTP-mediated neurotoxicity. In vivo screening of P7C3 analogs for proneurogenic efficacy in the hippocampus may thus provide a reliable means of predicting neuroprotective efficacy. We propose that the chemical scaffold represented by P7C3 and P7C3A20 provides a basis for optimizing and advancing pharmacologic agents for the treatment of patients with PD.

  7. Neuroprotective Effects of Citicoline in in Vitro Models of Retinal Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Matteucci

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, citicoline has been the object of remarkable interest as a possible neuroprotectant. The aim of this study was to investigate if citicoline affected cell survival in primary retinal cultures and if it exerted neuroprotective activity in conditions modeling retinal neurodegeneration. Primary retinal cultures, obtained from rat embryos, were first treated with increasing concentrations of citicoline (up to 1000 µM and analyzed in terms of apoptosis and caspase activation and characterized by immunocytochemistry to identify neuronal and glial cells. Subsequently, excitotoxic concentration of glutamate or High Glucose-containing cell culture medium (HG was administered as well-known conditions modeling neurodegeneration. Glutamate or HG treatments were performed in the presence or not of citicoline. Neuronal degeneration was evaluated in terms of apoptosis and loss of synapses. The results showed that citicoline did not cause any damage to the retinal neuroglial population up to 1000 µM. At the concentration of 100 µM, it was able to counteract neuronal cell damage both in glutamate- and HG-treated retinal cultures by decreasing proapoptotic effects and contrasting synapse loss. These data confirm that citicoline can efficiently exert a neuroprotective activity. In addition, the results suggest that primary retinal cultures, under conditions inducing neurodegeneration, may represent a useful system to investigate citicoline neuroprotective mechanisms.

  8. The neuroprotective effect of nicotine in Parkinson’s disease models is associated with inhibiting PARP-1 and caspase-3 cleavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Y.D. Lu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Clinical evidence points to neuroprotective effects of smoking in Parkinson’s disease (PD, but the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the pharmacological pathways involved in these neuroprotective effects, which could provide novel ideas for developing targeted neuroprotective treatments for PD. We used the ETC complex I inhibitor methylpyridinium ion (MPP+ to induce cell death in SH-SY5Y cells as a cellular model for PD and found that nicotine inhibits cell death. Using choline as a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR agonist, we found that nAChR stimulation was sufficient to protect SH-SY5Y cells against cell death from MPP+. Blocking α7 nAChR with methyllycaconitine (MLA prevented the protective effects of nicotine, demonstrating that these receptors are necessary for the neuroprotective effects of nicotine. The neuroprotective effect of nicotine involves other pathways relevant to PD. Cleaved Poly (ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1 and cleaved caspase-3 were decreased by nicotine in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA lesioned mice and in MPP+-treated SH-SY5Y cells. In conclusion, our data indicate that nicotine likely exerts neuroprotective effects in PD through the α7 nAChR and downstream pathways including PARP-1 and caspase-3. This knowledge could be pursued in future research to develop neuroprotective treatments for PD.

  9. Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Agonist Experts Sustained Neuroprotective Effects In Aged Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumners, Colin; Isenberg, Jacob; Harmel, Allison

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The renin angiotensin system is a promising target for stroke neuroprotection and therapy through activation of angiotensin type II receptors (AT2R). The selective non-peptide AT2R agonist, Compound 21 (C21), has been shown to exhibit neuroprotection and improve stroke outcomes...... in preclinical studies, effects that likely involve neurotropic actions. However, these beneficial actions of C21 have not been demonstrated to occur beyond 1 week post stroke. The objective of this study was to determine if systemic administration of C21 would exert sustained neuroprotective effects in aged...... min), 24 h, and 48 h after stroke. Infarct size was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging at 21 days post MCAO. Animals received blinded neurological exams at 4 h, 24 h, 72 h, 7d, 14d, and 21d post-MCAO. RESULTS: Systemic treatment with C21 after stroke significantly improved neurological function...

  10. Neuroprotective effects of Ellagic acid on Neonatal Hypoxic Brain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate if ellagic acid exerts neuroprotective effects in hypoxic ischemic (HI) brain injury by inhibiting apoptosis and inflammatory responses. Methods: Separate groups of rat pups from post-natal day 4 (D4) were administered with ellagic acid (10, 20 or 40 mg/kg body weight) orally till post- natal day 10 ...

  11. Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective layer-by-layer coatings for neural implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiling; Nong, Jia; Zhong, Yinghui

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Infection, inflammation, and neuronal loss are common issues that seriously affect the functionality and longevity of chronically implanted neural prostheses. Minocycline hydrochloride (MH) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic and effective anti-inflammatory drug that also exhibits potent neuroprotective activities. In this study, we investigated the development of biocompatible thin film coatings capable of sustained release of MH for improving the long term performance of implanted neural electrodes. Approach. We developed a novel magnesium binding-mediated drug delivery mechanism for controlled and sustained release of MH from an ultrathin hydrophilic layer-by-layer (LbL) coating and characterized the parameters that control MH loading and release. The anti-biofilm, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective potencies of the LbL coating and released MH were also examined. Main results. Sustained release of physiologically relevant amount of MH for 46 days was achieved from the Mg2+-based LbL coating at a thickness of 1.25 μm. In addition, MH release from the LbL coating is pH-sensitive. The coating and released MH demonstrated strong anti-biofilm, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective potencies. Significance. This study reports, for the first time, the development of a bioactive coating that can target infection, inflammation, and neuroprotection simultaneously, which may facilitate the translation of neural interfaces to clinical applications.

  12. Methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic toxicity prevented owing to the neuroprotective effects of salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrash-Williams, Bessy; Karuppagounder, Senthilkumar S; Bhattacharya, Dwipayan; Ahuja, Manuj; Suppiramaniam, Vishnu; Dhanasekaran, Muralikrishnan

    2016-06-01

    Methamphetamine (Schedule-II drug, U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration) is one of the most abused illicit drug following cocaine, marijuana, and heroin in the USA. There are numerous health impairments and substantial economic burden caused by methamphetamine abuse. Salicylic acid, potent anti-inflammatory drug and a known neuroprotectant has shown to protect against toxicity-induced by other dopaminergic neurotoxins. Hence, in this study we investigated the neuroprotective effects of salicylic acid against methamphetamine-induced toxicity in mice. The current study investigated the effects of sodium salicylate and/or methamphetamine on oxidative stress, monoamine oxidase, mitochondrial complex I & IV activities using spectrophotometric and fluorimetric methods. Behavioral analysis evaluated the effect on movement disorders-induced by methamphetamine. Monoaminergic neurotransmitter levels were evaluated using high pressure liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection. Methamphetamine caused significant generation of reactive oxygen species and decreased complex-I activity leading to dopamine depletion. Striatal dopamine depletion led to significant behavioral changes associated with movement disorders. Sodium salicylate (50 & 100mg/kg) significantly scavenged reactive oxygen species, blocked mitochondrial dysfunction and exhibited neuroprotection against methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. In addition, sodium salicylate significantly blocked methamphetamine-induced behavioral changes related to movement abnormalities. One of the leading causative theories in nigral degeneration associated with movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease is exposure to stimulants, drugs of abuse, insecticide and pesticides. These neurotoxic substances can induce dopaminergic neuronal insult by oxidative stress, apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation. Salicylic acid due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects could provide neuroprotection against the

  13. Neuroprotective Effects of Germinated Brown Rice against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Cell Death in Human SH-SY5Y Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Iqbal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The neuroprotective and antioxidative effects of germinated brown rice (GBR, brown rice (BR and commercially available γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA against cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells have been investigated. Results show that GBR suppressed H2O2-mediated cytotoxicity and induced G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest in SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, GBR reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP and prevented phosphatidylserine (PS translocation in SH-SY5Y cells, key features of apoptosis, and subsequent cell death. GBR exhibited better neuroprotective and antioxidative activities as compared to BR and GABA. These results indicate that GBR possesses high antioxidative activities and suppressed cell death in SH-SY5Y cells by blocking the cell cycle re-entry and apoptotic mechanisms. Therefore, GBR could be developed as a value added functional food to prevent neurodegenerative diseases caused by oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  14. The neuroprotective effects and possible mechanism of action of a methanol extract from Asparagus cochinchinensis: In vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalsrai, A; Numakawa, T; Kunugi, H; Dieterich, D C; Becker, A

    2016-05-13

    Extracts of Asparagus cochinchinensis (AC) have antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulant effects. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying the effects of AC have not been sufficiently explored. Thus we performed in vivo and in vitro experiments to further characterize potential therapeutic effects and to clarify the underlying mechanisms. In the tail suspension test immobility time was significantly reduced after administration of AC which suggests antidepressant-like activity without effect on body core temperature. Moreover, in animals pretreated with AC infarct size after occlusion of the middle cerebral artery was reduced. In vitro experiments confirmed neuroprotective effects. Total saponin obtained from AC significantly inhibited H2O2-induced cell death in cultured cortical neurons. The survival-promoting effect by AC saponins was partially blocked by inhibitors for extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ErK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase Akt (PI3K/Akt) cascades, both of which are known as survival-promoting signaling molecules. Furthermore, phosphorylation of Scr homology-2 (SH2) domain-containing phosphatase 2 (Shp-2) was induced by AC, and the protective effect of AC was abolished by NSC87877, an inhibitor for Shp-2, suggesting an involvement of Shp-2 mediated intracellular signaling in AC saponins. Moreover, AC-induced activation of pShp-2 and ErK1/2 were blocked by NSC87877 indicating that activation of these signaling pathways was mediated by the Shp-2 signaling pathway. These effects appear to be associated with activation of the Shp-2, ErK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways. Our results suggest that AC has antidepressant-like and neuroprotective (reducing infarct size) effects and that activation of pShp-2 and pErK1/2 pathways may be involved in the effects. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gene expression analysis to identify molecular correlates of pre- and post-conditioning derived neuroprotection.

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    Prasad, Shiv S; Russell, Marsha; Nowakowska, Margeryta; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole

    2012-06-01

    plays a role in the neuroprotection. A high degree of similarity in the pathways associated with the differentially expressed genes in the pre- and post-conditioning treatments suggests that similar molecular mechanisms may mediate their neuroprotective effects.

  16. The Long Run: Neuroprotective Effects of Physical Exercise on Adult Neurogenesis from Youth to Old Age

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    Saraulli, Daniele; Costanzi, Marco; Mastrorilli, Valentina; Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Background The rapid lengthening of life expectancy has raised the problem of providing social programs to counteract the age-related cognitive decline in a growing number of older people. Physical activity stands among the most promising interventions aimed at brain wellbeing, because of its effective neuroprotective action and low social cost. The purpose of this review is to describe the neuroprotective role exerted by physical activity in different life stages. In particular, we focus on adult neurogenesis, a process which has proved being highly responsive to physical exercise and may represent a major factor of brain health over the lifespan. Methods The most recent literature related to the subject has been reviewed. The text has been divided into three main sections, addressing the effects of physical exercise during childhood/adolescence, adulthood and aging, respectively. For each one, the most relevant studies, carried out on both human participants and rodent models, have been described. Results The data reviewed converge in indicating that physical activity exerts a positive effect on brain functioning throughout the lifespan. However, uncertainty remains about the magnitude of the effect and its biological underpinnings. Cellular and synaptic plasticity provided by adult neurogenesis are highly probable mediators, but the mechanism for their action has yet to be conclusively established. Conclusion Despite alternative mechanisms of action are currently debated, age-appropriate physical activity programs may constitute a large-scale, relatively inexpensive and powerful approach to dampen the individual and social impact of age-related cognitive decline. PMID:27000776

  17. Neuroprotective effects of scutellarin against hypoxic-ischemic-induced cerebral injury via augmentation of antioxidant defense capacity.

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    Guo, Hong; Hu, Li-Min; Wang, Shao-Xia; Wang, Yu-Lin; Shi, Fang; Li, Hui; Liu, Yang; Kang, Li-Yuan; Gao, Xiu-Mei

    2011-12-31

    An increasing number of studies has indicated that hypoxic-ischemic-induced cerebral injury is partly mediated via oxidative stress. Recent researches have focused on searching for drug and herbal manipulations to protect against hypoxic-ischemic-induced oxidative cell damage. Scutellarin is a flavonoid derived from the Erigeron breviscapus (vant.) and has been reported to exhibit neuroprotective properties. However, its precise mechanism, particularly its antioxidation mechanism, remains elusive. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of scutellarin on middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced brain damage in rats, and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced toxicity in primary culture of rat cortical neurons. In vivo, intraperitoneal injections of scutellarin (20 and 60 mg/kg) improved the neurological score and diminished the percentage of brain infarct volume. At the same time, scutellarin significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activities and glutathione (GSH) level in ischemic brain tissues, enhancing endogenous antioxidant activity. Moreover, pretreatment of scutellarin (25, 50 and 100 μM) protected neurons against lethal stimuli, decreased the percentage of apoptotic cells and inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in OGD-induced primary cortical neurons in vitro. These results suggest that the preventive and therapeutic potential of scutellarin in cerebral injury patients is, at least in part, ascribed to augmentation of cellular antioxidant defense capacity.

  18. Identification of Potentially Neuroprotective Genes Upregulated by Neurotrophin Treatment of CA3 Neurons in the Injured Brain

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    Malik, Saafan Z.; Motamedi, Shahab; Royo, Nicolas C.; LeBold, David

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Specific neurotrophic factors mediate histological and/or functional improvement in animal models of traumatic brain injury (TBI). In previous work, several lines of evidence indicated that the mammalian neurotrophin NT-4/5 is neuroprotective for hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons after experimental TBI. We hypothesized that NT-4/5 neuroprotection is mediated by changes in the expression of specific sets of genes, and that NT-4/5-regulated genes are potential therapeutic targets for blocking delayed neuronal death after TBI. In this study, we performed transcription profiling analysis of CA3 neurons to identify genes regulated by lateral fluid percussion injury, or by treatment with the trkB ligands NT-4/5 or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The results indicate extensive overlap between genes upregulated by neurotrophins and genes upregulated by injury, suggesting that the mechanism behind neurotrophin neuroprotection may mimic the brain's endogenous protective response. A subset of genes selected for further study in vitro exhibited neuroprotection against glutamate excitotoxicity. The neuroprotective genes identified in this study were upregulated at 30 h post-injury, and are thus expected to act during a clinically useful time frame of hours to days after injury. Modulation of these factors and pathways by genetic manipulation or small molecules may confer hippocampal neuroprotection in vivo in preclinical models of TBI. PMID:21083427

  19. Tadalafil enhances the neuroprotective effects of ischemic postconditioning in mice, probably in a nitric oxide associated manner.

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    Gulati, Puja; Singh, Nirmal

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the modulatory effect of tadalafil, a selective phosphodiesterase (PDE-5) inhibitor, on the neuroprotective effects of ischemic postconditioning (iPoCo) in mice. Bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCAO) for 12 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h was employed to produce ischemia and reperfusion induced cerebral injury. Cerebral infarct size was measured using TTC staining. Memory was assessed using the Morris water maze test. Degree of motor incoordination was evaluated using inclined beam-walking, rota-rod, and lateral push tests. Brain nitrite/nitrate, acetylcholinesterase activity, TBARS, and glutathione levels were also estimated. BCAO followed by reperfusion produced a significant increase in cerebral infarct size, brain nitrite/nitrate and TBARS levels, and acetylcholinesterase activity along with a reduction in glutathione. Marked impairment of memory and motor coordination was also noted. iPoCo consisting of 3 episodes of 10 s carotid artery occlusion and reperfusion instituted immediately after BCAO significantly decreased infarct size, memory impairment, motor incoordination, and altered biochemistry. Pretreatment with tadalafil mimicked the neuroprotective effects of iPoCo. The tadalafil-induced neuroprotective effects were significantly attenuated by l-NAME, a nonselective NOS inhibitor. We concluded that tadalafil mimics the neuroprotective effects of iPoCo, probably through a nitric oxide dependent pathway, and PDE-5 could be a target of interest with respect to the neuroprotective mechanism of iPoCo.

  20. Neuroprotective role of hydralazine in rat spinal cord injury-attenuation of acrolein-mediated damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jonghyuck; Zheng, Lingxing; Marquis, Andrew; Walls, Michael; Duerstock, Brad; Pond, Amber; Vega-Alvarez, Sasha; Wang, He; Ouyang, Zheng; Shi, Riyi

    2014-04-01

    Acrolein, an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde and a reactive product of lipid peroxidation, has been suggested as a key factor in neural post-traumatic secondary injury in spinal cord injury (SCI), mainly based on in vitro and ex vivo evidence. Here, we demonstrate an increase of acrolein up to 300%; the elevation lasted at least 2 weeks in a rat SCI model. More importantly, hydralazine, a known acrolein scavenger can provide neuroprotection when applied systemically. Besides effectively reducing acrolein, hydralazine treatment also resulted in significant amelioration of tissue damage, motor deficits, and neuropathic pain. This effect was further supported by demonstrating the ability of hydralazine to reach spinal cord tissue at a therapeutic level following intraperitoneal application. This suggests that hydralazine is an effective neuroprotective agent not only in vitro, but in a live animal model of SCI as well. Finally, the role of acrolein in SCI was further validated by the fact that acrolein injection into the spinal cord caused significant SCI-like tissue damage and motor deficits. Taken together, available evidence strongly suggests a critical causal role of acrolein in the pathogenesis of spinal cord trauma. Since acrolein has been linked to a variety of illness and conditions, we believe that acrolein-scavenging measures have the potential to be expanded significantly ensuring a broad impact on human health. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  1. Neuroprotective role of hydralazine in rat spinal cord injury-attenuation of acrolein-mediated damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jonghyuck; Zheng, Lingxing; Marquis, Andrew; Walls, Michael; Duerstock, Brad; Pond, Amber; Alvarez, Sascha Vega; He, Wang; Ouyang, Zheng; Shi, Riyi

    2014-01-01

    Acrolein, an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde and a reactive product of lipid peroxidation, has been suggested as a key factor in neural post-traumatic secondary injury in SCI, mainly based on in vitro and ex vivo evidence. Here we demonstrate an increase of acrolein up to 300%; the elevation lasted at least two weeks in a rat SCI model. More importantly, hydralazine, a known acrolein scavenger can provide neuroprotection when applied systemically. Besides effectively reducing acrolein, hydralazine treatment also resulted in significant amelioration of tissue damage, motor deficits, and neuropathic pain. This effect was further supported by demonstrating the ability of hydralazine to reach spinal cord tissue at a therapeutic level following intraperitoneal application. This suggests that hydralazine is an effective neuroprotective agent not only in vitro, but in a live animal model of SCI as well. Finally, the role of acrolein in SCI was further validated by the fact that acrolein injection into the spinal cord caused significant SCI-like tissue damage and motor deficits. Taken together, available evidence strongly suggests a critical causal role of acrolein in the pathogenesis of spinal cord trauma. Since acrolein has been linked to a variety of illness and conditions, we believe that acrolein-scavenging measures have the potential to be expanded significantly ensuring a broad impact on human health. PMID:24286176

  2. Improvement in regional CBF by L-serine contributes to its neuroprotective effect in rats after focal cerebral ischemia.

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    Tao-Jie Ren

    Full Text Available To investigate the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect of L-serine, permanent focal cerebral ischemia was induced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery while monitoring cerebral blood flow (CBF. Rats were divided into control and L-serine-treated groups after middle cerebral artery occlusion. The neurological deficit score and brain infarct volume were assessed. Nissl staining was used to quantify the cortical injury. L-serine and D-serine levels in the ischemic cortex were analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography. We found that L-serine treatment: 1 reduced the neurological deficit score, infarct volume and cortical neuron loss in a dose-dependent manner; 2 improved CBF in the cortex, and this effect was inhibited in the presence of apamin plus charybdotoxin while the alleviation of both neurological deficit score and infarct volume was blocked; and 3 increased the amount of L-serine and D-serine in the cortex, and inhibition of the conversion of L-serine into D-serine by aminooxyacetic acid did not affect the reduction of neurological deficit score and infarct volume by L-serine. In conclusion, improvement in regional CBF by L-serine may contribute to its neuroprotective effect on the ischemic brain, potentially through vasodilation which is mediated by the small- and intermediate-conductance Ca(2+-activated K(+ channels on the cerebral blood vessel endothelium.

  3. Neuroserpin Protects Rat Neurons and Microglia-Mediated Inflammatory Response Against Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation- and Reoxygenation Treatments in an In Vitro Study

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    Xuelian Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Neuroserpin (NSP is known for its neuroprotective role in cerebral ischemic animal models and patients. Our laboratory conducted a series of investigations on the neuroprotection of NSP in different cells in the brain. In the present study, we further observe the effects of NSP on neurons and microglia-mediated inflammatory response following oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD, and explore possible mechanisms related to neuroprotection of OGD in the central nervous system (CNS. Methods: Neurons and microglia from neonatal rats were treated with OGD followed by reoxygenation (OGD/R. To confirm the effects of NSP, the neuronal survival, neuronal apoptosis, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release were measured in cultured neurons. Furthermore, the levels of IL-1β and nitric oxide (NO release were also detected in cultured microglia. The possible mechanisms for the neuroprotective effect of NSP were explored using Western blot analysis. Results: NSP administration can reverse abnormal variations in neurons and microglia-mediated inflammatory response induced by OGD/R processes. The neuronal survival rate, neuronal apoptosis rate, and LDH release were significantly improved by NSP administration in neurons. Simultaneously, the release of IL-1β and NO were significantly reduced by NSP in microglia. Western blot showed that the expression of ERK, P38, and JNK was upregulated in microglia by the OGD/R treatment, and these effects were significantly inhibited by NSP. Conclusion: These data verified the neuroprotective effects of NSP on neurons and microglia-mediated inflammatory response. Inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways might play a potential role in NSP neuroprotection on microglia-mediated inflammatory response, which needs further verification.

  4. Hepatic Branch Vagus Nerve Plays a Critical Role in the Recovery of Post-Ischemic Glucose Intolerance and Mediates a Neuroprotective Effect by Hypothalamic Orexin-A

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    Harada, Shinichi; Yamazaki, Yui; Koda, Shuichi; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2014-01-01

    Orexin-A (a neuropeptide in the hypothalamus) plays an important role in many physiological functions, including the regulation of glucose metabolism. We have previously found that the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance is one of the triggers of ischemic neuronal damage, which is suppressed by hypothalamic orexin-A. Other reports have shown that the communication system between brain and peripheral tissues through the autonomic nervous system (sympathetic, parasympathetic and vagus nerve) is important for maintaining glucose and energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of the hepatic vagus nerve on hypothalamic orexin-A-mediated suppression of post-ischemic glucose intolerance development and ischemic neuronal damage. Male ddY mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h. Intrahypothalamic orexin-A (5 pmol/mouse) administration significantly suppressed the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and neuronal damage on day 1 and 3, respectively after MCAO. MCAO-induced decrease of hepatic insulin receptors and increase of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes on day 1 after was reversed to control levels by orexin-A. This effect was reversed by intramedullary administration of the orexin-1 receptor antagonist, SB334867, or hepatic vagotomy. In the medulla oblongata, orexin-A induced the co-localization of cholin acetyltransferase (cholinergic neuronal marker used for the vagus nerve) with orexin-1 receptor and c-Fos (activated neural cells marker). These results suggest that the hepatic branch vagus nerve projecting from the medulla oblongata plays an important role in the recovery of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and mediates a neuroprotective effect by hypothalamic orexin-A. PMID:24759941

  5. Hepatic branch vagus nerve plays a critical role in the recovery of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and mediates a neuroprotective effect by hypothalamic orexin-A.

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    Shinichi Harada

    Full Text Available Orexin-A (a neuropeptide in the hypothalamus plays an important role in many physiological functions, including the regulation of glucose metabolism. We have previously found that the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance is one of the triggers of ischemic neuronal damage, which is suppressed by hypothalamic orexin-A. Other reports have shown that the communication system between brain and peripheral tissues through the autonomic nervous system (sympathetic, parasympathetic and vagus nerve is important for maintaining glucose and energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of the hepatic vagus nerve on hypothalamic orexin-A-mediated suppression of post-ischemic glucose intolerance development and ischemic neuronal damage. Male ddY mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO for 2 h. Intrahypothalamic orexin-A (5 pmol/mouse administration significantly suppressed the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and neuronal damage on day 1 and 3, respectively after MCAO. MCAO-induced decrease of hepatic insulin receptors and increase of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes on day 1 after was reversed to control levels by orexin-A. This effect was reversed by intramedullary administration of the orexin-1 receptor antagonist, SB334867, or hepatic vagotomy. In the medulla oblongata, orexin-A induced the co-localization of cholin acetyltransferase (cholinergic neuronal marker used for the vagus nerve with orexin-1 receptor and c-Fos (activated neural cells marker. These results suggest that the hepatic branch vagus nerve projecting from the medulla oblongata plays an important role in the recovery of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and mediates a neuroprotective effect by hypothalamic orexin-A.

  6. Phenothiazine-mediated rescue of cognition in tau transgenic mice requires neuroprotection and reduced soluble tau burden

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    Abisambra Jose F

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has traditionally been thought that the pathological accumulation of tau in Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies facilitates neurodegeneration, which in turn leads to cognitive impairment. However, recent evidence suggests that tau tangles are not the entity responsible for memory loss, rather it is an intermediate tau species that disrupts neuronal function. Thus, efforts to discover therapeutics for tauopathies emphasize soluble tau reductions as well as neuroprotection. Results Here, we found that neuroprotection alone caused by methylene blue (MB, the parent compound of the anti-tau phenothiaziazine drug, Rember™, was insufficient to rescue cognition in a mouse model of the human tauopathy, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP and fronto-temporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP17: Only when levels of soluble tau protein were concomitantly reduced by a very high concentration of MB, was cognitive improvement observed. Thus, neurodegeneration can be decoupled from tau accumulation, but phenotypic improvement is only possible when soluble tau levels are also reduced. Conclusions Neuroprotection alone is not sufficient to rescue tau-induced memory loss in a transgenic mouse model. Development of neuroprotective agents is an area of intense investigation in the tauopathy drug discovery field. This may ultimately be an unsuccessful approach if soluble toxic tau intermediates are not also reduced. Thus, MB and related compounds, despite their pleiotropic nature, may be the proverbial "magic bullet" because they not only are neuroprotective, but are also able to facilitate soluble tau clearance. Moreover, this shows that neuroprotection is possible without reducing tau levels. This indicates that there is a definitive molecular link between tau and cell death cascades that can be disrupted.

  7. Arylbenzazepines Are Potent Modulators for the Delayed Rectifier K+ Channel: A Potential Mechanism for Their Neuroprotective Effects

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    Chen, Xue-Qin; Zhang, Jing; Neumeyer, John L.; Jin, Guo-Zhang; Hu, Guo-Yuan; Zhang, Ao; Zhen, Xuechu

    2009-01-01

    (±) SKF83959, like many other arylbenzazepines, elicits powerful neuroprotection in vitro and in vivo. The neuroprotective action of the compound was found to partially depend on its D1-like dopamine receptor agonistic activity. The precise mechanism for the (±) SKF83959-mediated neuroprotection remains elusive. We report here that (±) SKF83959 is a potent blocker for delayed rectifier K+ channel. (±) SKF83959 inhibited the delayed rectifier K+ current (I K) dose-dependently in rat hippocampal neurons. The IC 50 value for inhibition of I K was 41.9±2.3 µM (Hill coefficient = 1.81±0.13, n = 6), whereas that for inhibition of I A was 307.9±38.5 µM (Hill coefficient = 1.37±0.08, n = 6). Thus, (±) SKF83959 is 7.3-fold more potent in suppressing I K than I A. Moreover, the inhibition of I K by (±) SKF83959 was voltage-dependent and not related to dopamine receptors. The rapidly onset of inhibition and recovery suggests that the inhibition resulted from a direct interaction of (±) SKF83959 with the K+ channel. The intracellular application of (±) SKF83959 had no effects of on I K, indicating that the compound most likely acts at the outer mouth of the pore of K+ channel. We also tested the enantiomers of (±) SKF83959, R-(+) SKF83959 (MCL-201), and S-(−) SKF83959 (MCL-202), as well as SKF38393; all these compounds inhibited I K. However, (±) SKF83959, at either 0.1 or 1 mM, exhibited the strongest inhibition on the currents among all tested drug. The present findings not only revealed a new potent blocker of I K , but also provided a novel mechanism for the neuroprotective action of arylbenzazepines such as (±) SKF83959. PMID:19503734

  8. Memantine mediates neuroprotection via regulating neurovascular unit in a mouse model of focal cerebral ischemia.

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    Chen, Zheng-Zhen; Yang, Dan-Dan; Zhao, Zhan; Yan, Hui; Ji, Juan; Sun, Xiu-Lan

    2016-04-01

    Memantine is a low-moderate affinity and uncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, which is also a potential neuroprotectant in acute ischemic stroke for its particular action profiles. The present study was to reveal the mechanisms involved in the neuroprotection of memantine. We used a mouse model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia via middle cerebral artery occlusion to verify our hypothesis. 2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining was used to compare infarct size. The amount of astrocytes and the somal volume of the microglia cell body were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and stereological estimates. Western blotting was used to determine the protein expressions. Memantine prevented cerebral ischemia-induced brain infarct and neuronal injury, and reduced oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced cortical neuronal apoptosis. Moreover, memantine reduced the amount of the damaged astrocytes and over activated microglia after 24h of ischemia. In the early phase of ischemia, higher production of MMP-9 was observed, and thereby collagen IV was dramatically disrupted. Meanwhile, the post-synaptic density protein 95(PSD-95) was also severely cleavaged. Memantine decreased MMP-9 secretion, prevented the degradation of collagen IV in mouse brain. PSD-95 cleavage was also inhibited by memantine. These results suggested that memantine exerted neuroprotection effects in acute ischemic brain damage, partially via improving the functions of neurovascular unit. Taking all these findings together, we consider that memantine might be a promising protective agent against ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of dimethyl fumarate on neuroprotection and immunomodulation

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    Albrecht Philipp

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuronal degeneration in multiple sclerosis has been linked to oxidative stress. Dimethyl fumarate is a promising novel oral therapeutic option shown to reduce disease activity and progression in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. These effects are presumed to originate from a combination of immunomodulatory and neuroprotective mechanisms. We aimed to clarify whether neuroprotective concentrations of dimethyl fumarate have immunomodulatory effects. Findings We determined time- and concentration-dependent effects of dimethyl fumarate and its metabolite monomethyl fumarate on viability in a model of endogenous neuronal oxidative stress and clarified the mechanism of action by quantitating cellular glutathione content and recycling, nuclear translocation of transcription factors, and the expression of antioxidant genes. We compared this with changes in the cytokine profiles released by stimulated splenocytes measured by ELISPOT technology and analyzed the interactions between neuronal and immune cells and neuronal function and viability in cell death assays and multi-electrode arrays. Our observations show that dimethyl fumarate causes short-lived oxidative stress, which leads to increased levels and nuclear localization of the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and a subsequent increase in glutathione synthesis and recycling in neuronal cells. Concentrations that were cytoprotective in neuronal cells had no negative effects on viability of splenocytes but suppressed the production of proinflammatory cytokines in cultures from C57BL/6 and SJL mice and had no effects on neuronal activity in multi-electrode arrays. Conclusions These results suggest that immunomodulatory concentrations of dimethyl fumarate can reduce oxidative stress without altering neuronal network activity.

  10. Neuroprotective and Cognitive Enhancement Potentials of Baicalin: A Review

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    Kandhasamy Sowndhararajan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders that are characterized by the gradual loss of neurons. The development of effective neuroprotective agents to prevent and control neurodegenerative diseases is specifically important. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in selecting flavonoid compounds as potential neuroprotective agents, owing to their high effectiveness with low side effects. Baicalin is one of the important flavonoid compounds, which is mainly isolated from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (an important Chinese medicinal herb. In recent years, a number of studies have shown that baicalin has a potent neuroprotective effect in various in vitro and in vivo models of neuronal injury. In particular, baicalin effectively prevents neurodegenerative diseases through various pharmacological mechanisms, including antioxidative stress, anti-excitotoxicity, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, stimulating neurogenesis, promoting the expression of neuronal protective factors, etc. This review mainly focuses on the neuroprotective and cognitive enhancement effects of baicalin. The aim of the present review is to compile all information in relation to the neuroprotective and cognitive enhancement effects of baicalin and its molecular mechanisms of action in various in vitro and in vivo experimental models.

  11. Nanoencapsulation of the sasanquasaponin from Camellia oleifera, its photo responsiveness and neuroprotective effects.

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    Ye, Yong; Xing, Haiting; Li, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Sasanquasaponin, a bioactive compound isolated from seeds of Camellia oleifera, shows central effects in our previous research. In order to investigate its neuroprotective effects, a new kind of nanocapsule with photo responsiveness was designed to deliver sasanquasaponin into the brain and adjusted by red light. The nanocapsule was prepared using sasanquasaponin emulsified with soybean lecithin and cholesterol solution. The natural phaeophorbide from silkworm excrement as a photosensitizer was added in the lipid phase to make the nanocapsules photo responsive. The physicochemical properties of encapsulation efficiency, size distribution, morphology and stability were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography, particle size analyzer, transmission electron microscope, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry. Photo responsiveness was determined by the sasanquasaponin release in pH 7.5 phosphate buffer under the laser at 670 nm. The neuroprotective effects were evaluated by the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), decrease of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β in the brain, and amelioration of kainic acid-induced behavioral disorder in mice. The nanocapsules had higher encapsulation efficiency and stability when the phaeophorbide content was 2% of lecithin weight. The average size was 172.2 nm, distributed in the range of 142-220 nm. The phaeophorbide was scattered sufficiently in the outer lecithin layer of the nanocapsules and increased the drug release after irradiation. TH expression in brain tissues and locomotive activities in mice were reduced by kainic acid, but could be improved by the sasanquasaponin nanocapsules after tail vein injection with 15 minutes of irradiation at the nasal cavity. The sasanquasaponin took effect through inflammatory alleviation in central tissues. The sasanquasaponin nanocapsules with phaeophorbide have photo responsiveness and neuroprotective effects under the irradiation of red light. This

  12. Molecular Basis for Certain Neuroprotective Effects of Thyroid Hormone

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    Paul eDavis

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of brain damage that is common to ischemia-reperfusion inury and brain trauma includes disordered neuronal and glial cell energetics, intracellular acidosis, calcium toxicity, extracellular excitotoxic glutamate accumulation and dysfunction of the cytoskeleton and endoplasmic reticulum. Thyroid hormone isoforms, 3, 5, 3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3 and L-thyroxine (T4, have nongenomic and genomic actions that are relevant to repair of certain features of the pathophysiology of brain damage. Thyroid hormone can nongenomically repair intracullar H+ accumulation by stimulation of the Na+/H+ exchanger and can support desirably low [Ca2+]i.c. by activation of plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase. Thyroid hormone nongenomically stimulates astrocyte glutamate uptake, an action that protects both glial cells and neurons. The hormone supports the integrity of the cytoskeleton by its effect on actin. Several proteins linked to thyroid hormone action are also neuroprotective. For example, the hormone stimulates expression of the seladin-1 gene whose gene product is anti-apoptotic and is potentially protection in the setting of neurodegeneration. Transthyretin (TTR is a serum transport protein for T4 that is important to blood-brain barrier transfer of the hormone and TTR has also been found to be neuroprotective in the setting of ischemia. Finally, the interesting thyronamine derivatives of T4 have been shown to protect against ischemic brain damage through their ability to induce hypothermia in the intact organism. Thus, thyroid hromone or hormone derivatives have experimental promise as neuroprotective agents.

  13. Neuroprotection of Sex Steroids

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    Liu, Mingyue; Kelley, Melissa H.; Herson, Paco S.; Hurn, Patricia D.

    2011-01-01

    Sex steroids are essential for reproduction and development in animals and humans, and sex steroids also play an important role in neuroprotection following brain injury. New data indicate that sex-specific responses to brain injury occur at the cellular and molecular levels. This review summarizes the current understanding of neuroprotection by sex steroids, particularly estrogen, androgen, and progesterone, based on both in vitro and in vivo studies. Better understanding of the role of sex steroids under physiological and pathological conditions will help us to develop novel effective therapeutic strategies for brain injury. PMID:20595940

  14. Neuroprotective effects of α-iso-cubebene against glutamate-induced damage in the HT22 hippocampal neuronal cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun Young; Jung, Won Jung; Kang, Jum Soon; Kim, Cheol-Min; Park, Geuntae; Choi, Young-Whan

    2015-02-01

    Since oxidative stress is critically involved in excitotoxic damage, we sought to determine whether the activation of the transcription factors, cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2, also known as NFE2L2), by α-iso-cubebene is involved in its protective effects against glutamate-induced neuronal cell death. Pre-treatment with α-iso-cubebene significantly attenuated glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in mouse hippocampus-derived neuronal cells. α-iso-cubebene also reduced the glutamate-induced generation of reactive oxygen species and calcium influx, thus preventing apoptotic cell death. α-iso-cubebene inhibited glutamate-induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization and, consequently, inhibited the release of the apoptosis-inducing factor from the mitochondria. Immunoblot anlaysis revealed that the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) by glutamate was reduced in the presence of α-iso-cubebene. α-iso-cubebene activated protein kinase A (PKA), CREB and Nrf2, which mediate the expression of the antioxidant enzymes, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase [quinone] 1 (NQO1), involved in neuroprotection. In addition, α-iso-cubebene induced the expression of antioxidant responsive element and CRE transcriptional activity, thus conferring neuroprotection against glutamate-induced oxidative injury. α-iso-cubebene also induced the expression of Nrf2-dependent genes encoding HO-1 and NQO1. Furthermore, the knockdown of CREB and Nrf2 by small interfering RNA attenuated the neuroprotective effects of α-iso-cubebene. Taken together, our results indicate that α-iso-cubebene protects HT22 cells from glutamate-induced oxidative damage through the activation of Nrf2/HO-1/NQO-1, as well as through the PKA and CREB signaling pathways.

  15. Neuroprotective effects of SMADs in a rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-fang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that up-regulation of transforming growth factor β1 results in neuroprotective effects. However, the role of the transforming growth factor β1 downstream molecule, SMAD2/3, following ischemia/reperfusion remains unclear. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of SMAD2/3 by analyzing the relationships between SMAD2/3 expression and cell apoptosis and inflammation in the brain of a rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. Levels of SMAD2/3 mRNA were up-regulated in the ischemic penumbra 6 hours after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, reached a peak after 72 hours and were then decreased at 7 days. Phosphorylated SMAD2/3 protein levels at the aforementioned time points were consistent with the mRNA levels. Over-expression of SMAD3 in the brains of the ischemia/reperfusion model rats via delivery of an adeno-associated virus containing the SMAD3 gene could reduce tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β mRNA levels, down-regulate expression of the pro-apoptotic gene, capase-3, and up-regulate expression of the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2. The SMAD3 protein level was negatively correlated with cell apoptosis. These findings indicate that SMAD3 exhibits neuroprotective effects on the brain after ischemia/reperfusion through anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic pathways.

  16. Ibuprofen and lipoic acid conjugate neuroprotective activity is mediated by Ngb/Akt intracellular signaling pathway in Alzheimer's disease rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara, Susi; De Colli, Marianna; Rapino, Monica; Pacella, Stephanie; Nasuti, Cinzia; Sozio, Piera; Di Stefano, Antonio; Cataldi, Amelia

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a frequent form of senile dementia. Neuroglobin (Ngb) has a neuroprotective role and decreases Aβ peptide levels. Ngb, promoting Akt phosphorylation, activates cell survival involving cyclic-nucleotide response element-binding protein (CREB). A new molecule (IBU-LA) was synthetized and administered to an AD rat model to counteract AD progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the IBU-LA-mediated induction of Ngb neuroprotective and antiapoptotic activities. Brain morphology was analyzed through Bielschowsky staining, Aβ(1-40) and Ngb expression by immunohistochemistry. Akt, p-Akt, CREB and p-CREB expression was evaluated by Western blot, apoptosis through cytochrome C/Apaf 1 immunocomplex formation, and TUNEL analysis. Bielschowsky staining and Aβ(1-40) expression show few nerve connections and Aβ(1-40) expression in an Aβ sample, preserved neuronal cells and Aβ(1-40) expression lowering in an IBU sample, mostly in IBU-LA. The Ngb level decreases in Aβ samples, compared to control and IBU-LA samples. p-Akt/Akt and p-CREB/CREB ratios reveal a reduction in Aβ sample, going back to the basal level in control and IBU-LA samples. Cytochrome C/Apaf 1 co-immunoprecipitate occurs and TUNEL-positive nuclei percentage decreases in Aβ sample. Probe test performance shows an increased spatial reference memory in the IBU-LA compared to the Aβ sample; no significant differences were seen between the IBU-LA and IBU samples. This evidence reveals that IBU-LA administration has the capability to maintain a high Ngb level allowing Ngb to perform a neuroprotective and antiapoptotic role, representing a valid tool in the therapeutic strategy of AD progression. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Targeted proteins involved in the neuroprotective effects of lithium citrate

    OpenAIRE

    I. Yu. Torshin; O. A. Gromova; L. A. Mayorova; A. Yu. Volkov

    2017-01-01

    Preparations based on organic lithium salts are promising neuroprotective agents that are effective just in the micromolar concentration range and, at the same time, have high safety (Toxicity Class V).Objective: to elucidate more detailed mechanisms responsible for the biological and pharmacological effects of lithium citrate, by analyzing the possible interactions of lithium ion with human proteome proteins that are also represented in the rat proteome.Material and methods. The targets of l...

  18. Neuroprotective effect of nicorandil through inhibition of apoptosis by the PI3K/Akt1 pathway in a mouse model of deep hypothermic low flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Di; Fan, Changfeng; Zhang, Weiyan; Wen, Zhongyuan; Hu, Liang; Yang, Lei; Feng, Yu; Yin, Ke-Jie; Mo, Xuming

    2015-10-15

    Nicorandil exerts a protective effect on ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in the brain and kidney through anti-apoptotic mechanisms. However, the mechanism by which nicorandil protects against I/R injury induced by deep hypothermic low flow (DHLF) remains unclear. We used a cerebral I/R model induced by DHLF to determine the neuroprotective effects and possible mechanisms of nicorandil. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase UTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay were used to detect changes in cell morphology and the number of apoptotic cells in hippocampus, respectively. The apoptotic regulators including Bcl-2, Bax, Akt, and p-Akt (the active, phosphorylated form of Akt) were examined by Western blot (WB). Histopathological findings showed that nicorandil significantly alleviated morphological damage in hippocampal and reduced the number of TUNEL-positive nuclei induced by DHLF. Nicorandil also increased the expression of Bcl-2 and decreased the expression of Bax, while increasing p-Akt level. Consistent with these results, nicorandil-mediated neuroprotection was reduced in the Akt1+/- mutant mice and inhibited by LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor. These findings showed that nicorandil provides a neuroprotective role in DHLF-induced I/R injury by inhibiting apoptosis via activation of the PI3K/Akt1 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sinomenine, a natural dextrorotatory morphinan analog, is anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective through inhibition of microglial NADPH oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Belinda

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms involved in the induction and regulation of inflammation resulting in dopaminergic (DA neurotoxicity in Parkinson's disease (PD are complex and incompletely understood. Microglia-mediated inflammation has recently been implicated as a critical mechanism responsible for progressive neurodegeneration. Methods Mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures and reconstituted cultures were used to investigate the molecular mechanisms of sinomenine (SN-mediated anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in both the lipopolysaccharide (LPS- and the 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+-mediated models of PD. Results SN showed equivalent efficacy in protecting against DA neuron death in rat midbrain neuron-glial cultures at both micro- and sub-picomolar concentrations, but no protection was seen at nanomolar concentrations. The neuroprotective effect of SN was attributed to inhibition of microglial activation, since SN significantly decreased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and reactive oxygen species (ROS production by microglia. In addition, from the therapeutic point of view, we focused on sub-picomolar concentration of SN for further mechanistic studies. We found that 10-14 M of SN failed to protect DA neurons against MPP+-induced toxicity in the absence of microglia. More importantly, SN failed to show a protective effect in neuron-glia cultures from mice lacking functional NADPH oxidase (PHOX, a key enzyme for extracellular superoxide production in immune cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that SN reduced LPS-induced extracellular ROS production through the inhibition of the PHOX cytosolic subunit p47phoxtranslocation to the cell membrane. Conclusion Our findings strongly suggest that the protective effects of SN are most likely mediated through the inhibition of microglial PHOX activity. These findings suggest a novel therapy to treat inflammation-mediated neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. Neuroprotective Effects of Exogenous Activin A on Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation in PC12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Xin Xu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic cerebrovascular disease is one of the most common causes of death in the World. Exogenous activin A (ActA protects neurons against toxicity and plays a central role in regulating the brain’s response to injury. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the neuroprotective effects of ActA in a model of hypoxic-ischemic brain disease. We found that ActA could effectively increase the survival rate of PC12 cells and relieve oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD damage. To clarify the neuroprotective mechanisms of ActA, the effects of ActA on the ActA/Smad pathway and on the up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS and superoxide dismutase (SOD were investigated using OGD in PC12 cells. The results showed that ActA could increase the expression of activin receptor IIA (ActRIIA, Smad3 and Smad4 and that 50 ng/mL and 100 ng/mL of ActA could reduce NO levels and increase SOD activity by 78.9% and 79.9%, respectively. These results suggested that the neuroprotective effects of ActA in ischemia could be related to the activation of the ActA/Smad signaling pathway and to its anti-oxidant activities.

  1. Neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of Thalassia testudinum extract BM-21, against acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity in mice

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    Roberto Menéndez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Context: Acrylamide (ACR neurotoxicity is associated with the enhancement of lipid peroxidation and the reduction of the antioxidative capacity distal axon and nerve terminal regions. The aqueous ethanolic extract of the marine plant Thalassia testudinum, named BM-21, have shown antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Aims: To determine the neuroprotective and the antioxidant effects of BM-21, standardized to thalassiolin B content (5.8 ± 0.9%, on acrylamide (ACR-induced distal axonopathy in male OF-1 mice. Methods: Animals were administered with ACR (70 mg/kg, s.c., 4 weeks, and BM-21 was co-administered p.o at the doses of 4, 40 and 400 mg/kg. The effect of BM-21 on neurobehavioral indexes (rota-rod test, compound muscle action potential (CMAP of the sciatic nerve and oxidative stress parameters were investigated. Results: BM-21 significantly prevented the neurobehavioral sings of neurotoxicity and the alteration of CMAP amplitude and velocity. The lowest dose (4 mg/kg failed to ameliorate these parameters whereas the highest dose (400 mg/kg was the most active. BM-21 (400 mg/kg significantly restored total hydroperoxides (THP and glutathione (GSH in the sciatic nerve as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activities. Additionally, the extract also modified THP, GSH and the activity of SOD in cerebellum and brain towards the standard values. Conclusions: BM-21 given at doses that prevented ACR-induced neurotoxicity also produced antioxidant effect in the sciatic nerve, cerebellum and brain. Thus, the neuroprotective activity of BM-21 in this model seems to be mediated at least partly by its antioxidative properties.

  2. Pharmacological preconditioning by milrinone: memory preserving and neuroprotective effect in ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saklani, Reetu; Jaggi, Amteshwar; Singh, Nirmal

    2010-07-01

    We tested the neuroprotective effect of milrinone, a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor, in pharmacological preconditioning. Bilateral carotid artery occlusion for 12 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h produced ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) cerebral injury in male Swiss albino mice. Cerebral infarct size was measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Memory was assessed using the Morris water maze test, and motor coordination was evaluated using the inclined beam walking test, rota-rod test, and lateral push test. Milrinone (50 microg/kg & 100 microg/kg i.v.) was administered 24 h before surgery in a separate group of animals to induce pharmacological preconditioning. I/R increased cerebral infarct size and impaired memory and motor coordination. Milrinone treatment significantly decreased cerebral infarct size and reversed I/R-induced impairments in memory and motor coordination. This neuroprotective effect was blocked by ruthenium red (3 mg/kg, s.c.), an intracellular ryanodine receptor blocker. These findings indicate that milrinone preconditioning exerts a marked neuroprotective effect on the ischemic brain, putatively due to increased intracellular calcium levels activating calcium-sensitive signal transduction cascades.

  3. Medical management of Parkinson's disease: focus on neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Marie-Catherine; Alcaraz-Zubeldia, Mireya; Rios, Camilo

    2011-06-01

    Neuroprotection refers to the protection of neurons from excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and apoptosis as principal mechanisms of cell loss in a variety of diseases of the central nervous system. Our interest in Parkinson's disease (PD) treatment is focused on drugs with neuroprotective properties in preclinical experiments and evidence-based efficacy in human subjects. To this date, neuroprotection has never been solidly proven in clinical trials but recent adequate markers and/or strategies to study and promote this important goal are described. A myriad of compounds with protective properties in cell cultures and animal models yield to few treatments in clinical practice. At present, markers of neuronal vitality, disease modifying effects and long term clinical stability are the elements searched for in clinical trials. This review highlights new strategies to monitor patients with PD. Currently, neuroprotection in subjects has not been solidly achieved for selegiline and pramipexole; however, a recent rasagiline trial design is showing new indications of disease course modifying effects. In neurological practice, it is of utmost importance to take into account the potential neuroprotection exerted by a treatment in conjunction with its symptomatic efficacy.

  4. TRPV1 may increase the effectiveness of estrogen therapy on neuroprotection and neuroregeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ramírez-Barrantes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging induces physical deterioration, loss of the blood brain barrier, neuronal loss-induced mental and neurodegenerative diseases. Hypotalamus-hypophysis-gonad axis aging precedes symptoms of menopause or andropause and is a major determinant of sensory and cognitive integrated function. Sexual steroids support important functions, exert pleiotropic effects in different sensory cells, promote regeneration, plasticity and health of the nervous system. Their diminution is associated with impaired cognitive and mental health and increased risk of neurodegenerative diseases. Then, restoring neuroendocrine axes during aging can be key to enhance brain health through neuroprotection and neuroregeneration, depending on the modulation of plasticity mechanisms. Estrogen-dependent transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1 expression induces neuroprotection, neurogenesis and regeneration on damaged tissues. Agonists of TRPV1 can modulate neuroprotection and repair of sensitive neurons, while modulators as other cognitive enhancers may improve the survival rate, differentiation and integration of neural stem cell progenitors in functional neural network. Menopause constitutes a relevant clinical model of steroidal production decline associated with progressive cognitive and mental impairment, which allows exploring the effects of hormone therapy in health outcomes such as dysfunction of CNS. Simulating the administration of hormone therapy to virtual menopausal individuals allows assessing its hypothetical impact and sensitivity to conditions that modify the effectiveness and efficiency.

  5. Neuroprotective effects of testosterone treatment in men with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Kurth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. While current medication reduces relapses and inflammatory activity, it has only a modest effect on long-term disability and gray matter atrophy. Here, we have characterized the potential neuroprotective effects of testosterone on cerebral gray matter in a pilot clinical trial. Ten men with relapsing–remitting MS were included in this open-label phase II trial. Subjects were observed without treatment for 6 months, followed by testosterone treatment for another 12 months. Focal gray matter loss as a marker for neurodegeneration was assessed using voxel-based morphometry. During the non-treatment phase, significant voxel-wise gray matter decreases were widespread (p≤ 0.05 corrected. However, during testosterone treatment, gray matter loss was no longer evident. In fact, a significant gray matter increase in the right frontal cortex was observed (p≤ 0.05 corrected. These observations support the potential of testosterone treatment to stall (and perhaps even reverse neurodegeneration associated with MS. Furthermore, they warrant the investigation of testosterone's neuroprotective effects in larger, placebo controlled MS trials as well as in other neurodegenerative diseases. This is the first report of gray matter increase as the result of treatment in MS.

  6. Neuroprotective effect of paeonol against isofluraneinduced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate whether paeonol affords neuroprotection against isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity. Methods: Separate groups of neonatal rat pups were administered paeonol (20, 40 or 80 mg/kg) from post-natal day 3 (P3) to post-natal day 15. On post-natal day 7, the pups were exposed to 6 h of isoflurane (0.75 ...

  7. Neuroprotection in glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Sushil K; Gupta, Viney; Crowston, Jonathan G

    2011-01-01

    Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of retinal ganglion cells and their axons. Recent evidence suggests that intraocular pressure (IOP) is only one of the many risk factors for this disease. Current treatment options for this disease have been limited to the reduction of IOP; however, it is clear now that the disease progression continues in many patients despite effective lowering of IOP. In the search for newer modalities in treating this disease, much data have emerged from experimental research the world over, suggesting various pathological processes involved in this disease and newer possible strategies to treat it. This review article looks into the current understanding of the pathophysiology of glaucoma, the importance of neuroprotection, the various possible pharmacological approaches for neuroprotection and evidence of current available medications. PMID:21150020

  8. Characterisation of neuroprotective efficacy of modified poly-arginine-9 (R9) peptides using a neuronal glutamic acid excitotoxicity model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Adam B; Anderton, Ryan S; Knuckey, Neville W; Meloni, Bruno P

    2017-02-01

    In a recent study, we highlighted the importance of cationic charge and arginine residues for the neuroprotective properties of poly-arginine and arginine-rich peptides. In this study, using cortical neuronal cultures and an in vitro glutamic acid excitotoxicity model, we examined the neuroprotective efficacy of different modifications to the poly-arginine-9 peptide (R9). We compared an unmodified R9 peptide with R9 peptides containing the following modifications: (i) C-terminal amidation (R9-NH2); (ii) N-terminal acetylation (Ac-R9); (iii) C-terminal amidation with N-terminal acetylation (Ac-R9-NH2); and (iv) C-terminal amidation with D-amino acids (R9D-NH2). The three C-terminal amidated peptides (R9-NH2, Ac-R9-NH2, and R9D-NH2) displayed neuroprotective effects greater than the unmodified R9 peptide, while the N-terminal acetylated peptide (Ac-R9) had reduced efficacy. Using the R9-NH2 peptide, neuroprotection could be induced with a 10 min peptide pre-treatment, 1-6 h before glutamic acid insult, or when added to neuronal cultures up to 45 min post-insult. In addition, all peptides were capable of reducing glutamic acid-mediated neuronal intracellular calcium influx, in a manner that reflected their neuroprotective efficacy. This study further highlights the neuroprotective properties of poly-arginine peptides and provides insight into peptide modifications that affect efficacy.

  9. Curcumin Encapsulated into Methoxy Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Poly(ε-Caprolactone) Nanoparticles Increases Cellular Uptake and Neuroprotective Effect in Glioma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marslin, Gregory; Sarmento, Bruno Filipe Carmelino Cardoso; Franklin, Gregory; Martins, José Alberto Ribeiro; Silva, Carlos Jorge Ribeiro; Gomes, Andreia Ferreira Castro; Sárria, Marisa Passos; Coutinho, Olga Maria Fernandes Pereira; Dias, Alberto Carlos Pires

    2017-03-01

    Curcumin is a natural polyphenolic compound isolated from turmeric ( Curcuma longa ) with well-demonstrated neuroprotective and anticancer activities. Although curcumin is safe even at high doses in humans, it exhibits poor bioavailability, mainly due to poor absorption, fast metabolism, and rapid systemic elimination. To overcome these issues, several approaches, such as nanoparticle-mediated targeted delivery, have been undertaken with different degrees of success. The present study was conducted to compare the neuroprotective effect of curcumin encapsulated in poly( ε -caprolactone) and methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) poly( ε -caprolactone) nanoparticles in U251 glioblastoma cells. Prepared nanoparticles were physically characterized by laser doppler anemometry, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results from laser doppler anemometry confirmed that the size of poly( ε -caprolactone) and poly(ethylene glycol) poly( ε -caprolactone) nanoparticles ranged between 200-240 nm for poly( ε -caprolactone) nanoparticles and 30-70 nm for poly(ethylene glycol) poly( ε -caprolactone) nanoparticles, and transmission electron microscopy images revealed their spherical shape. Treatment of U251 glioma cells and zebrafish embryos with poly( ε -caprolactone) and poly(ethylene glycol) poly( ε -caprolactone) nanoparticles loaded with curcumin revealed efficient cellular uptake. The cellular uptake of poly(ethylene glycol) poly( ε -caprolactone) nanoparticles was higher in comparison to poly( ε -caprolactone) nanoparticles. Moreover, poly(ethylene glycol) poly( ε -caprolactone) di-block copolymer-loaded curcumin nanoparticles were able to protect the glioma cells against tBHP induced-oxidative damage better than free curcumin. Together, our results show that curcumin-loaded poly(ethylene glycol) poly( ε -caprolactone) di-block copolymer nanoparticles possess significantly stronger neuroprotective effect in U251 human glioma cells compared to

  10. Neuroprotective properties of nitric oxide and S-nitrosoglutathione

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauhala, Pekka; Andoh, Tsugunobu; Chiueh, C.C.

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative stress and apoptosis may play an important role in the neurodegeneration. The present paper outlines antioxidative and antiapototic mechanisms of nitric oxide and S-nitrosothiols, which could mediate neuroprotection. Nitric oxide generated by nitric oxide synthase or released from an endogenous S-nitrosothiol, S-nitrosoglutathione may up-regulate antioxidative thioredoxin system and antiapototic Bcl-2 protein through a cGMP-dependent mechanism. Moreover, nitric oxide radicals have been shown to have direct antioxidant effect through their reaction with free radicals and iron-oxygen complexes. In addition to serving as a stabilizer and carrier of nitric oxide, S-nitrosoglutathione may have protective effect through transnitrosylation reactions. Based on these new findings, a hypothesis arises that the homeostasis of nitric oxide, S-nitrosothiols, glutathione, and thioredoxin systems is important for protection against oxidative stress, apoptosis, and related neurodegenerative disorders

  11. Astrocytes, therapeutic targets for neuroprotection and neurorestoration in ischemic stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongwu; Chopp, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Astrocytes are the most abundant cell type within the central nervous system. They play essential roles in maintaining normal brain function, as they are a critical structural and functional part of the tripartite synapses and the neurovascular unit, and communicate with neurons, oligodendrocytes and endothelial cells. After an ischemic stroke, astrocytes perform multiple functions both detrimental and beneficial, for neuronal survival during the acute phase. Aspects of the astrocytic inflammatory response to stroke may aggravate the ischemic lesion, but astrocytes also provide benefit for neuroprotection, by limiting lesion extension via anti-excitotoxicity effects and releasing neurotrophins. Similarly, during the late recovery phase after stroke, the glial scar may obstruct axonal regeneration and subsequently reduce the functional outcome; however, astrocytes also contribute to angiogenesis, neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, and axonal remodeling, and thereby promote neurological recovery. Thus, the pivotal involvement of astrocytes in normal brain function and responses to an ischemic lesion designates them as excellent therapeutic targets to improve functional outcome following stroke. In this review, we will focus on functions of astrocytes and astrocyte-mediated events during stroke and recovery. We will provide an overview of approaches on how to reduce the detrimental effects and amplify the beneficial effects of astrocytes on neuroprotection and on neurorestoration post stroke, which may lead to novel and clinically relevant therapies for stroke. PMID:26455456

  12. The Neuroprotective Effect of Puerarin in Acute Spinal Cord Injury Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dapeng Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute spinal cord injury (SCI leads to permanent disabilities. This study evaluated the neuroprotective effect of puerarin, a natural extract, in a rat model of SCI. Methods: Acute SCI models were established in rats using a modified Allen's method. Locomotor function was evaluated using the BBB test. The histological changes in the spinal cord were observed by H&E staining. Neuron survival and glial cells activation were evaluated by immunostaining. ELISA and realtime PCR were used to measure secretion and gene expression of cytokines. TUNEL staining was used to examine cell apoptosis and western blot analysis was used to detect protein expression. Results: Puerarin significantly increased BBB score in SCI rats, attenuated histological injury of spinal cord, decreased neuron loss, inhibited glial cells activation, alleviated inflammation, and inhibited cell apoptosis in the injured spinal cords. In addition, the downregulated PI3K and phospho-Akt protein expression were restored by puerarin. Conclusion: Puerarin accelerated locomotor function recovery and tissue repair of SCI rats, which is associated with its neuroprotection, glial cell activation suppression, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis effects. These effects may be associated with the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  13. Neuroprotective effect of curcumin on transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Yong; Zheng, Weiping; Lu, Yuyu; Feng, Gang; Yu, Shanshan

    2008-09-10

    Curcumin, a member of the curcuminoid family of compounds, is a yellow colored phenolic pigment obtained from the powdered rhizome of C. longa Linn. Recent studies have demonstrated that curcumin has protective effects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, little is known about its mechanism. Hence, in the present study the neuroprotective potential of curcumin was investigated in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) induced focal cerebral IR injury. Administration of curcumin 100 and 300 mg/kg i.p. 60 min after MCAO significantly diminished infarct volume, and improved neurological deficit in a dose-dependent manner. Nissl staining showed that the neuronal injury was significantly improved after being treated with curcumin. Curcumin significantly decreased the expression of caspase-3 protein. A higher number of TUNEL-positive cells were found in the vehicle group, but they were significantly decreased in the treated group. Taken together, these results suggest that the neuroprotective potentials of curcumin against focal cerebral ischemic injury are, at least in part, ascribed to its anti-apoptotic effects.

  14. Benzothiazole aniline tetra(ethylene glycol) and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole inhibit neuroprotection against amyloid peptides by catalase overexpression in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilumuri, Amrutha; Odell, Mark; Milton, Nathaniel G N

    2013-11-20

    Alzheimer's disease, Familial British dementia, Familial Danish dementia, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, plus Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease are associated with amyloid fibril deposition and oxidative stress. The antioxidant enzyme catalase is a neuroprotective amyloid binding protein. Herein the effects of catalase overexpression in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells on the toxicity of amyloid-β (Aβ), amyloid-Bri (ABri), amyloid-Dan (ADan), amylin (IAPP), and prion protein (PrP) peptides were determined. Results showed catalase overexpression was neuroprotective against Aβ, ABri, ADan, IAPP, and PrP peptides. The catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-AT) and catalase-amyloid interaction inhibitor benzothiazole aniline tetra(ethylene glycol) (BTA-EG4) significantly enhanced neurotoxicity of amyloid peptides in catalase overexpressing neuronal cells. This suggests catalase neuroprotection involves breakdown of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) plus a direct binding interaction between catalase and the Aβ, ABri, ADan, IAPP, and PrP peptides. Kisspeptin 45-50 had additive neuroprotective actions against the Aβ peptide in catalase overexpressing cells. The effects of 3-AT had an intracellular site of action, while catalase-amyloid interactions had an extracellular component. These results suggest that the 3-AT and BTA-EG4 compounds may be able to inhibit endogenous catalase mediated neuroprotection. Use of BTA-EG4, or compounds that inhibit catalase binding to amyloid peptides, as potential therapeutics for Neurodegenerative diseases may therefore result in unwanted effects.

  15. Benzothiazole Aniline Tetra(ethylene glycol) and 3-Amino-1,2,4-triazole Inhibit Neuroprotection against Amyloid Peptides by Catalase Overexpression in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease, Familial British dementia, Familial Danish dementia, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, plus Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease are associated with amyloid fibril deposition and oxidative stress. The antioxidant enzyme catalase is a neuroprotective amyloid binding protein. Herein the effects of catalase overexpression in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells on the toxicity of amyloid-β (Aβ), amyloid-Bri (ABri), amyloid-Dan (ADan), amylin (IAPP), and prion protein (PrP) peptides were determined. Results showed catalase overexpression was neuroprotective against Aβ, ABri, ADan, IAPP, and PrP peptides. The catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-AT) and catalase-amyloid interaction inhibitor benzothiazole aniline tetra(ethylene glycol) (BTA-EG4) significantly enhanced neurotoxicity of amyloid peptides in catalase overexpressing neuronal cells. This suggests catalase neuroprotection involves breakdown of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) plus a direct binding interaction between catalase and the Aβ, ABri, ADan, IAPP, and PrP peptides. Kisspeptin 45–50 had additive neuroprotective actions against the Aβ peptide in catalase overexpressing cells. The effects of 3-AT had an intracellular site of action, while catalase-amyloid interactions had an extracellular component. These results suggest that the 3-AT and BTA-EG4 compounds may be able to inhibit endogenous catalase mediated neuroprotection. Use of BTA-EG4, or compounds that inhibit catalase binding to amyloid peptides, as potential therapeutics for Neurodegenerative diseases may therefore result in unwanted effects. PMID:23968537

  16. The Long Run: Neuroprotective Effects of Physical Exercise on Adult Neurogenesis from Youth to Old Age

    OpenAIRE

    Saraulli, Daniele; Costanzi, Marco; Mastrorilli, Valentina; Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Background The rapid lengthening of life expectancy has raised the problem of providing social programs to counteract the age-related cognitive decline in a growing number of older people. Physical activity stands among the most promising interventions aimed at brain wellbeing, because of its effective neuroprotective action and low social cost. The purpose of this review is to describe the neuroprotective role exerted by physical activity in different life stages. In particular, we focus on ...

  17. Erythropoietin's Beta Common Receptor Mediates Neuroprotection in Spinal Cord Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Lisa S; Fullerton, David A; Mares, Joshua; Sungelo, Mitchell; Weyant, Michael J; Cleveland, Joseph C; Reece, T Brett

    2017-12-01

    Paraplegia from spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion (SCIR) remains an elusive and devastating complication of complex aortic operations. Erythropoietin (EPO) attenuates this injury in models of SCIR. Upregulation of the EPO beta common receptor (βcR) is associated with reduced damage in models of neural injury. The purpose of this study was to examine whether EPO-mediated neuroprotection was dependent on βcR expression. We hypothesized that spinal cord neurons subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation would mimic SCIR injury in aortic surgery and EPO treatment attenuates this injury in a βcR-dependent fashion. Lentiviral vectors with βcR knockdown sequences were tested on neuron cell cultures. The virus with greatest βcR knockdown was selected. Spinal cord neurons from perinatal wild-type mice were harvested and cultured to maturity. They were treated with knockdown or nonsense virus and transduced cells were selected. Three groups (βcR knockdown virus, nonsense control virus, no virus control; n = 8 each) were subjected to 1 hour of oxygen-glucose deprivation. Viability was assessed. βcR expression was quantified by immunoblot. EPO preserved neuronal viability after oxygen-glucose deprivation (0.82 ± 0.04 versus 0.61 ± 0.01; p neuron preservation was similar in the nonsense virus and control mice (0.82 ± 0.04 versus 0.80 ± 0.05; p = 0.77). EPO neuron preservation was lost in βcR knockdown mice compared with nonsense control mice (0.46 ± 0.03 versus 0.80 ± 0.05; p neuronal loss after oxygen-glucose deprivation in a βcR-dependent fashion. This receptor holds immense clinical promise as a target for pharmacotherapies treating spinal cord ischemic injury. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Green tea supplementation produces better neuroprotective effects than red and black tea in Alzheimer-like rat model.

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    Schimidt, Helen L; Garcia, Alexandre; Martins, Alexandre; Mello-Carpes, Pamela B; Carpes, Felipe P

    2017-10-01

    Green tea from Camellia sinensis plays a neuroprotective role in different neurodegenerative conditions, such as memory deficits in Alzheimer disease (AD). However, whether other teas from Camellia sinensis present similar neuroprotective effect still is not clear. Here we investigate effects of green, red and black tea supplementation on memory and hippocampus oxidative status in a rat model of Alzheimer-like disease (AD-like). Wistar male rats were supplemented with green, red or black tea during 8weeks before Aβ intra-hippocampal injection (2μL of Aβ-25-35, CA1 region). AD and sham rats were submitted to memory tests. After euthanasia, oxidative status in the bilateral hippocampus was quantified. Green and red teas avoid memory deficits in AD rats, but only green tea also avoids oxidative stress and damage in the hippocampus. Green tea was more effective for neuroprotection than red and black teas from the Camellia sinensis in the AD rat model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Neuroprotective Effect of Hydroxytyrosol in Experimental Diabetic Retinopathy: Relationship with Cardiovascular Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Correa, José Antonio; Rodríguez-Pérez, María Dolores; Márquez-Estrada, Lucía; López-Villodres, Juan Antonio; Reyes, José Julio; Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Guillermo; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan; De La Cruz, José Pedro

    2018-01-24

    The aim of the study was to test the neuroprotective effect of hydroxytyrosol (HT) on experimental diabetic retinopathy. Animals were divided in four groups: (1) control nondiabetic rats, (2) streptozotocin-diabetic rats (DR), (3) DR treated with 1 mg/kg/day p.o. HT, and (4) DR treated with 5 mg/kg/day p.o. HT. Treatment with HT was started 7 days before inducing diabetes and was maintained for 2 months. In the DR group, total area occupied by extracellular matrix was increased, area occupied by retinal cells was decreased; both returned to near-control values in DR rats treated with HT. The number of retinal ganglion cells in DR was significantly lower (44%) than in the control group, and this decrease was smaller after HT treatment (34% and 9.1%). Linear regression analysis showed that prostacyclin, platelet aggregation, peroxynitrites, and the dose of 5 mg/kg/day HT significantly influenced retinal ganglion cell count. In conclusion, HT exerted a neuroprotective effect on diabetic retinopathy, and this effect correlated significantly with changes in some cardiovascular biomarkers.

  20. Estrogen-IGF-1 interactions in neuroprotection: Ischemic Stroke as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabji, Farida

    2014-01-01

    The steroid hormone 17b-estradiol and the peptide hormone insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 independently exert neuroprotective actions in neurologic diseases such as stroke. Only a few studies have directly addressed the interaction between the two hormone systems, however, there is a large literature that indicates potentially greater interactions between the 17b-estradiol and IGF-1 systems. The present review focuses on key issues related to this interaction including IGF-1 and sex differences and common activation of second messenger systems. Using ischemic stroke as a case study, this review also focuses on independent and cooperative actions of estrogen and IGF-1 on neuroprotection, blood brain barrier integrity, angiogenesis, inflammation and post-stroke epilepsy. Finally, the review also focuses on the astrocyte, a key mediator of post stroke repair, as a local source of 17b-estradiol and IGF-1. This review thus highlights areas where significant new research is needed to clarify the interactions between these two neuroprotectants. PMID:24882635

  1. Oxygen-glucose deprivation preconditioning protects neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion induced injury via bone morphogenetic protein-7 mediated ERK, p38 and Smad signalling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Junhong; Du, Shaonan; Lv, Tao; Qu, Shengtao; Fu, Qiang; Yuan, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-7 mediated neuroprotective effect of cerebral ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has been studied in an ischemic animal model, but the underlying cellular mechanisms have not been clearly clarified. In this study, primary cortical neurons and the SH-SY5Y cell line were used to investigate the role of BMP-7 and its downstream signals in the neuroprotective effects of oxygen-glucose deprivation preconditioning (OGDPC). Immunocytochemistry was used to detect the expression of neurofilament in neurons. MTT and lactate dehydrogenase activity assays were used to measure the cytotoxicity. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of BMP-7 and downstream signals. BMP inhibitor, mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors, Smad inhibitor and siRNA of Smad 1 were used to investigate the role of corresponding signalling pathways in the OGDPC. Results showed that OGDPC-induced overexpression of BMP-7 in primary cortical neurons and SH-SY5Y cells. Both of endogenous and exogenous BMP-7 could replicate the neuroprotective effects seen in OGDPC pretreatment. In addition, extracellular regulated protein kinases, p38 and Smad signalling pathway were found to be involved in the neuroprotective effects mediated by OGDPC via BMP-7. This study primarily reveals the cellular mechanisms of the neuroprotection mediated by OGDPC, and provides evidence for better understanding of this intrinsic factor against ischemia. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. The neuroprotective effects of purslane (Portulaca oleracea) on rotenone-induced biochemical changes and apoptosis in brain of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2013-09-01

    Purslane (Portulaca oleraceae L.), a member of the Portulacaceae family, is widespread as a weed and has been ranked as the eighth most common plant in the world. In order to evaluate purslane herbal aqueous juice as a neuroprotective agent, the antioxidant activity of purslane juice was assessed in vitro and the neuroprotective effects of purslane (1.5 mL/Kg bwt) on rotenone (12 mg/Kg bwt for 12 days) induced biochemical changes and apoptosis in striatum of rats were also examined. The repeated administration of rotenone produced dramatic increases in intercellular content of calcium, dopamine metabolites and apoptosis in the striatum. In addition, rotenone administration caused significant decrease in complex I activity. These biochemical changes and apoptosis inductions were effectively counteracted by administration of purslane. Overall, the present study demonstrated the neuroprotective role of purslane in the striatum and proposes its prophylactic potential against developing brain damage and Parkinson's disease induction followed by rotenone administration, and that purslane may be considered as a potential neuroprotective agent against environmental factors affecting the function of the dopaminergic system.

  3. Neuroprotective Effect of Ginkgolide B on Bupivacaine-Induced Apoptosis in SH-SY5Y Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Zhang, Qing-guo; Lai, Lu-ying; Wen, Xian-jie; Zheng, Ting; Cheung, Chi-wai; Zhou, Shu-qin; Xu, Shi-yuan

    2013-01-01

    Local anesthetics are used routinely and effectively. However, many are also known to activate neurotoxic pathways. We tested the neuroprotective efficacy of ginkgolide B (GB), an active component of Ginkgo biloba, against ROS-mediated neurotoxicity caused by the local anesthetic bupivacaine. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with different concentrations of bupivacaine alone or following preincubation with GB. Pretreatment with GB increased SH-SY5Y cell viability and attenuated intracellular ROS accumulation, apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, and ER stress. GB suppressed bupivacaine-induced mitochondrial depolarization and mitochondria complex I and III inhibition and increased cleaved caspase-3 and Htra2 expression, which was strongly indicative of activation of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis with concomitantly enhanced expressions of Grp78, caspase-12 mRNA, protein, and ER stress. GB also improved ultrastructural changes indicative of mitochondrial and ER damage induced by bupivacaine. These results implicate bupivacaine-induced ROS-dependent mitochondria, ER dysfunction, and apoptosis, which can be attenuated by GB through its antioxidant property. PMID:24228138

  4. The neuroprotective effects of tocotrienol rich fraction and alpha tocopherol against glutamate injury in astrocytes

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    Thilaga Rati Selvaraju

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF is an extract of palm oil, which consists of 25% alpha tocopherol (α-TCP and 75% tocotrienols. TRF has been shown to possess potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, neuroprotection, and cholesterol lowering activities. Glutamate is the main excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of mammalian, which can be excitotoxic, and it has been suggested to play a key role in neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. In this present study, the effects of vitamin E (TRF and α-TCP in protecting astrocytes against glutamate injury were elucidated. Astrocytes induced with 180 mM of glutamate lead to significant cell death. However, glutamate mediated cytotoxicity was diminished via pre and post supplementation of TRF and α-TCP. Hence, vitamin E acted as a potent antioxidant agent in recovering mitochondrial injury due to elevated oxidative stress, and enhanced better survivability upon glutamate toxicity.  

  5. Neuroprotective effect of rapamycin on spinal cord injury via activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway

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    Kai Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a crucial role in neural development, axonal guidance, neuropathic pain remission and neuronal survival. In this study, we initially examined the effect of rapamycin on the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway after spinal cord injury, by intraperitoneally injecting spinal cord injured rats with rapamycin over 2 days. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining were used to detect the expression levels of β-catenin protein, ca-spase-3 protein and brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein, components of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Rapamycin increased the levels of β-catenin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the injured spinal cord, improved the pathological morphology at the injury site, reduced the loss of motor neurons, and promoted motor functional recovery in rats after spinal cord injury. Our experimental findings suggest that the neuroprotective effect of rapamycin intervention is mediated through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway after spinal cord injury.

  6. A New Triterpene from Buddleja lindleyana with Neuroprotective Effect

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    Ya-Shuo Ren

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the phytochemical investigation of Buddleja lindleyana , a new 3-acetyl substituted triterpene, 13, 28-epoxy-23-hydroxy-3β-acetoxy-olean-11-ene (1, together with four same skeleton type known compounds (2-5 were isolated. The structure of 1 was elucidated by means of extensive spectroscopic analysis. Their neuroprotective effect against 1-methyl-4 -phenylpyridinium ion-induced (MPP +-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells were evaluated. The structure activity relationship of compounds 1-5 has been discussed preliminarily.

  7. Wine polyphenols: potential agents in neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basli, Abdelkader; Soulet, Stéphanie; Chaher, Nassima; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Chibane, Mohamed; Monti, Jean-Pierre; Richard, Tristan

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous studies indicating that a moderate consumption of red wine provides certain health benefits, such as the protection against neurodegenerative diseases. This protective effect is most likely due to the presence of phenolic compounds in wine. Wine polyphenolic compounds are well known for the antioxidant properties. Oxidative stress is involved in many forms of cellular and molecular deterioration. This damage can lead to cell death and various neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's or Alzheimer's diseases. Extensive investigations have been undertaken to determine the neuroprotective effects of wine-related polyphenols. In this review we present the neuroprotective abilities of the major classes of wine-related polyphenols.

  8. Wine Polyphenols: Potential Agents in Neuroprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basli, Abdelkader; Soulet, Stéphanie; Chaher, Nassima; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Chibane, Mohamed; Monti, Jean-Pierre; Richard, Tristan

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous studies indicating that a moderate consumption of red wine provides certain health benefits, such as the protection against neurodegenerative diseases. This protective effect is most likely due to the presence of phenolic compounds in wine. Wine polyphenolic compounds are well known for the antioxidant properties. Oxidative stress is involved in many forms of cellular and molecular deterioration. This damage can lead to cell death and various neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's or Alzheimer's diseases. Extensive investigations have been undertaken to determine the neuroprotective effects of wine-related polyphenols. In this review we present the neuroprotective abilities of the major classes of wine-related polyphenols. PMID:22829964

  9. Two new compounds from the fruits of Buddleja lindleyana with neuroprotective effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, De-Ling; Wang, Yang-Kui; Liu, Jing-Song; Wang, Xun-Cui; Zhang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Two new triterpenoid glycosides, mimengosides H (1) and I (2), were isolated from the fruits of Buddleja lindleyana Fort. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic methods. Neuroprotective effects of these isolates against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells were evaluated. Pretreatment with compound 1 had potential protective effect in a concentration range from 0.1 to 1 μmol l⁻¹.

  10. Neuroprotective Drug for Nerve Trauma Revealed Using Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo-Guitart, David; Forés, Joaquim; Herrando-Grabulosa, Mireia; Valls, Raquel; Leiva-Rodríguez, Tatiana; Galea, Elena; González-Pérez, Francisco; Navarro, Xavier; Petegnief, Valerie; Bosch, Assumpció; Coma, Mireia; Mas, José Manuel; Casas, Caty

    2018-01-30

    Here we used a systems biology approach and artificial intelligence to identify a neuroprotective agent for the treatment of peripheral nerve root avulsion. Based on accumulated knowledge of the neurodegenerative and neuroprotective processes that occur in motoneurons after root avulsion, we built up protein networks and converted them into mathematical models. Unbiased proteomic data from our preclinical models were used for machine learning algorithms and for restrictions to be imposed on mathematical solutions. Solutions allowed us to identify combinations of repurposed drugs as potential neuroprotective agents and we validated them in our preclinical models. The best one, NeuroHeal, neuroprotected motoneurons, exerted anti-inflammatory properties and promoted functional locomotor recovery. NeuroHeal endorsed the activation of Sirtuin 1, which was essential for its neuroprotective effect. These results support the value of network-centric approaches for drug discovery and demonstrate the efficacy of NeuroHeal as adjuvant treatment with surgical repair for nervous system trauma.

  11. Prolactin-induced neuroprotection against glutamate excitotoxicity is mediated by the reduction of [Ca2+]i overload and NF-κB activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero-Segura, Nadia A.; Flores-Soto, Edgar; García de la Cadena, Selene; Coronado-Mares, Isabel; Gomez-Verjan, Juan C.; Ferreira, Diana G.; Cabrera-Reyes, Erika Alejandra; Lopes, Luísa V.; Massieu, Lourdes

    2017-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a peptidic hormone that displays pleiotropic functions in the organism including different actions in the brain. PRL exerts a neuroprotective effect against excitotoxicity produced by glutamate (Glu) or kainic acid in both in vitro and in vivo models. It is well known that Glu excitotoxicity causes cell death through apoptotic or necrotic pathways due to intracellular calcium ([Ca2+] i) overload. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the molecular mechanisms by which PRL maintains cellular viability of primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons exposed to Glu excitotoxicity. We determined cell viability by monitoring mitochondrial activity and using fluorescent markers for viable and dead cells. The intracellular calcium level was determined by a fluorometric assay and proteins involved in the apoptotic pathway were determined by immunoblot. Our results demonstrated that PRL afforded neuroprotection against Glu excitotoxicity, as evidenced by a decrease in propidium iodide staining and by the decrease of the LDH activity. In addition, the MTT assay shows that PRL maintains normal mitochondrial activity even in neurons exposed to Glu. Furthermore, the Glu-induced intracellular [Ca2+]i overload was attenuated by PRL. These data correlate with the reduction found in the level of active caspase-3 and the pro-apoptotic ratio (Bax/Bcl-2). Concomitantly, PRL elicited the nuclear translocation of the transcriptional factor NF-κB, which was detected by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that PRL prevents Glu excitotoxicity by a mechanism involving the restoration of the intracellular calcium homeostasis and mitochondrial activity, as well as an anti-apoptotic action possibly mediated by the activity of NF-κB. Overall, the current results suggest that PRL could be of potential therapeutic advantage in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:28475602

  12. Loss of Neuroprotective Factors in Neurodegenerative Dementias: The End or the Starting Point?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benussi, Luisa; Binetti, Giuliano; Ghidoni, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    Recent clinical, genetic and biochemical experimental evidences highlight the existence of common molecular pathways underlying neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we will explore a key common pathological mechanism, i.e., the loss of neuroprotective factors, across the three major neurodegenerative diseases leading to dementia: Alzheimer's disease (AD), Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Lewy body dementia (LBD). We will report evidences that the Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), the most investigated and characterized brain neurotrophin, progranulin, a multi-functional adipokine with trophic and growth factor properties, and cystatin C, a neuroprotective growth factor, are reduced in AD, FTD, and LBD. Moreover, we will review the molecular mechanism underlying the loss of neuroprotective factors in neurodegenerative diseases leading to dementia, with a special focus on endo-lysosomal pathway and intercellular communication mediated by extracellular vesicles. Exploring the shared commonality of disease mechanisms is of pivotal importance to identify novel potential therapeutic targets and to develop treatments to delay, slow or block disease progression. PMID:29249935

  13. Loss of Neuroprotective Factors in Neurodegenerative Dementias: The End or the Starting Point?

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    Luisa Benussi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent clinical, genetic and biochemical experimental evidences highlight the existence of common molecular pathways underlying neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we will explore a key common pathological mechanism, i.e., the loss of neuroprotective factors, across the three major neurodegenerative diseases leading to dementia: Alzheimer's disease (AD, Frontotemporal dementia (FTD and Lewy body dementia (LBD. We will report evidences that the Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF, the most investigated and characterized brain neurotrophin, progranulin, a multi-functional adipokine with trophic and growth factor properties, and cystatin C, a neuroprotective growth factor, are reduced in AD, FTD, and LBD. Moreover, we will review the molecular mechanism underlying the loss of neuroprotective factors in neurodegenerative diseases leading to dementia, with a special focus on endo-lysosomal pathway and intercellular communication mediated by extracellular vesicles. Exploring the shared commonality of disease mechanisms is of pivotal importance to identify novel potential therapeutic targets and to develop treatments to delay, slow or block disease progression.

  14. Novel Neuroprotective Strategies in Ischemic Retinal Lesions

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    Robert Gabriel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Retinal ischemia can be effectively modeled by permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion, which leads to chronic hypoperfusion-induced degeneration in the entire rat retina. The complex pathways leading to retinal cell death offer a complex approach of neuroprotective strategies. In the present review we summarize recent findings with different neuroprotective candidate molecules. We describe the protective effects of intravitreal treatment with: (i urocortin 2; (ii a mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ channel opener, diazoxide; (iii a neurotrophic factor, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide; and (iv a novel poly(ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitor (HO3089. The retinoprotective effects are demonstrated with morphological description and effects on apoptotic pathways using molecular biological techniques.

  15. Bariatric surgery may reduce the risk of Alzheimer's diseases through GLP-1 mediated neuroprotective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshava, Hari B; Mowla, Ashkan; Heinberg, Leslie J; Schauer, Philip R; Brethauer, Stacy A; Aminian, Ali

    2017-07-01

    Obesity and diabetes are associated with deficits in multiple neurocognitive domains and increased risk for dementia. Over the last two decades, there has been a significant increase in bariatric and metabolic surgery worldwide, driven by rising intertwined pandemics of obesity and diabetes, along with improvement in surgical techniques. Patients undergoing bariatric surgery achieve a significant decrease in their excess weight and a multitude of sequela associated with obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is an intestinal peptide that has been implicated as one of the weight loss-independent mechanisms in how bariatric surgery affects type 2 diabetes. GLP-1 improves insulin secretion, inhibits apoptosis and induce pancreatic islet neogenesis, promotes satiety, and can regulate heart rate and blood pressure. Moreover, numerous studies have demonstrated potential neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects of GLP-1. Increased GLP-1 activity has been shown to increase cortical activity, promote neuronal growth, and inhibit neuronal degeneration. Specifically, in experimental studies on Alzheimer's disease, GLP-1 decreases amyloid deposition and neurofibrillary tangles. Furthermore, recent studies have also suggested that GLP-1 based therapies, new class of antidiabetic drugs, have favorable effects on neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. We present a hypothesis that bariatric surgery can help delay or even prevent the onset of Alzheimer's disease in long-term by increasing the levels of GLP-1. This hypothesis has a potential for many studies from basic science projects to large population studies to fully understand the neurological and cognitive consequences of bariatric surgery and associated rise in GLP-1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Wine Polyphenols: Potential Agents in Neuroprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkader Basli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous studies indicating that a moderate consumption of red wine provides certain health benefits, such as the protection against neurodegenerative diseases. This protective effect is most likely due to the presence of phenolic compounds in wine. Wine polyphenolic compounds are well known for the antioxidant properties. Oxidative stress is involved in many forms of cellular and molecular deterioration. This damage can lead to cell death and various neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson’s or Alzheimer’s diseases. Extensive investigations have been undertaken to determine the neuroprotective effects of wine-related polyphenols. In this review we present the neuroprotective abilities of the major classes of wine-related polyphenols.

  17. Melatonin-Based Therapeutics for Neuroprotection in Stroke

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    Cesar V. Borlongan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present review paper supports the approach to deliver melatonin and to target melatonin receptors for neuroprotection in stroke. We discuss laboratory evidence demonstrating neuroprotective effects of exogenous melatonin treatment and transplantation of melatonin-secreting cells in stroke. In addition, we describe a novel mechanism of action underlying the therapeutic benefits of stem cell therapy in stroke, implicating the role of melatonin receptors. As we envision the clinical entry of melatonin-based therapeutics, we discuss translational experiments that warrant consideration to reveal an optimal melatonin treatment strategy that is safe and effective for human application.

  18. Short-term psychosocial stress protects photoreceptors from damage via corticosterone-mediated activation of the AKT pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkwa, Tembei K; Neumann, Inga D; Tamm, Ernst R; Ohlmann, Andreas; Reber, Stefan O

    2014-02-01

    Apoptotic death of photoreceptors in hereditary retinal degenerations can be prevented by neuroprotective molecules. Here, we report that adrenal glucocorticoids (GC) released during psychosocial stress protect photoreceptors from apoptosis after light damage. Psychosocial stress is known to be the main type of stressor humans are exposed to and was induced here in mice by 10h of chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC). Photoreceptor damage was generated by subsequent exposure to white light. Short-term psychosocial stress prior to illumination significantly reduced the number of apoptotic photoreceptors, an effect that was absent in adrenalectomized (ADX) mice. The neuroprotective effect was completely restored in ADX mice substituted with GC. Moreover, phosphorylation of retinal AKT increased following CSC or exogenous GC treatment, an effect that was again absent in ADX mice exposed to CSC. Finally, inhibition of AKT signaling with triciribine blocked the stress- and GC-mediated neuroprotective effects on photoreceptors. In summary, we provide evidence that 1) short-term psychosocial stress protects photoreceptors from light-induced damage and 2) the protective effect is most likely mediated by GC-induced activation of the AKT signaling pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The neuroprotective effect of hyperbaric oxygen treatment on laser-induced retinal damage in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevskia-Dai, Victoria; Belokopytov, Mark; Dubinsky, Galina; Nachum, Gal; Avni, Isaac; Belkin, Michael; Rosner, Mordechai

    2005-04-01

    Retinal damage induced by mechanical trauma, ischemia or laser photocoagulation increases considerably by secondary degeneration processes. The spread of damage may be ameliorated by neuroprotection that is aimed at reducing the extent of the secondary degeneration and promote healing processes. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment consists of inspiration of oxygen at higher than one absolute atmospheric pressure. Improved neural function was observed in patients with acute brain trauma or ischemia treated with HBO. This study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) on laser induced retinal damage in a rat model. Standard argon laser lesions were created in 25 pigmented rats divided into three groups: Ten rats were treated immediately after the irradiation with HBO three times during the first 24 hr followed by 12 consecutive daily treatments. Five rats received a shorter treatment regimen of 10 consecutive HBO treatments. The control group (10 rats) underwent the laser damage with no additional treatment. The retinal lesions were evaluated 20 days after the injury. All outcome measures were improved by the longer HBO treatment (Ptreatment was less effective, showing an increase only in nuclei density at the central area of lesion (Pretinal damage in a rat model. In the range of HBO exposures studied, longer exposure provides more neuroprotection. These results encourage further evaluation of the potential therapeutic use of hyperbaric oxygen in diseases and injuries of the retina.

  20. An Involvement of PI3-K/Akt Activation and Inhibition of AIF Translocation in Neuroprotective Effects of Undecylenic Acid (UDA) Against Pro-Apoptotic Factors-Induced Cell Death in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantas, Danuta; Piotrowski, Marek; Lason, Wladyslaw

    2015-12-01

    Undecylenic acid (UDA), a naturally occurring 11-carbon unsaturated fatty acid, has been used for several years as an economical antifungal agent and a nutritional supplement. Recently, the potential usefulness of UDA as a neuroprotective drug has been suggested based on the ability of this agent to inhibit μ-calpain activity. In order to verify neuroprotective potential of UDA, we tested protective efficacy of this compound against cell damage evoked by pro-apoptotic factors (staurosporine and doxorubicin) and oxidative stress (hydrogen peroxide) in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. We showed that UDA partially protected SH-SY5Y cells against the staurosporine- and doxorubicin-evoked cell death; however, this effect was not connected with its influence on caspase-3 activity. UDA decreased the St-induced changes in mitochondrial and cytosolic AIF level, whereas in Dox-model it affected only the cytosolic AIF content. Moreover, UDA (1-40 μM) decreased the hydrogen peroxide-induced cell damage which was connected with attenuation of hydrogen peroxide-mediated necrotic (PI staining, ADP/ATP ratio) and apoptotic (mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase-3 activation, AIF translocation) changes. Finally, we demonstrated that an inhibitor of PI3-K/Akt (LY294002) but not MAPK/ERK1/2 (U0126) pathway blocked the protection mediated by UDA in all tested models of SH-SY5Y cell injury. These in vitro data point to UDA as potentially effective neuroprotectant the utility of which should be further validated in animal studies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Refocusing Neuroprotection in Cerebral Reperfusion Era: New Challenges and Strategies

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    Xiao-Yi Xiong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pathophysiological processes of stroke have revealed that the damaged brain should be considered as an integral structure to be protected. However, promising neuroprotective drugs have failed when translated to clinical trials. In this review, we evaluated previous studies of neuroprotection and found that unsound patient selection and evaluation methods, single-target treatments, etc., without cerebral revascularization may be major reasons of failed neuroprotective strategies. Fortunately, this may be reversed by recent advances that provide increased revascularization with increased availability of endovascular procedures. However, the current improved effects of endovascular therapy are not able to match to the higher rate of revascularization, which may be ascribed to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and lacking of neuroprotection. Accordingly, we suggest various research strategies to improve the lower therapeutic efficacy for ischemic stroke treatment: (1 multitarget neuroprotectant combinative therapy (cocktail therapy should be investigated and performed based on revascularization; (2 and more efforts should be dedicated to shifting research emphasis to establish recirculation, increasing functional collateral circulation and elucidating brain–blood barrier damage mechanisms to reduce hemorrhagic transformation. Therefore, we propose that a comprehensive neuroprotective strategy before and after the endovascular treatment may speed progress toward improving neuroprotection after stroke to protect against brain injury.

  2. Pharmacological preconditioning with GYKI 52466: a prophylactic approach to neuroprotection

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    Chelsea S Goulton

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Some toxins and drugs can trigger lasting neuroprotective mechanisms that enable neurons to resist a subsequent severe insult. This ‘pharmacological preconditioning’ has far-reaching implications for conditions in which blood flow to the brain is interrupted. We have previously shown that in vitro preconditioning with the AMPA receptor antagonist GYKI 52466 induces tolerance to kainic acid (KA toxicity in hippocampus. This effect persists well after washout of the drug and may be mediated via inverse agonism of G protein linked receptors. Given the amplifying nature of metabotropic modulation, we hypothesised that GYKI 52466 may be effective in reducing seizure severity at doses well below those normally associated with adverse side effects. Here we report that pharmacological preconditioning with low-dose GYKI imparts a significant protection against KA-induced seizures in vivo. GYKI (3 mg/kg, s.c., 90 to 180 min. prior to high-dose KA, markedly reduced seizure scores, virtually abolished all level 3 and level 4 seizures, and completely suppressed KA-induced hippocampal cFOS expression. In addition, preconditioned animals exhibited significant reductions in high frequency/high amplitude spiking and ECoG power in the delta, theta, alpha and beta bands during KA. Adverse behaviours often associated with higher doses of GYKI were not evident during preconditioning. The fact that GYKI is effective at doses well-below, and at pre-administration intervals well-beyond previous studies, suggests that a classical blockade of ionotropic AMPA receptors does not underlie anticonvulsant effects. Low-dose GYKI preconditioning may represent a novel, prophylactic strategy for neuroprotection in a field almost completely devoid of effective pharmaceuticals.

  3. Mechanisms of cannabidiol neuroprotection in hypoxic-ischemic newborn pigs: role of 5HT(1A) and CB2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, M Ruth; Mohammed, Nagat; Lafuente, Hector; Santos, Martin; Martínez-Pinilla, Eva; Moreno, Estefania; Valdizan, Elsa; Romero, Julián; Pazos, Angel; Franco, Rafael; Hillard, Cecilia J; Alvarez, Francisco J; Martínez-Orgado, Jose

    2013-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of cannabidiol (CBD) were studied in vivo using a hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury model in newborn pigs. One- to two-day-old piglets were exposed to HI for 30 min by interrupting carotid blood flow and reducing the fraction of inspired oxygen to 10%. Thirty minutes after HI, the piglets were treated with vehicle (HV) or 1 mg/kg CBD, alone (HC) or in combination with 1 mg/kg of a CB₂ receptor antagonist (AM630) or a serotonin 5HT(1A) receptor antagonist (WAY100635). HI decreased the number of viable neurons and affected the amplitude-integrated EEG background activity as well as different prognostic proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy (H(±)-MRS)-detectable biomarkers (lactate/N-acetylaspartate and N-acetylaspartate/choline ratios). HI brain damage was also associated with increases in excitotoxicity (increased glutamate/N-acetylaspartate ratio), oxidative stress (decreased glutathione/creatine ratio and increased protein carbonylation) and inflammation (increased brain IL-1 levels). CBD administration after HI prevented all these alterations, although this CBD-mediated neuroprotection was reversed by co-administration of either WAY100635 or AM630, suggesting the involvement of CB₂ and 5HT(1A) receptors. The involvement of CB₂ receptors was not dependent on a CBD-mediated increase in endocannabinoids. Finally, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer studies indicated that CB₂ and 5HT(1A) receptors may form heteromers in living HEK-293T cells. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that CBD exerts robust neuroprotective effects in vivo in HI piglets, modulating excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation, and that both CB₂ and 5HT(1A) receptors are implicated in these effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Morus alba leaf extract mediates neuroprotection against glyphosate-induced toxicity and biochemical alterations in the brain.

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    Rebai, Olfa; Belkhir, Manel; Boujelben, Adnen; Fattouch, Sami; Amri, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that glyphosate exposure is associated with oxidative stress and some neurological disorders such as Parkinson's pathology. Therefore, phytochemicals, in particular phenolic compounds, have attracted increasing attention as potential agents for neuroprotection. In the present study, we investigate the impact of glyphosate on the rat brain following i.p. injection and the possible molecular target of neuroprotective activity of the phenolic fraction from Morus alba leaf extract (MALE) and its ability to reduce oxidative damage in the brain. Wistar rats from 180 to 240 g were i.p. treated with a single dose of glyphosate (100 mg kg -1 b.w.) or MALE (100 μg mL -1  kg -1 b.w.) for 2 weeks. Brain homogenates were used to evaluate neurotoxicity induced by the pesticide. For this, biochemical parameters were measured. Data shows that MALE regulated oxidative stress and counteracted glyphosate-induced deleterious effects and oxidative damage in the brain, as it abrogated LDH, protein carbonyls, and malonyldialdehyde. MALE also appears to be able to scavenge H 2 O 2 levels, maintain iron and Ca 2+ homeostasis, and increase SOD activity. Thus, in vivo results showed that mulberry leaf extract is a potent protector against glyphosate-induced toxicity, and its protective effect could result from synergism or antagonism between the various bioactive phenolic compounds in the acetonic fraction from M. alba leaf extract.

  5. Neuroprotective Effects of Psychotropic Drugs in Huntington’s Disease

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    Edward C. Lauterbach

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Psychotropics (antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, antidepressants, anxiolytics, etc. are commonly prescribed to treat Huntington’s disease (HD. In HD preclinical models, while no psychotropic has convincingly affected huntingtin gene, HD modifying gene, or huntingtin protein expression, psychotropic neuroprotective effects include upregulated huntingtin autophagy (lithium, histone acetylation (lithium, valproate, lamotrigine, miR-222 (lithium-plus-valproate, mitochondrial protection (haloperidol, trifluoperazine, imipramine, desipramine, nortriptyline, maprotiline, trazodone, sertraline, venlafaxine, melatonin, neurogenesis (lithium, valproate, fluoxetine, sertraline, and BDNF (lithium, valproate, sertraline and downregulated AP-1 DNA binding (lithium, p53 (lithium, huntingtin aggregation (antipsychotics, lithium, and apoptosis (trifluoperazine, loxapine, lithium, desipramine, nortriptyline, maprotiline, cyproheptadine, melatonin. In HD live mouse models, delayed disease onset (nortriptyline, melatonin, striatal preservation (haloperidol, tetrabenazine, lithium, sertraline, memory preservation (imipramine, trazodone, fluoxetine, sertraline, venlafaxine, motor improvement (tetrabenazine, lithium, valproate, imipramine, nortriptyline, trazodone, sertraline, venlafaxine, and extended survival (lithium, valproate, sertraline, melatonin have been documented. Upregulated CREB binding protein (CBP; valproate, dextromethorphan and downregulated histone deacetylase (HDAC; valproate await demonstration in HD models. Most preclinical findings await replication and their limitations are reviewed. The most promising findings involve replicated striatal neuroprotection and phenotypic disease modification in transgenic mice for tetrabenazine and for sertraline. Clinical data consist of an uncontrolled lithium case series (n = 3 suggesting non-progression and a primarily negative double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of lamotrigine.

  6. Neuroprotection as a Therapeutic Target for Diabetic Retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Cristina; Simó, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a multifactorial progressive disease of the retina and a leading cause of vision loss. DR has long been regarded as a vascular disorder, although neuronal death and visual impairment appear before vascular lesions, suggesting an important role played by neurodegeneration in DR and the appropriateness of neuroprotective strategies. Upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the main target of current therapies, is likely to be one of the first responses to retinal hyperglycemic stress and VEGF may represent an important survival factor in early phases of DR. Of central importance for clinical trials is the detection of retinal neurodegeneration in the clinical setting, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography seems the most indicated technique. Many substances have been tested in animal studies for their neuroprotective properties and for possible use in humans. Perhaps, the most intriguing perspective is the use of endogenous neuroprotective substances or nutraceuticals. Together, the data point to the central role of neurodegeneration in the pathogenesis of DR and indicate neuroprotection as an effective strategy for treating this disease. However, clinical trials to determine not only the effectiveness and safety but also the compliance of a noninvasive route of drug administration are needed. PMID:27123463

  7. Neuroprotection as a Therapeutic Target for Diabetic Retinopathy

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    Cristina Hernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a multifactorial progressive disease of the retina and a leading cause of vision loss. DR has long been regarded as a vascular disorder, although neuronal death and visual impairment appear before vascular lesions, suggesting an important role played by neurodegeneration in DR and the appropriateness of neuroprotective strategies. Upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, the main target of current therapies, is likely to be one of the first responses to retinal hyperglycemic stress and VEGF may represent an important survival factor in early phases of DR. Of central importance for clinical trials is the detection of retinal neurodegeneration in the clinical setting, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography seems the most indicated technique. Many substances have been tested in animal studies for their neuroprotective properties and for possible use in humans. Perhaps, the most intriguing perspective is the use of endogenous neuroprotective substances or nutraceuticals. Together, the data point to the central role of neurodegeneration in the pathogenesis of DR and indicate neuroprotection as an effective strategy for treating this disease. However, clinical trials to determine not only the effectiveness and safety but also the compliance of a noninvasive route of drug administration are needed.

  8. Neuroprotective effect of undecylenic acid extracted from Ricinus communis L. through inhibition of μ-calpain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunyoung; Eom, Ji-Eun; Kim, Hye-Lin; Kang, Da-Hye; Jun, Kyu-Yeon; Jung, Duk Sang; Kwon, Youngjoo

    2012-05-12

    The key neuropathological features of Alzheimer's disease are abnormal deposition of Aβ plaques and insoluble Aβ peptides in extracellular brain and intracellular neurofibril tangles induced by abnormal tau hyperphosphorylation. μ-Calpain is one of the factors that bridge these Aβ- and hyperphosphorylated tau-mediated pathological pathways. Undecylenic acid (UDA), a naturally occurring unsaturated fatty acid, was discovered as a μ-calpain inhibitor by screening a chemical library using a substrate specific μ-calpain assay method. UDA inhibited Aβ oligomerization and Aβ fibrillation and reversed Aβ-induced neuronal cell death. In addition, UDA scavenged ROS and reversed the levels of proapoptotic proteins induced by ROS in SH-SY5Y cells. UDA inhibited μ-calpain activity with better potency than the known peptide-like μ-calpain inhibitor, MDL28170, in SH-SY5Y and HEK293T cells transfected with the catalytic subunit of μ-calpain. These results suggest that UDA is a novel non-peptide-like μ-calpain inhibitor with good cell permeability and potent neuroprotective effect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Melanocortin-1 receptor activation is neuroprotective in mouse models of neuroinflammatory disease.

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    Mykicki, Nadine; Herrmann, Alexander M; Schwab, Nicholas; Deenen, René; Sparwasser, Tim; Limmer, Andreas; Wachsmuth, Lydia; Klotz, Luisa; Köhrer, Karl; Faber, Cornelius; Wiendl, Heinz; Luger, Thomas A; Meuth, Sven G; Loser, Karin

    2016-10-26

    In inflammation-associated progressive neuroinflammatory disorders, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), inflammatory infiltrates containing T helper 1 (T H 1) and T H 17 cells cause demyelination and neuronal degeneration. Regulatory T cells (T reg ) control the activation and infiltration of autoreactive T cells into the central nervous system (CNS). In MS and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice, T reg function is impaired. We show that a recently approved drug, Nle 4 -d-Phe 7 -α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (NDP-MSH), induced functional T reg , resulting in amelioration of EAE progression in mice. NDP-MSH also prevented immune cell infiltration into the CNS by restoring the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. NDP-MSH exerted long-lasting neuroprotective effects in mice with EAE and prevented excitotoxic death and reestablished action potential firing in mouse and human neurons in vitro. Neuroprotection by NDP-MSH was mediated via signaling through the melanocortin-1 and orphan nuclear 4 receptors in mouse and human neurons. NDP-MSH may be of benefit in treating neuroinflammatory diseases such as relapsing-remitting MS and related disorders. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Resveratrol Neuroprotection in a Chronic Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis

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    Zoe eFonseca-Kelly

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is a naturally-occurring polyphenol that activates SIRT1, an NAD-dependent deacetylase. SRT501, a pharmaceutical formulation of resveratrol with enhanced systemic absorption, prevents neuronal loss without suppressing inflammation in mice with relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a model of multiple sclerosis. In contrast, resveratrol has been reported to suppress inflammation in chronic EAE, although neuroprotective effects were not evaluated. The current studies examine potential neuroprotective and immunomodulatory effects of resveratrol in chronic EAE induced by immunization with myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein peptide in C57/Bl6 mice. Effects of two distinct formulations of resveratrol administered daily orally were compared. Resveratrol delayed the onset of EAE compared to vehicle-treated EAE mice, but did not prevent or alter the phenotype of inflammation in spinal cords or optic nerves. Significant neuroprotective effects were observed, with higher numbers of retinal ganglion cells found in eyes of resveratrol-treated EAE mice with optic nerve inflammation. Results demonstrate that resveratrol prevents neuronal loss in this chronic demyelinating disease model, similar to its effects in relapsing EAE. Differences in immunosuppression compared with prior studies suggest that immunomodulatory effects may be limited and may depend on specific immunization parameters or timing of treatment. Importantly, neuroprotective effects can occur without immunosuppression, suggesting a potential additive benefit of resveratrol in combination with anti-inflammatory therapies for multiple sclerosis.

  11. Neuroprotective Effect of Tea Polyphenols on Oxyhemoglobin Induced Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Mice

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    Haizhen Mo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea polyphenols are of great benefit to the treatment of several neurodegenerative diseases. In order to explore the neuroprotective effects of tea polyphenols and their potential mechanisms, an established in vivo subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH model was used and alterations of mitochondrial function, ATP content, and cytochrome c (cyt c in cerebral cortex were detected. This study showed that the alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential was an early event in SAH progression. The trend of ATP production was similar to that of mitochondrial membrane potential, indicating that the lower the mitochondrial membrane potential, lesser the ATP produced. Due to mitochondrial dysfunction, more cyt c was released in the SAH group. Interestingly, the preadministration of tea polyphenols significantly rescued the mitochondrial membrane potential to basal level, as well as the ATP content and the cyt c level in the brain cortex 12 h after SAH. After pretreatment with tea polyphenols, the neurological outcome was also improved. The results provide strong evidence that tea polyphenols enhance neuroprotective effects by inhibiting polarization of mitochondrial membrane potential, increasing ATP content, and blocking cyt c release.

  12. Neuroprotective effects of phytosterol esters against high cholesterol-induced cognitive deficits in aged rat.

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    Rui, Xu; Wenfang, Li; Jing, Cheng; Meng, Chen; Chengcheng, Ding; Jiqu, Xu; Shuang, Rong

    2017-03-22

    Accumulating epidemiological and experimental studies have confirmed that a high-cholesterol diet is detrimental to cognitive performance in animal models. Phytosterols, a class of naturally occurring structural components in plant foods, have been demonstrated to possess cholesterol-lowering and antioxidant effects. Phytosterol esters (PSE) are esters of phytosterol. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of PSE on cognitive deficit induced by a cholesterol-enriched diet in aged rats, and to explore their underlying mechanisms for these effects. Based on their Morris water maze performance, the latencies differed by <1.5 standard deviations (SDs) on days 3-5 of testing, 60 rats were chosen from 12-month-old female Sprague Dawley aged rats and were randomized into three groups, which were fed either a control diet, a high cholesterol diet (HCD) or a high-cholesterol diet supplemented with 2% PSE (HCD + PSE) for 6 months. In our study, we found that PSE treatment maintained the body weight balance, reduced the serum lipid levels, and improved the cognitive performance of aged rats in the Morris water maze test, as evaluated by shortened escape latencies. Importantly, histological and immunohistochemical results in the brain showed that PSE supplementation may have a neuroprotective effect that alleviates neuroinflammation in aged rats. This neuroprotective effect significantly inhibited degeneration, resulting in a significant increase in the number of pyramidal cells and an apparent decrease in the number of astrocytes compared to rats that were fed only a HCD. Furthermore, PSE improved cholinergic activities by restoring the acetylcholine (ACh) content and decreasing acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the cerebral cortex, as well as by elevating choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) activity in the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex. These results suggest that PSE can play a useful role in alleviating cognitive deficit induced by a

  13. Neuroprotection by Caffeine in Hyperoxia-Induced Neonatal Brain Injury

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    Stefanie Endesfelder

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequelae of prematurity triggered by oxidative stress and free radical-mediated tissue damage have coined the term “oxygen radical disease of prematurity”. Caffeine, a potent free radical scavenger and adenosine receptor antagonist, reduces rates of brain damage in preterm infants. In the present study, we investigated the effects of caffeine on oxidative stress markers, anti-oxidative response, inflammation, redox-sensitive transcription factors, apoptosis, and extracellular matrix following the induction of hyperoxia in neonatal rats. The brain of a rat pups at postnatal Day 6 (P6 corresponds to that of a human fetal brain at 28–32 weeks gestation and the neonatal rat is an ideal model in which to investigate effects of oxidative stress and neuroprotection of caffeine on the developing brain. Six-day-old Wistar rats were pre-treated with caffeine and exposed to 80% oxygen for 24 and 48 h. Caffeine reduced oxidative stress marker (heme oxygenase-1, lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide, and glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC, promoted anti-oxidative response (superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxin 1, and sulfiredoxin 1, down-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines, modulated redox-sensitive transcription factor expression (Nrf2/Keap1, and NFκB, reduced pro-apoptotic effectors (poly (ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1, apoptosis inducing factor (AIF, and caspase-3, and diminished extracellular matrix degeneration (matrix metalloproteinases (MMP 2, and inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP 1/2. Our study affirms that caffeine is a pleiotropic neuroprotective drug in the developing brain due to its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties.

  14. The new inhibitor of monoamine oxidase, M30, has a neuroprotective effect against dexamethasone-induced brain cell apoptosis

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    Shakevia Johnson

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Stress detrimentally affects the brain and body and can lead to or be accompanied by depression. Although stress and depression may contribute to each other, the exact molecular mechanism underlying the effects is unclear. However, there is a correlation between stress and an increase in glucocorticoid secretion which causes a subsequent increase in monoamine oxidase (MAO activity during stress. Consequently, MAO inhibitors have been used as traditional antidepressant drugs. Cellular treatment with the synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone (a cellular stressor, has been reported to markedly increase both MAO A and MAO B catalytic activities, as well as apoptosis. This study compares the neuroprotective abilities of M30 (a new generation inhibitor of both MAO A and MAO B with rasagiline (Azilect®, another new MAO B inhibitor and selegiline (Deprenyl®, a traditional MAO B inhibitor in the prevention of dexamethasone-induced brain cell death and MAO activity in human neuroblastoma cells, SH-SY5Y. M30 demonstrated the highest inhibitory effect on MAO A; however, M30 showed the lowest inhibitory effect on MAO B enzymatic activity in comparison to rasagiline and selegiline. Although, M30 exhibited the greatest neuroprotective effect by decreasing cell death rates and apoptotic DNA damage compared to rasagiline and selegiline, these neuroprotective effects of M30 were, overall, similar to rasagiline. Summarily, M30 has a generally greater impact on neuroprotection than the MAO B inhibitors, selegiline and rasagiline. Our results suggest that M30 may have great potential in alleviating disorders involving increases in both MAO A and MAO B, such as stress-induced disorders.

  15. Neuroprotective effect of TAT-14-3-3ε fusion protein against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

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    Yuanjun Zhu

    Full Text Available Stroke is the major cause of death and disability worldwide, and the thrombolytic therapy currently available was unsatisfactory. 14-3-3ε is a well characterized member of 14-3-3 family, and has been reported to protect neurons against apoptosis in cerebral ischemia. However, it cannot transverse blood brain barrier (BBB due to its large size. A protein transduction domain (PTD of HIV TAT protein, is capable of delivering a large variety of proteins into the brain. In this study, we generated a fusion protein TAT-14-3-3ε, and evaluated its potential neuroprotective effect in rat focal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R model. Western blot analysis validated the efficient transduction of TAT-14-3-3ε fusion protein into brain via a route of intravenous injection. TAT-14-3-3ε pre-treatment 2 h before ischemia significantly reduced cerebral infarction volume and improved neurologic score, while post-treatment 2 h after ischemia was less effective. Importantly, pre- or post-ischemic treatment with TAT-14-3-3ε significantly increased the number of surviving neurons as determined by Nissl staining, and attenuated I/R-induced neuronal apoptosis as showed by the decrease in apoptotic cell numbers and the inhibition of caspase-3 activity. Moreover, the introduction of 14-3-3ε into brain by TAT-mediated delivering reduced the formation of autophagosome, attenuated LC3B-II upregulation and reversed p62 downregulation induced by ischemic injury. Such inhibition of autophagy was reversed by treatment with an autophagy inducer rapamycin (RAP, which also attenuated the neuroprotective effect of TAT-14-3-3ε. Conversely, autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA inhibited I/R-induced the increase in autophagic activity, and attenuated I/R-induced brain infarct. These results suggest that TAT-14-3-3ε can be efficiently transduced into brain and exert significantly protective effect against brain ischemic injury through inhibiting neuronal apoptosis and autophagic

  16. Neuroprotective Effects of Cannabidiol in Hypoxic Ischemic Insult. The Therapeutic Window in Newborn Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Nagat; Ceprian, Maria; Jimenez, Laura; Pazos, M Ruth; Martínez-Orgado, Jose

    2017-01-01

    A relevant therapeutic time window (TTW) is an important criterion for considering the clinical relevance of a substance preventing newborn hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain damage. To test the TTW of the neuroprotective effects of cannabidol (CBD), a non-psychoactive cannabinoid in a model of newborn HI brain damage. 9-10 day-old C57BL6 mice underwent a HI insult (10% oxygen for 90 min after left carotid artery electrocoagulation). Then, CBD 1 mg/kg or vehicle were administered s.c. 15 min, or 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 or 24 h after the end of the HI insult. Seven days later brain damage was assessed using T2W Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan (ipsilateral hemisphere volume loss, IVHL) and histological studies: Nissl staining (neuropathological score), TUNEL staining (apoptotic damage) and immunohistochemistry with glial fibrillary acidic protein (astrocyte viability) or ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule (microglial activation). CBD administered up to 18 h after HI reduced IHVL and neuropathological score by 60%, TUNEL+ count by 90% and astrocyte damage by 50%. In addition, CBD blunted the HI-induced increase in microglial population. When CBD administration was delayed 24 h, however, the neuroprotective effect was lost in terms of IHVL, apoptosis or astrogliosis reduction. CBD shows a TTW of 18 h when administered to HI newborn mice, which represents a broader TTW than reported for other neuroprotective treatments including hypothermia. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Exogenous agmatine has neuroprotective effects against restraint-induced structural changes in the rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Meng-Yang; Wang, Wei-Ping; Cai, Zheng-Wei; Regunathan, Soundar; Ordway, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Agmatine is an endogenous amine derived from decarboxylation of arginine catalysed by arginine decarboxylase. Agmatine is considered a novel neuromodulator and possesses neuroprotective properties in the central nervous system. The present study examined whether agmatine has neuroprotective effects against repeated restraint stress-induced morphological changes in rat medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 6 h of restraint stress daily for 21 days. Immunohistochemical staining with β-tubulin III showed that repeated restraint stress caused marked morphological alterations in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Stress-induced alterations were prevented by simultaneous treatment with agmatine (50 mg/kg/day, i.p.). Interestingly, endogenous agmatine levels, as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus as well as in the striatum and hypothalamus of repeated restraint rats were significantly reduced as compared with the controls. Reduced endogenous agmatine levels in repeated restraint animals were accompanied by a significant increase of arginine decarboxylase protein levels in the same regions. Moreover, administration of exogenous agmatine to restrained rats abolished increases of arginine decarboxylase protein levels. Taken together, these results demonstrate that exogenously administered agmatine has neuroprotective effects against repeated restraint-induced structural changes in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. These findings indicate that stress-induced reductions in endogenous agmatine levels in the rat brain may play a permissive role in neuronal pathology induced by repeated restraint stress. PMID:18364017

  18. Neuroprotective therapies in glaucoma: II. Genetic nanotechnology tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafissi, Nafiseh; Foldvari, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Neurotrophic factor genome engineering could have many potential applications not only in the deeper understanding of neurodegenerative disorders but also in improved therapeutics. The fields of nanomedicine, regenerative medicine, and gene/cell-based therapy have been revolutionized by the development of safer and efficient non-viral technologies for gene delivery and genome editing with modern techniques for insertion of the neurotrophic factors into clinically relevant cells for a more sustained pharmaceutical effect. It has been suggested that the long-term expression of neurotrophic factors is the ultimate approach to prevent and/or treat neurodegenerative disorders such as glaucoma in patients who do not respond to available treatments or are at the progressive stage of the disease. Recent preclinical research suggests that novel neuroprotective gene and cell therapeutics could be promising approaches for both non-invasive neuroprotection and regenerative functions in the eye. Several progenitor and retinal cell types have been investigated as potential candidates for glaucoma neurotrophin therapy either as targets for gene therapy, options for cell replacement therapy, or as vehicles for gene delivery. Therefore, in parallel with deeper understanding of the specific protective effects of different neurotrophic factors and the potential therapeutic cell candidates for glaucoma neuroprotection, the development of non-invasive and highly specific gene delivery methods with safe and effective technologies to modify cell candidates for life-long neuroprotection in the eye is essential before investing in this field.

  19. NEUROPROTECTIVE THERAPIES IN GLAUCOMA: II. GENETIC NANOTECHNOLOGY TOOLS

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    Nafiseh eNafissi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Neurotrophic factor genome engineering could have many potential applications not only in the deeper understanding of neurodegenerative disorders but also in improved therapeutics. The field of nanomedicine, regenerative medicine, and gene/cell-based therapy have been revolutionized by the development of safer and efficient non-viral technologies for gene delivery and genome editing with modern techniques for insertion of the neurotrophic factors into clinically relevant cells for a more sustained pharmaceutical effect. It has been suggested that the long-term expression of neurotrophic factors is the ultimate approach to prevent and/or treat neurodegenerative disorders such as glaucoma in patients who do not respond to available treatments or are at the progressive stage of the disease. Recent preclinical research suggests that novel neuroprotective gene and cell therapeutics could be promising approaches for both non-invasive neuroprotection and regenerative functions in the eye. Several progenitor and retinal cell types have been investigated as potential candidates for glaucoma neurotrophin therapy either as targets for gene therapy, options for cell replacement therapy, or as vehicles for gene delivery. Therefore, in parallel with deeper understanding of the specific protective effects of different neurotrophic factors and the potential therapeutic cell candidates for glaucoma neuroprotection, the development of non-invasive and highly specific gene delivery methods with safe and effective technologies to modify cell candidates for life-long neuroprotection in the eye is essential before investing in this field.

  20. Icariin Reduces Dopaminergic Neuronal Loss and Microglia-Mediated Inflammation in Vivo and in Vitro

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    Guo-Qing Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases characterized with a gradual loss of midbrain substantia nigra (SN dopamine (DA neurons. An excessive evidence demonstrated that microglia-mediated inflammation might be involved in the pathogenesis of PD. Thus, inhibition of neuroinflammation might possess a promising potential for PD treatment. Icariin (ICA, a single active component extracted from the Herba Epimedii, presents amounts of pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant, and anti-aging. Recent studies show ICA produced neuroprotection against brain dysfunction. However, the mechanisms underlying ICA-exerted neuroprotection are fully illuminated. In the present study, two different neurotoxins of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA and lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced rat midbrain DA neuronal damage were applied to investigate the neuroprotective effects of ICA. In addition, primary rat midbrain neuron-glia co-cultures were performed to explore the mechanisms underlying ICA-mediated DA neuroprotection. In vitro data showed that ICA protected DA neurons from LPS/6-OHDA-induced DA neuronal damage and inhibited microglia activation and pro-inflammatory factors production via the suppression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB pathway activation. In animal results, ICA significantly reduced microglia activation and significantly attenuated LPS/6-OHDA-induced DA neuronal loss and subsequent animal behavior changes. Together, ICA could protect DA neurons against LPS- and 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity both in vivo and in vitro. These actions might be closely associated with the inhibition of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation.

  1. The Neuroprotective Disease-Modifying Potential of Psychotropics in Parkinson's Disease

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    Edward C. Lauterbach

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroprotective treatments in Parkinson's disease (PD have remained elusive. Psychotropics are commonly prescribed in PD without regard to their pathobiological effects. The authors investigated the effects of psychotropics on pathobiological proteins, proteasomal activity, mitochondrial functions, apoptosis, neuroinflammation, trophic factors, stem cells, and neurogenesis. Only findings replicated in at least 2 studies were considered for these actions. Additionally, PD-related gene transcription, animal model, and human neuroprotective clinical trial data were reviewed. Results indicate that, from a PD pathobiology perspective, the safest drugs (i.e., drugs least likely to promote cellular neurodegenerative mechanisms balanced against their likelihood of promoting neuroprotective mechanisms include pramipexole, valproate, lithium, desipramine, escitalopram, and dextromethorphan. Fluoxetine favorably affects transcription of multiple genes (e.g., MAPT, GBA, CCDC62, HIP1R, although it and desipramine reduced MPTP mouse survival. Haloperidol is best avoided. The most promising neuroprotective investigative priorities will involve disease-modifying trials of the safest agents alone or in combination to capture salutary effects on H3 histone deacetylase, gene transcription, glycogen synthase kinase-3, α-synuclein, reactive oxygen species (ROS, reactive nitrogen species (RNS, apoptosis, inflammation, and trophic factors including GDNF and BDNF.

  2. Neuroprotective effect of Buddleja officinalis extract on transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Ha, Nina; Bu, Yung-Min; Choi, Hyoung Il; Park, Yoo Guen; Kim, Yoon Bum; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Kim, Hocheol

    2006-08-01

    The flower buds of Buddleja officinalis MAXIM (Loganiaceae) are used to treat headache and inflammatory diseases in traditional Korean medicine. In the present study, the neuroprotective effects of the methanolic extract of B. officinalis (BOME) and of its hexane fraction (BOHF) were investigated in a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo, 120 min occlusion, 24 h reperfusion) Sprague-Dawley rat model. BOME or BOHF (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was twice administered 30 min before the onset of MCAo and 2 h after reperfusion. BOME and BOHF treated groups showed infarct volumes reduced by 33.9% and 68.2%, respectively, at 2 h occlusion. In BOHF treated animals, cyclooxygenase-2 and iNOS inductions were inhibited in ischemic hemispheres at both the mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, in vitro studies showed that BOME and BOHF both inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide production in BV-2 mouse microglial cells. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory and the microglial activation inhibitory effects of B. officinalis extract may contribute to its neuroprotective effects in brain ischemia.

  3. Neuroprotective effect of lithium after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Namgue; Choi, Yun-Sik; Kim, Seong Yun; Kim, Hee Jung

    2017-01-01

    Status epilepticus is the most common serious neurological condition triggered by abnormal electrical activity, leading to severe and widespread cell loss in the brain. Lithium has been one of the main drugs used for the treatment of bipolar disorder for decades, and its anticonvulsant and neuroprotective properties have been described in several neurological disease models. However, the therapeutic mechanisms underlying lithium's actions remain poorly understood. The muscarinic receptor agonist pilocarpine is used to induce status epilepticus, which is followed by hippocampal damage. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of lithium post-treatment on seizure susceptibility and hippocampal neuropathological changes following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. Status epilepticus was induced by administration of pilocarpine hydrochloride (320 mg/kg, i.p.) in C57BL/6 mice at 8 weeks of age. Lithium (80 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 15 minutes after the pilocarpine injection. After the lithium injection, status epilepticus onset time and mortality were recorded. Lithium significantly delayed the onset time of status epilepticus and reduced mortality compared to the vehicle-treated group. Moreover, lithium effectively blocked pilocarpine-induced neuronal death in the hippocampus as estimated by cresyl violet and Fluoro-Jade B staining. However, lithium did not reduce glial activation following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. These results suggest that lithium has a neuroprotective effect and would be useful in the treatment of neurological disorders, in particular status epilepticus.

  4. Neuroprotective effects of ultrasound-guided nerve growth factor injections after sciatic nerve injury

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    Hong-fei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve growth factor (NGF plays an important role in promoting neuroregeneration after peripheral nerve injury. However, its effects are limited by its short half-life; it is therefore important to identify an effective mode of administration. High-frequency ultrasound (HFU is increasingly used in the clinic for high-resolution visualization of tissues, and has been proposed as a method for identifying and evaluating peripheral nerve damage after injury. In addition, HFU is widely used for guiding needle placement when administering drugs to a specific site. We hypothesized that HFU guiding would optimize the neuroprotective effects of NGF on sciatic nerve injury in the rabbit. We performed behavioral, ultrasound, electrophysiological, histological, and immunohistochemical evaluation of HFU-guided NGF injections administered immediately after injury, or 14 days later, and compared this mode of administration with intramuscular NGF injections. Across all assessments, HFU-guided NGF injections gave consistently better outcomes than intramuscular NGF injections administered immediately or 14 days after injury, with immediate treatment also yielding better structural and functional results than when the treatment was delayed by 14 days. Our findings indicate that NGF should be administered as early as possible after peripheral nerve injury, and highlight the striking neuroprotective effects of HFU-guided NGF injections on peripheral nerve injury compared with intramuscular administration.

  5. Lithium-Induced Neuroprotection is Associated with Epigenetic Modification of Specific BDNF Gene Promoter and Altered Expression of Apoptotic-Regulatory Proteins

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    Tushar eDwivedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder (BD, one of the most debilitating mental disorders, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Lithium is the first line of treatment option for BD and is often used for maintenance therapy. Recently, the neuroprotective action of lithium has gained tremendous attention, given that BD is associated with structural and functional abnormalities of the brain. However, the precise molecular mechanism by which lithium exerts its neuroprotective action is not clearly understood. In hippocampal neurons, the effects of lithium on neuronal viability against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity, dendritic length and number, and expression and methylation of BDNF promoter exons and expression of apoptotic regulatory genes were studied. In rat hippocampal neurons, lithium not only increased dendritic length and number, but also neuronal viability against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity. While lithium increased the expression of BDNF as well as genes associated with neuroprotection such as Bcl2 and Bcl-XL, it decreased the expression of pro-apoptotic genes Bax, Bad, and caspases 3. Interestingly, lithium activated transcription of specific exon IV to induce BDNF gene expression. This was accompanied by hypomethylation of BDNF exon IV promoter. This study delineates mechanisms by which lithium mediates its effects in protecting neurons.

  6. Molecular programs induced by heat acclimation confer neuroprotection against TBI and hypoxic insults via cross-tolerance mechanisms

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    Michal eHorowitz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neuroprotection following prolonged exposure to high ambient temperatures (heat acclimation HA develops via altered molecular programs such as cross-tolerance (Heat Acclimation -Neuroprotection Cross-Tolerance -HANCT. The mechanisms underlying cross-tolerance depend on enhanced on-demand protective pathways evolving during acclimation. The protection achieved is long lasting and limits the need for de novo recruitment of cytoprotective pathways upon exposure to novel stressors. Using mouse and rat acclimated phenotypes, we will focus on the impact of heat acclimation on Angiotensin II-AT2 receptors in neurogenesis and on HIF-1 as key mediators in spontaneous recovery and HANCT after traumatic brain injury (TBI. The neuroprotective consequences of heat acclimation on NMDA and AMPA receptors will be discussed using the global hypoxia model. A behavioral-molecular link will be crystallized. The differences between HANCT and consensus preconditioning will be reviewed.

  7. Epobis is a Nonerythropoietic and Neuroprotective Agonist of the Erythropoietin Receptor with Anti-Inflammatory and Memory Enhancing Effects

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    Oksana Dmytriyeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cytokine erythropoietin (EPO stimulates proliferation and differentiation of erythroid progenitor cells. Moreover, EPO has neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative effects, but the use of EPO as a neuroprotective agent is hampered by its erythropoietic activity. We have recently designed the synthetic, dendrimeric peptide, Epobis, derived from the sequence of human EPO. This peptide binds the EPO receptor and promotes neuritogenesis and neuronal cell survival. Here we demonstrate that Epobis in vitro promotes neuritogenesis in primary motoneurons and has anti-inflammatory effects as demonstrated by its ability to decrease TNF release from activated AMJ2-C8 macrophages and rat primary microglia. When administered systemically Epobis is detectable in both plasma and cerebrospinal fluid, demonstrating that the peptide crosses the blood-brain barrier. Importantly, Epobis is not erythropoietic, but systemic administration of Epobis in rats delays the clinical signs of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis, and the peptide has long-term, but not short-term, effects on working memory, detected as an improved social memory 3 days after administration. These data reveal Epobis to be a nonerythropoietic and neuroprotective EPO receptor agonist with anti-inflammatory and memory enhancing properties.

  8. Survival, differentiation, and neuroprotective mechanisms of human stem cells complexed with neurotrophin-3-releasing pharmacologically active microcarriers in an ex vivo model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daviaud, Nicolas; Garbayo, Elisa; Sindji, Laurence; Martínez-Serrano, Alberto; Schiller, Paul C; Montero-Menei, Claudia N

    2015-06-01

    Stem cell-based regenerative therapies hold great potential for the treatment of degenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). We recently reported the repair and functional recovery after treatment with human marrow-isolated adult multilineage inducible (MIAMI) cells adhered to neurotrophin-3 (NT3) releasing pharmacologically active microcarriers (PAMs) in hemiparkinsonian rats. In order to comprehend this effect, the goal of the present work was to elucidate the survival, differentiation, and neuroprotective mechanisms of MIAMI cells and human neural stem cells (NSCs), both adhering to NT3-releasing PAMs in an ex vivo organotypic model of nigrostriatal degeneration made from brain sagittal slices. It was shown that PAMs led to a marked increase in MIAMI cell survival and neuronal differentiation when releasing NT3. A significant neuroprotective effect of MIAMI cells adhering to PAMs was also demonstrated. NSCs barely had a neuroprotective effect and differentiated mostly into dopaminergic neuronal cells when adhering to PAM-NT3. Moreover, those cells were able to release dopamine in a sufficient amount to induce a return to baseline levels. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analyses identified vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and stanniocalcin-1 as potential mediators of the neuroprotective effect of MIAMI cells and NSCs, respectively. It was also shown that VEGF locally stimulated tissue vascularization, which might improve graft survival, without excluding a direct neuroprotective effect of VEGF on dopaminergic neurons. These results indicate a prospective interest of human NSC/PAM and MIAMI cell/PAM complexes in tissue engineering for PD. Stem cell-based regenerative therapies hold great potential for the treatment of degenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). The present work elucidates and compares the survival, differentiation, and neuroprotective mechanisms

  9. [Similarity of cycloprolylglycine to piracetam in antihypoxic and neuroprotective effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolisnikova, K N; Gudasheva, T A; Nazarova, G A; Antipov, T A; Voronina, T A; Seredenin, S B

    2012-01-01

    The antihypoxic activity of the endogenous cyclic dipeptide cycloprolylglycine (CPG) has been studied on a model of normobaric hypoxia with hypercapnia and its neuroprotective activity has been studied on a model of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell damage by 6-hydroxydopamine. It is established that CPG exhibits the antihypoxic activity at doses of 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg (i.p.) on outbred and BALB/c mice, but not on C57B1/6 mice. The neuroprotective activity of CPG was detected in 10(-5) - 10(-8) M concentration range only when the treatment was carried out 24h before toxin introduction. The obtained data confirm the hypothesis that piracetam is a mimetic of the endogenous CPG neuropeptide.

  10. Neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 against oxygen-glucose deprivation in cultured hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qing; Sun, Jianguo; Wang, Qin; Wang, Wei; He, Bin

    2014-03-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) is believed to be one of the main active principles in ginseng, a traditional Chinese medicine extensively used to enhance stamina and deal with fatigue as well as physical stress. It has been reported that Rg1 performs multiple biological activities, including neuroprotective activity. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of ginsenoside Rg1 on ischemia-reperfusion injury in cultured hippocampal cells and also probed its possible mechanisms. To establish a model of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and reperfusion, cultured hippocampal neurons were exposed to OGD for 2.5 hours, followed by a 24-hour reoxygenation. Cultured hippocampal neurons were randomly divided into control group, model group (vehicle), and ginsenoside Rg1 treatment groups (5μM, 20μM, 60μM). At 24 hours post-OGD, the intracellular free calcium concentration was detected using Furo-3/AM-loaded hippocampal neurons deprived of oxygen and glucose. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity was measured by chemical colorimetry. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by Hoechst staining, and the neuron viability was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Excitotoxic neuronal injury of OGD was demonstrated by the increase of intracellular free calcium concentrations and elevated nNOS activity in the model group compared with the control group. The intracellular free calcium concentrations and the nNOS activity in the groups receiving intermediate and high dose of ginsenoside Rg1 were significantly lower than those of the control group (p cell viability loss (p cell apoptosis induced by OGD. Ginsenoside Rg1 has neuroprotective effect on ischemia-reperfusion injury in cultured hippocampal cells mediated by blocking calcium over-influx into neuronal cells and decreasing the nNOS activity after OGD exposure. We infer that ginsenoside Rg1 may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for cerebral ischemia injury. Copyright © 2014

  11. The Neuroprotective Functions of Transforming Growth Factor Beta Proteins

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    Gábor Lovas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β proteins are multifunctional cytokines whose neural functions are increasingly recognized. The machinery of TGF-β signaling, including the serine kinase type transmembrane receptors, is present in the central nervous system. However, the 3 mammalian TGF-β subtypes have distinct distributions in the brain suggesting different neural functions. Evidence of their involvement in the development and plasticity of the nervous system as well as their functions in peripheral organs suggested that they also exhibit neuroprotective functions. Indeed, TGF-β expression is induced following a variety of types of brain tissue injury. The neuroprotective function of TGF-βs is most established following brain ischemia. Damage in experimental animal models of global and focal ischemia was shown to be attenuated by TGF-βs. In addition, support for their neuroprotective actions following trauma, sclerosis multiplex, neurodegenerative diseases, infections, and brain tumors is also accumulating. The review will also describe the potential mechanisms of neuroprotection exerted by TGF-βs including anti-inflammatory, -apoptotic, -excitotoxic actions as well as the promotion of scar formation, angiogenesis, and neuroregeneration. The participation of these mechanisms in the neuroprotective effects of TGF-βs during different brain lesions will also be discussed.

  12. Alkaloids from the hook-bearing branch of Uncaria rhynchophylla and their neuroprotective effects against glutamate-induced HT22 cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wen; Yue, Si-Jia; Sun, Jia-Hong; Simpkins, James W.; Zhang, Lin; Yuan, Dan

    2015-01-01

    One new alkaloid, 4-geissoschizine N-oxide methyl ether (1), was isolated from the EtOH extract of the hook-bearing branch of Uncaria rhynchophylla, together with 10 known alkaloids, 3-epi-geissoschizine methyl ether (2) isolated from U. rhynchophylla for the first time, geissoschizine methyl ether (3), 4-hirsuteine N-oxide (4), hirsuteine (5), hirsutine (6), 3α-dihydro-cadambine (7), 3β-isodihydro-cadambine (8), cadambine (9), strictosamide (10), and akuammigine (11). The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including UV, ESI-QTOF MS, NMR, and circular dichroism experiments. Neuroprotective effects of 1–9 were investigated against 3 mM glutamate-induced HT22 cell death. The activity assay showed that 2, 3, 5, and 6 exhibited potent neuroprotective effects against glutamate-induced HT22 cell death. However, only weak neuroprotective activities were observed for 1, 4, 7, 8, and 9. PMID:24899363

  13. Neuroprotection against oxidative stress by serum from heat acclimated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beit-Yannai, E; Trembovler, V; Horowitz, M; Lazarovici, P; Kohen, R; Shohami, E

    1998-09-25

    Exposure of PC12 cells, to 1% serum derived from normothermic (CON) rats resulted in 79% cell death. Sister cultures treated with 1% serum derived from heat acclimated (ACC) rats, were neuroprotected and expressed a significant reduction in cell death. In PC12 cells exposed to a free radical generator causing an oxidative stress, 90% cell death was measured in CON serum treated cultures, while ACC serum treated cultures were neuroprotected. Xanthine oxidase activity and uric acid (UA) levels were lower in ACC serum compared to CON. Addition of UA to both sera abolished the difference in cell viability, and toxicity of ACC serum reached that of CON. These findings suggest a causal relationship between the lower levels of UA in ACC and the neuroprotective effect observed. The present study proposes heat acclimation as an experimental and/or clinical tool for the achievement of neuroprotection.

  14. Neuroprotective effect of curcumin in arsenic-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rajesh S; Shukla, Rajendra K; Sankhwar, Madhu Lata; Patel, Devendra K; Ansari, Reyaz W; Pant, Aditya B; Islam, Fakhrul; Khanna, Vinay K

    2010-09-01

    Our recent studies have shown that arsenic-induced neurobehavioral toxicity is protected by curcumin by modulating oxidative stress and dopaminergic functions in rats. In addition, the neuroprotective effect of curcumin has been investigated on arsenic-induced alterations in biogenic amines, their metabolites and nitric oxide (NO), which play an important role in neurotransmission process. Decrease in the levels of dopamine (DA, 28%), norepinephrine (NE, 54%), epinephrine (EPN, 46%), serotonin (5-HT, 44%), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC, 20%) and homovanillic acid (HVA, 31%) in corpus striatum; DA (51%), NE (22%), EPN (47%), 5-HT (25%), DOPAC (34%) and HVA (41%) in frontal cortex and DA (35%), NE (35%), EPN (29%), 5-HT (54%), DOPAC (37%) and HVA (46%) in hippocampus, observed in arsenic (sodium arsenite, 20 mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) treated rats exhibited a trend of recovery in rats simultaneously treated with arsenic and curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days). Increased levels of NO in corpus striatum (2.4-fold), frontal cortex (6.1-fold) and hippocampus (6.2-fold) in arsenic-treated rats were found decreased in rats simultaneously treated with arsenic and curcumin. It is evident that curcumin modulates levels of brain biogenic amines and NO in arsenic-exposed rats and these results further strengthen its neuroprotective efficacy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Neuroprotective effect of creatine against propionic acid toxicity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With sufficient research and clinical trials in future, this could prove to be successful in treatment or management of autism as a neurodevelopmental disorder recently related to PA neurotoxicity. Keywords: Propionic acid, creatine, SH-SY5Y, comet assay, DNA fragmentation assay, apoptosis, neuroprotection. African Journal ...

  16. Uric acid demonstrates neuroprotective effect on Parkinson's disease mice through Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting-Ting; Hao, Dong-Lin; Wu, Bo-Na; Mao, Lun-Lin; Zhang, Jin

    2017-12-02

    Uric acid has neuroprotective effect on Parkinson's disease (PD) by inhibiting oxidative damage and neuronal cell death. Our previous study has shown that uric acid protected dopaminergic cell line damage through inhibiting accumulation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). This study aimed to investigate its in vivo neuroprotective effect. PD was induced by MPTP intraperitoneally injection for 7 d in male C57BL/6 mice. Mice were treated with either uric acid (intraperitoneally injection 250 mg/kg) or saline for a total of 13 d. We showed that uric acid improved behavioral performances and cognition of PD mice, increased TH-positive dopaminergic neurons and decreased GFAP-positive astrocytes in substantia nigra (SN). Uric acid increased mRNA and protein expressions of Nrf2 and three Nrf2-responsive genes, including γ-glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (γ-GCLC), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NQO1. Uric acid significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), CAT, glutathione (GSH) levels and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level in SN regions of MPTP-treated mice. Uric acid inhibited the hippocampal expression of IL-1β and decreased serum and hippocampus levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). In conclusion, uric acid demonstrates neuroprotective properties for dopaminergic neurons in PD mice through modulation of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Both Creatine and Its Product Phosphocreatine Reduce Oxidative Stress and Afford Neuroprotection in an In Vitro Parkinson’s Model

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    Mauricio Peña Cunha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Creatine is the substrate for creatine kinase in the synthesis of phosphocreatine (PCr. This energetic system is endowed of antioxidant and neuroprotective properties and plays a pivotal role in brain energy homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of creatine and PCr against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in rat striatal slices, used as an in vitro Parkinson’s model. The possible involvement of the signaling pathway mediated by phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K, protein kinase B (Akt, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β was also evaluated. Exposure of striatal slices to 6-OHDA caused a significant disruption of the cellular homeostasis measured as 3-(4,5 dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide reduction, lactate dehydrogenase release, and tyrosine hydroxylase levels. 6-OHDA exposure increased the levels of reactive oxygen species and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances production and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential in rat striatal slices. Furthermore, 6-OHDA decreased the phosphorylation of Akt (Serine473 and GSK3β (Serine9. Coincubation with 6-OHDA and creatine or PCr reduced the effects of 6-OHDA toxicity. The protective effect afforded by creatine or PCr against 6-OHDA-induced toxicity was reversed by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. In conclusion, creatine and PCr minimize oxidative stress in striatum to afford neuroprotection of dopaminergic neurons.

  18. Both Creatine and Its Product Phosphocreatine Reduce Oxidative Stress and Afford Neuroprotection in an In Vitro Parkinson’s Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-de-Saavedra, Maria D.; Romero, Alejandro; Egea, Javier; Ludka, Fabiana K.; Tasca, Carla I.; Farina, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S.; López, Manuela G.

    2014-01-01

    Creatine is the substrate for creatine kinase in the synthesis of phosphocreatine (PCr). This energetic system is endowed of antioxidant and neuroprotective properties and plays a pivotal role in brain energy homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of creatine and PCr against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in rat striatal slices, used as an in vitro Parkinson’s model. The possible involvement of the signaling pathway mediated by phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt), and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) was also evaluated. Exposure of striatal slices to 6-OHDA caused a significant disruption of the cellular homeostasis measured as 3-(4,5 dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide reduction, lactate dehydrogenase release, and tyrosine hydroxylase levels. 6-OHDA exposure increased the levels of reactive oxygen species and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances production and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential in rat striatal slices. Furthermore, 6-OHDA decreased the phosphorylation of Akt (Serine473) and GSK3β (Serine9). Coincubation with 6-OHDA and creatine or PCr reduced the effects of 6-OHDA toxicity. The protective effect afforded by creatine or PCr against 6-OHDA-induced toxicity was reversed by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. In conclusion, creatine and PCr minimize oxidative stress in striatum to afford neuroprotection of dopaminergic neurons. PMID:25424428

  19. Intravenous administration of mesenchymal stem cells exerts therapeutic effects on parkinsonian model of rats: Focusing on neuroprotective effects of stromal cell-derived factor-1α

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    Tayra Judith

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are pluripotent stem cells derived from bone marrow with secretory functions of various neurotrophic factors. Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α is also reported as one of chemokines released from MSCs. In this research, the therapeutic effects of MSCs through SDF-1α were explored. 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 20 μg was injected into the right striatum of female SD rats with subsequent administration of GFP-labeled MSCs, fibroblasts, (i.v., 1 × 107 cells, respectively or PBS at 2 hours after 6-OHDA injection. All rats were evaluated behaviorally with cylinder test and amphetamine-induced rotation test for 1 month with consequent euthanasia for immunohistochemical evaluations. Additionally, to explore the underlying mechanisms, neuroprotective effects of SDF-1α were explored using 6-OHDA-exposed PC12 cells by using dopamine (DA assay and TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL staining. Results Rats receiving MSC transplantation significantly ameliorated behaviorally both in cylinder test and amphetamine-induced rotation test compared with the control groups. Correspondingly, rats with MSCs displayed significant preservation in the density of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-positive fibers in the striatum and the number of TH-positive neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc compared to that of control rats. In the in vitro study, SDF-1α treatment increased DA release and suppressed cell death induced by 6-OHDA administration compared with the control groups. Conclusions Consequently, MSC transplantation might exert neuroprotection on 6-OHDA-exposed dopaminergic neurons at least partly through anti-apoptotic effects of SDF-1α. The results demonstrate the potentials of intravenous MSC administration for clinical applications, although further explorations are required.

  20. Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid is a potent PPARγ agonist with neuroprotective activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Xavier; Del Río, Carmen; Casano, Salvatore; Palomares, Belén; Ferreiro-Vera, Carlos; Navarrete, Carmen; Sánchez-Carnerero, Carolina; Cantarero, Irene; Bellido, Maria Luz; Meyer, Stefan; Morello, Gaetano; Appendino, Giovanni; Muñoz, Eduardo

    2017-12-01

    Phytocannabinoids are produced in Cannabis sativa L. in acidic form and are decarboxylated upon heating, processing and storage. While the biological effects of decarboxylated cannabinoids such as Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol have been extensively investigated, the bioactivity of Δ 9 -tetahydrocannabinol acid (Δ 9 -THCA) is largely unknown, despite its occurrence in different Cannabis preparations. Here we have assessed possible neuroprotective actions of Δ 9 -THCA through modulation of PPARγ pathways. The effects of six phytocannabinoids on PPARγ binding and transcriptional activity were investigated. The effect of Δ 9 -THCA on mitochondrial biogenesis and PPARγ coactivator 1-α expression was investigated in Neuro-2a (N2a) cells. The neuroprotective effect was analysed in STHdh Q111/Q111 cells expressing a mutated form of the huntingtin protein and in N2a cells infected with an adenovirus carrying human huntingtin containing 94 polyQ repeats (mHtt-q94). The in vivo neuroprotective activity of Δ 9 -THCA was investigated in mice intoxicated with the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA). Cannabinoid acids bind and activate PPARγ with higher potency than their decarboxylated products. Δ 9 -THCA increased mitochondrial mass in neuroblastoma N2a cells and prevented cytotoxicity induced by serum deprivation in STHdh Q111/Q111 cells and by mutHtt-q94 in N2a cells. Δ 9 -THCA, through a PPARγ-dependent pathway, was neuroprotective in mice treated with 3-NPA, improving motor deficits and preventing striatal degeneration. In addition, Δ 9 -THCA attenuated microgliosis, astrogliosis and up-regulation of proinflammatory markers induced by 3-NPA. Δ 9 -THCA shows potent neuroprotective activity, which is worth considering for the treatment of Huntington's disease and possibly other neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  1. The pre-ischaemic neuroprotective effect of a novel polyamine antagonist, N1-dansyl-spermine in a permanent focal cerebral ischaemia model in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Henman, Martin C; Doyle, Karen M; Strbian, Daniel; Kirby, Brian P; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Shaw, Graham G

    2004-12-10

    The polyamine sites on the NMDA receptor complex offer a therapeutic target for focal ischaemia, potentially devoid of most side effects associated with NMDA antagonists. In this study, we investigated the effect of a novel polyamine antagonist, N(1)-dansyl-spermine (0.5-10 mg kg(-1)) in a permanent focal cerebral ischaemia model in mice, and compared its effect to that of MK-801 (0.3-3 mg kg(-1)) following administration 30 min prior to ischaemia. A battery of histological and behavioural tests was employed following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion to assess any neuroprotective effect. Following middle cerebral artery occlusion, N(1)-dansyl-spermine (1-5 mg kg(-1)) and MK-801 (1 or 3 mg kg(-1)) caused a comparable and significant reduction in the percentage hemisphere lesion volume. Similarly, both drugs significantly reduced oedema and neurological deficit score to a similar extent. Locomotor activity in MCAO mice was not significantly improved by MK-801 or N(1)-dansyl-spermine, although N(1)-dansyl-spermine induced a trend towards significant improvement. Significant improvement in rotarod performance was observed at neuroprotective doses with both drugs. Upon comparison of the profile of effects, N(1)-dansyl-spermine at least matched the effectiveness of MK-801 as a neuroprotective agent in this model. In addition, in sham-operated control mice, N(1)-dansyl-spermine was well tolerated, in contrast to the pronounced adverse effects of MK-801 on locomotor activity and rotarod performance. In conclusion, this study has shown that N(1)-dansyl-spermine is as effective a neuroprotective drug as MK-801 in this model. Moreover, in contrast to MK-801, N(1)-dansyl-spermine could be a promising therapeutic candidate for stroke as it is well tolerated at neuroprotective doses in sham-operated animals.

  2. PARP-1 Inhibition Is Neuroprotective in the R6/2 Mouse Model of Huntington's Disease.

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    Antonella Cardinale

    Full Text Available Poly (ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1 is a nuclear enzyme that is involved in physiological processes as DNA repair, genomic stability, and apoptosis. Moreover, published studies demonstrated that PARP-1 mediates necrotic cell death in response to excessive DNA damage under certain pathological conditions. In Huntington's disease brains, PARP immunoreactivity was described in neurons and in glial cells, thereby suggesting the involvement of apoptosis in HD. In this study, we sought to determine if the PARP-1 inhibitor exerts a neuroprotective effect in R6/2 mutant mice, which recapitulates, in many aspects, human HD. Transgenic mice were treated with the PARP-1 inhibitor INO-1001 mg/Kg daily starting from 4 weeks of age. After transcardial perfusion, histological and immunohistochemical studies were performed. We found that INO 1001-treated R6/2 mice survived longer and displayed less severe signs of neurological dysfunction than the vehicle treated ones. Primary outcome measures such as striatal atrophy, morphology of striatal neurons, neuronal intranuclear inclusions and microglial reaction confirmed a neuroprotective effect of the compound. INO-1001 was effective in significantly increasing activated CREB and BDNF in the striatal spiny neurons, which might account for the beneficial effects observed in this model. Our findings show that PARP-1 inhibition could be considered as a valid therapeutic approach for HD.

  3. Neuroprotective effect of transplanted human embryonic stem cell-derived neural precursors in an animal model of multiple sclerosis.

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    Michal Aharonowiz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS is an immune mediated demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS. A potential new therapeutic approach for MS is cell transplantation which may promote remyelination and suppress the inflammatory process. METHODS: We transplanted human embryonic stem cells (hESC-derived early multipotent neural precursors (NPs into the brain ventricles of mice induced with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, the animal model of MS. We studied the effect of the transplanted NPs on the functional and pathological manifestations of the disease. RESULTS: Transplanted hESC-derived NPs significantly reduced the clinical signs of EAE. Histological examination showed migration of the transplanted NPs to the host white matter, however, differentiation to mature oligodendrocytes and remyelination were negligible. Time course analysis of the evolution and progression of CNS inflammation and tissue injury showed an attenuation of the inflammatory process in transplanted animals, which was correlated with the reduction of both axonal damage and demyelination. Co-culture experiments showed that hESC-derived NPs inhibited the activation and proliferation of lymph node-derived T cells in response to nonspecific polyclonal stimuli. CONCLUSIONS: The therapeutic effect of transplantation was not related to graft or host remyelination but was mediated by an immunosuppressive neuroprotective mechanism. The attenuation of EAE by hESC-derived NPs, demonstrated here, may serve as the first step towards further developments of hESC for cell therapy in MS.

  4. Lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Luo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has long been used as a mood stabilizer in the treatment of manic-depressive (bipolar disorder. Recent studies suggest that lithium has neuroprotective properties and may be useful in the treatment of acute brain injuries such as ischemia and chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. One of the most important neuroprotective properties of lithium is its anti-apoptotic action. Ethanol is a neuroteratogen and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD are caused by maternal ethanol exposure during pregnancy. FASD is the leading cause of mental retardation. Ethanol exposure causes neuroapoptosis in the developing brain. Ethanol-induced loss of neurons in the central nervous system underlies many of the behavioral deficits observed in FASD. Excessive alcohol consumption is also associated with Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome and neurodegeneration in the adult brain. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that lithium is able to ameliorate ethanol-induced neuroapoptosis. Lithium is an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3 which has recently been identified as a mediator of ethanol neurotoxicity. Lithium’s neuroprotection may be mediated by its inhibition of GSK3. In addition, lithium also affects many other signaling proteins and pathways that regulate neuronal survival and differentiation. This review discusses the recent evidence of lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity and potential underlying mechanisms.

  5. Insulin-like Growth Factor-I Mediates Neuroprotection in Proteasome Inhibition-Induced Cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Benxu; Maffi, Shivani Kaushal; Martinez, Alex Anthony; Acosta, Yolanda P Villarreal; Morales, Liza D; Roberts, James L

    2011-01-01

    The proteasome is an enzyme complex responsible for targeted intracellular proteolysis. Alterations in proteasome-mediated protein clearance have been implicated in the pathogenesis of aging, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). In such diseases, proteasome inhibition may contribute to formation of abnormal protein aggregates, which in turn activate intracellular unfolded protein responses that cause oxidative stress and apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-1) for neural SH-SY5Y cells treated with the proteasomal inhibitor, Epoxomicin, In SH-SY5Y cells, Epoxomicin treatment results in accumulation of intracellular ubiquitinated proteins and cytochrome c release from damaged mitochondria, leading to cell death, in Epoxomicin time- and dose-dependent manner. In cells treated with small amounts of IGF-1, the same dosages of Epoxomicin reduced both mitochondrial damage (cytochrome c release) and reduced caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage, both of which are markers of apoptosis. Notably, however, IGF-1-treated SH-SY5Y cells still contained ubiquitinated protein aggregates. This result indicates that IGF-1 blocks the downstream apoptotic consequences of Epoxomicin treatment leading to decreased proteasome function. Clues as to the mechanism for this protective effect come from (a) increased AKT phosphorylation observed in IGF-1-protected cells, vs. cells exposed to Epoxomicin without IGF-1, and (b) reduction of IGF-1 protection by pretreatment of the cells with LY294002 (an inhibitor of PI3-kinase). Together these findings suggest that activation of PI3/AKT pathways by IGF-1 is involved in IGF-1 neuroprotection against apoptosis following proteasome inhibition. PMID:21545837

  6. Neuroprotective Effect of Nanodiamond in Alzheimer's Disease Rat Model: a Pivotal Role for Modulating NF-κB and STAT3 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawdi, Shawqi H; El-Denshary, Ezzeldin S; Safar, Marwa M; Eidi, Housam; David, Marie-Odile; Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad A

    2017-04-01

    Current therapeutic approaches of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are symptomatic and of modest efficacy, and there is no available effective cure or prevention of AD; hence, the need arise to search for neuroprotective agents to combat AD. The current study aimed at investigating the neuroprotective effect of nanodiamond (ND), adamantine-based nanoparticles, in aluminum-induced cognitive impairment in rats, an experimental model of AD. AD was induced by aluminum chloride (17 mg/kg, p.o. for 6 weeks) and confirmed by Morris water maze and Y-maze behavioral tests. Biochemical and histological analyses of the hippocampus were also performed. Aluminum-treated rats showed behavioral, biochemical, and histological changes similar to those associated with AD. ND improved learning and memory and reversed histological alterations. At the molecular levels, ND mitigated the increase of hippocampal beta-amyloid (Aβ 42 ) and beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE1) together with down-regulation of phosphorylated tau protein. It also modulated the excitatory glutamate neurotransmitter level. Furthermore, ND boosted the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and mitochondrial transcription factor-A (TFAM), suppressed the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and curbed oxidative stress by hampering of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Moreover, ND augmented the hippocampal levels of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (p-STAT3) and B cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) anti-apoptotic protein while diminished nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and caspase-3 (casp-3) expression. These findings indicate the protective effect of ND against memory deficits and AD-like pathological aberrations probably via modulating NF-kB and STAT3 signaling, effects mediated likely by modulating N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors.

  7. Combining neuroprotectants in a model of retinal degeneration: no additive benefit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Di Marco

    Full Text Available The central nervous system undergoing degeneration can be stabilized, and in some models can be restored to function, by neuroprotective treatments. Photobiomodulation (PBM and dietary saffron are distinctive as neuroprotectants in that they upregulate protective mechanisms, without causing measurable tissue damage. This study reports a first attempt to combine the actions of PBM and saffron. Our working hypothesis was that the actions of PBM and saffron in protecting retinal photoreceptors, in a rat light damage model, would be additive. Results confirmed the neuroprotective potential of each used separately, but gave no evidence that their effects are additive. Detailed analysis suggests that there is actually a negative interaction between PBM and saffron when given simultaneously, with a consequent reduction of the neuroprotection. Specific testing will be required to understand the mechanisms involved and to establish whether there is clinical potential in combining neuroprotectants, to improve the quality of life of people affected by retinal pathology, such as age-related macular degeneration, the major cause of blindness and visual impairment in older adults.

  8. Neuroprotective effect of Portulaca oleracea extracts against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesion of dopaminergic neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WALESKA B. MARTINS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Portulaca oleracea L. (Portulacaceae is a cosmopolitan species with a wide range of biological activities, including antioxidant and neuroprotective actions. We investigated the effects of P. oleracea extracts in a 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of Parkinson's disease, a debilitating disorder without effective treatments. Chemical profiles of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of whole plant were analyzed by thin layer chromatography and the antioxidant activity was assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrilhidrazila method. Male Wistar rats received intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine and were treated with vehicle or extracts (oral, 200 and 400 mg/kg daily for two weeks. The behavioral open field test was conducted at days 1 and 15. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed 4 weeks after surgery to quantify tyrosine-hydroxylase cell counts in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Extracts presented antioxidant activity in concentrations above 300 µg/kg. The chromatographic analysis revealed the presence of Levodopa, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids and polysaccharides. Both extracts improved motor recovery 15 days after lesion and protected from tyrosine-hydroxylase cell loss after 4 weeks, but these effects were more evident for the aqueous extract. Because the dopamine precursor is present, in addition to antioxidant compounds and neuroprotective effects, P. oleracea can be considered as potential strategy for treating Parkinson's disease.

  9. Neuroprotective effect of Portulaca oleracea extracts against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesion of dopaminergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Waleska B; Rodrigues, Sheyla A; Silva, Hatamy K; Dantas, Camila G; Júnior, Waldecy DE Lucca; Filho, Lauro Xavier; Cardoso, Juliana C; Gomes, Margarete Z

    2016-09-01

    The Portulaca oleracea L. (Portulacaceae) is a cosmopolitan species with a wide range of biological activities, including antioxidant and neuroprotective actions. We investigated the effects of P. oleracea extracts in a 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of Parkinson's disease, a debilitating disorder without effective treatments. Chemical profiles of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of whole plant were analyzed by thin layer chromatography and the antioxidant activity was assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrilhidrazila method. Male Wistar rats received intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine and were treated with vehicle or extracts (oral, 200 and 400 mg/kg) daily for two weeks. The behavioral open field test was conducted at days 1 and 15. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed 4 weeks after surgery to quantify tyrosine-hydroxylase cell counts in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Extracts presented antioxidant activity in concentrations above 300 µg/kg. The chromatographic analysis revealed the presence of Levodopa, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids and polysaccharides. Both extracts improved motor recovery 15 days after lesion and protected from tyrosine-hydroxylase cell loss after 4 weeks, but these effects were more evident for the aqueous extract. Because the dopamine precursor is present, in addition to antioxidant compounds and neuroprotective effects, P. oleracea can be considered as potential strategy for treating Parkinson's disease.

  10. Neuroprotective Mechanisms of the ACE2-Angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas Axis in Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennion, Douglas M; Haltigan, Emily; Regenhardt, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of beneficial neuroprotective effects of the angiotensin converting enzyme 2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis [ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas] in ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke has spurred interest in a more complete characterization of its mechanisms of action. Here, we summarize findings that desc......The discovery of beneficial neuroprotective effects of the angiotensin converting enzyme 2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis [ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas] in ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke has spurred interest in a more complete characterization of its mechanisms of action. Here, we summarize findings...... that describe the protective role of the ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas axis in stroke, along with a focused discussion on the potential mechanisms of neuroprotective effects of Ang-(1-7) in stroke. The latter incorporates evidence describing the actions of Ang-(1-7) to counter the deleterious effects of angiotensin II...... complete understanding of the mechanisms of action of Ang-(1-7) to elicit neuroprotection will serve as an essential step toward research into potential targeted therapeutics in the clinical setting....

  11. Biochemical Properties and Neuroprotective Effects of Compounds in Various Species of Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Kelly

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Several species of berries, such as blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium and lingonberries (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L., have attracted much scientific attention in recent years, especially due to their reported antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Berries, as with other types of plants, have developed metabolic mechanisms to survive various environmental stresses, some of which involve reactive oxygen species. In addition, the fruits and leaves of berries have high amounts of polyphenols, such as flavonoids, which act as potent antioxidants. These compounds could potentially be beneficial for brain aging and neurodegenerative disorders. There are now several studies documenting the beneficial effects of various berries in cell models of neurotoxicity as well as in vivo models of neurodegenerative disease. In the current review, we discuss the metabolic strategies that plants and animals have developed in order to combat reactive oxygen species. We then discuss issues of bioavailability of various compounds in mammals and provide a synopsis of studies demonstrating the neuroprotective ability of berries and polyphenols. We also summarize findings from our own research group. For example, we have detected various polyphenols in samples of blueberries and lingonberries and have found that the leaves have a much higher antioxidant capacity than the fruits. Extracts from these species have also demonstrated neuroprotective effects in cellular models of toxicity and inflammation, which are being further pursued in animal models.

  12. Retinal neuroprotection by hypoxic preconditioning is independent of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha expression in photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiersch, Markus; Lange, Christina; Joly, Sandrine; Heynen, Severin; Le, Yun Zheng; Samardzija, Marijana; Grimm, Christian

    2009-06-01

    Hypoxic preconditioning stabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1 alpha in the retina and protects photoreceptors against light-induced cell death. HIF-1 alpha is one of the major transcription factors responding to low oxygen tension and can differentially regulate a large number of target genes. To analyse whether photoreceptor-specific expression of HIF-1 alpha is essential to protect photoreceptors by hypoxic preconditioning, we knocked down expression of HIF-1 alpha specifically in photoreceptor cells, using the cyclization recombinase (Cre)-lox system. The Cre-mediated knockdown caused a 20-fold reduced expression of Hif-1 alpha in the photoreceptor cell layer. In the total retina, RNA expression was reduced by 65%, and hypoxic preconditioning led to only a small increase in HIF-1 alpha protein levels. Accordingly, HIF-1 target gene expression after hypoxia was significantly diminished. Retinas of Hif-1 alpha knockdown animals did not show any pathological alterations, and tolerated hypoxic exposure in a comparable way to wild-type retinas. Importantly, the strong neuroprotective effect of hypoxic preconditioning against light-induced photoreceptor degeneration persisted in knockdown mice, suggesting that hypoxia-mediated survival of light exposure does not depend on an autocrine action of HIF-1 alpha in photoreceptor cells. Hypoxia-mediated stabilization of HIF-2 alpha and phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT 3) were not affected in the retinas of Hif-1 alpha knockdown mice. Thus, these factors are candidates for regulating the resistance of photoreceptors to light damage after hypoxic preconditioning, along with several potentially neuroprotective genes that were similarly induced in hypoxic knockdown and control mice.

  13. Neuroprotective effects of α-lipoic acid against hypoxic– ischemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To explore the neuroprotective efficacy of α-lipoic acid (ALA) against hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in neonatal rats. Methods: Forty-eight rats (P7-pups) were randomly assigned to one of four groups: group I received saline; group II (HI) underwent unilateral carotid artery ligation and hypoxia (92 % N2 ...

  14. Curcumin: a potential neuroprotective agent in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mythri, R B; Bharath, M M Srinivas

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-associated neurodegenerative disease clinically characterized as a movement disorder. The motor symptoms in PD arise due to selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the ventral midbrain thereby depleting the dopamine levels in the striatum. Most of the current pharmacotherapeutic approaches in PD are aimed at replenishing the striatal dopamine. Although these drugs provide symptomatic relief during early PD, many patients develop motor complications with long-term treatment. Further, PD medications do not effectively tackle tremor, postural instability and cognitive deficits. Most importantly, most of these drugs do not exhibit neuroprotective effects in patients. Consequently, novel therapies involving natural antioxidants and plant products/molecules with neuroprotective properties are being exploited for adjunctive therapy. Curcumin is a polyphenol and an active component of turmeric (Curcuma longa), a dietary spice used in Indian cuisine and medicine. Curcumin exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, crosses the blood-brain barrier and is neuroprotective in neurological disorders. Several studies in different experimental models of PD strongly support the clinical application of curcumin in PD. The current review explores the therapeutic potential of curcumin in PD.

  15. Squamosamide derivative FLZ protects dopaminergic neurons against inflammation-mediated neurodegeneration through the inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Belinda

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD through over-activation of microglia, which consequently causes the excessive production of proinflammatory and neurotoxic factors, and impacts surrounding neurons and eventually induces neurodegeneration. Hence, prevention of microglial over-activation has been shown to be a prime target for the development of therapeutic agents for inflammation-mediated neurodegenerative diseases. Methods For in vitro studies, mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures and reconstituted cultures were used to investigate the molecular mechanism by which FLZ, a squamosamide derivative, mediates anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in both lipopolysaccharide-(LPS- and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-(MPP+-mediated models of PD. For in vivo studies, a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine-(MPTP- induced PD mouse model was used. Results FLZ showed potent efficacy in protecting dopaminergic (DA neurons against LPS-induced neurotoxicity, as shown in rat and mouse primary mesencephalic neuronal-glial cultures by DA uptake and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH immunohistochemical results. The neuroprotective effect of FLZ was attributed to a reduction in LPS-induced microglial production of proinflammatory factors such as superoxide, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2. Mechanistic studies revealed that the anti-inflammatory properties of FLZ were mediated through inhibition of NADPH oxidase (PHOX, the key microglial superoxide-producing enzyme. A critical role for PHOX in FLZ-elicited neuroprotection was further supported by the findings that 1 FLZ's protective effect was reduced in cultures from PHOX-/- mice, and 2 FLZ inhibited LPS-induced translocation of the cytosolic subunit of p47PHOX to the membrane and thus inhibited the activation of PHOX. The neuroprotective effect of FLZ demonstrated in primary neuronal

  16. Neuroprotective effects of ebselen following forebrain ischemia: involvement of glutamate and nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Fujisawa, Hirosuke; Suehiro, Eiichi; Shirao, Satoshi; Suzuki, Michiyasu

    2011-01-01

    Ebselen is a mimic of glutathione peroxidase that reacts with peroxynitrite and inhibits nitric oxide (NO) synthase. Ebselen has beneficial effects on the neurological outcome of patients with stroke. In this study, the mechanisms by which ebselen can elicit neuroprotective effects against ischemic brain injury were investigated in male Wistar rats. Experimental forebrain ischemia was induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion with hemorrhagic hypotension. Ebselen was administered to animals in the treatment group 2 hours prior to the induction of forebrain ischemia, and placebo was administered in the control group. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by the hydrogen clearance method. Cortical extracellular levels of excitatory amino acids (EAAs) and NO were evaluated using in vivo microdialysis. Neuronal damage in the CA1 subfield of the hippocampus was assessed in brains harvested after a 24-hour period of survival. CBF did not recover to normal physiological levels after ischemic insults in either the control or treatment groups. The differences in the sequential changes in extracellular EAA and NO levels between groups were not statistically significant. There was a significantly larger mean density of intact, undamaged neurons in the CA1 subfield in the treatment group than in the control group. The neuroprotective effects of ebselen were reflected in the histological findings, without significant inhibition of glutamate release or NO synthesis during the acute phase of experimentally induced cerebral ischemia.

  17. Neuroprotective effect of α-mangostin and curcumin against iodoacetate-induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Fermín, Laura María; González-Reyes, Susana; Tarco-Álvarez, Nadia Gabriela; Hernández-Nava, Marisol; Orozco-Ibarra, Marisol; Pedraza-Chaverri, José

    2012-09-01

    Curcumin is a phenolic yellow curry pigment with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities and α-mangostin is a xanthone isolated from mangosteen fruit with antioxidant properties. Iodoacetate (IAA) is an inhibitor of the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase that induces a model of metabolic inhibition in neurons where reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is a significant mechanism. Furthermore, it has been shown that the induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protects against IAA-induced neuronal death. To study the effects of α-mangostin and curcumin against the IAA-induced cell death and on HO-1 expression in primary cultures of cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). CGNs were treated with curcumin or α-mangostin before the addition of IAA. Cell viability and ROS production were measured 24 and 4 hours after IAA addition, respectively. HO-1 expression was measured by western blot. Both α-mangostin and curcumin pretreatment ameliorated the neuronal death induced by IAA in a concentration-dependent way, which was associated with an amelioration of IAA-induced ROS formation. In addition, it was found that α-mangostin and curcumin induced HO-1 expression. Treatment with α-mangostin and curcumin provided a neuroprotective effect against IAA in primary cultures of CGNs, an effect associated with an amelioration of the IAA-induced ROS production. HO-1 induced by these antioxidants may also be involved in the neuroprotective effect. Future work will be required to determine whether α-mangostin may cross the blood-brain barrier and achieve enough bioavailability to elicit a protective response in the brain being an effective nutraceutical compound for preventive therapy of neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. Neuroprotective Treatment of Laser-Induced Retinal Injuries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosner, Mordechai

    2001-01-01

    .... It is not possible to prevent all these injuries and there is no treatment. This study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of dextromethorphan, memantine and brimonidine in our rat model of laser- induced retinal-lesions Methods...

  19. ERKs and mitochondria-related pathways are essential for glycyrrhizic acid-mediated neuroprotection against glutamate-induced toxicity in differentiated PC12 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.; Guo, T.Q.; Wang, Z.Y.; Lu, J.H.; Liu, D.P.; Meng, Q.F.; Xie, J.; Zhang, X.L.; Liu, Y.; Teng, L.S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study focuses on the neuroprotective effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA, a major compound separated from Glycyrrhiza Radix, which is a crude Chinese traditional drug) against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in differentiated PC12 (DPC12) cells. The results showed that GA treatment improved cell viability and ameliorated abnormal glutamate-induced alterations in mitochondria in DPC12 cells. GA reversed glutamate-suppressed B-cell lymphoma 2 levels, inhibited glutamate-enhanced expressions of Bax and cleaved caspase 3, and reduced cytochrome C (Cyto C) release. Exposure to glutamate strongly inhibited phosphorylation of AKT (protein kinase B) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs); however, GA pretreatment enhanced activation of ERKs but not AKT. The presence of PD98059 (a mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase [MEK] inhibitor) but not LY294002 (a phosphoinositide 3-kinase [PI3K] inhibitor) diminished the potency of GA for improving viability of glutamate-exposed DPC12 cells. These results indicated that ERKs and mitochondria-related pathways are essential for the neuroprotective effect of GA against glutamate-induced toxicity in DPC12 cells. The present study provides experimental evidence supporting GA as a potential therapeutic agent for use in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases

  20. ERKs and mitochondria-related pathways are essential for glycyrrhizic acid-mediated neuroprotection against glutamate-induced toxicity in differentiated PC12 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D. [School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun (China); The State Engineering Laboratory of AIDS Vaccine, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Guo, T.Q. [School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Wang, Z.Y. [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Lu, J.H.; Liu, D.P.; Meng, Q.F.; Xie, J. [School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Zhang, X.L. [Faculty of ScienceNational University of Singapore (Singapore); Liu, Y. [School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Teng, L.S. [School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun (China); The State Engineering Laboratory of AIDS Vaccine, Jilin University, Changchun (China)

    2014-07-25

    The present study focuses on the neuroprotective effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA, a major compound separated from Glycyrrhiza Radix, which is a crude Chinese traditional drug) against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in differentiated PC12 (DPC12) cells. The results showed that GA treatment improved cell viability and ameliorated abnormal glutamate-induced alterations in mitochondria in DPC12 cells. GA reversed glutamate-suppressed B-cell lymphoma 2 levels, inhibited glutamate-enhanced expressions of Bax and cleaved caspase 3, and reduced cytochrome C (Cyto C) release. Exposure to glutamate strongly inhibited phosphorylation of AKT (protein kinase B) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs); however, GA pretreatment enhanced activation of ERKs but not AKT. The presence of PD98059 (a mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase [MEK] inhibitor) but not LY294002 (a phosphoinositide 3-kinase [PI3K] inhibitor) diminished the potency of GA for improving viability of glutamate-exposed DPC12 cells. These results indicated that ERKs and mitochondria-related pathways are essential for the neuroprotective effect of GA against glutamate-induced toxicity in DPC12 cells. The present study provides experimental evidence supporting GA as a potential therapeutic agent for use in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Melatonin for women in pregnancy for neuroprotection of the fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Dominic; Shepherd, Emily; Wallace, Euan M

    2016-03-29

    Melatonin is an antioxidant with anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. Animal studies have supported a fetal neuroprotective role for melatonin when administered maternally. It is important to assess whether melatonin, given to the mother, can reduce the risk of neurosensory disabilities (including cerebral palsy) and death, associated with fetal brain injury, for the preterm or term compromised fetus. To assess the effects of melatonin when used for neuroprotection of the fetus. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 January 2016). We planned to include randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing melatonin given to women in pregnancy (regardless of the route, timing, dose and duration of administration) for fetal neuroprotection with placebo, no treatment, or with an alternative agent aimed at providing fetal neuroprotection. We also planned to include comparisons of different regimens for administration of melatonin. Two review authors planned to independently assess trial eligibility, trial quality and extract the data. We found no randomised trials for inclusion in this review. One study is ongoing. As we did not identify any randomised trials for inclusion in this review, we are unable to comment on implications for practice at this stage.Although evidence from animals studies has supported a fetal neuroprotective role for melatonin when administered to the mother during pregnancy, no trials assessing melatonin for fetal neuroprotection in pregnant women have been completed to date. However, there is currently one ongoing randomised controlled trial (with an estimated enrolment target of 60 pregnant women) which examines the dose of melatonin, administered to women at risk of imminent very preterm birth (less than 28 weeks' gestation) required to reduce brain damage in the white matter of the babies that were born very preterm.Further high-quality research is needed and research

  2. P7C3 Neuroprotective Chemicals Block Axonal Degeneration and Preserve Function after Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry C. Yin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The P7C3 class of neuroprotective aminopropyl carbazoles has been shown to block neuronal cell death in models of neurodegeneration. We now show that P7C3 molecules additionally preserve axonal integrity after injury, before neuronal cell death occurs, in a rodent model of blast-mediated traumatic brain injury (TBI. This protective quality may be linked to the ability of P7C3 molecules to activate nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, the rate-limiting enzyme in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide salvage. Initiation of daily treatment with our recently reported lead agent, P7C3-S243, 1 day after blast-mediated TBI blocks axonal degeneration and preserves normal synaptic activity, learning and memory, and motor coordination in mice. We additionally report persistent neurologic deficits and acquisition of an anxiety-like phenotype in untreated animals 8 months after blast exposure. Optimized variants of P7C3 thus offer hope for identifying neuroprotective agents for conditions involving axonal damage, neuronal cell death, or both, such as occurs in TBI.

  3. Neuroprotective effects of the AMPA antagonist PNQX in oxygen-glucose deprivation in mouse hippocampal slice cultures and global cerebral ischemia in gerbils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, Maria; Nielsen, Marianne; Rønn, Lars Christian B

    2007-01-01

    PNQX (9-methyl-amino-6-nitro-hexahydro-benzo(F)quinoxalinedione) is a selective AMPA antagonist with demonstrated neuroprotective effects in focal ischemia in rats. Here we report corresponding effects in mouse hippocampal slice cultures subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) and in tr......PNQX (9-methyl-amino-6-nitro-hexahydro-benzo(F)quinoxalinedione) is a selective AMPA antagonist with demonstrated neuroprotective effects in focal ischemia in rats. Here we report corresponding effects in mouse hippocampal slice cultures subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD......) and in transient global cerebral ischemia in gerbils. For in vitro studies, hippocampal slice cultures derived from 7-day-old mice and grown for 14 days, were submersed in oxygen-glucose deprived medium for 30 min and exposed to PNQX for 24 h, starting together with OGD, immediately after OGD, or 2 h after OGD...... stained for the neurodegeneration marker Fluoro-Jade B and immunostained for the astroglial marker glial fibrillary acidic protein revealed a significant PNQX-induced decrease in neuronal cell death and astroglial activation. We conclude that, PNQX provided neuroprotection against both global cerebral...

  4. Male/female differences in neuroprotection and neuromodulation of brain dopamine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie eBourque

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a sex difference in Parkinson’s disease is observed in several variables, including susceptibility of the disease, age at onset and symptoms. These differences between men and women represent a significant characteristic of Parkinson’s disease which suggests that estrogens may exert beneficial effects against the development and the progression of the disease. This paper reviews the neuroprotective and neuromodulator effect of 17β-estradiol and progesterone as compared to androgens in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system of both female and male rodents. The 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP mice model of Parkinson’s disease and methamphetamine toxicity faithfully reproduce the sex differences of Parkinson’s disease in that endogenous estrogen levels appear to influence the vulnerability to toxins targeting the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. Exogenous 17β-estradiol and/or progesterone treatments show neuroprotective properties against nigrostriatal dopaminergic toxins while androgens fail to induce beneficial effect. Sex steroids treatments show males and females difference in their neuroprotective action against methamphetamine toxicity. Nigrostriatal dopaminergic structure and function, as well as the distribution of estrogen receptors, show sex difference and may influence the susceptibility to the toxins and the response to sex steroids. Genomic and non-genomic actions of 17β-estradiol converge to promote survival factors and the presence of both estrogen receptors α and β are critical to 17β-estradiol neuroprotective action against MPTP toxicity.

  5. Fast, non-competitive and reversible inhibition of NMDA-activated currents by 2-BFI confers neuroprotection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Han

    Full Text Available Excessive activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA type glutamate receptors (NMDARs causes excitotoxicity, a process important in stroke-induced neuronal death. Drugs that inhibit NMDA receptor-mediated [Ca(2+]i influx are potential leads for development to treat excitotoxicity-induced brain damage. Our previous studies showed that 2-(2-benzofu-ranyl-2-imidazoline (2-BFI, an immidazoline receptor ligand, dose-dependently protects rodent brains from cerebral ischemia injury. However, the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we found that 2-BFI transiently and reversibly inhibits NMDA, but not AMPA currents, in a dose-dependent manner in cultured rat cortical neurons. The mechanism of 2-BFI inhibition of NMDAR is through a noncompetitive fashion with a faster on (Kon = 2.19±0.33×10(-9 M(-1 sec(-1 and off rate (Koff = 0.67±0.02 sec(-1 than those of memantine, a gold standard for therapeutic inhibition NMDAR-induced excitotoxicity. 2-BFI also transiently and reversibly blocked NMDA receptor-mediated calcium entry to cultured neurons and provided long-term neuroprotection against NMDA toxicity in vitro. Collectively, these studies demonstrated a potential mechanism of 2-BFI-mediated neuroprotection and indicated that 2-BFI is an excellent candidate for repositioning as a drug for stroke treatment.

  6. Astaxanthin as a Potential Neuroprotective Agent for Neurological Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijian Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurological diseases, which consist of acute injuries and chronic neurodegeneration, are the leading causes of human death and disability. However, the pathophysiology of these diseases have not been fully elucidated, and effective treatments are still lacking. Astaxanthin, a member of the xanthophyll group, is a red-orange carotenoid with unique cell membrane actions and diverse biological activities. More importantly, there is evidence demonstrating that astaxanthin confers neuroprotective effects in experimental models of acute injuries, chronic neurodegenerative disorders, and neurological diseases. The beneficial effects of astaxanthin are linked to its oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic characteristics. In this review, we will focus on the neuroprotective properties of astaxanthin and explore the underlying mechanisms in the setting of neurological diseases.

  7. Neuroprotective effect of curcumin-loaded lactoferrin nano particles against rotenone induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollimpelli, V Satish; Kumar, Prashant; Kumari, Sonali; Kondapi, Anand K

    2016-05-01

    Curcumin is known to have neuroprotective role and possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activities. Rotenone, a flavonoid induced neurotoxicity in dopaminergic cells is being widely studied in Parkinson's Disease (PD) research. In the present study, curcumin loaded lactoferrin nano particles prepared by sol-oil chemistry were used to protect dopaminergic cell line SK-N-SH against rotenone induced neurotoxicity. These curcumin loaded nano particles were of 43-60 nm diameter size and around 100 nm hydrodynamic size as assessed by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis respectively. The encapsulation efficiency was 61.3% ± 2.4%. Cellular uptake of curcumin through these nano particles was confirmed by confocal imaging and spectrofluorimetric analysis. The curcumin loaded lactoferrin nanoparticles showed greater intracellular drug uptake, sustained retention and greater neuroprotection than soluble counterpart. Neuroprotective activity was characterized through viability assays and by estimating ROS levels. Furthermore rotenone induced PD like features were characterized by decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase expression and increase in α-synuclein expression. Taken together curcumin loaded lactoferrin nanoparticles could be a promising drug delivery strategy against neurotoxicity in dopaminergic neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Neuroprotective effects of ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides against oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin-zhi; Liao, Ying; Li, Wei; Guo, Li-mei

    2017-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides have protective effects against apoptosis in neurons exposed to ischemia/reperfusion injury, but the mechanisms are unclear. The goal of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the effects of ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides against oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used to induce apoptosis in cultured cerebellar granule cells. In these cells, ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides remarkably suppressed H2O2-induced apoptosis, decreased expression of caspase-3, Bax and Bim and increased that of Bcl-2. These findings suggested that ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides regulate expression of apoptosis-associated proteins, inhibit oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis and, therefore, have significant neuroprotective effects. PMID:28761429

  9. Overview of Experimental and Clinical Findings regarding the Neuroprotective Effects of Cerebral Ischemic Postconditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Di; Feng, Liangshu; Deng, Fang; Feng, Jia-Chun

    2017-01-01

    Research on attenuating the structural and functional deficits observed following ischemia-reperfusion has become increasingly focused on the therapeutic potential of ischemic postconditioning. In recent years, various methods and animal models of ischemic postconditioning have been utilized. The results of these numerous studies have indicated that the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of ischemic postconditioning may involve reductions in the generation of free radicals and ...

  10. Minocycline prevents cerebral malaria, confers neuroprotection and increases survivability of mice during Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apoorv, Thittayil Suresh; Babu, Phanithi Prakash

    2017-02-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a neurological complication arising due to Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax infection. Minocycline, a semi-synthetic tetracycline, has been earlier reported to have a neuroprotective role in several neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we investigated the effect of minocycline treatment on the survivability of mice during experimental cerebral malaria (ECM). The currently accepted mouse model, C57BL/6 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA, was used for the study. Infected mice were treated with an intra-peritoneal dose of minocycline hydrochloride, 45mg/kg daily for ten days that led to parasite clearance in blood, brain, liver and spleen on 7th day post-infection; and the mice survived until experiment ended (90days) without parasite recrudescence. Evans blue extravasation assay showed that blood-brain barrier integrity was maintained by minocycline. The tumor necrosis factor-alpha protein level and caspase activity, which is related to CM pathogenesis, was significantly reduced in the minocycline-treated group. Fluoro-Jade® C and hematoxylin-eosin staining of the brains of minocycline group revealed a decrease in degenerating neurons and absence of hemorrhages respectively. Minocycline treatment led to decrease in gene expressions of inflammatory mediators like interferon-gamma, CXCL10, CCL5, CCL2; receptors CXCR3 and CCR2; and hence decrease in T-cell-mediated cerebral inflammation. We also proved that this reduction in gene expressions is irrespective of the anti-parasitic property of minocycline. The distinct ability of minocycline to modulate gene expressions of CXCL10 and CXCR3 makes it effective than doxycycline, a tetracycline used as chemoprophylaxis. Our study shows that minocycline is highly effective in conferring neuroprotection during ECM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Involvement of Astrocytes in Mediating the Central Effects of Ghrelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frago, Laura M.; Chowen, Julie A.

    2017-01-01

    Although astrocytes are the most abundant cells in the mammalian brain, much remains to be learned about their molecular and functional features. Astrocytes express receptors for numerous hormones and metabolic factors, including the appetite-promoting hormone ghrelin. The metabolic effects of ghrelin are largely opposite to those of leptin, as it stimulates food intake and decreases energy expenditure. Ghrelin is also involved in glucose-sensing and glucose homeostasis. The widespread expression of the ghrelin receptor in the central nervous system suggests that this hormone is not only involved in metabolism, but also in other essential functions in the brain. In fact, ghrelin has been shown to promote cell survival and neuroprotection, with some studies exploring the use of ghrelin as a therapeutic agent against metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we highlight the possible role of glial cells as mediators of ghrelin’s actions within the brain. PMID:28257088

  12. In vitro and in vivo evidences that antioxidant action contributes to the neuroprotective effects of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase and monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Bobby; Saravanan, Karuppagounder S; Mohanakumar, Kochupurackal P

    2008-05-01

    The neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) is neuroprotective against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced parkinsonism. Monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B inhibitory action partially contributes to this effect. We tested the hypothesis that 7-NI could be a powerful hydroxyl radical (OH) scavenger, and interferes with oxidative stress caused by MPTP. We measured OH, reduced glutathione (GSH), as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities in the nucleus caudatus putamen and substantia nigra of Balb/c mice following MPTP and/or 7-NI administration. The nNOS inhibitor caused dose-dependent inhibition in the production of OH in (i) Fenton-like reaction employing ferrous citrate in a cell-free system in test tubes, (ii) in isolated mitochondrial preparation in presence of MPP+, and (iii) in the striatum of mice systemically treated with MPTP. An MPTP-induced depletion of GSH in both the nuclei was blocked by 7-NI, which was dose-dependent (10-50mg/kg), but independent of MAO-B inhibition. The nNOS-mediated recovery of GSH paralleled attenuation of MPTP-induced depletion of striatal dopamine. MPTP-induced increase in the activities of striatal or nigral SOD and catalase were significantly attenuated by 7-NI treatment. These results suggest potent antioxidant action of 7-NI in its neuroprotective effects against MPTP-induced neurotoxicity.

  13. A neuroprotective role for microRNA miR-1000 mediated by limiting glutamate excitotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verma, Pushpa; Augustine, George J; Ammar, Mohamed-Raafet

    2015-01-01

    Evidence has begun to emerge for microRNAs as regulators of synaptic signaling, specifically acting to control postsynaptic responsiveness during synaptic transmission. In this report, we provide evidence that Drosophila melanogaster miR-1000 acts presynaptically to regulate glutamate release at ...... a neuroprotective function in the brains of flies and mice. Drosophila miR-1000 showed activity-dependent expression, which might serve as a mechanism to allow neuronal activity to fine-tune the strength of excitatory synaptic transmission....

  14. Neuroprotective effects of phytochemicals on dopaminergic neuron cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Avila, S; Diaz, N F; Gómez-Pinedo, U; Canales-Aguirre, A A; Gutiérrez-Mercado, Y K; Padilla-Camberos, E; Marquez-Aguirre, A L; Díaz-Martínez, N E

    2016-06-21

    Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterised by a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, which results in a significant decrease in dopamine levels and consequent functional motor impairment. Although its aetiology is not fully understood, several pathogenic mechanisms, including oxidative stress, have been proposed. Current therapeutic approaches are based on dopamine replacement drugs; these agents, however, are not able to stop or even slow disease progression. Novel therapeutic approaches aimed at acting on the pathways leading to neuronal dysfunction and death are under investigation. In recent years, such natural molecules as polyphenols, alkaloids, and saponins have been shown to have a neuroprotective effect due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of our review is to analyse the most relevant studies worldwide addressing the benefits of some phytochemicals used in in vitro models of Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of Rosa damascena hydro-alcoholic extract on rat hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Homayoun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Previously, analgesic, hypnotic, and anticonvulsant effects have been suggested for Rosa damascena (R. damascena. In the present study, possible anti-seizure and neuro-protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena has been investigated after inducing seizures in rats by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided to five groups: (1 Control: received saline, (2 PTZ: 100 mg/kg, i.p., (3 PTZ-Extract 50 mg/kg(PTZ-Ext 50, (4 PTZ- Extract 100 mg/kg(PTZ-Ext 100, and (5 PTZ- Extract 200 mg/kg(PTZ-Ext 200 groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg respectively of hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena for one week before PTZ injection. The animals were examined for electrocorticography (ECoG recording and finally, the brains were removed for histological study. Results: The hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena significantly prolonged the latency of seizure attacks and reduced the frequency and amplitude of epileptiform burst discharges induced by PTZ injection. Moreover, all three doses of the extract significantly inhibited production of dark neurons in different regions of the hippocampus in the mentioned animal model. Conclusion: The present study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena has anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects. More investigations are needed to be done in order to better understand the responsible compound(s as well as the possible mechanism(s.

  16. Magnesium sulphate for women at risk of preterm birth for neuroprotection of the fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doyle, Lex W.; Crowther, Caroline A.; Middleton, Philippa; Marret, Stephane; Rouse, Dwight

    2009-01-01

    Background Epidemiological and basic science evidence suggests that magnesium sulphate before birth may be neuroprotective for the fetus. Objectives To assess the effects of magnesium sulphate as a neuroprotective agent when given to women considered at risk of preterm birth. Search strategy We

  17. Neuroprotection from NMDA excitotoxic lesion by Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene delivery to the postnatal rat brain by a modular protein vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluffo, Hugo; Acarin, Laia; Arís, Anna; González, Pau; Villaverde, Antoni; Castellano, Bernardo; González, Berta

    2006-01-01

    Background Superoxide mediated oxidative stress is a key neuropathologic mechanism in acute central nervous system injuries. We have analyzed the neuroprotective efficacy of the transient overexpression of antioxidant enzyme Cu/Zn Superoxide dismutase (SOD) after excitotoxic injury to the immature rat brain by using a recently constructed modular protein vector for non-viral gene delivery termed NLSCt. For this purpose, animals were injected with the NLSCt vector carrying the Cu/Zn SOD or the control GFP transgenes 2 hours after intracortical N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) administration, and daily functional evaluation was performed. Moreover, 3 days after, lesion volume, neuronal degeneration and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity were evaluated. Results Overexpression of Cu/Zn SOD transgene after NMDA administration showed improved functional outcome and a reduced lesion volume at 3 days post lesion. In secondary degenerative areas, increased neuronal survival as well as decreased numbers of degenerating neurons and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity was seen. Interestingly, injection of the NLSCt vector carrying the control GFP transgene also displayed a significant neuroprotective effect but less pronounced. Conclusion When the appropriate levels of Cu/Zn SOD are expressed transiently after injury using the non-viral modular protein vector NLSCt a neuroprotective effect is seen. Thus recombinant modular protein vectors may be suitable for in vivo gene therapy, and Cu/Zn SOD should be considered as an interesting therapeutic transgene. PMID:16638118

  18. Neuroprotection from NMDA excitotoxic lesion by Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene delivery to the postnatal rat brain by a modular protein vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellano Bernardo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Superoxide mediated oxidative stress is a key neuropathologic mechanism in acute central nervous system injuries. We have analyzed the neuroprotective efficacy of the transient overexpression of antioxidant enzyme Cu/Zn Superoxide dismutase (SOD after excitotoxic injury to the immature rat brain by using a recently constructed modular protein vector for non-viral gene delivery termed NLSCt. For this purpose, animals were injected with the NLSCt vector carrying the Cu/Zn SOD or the control GFP transgenes 2 hours after intracortical N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA administration, and daily functional evaluation was performed. Moreover, 3 days after, lesion volume, neuronal degeneration and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity were evaluated. Results Overexpression of Cu/Zn SOD transgene after NMDA administration showed improved functional outcome and a reduced lesion volume at 3 days post lesion. In secondary degenerative areas, increased neuronal survival as well as decreased numbers of degenerating neurons and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity was seen. Interestingly, injection of the NLSCt vector carrying the control GFP transgene also displayed a significant neuroprotective effect but less pronounced. Conclusion When the appropriate levels of Cu/Zn SOD are expressed transiently after injury using the non-viral modular protein vector NLSCt a neuroprotective effect is seen. Thus recombinant modular protein vectors may be suitable for in vivo gene therapy, and Cu/Zn SOD should be considered as an interesting therapeutic transgene.

  19. Oil palm phenolics confer neuroprotective effects involving cognitive and motor functions in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Soon-Sen; Sekaran, Shamala Devi; Tan, YewAi; Sundram, Kalyana; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Phenolics are important phytochemicals which have positive effects on chronic diseases, including neurodegenerative ailments. The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is a rich source of water-soluble phenolics. This study was carried out to discover the effects of administering oil palm phenolics (OPP) to mice, with the aim of identifying whether these compounds possess significant neuroprotective properties. Methods OPP was given to BALB/c mice on a normal diet as fluids for 6 weeks while the controls were given distilled water. These animals were tested in a water maze and on a rotarod weekly to assess the effects of OPP on cognitive and motor functions, respectively. Using Illumina microarrays, we further explored the brain gene expression changes caused by OPP in order to determine the molecular mechanisms involved. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction experiments were then carried out to validate the microarray data. Results We found that mice given OPP showed better cognitive function and spatial learning when tested in a water maze, and their performance also improved when tested on a rotarod, possibly due to better motor function and balance. Microarray gene expression analysis showed that these compounds up-regulated genes involved in brain development and activity, such as those under the regulation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor. OPP also down-regulated genes involved in inflammation. Discussion These results suggest that the improvement of mouse cognitive and motor functions by OPP is caused by the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of the extract. PMID:23433062

  20. Implications of astrocytes in mediating the protective effects of Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators upon brain damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Barreto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs are steroidal or non-steroidal compounds that are already used in clinical practice for the treatment of breast cancer, osteoporosis and menopausal symptoms. While SERMs actions in the breast, bone, and uterus have been well characterized, their actions in the brain are less well understood. Previous works have demonstrated the beneficial effects of SERMs in different chronic neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer, Parkinson’s disease and Multiple sclerosis, as well as acute degeneration as stroke and traumatic brain injury. Moreover, these compounds exhibit similar protective actions as those of estradiol in the Central Nervous System, overt any secondary effect. For these reasons, in the past few years, there has been a growing interest in the neuroprotective effects exerted directly or indirectly by SERMs in the SNC. In this context, astrocytes play an important role in the maintenance of brain metabolism, and antioxidant support to neurons, thus indicating that better protection of astrocytes are an important asset targeting neuronal protection. Moreover, various clinical and experimental studies have reported that astrocytes are essential for the neuroprotective effects of SERMs during neuronal injuries, as these cells express different estrogen receptors in cell membrane, demonstrating that part of SERMs effects upon injury may be mediated by astrocytes. The present work highlights the current evidence on the protective mechanisms of SERMs, such as tamoxifen and raloxifene, in the SNC, and their modulation of astrocytic properties as promising therapeutic targets during brain damage.

  1. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of curcumin loaded in Pluronic micelles

    OpenAIRE

    Cvetelina Gorinova; Denitsa Aluani; Yordan Yordanov; Magdalena Kondeva-Burdina; Virginia Tzankova; Cvetelina Popova; Krassimira Yoncheva

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin is a polyphenolic substance with attractive pharmacological activities (e.g. antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer). Incorporation of curcumin in polymeric micelles could overcome the problems associated with its instability and low aqueous solubility. The aim of this study was to load curcumin in polymeric micelles based on Pluronic® P 123 or Pluronic® F 127 triblock copolymers and evaluate the antioxidant and neuroprotective effects after micellization. The micelles were prepa...

  2. PDGF-mediated protection of SH-SY5Y cells against Tat toxin involves regulation of extracellular glutamate and intracellular calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xuhui; Yao Honghong; Peng Fuwang; Callen, Shannon; Buch, Shilpa

    2009-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) protein Tat has been implicated in mediating neuronal apoptosis, one of the hallmark features of HIV-associated dementia (HAD). Mitigation of the toxic effects of Tat could thus be a potential mechanism for reducing HIV toxicity in the brain. In this study we demonstrated that Tat-induced neurotoxicity was abolished by NMDA antagonist-MK801, suggesting the role of glutamate in this process. Furthermore, we also found that pretreatment of SH-SY5Y cells with PDGF exerted protection against Tat toxicity by decreasing extracellular glutamate levels. We also demonstrated that extracellular calcium chelator EGTA was able to abolish PDGF-mediated neuroprotection, thereby underscoring the role of calcium signaling in PDGF-mediated neuroprotection. We also showed that Erk signaling pathway was critical for PDGF-mediated protection of cells. Additionally, blocking calcium entry with EGTA resulted in suppression of PDGF-induced Erk activation. These findings thus underscore the role of PDGF-mediated calcium signaling and Erk phosphorylation in the protection of cells against HIV Tat toxicity.

  3. Antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of Scrophularia striata extract against oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadmehr, Abbas; Oghyanous, Keyvan Alizadeh; Hajiaghaee, Reza; Amirghofran, Zahra; Azadbakht, Mohammad

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the neuroprotective effect of Scrophularia striata Boiss (Scrophulariaceae) extract, a plant growing in northeastern of Iran, against oxidative stress-induced neurocytotoxicity in PC12 was evaluated. The PC12 cell line pretreated with different concentrations (10, 50, 100, and 200 μg/ml) of the extract and then treated with H2O2 to induce oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. Survival of the cells, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and apoptosis were measured using MTT assay, fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, and annexin V/propidium iodide, respectively. Moreover, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) was used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of the plant extract. Phytochemical assay by thin layer chromatography showed that the main components, including phenolic compounds, phenyl propanoids and flavonoids, were presented in the S. striata extract. The extract in concentrations of 50-200 μg/ml protected PC12 cells from H2O2-induced toxicity. The survival of the cells at concentration of 200 μg/ml was 64 % compared to that of H2O2 alone-treated cells (48 %) (p extract also dose-dependently reduced intracellular ROS production (p extract showed antioxidative effects and decreased apoptotic cells. Collectively, these findings indicated the ability of S. striata to decrease ROS generation and cell apoptosis and also suggest the presence of the neuroprotective agents in this plant.

  4. Neuroprotective effect of Feronia limonia on ischemia reperfusion induced brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhunde, Purushottam B; Saher, Sana; Ali, Syed Ayaz

    2014-01-01

    Brain stroke is a leading cause of death without effective treatment. Feronia limonia have potent antioxidant activity and can be proved as neuroprotective against ischemia-reperfusion induced brain injury. We studied the effect of methanolic extract of F. limonia fruit (250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) and Vitamin E as reference standard drug on 30 min induced ischemia, followed by reperfusion by testing the neurobehavioral tests such as neurodeficit score, rota rod test, hanging wire test, beam walk test and elevated plus maze. The biochemical parameters, which were measured in animals brain were catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde and nitric oxide in control and treated rats. The methanolic extract of F. limonia fruit (250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) treated groups showed a statistically significant improvement in the neurobehavioral parameters such as motor performance (neurological status, significant increase in grasping ability, forelimb strength improvement in balance and co-ordination). The biochemical parameters in the brains of rats showed a significant reduction in the total nitrite (P < 0.01) and lipid peroxidation (P < 0.01), also a significant enhanced activity of enzymatic antioxidants such as catalase (P < 0.01) and SOD (P < 0.05). These observations suggest the neuroprotective and antioxidant activity of F. limonia and Vitamin E on ischemia reperfusion induced brain injury and may require further evaluation.

  5. Dual activities of the anti-cancer drug candidate PBI-05204 provide neuroprotection in brain slice models for neurodegenerative diseases and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kanegan, Michael J; Dunn, Denise E; Kaltenbach, Linda S; Shah, Bijal; He, Dong Ning; McCoy, Daniel D; Yang, Peiying; Peng, Jiangnan; Shen, Li; Du, Lin; Cichewicz, Robert H; Newman, Robert A; Lo, Donald C

    2016-05-12

    We previously reported neuroprotective activity of the botanical anti-cancer drug candidate PBI-05204, a supercritical CO2 extract of Nerium oleander, in brain slice and in vivo models of ischemic stroke. We showed that one component of this neuroprotective activity is mediated through its principal cardiac glycoside constituent, oleandrin, via induction of the potent neurotrophic factor brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). However, we also noted that the concentration-relation for PBI-05204 in the brain slice oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) model is considerably broader than that for oleandrin as a single agent. We thus surmised that PBI-05204 contains an additional neuroprotective component(s), distinct from oleandrin. We report here that neuroprotective activity is also provided by the triterpenoid constituents of PBI-05204, notably oleanolic acid. We demonstrate that a sub-fraction of PBI-05204 (Fraction 0-4) containing oleanolic and other triterpenoids, but without cardiac glycosides, induces the expression of cellular antioxidant gene transcription programs regulated through antioxidant transcriptional response elements (AREs). Finally, we show that Fraction 0-4 provides broad neuroprotection in organotypic brain slice models for neurodegeneration driven by amyloid precursor protein (APP) and tau implicated in Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementias, respectively, in addition to ischemic injury modeled by OGD.

  6. Thiamet G mediates neuroprotection in experimental stroke by modulating microglia/macrophage polarization and inhibiting NF-κB p65 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yating; Ma, Xiaofeng; Li, Daojing; Hao, Junwei

    2017-08-01

    Inflammatory responses are accountable for secondary injury induced by acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Previous studies indicated that O-GlcNAc modification (O-GlcNAcylation) is involved in the pathology of AIS, and increase of O-GlcNAcylation by glucosamine attenuated the brain damage after ischemia/reperfusion. Inhibition of β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (OGA) with thiamet G (TMG) is an alternative option for accumulating O-GlcNAcylated proteins. In this study, we investigate the neuroprotective effect of TMG in a mouse model of experimental stroke. Our results indicate that TMG administration either before or after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery dramatically reduced infarct volume compared with that in untreated controls. TMG treatment ameliorated the neurological deficits and improved clinical outcomes in neurobehavioral tests by modulating the expression of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, TMG administration reduced the number of Iba1 + cells in MCAO mice, decreased expression of the M1 markers, and increased expression of the M2 markers in vivo. In vitro, M1 polarization of BV2 cells was inhibited by TMG treatment. Moreover, TMG decreased the expression of iNOS and COX2 mainly by suppressing NF-κB p65 signaling. These results suggest that TMG exerts a neuroprotective effect and could be useful as an anti-inflammatory agent for ischemic stroke therapy.

  7. Neuroprotective "agents" in surgery. Secret "agent" man, or common "agent" machine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    The search for clinically-effective neuroprotective agents has received enormous support in recent years--an estimated $200 million by pharmaceutical companies on clinical trials for traumatic brain injury alone. At the same time, the pathophysiology of brain injury has proved increasingly complex, rendering the likelihood of a single agent "magic bullet" even more remote. On the other hand, great progress continues with technology that makes surgery less invasive and less risky. One example is the application of endovascular techniques to treat coronary artery stenosis, where both the invasiveness of sternotomy and the significant neurological complication rate (due to microemboli showering the cerebral vasculature) can be eliminated. In this paper we review aspects of intraoperative neuroprotection both present and future. Explanations for the slow progress on pharmacologic neuroprotection during surgery are presented. Examples of technical advances that have had great impact on neuroprotection during surgery are given both from coronary artery stenosis surgery and from surgery for Parkinson's disease. To date, the progress in neuroprotection resulting from such technical advances is an order of magnitude greater than that resulting from pharmacologic agents used during surgery. The progress over the last 20 years in guidance during surgery (CT and MRI image-guidance) and in surgical access (endoscopic and endovascular techniques) will soon be complemented by advances in our ability to evaluate biological tissue intraoperatively in real-time. As an example of such technology, the NASA Smart Probe project is considered. In the long run (i.e., in 10 years or more), pharmacologic "agents" aimed at the complex pathophysiology of nervous system injury in man will be the key to true intraoperative neuroprotection. In the near term, however, it is more likely that mundane "agents" based on computers, microsensors, and microeffectors will be the major impetus to improved

  8. Neuroprotective effect of curcumin on okadaic acid induced memory impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekar, N; Dwivedi, Subhash; Tota, Santosh Kumar; Kamat, Pradeep Kumar; Hanif, Kashif; Nath, Chandishwar; Shukla, Rakesh

    2013-09-05

    Okadaic acid (OKA) has been observed to cause memory impairment in human subjects having seafood contaminated with dinoflagellate (Helicondria okadai). OKA induces tau hyperphosphorylation and oxidative stress leading to memory impairment as our previous study has shown. Curcumin a natural antioxidant has demonstrated neuroprotection in various models of neurodegeneration. However, the effect of curcumin has not been explored in OKA induced memory impairment. Therefore, present study evaluated the effect of curcumin on OKA (100ng, intracerebrally) induced memory impairment in male Swiss albino mice as evaluated in Morris water maze (MWM) and passive avoidance tests (PAT). OKA administration resulted in memory impairment with a decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) (measured by laser doppler flowmetry), ATP level and increased mitochondrial (Ca(2+))i, neuroinflammation (increased TNF-α, IL-1β, COX-2 and GFAP), oxidative-nitrosative stress, increased Caspase-9 and cholinergic dysfunction (decreased AChE activity/expression and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression) in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice brain. Oral administration of curcumin (50mg/kg) for 13 days significantly improved memory function in both MWM and PAT along with brain energy metabolism, CBF and cholinergic function. It decreased mitochondrial (Ca(2+))i, and ameliorated neuroinflammation and oxidative-nitrostative stress in different brain regions of OKA treated mice. Curcumin also inhibited astrocyte activation as evidenced by decreased GFAP expression. This neuroprotective effect of curcumin is due to its potent anti-oxidant action thus confirming previous studies. Therefore, use of curcumin should be encouraged in people consuming sea food (contaminated with dinoflagellates) to prevent cognitive impairment. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of curcumin loaded in Pluronic micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetelina Gorinova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin is a polyphenolic substance with attractive pharmacological activities (e.g. antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer. Incorporation of curcumin in polymeric micelles could overcome the problems associated with its instability and low aqueous solubility. The aim of this study was to load curcumin in polymeric micelles based on Pluronic® P 123 or Pluronic® F 127 triblock copolymers and evaluate the antioxidant and neuroprotective effects after micellization. The micelles were prepared and loaded with curcumin by applying the dissolution method. Higher encapsulation efficiency was observed in the micelles formulated with Pluronic® P 123. These micelles were characterized with small size and narrow size distribution. The effects of micellar curcumin were investigated in two in vitro models. First, the capacity of micellar curcumin to inhibit iron/ascorbic acid-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes was evaluated. Micellar curcumin and free drug showed similar inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Second, micellar curcumin and free curcumin showed protective potential in a model of 6-hydroxydopamine induced neurotoxicity in rat brain synaptosomes. The results from both methods indicated preservation of antioxidant and neuroprotective activity of curcumin in micelles. The small micellar size, high loading capacity and preservation of antioxidant activity of curcumin into Pluronic micelles, suggested their further evaluation as a curcumin delivery system.

  10. SIRT1 activation with neuroheal is neuroprotective but SIRT2 inhibition with AK7 is detrimental for disconnected motoneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo-Guitart, David; Leiva-Rodríguez, Tatiana; Espinosa-Alcantud, María; Sima, Núria; Vaquero, Alejandro; Domínguez-Martín, Helena; Ruano, Diego; Casas, Caty

    2018-05-10

    Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) activity is neuroprotective, and we have recently demonstrated its role in the retrograde degenerative process in motoneurons (MNs) in the spinal cord of rats after peripheral nerve root avulsion (RA) injury. SIRT2 has been suggested to exert effects opposite those of SIRT1; however, its roles in neurodegeneration and neuron response after nerve injury remain unclear. Here we compared the neuroprotective potentials of SIRT1 activation and SIRT2 inhibition in a mouse model of hypoglossal nerve axotomy. This injury induced a reduction of around half MN population within the hypoglossal nucleus by a non-apoptotic neurodegenerative process triggered by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress that resulted in activation of the unfolded protein response mediated by IRE1α and XBP1 by 21 days post injury. Both SIRT1 activation with NeuroHeal and SIRT2 inhibition with AK7 protected NSC-34 motor neuron-like cells against ER stress in vitro. In agreement with the in vitro results, NeuroHeal treatment or SIRT1 overexpression was neuroprotective of axotomized hypoglossal MNs in a transgenic mouse model. In contrast, AK7 treatment or SIRT2 genetic depletion in mice inhibited damaged MN survival. To resolve the in vitro/in vivo discrepancies, we used an organotypic spinal cord culture system that preserves glial cells. In this system, AK7 treatment of ER-stressed organotypic cultures was detrimental for MNs and increased microglial nuclear factor-κB and the consequent transcription of cytotoxic pro-inflammatory factors similarly. The results highlight the importance of glial cells in determining the neuroprotective impact of any treatment.

  11. Neuroprotection and mechanisms of atractylenolide III in preventing learning and memory impairment induced by chronic high-dose homocysteine administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Ji, Z-H; Liu, C; Yu, X-Y

    2015-04-02

    Studies demonstrated that chronic high-dose homocysteine administration induced learning and memory impairment in animals. Atractylenolide III (Aen-III), a neuroprotective constituent of Atractylodis macrocephalae Koidz, was isolated in our previous study. In this study, we investigated potential benefits of Aen-III in preventing learning and memory impairment following chronic high-dose homocysteine administration in rats. Results showed that administration of Aen-III significantly ameliorated learning and memory impairment induced by chronic high-dose homocysteine administration in rats, decreased homocysteine-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and restored homocysteine-induced decrease of phosphorylated protein kinase C expression level. Moreover, Aen-III protected primary cultured neurons from apoptotic death induced by homocysteine treatment. This study provides the first evidence for the neuroprotective effect of Aen-III in preventing learning and impairment induced by chronic administration of homocysteine. Aen-III may have therapeutic potential in treating homocysteine-mediated cognitive impairment and neuronal injury. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dose-dependent neuroprotective effect of enoxaparin on cold-induced traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Ilknur; Gunal, M Yalcin; Ayturk, Nilufer; Kilic, Ulkan; Ozansoy, Mehmet; Kilic, Ertugrul

    2017-05-01

    Recent evidence exists that enoxaparin can reduce brain injury because of its anticoagulant activity. To investigate the potential therapeutic effect of enoxaparin on cold-induced traumatic brain injury, at 20 minutes after modeling, male BALB/c mouse models of cold-induced traumatic brain injury were intraperitoneally administered 3 and 10 mg/kg enoxaparin or isotonic saline solution. Twenty-four hours later, enoxaparin at 10 mg/kg greatly reduced infarct volume, decreased cell apoptosis in the cortex and obviously increased serum level of total antioxidant status. By contrast, administration of enoxaparin at 3 mg/kg did not lead to these changes. These findings suggest that enoxaparin exhibits neuroprotective effect on cold-induced traumatic brain injury in a dose-dependent manner.

  13. Resveratrol Neuroprotection in Stroke and Traumatic CNS injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Mary; Dempsey, Robert J; Vemuganti, Raghu

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol, a stilbene formed in many plants in response to various stressors, elicits multiple beneficial effects in vertebrates. Particularly, resveratrol was shown to have therapeutic properties in cancer, atherosclerosis and neurodegeneration. Resveratrol-induced benefits are modulated by multiple synergistic pathways that control oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death. Despite the lack of a definitive mechanism, both in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that resveratrol can induce a neuroprotective state when administered acutely or prior to experimental injury to the CNS. In this review, we discuss the neuroprotective potential of resveratrol in stroke, traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury, with a focus on the molecular pathways responsible for this protection. PMID:26277384

  14. Neuroprotective effect of S-allyl-l-cysteine derivatives against endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced cytotoxicity is independent of calpain inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Toru; Kosuge, Yasuhiro; Saito, Hiroaki; Uchiyama, Taketo; Wada, Taira; Shimba, Shigeki; Ishige, Kumiko; Miyairi, Shinichi; Makishima, Makoto; Ito, Yoshihisa

    2016-03-01

    S-allyl-l-cysteine (SAC) is known to have neuroprotective properties. We synthesized various SAC derivatives and tested their effects on endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced neurotoxicity in cultured hippocampal neurons (HPNs). Among the compounds tested, S-propyl-l-cysteine (SPC) exhibited the strongest neuroprotective activity in HPNs, followed by S-ethyl-l-cysteine (SEC) and S-methyl-l-cysteine (SMC). Unlike SAC and SMC, SPC and SEC did not have inhibitory activity on μ-calpain, suggesting that the mechanism underlying the protective activity of SPC and SEC differs from that of SAC. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Pharmacological Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Pifithrin-α provides neuroprotective effects at the level of mitochondria independently of p53 inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitemeier, Sandra; Ganjam, Goutham K; Diemert, Sebastian; Culmsee, Carsten

    2014-12-01

    Impaired mitochondrial integrity and function are key features of intrinsic death pathways in neuronal cells. Therefore, key regulators of intrinsic death pathways acting upstream of mitochondria are potential targets for therapeutic approaches of neuroprotection. The tumor suppressor p53 is a well-established regulator of cellular responses towards different kinds of lethal stress, including oxidative stress. Recent reports suggested that p53 may affect mitochondrial integrity and function through both, transcriptional activation of mitochondria-targeted pro-death proteins and direct effects at the mitochondrial membrane. In the present study, we compared the effects of pharmacological inhibition of p53 by pifithrin-α with those of selective p53 gene silencing by RNA interference. Using MTT assay and real-time cell impedance measurements we confirmed the protective effect of both strategies against glutamate-induced oxidative stress in immortalized mouse hippocampal HT-22 neurons. Further, we observed full restoration of mitochondrial membrane potential and inhibition of glutamate-induced mitochondrial fragmentation by pifithrin-α which was, in contrast, not achieved by p53 gene silencing. Downregulation of p53 by siRNA decreased p53 transcriptional activity and reduced expression levels of p21 mRNA, while pifithrin-α did not affect these endpoints. These results suggest a neuroprotective effect of pifithrin-α which occurred at the level of mitochondria and independently of p53 inhibition.

  16. Effects of the neuroprotective drugs somatostatin and brimonidine on retinal cell models of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltramo, Elena; Lopatina, Tatiana; Mazzeo, Aurora; Arroba, Ana I; Valverde, Angela M; Hernández, Cristina; Simó, Rafael; Porta, Massimo

    2016-12-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is considered a microvascular disease, but recent evidence has underlined early involvement of the neuroretina with interactions between microvascular and neural alterations. Topical administration of somatostatin (SST), a neuroprotective molecule with antiangiogenic properties, prevents diabetes-induced retinal neurodegeneration in animals. The α 2 -adrenergic receptor agonist brimonidine (BRM) decreases vitreoretinal vascular endothelial growth factor and inhibits blood-retinal barrier breakdown in diabetic rats. However, SST and BRM effects on microvascular cells have not yet been studied. We investigated the behaviour of these drugs on the crosstalk between microvasculature and neuroretina. Expression of SST receptors 1-5 in human retinal pericytes (HRP) was checked. We subsequently evaluated the effects of diabetic-like conditions (high glucose and/or hypoxia) with/without SST/BRM on HRP survival. Endothelial cells (EC) and photoreceptors were maintained in the above conditions and their conditioned media (CM) used to culture HRP. Vice versa, HRP-CM was used on EC and photoreceptors. Survival parameters were assessed. HRP express the SST receptor 1 (SSTR1). Glucose fluctuations mimicking those occurring in diabetic subjects are more damaging for pericytes and photoreceptors than stable high glucose and hypoxic conditions. SST/BRM added to HRP in diabetic-like conditions decrease EC apoptosis. However, neither SST nor BRM changed the response of pericytes and neuroretina-vascular crosstalk under diabetic-like conditions. Retinal pericytes express SSTR1, indicating that they can be a target for SST. Exposure to SST/BRM had no adverse effects, direct or mediated by the neuroretina, suggesting that these molecules could be safely evaluated for the treatment of ocular diseases.

  17. EGFR mediates astragaloside IV-induced Nrf2 activation to protect cortical neurons against in vitro ischemia/reperfusion damages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Da-min [Department of Anesthesiology, Affiliated Yixing People' s Hospital, Jiangsu University, Yixing (China); Lu, Pei-Hua, E-mail: lphty1_1@163.com [Department of Medical Oncology, Wuxi People' s Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi (China); Zhang, Ke; Wang, Xiang [Department of Anesthesiology, Affiliated Yixing People' s Hospital, Jiangsu University, Yixing (China); Sun, Min [Department of General Surgery, Affiliated Yixing People' s Hospital, Jiangsu University, Yixing (China); Chen, Guo-Qian [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Wuxi People' s Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi (China); Wang, Qiong, E-mail: WangQiongprof1@126.com [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Wuxi People' s Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi (China)

    2015-02-13

    In this study, we tested the potential role of astragaloside IV (AS-IV) against oxygen and glucose deprivation/re-oxygenation (OGD/R)-induced damages in murine cortical neurons, and studied the associated signaling mechanisms. AS-IV exerted significant neuroprotective effects against OGD/R by reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, thereby attenuating oxidative stress and neuronal cell death. We found that AS-IV treatment in cortical neurons resulted in NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling activation, evidenced by Nrf2 Ser-40 phosphorylation, and its nuclear localization, as well as transcription of antioxidant-responsive element (ARE)-regulated genes: heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO-1) and sulphiredoxin 1 (SRXN-1). Knockdown of Nrf2 through lentiviral shRNAs prevented AS-IV-induced ARE genes transcription, and abolished its anti-oxidant and neuroprotective activities. Further, we discovered that AS-IV stimulated heparin-binding-epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) release to trans-activate epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in cortical neurons. Blockage or silencing EGFR prevented Nrf2 activation by AS-IV, thus inhibiting AS-IV-mediated anti-oxidant and neuroprotective activities against OGD/R. In summary, AS-IV protects cortical neurons against OGD/R damages through activating of EGFR-Nrf2 signaling. - Highlights: • Pre-treatment of astragaloside IV (AS-IV) protects murine cortical neurons from OGD/R. • AS-IV activates Nrf2-ARE signaling in murine cortical neurons. • Nrf2 is required for AS-IV-mediated anti-oxidant and neuroprotective activities. • AS-IV stimulates HB-EGF release to trans-activate EGFR in murine cortical neurons. • EGFR mediates AS-IV-induced Nrf2 activation and neuroprotection against OGD/R.

  18. EGFR mediates astragaloside IV-induced Nrf2 activation to protect cortical neurons against in vitro ischemia/reperfusion damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Da-min; Lu, Pei-Hua; Zhang, Ke; Wang, Xiang; Sun, Min; Chen, Guo-Qian; Wang, Qiong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we tested the potential role of astragaloside IV (AS-IV) against oxygen and glucose deprivation/re-oxygenation (OGD/R)-induced damages in murine cortical neurons, and studied the associated signaling mechanisms. AS-IV exerted significant neuroprotective effects against OGD/R by reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, thereby attenuating oxidative stress and neuronal cell death. We found that AS-IV treatment in cortical neurons resulted in NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling activation, evidenced by Nrf2 Ser-40 phosphorylation, and its nuclear localization, as well as transcription of antioxidant-responsive element (ARE)-regulated genes: heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO-1) and sulphiredoxin 1 (SRXN-1). Knockdown of Nrf2 through lentiviral shRNAs prevented AS-IV-induced ARE genes transcription, and abolished its anti-oxidant and neuroprotective activities. Further, we discovered that AS-IV stimulated heparin-binding-epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) release to trans-activate epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in cortical neurons. Blockage or silencing EGFR prevented Nrf2 activation by AS-IV, thus inhibiting AS-IV-mediated anti-oxidant and neuroprotective activities against OGD/R. In summary, AS-IV protects cortical neurons against OGD/R damages through activating of EGFR-Nrf2 signaling. - Highlights: • Pre-treatment of astragaloside IV (AS-IV) protects murine cortical neurons from OGD/R. • AS-IV activates Nrf2-ARE signaling in murine cortical neurons. • Nrf2 is required for AS-IV-mediated anti-oxidant and neuroprotective activities. • AS-IV stimulates HB-EGF release to trans-activate EGFR in murine cortical neurons. • EGFR mediates AS-IV-induced Nrf2 activation and neuroprotection against OGD/R

  19. Coptis chinensis Franch. exhibits neuroprotective properties against oxidative stress in human neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedemann, Thomas; Otto, Benjamin; Klätschke, Kristin; Schumacher, Udo; Tao, Yi; Leung, Alexander Kai-Man; Efferth, Thomas; Schröder, Sven

    2014-08-08

    The dried rhizome of Coptis chinensis Franch. (family Ranunculaceae) is traditionally used in Chinese medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and diabetes. Recent studies showed a variety of activities of Coptis chinensis Franch. alkaloids, including neuroprotective, neuroregenerative, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. However, there is no report on the neuroprotective effect of Coptis chinensis Franch. watery extract against tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BOOH) induced oxidative damage. The aim of the study is to investigate neuroprotective properties of Coptis chinensis Franch. rhizome watery extract (CRE) and to evaluate its potential mechanism of action. Neuroprotective properties on t-BOOH induced oxidative stress were investigated in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Cells were pretreated with CRE for 2 h or 24 h followed by 2 h of treatment with t-BOOH. To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of CRE, cell viability, cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the apoptotic rate were determined and microarray analyses, as well as qRT-PCR analyses were conducted. Two hours of exposure to 100 µM t-BOOH resulted in a significant reduction of cell viability, increased apoptotic rate, declined mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and increased ROS production. Reduction of cell viability, increased apoptotic rate and declined mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) could be significantly reduced in cells pretreated with CRE (100 µg/ml) for 2h or 24h ahead of t-BOOH exposure with the greatest effect after 24h of pretreatment; however ROS production was not changed significantly. Furthermore, microarray analyses revealed that the expressions of 2 genes; thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and mitochondrially encoded NADH dehydrogenase 1, were significantly regulated. Down regulation of TXNIP was confirmed by qRT-PCR. Due to its neuroprotective properties CRE might be a potential

  20. Astrocytes protect neurons against methylmercury via ATP/P2Y(1) receptor-mediated pathways in astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Yusuke; Shinozaki, Youichi; Fujishita, Kayoko; Shibata, Keisuke; Imura, Yoshio; Morizawa, Yosuke; Gachet, Christian; Koizumi, Schuichi

    2013-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a well known environmental pollutant that induces serious neuronal damage. Although MeHg readily crosses the blood-brain barrier, and should affect both neurons and glial cells, how it affects glia or neuron-to-glia interactions has received only limited attention. Here, we report that MeHg triggers ATP/P2Y1 receptor signals in astrocytes, thereby protecting neurons against MeHg via interleukin-6 (IL-6)-mediated pathways. MeHg increased several mRNAs in astrocytes, among which IL-6 was the highest. For this, ATP/P2Y1 receptor-mediated mechanisms were required because the IL-6 production was (i) inhibited by a P2Y1 receptor antagonist, MRS2179, (ii) abolished in astrocytes obtained from P2Y1 receptor-knockout mice, and (iii) mimicked by exogenously applied ATP. In addition, (iv) MeHg released ATP by exocytosis from astrocytes. As for the intracellular mechanisms responsible for IL-6 production, p38 MAP kinase was involved. MeHg-treated astrocyte-conditioned medium (ACM) showed neuro-protective effects against MeHg, which was blocked by anti-IL-6 antibody and was mimicked by the application of recombinant IL-6. As for the mechanism of neuro-protection by IL-6, an adenosine A1 receptor-mediated pathway in neurons seems to be involved. Taken together, when astrocytes sense MeHg, they release ATP that autostimulates P2Y1 receptors to upregulate IL-6, thereby leading to A1 receptor-mediated neuro-protection against MeHg.

  1. Interventional Effects for Mediation Analysis with Multiple Mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteelandt, Stijn; Daniel, Rhian M

    2017-03-01

    The mediation formula for the identification of natural (in)direct effects has facilitated mediation analyses that better respect the nature of the data, with greater consideration of the need for confounding control. The default assumptions on which it relies are strong, however. In particular, they are known to be violated when confounders of the mediator-outcome association are affected by the exposure. This complicates extensions of counterfactual-based mediation analysis to settings that involve repeatedly measured mediators, or multiple correlated mediators. VanderWeele, Vansteelandt, and Robins introduced so-called interventional (in)direct effects. These can be identified under much weaker conditions than natural (in)direct effects, but have the drawback of not adding up to the total effect. In this article, we adapt their proposal to achieve an exact decomposition of the total effect, and extend it to the multiple mediator setting. Interestingly, the proposed effects capture the path-specific effects of an exposure on an outcome that are mediated by distinct mediators, even when-as often-the structural dependence between the multiple mediators is unknown, for instance, when the direction of the causal effects between the mediators is unknown, or there may be unmeasured common causes of the mediators.

  2. Anthocyanins protect against LPS-induced oxidative stress-mediated neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the adult mouse cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Sohail; Ali, Tahir; Kim, Min Woo; Jo, Myeung Hoon; Jo, Min Gi; Badshah, Haroon; Kim, Myeong Ok

    2016-11-01

    Several studies provide evidence that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key mediators of various neurological disorders. Anthocyanins are polyphenolic compounds and are well known for their anti-oxidant and neuroprotective effects. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of anthocyanins (extracted from black soybean) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ROS-mediated neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the adult mouse cortex. Intraperitoneal injection of LPS (250 μg/kg) for 7 days triggers elevated ROS and oxidative stress, which induces neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the adult mouse cortex. Treatment with 24 mg/kg/day of anthocyanins for 14 days in LPS-injected mice (7 days before and 7 days co-treated with LPS) attenuated elevated ROS and oxidative stress compared to mice that received LPS-injection alone. The immunoblotting results showed that anthocyanins reduced the level of the oxidative stress kinase phospho-c-Jun N-terminal Kinase 1 (p-JNK). The immunoblotting and morphological results showed that anthocyanins treatment significantly reduced LPS-induced-ROS-mediated neuroinflammation through inhibition of various inflammatory mediators, such as IL-1β, TNF-α and the transcription factor NF- k B. Anthocyanins treatment also reduced activated astrocytes and microglia in the cortex of LPS-injected mice, as indicated by reductions in GFAP and Iba-1, respectively. Anthocyanins also prevent overexpression of various apoptotic markers, i.e., Bax, cytosolic cytochrome C, cleaved caspase-3 and PARP-1. Immunohistochemical fluoro-jade B (FJB) and Nissl staining indicated that anthocyanins prevent LPS-induced neurodegeneration in the mouse cortex. Our results suggest that dietary flavonoids, such as anthocyanins, have antioxidant and neuroprotective activities that could be beneficial to various neurological disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Transformation of Astrocytes to a Neuroprotective Phenotype by Microglia via P2Y1 Receptor Downregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youichi Shinozaki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Microglia and astrocytes become reactive following traumatic brain injury (TBI. However, the coordination of this reactivity and its relation to pathophysiology are unclear. Here, we show that microglia transform astrocytes into a neuroprotective phenotype via downregulation of the P2Y1 purinergic receptor. TBI initially caused microglial activation in the injury core, followed by reactive astrogliosis in the peri-injured region and formation of a neuroprotective astrocyte scar. Equivalent changes to astrocytes were observed in vitro after injury. This change in astrocyte phenotype resulted from P2Y1 receptor downregulation, mediated by microglia-derived cytokines. In mice, astrocyte-specific P2Y1 receptor overexpression (Astro-P2Y1OE counteracted scar formation, while astrocyte-specific P2Y1 receptor knockdown (Astro-P2Y1KD facilitated scar formation, suggesting critical roles of P2Y1 receptors in the transformation. Astro-P2Y1OE and Astro-P2Y1KD mice showed increased and reduced neuronal damage, respectively. Altogether, our findings indicate that microglia-astrocyte interaction, involving a purinergic signal, is essential for the formation of neuroprotective astrocytes.

  4. Using lithium as a neuroprotective agent in patients with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khasraw Mustafa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neurocognitive impairment is being increasingly recognized as an important issue in patients with cancer who develop cognitive difficulties either as part of direct or indirect involvement of the nervous system or as a consequence of either chemotherapy-related or radiotherapy-related complications. Brain radiotherapy in particular can lead to significant cognitive defects. Neurocognitive decline adversely affects quality of life, meaningful employment, and even simple daily activities. Neuroprotection may be a viable and realistic goal in preventing neurocognitive sequelae in these patients, especially in the setting of cranial irradiation. Lithium is an agent that has been in use for psychiatric disorders for decades, but recently there has been emerging evidence that it can have a neuroprotective effect. This review discusses neurocognitive impairment in patients with cancer and the potential for investigating the use of lithium as a neuroprotectant in such patients.

  5. Clinical trials for neuroprotection in ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, G; Carlesi, C; Pasquali, L; Piazza, S; Pietracupa, S; Fornai, F; Ruggieri, S; Murri, L

    2010-07-01

    Owing to uncertainty on the pathogenic mechanisms underlying motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) riluzole remains the only available therapy, with only marginal effects on disease survival. Here we review some of the recent advances in the search for disease-modifying drugs for ALS based on their putative neuroprotective effetcs. A number of more or less established agents have recently been investigated also in ALS for their potential role in neuroprotection and relying on antiglutamatergic, antioxidant or antiapoptotic strategies. Among them Talampanel, beta-lactam antibiotics, Coenzyme Q10, and minocycline have been investigated. Progress has also been made in exploiting growth factors for the treatment of ALS, partly due to advances in developing effective delivery systems to the central nervous system. A number of new therapies have also been identified, including a novel class of compounds, such as heat-shock protein co-inducers, which upregulate cell stress responses, and agents promoting autophagy and mitochondriogenesis, such as lithium and rapamycin. More recently, alterations of mRNA processing were described as a pathogenic mechanism in genetically defined forms of ALS, as those related to TDP-43 and FUS-TLS gene mutations. This knowledge is expected to improve our understanding of the pathogenetic mechanism in ALS and developing more effective therapies.

  6. The proton permeability of self-assembled polymersomes and their neuroprotection by enhancing a neuroprotective peptide across the blood-brain barrier after modification with lactoferrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuan; Jiang, Xinguo; Gong, Shuyu; Feng, Liang; Zhong, Yanqiang; Pang, Zhiqing

    2014-02-01

    Biotherapeutics such as peptides possess strong potential for the treatment of intractable neurological disorders. However, because of their low stability and the impermeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), biotherapeutics are difficult to transport into brain parenchyma via intravenous injection. Herein, we present a novel poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) polymersome-based nanomedicine with self-assembled bilayers, which was functionalized with lactoferrin (Lf-POS) to facilitate the transport of a neuroprotective peptide into the brain. The apparent diffusion coefficient (D*) of H+ through the polymersome membrane was 5.659 × 10-26 cm2 s-1, while that of liposomes was 1.017 × 10-24 cm2 s-1. The stability of the polymersome membrane was much higher than that of liposomes. The uptake of polymersomes by mouse brain capillary endothelial cells proved that the optimal density of lactoferrin was 101 molecules per polymersome. Fluorescence imaging indicated that Lf101-POS was effectively transferred into the brain. In pharmacokinetics, compared with transferrin-modified polymersomes and cationic bovine serum albumin-modified polymersomes, Lf-POS obtained the greatest BBB permeability surface area and percentage of injected dose per gram (%ID per g). Furthermore, Lf-POS holding S14G-humanin protected against learning and memory impairment induced by amyloid-β25-35 in rats. Western blotting revealed that the nanomedicine provided neuroprotection against over-expression of apoptotic proteins exhibiting neurofibrillary tangle pathology in neurons. The results indicated that polymersomes can be exploited as a promising non-invasive nanomedicine capable of mediating peptide therapeutic delivery and controlling the release of drugs to the central nervous system.

  7. ApoSOD1 lacking dismutase activity neuroprotects motor neurons exposed to beta-methylamino-L-alanine through the Ca2+/Akt/ERK1/2 prosurvival pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrozziello, Tiziana; Secondo, Agnese; Tedeschi, Valentina; Esposito, Alba; Sisalli, MariaJosè; Scorziello, Antonella; Di Renzo, Gianfranco; Annunziato, Lucio

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe human adult-onset neurodegenerative disease affecting lower and upper motor neurons. In >20% of cases, the familial form of ALS is caused by mutations in the gene encoding Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Interestingly, administration of wild-type SOD1 to SOD1G93A transgenic rats ameliorates motor symptoms through an unknown mechanism. Here we investigated whether the neuroprotective effects of SOD1 are due to the Ca2+-dependent activation of such prosurvival signaling pathway and not to its catalytic activity. To this aim, we also examined the mechanism of neuroprotective action of ApoSOD1, the metal-depleted state of SOD1 that lacks dismutase activity, in differentiated motor neuron-like NSC-34 cells and in primary motor neurons exposed to the cycad neurotoxin beta-methylamino-L-alanine (L-BMAA). Preincubation of ApoSOD1 and SOD1, but not of human recombinant SOD1G93A, prevented cell death in motor neurons exposed to L-BMAA. Moreover, ApoSOD1 elicited ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation in motor neurons through an early increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). Accordingly, inhibition of ERK1/2 by siMEK1 and PD98059 counteracted ApoSOD1- and SOD1-induced neuroprotection. Similarly, transfection of the dominant-negative form of Akt in NSC-34 motor neurons and treatment with the selective PI3K inhibitor LY294002 prevented ApoSOD1- and SOD1-mediated neuroprotective effects in L-BMAA-treated motor neurons. Furthermore, ApoSOD1 and SOD1 prevented the expression of the two markers of L-BMAA-induced ER stress GRP78 and caspase-12. Collectively, our data indicate that ApoSOD1, which is devoid of any catalytic dismutase activity, exerts a neuroprotective effect through an early activation of Ca2+/Akt/ERK1/2 pro-survival pathway that, in turn, prevents ER stress in a neurotoxic model of ALS. PMID:28085149

  8. Neuroprotection by inhibiting the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway after cerebral ischemia occurs independently of interleukin-6 and keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC/CXCL1 secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benakis Corinne

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral ischemia is associated with the activation of glial cells, infiltration of leukocytes and an increase in inflammatory mediators in the ischemic brain and systemic circulation. How this inflammatory response influences lesion size and neurological outcome remains unclear. D-JNKI1, an inhibitor of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway, is strongly neuroprotective in animal models of stroke. Intriguingly, the protection mediated by D-JNKI1 is high even with intravenous administration at very low doses with undetectable drug levels in the brain, pointing to a systemic mode of action, perhaps on inflammation. Findings We evaluated whether D-JNKI1, administered intravenously 3 h after the onset of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO, modulates secretion of the inflammatory mediators interleukin-6 and keratinocyte-derived chemokine in the plasma and from the spleen and brain at several time points after MCAO. We found an early release of both mediators in the systemic circulation followed by an increase in the brain and went on to show a later systemic increase in vehicle-treated mice. Release of interleukin-6 and keratinocyte-derived chemokine from the spleen of mice with MCAO was not significantly different from sham mice. Interestingly, the secretion of these inflammatory mediators was not altered in the systemic circulation or brain after successful neuroprotection with D-JNKI1. Conclusions We demonstrate that neuroprotection with D-JNKI1 after experimental cerebral ischemia is independent of systemic and brain release of interleukin-6 and keratinocyte-derived chemokine. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the early systemic release of interleukin-6 and keratinocyte-derived chemokine may not necessarily predict an unfavorable outcome in this model.

  9. Neuroprotective effects of electro acupuncture on hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in newborn rats Ass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Li, Wenjie; Liang, Yiqun; Yang, Zhonghua; Liu, Jingdong; Wang, Yejun; Su, Nailun

    2014-11-01

    Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a common and potentially devastating condition in the neonate, associated with high mortality and morbidity. Effective treatment options are limited and therefore alternative therapies such as acupuncture are increasingly used. Previous studies have shown that electro acupuncture promoted proliferation of neural progenitor cell and increased expression of neurotrophic factor in HIE. However, effects of electro acupuncture on downstream signaling pathways have been rarely researched. So, in the present study, we aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of electro acupuncture on HIE and to further investigate the role of GDNF family receptor member RET and its key downstream PI3-K/Akt pathway in the process. A rat HIE model was constructed by the left common carotid artery (LCCA) ligation method in combination with hypoxic treatment. Considering that Baihui (GV20), Dazhui (GV14), Quchi (LI11) and Yongquan (KI1) are commonly used in clinics for stroke treatment and are easy to locate, we chose the above four acupoints as the combination for electro acupuncture treatment which was performed once a day for different time periods. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and transmission electron microscopy results showed that electro acupuncture could ameliorate neurologic damage and alleviate the degenerative changes of ultra structure of cortical neurons in rats subjected to HIE. And the longer acupuncture treatment lasted, the better its therapeutic effect would be. This was accompanied by gradually increased expression of GDNF family receptor RET at the mRNA level and its downstream signaling Akt at the protein level in the ischemic cortex. These findings suggest that electro acupuncture shows neuroprotective effects in HIE, which at least in part is attributed to activation of PI3-K/Akt signaling pathway.

  10. Neuroprotective mechanism of losartan and its interaction with nimesulide against chronic fatigue stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Singh, Barinder; Mishra, Jitendriya; Sah, Sangeeta Pilkhwal; Pottabathini, Raghavender

    2015-12-01

    Potential role of angiotensin-II and cyclooxygenase have been suggested in the pathophysiology of chronic fatigue stress. The present study has been designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of losartan and its interaction with nimesulide against chronic fatigue stress and related complications in mice. In the present study, male Laca mice (20-30 g) were subjected to running wheel activity test session (RWATS) for 6 min daily for 21 days. Losartan, nimesulide and their combinations were administered daily for 21 days, 45 min before being subjected to RWATS. Various behavioral and biochemical and neuroinflammatory mediators were assessed subsequently. 21 days RWATS treatment significantly decreased number of wheel rotations/6 min indicating fatigue stress like behaviors as compared to naive group. 21 days treatment with losartan (10 and 20 mg/kg, ip), nimesulide (5 and 10 mg/kg, po) and their combinations significantly improved behavior [increased number of wheel rotations, reversal of post-exercise fatigue, locomotor activity, antianxiety-like behavior (number of entries, latency to enter and time spent in mirror chamber), and memory performance (transfer latency in plus-maze performance task)], biochemical parameters (reduced serum corticosterone, brain lipid peroxidation, nitrite concentration, acetylcholinesterase activity, restored reduced glutathione levels and catalase activity) as compared to RWATS control. Besides, TNF-α, CRP levels were significantly attenuated by these drugs and their combinations as compared to control. The present study highlights the role of cyclooxygenase modulation in the neuroprotective effect of losartan against chronic fatigue stress-induced behavioral, biochemical and cellular alterations in mice.

  11. Gender difference in the neuroprotective effect of rat bone marrow mesenchymal cells against hypoxia-induced apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing; Yu, Jian-Xiong

    2016-05-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can reduce retinal ganglion cell death and effectively prevent vision loss. Previously, we found that during differentiation, female rhesus monkey bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells acquire a higher neurogenic potential compared with male rhesus monkey bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. This suggests that female bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells have a stronger neuroprotective effect than male bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Here, we first isolated and cultured bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from female and male rats by density gradient centrifugation. Retinal tissue from newborn rats was prepared by enzymatic digestion to obtain primary retinal ganglion cells. Using the transwell system, retinal ganglion cells were co-cultured with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells under hypoxia. Cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry and caspase-3 activity assay. We found a marked increase in apoptotic rate and caspase-3 activity of retinal ganglion cells after 24 hours of hypoxia compared with normoxia. Moreover, apoptotic rate and caspase-3 activity of retinal ganglion cells significantly decreased with both female and male bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell co-culture under hypoxia compared with culture alone, with more significant effects from female bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Our results indicate that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells exert a neuroprotective effect against hypoxia-induced apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells, and also that female cells have greater neuroprotective ability compared with male cells.

  12. Neuroprotective Effect of Arctigenin via Upregulation of P-CREB in Mouse Primary Neurons and Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Wen, Qingping; Ren, Lu; Liang, Wenbo; Xia, Yang; Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Dan; Sun, Dong; Hu, Yv; Hao, Haiguang; Yan, Yaping; Zhang, Guangxian; Yang, Jingxian; Kang, Tingguo

    2013-01-01

    Arctigenin (Arc) has been shown to act on scopolamine-induced memory deficit mice and to provide a neuroprotective effect on cultured cortical neurons from glutamate-induced neurodegeneration through mechanisms not completely defined. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of Arc on H89-induced cell damage and its potential mechanisms in mouse cortical neurons and human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. We found that Arc prevented cell viability loss induced by H89 in human SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, Arc reduced intracellular beta amyloid (Aβ) production induced by H89 in neurons and human SH-SY5Y cells, and Arc also inhibited the presenilin 1(PS1) protein level in neurons. In addition, neural apoptosis in both types of cells, inhibition of neurite outgrowth in human SH-SY5Y cells and reduction of synaptic marker synaptophysin (SYN) expression in neurons were also observed after H89 exposure. All these effects induced by H89 were markedly reversed by Arc treatment. Arc also significantly attenuated downregulation of the phosphorylation of CREB (p-CREB) induced by H89, which may contribute to the neuroprotective effects of Arc. These results demonstrated that Arc exerted the ability to protect neurons and SH-SY5Y cells against H89-induced cell injury via upregulation of p-CREB. PMID:24025424

  13. Neuroprotective Effect of Arctigenin via Upregulation of P-CREB in Mouse Primary Neurons and Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingguo Kang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Arctigenin (Arc has been shown to act on scopolamine-induced memory deficit mice and to provide a neuroprotective effect on cultured cortical neurons from glutamate-induced neurodegeneration through mechanisms not completely defined. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of Arc on H89-induced cell damage and its potential mechanisms in mouse cortical neurons and human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. We found that Arc prevented cell viability loss induced by H89 in human SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, Arc reduced intracellular beta amyloid (Aβ production induced by H89 in neurons and human SH-SY5Y cells, and Arc also inhibited the presenilin 1(PS1 protein level in neurons. In addition, neural apoptosis in both types of cells, inhibition of neurite outgrowth in human SH-SY5Y cells and reduction of synaptic marker synaptophysin (SYN expression in neurons were also observed after H89 exposure. All these effects induced by H89 were markedly reversed by Arc treatment. Arc also significantly attenuated downregulation of the phosphorylation of CREB (p-CREB induced by H89, which may contribute to the neuroprotective effects of Arc. These results demonstrated that Arc exerted the ability to protect neurons and SH-SY5Y cells against H89-induced cell injury via upregulation of p-CREB.

  14. The Neuroprotective Effect of Kefir on Spinal Cord Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Tarik; Yener, Ali Umit; Sehitoglu, Muserref Hilal; Yuksel, Yasemin; Cosar, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Objective The main causes of spinal cord ischemia are a variety of vascular pathologies causing acute arterial occlusions. We investigated neuroprotective effects of kefir on spinal cord ischemia injury in rats. Methods Rats were divided into three groups : 1) sham operated control rats; 2) spinal cord ischemia group fed on a standard diet without kefir pretreatment; and 3) spinal cord ischemia group fed on a standard diet plus kefir. Spinal cord ischemia was performed by the infrarenal aorta cross-clamping model. The spinal cord was removed after the procedure. The biochemical and histopathological changes were observed within the samples. Functional assessment was performed for neurological deficit scores. Results The kefir group was compared with the ischemia group, a significant decrease in malondialdehyde levels was observed (pkefir group were significantly higher than ischemia group (pkefir group is compared with ischemia group, there was a significant decrease in numbers of dead and degenerated neurons (pkefir group compared with ischemia group (pkefir group were significantly higher than ischemia group at 24 h (pkefir pretreatment in spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion reduced oxidative stress and neuronal degeneration as a neuroprotective agent. Ultrastructural studies are required in order for kefir to be developed as a promising therapeutic agent to be utilized for human spinal cord ischemia in the future. PMID:26113960

  15. The Neuroprotective Effect of Kefir on Spinal Cord Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, Mustafa; Akman, Tarik; Yener, Ali Umit; Sehitoglu, Muserref Hilal; Yuksel, Yasemin; Cosar, Murat

    2015-05-01

    The main causes of spinal cord ischemia are a variety of vascular pathologies causing acute arterial occlusions. We investigated neuroprotective effects of kefir on spinal cord ischemia injury in rats. Rats were divided into three groups : 1) sham operated control rats; 2) spinal cord ischemia group fed on a standard diet without kefir pretreatment; and 3) spinal cord ischemia group fed on a standard diet plus kefir. Spinal cord ischemia was performed by the infrarenal aorta cross-clamping model. The spinal cord was removed after the procedure. The biochemical and histopathological changes were observed within the samples. Functional assessment was performed for neurological deficit scores. The kefir group was compared with the ischemia group, a significant decrease in malondialdehyde levels was observed (pkefir group were significantly higher than ischemia group (pkefir group is compared with ischemia group, there was a significant decrease in numbers of dead and degenerated neurons (pkefir group compared with ischemia group (pkefir group were significantly higher than ischemia group at 24 h (pkefir pretreatment in spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion reduced oxidative stress and neuronal degeneration as a neuroprotective agent. Ultrastructural studies are required in order for kefir to be developed as a promising therapeutic agent to be utilized for human spinal cord ischemia in the future.

  16. Neuroprotection for Stroke: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kleinschnitz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuroprotection aims to prevent salvageable neurons from dying. Despite showing efficacy in experimental stroke studies, the concept of neuroprotection has failed in clinical trials. Reasons for the translational difficulties include a lack of methodological agreement between preclinical and clinical studies and the heterogeneity of stroke in humans compared to homogeneous strokes in animal models. Even when the international recommendations for preclinical stroke research, the Stroke Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR criteria, were followed, we have still seen limited success in the clinic, examples being NXY-059 and haematopoietic growth factors which fulfilled nearly all the STAIR criteria. However, there are a number of neuroprotective treatments under investigation in clinical trials such as hypothermia and ebselen. Moreover, promising neuroprotective treatments based on a deeper understanding of the complex pathophysiology of ischemic stroke such as inhibitors of NADPH oxidases and PSD-95 are currently evaluated in preclinical studies. Further concepts to improve translation include the investigation of neuroprotectants in multicenter preclinical Phase III-type studies, improved animal models, and close alignment between clinical trial and preclinical methodologies. Future successful translation will require both new concepts for preclinical testing and innovative approaches based on mechanistic insights into the ischemic cascade.

  17. Small Molecule Anticonvulsant Agents with Potent In Vitro Neuroprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Garry R.; Zhang, Yan; Du, Yanming; Kondaveeti, Sandeep K.; Zdilla, Michael J.; Reitz, Allen B.

    2012-01-01

    Severe seizure activity is associated with recurring cycles of excitotoxicity and oxidative stress that result in progressive neuronal damage and death. Intervention to halt these pathological processes is a compelling disease-modifying strategy for the treatment of seizure disorders. In the present study, a core small molecule with anticonvulsant activity has been structurally optimized for neuroprotection. Phenotypic screening of rat hippocampal cultures with nutrient medium depleted of antioxidants was utilized as a disease model. Increased cell death and decreased neuronal viability produced by acute treatment with glutamate or hydrogen peroxide were prevented by our novel molecules. The neuroprotection associated with this chemical series has marked structure activity relationships that focus on modification of the benzylic position of a 2-phenyl-2-hydroxyethyl sulfamide core structure. Complete separation between anticonvulsant activity and neuroprotective action was dependent on substitution at the benzylic carbon. Chiral selectivity was evident in that the S-enantiomer of the benzylic hydroxy group had neither neuroprotective nor anticonvulsant activity, while the R-enantiomer of the lead compound had full neuroprotective action at ≤40 nM and antiseizure activity in three animal models. These studies indicate that potent, multifunctional neuroprotective anticonvulsants are feasible within a single molecular entity. PMID:22535312

  18. Neuroprotective effects of riluzole in early phase Parkinson's disease on clinically relevant parameters in the marmoset MPTP model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhave, P.S.; Jongsma, M.J.; Berg, R.M. van den; Vanwersch, R.A.P.; Smit, A.B.; Philippens, I.H.C.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluates neuroprotection in a marmoset MPTP (1-methyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) model representing early Parkinson's disease (PD). The anti-glutamatergic compound riluzole is used as a model compound for neuroprotection. The compound is one of the few protective compounds used

  19. PR-957 mediates neuroprotection by inhibiting Th17 differentiation and modulating cytokine production in a mouse model of ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y; Chen, X; Li, D; Liu, H; Ding, Y; Han, R; Shi, Y; Ma, X

    2018-03-30

    Acute ischaemic stroke can induce secondary brain injury by activating an inflammatory response that contributes to clinical impairment. As a specific inhibitor of the immunoproteasome subunit low molecular weight polypeptide 7 (LMP7), PR-957 may participate in regulating pathophysiological and inflammatory responses in multiple diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). We investigated the neuroprotective properties of PR-957 in a mouse model of stroke, induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). After MCAO and injections of PR-957 or vehicle, we evaluated mice behaviourally using modified Neurological Severity Scores (mNSS) and sensorimotor tests, including the adhesive-removal test, a foot-fault test and an inclined plane test. Infarct volume was measured 24 and 72 h after MCAO. Infiltration by different lymphocyte subpopulations was evaluated by flow cytometry and immunofluorescent staining of brain tissue from the penumbral area. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to measure the expression of proinflammatory cytokines: interkeukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17A, interferon (IFN)-γ, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Expression of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (pSTAT-3) protein levels in brain was measured by immunoblot. MCAO mice treated with PR-957 showed a significant decrease in infarct volume and had mild neurological deficits compared to vehicle-treated mice. PR-957 administration also significantly decreased IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, IL-17A and TNF-α. PR-957 provides neuroprotection via inhibiting T lymphocyte infiltration and decreasing T helper type 17 (Th17) cell differentiation in MCAO mice, which may result from the reduced expression of pSTAT-3. The neuroprotective effect of PR-957 indicates its

  20. Anesthetic neuroprotection: antecedents and an appraisal of preclinical and clinical data quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Kazuyoshi; Berger, Miles; Nadler, Jacob; Warner, David S

    2014-01-01

    Anesthetics have been studied for nearly fifty years as potential neuroprotective compounds in both perioperative and resuscitation medicine. Although anesthetics present pharmacologic properties consistent with preservation of brain viability in the context of an ischemic insult, no anesthetic has been proven efficacious for neuroprotection in humans. After such effort, it could be concluded that anesthetics are simply not neuroprotective in humans. Moreover, pharmacologic neuroprotection with non-anesthetic drugs has also repeatedly failed to be demonstrated in human acute brain injury. Recent focus has been on rectification of promising preclinical neuroprotection data and subsequent failed clinical trials. This has led to consensus guidelines for the process of transferring purported therapeutics from bench to bedside. In this review we first examined the history of anesthetic neuroprotection research. Then, a systematic review was performed to identify major clinical trials of anesthetic neuroprotection. Both the preclinical neuroprotection portfolio cited to justify a clinical trial and the design and conduct of that clinical trial were evaluated using modern standards that include the Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR) and Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) guidelines. In publications intended to define anesthetic neuroprotection, we found overall poor quality of both preclinical efficacy analysis portfolios and clinical trial designs and conduct. Hence, using current translational research standards, it was not possible to conclude from existing data whether anesthetics ameliorate perioperative ischemic brain injury. Incorporation of advances in translational neuroprotection research conduct may provide a basis for more definitive and potentially successful clinical trials of anesthetics as neuroprotectants.

  1. Design and evaluation of mucoadhesive microemulsion for neuroprotective effect of ibuprofen following intranasal route in the MPTP mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Surjyanarayan; Mandal, Snigdha Das; Chuttani, Krishna; Sawant, Krutika K; Subudhi, Bharat Bhushan

    2016-08-01

    The present study is to investigate the neuroprotective effect of ibuprofen by intranasal administration of mucoadhesive microemulsion (MMEI) against inflammation-mediated by dopaminergic neurodegeneration in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Ibuprofen-loaded polycarbophil-based MMEI was developed by using response surface methodology (RSM). Ibuprofen with dose of 2.86 mg/kg/day was administered intranasally to male C57BL/6 mice for two consecutive weeks which were pre-treated with four intraperitoneal injections of MPTP (20 mg/kg of body weight) at 2 h intervals. Immunohistochemistry was performed. Optimal MMEI was stable and non-ciliotoxic with 66.29 ± 4.15 nm as average globule size and -20.9 ± 3.98 mV as zeta potential. PDI value and transmission electron microscopy result showed the narrow globule size distribution of MMEI. The result showed that all three independent variables had a significant effect (p open-field test findings revealed the significant improvement in motor performance and gross behavioral activity of the mice. The results from in vivo study and immunohistochemistry showed that nasal administration of Ibuprofen significantly reduced the MPTP-mediated dopamine depletion. Furthermore TH neurons count in the substantia nigra and the density of striatal dopaminergic nerve terminals were found to be significant higher for ibuprofen treated groups. Findings of the investigation revealed that Ibuprofen through developed MMEI was shown to protect neurons against MPTP-induced injury in the Substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and striatum and hence, could be a promising approach for brain targeting of Ibuprofen through intranasal route to treat PD.

  2. The neuroprotective effects of an ethanolic turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) extract against trimethyltin-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliani, Sapto; Mustofa; Partadiredja, Ginus

    2018-03-07

    Oxidative stress is known to contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. An ethanolic turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) extract containing curcumin has been reported to produce antioxidant effects. The present study aims to investigate the possible neuroprotective effects of the ethanolic turmeric extract against trimethyltin (TMT)-induced oxidative stress in Sprague Dawley rats. The ethanolic turmeric extract and citicoline were administered to the TMT exposed rats from day 1 to day 28 of the experiment. The TMT injection was administered on day 8 of the experiment. The plasma and brain malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, and the activities of the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzymes in the brain were examined at the end of the experiment. The administration of 200 mg/kg bw of the ethanolic turmeric extract prevented oxidative stress by decreasing the plasma and brain MDA levels and increasing the SOD, CAT, and GPx enzyme activities and GSH levels in the brain. These effects seem to be comparable to those of citicoline. The ethanolic turmeric extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg bw may exert neuroprotective effects on TMT-exposed Sprague Dawley rats by preventing them from oxidative stress.

  3. Decaffeinated coffee and nicotine-free tobacco provide neuroprotection in Drosophila models of Parkinson's disease through an NRF2-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Kien; Andrews, Laurie; Krause, James; Hanak, Tyler; Lee, Daewoo; Gelb, Michael; Pallanck, Leo

    2010-04-21

    Epidemiological studies have revealed a significantly reduced risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) among coffee and tobacco users, although it is unclear whether these correlations reflect neuroprotective/symptomatic effects of these agents or preexisting differences in the brains of tobacco and coffee users. Here, we report that coffee and tobacco, but not caffeine or nicotine, are neuroprotective in fly PD models. We further report that decaffeinated coffee and nicotine-free tobacco are as neuroprotective as their caffeine and nicotine-containing counterparts and that the neuroprotective effects of decaffeinated coffee and nicotine-free tobacco are also evident in Drosophila models of Alzheimer's disease and polyglutamine disease. Finally, we report that the neuroprotective effects of decaffeinated coffee and nicotine-free tobacco require the cytoprotective transcription factor Nrf2 and that a known Nrf2 activator in coffee, cafestol, is also able to confer neuroprotection in our fly models of PD. Our findings indicate that coffee and tobacco contain Nrf2-activating compounds that may account for the reduced risk of PD among coffee and tobacco users. These compounds represent attractive candidates for therapeutic intervention in PD and perhaps other neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. [Neuroprotective effect of curcumin to Aβ of double transgenic mice with Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hui-Li; Fan, Hui; Dang, Hui-Zi; Chen, Xiao-Pei; Ren, Ying; Yang, Jin-Duo; Wang, Peng-Wen

    2014-10-01

    To observe the changes in Aβ40, Aβ42 and ADDLs in brains of 3 month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 double transgenic mice after six-month intervention with curcumin, in order to discuss the neuroprotective effect of curcumin. APPswe/PS1dE9dtg mice were randomly divided into the model group, the Rosiglitazone group (10 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)) and curcumin high (400 mg x kg9-1) x d(-1)), medium (200 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)) and low (100 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)) dosage groups, with C57/BL6J mice of the same age and the same background in the normal control group. After 6 months, the immunohistochemical staining (IHC) and the Western blot method were used to observe the changes in positive cell of Aβ40, Aβ42 and ADDLs in hippocampal CA1 area, their distribution and protein expressions. Both of the immunohistochemical staining and the Western blot method showed more positive cell of Aβ40, Aβ42 and ADDLs in hippocampal CA1 area and higher protein expressions in the model group than the normal group (P curcumin high group, the medium group showed a significant decrease (P curcumin can significantly reduce the expressions of hippocampal Aβ40, Aβ42 and ADDLs in brains of APPswe/PS1dE9 double transgenic mice. Whether curcumin can impact Aβ cascade reaction by down-regulating expressions of Aβ40, Aβ42 and ADDLs and show the neuroprotective effect needs further studies.

  5. Neuroprotective effects of an oxyntomodulin analogue in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, WeiZhen; Li, Yanwei; Jalewa, Jaishree; Saunders-Wood, Taylor; Li, Lin; Hölscher, Christian

    2015-10-15

    Oxyntomodulin is a hormone and a growth factor. It activates two receptors, the Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and the glucagon receptor. GLP-1 mimetics are on the market as treatments for type 2 diabetes and are well tolerated. These drugs have shown neuroprotective properties in animal models of neurodegenerative disorders. In addition, the GLP-1 mimetic exendin-4 has shown protective effects in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD), and a clinical trial in PD patients showed promising first positive results. D-Ser2-oxyntomodulin (Oxy) is a protease resistant oxyntomodulin analogue that has been developed to treat diabetes. Here we demonstrate for the first time that such analogues have neuroprotective effects. The drug showed protective effects in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. MPTP was injected daily (20 mg/kg i.p.) for 7 days, and Oxy injected once-daily for 14 days i.p. Oxy treatment prevented or reversed the MPTP- induced motor impairment (Rotarod, spontaneous locomotion, swim activity, muscle strength test), the MPTP-induced reduction in Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH) levels (dopamine synthesis) in the substantia nigra and basal ganglia, the reduction of the synaptic marker synapstophysin, the inactivation of the growth factor kinase Akt/PKB and of the anti-apoptotic signaling molecule Bcl-2, and the increase of levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. The results demonstrate that oxyntomodulin analogues show promise as a novel treatment of PD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. α7 Nicotinic Receptor Promotes the Neuroprotective Functions of Astrocytes against Oxaliplatin Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathies are characterized by a complex response of the central nervous system to injuries. Glial cells are recruited to maintain neuronal homeostasis but dysregulated activation leads to pain signaling amplification and reduces the glial neuroprotective power. Recently, we highlighted the property of α7 nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor (nAChR agonists to relieve pain and induce neuroprotection simultaneously with a strong increase in astrocyte density. Aimed to study the role of α7 nAChR in the neuron-glia cross-talk, we treated primary rat neurons and astrocytes with the neurotoxic anticancer drug oxaliplatin evaluating the effect of the α7 nAChR agonist PNU-282987 (PNU. Oxaliplatin (1 μM, 48 h reduced cell viability and increased caspase-3 activity of neuron monocultures without damaging astrocytes. In cocultures, astrocytes were not able to protect neurons by oxaliplatin even if glial cell metabolism was stimulated (pyruvate increase. On the contrary, the coculture incubation with 10 μM PNU improved neuron viability and inhibited apoptosis. In the absence of astrocytes, the protection disappeared. Furthermore, PNU promoted the release of the anti-inflammatory cytokine TGF-β1 and the expression of the glutamate-detoxifying enzyme glutamine synthetase. The α7 nAChR stimulation protects neurons from oxaliplatin toxicity through an astrocyte-mediated mechanism. α7 nAChR is suggested for recovering the homeostatic role of astrocytes.

  7. From Chemotherapy-Induced Emesis to Neuroprotection: Therapeutic Opportunities for 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhfouri, Gohar; Mousavizadeh, Kazem; Mehr, Sharam Ejtemaei; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Zirak, Mohammad Reza; Ghia, Jean-Eric; Rahimian, Reza

    2015-12-01

    5-HT3 receptor antagonists are extensively used as efficacious agents in counteracting chemotherapy-induced emesis. Recent investigations have shed light on other potential effects (analgesic, anxiolytic, and anti-psychotic). Some studies have reported neuroprotective properties for the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in vitro and in vivo. When administered to Aβ-challenged rat cortical neurons, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists substantially abated apoptosis, elevation of cytosolic Ca(2), glutamate release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and caspase-3 activity. In addition, in vivo studies show that 5-HT3 receptor antagonists possess, alongside their anti-emetic effects, notable immunomodulatory properties in CNS. We found that pretreatment with tropisetron significantly improved neurological deficits and diminished leukocyte transmigration into the brain, TNF-α level, and brain infarction in a murine model of embolic stroke. Our recent investigation revealed that tropisetron protects against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in vivo through both 5-HT3 receptor-dependent and -independent pathways. Tropisetron, in vitro, was found to be an efficacious inhibitor of the signaling pathway leading to the activation of pro-inflammatory NF-κB, a transcription factor pivotal to the upregulation of several neuroinflammatory mediators in brain. This mini review summarizes novel evidence concerning effects of 5-HT3 antagonists and their possible mechanisms of action in ameliorating neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. Further, we discuss some newly synthesized 5-HT3 receptor antagonists with dual properties of 5-HT3 receptor blockade/alpha-7 nicotinic receptor activator and their potential in management of memory impairment. Since 5-HT3 receptor antagonists possess a large therapeutic window, they can constitute a scaffold for design and synthesis of new neuroprotective medications.

  8. Nutraceutical Antioxidants as Novel Neuroprotective Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Linseman

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A variety of antioxidant compounds derived from natural products (nutraceuticals have demonstrated neuroprotective activity in either in vitro or in vivo models of neuronal cell death or neurodegeneration, respectively. These natural antioxidants fall into several distinct groups based on their chemical structures: (1 flavonoid polyphenols like epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG from green tea and quercetin from apples; (2 non-flavonoid polyphenols such as curcumin from tumeric and resveratrol from grapes; (3 phenolic acids or phenolic diterpenes such as rosmarinic acid or carnosic acid, respectively, both from rosemary; and (4 organosulfur compounds including the isothiocyanate, L-sulforaphane, from broccoli and the thiosulfonate allicin, from garlic. All of these compounds are generally considered to be antioxidants. They may be classified this way either because they directly scavenge free radicals or they indirectly increase endogenous cellular antioxidant defenses, for example, via activation of the nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 transcription factor pathway. Alternative mechanisms of action have also been suggested for the neuroprotective effects of these compounds such as modulation of signal transduction cascades or effects on gene expression. Here, we review the literature pertaining to these various classes of nutraceutical antioxidants and discuss their potential therapeutic value in neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. Resveratrol exerts anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects to prevent memory deficits in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazir, Yusufhan; Utkan, Tijen; Gacar, Nejat; Aricioglu, Feyza

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have recently focused on the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol. In prior studies, we described its beneficial effects on scopolamine-induced learning deficits in rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol on emotional and spatial cognitive functions, neurotropic factor expression, and plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), which is known to induce cognitive deficits. Resveratrol (5 or 20mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally for 35 days. Rats in the CUMS group and in the 5mg/kg resveratrol+CUMS group performed poorly in tasks designed to assess emotional and spatial learning and memory. The 20mg/kg resveratrol+CUMS group showed improved performance compared to the CUMS group. In addition, the CUMS procedure induced lower expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and c-Fos in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 and in the amygdala of stressed rats. These effects were reversed by chronic administration of resveratrol (20mg/kg). In addition, plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta were increased by CUMS, but were restored to normal by resveratrol. These results indicate that resveratrol significantly attenuates the deficits in emotional learning and spatial memory seen in chronically stressed rats. These effects may be related to resveratrol-mediated changes in neurotrophin factor expression in hippocampus and in levels of proinflammatory cytokines in circulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Promise of Neuroprotective Agents in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith ePotashkin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s Disease is characterized by loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain. Since there are limited treatment options for PD, neuroprotective agents are currently being tested as a means to slow disease progression. Agents targeting oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation are prime candidates for neuroprotection. This review identifies Rasagiline, Minocycline and creatine, as the most promising neuroprotective agents for PD, and they are all currently in phase III trials. Other agents possessing protective characteristics in delaying PD include stimulants, vitamins, supplements, and other drugs. Additionally, combination therapies also show benefits in slowing PD progression. The identification of neuroprotective agents for PD provides us with therapeutic opportunities for modifying the course of disease progression and, perhaps, reducing the risk of onset when preclinical biomarkers become available.

  11. Neuroprotection and secondary damage following spinal cord injury: concepts and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Brett J; Moulson, Aaron J; Tetzlaff, Wolfram

    2017-06-23

    Neuroprotection refers to the attenuation of pathophysiological processes triggered by acute injury to minimize secondary damage. The development of neuroprotective treatments represents a major goal in the field of spinal cord injury (SCI) research. In this review, we discuss the strengths and limitations of the methodologies employed to assess secondary damage and neuroprotection in preclinical models of traumatic SCI. We also discuss modelling issues and how new tools might be exploited to study secondary damage and neuroprotection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antibacterial, Anticancer and Neuroprotective Activities of Rare Actinobacteria from Mangrove Forest Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Adzzie-Shazleen; Othman, Iekhsan; Fang, Chee-Mun; Chan, Kok-Gan; Goh, Bey-Hing; Lee, Learn-Han

    2017-06-01

    Mangrove is a complex ecosystem that contains diverse microbial communities, including rare actinobacteria with great potential to produce bioactive compounds. To date, bioactive compounds extracted from mangrove rare actinobacteria have demonstrated diverse biological activities. The discovery of three novel rare actinobacteria by polyphasic approach, namely Microbacterium mangrovi MUSC 115 T , Sinomonas humi MUSC 117 T and Monashia flava MUSC 78 T from mangrove soils at Tanjung Lumpur, Peninsular Malaysia have led to the screening on antibacterial, anticancer and neuroprotective activities. A total of ten different panels of bacteria such as Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 43300, ATCC 70069, Pseudomonas aeruginosa NRBC 112582 and others were selected for antibacterial screening. Three different neuroprotective models (hypoxia, oxidative stress, dementia) were done using SHSY5Y neuronal cells while two human cancer cells lines, namely human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29) and human cervical carcinoma cell lines (Ca Ski) were utilized for anticancer activity. The result revealed that all extracts exhibited bacteriostatic effects on the bacteria tested. On the other hand, the neuroprotective studies demonstrated M. mangrovi MUSC 115 T extract exhibited significant neuroprotective properties in oxidative stress and dementia model while the extract of strain M. flava MUSC 78 T was able to protect the SHSY5Y neuronal cells in hypoxia model. Furthermore, the extracts of M. mangrovi MUSC 115 T and M. flava MUSC 78 T exhibited anticancer effect against Ca Ski cell line. The chemical analysis of the extracts through GC-MS revealed that the majority of the compounds present in all extracts are heterocyclic organic compound that could explain for the observed bioactivities. Therefore, the results obtained in this study suggested that rare actinobacteria discovered from mangrove environment could be potential sources of antibacterial, anticancer and

  13. Neuroprotective effects of a brain permeant 6-aminoquinoxaline derivative in cell culture conditions that model the loss of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Douaron, Gael; Schmidt, Fanny; Amar, Majid; Kadar, Hanane; Debortoli, Lucila; Latini, Alexandra; Séon-Méniel, Blandine; Ferrié, Laurent; Michel, Patrick Pierre; Touboul, David; Brunelle, Alain; Raisman-Vozari, Rita; Figadère, Bruno

    2015-01-07

    Parkinson disease is a neurodegenerative disorder of aging, characterized by disabling motor symptoms resulting from the loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and the decrease of dopamine in the striatum. Current therapies are directed at treating the symptoms but there is presently no cure for the disease. In order to discover neuroprotective compounds with a therapeutical potential, our research team has established original and highly regioselective methods for the synthesis of 2,3-disubstituted 6-aminoquinoxalines. To evaluate the neuroprotective activity of these molecules, we used midbrain cultures and various experimental conditions that promote dopaminergic cell loss. Among a series of 11 molecules, only compound MPAQ (2-methyl-3-phenyl-6-aminoquinoxaline) afforded substantial protection in a paradigm where dopaminergic neurons die spontaneously and progressively as they mature. Prediction of blood-brain barrier permeation by Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship studies (QSARs) suggested that MPAQ was able to reach the brain parenchyma with sufficient efficacy. HPLC-MS/MS quantification in brain homogenates and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry imaging on brain tissue sections performed in MPAQ-treated mice allowed us to confirm this prediction and to demonstrate, by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry imaging, that MPAQ was localized in areas containing vulnerable neurons and/or their terminals. Of interest, MPAQ also rescued dopaminergic neurons, which (i) acquired dependency on the trophic peptide GDNF for their survival or (ii) underwent oxidative stress-mediated insults mediated by catalytically active iron. In summary, MPAQ possesses an interesting pharmacological profile as it penetrates the brain parenchyma and counteracts mechanisms possibly contributive to dopaminergic cell death in Parkinson disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Neuroprotective targets through which 6-acetyl-3-(4-(4-(4-fluorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)benzo[d]oxazol-2(3H)-one (SN79), a sigma receptor ligand, mitigates the effects of methamphetamine in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Nidhi; Robson, Matthew J.; Rosen, Abagail; McCurdy, Christopher R.; Matsumoto, Rae R.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high or repeated doses of methamphetamine can cause hyperthermia and neurotoxicity, which are thought to increase the risk of developing a variety of neurological conditions. Sigma receptor antagonism can prevent methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia and neurotoxicity, but the underlying cellular targets through which the neuroprotection is conveyed remain unknown. Differentiated NG108-15 cells were thus used as a model system to begin elucidating the neuroprotective mechanisms targeted by sigma receptor antagonists to mitigate the effects of methamphetamine. In differentiated NG108-15 cells, methamphetamine caused the generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, an increase in PERK-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress and the activation of caspase-3, -8 and -9, ultimately resulting in apoptosis at micromolar concentrations, and necrotic cell death at higher concentrations. The sigma receptor antagonist, 6-acetyl-3-(4-(4-(4-fluorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)benzo[d]oxazol-2(3H)-one (SN79), attenuated methamphetamine-induced increases in reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, activation of caspase-3,-8 and-9 and accompanying cellular toxicity. In contrast, 1,3-di(2-tolyl)-guanidine (DTG), a sigma receptor agonist, shifted the dose response curve of methamphetamine-induced cell death towards the left. To probe the effect of temperature on neurotoxicity, NG108-15 cells maintained at an elevated temperature (40 °C) exhibited a significant and synergistic increase in cell death in response to methamphetamine, compared to cells maintained at a normal cell culture temperature (37 °C). SN79 attenuated the enhanced cell death observed in the methamphetamine-treated cells at 40 °C. Together, the data demonstrate that SN79 reduces methamphetamine-induced reactive oxygen/nitrogen species generation and caspase activation, thereby conveying neuroprotective effects against methamphetamine under regular and elevated temperature conditions. PMID:24380829

  15. Catalpol Induces Neuroprotection and Prevents Memory Dysfunction through the Cholinergic System and BDNF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the role and mechanism of catalpol on neuroprotective effects and memory enhancing effects simultaneously, neuroprotective effects of catalpol were assessed by neurological deficits score, TTC staining, and cerebral blood flow detecting. Morris water maze was employed to investigate its effects on learning and memory and then clarify its possible mechanisms relating the central cholinergic system and BDNF. Edaravone and oxiracetam were used for positive control drugs based on its different action. Results showed that catalpol and edaravone significantly facilitated neurological function recovery, reduced infarction volume, and increased cerebral blood flow in stroke mice. Catalpol and oxiracetam decreased the escape latency significantly and increased the numbers of crossing platform obviously. The levels of ACh, ChAT, and BDNF in catalpol group were increased in a dose-dependent manner, and AChE declined with a U-shaped dose-response curve. Moreover, the levels of muscarinic AChR subtypes M1 and M2 in hippocampus were considerably raised by catalpol. These results demonstrated that catalpol may be useful for neuroprotection and memory enhancement, and the mechanism may be related to the central cholinergic system.

  16. Neuroprotective effects of sildenafil against oxidative stress and memory dysfunction in mice exposed to noise stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikandaner, Hu Erxidan; Park, So Young; Kim, Min Jung; Park, Shi Nae; Yang, Dong Won

    2017-02-15

    Noise exposure has been well characterized as an environmental stressor, and is known to have auditory and non-auditory effects. Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors affect memory and hippocampus plasticity through various signaling cascades which are regulated by cGMP. In this study, we investigated the effects of sildenafil on memory deficiency, neuroprotection and oxidative stress in mice caused by chronic noise exposure. Mice were exposed to noise for 4h every day up to 14days at 110dB SPL of noise level. Sildenafil (15mg/kg) was orally administered 30min before noise exposure for 14days. Behavioral assessments were performed using novel object recognition (NOR) test and radial arm maze (RAM) test. Higher levels of memory dysfunction and oxidative stress were observed in noise alone-induced mice compared to control group. Interestingly, sildenafil administration increased memory performance, decreased oxidative stress, and increased neuroprotection in the hippocampus region of noise alone-induced mice likely through affecting memory related pathways such as cGMP/PKG/CREB and p25/CDK5, and induction of free radical scavengers such as SOD1, SOD2, SOD3, Prdx5, and catalase in the brain of stressed mice. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Klotho upregulation contributes to the neuroprotection of ligustilide against cerebral ischemic injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Fang-Yi; Shi, Meng-Qi; Zhou, Hong-Jing; Liu, Dong-Ling; Sang, Na; Du, Jun-Rong

    2018-02-05

    Klotho, an aging-suppressor gene, encodes a protein that potentially acts as a neuroprotective factor. Our previous studies showed that ligustilide minimizes the cognitive dysfunction and brain damage induced by cerebral ischemia; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study aims to investigate whether klotho is involved in the protective effects of ligustilide against cerebral ischemic injury in mice. Cerebral ischemia was induced by bilateral common carotid arterial occlusion. Neurobehavioral tests as well as Nissl and Fluoro-Jade B staining were used to evaluate the protective effects of ligustilide in cerebral ischemia, and Western blotting and ELISA approaches were used to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Administration of ligustilide prevented the development of neurological deficits and reduced neuronal loss in the hippocampal CA1 region and the caudate putamen after cerebral ischemia. The protective effects were associated with inhibition of the RIG-I/NF-κB p65 and Akt/FoxO1 pathways and with prevention of inflammation and oxidative stress in the brain. Further, downregulation of klotho could attenuate the neuroprotection of ligustilide against cerebral ischemic injury. Ligustilide exerted neuroprotective effects in mice after cerebral ischemia by regulating anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant signaling pathways. Furthermore, klotho upregulation contributes to the neuroprotection of LIG against cerebral ischemic injury. These results indicated that ligustilide may be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of cerebral ischemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. NEUROPROTECTIVE EFFICACY OF SUBCUTANEOUS INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR-I ADMINISTRATION IN NORMOTENSIVE AND HYPERTENSIVE RATS WITH AN ISCHEMIC STROKE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Geyter, D.; Stoop, W.; Sarre, S.; de Keyser, J.; Kooijman, R.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) as a neuroprotective agent in a rat model for ischemic stroke and to compare its neuroprotective effects in conscious normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats. The effects of subcutaneous IGF-I injection were

  19. Cell therapy centered on IL-1Ra is neuroprotective in experimental stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Bettina Hjelm; Lambertsen, Kate Lykke; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    ), a known neuroprotectant in stroke, can promote neuroprotection, by modulating the detrimental inflammatory response in the tissue at risk. We show by the use of IL-1Ra-overexpressing and IL-1Ra-deficient mice that IL-1Ra is neuroprotective in stroke. Characterization of the cellular and spatiotemporal...... irradiated mice with IL-1Ra-producing bone marrow cells is associated with neuroprotection and recruitment of IL-1Ra-producing leukocytes after stroke. Neuroprotection is also achieved by therapeutic injection of IL-1Ra-producing bone marrow cells 30 min after stroke onset, additionally improving...... by demonstration of IL-1Ra-producing cells in the human cortex early after ischemic stroke. Taken together, our results attribute distinct neuroprotective or neurotoxic functions to segregated subsets of microglia and suggest that treatment strategies increasing the production of IL-1Ra by infiltrating leukocytes...

  20. The pre-ischaemic neuroprotective effects of N1-dansyl-spermine in a transient focal cerebral ischaemia model in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Henman, Martin C; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Shaw, Graham G; Doyle, Karen M

    2005-09-07

    The pre-ischaemic neuroprotective potential of a novel polyamine/NMDA antagonist N1-dansyl-spermine (1-5 mg kg(-1)) was studied in a transient focal cerebral ischaemia model in mice in comparison to a reference compound, MK-801 (1 or 3 mg kg(-1)). The intraluminal suture transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was used. N1-dansyl-spermine and MK-801 were administered (i.p.) 30 min prior to ischaemia. A range of histological and behavioural assessments was employed. N1-dansyl-spermine had a comparable effect to MK-801 at reducing the percentage hemisphere lesion volume (%HLV) at the doses tested. Furthermore, N1-dansyl-spermine reduced the ischaemic brain oedema, which MK-801 did not. N1-dansyl-spermine significantly reversed the decrease of locomotor activity (LMA) caused by the MCAO and showed a significant effect at improving the rotarod performance impaired by MCAO. In contrast, MK-801 had no beneficial effect on sensorimotor function and even worsened the LMA. These results clearly demonstrate the pre-ischaemic neuroprotective effect of N1-dansyl-spermine in a transient focal cerebral ischaemia model.

  1. Structure-activity relationships for flavone interactions with amyloid β reveal a novel anti-aggregatory and neuroprotective effect of 2',3',4'-trihydroxyflavone (2-D08).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Dylan T; Das, Sukanya; Ridell, Jessica; Smid, Scott D

    2017-07-15

    Naturally-occurring flavonoids have well documented anti-aggregatory and neuroprotective properties against the hallmark toxic protein in Alzheimer's disease, amyloid β (Aβ). However the extensive diversity of flavonoids has limited the insight into the precise structure-activity relationships that confer such bioactive properties against the Aβ protein. In the present study we have characterised the Aβ binding properties, anti-aggregatory and neuroprotective effects of a discreet set of flavones, including the recently described novel protein sumoylation inhibitor 2',3',4'-trihydroxyflavone (2-D08). Quercetin, transilitin, jaceosidin, nobiletin and 2-D08 were incubated with human Aβ 1-42 for 48h in vitro and effects on Aβ fibrillisation kinetics and morphology measured using Thioflavin T (ThT) and electron microscopy respectively, in addition to effects on neuronal PC12 cell viability. Of the flavones studied, only quercetin, transilitin and 2-D08 significantly inhibited Aβ 1-42 aggregation and toxicity in PC12 cells. Of those, 2-D08 was the most effective inhibitor. The strong anti-amyloid activity of 2-D08 indicates that extensive hydroxylation in the B ring is the most important determinant of activity against β amyloid within the flavone scaffold. The lack of efficacy of jaceosidin and nobiletin indicate that extension of B ring hydroxylation with methoxyl groups result in an incremental loss of anti-fibrillar and neuroprotective activity, highlighting the constraint to vicinal hydroxyl groups in the B ring for effective inhibition of aggregation. These findings reveal further structural insights into anti-amyloid bioactivity of flavonoids in addition to a novel and efficacious anti-aggregatory and neuroprotective effect of the semi-synthetic flavone and sumoylation inhibitor 2',3',4'-trihydroxyflavone (2-D08). Such modified flavones may facilitate drug development targeting multiple pathways in neurodegenerative disease. Crown Copyright © 2017

  2. Targeting Cellular Stress Mechanisms and Metabolic Homeostasis by Chinese Herbal Drugs for Neuroprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Chien Ting

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine has been practiced for centuries in East Asia. Herbs are used to maintain health and cure disease. Certain Chinese herbs are known to protect and improve the brain, memory, and nervous system. To apply ancient knowledge to modern science, some major natural therapeutic compounds in herbs were extracted and evaluated in recent decades. Emerging studies have shown that herbal compounds have neuroprotective effects or can ameliorate neurodegenerative diseases. To understand the mechanisms of herbal compounds that protect against neurodegenerative diseases, we summarize studies that discovered neuroprotection by herbal compounds and compound-related mechanisms in neurodegenerative disease models. Those compounds discussed herein show neuroprotection through different mechanisms, such as cytokine regulation, autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, glucose metabolism, and synaptic function. The interleukin (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α signaling pathways are inhibited by some compounds, thus attenuating the inflammatory response and protecting neurons from cell death. As to autophagy regulation, herbal compounds show opposite regulatory effects in different neurodegenerative models. Herbal compounds that inhibit ER stress prevent neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, there are compounds that protect against neuronal death by affecting glucose metabolism and synaptic function. Since the progression of neurodegenerative diseases is complicated, and compound-related mechanisms for neuroprotection differ, therapeutic strategies may need to involve multiple compounds and consider the type and stage of neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. Neuroprotective Effects against POCD by Photobiomodulation: Evidence from Assembly/Disassembly of the Cytoskeleton

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    Ann D. Liebert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD is a decline in memory following anaesthesia and surgery in elderly patients. While often reversible, it consumes medical resources, compromises patient well-being, and possibly accelerates progression into Alzheimer's disease. Anesthetics have been implicated in POCD, as has neuroinflammation, as indicated by cytokine inflammatory markers. Photobiomodulation (PBM is an effective treatment for a number of conditions, including inflammation. PBM also has a direct effect on microtubule disassembly in neurons with the formation of small, reversible varicosities, which cause neural blockade and alleviation of pain symptoms. This mimics endogenously formed varicosities that are neuroprotective against damage, toxins, and the formation of larger, destructive varicosities and focal swellings. It is proposed that PBM may be effective as a preconditioning treatment against POCD; similar to the PBM treatment, protective and abscopal effects that have been demonstrated in experimental models of macular degeneration, neurological, and cardiac conditions.

  4. Inhibition of Cathepsins B Induces Neuroprotection Against Secondary Degeneration in Ipsilateral Substantia Nigra After Focal Cortical Infarction in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xialin Zuo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability in the world. In general, recovery from stroke is incomplete. Accumulating evidences have shown that focal cerebral infarction leads to dynamic trans-neuronal degeneration in non-ischemic remote brain regions, with the disruption of connections to synapsed neurons sustaining ischemic insults. Previously, we had reported that the ipsilateral striatum, thalamus degenerated in succession after permanent distal branch of middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAO in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats and cathepsin (Cath B was activated before these relay degeneration. Here, we investigate the role of CathB in the secondary degeneration of ipsilateral substantia nigra (SN after focal cortical infarction. We further examined whether the inhibition of CathB with L-3-trans-(Propyl-carbamoyloxirane-2-carbonyl-L-isoleucyl-L-proline methyl ester (CA-074Me would attenuate secondary degeneration through enhancing the cortico-striatum-nigral connections and contribute to the neuroprotective effects. Our results demonstrated that secondary degeneration in the ipsilateral SN occurred and CathB was upregulated in the ipsilateral SN after focal cortical infarction. The inhibition of CathB with CA-074Me reduced the neuronal loss and gliosis in the ipsilateral SN. Using biotinylated dextran amine (BDA or pseudorabies virus (PRV 152 as anterograde or retrograde tracer to trace striatum-nigral and cortico-nigral projections pathway, CA-074Me can effectively enhance the cortico-striatum-nigral connections and exert neuroprotection against secondary degeneration in the ipsilateral SN after cortical ischemia. Our study suggests that the lysosomal protease CathB mediates the secondary damage in the ipsilateral SN after dMCAO, thus it can be a promising neuroprotective target for the rehabilitation of stroke patients.

  5. Neuroprotection by Combined Administration with Maslinic Acid, a Natural Product from Olea europaea, and MK-801 in the Cerebral Ischemia Model

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    Yisong Qian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity is a major cause of ischemic brain damage. MK-801 confers neuroprotection by attenuating the activation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA receptor, but it failed in clinical use due to the short therapeutic window. Here we aim to investigate the effects of maslinic acid, a natural product from Olea europaea, on the therapeutic time window and dose range for the neuroprotection of MK-801. Rats were administered with maslinic acid intracerebroventricularly and cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO followed by reperfusion. MK-801 was administered at 1 h, 2 h, 3 h and 4 h after ischemia, respectively. The cerebral infarct volume was determined by 2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC staining, neuronal damage was assessed by Haematoxylin Eosin (H&E staining, and the expression of glial glutamate transporters and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blot post-ischemia. Results showed that the presence of maslinic acid extended the therapeutic time window for MK-801 from 1 h to 3 h. Co-treatment of maslinic acid and MK-801 at a subthreshold dosage obviously induced neuroprotection after ischemia. The combination of these two compounds improved the outcome in ischemic rats. Moreover, maslinic acid treatment promoted the expression of GLT-1 and GFAP post-ischemia. These data suggest that the synergistic effect of maslinic acid on neurological protection might be associated with the improvement of glial function, especially with the increased expression of GLT-1. The combination therapy of maslinic acid and MK-801 may prove to be a potential strategy for treating acute ischemic stroke.

  6. Neuroprotection by Combined Administration with Maslinic Acid, a Natural Product from Olea europaea, and MK-801 in the Cerebral Ischemia Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yisong; Tang, Xuzhen; Guan, Teng; Li, Yunman; Sun, Hongbin

    2016-08-19

    Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity is a major cause of ischemic brain damage. MK-801 confers neuroprotection by attenuating the activation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, but it failed in clinical use due to the short therapeutic window. Here we aim to investigate the effects of maslinic acid, a natural product from Olea europaea, on the therapeutic time window and dose range for the neuroprotection of MK-801. Rats were administered with maslinic acid intracerebroventricularly and cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by reperfusion. MK-801 was administered at 1 h, 2 h, 3 h and 4 h after ischemia, respectively. The cerebral infarct volume was determined by 2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, neuronal damage was assessed by Haematoxylin Eosin (H&E) staining, and the expression of glial glutamate transporters and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blot post-ischemia. Results showed that the presence of maslinic acid extended the therapeutic time window for MK-801 from 1 h to 3 h. Co-treatment of maslinic acid and MK-801 at a subthreshold dosage obviously induced neuroprotection after ischemia. The combination of these two compounds improved the outcome in ischemic rats. Moreover, maslinic acid treatment promoted the expression of GLT-1 and GFAP post-ischemia. These data suggest that the synergistic effect of maslinic acid on neurological protection might be associated with the improvement of glial function, especially with the increased expression of GLT-1. The combination therapy of maslinic acid and MK-801 may prove to be a potential strategy for treating acute ischemic stroke.

  7. Neuroprotection as initial therapy in acute stroke. Third Report of an Ad Hoc Consensus Group Meeting. The European Ad Hoc Consensus Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Although a considerable body of scientific data is now available on neuroprotection in acute ischaemic stroke, this field is not yet established in clinical practice. At its third meeting, the European Ad Hoc Consensus Group considered the potential for neuroprotection in acute stroke and the practical problems attendant on the existence of a very limited therapeutic window before irreversible brain damage occurs, and came to the following conclusions. NEUROPROTECTANTS IN CLINICAL DEVELOPMENT: Convincing clinical evidence for an efficacious neuroprotective treatment in acute stroke is still required. Caution should be exercised in interpreting and extrapolating experimental results to stroke patients, who are a very heterogeneous group. The limitations of the time windows and the outcome measures chosen in trials of acute stroke therapy have an important influence on the results. The overall distribution of functional outcomes provides more statistical information than the proportion above a threshold outcome value. Neurological outcome should also be assessed. Neuroprotectants should not be tested clinically in phase II or phase III trials in a time window that exceeds those determined in experimental studies. The harmful effects of a drug in humans may override its neuroprotective potential determined in animals. Agents that act at several different levels in the ischaemic cascade may be more effective than those with a single mechanism of action. CURRENT IN-HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE STROKE: The four major physiological variables that must be monitored and managed are blood pressure, arterial blood gas levels, body temperature, and glycaemia. The effects of controlling these physiological variables have not been studied in prospective trials, though they may all contribute to the outcome of acute ischaemic stroke and affect the duration of the therapeutic window. Optimal physiological parameters are inherently neuroprotective. Trials of new agents for the

  8. Curcumin plays neuroprotective roles against traumatic brain injury partly via Nrf2 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenwen; Yang, Bei; Wang, Linlin; Li, Bingxuan; Guo, Xiangshen; Zhang, Miao; Jiang, Zhenfei; Fu, Jingqi; Pi, Jingbo; Guan, Dawei; Zhao, Rui

    2018-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI), which leads to high mortality and morbidity, is a prominent public health problem worldwide with no effective treatment. Curcumin has been shown to be beneficial for neuroprotection in vivo and in vitro, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study determined whether the neuroprotective role of curcumin in mouse TBI is dependent on the NF-E2-related factor (Nrf2) pathway. The Feeney weight-drop contusion model was used to mimic TBI. Curcumin was administered intraperitoneally 15 min after TBI induction, and brains were collected at 24 h after TBI. The levels of Nrf2 and its downstream genes (Hmox-1, Nqo1, Gclm, and Gclc) were detected by Western blot and qRT-PCR at 24 h after TBI. In addition, edema, oxidative damage, cell apoptosis and inflammatory reactions were evaluated in wild type (WT) and Nrf2-knockout (Nrf2-KO) mice to explore the role of Nrf2 signaling after curcumin treatment. In wild type mice, curcumin treatment resulted in reduced ipsilateral cortex injury, neutrophil infiltration, and microglia activation, improving neuron survival against TBI-induced apoptosis and degeneration. These effects were accompanied by increased expression and nuclear translocation of Nrf2, and enhanced expression of antioxidant enzymes. However, Nrf2 deletion attenuated the neuroprotective effects of curcumin in Nrf2-KO mice after TBI. These findings demonstrated that curcumin effects on TBI are associated with the activation the Nrf2 pathway, providing novel insights into the neuroprotective role of Nrf2 and the potential therapeutic use of curcumin for TBI. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Microglia and neuroprotection: implications for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Wolfgang J

    2005-04-01

    The first part of this paper summarizes some of the key observations from experimental work in animals that support a role of microglia as neuroprotective cells after acute neuronal injury. These studies point towards an important role of neuronal-microglial crosstalk in the facilitation of neuroprotection. Conceptually, injured neurons are thought to generate rescue signals that trigger microglial activation and, in turn, activated microglia produce trophic or other factors that help damaged neurons recover from injury. Against this background, the second part of this paper summarizes recent work from postmortem studies conducted in humans that have revealed the occurrence of senescent, or dystrophic, microglial cells in the aged and Alzheimer's disease brain. These findings suggest that microglial cells become increasingly dysfunctional with advancing age and that a loss of microglial cell function may involve a loss of neuroprotective properties that could contribute to the development of aging-related neurodegeneration.

  10. Neuroprotective effects of ebselen in traumatic brain injury model: involvement of nitric oxide and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liang; Zhang, Yanfei; Yang, Cheng; Wang, Qi; Zhuang, Zhongwei; Sun, Zhiyang

    2014-02-01

    Previous investigations have found that ebselen is able to treat neurodegenerative diseases caused by radical and acute total cerebral ischaemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of ebselen in a traumatic brain injury (TBI) model. Ninety Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 18 in each): (i) sham operation; (ii) an injury model group; (iii) low-dose (3 mg/kg) ebselen-treated group; (iv) a moderate-dose (10 mg/kg) ebselen-treated group; and (v) a high-dose (30 mg/kg) ebselen-treated group. The TBI model was created according using a modified weight-drop model. Neurological severity score (NSS), brain water content and histopathological deficits were assessed as parameters of injury severity. Expression of nitric oxide (NO), inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA, Toll-like receptor (TLR) and phosphorylated (p-) p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were examined by chemical colorimetry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting 24 h after intragastric ebselen administration. Rats in the TBI model group exhibited markedly more severe neurological injury (higher NSS, more brain water content and more histopathological deficits) than those in the sham-operated group. Ebselen treatment significantly ameliorated the neurological injury of TBI rats in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, ebselen significantly reduced the NO and iNOS mRNA levels and inhibited TLR4 and p-p38 MAPK expression, indicating the involvement of NO and p38 MAPK signalling pathways in the neuroprotection afforded by ebselen. In conclusion, ebselen ameliorated neurological injury, possibly by reducing NO levels and modulating the TLR4-mediated p38 MAPK signalling pathway. Therefore, ebselen may have potential to treat secondary injuries of TBI. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. The administration of hydrogen sulphide prior to ischemic reperfusion has neuroprotective effects in an acute stroke model.

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    Chul-Woong Woo

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence has suggested that hydrogen sulfide (H2S may alleviate the cellular damage associated with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. In this study, we assessed using 1H-magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRI/MRS and histologic analysis whether H2S administration prior to reperfusion has neuroprotective effects. We also evaluated for differences in the effects of H2S treatment at 2 time points. 1H-MRI/MRS data were obtained at baseline, and at 3, 9, and 24 h after ischemia from 4 groups: sham, control (I/R injury, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS-30 and NaHS-1 (NaHS delivery at 30 and 1 min before reperfusion, respectively. The total infarct volume and the midline shift at 24 h post-ischemia were lowest in the NaHS-1, followed by the NaHS-30 and control groups. Peri-infarct volume was significantly lower in the NaHS-1 compared to NaHS-30 and control animals. The relative apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC in the peri-infarct region showed that the NaHS-1 group had significantly lower values compared to the NaHS-30 and control animals and that NaHS-1 rats showed significantly higher relative T2 values in the peri-infarct region compared to the controls. The relative ADC value, relative T2 value, levels of N-acetyl-L-aspartate (NAA, and the NAA, glutamate, and taurine combination score (NGT in the ischemic core region at 24 h post-ischemia did not differ significantly between the 2 NaHS groups and the control except that the NAA and NGT values were higher in the peri-infarct region of the NaHS-1 animals at 9 h post-ischemia. In the ischemic core and peri-infarct regions, the apoptosis rate was lowest in the NaHS-1 group, followed by the NaHS-30 and control groups. Our results suggest that H2S treatment has neuroprotective effects on the peri-infarct region during the evolution of I/R injury. Furthermore, our findings indicate that the administration of H2S immediately prior to reperfusion produces the

  12. Nrf2 signaling contributes to the neuroprotective effects of urate against 6-OHDA toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence shows that urate may become a biomarker of Parkinson's disease (PD diagnosis and prognosis and a neuroprotectant candidate for PD therapy. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying its neuroprotective actions remain poorly understood. RESULTS: In this study, we showed that urate pretreatment protected dopaminergic cell line (SH-SY5Y and MES23.5 against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA- and hydrogen peroxide- induced cell damage. Urate was found to be accumulated into SH-SY5Y cells after 30 min treatment. Moreover, urate induced NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 accumulation by inhibiting its ubiquitinationa and degradation, and also promoted its nuclear translocation; however, it did not modulate Nrf2 mRNA level or Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1 expression. In addition, urate markedly up-regulated the transcription and protein expression of γ-glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (γ-GCLC and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, both of which are controlled by Nrf2 activity. Furthermore, Nrf2 knockdown by siRNA abolished the intracellular glutathione augmentation and the protection exerted by urate pretreatment. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated that urate treatment may result in Nrf2-targeted anti-oxidant genes transcription and expression by reducing Nrf2 ubiquitination and degradation and promoting its nuclear translocation, and thus offer neuroprotection on dopaminergic cells against oxidative stresses.

  13. Preclinical anticonvulsant and neuroprotective profile of 8319, a non-competitive NMDA antagonist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fielding, S.; Wilker, J.C.; Chernack, J.; Ramirez, V.; Wilmot, C.A.; Martin, L.L.; Payack, J.F.; Cornfeldt, M.L.; Rudolphi, K.A.; Rush, D.K.

    1990-01-01

    8319, ((+-)-2-Amino-N-ethyl-alpha-(3-methyl-2-thienyl)benzeneethanamine 2HCl), is a novel compound with the profile of a non-competitive NMDA antagonist. The compound displaced [3H] TCP with high affinity (IC50 = 43 nM), but was inactive at the NMDA, benzodiazepine and GABA sites; in vivo, 8319 showed good efficacy as an anticonvulsant and potential neuroprotective agent. It blocked seizures induced by NMDLA, supramaximal electroshock, pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), picrotoxin, and thiosemicarbazide with ED50's of 1-20 mg/kg ip. As a neuroprotective agent, 8319 (30-100 mg/kg sc) prevented the death of dorsal hippocampal pyramidal cells induced by direct injection of 20 nmol NMDA. At 15 mg/kg ip, the compound was also effective against hippocampal neuronal necrosis induced via bilateral occlusion of the carotid arteries in gerbils. In summary, 8319 is a noncompetitive NMDA antagonist with good anticonvulsant activity and may possess neuroprotective properties useful in the treatment of brain ischemia

  14. Neuroprotective Role of Nerve Growth Factor in Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Chiaretti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxic-ischemic brain injuries (HIBI in childhood are frequently associated with poor clinical and neurological outcome. Unfortunately, there is currently no effective therapy to restore neuronal loss and to determine substantial clinical improvement. Several neurotrophins, such as Nerve Growth Factor (NGF, Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF, and Glial Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF, play a key role in the development, differentiation, and survival of the neurons of the peripheral and central nervous system. Experimental animal studies demonstrated their neuroprotective role in HIBI, while only a few studies examined the neuroprotective mechanisms in patients with severe HIBI. We report two cases of children with HIBI and prolonged comatose state who showed a significant improvement after intraventricular NGF administration characterized by amelioration of electroencephalogram (EEG and cerebral perfusion at single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT. The improvement in motor and cognitive functions of these children could be related to the neuroprotective role exerted by NGF in residual viable cholinergic neurons, leading to the restoration of neuronal networks in the damaged brain.

  15. 17β-Estradiol augments antidepressant efficacy of escitalopram in ovariectomized rats: Neuroprotective and serotonin reuptake transporter modulatory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Weam W; Safar, Marwa M; Khattab, Mahmoud M; Agha, Azza M

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence or recurrence of depression is seriously increased in women during the transition to and after menopause. The chronic hypo-estrogenic state of menopause may reduce the response to antidepressants; however the influence of estrogen therapy on their efficacy is still controversial. This study aimed at investigating the effects of combining escitalopram with 17β-estradiol on depression and cognitive impairment induced by ovariectomy, an experimental model of human menopause. Young adult female Wistar rats were subjected to either sham operation or ovariectomy. Ovariectomized animals were treated chronically with escitalopram (10mg/kg/day, i.p) alone or with four doses of 17β-estradiol (40μg/kg, s.c) given prior to the behavioral tests. Co-administration of 17β-estradiol improved escitalopram-induced antidepressant effect in forced swimming test verified as more prominent decrease in the immobility time without opposing its memory enhancing effect in Morris water maze. 17β-estradiol augmented the modulatory effects of escitalopram on the hippocampal levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and serotonin reuptake transporter as well as tumor necrosis factor-alpha without altering its effects on the gene expressions of serotonin receptor 1A, estrogen receptors alpha and beta, or acetylcholinestearase content. This combined therapy afforded synergistic protective effects on the brain histopathological architecture, particularly, the hippocampus. The antidepressant effect of 17β-estradiol was abolished by pretreatment with estrogen receptor antagonist, tamoxifen (10mg/kg, p.o). In conclusion, 17β-estradiol-induced antidepressant effect was confined to intracellular estrogen receptors activation. Moreover, 17β-estradiol enhanced escitalopram's efficiency in ameliorating menopausal-like depression, via exerting synergistic neuroprotective and serotonin reuptake transporter modulatory effects, without impeding escitalopram-mediated cognitive

  16. General anesthetics in children: neurotoxic or neuroprotective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Farias Rebouças

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: general anesthetics are involved in neuroprotection in adults after ischemic events and cognitive impairment, thus, they also may be associated with learning disorders in children exposed to them before three years of age. Objective: Describe about the neurotoxic effects of general anesthetics in experimental animals and children. Method: This is a systematic review, performed from search in databases and on PubMed using the keywords "neurotoxicity" and "general anesthetics," and "general anesthetics," "neurotoxicity", "children", "young child "and" pediatric ". Results: The search resulted in 185 articles. Out of these, 78 met our inclusion criteria. We found that there was a significant evidence of neurotoxicity induced by general anesthetics in experimental animals that were just born, resulting in late and permanent cognitive deficits. This effect was associated with multiple exposures, exposure length of time and combination of drugs. However, some studies found cognitive impairment after a single exposure to anesthetic. Conclusion: There is insufficient evidence to state that general anesthetics are neurotoxic and have the potential to trigger learning and behavior disabilities in children. However, we suggest caution in indicating surgery in children under three years old, analyzing risk-benefit and inserting the family in the decision process.   Keywords: Neurotoxicity; Neuroprotection; Cognitive Impairment; Children; General Anesthesics

  17. Neuroprotective Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Therapy in Acute Stages of TNBS-Induced Colitis in Guinea-Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainsley M Robinson

    Full Text Available The therapeutic benefits of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, such as homing ability, multipotent differentiation capacity and secretion of soluble bioactive factors which exert neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, have been attributed to attenuation of autoimmune, inflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we aimed to determine the earliest time point at which locally administered MSC-based therapies avert enteric neuronal loss and damage associated with intestinal inflammation in the guinea-pig model of colitis.At 3 hours after induction of colitis by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene-sulfonate (TNBS, guinea-pigs received either human bone marrow-derived MSCs, conditioned medium (CM, or unconditioned medium by enema into the colon. Colon tissues were collected 6, 24 and 72 hours after administration of TNBS. Effects on body weight, gross morphological damage, immune cell infiltration and myenteric neurons were evaluated. RT-PCR, flow cytometry and antibody array kit were used to identify neurotrophic and neuroprotective factors released by MSCs.MSC and CM treatments prevented body weight loss, reduced infiltration of leukocytes into the colon wall and the myenteric plexus, facilitated repair of damaged tissue and nerve fibers, averted myenteric neuronal loss, as well as changes in neuronal subpopulations. The neuroprotective effects of MSC and CM treatments were observed as early as 24 hours after induction of inflammation even though the inflammatory reaction at the level of the myenteric ganglia had not completely subsided. Substantial number of neurotrophic and neuroprotective factors released by MSCs was identified in their secretome.MSC-based therapies applied at the acute stages of TNBS-induced colitis start exerting their neuroprotective effects towards enteric neurons by 24 hours post treatment. The neuroprotective efficacy of MSC-based therapies can be exerted independently to their anti

  18. In Vitro Screening of Three Indian Medicinal Plants for Their Phytochemicals, Anticholinesterase, Antiglucosidase, Antioxidant, and Neuroprotective Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penumala, Mohan; Zinka, Raveendra Babu; Shaik, Jeelan Basha; Amooru Gangaiah, Damu

    2017-01-01

    Cooccurrence of Diabetes Mellitus and Alzheimer's disease in elder people prompts scientists to develop multitarget agents that combat causes and symptoms of both diseases simultaneously. In line with this modern paradigm and as a follow-up to our previous studies, the present study is designed to investigate the crude methanolic extracts and subsequent CHCl 3 , n -BuOH, and H 2 O fractions of Acalypha alnifolia , Pavetta indica, and Ochna obtusata for their inhibitory activities towards specific targets involved in AD and DM, namely, acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and α -glucosidase ( α -Glc). The methanolic extract and its derived chloroform fractions exhibited remarkable inhibitory capacities with IC 50 values being found at the μ g/mL level. Further studies on most active chloroform fractions presented a prominent ability to scavenge DPPH and ABTS reactive species and highest neuroprotective effect against H 2 O 2 induced cell injury. Phytochemical analysis showed a large amount of phenolics, flavonoids, and terpenoids in active fractions. In conclusion, A. alnifolia , P. indica, and O. obtusata could be promising sources for the treatment of AD and DM since these fractions induced significant anticholinesterase, antidiabetic, antioxidant, and neuroprotection effects attributable to phenolic, flavonoid, and terpenoid contents and encourage further studies for development of multifunctional therapeutic agent for AD and DM dual therapy.

  19. Neuroprotective therapies for glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song W

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wei Song, Ping Huang, Chun Zhang Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Glaucoma is the second leading cause for blindness worldwide. It is mainly caused by glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON characterized by retinal ganglion cell loss, which leads to visual field defect and blindness. Up to now, the main purpose of antiglaucomatous therapies has been to lower intraocular pressure (IOP through surgeries and medications. However, it has been found that progressive GON is still present in some patients with effective IOP decrease. Therefore, risk factors other than IOP elevation, like neurotrophin deprivation and excitotoxicity, contribute to progressive GON. Novel approaches of neuroprotection may be more effective for preserving the function of the optic nerve. Keywords: glaucoma, glaucomatous optic neuropathy, retinal ganglion cells, neuro­protection

  20. The neuroprotective efficacy of MK-801 in focal cerebral ischemia varies with rat strain and vendor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliff, H S; Marek, P; Miyazaki, B; Weber, E

    1996-08-26

    The present study was designed to evaluate whether the neuroprotective efficacy of MK-801 in focal cerebral ischemia was dependent on strain and/or vendor differences. MK-801 (0.12 mg/kg i.v. bolus followed by 0.108 mg/kg/h infusion or 0.60 mg/kg i.v. bolus followed by 0.540 mg/kg/h infusion) or saline was administered just after intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion. Administration of 0.540 mg/kg/h MK-801 provided strain/line-dependent neuroprotection in the following rank order: Simonsen Laboratories Sprague-Dawley rats > Simonsen Laboratories Wistar rats > Taconic Laboratories Sprague-Dawley rats. After 0.108 mg/kg/h MK-801 treatment, Simonsen Laboratories Wistar rats were the only strain/line that were significantly neuroprotected. These results indicate that the neuroprotective effect of an experimental drug may be influenced by rat strain and vendor differences.

  1. Moderate ethanol preconditioning of rat brain cultures engenders neuroprotection against dementia-inducing neuroinflammatory proteins: possible signaling mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Michael A; Neafsey, Edward J; Wang, Kewei; Achille, Nicholas J; Mitchell, Robert M; Sivaswamy, Sreevidya

    2010-06-01

    There is no question that chronic alcohol (ethanol) abuse, a leading worldwide problem, causes neuronal dysfunction and brain damage. However, various epidemiologic studies in recent years have indicated that in comparisons with abstainers or never-drinkers, light/moderate alcohol consumers have lower risks of age-dependent cognitive decline and/or dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Such reduced risks have been variously attributed to favorable circulatory and/or cerebrovascular effects of moderate ethanol intake, but they could also involve ethanol "preconditioning" phenomena in brain glia and neurons. Here we summarize our experimental studies showing that moderate ethanol preconditioning (MEP; 20-30 mM ethanol) of rat brain cultures prevents neurodegeneration due to beta-amyloid, an important protein implicated in AD, and to other neuroinflammatory proteins such as gp120, the human immunodeficiency virus 1 envelope protein linked to AIDS dementia. The MEP neuroprotection is associated with suppression of neurotoxic protein-evoked initial increases in [Ca(+2)](i) and proinflammatory mediators--e.g., superoxide anion, arachidonic acid, and glutamate. Applying a sensor --> transducer --> effector model to MEP, we find that onset of neuroprotection correlates temporally with elevations in "effector" heat shock proteins (HSP70, HSP27, and phospho-HSP27). The effector status of HSPs is supported by the fact that inhibiting HSP elevations due to MEP largely restores gp120-induced superoxide potentiation and subsequent neurotoxicity. As upstream mediators, synaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors may be initial prosurvival sensors of ethanol, and protein kinase C epsilon and focal adhesion kinase are likely transducers during MEP that are essential for protective HSP elevations. Regarding human consumption, we speculate that moderate ethanol intake might counter incipient cognitive deterioration during advanced aging or AD by exerting preconditioning

  2. Antrodia camphorata Potentiates Neuroprotection against Cerebral Ischemia in Rats via Downregulation of iNOS/HO-1/Bax and Activated Caspase-3 and Inhibition of Hydroxyl Radical Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Sheng Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antrodia camphorata (A. camphorata is a fungus generally used in Chinese folk medicine for treatment of viral hepatitis and cancer. Our previous study found A. camphorata has neuroprotective properties and could reduce stroke injury in cerebral ischemia animal models. In this study, we sought to investigate the molecular mechanisms of neuroprotective effects of A. camphorata in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO rats. A selective occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA with whole blood clots was used to induce ischemic stroke in rats and they were orally treated with A. camphorata (0.25 and 0.75 g/kg/day alone or combined with aspirin (5 mg/kg/day. To provide insight into the functions of A. camphorata mediated neuroprotection, the expression of Bax, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1, and activated caspase-3 was determined by Western blot assay. Treatment of aspirin alone significantly reduced the expressions of HO-1 (P<0.001, iNOS (P<0.001, and Bax (P<0.01 in ischemic regions. The reduction of these expressions was more potentiated when rats treated by aspirin combined with A. camphorata (0.75 g/kg/day. Combination treatment also reduced apoptosis as measured by a significant reduction in active caspase-3 expression in the ischemic brain compared to MCAO group (P<0.01. Moreover, treatment of A. camphorata significantly (P<0.05 reduced fenton reaction-induced hydroxyl radical (OH• formation at a dose of 40 mg/mL. Taken together, A. camphorata has shown neuroprotective effects in embolic rats, and the molecular mechanisms may correlate with the downregulation of Bax, iNOS, HO-1, and activated caspase-3 and the inhibition of OH• signals.

  3. Estimation of causal mediation effects for a dichotomous outcome in multiple-mediator models using the mediation formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Nelson, Suchitra; Albert, Jeffrey M

    2013-10-30

    Mediators are intermediate variables in the causal pathway between an exposure and an outcome. Mediation analysis investigates the extent to which exposure effects occur through these variables, thus revealing causal mechanisms. In this paper, we consider the estimation of the mediation effect when the outcome is binary and multiple mediators of different types exist. We give a precise definition of the total mediation effect as well as decomposed mediation effects through individual or sets of mediators using the potential outcomes framework. We formulate a model of joint distribution (probit-normal) using continuous latent variables for any binary mediators to account for correlations among multiple mediators. A mediation formula approach is proposed to estimate the total mediation effect and decomposed mediation effects based on this parametric model. Estimation of mediation effects through individual or subsets of mediators requires an assumption involving the joint distribution of multiple counterfactuals. We conduct a simulation study that demonstrates low bias of mediation effect estimators for two-mediator models with various combinations of mediator types. The results also show that the power to detect a nonzero total mediation effect increases as the correlation coefficient between two mediators increases, whereas power for individual mediation effects reaches a maximum when the mediators are uncorrelated. We illustrate our approach by applying it to a retrospective cohort study of dental caries in adolescents with low and high socioeconomic status. Sensitivity analysis is performed to assess the robustness of conclusions regarding mediation effects when the assumption of no unmeasured mediator-outcome confounders is violated. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Estimation of Causal Mediation Effects for a Dichotomous Outcome in Multiple-Mediator Models using the Mediation Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Suchitra; Albert, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Mediators are intermediate variables in the causal pathway between an exposure and an outcome. Mediation analysis investigates the extent to which exposure effects occur through these variables, thus revealing causal mechanisms. In this paper, we consider the estimation of the mediation effect when the outcome is binary and multiple mediators of different types exist. We give a precise definition of the total mediation effect as well as decomposed mediation effects through individual or sets of mediators using the potential outcomes framework. We formulate a model of joint distribution (probit-normal) using continuous latent variables for any binary mediators to account for correlations among multiple mediators. A mediation formula approach is proposed to estimate the total mediation effect and decomposed mediation effects based on this parametric model. Estimation of mediation effects through individual or subsets of mediators requires an assumption involving the joint distribution of multiple counterfactuals. We conduct a simulation study that demonstrates low bias of mediation effect estimators for two-mediator models with various combinations of mediator types. The results also show that the power to detect a non-zero total mediation effect increases as the correlation coefficient between two mediators increases, while power for individual mediation effects reaches a maximum when the mediators are uncorrelated. We illustrate our approach by applying it to a retrospective cohort study of dental caries in adolescents with low and high socioeconomic status. Sensitivity analysis is performed to assess the robustness of conclusions regarding mediation effects when the assumption of no unmeasured mediator-outcome confounders is violated. PMID:23650048

  5. Epobis is a Nonerythropoietic and Neuroprotective Agonist of the Erythropoietin Receptor with Anti-Inflammatory and Memory Enhancing Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Pankratova, Stanislava; Korshunova, Irina

    2016-01-01

    , but systemic administration of Epobis in rats delays the clinical signs of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis, and the peptide has long-term, but not short-term, effects on working memory, detected as an improved social memory 3 days after administration....... These data reveal Epobis to be a nonerythropoietic and neuroprotective EPO receptor agonist with anti-inflammatory and memory enhancing properties....

  6. Neuroprotective effects of collagen matrix in rats after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Samuel S; Grandhi, Ramesh; Henchir, Jeremy; Yan, Hong Q; Badylak, Stephen F; Dixon, C Edward

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies, collagen based matrices have been implanted into the site of lesion in different models of brain injury. We hypothesized that semisynthetic collagen matrix can have neuroprotective function in the setting of traumatic brain injury. Rats were subjected to sham injury or controlled cortical impact. They either received extracellular matrix graft (DuraGen) over the injury site or did not receive any graft and underwent beam balance/beam walking test at post injury days 1-5 and Morris water maze at post injury days 14-18. Animals were sacrificed at day 18 for tissue analysis. Collagen matrix implantation in injured rats did not affect motor function (beam balance test: p = 0.627, beam walking test: p = 0.921). However, injured group with collagen matrix had significantly better spatial memory acquisition (p < 0.05). There was a significant reduction in lesion volume, as well as neuronal loss in CA1 (p < 0.001) and CA3 (p < 0.05) regions of the hippocampus in injured group with collagen matrix (p < 0.05). Collagen matrix reduces contusional lesion volume, neuronal loss, and cognitive deficit after traumatic brain injury. Further studies are needed to demonstrate the mechanisms of neuroprotection by collagen matrix.

  7. Pikuni-Blackfeet traditional medicine: Neuroprotective activities of medicinal plants used to treat Parkinson's disease-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rus Jacquet, Aurélie; Tambe, Mitali Arun; Ma, Sin Ying; McCabe, George P; Vest, Jay Hansford C; Rochet, Jean-Christophe

    2017-07-12

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder affecting 5% of the population over the age of 85 years. Current treatments primarily involve dopamine replacement therapy, which leads to temporary relief of motor symptoms but fails to slow the underlying neurodegeneration. Thus, there is a need for safe PD therapies with neuroprotective activity. In this study, we analyzed contemporary herbal medicinal practices used by members of the Pikuni-Blackfeet tribe from Western Montana to treat PD-related symptoms, in an effort to identify medicinal plants that are affordable to traditional communities and accessible to larger populations. The aims of this study were to (i) identify medicinal plants used by the Pikuni-Blackfeet tribe to treat individuals with symptoms related to PD or other CNS disorders, and (ii) characterize a subset of the identified plants in terms of antioxidant and neuroprotective activities in cellular models of PD. Interviews of healers and local people were carried out on the Blackfeet Indian reservation. Plant samples were collected, and water extracts were produced for subsequent analysis. A subset of botanical extracts was tested for the ability to induce activation of the Nrf2-mediated transcriptional response and to protect against neurotoxicity elicited by the PD-related toxins rotenone and paraquat. The ethnopharmacological interviews resulted in the documentation of 26 medicinal plants used to treat various ailments and diseases, including symptoms related to PD. Seven botanical extracts (out of a total of 10 extracts tested) showed activation of Nrf2-mediated transcriptional activity in primary cortical astrocytes. Extracts prepared from Allium sativum cloves, Trifolium pratense flowers, and Amelanchier arborea berries exhibited neuroprotective activity against toxicity elicited by rotenone, whereas only the extracts prepared from Allium sativum and Amelanchier arborea alleviated PQ-induced dopaminergic cell death

  8. Neuroprotective effect of ebselen against intracerebroventricular streptozotocin-induced neuronal apoptosis and oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsal, Cuneyt; Oran, Mustafa; Albayrak, Yakup; Aktas, Cevat; Erboga, Mustafa; Topcu, Birol; Uygur, Ramazan; Tulubas, Feti; Yanartas, Omer; Ates, Ozkan; Ozen, Oguz Aslan

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the neuroprotective effect of ebselen against intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (ICV-STZ)-induced oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis in rat brain. A total of 30 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 animals each: control, ICV-STZ, and ICV-STZ treated with ebselen. The ICV-STZ group rats were injected bilaterally with ICV-STZ (3 mg/kg) on days 1 and 3, and ebselen (10 mg/kg/day) was administered for 14 days starting from 1st day of ICV-STZ injection to day 14. Rats were killed at the end of the study and brain tissues were removed for biochemical and histopathological investigation. Our results demonstrated, for the first time, the neuroprotective effect of ebselen on Alzheimer's disease (AD) model in rats. Our present study, in ICV-STZ group, showed significant increase in tissue malondialdehyde levels and significant decrease in enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in the frontal cortex tissue. The histopathological studies in the brain of rats also supported that ebselen markedly reduced the ICV-STZ-induced histopathological changes and well preserved the normal histological architecture of the frontal cortex tissue. The number of apoptotic neurons was increased in frontal cortex tissue after ICV-STZ administration. Treatment of ebselen markedly reduced the number of degenerating apoptotic neurons. The study demonstrates the effectiveness of ebselen, as a powerful antioxidant, in preventing the oxidative damage and morphological changes caused by ICV-STZ in rats. Thus, ebselen may have a therapeutic value for the treatment of AD. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. Chemical Modification of the Multi-Target Neuroprotective Compound Fisetin

    OpenAIRE

    Chiruta, Chandramouli; Schubert, David; Dargusch, Richard; Maher, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Many factors are implicated in age-related CNS disorders making it unlikely that modulating only a single factor will provide effective treatment. Perhaps a better approach is to identify small molecules that have multiple biological activities relevant to the maintenance of brain function. Recently, we identified an orally active, neuroprotective and cognition-enhancing molecule, the flavonoid fisetin, that is effective in several animal models of CNS disorders. Fisetin has direct antioxidan...

  10. Phytoceramide Shows Neuroprotection and Ameliorates Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seikwan Oh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The function and the role phytoceramide (PCER and phytosphingosine (PSO in the central nervous system has not been well studied. This study was aimed at investigating the possible roles of PCER and PSO in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured neuronal cells and memory function in mice. Phytoceramide showed neuro-protective activity in the glutamate-induced toxicity in cultured cortical neuronal cells. Neither phytosphingosine nor tetraacetylphytosphingosine (TAPS showed neuroproective effects in neuronal cells. PCER (50 mg/kg, p.o. recovered the scopolamine-induced reduction in step-through latency in the passive avoidance test; however, PSO did not modulate memory function on this task. The ameliorating effects of PCER on spatial memory were confirmed by the Morris water maze test. In conclusion, through behavioral and neurochemical experimental results, it was demonstrated that central administration of PCER produces amelioration of memory impairment. These results suggest that PCER plays an important role in neuroprotection and memory enhancement and PCER could be a potential new therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease.

  11. LC-MS/MS profiling and neuroprotective effects of Mentat® against transient global ischemia and reperfusion-induced brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanatha, Gollapalle Lakshminarayanashastry; Kumar, Lakkavalli Mohan Sharath; Rafiq, Mohamed; Kavya, Kethaganahalli Jayaramaiah; Thippeswamy, Agadi Hiremath; Yuvaraj, Huvvinamadu Chandrashekarappa; Azeemuddin, Mohammed; Anturlikar, Suryakanth Dattatreya; Patki, Pralhad Sadashiv; Babu, Uddagiri Venkanna; Ramakrishnan, Shyam

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible beneficial effects of Mentat against transient global ischemia and reperfusion-induced brain injury in rats. The neuroprotective effects of Mentat were evaluated against transient global ischemia and reperfusion (I/R)-induced brain injury in rats. Various neurobehavioral and biochemical parameters were assessed, followed by morphologic and histopathologic evaluation of brain tissue to conclude the protective effect of Mentat. Additionally, in vitro antioxidant assays were performed to explore the antioxidant capacity of Mentat and detailed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) profiling was carried out to identify the active phytoconstituents responsible for the protective effects of Mentat. Sixty minutes of transient global ischemia followed by 24 h reperfusion (I/R) caused significant alterations in the cognitive and neurologic functions in the ischemia control group (P cerebral infarct area (P protective effects. These findings suggest that Mentat is a neuroprotective agent that may be a useful adjunct in the management of ischemic stroke and its rehabilitation especially with respect to associated memory impairment and other related neurologic conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Targeting AMPK Signaling as a Neuroprotective Strategy in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Daniel W; Stutz, Bernardo; Andrews, Zane B; Elsworth, John D

    2018-03-26

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. It is characterized by the accumulation of intracellular α-synuclein aggregates and the degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. While no treatment strategy has been proven to slow or halt the progression of the disease, there is mounting evidence from preclinical PD models that activation of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) may have broad neuroprotective effects. Numerous dietary supplements and pharmaceuticals (e.g., metformin) that increase AMPK activity are available for use in humans, but clinical studies of their effects in PD patients are limited. AMPK is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase that is activated by falling energy levels and functions to restore cellular energy balance. However, in response to certain cellular stressors, AMPK activation may exacerbate neuronal atrophy and cell death. This review describes the regulation and functions of AMPK, evaluates the controversies in the field, and assesses the potential of targeting AMPK signaling as a neuroprotective treatment for PD.

  13. Neuroprotective effect of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation in a rat stroke model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notturno, Francesca; Pace, Marta; Zappasodi, Filippo; Cam, Etrugul; Bassetti, Claudio L; Uncini, Antonino

    2014-07-15

    Experimental focal brain ischemia generates in the penumbra recurrent depolarizations which spread across the injured cortex inducing infarct growth. Transcranial direct current stimulation can induce a lasting, polarity-specific, modulation of cortical excitability. To verify whether cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation could reduce the infarct size and the number of depolarizations, focal ischemia was induced in the rat by the 3 vessels occlusion technique. In the first experiment 12 ischemic rats received cathodal stimulation (alternating 15 min on and 15 min off) starting 45 min after middle cerebral artery occlusion and lasting 4 h. In the second experiment 12 ischemic rats received cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation with the same protocol but starting soon after middle cerebral artery occlusion and lasting 6 h. In both experiments controls were 12 ischemic rats not receiving stimulation. Cathodal stimulation reduced the infarct volume in the first experiment by 20% (p=0.002) and in the second by 30% (p=0.003). The area of cerebral infarction was smaller in animals receiving cathodal stimulation in both experiments (p=0.005). Cathodal stimulation reduced the number of depolarizations (p=0.023) and infarct volume correlated with the number of depolarizations (p=0.048). Our findings indicate that cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation exert a neuroprotective effect in the acute phase of stroke possibly decreasing the number of spreading depolarizations. These findings may have translational relevance and open a new avenue in neuroprotection of stroke in humans. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Breathing, feeding, and neuroprotection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Homma, Ikuo; Shioda, S

    2006-01-01

    ... of knowledge of brain functions and morphology. Akiyoshi Hosoyamada, M.D., Ph.D. President Showa University, Tokyo 142-8555, Japan December 2005Preface Brain research is on the march, with several advanced technical developments and new findings uncovered almost daily. Within the brain-research fields, we focus on breathing, neuroprotection, an...

  15. Synthesis and characterization of a series of diarylguanidines that are noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists with neuroprotective properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keana, J.F.W.; McBurney, R.N.; Scherz, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    Four diarylguanidine derivatives were synthesized. These compounds were found to displace, at submicromolar concentrations, 3 H-labeled 1-[1-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl]piperidine and (+)-[ 3 H]MK-801 from phencyclidine receptors in brain membrane preparations. In electrophysiological experiments the diarylguanidines blocked N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-activated ion channels. These dairylguanidines also protected rat hippocampal neurons in vitro from glutamate-induced cell death. The results show that some diarylguanidines are noncompetitive antagonists of NMDA receptor-mediated responses and have the neuroprotective property that is commonly associated with blockers of the NMDA receptor-gated cation channel. Diarylguanidines are structurally unrelated to known blockers of NMDA channels and, therefore, represent a new compound series for the development of neuroprotective agents with therapeutic value in patients suffering from stroke, from brain or spinal cord trauma, from hypoglycemia, and possibly from brain ischemia due to heart attack

  16. Morphological functional criteria of neuroprotective therapy efficacy in glaucomatous optic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tszin Dan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiological tests may be used to detect early glaucomatous changes and glaucoma progression risk and to monitor treatment efficacy. Most important pathogenic aspects of glaucomatous process, pathogenesis and multifactorial nature of glaucomatous optic neuropathy are described. Major triggers of glaucomatous optic neuropathy are mechanical and vascular. Principles of neuroprotective therapy, neuroprotective drugs, and mechanisms of action of direct and indirect neuroprotective agents are presented. IOPcc is a basis for neuroprotective therapy selection and its efficacy monitoring. Amongst neuroprotective drugs, NMDA agonists, antioxidants, peptides, and calcium channel blockers are of special importance. Structural damage and functional deficiency (e.g., visual field loss in glaucoma and the most informative and accurate methods of their detection are characterized. Confocal laser microscopy, optical coherence tomography, and scanning laser polarimetry are compared. These techniques are used to study optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer. They are proposed as diagnostic and monitoring tools for glaucoma, glaucoma suspicion, and ocular hypertension. The most sensitive and specific electrophysiological tests for glaucomatous optic neuropathy are pattern electroretinography, multfocal electroretinography, and multifocal visually evoked potentials. 

  17. Neuroprotective effects of (Val8)GLP-1-Glu-PAL in the MPTP Parkinson's disease mouse model

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    Zhang, YanFang; Chen, YiMei; Li, Lin; Holscher, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a hormone and a growth factor. GLP-1 mimetics are currently on the market as treatments for type 2 diabetes. They also have shown neuroprotective properties in animal models of neurodegenerative disorders. In addition, the GLP-1 mimetic exendin-4 has shown protective effects in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD), and a first clinical trial in PD patients showed promising results. (Val8)GLP-1-glu-PAL is a new GLP-1 analogue which has a longer biologica...

  18. Functional mechanism of neuroprotection by inhibitors of type B monoamine oxidase in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoi, Makoto; Maruyama, Wakako

    2009-08-01

    Neuroprotective therapy has been proposed for age-related neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease. Inhibitors of type B monoamine oxidase (MAOB-Is), rasagiline and (-)deprenyl, are the most promising candidate neuroprotective drugs. Clinical trials of rasagiline in patients with Parkinson's disease suggest that rasagiline may have some disease-modifying effects. Results using animal and cellular models have proved that the MAOB-Is protect neurons by the intervention of 'intrinsic' mitochondrial apoptotic cascade and the induction of prosurvival antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and neurotrophic factors. Rasagiline-related MAOB-Is prevent mitochondrial permeability transition induced by various insults and activation of subsequent apoptotic cascades: cytochrome c release, casapase activation, and condensation and fragmentation of nuclear DNA. MAOB-Is increase transcription of prosurvival genes through activating the nuclear transcription factor-(NF) system. Rasagiline increases the protein and mRNA levels of GDNF in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells, whereas (-)deprenyl increases those of BDNF. Systemic administration of (-)deprenyl and rasagiline increases these neurotrophic factors in the cerebrospinal fluid from patients with Parkinson's disease and nonhuman primates. This review presents recent advances in our understanding of the neuroprotection offered by MAOB-Is and possible evaluation of neuroprotective efficacy in clinical samples is discussed.

  19. Neuroprotection by the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A in a model of lipopolysaccharide-sensitised neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury

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    Fleiss Bobbi

    2012-04-01

    25 days post-HI. None of the inflammatory mechanisms assessed that are known to mediate neuroprotection by HDACi in adults correlated with improved outcome in TSA-treated neonatal females. Oligodendrocyte maturation was not different between the LPS-only and LPS + TSA-treated mice before or after exposure to HI. Conclusions Hyperacetylation with TSA is neuroprotective in the female neonatal mouse following LPS/HI and correlates with improved learning long-term. TSA appears to exert neuroprotection via mechanisms unique to the neonate. Deciphering the effects of age, sex and inflammatory sensitisation in the cerebral response to HDACi is key to furthering the potential of hyperacetylation as a viable neuroprotectant. TSA did not impair oligodendrocyte maturation, which increases the possible clinical relevance of this strategy.

  20. Eckmaxol, a Phlorotannin Extracted from Ecklonia maxima, Produces Anti-β-amyloid Oligomer Neuroprotective Effects Possibly via Directly Acting on Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jialing; Zheng, Jiachen; Huang, Chunhui; Zhao, Jiaying; Lin, Jiajia; Zhou, Xuezhen; Naman, C Benjamin; Wang, Ning; Gerwick, William H; Wang, Qinwen; Yan, Xiaojun; Cui, Wei; He, Shan

    2018-04-10

    Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that mainly affects the elderly. Soluble β-amyloid oligomer, which can induce neurotoxicity, is generally regarded as the main neurotoxin in Alzheimer's disease. Here we report that eckmaxol, a phlorotannin extracted from the brown alga Ecklonia maxima, could produce neuroprotective effects in SH-SY5Y cells. Eckmaxol effectively prevented but did not rescue β-amyloid oligomer-induced neuronal apoptosis and increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Eckmaxol also significantly reversed the decreased expression of phospho-Ser9-glycogen synthase kinase 3β and increased expression of phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase, which was induced by Aβ oligomer. Moreover, both glycogen synthase kinase 3β and mitogen activated protein kinase inhibitors produced neuroprotective effects in SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, eckmaxol showed favorable interaction in the ATP binding site of glycogen synthase kinase 3β and mitogen activated protein kinase. These results suggested that eckmaxol might produce neuroprotective effects via concurrent inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β and extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathways, possibly via directly acting on glycogen synthase kinase 3β and mitogen activated protein kinase. Based on the central role that β-amyloid oligomers play in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and the high annual production of Ecklonia maxima for alginate and other nutritional ingredients, this report represents a new candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, and also expands the potential application of Ecklonia maxima and its constituents in the field of pharmacology.

  1. Anesthetic Preconditioning as Endogenous Neuroprotection in Glaucoma

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    Tsung-Han Chou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Blindness in glaucoma is the result of death of Retinal Ganglion Cells (RGCs and their axons. RGC death is generally preceded by a stage of reversible dysfunction and structural remodeling. Current treatments aimed at reducing intraocular pressure (IOP are ineffective or incompletely effective in management of the disease. IOP-independent neuroprotection or neuroprotection as adjuvant to IOP lowering in glaucoma remains a challenge as effective agents without side effects have not been identified yet. We show in DBA/2J mice with spontaneous IOP elevation and glaucoma that the lifespan of functional RGCs can be extended by preconditioning RGCs with retrobulbar lidocaine in one eye at four months of age that temporary blocks RGC axonal transport. The contralateral, PBS-injected eye served as control. Lidocaine-induced impairment of axonal transport to superior colliculi was assessed by intravitreal injection of cholera toxin B. Long-term (nine months effect of lidocaine were assessed on RGC electrical responsiveness (PERG, IOP, expression of relevant protein (BDNF, TrkB, PSD95, GFAP, Synaptophysin, and GAPDH and RGC density. While lidocaine treatment did not alter the age-related increase of IOP, TrkB expression was elevated, GFAP expression was decreased, RGC survival was improved by 35%, and PERG function was preserved. Results suggest that the lifespan of functional RGCs in mouse glaucoma can be extended by preconditioning RGCs in early stages of the disease using a minimally invasive treatment with retrobulbar lidocaine, a common ophthalmologic procedure. Lidocaine is inexpensive, safe and is approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA to be administered intravenously.

  2. Neuroprotective effects of lixisenatide and liraglutide in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W; Jalewa, J; Sharma, M; Li, G; Li, L; Hölscher, C

    2015-09-10

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a growth factor. GLP-1 mimetics are on the market as treatments for type 2 diabetes and are well tolerated. These drugs have shown neuroprotective properties in animal models of neurodegenerative disorders. In addition, the GLP-1 mimetic exendin-4 has shown protective effects in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD), and a clinical trial in PD patients showed promising first results. Liraglutide and lixisenatide are two newer GLP-1 mimetics which have a longer biological half-life than exendin-4. We previously showed that these drugs have neuroprotective properties in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease. Here we demonstrate the neuroprotective effects in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. MPTP was injected once-daily (20mg/kg i.p.) for 7 days, and drugs were injected once-daily for 14 days i.p. When comparing exendin-4 (10 nmol/kg), liraglutide (25 nmol/kg) and lixisenatide (10 nmol/kg), it was found that exendin-4 showed no protective effects at the dose chosen. Both liraglutide and lixisenatide showed effects in preventing the MPTP-induced motor impairment (Rotarod, open-field locomotion, catalepsy test), reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels (dopamine synthesis) in the substantia nigra and basal ganglia, a reduction of the pro-apoptotic signaling molecule BAX and an increase in the anti-apoptotic signaling molecule B-cell lymphoma-2. The results demonstrate that in this study, both liraglutide and lixisenatide are superior to exendin-4, and both drugs show promise as a novel treatment of PD. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant potential and neuro-protective effect from Cimicifuga dahurica (Turcz.) Maxim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Rulan; Zhao, Ying; Zhao, Yudan; Zhou, Wanrong; Lv, Chongning; Lu, Jincai

    2016-12-01

    Three new phenolic compounds (1-3), along with five known compounds (4-8) were isolated from the rhizome of Cimicifuga dahurica (Turcz.) Maxim. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR and HR-MS techniques. DPPH method and protective effect on PC12 cells against H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative damage model were carried to evaluate the antioxidant capability of these compounds. Compound 5 showed significant antioxidant activity with IC 50 values 9.33μM in DPPH assay and compound 2 displayed marked neuro-protective effect with 87.65% cell viability at the concentration of 10μM. Additionally, the possible structure-activity relationships of these phenolic compounds were tentatively discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Neuroprotection for treatment of glaucoma in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, Dayse F; Lindsley, Kristina

    2017-01-25

    Glaucoma is a heterogeneous group of conditions involving progressive damage to the optic nerve, deterioration of retinal ganglion cells, and ultimately visual field loss. It is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. Open angle glaucoma (OAG), the most common form of glaucoma, is a chronic condition that may or may not present with increased intraocular pressure (IOP). Neuroprotection for glaucoma refers to any intervention intended to prevent optic nerve damage or cell death. The objective of this review was to systematically examine the evidence regarding the effectiveness of neuroprotective agents for slowing the progression of OAG in adults compared with no neuroprotective agent, placebo, or other glaucoma treatment. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2016, Issue 7), Ovid MEDLINE, Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily (January 1946 to August 2016), Embase (January 1980 to August 2016), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to August 2016), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 16 August 2016. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which topical or oral treatments were used for neuroprotection in adults with OAG. Minimum follow-up time was four years. Two review authors independently reviewed titles and abstracts from the literature searches. We obtained full-text copies of potentially relevant studies and re-evaluated for inclusion. Two review authors independently extracted data related to study characteristics, risk of bias, and outcomes. We identified one trial for this review, thus we

  5. Neuroprotective Properties of Endocannabinoids N-Arachidonoyl Dopamine and N-Docosahexaenoyl Dopamine Examined in Neuronal Precursors Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novosadova, E V; Arsenyeva, E L; Manuilova, E S; Khaspekov, L G; Bobrov, M Yu; Bezuglov, V V; Illarioshkin, S N; Grivennikov, I A

    2017-11-01

    Neuroprotective properties of endocannabinoids N-arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA) and N-docosahexaenoyl dopamine (DHDA) were examined in neuronal precursor cells differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem cells and subjected to oxidative stress. Both compounds exerted neuroprotective activity, which was enhanced by elevating the concentration of the endocannabinoids within the 0.1-10 µM range. However, both agents at 10 µM concentration showed a marked toxic effect resulting in death of ~30% of the cells. Finally, antagonists of cannabinoid receptors as well as the receptor of the TRPV1 endovanilloid system did not hamper the neuroprotective effects of these endocannabinoids.

  6. Fas/CD95 regulatory protein Faim2 is neuroprotective after transient brain ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Arno; Spering, Christopher; Gertz, Karen; Harms, Christoph; Gerhardt, Ellen; Kronenberg, Golo; Nave, Klaus A; Schwab, Markus; Tauber, Simone C; Drinkut, Anja; Harms, Kristian; Beier, Chrstioph P; Voigt, Aaron; Göbbels, Sandra; Endres, Matthias; Schulz, Jörg B

    2011-01-05

    Death receptor (DR) signaling has a major impact on the outcome of numerous neurological diseases, including ischemic stroke. DRs mediate not only cell death signals, but also proinflammatory responses and cell proliferation. Identification of regulatory proteins that control the switch between apoptotic and alternative DR signaling opens new therapeutic opportunities. Fas apoptotic inhibitory molecule 2 (Faim2) is an evolutionary conserved, neuron-specific inhibitor of Fas/CD95-mediated apoptosis. To investigate its role during development and in disease models, we generated Faim2-deficient mice. The ubiquitous null mutation displayed a viable and fertile phenotype without overt deficiencies. However, lack of Faim2 caused an increase in susceptibility to combined oxygen-glucose deprivation in primary neurons in vitro as well as in caspase-associated cell death, stroke volume, and neurological impairment after cerebral ischemia in vivo. These processes were rescued by lentiviral Faim2 gene transfer. In summary, we provide evidence that Faim2 is a novel neuroprotective molecule in the context of cerebral ischemia.

  7. Neuroprotective effects of (Val8)GLP-1-Glu-PAL in the MPTP Parkinson's disease mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, YanFang; Chen, YiMei; Li, Lin; Hölscher, Christian

    2015-10-15

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a hormone and a growth factor. GLP-1 mimetics are currently on the market as treatments for type 2 diabetes. They also have shown neuroprotective properties in animal models of neurodegenerative disorders. In addition, the GLP-1 mimetic exendin-4 has shown protective effects in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD), and a first clinical trial in PD patients showed promising results. (Val8)GLP-1-glu-PAL is a new GLP-1 analogue which has a longer biological half-life than exendin-4. We previously showed that (Val8)GLP-1-glu-PAL has neuroprotective properties. Here we tested the drug in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. MPTP was injected (30mg/kg i.p.) along with (Val8)GLP-1-glu-PAL (25nmol/kg i.p.) once-daily for 8 days. (Val8)GLP-1-glu-PAL showed good effects in preventing the MPTP-induced motor impairment (Rotarod, open field locomotion, swim test), reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase levels (dopamine synthesis) in the substantia nigra, a reduction of activated caspase 3 levels, of TUNEL positive cell numbers, of the pro-apoptotic signaling molecule BAX and an increase in the growth signaling molecule Bcl-2. The results demonstrate that (Val8)GLP-1-glu-PAL shows promise as a novel treatment of PD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Human neuron-astrocyte 3D co-culture-based assay for evaluation of neuroprotective compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrasso, Ana Paula; Silva, Ana Carina; Filipe, Augusto; Pedroso, Pedro; Ferreira, Ana Lúcia; Alves, Paula Marques; Brito, Catarina

    Central nervous system drug development has registered high attrition rates, mainly due to the lack of efficacy of drug candidates, highlighting the low reliability of the models used in early-stage drug development and the need for new in vitro human cell-based models and assays to accurately identify and validate drug candidates. 3D human cell models can include different tissue cell types and represent the spatiotemporal context of the original tissue (co-cultures), allowing the establishment of biologically-relevant cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Nevertheless, exploitation of these 3D models for neuroprotection assessment has been limited due to the lack of data to validate such 3D co-culture approaches. In this work we combined a 3D human neuron-astrocyte co-culture with a cell viability endpoint for the implementation of a novel in vitro neuroprotection assay, over an oxidative insult. Neuroprotection assay robustness and specificity, and the applicability of Presto Blue, MTT and CytoTox-Glo viability assays to the 3D co-culture were evaluated. Presto Blue was the adequate endpoint as it is non-destructive and is a simpler and reliable assay. Semi-automation of the cell viability endpoint was performed, indicating that the assay setup is amenable to be transferred to automated screening platforms. Finally, the neuroprotection assay setup was applied to a series of 36 test compounds and several candidates with higher neuroprotective effect than the positive control, Idebenone, were identified. The robustness and simplicity of the implemented neuroprotection assay with the cell viability endpoint enables the use of more complex and reliable 3D in vitro cell models to identify and validate drug candidates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fractalkine/CX3CL1 engages different neuroprotective responses upon selective glutamate receptor overactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde eLauro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal death induced by overactivation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs is implicated in the pathophysiology of many neurodegenerative diseases such as stroke, epilepsy and traumatic brain injury. This toxic effect is mainly mediated by NR2B-containing extrasynaptic NMDARs, while NR2A-containing synaptic NMDARs contribute to cell survival, suggesting the possibility of therapeutic approaches targeting specific receptor subunits. We report that fractalkine/CX3CL1 protects hippocampal neurons from NMDA-induced cell death with a mechanism requiring the adenosine receptors type 2A (A2AR. This is different from CX3CL1-induced protection from glutamate-induced cell death, that fully depends on A1R and requires in part A3R. We show that CX3CL1 neuroprotection against NMDA excitotoxicity involves D-serine, a co-agonist of NR2A/NMDAR, resulting in cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor (CREB phosphorylation.

  10. Hemopexin induces neuroprotection in the rat subjected to focal cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Beibei; Cai, Min; Fang, Zongping; Wei, Haidong; Zhu, Fangyun; Li, Guochao; Dong, Hailong; Xiong, Lize

    2013-06-10

    The plasma protein hemopexin (HPX) exhibits the highest binding affinity to free heme. In vitro experiments and gene-knock out technique have suggested that HPX may have a neuroprotective effect. However, the expression of HPX in the brain was not well elucidated and its expression after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury was also poorly studied. Furthermore, no in vivo data were available on the effect of HPX given centrally on the prognosis of focal cerebral ischemia. In the present study, we systematically investigated expression of HPX in normal rat brain by immunofluorescent staining. The results showed that HPX was mainly expressed in vascular system and neurons, as well as in a small portion of astrocytes adjacent to the vessels in normal rat brain. Further, we determined the role of HPX in the process of focal cerebral ischemic injury and explored the effects of HPX treatment in a rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. After 2 h' middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by 24 h' reperfusion, the expression of HPX was increased in the neurons and astrocytes in the penumbra area, as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry and Western blot techniques. Intracerebroventricular injection of HPX at the onset of reperfusion dose-dependently reduced the infarct volumes and improved measurements of neurological function of the rat subjected to transient focal cerebral ischemia. The neuroprotective effects of HPX sustained for up to 7 days after experiments. Our study provides a new insight into the potential neuroprotective role of HPX as a contributing factor of endogenous protective mechanisms against focal cerebral ischemia injury, and HPX might be developed as a potential agent for treatment of ischemic stroke.

  11. Neuroprotective potential of high-dose biotin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F; DiNicolantonio, James J

    2017-11-01

    A recent controlled trial has established that high-dose biotin supplementation - 100 mg, three times daily - has a stabilizing effect on progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). Although this effect has been attributed to an optimization of biotin's essential cofactor role in the brain, a case can be made that direct stimulation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) by pharmacological concentrations of biotin plays a key role in this regard. The utility of high-dose biotin in MS might reflect an anti-inflammatory effect of cGMP on the cerebral microvasculature, as well on oligodendrocyte differentiation and on Schwann cell production of neurotrophic factors thought to have potential for managing MS. But biotin's ability to boost cGMP synthesis in the brain may have broader neuroprotective potential. In many types of neurons and neural cells, cGMP exerts neurotrophic-mimetic effects - entailing activation of the PI3K-Akt and Ras-ERK pathways - that promote neuron survival and plasticity. Hippocampal long term potentiation requires nitric oxide synthesis, which in turn promotes an activating phosphorylation of CREB via a pathway involving cGMP and protein kinase G (PKG). In Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyloid beta suppresses this mechanism by inhibiting sGC activity; agents which exert a countervailing effect by boosting cGMP levels tend to restore effective long-term potentiation in rodent models of AD. Moreover, NO/cGMP suppresses amyloid beta production within the brain by inhibiting expression of amyloid precursor protein and BACE1. In conjunction with cGMP's ability to oppose neuron apoptosis, these effects suggest that high-dose biotin might have potential for the prevention and management of AD. cGMP also promotes neurogenesis, and may lessen stroke risk by impeding atherogenesis and hypertrophic remodeling in the cerebral vasculature. The neuroprotective potential of high-dose biotin likely could be boosted by concurrent administration of brain

  12. In vitro neuroprotective potential of lichen metabolite fumarprotocetraric acid via intracellular redox modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Moriano, Carlos; Divakar, Pradeep Kumar; Crespo, Ana; Gómez-Serranillos, M. Pilar

    2017-01-01

    The lichen-forming fungi Cetraria islandica has been largely used in folk medicines, and it has recently showed promising in vitro antioxidant effects in glial-like cells. Current work aimed at investigating the neuroprotective potential of its major isolated secondary metabolite: the depsidone fumarprotocetraric acid (FUM). H 2 O 2 was used herein to induce oxidative stress (OS)-mediated cytotoxicity in two models of neurons and astrocytes cells (SH-SY5Y and U373-MG cell lines). We found that a pre-treatment with FUM significantly enhanced cell viability compared to H 2 O 2 -treated cells, and we selected the optimal concentrations in each model (1 and 25 μg/ml, respectively) for assessing its cytoprotective mechanisms. FUM, which exerted effective peroxyl radical scavenging effect in the chemical oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (ORAC) assay, alleviated the alterations in OS markers provoked by H 2 O 2 . It attenuated intracellular ROS formation, lipid peroxidation and GSH depletion. At mitochondrial level, FUM prevented from the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and the increase in mitochondrial calcium, implying a protective role against oxidative damage in mitochondrial membrane. Similarly, FUM pre-treatment diminished H 2 O 2 -induced apoptosis, as evidenced by the reduction in caspase-3 activity and expression; inmunoblot analysis also revealed a decrease in Bax and an increase in Bcl-2 proteins levels. Furthermore, FUM up-regulated the expression of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase-1, and hemeoxigenase-1. These findings and the activation of Nrf2 binding activity in nuclear extracts suggest a plausible involvement of Nrf2 signaling pathway in the cytoprotection by FUM. In conclusion, FUM emerges as a potential drug candidate in the therapy of OS-related diseases, such as the neurodegenerative disorders. - Highlights: • FUM pre-treatment exerts significant cytoprotection against H 2 O 2 -mediated apoptosis. • ROS

  13. In vitro neuroprotective potential of lichen metabolite fumarprotocetraric acid via intracellular redox modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Moriano, Carlos [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University Complutense of Madrid, Plaza Ramón y Cajal s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Divakar, Pradeep Kumar; Crespo, Ana [Department of Plant Biology II, Faculty of Pharmacy, University Complutense of Madrid, Plaza Ramón y Cajal s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gómez-Serranillos, M. Pilar, E-mail: pserra@ucm.es [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University Complutense of Madrid, Plaza Ramón y Cajal s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2017-02-01

    The lichen-forming fungi Cetraria islandica has been largely used in folk medicines, and it has recently showed promising in vitro antioxidant effects in glial-like cells. Current work aimed at investigating the neuroprotective potential of its major isolated secondary metabolite: the depsidone fumarprotocetraric acid (FUM). H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was used herein to induce oxidative stress (OS)-mediated cytotoxicity in two models of neurons and astrocytes cells (SH-SY5Y and U373-MG cell lines). We found that a pre-treatment with FUM significantly enhanced cell viability compared to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-treated cells, and we selected the optimal concentrations in each model (1 and 25 μg/ml, respectively) for assessing its cytoprotective mechanisms. FUM, which exerted effective peroxyl radical scavenging effect in the chemical oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (ORAC) assay, alleviated the alterations in OS markers provoked by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. It attenuated intracellular ROS formation, lipid peroxidation and GSH depletion. At mitochondrial level, FUM prevented from the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and the increase in mitochondrial calcium, implying a protective role against oxidative damage in mitochondrial membrane. Similarly, FUM pre-treatment diminished H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced apoptosis, as evidenced by the reduction in caspase-3 activity and expression; inmunoblot analysis also revealed a decrease in Bax and an increase in Bcl-2 proteins levels. Furthermore, FUM up-regulated the expression of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase-1, and hemeoxigenase-1. These findings and the activation of Nrf2 binding activity in nuclear extracts suggest a plausible involvement of Nrf2 signaling pathway in the cytoprotection by FUM. In conclusion, FUM emerges as a potential drug candidate in the therapy of OS-related diseases, such as the neurodegenerative disorders. - Highlights: • FUM pre-treatment exerts significant cytoprotection against H

  14. A novel function of N-linked glycoproteins, alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein and hemopexin: Implications for small molecule compound-mediated neuroprotection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Kanno

    Full Text Available Therapeutic agents to the central nervous system (CNS need to be efficiently delivered to the target site of action at appropriate therapeutic levels. However, a limited number of effective drugs for the treatment of neurological diseases has been developed thus far. Further, the pharmacological mechanisms by which such therapeutic agents can protect neurons from cell death have not been fully understood. We have previously reported the novel small-molecule compound, 2-[mesityl(methylamino]-N-[4-(pyridin-2-yl-1H-imidazol-2-yl] acetamide trihydrochloride (WN1316, as a unique neuroprotectant against oxidative injury and a highly promising remedy for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. One of the remarkable characteristics of WN1316 is that its efficacious doses in ALS mouse models are much less than those against oxidative injury in cultured human neuronal cells. It is also noted that the WN1316 cytoprotective activity observed in cultured cells is totally dependent upon the addition of fetal bovine serum in culture medium. These findings led us to postulate some serum factors being tightly linked to the WN1316 efficacy. In this study, we sieved through fetal bovine serum proteins and identified two N-linked glycoproteins, alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein (AHSG and hemopexin (HPX, requisites to exert the WN1316 cytoprotective activity against oxidative injury in neuronal cells in vitro. Notably, the removal of glycan chains from these molecules did not affect the WN1316 cytoprotective activity. Thus, two glycoproteins, AHSG and HPX, represent a pivotal glycoprotein of the cytoprotective activity for WN1316, showing a concrete evidence for the novel glycan-independent function of serum glycoproteins in neuroprotective drug efficacy.

  15. The mTOR kinase inhibitor Everolimus decreases S6 kinase phosphorylation but fails to reduce mutant huntingtin levels in brain and is not neuroprotective in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frentzel Stefan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntington's disease (HD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion within the huntingtin gene. Mutant huntingtin protein misfolds and accumulates within neurons where it mediates its toxic effects. Promoting mutant huntingtin clearance by activating macroautophagy is one approach for treating Huntington's disease (HD. In this study, we evaluated the mTOR kinase inhibitor and macroautophagy promoting drug everolimus in the R6/2 mouse model of HD. Results Everolimus decreased phosphorylation of the mTOR target protein S6 kinase indicating brain penetration. However, everolimus did not activate brain macroautophagy as measured by LC3B Western blot analysis. Everolimus protected against early declines in motor performance; however, we found no evidence for neuroprotection as determined by brain pathology. In muscle but not brain, everolimus significantly decreased soluble mutant huntingtin levels. Conclusions Our data suggests that beneficial behavioral effects of everolimus in R6/2 mice result primarily from effects on muscle. Even though everolimus significantly modulated its target brain S6 kinase, this did not decrease mutant huntingtin levels or provide neuroprotection.

  16. Overview of Experimental and Clinical Findings regarding the Neuroprotective Effects of Cerebral Ischemic Postconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Di; Feng, Liangshu; Deng, Fang; Feng, Jia-Chun

    2017-01-01

    Research on attenuating the structural and functional deficits observed following ischemia-reperfusion has become increasingly focused on the therapeutic potential of ischemic postconditioning. In recent years, various methods and animal models of ischemic postconditioning have been utilized. The results of these numerous studies have indicated that the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of ischemic postconditioning may involve reductions in the generation of free radicals and inhibition of calcium overload, as well as the release of endogenous active substances, alterations in membrane channel function, and activation of protein kinases. Here we review the novel discovery, mechanism, key factors, and clinical application of ischemic postconditioning and discuss its implications for future research and problem of clinical practice.

  17. Neuroprotective effects of vildagliptin in rat rotenone Parkinson's disease model: role of RAGE-NFκB and Nrf2-antioxidant signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsalam, Rania M; Safar, Marwa M

    2015-06-01

    Gliptins have been recently shown to conquer neuronal degeneration in cell cultures via modulating glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1. This peptide produced in the gut not only crosses the blood-brain barrier but is also synthesized in the brain and acts on GLP-1R exerting central anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects, thus impeding neuronal damage. This study investigated the antiparkinsonian effect of vildagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitor in a rat rotenone model targeting mainly the RAGE-NFκB/Nrf2-signaling pathways, to judge the potential anti-inflammatory/antioxidant effects of the drug. Vildagliptin markedly improved the motor performance in the open field and rotarod tests, effects that were emphasized by the accompanied reduction in striatal dopamine content. It modified the striatal energy level (ADP/ATP) associated with partial antagonism of body weight reduction. This incretin enhancer suppressed nuclear factor (NF)κB and, consequently, the downstream inflammatory mediator tumor necrosis factor-α. Normalization of receptor for advanced glycated end product (RAGE) is a main finding which justifies the anti-inflammatory effects of vildagliptin, together with hampering striatal inducible nitric oxide synthase, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 as well as myeloperoxidase. The antioxidant potential of vildagliptin was depicted as entailing reduction in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and the transcriptional factor Nrf-2 level. Vildagliptin guarded against neuronal demise through an antiapoptotic effect as reflected by the reduction in the mitochondrial matrix component cytochrome c and the key downstream executioner caspase-3. In conclusion, vildagliptin is endowed with various neuroprotective effects and thus can be a promising candidate for the management of Parkinson's disease. In the rat rotenone model of Parkinson's disease (PD), striatal RAGE/NFκB signaling was up-regulated associated with elevated levels of inflammatory

  18. Neuroprotective effect of p-coumaric acid in rat model of embolic cerebral ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Guven

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion:Our results showed that p-coumaric acid is a neuroprotective agent on account of its strong anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic features. Moreover, p-coumaric acid decreased the focal ischemia. Extra effort should be made to introduce p-coumaric acid as a promising therapeutic agent to be utilized for treatment of human cerebral ischemia in the future.

  19. Neuroprotection of a sesamin derivative, 1, 2-bis [(3-methoxy- phenyl methyl] ethane-1, 2-dicaroxylic acid (MMEDA against ischemic and hypoxic neuronal injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Tsen Hung

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Stroke may cause severe neuronal damage. The sesamin have been demonstrated to possess neuroprotection by its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. One sesamin derivative was artificially composited, 1, 2-bis [(3-methoxyphenyl methyl] ethane-1, 2-dicaroxylic acid (MMEDA had been developed to study its antioxidative activity and neuroprotection. Materials and Methods: The infaction of Sprague Dawley (SD rats and hypoxia models of BV-2 microglia or PC12 cells were investigated for in vivo and in vitro test respectively. Lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species (ROS, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and related signaling pathways from hypoxic cells were analyzed by ELISA or Western blot assay, respectively. Results: MMEDA showed a protective effect when given 90 min after the focal cerebral ischemia. The neuroprotection of MMEDA was further confirmed by attenuating ROS and PGE2 release from hypoxic BV-2 or PC12 cells. MMEDA significantly reduced hypoxia-induced JNK and caspase-3 (survival and apoptotic pathways in PC12 cells. Conclusion: The neuroprotective effect of MMEDA on ischemia/hypoxia models was involved with its antioxidative activity and anti-inflammatory effects. These results suggest that MMEDA exert effective neuroprotection against ischemia/hypoxia injury.

  20. Estimation of Causal Mediation Effects for a Dichotomous Outcome in Multiple-Mediator Models using the Mediation Formula

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wei; Nelson, Suchitra; Albert, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Mediators are intermediate variables in the causal pathway between an exposure and an outcome. Mediation analysis investigates the extent to which exposure effects occur through these variables, thus revealing causal mechanisms. In this paper, we consider the estimation of the mediation effect when the outcome is binary and multiple mediators of different types exist. We give a precise definition of the total mediation effect as well as decomposed mediation effects through individual or sets ...

  1. Neuroprotective Effects of Psalmotoxin-1, an Acid-Sensing Ion Channel (ASIC) Inhibitor, in Ischemia Reperfusion in Mouse Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibas, Adnan; Millar, Cameron; Al-Farra, Abraham; Yorio, Thomas

    2018-03-29

    The purpose of the current study is to assess changes in the expression of Acid-Sensing Ion Channel (ASIC)1a and ASIC2 in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after retinal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury and to test if inhibition of ASIC1a provides RGC neuroprotection. Transient ischemia was induced in one eye of C57BL/6 mice by raising intraocular pressure to 120 mmHg for 60 min followed by retinal reperfusion by restoring normal pressure. RGC function was measured by Pattern electroretinography (PERG). In addition, retinal ASIC1a and ASIC2 were observed by immunohistochemistry and western blot. Changes in calpain, fodrin, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), Brn3a, super oxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), catalase, and glutathione perioxidase-4 (GPX4) protein levels were assessed by western blot. RGC numbers were measured by immunohistochemistry on whole retinal flat mounts using anti-RNA binding protein with multiple splicing (RBPMS) antibodies. Intravitreal injection of psalmotoxin-1, a selective ASIC1a blocker, was used to assess the neuroprotective effect of ASIC1a inhibition. Levels of ASIC1a and ASIC2 after I/R increased in RGCs. Upregulation of ASIC1a but not ASIC2 was attenuated by intravitreal injection of psalmotoxin-1. I/R induced activation of calpain and degradation of fodrin, HSP70, and reduction in Brn3a. In contrast, while psalmotoxin-1 attenuated calpain activation and increased Brn3a levels, it failed to block HSP70 degradation. Unlike SOD1 protein which was reduced, catalase protein levels increased after I/R. Psalmotoxin-1, although not affecting SOD1 and GPX4, increased catalase levels significantly. Psalmotoxin-1 also increased RBPMS-labeled RGCs following I/R as judged by immunohistochemistry of retinal flat mounts. Finally, psalmotoxin-1 enhanced the amplitude of PERG following I/R, suggesting partial rescue of RGC function. Psalmotoxin-1 appears to exert a neuroprotective effect under ischemic insults and targeting inhibition of ASICs may represent a

  2. Post-stroke angiotensin II type 2 receptor activation provides long-term neuroprotection in aged rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennion, Douglas M; Isenberg, Jacob D; Harmel, Allison T

    2017-01-01

    Activation of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) by administration of Compound 21 (C21), a selective AT2R agonist, induces neuroprotection in models of ischemic stroke in young adult animals. The mechanisms of this neuroprotective action are varied, and may include direct and indirect....... These findings demonstrate that the neuroprotection previously characterized only during earlier time points using stroke models in young animals is sustained long-term in aged rats, implying even greater clinical relevance for the study of AT2R agonists for the acute treatment of ischemic stroke in human....... Intraperitoneal injections of C21 (0.03mg/kg) after ischemic stroke induced by transient monofilament middle cerebral artery occlusion resulted in protective effects that were sustained for up to at least 3-weeks post-stroke. These included improved neurological function across multiple assessments...

  3. Pharmacologic investigations on the role of Sirt-1 in neuroprotective mechanism of postconditioning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harpreet; Kumar, Amit; Jaggi, Amteshwar S; Singh, Nirmal

    2015-07-01

    Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury is one of the primary causes of ischemic stroke. Ischemic postconditioning (iPoCo) is evolving as an important adaptive technique to contain I-R injury. Some recent studies have shown neuroprotective effects of iPoCo. However, the neuroprotective mechanism of iPoCo is not clear. So, the present study has been undertaken to investigate the possible role of Sirtinol, a selective class III histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor in the neuroprotective mechanism of iPoCo in mice. Bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCAO) for 12 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h was used to produce I-R-induced cerebral injury in Swiss albino mice. iPoCo involving three episodes of 10-s carotid artery occlusion and reperfusion instituted immediately after BCAO just before prolonged reperfusion of 24 h. Cerebral infarct size was measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Memory was evaluated using a Morris water maze test. Rotarod test, inclined beam-walking test, and neurologic severity score (NSS) were used to assess motor incoordination. Acetylcholine esterase levels, brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), and glutathione level were also estimated. BCAO for 12 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h produced a significant rise in cerebral infarct size and NSS along with impairment of memory and motor coordination and biochemical alteration (↑acetylcholine esterase, ↓glutathione, and ↑TBARS). iPoCo, involving three episodes of 10-s carotid artery occlusion with intermittent reperfusion of 10 s applied just after ischemic insult of 12 min produced a significant decrease in cerebral infarct size and NSS along with the reversal of I-R-induced impairment of memory and motor coordination. iPoCo-induced neuroprotective effects were significantly abolished by pretreatment with selective SIRT 1 (class III HDAC) blocker Sirtinol (10 mg/kg intraperitoneal). It may be concluded that the neuroprotective effect of iPoCo probably

  4. ASTROCYTES IN THE NEUROPROTECTION AFTER BRAIN STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Patricia Cardona Gomez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes are specialized glial cells of the nervous system, which have multiple homeostatic functions for the survival and maintenance of the neurovascular unit. It has been shown that astrocytes have critical role in the dynamics pro survival conferring neuroprotective, angiogenic, immunomodulatory, neurogenic, antioxidants and regulatory synapse functions (Shen et al 2012; Gimsa et al 2013; Proschel et al 2014; making them excellent candidates as the source of neuroprotection and neurorestauration of tissue affected by events ischemia and / or reperfusion. However, these cells also may be involved in negative responses such as reactive astrocytes and glial scar under chronic excitotoxic responses generated by these events. To know what are the key points in the pro and anti-survival responses of astrocytes, would allow use them as targets in cellular therapies. This review has aim to study the mechanisms for neuroprotection in these cells (Posada-Duque et al submitted, which would make them targets of cell therapy, through of inducing regeneration, such as vehicle for corrective molecular systems and trigger endogenous cellular events that can recover the tissue homeostasis, which is lost after progressive damage.

  5. Neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease: A systematic review of the preclinical data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douna, H.; Bavelaar, B.M.; Pellikaan, H.; Olivier, B.; Pieters, T.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to systematically review the preclinical data of neuroprotective agents for Parkinson's disease (PD) to support the translation of these compounds. Methods: The study consisted of two phases. In phase I, Pubmed and Scopus were systematically searched for neuroprotective agents

  6. Essential role for zinc-triggered p75NTR activation in preconditioning neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Yeon; Kim, Yu-Jin; Kim, Tae-Youn; Koh, Jae-Young; Kim, Yang-Hee

    2008-10-22

    Ischemic preconditioning (PC) of the brain is a phenomenon by which mild ischemic insults render neurons resistant to subsequent strong insults. Key steps in ischemic PC of the brain include caspase-3 activation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) cleavage, but upstream events have not been clearly elucidated. We have tested whether endogenous zinc is required for ischemic PC of the brain in rats. Mild, transient zinc accumulation was observed in certain neurons after ischemic PC. Moreover, intraventricular administration of CaEDTA during ischemic PC abrogated both zinc accumulation and the protective effect against subsequent full ischemia. To elucidate the mechanism of the zinc-triggered PC (Zn PC) effect, cortical cultures were exposed to sublethal levels of zinc, and 18 h later to lethal levels of zinc or NMDA. Zn PC exhibited the characteristic features of ischemic PC, including caspase-3 activation, PARP-1 cleavage, and HSP70 induction, all of which are crucial for subsequent neuroprotection against NMDA or zinc toxicity. HSP70 induction was necessary for protection, as it halted caspase-3 activation before apoptosis. Interestingly, in both Zn PC in vitro and ischemic PC in vivo, p75(NTR) was necessary for neuroprotection. These results suggest that caspase-3 activation during ischemic PC, a necessary event for subsequent neuroprotection, may result from mild zinc accumulation and the consequent p75(NTR) activation in neurons.

  7. Pathological histone acetylation in Parkinson's disease: Neuroprotection and inhibition of microglial activation through SIRT 2 inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Ian F; Smith, Andrew D; Dexter, David T

    2018-02-14

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with degeneration of nigrostriatal neurons due to intracytoplasmic inclusions composed predominantly of a synaptic protein called α-synuclein. Accumulations of α-synuclein are thought to 'mask' acetylation sites on histone proteins, inhibiting the action of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) enzymes in their equilibrium with histone deacetylases (HDACs), thus deregulating the dynamic control of gene transcription. It is therefore hypothesised that the misbalance in the actions of HATs/HDACs in neurodegeneration can be rectified with the use of HDAC inhibitors, limiting the deregulation of transcription and aiding neuronal homeostasis and neuroprotection in disorders such as PD. Here we quantify histone acetylation in the Substantia Nigra pars compacta (SNpc) in the brains of control, early and late stage PD cases to determine if histone acetylation is a function of disease progression. PD development is associated with Braak-dependent increases in histone acetylation. Concurrently, we show that as expected disease progression is associated with reduced markers of dopaminergic neurons and increased markers of activated microglia. We go on to demonstrate that in vitro, degenerating dopaminergic neurons exhibit histone hypoacetylation whereas activated microglia exhibit histone hyperacetylation. This suggests that the disease-dependent increase in histone acetylation observed in human PD cases is likely a combination of the contributions of both degenerating dopaminergic neurons and infiltrating activated microglia. The HDAC SIRT 2 has become increasingly implicated as a novel target for mediation of neuroprotection in PD: the neuronal and microglial specific effects of its inhibition however remain unclear. We demonstrate that SIRT 2 expression in the SNpc of PD brains remains relatively unchanged from controls and that SIRT 2 inhibition, via AGK2 treatment of neuronal and microglial cultures, results in neuroprotection of

  8. Lesional-targeting of neuroprotection to the inflammatory penumbra in experimental multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Izki, S.; Pryce, G.; Hankey, D.J.R.; Lidster, K.; von Kutzleben, S.M.; Browne, L.; Clutterbuck, L.; Posada, C.; Chan, A.W.E.; Amor, S.; Perkins, V.; Gerritsen, W.H.; Ummenthum, K.; Peferoen-Baert, R.; van der Valk, P.; Montoya, A.; Joel, S.P.; Garthwaite, J.; Giovannoni, G.; Selwood, D.L.; Baker, D.

    2014-01-01

    Progressive multiple sclerosis is associated with metabolic failure of the axon and excitotoxicity that leads to chronic neurodegeneration. Global sodium-channel blockade causes side effects that can limit its use for neuroprotection in multiple sclerosis. Through selective targeting of drugs to

  9. L-Lactate protects neurons against excitotoxicity: implication of an ATP-mediated signaling cascade

    KAUST Repository

    Jourdain, P.

    2016-02-19

    Converging experimental data indicate a neuroprotective action of L-Lactate. Using Digital Holographic Microscopy, we observe that transient application of glutamate (100 μM; 2 min) elicits a NMDA-dependent death in 65% of mouse cortical neurons in culture. In the presence of L-Lactate (or Pyruvate), the percentage of neuronal death decreases to 32%. UK5099, a blocker of the Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier, fully prevents L-Lactate-mediated neuroprotection. In addition, L-Lactate-induced neuroprotection is not only inhibited by probenicid and carbenoxolone, two blockers of ATP channel pannexins, but also abolished by apyrase, an enzyme degrading ATP, suggesting that ATP produced by the Lactate/Pyruvate pathway is released to act on purinergic receptors in an autocrine/paracrine manner. Finally, pharmacological approaches support the involvement of the P2Y receptors associated to the PI3-kinase pathway, leading to activation of KATP channels. This set of results indicates that L-Lactate acts as a signalling molecule for neuroprotection against excitotoxicity through coordinated cellular pathways involving ATP production, release and activation of a P2Y/KATP cascade.

  10. L-Lactate protects neurons against excitotoxicity: implication of an ATP-mediated signaling cascade

    KAUST Repository

    Jourdain, P.; Allaman, I.; Rothenfusser, K.; Fiumelli, Hubert; Marquet, P.; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2016-01-01

    Converging experimental data indicate a neuroprotective action of L-Lactate. Using Digital Holographic Microscopy, we observe that transient application of glutamate (100 μM; 2 min) elicits a NMDA-dependent death in 65% of mouse cortical neurons in culture. In the presence of L-Lactate (or Pyruvate), the percentage of neuronal death decreases to 32%. UK5099, a blocker of the Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier, fully prevents L-Lactate-mediated neuroprotection. In addition, L-Lactate-induced neuroprotection is not only inhibited by probenicid and carbenoxolone, two blockers of ATP channel pannexins, but also abolished by apyrase, an enzyme degrading ATP, suggesting that ATP produced by the Lactate/Pyruvate pathway is released to act on purinergic receptors in an autocrine/paracrine manner. Finally, pharmacological approaches support the involvement of the P2Y receptors associated to the PI3-kinase pathway, leading to activation of KATP channels. This set of results indicates that L-Lactate acts as a signalling molecule for neuroprotection against excitotoxicity through coordinated cellular pathways involving ATP production, release and activation of a P2Y/KATP cascade.

  11. Neuroprotective Effects of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in a Rat Model of Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Tassos; Wen, Yao-Tseng; Chang, Chung-Hsing; Kolovos, Panagiotis; Kalogerou, Maria; Prokopiou, Ekatherine; Neokleous, Anastasia; Huang, Chin-Te; Tsai, Rong-Kung

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA) administration in a rat model of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (rAION). The level of blood arachidonic acid/eicosapentaenoic acid (AA/EPA) was measured to determine the suggested dosage. The rAION-induced rats were administered fish oil (1 g/day EPA) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) by daily gavage for 10 consecutive days to evaluate the neuroprotective effects. Blood fatty acid analysis showed that the AA/EPA ratio was reduced from 17.6 to ≤1.5 after 10 days of fish oil treatment. The retinal ganglion cell (RGC) densities and the P1-N2 amplitude of flash visual-evoked potentials (FVEP) were significantly higher in the ω-3 PUFA-treated group, compared with the PBS-treated group (P optic nerve (ON) by 3.17-fold in the rAION model. The M2 macrophage markers, which decrease inflammation, were induced in the ω-3 PUFA-treated group in contrast to the PBS-treated group. In addition, the mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta, and inducible nitric oxide synthase were significantly reduced in the ω-3 PUFA-treated group. The administration of ω-3 PUFAs has neuroprotective effects in rAION, possibly through dual actions of the antiapoptosis of RGCs and anti-inflammation via decreasing inflammatory cell infiltration, as well as the regulation of macrophage polarization to decrease the cytokine-induced injury of the ON.

  12. Neuroprotective effects of bee venom acupuncture therapy against rotenone-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Wagdy K B; Assaf, Naglaa; ElShebiney, Shaimaa A; Salem, Neveen A

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD), the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder, is characterized by dopaminergic neurodegeneration, mitochondrial impairment, and oxidative stress. Exposure of animals to rotenone induces a range of responses characteristic of PD, including reactive oxygen species production and dopaminergic cell death. Although l-dopa is the drug of choice for improving core symptoms of PD, it is associated with involuntary movements. The current study was directed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of bee venom acupuncture therapy (BVA) against rotenone-induced oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and apoptosis in PD mouse model. Forty male Swiss mice were divided into four groups: (1) received saline solution orally and served as normal control, (2) received rotenone (1.5 mg/kg, s.c. every other day for 6 doses), (3) received rotenone concomitantly with l-dopa (25 mg/kg, daily, p.o. for 6 days), and finally (4) received rotenone concomitantly with BVA (0.02 ml once every 3 days for two weeks). Rotenone-treated mice showed impairment in locomotor behavior and a significant reduction in brain dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, GSH levels, and paraoxonase activity, whereas a significant increase was observed in brain malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-β levels besides DNA damage, and over-expression of caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2 genes. Significant improvement of the aforementioned parameters was demonstrated after BVA compared to l-dopa therapy. In conclusion, bee venom normalized all the neuroinflammatory and apoptotic markers and restored brain neurochemistry after rotenone injury. Therefore, BVA is a promising neuroprotective therapy for PD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Neuroprotective Effects and Mechanisms of Curcumin–Cu(II) and –Zn(II) Complexes Systems and Their Pharmacological Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Fa-Shun; Sun, Jian-Long; Xie, Wen-Hai; Shen, Liang; Ji, Hong-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the main form of dementia and has a steadily increasing prevalence. As both oxidative stress and metal homeostasis are involved in the pathogenesis of AD, it would be interesting to develop a dual function agent, targeting the two factors. Curcumin, a natural compound isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, is an antioxidant and can also chelate metal ions. Whether the complexes of curcumin with metal ions possess neuroprotective effects has not been evaluated....

  14. Positive Social Interactions in a Lifespan Perspective with a Focus on Opioidergic and Oxytocinergic Systems: Implications for Neuroprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonnello, Valentina; Petrocchi, Nicola; Farinelli, Marina; Ottaviani, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, a growing interest has emerged in the beneficial effects of positive social interactions on health. The present work aims to review animal and human studies linking social interactions and health throughout the lifespan, with a focus on current knowledge of the possible mediating role of opioids and oxytocin. During the prenatal period, a positive social environment contributes to regulating maternal stress response and protecting the fetus from exposure to maternal active glucocorticoids. Throughout development, positive social contact with the caregiver acts as a “hidden regulator” and promotes infant neuroaffective development. Postnatal social neuroprotection interventions involving caregiver–infant physical contact seem to be crucial for rescuing preterm infants at risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. Attachment figures and friendships in adulthood continue to have a protective role for health and brain functioning, counteracting brain aging. In humans, implementation of meditative practices that promote compassionate motivation and prosocial behavior appears beneficial for health in adolescents and adults. Human and animal studies suggest the oxytocinergic and opioidergic systems are important mediators of the effects of social interactions. However, most of the studies focus on a specific phase of life (i.e., adulthood). Future studies should focus on the role of opioids and oxytocin in positive social interactions adopting a lifespan perspective. PMID:27538784

  15. [Carrier-mediated Transport of Cationic Drugs across the Blood-Tissue Barrier].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Studies of neurological dysfunction have revealed the neuroprotective effect of several cationic drugs, suggesting their usefulness in the treatment of neurological diseases. In the brain and retina, blood-tissue barriers such as blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-retinal barrier (BRB) are formed to restrict nonspecific solute transport between the circulating blood and neural tissues. Therefore study of cationic drug transport at these barriers is essential to achieve systemic delivery of neuroprotective agents into the neural tissues. In the retina, severe diseases such as diabetic retinopathy and macular degeneration can cause neurological dysfunction that dramatically affects patients' QOL. The BRB is formed by retinal capillary endothelial cells (inner BRB) and retinal pigment epithelial cells (outer BRB). Blood-to-retina transport of cationic drugs was investigated at the inner BRB, which is known to nourish two thirds of the retina. Blood-to-retinal transport of verapamil suggested that the barrier function of the BRB differs from that of the BBB. Moreover, carrier-mediated transport of verapamil and pyrilamine revealed the involvement of novel organic cation transporters at the inner BRB. The identified transport systems for cationic drugs are sensitive to several cationic neuroprotective and anti-angiogenic agents such as clonidine and propranolol, and the involvement of novel transporters was also suggested in their blood-to-retina transport across the inner BRB.

  16. Neuroprotection by flavonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajas F.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The high morbidity, high socioeconomic costs and lack of specific treatments are key factors that define the relevance of brain pathology for human health and the importance of research on neuronal protective agents. Epidemiological studies have shown beneficial effects of flavonoids on arteriosclerosis-related pathology in general and neurodegeneration in particular. Flavonoids can protect the brain by their ability to modulate intracellular signals promoting cellular survival. Quercetin and structurally related flavonoids (myricetin, fisetin, luteolin showed a marked cytoprotective capacity in in vitro experimental conditions in models of predominantly apoptotic death such as that induced by medium concentrations (200 µM of H2O2 added to PC12 cells in culture. Nevertheless, quercetin did not protect substantia nigra neurons in vivo from an oxidative insult (6-hydroxydopamine, probably due to difficulties in crossing the blood-brain barrier. On the other hand, treatment of permanent focal ischemia with a lecithin/quercetin preparation decreased lesion volume, showing that preparations that help to cross the blood-brain barrier may be critical for the expression of the effects of flavonoids on the brain. The hypothesis is advanced that a group of quercetin-related flavonoids could become lead molecules for the development of neuroprotective compounds with multitarget anti-ischemic effects.

  17. Preclinical quantitative MicroPET imaging in evaluation of neuroprotective drug candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Ji Yeon; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Ji Sun; Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Kyeong Min; Choi, Tae Hyun; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    Using in vivo molecular imaging with microPET/SPECT has been expected to facilitate drug discovery and development. In this study, we applied quantitative microPET to the preclinical evaluation of the effects of two neuroprotective drug candidates to the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal damage. Fifteen SD rats were divided into three groups. The rats of each group were orally administrated one of neuroprotective candidate; NeuProtec (100mg/kg bid) and SureCero (10mg/kg, qd) or normal saline (0.1ml, qd) for 3 weeks. 6-OHDA was sterotactically placed to the right striatum on eighth day after starting while continuing the medication for additional 14 days. [ 124 I]FP-ClT PET scans were obtained using microPET R4 scanner. The behavioral test by amphetamine-induced rotation and the histological examination after thyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemical staining were performed. Different uptake in the lesioned striatum among the groups were demonstrated on [ 124 I]FP-CIT PET images. The rats with NeuProtec showed higher binding in the lesion than controls. No differences were observed in SureCere groups. The FP-CIT uptake in the lesioned striatum was well correlated with the % reduction of TH(+) cells (rho =0.73, p=0.025), and also correlated with rotation test (rho =0.79, p=0.001) [ 124 I]FP-CIT animal PET depicted the neuroprotective effects of NeuProtec to the 6-OHDA neurotoxicity in the rat striatum. No demonstrable effect of SureCero might indicate that inadequate dosage was used in this study. MicroPET imaging with small animal could be a great tool in preclinical evaluation of drug efficacy

  18. Fetal Neuroprotection by Magnesium Sulfate: From Translational Research to Clinical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Chollat

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite improvements in perinatal care, preterm birth still occurs regularly and the associated brain injury and adverse neurological outcomes remain a persistent challenge. Antenatal magnesium sulfate administration is an intervention with demonstrated neuroprotective effects for preterm births before 32 weeks of gestation (WG. Owing to its biological properties, including its action as an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor blocker and its anti-inflammatory effects, magnesium is a good candidate for neuroprotection. In hypoxia models, including hypoxia-ischemia, inflammation, and excitotoxicity in various species (mice, rats, pigs, magnesium sulfate preconditioning decreased the induced lesions’ sizes and inflammatory cytokine levels, prevented cell death, and improved long-term behavior. In humans, some observational studies have demonstrated reduced risks of cerebral palsy after antenatal magnesium sulfate therapy. Meta-analyses of five randomized controlled trials using magnesium sulfate as a neuroprotectant showed amelioration of cerebral palsy at 2 years. A meta-analysis of individual participant data from these trials showed an equally strong decrease in cerebral palsy and the combined risk of fetal/infant death and cerebral palsy at 2 years. The benefit remained similar regardless of gestational age, cause of prematurity, and total dose received. These data support the use of a minimal dose (e.g., 4 g loading dose ± 1 g/h maintenance dose over 12 h to avoid potential deleterious effects. Antenatal magnesium sulfate is now recommended by the World Health Organization and many pediatric and obstetrical societies, and it is requisite to maximize its administration among women at risk of preterm delivery before 32 WG.

  19. Neuroprotective Drug for Nerve Trauma Revealed Using Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Romeo-Guitart, David; Forés, Joaquim; Herrando-Grabulosa, Mireia; Valls, Raquel; Leiva-Rodríguez, Tatiana; Galea, Elena; González-Pérez, Francisco; Navarro, Xavier; Petegnief, Valerie; Bosch, Assumpció; Coma, Mireia; Mas, José Manuel; Casas, Caty

    2018-01-01

    Here we used a systems biology approach and artificial intelligence to identify a neuroprotective agent for the treatment of peripheral nerve root avulsion. Based on accumulated knowledge of the neurodegenerative and neuroprotective processes that occur in motoneurons after root avulsion, we built up protein networks and converted them into mathematical models. Unbiased proteomic data from our preclinical models were used for machine learning algorithms and for restrictions to be imposed on m...

  20. Assessment of the neuroprotective effects of Lavandula angustifolia extract on the contusive model of spinal cord injury in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza eKaka

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionSpinal cord injury (SCI involves a primary trauma and secondary cellular processes that can lead to severe damage to the nervous system, resulting in long-term spinal deficits. At the cellular level, SCI causes astrogliosis, of which glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP is a major index. ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Lavandula angustifolia (Lav on the repair of spinal cord injuries in Wistar rats.Materials and MethodsForty-five female rats were randomly divided into six groups of seven rats each: the intact, sham, control (SCI, Lav 100, Lav 200, and Lav 400 groups. Every week after SCI onset, all animals were evaluated for behavior outcomes by the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB score. H&E staining was performed to examine the lesions post-injury. GFAP expression was assessed for astrogliosis. Somatosensory evoked potential (SEP testing was performed to detect the recovery of neural conduction.Results BBB scores were significantly increased and delayed responses on sensory tests were significantly decreased in the Lav 200 and Lav 400 groups compared to the control group. The greatest decrease of GFAP was evident in the Lav 200 and Lav 400 groups. EMG results showed significant improvement in the hindlimbs in the Lav 200 and Lav 400 groups compared to the control group. Cavity areas significantly decreased and the number of ventral motor neurons significantly increased in the Lav 200 and Lav 400 groups.ConclusionLav at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg can promote structural and functional recovery after SCI. The neuroprotective effects of L. angustifolia can lead to improvement in the contusive model of spinal cord injury in Wistar rats.Keywords Spinal cord injury (SCI; Lavandula angustifolia; neuroprotection; Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB; glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP; somatosensory evoked potential (SEP

  1. Phenobarbital Augments Hypothermic Neuroprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barks, John D.; Liu, Yi-Qing; Shangguan, Yu; Silverstein, Faye S.

    2010-01-01

    Seizures are associated with adverse outcome in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. We hypothesized that early administration of the anticonvulsant phenobarbital after cerebral hypoxia-ischemia could enhance the neuroprotective efficacy of delayed-onset hypothermia. We tested this hypothesis in a neonatal rodent model. Seven-day-old rats (n=104) underwent right carotid ligation, followed by 90 min 8%O2 exposure; 15 min later, they received injections of phenobarbital (40 mg/kg) or saline. One or 3h later, all were treated with hypothermia (30°C, 3h). Function and neuropathology were evaluated after 7 days (“early outcomes”) or 1 month (“late outcomes”). Early outcome assessment demonstrated better sensorimotor performance and less cortical damage in phenobarbital-treated groups; there were no differences between groups in which the hypothermia delay was shortened from 3h to 1h. Late outcome assessment confirmed sustained benefits of phenobarbital+hypothermia treatment; sensorimotor performance was better (persistent attenuation of contralateral forepaw placing deficits and absence of contralateral forepaw neglect); neuropathology scores were lower (medians, phenobarbital 2, saline 8.5, pphenobarbital may augment the neuroprotective efficacy of therapeutic hypothermia. PMID:20098339

  2. Neuroprotective Effects and Mechanisms of Curcumin-Cu(II) and -Zn(II) Complexes Systems and Their Pharmacological Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fa-Shun; Sun, Jian-Long; Xie, Wen-Hai; Shen, Liang; Ji, Hong-Fang

    2017-12-28

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the main form of dementia and has a steadily increasing prevalence. As both oxidative stress and metal homeostasis are involved in the pathogenesis of AD, it would be interesting to develop a dual function agent, targeting the two factors. Curcumin, a natural compound isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma longa , is an antioxidant and can also chelate metal ions. Whether the complexes of curcumin with metal ions possess neuroprotective effects has not been evaluated. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of the complexes of curcumin with Cu(II) or Zn(II) on hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-induced injury and the underlying molecular mechanisms. The use of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells, a widely used neuronal cell model system, was adopted. It was revealed that curcumin-Cu(II) complexes systems possessed enhanced O₂ ·- -scavenging activities compared to unchelated curcumin. In comparison with unchelated curcumin, the protective effects of curcumin-Cu(II) complexes systems were stronger than curcumin-Zn(II) system. Curcumin-Cu(II) or -Zn(II) complexes systems significantly enhanced the superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities and attenuated the increase of malondialdehyde levels and caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities, in a dose-dependent manner. The curcumin-Cu(II) complex system with a 2:1 ratio exhibited the most significant effect. Further mechanistic study demonstrated that curcumin-Cu(II) or -Zn(II) complexes systems inhibited cell apoptosis via downregulating the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway and upregulating Bcl-2/Bax pathway. In summary, the present study found that curcumin-Cu(II) or -Zn(II) complexes systems, especially the former, possess significant neuroprotective effects, which indicates the potential advantage of curcumin as a promising agent against AD and deserves further study.

  3. Neuritogenic and neuroprotective effects of polar steroids from the Far East starfishes Patiria pectinifera and Distolasterias nipon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palyanova, Natalia V; Pankova, Tatyana M; Starostina, Marina V; Kicha, Alla A; Ivanchina, Natalia V; Stonik, Valentin A

    2013-05-03

    The neuritogenic and neuroprotective activities of six starfish polar steroids, asterosaponin Р₁, (25S)-5α-cholestane-3β,4β,6α,7α,8,15α,16β,26-octaol, and (25S)-5α-cholestane-3β,6α,7α,8,15α,16β,26-heptaol (1-3) from the starfish Patiria pectinifera and distolasterosides D₁-D₃ (4-6) from the starfish Distolasterias nipon were analyzed using the mouse neuroblastoma (NB) C-1300 cell line and an organotypic rat hippocampal slice culture (OHSC). All of these compounds enhanced neurite outgrowth in NB cells. Dose-dependent responses to compounds 1-3 were observed within the concentration range of 10-100 nM, and dose-dependent responses to glycosides 4-6 were observed at concentrations of 1-50 nM. All the tested substances exhibited notable synergistic effects with trace amounts of nerve growth factor (NGF, 1 ng/mL) or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, 0.1 ng/mL). Using NB cells and OHSCs, it was shown for the first time that starfish steroids 1-6 act as neuroprotectors against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) by increasing the number of surviving cells. Altogether, these results suggest that neurotrophin-like neuritogenic and neuroprotective activities are most likely common properties of starfish polyhydroxysteroids and the related glycosides, although the magnitude of the effect depended on the particular compound structure.

  4. Superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetics but not MAP kinase inhibitors are neuroprotective against oxygen/glucose deprivation-induced neuronal death in hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Miou; Dominguez, Reymundo; Baudry, Michel

    2007-12-01

    Although oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD) has been widely used as a model of ischemic brain damage, the mechanisms underlying acute neuronal death in this model are not yet well understood. We used OGD in acute hippocampal slices to investigate the roles of reactive oxygen species and of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in neuronal death. In particular, we tested the neuroprotective effects of two synthetic superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetics, EUK-189 and EUK-207. Acute hippocampal slices prepared from 2-month-old or postnatal day 10 rats were exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation for 2 h followed by 2.5 h reoxygenation. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in the medium and propidium iodide (PI) uptake were used to evaluate cell viability. EUK-189 or EUK-207 applied during the OGD and reoxygenation periods decreased LDH release and PI uptake in slices from 2-month-old rats. EUK-189 or EUK-207 also partly blocked OGD-induced ATP depletion and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) dephosphorylation, and completely eliminated reactive oxygen species generation. The MEK inhibitor U0126 applied together with EUK-189 or EUK-207 completely blocked ERK1/2 activation, but had no effect on their protective effects against OGD-induced LDH release. U0126 alone had no effect on OGD-induced LDH release. EUK-207 had no effect on OGD-induced p38 or c-Jun N-terminal kinase dephosphorylation, and when the p38 inhibitor SB203580 was applied together with EUK-207, it had no effect on the protective effects of EUK-207. SB203580 alone had no effect on OGD-induced LDH release either. In slices from p10 rats, OGD also induced high-LDH release that was partly reversed by EUK-207; however, neither OGD nor EUK-207 produced significant changes in ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation. OGD-induced spectrin degradation was not modified by EUK-189 or EUK-207 in slices from p10 or 2-month-old rats, suggesting that their protective effects was not mediated through

  5. Post-stroke angiotensin II type 2 receptor activation provides long-term neuroprotection in aged rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M Bennion

    Full Text Available Activation of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R by administration of Compound 21 (C21, a selective AT2R agonist, induces neuroprotection in models of ischemic stroke in young adult animals. The mechanisms of this neuroprotective action are varied, and may include direct and indirect effects of AT2R activation. Our objectives were to assess the long-term protective effects of post-stroke C21 treatments in a clinically-relevant model of stroke in aged rats and to characterize the cellular localization of AT2Rs in the mouse brain of transgenic reporter mice following stroke. Intraperitoneal injections of C21 (0.03mg/kg after ischemic stroke induced by transient monofilament middle cerebral artery occlusion resulted in protective effects that were sustained for up to at least 3-weeks post-stroke. These included improved neurological function across multiple assessments and a significant reduction in infarct volume as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. We also found AT2R expression to be on neurons, not astrocytes or microglia, in normal female and male mouse brains. Stroke did not induce altered cellular localization of AT2R when assessed at 7 and 14 days post-stroke. These findings demonstrate that the neuroprotection previously characterized only during earlier time points using stroke models in young animals is sustained long-term in aged rats, implying even greater clinical relevance for the study of AT2R agonists for the acute treatment of ischemic stroke in human disease. Further, it appears that this sustained neuroprotection is likely due to a mix of both direct and indirect effects stemming from selective activation of AT2Rs on neurons or other cells besides astrocytes and microglia.

  6. Post-stroke angiotensin II type 2 receptor activation provides long-term neuroprotection in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennion, Douglas M; Isenberg, Jacob D; Harmel, Allison T; DeMars, Kelly; Dang, Alex N; Jones, Chad H; Pignataro, Megan E; Graham, Justin T; Steckelings, U Muscha; Alexander, Jon C; Febo, Marcelo; Krause, Eric G; de Kloet, Annette D; Candelario-Jalil, Eduardo; Sumners, Colin

    2017-01-01

    Activation of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) by administration of Compound 21 (C21), a selective AT2R agonist, induces neuroprotection in models of ischemic stroke in young adult animals. The mechanisms of this neuroprotective action are varied, and may include direct and indirect effects of AT2R activation. Our objectives were to assess the long-term protective effects of post-stroke C21 treatments in a clinically-relevant model of stroke in aged rats and to characterize the cellular localization of AT2Rs in the mouse brain of transgenic reporter mice following stroke. Intraperitoneal injections of C21 (0.03mg/kg) after ischemic stroke induced by transient monofilament middle cerebral artery occlusion resulted in protective effects that were sustained for up to at least 3-weeks post-stroke. These included improved neurological function across multiple assessments and a significant reduction in infarct volume as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. We also found AT2R expression to be on neurons, not astrocytes or microglia, in normal female and male mouse brains. Stroke did not induce altered cellular localization of AT2R when assessed at 7 and 14 days post-stroke. These findings demonstrate that the neuroprotection previously characterized only during earlier time points using stroke models in young animals is sustained long-term in aged rats, implying even greater clinical relevance for the study of AT2R agonists for the acute treatment of ischemic stroke in human disease. Further, it appears that this sustained neuroprotection is likely due to a mix of both direct and indirect effects stemming from selective activation of AT2Rs on neurons or other cells besides astrocytes and microglia.

  7. Modulator effects of interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on AMPA-induced excitotoxicity in mouse organotypic hippocampal slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernardino, Liliana; Xapelli, Sara; Silva, Ana P

    2005-01-01

    The inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) have been identified as mediators of several forms of neurodegeneration in the brain. However, they can produce either deleterious or beneficial effects on neuronal function. We investigated the effects...... of mouse recombinant TNF-alpha (10 ng/ml) enhanced excitotoxicity when the cultures were simultaneously exposed to AMPA and to this cytokine. Decreasing the concentration of TNF-alpha to 1 ng/ml resulted in neuroprotection against AMPA-induced neuronal death independently on the application protocol....... By using TNF-alpha receptor (TNFR) knock-out mice, we demonstrated that the potentiation of AMPA-induced toxicity by TNF-alpha involves TNF receptor-1, whereas the neuroprotective effect is mediated by TNF receptor-2. AMPA exposure was associated with activation and proliferation of microglia as assessed...

  8. Metabolic Syndrome and Neuroprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Etchegoyen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Over the years the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS has drastically increased in developing countries as a major byproduct of industrialization. Many factors, such as the consumption of high-calorie diets and a sedentary lifestyle, bolster the spread of this disorder. Undoubtedly, the massive and still increasing incidence of MetS places this epidemic as an important public health issue. Hereon we revisit another outlook of MetS beyond its classical association with cardiovascular disease (CVD and Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (DM2, for MetS also poses a risk factor for the nervous tissue and threatens neuronal function. First, we revise a few essential concepts of MetS pathophysiology. Second, we explore some neuroprotective approaches in MetS pertaining brain hypoxia. The articles chosen for this review range from the years 1989 until 2017; the selection criteria was based on those providing data and exploratory information on MetS as well as those that studied innovative therapeutic approaches.Pathophysiology: The characteristically impaired metabolic pathways of MetS lead to hyperglycemia, insulin resistance (IR, inflammation, and hypoxia, all closely associated with an overall pro-oxidative status. Oxidative stress is well-known to cause the wreckage of cellular structures and tissue architecture. Alteration of the redox homeostasis and oxidative stress alter the macromolecular array of DNA, lipids, and proteins, in turn disrupting the biochemical pathways necessary for normal cell function.Neuroprotection: Different neuroprotective strategies are discussed involving lifestyle changes, medication aimed to mitigate MetS cardinal symptoms, and treatments targeted toward reducing oxidative stress. It is well-known that the routine practice of physical exercise, aerobic activity in particular, and a complete and well-balanced nutrition are key factors to prevent MetS. Nevertheless, pharmacological control of MetS as a whole and

  9. Neuroprotective activity of selective mGlu1 and mGlu5 antagonists in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szydlowska, Kinga; Kaminska, Bozena; Baude, Andrea; Parsons, Chris G; Danysz, Wojciech

    2007-01-05

    The neuroprotective potential of allosteric mGlu5 and mGlu1 antagonists such as 6-methyl-2-(phenylethynyl)-pyridin (MPEP)/[(2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl]pyridine (MTEP) and (3-ethyl-2-methyl-quinolin-6-yl)-(4-methoxy-cyclohexyl)-methanone methanesulfonate (EMQMCM), was tested in vitro in organotypic hippocampal cultures and in the middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke in vivo. Both classes of agent have high selectivity toward mGlu sub-types and are active in animal models of various diseases indicating satisfactory CNS penetration. In organotypic hippocampal cultures MPEP showed high neuroprotective potency against sub-chronic (12 days) insult produced by 3-NP with an IC50 of c.a. 70 nM. In contrast, although the mGlu1 antagonist EMQMCM was also protective, it seems to be weaker yielding an IC50 of c.a. 1 microM. Similarly, in the transient (90 min) middle cerebral artery occlusion model of ischaemia in rats, MTEP seems to be more effective than EMQMCM. MTEP, at 2.5 mg/kg and at 5 mg/kg provided 50 and 70% neuroprotection if injected 2 h after the onset of ischaemia. At a dose of 5 mg/kg, significant (50%) neuroprotection was also seen if the treatment was delayed by 4 h. EMQMCM was not protective at 5 mg/kg (given 2 h after occlusion) but at 10 mg/kg 50% of neuroprotection was observed. The present data support stronger neuroprotective potential of mGlu5 than mGlu1 antagonists.

  10. Neuroprotective and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Rhus coriaria Extract in a Mouse Model of Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Khalilpour

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Modulating oxidative stresses and inflammation can potentially prevent or alleviate the pathological conditions of diseases associated with the nervous system, including ischemic optic neuropathy. In this study we evaluated the anti-neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective activities of Rhus coriaria (R. coriaria extract in vivo. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 for DPPH, ABTS and β–carotene were 6.79 ± 0.009 µg/mL, 10.94 ± 0.09 µg/mL, and 6.25 ± 0.06 µg/mL, respectively. Retinal ischemia was induced by optic nerve crush injury in albino Balb/c mice. The anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of R. coriaria (ERC and linoleic acid (LA on ocular ischemia was monitored using Fluorescence Molecular Tomography (FMT. Following optic nerve crush injury, the mice treated with 400 mg/kg of ERC and LA exhibited an 84.87% and 86.71% reduction of fluorescent signal (cathepsin activity respectively. The results of this study provide strong scientific evidence for the neuroprotective activity of the ERC, identifying LA as one of the main components responsible for the effect. ERC may be useful and worthy of further development for its adjunctive utilization in the treatment of optic neuropathy.

  11. Comparison of Neuroprotective Effect of Bevacizumab and Sildenafil following Induction of Stroke in a Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Novitzky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of bevacizumab and sildenafil on stroke parameters in a mouse model, middle cerebral artery occlusion was induced in male C57Bl/6 mice using an intra-arterial filament method. The filament was removed after 60 minutes, and the mice were immediately given a single intraperitoneal injection of saline, bevacizumab, or sildenafil. An additional group of mice (n=7 received bevacizumab 6 h after MCAO induction. The mice were euthanized 24 hours later and evaluated for infarct area and brain edema using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining and ImageJ. In the saline-treated mice (n=16, total stroke volume was 19.20±6.38 mm3, mean penumbra area was 4.5±2.03 mm3, and hemispheric asymmetry was 106.5%. Corresponding values in the bevacizumab group (n=19 were 17.79±5.80 mm3, 7.3±3.5 mm3, and 108.6%; in the delayed (6 h bevacizumab injected mice (n=7 they were 9.80±8.00 mm3, 2.4±2.0 mm3, and 98.2%; and in the sildenafil group (n=16 they were 18.42±5.41 mm3, 5.7±2.02 mm3, and 109.9%. The bevacizumab group had a significantly larger mean penumbra area when given immediately and smaller total stroke area in both groups than the saline- (p=0.03 and sildenafil-treated (p=0.003 groups. Only delayed bevacizumab group had reduced edema. Bevacizumab, injected immediately or delayed after injury, exerts a neuroprotective/salvage effect, whereas immediate treatment with sildenafil does not. Inflammation may play a role in the neuroprotective effect.

  12. Neuroprotection and enhanced neurogenesis by extract from the tropical plant Knema laurina after inflammatory damage in living brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häke, Ines; Schönenberger, Silvia; Neumann, Jens; Franke, Katrin; Paulsen-Merker, Katrin; Reymann, Klaus; Ismail, Ghazally; Bin Din, Laily; Said, Ikram M; Latiff, A; Wessjohann, Ludger; Zipp, Frauke; Ullrich, Oliver

    2009-01-03

    Inflammatory reactions in the CNS, resulting from a loss of control and involving a network of non-neuronal and neuronal cells, are major contributors to the onset and progress of several major neurodegenerative diseases. Therapeutic strategies should therefore keep or restore the well-controlled and finely-tuned balance of immune reactions, and protect neurons from inflammatory damage. In our study, we selected plants of the Malaysian rain forest by an ethnobotanic survey, and investigated them in cell-based-assay-systems and in living brain tissue cultures in order to identify anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. We found that alcoholic extracts from the tropical plant Knema laurina (Black wild nutmeg) exhibited highly anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in cell culture experiments, reduced NO- and IL-6-release from activated microglia cells dose-dependently, and protected living brain tissue from microglia-mediated inflammatory damage at a concentration of 30 microg/ml. On the intracellular level, the extract inhibited ERK-1/2-phosphorylation, IkB-phosphorylation and subsequently NF-kB-translocation in microglia cells. K. laurina belongs to the family of Myristicaceae, which have been used for centuries for treatment of digestive and inflammatory diseases and is also a major food plant of the Giant Hornbill. Moreover, extract from K. laurina promotes also neurogenesis in living brain tissue after oxygen-glucose deprivation. In conclusion, extract from K. laurina not only controls and limits inflammatory reaction after primary neuronal damage, it promotes moreover neurogenesis if given hours until days after stroke-like injury.

  13. Neuroprotection of Catalpol for Experimental Acute Focal Ischemic Stroke: Preclinical Evidence and Possible Mechanisms of Antioxidation, Anti-Inflammation, and Antiapoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia-wei Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroprotection is defined as using a therapy that affects the brain tissue in the still-viable ischemic penumbra to salvage or delay the infarction. Catalpol, the main active principle of the root of Radix Rehmanniae, was reported to have pleiotropic neuroprotective effects in neurodegenerative diseases including ischemic stroke. Here, we evaluated the neuroprotective effects of catalpol in experimental acute ischemic stroke. Studies on catalpol in animal models of acute ischemic stroke were identified from 6 databases. Twenty-five studies involving 805 animals were included. Twelve comparisons showed significant effects of catalpol on decreasing infarct size according to 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining compared with the control (P<0.05. One study reported significant effect of catalpol on reducing infarct size according to magnetic resonance imaging scan compared with the control (P<0.05. Meta-analysis of these studies indicated that catalpol significantly improved the neurological function score according to Zea Longa score, Bederson score, balance beam-walking test, adhesive removal test, bar-grasping score, and corner test compared with the control (P<0.05. In conclusion, catalpol exerted neuroprotective effects for experimental acute focal ischemic stroke, largely through reducing oxidative reactions, inhibiting apoptosis, and repressing inflammatory reactions and autophagy. However, these apparently positive findings should be interpreted with caution because of the methodological flaws.

  14. Neuroprotective effects of corn silk maysin via inhibition of H2O2-induced apoptotic cell death in SK-N-MC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Doo Jin; Kim, Sun-Lim; Choi, Ji Won; Park, Yong Il

    2014-07-25

    Neuroprotective effects of maysin, which is a flavone glycoside that was isolated from the corn silk (CS, Zea mays L.) of a Korean hybrid corn Kwangpyeongok, against oxidative stress (H2O2)-induced apoptotic cell death of human neuroblastoma SK-N-MC cells were investigated. Maysin cytotoxicity was determined by measuring cell viability using MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured using a 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) assay. Apoptotic cell death was monitored by annexin V-FITC/PI double staining and by a TUNEL assay. Antioxidant enzyme mRNA levels were determined by real-time PCR. The cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) was measured by western blotting. Maysin pretreatment reduced the cytotoxic effect of H2O2 on SK-N-MC cells, as shown by the increase in cell viability and by reduced LDH release. Maysin pretreatment also dose-dependently reduced the intracellular ROS level and inhibited PARP cleavage. In addition, DNA damage and H2O2-induced apoptotic cell death were significantly attenuated by maysin pretreatment. Moreover, maysin pretreatment (5-50 μg/ml) for 2h significantly and dose-dependently increased the mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes (CAT, GPx-1, SOD-1, SOD-2 and HO-1) in H2O2 (200 μM)-insulted cells. These results suggest that CS maysin has neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress (H2O2)-induced apoptotic death of human brain SK-N-MC cells through its antioxidative action. This report is the first regarding neuroprotective health benefits of corn silk maysin by its anti-apoptotic action and by triggering the expression of intracellular antioxidant enzyme systems in SK-N-MC cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Topiramate as a neuroprotective agent in a rat model of spinal cord injury

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    Firat Narin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Topiramate (TPM is a widely used antiepileptic and antimigraine agent which has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in various experimental traumatic brain injury and stroke models. However, its utility in spinal cord injury has not been studied extensively. Thus, we evaluated effects of TPM on secondary cellular injury mechanisms in an experimental rat model of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI. After rat models of thoracic contusive SCI were established by free weight-drop method, TPM (40 mg/kg was given at 12-hour intervals for four times orally. Post TPM treatment, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels were significantly reduced and reduced glutathione levels were increased, while immunoreactivity for endothelial nitric oxide synthase, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and apoptotic peptidase activating factor 1 was diminished in SCI rats. In addition, TPM treatment improved the functional recovery of SCI rats. This study suggests that administration of TPM exerts neuroprotective effects on SCI.

  16. Novel tactics for neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease: Role of antibiotics, polyphenols and neuropeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reglodi, Dora; Renaud, Justine; Tamas, Andrea; Tizabi, Yousef; Socías, Sergio B; Del-Bel, Elaine; Raisman-Vozari, Rita

    2017-08-01

    Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the degeneration of midbrain nigral dopaminergic neurons. Although its etiology remains unknown, the pathological role of several factors has been highlighted, namely oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, protein misfolding, and mitochondrial dysfunction, in addition to genetic predispositions. The current therapy is mainly symptomatic with l-DOPA aiming to replace dopamine. Novel therapeutic approaches are being investigated with the intention of influencing pathways leading to neuronal death and dysfunction. The present review summarizes three novel approaches, the use of which is promising in pre-clinical studies. Polyphenols have been shown to possess neuroprotective properties on account of their well-established antioxidative and anti-inflammatory actions but also due to their influence on protein misfolding and mitochondrial homeostasis. Within the amazing ancillary effects of antibiotics, their neuroprotective properties against neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory processes are of great interest for the development of effective therapies against Parkinson's disease. Experimental evidence supports the potential of antibiotics as neuroprotective agents, being useful not only to prevent the formation of toxic α-synuclein oligomers but also to ameliorate mitochondrial dysfunction and neuroinflammation. Neuropeptides offer another approach with their diverse effects in the nervous system. Among them, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, a member of the secretin/glucagon superfamily, has several advantageous effects in models of neurodegeneration, namely anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions, the combination of which offers a potent protective effect in dopaminergic neurons. Owing to their pleiotropic modes of action, these novel therapeutic candidates have potential in tackling the multidimensional features of Parkinson's disease. Copyright

  17. Exercise training attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by peripheral immunomodulation rather than direct neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Ofira; Fainstein, Nina; Touloumi, Olga; Lagoudaki, Roza; Hanya, Ester; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos; Katz, Abram; Ben-Hur, Tamir

    2018-01-01

    Conflicting results exist on the effects of exercise training (ET) on Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE), nor is it known how exercise impacts on disease progression. We examined whether ET ameliorates the development of EAE by modulating the systemic immune system or exerting direct neuroprotective effects on the CNS. Healthy mice were subjected to 6weeks of motorized treadmill running. The Proteolipid protein (PLP)-induced transfer EAE model in mice was utilized. To assess effects of ET on systemic autoimmunity, lymph-node (LN)-T cells from trained- vs. sedentary donor mice were transferred to naïve recipients. To assess direct neuroprotective effects of ET, PLP-reactive LN-T cells were transferred into recipient mice that were trained prior to EAE transfer or to sedentary mice. EAE severity was assessed in vivo and the characteristics of encephalitogenic LN-T cells derived from PLP-immunized mice were evaluated in vitro. LN-T cells obtained from trained mice induced an attenuated clinical and pathological EAE in recipient mice vs. cells derived from sedentary animals. Training inhibited the activation, proliferation and cytokine gene expression of PLP-reactive T cells in response to CNS-derived autoantigen, but strongly enhanced their proliferation in response to Concanavalin A, a non-specific stimulus. However, there was no difference in EAE severity when autoreactive encephalitogenic T cells were transferred to trained vs. sedentary recipient mice. ET inhibits immune system responses to an auto-antigen to attenuate EAE, rather than generally suppressing the immune system, but does not induce a direct neuro-protective effect against EAE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Neuroprotection from NMDA excitotoxic lesion by Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene delivery to the postnatal rat brain by a modular protein vector

    OpenAIRE

    Peluffo, Hugo; Acarin, Laia; Arís, Anna; González, Pau; Villaverde, Antoni; Castellano, Bernardo; González, Berta

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Superoxide mediated oxidative stress is a key neuropathologic mechanism in acute central nervous system injuries. We have analyzed the neuroprotective efficacy of the transient overexpression of antioxidant enzyme Cu/Zn Superoxide dismutase (SOD) after excitotoxic injury to the immature rat brain by using a recently constructed modular protein vector for non-viral gene delivery termed NLSCt. For this purpose, animals were injected with the NLSCt vector carrying the Cu/Zn S...

  19. Kynurenic Acid and Neuroprotective Activity of the Ketogenic Diet in the Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnowski, Tomasz; Tulidowicz-Bielak, Maria; Zarnowska, Iwona; Mitosek-Szewczyk, Krystyna; Wnorowski, Artur; Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Gasior, Maciej; Turski, Waldemar A

    2017-01-01

    There is growing evidence of the involvement of the kynurenine metabolic pathway and the enhancement of kynurenic acid production in the neuroprotective effects of the ketogenic diet. Here, we review evidence implicating kynurenic acid in the efficacy of ketogenic diet in eye diseases associated with neurodegeneration. Ketogenic diet and ketone bodies that are elevated during exposure to the ketogenic diet each have a neuroprotective effect on retinal ganglion cells in a rat model of Nmethyl- D-aspartate induced neuronal damage. Chronic exposure to ketogenic diet also increases kynurenic acid concentrations in discrete rat brain structures. A non-selective glutamate receptor agonist, glutamate, also decreases the production of kynurenic acid in bovine retinal slices; this effect is attenuated by acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate, two of three ketone bodies overproduced during ketogenic diet. Whether ketogenic diet induced enhancement of kynurenic acid production would translate into a clinically significant improvement in certain eye diseases like glaucoma and retinal neurodegenerations awaits further experimental and clinical verification. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. IGF-II promotes neuroprotection and neuroplasticity recovery in a long-lasting model of oxidative damage induced by glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Montañez, E; Millon, C; Boraldi, F; Garcia-Guirado, F; Pedraza, C; Lara, E; Santin, L J; Pavia, J; Garcia-Fernandez, M

    2017-10-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) is a naturally occurring hormone that exerts neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties in a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases and ageing. Accumulating evidence suggests that the effects of IGF-II in the brain may be explained by its binding to the specific transmembrane receptor, IGFII/M6P receptor (IGF-IIR). However, relatively little is known regarding the role of IGF-II through IGF-IIR in neuroprotection. Here, using adult cortical neuronal cultures, we investigated whether IGF-II exhibits long-term antioxidant effects and neuroprotection at the synaptic level after oxidative damage induced by high and transient levels of corticosterone (CORT). Furthermore, the involvement of the IGF-IIR was also studied to elucidate its role in the neuroprotective actions of IGF-II. We found that neurons treated with IGF-II after CORT incubation showed reduced oxidative stress damage and recovered antioxidant status (normalized total antioxidant status, lipid hydroperoxides and NAD(P) H:quinone oxidoreductase activity). Similar results were obtained when mitochondria function was analysed (cytochrome c oxidase activity, mitochondrial membrane potential and subcellular mitochondrial distribution). Furthermore, neuronal impairment and degeneration were also assessed (synaptophysin and PSD-95 expression, presynaptic function and FluoroJade B® stain). IGF-II was also able to recover the long-lasting neuronal cell damage. Finally, the effects of IGF-II were not blocked by an IGF-IR antagonist, suggesting the involvement of IGF-IIR. Altogether these results suggest that, in or model, IGF-II through IGF-IIR is able to revert the oxidative damage induced by CORT. In accordance with the neuroprotective role of the IGF-II/IGF-IIR reported in our study, pharmacotherapy approaches targeting this pathway may be useful for the treatment of diseases associated with cognitive deficits (i.e., neurodegenerative disorders, depression, etc

  1. Lactoferrin-modified rotigotine nanoparticles for enhanced nose-to-brain delivery: LESA-MS/MS-based drug biodistribution, pharmacodynamics, and neuroprotective effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan X

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Xiuju Yan,1,* Lixiao Xu,1,* Chenchen Bi,1 Dongyu Duan,1 Liuxiang Chu,1 Xin Yu,1 Zimei Wu,1 Aiping Wang,1,2 Kaoxiang Sun1,2 1School of Pharmacy, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Drug Delivery System and Biotech Drugs in Universities of Shandong, Key Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology and Drug Evaluation (Yantai University, Ministry of Education, Yantai University, Yantai, Shandong Province, 2State Key Laboratory of Long-Acting and Targeting Drug Delivery System, Shandong Luye Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Yantai, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Introduction: Efficient delivery of rotigotine into the brain is crucial for obtaining maximum therapeutic efficacy for Parkinson’s disease (PD. Therefore, in the present study, we prepared lactoferrin-modified rotigotine nanoparticles (Lf-R-NPs and studied their biodistribution, pharmacodynamics, and neuroprotective effects following nose-to-brain delivery in the rat 6-hydroxydopamine model of PD.Materials and methods: The biodistribution of rotigotine nanoparticles (R-NPs and Lf-R-NPs after intranasal administration was assessed by liquid extraction surface analysis coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Contralateral rotations were quantified to evaluate pharmacodynamics. Tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter immunohistochemistry were performed to compare the neuroprotective effects of levodopa, R-NPs, and Lf-R-NPs.Results: Liquid extraction surface analysis coupled with tandem mass spectrometry analysis, used to examine rotigotine biodistribution, showed that Lf-R-NPs more efficiently supplied rotigotine to the brain (with a greater sustained amount of the drug delivered to this organ, and with more effective targeting to the striatum than R-NPs. The pharmacodynamic study revealed a significant difference (P<0.05 in contralateral rotations between rats treated with Lf-R-NPs and those treated with R-NPs. Furthermore, Lf

  2. Neuroprotective Efficacy of an Aminopropyl Carbazole Derivative P7C3-A20 in Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Na; Xu, Tian-Ying; Wang, Xia; Guan, Yun-Feng; Zhang, Sai-Long; Wang, Pei; Miao, Chao-Yu

    2016-09-01

    NAMPT is a novel therapeutic target of ischemic stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a potential NAMPT activator, P7C3-A20, an aminopropyl carbazole derivative, on ischemic stroke. In vitro study, neuron protection effect of P7C3-A20 was investigated by co-incubation with primary neurons subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) or oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) injury. In vivo experiment, P7C3-A20 was administrated in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats and infarct volume was examined. Lastly, the brain tissue nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) levels were detected in P7C3-A20 treated normal or MCAO mice. Cell viability, morphology, and Tuj-1 staining confirmed the neuroprotective effect of P7C3-A20 in OGD or OGD/R model. P7C3-A20 administration significantly reduced cerebral infarction in MCAO rats. Moreover, brain NAD levels were elevated both in normal and MCAO mice after P7C3-A20 treatment. P7C3-A20 has neuroprotective effect in cerebral ischemia. The study contributes to the development of NAMPT activators against ischemic stroke and expands the horizon of the neuroprotective effect of aminopropyl carbazole chemicals. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Effect of magnesium sulfate administration for neuroprotection on latency in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horton, Amanda L

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to evaluate whether magnesium sulfate administration for neuroprotection prolongs latency in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) between 24 and 31(6\\/7) weeks\\' gestation.

  4. Phenoxybenzamine Is Neuroprotective in a Rat Model of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Rau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenoxybenzamine (PBZ is an FDA approved α-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist that is currently used to treat symptoms of pheochromocytoma. However, it has not been studied as a neuroprotective agent for traumatic brain injury (TBI. While screening neuroprotective candidates, we found that phenoxybenzamine reduced neuronal death in rat hippocampal slice cultures following exposure to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD. Using this system, we found that phenoxybenzamine reduced neuronal death over a broad dose range (0.1 µM–1 mM and provided efficacy when delivered up to 16 h post-OGD. We further tested phenoxybenzamine in the rat lateral fluid percussion model of TBI. When administered 8 h after TBI, phenoxybenzamine improved neurological severity scoring and foot fault assessments. At 25 days post injury, phenoxybenzamine treated TBI animals also showed a significant improvement in both learning and memory compared to saline treated controls. We further examined gene expression changes within the cortex following TBI. At 32 h post-TBI phenoxybenzamine treated animals had significantly lower expression of pro-inflammatory signaling proteins CCL2, IL1β, and MyD88, suggesting that phenoxybenzamine may exert a neuroprotective effect by reducing neuroinflammation after TBI. These data suggest that phenonxybenzamine may have application in the treatment of TBI.

  5. Possible sources of neuroprotection following subretinal silicon chip implantation in RCS rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardue, Machelle T.; Phillips, Michael J.; Yin, Hang; Fernandes, Alcides; Cheng, Yian; Chow, Alan Y.; Ball, Sherry L.

    2005-03-01

    Current retinal prosthetics are designed to stimulate existing neural circuits in diseased retinas to create a visual signal. However, implantation of retinal prosthetics may create a neurotrophic environment that also leads to improvements in visual function. Possible sources of increased neuroprotective effects on the retina may arise from electrical activity generated by the prosthetic, mechanical injury due to surgical implantation, and/or presence of a chronic foreign body. This study evaluates these three neuroprotective sources by implanting Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats, a model of retinitis pigmentosa, with a subretinal implant at an early stage of photoreceptor degeneration. Treatment groups included rats implanted with active and inactive devices, as well as sham-operated. These groups were compared to unoperated controls. Evaluation of retinal function throughout an 18 week post-implantation period demonstrated transient functional improvements in eyes implanted with an inactive device at 6, 12 and 14 weeks post-implantation. However, the number of photoreceptors located directly over or around the implant or sham incision was significantly increased in eyes implanted with an active or inactive device or sham-operated. These results indicate that in the RCS rat localized neuroprotection of photoreceptors from mechanical injury or a chronic foreign body may provide similar results to subretinal electrical stimulation at the current output evaluated here.

  6. Interventional effects for mediation analysis with multiple mediators

    OpenAIRE

    Vansteelandt, Stijn; Daniel, Rhian M.

    2017-01-01

    The mediation formula for the identification of natural (in)direct effects has facilitated mediation analyses that better respect the nature of the data, with greater consideration of the need for confounding control. The default assumptions on which it relies are strong, however. In particular, they are known to be violated when confounders of the mediator–outcome association are affected by the exposure. This complicates extensions of counterfactual-based mediation analysis to settings that...

  7. Minoxidil is a potential neuroprotective drug for paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Fan; Chen, Li-Hsien; Yeh, Yu-Min; Wu, Pei-Ying; Chen, Yih-Fung; Chang, Lian-Yun; Chang, Jang-Yang; Shen, Meng-Ru

    2017-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common side effect of cancer treatment. No medication has been shown to be effective in the treatment of CIPN. This study aims to integrate the image-based high-content screening, mouse behavior models and mechanistic cell-based assays to discover potential neuroprotective drugs. Among screened compounds, minoxidil showed the most potent neuroprotective effect against paclitaxel, with regard to neurite outgrowth of dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Minoxidil protected mice from thermal insensitivity and alleviated mechanical allodynia in paclitaxel-treated mice. The ultrastructure and quantified G-ratio of myelin integrity of sciatic nerve tissues supported the observations in mouse behavioral tests. The mechanistic study on DRG neurons suggested that minoxidil suppressed neuroinflammation and remodeled the dysregulation of intracellular calcium homeostasis provoked by paclitaxel. Importantly, minoxidil showed a synergistic anti-tumor effect with paclitaxel both in tumor xenograft models of cervical and breast cancer. Interestingly, the quantitative assays on hair length and hair growth both exhibited that minoxidil significantly improved the hair quality after chemotherapy. Since minoxidil is a drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the safety and biocompatibility are well documented. The immediate next step is to launch an early-stage clinical trial intending to prevent CIPN by minoxidil. PMID:28349969

  8. Neuregulin-1 is neuroprotective in a rat model of organophosphate-induced delayed neuronal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yonggang; Lein, Pamela J.; Liu, Cuimei; Bruun, Donald A.; Giulivi, Cecilia; Ford, Gregory D.; Tewolde, Teclemichael; Ross-Inta, Catherine; Ford, Byron D.

    2012-01-01

    Current medical countermeasures against organophosphate (OP) nerve agents are effective in reducing mortality, but do not sufficiently protect the CNS from delayed brain damage and persistent neurological symptoms. In this study, we examined the efficacy of neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) in protecting against delayed neuronal cell death following acute intoxication with the OP diisopropylflurophosphate (DFP). Adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were pretreated with pyridostigmine (0.1 mg/kg BW, i.m.) and atropine methylnitrate (20 mg/kg BW, i.m.) prior to DFP (9 mg/kg BW, i.p.) intoxication to increase survival and reduce peripheral signs of cholinergic toxicity but not prevent DFP-induced seizures or delayed neuronal injury. Pretreatment with NRG-1 did not protect against seizures in rats exposed to DFP. However, neuronal injury was significantly reduced in most brain regions by pretreatment with NRG-1 isoforms NRG-EGF (3.2 μg/kg BW, i.a) or NRG-GGF2 (48 μg/kg BW, i.a.) as determined by FluroJade-B labeling in multiple brain regions at 24 h post-DFP injection. NRG-1 also blocked apoptosis and oxidative stress-mediated protein damage in the brains of DFP-intoxicated rats. Administration of NRG-1 at 1 h after DFP injection similarly provided significant neuroprotection against delayed neuronal injury. These findings identify NRG-1 as a promising adjuvant therapy to current medical countermeasures for enhancing neuroprotection against acute OP intoxication. -- Highlights: ► NRG-1 blocked DFP induced neuronal injury. ► NRG-1 did not protect against seizures in rats exposed to DFP. ► NRG-1 blocked apoptosis and oxidative stress in the brains of DFP-intoxicated rats. ► Administration of NRG-1 at 1 h after DFP injection prevented delayed neuronal injury.

  9. Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Delay Retinal Degeneration in Royal College of Surgeons Rats Through Anti-Apoptotic and VEGF-Mediated Neuroprotective Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Wang, J; Gao, F; Zhang, J; Tian, H; Shi, X; Lian, C; Sun, Y; Li, W; Xu, J-Y; Li, P; Zhang, J; Gao, Z; Xu, J; Wang, F; Lu, L; Xu, G-T

    2016-01-01

    Vegf expression level decreased over time in RCS rats. The treatment of AAV2-VEGF showed comparable therapeutic effects as hADSCs but siRNA knockdown of VEGF in hADSCs essentially abolished the therapeutic effects. Subretinal transplantation of hADSCs in RCS rats effectively delayed the retinal degeneration, enhanced the retinal cell survival and improved the visual function. Mechanistically this was mainly due to hADSC dependent anti-apoptotic and neuroprotective effects through its secretion of growth and neurotrophic factors including VEGF. Clinical application of hADSCs merits further investigation.

  10. Combining hypobaric hypoxia or hyperbaric oxygen postconditioning with memantine reduces neuroprotection in 7-day-old rat hypoxia-ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamdzyk, Marcin; Ziembowicz, Apolonia; Bratek, Ewelina; Salinska, Elzbieta

    2016-10-01

    Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia causes brain injury in neonates, but a fully successful treatment to prevent changes in the brain has yet to be developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combining memantine treatment with HBO (2.5 ATA) or HH (0.47 ATA) on neonatal hypoxia-ischemia brain injury. 7-day old rats were subjected to hypoxia-ischemia (H-I) and treated with combination of memantine and HBO or HH. The brain damage was evaluated by examination of infarct area and the number of apoptotic cells in CA1 region of hippocampus. Additionally, the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured. Memantine, HBO or HH postconditioning applied at short time (1-6h) after H-I, and repeated for two subsequent days, resulted in significant neuroprotection. The reduction in ipsilateral hemisphere weight deficit and in the size of infarct area was observed 14days after H-I. A reduction in apoptosis and ROS level was also observed. Combining memantine with HBO or HH resulted in a loss of neuroprotection. Our results show that, combining HBO or HH postconditioning with memantine produce no additive increase in the neuroprotective effect. On the contrary, combining the treatments resulted in lower neuroprotection in comparison to the effects of memantine, HBO or HH alone. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  11. Neuroprotective Effects and Mechanisms of Curcumin–Cu(II and –Zn(II Complexes Systems and Their Pharmacological Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fa-Shun Yan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the main form of dementia and has a steadily increasing prevalence. As both oxidative stress and metal homeostasis are involved in the pathogenesis of AD, it would be interesting to develop a dual function agent, targeting the two factors. Curcumin, a natural compound isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, is an antioxidant and can also chelate metal ions. Whether the complexes of curcumin with metal ions possess neuroprotective effects has not been evaluated. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of the complexes of curcumin with Cu(II or Zn(II on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced injury and the underlying molecular mechanisms. The use of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12 cells, a widely used neuronal cell model system, was adopted. It was revealed that curcumin–Cu(II complexes systems possessed enhanced O2·–-scavenging activities compared to unchelated curcumin. In comparison with unchelated curcumin, the protective effects of curcumin–Cu(II complexes systems were stronger than curcumin–Zn(II system. Curcumin–Cu(II or –Zn(II complexes systems significantly enhanced the superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities and attenuated the increase of malondialdehyde levels and caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities, in a dose-dependent manner. The curcumin–Cu(II complex system with a 2:1 ratio exhibited the most significant effect. Further mechanistic study demonstrated that curcumin–Cu(II or –Zn(II complexes systems inhibited cell apoptosis via downregulating the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB pathway and upregulating Bcl-2/Bax pathway. In summary, the present study found that curcumin–Cu(II or –Zn(II complexes systems, especially the former, possess significant neuroprotective effects, which indicates the potential advantage of curcumin as a promising agent against AD and deserves further study.

  12. The neuropharmacology of L-theanine(N-ethyl-L-glutamine): a possible neuroprotective and cognitive enhancing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Pradeep J; Lu, Kristy; Gray, M; Oliver, C

    2006-01-01

    L-theanine (N-ethyl-L-glutamine) or theanine is a major amino acid uniquely found in green tea. L-theanine has been historically reported as a relaxing agent, prompting scientific research on its pharmacology. Animal neurochemistry studies suggest that L-theanine increases brain serotonin, dopamine, GABA levels and has micromolar affinities for AMPA, Kainate and NMDA receptors. In addition has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in animal models possibly through its antagonistic effects on group 1 metabotrophic glutamate receptors. Behavioural studies in animals suggest improvement in learning and memory. Overall, L-theanine displays a neuropharmacology suggestive of a possible neuroprotective and cognitive enhancing agent and warrants further investigation in animals and humans.

  13. Neuroprotective actions of the synthetic estrogen 17alpha-ethynylestradiol in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picazo, Ofir; Becerril-Montes, Adriana; Huidobro-Perez, Delia; Garcia-Segura, Luis M

    2010-07-01

    17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2), a major constituent of many oral contraceptives, is similar in structure to 17beta-estradiol, which has neuroprotective properties in several animal models. This study explored the potential neuroprotective actions of EE2 against kainic and quinolinic acid toxicity in the hippocampus of adult ovariectomized Wistar rats. A decrease in the number of Nissl-stained neurons and the induction of vimentin immunoreactivity in astrocytes was observed in the hilus of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus after the administration of either kainic acid or quinolinic acid. EE2 prevented the neuronal loss and the induction of vimentin immunoreactivity induced by kainic acid at low (1 microg/rat) and high (10-100 microg/rat) doses and exerted a protection against quinolinic acid toxicity at a low dose (1 microg/rat) only. These observations demonstrate that EE2 exerts neuroprotective actions against excitotoxic insults. This finding is relevant for the design of new neuroprotective estrogenic compounds.

  14. Stem Cell-Based Neuroprotective and Neurorestorative Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Wei Hung

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells, a special subset of cells derived from embryo or adult tissues, are known to present the characteristics of self-renewal, multiple lineages of differentiation, high plastic capability, and long-term maintenance. Recent reports have further suggested that neural stem cells (NSCs derived from the adult hippocampal and subventricular regions possess the utilizing potential to develop the transplantation strategies and to screen the candidate agents for neurogenesis, neuroprotection, and neuroplasticity in neurodegenerative diseases. In this article, we review the roles of NSCs and other stem cells in neuroprotective and neurorestorative therapies for neurological and psychiatric diseases. We show the evidences that NSCs play the key roles involved in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders, including depression, stroke and Parkinson’s disease. Moreover, the potential and possible utilities of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS, reprogramming from adult fibroblasts with ectopic expression of four embryonic genes, are also reviewed and further discussed. An understanding of the biophysiology of stem cells could help us elucidate the pathogenicity and develop new treatments for neurodegenerative disorders. In contrast to cell transplantation therapies, the application of stem cells can further provide a platform for drug discovery and small molecular testing, including Chinese herbal medicines. In addition, the high-throughput stem cell-based systems can be used to elucidate the mechanisms of neuroprotective candidates in translation medical research for neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. The neuroprotective action of pyrroloquinoline quinone against glutamate-induced apoptosis in hippocampal neurons is mediated through the activation of PI3K/Akt pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qi; Shen Mi; Ding Mei; Shen Dingding; Ding Fei

    2011-01-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), a cofactor in several enzyme-catalyzed redox reactions, possesses a potential capability of scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibiting cell apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the effects of PQQ on glutamate-induced cell death in primary cultured hippocampal neurons and the possible underlying mechanisms. We found that glutamate-induced apoptosis in cultured hippocampal neurons was significantly attenuated by the ensuing PQQ treatment, which also inhibited the glutamate-induced increase in Ca2+ influx, caspase-3 activity, and ROS production, and reversed the glutamate-induced decrease in Bcl-2/Bax ratio. The examination of signaling pathways revealed that PQQ treatment activated the phosphorylation of Akt and suppressed the glutamate-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK). And inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt cascade by LY294002 and wortmannin significantly blocked the protective effects of PQQ, and alleviated the increase in Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Taken together, our results indicated that PQQ could protect primary cultured hippocampal neurons against glutamate-induced cell damage by scavenging ROS, reducing Ca2+ influx, and caspase-3 activity, and suggested that PQQ-activated PI3K/Akt signaling might be responsible for its neuroprotective action through modulation of glutamate-induced imbalance between Bcl-2 and Bax. - Research Highlights: →PQQ attenuated glutamate-induced cell apoptosis of cultured hippocampal neurons. →PQQ inhibited glutamate-induced Ca 2+ influx and caspase-3 activity. →PQQ reduced glutamate-induced increase in ROS production. →PQQ affected phosphorylation of Akt and JNK signalings after glutamate injury. →PI3K/Akt was required for neuroprotection of PQQ by modulating Bcl-2/Bax ratio.

  16. Neuro-protective effect of rutin against Cisplatin-induced neurotoxic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Mashal M; Alanazi, Wael A; Alshammari, Musaad A; Alotaibi, Moureq Rashed; Alhoshani, Ali R; Al-Rejaie, Salim Salah; Hafez, Mohamed M; Al-Shabanah, Othman A

    2017-09-29

    Cisplatin is widely used chemotherapeutic agent for cancer treatment with limited uses due to its neurotoxic side effect. The aim of this study was to determine the potential preventive effects of rutin on the brain of cisplatin- neurotoxic rat model. Forty rats were divided into four groups. Group-1 (control group) was intra-peritoneal (IP) injected with 2.5 ml/kg saline. Group-2 (rutin group) was orally administrated 30 mg/kg rutin dissolved in water for 14 days. Group-3 (cisplatin group) was IP received 5 mg/kg cisplatin single dose. Group-4 (rutin and cisplatin group) was orally administrated 30 mg/kg rutin dissolved in water for 14 days with a single dose of 5 mg/kg cisplatin IP on day ten. Brain tissues from frontal cortex was used to extract RNA, the gene expression levels of paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), PON-2, PON-3, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPAR-δ), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was investigated by Real-time PCR. Cisplatin significantly decreased the expression levels of PON-1, PON-3, PPAR-δ and GPX whereas significantly increased PON-2 expression levels. Co-administration of Rutin prevented the cisplatin-induced toxicity by restoring the alteration in the studied genes to normal values as in the control group. This study showed that Rutin has neuroprotective effect and reduces cisplatin- neurotoxicity with possible mechanism via the antioxidant pathway.

  17. Melatoninergic System in Parkinson’s Disease: From Neuroprotection to the Management of Motor and Nonmotor Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiel Mileno Mack

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin is synthesized by several tissues besides the pineal gland, and beyond its regulatory effects in light-dark cycle, melatonin is a hormone with neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. Melatonin acts as a free-radical scavenger, reducing reactive species and improving mitochondrial homeostasis. Melatonin also regulates the expression of neurotrophins that are involved in the survival of dopaminergic neurons and reduces α-synuclein aggregation, thus protecting the dopaminergic system against damage. The unbalance of pineal melatonin synthesis can predispose the organism to inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease (PD. The aim of this review is to summarize the knowledge about the potential role of the melatoninergic system in the pathogenesis and treatment of PD. The literature reviewed here indicates that PD is associated with impaired brain expression of melatonin and its receptors MT1 and MT2. Exogenous melatonin treatment presented an outstanding neuroprotective effect in animal models of PD induced by different toxins, such as 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP, rotenone, paraquat, and maneb. Despite the neuroprotective effects and the improvement of motor impairments, melatonin also presents the potential to improve nonmotor symptoms commonly experienced by PD patients such as sleep and anxiety disorders, depression, and memory dysfunction.

  18. Retinal Astrocytes and GABAergic Wide-Field Amacrine Cells Express PDGFRα: Connection to Retinal Ganglion Cell Neuroprotection by PDGF-AA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahama, Shokichi; Adetunji, Modupe O; Zhao, Tantai; Chen, Shan; Li, Wei; Tomarev, Stanislav I

    2017-09-01

    Our previous experiments demonstrated that intravitreal injection of platelet-derived growth factor-AA (PDGF-AA) provides retinal ganglion cell (RGC) neuroprotection in a rodent model of glaucoma. Here we used PDGFRα-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) mice to identify retinal cells that may be essential for RGC protection by PDGF-AA. PDGFRα-EGFP mice expressing nuclear-targeted EGFP under the control of the PDGFRα promoter were used. Localization of PDGFRα in the neural retina was investigated by confocal imaging of EGFP fluorescence and immunofluorescent labeling with a panel of antibodies recognizing different retinal cell types. Primary cultures of mouse RGCs were produced by immunopanning. Neurobiotin injection of amacrine cells in a flat-mounted retina was used for the identification of EGFP-positive amacrine cells in the inner nuclear layer. In the mouse neural retina, PDGFRα was preferentially localized in the ganglion cell and inner nuclear layers. Immunostaining of the retina demonstrated that astrocytes in the ganglion cell layer and a subpopulation of amacrine cells in the inner nuclear layer express PDGFRα, whereas RGCs (in vivo or in vitro) did not. PDGFRα-positive amacrine cells are likely to be Type 45 gamma-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) wide-field amacrine cells. These data indicate that the neuroprotective effect of PDGF-AA in a rodent model of glaucoma could be mediated by astrocytes and/or a subpopulation of amacrine cells. We suggest that after intravitreal injection of PDGF-AA, these cells secrete factors protecting RGCs.

  19. Neuritogenic and neuroprotective properties of peptide agonists of the fibroblast growth factor receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shizhong; Bock, Elisabeth Marianne; Berezin, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    of protein structure, in silico modeling and biological studies have recently resulted in the identification of FGFR binding peptides derived from various FGFs and NCAM mimicking the effects of these molecules with regard to their neuritogenic and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on recently...

  20. A Wnt1 regulated Frizzled-1/β-Catenin signaling pathway as a candidate regulatory circuit controlling mesencephalic dopaminergic neuron-astrocyte crosstalk: Therapeutical relevance for neuron survival and neuroprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pluchino Stefano

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dopamine-synthesizing (dopaminergic, DA neurons in the ventral midbrain (VM constitute a pivotal neuronal population controlling motor behaviors, cognitive and affective brain functions, which generation critically relies on the activation of Wingless-type MMTV integration site (Wnt/β-catenin pathway in their progenitors. In Parkinson's disease, DA cell bodies within the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc progressively degenerate, with causes and mechanisms poorly understood. Emerging evidence suggests that Wnt signaling via Frizzled (Fzd receptors may play a role in different degenerative states, but little is known about Wnt signaling in the adult midbrain. Using in vitro and in vivo model systems of DA degeneration, along with functional studies in both intact and SN lesioned mice, we herein highlight an intrinsic Wnt1/Fzd-1/β-catenin tone critically contributing to the survival and protection of adult midbrain DA neurons. Results In vitro experiments identifie Fzd-1 receptor expression at a mRNA and protein levels in dopamine transporter (DAT expressing neurons, and demonstrate the ability of exogenous Wnt1 to exert robust neuroprotective effects against Caspase-3 activation, the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH+ neurons and [3H] dopamine uptake induced by different DA-specific insults, including serum and growth factor deprivation, 6-hydroxydopamine and MPTP/MPP+. Co-culture of DA neurons with midbrain astrocytes phenocopies Wnt1 neuroprotective effects, whereas RNA interference-mediated knockdown of Wnt1 in midbrain astrocytes markedly reduces astrocyte-induced TH+ neuroprotection. Likewise, silencing β-catenin mRNA or knocking down Fzd-1 receptor expression in mesencephalic neurons counteract astrocyte-induced TH+ neuroprotection. In vivo experiments document Fzd-1 co-localization with TH+ neurons within the intact SNpc and blockade of Fzd/β-catenin signaling by unilateral infusion of a Fzd

  1. Steroid Transport, Local Synthesis, and Signaling within the Brain: Roles in Neurogenesis, Neuroprotection, and Sexual Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Diotel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sex steroid hormones are synthesized from cholesterol and exert pleiotropic effects notably in the central nervous system. Pioneering studies from Baulieu and colleagues have suggested that steroids are also locally-synthesized in the brain. Such steroids, called neurosteroids, can rapidly modulate neuronal excitability and functions, brain plasticity, an