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Sample records for mediate excitatory transmission

  1. Pain-related increase of excitatory transmission and decrease of inhibitory transmission in the central nucleus of the amygdala are mediated by mGluR1

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    Neugebauer Volker

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neuroplasticity in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA, particularly its latero-capsular division (CeLC, is an important contributor to the emotional-affective aspects of pain. Previous studies showed synaptic plasticity of excitatory transmission to the CeLC in different pain models, but pain-related changes of inhibitory transmission remain to be determined. The CeLC receives convergent excitatory inputs from the parabrachial nucleus in the brainstem and from the basolateral amygdala (BLA. In addition, feedforward inhibition of CeA neurons is driven by glutamatergic projections from the BLA area to a cluster of GABAergic neurons in the intercalated cell masses (ITC. Using patch-clamp in rat brain slices we measured monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs and polysynaptic inhibitory currents (IPSCs that were evoked by electrical stimulation in the BLA. In brain slices from arthritic rats, input-output functions of excitatory synaptic transmission were enhanced whereas inhibitory synaptic transmission was decreased compared to control slices from normal untreated rats. A non-NMDA receptor antagonist (NBQX blocked the EPSCs and reduced the IPSCs, suggesting that non-NMDA receptors mediate excitatory transmission and also contribute to glutamate-driven feed-forward inhibition of CeLC neurons. IPSCs were blocked by a GABAA receptor antagonist (bicuculline. Bicuculline increased EPSCs under normal conditions but not in slices from arthritic rats, which indicates a loss of GABAergic control of excitatory transmission. A metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 (mGluR1 antagonist (LY367385 reversed both the increase of excitatory transmission and the decrease of inhibitory transmission in the arthritis pain model but had no effect on basal synaptic transmission in control slices from normal rats. The inhibitory effect of LY367385 on excitatory transmission was blocked by bicuculline suggesting the involvement of a GABAergic

  2. Dynamic inhibition of excitatory synaptic transmission by astrocyte-derived ATP in hippocampal cultures

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    Koizumi, Schuichi; Fujishita, Kayoko; Tsuda, Makoto; Shigemoto-Mogami, Yukari; Inoue, Kazuhide

    2003-09-01

    Originally ascribed passive roles in the CNS, astrocytes are now known to have an active role in the regulation of synaptic transmission. Neuronal activity can evoke Ca2+ transients in astrocytes, and Ca2+ transients in astrocytes can evoke changes in neuronal activity. The excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate has been shown to mediate such bidirectional communication between astrocytes and neurons. We demonstrate here that ATP, a primary mediator of intercellular Ca2+ signaling among astrocytes, also mediates intercellular signaling between astrocytes and neurons in hippocampal cultures. Mechanical stimulation of astrocytes evoked Ca2+ waves mediated by the release of ATP and the activation of P2 receptors. Mechanically evoked Ca2+ waves led to decreased excitatory glutamatergic synaptic transmission in an ATP-dependent manner. Exogenous application of ATP does not affect postsynaptic glutamatergic responses but decreased presynaptic exocytotic events. Finally, we show that astrocytes exhibit spontaneous Ca2+ waves mediated by extracellular ATP and that inhibition of these Ca2+ responses enhanced excitatory glutamatergic transmission. We therefore conclude that ATP released from astrocytes exerts tonic and activity-dependent down-regulation of synaptic transmission via presynaptic mechanisms.

  3. Transmission to interneurons is via slow excitatory synaptic potentials mediated by P2Y(1 receptors during descending inhibition in guinea-pig ileum.

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    Peter D J Thornton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The nature of synaptic transmission at functionally distinct synapses in intestinal reflex pathways has not been fully identified. In this study, we investigated whether transmission between interneurons in the descending inhibitory pathway is mediated by a purine acting at P2Y receptors to produce slow excitatory synaptic potentials (EPSPs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Myenteric neurons from guinea-pig ileum in vitro were impaled with intracellular microelectrodes. Responses to distension 15 mm oral to the recording site, in a separately perfused stimulation chamber and to electrical stimulation of local nerve trunks were recorded. A subset of neurons, previously identified as nitric oxide synthase immunoreactive descending interneurons, responded to both stimuli with slow EPSPs that were reversibly abolished by a high concentration of PPADS (30 μM, P2 receptor antagonist. When added to the central chamber of a three chambered organ bath, PPADS concentration-dependently depressed transmission through that chamber of descending inhibitory reflexes, measured as inhibitory junction potentials in the circular muscle of the anal chamber. Reflexes evoked by distension in the central chamber were unaffected. A similar depression of transmission was seen when the specific P2Y(1 receptor antagonist MRS 2179 (10 μM was in the central chamber. Blocking either nicotinic receptors (hexamethonium 200 μM or 5-HT(3 receptors (granisetron 1 μM together with P2 receptors had no greater effect than blocking P2 receptors alone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Slow EPSPs mediated by P2Y(1 receptors, play a primary role in transmission between descending interneurons of the inhibitory reflexes in the guinea-pig ileum. This is the first demonstration for a primary role of excitatory metabotropic receptors in physiological transmission at a functionally identified synapse.

  4. Maturation- and sex-sensitive depression of hippocampal excitatory transmission in a rat schizophrenia model.

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    Patrich, Eti; Piontkewitz, Yael; Peretz, Asher; Weiner, Ina; Attali, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with behavioral and brain structural abnormalities, of which the hippocampus appears to be one of the most consistent region affected. Previous studies performed on the poly I:C model of schizophrenia suggest that alterations in hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity take place in the offspring. However, these investigations yielded conflicting results and the neurophysiological alterations responsible for these deficits are still unclear. Here we performed for the first time a longitudinal study examining the impact of prenatal poly I:C treatment and of gender on hippocampal excitatory neurotransmission. In addition, we examined the potential preventive/curative effects of risperidone (RIS) treatment during the peri-adolescence period. Excitatory synaptic transmission was determined by stimulating Schaffer collaterals and monitoring fiber volley amplitude and slope of field-EPSP (fEPSP) in CA1 pyramidal neurons in male and female offspring hippocampal slices from postnatal days (PNDs) 18-20, 34, 70 and 90. Depression of hippocampal excitatory transmission appeared at juvenile age in male offspring of the poly I:C group, while it expressed with a delay in female, manifesting at adulthood. In addition, a reduced hippocampal size was found in both adult male and female offspring of poly I:C treated dams. Treatment with RIS at the peri-adolescence period fully restored in males but partly repaired in females these deficiencies. A maturation- and sex-dependent decrease in hippocampal excitatory transmission occurs in the offspring of poly I:C treated pregnant mothers. Pharmacological intervention with RIS during peri-adolescence can cure in a gender-sensitive fashion early occurring hippocampal synaptic deficits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Ketamine on Neuronal Spontaneous Excitatory Postsynaptic Currents and Miniature Excitatory Postsynaptic Currents in the Somatosensory Cortex of Rats

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    Chengdong Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ketamine is a commonly used intravenous anesthetic which produces dissociation anesthesia, analgesia, and amnesia. The mechanism of ketamine-induced synaptic inhibition in high-level cortical areas is still unknown. We aimed to elucidate the effects of different concentrations of ketamine on the glutamatergic synaptic transmission of the neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex by using the whole-cell patch-clamp method. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats (11–19 postnatal days, n=36 were used to obtain brain slices (300 μM. Spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (data from 40 neurons were recorded at a command potential of -70 mV in the presence of bicuculline (a competitive antagonist of GABAA receptors, 30 μM and strychnine (glycine receptor antagonist, 30 μM. Miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (data from 40 neurons were also recorded when 1 μM of tetrodotoxin was added into the artificial cerebrospinal fluid. We used GraphPad Prism5for statistical analysis. Significant differences in the mean amplitude and frequency were tested using the Student paired 2-tailed t test. Values of P<0.05 were considered significant. Results: Different concentrations of ketamine inhibited the frequency and amplitude of the spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents as well as the amplitude of the miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents in a concentration-dependent manner, but they exerted no significant effect on the frequency of the miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents. Conclusion: Ketamine inhibited the excitatory synaptic transmission of the neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex. The inhibition may have been mediated by a reduction in the sensitivity of the postsynaptic glutamatergic receptors.

  6. Neonatal Nicotine Exposure Increases Excitatory Synaptic Transmission and Attenuates Nicotine-stimulated GABA release in the Adult Rat Hippocampus

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    Damborsky, Joanne C.; Griffith, William H.; Winzer-Serhan, Ursula H.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental exposure to nicotine has been linked to long-lasting changes in synaptic transmission which may contribute to behavioral abnormalities seen in offspring of women who smoke during pregnancy. Here, we examined the long-lasting effects of developmental nicotine exposure on glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission, and on acute nicotine-induced glutamate and GABA release in the adult hippocampus, a structure important in cognitive and emotional behaviors. We utilized a chronic neonatal nicotine treatment model to administer nicotine (6 mg/kg/day) to rat pups from postnatal day (P) 1–7, a period that falls developmentally into the third human trimester. Using whole-cell voltage clamp recordings from CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices, we measured excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents in neonatally control- and nicotine-treated young adult males. Neonatal nicotine exposure significantly increased AMPA receptor-mediated spontaneous and evoked excitatory signaling, with no change in glutamate release probability in adults. Conversely, there was no increase in spontaneous GABAergic neurotransmission in nicotine-males. Chronic neonatal nicotine treatment had no effect on acute nicotine-stimulated glutamate release in adults, but acute nicotine-stimulated GABA release was significantly attenuated. Thus, neonatal nicotine exposure results in a persistent net increase in excitation and a concurrent loss of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-mediated regulation of presynaptic GABA but not glutamate release, which would exacerbate excitation following endogenous or exogenous nAChR activation. Our data underscore an important role for nAChRs in hippocampal excitatory synapse development, and suggest selective long-term changes at specific presynaptic nAChRs which together could explain some of the behavioral abnormalities associated with maternal smoking. PMID:24950455

  7. Vasopressin facilitates excitatory transmission in slices of the rat dorso-lateral septum.

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    Van den Hooff, P; Urban, I J

    1990-01-01

    The effect of vasopressin on neurons of the rat dorso-lateral septum (DLS) was studied in brain slices with intracellular microelectrodes. Two out of 13 neurons showed a small depolarization, spontaneous activity, and increased input resistances following a 15 min exposure to 10(-6) to 10(-8) M vasopressin (VP). These membrane effects disappeared completely within 3-5 min after the application. The remaining DLS neurons treated with these vasopressin concentrations showed an increase in glutamate-mediated excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs), evoked by stimulation of the fimbria fibers. As little as 10(-12) MVP increased these EPSPs markedly in nearly 80% of the cells studied. This increase in most of the cells disappeared within 15 min after the application period, whereas the increase in EPSPs induced by 10(-10) M VP outlasted the peptide application period for more than 30 min. Neither the blockade of GABA-ergic synaptic inhibition nor the pre-treatment of the neurons with d(CH2)5-Tyr(Me)-arginine vasopressin or 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (2-APV), antagonists for the V1 type of vasopressin receptor and NMDA receptors, respectively, interfered with the EPSPs potentiating effect of the peptide. It is concluded that a type of vasopressin receptor other then the V1 type is involved in the long-lasting potentiation of the primarily non-NMDA receptor mediated transmission in DLS neurons.

  8. Carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine, but not eslicarbazepine, enhance excitatory synaptic transmission onto hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells through an antagonist action at adenosine A1 receptors.

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    Booker, Sam A; Pires, Nuno; Cobb, Stuart; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício; Vida, Imre

    2015-06-01

    This study assessed the anticonvulsant and seizure generation effects of carbamazepine (CBZ), oxcarbazepine (OXC) and eslicarbazepine (S-Lic) in wild-type mice. Electrophysiological recordings were made to discriminate potential cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying anti- and pro-epileptic actions. The anticonvulsant and pro-convulsant effects were evaluated in the MES, the 6-Hz and the Irwin tests. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were used to investigate the effects on fast excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in hippocampal area CA1. The safety window for CBZ, OXC and eslicarbazepine (ED50 value against the MES test and the dose that produces grade 5 convulsions in all mice), was 6.3, 6.0 and 12.5, respectively. At high concentrations the three drugs reduced synaptic transmission. CBZ and OXC enhanced excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) at low, therapeutically-relevant concentrations. These effects were associated with no change in inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) resulting in altered balance between excitation and inhibition. S-Lic had no effect on EPSC or IPSC amplitudes over the same concentration range. The CBZ mediated enhancement of EPSCs was blocked by DPCPX, a selective antagonist, and occluded by CCPA, a selective agonist of the adenosine A1 receptor. Furthermore, reduction of endogenous adenosine by application of the enzyme adenosine deaminase also abolished the CBZ- and OXC-induced increase of EPSCs, indicating that the two drugs act as antagonists at native adenosine receptors. In conclusion, CBZ and OXC possess pro-epileptic actions at clinically-relevant concentrations through the enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission. S-Lic by comparison has no such effect on synaptic transmission, explaining its lack of seizure exacerbation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mechanism underlying unaltered cortical inhibitory synaptic transmission in contrast with enhanced excitatory transmission in CaV2.1 knockin migraine mice

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    Vecchia, Dania; Tottene, Angelita; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M.J.M.; Pietrobon, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1), a monogenic subtype of migraine with aura, is caused by gain-of-function mutations in CaV2.1 (P/Q-type) calcium channels. In FHM1 knockin mice, excitatory neurotransmission at cortical pyramidal cell synapses is enhanced, but inhibitory neurotransmission at connected pairs of fast-spiking (FS) interneurons and pyramidal cells is unaltered, despite being initiated by CaV2.1 channels. The mechanism underlying the unaltered GABA release at cortical FS interneuron synapses remains unknown. Here, we show that the FHM1 R192Q mutation does not affect inhibitory transmission at autapses of cortical FS and other types of multipolar interneurons in microculture from R192Q knockin mice, and investigate the underlying mechanism. Lowering the extracellular [Ca2+] did not reveal gain-of-function of evoked transmission neither in control nor after prolongation of the action potential (AP) with tetraethylammonium, indicating unaltered AP-evoked presynaptic calcium influx at inhibitory autapses in FHM1 KI mice. Neither saturation of the presynaptic calcium sensor nor short duration of the AP can explain the unaltered inhibitory transmission in the mutant mice. Recordings of the P/Q-type calcium current in multipolar interneurons in microculture revealed that the current density and the gating properties of the CaV2.1 channels expressed in these interneurons are barely affected by the FHM1 mutation, in contrast with the enhanced current density and left-shifted activation gating of mutant CaV2.1 channels in cortical pyramidal cells. Our findings suggest that expression of specific CaV2.1 channels differentially sensitive to modulation by FHM1 mutations in inhibitory and excitatory cortical neurons underlies the gain-of-function of excitatory but unaltered inhibitory synaptic transmission and the likely consequent dysregulation of the cortical excitatory–inhibitory balance in FHM1. PMID:24907493

  10. Amyloid precursor protein overexpression depresses excitatory transmission through both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms

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    Ting, Jonathan T.; Kelley, Brooke G.; Lambert, Talley J.; Cook, David G.; Sullivan, Jane M.

    2006-01-01

    Overexpression of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) in hippocampal neurons leads to elevated β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) production and consequent depression of excitatory transmission. The precise mechanisms underlying APP-induced synaptic depression are poorly understood. Uncovering these mechanisms could provide insight into how neuronal function is compromised before cell death during the early stages of Alzheimer's disease. Here we verify that APP up-regulation leads to depression of transm...

  11. APP Homodimers Transduce an Amyloid-β-Mediated Increase in Release Probability at Excitatory Synapses

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    Hilla Fogel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ, the proteolytic products of the amyloid precursor protein (APP, induces a variety of synaptic dysfunctions ranging from hyperactivity to depression that are thought to cause cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s disease. While depression of synaptic transmission has been extensively studied, the mechanisms underlying synaptic hyperactivity remain unknown. Here, we show that Aβ40 monomers and dimers augment release probability through local fine-tuning of APP-APP interactions at excitatory hippocampal boutons. Aβ40 binds to the APP, increases the APP homodimer fraction at the plasma membrane, and promotes APP-APP interactions. The APP activation induces structural rearrangements in the APP/Gi/o-protein complex, boosting presynaptic calcium flux and vesicle release. The APP growth-factor-like domain (GFLD mediates APP-APP conformational changes and presynaptic enhancement. Thus, the APP homodimer constitutes a presynaptic receptor that transduces signal from Aβ40 to glutamate release. Excessive APP activation may initiate a positive feedback loop, contributing to hippocampal hyperactivity in Alzheimer’s disease.

  12. Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Is a Regulator of Alcohol Consumption and Excitatory Synaptic Plasticity in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell

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    Regina A. Mangieri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK is a receptor tyrosine kinase recently implicated in biochemical, physiological, and behavioral responses to ethanol. Thus, manipulation of ALK signaling may represent a novel approach to treating alcohol use disorder (AUD. Ethanol induces adaptations in glutamatergic synapses onto nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh medium spiny neurons (MSNs, and putative targets for treating AUD may be validated for further development by assessing how their manipulation modulates accumbal glutamatergic synaptic transmission and plasticity. Here, we report that Alk knockout (AlkKO mice consumed greater doses of ethanol, relative to wild-type (AlkWT mice, in an operant self-administration model. Using ex vivo electrophysiology to examine excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity at NAcSh MSNs that express dopamine D1 receptors (D1MSNs, we found that the amplitude of spontaneous excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs in NAcSh D1MSNs was elevated in AlkKO mice and in the presence of an ALK inhibitor, TAE684. Furthermore, when ALK was absent or inhibited, glutamatergic synaptic plasticity – long-term depression of evoked EPSCs – in D1MSNs was attenuated. Thus, loss of ALK activity in mice is associated with elevated ethanol consumption and enhanced excitatory transmission in NAcSh D1MSNs. These findings add to the mounting evidence of a relationship between excitatory synaptic transmission onto NAcSh D1MSNs and ethanol consumption, point toward ALK as one important molecular mediator of this interaction, and further validate ALK as a target for therapeutic intervention in the treatment of AUD.

  13. Reversed synaptic effects of hypocretin and NPY mediated by excitatory GABA-dependent synaptic activity in developing MCH neurons.

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    Li, Ying; Xu, Youfen; van den Pol, Anthony N

    2013-03-01

    In mature neurons, GABA is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter. In contrast, in developing neurons, GABA exerts excitatory actions, and in some neurons GABA-mediated excitatory synaptic activity is more prevalent than glutamate-mediated excitation. Hypothalamic neuropeptides that modulate cognitive arousal and energy homeostasis, hypocretin/orexin and neuropeptide Y (NPY), evoked reversed effects on synaptic actions that were dependent on presynaptic GABA release onto melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons. MCH neurons were identified by selective green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression in transgenic mice. In adults, hypocretin increased GABA release leading to reduced excitation. In contrast, in the developing brain as studied here with analysis of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents, paired-pulse ratios, and evoked potentials, hypocretin acted presynaptically to enhance the excitatory actions of GABA. The ability of hypocretin to enhance GABA release increases inhibition in adult neurons but paradoxically enhances excitation in developing MCH neurons. In contrast, NPY attenuation of GABA release reduced inhibition in mature neurons but enhanced inhibition during development by attenuating GABA excitation. Both hypocretin and NPY also evoked direct actions on developing MCH neurons. Hypocretin excited MCH cells by activating a sodium-calcium exchanger and by reducing potassium currents; NPY reduced activity by increasing an inwardly rectifying potassium current. These data for the first time show that both hypocretin and NPY receptors are functional presynaptically during early postnatal hypothalamic development and that both neuropeptides modulate GABA actions during development with a valence of enhanced excitation or inhibition opposite to that of the adult state, potentially allowing neuropeptide modulation of use-dependent synapse stabilization.

  14. Experience-Dependent Equilibration of AMPAR-Mediated Synaptic Transmission during the Critical Period

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    Kyung-Seok Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience-dependent synapse refinement is essential for functional optimization of neural circuits. However, how sensory experience sculpts excitatory synaptic transmission is poorly understood. Here, we show that despite substantial remodeling of synaptic connectivity, AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission remains at equilibrium during the critical period in the mouse primary visual cortex. The maintenance of this equilibrium requires neurogranin (Ng, a postsynaptic calmodulin-binding protein important for synaptic plasticity. With normal visual experience, loss of Ng decreased AMPAR-positive synapse numbers, prevented AMPAR-silent synapse maturation, and increased spine elimination. Importantly, visual deprivation halted synapse loss caused by loss of Ng, revealing that Ng coordinates experience-dependent AMPAR-silent synapse conversion to AMPAR-active synapses and synapse elimination. Loss of Ng also led to sensitized long-term synaptic depression (LTD and impaired visually guided behavior. Our synaptic interrogation reveals that experience-dependent coordination of AMPAR-silent synapse conversion and synapse elimination hinges upon Ng-dependent mechanisms for constructive synaptic refinement during the critical period.

  15. Effect of calcium on excitatory neuromuscular transmission in the crayfish

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    Bracho, H.; Orkand, R. K.

    1970-01-01

    1. The effects of varying the external Ca concentration from 1·8 to 30 mM/l. (⅛-2 times normal) have been studied at the in vitro crayfish excitatory neuromuscular junction. Electrophysiological techniques were used to record transmembrane junctional potentials from muscle fibres and extracellular junctional currents from the vicinity of nerve terminals. 2. The excitatory junctional potential amplitude was proportional to [Ca]0n, where n varied between 0·68 and 0·94 (mean 0·82) when [Ca]0 was varied from 1·8 to 15 mM/l. 3. The increase in junctional potential amplitude on raising [Ca]0 resulted primarily from an increase in the average number of quanta of excitatory transmitter released from the presynaptic nerve terminal by the nerve impulse. 4. The size of the quanta, synaptic delay, presynaptic potential and electrical properties of the muscle membrane were little affected by changes in calcium concentration in the range studied. PMID:5498460

  16. Excitatory amino acid transporters: recent insights into molecular mechanisms, novel modes of modulation and new therapeutic possibilities

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    Jensen, Anders A.; Fahlke, Christoph; Bjørn-Yoshimoto, Walden Emil

    2015-01-01

    The five excitatory amino acid transporters (EAAT1–5) mediating the synaptic uptake of the major excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate are differently expressed throughout the CNS and at the synaptic level. Although EAATs are crucial for normal excitatory neurotransmission, explorations into the ......The five excitatory amino acid transporters (EAAT1–5) mediating the synaptic uptake of the major excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate are differently expressed throughout the CNS and at the synaptic level. Although EAATs are crucial for normal excitatory neurotransmission, explorations...

  17. Identification of Chloride Channels CLCN3 and CLCN5 Mediating the Excitatory Cl− Currents Activated by Sphingosine-1-Phosphate in Sensory Neurons

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    Qi, Yanmei; Mair, Norbert; Kummer, Kai K.; Leitner, Michael G.; Camprubí-Robles, María; Langeslag, Michiel; Kress, Michaela

    2018-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid involved in numerous physiological and pathophysiological processes. We have previously reported a S1P-induced nocifensive response in mice by excitation of sensory neurons via activation of an excitatory chloride current. The underlying molecular mechanism for the S1P-induced chloride conductance remains elusive. In the present study, we identified two CLCN voltage-gated chloride channels, CLCN3 and CLCN5, which mediated a S1P-induced excitatory Cl− current in sensory neurons by combining RNA-seq, adenovirus-based gene silencing and whole-cell electrophysiological voltage-clamp recordings. Downregulation of CLCN3 and CLCN5 channels by adenovirus-mediated delivery of shRNA dramatically reduced S1P-induced Cl− current and membrane depolarization in sensory neurons. The mechanism of S1P-induced activation of the chloride current involved Rho GTPase but not Rho-associated protein kinase. Although S1P-induced potentiation of TRPV1-mediated ionic currents also involved Rho-dependent process, the lack of correlation of the S1P-activated Cl− current and the potentiation of TRPV1 by S1P suggests that CLCN3 and CLCN5 are necessary components for S1P-induced excitatory Cl− currents but not for the amplification of TRPV1-mediated currents in sensory neurons. This study provides a novel mechanistic insight into the importance of bioactive sphingolipids in nociception. PMID:29479306

  18. Identification of Chloride Channels CLCN3 and CLCN5 Mediating the Excitatory Cl− Currents Activated by Sphingosine-1-Phosphate in Sensory Neurons

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    Yanmei Qi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P is a bioactive sphingolipid involved in numerous physiological and pathophysiological processes. We have previously reported a S1P-induced nocifensive response in mice by excitation of sensory neurons via activation of an excitatory chloride current. The underlying molecular mechanism for the S1P-induced chloride conductance remains elusive. In the present study, we identified two CLCN voltage-gated chloride channels, CLCN3 and CLCN5, which mediated a S1P-induced excitatory Cl− current in sensory neurons by combining RNA-seq, adenovirus-based gene silencing and whole-cell electrophysiological voltage-clamp recordings. Downregulation of CLCN3 and CLCN5 channels by adenovirus-mediated delivery of shRNA dramatically reduced S1P-induced Cl− current and membrane depolarization in sensory neurons. The mechanism of S1P-induced activation of the chloride current involved Rho GTPase but not Rho-associated protein kinase. Although S1P-induced potentiation of TRPV1-mediated ionic currents also involved Rho-dependent process, the lack of correlation of the S1P-activated Cl− current and the potentiation of TRPV1 by S1P suggests that CLCN3 and CLCN5 are necessary components for S1P-induced excitatory Cl− currents but not for the amplification of TRPV1-mediated currents in sensory neurons. This study provides a novel mechanistic insight into the importance of bioactive sphingolipids in nociception.

  19. Genetic targeting of NRXN2 in mice unveils role in excitatory cortical synapse function and social behaviors

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    Gesche eBorn

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Human genetics has identified rare copy number variations and deleterious mutations for all neurexin genes (NRXN1-3 in patients with neurodevelopmental diseases, and electrophysiological recordings in animal brains have shown that Nrxns are important for synaptic transmission. While several mouse models for Nrxn1α inactivation have previously been studied for behavioral changes, very little information is available for other variants. Here, we validate that mice lacking Nrxn2α exhibit behavioral abnormalities, characterized by social interaction deficits and increased anxiety-like behavior, which partially overlap, partially differ from Nrxn1α mutant behaviors. Using patch-clamp recordings in Nrxn2α knockout brains, we observe reduced spontaneous transmitter release at excitatory synapses in the neocortex. We also analyse at this cellular level a novel NRXN2 mouse model that carries a combined deletion of Nrxn2α and Nrxn2β. Electrophysiological analysis of this Nrxn2-mutant mouse shows surprisingly similar defects of excitatory release to Nrxn2α, indicating that the β-variant of Nrxn2 has no strong function in basic transmission at these synapses. Inhibitory transmission as well as synapse densities and ultrastructure remain unchanged in the neocortex of both models. Furthermore, at Nrxn2α and Nrxn2-mutant excitatory synapses we find an altered facilitation and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR function because NMDAR-dependent decay time and NMDAR-mediated responses are reduced. As Nrxn can indirectly be linked to NMDAR via neuroligin and PSD-95, the trans-synaptic nature of this complex may help to explain occurrence of presynaptic and postsynaptic effects. Since excitatory/inhibitory imbalances and impairment of NMDAR function are alledged to have a role in autism and schizophrenia, our results support the idea of a related pathomechanism in these disorders.

  20. Alterations of excitatory transmission in the lateral amygdala during expression and extinction of fear memory.

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    Lin, Hui-Ching; Mao, Sheng-Chun; Su, Chun-Lin; Gean, Po-Wu

    2010-04-01

    Understanding the neurophysiology of fear extinction has important implications for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorders. Here we report that fear conditioning resulted in an increase in AMPA/NMDA ratio as well as depression of paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) in neurons of the lateral nucleus of amygdala. These conditioning-induced changes in synaptic transmission were not affected by extinction training. D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial agonist at the glycine-binding site of the NMDA receptor, facilitated extinction and reversed the increase in AMPA/NMDA ratio without altering the depression of PPF when administered before extinction training. Extinction training, however, significantly increased the frequency and amplitude of miniature inhibitory post-synaptic currents and these effects were unaffected by the DCS treatment. Disruption of AMPA receptor endocytosis with a synthetic peptide containing a short C-terminal sequence of GluR2 (869YKEGYNVYG877, GluR23Y) specifically blocked DCS-induced reversal of AMPA/NMDA ratio and the facilitation of extinction. These results suggest that extinction training mainly increases inhibitory transmission leaving conditioning-induced excitatory association unaltered. DCS does not affect inhibitory transmission but reverses the conditioning-induced post-synaptic memory trace when administered before extinction training.

  1. Repeated Neck Restraint Stress Bidirectionally Modulates Excitatory Transmission in the Dentate Gyrus and Performance in a Hippocampus-dependent Memory Task.

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    Spyrka, Jadwiga; Hess, Grzegorz

    2018-05-21

    The consequences of stress depend on characteristics of the stressor, including the duration of exposure, severity, and predictability. Exposure of mice to repeated neck restraint has been shown to bidirectionally modulate the potential for long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dentate gyrus (DG) in a manner dependent on the number of restraint repetitions, but the influence of repeated brief neck restraint on electrophysiology of single DG neurons has not yet been investigated. Here, we aimed at finding the effects of 1, 3, 7, 14, or 21 daily neck restraint sessions lasting 10 min on electrophysiological characteristics of DG granule cells as well as excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs to these neurons. While the excitability of DG granule cells and inhibitory synaptic transmission were unchanged, neck restraint decreased the frequency of spontaneous excitatory currents after three repetitions but enhanced it after 14 and 21 repetitions. The consequences of repeated neck restraint on hippocampus-dependent memory were investigated using the object location test (OLT). Neck restraint stress impaired cognitive performance in the OLT after three repetitions but improved it after 14 and 21 repetitions. Mice subjected to three neck restraint sessions displayed an increase in the measures of depressive and anxiety-like behaviors, however, prolongation of the exposure to neck restraint resulted in a gradual decline in the intensity of these measures. These data indicate that stress imposed by an increasing number of repeated neck restraint episodes bidirectionally modulates both excitatory synaptic transmission in the DG and cognitive performance in the object location memory task. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhanced excitatory input to MCH neurons during developmental period of high food intake is mediated by GABA

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    Li, Ying; van den Pol, Anthony N.

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to the local axons of GABA neurons of the cortex and hippocampus, lateral hypothalamic neurons containing melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) and GABA send long axons throughout the brain and play key roles in energy homeostasis and mental status. In adults, MCH neurons maintain a hyperpolarized membrane potential and most of the synaptic input is inhibitory. In contrast, we found that developing MCH neurons received substantially more excitatory synaptic input. Based on gramicidicin-perforated patch recordings in hypothalamic slices from MCH-GFP transgenic mice, we found that GABA was the primary excitatory synaptic transmitter in embryonic and neonatal ages up to postnatal day 10. Surprisingly, glutamate assumed only a minor excitatory role, if any. GABA plays a complex role in developing MCH neurons, with its actions conditionally dependent on a number of factors. GABA depolarization could lead to an increase in spikes either independently or in summation with other depolarizing stimuli, or alternately, depending on the relative timing of other depolarizing events, could lead to shunting inhibition. The developmental shift from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing occurred later in the dendrites than in the cell body. Early GABA depolarization was based on a Cl− dependent inward current. An interesting secondary depolarization in mature neurons that followed an initial hyperpolarization was based on a bicarbonate mechanism. Thus during the early developmental period when food consumption is high, MCH neurons are more depolarized than in the adult, and an increased level of excitatory synaptic input to these orexigenic cells is mediated by GABA. PMID:19955372

  3. LRRTM3 Regulates Excitatory Synapse Development through Alternative Splicing and Neurexin Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Won Um

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The four members of the LRRTM family (LRRTM1-4 are postsynaptic adhesion molecules essential for excitatory synapse development. They have also been implicated in neuropsychiatric diseases. Here, we focus on LRRTM3, showing that two distinct LRRTM3 variants generated by alternative splicing regulate LRRTM3 interaction with PSD-95, but not its excitatory synapse-promoting activity. Overexpression of either LRRTM3 variant increased excitatory synapse density in dentate gyrus (DG granule neurons, whereas LRRTM3 knockdown decreased it. LRRTM3 also controlled activity-regulated AMPA receptor surface expression in an alternative splicing-dependent manner. Furthermore, Lrrtm3-knockout mice displayed specific alterations in excitatory synapse density, excitatory synaptic transmission and excitability in DG granule neurons but not in CA1 pyramidal neurons. Lastly, LRRTM3 required only specific splice variants of presynaptic neurexins for their synaptogenic activity. Collectively, our data highlight alternative splicing and differential presynaptic ligand utilization in the regulation of LRRTMs, revealing key regulatory mechanisms for excitatory synapse development.

  4. Excitatory amino acid transmitters in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, B S

    1991-01-01

    For the majority of human epilepsy syndromes, the molecular and cellular basis for the epileptic activity remains largely conjectural. The principal hypotheses currently concern: defects in membrane ionic conductances or transport mechanisms; defects in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibitory processes; and enhanced or abnormal excitatory synaptic action. Substantial evidence exists in humans and animals for acquired abnormalities in excitatory amino acid neurotransmission that may participate in the abnormal patterns of neuronal discharge, and this could provide the morphological basis for a recurrent excitatory pathway sustaining seizure discharges in temporal lobe epilepsy. In practice, two approaches appear significant in the suppression of seizures. One is to act postsynaptically on receptors to decrease the excitation induced by glutamate, and the other is to decrease synaptic release of glutamate and aspartate. Agents acting upon adenosine or GABAB receptors decrease glutamate release in vitro but do not have significant anticonvulsant activity, probably because of their predominant actions at other sites. Lamotrigine blocks stimulated release of glutamate and shows anticonvulsant activity in a wide range of animal models.

  5. Purines released from astrocytes inhibit excitatory synaptic transmission in the ventral horn of the spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Eva Maria Meier; Perrier, Jean-Francois Marie

    2014-01-01

    by different neuromodulators. These substances are usually thought of being released by dedicated neurons. However, in other networks from the central nervous system synaptic transmission is also modulated by transmitters released from astrocytes. The star-shaped glial cell responds to neurotransmitters....... Neurons responded to electrical stimulation by monosynaptic EPSCs (excitatory monosynaptic postsynaptic currents). We used mice expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein under the promoter of the glial fibrillary acidic protein to identify astrocytes. Chelating calcium with BAPTA in a single...... neighboring astrocyte increased the amplitude of synaptic currents. In contrast, when we selectively stimulated astrocytes by activating PAR-1 receptors with the peptide TFLLR, the amplitude of EPSCs evoked by a paired stimulation protocol was reduced. The paired-pulse ratio was increased, suggesting...

  6. Loss of mTOR repressors Tsc1 or Pten has divergent effects on excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in single hippocampal neuron cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Matthew C; Chen, Hongmei; Swann, John W

    2014-01-01

    The Pten and Tsc1 genes both encode proteins that repress mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. Disruption of either gene in the brain results in epilepsy and autism-like symptoms in humans and mouse models, therefore it is important to understand the molecular and physiological events that lead from gene disruption to disease phenotypes. Given the similar roles these two molecules play in the regulation of cellular growth and the overlap in the phenotypes that result from their loss, we predicted that the deletion of either the Pten or Tsc1 gene from autaptic hippocampal neurons would have similar effects on neuronal morphology and synaptic transmission. Accordingly, we found that loss of either Pten or Tsc1 caused comparable increases in soma size, dendrite length and action potential properties. However, the effects of Pten and Tsc1 loss on synaptic transmission were different. Loss of Pten lead to an increase in both excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission, while loss of Tsc1 did not affect excitatory neurotransmission and reduced inhibitory transmission by decreasing mIPSC amplitude. Although the loss of Pten or Tsc1 both increased downstream mTORC1 signaling, phosphorylation of Akt was increased in Pten-ko and decreased in Tsc1-ko neurons, potentially accounting for the different effects on synaptic transmission. Despite the different effects at the synaptic level, our data suggest that loss of Pten or Tsc1 may both lead to an increase in the ratio of excitation to inhibition at the network level, an effect that has been proposed to underlie both epilepsy and autism.

  7. Anatomical and pharmacological characterization of excitatory amino acid receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monaghan, D.T.

    1985-01-01

    The majority of the excitatory neurotransmission in the vertebrate Central Nervous System is thought to be mediated by acidic amino acid neurotransmitters. However, relatively little is known about the excitatory amino acid receptors and their distribution within the CNS. By analyzing radioligand binding to purified synaptic plasma membranes and to thin tissue sections processed for autoradiography, multiple distinct binding sites were found. These binding sites exhibited the pharmacological properties indicative of the excitatory amino acid receptors, which had been identified by electrophysiological techniques. Specifically, L-[ 3 H]-glutamate and D-[ 3 H]-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate appear to label N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, L-[ 3 H]-glutamate and [ 3 H]-kainic acid appear to label kainic acid receptors, and L-[ 3 H]-glutamate and [ 3 H]-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate appear to label quisqualate receptors. Together, these results confirm the three receptor scheme proposed for excitatory amino acid neurotransmission. These results also show that these transmitter-receptor systems are differentially distributed in the brain, and that the total distribution is consistent with that found by other markers for excitatory amino acid-using neurons

  8. Role of Ca+2 and other second messengers in excitatory amino acid receptor mediated neurodegeneration: clinical perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, A; Belhage, B; Frandsen, A

    1997-01-01

    Neurodegeneration associated with neurological disorders such as epilepsy, Huntington's Chorea, Alzheimer's disease, and olivoponto cerebellar atrophy or with energy failure such as ischemia, hypoxia, and hypoglycemia proceeds subsequent to overexposure of neurons to excitatory amino acids of which...... glutamate and aspartate may be quantitatively the most important. The toxic action of glutamate and aspartate is mediated through activation of glutamate receptors of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA subtypes. Antagonists for these receptors can act as neuroprotectants both in in vitro model...

  9. Enhanced excitatory input to melanin concentrating hormone neurons during developmental period of high food intake is mediated by GABA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; van den Pol, Anthony N

    2009-12-02

    In contrast to the local axons of GABA neurons of the cortex and hippocampus, lateral hypothalamic neurons containing melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) and GABA send long axons throughout the brain and play key roles in energy homeostasis and mental status. In adults, MCH neurons maintain a hyperpolarized membrane potential and most of the synaptic input is inhibitory. In contrast, we found that developing MCH neurons received substantially more excitatory synaptic input. Based on gramicidin-perforated patch recordings in hypothalamic slices from MCH-green fluorescent protein transgenic mice, we found that GABA was the primary excitatory synaptic transmitter in embryonic and neonatal ages up to postnatal day 10. Surprisingly, glutamate assumed only a minor excitatory role, if any. GABA plays a complex role in developing MCH neurons, with its actions conditionally dependent on a number of factors. GABA depolarization could lead to an increase in spikes either independently or in summation with other depolarizing stimuli, or alternately, depending on the relative timing of other depolarizing events, could lead to shunting inhibition. The developmental shift from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing occurred later in the dendrites than in the cell body. Early GABA depolarization was based on a Cl(-)-dependent inward current. An interesting secondary depolarization in mature neurons that followed an initial hyperpolarization was based on a bicarbonate mechanism. Thus during the early developmental period when food consumption is high, MCH neurons are more depolarized than in the adult, and an increased level of excitatory synaptic input to these orexigenic cells is mediated by GABA.

  10. Loss of MeCP2 From Forebrain Excitatory Neurons Leads to Cortical Hyperexcitation and Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Peterson, Matthew; Beyer, Barbara; Frankel, Wayne N.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations of MECP2 cause Rett syndrome (RTT), a neurodevelopmental disorder leading to loss of motor and cognitive functions, impaired social interactions, and seizure at young ages. Defects of neuronal circuit development and function are thought to be responsible for the symptoms of RTT. The majority of RTT patients show recurrent seizures, indicating that neuronal hyperexcitation is a common feature of RTT. However, mechanisms underlying hyperexcitation in RTT are poorly understood. Here we show that deletion of Mecp2 from cortical excitatory neurons but not forebrain inhibitory neurons in the mouse leads to spontaneous seizures. Selective deletion of Mecp2 from excitatory but not inhibitory neurons in the forebrain reduces GABAergic transmission in layer 5 pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal and somatosensory cortices. Loss of MeCP2 from cortical excitatory neurons reduces the number of GABAergic synapses in the cortex, and enhances the excitability of layer 5 pyramidal neurons. Using single-cell deletion of Mecp2 in layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons, we show that GABAergic transmission is reduced in neurons without MeCP2, but is normal in neighboring neurons with MeCP2. Together, these results suggest that MeCP2 in cortical excitatory neurons plays a critical role in the regulation of GABAergic transmission and cortical excitability. PMID:24523563

  11. Streptozotocin Inhibits Electrophysiological Determinants of Excitatory and Inhibitory Synaptic Transmission in CA1 Pyramidal Neurons of Rat Hippocampal Slices: Reduction of These Effects by Edaravone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Ju

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Streptozotocin (STZ has served as an agent to generate an Alzheimer's disease (AD model in rats, while edaravone (EDA, a novel free radical scavenger, has recently emerged as an effective treatment for use in vivo and vitro AD models. However, to date, these beneficial effects of EDA have only been clearly demonstrated within STZ-induced animal models of AD and in cell models of AD. A better understanding of the mechanisms of EDA may provide the opportunity for their clinical application in the treatment of AD. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms of STZ and EDA as assessed upon electrophysiological alterations in CA1 pyramidal neurons of rat hippocampal slices. Methods: Through measures of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs, AMPAR-mediated eEPSCs (eEPSCsAMPA, evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (eIPSCs, evoked excitatory postsynaptic current paired pulse ratio (eEPSC PPR and evoked inhibitory postsynaptic current paired pulse ratio (eIPSC PPR, it was possible to investigate mechanisms as related to the neurotoxicity of STZ and reductions in these effects by EDA. Results: Our results showed that STZ (1000 µM significantly inhibited peak amplitudes of eEPSCs, eEPSCsAMPA and eIPSCs, while EDA (1000 µM attenuated these STZ-induced changes at holding potentials ranging from -60mV to +40 mV for EPSCs and -60mV to +20 mV for IPSCs. Our work also indicated that mean eEPSC PPR were substantially altered by STZ, effects which were partially restored by EDA. In contrast, no significant effects upon eIPSC PPR were obtained in response to STZ and EDA. Conclusion: Our data suggest that STZ inhibits glutamatergic transmission involving pre-synaptic mechanisms and AMPAR, and that STZ inhibits GABAergic transmission by post-synaptic mechanisms within CA1 pyramidal neurons. These effects are attenuated by EDA.

  12. Structure and function of the amygdaloid NPY system: NPY Y2 receptors regulate excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in the centromedial amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J; Verma, D; Lach, G; Bonaventure, P; Herzog, H; Sperk, G; Tasan, R O

    2016-09-01

    The amygdala is essential for generating emotional-affective behaviors. It consists of several nuclei with highly selective, elaborate functions. In particular, the central extended amygdala, consisting of the central amygdala (CEA) and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is an essential component actively controlling efferent connections to downstream effectors like hypothalamus and brain stem. Both, CEA and BNST contain high amounts of different neuropeptides that significantly contribute to synaptic transmission. Among these, neuropeptide Y (NPY) has emerged as an important anxiolytic and fear-reducing neuromodulator. Here, we characterized the expression, connectivity and electrophysiological function of NPY and Y2 receptors within the CEA. We identified several NPY-expressing neuronal populations, including somatostatin- and calretinin-expressing neurons. Furthermore, in the main intercalated nucleus, NPY is expressed primarily in dopamine D1 receptor-expressing neurons but also in interspersed somatostatin-expressing neurons. Interestingly, NPY neurons did not co-localize with the Y2 receptor. Retrograde tract tracing experiments revealed that NPY neurons reciprocally connect the CEA and BNST. Functionally, the Y2 receptor agonist PYY3-36, reduced both, inhibitory as well as excitatory synaptic transmission in the centromedial amygdala (CEm). However, we also provide evidence that lack of NPY or Y2 receptors results in increased GABA release specifically at inhibitory synapses in the CEm. Taken together, our findings suggest that NPY expressed by distinct populations of neurons can modulate afferent and efferent projections of the CEA via presynaptic Y2 receptors located at inhibitory and excitatory synapses.

  13. Miniature excitatory synaptic currents in cultured hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, D M; Fisher, R S; Jackson, M B

    1990-06-04

    We performed patch clamp recordings in the whole cell mode from cultured embryonic mouse hippocampal neurons. In bathing solutions containing tetrodotoxin (TTX), the cells showed spontaneous inward currents (SICs) ranging in size from 1 to 100 pA. Several observations indicated that the SICs were miniature excitatory synaptic currents mediated primarily by non-NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) excitatory amino acid receptors: the rising phase of SICs was fast (1 ms to half amplitude at room temperature) and smooth, suggesting unitary events. The SICs were blocked by the broad-spectrum glutamate receptor antagonist gamma-D-glutamylglycine (DGG), but not by the selective NMDA-receptor antagonist D-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (5-APV). SICs were also blocked by desensitizing concentrations of quisqualate. Incubating cells in tetanus toxin, which blocks exocytotic transmitter release, eliminated SICs. The presence of SICs was consistent with the morphological arrangement of glutamatergic innervation in the cell cultures demonstrated immunohistochemically. Spontaneous outward currents (SOCs) were blocked by bicuculline and presumed to be mediated by GABAA receptors. This is consistent with immunohistochemical demonstration of GABAergic synapses. SIC frequency was increased in a calcium dependent manner by bathing the cells in a solution high in K+, and application of the dihydropyridine L-type calcium channel agonist BAY K 8644 increased the frequency of SICs. Increases in SIC frequency produced by high K+ solutions were reversed by Cd2+ and omega-conotoxin GVIA, but not by the selective L-type channel antagonist nimodipine. This suggested that presynaptic L-type channels were in a gating mode that was not blocked by nimodipine, and/or that another class of calcium channel makes a dominant contribution to excitatory transmitter release.

  14. The role of gamma-aminobutyric acid/glycinergic synaptic transmission in mediating bilirubin-induced hyperexcitation in developing auditory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xin-Lu; Liang, Min; Shi, Hai-Bo; Wang, Lu-Yang; Li, Chun-Yan; Yin, Shan-Kai

    2016-01-05

    Hyperbilirubinemia is a common clinical phenomenon observed in human newborns. A high level of bilirubin can result in severe jaundice and bilirubin encephalopathy. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying bilirubin excitotoxicity are unclear. Our previous studies showed the action of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)/glycine switches from excitatory to inhibitory during development in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), one of the most sensitive auditory nuclei to bilirubin toxicity. In the present study, we investigated the roles of GABAA/glycine receptors in the induction of bilirubin hyperexcitation in early developing neurons. Using the patch clamp technique, GABAA/glycine receptor-mediated spontaneous inhibitory synaptic currents (sIPSCs) were recorded from bushy and stellate cells in acute brainstem slices from young mice (postnatal day 2-6). Bilirubin significantly increased the frequency of sIPSCs, and this effect was prevented by pretreatments of slices with either fast or slow Ca(2+) chelators BAPTA-AM and EGTA-AM suggesting that bilirubin can increase the release of GABA/glycine via Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms. Using cell-attached recording configuration, we found that antagonists of GABAA and glycine receptors strongly attenuated spontaneous spiking firings in P2-6 neurons but produced opposite effect in P15-19 neurons. Furthermore, these antagonists reversed bilirubin-evoked hyperexcitability in P2-6 neurons, indicating that excitatory action of GABA/glycinergic transmission specifically contribute to bilirubin-induced hyperexcitability in the early stage of development. Our results suggest that bilirubin-induced enhancement of presynaptic release GABA/Glycine via Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms may play a critical role in mediating neuronal hyperexcitation associated with jaundice, implicating potential new strategies for predicting, preventing, and treating bilirubin neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. GABAergic activities control spike timing- and frequency-dependent long-term depression at hippocampal excitatory synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Nishiyama

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available GABAergic interneuronal network activities in the hippocampus control a variety of neural functions, including learning and memory, by regulating θ and γ oscillations. How these GABAergic activities at pre- and post-synaptic sites of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells differentially contribute to synaptic function and plasticity during their repetitive pre- and post-synaptic spiking at θ and γ oscillations is largely unknown. We show here that activities mediated by postsynaptic GABAARs and presynaptic GABABRs determine, respectively, the spike timing- and frequency-dependence of activity-induced synaptic modifications at Schaffer collateral-CA1 excitatory synapses. We demonstrate that both feedforward and feedback GABAAR-mediated inhibition in the postsynaptic cell controls the spike timing-dependent long-term depression of excitatory inputs (“e-LTD” at the θ frequency. We also show that feedback postsynaptic inhibition specifically causes e-LTD of inputs that induce small postsynaptic currents (<70 pA with LTP timing, thus enforcing the requirement of cooperativity for induction of long-term potentiation at excitatory inputs (“e-LTP”. Furthermore, under spike-timing protocols that induce e-LTP and e-LTD at excitatory synapses, we observed parallel induction of LTP and LTD at inhibitory inputs (“i-LTP” and “i-LTD” to the same postsynaptic cells. Finally, we show that presynaptic GABABR-mediated inhibition plays a major role in the induction of frequency-dependent e-LTD at α and β frequencies. These observations demonstrate the critical influence of GABAergic interneuronal network activities in regulating the spike timing and frequency dependences of long-term synaptic modifications in the hippocampus.

  16. An N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor mediated large, low-frequency, spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current in neonatal rat spinal dorsal horn neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, L M; Zeng, J; Terman, G W

    2006-09-01

    excitatory postsynaptic current in modulating nociceptive transmission within the spinal cord is discussed.

  17. Defining the sizes of airborne particles that mediate influenza transmission in ferrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Wei, Jianjian; Choy, Ka-Tim; Sia, Sin Fun; Rowlands, Dewi K; Yu, Dan; Wu, Chung-Yi; Lindsley, William G; Cowling, Benjamin J; McDevitt, James; Peiris, Malik; Li, Yuguo; Yen, Hui-Ling

    2018-03-06

    Epidemics and pandemics of influenza are characterized by rapid global spread mediated by non-mutually exclusive transmission modes. The relative significance between contact, droplet, and airborne transmission is yet to be defined, a knowledge gap for implementing evidence-based infection control measures. We devised a transmission chamber that separates virus-laden particles by size and determined the particle sizes mediating transmission of influenza among ferrets through the air. Ferret-to-ferret transmission was mediated by airborne particles larger than 1.5 µm, consistent with the quantity and size of virus-laden particles released by the donors. Onward transmission by donors was most efficient before fever onset and may continue for 5 days after inoculation. Multiple virus gene segments enhanced the transmissibility of a swine influenza virus among ferrets by increasing the release of virus-laden particles into the air. We provide direct experimental evidence of influenza transmission via droplets and fine droplet nuclei, albeit at different efficiency. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  18. Effects of sarcosine and N, N-dimethylglycine on NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory field potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mei-Yi; Lin, Yi-Ruu; Tu, Yi-Shu; Tseng, Yufeng Jane; Chan, Ming-Huan; Chen, Hwei-Hsien

    2017-02-28

    Sarcosine, a glycine transporter type 1 inhibitor and an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor co-agonist at the glycine binding site, potentiates NMDA receptor function. Structurally similar to sarcosine, N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG) is also N-methyl glycine-derivative amino acid and commonly used as a dietary supplement. The present study compared the effects of sarcosine and DMG on NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory field potentials (EFPs) in mouse medial prefrontal cortex brain slices using a multi-electrode array system. Glycine, sarcosine and DMG alone did not alter the NMDA receptor-mediated EFPs, but in combination with glutamate, glycine and its N-methyl derivatives significantly increased the frequency and amplitude of EFPs. The enhancing effects of glycine analogs in combination with glutamate on EFPs were remarkably reduced by the glycine binding site antagonist 7-chlorokynurenate (7-CK). However, DMG, but not sarcosine, reduced the frequency and amplitude of EFPs elicited by co-application of glutamate plus glycine. D-cycloserine, a partial agonist at the glycine binding site on NMDA receptors, affected EFPs in a similar manner to DMG. Furthermore, DMG, but not sarcosine, reduced the frequencies and amplitudes of EFPs elicited by glutamate plus D-serine, another endogenous ligand for glycine binding site. These findings suggest that sarcosine acts as a full agonist, yet DMG is a partial agonist at glycine binding site of NMDA receptors. The molecular docking analysis indicated that the interactions of glycine, sarcosine, and DMG to NMDA receptors are highly similar, supporting that the glycine binding site of NMDA receptors is a critical target site for sarcosine and DMG.

  19. Spatial distribution of excitatory synapses on the dendrites of ganglion cells in the mouse retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Peng Chen

    Full Text Available Excitatory glutamatergic inputs from bipolar cells affect the physiological properties of ganglion cells in the mammalian retina. The spatial distribution of these excitatory synapses on the dendrites of retinal ganglion cells thus may shape their distinct functions. To visualize the spatial pattern of excitatory glutamatergic input into the ganglion cells in the mouse retina, particle-mediated gene transfer of plasmids expressing postsynaptic density 95-green fluorescent fusion protein (PSD95-GFP was used to label the excitatory synapses. Despite wide variation in the size and morphology of the retinal ganglion cells, the expression of PSD95 puncta was found to follow two general rules. Firstly, the PSD95 puncta are regularly spaced, at 1-2 µm intervals, along the dendrites, whereby the presence of an excitatory synapse creates an exclusion zone that rules out the presence of other glutamatergic synaptic inputs. Secondly, the spatial distribution of PSD95 puncta on the dendrites of diverse retinal ganglion cells are similar in that the number of excitatory synapses appears to be less on primary dendrites and to increase to a plateau on higher branch order dendrites. These observations suggest that synaptogenesis is spatially regulated along the dendritic segments and that the number of synaptic contacts is relatively constant beyond the primary dendrites. Interestingly, we also found that the linear puncta density is slightly higher in large cells than in small cells. This may suggest that retinal ganglion cells with a large dendritic field tend to show an increased connectivity of excitatory synapses that makes up for their reduced dendrite density. Mapping the spatial distribution pattern of the excitatory synapses on retinal ganglion cells thus provides explicit structural information that is essential for our understanding of how excitatory glutamatergic inputs shape neuronal responses.

  20. Excitatory and inhibitory synaptic mechanisms at the first stage of integration in the electroreception system of the shark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotem, Naama; Sestieri, Emanuel; Hounsgaard, Jørn Dybkjær

    2014-01-01

    High impulse rate in afferent nerves is a common feature in many sensory systems that serve to accommodate a wide dynamic range. However, the first stage of integration should be endowed with specific properties that enable efficient handling of the incoming information. In elasmobranches...... of this afferent pathway. We found that stimulating the afferent nerve activates a mixture of excitatory and inhibitory synapses mediated by AMPA-like and GABAA receptors, respectively. The excitatory synapses that are extremely efficient in activating the postsynaptic neurons display unusual voltage dependence......, enabling them to operate as a current source. The inhibitory input is powerful enough to completely eliminate the excitatory action of the afferent nerve but is ineffective regarding other excitatory inputs. These observations can be explained by the location and efficiency of the synapses. We conclude...

  1. Galantamine Prevents Long-Lasting Suppression of Excitatory Synaptic Transmission in CA1 Pyramidal Neurons of Soman-Challenged Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrova, E. A.; Alkondon, M.; Aracava, Y.; Pereira, E. F. R.; Albuquerque, E. X.

    2014-01-01

    Galantamine, a drug currently approved for treatment of Alzheimer's disease, has recently emerged as an effective pretreatment against the acute toxicity and delayed cognitive deficits induced by organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents, including soman. Since cognitive deficits can result from impaired glutamatergic transmission in the hippocampus, the present study was designed to test the hypothesis that hippocampal glutamatergic transmission declines following an acute exposure to soman and that this effect can be prevented by galantamine. To test this hypothesis, spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were recorded from CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices obtained at 1 h, 24 h, or 6-9 days after guinea pigs were injected with: (i) 1xLD50 soman (26.3 μg/kg, s.c.); (ii) galantamine (8 mg/kg, i.m.) followed 30 min later by 1xLD50 soman, (iii) galantamine (8 mg/kg, i.m.), or (iv) saline (0.5 ml/kg, i.m.). In soman-injected guinea pigs that were not pretreated with galantamine, the frequency of EPSCs was significantly lower than that recorded from saline-injected animals. There was no correlation between the severity of soman-induced acute toxicity and the magnitude of soman-induced reduction of EPSC frequency. Pretreatment with galantamine prevented the reduction of EPSC frequency observed at 6-9 days after the soman challenge. Prevention of soman-induced long-lasting reduction of hippocampal glutamatergic synaptic transmission may be an important determinant of the ability of galantamine to counter cognitive deficits that develop long after an acute exposure to the nerve agent. PMID:25064080

  2. Plasticity of cortical excitatory-inhibitory balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froemke, Robert C

    2015-07-08

    Synapses are highly plastic and are modified by changes in patterns of neural activity or sensory experience. Plasticity of cortical excitatory synapses is thought to be important for learning and memory, leading to alterations in sensory representations and cognitive maps. However, these changes must be coordinated across other synapses within local circuits to preserve neural coding schemes and the organization of excitatory and inhibitory inputs, i.e., excitatory-inhibitory balance. Recent studies indicate that inhibitory synapses are also plastic and are controlled directly by a large number of neuromodulators, particularly during episodes of learning. Many modulators transiently alter excitatory-inhibitory balance by decreasing inhibition, and thus disinhibition has emerged as a major mechanism by which neuromodulation might enable long-term synaptic modifications naturally. This review examines the relationships between neuromodulation and synaptic plasticity, focusing on the induction of long-term changes that collectively enhance cortical excitatory-inhibitory balance for improving perception and behavior.

  3. Location-dependent excitatory synaptic interactions in pyramidal neuron dendrites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardia F Behabadi

    Full Text Available Neocortical pyramidal neurons (PNs receive thousands of excitatory synaptic contacts on their basal dendrites. Some act as classical driver inputs while others are thought to modulate PN responses based on sensory or behavioral context, but the biophysical mechanisms that mediate classical-contextual interactions in these dendrites remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that if two excitatory pathways bias their synaptic projections towards proximal vs. distal ends of the basal branches, the very different local spike thresholds and attenuation factors for inputs near and far from the soma might provide the basis for a classical-contextual functional asymmetry. Supporting this possibility, we found both in compartmental models and electrophysiological recordings in brain slices that the responses of basal dendrites to spatially separated inputs are indeed strongly asymmetric. Distal excitation lowers the local spike threshold for more proximal inputs, while having little effect on peak responses at the soma. In contrast, proximal excitation lowers the threshold, but also substantially increases the gain of distally-driven responses. Our findings support the view that PN basal dendrites possess significant analog computing capabilities, and suggest that the diverse forms of nonlinear response modulation seen in the neocortex, including uni-modal, cross-modal, and attentional effects, could depend in part on pathway-specific biases in the spatial distribution of excitatory synaptic contacts onto PN basal dendritic arbors.

  4. Electric Dipole Theory of Chemical Synaptic Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ling Y.

    1968-01-01

    In this paper we propose that chemicals such as acetylcholine are electric dipoles which when oriented and arranged in a large array could produce an electric field strong enough to drive positive ions over the junction barrier of the post-synaptic membrane and thus initiate excitation or produce depolarization. This theory is able to explain a great number of facts such as cleft size, synaptic delay, nonregeneration, subthreshold integration, facilitation with repetition, and the calcium and magnesium effects. It also shows why and how acetylcholine could act as excitatory or inhibitory transmitters under different circumstances. Our conclusion is that the nature of synaptic transmission is essentially electrical, be it mediated by electrical or chemical transmitters. PMID:4296121

  5. Genetic controls balancing excitatory and inhibitory synaptogenesis in neurodevelopmental disorder models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl L Gatto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Proper brain function requires stringent balance of excitatory and inhibitory synapse formation during neural circuit assembly. Mutation of genes that normally sculpt and maintain this balance results in severe dysfunction, causing neurodevelopmental disorders including autism, epilepsy and Rett syndrome. Such mutations may result in defective architectural structuring of synaptic connections, molecular assembly of synapses and/or functional synaptogenesis. The affected genes often encode synaptic components directly, but also include regulators that secondarily mediate the synthesis or assembly of synaptic proteins. The prime example is Fragile X syndrome (FXS, the leading heritable cause of both intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders. FXS results from loss of mRNA-binding FMRP, which regulates synaptic transcript trafficking, stability and translation in activity-dependent synaptogenesis and plasticity mechanisms. Genetic models of FXS exhibit striking excitatory and inhibitory synapse imbalance, associated with impaired cognitive and social interaction behaviors. Downstream of translation control, a number of specific synaptic proteins regulate excitatory versus inhibitory synaptogenesis, independently or combinatorially, and loss of these proteins is also linked to disrupted neurodevelopment. The current effort is to define the cascade of events linking transcription, translation and the role of specific synaptic proteins in the maintenance of excitatory versus inhibitory synapses during neural circuit formation. This focus includes mechanisms that fine-tune excitation and inhibition during the refinement of functional synaptic circuits, and later modulate this balance throughout life. The use of powerful new genetic models has begun to shed light on the mechanistic bases of excitation/inhibition imbalance for a range of neurodevelopmental disease states.

  6. Electrophysical properties, synaptic transmission and neuromodulation in serotonergic caudal raphe neurons.

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    Li, Y W; Bayliss, D A

    1998-06-01

    1. We studied electrophysiological properties, synaptic transmission and modulation by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) of caudal raphe neurons using whole-cell recording in a neonatal rat brain slice preparation; recorded neurons were identified as serotonergic by post-hoc immunohistochemical detection of tryptophan hydroxylase, the 5-HT-synthesizing enzyme. 2. Serotonergic neurons fired spontaneously (approximately 1 Hz), with maximal steady state firing rates of < 4 Hz. 5-Hydroxytryptamine caused hyperpolarization and cessation of spike activity in these neurons by activating inwardly rectifying K+ conductance via somatodendritic 5-HT1A receptors. 3. Unitary glutamatergic excitatory post-synaptic potentials (EPSP) and currents (EPSC) were evoked in serotonergic neurons by local electrical stimulation. Evoked EPSC were potently inhibited by 5-HT, an effect mediated by presynaptic 5-HT1B receptors. 4. In conclusion, serotonergic caudal raphe neurons are spontaneously active in vitro; they receive prominent glutamatergic synaptic inputs. 5-Hydroxytryptamine regulates serotonergic neuronal activity of the caudal raphe by decreasing spontaneous activity via somatodendritic 5-HT1A receptors and by inhibiting excitatory synaptic transmission onto these neurons via presynaptic 5-HT1B receptors. These local modulatory mechanisms provide multiple levels of feedback autoregulation of serotonergic raphe neurons by 5-HT.

  7. Activation of Phosphatidylinositol-Linked Dopamine Receptors Induces a Facilitation of Glutamate-Mediated Synaptic Transmission in the Lateral Entorhinal Cortex.

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    Iulia Glovaci

    Full Text Available The lateral entorhinal cortex receives strong inputs from midbrain dopamine neurons that can modulate its sensory and mnemonic function. We have previously demonstrated that 1 µM dopamine facilitates synaptic transmission in layer II entorhinal cortex cells via activation of D1-like receptors, increased cAMP-PKA activity, and a resulting enhancement of AMPA-receptor mediated currents. The present study assessed the contribution of phosphatidylinositol (PI-linked D1 receptors to the dopaminergic facilitation of transmission in layer II of the rat entorhinal cortex, and the involvement of phospholipase C activity and release of calcium from internal stores. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of glutamate-mediated evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents were obtained from pyramidal and fan cells. Activation of D1-like receptors using SKF38393, SKF83959, or 1 µM dopamine induced a reversible facilitation of EPSCs which was abolished by loading cells with either the phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122 or the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA. Neither the L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine, nor the L/N-type channel blocker cilnidipine, blocked the facilitation of synaptic currents. However, the facilitation was blocked by blocking Ca2+ release from internal stores via inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3 receptors or ryanodine receptors. Follow-up studies demonstrated that inhibiting CaMKII activity with KN-93 failed to block the facilitation, but that application of the protein kinase C inhibitor PKC(19-36 completely blocked the dopamine-induced facilitation. Overall, in addition to our previous report indicating a role for the cAMP-PKA pathway in dopamine-induced facilitation of synaptic transmission, we demonstrate here that the dopaminergic facilitation of synaptic responses in layer II entorhinal neurons also relies on a signaling cascade dependent on PI-linked D1 receptors, PLC, release of Ca2+ from internal stores, and PKC activation which is

  8. Cerebellar Kainate Receptor-Mediated Facilitation of Glutamate Release Requires Ca2+-Calmodulin and PKA

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    Rafael Falcón-Moya

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We elucidated the mechanisms underlying the kainate receptor (KAR-mediated facilitatory modulation of synaptic transmission in the cerebellum. In cerebellar slices, KA (3 μM increased the amplitude of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs at synapses between axon terminals of parallel fibers (PF and Purkinje neurons. KA-mediated facilitation was antagonized by NBQX under condition where AMPA receptors were previously antagonized. Inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA suppressed the effect of KA on glutamate release, which was also obviated by the prior stimulation of adenylyl cyclase (AC. KAR-mediated facilitation of synaptic transmission was prevented by blocking Ca2+ permeant KARs using philanthotoxin. Furthermore, depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores by thapsigargin, or inhibition of Ca2+-induced Ca2+-release by ryanodine, abrogated the synaptic facilitation by KA. Thus, the KA-mediated modulation was conditional on extracellular Ca2+ entry through Ca2+-permeable KARs, as well as and mobilization of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Finally, KAR-mediated facilitation was sensitive to calmodulin inhibitors, W-7 and calmidazolium, indicating that the increased cytosolic [Ca2+] sustaining KAR-mediated facilitation of synaptic transmission operates through a downstream Ca2+/calmodulin coupling. We conclude that, at cerebellar parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses, presynaptic KARs mediate glutamate release facilitation, and thereby enhance synaptic transmission through Ca2+-calmodulin dependent activation of adenylyl cyclase/cAMP/protein kinase A signaling.

  9. Endogenous 24S-hydroxycholesterol modulates NMDAR-mediated function in hippocampal slices.

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    Sun, Min-Yu; Izumi, Yukitoshi; Benz, Ann; Zorumski, Charles F; Mennerick, Steven

    2016-03-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), a major subtype of glutamate receptors mediating excitatory transmission throughout the central nervous system (CNS), play critical roles in governing brain function and cognition. Because NMDAR dysfunction contributes to the etiology of neurological and psychiatric disorders including stroke and schizophrenia, NMDAR modulators are potential drug candidates. Our group recently demonstrated that the major brain cholesterol metabolite, 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-HC), positively modulates NMDARs when exogenously administered. Here, we studied whether endogenous 24S-HC regulates NMDAR activity in hippocampal slices. In CYP46A1(-/-) (knockout; KO) slices where endogenous 24S-HC is greatly reduced, NMDAR tone, measured as NMDAR-to-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) ratio, was reduced. This difference translated into more NMDAR-driven spiking in wild-type (WT) slices compared with KO slices. Application of SGE-301, a 24S-HC analog, had comparable potentiating effects on NMDAR EPSCs in both WT and KO slices, suggesting that endogenous 24S-HC does not saturate its NMDAR modulatory site in ex vivo slices. KO slices did not differ from WT slices in either spontaneous neurotransmission or in neuronal intrinsic excitability, and exhibited LTP indistinguishable from WT slices. However, KO slices exhibited higher resistance to persistent NMDAR-dependent depression of synaptic transmission induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), an effect restored by SGE-301. Together, our results suggest that loss of positive NMDAR tone does not elicit compensatory changes in excitability or transmission, but it protects transmission against NMDAR-mediated dysfunction. We expect that manipulating this endogenous NMDAR modulator may offer new treatment strategies for neuropsychiatric dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Inhibition of excitatory synaptic transmission in the trigeminal motor nucleus by the nitric oxide-cyclic GMP signaling pathway.

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    Pose, Inés; Silveira, Valentina; Morales, Francisco R

    2011-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic GMP (cGMP) suppressed glutamatergic synaptic transmission to trigeminal motoneurons in brain stem slices of neonatal rats. Histological studies showed guanylate cyclase (GC) containing fibers in the trigeminal motor pool. Glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were recorded from neonatal trigeminal motoneurons in response to stimulation of the supratrigeminal nucleus (SuV). The NO donors DETA/NONOate (DETA/NO), at a concentration which released 275.1 nM of NO, and Spermine/NONOate (Sper/NO) reduced the amplitude of the EPSC to 52.7±0.6% and 60.1±10.8% of control values, respectively. These actions were not blocked by the GC inhibitors, ODQ or NS-2028. However, in the presence of YC-1 or BAY41-2272, modulators of GC that act as NO sensitizers, lower and otherwise ineffective concentrations of DETA/NO induced a reduction of the EPSC to 60.6±5.2%. Moreover, NO effects were mimicked by 8BrcGMP and by Zaprinast, an inhibitor of Phosphodiesterase 5. Glutamatergic currents evoked by exogenous glutamate were not reduced by DETA/NO nor 8BrcGMP. Paired-pulse facilitation was increased by NO donors. Under "minimal stimulation" conditions NO donors and cGMP increased the failure rate of evoked EPSCs. Protein kinase inhibitors antagonized cGMP effects. The results suggest that NO, through the synthesis of cGMP, presynaptically inhibits glutamatergic synaptic transmission on trigeminal motoneurons. We propose that NO has complex actions on motor pools; specific studies are needed to elucidate their physiological significance in the behaving animal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhanced quantal release of excitatory transmitter in anterior cingulate cortex of adult mice with chronic pain

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    Zhao Ming-Gao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC is a forebrain structure that plays important roles in emotion, learning, memory and persistent pain. Our previous studies have demonstrated that the enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission was induced by peripheral inflammation and nerve injury in ACC synapses. However, little information is available on their presynaptic mechanisms, since the source of the enhanced synaptic transmission could include the enhanced probability of neurotransmitter release at existing release sites and/or increases in the number of available vesicles. The present study aims to perform quantal analysis of excitatory synapses in the ACC with chronic pain to examine the source of these increases. The quantal analysis revealed that both probability of transmitter release and number of available vesicles were increased in a mouse model of peripheral inflammation, whereas only probability of transmitter release but not number of available vesicles was enhanced in a mouse model of neuropathic pain. In addition, we compared the miniature excitatory postsynaptic potentials (mEPSCs in ACC synapses with those in other pain-related brain areas such as the amygdala and spinal cord. Interestingly, the rate and amplitude of mEPSCs in ACC synapses were significantly lower than those in the amygdala and spinal cord. Our studies provide strong evidences that chronic inflammatory pain increases both probability of transmitter release and number of available vesicles, whereas neuropathic pain increases only probability of transmitter release in the ACC synapses.

  12. Excitatory amino acid receptors and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, B S

    1992-08-01

    Recent advances in the molecular biology of excitatory amino acid receptors are reviewed. Evidence that drugs blocking the excitatory action of glutamate at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA receptors may be of clinical use in epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, cerebral ischaemia and trauma, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) encephalopathy and neuropathic pain is summarized.

  13. Attitudes mediate the intergenerational transmission of corporal punishment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Wang, Meifang; Xing, Xiaopei

    2018-02-01

    This research aimed to examine the intergenerational transmission of corporal punishment and the role of parents' attitudes toward corporal punishment in the transmission processes in Chinese societies. Based on social-cognitive theory, it was hypothesized that parents' attitudes toward corporal punishment would mediate the transmission of corporal punishment. Seven hundred and eighty-five fathers and eight hundred and eleven mothers with elementary school-age children (data collected in winter 2009) were recruited through convenience sampling techniques. The Chinese version of Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC) and Attitude toward Physical Punishment Scale (ATPP) were used as the main assessment tools to measure parents' corporal punishment experiences in childhood, current use of corporal punishment and attitudes toward corporal punishment. Findings revealed that the strength of intergenerational transmission of corporal punishment was strong and parents' attitudes toward corporal punishment played a mediating role in the continuity of corporal punishment for both fathers and mothers in China. The findings highlighted the role of attitudes in the intergenerational transmission of corporal punishment within the Chinese cultural context and also suggested the need for intervention programs to focus on modification of maladaptive attitudes toward what is appropriate and effective discipline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Intergenerational transmission of educational attainment: Three levels of parent-child communication as mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Liping

    2013-04-01

    Although the intergenerational transmission of educational attainment has been confirmed by many researchers, its mechanism still remains controversial. Parent-child communication has been regarded as one of the important mediators. The present study primarily aimed to examine the potentially mediating role of parent-child communication in the transmission of educational attainment, based on a sample of 366 Chinese fifth and sixth graders. Parent-child communication was measured against the three levels of the parents' communication ability, the quality of the father-child and mother-child communications, and the relation between the two dyadic communications. The results duplicated the positive effect of parents' educational attainment on children's academic achievement. Moreover, it was found that parents' communication ability alone played a mediating role, and that the three levels of parent-child communication constructed a "mediator chain" between the parents' educational attainment and the children's academic achievement. Finally, the intergenerational transmission of educational attainment in China and the mediating role of the three levels of parent-child communication were discussed. © 2012 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Modulation of NMDA Receptor Properties and Synaptic Transmission by the NR3A Subunit in Mouse Hippocampal and Cerebrocortical Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Gary; Takahashi, Hiroto; Tu, Shichun; Shin, Yeonsook; Talantova, Maria; Zago, Wagner; Xia, Peng; Nie, Zhiguo; Goetz, Thomas; Zhang, Dongxian; Lipton, Stuart A.; Nakanishi, Nobuki

    2015-01-01

    Expression of the NR3A subunit with NR1/NR2 in Xenopus oocytes or mammalian cell lines leads to a reduction in N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced currents and decreased Mg2+ sensitivity and Ca2+ permeability compared with NR1/NR2 receptors. Consistent with these findings, neurons from NR3A knockout (KO) mice exhibit enhanced NMDA-induced currents. Recombinant NR3A can also form excitatory glycine receptors with NR1 in the absence of NR2. However, the effects of NR3A on channel properties in neurons and synaptic transmission have not been fully elucidated. To study physiological roles of NR3A subunits, we generated NR3A transgenic (Tg) mice. Cultured NR3A Tg neurons exhibited two populations of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) channels, reduced Mg2+ sensitivity, and decreased Ca2+ permeability in response to NMDA/glycine, but glycine alone did not elicit excitatory currents. In addition, NMDAR-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in NR3A Tg hippocampal slices showed reduced Mg2+ sensitivity, consistent with the notion that NR3A subunits incorporated into synaptic NMDARs. To study the function of endogenous NR3A subunits, we compared NMDAR-mediated EPSCs in NR3A KO and WT control mice. In NR3A KO mice, the ratio of the amplitudes of the NMDAR-mediated component to α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isox-azolepropionic acid receptor-mediated component of the EPSC was significantly larger than that seen in WT littermates. This result suggests that NR3A subunits contributed to the NMDAR-mediated component of the EPSC in WT mice. Taken together, these results show that NR3A subunits contribute to NMDAR responses from both synaptic and extra-synaptic receptors, likely composed of NR1, NR2, and NR3 subunits. PMID:18003876

  16. Glucose rapidly induces different forms of excitatory synaptic plasticity in hypothalamic POMC neurons.

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    Jun Hu

    Full Text Available Hypothalamic POMC neurons are required for glucose and energy homeostasis. POMC neurons have a wide synaptic connection with neurons both within and outside the hypothalamus, and their activity is controlled by a balance between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. Brain glucose-sensing plays an essential role in the maintenance of normal body weight and metabolism; however, the effect of glucose on synaptic transmission in POMC neurons is largely unknown. Here we identified three types of POMC neurons (EPSC(+, EPSC(-, and EPSC(+/- based on their glucose-regulated spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs, using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Lowering extracellular glucose decreased the frequency of sEPSCs in EPSC(+ neurons, but increased it in EPSC(- neurons. Unlike EPSC(+ and EPSC(- neurons, EPSC(+/- neurons displayed a bi-phasic sEPSC response to glucoprivation. In the first phase of glucoprivation, both the frequency and the amplitude of sEPSCs decreased, whereas in the second phase, they increased progressively to the levels above the baseline values. Accordingly, lowering glucose exerted a bi-phasic effect on spontaneous action potentials in EPSC(+/- neurons. Glucoprivation decreased firing rates in the first phase, but increased them in the second phase. These data indicate that glucose induces distinct excitatory synaptic plasticity in different subpopulations of POMC neurons. This synaptic remodeling is likely to regulate the sensitivity of the melanocortin system to neuronal and hormonal signals.

  17. Glucose rapidly induces different forms of excitatory synaptic plasticity in hypothalamic POMC neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Jiang, Lin; Low, Malcolm J; Rui, Liangyou

    2014-01-01

    Hypothalamic POMC neurons are required for glucose and energy homeostasis. POMC neurons have a wide synaptic connection with neurons both within and outside the hypothalamus, and their activity is controlled by a balance between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. Brain glucose-sensing plays an essential role in the maintenance of normal body weight and metabolism; however, the effect of glucose on synaptic transmission in POMC neurons is largely unknown. Here we identified three types of POMC neurons (EPSC(+), EPSC(-), and EPSC(+/-)) based on their glucose-regulated spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs), using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Lowering extracellular glucose decreased the frequency of sEPSCs in EPSC(+) neurons, but increased it in EPSC(-) neurons. Unlike EPSC(+) and EPSC(-) neurons, EPSC(+/-) neurons displayed a bi-phasic sEPSC response to glucoprivation. In the first phase of glucoprivation, both the frequency and the amplitude of sEPSCs decreased, whereas in the second phase, they increased progressively to the levels above the baseline values. Accordingly, lowering glucose exerted a bi-phasic effect on spontaneous action potentials in EPSC(+/-) neurons. Glucoprivation decreased firing rates in the first phase, but increased them in the second phase. These data indicate that glucose induces distinct excitatory synaptic plasticity in different subpopulations of POMC neurons. This synaptic remodeling is likely to regulate the sensitivity of the melanocortin system to neuronal and hormonal signals.

  18. Population activity structure of excitatory and inhibitory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Sean R; Williamson, Ryan C; Snyder, Adam C; Litwin-Kumar, Ashok; Doiron, Brent; Chase, Steven M; Smith, Matthew A; Yu, Byron M

    2017-01-01

    Many studies use population analysis approaches, such as dimensionality reduction, to characterize the activity of large groups of neurons. To date, these methods have treated each neuron equally, without taking into account whether neurons are excitatory or inhibitory. We studied population activity structure as a function of neuron type by applying factor analysis to spontaneous activity from spiking networks with balanced excitation and inhibition. Throughout the study, we characterized population activity structure by measuring its dimensionality and the percentage of overall activity variance that is shared among neurons. First, by sampling only excitatory or only inhibitory neurons, we found that the activity structures of these two populations in balanced networks are measurably different. We also found that the population activity structure is dependent on the ratio of excitatory to inhibitory neurons sampled. Finally we classified neurons from extracellular recordings in the primary visual cortex of anesthetized macaques as putative excitatory or inhibitory using waveform classification, and found similarities with the neuron type-specific population activity structure of a balanced network with excitatory clustering. These results imply that knowledge of neuron type is important, and allows for stronger statistical tests, when interpreting population activity structure.

  19. Population activity structure of excitatory and inhibitory neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean R Bittner

    Full Text Available Many studies use population analysis approaches, such as dimensionality reduction, to characterize the activity of large groups of neurons. To date, these methods have treated each neuron equally, without taking into account whether neurons are excitatory or inhibitory. We studied population activity structure as a function of neuron type by applying factor analysis to spontaneous activity from spiking networks with balanced excitation and inhibition. Throughout the study, we characterized population activity structure by measuring its dimensionality and the percentage of overall activity variance that is shared among neurons. First, by sampling only excitatory or only inhibitory neurons, we found that the activity structures of these two populations in balanced networks are measurably different. We also found that the population activity structure is dependent on the ratio of excitatory to inhibitory neurons sampled. Finally we classified neurons from extracellular recordings in the primary visual cortex of anesthetized macaques as putative excitatory or inhibitory using waveform classification, and found similarities with the neuron type-specific population activity structure of a balanced network with excitatory clustering. These results imply that knowledge of neuron type is important, and allows for stronger statistical tests, when interpreting population activity structure.

  20. Population activity structure of excitatory and inhibitory neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Brent

    2017-01-01

    Many studies use population analysis approaches, such as dimensionality reduction, to characterize the activity of large groups of neurons. To date, these methods have treated each neuron equally, without taking into account whether neurons are excitatory or inhibitory. We studied population activity structure as a function of neuron type by applying factor analysis to spontaneous activity from spiking networks with balanced excitation and inhibition. Throughout the study, we characterized population activity structure by measuring its dimensionality and the percentage of overall activity variance that is shared among neurons. First, by sampling only excitatory or only inhibitory neurons, we found that the activity structures of these two populations in balanced networks are measurably different. We also found that the population activity structure is dependent on the ratio of excitatory to inhibitory neurons sampled. Finally we classified neurons from extracellular recordings in the primary visual cortex of anesthetized macaques as putative excitatory or inhibitory using waveform classification, and found similarities with the neuron type-specific population activity structure of a balanced network with excitatory clustering. These results imply that knowledge of neuron type is important, and allows for stronger statistical tests, when interpreting population activity structure. PMID:28817581

  1. Glutamatergic transmission in drug reward: implications for drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Manoranjan S

    2015-01-01

    Individuals addicted to drugs of abuse such as alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, and heroin are a significant burden on healthcare systems all over the world. The positive reinforcing (rewarding) effects of the above mentioned drugs play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of the drug-taking habit. Thus, understanding the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse is critical to reducing the burden of drug addiction in society. Over the last two decades, there has been an increasing focus on the role of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in drug addiction. In this review, pharmacological and genetic evidence supporting the role of glutamate in mediating the rewarding effects of the above described drugs of abuse will be discussed. Further, the review will discuss the role of glutamate transmission in two complex heterogeneous brain regions, namely the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which mediate the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. In addition, several medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration that act by blocking glutamate transmission will be discussed in the context of drug reward. Finally, this review will discuss future studies needed to address currently unanswered gaps in knowledge, which will further elucidate the role of glutamate in the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse.

  2. Attachment orientations as mediators in the intergenerational transmission of marital satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnecke, Amber M; South, Susan C

    2013-08-01

    Previous research suggests that there is an intergenerational transmission of marital satisfaction, such that parents' marital satisfaction predicts their adult child's marital satisfaction. The mechanisms that explain this phenomenon remain relatively unknown. In the current study, we examined the role of parent-child attachment orientations and romantic relationship attachment orientations as mediators in the intergenerational transmission of marital satisfaction. Participants (N = 199) were cohabiting newlywed couples who had been married for 12 months or less. All participants separately completed measures of own marital satisfaction, attachment orientations to romantic partners, attachment orientations to rearing parents, and perceptions of parents' marital satisfaction. Data was analyzed using the actor-partner interdependence model in a structural equation modeling framework to account for the nonindependent nature of the data. This allowed for examination of gender differences across husbands and wives and provided overall fit of the hypothesized model. Results supported a partially mediating effect of parent-child attachment and romantic partner attachment on the intergenerational transmission of marital satisfaction, although effects differed by gender. For husbands, the direct effect from parents' marital satisfaction to own satisfaction was partially mediated through anxious attachment styles. There was no direct effect from parents to own marital satisfaction for wives; however, there were significant links from parent's satisfaction to attachment orientations in childhood and adulthood, which in turn impacted wives satisfaction. Findings from this study provide an integrated look at the implications that attachment has on the intergenerational transmission of marital functioning. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  3. mGluR1 receptors contribute to non-purinergic slow excitatory transmission to submucosal VIP neurons of guinea-pig ileum

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    Jaime Pei Pei Foong

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP immunoreactive secretomotor neurons in the submucous plexus are involved in mediating bacterial toxin-induced hypersecretion leading to diarrhoea. VIP neurons become hyperexcitable after the mucosa is exposed to cholera toxin, which suggests that the manipulation of the excitability of these neurons may be therapeutic. This study used standard intracellular recording methods to systematically characterize slow excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs evoked in submucosal VIP neurons by different stimulus regimes (1, 3 and 15 pulse 30 Hz stimulation, together with their associated input resistances and pharmacology. All slow EPSPs were associated with a significant increase in input resistance compared to baseline values. Slow EPSPs evoked by a single stimulus were confirmed to be purinergic, however, slow EPSPs evoked by 15 pulse trains were non-purinergic and those evoked by 3 pulse trains were mixed. NK1 or NK3 receptor antagonists did not affect slow EPSPs. The group I mGluR receptor antagonist, PHCCC reduced the amplitude of purinergic and non-purinergic slow EPSPs. Blocking mGluR1 receptors depressed the overall response to 3 and 15 pulse trains, but this effect was inconsistent, while blockade of mGluR5 receptors had no effect on the non-purinergic slow EPSPs. Thus, although other receptors are almost certainly involved, our data indicate that there are at least two pharmacologically distinct types of slow EPSPs in the VIP secretomotor neurons: one mediated by P2Y receptors and the other in part by mGluR1 receptors.

  4. Glucose Rapidly Induces Different Forms of Excitatory Synaptic Plasticity in Hypothalamic POMC Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Jiang, Lin; Low, Malcolm J.; Rui, Liangyou

    2014-01-01

    Hypothalamic POMC neurons are required for glucose and energy homeostasis. POMC neurons have a wide synaptic connection with neurons both within and outside the hypothalamus, and their activity is controlled by a balance between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. Brain glucose-sensing plays an essential role in the maintenance of normal body weight and metabolism; however, the effect of glucose on synaptic transmission in POMC neurons is largely unknown. Here we identified three types of POMC neurons (EPSC(+), EPSC(−), and EPSC(+/−)) based on their glucose-regulated spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs), using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Lowering extracellular glucose decreased the frequency of sEPSCs in EPSC(+) neurons, but increased it in EPSC(−) neurons. Unlike EPSC(+) and EPSC(−) neurons, EPSC(+/−) neurons displayed a bi-phasic sEPSC response to glucoprivation. In the first phase of glucoprivation, both the frequency and the amplitude of sEPSCs decreased, whereas in the second phase, they increased progressively to the levels above the baseline values. Accordingly, lowering glucose exerted a bi-phasic effect on spontaneous action potentials in EPSC(+/−) neurons. Glucoprivation decreased firing rates in the first phase, but increased them in the second phase. These data indicate that glucose induces distinct excitatory synaptic plasticity in different subpopulations of POMC neurons. This synaptic remodeling is likely to regulate the sensitivity of the melanocortin system to neuronal and hormonal signals. PMID:25127258

  5. Inhibitory neurons modulate spontaneous signaling in cultured cortical neurons: density-dependent regulation of excitatory neuronal signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, Michael; Guaraldi, Mary; Shea, Thomas B

    2010-01-01

    Cortical neuronal activity depends on a balance between excitatory and inhibitory influences. Culturing of neurons on multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) has provided insight into the development and maintenance of neuronal networks. Herein, we seeded MEAs with murine embryonic cortical/hippocampal neurons at different densities ( 1000 cells mm −2 ) and monitored resultant spontaneous signaling. Sparsely seeded cultures displayed a large number of bipolar, rapid, high-amplitude individual signals with no apparent temporal regularity. By contrast, densely seeded cultures instead displayed clusters of signals at regular intervals. These patterns were observed even within thinner and thicker areas of the same culture. GABAergic neurons (25% of total neurons in our cultures) mediated the differential signal patterns observed above, since addition of the inhibitory antagonist bicuculline to dense cultures and hippocampal slice cultures induced the signal pattern characteristic of sparse cultures. Sparsely seeded cultures likely lacked sufficient inhibitory neurons to modulate excitatory activity. Differential seeding of MEAs can provide a unique model for analyses of pertubation in the interaction between excitatory and inhibitory function during aging and neuropathological conditions where dysregulation of GABAergic neurons is a significant component

  6. MPTP-meditated hippocampal dopamine deprivation modulates synaptic transmission and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Guoqi; Chen Ying; Huang Yuying; Li Qinglin; Behnisch, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD)-like symptoms including learning deficits are inducible by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Therefore, it is possible that MPTP may disturb hippocampal memory processing by modulation of dopamine (DA)- and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. We demonstrate here that intraperitoneal (i.p.) MPTP injection reduces the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) within 7 days. Subsequently, the TH expression level in SN and hippocampus and the amount of DA and its metabolite DOPAC in striatum and hippocampus decrease. DA depletion does not alter basal synaptic transmission and changes pair-pulse facilitation (PPF) of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) only at the 30 ms inter-pulse interval. In addition, the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) is impaired whereas the duration of long-term depression (LTD) becomes prolonged. Since both LTP and LTD depend critically on activation of NMDA and DA receptors, we also tested the effect of DA depletion on NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission. Seven days after MPTP injection, the NMDA receptor-mediated fEPSPs are decreased by about 23%. Blocking the NMDA receptor-mediated fEPSP does not mimic the MPTP-LTP. Only co-application of D1/D5 and NMDA receptor antagonists during tetanization resembled the time course of fEPSP potentiation as observed 7 days after i.p. MPTP injection. Together, our data demonstrate that MPTP-induced degeneration of DA neurons and the subsequent hippocampal DA depletion alter NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. - Highlights: → I.p. MPTP-injection mediates death of dopaminergic neurons. → I.p. MPTP-injection depletes DA and DOPAC in striatum and hippocampus. → I.p. MPTP-injection does not alter basal synaptic transmission. → Reduction of LTP and enhancement of LTD after i.p. MPTP-injection. → Attenuation of NMDA-receptors mediated

  7. Contextual Learning Requires Functional Diversity at Excitatory and Inhibitory Synapses onto CA1 Pyramidal Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Mitsushima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the hippocampus is processing temporal and spatial information in particular context, the encoding rule creating memory is completely unknown. To examine the mechanism, we trained rats on an inhibitory avoidance (IA task, a hippocampus-dependent rapid one-trial contextual learning paradigm. By combining Herpes virus-mediated in vivo gene delivery with in vitro patch-clamp recordings, I reported contextual learning drives GluR1-containing AMPA receptors into CA3-CA1 synapses. The molecular event is required for contextual memory, since bilateral expression of delivery blocker in CA1 successfully blocked IA learning. Moreover, I found a logarithmic correlation between the number of delivery blocking cells and learning performance. Considering that one all-or-none device can process 1-bit of data per clock (Nobert Wiener 1961, the logarithmic correlation may provides evidence that CA1 neurons transmit essential data of contextual information. Further, I recently reported critical role of acetylcholine as an intrinsic trigger of learning-dependent synaptic plasticity. IA training induced ACh release in CA1 that strengthened not only AMPA receptor-mediated excitatory synapses, but also GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory synapses on each CA1 neuron. More importantly, IA-trained rats showed individually different excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs with wide variation on each CA1 neuron. Here I propose a new hypothesis that the diversity of synaptic inputs on CA1 neurons may depict cell-specific outputs processing experienced episodes after training.

  8. Irregular persistent activity induced by synaptic excitatory feedback

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    Francesca Barbieri

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurophysiological experiments on monkeys have reported highly irregular persistent activity during the performance of an oculomotor delayed-response task. These experiments show that during the delay period the coefficient of variation (CV of interspike intervals (ISI of prefrontal neurons is above 1, on average, and larger than during the fixation period. In the present paper, we show that this feature can be reproduced in a network in which persistent activity is induced by excitatory feedback, provided that (i the post-spike reset is close enough to threshold , (ii synaptic efficacies are a non-linear function of the pre-synaptic firing rate. Non-linearity between presynaptic rate and effective synaptic strength is implemented by a standard short-term depression mechanism (STD. First, we consider the simplest possible network with excitatory feedback: a fully connected homogeneous network of excitatory leaky integrate-and-fire neurons, using both numerical simulations and analytical techniques. The results are then confirmed in a network with selective excitatory neurons and inhibition. In both the cases there is a large range of values of the synaptic efficacies for which the statistics of firing of single cells is similar to experimental data.

  9. Glutamatergic transmission in drug reward: Implications for drug addiction

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    Manoranjan S Dsouza

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Individuals addicted to drugs of abuse such as alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, and heroin are a significant burden on healthcare systems all over the world. The positive reinforcing (rewarding effects of the above mentioned drugs play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of the drug-taking habit. Thus, understanding the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse is critical to reducing the burden of drug addiction in society. Over the last two decades, there has been an increasing focus on the role of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in drug addiction. In this review, pharmacological and genetic evidence supporting the role of glutamate in mediating the rewarding effects of the above described drugs of abuse will be discussed. Further, the review will discuss the role of glutamate transmission in two complex heterogeneous brain regions, namely the nucleus accumbens (NAcc and the ventral tegmental area (VTA, which mediate the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. In addition, several medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration that act by blocking glutamate transmission will be discussed in the context of drug reward. Finally, this review will discuss future studies needed to address currently unanswered gaps in knowledge, which will further elucidate the role of glutamate in the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse.

  10. IGF-1 Receptor Differentially Regulates Spontaneous and Evoked Transmission via Mitochondria at Hippocampal Synapses

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    Gazit, Neta; Vertkin, Irena; Shapira, Ilana; Helm, Martin; Slomowitz, Edden; Sheiba, Maayan; Mor, Yael; Rizzoli, Silvio; Slutsky, Inna

    2016-01-01

    Summary The insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling is a key regulator of lifespan, growth, and development. While reduced IGF-1R signaling delays aging and Alzheimer’s disease progression, whether and how it regulates information processing at central synapses remains elusive. Here, we show that presynaptic IGF-1Rs are basally active, regulating synaptic vesicle release and short-term plasticity in excitatory hippocampal neurons. Acute IGF-1R blockade or transient knockdown suppresses spike-evoked synaptic transmission and presynaptic cytosolic Ca2+ transients, while promoting spontaneous transmission and resting Ca2+ level. This dual effect on transmitter release is mediated by mitochondria that attenuate Ca2+ buffering in the absence of spikes and decrease ATP production during spiking activity. We conclude that the mitochondria, activated by IGF-1R signaling, constitute a critical regulator of information processing in hippocampal neurons by maintaining evoked-to-spontaneous transmission ratio, while constraining synaptic facilitation at high frequencies. Excessive IGF-1R tone may contribute to hippocampal hyperactivity associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Video Abstract PMID:26804996

  11. Altered excitatory-inhibitory balance in the NMDA-hypofunction model of schizophrenia

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    Colin Kehrer

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a common psychiatric disorder of high incidence, affecting approximately 1% of the world population. The essential neurotransmitter pathology of schizophrenia remains poorly defined, despite huge advances over the past half-century in identifying neurochemical and pathological abnormalities in the disease. The dopamine/serotonin hypothesis has originally provided much of the momentum for neurochemical research in schizophrenia. In recent years, the attention has, however, shifted to the glutamate system, the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS and towards a concept of functional imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory transmission at the network level in various brain regions in schizophrenia. The evidence indicating a central role for the NMDAreceptor subtype in the etiology of schizophrenia has led to the NMDA-hypofunction model of this disease and the use of phencyclidines as a means to induce the NMDA-hypofunction state in animal models. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings highlighting the importance of the NMDA-hypofunction model of schizophrenia, both from a clinical perspective, as well as in opening a line of research, which enables electrophysiological studies at the cellular and network level in vitro. In particular, changes in excitation-inhibition (E/I balance in the NMDA-hypofunction model of the disease and the resulting changes in network behaviours, particularly in gamma frequency oscillatory activity, will be discussed.

  12. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species regulate the strength of inhibitory GABA-mediated synaptic transmission

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    Accardi, Michael V.; Daniels, Bryan A.; Brown, Patricia M. G. E.; Fritschy, Jean-Marc; Tyagarajan, Shiva K.; Bowie, Derek

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal communication imposes a heavy metabolic burden in maintaining ionic gradients essential for action potential firing and synaptic signalling. Although cellular metabolism is known to regulate excitatory neurotransmission, it is still unclear whether the brain’s energy supply affects inhibitory signalling. Here we show that mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species (mROS) regulate the strength of postsynaptic GABAA receptors at inhibitory synapses of cerebellar stellate cells. Inhibition is strengthened through a mechanism that selectively recruits α3-containing GABAA receptors into synapses with no discernible effect on resident α1-containing receptors. Since mROS promotes the emergence of postsynaptic events with unique kinetic properties, we conclude that newly recruited α3-containing GABAA receptors are activated by neurotransmitter released onto discrete postsynaptic sites. Although traditionally associated with oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disease, our data identify mROS as a putative homeostatic signalling molecule coupling cellular metabolism to the strength of inhibitory transmission.

  13. Pathway and Cell-Specific Kappa-Opioid Receptor Modulation of Excitatory-Inhibitory Balance Differentially Gates D1 and D2 Accumbens Neuron Activity

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    Tejeda, Hugo A.; Wu, Jocelyn; Kornspun, Alana R.; Pignatelli, Marco; Kashtelyan, Vadim; Krashes, Michael J.; Lowell, Brad B.; Carlezon, William A.; Bonci, Antonello

    2018-01-01

    Endogenous dynorphin signaling via the kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) powerfully mediates negative affective states and stress reactivity. Excitatory inputs from the hippocampus and amygdala play a fundamental role in shaping the activity of both NAcc D1 and D2 MSNs, which encode positive and negative motivational valences, respectively. However, a circuit-based mechanism by which KOR modulation of excitation-inhibition balance modifies D1 and D2 MSN activity is lacking. Here, we provide a comprehensive synaptic framework wherein presynaptic KOR inhibition decreases excitatory drive of D1 MSN activity by the amygdala, but not hippocampus. Conversely, presynaptic inhibition by KORs of inhibitory synapses on D2 MSNs enhances integration of excitatory drive by the amygdala and hippocampus. In conclusion, we describe a circuit-based mechanism showing differential gating of afferent control of D1 and D2 MSN activity by KORs in a pathway specific manner. PMID:28056342

  14. Distinct muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes mediate pre- and postsynaptic effects in rat neocortex

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    Gigout Sylvain

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholinergic transmission has been implicated in learning, memory and cognition. However, the cellular effects induced by muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs activation are poorly understood in the neocortex. We investigated the effects of the cholinergic agonist carbachol (CCh and various agonists and antagonists on neuronal activity in rat neocortical slices using intracellular (sharp microelectrode and field potential recordings. Results CCh increased neuronal firing but reduced synaptic transmission. The increase of neuronal firing was antagonized by pirenzepine (M1/M4 mAChRs antagonist but not by AF-DX 116 (M2/M4 mAChRs antagonist. Pirenzepine reversed the depressant effect of CCh on excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP but had marginal effects when applied before CCh. AF-DX 116 antagonized the depression of EPSP when applied before or during CCh. CCh also decreased the paired-pulse inhibition of field potentials and the inhibitory conductances mediated by GABAA and GABAB receptors. The depression of paired-pulse inhibition was antagonized or prevented by AF-DX 116 or atropine but only marginally by pirenzepine. The inhibitory conductances were unaltered by xanomeline (M1/M4 mAChRs agonist, yet the CCh-induced depression was antagonized by AF-DX 116. Linopirdine, a selective M-current blocker, mimicked the effect of CCh on neuronal firing. However, linopirdine had no effect on the amplitude of EPSP or on the paired-pulse inhibition, indicating that M-current is involved in the increase of neuronal excitability but neither in the depression of EPSP nor paired-pulse inhibition. Conclusions These data indicate that the three effects are mediated by different mAChRs, the increase in firing being mediated by M1 mAChR, decrease of inhibition by M2 mAChR and depression of excitatory transmission by M4 mAChR. The depression of EPSP and increase of neuronal firing might enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, whereas the

  15. Effects of NR1 splicing on NR1/NR3B-type excitatory glycine receptors

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    Orth Angela

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs are the most complex of ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs. Subunits of this subfamily assemble into heteromers, which – depending on the subunit combination – may display very different pharmacological and electrophysiological properties. The least studied members of the NMDAR family, the NR3 subunits, have been reported to assemble with NR1 to form excitatory glycine receptors in heterologous expression systems. The heterogeneity of NMDARs in vivo is in part conferred to the receptors by splicing of the NR1 subunit, especially with regard to proton sensitivity. Results Here, we have investigated whether the NR3B subunit is capable of assembly with each of the eight functional NR1 splice variants, and whether the resulting receptors share the unique functional properties described for NR1-1a/NR3. We provide evidence that functional excitatory glycine receptors formed regardless of the NR1 isoform, and their pharmacological profile matched the one reported for NR1-1a/NR3: glycine alone fully activated the receptors, which were insensitive to glutamate and block by Mg2+. Surprisingly, amplitudes of agonist-induced currents showed little dependency on the C-terminally spliced NR1 variants in NR1/NR3B diheteromers. Even more strikingly, NR3B conferred proton sensitivity also to receptors containing NR1b variants – possibly via disturbing the "proton shield" of NR1b splice variants. Conclusion While functional assembly could be demonstrated for all combinations, not all of the specific interactions seen for NR1 isoforms with coexpressed NR2 subunits could be corroborated for NR1 assembly with NR3. Rather, NR3 abates trafficking effects mediated by the NR1 C terminus as well as the N-terminally mediated proton insensitivity. Thus, this study establishes that NR3B overrides important NR1 splice variant-specific receptor properties in NR1/NR3B excitatory glycine receptors.

  16. Excitatory Neuronal Hubs Configure Multisensory Integration of Slow Waves in Association Cortex

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    Satoshi Kuroki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Multisensory integration (MSI is a fundamental emergent property of the mammalian brain. During MSI, perceptual information encoded in patterned activity is processed in multimodal association cortex. The systems-level neuronal dynamics that coordinate MSI, however, are unknown. Here, we demonstrate intrinsic hub-like network activity in the association cortex that regulates MSI. We engineered calcium reporter mouse lines based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer sensor yellow cameleon (YC2.60 expressed in excitatory or inhibitory neurons. In medial and parietal association cortex, we observed spontaneous slow waves that self-organized into hubs defined by long-range excitatory and local inhibitory circuits. Unlike directional source/sink-like flows in sensory areas, medial/parietal excitatory and inhibitory hubs had net-zero balanced inputs. Remarkably, multisensory stimulation triggered rapid phase-locking mainly of excitatory hub activity persisting for seconds after the stimulus offset. Therefore, association cortex tends to form balanced excitatory networks that configure slow-wave phase-locking for MSI. Video Abstract: : Kuroki et al. performed cell-type-specific, wide-field FRET-based calcium imaging to visualize cortical network activity induced by multisensory inputs. They observed phase-locking of cortical slow waves in excitatory neuronal hubs in association cortical areas that may underlie multisensory integration. Keywords: wide-field calcium imaging, multisensory integration, cortical slow waves, association cortex, phase locking, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, spontaneous activity, excitatory neuron, inhibitory neuron, mouse

  17. Excitatory transmission from the amygdala to nucleus accumbens facilitates reward seeking.

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    Stuber, Garret D; Sparta, Dennis R; Stamatakis, Alice M; van Leeuwen, Wieke A; Hardjoprajitno, Juanita E; Cho, Saemi; Tye, Kay M; Kempadoo, Kimberly A; Zhang, Feng; Deisseroth, Karl; Bonci, Antonello

    2011-06-29

    The basolateral amygdala (BLA) has a crucial role in emotional learning irrespective of valence. The BLA projection to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is thought to modulate cue-triggered motivated behaviours, but our understanding of the interaction between these two brain regions has been limited by the inability to manipulate neural-circuit elements of this pathway selectively during behaviour. To circumvent this limitation, we used in vivo optogenetic stimulation or inhibition of glutamatergic fibres from the BLA to the NAc, coupled with intracranial pharmacology and ex vivo electrophysiology. Here we show that optical stimulation of the pathway from the BLA to the NAc in mice reinforces behavioural responding to earn additional optical stimulation of these synaptic inputs. Optical stimulation of these glutamatergic fibres required intra-NAc dopamine D1-type receptor signalling, but not D2-type receptor signalling. Brief optical inhibition of fibres from the BLA to the NAc reduced cue-evoked intake of sucrose, demonstrating an important role of this specific pathway in controlling naturally occurring reward-related behaviour. Moreover, although optical stimulation of glutamatergic fibres from the medial prefrontal cortex to the NAc also elicited reliable excitatory synaptic responses, optical self-stimulation behaviour was not observed by activation of this pathway. These data indicate that whereas the BLA is important for processing both positive and negative affect, the glutamatergic pathway from the BLA to the NAc, in conjunction with dopamine signalling in the NAc, promotes motivated behavioural responding. Thus, optogenetic manipulation of anatomically distinct synaptic inputs to the NAc reveals functionally distinct properties of these inputs in controlling reward-seeking behaviours.

  18. Insulin-Independent GABAA Receptor-Mediated Response in the Barrel Cortex of Mice with Impaired Met Activity.

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    Lo, Fu-Sun; Erzurumlu, Reha S; Powell, Elizabeth M

    2016-03-30

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by genetic variants, susceptibility alleles, and environmental perturbations. The autism associated geneMETtyrosine kinase has been implicated in many behavioral domains and endophenotypes of autism, including abnormal neural signaling in human sensory cortex. We investigated somatosensory thalamocortical synaptic communication in mice deficient in Met activity in cortical excitatory neurons to gain insights into aberrant somatosensation characteristic of ASD. The ratio of excitation to inhibition is dramatically increased due to decreased postsynaptic GABAAreceptor-mediated inhibition in the trigeminal thalamocortical pathway of mice lacking active Met in the cerebral cortex. Furthermore, in contrast to wild-type mice, insulin failed to increase GABAAreceptor-mediated response in the barrel cortex of mice with compromised Met signaling. Thus, lacking insulin effects may be a risk factor in ASD pathogenesis. A proposed common cause of neurodevelopmental disorders is an imbalance in excitatory neural transmission, provided by the glutamatergic neurons, and the inhibitory signals from the GABAergic interneurons. Many genes associated with autism spectrum disorders impair synaptic transmission in the expected cell type. Previously, inactivation of the autism-associated Met tyrosine kinase receptor in GABAergic interneurons led to decreased inhibition. In thus report, decreased Met signaling in glutamatergic neurons had no effect on excitation, but decimated inhibition. Further experiments indicate that loss of Met activity downregulates GABAAreceptors on glutamatergic neurons in an insulin independent manner. These data provide a new mechanism for the loss of inhibition and subsequent abnormal excitation/inhibition balance and potential molecular candidates for treatment or prevention. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/363691-07$15.00/0.

  19. Excitatory amino acid neurotoxicity and neurodegenerative disease.

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    Meldrum, B; Garthwaite, J

    1990-09-01

    The progress over the last 30 years in defining the role of excitatory amino acids in normal physiological function and in the abnormal neuronal activity of epilepsy has been reviewed in earlier articles in this series. In the last five years it has become clear that excitatory amino acids also play a role in a wide range of neurodegenerative processes. The evidence is clearest where the degenerative process is acute, but is more controversial for slow degenerative processes. In this article Brian Meldrum and John Garthwaite review in vivo and in vitro studies of the cytotoxicity of amino acids and summarize the contribution of such toxicity to acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders.

  20. Computer simulations of neural mechanisms explaining upper and lower limb excitatory neural coupling

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    Ferris Daniel P

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When humans perform rhythmic upper and lower limb locomotor-like movements, there is an excitatory effect of upper limb exertion on lower limb muscle recruitment. To investigate potential neural mechanisms for this behavioral observation, we developed computer simulations modeling interlimb neural pathways among central pattern generators. We hypothesized that enhancement of muscle recruitment from interlimb spinal mechanisms was not sufficient to explain muscle enhancement levels observed in experimental data. Methods We used Matsuoka oscillators for the central pattern generators (CPG and determined parameters that enhanced amplitudes of rhythmic steady state bursts. Potential mechanisms for output enhancement were excitatory and inhibitory sensory feedback gains, excitatory and inhibitory interlimb coupling gains, and coupling geometry. We first simulated the simplest case, a single CPG, and then expanded the model to have two CPGs and lastly four CPGs. In the two and four CPG models, the lower limb CPGs did not receive supraspinal input such that the only mechanisms available for enhancing output were interlimb coupling gains and sensory feedback gains. Results In a two-CPG model with inhibitory sensory feedback gains, only excitatory gains of ipsilateral flexor-extensor/extensor-flexor coupling produced reciprocal upper-lower limb bursts and enhanced output up to 26%. In a two-CPG model with excitatory sensory feedback gains, excitatory gains of contralateral flexor-flexor/extensor-extensor coupling produced reciprocal upper-lower limb bursts and enhanced output up to 100%. However, within a given excitatory sensory feedback gain, enhancement due to excitatory interlimb gains could only reach levels up to 20%. Interconnecting four CPGs to have ipsilateral flexor-extensor/extensor-flexor coupling, contralateral flexor-flexor/extensor-extensor coupling, and bilateral flexor-extensor/extensor-flexor coupling could enhance

  1. Transmission of HBV DNA Mediated by Ceramide-Triggered Extracellular Vesicles.

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    Sanada, Takahiro; Hirata, Yuichi; Naito, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Naoki; Kikkawa, Yoshiaki; Ishida, Yuji; Yamasaki, Chihiro; Tateno, Chise; Ochiya, Takahiro; Kohara, Michinori

    2017-03-01

    An extracellular vesicle (EV) is a nanovesicle that shuttles proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids, thereby influencing cell behavior. A recent crop of reports have shown that EVs are involved in infectious biology, influencing host immunity and playing a role in the viral life cycle. In the present work, we investigated the EV-mediated transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We investigated the EV-mediated transmission of HBV infection by using a HBV infectious culture system that uses primary human hepatocytes derived from humanized chimeric mice (PXB-cells). Purified EVs were isolated by ultracentrifugation. To analyze the EVs and virions, we used stimulated emission depletion microscopy. Purified EVs from HBV-infected PXB-cells were shown to contain HBV DNA and to be capable of transmitting HBV DNA to naive PXB-cells. These HBV-DNA-transmitting EVs were shown to be generated through a ceramide-triggered EV production pathway. Furthermore, we showed that these HBV-DNA-transmitting EVs were resistant to antibody neutralization; stimulated emission depletion microscopy showed that EVs lacked hepatitis B surface antigen, the target of neutralizing antibodies. These findings suggest that EVs harbor a DNA cargo capable of transmitting viral DNA into hepatocytes during HBV infection, representing an additional antibody-neutralization-resistant route of HBV infection.

  2. Behaviors, movements, and transmission of droplet-mediated respiratory diseases during transcontinental airline flights

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    Weiss, Howard; Elon, Lisa; Si, Wenpei; Norris, Sharon L.

    2018-01-01

    With over 3 billion airline passengers annually, the inflight transmission of infectious diseases is an important global health concern. Over a dozen cases of inflight transmission of serious infections have been documented, and air travel can serve as a conduit for the rapid spread of newly emerging infections and pandemics. Despite sensational media stories and anecdotes, the risks of transmission of respiratory viruses in an airplane cabin are unknown. Movements of passengers and crew may facilitate disease transmission. On 10 transcontinental US flights, we chronicled behaviors and movements of individuals in the economy cabin on single-aisle aircraft. We simulated transmission during flight based on these data. Our results indicate there is low probability of direct transmission to passengers not seated in close proximity to an infectious passenger. This data-driven, dynamic network transmission model of droplet-mediated respiratory disease is unique. To measure the true pathogen burden, our team collected 229 environmental samples during the flights. Although eight flights were during Influenza season, all qPCR assays for 18 common respiratory viruses were negative. PMID:29555754

  3. Sexual attraction enhances glutamate transmission in mammalian anterior cingulate cortex

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    Wu Long-Jun

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Functional human brain imaging studies have indicated the essential role of cortical regions, such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, in romantic love and sex. However, the neurobiological basis of how the ACC neurons are activated and engaged in sexual attraction remains unknown. Using transgenic mice in which the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP is controlled by the promoter of the activity-dependent gene c-fos, we found that ACC pyramidal neurons are activated by sexual attraction. The presynaptic glutamate release to the activated neurons is increased and pharmacological inhibition of neuronal activities in the ACC reduced the interest of male mice to female mice. Our results present direct evidence of the critical role of the ACC in sexual attraction, and long-term increases in glutamate mediated excitatory transmission may contribute to sexual attraction between male and female mice.

  4. Transmission of HBV DNA Mediated by Ceramide-Triggered Extracellular VesiclesSummary

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    Takahiro Sanada

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: An extracellular vesicle (EV is a nanovesicle that shuttles proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids, thereby influencing cell behavior. A recent crop of reports have shown that EVs are involved in infectious biology, influencing host immunity and playing a role in the viral life cycle. In the present work, we investigated the EV-mediated transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. Methods: We investigated the EV-mediated transmission of HBV infection by using a HBV infectious culture system that uses primary human hepatocytes derived from humanized chimeric mice (PXB-cells. Purified EVs were isolated by ultracentrifugation. To analyze the EVs and virions, we used stimulated emission depletion microscopy. Results: Purified EVs from HBV-infected PXB-cells were shown to contain HBV DNA and to be capable of transmitting HBV DNA to naive PXB-cells. These HBV-DNA–transmitting EVs were shown to be generated through a ceramide-triggered EV production pathway. Furthermore, we showed that these HBV-DNA–transmitting EVs were resistant to antibody neutralization; stimulated emission depletion microscopy showed that EVs lacked hepatitis B surface antigen, the target of neutralizing antibodies. Conclusions: These findings suggest that EVs harbor a DNA cargo capable of transmitting viral DNA into hepatocytes during HBV infection, representing an additional antibody-neutralization–resistant route of HBV infection. Keywords: HBV, Extracellular Vesicles, Transmission Pathway

  5. Horizontal transmission of the insect symbiont Rickettsia is plant-mediated

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    Caspi-Fluger, Ayelet; Inbar, Moshe; Mozes-Daube, Netta; Katzir, Nurit; Portnoy, Vitaly; Belausov, Eduard; Hunter, Martha S.; Zchori-Fein, Einat

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria in the genus Rickettsia, best known as vertebrate pathogens vectored by blood-feeding arthropods, can also be found in phytophagous insects. The presence of closely related bacterial symbionts in evolutionarily distant arthropod hosts presupposes a means of horizontal transmission, but no mechanism for this transmission has been described. Using a combination of experiments with live insects, molecular analyses and microscopy, we found that Rickettsia were transferred from an insect host (the whitefly Bemisia tabaci) to a plant, moved inside the phloem, and could be acquired by other whiteflies. In one experiment, Rickettsia was transferred from the whitefly host to leaves of cotton, basil and black nightshade, where the bacteria were restricted to the phloem cells of the plant. In another experiment, Rickettsia-free adult whiteflies, physically segregated but sharing a cotton leaf with Rickettsia-plus individuals, acquired the Rickettsia at a high rate. Plants can serve as a reservoir for horizontal transmission of Rickettsia, a mechanism which may explain the occurrence of phylogenetically similar symbionts among unrelated phytophagous insect species. This plant-mediated transmission route may also exist in other insect–symbiont systems and, since symbionts may play a critical role in the ecology and evolution of their hosts, serve as an immediate and powerful tool for accelerated evolution. PMID:22113034

  6. Neuroactivity of detonation nanodiamonds: dose-dependent changes in transporter-mediated uptake and ambient level of excitatory/inhibitory neurotransmitters in brain nerve terminals.

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    Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Pastukhov, Artem; Dudarenko, Marina; Galkin, Maxim; Borysov, Arsenii; Borisova, Tatiana

    2016-03-31

    Nanodiamonds are one of the most perspective nano-sized particles with superb physical and chemical properties, which are mainly composed of carbon sp(3) structures in the core with sp(2) and disorder/defect carbons on the surface. The research team recently demonstrated neuromodulatory properties of carbon nanodots with other than nanodiamonds hybridization types, i.e., sp(2) hybridized graphene islands and diamond-like sp(3) hybridized elements. In this study, neuroactive properties of uncoated nanodiamonds produced by detonation synthesis were assessed basing on their effects on transporter-mediated uptake and the ambient level of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), in isolated rat brain nerve terminals. It was shown that nanodiamonds in a dose-dependent manner attenuated the initial velocity of Na(+)-dependent transporter-mediated uptake and accumulation of L-[(14)C]glutamate and [(3)H]GABA by nerve terminals and increased the ambient level of these neurotransmitters. Also, nanodiamonds caused a weak reduction in acidification of synaptic vesicles and depolarization of the plasma membrane of nerve terminals. Therefore, despite different types of hybridization in nanodiamonds and carbon dots, they exhibit very similar effects on glutamate and GABA transport in nerve terminals and this common feature of both nanoparticles is presumably associated with their nanoscale size. Observed neuroactive properties of pure nanodiamonds can be used in neurotheranostics for simultaneous labeling/visualization of nerve terminals and modulation of key processes of glutamate- and GABAergic neurotransmission. In comparison with carbon dots, wider medical application involving hypo/hyperthermia, external magnetic fields, and radiolabel techniques can be perspective for nanodiamonds.

  7. Decrement of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents in dentate granule cells in epileptic hippocampus.

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    Isokawa, M

    1996-05-01

    1. Inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) were studied in hippocampal dentate granule cells (DGCs) in the pilocarpine model and human temporal lobe epilepsy, with the use of the whole cell patch-clamp recording technique in slice preparations. 2. In the pilocarpine model, hippocampal slices were prepared from rats that were allowed to experience spontaneous seizures for 2 mo. Human hippocampal specimens were obtained from epileptic patients who underwent surgical treatment for medically intractable seizures. 3. IPSCs were generated by single perforant path stimulation and recorded at a membrane potential (Vm) of 0 mV near the reversal potential of glutamate excitatory postsynaptic currents in the voltage-clamp recording. IPSCs were pharmacologically identified as gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) IPSCs by 10 microM bicuculline methiodide. 4. During low-frequency stimulation, IPSCs were not different in amplitude among non-seizure-experienced rat hippocampi, human nonsclerotic hippocampi, seizure-experienced rat hippocampi, and human sclerotic hippocampi. In the last two groups of DGCs, current-clamp recordings indicated the presence of prolonged excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) mediated by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. 5. High-frequency stimulation, administered at Vm = -30 mV to activate NMDA currents, reduced GABAA IPSC amplitude specifically in seizure-experienced rat hippocampi (t = 2.5, P < 0.03) and human sclerotic hippocampi (t = 7.7, P < 0.01). This reduction was blocked by an NMDA receptor antagonist, 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV) (50 microM). The time for GABAA IPSCs to recover to their original amplitude was also shortened by the application of APV. 6. I conclude that, when intensively activated, NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory transmission may interact with GABAergic synaptic inhibition in DGCs in seizure-experienced hippocampus to transiently reduce GABA(A) receptor-channel function. Such interactions may contribute to

  8. Effects of Neuromodulation on Excitatory-Inhibitory Neural Network Dynamics Depend on Network Connectivity Structure

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    Rich, Scott; Zochowski, Michal; Booth, Victoria

    2018-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh), one of the brain's most potent neuromodulators, can affect intrinsic neuron properties through blockade of an M-type potassium current. The effect of ACh on excitatory and inhibitory cells with this potassium channel modulates their membrane excitability, which in turn affects their tendency to synchronize in networks. Here, we study the resulting changes in dynamics in networks with inter-connected excitatory and inhibitory populations (E-I networks), which are ubiquitous in the brain. Utilizing biophysical models of E-I networks, we analyze how the network connectivity structure in terms of synaptic connectivity alters the influence of ACh on the generation of synchronous excitatory bursting. We investigate networks containing all combinations of excitatory and inhibitory cells with high (Type I properties) or low (Type II properties) modulatory tone. To vary network connectivity structure, we focus on the effects of the strengths of inter-connections between excitatory and inhibitory cells (E-I synapses and I-E synapses), and the strengths of intra-connections among excitatory cells (E-E synapses) and among inhibitory cells (I-I synapses). We show that the presence of ACh may or may not affect the generation of network synchrony depending on the network connectivity. Specifically, strong network inter-connectivity induces synchronous excitatory bursting regardless of the cellular propensity for synchronization, which aligns with predictions of the PING model. However, when a network's intra-connectivity dominates its inter-connectivity, the propensity for synchrony of either inhibitory or excitatory cells can determine the generation of network-wide bursting.

  9. Disinhibition mediates a form of hippocampal long-term potentiation in area CA1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake Ormond

    Full Text Available The hippocampus plays a central role in memory formation in the mammalian brain. Its ability to encode information is thought to depend on the plasticity of synaptic connections between neurons. In the pyramidal neurons constituting the primary hippocampal output to the cortex, located in area CA1, firing of presynaptic CA3 pyramidal neurons produces monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs followed rapidly by feedforward (disynaptic inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs. Long-term potentiation (LTP of the monosynaptic glutamatergic inputs has become the leading model of synaptic plasticity, in part due to its dependence on NMDA receptors (NMDARs, required for spatial and temporal learning in intact animals. Using whole-cell recording in hippocampal slices from adult rats, we find that the efficacy of synaptic transmission from CA3 to CA1 can be enhanced without the induction of classic LTP at the glutamatergic inputs. Taking care not to directly stimulate inhibitory fibers, we show that the induction of GABAergic plasticity at feedforward inhibitory inputs results in the reduced shunting of excitatory currents, producing a long-term increase in the amplitude of Schaffer collateral-mediated postsynaptic potentials. Like classic LTP, disinhibition-mediated LTP requires NMDAR activation, suggesting a role in types of learning and memory attributed primarily to the former and raising the possibility of a previously unrecognized target for therapeutic intervention in disorders linked to memory deficits, as well as a potentially overlooked site of LTP expression in other areas of the brain.

  10. Plasticity of Hippocampal Excitatory-Inhibitory Balance: Missing the Synaptic Control in the Epileptic Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bonansco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic plasticity is the capacity generated by experience to modify the neural function and, thereby, adapt our behaviour. Long-term plasticity of glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission occurs in a concerted manner, finely adjusting the excitatory-inhibitory (E/I balance. Imbalances of E/I function are related to several neurological diseases including epilepsy. Several evidences have demonstrated that astrocytes are able to control the synaptic plasticity, with astrocytes being active partners in synaptic physiology and E/I balance. Here, we revise molecular evidences showing the epileptic stage as an abnormal form of long-term brain plasticity and propose the possible participation of astrocytes to the abnormal increase of glutamatergic and decrease of GABAergic neurotransmission in epileptic networks.

  11. Behaviors, movements, and transmission of droplet-mediated respiratory diseases during transcontinental airline flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzberg, Vicki Stover; Weiss, Howard; Elon, Lisa; Si, Wenpei; Norris, Sharon L

    2018-04-03

    With over 3 billion airline passengers annually, the inflight transmission of infectious diseases is an important global health concern. Over a dozen cases of inflight transmission of serious infections have been documented, and air travel can serve as a conduit for the rapid spread of newly emerging infections and pandemics. Despite sensational media stories and anecdotes, the risks of transmission of respiratory viruses in an airplane cabin are unknown. Movements of passengers and crew may facilitate disease transmission. On 10 transcontinental US flights, we chronicled behaviors and movements of individuals in the economy cabin on single-aisle aircraft. We simulated transmission during flight based on these data. Our results indicate there is low probability of direct transmission to passengers not seated in close proximity to an infectious passenger. This data-driven, dynamic network transmission model of droplet-mediated respiratory disease is unique. To measure the true pathogen burden, our team collected 229 environmental samples during the flights. Although eight flights were during Influenza season, all qPCR assays for 18 common respiratory viruses were negative. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  12. Role for excitatory amino acids in methamphetamine-induced nigrostriatal dopaminergic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsalla, P K; Nicklas, W J; Heikkila, R E

    1989-01-20

    The systemic administration of either methamphetamine or 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to experimental animals produces degenerative changes in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons or their axon terminals. This study was conducted to determine if excitatory amino acids, which appear to be involved in various neurodegenerative disorders, might also contribute to the dopaminergic neurotoxicity produced in mice by either methamphetamine or MPTP. MK-801, phencyclidine, and ketamine, noncompetitive antagonists of one subtype of excitatory amino acid receptor, the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, provided substantial protection against neurotoxicity produced by methamphetamine but not that produced by MPTP. These findings indicate that excitatory amino acids play an important role in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic damage induced by methamphetamine.

  13. Evidence for an excitatory amino acid pathway in the brainstem and for its involvement in cardiovascular control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, P; Minson, J B; Morilak, D; Llewellyn-Smith, I; McIlhinney, J R; Chalmers, J

    1989-09-04

    The source and possible role of excitatory amino acid projections to areas of the ventrolateral medulla (VLM) involved in cardiovascular control were studied. Following the injection of [3H]D-aspartate ([3H]D-Asp), a selective tracer for excitatory amino acid pathways, into vasopressor or vasodepressor areas of the VLM in rats, more than 90% of retrogradely labelled neurones were found in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Very few of the [3H]D-Asp-labelled cells were immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase, none for phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase or gamma-aminobutyric acid. The density of labelled cells in the NTS was similar to that obtained with the non-selective tracers wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) and WGA-colloidal gold, but these tracers also labelled other cell groups in the medulla. Furthermore, the decrease in blood pressure, caused by pharmacological activation of neurones in the NTS of rats, or by electrical stimulation of the aortic depressor nerve in rabbits could be blocked by the selective N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate injected into the caudal vasodepressor area of the VLM. This area corresponds to the termination of [3H]D-Asp transporting NTS neurones. These results provide evidence that a population of NTS neurones projecting to the VLM use excitatory amino acids as transmitters. Among other possible functions, this pathway may mediate tonic and reflex control of blood pressure via NMDA receptors in the VLM.

  14. The brain cytoplasmic RNA BC1 regulates dopamine D2 receptor-mediated transmission in the striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centonze, Diego; Rossi, Silvia; Napoli, Ilaria; Mercaldo, Valentina; Lacoux, Caroline; Ferrari, Francesca; Ciotti, Maria Teresa; De Chiara, Valentina; Prosperetti, Chiara; Maccarrone, Mauro; Fezza, Filomena; Calabresi, Paolo; Bernardi, Giorgio; Bagni, Claudia

    2007-08-15

    Dopamine D(2) receptor (D(2)DR)-mediated transmission in the striatum is remarkably flexible, and changes in its efficacy have been heavily implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions. Although receptor-associated proteins are clearly involved in specific forms of synaptic plasticity, the molecular mechanisms regulating the sensitivity of D(2) receptors in this brain area are essentially obscure. We have studied the physiological responses of the D(2)DR stimulations in mice lacking the brain cytoplasmic RNA BC1, a small noncoding dendritically localized RNA that is supposed to play a role in mRNA translation. We show that the efficiency of D(2)-mediated transmission regulating striatal GABA synapses is under the control of BC1 RNA, through a negative influence on D(2) receptor protein level affecting the functional pool of receptors. Ablation of the BC1 gene did not result in widespread dysregulation of synaptic transmission, because the sensitivity of cannabinoid CB(1) receptors was intact in the striatum of BC1 knock-out (KO) mice despite D(2) and CB(1) receptors mediated similar electrophysiological actions. Interestingly, the fragile X mental retardation protein FMRP, one of the multiple BC1 partners, is not involved in the BC1 effects on the D(2)-mediated transmission. Because D(2)DR mRNA is apparently equally translated in the BC1-KO and wild-type mice, whereas the protein level is higher in BC1-KO mice, we suggest that BC1 RNA controls D(2)DR indirectly, probably regulating translation of molecules involved in D(2)DR turnover and/or stability.

  15. Transmission between type II hair cells and bouton afferents in the turtle posterior crista.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Joseph C; Xue, Jin-Tang; Brichta, Alan M; Goldberg, Jay M

    2006-01-01

    Synaptic activity was recorded with sharp microelectrodes during rest and during 0.3-Hz sinusoidal stimulation from bouton afferents identified by their efferent-mediated inhibitory responses. A glutamate antagonist, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) decreased quantal size (qsize) while lowering external Ca(2+) decreased quantal rate (qrate). Miniature excitatory postsynaptic potentials (mEPSPs) had effective durations (qdur) of 3.5-5 ms. Their timing was consistent with Poisson statistics. Mean qsizes ranged in different units from 0.25 to 0.73 mV and mean qrates from 200 to 1,500/s; there was an inverse relation across the afferent population between qrate and qsize. qsize distributions were consistent with the independent release of variable-sized quanta. Channel noise, measured during AMPA-induced depolarizations, was small compared with quantal noise. Excitatory responses were larger than inhibitory responses. Peak qrates, which could approach 3,000/s, led peak excitatory mechanical stimulation by 40 degrees . Quantal parameters varied with stimulation phase with qdur and qsize being maximal during inhibitory stimulation. Voltage modulation (vmod) was in phase with qrate and had a peak depolarization of 1.5-3 mV. On average, 80% of vmod was accounted for by quantal activity; the remaining 20% was a nonquantal component that persisted in the absence of quantal activity. The extracellular accumulation of glutamate and K(+) are potential sources of nonquantal transmission and may provide a basis for the inverse relation between qrate and qsize. Comparison of the phases of synaptic and spike activity suggests that both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms contribute to variations across afferents in the timing of spikes during sinusoidal stimulation.

  16. Subregion-specific modulation of excitatory input and dopaminergic output in the striatum by tonically activated glycine and GABAA receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise eAdermark

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The flow of cortical information through the basal ganglia is a complex spatiotemporal pattern of increased and decreased firing. The striatum is the biggest input nucleus to the basal ganglia and the aim of this study was to assess the role of inhibitory GABAA and glycine receptors in regulating synaptic activity in the dorsolateral (DLS and ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens, nAc. Local field potential recordings from coronal brain slices of juvenile and adult Wistar rats showed that GABAA receptors and strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors are tonically activated and inhibit excitatory input to the DLS and to the nAc. Strychnine-induced disinhibition of glutamatergic transmission was insensitive to the muscarinic receptor inhibitor scopolamine (10 µM, inhibited by the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist mecamylamine (10 µM and blocked by GABAA receptor inhibitors, suggesting that tonically activated glycine receptors depress excitatory input to the striatum through modulation of cholinergic and GABAergic neurotransmission. As an end-product example of striatal GABAergic output in vivo we measured dopamine release in the DLS and nAc by microdialysis in the awake and freely moving rat. Reversed dialysis of bicuculline (50 μM in perfusate only increased extrasynaptic dopamine levels in the nAc, while strychnine administered locally (200 μM in perfusate decreased dopamine output by 60% in both the DLS and nAc. Our data suggest that GABAA and glycine receptors are tonically activated and modulate striatal transmission in a partially sub-region specific manner.

  17. Degree of synchronization modulated by inhibitory neurons in clustered excitatory-inhibitory recurrent networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiyan; Sun, Xiaojuan; Xiao, Jinghua

    2018-01-01

    An excitatory-inhibitory recurrent neuronal network is established to numerically study the effect of inhibitory neurons on the synchronization degree of neuronal systems. The obtained results show that, with the number of inhibitory neurons and the coupling strength from an inhibitory neuron to an excitatory neuron increasing, inhibitory neurons can not only reduce the synchronization degree when the synchronization degree of the excitatory population is initially higher, but also enhance it when it is initially lower. Meanwhile, inhibitory neurons could also help the neuronal networks to maintain moderate synchronized states. In this paper, we call this effect as modulation effect of inhibitory neurons. With the obtained results, it is further revealed that the ratio of excitatory neurons to inhibitory neurons being nearly 4 : 1 is an economic and affordable choice for inhibitory neurons to realize this modulation effect.

  18. Selective synaptic targeting of the excitatory and inhibitory presynaptic organizers FGF22 and FGF7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terauchi, Akiko; Timmons, Kendall M; Kikuma, Koto; Pechmann, Yvonne; Kneussel, Matthias; Umemori, Hisashi

    2015-01-15

    Specific formation of excitatory and inhibitory synapses is crucial for proper functioning of the brain. Fibroblast growth factor 22 (FGF22) and FGF7 are postsynaptic-cell-derived presynaptic organizers necessary for excitatory and inhibitory presynaptic differentiation, respectively, in the hippocampus. For the establishment of specific synaptic networks, these FGFs must localize to appropriate synaptic locations - FGF22 to excitatory and FGF7 to inhibitory postsynaptic sites. Here, we show that distinct motor and adaptor proteins contribute to intracellular microtubule transport of FGF22 and FGF7. Excitatory synaptic targeting of FGF22 requires the motor proteins KIF3A and KIF17 and the adaptor protein SAP102 (also known as DLG3). By contrast, inhibitory synaptic targeting of FGF7 requires the motor KIF5 and the adaptor gephyrin. Time-lapse imaging shows that FGF22 moves with SAP102, whereas FGF7 moves with gephyrin. These results reveal the basis of selective targeting of the excitatory and inhibitory presynaptic organizers that supports their different synaptogenic functions. Finally, we found that knockdown of SAP102 or PSD95 (also known as DLG4), which impairs the differentiation of excitatory synapses, alters FGF7 localization, suggesting that signals from excitatory synapses might regulate inhibitory synapse formation by controlling the distribution of the inhibitory presynaptic organizer. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Preprotachykinin A is expressed by a distinct population of excitatory neurons in the mouse superficial spinal dorsal horn including cells that respond to noxious and pruritic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Mecinas, Maria; Bell, Andrew M; Marin, Alina; Taylor, Rebecca; Boyle, Kieran A; Furuta, Takahiro; Watanabe, Masahiko; Polgár, Erika; Todd, Andrew J

    2017-03-01

    The superficial dorsal horn, which is the main target for nociceptive and pruritoceptive primary afferents, contains a high density of excitatory interneurons. Our understanding of their roles in somatosensory processing has been restricted by the difficulty of distinguishing functional populations among these cells. We recently defined 3 nonoverlapping populations among the excitatory neurons, based on the expression of neurotensin, neurokinin B, and gastrin-releasing peptide. Here we identify and characterise another population: neurons that express the tachykinin peptide substance P. We show with immunocytochemistry that its precursor protein (preprotachykinin A, PPTA) can be detected in ∼14% of lamina I-II neurons, and these are concentrated in the outer part of lamina II. Over 80% of the PPTA-positive cells lack the transcription factor Pax2 (which determines an inhibitory phenotype), and these account for ∼15% of the excitatory neurons in this region. They are different from the neurotensin, neurokinin B, or gastrin-releasing peptide neurons, although many of them contain somatostatin, which is widely expressed among superficial dorsal horn excitatory interneurons. We show that many of these cells respond to noxious thermal and mechanical stimuli and to intradermal injection of pruritogens. Finally, we demonstrate that these cells can also be identified in a knock-in Cre mouse line (Tac1), although our findings suggest that there is an additional population of neurons that transiently express PPTA. This population of substance P-expressing excitatory neurons is likely to play an important role in the transmission of signals that are perceived as pain and itch.

  20. Excitatory components of the mammalian locomotor CPG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiehn, Ole; Quinlan, Katharina A.; Restrepo, Carlos Ernesto

    2008-01-01

    Locomotion in mammals is to a large degree controlled directly by intrinsic spinal networks, called central pattern generators (CPGs). The overall function of these networks is governed by interaction between inhibitory and excitatory neurons. In the present review, we will discuss recent finding...

  1. GABA-mediated synchronization in the human neocortex: elevations in extracellular potassium and presynaptic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louvel, J; Papatheodoropoulos, C; Siniscalchi, A; Kurcewicz, I; Pumain, R; Devaux, B; Turak, B; Esposito, V; Villemeure, J G; Avoli, M

    2001-01-01

    Field potential and extracellular [K(+)] ([K(+)](o)) recordings were made in the human neocortex in an in vitro slice preparation to study the synchronous activity that occurs in the presence of 4-aminopyridine (50 microM) and ionotropic excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists. Under these experimental conditions, negative or negative-positive field potentials accompanied by rises in [K(+)](o) (up to 4.1 mM from a baseline of 3.25 mM) occurred spontaneously at intervals of 3-27 s. Both field potentials and [K(+)](o) elevations were largest at approximately 1000 microm from the pia. Similar events were induced by neocortical electrical stimuli. Application of medium containing low [Ca(2+)]/high [Mg(2+)] (n=3 slices), antagonism of the GABA(A) receptor (n=7) or mu-opioid receptor activation (n=4) abolished these events. Hence, they represented network, GABA-mediated potentials mainly reflecting the activation of type A receptors following GABA release from interneurons. The GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen (10-100 microM, n=11) reduced and abolished the GABA-mediated potentials (ID(50)=18 microM). Baclofen effects were antagonized by the GABA(B) receptor antagonist CGP 35348 (0.1-1 mM, n=6; ID(50)=0.19 mM). CGP 38345 application to control medium increased the amplitude of the GABA-mediated potentials and the concomitant [K(+)](o) rises without modifying their rate of occurrence. The GABA-mediated potentials were not influenced by the broad-spectrum metabotropic glutamate agonist (+/-)-1-aminocyclopentane-trans-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (100 microM, n=10), but decreased in rate with the group I receptor agonist (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (10-100 microM, n=9). Our data indicate that human neocortical networks challenged with 4-aminopyridine generate glutamatergic-independent, GABA-mediated potentials that are modulated by mu-opioid and GABA(B) receptors presumably located on interneuron terminals. These events are associated with [K(+)](o) elevations that may

  2. Fast voltage-sensitive dye imaging of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in the rat granular retrosplenial cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixima, Ken'ichi; Okanoya, Kazuo; Ichinohe, Noritaka; Kurotani, Tohru

    2017-09-01

    Rodent granular retrosplenial cortex (GRS) has dense connections between the anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) and hippocampal formation. GRS superficial pyramidal neurons exhibit distinctive late spiking (LS) firing property and form patchy clusters with prominent apical dendritic bundles. The aim of this study was to investigate spatiotemporal dynamics of signal transduction in the GRS induced by ATN afferent stimulation by using fast voltage-sensitive dye imaging in rat brain slices. In coronal slices, layer 1a stimulation, which presumably activated thalamic fibers, evoked propagation of excitatory synaptic signals from layers 2-4 to layers 5-6 in a direction perpendicular to the layer axis, followed by transverse signal propagation within each layer. In the presence of ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists, inhibitory responses were observed in superficial layers, induced by direct activation of inhibitory interneurons in layer 1. In horizontal slices, excitatory signals in deep layers propagated transversely mainly from posterior to anterior via superficial layers. Cortical inhibitory responses upon layer 1a stimulation in horizontal slices were weaker than those in the coronal slices. Observed differences between coronal and horizontal planes suggest anisotropy of the intracortical circuitry. In conclusion, ATN inputs are processed differently in coronal and horizontal planes of the GRS and then conveyed to other cortical areas. In both planes, GRS superficial layers play an important role in signal propagation, which suggests that superficial neuronal cascade is crucial in the integration of multiple information sources. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Superficial neurons in the rat granular retrosplenial cortex (GRS) show distinctive late-spiking (LS) firing property. However, little is known about spatiotemporal dynamics of signal transduction in the GRS. We demonstrated LS neuron network relaying thalamic inputs to deep layers and anisotropic distribution of

  3. Do personality traits predict individual differences in excitatory and inhibitory learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin eHe

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Conditioned inhibition (CI is demonstrated in classical conditioning when a stimulus is used to signal the omission of an otherwise expected outcome. This basic learning ability is involved in a wide range of normal behaviour - and thus its disruption could produce a correspondingly wide range of behavioural deficits. The present study employed a computer-based task to measure conditioned excitation and inhibition in the same discrimination procedure. Conditioned inhibition by summation test was clearly demonstrated. Additionally summary measures of excitatory and inhibitory learning (difference scores were calculated in order to explore how performance related to individual differences in a large sample of normal participants (n=176 following exclusion of those not meeting the basic learning criterion. The individual difference measures selected derive from two biologically-based personality theories, Gray’s reinforcement sensitivity theory (1982 and Eysenck’s psychoticism, extraversion and neuroticism theory (1991. Following the behavioural tasks, participants completed the behavioural inhibition system/behavioural activation system scales (BIS/BAS and the Eysenck personality questionnaire revised short scale (EPQ-RS. Analyses of the relationship between scores on each of the scales and summary measures of excitatory and inhibitory learning suggested that those with higher BAS (specifically the drive sub-scale and higher EPQ-RS neuroticism showed reduced levels of excitatory conditioning. Inhibitory conditioning was similarly attenuated in those with higher EPQ-RS neuroticism, as well as in those with higher BIS scores. Thus the findings are consistent with higher levels of neuroticism being accompanied by generally impaired associative learning, both inhibitory and excitatory. There was also evidence for some dissociation in the effects of behavioural activation and behavioural inhibition on excitatory and inhibitory learning respectively.

  4. Methamphetamine reduces LTP and increases baseline synaptic transmission in the CA1 region of mouse hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarod Swant

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (METH is an addictive psychostimulant whose societal impact is on the rise. Emerging evidence suggests that psychostimulants alter synaptic plasticity in the brain--which may partly account for their adverse effects. While it is known that METH increases the extracellular concentration of monoamines dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, it is not clear how METH alters glutamatergic transmission. Within this context, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute and systemic METH on basal synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP; an activity-induced increase in synaptic efficacy in CA1 sub-field in the hippocampus. Both the acute ex vivo application of METH to hippocampal slices and systemic administration of METH decreased LTP. Interestingly, the acute ex vivo application of METH at a concentration of 30 or 60 microM increased baseline synaptic transmission as well as decreased LTP. Pretreatment with eticlopride (D2-like receptor antagonist did not alter the effects of METH on synaptic transmission or LTP. In contrast, pretreatment with D1/D5 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390 or 5-HT1A receptor antagonist NAN-190 abrogated the effect of METH on synaptic transmission. Furthermore, METH did not increase baseline synaptic transmission in D1 dopamine receptor haploinsufficient mice. Our findings suggest that METH affects excitatory synaptic transmission via activation of dopamine and serotonin receptor systems in the hippocampus. This modulation may contribute to synaptic maladaption induced by METH addiction and/or METH-mediated cognitive dysfunction.

  5. Dose-response relationships for environmentally mediated infectious disease transmission models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F Brouwer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally mediated infectious disease transmission models provide a mechanistic approach to examining environmental interventions for outbreaks, such as water treatment or surface decontamination. The shift from the classical SIR framework to one incorporating the environment requires codifying the relationship between exposure to environmental pathogens and infection, i.e. the dose-response relationship. Much of the work characterizing the functional forms of dose-response relationships has used statistical fit to experimental data. However, there has been little research examining the consequences of the choice of functional form in the context of transmission dynamics. To this end, we identify four properties of dose-response functions that should be considered when selecting a functional form: low-dose linearity, scalability, concavity, and whether it is a single-hit model. We find that i middle- and high-dose data do not constrain the low-dose response, and different dose-response forms that are equally plausible given the data can lead to significant differences in simulated outbreak dynamics; ii the choice of how to aggregate continuous exposure into discrete doses can impact the modeled force of infection; iii low-dose linear, concave functions allow the basic reproduction number to control global dynamics; and iv identifiability analysis offers a way to manage multiple sources of uncertainty and leverage environmental monitoring to make inference about infectivity. By applying an environmentally mediated infectious disease model to the 1993 Milwaukee Cryptosporidium outbreak, we demonstrate that environmental monitoring allows for inference regarding the infectivity of the pathogen and thus improves our ability to identify outbreak characteristics such as pathogen strain.

  6. Plant-mediated horizontal transmission of Rickettsia endosymbiont between different whitefly species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Han; Ahmed, Muhammad Z; Li, Shao-Jian; Lv, Ning; Shi, Pei-Qiong; Chen, Xiao-Sheng; Qiu, Bao-Li

    2017-12-01

    A growing number of studies have revealed the presence of closely related endosymbionts in phylogenetically distant arthropods, indicating horizontal transmission of these bacteria. Here we investigated the interspecific horizontal transmission of Rickettsia between two globally invasive whitefly species, Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 and B. tabaci MED, via cotton plants. We found both scattered and confined distribution patterns of Rickettsia in these whiteflies. After entering cotton leaves, Rickettsia was restricted to the leaf phloem vessels and could be taken up by both species of the Rickettsia-free whitefly adults, but only the scattered pattern was observed in the recipient whiteflies. Both the relative quantity of Rickettsia and the efficiency of transmitting Rickettsia into cotton leaves were significantly higher in MEAM1 females than in MED females. The retention time of Rickettsia transmitted from MEAM1 into cotton leaves was at least 5 days longer than that of MED. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and gltA genes confirmed that the Rickettsia extracted from the donor MEAM1, the cotton leaves, the recipient MEAM1 and the recipient MED were all identical. We conclude that cotton plants can mediate horizontal transmission of Rickettsia between different insect species, and that the transmission dynamics of Rickettsia vary with different host whitefly species. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Electrical field stimulation-induced excitatory responses of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effect of the endothelium on electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced excitatory responses of pulmonary artery segments from pulmonary hypertensive rats. Methods: Pulmonary hypertension was induced in rats with a single dose of monocrotaline (60 mg/kg) and 21 days later, arterial rings were set up for isometric tension ...

  8. Sequential dynamics in the motif of excitatory coupled elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkov, Alexander G.; Kazakov, Alexey O.; Osipov, Grigory V.

    2015-11-01

    In this article a new model of motif (small ensemble) of neuron-like elements is proposed. It is built with the use of the generalized Lotka-Volterra model with excitatory couplings. The main motivation for this work comes from the problems of neuroscience where excitatory couplings are proved to be the predominant type of interaction between neurons of the brain. In this paper it is shown that there are two modes depending on the type of coupling between the elements: the mode with a stable heteroclinic cycle and the mode with a stable limit cycle. Our second goal is to examine the chaotic dynamics of the generalized three-dimensional Lotka-Volterra model.

  9. Contribution of presynaptic HCN channels to excitatory inputs of spinal substantia gelatinosa neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, S-C; Wu, J; Zhang, D-Y; Jiang, C-Y; Xie, C-N; Liu, T

    2017-09-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are pathological pain-associated voltage-gated ion channels. They are widely expressed in central nervous system including spinal lamina II (also named the substantia gelatinosa, SG). Here, we examined the distribution of HCN channels in glutamatergic synaptic terminals as well as their role in the modulation of synaptic transmission in SG neurons from SD rats and glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 (GAD67)-GFP mice. We found that the expression of the HCN channel isoforms was varied in SG. The HCN4 isoform showed the highest level of co-localization with VGLUT2 (23±3%). In 53% (n=21/40 neurons) of the SG neurons examined in SD rats, application of HCN channel blocker, ZD7288 (10μM), decreased the frequency of spontaneous (s) and miniature (m) excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) by 37±4% and 33±4%, respectively. Consistently, forskolin (FSK) (an activator of adenylate cyclase) significantly increased the frequency of mEPSCs by 225±34%, which could be partially inhibited by ZD7288. Interestingly, the effects of ZD7288 and FSK on sEPSC frequency were replicated in non-GFP-expressing neurons, but not in GFP-expressing GABAergic SG neurons, in GAD67-GFP transgenic C57/BL6 mice. In summary, our results represent a previously unknown cellular mechanism by which presynaptic HCN channels, especially HCN4, regulate the glutamate release from presynaptic terminals that target excitatory, but not inhibitory SG interneurons. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic data provide evidence for wind-mediated transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ypma, Rolf J F; Jonges, Marcel; Bataille, Arnaud; Stegeman, Arjan; Koch, Guus; van Boven, Michiel; Koopmans, Marion; van Ballegooijen, W Marijn; Wallinga, Jacco

    2013-03-01

    Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in poultry can cause severe economic damage and represent a public health threat. Development of efficient containment measures requires an understanding of how these influenza viruses are transmitted between farms. However, the actual mechanisms of interfarm transmission are largely unknown. Dispersal of infectious material by wind has been suggested, but never demonstrated, as a possible cause of transmission between farms. Here we provide statistical evidence that the direction of spread of avian influenza A(H7N7) is correlated with the direction of wind at date of infection. Using detailed genetic and epidemiological data, we found the direction of spread by reconstructing the transmission tree for a large outbreak in the Netherlands in 2003. We conservatively estimate the contribution of a possible wind-mediated mechanism to the total amount of spread during this outbreak to be around 18%.

  11. pH modulation of glial glutamate transporters regulates synaptic transmission in the nucleus of the solitary tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrimmon, Donald R.; Martina, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) is the major site for termination of visceral sensory afferents contributing to homeostatic regulation of, for example, arterial pressure, gastric motility, and breathing. Whereas much is known about how different neuronal populations influence these functions, information about the role of glia remains scant. In this article, we propose that glia may contribute to NTS functions by modulating excitatory neurotransmission. We found that acidification (pH 7.0) depolarizes NTS glia by inhibiting K+-selective membrane currents. NTS glia also showed functional expression of voltage-sensitive glutamate transporters, suggesting that extracellular acidification regulates synaptic transmission by compromising glial glutamate uptake. To test this hypothesis, we evoked glutamatergic slow excitatory potentials (SEPs) in NTS neurons with repetitive stimulation (20 pulses at 10 Hz) of the solitary tract. This SEP depends on accumulation of glutamate following repetitive stimulation, since it was potentiated by blocking glutamate uptake with dl-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartic acid (TBOA) or a glia-specific glutamate transport blocker, dihydrokainate (DHK). Importantly, extracellular acidification (pH 7.0) also potentiated the SEP. This effect appeared to be mediated through a depolarization-induced inhibition of glial transporter activity, because it was occluded by TBOA and DHK. In agreement, pH 7.0 did not directly alter d-aspartate-induced responses in NTS glia or properties of presynaptic glutamate release. Thus acidification-dependent regulation of glial function affects synaptic transmission within the NTS. These results suggest that glia play a modulatory role in the NTS by integrating local tissue signals (such as pH) with synaptic inputs from peripheral afferents. PMID:23615553

  12. Excitatory amino acid transporters as potential drug targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunch, Lennart; Erichsen, Mette Navy; Jensen, Anders Asbjørn

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) are transmembrane proteins responsible for the uptake of (S)-glutamate (Glu) from the synaptic cleft, thereby terminating the glutamatergic neurotransmitter signal. Today five subtypes have been identified. Except for EAAT2, their individual...

  13. Probing for improved potency and in vivo bioavailability of excitatory amino acid transporter subtype 1 inhibitors UCPH-101 and UCPH-102: Design, synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of substituted 7-biphenyl analogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Mette Norman; Hansen, J; Artacho Ruiz, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Uptake of the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS, (S)-glutamate, is mediated by a family of excitatory amino acid transporters (EAAT). Previously we have explored the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of a series of EAAT1 selective inhibitors, leading to the development of the potent...... were designed, synthesized and characterized pharmacologically at EAAT1-3 in a [(3)H]-D-aspartate uptake assay. Most notably, the potent EAAT1 inhibition displayed of UCPH-101 and UCPH-102 was retained in analog 1d in which the napht-1-yl group in the 7-position of UCPH-102 has been replaced by an o...

  14. The importance of the excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    E. Bjørn-Yoshimoto, Walden; Underhill, Suzanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The neuronal excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3) is fairly ubiquitously expressed in the brain, though it does not necessarily maintain the same function everywhere. It is important in maintaining low local concentrations of glutamate, where its predominant post-synaptic localiza......Abstract The neuronal excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3) is fairly ubiquitously expressed in the brain, though it does not necessarily maintain the same function everywhere. It is important in maintaining low local concentrations of glutamate, where its predominant post...

  15. Chronic Loss of CA2 Transmission Leads to Hippocampal Hyperexcitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, Roman; Polygalov, Denis; Huang, Arthur J Y; Middleton, Steven J; Robert, Vincent; Wintzer, Marie E; Piskorowski, Rebecca A; Chevaleyre, Vivien; McHugh, Thomas J

    2017-05-03

    Hippocampal CA2 pyramidal cells project into both the neighboring CA1 and CA3 subfields, leaving them well positioned to influence network physiology and information processing for memory and space. While recent work has suggested unique roles for CA2, including encoding position during immobility and generating ripple oscillations, an interventional examination of the integrative functions of these connections has yet to be reported. Here we demonstrate that CA2 recruits feedforward inhibition in CA3 and that chronic genetically engineered shutdown of CA2-pyramidal-cell synaptic transmission consequently results in increased excitability of the recurrent CA3 network. In behaving mice, this led to spatially triggered episodes of network-wide hyperexcitability during exploration accompanied by the emergence of high-frequency discharges during rest. These findings reveal CA2 as a regulator of network processing in hippocampus and suggest that CA2-mediated inhibition in CA3 plays a key role in establishing the dynamic excitatory and inhibitory balance required for proper network function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pharmacology of morphine and morphine-3-glucuronide at opioid, excitatory amino acid, GABA and glycine binding sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, S.E.; Smith, M.T. (Department of Pharmacy, The University of Queensland (Australia)); Dood, P.R. (Clinical Research Centre, Royal Brisbane Hospital Foundation, Brisbane (Australia))

    1994-07-01

    Morphine in high doses and its major metabolite, morphine-3-glucuronide, cause CNS excitation following intrathecal and intracerebroventricular administration by an unknown mechanism. This study investigated whether morphine and morphine-3-glucuronide interact at major excitatory (glutamate), major inhibitory (GABA or glycine), or opioid binding sites. Homogenate binding assays were performed using specific radioligands. At opioid receptors, morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine caused an equipotent sodium shift, consistent with morphine-3-glucuronide behaving as an agonist. This suggests that morphine-3-glucuronide-mediated excitation is not caused by an interaction at opioid receptors. Morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine caused a weak inhibition of the binding of [sup 3]H-MK801 (non-competitive antagonist) and [sup 125]I-ifenprodil (polyamine site antagonist), but at unphysiologically high concentrations. This suggests that CNS excitation would not result from an interaction of morphine-3-glucuronide and high-dose morphine with these sites on the NMDA receptor. Morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine inhibited the binding of [sup 3]H-muscimol (GABA receptor agonist), [sup 3]H-diazepam and [sup 3]H-flunitraxepam (benzodiazepine agonists) binding very weakly, suggesting the excitatory effects of morphine-3-glucuronide and high-dose morphine are not elicited through GABA[sub A] receptors. Morphine-3-glucuronide and high-dose morphine did not prevent re-uptake of glutamate into presynaptic nerve terminals. In addition, morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine did not inhibit the binding of [sup 3]H-strychnine (glycine receptor antagonist) to synaptic membranes prepared from bovine spinal cord. It is concluded that excitation caused by high-dose morphine and morphine-3-glucuronide is not mediated by an interaction with postsynaptic amino acid receptors. (au) (30 refs.).

  17. A transgenic mouse line for molecular genetic analysis of excitatory glutamatergic neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgius, Lotta; Restrepo, C. Ernesto; Leao, Richardson N.

    2010-01-01

    Excitatory glutamatergic neurons are part of most of the neuronal circuits in the mammalian nervous system. We have used BAC-technology to generate a BAC-Vglut2::Cre mouse line where Cre expression is driven by the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (Vglut2) promotor. This BAC-Vglut2::Cre mouse line...... showed specific expression of Cre in Vglut2 positive cells in the spinal cord with no ectopic expression in GABAergic or glycinergic neurons. This mouse line also showed specific Cre expression in Vglut2 positive structures in the brain such as thalamus, hypothalamus, superior colliculi, inferior...... colliculi and deep cerebellar nuclei together with nuclei in the midbrain and hindbrain. Cre-mediated recombination was restricted to Cre expressing cells in the spinal cord and brain and occurred as early as E 12.5. Known Vglut2 positive neurons showed normal electrophysiological properties in the BAC...

  18. Alzheimer's Disease Brain-Derived Amyloid-{beta}-Mediated Inhibition of LTP In Vivo Is Prevented by Immunotargeting Cellular Prion Protein.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barry, Andrew E

    2011-05-18

    Synthetic amyloid-β protein (Aβ) oligomers bind with high affinity to cellular prion protein (PrP(C)), but the role of this interaction in mediating the disruption of synaptic plasticity by such soluble Aβ in vitro is controversial. Here we report that intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ-containing aqueous extracts of Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD) brain robustly inhibits long-term potentiation (LTP) without significantly affecting baseline excitatory synaptic transmission in the rat hippocampus in vivo. Moreover, the disruption of LTP was abrogated by immunodepletion of Aβ. Importantly, intracerebroventricular administration of antigen-binding antibody fragment D13, directed to a putative Aβ-binding site on PrP(C), prevented the inhibition of LTP by AD brain-derived Aβ. In contrast, R1, a Fab directed to the C terminus of PrP(C), a region not implicated in binding of Aβ, did not significantly affect the Aβ-mediated inhibition of LTP. These data support the pathophysiological significance of SDS-stable Aβ dimer and the role of PrP(C) in mediating synaptic plasticity disruption by soluble Aβ.

  19. Tourette syndrome and excitatory substances: is there a connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Li-Ping; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Li-Ping; Zhao, Jian-Bo; Lu, Jin-Fang; Liu, Qun; Wang, Hang-Yan

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between excitatory substances by testing the urine in children with Tourette syndrome (TS). We performed a control study involving 44 patients with TS and 44 normal children by investigating the children's daily eating habits. We used the gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer from Agilent. Substances for detection included 197 excitatory substances prohibited by the International Olympic Committee and other substances with similar chemical structures or biological functions for urine samples. Forty-four patients who did not take any drugs in the past 2 weeks enrolled in the study. The positive rate in the experiment group was three cases, while it was negative in the control group. The level of 1-testosterone increased in one extremely severe TS patient who ate large amounts of puffed food and drank an average of 350 ml of cola per day. Cathine and other substances with similar chemical constitution or similar biological effects increased in one severe TS patient who ate bags of instant noodles daily, according to the high score of the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale. An increase in ephedrine type, testosterone, and stimulants may be related to the pathogenesis of TS. Unhealthy food possibly causes TS. The relationship between excitatory substances and TS needs to be explored with the goal of providing more information on diagnosing and treating TS.

  20. Tensile force transmission in human patellar tendon fascicles is not mediated by glycosaminoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, René B; Hassenkam, Tue; Hansen, Philip

    2011-01-01

    suggested that the proteoglycan-associated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) found on the surface of the collagen fibrils may be an important transmitter of load, but existing results are ambiguous and have not investigated human tendons. We have used a small-scale mechanical testing system to measure...... change the tendon modulus, relative energy dissipation, peak stress, or peak strain. The effect of deformation rate was not modulated by the treatment either, indicating no effect on viscosity. These results suggest that GAGs cannot be considered mediators of tensile force transmission in the human...... patellar tendon, and as such, force transmission must either take place through other matrix components or the fibrils must be mechanically continuous at least to the tested length of 7 mm....

  1. Spinal Hb9::Cre-derived excitatory interneurons contribute to rhythm generation in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Vanessa; Dougherty, Kimberly J; Borgius, Lotta; Kiehn, Ole

    2017-01-27

    Rhythm generating neurons are thought to be ipsilaterally-projecting excitatory neurons in the thoracolumbar mammalian spinal cord. Recently, a subset of Shox2 interneurons (Shox2 non-V2a INs) was found to fulfill these criteria and make up a fraction of the rhythm-generating population. Here we use Hb9::Cre mice to genetically manipulate Hb9::Cre-derived excitatory interneurons (INs) in order to determine the role of these INs in rhythm generation. We demonstrate that this line captures a consistent population of spinal INs which is mixed with respect to neurotransmitter phenotype and progenitor domain, but does not overlap with the Shox2 non-V2a population. We also show that Hb9::Cre-derived INs include the comparatively small medial population of INs which continues to express Hb9 postnatally. When excitatory neurotransmission is selectively blocked by deleting Vglut2 from Hb9::Cre-derived INs, there is no difference in left-right and/or flexor-extensor phasing between these cords and controls, suggesting that excitatory Hb9::Cre-derived INs do not affect pattern generation. In contrast, the frequencies of locomotor activity are significantly lower in cords from Hb9::Cre-Vglut2 Δ/Δ mice than in cords from controls. Collectively, our findings indicate that excitatory Hb9::Cre-derived INs constitute a distinct population of neurons that participates in the rhythm generating kernel for spinal locomotion.

  2. Npas4 regulates excitatory-inhibitory balance within neural circuits through cell-type-specific gene programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Ivo; Mardinly, Alan R; Gabel, Harrison W; Bazinet, Jeremy E; Couch, Cameron H; Tzeng, Christopher P; Harmin, David A; Greenberg, Michael E

    2014-05-22

    The nervous system adapts to experience by inducing a transcriptional program that controls important aspects of synaptic plasticity. Although the molecular mechanisms of experience-dependent plasticity are well characterized in excitatory neurons, the mechanisms that regulate this process in inhibitory neurons are only poorly understood. Here, we describe a transcriptional program that is induced by neuronal activity in inhibitory neurons. We find that, while neuronal activity induces expression of early-response transcription factors such as Npas4 in both excitatory and inhibitory neurons, Npas4 activates distinct programs of late-response genes in inhibitory and excitatory neurons. These late-response genes differentially regulate synaptic input to these two types of neurons, promoting inhibition onto excitatory neurons while inducing excitation onto inhibitory neurons. These findings suggest that the functional outcomes of activity-induced transcriptional responses are adapted in a cell-type-specific manner to achieve a circuit-wide homeostatic response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Volume transmission-mediated encephalopathies: a possible new concept?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Hans-Peter; Dihné, Marcel

    2012-03-01

    There is strong evidence that the composition of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) influences brain development, neurogenesis, and behavior. The bidirectional exchange of CSF and interstitial fluid (ISF) across the ependymal and pia-glial membranes is required for these phenomena to occur. Because ISF surrounds the parenchymal compartment, neuroactive substances in the CSF and ISF can influence neuronal activity. Functionally important neuroactive substances are distributed to distant sites of the central nervous system by the convection and diffusion of CSF and ISF, a process known as volume transmission. It has recently been shown that pathologically altered CSF from patients with acute traumatic brain injury suppresses in vitro neuronal network activity (ivNNA) recorded by multielectrode arrays measuring synchronously bursting neural populations. Functionally relevant substances in pathologically altered CSF have been biochemically identified, and ivNNA has been partially recovered by pharmacologic intervention. It remains unclear whether the in vivo parenchymal compartment remains unaffected by pathologically altered CSF that significantly impairs ivNNA. We hypothesize that pathologic CSF alterations are not just passive indicators of brain diseases but that they actively and directly evoke functional disturbances in global brain activity through the distribution of neuroactive substances, for instance, secondary to focal neurologic disease. For this mechanism, we propose the new term volume transmission-mediated encephalopathies (VTE). Recording ivNNA in the presence of pure human CSF could help to identify and monitor functionally relevant CSF alterations that directly result in VTEs, and the collected data might point to therapeutic ways to antagonize these alterations.

  4. Making of a Synapse: Recurrent Roles of Drebrin A at Excitatory Synapses Throughout Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Chiye; Sherpa, Ang D

    2017-01-01

    Mature excitatory synapses are composed of more than 1500 proteins postsynaptically and hundreds more that operate presynaptically. Among them, drebrin is an F-actin-binding protein that increases noticeably during juvenile synaptogenesis. Electron microscopic analysis reveals that drebrin is highly enriched specifically on the postsynaptic side of excitatory synapses. Since dendritic spines are structures specialized for excitatory synaptic transmission, the function of drebrin was probed by analyzing the ultrastructural characteristics of dendritic spines of animals with genetic deletion of drebrin A (DAKO), the adult isoform of drebrin. Electron microscopic analyses revealed that these brains are surprisingly intact, in that axo-spinous synaptic junctions are well-formed and not significantly altered in number. This normal ultrastructure may be because drebrin E, the alternate embryonic isoform, compensates for the genetic deletion of drebrin A. However, DAKO results in the loss of homeostatic plasticity of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). The NMDAR activation-dependent trafficking of the NR2A subunit-containing NMDARs from dendritic shafts into spine head cytoplasm is greatly diminished within brains of DAKO. Conversely, within brains of wild-type rodents, spines respond to NMDAR blockade with influx of F-actin, drebrin A, and NR2A subunits of NMDARs. These observations indicate that drebrin A facilitates the trafficking of NMDAR cargos in an F-actin-dependent manner to mediate homeostatic plasticity. Analysis of the brains of transgenic mice used as models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) reveals that the loss of drebrin from dendritic spines predates the emergence of synaptic dysfunction and cognitive impairment, suggesting that this form of homeostatic plasticity contributes toward cognition. Two studies suggest that the nature of drebrin's interaction with NMDARs is dependent on the receptor's subunit composition. Drebrin A can be found co

  5. A Structural and Mutagenic Blueprint for Molecular Recognition of Strychnine and d-Tubocurarine by Different Cys-Loop Receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brams, M.; Pandya, A.; Kuzmin, D.; van Elk, R.; Krijnen, L.; Yakel, J.L.; Tsetlin, V.; Smit, A.B.; Ulens, C.

    2011-01-01

    Cys-loop receptors (CLR) are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels that mediate fast excitatory or inhibitory transmission in the nervous system. Strychnine and d-tubocurarine (d-TC) are neurotoxins that have been highly instrumental in decades of research on glycine receptors (GlyR) and nicotinic

  6. Schaffer collateral inputs to CA1 excitatory and inhibitory neurons follow different connectivity rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Osung; Feng, Linqing; Druckmann, Shaul; Kim, Jinhyun

    2018-05-04

    Neural circuits, governed by a complex interplay between excitatory and inhibitory neurons, are the substrate for information processing, and the organization of synaptic connectivity in neural network is an important determinant of circuit function. Here, we analyzed the fine structure of connectivity in hippocampal CA1 excitatory and inhibitory neurons innervated by Schaffer collaterals (SCs) using mGRASP in male mice. Our previous study revealed spatially structured synaptic connectivity between CA3-CA1 pyramidal cells (PCs). Surprisingly, parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PVs) showed a significantly more random pattern spatial structure. Notably, application of Peters' Rule for synapse prediction by random overlap between axons and dendrites enhanced structured connectivity in PCs, but, by contrast, made the connectivity pattern in PVs more random. In addition, PCs in a deep sublayer of striatum pyramidale appeared more highly structured than PCs in superficial layers, and little or no sublayer specificity was found in PVs. Our results show that CA1 excitatory PCs and inhibitory PVs innervated by the same SC inputs follow different connectivity rules. The different organizations of fine scale structured connectivity in hippocampal excitatory and inhibitory neurons provide important insights into the development and functions of neural networks. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Understanding how neural circuits generate behavior is one of the central goals of neuroscience. An important component of this endeavor is the mapping of fine-scale connection patterns that underlie, and help us infer, signal processing in the brain. Here, using our recently developed synapse detection technology (mGRASP and neuTube), we provide detailed profiles of synaptic connectivity in excitatory (CA1 pyramidal) and inhibitory (CA1 parvalbumin-positive) neurons innervated by the same presynaptic inputs (CA3 Schaffer collaterals). Our results reveal that these two types of CA1 neurons follow

  7. Effects of chronic stress in adolescence on learned fear, anxiety, and synaptic transmission in the rat prelimbic cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrón-Oyarzo, Ignacio; Pérez, Miguel Ángel; Terreros, Gonzalo; Muñoz, Pablo; Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies

    2014-02-01

    The prelimbic cortex and amygdala regulate the extinction of conditioned fear and anxiety, respectively. In adult rats, chronic stress affects the dendritic morphology of these brain areas, slowing extinction of learned fear and enhancing anxiety. The aim of this study was to determine whether rats subjected to chronic stress in adolescence show changes in learned fear, anxiety, and synaptic transmission in the prelimbic cortex during adulthood. Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to seven days of restraint stress on postnatal day forty-two (PND 42, adolescence). Afterward, the fear-conditioning paradigm was used to study conditioned fear extinction. Anxiety-like behavior was measured one day (PND 50) and twenty-one days (PND 70, adulthood) after stress using the elevated-plus maze and dark-light box tests, respectively. With another set of rats, excitatory synaptic transmission was analyzed with slices of the prelimbic cortex. Rats that had been stressed during adolescence and adulthood had higher anxiety-like behavior levels than did controls, while stress-induced slowing of learned fear extinction in adolescence was reversed during adulthood. As well, the field excitatory postsynaptic potentials of stressed adolescent rats had significantly lower amplitudes than those of controls, although the amplitudes were higher in adulthood. Our results demonstrate that short-term stress in adolescence induces strong effects on excitatory synaptic transmission in the prelimbic cortex and extinction of learned fear, where the effect of stress on anxiety is more persistent than on the extinction of learned fear. These data contribute to the understanding of stress neurobiology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Spinal Hb9::Cre-derived excitatory interneurons contribute to rhythm generation in the mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caldeira, Vanessa; Dougherty, Kimberly J.; Borgius, Lotta

    2017-01-01

    Rhythm generating neurons are thought to be ipsilaterally-projecting excitatory neurons in the thoracolumbar mammalian spinal cord. Recently, a subset of Shox2 interneurons (Shox2 non-V2a INs) was found to fulfill these criteria and make up a fraction of the rhythm-generating population. Here we...... than in cords from controls. Collectively, our findings indicate that excitatory Hb9::Cre-derived INs constitute a distinct population of neurons that participates in the rhythm generating kernel for spinal locomotion....... use Hb9::Cre mice to genetically manipulate Hb9::Cre-derived excitatory interneurons (INs) in order to determine the role of these INs in rhythm generation. We demonstrate that this line captures a consistent population of spinal INs which is mixed with respect to neurotransmitter phenotype...

  9. The intergenerational transmission of problem gambling: The mediating role of offspring gambling expectancies and motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, N A; Oldenhof, E; Shandley, K; Youssef, G J; Vasiliadis, S; Thomas, S A; Frydenberg, E; Jackson, A C

    2018-02-01

    The risk for developing a gambling problem is greater among offspring who have a problem gambling parent, yet little research has directly examined the mechanisms by which this transmission of problem gambling occurs. For this reason, the present study sought to examine the degree to which children's expectancies and motives relating to gambling explain, at least in part, the intergenerational transmission of problem gambling. Participants (N=524; 56.5% male) were recruited from educational institutions, and retrospectively reported on parental problem gambling. Problem gambling was measured using the Problem Gambling Severity Index and a range of positive and negative expectancies and gambling motives were explored as potential mediators of the relationship between parent-and-participant problem gambling. The relationship between parent-and-participant problem gambling was significant, and remained so after controlling for sociodemographic factors and administration method. Significant mediators of this relationship included self-enhancement expectancies (feeling in control), money expectancies (financial gain), over-involvement (preoccupation with gambling) and emotional impact expectancies (guilt, shame, and loss), as well as enhancement motives (gambling to increase positive feelings) and coping motives (gambling to reduce or avoid negative emotions). All mediators remained significant when entered into the same model. The findings highlight that gambling expectancies and motives present unique pathways to the development of problem gambling in the offspring of problem gambling parents, and suggest that gambling cognitions may be potential candidates for targeted interventions for the offspring of problem gamblers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A convergent and essential interneuron pathway for Mauthner-cell-mediated escapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacoste, Alix M B; Schoppik, David; Robson, Drew N; Haesemeyer, Martin; Portugues, Ruben; Li, Jennifer M; Randlett, Owen; Wee, Caroline L; Engert, Florian; Schier, Alexander F

    2015-06-01

    The Mauthner cell (M-cell) is a command-like neuron in teleost fish whose firing in response to aversive stimuli is correlated with short-latency escapes [1-3]. M-cells have been proposed as evolutionary ancestors of startle response neurons of the mammalian reticular formation [4], and studies of this circuit have uncovered important principles in neurobiology that generalize to more complex vertebrate models [3]. The main excitatory input was thought to originate from multisensory afferents synapsing directly onto the M-cell dendrites [3]. Here, we describe an additional, convergent pathway that is essential for the M-cell-mediated startle behavior in larval zebrafish. It is composed of excitatory interneurons called spiral fiber neurons, which project to the M-cell axon hillock. By in vivo calcium imaging, we found that spiral fiber neurons are active in response to aversive stimuli capable of eliciting escapes. Like M-cell ablations, bilateral ablations of spiral fiber neurons largely eliminate short-latency escapes. Unilateral spiral fiber neuron ablations shift the directionality of escapes and indicate that spiral fiber neurons excite the M-cell in a lateralized manner. Their optogenetic activation increases the probability of short-latency escapes, supporting the notion that spiral fiber neurons help activate M-cell-mediated startle behavior. These results reveal that spiral fiber neurons are essential for the function of the M-cell in response to sensory cues and suggest that convergent excitatory inputs that differ in their input location and timing ensure reliable activation of the M-cell, a feedforward excitatory motif that may extend to other neural circuits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. In vivo temporal property of GABAergic neural transmission in collateral feed-forward inhibition system of hippocampal-prefrontal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takita, Masatoshi; Kuramochi, Masahito; Izaki, Yoshinori; Ohtomi, Michiko

    2007-05-30

    Anatomical evidence suggests that rat CA1 hippocampal afferents collaterally innervate excitatory projecting pyramidal neurons and inhibitory interneurons, creating a disynaptic, feed-forward inhibition microcircuit in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We investigated the temporal relationship between the frequency of paired synaptic transmission and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic receptor-mediated modulation of the microcircuit in vivo under urethane anesthesia. Local perfusions of a GABAa antagonist (-)-bicuculline into the mPFC via microdialysis resulted in a statistically significant disinhibitory effect on intrinsic GABA action, increasing the first and second mPFC responses following hippocampal paired stimulation at interstimulus intervals of 100-200 ms, but not those at 25-50 ms. This (-)-bicuculline-induced disinhibition was compensated by the GABAa agonist muscimol, which itself did not attenuate the intrinsic oscillation of the local field potentials. The perfusion of a sub-minimal concentration of GABAb agonist (R)-baclofen slightly enhanced the synaptic transmission, regardless of the interstimulus interval. In addition to the tonic control by spontaneous fast-spiking GABAergic neurons, it is clear the sequential transmission of the hippocampal-mPFC pathway can phasically drive the collateral feed-forward inhibition system through activation of a GABAa receptor, bringing an active signal filter to the various types of impulse trains that enter the mPFC from the hippocampus in vivo.

  12. Bistability Analysis of Excitatory-Inhibitory Neural Networks in Limited-Sustained-Activity Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Yun; Wu Liang; Wu Dan; Zhu Shiqun

    2011-01-01

    Bistable behavior of neuronal complex networks is investigated in the limited-sustained-activity regime when the network is composed of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. The standard stability analysis is performed on the two metastable states separately. Both theoretical analysis and numerical simulations show consistently that the difference between time scales of excitatory and inhibitory populations can influence the dynamical behaviors of the neuronal networks dramatically, leading to the transition from bistable behaviors with memory effects to the collapse of bistable behaviors. These results may suggest one possible neuronal information processing by only tuning time scales. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  13. Expression of gastrin-releasing peptide by excitatory interneurons in the mouse superficial dorsal horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Mecinas, Maria; Watanabe, Masahiko; Todd, Andrew J

    2014-12-11

    Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and its receptor have been shown to play an important role in the sensation of itch. However, although GRP immunoreactivity has been detected in the spinal dorsal horn, there is debate about whether this originates from primary afferents or local excitatory interneurons. We therefore examined the relation of GRP immunoreactivity to that seen with antibodies that label primary afferent or excitatory interneuron terminals. We tested the specificity of the GRP antibody by preincubating with peptides with which it could potentially cross-react. We also examined tissue from a mouse line in which enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) is expressed under control of the GRP promoter. GRP immunoreactivity was seen in both primary afferent and non-primary glutamatergic axon terminals in the superficial dorsal horn. However, immunostaining was blocked by pre-incubation of the antibody with substance P, which is present at high levels in many nociceptive primary afferents. EGFP+ cells in the GRP-EGFP mouse did not express Pax2, and their axons contained the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2), indicating that they are excitatory interneurons. In most cases, their axons were also GRP-immunoreactive. Multiple-labelling immunocytochemical studies indicated that these cells did not express either of the preprotachykinin peptides, and that they generally lacked protein kinase Cγ, which is expressed by a subset of the excitatory interneurons in this region. These results show that GRP is expressed by a distinct population of excitatory interneurons in laminae I-II that are likely to be involved in the itch pathway. They also suggest that the GRP immunoreactivity seen in primary afferents in previous studies may have resulted from cross-reaction of the GRP antibody with substance P or the closely related peptide neurokinin A.

  14. A neuroprotective role for microRNA miR-1000 mediated by limiting glutamate excitotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verma, Pushpa; Augustine, George J; Ammar, Mohamed-Raafet

    2015-01-01

    Evidence has begun to emerge for microRNAs as regulators of synaptic signaling, specifically acting to control postsynaptic responsiveness during synaptic transmission. In this report, we provide evidence that Drosophila melanogaster miR-1000 acts presynaptically to regulate glutamate release at ...... a neuroprotective function in the brains of flies and mice. Drosophila miR-1000 showed activity-dependent expression, which might serve as a mechanism to allow neuronal activity to fine-tune the strength of excitatory synaptic transmission....

  15. An excitatory paraventricular nucleus to AgRP neuron circuit that drives hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krashes, Michael J; Shah, Bhavik P; Madara, Joseph C; Olson, David P; Strochlic, David E; Garfield, Alastair S; Vong, Linh; Pei, Hongjuan; Watabe-Uchida, Mitsuko; Uchida, Naoshige; Liberles, Stephen D; Lowell, Bradford B

    2014-03-13

    Hunger is a hard-wired motivational state essential for survival. Agouti-related peptide (AgRP)-expressing neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) at the base of the hypothalamus are crucial to the control of hunger. They are activated by caloric deficiency and, when naturally or artificially stimulated, they potently induce intense hunger and subsequent food intake. Consistent with their obligatory role in regulating appetite, genetic ablation or chemogenetic inhibition of AgRP neurons decreases feeding. Excitatory input to AgRP neurons is important in caloric-deficiency-induced activation, and is notable for its remarkable degree of caloric-state-dependent synaptic plasticity. Despite the important role of excitatory input, its source(s) has been unknown. Here, through the use of Cre-recombinase-enabled, cell-specific neuron mapping techniques in mice, we have discovered strong excitatory drive that, unexpectedly, emanates from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, specifically from subsets of neurons expressing thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP, also known as ADCYAP1). Chemogenetic stimulation of these afferent neurons in sated mice markedly activates AgRP neurons and induces intense feeding. Conversely, acute inhibition in mice with caloric-deficiency-induced hunger decreases feeding. Discovery of these afferent neurons capable of triggering hunger advances understanding of how this intense motivational state is regulated.

  16. Synaptic Impairment in Layer 1 of the Prefrontal Cortex Induced by Repeated Stress During Adolescence is Reversed in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrón-Oyarzo, Ignacio; Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies; Muñoz Carvajal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress is a risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders, some of which involve dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). There is a higher prevalence of these chronic stress-related psychiatric disorders during adolescence, when the PFC has not yet fully matured. In the present work we studied the effect of repeated stress during adolescence on synaptic function in the PFC in adolescence and adulthood. To this end, adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to seven consecutive days of restraint stress. Afterward, both synaptic transmission and short- and long-term synaptic plasticity were evaluated in layer 1 of medial-PFC (mPFC) slices from adolescent and adult rats. We found that repeated stress significantly reduced the amplitude of evoked field excitatory post-synaptic potential (fEPSP) in the mPFC. Isolation of excitatory transmission reveled that lower-amplitude fEPSPs were associated with a reduction in α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor-mediated transmission. We also found that repeated stress significantly decreased long-term depression (LTD). Interestingly, AMPA/kainate receptor-mediated transmission and LTD were recovered in adult animals that experienced a three-week stress-free recovery period. The data indicates that the changes in synaptic transmission and plasticity in the mPFC induced by repeated stress during adolescence are reversed in adulthood after a stress-free period. PMID:26617490

  17. Synaptic impairment in layer 1 of the prefrontal cortex induced by repeated stress during adolescence is reversed in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio eNegron-Oyarzo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress is a risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders, some of which involve dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex (PFC. There is a higher prevalence of these chronic stress-related psychiatric disorders during adolescence, when the PFC has not yet fully matured. In the present work we studied the effect of repeated stress during adolescence on synaptic function in the PFC in adolescence and adulthood. To this end, adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to seven consecutive days of restraint stress. Afterward, both synaptic transmission and short- and long-term synaptic plasticity were evaluated in layer 1 of medial-PFC (mPFC slices from adolescent and adult rats. We found that repeated stress significantly reduced the amplitude of evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP in the mPFC. Isolation of excitatory transmission reveled that lower-amplitude fEPSPs were associated with a reduction in AMPA/kainate receptor-mediated transmission. We also found that repeated stress significantly decreased long-term depression (LTD. Interestingly, AMPA/kainate receptor-mediated transmission and LTD were recovered in adult animals that experienced a three-week stress-free recovery period. The data indicates that the changes in synaptic transmission and plasticity in the mPFC induced by repeated stress during adolescence are reversed in adulthood after a stress-free period.

  18. The effect of STDP temporal kernel structure on the learning dynamics of single excitatory and inhibitory synapses.

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    Yotam Luz

    Full Text Available Spike-Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP is characterized by a wide range of temporal kernels. However, much of the theoretical work has focused on a specific kernel - the "temporally asymmetric Hebbian" learning rules. Previous studies linked excitatory STDP to positive feedback that can account for the emergence of response selectivity. Inhibitory plasticity was associated with negative feedback that can balance the excitatory and inhibitory inputs. Here we study the possible computational role of the temporal structure of the STDP. We represent the STDP as a superposition of two processes: potentiation and depression. This allows us to model a wide range of experimentally observed STDP kernels, from Hebbian to anti-Hebbian, by varying a single parameter. We investigate STDP dynamics of a single excitatory or inhibitory synapse in purely feed-forward architecture. We derive a mean-field-Fokker-Planck dynamics for the synaptic weight and analyze the effect of STDP structure on the fixed points of the mean field dynamics. We find a phase transition along the Hebbian to anti-Hebbian parameter from a phase that is characterized by a unimodal distribution of the synaptic weight, in which the STDP dynamics is governed by negative feedback, to a phase with positive feedback characterized by a bimodal distribution. The critical point of this transition depends on general properties of the STDP dynamics and not on the fine details. Namely, the dynamics is affected by the pre-post correlations only via a single number that quantifies its overlap with the STDP kernel. We find that by manipulating the STDP temporal kernel, negative feedback can be induced in excitatory synapses and positive feedback in inhibitory. Moreover, there is an exact symmetry between inhibitory and excitatory plasticity, i.e., for every STDP rule of inhibitory synapse there exists an STDP rule for excitatory synapse, such that their dynamics is identical.

  19. Dynamic excitatory and inhibitory gain modulation can produce flexible, robust and optimal decision-making.

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    Ritwik K Niyogi

    Full Text Available Behavioural and neurophysiological studies in primates have increasingly shown the involvement of urgency signals during the temporal integration of sensory evidence in perceptual decision-making. Neuronal correlates of such signals have been found in the parietal cortex, and in separate studies, demonstrated attention-induced gain modulation of both excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Although previous computational models of decision-making have incorporated gain modulation, their abstract forms do not permit an understanding of the contribution of inhibitory gain modulation. Thus, the effects of co-modulating both excitatory and inhibitory neuronal gains on decision-making dynamics and behavioural performance remain unclear. In this work, we incorporate time-dependent co-modulation of the gains of both excitatory and inhibitory neurons into our previous biologically based decision circuit model. We base our computational study in the context of two classic motion-discrimination tasks performed in animals. Our model shows that by simultaneously increasing the gains of both excitatory and inhibitory neurons, a variety of the observed dynamic neuronal firing activities can be replicated. In particular, the model can exhibit winner-take-all decision-making behaviour with higher firing rates and within a significantly more robust model parameter range. It also exhibits short-tailed reaction time distributions even when operating near a dynamical bifurcation point. The model further shows that neuronal gain modulation can compensate for weaker recurrent excitation in a decision neural circuit, and support decision formation and storage. Higher neuronal gain is also suggested in the more cognitively demanding reaction time than in the fixed delay version of the task. Using the exact temporal delays from the animal experiments, fast recruitment of gain co-modulation is shown to maximize reward rate, with a timescale that is surprisingly near the

  20. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Inhibit Transmission of α-Synuclein by Modulating Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis in a Parkinsonian Model

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    Se Hee Oh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ample evidence suggests that α-synuclein is released from cells and propagated from one area of the brain to others via cell-to-cell transmission. In terms of their prion-like behavior, α-synuclein propagation plays key roles in the pathogenesis and progression of α-synucleinopathies. Using α-synuclein-enriched models, we show that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs inhibited α-synuclein transmission by blocking the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of extracellular α-synuclein via modulation of the interaction with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, which led to a prosurvival effect on cortical and dopaminergic neurons with functional improvement of motor deficits in α-synuclein-enriched models. Furthermore, we identify that galectin-1, a soluble factor derived from MSCs, played an important role in the transmission control of aggregated α-synuclein in these models. The present data indicated that MSCs exert neuroprotective properties through inhibition of extracellular α-synuclein transmission, suggesting that the property of MSCs may act as a disease-modifying therapy in subjects with α-synucleinopathies.

  1. Parallel prefrontal pathways reach distinct excitatory and inhibitory systems in memory-related rhinal cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, Jamie G; Zikopoulos, Basilis; Feinberg, Marcia; Barbas, Helen

    2013-12-15

    To investigate how prefrontal cortices impinge on medial temporal cortices we labeled pathways from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and posterior orbitofrontal cortex (pOFC) in rhesus monkeys to compare their relationship with excitatory and inhibitory systems in rhinal cortices. The ACC pathway terminated mostly in areas 28 and 35 with a high proportion of large terminals, whereas the pOFC pathway terminated mostly through small terminals in area 36 and sparsely in areas 28 and 35. Both pathways terminated in all layers. Simultaneous labeling of pathways and distinct neurochemical classes of inhibitory neurons, followed by analyses of appositions of presynaptic and postsynaptic fluorescent signal, or synapses, showed overall predominant association with spines of putative excitatory neurons, but also significant interactions with presumed inhibitory neurons labeled for calretinin, calbindin, or parvalbumin. In the upper layers of areas 28 and 35 the ACC pathway was associated with dendrites of neurons labeled with calretinin, which are thought to disinhibit neighboring excitatory neurons, suggesting facilitated hippocampal access. In contrast, in area 36 pOFC axons were associated with dendrites of calbindin neurons, which are poised to reduce noise and enhance signal. In the deep layers, both pathways innervated mostly dendrites of parvalbumin neurons, which strongly inhibit neighboring excitatory neurons, suggesting gating of hippocampal output to other cortices. These findings suggest that the ACC, associated with attention and context, and the pOFC, associated with emotional valuation, have distinct contributions to memory in rhinal cortices, in processes that are disrupted in psychiatric diseases. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Efficient Coding and Energy Efficiency Are Promoted by Balanced Excitatory and Inhibitory Synaptic Currents in Neuronal Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lianchun; Shen, Zhou; Wang, Chen; Yu, Yuguo

    2018-01-01

    costs and information maximization is a potential principle for cortical circuit networks. We conducted numerical simulations and mathematical analysis to examine the energy efficiency of neural information transmission in a recurrent network as a function of the ratio of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic connections. We obtained a general solution showing that there exists an optimal E/I synaptic ratio in a recurrent network at which the information transmission as well as the energy efficiency of this network achieves a global maximum. These results reflect general mechanisms for sensory coding processes, which may give insight into the energy efficiency of neural communication and coding.

  3. Network models predict that reduced excitatory fluctuations can give rise to hippocampal network hyper-excitability in MeCP2-null mice.

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    Ernest C Y Ho

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome is a severe pediatric neurological disorder caused by loss of function mutations within the gene encoding methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2. Although MeCP2 is expressed near ubiquitously, the primary pathophysiology of Rett syndrome stems from impairments of nervous system function. One alteration within different regions of the MeCP2-deficient brain is the presence of hyper-excitable network responses. In the hippocampus, such responses exist despite there being an overall decrease in spontaneous excitatory drive within the network. In this study, we generated and used mathematical, neuronal network models to resolve this apparent paradox. We did this by taking advantage of previous mathematical modelling insights that indicated that decreased excitatory fluctuations, but not mean excitatory drive, more critically explain observed changes in hippocampal network oscillations from MeCP2-null mouse slices. Importantly, reduced excitatory fluctuations could also bring about hyper-excitable responses in our network models. Therefore, these results indicate that diminished excitatory fluctuations may be responsible for the hyper-excitable state of MeCP2-deficient hippocampal circuitry.

  4. Extraordinary acoustic transmission mediated by Helmholtz resonators

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    Vijay Koju

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate perfect transmission of sound through a rigid barrier embedded with Helmholtz resonators. The resonators are confined within a waveguide and they are oriented such that one neck protrudes onto each side of the barrier. Perfect sound transmission occurs even though the open area of the necks is less than 3% of the barrier area. Maximum transmission occurs at the resonant frequency of the Helmholtz resonator. Because the dimensions of the Helmholtz resonators are much smaller than the resonant wavelength, the transmission is independent of the direction of sound on the barrier and of the relative placement of the necks. Further, we show that the transmitted sound experiences a continuous phase transition of π radians as a function of frequency through resonance. In simulations of adjacent resonators with slightly offset resonance frequencies, the phase difference leads to destructive interference. By expanding the simulation to a linear array of tuned Helmholtz resonators we show that it is possible to create an acoustic lens. The ability of Helmholtz resonator arrays to manipulate the phase of a plane acoustic wave enables a new class of sonic beam-forming devices analogous to diffractive optics.

  5. Unsupervised discrimination of patterns in spiking neural networks with excitatory and inhibitory synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa, Narayan; Cho, Youngkwan

    2014-01-01

    A spiking neural network model is described for learning to discriminate among spatial patterns in an unsupervised manner. The network anatomy consists of source neurons that are activated by external inputs, a reservoir that resembles a generic cortical layer with an excitatory-inhibitory (EI) network and a sink layer of neurons for readout. Synaptic plasticity in the form of STDP is imposed on all the excitatory and inhibitory synapses at all times. While long-term excitatory STDP enables sparse and efficient learning of the salient features in inputs, inhibitory STDP enables this learning to be stable by establishing a balance between excitatory and inhibitory currents at each neuron in the network. The synaptic weights between source and reservoir neurons form a basis set for the input patterns. The neural trajectories generated in the reservoir due to input stimulation and lateral connections between reservoir neurons can be readout by the sink layer neurons. This activity is used for adaptation of synapses between reservoir and sink layer neurons. A new measure called the discriminability index (DI) is introduced to compute if the network can discriminate between old patterns already presented in an initial training session. The DI is also used to compute if the network adapts to new patterns without losing its ability to discriminate among old patterns. The final outcome is that the network is able to correctly discriminate between all patterns-both old and new. This result holds as long as inhibitory synapses employ STDP to continuously enable current balance in the network. The results suggest a possible direction for future investigation into how spiking neural networks could address the stability-plasticity question despite having continuous synaptic plasticity.

  6. Electrical stimulation of dog pudendal nerve regulates the excitatory pudendal-to-bladder reflex

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    Yan-he Ju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pudendal nerve plays an important role in urine storage and voiding. Our hypothesis is that a neuroprosthetic device placed in the pudendal nerve trunk can modulate bladder function after suprasacral spinal cord injury. We had confirmed the inhibitory pudendal-to-bladder reflex by stimulating either the branch or the trunk of the pudendal nerve. This study explored the excitatory pudendal-to-bladder reflex in beagle dogs, with intact or injured spinal cord, by electrical stimulation of the pudendal nerve trunk. The optimal stimulation frequency was approximately 15-25 Hz. This excitatory effect was dependent to some extent on the bladder volume. We conclude that stimulation of the pudendal nerve trunk is a promising method to modulate bladder function.

  7. The brain cytoplasmic RNA BC1 regulates dopamine D-2 receptor-mediated transmission in the striatum

    OpenAIRE

    Centonze, Diego; Rossi, Silvia; Napoli, Ilaria; Mercaldo, Valentina; Lacoux, Caroline; Ferrari, Francesca; Ciotti, Maria Teresa; De Chiara, Valentina; Prosperetti, Chiara; Maccarrone, Mauro; Fezza, Filomena; Calabresi, Paolo; Bernardi, Giorgio; Bagni, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    Dopamine D-2 receptor (D2DR)-mediated transmission in the striatum is remarkably flexible, and changes in its efficacy have been heavily implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions. Although receptor-associated proteins are clearly involved in specific forms of synaptic plasticity, the molecular mechanisms regulating the sensitivity of D-2 receptors in this brain area are essentially obscure. We have studied the physiological responses of the D2DR stimulations in mice...

  8. TGF-β Signaling in Dopaminergic Neurons Regulates Dendritic Growth, Excitatory-Inhibitory Synaptic Balance, and Reversal Learning

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    Sarah X. Luo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Neural circuits involving midbrain dopaminergic (DA neurons regulate reward and goal-directed behaviors. Although local GABAergic input is known to modulate DA circuits, the mechanism that controls excitatory/inhibitory synaptic balance in DA neurons remains unclear. Here, we show that DA neurons use autocrine transforming growth factor β (TGF-β signaling to promote the growth of axons and dendrites. Surprisingly, removing TGF-β type II receptor in DA neurons also disrupts the balance in TGF-β1 expression in DA neurons and neighboring GABAergic neurons, which increases inhibitory input, reduces excitatory synaptic input, and alters phasic firing patterns in DA neurons. Mice lacking TGF-β signaling in DA neurons are hyperactive and exhibit inflexibility in relinquishing learned behaviors and re-establishing new stimulus-reward associations. These results support a role for TGF-β in regulating the delicate balance of excitatory/inhibitory synaptic input in local microcircuits involving DA and GABAergic neurons and its potential contributions to neuropsychiatric disorders.

  9. Traveling wave front solutions in lateral-excitatory neuronal networks

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    Sittipong Ruktamatakul

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the shape of traveling wave front solutions to a neuronal model with the connection function to be of lateral excitation type. This means that close connecting cells have an inhibitory influence, while cells that aremore distant have an excitatory influence. We give results on the shape of the wave fronts solutions, which exhibit different shapes depend ing on the size of a threshold parameter.

  10. Contribution of NMDA receptor hypofunction in prefrontal and cortical excitatory neurons to schizophrenia-like phenotypes.

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    Gregory R Rompala

    Full Text Available Pharmacological and genetic studies support a role for NMDA receptor (NMDAR hypofunction in the etiology of schizophrenia. We have previously demonstrated that NMDAR obligatory subunit 1 (GluN1 deletion in corticolimbic interneurons during early postnatal development is sufficient to confer schizophrenia-like phenotypes in mice. However, the consequence of NMDAR hypofunction in cortical excitatory neurons is not well delineated. Here, we characterize a conditional knockout mouse strain (CtxGluN1 KO mice, in which postnatal GluN1 deletion is largely confined to the excitatory neurons in layer II/III of the medial prefrontal cortex and sensory cortices, as evidenced by the lack of GluN1 mRNA expression in in situ hybridization immunocytochemistry as well as the lack of NMDA currents with in vitro recordings. Mutants were impaired in prepulse inhibition of the auditory startle reflex as well as object-based short-term memory. However, they did not exhibit impairments in additional hallmarks of schizophrenia-like phenotypes (e.g. spatial working memory, social behavior, saccharine preference, novelty and amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion, and anxiety-related behavior. Furthermore, upon administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, there were no differences in locomotor activity versus controls. The mutant mice also showed negligible levels of reactive oxygen species production following chronic social isolation, and recording of miniature-EPSC/IPSCs from layer II/III excitatory neurons in medial prefrontal cortex suggested no alteration in GABAergic activity. All together, the mutant mice displayed cognitive deficits in the absence of additional behavioral or cellular phenotypes reflecting schizophrenia pathophysiology. Thus, NMDAR hypofunction in prefrontal and cortical excitatory neurons may recapitulate only a cognitive aspect of human schizophrenia symptoms.

  11. Contribution of NMDA receptor hypofunction in prefrontal and cortical excitatory neurons to schizophrenia-like phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rompala, Gregory R; Zsiros, Veronika; Zhang, Shuqin; Kolata, Stefan M; Nakazawa, Kazu

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacological and genetic studies support a role for NMDA receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction in the etiology of schizophrenia. We have previously demonstrated that NMDAR obligatory subunit 1 (GluN1) deletion in corticolimbic interneurons during early postnatal development is sufficient to confer schizophrenia-like phenotypes in mice. However, the consequence of NMDAR hypofunction in cortical excitatory neurons is not well delineated. Here, we characterize a conditional knockout mouse strain (CtxGluN1 KO mice), in which postnatal GluN1 deletion is largely confined to the excitatory neurons in layer II/III of the medial prefrontal cortex and sensory cortices, as evidenced by the lack of GluN1 mRNA expression in in situ hybridization immunocytochemistry as well as the lack of NMDA currents with in vitro recordings. Mutants were impaired in prepulse inhibition of the auditory startle reflex as well as object-based short-term memory. However, they did not exhibit impairments in additional hallmarks of schizophrenia-like phenotypes (e.g. spatial working memory, social behavior, saccharine preference, novelty and amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion, and anxiety-related behavior). Furthermore, upon administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, there were no differences in locomotor activity versus controls. The mutant mice also showed negligible levels of reactive oxygen species production following chronic social isolation, and recording of miniature-EPSC/IPSCs from layer II/III excitatory neurons in medial prefrontal cortex suggested no alteration in GABAergic activity. All together, the mutant mice displayed cognitive deficits in the absence of additional behavioral or cellular phenotypes reflecting schizophrenia pathophysiology. Thus, NMDAR hypofunction in prefrontal and cortical excitatory neurons may recapitulate only a cognitive aspect of human schizophrenia symptoms.

  12. Glycine receptors support excitatory neurotransmitter release in developing mouse visual cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Portia A; Burette, Alain C; Weinberg, Richard J; Philpot, Benjamin D

    2012-01-01

    Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are found in most areas of the brain, and their dysfunction can cause severe neurological disorders. While traditionally thought of as inhibitory receptors, presynaptic-acting GlyRs (preGlyRs) can also facilitate glutamate release under certain circumstances, although the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. In the current study, we sought to better understand the role of GlyRs in the facilitation of excitatory neurotransmitter release in mouse visual cortex. Using whole-cell recordings, we found that preGlyRs facilitate glutamate release in developing, but not adult, visual cortex. The glycinergic enhancement of neurotransmitter release in early development depends on the high intracellular to extracellular Cl− gradient maintained by the Na+–K+–2Cl− cotransporter and requires Ca2+ entry through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. The glycine transporter 1, localized to glial cells, regulates extracellular glycine concentration and the activation of these preGlyRs. Our findings demonstrate a developmentally regulated mechanism for controlling excitatory neurotransmitter release in the neocortex. PMID:22988142

  13. Feeding Behavior Modulates Biofilm-Mediated Transmission of Yersinia pestis by the Cat Flea, Ctenocephalides felis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, David M.; Hinnebusch, B. Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, is prevalent worldwide, will parasitize animal reservoirs of plague, and is associated with human habitations in known plague foci. Despite its pervasiveness, limited information is available about the cat flea’s competence as a vector for Yersinia pestis. It is generally considered to be a poor vector, based on studies examining early-phase transmission during the first week after infection, but transmission potential by the biofilm-dependent proventricular-blocking mechanism has never been systematically evaluated. In this study, we assessed the vector competence of cat fleas by both mechanisms. Because the feeding behavior of cat fleas differs markedly from important rat flea vectors, we also examined the influence of feeding behavior on transmission dynamics. Methodology/Principal Findings Groups of cat fleas were infected with Y. pestis and subsequently provided access to sterile blood meals twice-weekly, 5 times per week, or daily for 4 weeks and monitored for infection, the development of proventricular biofilm and blockage, mortality, and the ability to transmit. In cat fleas allowed prolonged, daily access to blood meals, mimicking their natural feeding behavior, Y. pestis did not efficiently colonize the digestive tract and could only be transmitted during the first week after infection. In contrast, cat fleas that were fed intermittently, mimicking the feeding behavior of the efficient vector Xenopsylla cheopis, could become blocked and regularly transmitted Y. pestis for 3–4 weeks by the biofilm-mediated mechanism, but early-phase transmission was not detected. Conclusions The normal feeding behavior of C. felis, more than an intrinsic resistance to infection or blockage by Y. pestis, limits its vector competence. Rapid turnover of midgut contents results in bacterial clearance and disruption of biofilm accumulation in the proventriculus. Anatomical features of the cat flea foregut may also restrict

  14. Feeding Behavior Modulates Biofilm-Mediated Transmission of Yersinia pestis by the Cat Flea, Ctenocephalides felis.

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    David M Bland

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, is prevalent worldwide, will parasitize animal reservoirs of plague, and is associated with human habitations in known plague foci. Despite its pervasiveness, limited information is available about the cat flea's competence as a vector for Yersinia pestis. It is generally considered to be a poor vector, based on studies examining early-phase transmission during the first week after infection, but transmission potential by the biofilm-dependent proventricular-blocking mechanism has never been systematically evaluated. In this study, we assessed the vector competence of cat fleas by both mechanisms. Because the feeding behavior of cat fleas differs markedly from important rat flea vectors, we also examined the influence of feeding behavior on transmission dynamics.Groups of cat fleas were infected with Y. pestis and subsequently provided access to sterile blood meals twice-weekly, 5 times per week, or daily for 4 weeks and monitored for infection, the development of proventricular biofilm and blockage, mortality, and the ability to transmit. In cat fleas allowed prolonged, daily access to blood meals, mimicking their natural feeding behavior, Y. pestis did not efficiently colonize the digestive tract and could only be transmitted during the first week after infection. In contrast, cat fleas that were fed intermittently, mimicking the feeding behavior of the efficient vector Xenopsylla cheopis, could become blocked and regularly transmitted Y. pestis for 3-4 weeks by the biofilm-mediated mechanism, but early-phase transmission was not detected.The normal feeding behavior of C. felis, more than an intrinsic resistance to infection or blockage by Y. pestis, limits its vector competence. Rapid turnover of midgut contents results in bacterial clearance and disruption of biofilm accumulation in the proventriculus. Anatomical features of the cat flea foregut may also restrict transmission by both early-phase and

  15. Feeding Behavior Modulates Biofilm-Mediated Transmission of Yersinia pestis by the Cat Flea, Ctenocephalides felis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, David M; Hinnebusch, B Joseph

    2016-02-01

    The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, is prevalent worldwide, will parasitize animal reservoirs of plague, and is associated with human habitations in known plague foci. Despite its pervasiveness, limited information is available about the cat flea's competence as a vector for Yersinia pestis. It is generally considered to be a poor vector, based on studies examining early-phase transmission during the first week after infection, but transmission potential by the biofilm-dependent proventricular-blocking mechanism has never been systematically evaluated. In this study, we assessed the vector competence of cat fleas by both mechanisms. Because the feeding behavior of cat fleas differs markedly from important rat flea vectors, we also examined the influence of feeding behavior on transmission dynamics. Groups of cat fleas were infected with Y. pestis and subsequently provided access to sterile blood meals twice-weekly, 5 times per week, or daily for 4 weeks and monitored for infection, the development of proventricular biofilm and blockage, mortality, and the ability to transmit. In cat fleas allowed prolonged, daily access to blood meals, mimicking their natural feeding behavior, Y. pestis did not efficiently colonize the digestive tract and could only be transmitted during the first week after infection. In contrast, cat fleas that were fed intermittently, mimicking the feeding behavior of the efficient vector Xenopsylla cheopis, could become blocked and regularly transmitted Y. pestis for 3-4 weeks by the biofilm-mediated mechanism, but early-phase transmission was not detected. The normal feeding behavior of C. felis, more than an intrinsic resistance to infection or blockage by Y. pestis, limits its vector competence. Rapid turnover of midgut contents results in bacterial clearance and disruption of biofilm accumulation in the proventriculus. Anatomical features of the cat flea foregut may also restrict transmission by both early-phase and proventricular biofilm

  16. Learning-Dependent Plasticity of the Barrel Cortex Is Impaired by Restricting GABA-Ergic Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posluszny, Anna; Liguz-Lecznar, Monika; Turzynska, Danuta; Zakrzewska, Renata; Bielecki, Maksymilian; Kossut, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Experience-induced plastic changes in the cerebral cortex are accompanied by alterations in excitatory and inhibitory transmission. Increased excitatory drive, necessary for plasticity, precedes the occurrence of plastic change, while decreased inhibitory signaling often facilitates plasticity. However, an increase of inhibitory interactions was noted in some instances of experience-dependent changes. We previously reported an increase in the number of inhibitory markers in the barrel cortex of mice after fear conditioning engaging vibrissae, observed concurrently with enlargement of the cortical representational area of the row of vibrissae receiving conditioned stimulus (CS). We also observed that an increase of GABA level accompanied the conditioning. Here, to find whether unaltered GABAergic signaling is necessary for learning-dependent rewiring in the murine barrel cortex, we locally decreased GABA production in the barrel cortex or reduced transmission through GABAA receptors (GABAARs) at the time of the conditioning. Injections of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA), an inhibitor of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), into the barrel cortex prevented learning-induced enlargement of the conditioned vibrissae representation. A similar effect was observed after injection of gabazine, an antagonist of GABAARs. At the behavioral level, consistent conditioned response (cessation of head movements in response to CS) was impaired. These results show that appropriate functioning of the GABAergic system is required for both manifestation of functional cortical representation plasticity and for the development of a conditioned response.

  17. Age-related decreased inhibitory vs. excitatory gene expression in the adult autistic brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Lagemaat, Louie N; Nijhof, Bonnie; Bosch, Daniëlle G M; Kohansal-Nodehi, Mahdokht; Keerthikumar, Shivakumar; Heimel, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and restricted behavior and interests. A disruption in the balance of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission has been hypothesized to underlie these disorders. Here

  18. Intrinsically-generated fluctuating activity in excitatory-inhibitory networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrogiuseppe, Francesca; Ostojic, Srdjan

    2017-01-01

    Recurrent networks of non-linear units display a variety of dynamical regimes depending on the structure of their synaptic connectivity. A particularly remarkable phenomenon is the appearance of strongly fluctuating, chaotic activity in networks of deterministic, but randomly connected rate units. How this type of intrinsically generated fluctuations appears in more realistic networks of spiking neurons has been a long standing question. To ease the comparison between rate and spiking networks, recent works investigated the dynamical regimes of randomly-connected rate networks with segregated excitatory and inhibitory populations, and firing rates constrained to be positive. These works derived general dynamical mean field (DMF) equations describing the fluctuating dynamics, but solved these equations only in the case of purely inhibitory networks. Using a simplified excitatory-inhibitory architecture in which DMF equations are more easily tractable, here we show that the presence of excitation qualitatively modifies the fluctuating activity compared to purely inhibitory networks. In presence of excitation, intrinsically generated fluctuations induce a strong increase in mean firing rates, a phenomenon that is much weaker in purely inhibitory networks. Excitation moreover induces two different fluctuating regimes: for moderate overall coupling, recurrent inhibition is sufficient to stabilize fluctuations; for strong coupling, firing rates are stabilized solely by the upper bound imposed on activity, even if inhibition is stronger than excitation. These results extend to more general network architectures, and to rate networks receiving noisy inputs mimicking spiking activity. Finally, we show that signatures of the second dynamical regime appear in networks of integrate-and-fire neurons. PMID:28437436

  19. Dynamics of excitatory and inhibitory networks are differentially altered by selective attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Adam C.; Morais, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition and excitation form two fundamental modes of neuronal interaction, yet we understand relatively little about their distinct roles in service of perceptual and cognitive processes. We developed a multidimensional waveform analysis to identify fast-spiking (putative inhibitory) and regular-spiking (putative excitatory) neurons in vivo and used this method to analyze how attention affects these two cell classes in visual area V4 of the extrastriate cortex of rhesus macaques. We found that putative inhibitory neurons had both greater increases in firing rate and decreases in correlated variability with attention compared with putative excitatory neurons. Moreover, the time course of attention effects for putative inhibitory neurons more closely tracked the temporal statistics of target probability in our task. Finally, the session-to-session variability in a behavioral measure of attention covaried with the magnitude of this effect. Together, these results suggest that selective targeting of inhibitory neurons and networks is a critical mechanism for attentional modulation. PMID:27466133

  20. Dynamics of excitatory and inhibitory networks are differentially altered by selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Adam C; Morais, Michael J; Smith, Matthew A

    2016-10-01

    Inhibition and excitation form two fundamental modes of neuronal interaction, yet we understand relatively little about their distinct roles in service of perceptual and cognitive processes. We developed a multidimensional waveform analysis to identify fast-spiking (putative inhibitory) and regular-spiking (putative excitatory) neurons in vivo and used this method to analyze how attention affects these two cell classes in visual area V4 of the extrastriate cortex of rhesus macaques. We found that putative inhibitory neurons had both greater increases in firing rate and decreases in correlated variability with attention compared with putative excitatory neurons. Moreover, the time course of attention effects for putative inhibitory neurons more closely tracked the temporal statistics of target probability in our task. Finally, the session-to-session variability in a behavioral measure of attention covaried with the magnitude of this effect. Together, these results suggest that selective targeting of inhibitory neurons and networks is a critical mechanism for attentional modulation. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. The distribution of excitatory amino acid receptors on acutely dissociated dorsal horn neurons from postnatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arancio, O; Yoshimura, M; Murase, K; MacDermott, A B

    1993-01-01

    Excitatory amino acid receptor distribution was mapped on acutely dissociated neurons from postnatal rat spinal cord dorsal horn. N-methyl D-aspartate, quisqualate and kainate were applied to multiple locations along the somal and dendritic surfaces of voltage-clamped neurons by means of a pressure application system. To partially compensate for the decrement of response amplitude due to current loss between the site of activation on the dendrite and the recording electrode at the soma, a solution containing 0.15 M KCl was applied on the cell bodies and dendrites of some cells to estimate an empirical length constant. In the majority of the cells tested, the dendritic membrane had regions of higher sensitivity to excitatory amino acid agonists than the somatic membrane, with dendritic response amplitudes reaching more than seven times those at the cell body. A comparison of the relative changes in sensitivity between each combination of two of the three excitatory amino acid agonists along the same dendrite showed different patterns of agonist sensitivity along the dendrite in the majority of the cells. These data were obtained from dorsal horn neurons that had developed and formed synaptic connections in vivo. They demonstrate that in contrast to observations made on ventral horn neurons, receptor density for all the excitatory amino acid receptors on dorsal horn neurons, including the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, are generally higher on the dendrites than on the soma. Further, these results are similar to those obtained from dorsal horn neurons grown in culture.

  2. Reboxetine Enhances the Olanzapine-Induced Antipsychotic-Like Effect, Cortical Dopamine Outflow and NMDA Receptor-Mediated Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Monica M; Jardemark, Kent; Malmerfelt, Anna; Björkholm, Carl; Svensson, Torgny H

    2010-01-01

    Preclinical data have shown that addition of the selective norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibitor reboxetine increases the antipsychotic-like effect of the D2/3 antagonist raclopride and, in parallel, enhances cortical dopamine output. Subsequent clinical results suggested that adding reboxetine to stable treatments with various antipsychotic drugs (APDs) may improve positive, negative and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated in rats the effects of adding reboxetine to the second-generation APD olanzapine on: (i) antipsychotic efficacy, using the conditioned avoidance response (CAR) test, (ii) extrapyramidal side effect (EPS) liability, using a catalepsy test, (iii) dopamine efflux in the medial prefrontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens, using in vivo microdialysis in freely moving animals and (iv) cortical N-methyl--aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated transmission, using intracellular electrophysiological recording in vitro. Reboxetine (6 mg/kg) enhanced the suppression of CAR induced by a suboptimal dose (1.25 mg/kg), but not an optimal (2.5 mg/kg) dose of olanzapine without any concomitant catalepsy. Addition of reboxetine to the low dose of olanzapine also markedly increased cortical dopamine outflow and facilitated prefrontal NMDA receptor-mediated transmission. Our data suggest that adjunctive treatment with a NET inhibitor may enhance the therapeutic effect of low-dose olanzapine in schizophrenia without increasing EPS liability and add an antidepressant action, thus in principle allowing for a dose reduction of olanzapine with a concomitant reduction of dose-related side effects, such as EPS and weight gain. PMID:20463659

  3. Amino acid neurotransmitters and new approaches to anticonvulsant drug action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, B

    1984-01-01

    Amino acids provide the most universal and important inhibitory (gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine) and excitatory (glutamate, aspartate, cysteic acid, cysteine sulphinic acid) neurotransmitters in the brain. An anticonvulsant action may be produced (1) by enhancing inhibitory (GABAergic) processes, and (2) by diminishing excitatory transmission. Possible pharmacological mechanisms for enhancing GABA-mediated inhibition include (1) GABA agonist action, (2) GABA prodrugs, (3) drugs facilitating GABA release from terminals, (4) inhibition of GABA-transaminase, (5) allosteric enhancement of the efficacy of GABA at the receptor complex, (6) direction action on the chloride ionophore, and (7) inhibition of GABA reuptake. Examples of these approaches include the use of irreversible GABA-transaminase inhibitors, such as gamma-vinyl GABA, and the development of anticonvulsant beta-carbolines that interact with the "benzodiazepine receptor." Pharmacological mechanisms for diminishing excitatory transmission include (1) enzyme inhibitors that decrease the maximal rate of synthesis of glutamate or aspartate, (2) drugs that decrease the synaptic release of glutamate or aspartate, and (3) drugs that block the post-synaptic action of excitatory amino acids. Compounds that selectively antagonise excitation due to dicarboxylic amino acids have recently been developed. Those that selectively block excitation produced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (and aspartate) have proved to be potent anticonvulsants in many animal models of epilepsy. This provides a novel approach to the design of anticonvulsant drugs.

  4. Dynamical responses to external stimuli for both cases of excitatory and inhibitory synchronization in a complex neuronal network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Yoon; Lim, Woochang

    2017-10-01

    For studying how dynamical responses to external stimuli depend on the synaptic-coupling type, we consider two types of excitatory and inhibitory synchronization (i.e., synchronization via synaptic excitation and inhibition) in complex small-world networks of excitatory regular spiking (RS) pyramidal neurons and inhibitory fast spiking (FS) interneurons. For both cases of excitatory and inhibitory synchronization, effects of synaptic couplings on dynamical responses to external time-periodic stimuli S ( t ) (applied to a fraction of neurons) are investigated by varying the driving amplitude A of S ( t ). Stimulated neurons are phase-locked to external stimuli for both cases of excitatory and inhibitory couplings. On the other hand, the stimulation effect on non-stimulated neurons depends on the type of synaptic coupling. The external stimulus S ( t ) makes a constructive effect on excitatory non-stimulated RS neurons (i.e., it causes external phase lockings in the non-stimulated sub-population), while S ( t ) makes a destructive effect on inhibitory non-stimulated FS interneurons (i.e., it breaks up original inhibitory synchronization in the non-stimulated sub-population). As results of these different effects of S ( t ), the type and degree of dynamical response (e.g., synchronization enhancement or suppression), characterized by the dynamical response factor [Formula: see text] (given by the ratio of synchronization degree in the presence and absence of stimulus), are found to vary in a distinctly different way, depending on the synaptic-coupling type. Furthermore, we also measure the matching degree between the dynamics of the two sub-populations of stimulated and non-stimulated neurons in terms of a "cross-correlation" measure [Formula: see text]. With increasing A , based on [Formula: see text], we discuss the cross-correlations between the two sub-populations, affecting the dynamical responses to S ( t ).

  5. Conditional RARα Knockout Mice Reveal Acute Requirement for Retinoic Acid and RARα in Homeostatic Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica eSarti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available All-trans retinoic acid (RA plays important roles in brain development through regulating gene transcription. Recently, a novel postdevelopmental role of RA in mature brain was proposed. Specifically, RA rapidly enhanced excitatory synaptic transmission independent of transcriptional regulation. RA synthesis was induced when excitatory synaptic transmission was chronically blocked, and RA then activated dendritic protein synthesis and synaptic insertion of homomeric GluA1 AMPA receptors, thereby compensating for the loss of neuronal activity in a homeostatic fashion. This action of RA was suggested to be mediated by its canonical receptor RARα but no genetic evidence was available. Thus, we here tested the fundamental requirement of RARα in homeostatic plasticity using conditional RARα knockout mice, and additionally performed a structure-function analysis of RARα. We show that acutely deleting RARα in neurons eliminated RA’s effect on excitatory synaptic transmission, and inhibited activity blockade-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity. By expressing various RARα rescue constructs in RARα knockout neurons, we found that the DNA-binding domain of RARα was dispensable for its role in regulating synaptic strength, further supporting the notion that RA and RARα act in a non-transcriptional manner in this context. By contrast, the ligand-binding domain (LBD and the mRNA-binding domain (F-domain are both necessary and sufficient for the function of RARα in homeostatic plasticity. Furthermore, we found that homeostatic regulation performed by the LBD/F domains leads to insertion of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors. Our results confirm with unequivocal genetic approaches that RA and RARα perform essential non-transcriptional functions in regulating synaptic strength, and establish a functional link between the various domains of RARα and their involvement in regulating protein synthesis and excitatory synaptic transmission during

  6. Emergent spatial patterns of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic strengths drive somatotopic representational discontinuities and their plasticity in a computational model of primary sensory cortical area 3b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil A. Grajski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms underlying the emergence and plasticity of representational discontinuities in the mammalian primary somatosensory cortical representation of the hand are investigated in a computational model. The model consists of an input lattice organized as a three-digit hand forward-connected to a lattice of cortical columns each of which contains a paired excitatory and inhibitory cell. Excitatory and inhibitory synaptic plasticity of feedforward and lateral connection weights is implemented as a simple covariance rule and competitive normalization. Receptive field properties are computed independently for excitatory and inhibitory cells and compared within and across columns. Within digit representational zones intracolumnar excitatory and inhibitory receptive field extents are concentric, single-digit, small, and unimodal. Exclusively in representational boundary-adjacent zones, intracolumnar excitatory and inhibitory receptive field properties diverge: excitatory cell receptive fields are single-digit, small, and unimodal; and the paired inhibitory cell receptive fields are bimodal, double-digit, and large. In simulated syndactyly (webbed fingers, boundary-adjacent intracolumnar receptive field properties reorganize to within-representation type; divergent properties are reacquired following syndactyly release. This study generates testable hypotheses for assessment of cortical laminar-dependent receptive field properties and plasticity within and between cortical representational zones. For computational studies, present results suggest that concurrent excitatory and inhibitory plasticity may underlie novel emergent properties.

  7. The SOL-2/Neto auxiliary protein modulates the function of AMPA-subtype ionotropic glutamate receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Mellem, Jerry E; Jensen, Michael; Brockie, Penelope J; Walker, Craig S; Hoerndli, Frédéric J; Hauth, Linda; Madsen, David M; Maricq, Andres V

    2012-09-06

    The neurotransmitter glutamate mediates excitatory synaptic transmission by gating ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs). AMPA receptors (AMPARs), a subtype of iGluR, are strongly implicated in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. We previously discovered two classes of AMPAR auxiliary proteins in C. elegans that modify receptor kinetics and thus change synaptic transmission. Here, we have identified another auxiliary protein, SOL-2, a CUB-domain protein that associates with both the related auxiliary subunit SOL-1 and with the GLR-1 AMPAR. In sol-2 mutants, behaviors dependent on glutamatergic transmission are disrupted, GLR-1-mediated currents are diminished, and GLR-1 desensitization and pharmacology are modified. Remarkably, a secreted variant of SOL-1 delivered in trans can rescue sol-1 mutants, and this rescue depends on in cis expression of SOL-2. Finally, we demonstrate that SOL-1 and SOL-2 have an ongoing role in the adult nervous system to control AMPAR-mediated currents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. RNA-mediated gene silencing signals are not graft transmissible from the rootstock to the scion in greenhouse-grown apple plants Malus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachowsky, Henryk; Tränkner, Conny; Szankowski, Iris; Waidmann, Sascha; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Treutter, Dieter; Fischer, Thilo C

    2012-01-01

    RNA silencing describes the sequence specific degradation of RNA targets. Silencing is a non-cell autonomous event that is graft transmissible in different plant species. The present study is the first report on systemic acquired dsRNA-mediated gene silencing of transgenic and endogenous gene sequences in a woody plant like apple. Transgenic apple plants overexpressing a hairpin gene construct of the gusA reporter gene were produced. These plants were used as rootstocks and grafted with scions of the gusA overexpressing transgenic apple clone T355. After grafting, we observed a reduction of the gusA gene expression in T355 scions in vitro, but not in T355 scions grown in the greenhouse. Similar results were obtained after silencing of the endogenous Mdans gene in apple that is responsible for anthocyanin biosynthesis. Subsequently, we performed grafting experiments with Mdans silenced rootstocks and red leaf scions of TNR31-35 in order to evaluate graft transmitted silencing of the endogenous Mdans. The results obtained suggested a graft transmission of silencing signals in in vitro shoots. In contrast, no graft transmission of dsRNA-mediated gene silencing signals was detectable in greenhouse-grown plants and in plants grown in an insect protection tent.

  9. The effect of glycogen phosphorolysis on basal glutaminergic transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozrzymas, Jerzy; Szczęsny, Tomasz; Rakus, Darek

    2011-01-14

    Astrocytic glycogen metabolism sustains neuronal activity but its impact on basal glutamatergic synaptic transmission is not clear. To address this issue, we have compared the effect of glycogen breakdown inhibition on miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) in rat hippocampal pure neuronal culture (PNC) and in astrocyte-neuronal co-cultures (ANCC). Amplitudes of mEPSC in ANCC were nearly twice as large as in PNC with no difference in current kinetics. Inhibition of glycogen phosphorylase reduced mEPSC amplitude by roughly 40% in ANCC being ineffective in PNC. Altogether, these data indicate that astrocyte-neuronal interaction enhances basal mEPSCs in ANCC mainly due to astrocytic glycogen metabolism. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dexmedetomidine decreases inhibitory but not excitatory neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons in the nucleus ambiguus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Douglas B; Wang, Xin; Mendelowitz, David

    2014-07-29

    Dexmedetomidine, an α2 adrenergic agonist, is a useful sedative but can also cause significant bradycardia. This decrease in heart rate may be due to decreased central sympathetic output as well as increased parasympathetic output from brainstem cardiac vagal neurons. In this study, using whole cell voltage clamp methodology, the actions of dexmedetomidine on excitatory glutamatergic and inhibitory GABAergic and glycinergic neurotransmission to parasympathetic cardiac vagal neurons in the rat nucleus ambiguus was determined. The results indicate that dexmedetomidine decreases both GABAergic and glycinergic inhibitory input to cardiac vagal neurons, with no significant effect on excitatory input. These results provide a mechanism for dexmedetomidine induced bradycardia and has implications for the management of this potentially harmful side effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Implementation of a fluorescence-based screening assay identifies histamine H3 receptor antagonists clobenpropit and iodophenpropit as subunit-selective N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper Bø; Mullasseril, Praseeda; Dawit, Sara

    2010-01-01

    N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate a slow, Ca(2+)-permeable component of excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system and play a pivotal role in synaptic plasticity, neuronal development, and several neurological diseases. We describe...... a fluorescence-based assay that measures NMDA receptor-mediated changes in intracellular calcium in a BHK-21 cell line stably expressing NMDA receptor NR2D with NR1 under the control of a tetracycline-inducible promoter (Tet-On). The assay selectively identifies allosteric modulators by using supramaximal...

  12. Cellular Basis for Learning Impairment in Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    GABA Receptors 6 3. ACCOMPLISHMENTS A) Major goals of the project. 1) Use molecular tools to study the cellular basis for neurogenesis deficits in...throughout training. This schedule reduced and sustained the subjects’ body weight at 80% of the ad libitum levels . Behavioral experimentation was...containing 120 mM CsCl. In artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) containing CNQX to block excitatory synaptic transmission, GABA -mediate chloride currents in

  13. Enhanced inhibitory synaptic transmission in the spinal dorsal horn mediates antinociceptive effects of TC-2559

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background TC-2559 is a selective α4β2 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) partial agonist and α4β2 nAChR activation has been related to antinociception. The aim of this study is to investigate the analgesic effect of TC-2559 and its underlying spinal mechanisms. Results 1) In vivo bioavailability study: TC-2559 (3 mg/kg) had high absorption rate in rats with maximal total brain concentration reached over 4.6 μM within first 15 min after administration and eliminated rapidly with brain half life of about 20 min after injection. 2) In vivo behavioral experiments: TC-2559 exerts dose dependent antinociceptive effects in both formalin test in mice and chronic constriction injury (CCI) model in rats by activation of α4β2 nAChRs; 3) Whole-cell patch-clamp studies in the superficial dorsal horn neurons of the spinal cord slices: perfusion of TC-2559 (2 μM) significantly increased the frequency, but not amplitude of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs). The enhancement of sIPSCs was blocked by pre-application of DHβE (2 μM), a selective α4β2 nicotinic receptor antagonist. Neither the frequency nor the amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) of spinal dorsal horn neurons were affected by TC-2559. Conclusions Enhancement of inhibitory synaptic transmission in the spinal dorsal horn via activation of α4β2 nAChRs may be one of the mechanisms of the antinociceptive effects of TC-2559 on pathological pain models. It provides further evidence to support the notion that selective α4β2 subtype nAChR agonist may be developed as new analgesic drug for the treatment of neuropathic pain. PMID:21816108

  14. Excitatory Synaptic Drive and Feedforward Inhibition in the Hippocampal CA3 Circuit Are Regulated by SynCAM 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kellie A; Ribic, Adema; Laage Gaupp, Fabian M; Coman, Daniel; Huang, Yuegao; Dulla, Chris G; Hyder, Fahmeed; Biederer, Thomas

    2016-07-13

    Select adhesion proteins control the development of synapses and modulate their structural and functional properties. Despite these important roles, the extent to which different synapse-organizing mechanisms act across brain regions to establish connectivity and regulate network properties is incompletely understood. Further, their functional roles in different neuronal populations remain to be defined. Here, we applied diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a modality of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to map connectivity changes in knock-out (KO) mice lacking the synaptogenic cell adhesion protein SynCAM 1. This identified reduced fractional anisotropy in the hippocampal CA3 area in absence of SynCAM 1. In agreement, mossy fiber refinement in CA3 was impaired in SynCAM 1 KO mice. Mossy fibers make excitatory inputs onto postsynaptic specializations of CA3 pyramidal neurons termed thorny excrescences and these structures were smaller in the absence of SynCAM 1. However, the most prevalent targets of mossy fibers are GABAergic interneurons and SynCAM 1 loss unexpectedly reduced the number of excitatory terminals onto parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons in CA3. SynCAM 1 KO mice additionally exhibited lower postsynaptic GluA1 expression in these PV-positive interneurons. These synaptic imbalances in SynCAM 1 KO mice resulted in CA3 disinhibition, in agreement with reduced feedforward inhibition in this network in the absence of SynCAM 1-dependent excitatory drive onto interneurons. In turn, mice lacking SynCAM 1 were impaired in memory tasks involving CA3. Our results support that SynCAM 1 modulates excitatory mossy fiber inputs onto both interneurons and principal neurons in the hippocampal CA3 area to balance network excitability. This study advances our understanding of synapse-organizing mechanisms on two levels. First, the data support that synaptogenic proteins guide connectivity and can function in distinct brain regions even if they are expressed broadly

  15. Measurement of insulin and C-peptide excitatory test levels in gestational diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Tongxin; Wang Zizheng

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the function of islet β cells in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), serum insulin and C-peptide (C-P) excitatory test levels were measured dynamically by radioimmunoassay in 41 patients with GDM and 30 normal pregnant controls. The results showed that there were significant difference in insulin and C-peptide excitatory test levels between normal pregnancy for 32-40 weeks and patients with GDM (P < 0.001). The secretory peak of insulin occurred at 60 min in normal pregnancy, while at 120 min in patients with GDM, and the recovery postponed in patients with GDM. The peak time for C-P was just as same as that of insulin, but the peak error for C-P between normal pregnant controls and patients with GDM was more larger than that for insulin and it recovered more slowly. It suggested that majority of islet β cells in patients with GDM were good enough for response to islet resistance factors and big stress from pregnancy, and also suggested a relation between pregnancy and islet β cells function

  16. New players tip the scales in the balance between excitatory and inhibitory synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Husseini Alaa

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Synaptogenesis is a highly controlled process, involving a vast array of players which include cell adhesion molecules, scaffolding and signaling proteins, neurotransmitter receptors and proteins associated with the synaptic vesicle machinery. These molecules cooperate in an intricate manner on both the pre- and postsynaptic sides to orchestrate the precise assembly of neuronal contacts. This is an amazing feat considering that a single neuron receives tens of thousands of synaptic inputs but virtually no mismatch between pre- and postsynaptic components occur in vivo. One crucial aspect of synapse formation is whether a nascent synapse will develop into an excitatory or inhibitory contact. The tight control of a balance between the types of synapses formed regulates the overall neuronal excitability, and is thus critical for normal brain function and plasticity. However, little is known about how this balance is achieved. This review discusses recent findings which provide clues to how neurons may control excitatory and inhibitory synapse formation, with focus on the involvement of the neuroligin family and PSD-95 in this process.

  17. A Role for Excitatory Amino Acids in Diabetic Eye Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose E. Pulido

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of vision loss. The primary clinical hallmarks are vascular changes that appear to contribute to the loss of sight. In a number of neurodegenerative disorders there is an appreciation that increased levels of excitatory amino acids are excitotoxic. The primary amino acid responsible appears to be the neurotransmitter glutamate. This review examines the nature of glutamatergic signaling at the retina and the growing evidence from clinical and animal model studies that glutamate may be playing similar excitotoxic roles at the diabetic retina.

  18. Intergenerational Transmission of Educational Aspirations in Chinese Families: Identifying Mediators and Moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nini; Hou, Yang; Wang, Qian; Yu, Chengfu

    2018-06-01

    Parents' educational aspirations for youth play an important role in shaping youth's own educational aspirations; however, little is known about how and in what context parents may transmit their aspirations to youth effectively. This is of particular interest and import to be examined in Chinese families, given Chinese cultural emphasis on educational achievement and Chinese youth's outstanding academic performance internationally. By integrating several key theories of motivation and parental socialization (i.e., the expectancy-value model of academic achievement, the two-step model of value transmission, the contextual model of parenting, and the self-determination theory), the current study investigated simultaneously the mediating roles of parental involvement in youth's learning and youth's perceptions of parental aspirations, as well as the moderating role of parental warmth in the intergenerational transmission process of educational aspirations in Chinese families. A two-wave longitudinal study spanning about half a year was conducted among 323 Chinese seventh graders (54% female; M age  = 13.25 years) and one of their parents (median educational attainment = completion of high school, median monthly income = USD 766-1226). It was found that parental educational aspirations for youth were related positively both indirectly through parental involvement and directly to youth's perceptions of parental aspirations, which in turn were associated positively with youth's own educational aspirations about half a year later. It was also found that parental educational aspirations for youth and youth's own educational aspirations were associated positively with each other only when youth reported experiencing high levels of parental warmth, but unrelated when youth reported experiencing low levels of parental warmth, whereas such moderating effects of parental warmth were absent on the links from parental aspirations to youth's perceptions of parental

  19. Excitatory amino acids in epilepsy and potential novel therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, B S

    1992-07-01

    Evidence that an abnormality of excitatory neurotransmission may contribute to the epileptic phenomena in various animal and human syndromes is reviewed. Altered glutamate transport or metabolism may be a contributory factor in some genetic syndromes and enhanced responsiveness to activation of NMDA receptors may be significant in various acquired forms of epilepsy. Decreasing glutamatergic neurotransmission provides a rational therapeutic approach to epilepsy. Potent anticonvulsant effects are seen with the acute administration of NMDA antagonists in a wide range of animal models. Some competitive antagonists acting at the NMDA/glutamate site show prolonged anticonvulsant activity following oral administration at doses free of motor side effects and appear suitable for clinical trial.

  20. Excitatory amino acid receptors mediate asymmetry and lateralization in the descending cardiovascular pathways from the dorsomedial hypothalamus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Xavier

    Full Text Available The dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH and lateral/dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (PAG are anatomically and functionally connected. Both the DMH and PAG depend on glutamatergic inputs for activation. We recently reported that removal of GABA-ergic tone in the unilateral DMH produces: asymmetry, that is, a right- (R- sided predominance in cardiac chronotropism, and lateralization, that is, a greater increase in ipsilateral renal sympathetic activity (RSNA. In the current study, we investigated whether excitatory amino acid (EAA receptors in the DMH-PAG pathway contribute to the functional interhemispheric difference. In urethane (1.2 to 1.4 g/kg, i.p. anesthetized rats, we observed that: (i nanoinjections of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA 100 pmol/100 nl into the unilateral DMH produced the same right-sided predominance in the control of cardiac chronotropy, (ii nanoinjections of NMDA into the ipsilateral DMH or PAG evoked lateralized RSNA responses, and (iii blockade of EAA receptors in the unilateral DMH attenuated the cardiovascular responses evoked by injection of NMDA into either the R- or left- (L- PAG. In awake rats, nanoinjection of kynurenic acid (1 nmol/100 nL into the L-DMH or R- or L-PAG attenuated the tachycardia evoked by air stress. However, the magnitude of stress-evoked tachycardia was smallest when the EAA receptors of the R-DMH were blocked. We conclude that EAA receptors contribute to the right-sided predominance in cardiac chronotropism. This interhemispheric difference that involves EAA receptors was observed in the DMH but not in the PAG.

  1. Hierarchical clustering of gene expression patterns in the Eomes + lineage of excitatory neurons during early neocortical development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron David A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cortical neurons display dynamic patterns of gene expression during the coincident processes of differentiation and migration through the developing cerebrum. To identify genes selectively expressed by the Eomes + (Tbr2 lineage of excitatory cortical neurons, GFP-expressing cells from Tg(Eomes::eGFP Gsat embryos were isolated to > 99% purity and profiled. Results We report the identification, validation and spatial grouping of genes selectively expressed within the Eomes + cortical excitatory neuron lineage during early cortical development. In these neurons 475 genes were expressed ≥ 3-fold, and 534 genes ≤ 3-fold, compared to the reference population of neuronal precursors. Of the up-regulated genes, 328 were represented at the Genepaint in situ hybridization database and 317 (97% were validated as having spatial expression patterns consistent with the lineage of differentiating excitatory neurons. A novel approach for quantifying in situ hybridization patterns (QISP across the cerebral wall was developed that allowed the hierarchical clustering of genes into putative co-regulated groups. Forty four candidate genes were identified that show spatial expression with Intermediate Precursor Cells, 49 candidate genes show spatial expression with Multipolar Neurons, while the remaining 224 genes achieved peak expression in the developing cortical plate. Conclusions This analysis of differentiating excitatory neurons revealed the expression patterns of 37 transcription factors, many chemotropic signaling molecules (including the Semaphorin, Netrin and Slit signaling pathways, and unexpected evidence for non-canonical neurotransmitter signaling and changes in mechanisms of glucose metabolism. Over half of the 317 identified genes are associated with neuronal disease making these findings a valuable resource for studies of neurological development and disease.

  2. Integrated plasticity at inhibitory and excitatory synapses in the cerebellar circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa eMapelli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The way long-term potentiation (LTP and depression (LTD are integrated within the different synapses of brain neuronal circuits is poorly understood. In order to progress beyond the identification of specific molecular mechanisms, a system in which multiple forms of plasticity can be correlated with large-scale neural processing is required. In this paper we take as an example the cerebellar network , in which extensive investigations have revealed LTP and LTD at several excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Cerebellar LTP and LTD occur in all three main cerebellar subcircuits (granular layer, molecular layer, deep cerebellar nuclei and correspondingly regulate the function of their three main neurons: granule cells (GrCs, Purkinje cells (PCs and deep cerebellar nuclear (DCN cells. All these neurons, in addition to be excited, are reached by feed-forward and feed-back inhibitory connections, in which LTP and LTD may either operate synergistically or homeostatically in order to control information flow through the circuit. Although the investigation of individual synaptic plasticities in vitro is essential to prove their existence and mechanisms, it is insufficient to generate a coherent view of their impact on network functioning in vivo. Recent computational models and cell-specific genetic mutations in mice are shedding light on how plasticity at multiple excitatory and inhibitory synapses might regulate neuronal activities in the cerebellar circuit and contribute to learning and memory and behavioral control.

  3. Integrated plasticity at inhibitory and excitatory synapses in the cerebellar circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapelli, Lisa; Pagani, Martina; Garrido, Jesus A; D'Angelo, Egidio

    2015-01-01

    The way long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD) are integrated within the different synapses of brain neuronal circuits is poorly understood. In order to progress beyond the identification of specific molecular mechanisms, a system in which multiple forms of plasticity can be correlated with large-scale neural processing is required. In this paper we take as an example the cerebellar network, in which extensive investigations have revealed LTP and LTD at several excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Cerebellar LTP and LTD occur in all three main cerebellar subcircuits (granular layer, molecular layer, deep cerebellar nuclei) and correspondingly regulate the function of their three main neurons: granule cells (GrCs), Purkinje cells (PCs) and deep cerebellar nuclear (DCN) cells. All these neurons, in addition to be excited, are reached by feed-forward and feed-back inhibitory connections, in which LTP and LTD may either operate synergistically or homeostatically in order to control information flow through the circuit. Although the investigation of individual synaptic plasticities in vitro is essential to prove their existence and mechanisms, it is insufficient to generate a coherent view of their impact on network functioning in vivo. Recent computational models and cell-specific genetic mutations in mice are shedding light on how plasticity at multiple excitatory and inhibitory synapses might regulate neuronal activities in the cerebellar circuit and contribute to learning and memory and behavioral control.

  4. Dual Effects of TARP γ-2 on Glutamate Efficacy Can Account for AMPA Receptor Autoinactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Coombs

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fast excitatory transmission in the CNS is mediated mainly by AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs associated with transmembrane AMPAR regulatory proteins (TARPs. At the high glutamate concentrations typically seen during synaptic transmission, TARPs slow receptor desensitization and enhance mean channel conductance. However, their influence on channels gated by low glutamate concentrations, as encountered during delayed transmitter clearance or synaptic spillover, is poorly understood. We report here that TARP γ-2 reduces the ability of low glutamate concentrations to cause AMPAR desensitization and enhances channel gating at low glutamate occupancy. Simulations show that, by shifting the balance between AMPAR activation and desensitization, TARPs can markedly facilitate the transduction of spillover-mediated synaptic signaling. Furthermore, the dual effects of TARPs can account for biphasic steady-state glutamate concentration-response curves—a phenomenon termed “autoinactivation,” previously thought to reflect desensitization-mediated AMPAR/TARP dissociation.

  5. Voluntary nicotine consumption triggers in vivo potentiation of cortical excitatory drives to midbrain dopaminergic neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caillé, S.; Guillem, K.; Cador, M.; Manzoni, O.; Georges, F.

    2009-01-01

    Active response to either natural or pharmacological reward causes synaptic modifications to excitatory synapses on dopamine (DA) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Here, we examine these modifications using nicotine, the main addictive component of tobacco, which is a potent regulator of

  6. Excitatory and inhibitory pathways modulate kainate excitotoxicity in hippocampal slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casaccia-Bonnefil, P; Benedikz, Eirikur; Rai, R

    1993-01-01

    In organotypic hippocampal slice cultures, kainate (KA) specifically induces cell loss in the CA3 region while N-methyl-D-aspartate induces cell loss in the CA1 region. The sensitivity of slice cultures to KA toxicity appears only after 2 weeks in vitro which parallels the appearance of mossy...... fibers. KA toxicity is potentiated by co-application with the GABA-A antagonist, picrotoxin. These data suggest that the excitotoxicity of KA in slice cultures is modulated by both excitatory and inhibitory synapses....

  7. Excitatory inputs to four types of spinocerebellar tract neurons in the cat and the rat thoraco-lumbar spinal cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sony Shakya; Bannatyne, B Anne; Jankowska, Elzbieta; Hammar, Ingela; Nilsson, Elin; Maxwell, David J

    2012-01-01

    The cerebellum receives information from the hindlimbs through several populations of spinocerebellar tract neurons. Although the role of these neurons has been established in electrophysiological experiments, the relative contribution of afferent fibres and central neurons to their excitatory input has only been estimated approximately so far. Taking advantage of differences in the immunohistochemistry of glutamatergic terminals of peripheral afferents and of central neurons (with vesicular glutamate transporters VGLUT1 or VGLUT2, respectively), we compared sources of excitatory input to four populations of spinocerebellar neurons in the thoraco-lumbar spinal cord: dorsal spinocerebellar tract neurons located in Clarke's column (ccDSCT) and in the dorsal horn (dhDSCT) and ventral spinocerebellar tract (VSCT) neurons including spinal border (SB) neurons. This was done on 22 electrophysiologically identified intracellularly labelled neurons in cats and on 80 neurons labelled by retrograde transport of cholera toxin b subunit injected into the cerebellum of rats. In both species distribution of antibodies against VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 on SB neurons (which have dominating inhibitory input from limb muscles), revealed very few VGLUT1 contacts and remarkably high numbers of VGLUT2 contacts. In VSCT neurons with excitatory afferent input, the number of VGLUT1 contacts was relatively high although VGLUT2 contacts likewise dominated, while the proportions of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 immunoreactive terminals were the reverse on the two populations of DSCT neurons. These findings provide morphological evidence that SB neurons principally receive excitatory inputs from central neurons and provide the cerebellum with information regarding central neuronal activity. PMID:22371473

  8. Insect symbiotic bacteria harbour viral pathogens for transovarial transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dongsheng; Mao, Qianzhuo; Chen, Yong; Liu, Yuyan; Chen, Qian; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Hongyan; Li, Yi; Wei, Taiyun

    2017-03-06

    Many insects, including mosquitoes, planthoppers, aphids and leafhoppers, are the hosts of bacterial symbionts and the vectors for transmitting viral pathogens 1-3 . In general, symbiotic bacteria can indirectly affect viral transmission by enhancing immunity and resistance to viruses in insects 3-5 . Whether symbiotic bacteria can directly interact with the virus and mediate its transmission has been unknown. Here, we show that an insect symbiotic bacterium directly harbours a viral pathogen and mediates its transovarial transmission to offspring. We observe rice dwarf virus (a plant reovirus) binding to the envelopes of the bacterium Sulcia, a common obligate symbiont of leafhoppers 6-8 , allowing the virus to exploit the ancient oocyte entry path of Sulcia in rice leafhopper vectors. Such virus-bacterium binding is mediated by the specific interaction of the viral capsid protein and the Sulcia outer membrane protein. Treatment with antibiotics or antibodies against Sulcia outer membrane protein interferes with this interaction and strongly prevents viral transmission to insect offspring. This newly discovered virus-bacterium interaction represents the first evidence that a viral pathogen can directly exploit a symbiotic bacterium for its transmission. We believe that such a model of virus-bacterium communication is a common phenomenon in nature.

  9. Novel modulatory effects of neurosteroids and benzodiazepines on excitatory and inhibitory neurons excitability: a multi-electrode array (MEA recording study"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia ePuia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The balance between glutamate- and GABA-mediated neurotransmission in the brain is fundamental in the nervous system, but it is regulated by the ‘tonic’ release of a variety of endogenous factors. One such important group of molecules are the neurosteroids (NSs which, similarly to benzodiazepines (BDZs, enhance GABAergic neurotransmission. The purpose of our work was to investigate, at in-vivo physiologically relevant concentrations, the effects of NSs and BDZs as GABA modulators on dissociated neocortical neuron networks grown in long-term culture. We used a multi-electrode array (MEA recording technique and a novel analysis that was able to both identify the action potentials of engaged excitatory and inhibitory neurons and to detect drug-induced network up-states (burst. We found that the NSs tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC and allopregnanolone (ALLO applied at low nM concentrations, produced different modulatory effects on the two neuronal clusters. Conversely, at high concentrations (1 µM, both NSs, decreased excitatory and inhibitory neuron cluster excitability; however, even several hours after washout, the excitability of inhibitory neurons continued to be depressed, leading to a network long term depression (LTD. The BDZs clonazepam (CLZ and midazolam (MDZ also decreased the network excitability, but only MDZ caused LTD of inhibitory neuron cluster. To investigate the origin of the LTD after MDZ application, we tested finasteride (FIN, an inhibitor of endogenous NSs synthesis. FIN did not prevent the LTD induced by MDZ, but surprisingly induced it after application of CLZ. The significance and possible mechanisms underlying these LTD effects of NSs and BDZs are discussed. Taken together, our results not only demonstrate that ex-vivo networks show a sensitivity to NSs and BDZs comparable to that expressed in vivo, but also provide a new global in-vitro description that can help in understanding their activity in more complex

  10. STDP in adaptive neurons gives close-to-optimal information transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Hennequin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Spike-frequency adaptation is known to enhance the transmission of information in sensory spiking neurons, by rescaling the dynamic range for input processing, matching it to the temporal statistics of the sensory stimulus. Achieving maximal information transmission has also been recently postulated as a role for Spike-Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP. However, the link between optimal plasticity and STDP in cortex remains loose, and so does the relationship between STDP and adaptation processes. We investigate how STDP, as described by recent minimal models derived from experimental data, influences the quality of information transmission in an adapting neuron. We show that a phenomenological model based on triplets of spikes yields almost the same information rate as an optimal model specially designed to this end. In contrast, the standard pair-based model of STDP does not improve information transmission as much. This result holds not only for additive STDP with hard weight bounds, known to produce bimodal distributions of synaptic weights, but also for weight-dependent STDP in the context of unimodal but skewed weight distributions. We analyze the similarities between the triplet model and the optimal learning rule, and find that the triplet effect is an important feature of the optimal model when the neuron is adaptive. If STDP is optimized for information transmission, it must take into account the dynamical properties of the postsynaptic cell, which might explain the target-cell specificity of STDP. In particular, it accounts for the differences found in vitro between STDP at excitatory synapses onto principal cells and those onto fast-spiking interneurons.

  11. Electroacupuncture preconditioning-induced neuroprotection may be mediated by glutamate transporter type 2

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Xiaoling; Yin, Jinbo; Li, Liaoliao; Ma, Lei; Tan, Hongying; Deng, Jiao; Chen, Shaoyang; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2013-01-01

    Electroacupuncture has been shown to induce a preconditioning effect in the brain. The mechanisms for this protection are not fully elucidated. We hypothesize that this protection is mediated by excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) that have been shown to be neuroprotective. To test this hypothesis, two-month old male Sprague-Dawley rats and EAAT type 3 (EAAT3) knockout mice received or did not receive 30-min electroacupuncture once a day for 5 consecutive days. They were subjected to a...

  12. CA1 Pyramidal Cell Theta-Burst Firing Triggers Endocannabinoid-Mediated Long-Term Depression at Both Somatic and Dendritic Inhibitory Synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younts, Thomas J.; Chevaleyre, Vivien

    2013-01-01

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are retrograde lipid messengers that, by targeting presynaptic type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs), mediate short- and long-term synaptic depression of neurotransmitter release throughout the brain. Short-term depression is typically triggered by postsynaptic, depolarization-induced calcium rises, whereas long-term depression is induced by synaptic activation of Gq/11 protein-coupled receptors. Here we report that a physiologically relevant pattern of postsynaptic activity, in the form of theta-burst firing (TBF) of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, can trigger long-term depression of inhibitory transmission (iLTD) in rat hippocampal slices. Paired recordings between CA1 interneurons and pyramidal cells, followed by post hoc morphological reconstructions of the interneurons' axon, revealed that somatic and dendritic inhibitory synaptic inputs equally expressed TBF-induced iLTD. Simultaneous recordings from neighboring pyramidal cells demonstrated that eCB signaling triggered by TBF was highly restricted to only a single, active cell. Furthermore, pairing submaximal endogenous activation of metabotropic glutamate or muscarinic acetylcholine receptors with submaximal TBF unmasked associative iLTD. Although CB1Rs are also expressed at Schaffer-collateral excitatory terminals, long-term plasticity under various recording conditions was spared at these synapses. Consistent with this observation, TBF also shifted the balance of excitation and inhibition in favor of excitatory throughput, thereby altering information flow through the CA1 circuit. Given the near ubiquity of burst-firing activity patterns and CB1R expression in the brain, the properties described here may be a general means by which neurons fine tune the strength of their inputs in a cell-wide and cell-specific manner. PMID:23966696

  13. A Pixel-Encoder Retinal Ganglion Cell with Spatially Offset Excitatory and Inhibitory Receptive Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith P. Johnson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The spike trains of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs are the only source of visual information to the brain. Here, we genetically identify an RGC type in mice that functions as a pixel encoder and increases firing to light increments (PixON-RGC. PixON-RGCs have medium-sized dendritic arbors and non-canonical center-surround receptive fields. From their receptive field center, PixON-RGCs receive only excitatory input, which encodes contrast and spatial information linearly. From their receptive field surround, PixON-RGCs receive only inhibitory input, which is temporally matched to the excitatory center input. As a result, the firing rate of PixON-RGCs linearly encodes local image contrast. Spatially offset (i.e., truly lateral inhibition of PixON-RGCs arises from spiking GABAergic amacrine cells. The receptive field organization of PixON-RGCs is independent of stimulus wavelength (i.e., achromatic. PixON-RGCs project predominantly to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN of the thalamus and likely contribute to visual perception.

  14. Pharmacological isolation of postsynaptic currents mediated by NR2A- and NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the anterior cingulate cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Xiaoyan

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract NMDA receptors (NMDARs are involved in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity associated with a variety of brain functions, from memory formation to chronic pain. Subunit-selective antagonists for NMDARs provide powerful tools to dissect NMDAR functions in neuronal activities. Recently developed antagonist for NR2A-containing receptors, NVP-AAM007, triggered debates on its selectivity and involvement of the NMDAR subunits in bi-directional synaptic plasticity. Here, we re-examined the pharmacological properties of NMDARs in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC using NVP-AAM007 as well as ifenprodil, a selective antagonist for NR2B-containing NMDARs. By alternating sequence of drug application and examining different concentrations of NVP-AAM007, we found that the presence of NVP-AAM007 did not significantly affect the effect of ifenprodil on NMDAR-mediated EPSCs. These results suggest that NVP-AAM007 shows great preference for NR2A subunit and could be used as a selective antagonist for NR2A-containing NMDARs in the ACC.

  15. Regulation of Hippocampal Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Actions by Adenosine A1 Receptors and Chronic Caffeine Administration: Implications for the Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol on Spatial Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Vasco C; Assaife-Lopes, Natália; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; Pratt, Judith A; Brett, Ros R; Sebastião, Ana M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The cannabinoid CB1 receptor-mediated modulation of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release from inhibitory interneurons is important for the integrity of hippocampal-dependent spatial memory. Although adenosine A1 receptors have a central role in fine-tuning excitatory transmission in the hippocampus, A1 receptors localized in GABAergic cells do not directly influence GABA release. CB1 and A1 receptors are the main targets for the effects of two of the most heavily consumed ps...

  16. Surface Transmission or Polarized Egress? Lessons Learned from HTLV Cell-to-Cell Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Sherer, Nathan; Mothes, Walther

    2010-01-01

    Commentary on Pais-Correia, A.M.; Sachse, M.; Guadagnini, S.; Robbiati, V.; Lasserre, R.; Gessain, A.; Gout, O.; Alcover, A.; Thoulouze, M.I. Biofilm-like extracellular viral assemblies mediate HTLV-1 cell-to-cell transmission at virological synapses. Nat. Med. 2010, 16, 83–89. PMID:21994650

  17. Diurnal rhythms in neurexins transcripts and inhibitory/excitatory synapse scaffold proteins in the biological clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Shapiro-Reznik

    Full Text Available The neurexin genes (NRXN1/2/3 encode two families (α and β of highly polymorphic presynaptic proteins that are involved in excitatory/inhibitory synaptic balance. Recent studies indicate that neuronal activation and memory formation affect NRXN1/2/3α expression and alternative splicing at splice sites 3 and 4 (SS#3/SS#4. Neurons in the biological clock residing in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus (SCN act as self-sustained oscillators, generating rhythms in gene expression and electrical activity, to entrain circadian bodily rhythms to the 24 hours day/night cycles. Cell autonomous oscillations in NRXN1/2/3α expression and SS#3/SS#4 exons splicing and their links to rhythms in excitatory/inhibitory synaptic balance in the circadian clock were explored. NRXN1/2/3α expression and SS#3/SS#4 splicing, levels of neurexin-2α and the synaptic scaffolding proteins PSD-95 and gephyrin (representing excitatory and inhibitory synapses, respectively were studied in mRNA and protein extracts obtained from SCN of C3H/J mice at different times of the 24 hours day/night cycle. Further studies explored the circadian oscillations in these components and causality relationships in immortalized rat SCN2.2 cells. Diurnal rhythms in mNRXN1α and mNRXN2α transcription, SS#3/SS#4 exon-inclusion and PSD-95 gephyrin and neurexin-2α levels were found in the SCN in vivo. No such rhythms were found with mNRXN3α. SCN2.2 cells also exhibited autonomous circadian rhythms in rNRXN1/2 expression SS#3/SS#4 exon inclusion and PSD-95, gephyrin and neurexin-2α levels. rNRXN3α and rNRXN1/2β were not expressed. Causal relationships were demonstrated, by use of specific siRNAs, between rNRXN2α SS#3 exon included transcripts and gephyrin levels in the SCN2.2 cells. These results show for the first time dynamic, cell autonomous, diurnal rhythms in expression and splicing of NRXN1/2 and subsequent effects on the expression of neurexin-2α and postsynaptic

  18. Enhanced Excitatory Connectivity and Disturbed Sound Processing in the Auditory Brainstem of Fragile X Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Pino, Elisabet; Gessele, Nikodemus; Koch, Ursula

    2017-08-02

    Hypersensitivity to sounds is one of the prevalent symptoms in individuals with Fragile X syndrome (FXS). It manifests behaviorally early during development and is often used as a landmark for treatment efficacy. However, the physiological mechanisms and circuit-level alterations underlying this aberrant behavior remain poorly understood. Using the mouse model of FXS ( Fmr1 KO ), we demonstrate that functional maturation of auditory brainstem synapses is impaired in FXS. Fmr1 KO mice showed a greatly enhanced excitatory synaptic input strength in neurons of the lateral superior olive (LSO), a prominent auditory brainstem nucleus, which integrates ipsilateral excitation and contralateral inhibition to compute interaural level differences. Conversely, the glycinergic, inhibitory input properties remained unaffected. The enhanced excitation was the result of an increased number of cochlear nucleus fibers converging onto one LSO neuron, without changing individual synapse properties. Concomitantly, immunolabeling of excitatory ending markers revealed an increase in the immunolabeled area, supporting abnormally elevated excitatory input numbers. Intrinsic firing properties were only slightly enhanced. In line with the disturbed development of LSO circuitry, auditory processing was also affected in adult Fmr1 KO mice as shown with single-unit recordings of LSO neurons. These processing deficits manifested as an increase in firing rate, a broadening of the frequency response area, and a shift in the interaural level difference function of LSO neurons. Our results suggest that this aberrant synaptic development of auditory brainstem circuits might be a major underlying cause of the auditory processing deficits in FXS. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common inheritable form of intellectual impairment, including autism. A core symptom of FXS is extreme sensitivity to loud sounds. This is one reason why individuals with FXS tend to avoid social

  19. BDNF Up-Regulates α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Levels on Subpopulations of Hippocampal Interneurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Kerri A.; Zago, Wagner M.; Berg, Darwin K.

    2006-01-01

    In the hippocampus, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates a number of synaptic components. Among these are nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α7 subunits (α7-nAChRs), which are interesting because of their relative abundance in the hippocampus and their high relative calcium permeability. We show here that BDNF elevates surface and intracellular pools of α7-nAChRs on cultured hippocampal neurons and that glutamatergic activity is both necessary and sufficient for the effect. Blocking transmission through NMDA receptors with APV blocked the BDNF effect; increasing spontaneous excitatory activity with the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline replicated the BDNF effect. BDNF antibodies blocked the BDNF-mediated increase but not the bicuculline one, consistent with enhanced glutamatergic activity acting downstream from BDNF. Increased α7-nAChR clusters were most prominent on interneuron subtypes known to innervate directly excitatory neurons. The results suggest that BDNF, acting through glutamatergic transmission, can modulate hippocampal output in part by controlling α7-nAChR levels. PMID:17029981

  20. The influence of single bursts vs. single spikes at excitatory dendrodendritic synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masurkar, Arjun V.; Chen, Wei R.

    2015-01-01

    The synchronization of neuronal activity is thought to enhance information processing. There is much evidence supporting rhythmically bursting external tufted cells (ETCs) of the rodent olfactory bulb glomeruli coordinating the activation of glomerular interneurons and mitral cells via dendrodendritic excitation. However, as bursting has variable significance at axodendritic cortical synapses, it is not clear if ETC bursting imparts a specific functional advantage over the preliminary spike in dendrodendritic synaptic networks. To answer this question, we investigated the influence of single ETC bursts and spikes with the in-vitro rat olfactory bulb preparation at different levels of processing, via calcium imaging of presynaptic ETC dendrites, dual electrical recording of ETC–interneuron synaptic pairs, and multicellular calcium imaging of ETC-induced population activity. Our findings supported single ETC bursts, vs. single spikes, driving robust presynaptic calcium signaling, which in turn was associated with profound extension of the initial monosynaptic spike-driven dendrodendritic excitatory postsynaptic potential. This extension could be driven by either the spike-dependent or spike-independent components of the burst. At the population level, burst-induced excitation was more widespread and reliable compared with single spikes. This further supports the ETC network, in part due to a functional advantage of bursting at excitatory dendrodendritic synapses, coordinating synchronous activity at behaviorally relevant frequencies related to odor processing in vivo. PMID:22277089

  1. Astrocytic energetics during excitatory neurotransmission: What are contributions of glutamate oxidation and glycolysis?

    OpenAIRE

    Dienel, Gerald A.

    2013-01-01

    Astrocytic energetics of excitatory neurotransmission is controversial due to discrepant findings in different experimental systems in vitro and in vivo. The energy requirements of glutamate uptake are believed by some researchers to be satisfied by glycolysis coupled with shuttling of lactate to neurons for oxidation. However, astrocytes increase glycogenolysis and oxidative metabolism during sensory stimulation in vivo, indicating that other sources of energy are used by astrocytes during b...

  2. A Population of Projection Neurons that Inhibits the Lateral Horn but Excites the Antennal Lobe through Chemical Synapses in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumichi Shimizu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the insect olfactory system, odor information is transferred from the antennal lobe (AL to higher brain areas by projection neurons (PNs in multiple AL tracts (ALTs. In several species, one of the ALTs, the mediolateral ALT (mlALT, contains some GABAergic PNs; in the Drosophila brain, the great majority of ventral PNs (vPNs are GABAergic and project through this tract to the lateral horn (LH. Most excitatory PNs (ePNs, project through the medial ALT (mALT to the mushroom body (MB and the LH. Recent studies have shown that GABAergic vPNs play inhibitory roles at their axon terminals in the LH. However, little is known about the properties and functions of vPNs at their dendritic branches in the AL. Here, we used optogenetic and patch clamp techniques to investigate the functional roles of vPNs in the AL. Surprisingly, our results show that specific activation of vPNs reliably elicits strong excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs in ePNs. Moreover, the connections between vPNs and ePNs are mediated by direct chemical synapses. Neither pulses of GABA, nor pharmagological, or genetic blockade of GABAergic transmission gave results consistent with the involvement of GABA in vPN-ePN excitatory transmission. These unexpected results suggest new roles for the vPN population in olfactory information processing.

  3. Transgene transmission in chickens by sperm-mediated gene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aim of this work was to demonstrate transgene transmission by SMGT in chickens using ... group. EGFP mRNA was detected in 21% of newborn chicks from the DMSO group, ..... training or equipment was required and it is applicable to.

  4. Infant attachment, adult attachment, and maternal sensitivity: revisiting the intergenerational transmission gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Kazuko Y; Haltigan, John D; Bahm, Naomi I Gribneau

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the intergenerational transmission of attachment, utilizing the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP), and the Maternal Behavioral Q-Set (MBQS). We revisited fundamental questions in attachment theory and research by examining: (1) the level of intergenerational agreement between maternal attachment representations and infant attachment security, and (2) whether maternal sensitivity serves as an intergenerational mediator between adult and infant attachment security. Significant categorical matches between the AAI and the SSP as well as mean differences for MBQS scores between adult attachment secure-insecure groups were found. Consistent with earlier intergenerational research, maternal sensitivity only partially mediated the AAI-SSP link, indicating the transmission gap remains. Consistent with recent mediation studies, using more contemporary analytical techniques, it was confirmed that maternal sensitivity did mediate the direct pathway between AAI security and SSP security. Thus, the transmission gap appears somewhat different depending on the statistical method used to measure mediation. Post hoc analyses considered mothers' childhood experiences of separation/divorce and this helped make sense of intergenerational mismatches.

  5. Minocycline enhances inhibitory transmission to substantia gelatinosa neurons of the rat spinal dorsal horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, H-Z; Ma, L-X; Lv, M-H; Hu, T; Liu, T

    2016-04-05

    Minocycline, a second-generation tetracycline, is well known for its antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, and antinociceptive effects. Modulation of synaptic transmission is one of the analgesic mechanisms of minocycline. Although it has been reported that minocycline may suppress excitatory glutamatergic synaptic transmission, it remains unclear whether it could affect inhibitory synaptic transmission, which also plays a key role in modulating pain signaling. To examine the effect of minocycline on synaptic transmission in rat spinal substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons, we recorded spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) using whole-cell patch-clamp recording at a holding potential of 0 mV. Bath application of minocycline significantly increased the frequency but not the amplitude of sIPSCs in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner with an EC50 of 85. The enhancement of inhibitory synaptic transmission produced by minocycline was not affected by the glutamate receptor antagonists CNQX and D-APV or by the voltage-gated sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX). Moreover, the potency of minocycline for facilitating sIPSC frequency was the same in both glycinergic and GABAergic sIPSCs without changing their decay phases. However, the facilitatory effect of minocycline on sIPSCs was eliminated in a Ca(2+)-free Krebs solution or by co-administration with calcium channel blockers. In summary, our data demonstrate that baseline inhibitory synaptic transmission in SG neurons is markedly enhanced by minocycline. This may function to decrease the excitability of SG neurons, thus leading to a modulation of nociceptive transmission. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Increased Cortical Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Precedes Incomplete Extinction of Conditioned Fear and Increased Hippocampal Excitatory Tone in a Mouse Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Brandy L; Ghoddoussi, Farhad; Charlton, Jennifer L; Kohler, Robert J; Galloway, Matthew P; Perrine, Shane A; Conti, Alana C

    2016-09-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) contributes to development of affective disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Psychiatric symptoms typically emerge in a tardive fashion post-TBI, with negative effects on recovery. Patients with PTSD, as well as rodent models of PTSD, demonstrate structural and functional changes in brain regions mediating fear learning, including prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala (AMYG), and hippocampus (HC). These changes may reflect loss of top-down control by which PFC normally exhibits inhibitory influence over AMYG reactivity to fearful stimuli, with HC contribution. Considering the susceptibility of these regions to injury, we examined fear conditioning (FC) in the delayed post-injury period, using a mouse model of mTBI. Mice with mTBI displayed enhanced acquisition and delayed extinction of FC. Using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ex vivo, we examined PFC, AMYG, and HC levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate as surrogate measures of inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission, respectively. Eight days post-injury, GABA was increased in PFC, with no significant changes in AMYG. In animals receiving FC and mTBI, glutamate trended toward an increase and the GABA/glutamate ratio decreased in ventral HC at 25 days post-injury, whereas GABA decreased and GABA/glutamate decreased in dorsal HC. These neurochemical changes are consistent with early TBI-induced PFC hypoactivation facilitating the fear learning circuit and exacerbating behavioral fear responses. The latent emergence of overall increased excitatory tone in the HC, despite distinct plasticity in dorsal and ventral HC fields, may be associated with disordered memory function, manifested as incomplete extinction and enhanced FC recall.

  7. Circuit variability interacts with excitatory-inhibitory diversity of interneurons to regulate network encoding capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kuo-Ting; Hu, Chin-Kun; Li, Kuan-Wei; Hwang, Wen-Liang; Chou, Ya-Hui

    2018-05-23

    Local interneurons (LNs) in the Drosophila olfactory system exhibit neuronal diversity and variability, yet it is still unknown how these features impact information encoding capacity and reliability in a complex LN network. We employed two strategies to construct a diverse excitatory-inhibitory neural network beginning with a ring network structure and then introduced distinct types of inhibitory interneurons and circuit variability to the simulated network. The continuity of activity within the node ensemble (oscillation pattern) was used as a readout to describe the temporal dynamics of network activity. We found that inhibitory interneurons enhance the encoding capacity by protecting the network from extremely short activation periods when the network wiring complexity is very high. In addition, distinct types of interneurons have differential effects on encoding capacity and reliability. Circuit variability may enhance the encoding reliability, with or without compromising encoding capacity. Therefore, we have described how circuit variability of interneurons may interact with excitatory-inhibitory diversity to enhance the encoding capacity and distinguishability of neural networks. In this work, we evaluate the effects of different types and degrees of connection diversity on a ring model, which may simulate interneuron networks in the Drosophila olfactory system or other biological systems.

  8. Up-Regulation of Excitatory Amino Acid Transporters EAAT1 and EAAT2 by ß-Klotho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshed Warsi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Klotho, a transmembrane protein expressed in chorioid plexus of the brain, kidney, and several other tissues, is required for inhibition of 1,25(OH2D3 formation by FGF23. The extracellular domain of Klotho protein could be cleaved off, thus being released into blood or cerebrospinal fluid. At least in part by exerting β-glucuronidase activity, soluble klotho regulates several ion channels and carriers. Klotho protein deficiency accelerates the appearance of age related disorders including neurodegeneration and muscle wasting and eventually leads to premature death. The present study explored the effect of Klotho protein on the excitatory glutamate transporters EAAT1 (SLC1A3 and EAAT2 (SLC1A2, Na+ coupled carriers clearing excitatory amino acids from the synaptic cleft and thus participating in the regulation of neuronal excitability. Methods: cRNA encoding EAAT1 or EAAT2 was injected into Xenopus laevis oocytes and glutamate (2 mM-induced inward current (IGlu taken as measure of glutamate transport. Measurements were made without or with prior 24 h treatment with soluble ß-Klotho protein (30 ng/ml in the absence and presence of β-glucuronidase inhibitor D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone monohydrate (DSAL,10 µM. Results: IGlu was observed in EAAT1 and in EAAT2 expressing oocytes but not in water injected oocytes. In both, EAAT1 and EAAT2 expressing oocytes IGlu was significantly increased by treatment with soluble ß-Klotho protein, an effect reversed by DSAL. Treatment with ß-klotho protein increased significantly the maximal transport rate without significantly modifying the affinity of the carriers. Conclusion: ß-Klotho up-regulates the excitatory glutamate transporters EAAT1 and EAAT2 and thus participates in the regulation of neuronal excitation.

  9. Voltage Gated Calcium Channel Activation by Backpropagating Action Potentials Downregulates NMDAR Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Kathrin Theis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of excitatory synapses are located on dendritic spines of cortical glutamatergic neurons. In spines, compartmentalized Ca2+ signals transduce electrical activity into specific long-term biochemical and structural changes. Action potentials (APs propagate back into the dendritic tree and activate voltage gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs. For spines, this global mode of spine Ca2+ signaling is a direct biochemical feedback of suprathreshold neuronal activity. We previously demonstrated that backpropagating action potentials (bAPs result in long-term enhancement of spine VGCCs. This activity-dependent VGCC plasticity results in a large interspine variability of VGCC Ca2+ influx. Here, we investigate how spine VGCCs affect glutamatergic synaptic transmission. We combined electrophysiology, two-photon Ca2+ imaging and two-photon glutamate uncaging in acute brain slices from rats. T- and R-type VGCCs were the dominant depolarization-associated Ca2+conductances in dendritic spines of excitatory layer 2 neurons and do not affect synaptic excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs measured at the soma. Using two-photon glutamate uncaging, we compared the properties of glutamatergic synapses of single spines that express different levels of VGCCs. While VGCCs contributed to EPSP mediated Ca2+ influx, the amount of EPSP mediated Ca2+ influx is not determined by spine VGCC expression. On a longer timescale, the activation of VGCCs by bAP bursts results in downregulation of spine NMDAR function.

  10. Electrical coupling and excitatory synaptic transmission between rhythmogenic respiratory neurons in the preBötzinger complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rekling, J C; Shao, X M; Feldman, J L

    2000-01-01

    Breathing pattern is postulated to be generated by brainstem neurons. However, determination of the underlying cellular mechanisms, and in particular the synaptic interactions between respiratory neurons, has been difficult. Here we used dual recordings from two distinct populations of brainstem...... respiratory neurons, hypoglossal (XII) motoneurons, and rhythmogenic (type-1) neurons in the preBötzinger complex (preBötC), the hypothesized site for respiratory rhythm generation, to determine whether electrical and chemical transmission is present. Using an in vitro brainstem slice preparation from newborn...... mice, we found that intracellularly recorded pairs of XII motoneurons and pairs of preBötC inspiratory type-1 neurons showed bidirectional electrical coupling. Coupling strength was low (neurons was heavily filtered (corner frequency,

  11. Synchronization in a non-uniform network of excitatory spiking neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeveste, Rodrigo; Gros, Claudius

    Spontaneous synchronization of pulse coupled elements is ubiquitous in nature and seems to be of vital importance for life. Networks of pacemaker cells in the heart, extended populations of southeast asian fireflies, and neuronal oscillations in cortical networks, are examples of this. In the present work, a rich repertoire of dynamical states with different degrees of synchronization are found in a network of excitatory-only spiking neurons connected in a non-uniform fashion. In particular, uncorrelated and partially correlated states are found without the need for inhibitory neurons or external currents. The phase transitions between these states, as well the robustness, stability, and response of the network to external stimulus are studied.

  12. The social transmission of risk: Maternal stress physiology, synchronous parenting, and well-being mediate the effects of war exposure on child psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevi, Galit; Djalovski, Amir; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv; Yirmiya, Karen; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Koren, Lee; Feldman, Ruth

    2017-11-01

    While chronic early stress increases child susceptibility to psychopathology, risk and resilience trajectories are shaped by maternal social influences whose role requires much further research in longitudinal studies. We examined the social transmission of risk by assessing paths leading from war-exposure to child symptoms as mediated by 3 sources of maternal social influence; stress physiology, synchronous parenting, and psychiatric disorder. Mothers and children living in a zone of continuous war were assessed in early childhood (1.5-5 years) and the current study revisited families in late (9-11years) childhood (N = 177; N = 101 war-exposed; N = 76 controls). At both time-points, maternal and child's salivary cortisol (SC), social behavior, and externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed. In late childhood, hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) were also measured and mother and child underwent psychiatric diagnosis. The social transmission model was tested against 2 alternative models; 1 proposing direct impact of war on children without maternal mediation, the other predicting late-childhood symptoms from early childhood variables, not change trajectories. Path analysis controlling for early childhood variables supported our conceptual model. Whereas maternal psychopathology was directly linked with child symptoms, defining direct mediation, the impact of maternal stress hormones was indirect and passed through stress contagion mechanisms involving coupling between maternal and child's HCC and SC. Similarly, maternal synchrony linked with child social engagement as the pathway to reduced symptomatology. Findings underscore the critical role of maternal stress physiology, attuned behavior, and well-being in shaping child psychopathology amid adversity and specify direct and indirect paths by which mothers stand between war and the child. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Presynaptic Glycine Receptors Increase GABAergic Neurotransmission in Rat Periaqueductal Gray Neurons

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    Kwi-Hyung Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The periaqueductal gray (PAG is involved in the central regulation of nociceptive transmission by affecting the descending inhibitory pathway. In the present study, we have addressed the functional role of presynaptic glycine receptors in spontaneous glutamatergic transmission. Spontaneous EPSCs (sEPSCs were recorded in mechanically dissociated rat PAG neurons using a conventional whole-cell patch recording technique under voltage-clamp conditions. The application of glycine (100 µM significantly increased the frequency of sEPSCs, without affecting the amplitude of sEPSCs. The glycine-induced increase in sEPSC frequency was blocked by 1 µM strychnine, a specific glycine receptor antagonist. The results suggest that glycine acts on presynaptic glycine receptors to increase the probability of glutamate release from excitatory nerve terminals. The glycine-induced increase in sEPSC frequency completely disappeared either in the presence of tetrodotoxin or Cd2+, voltage-gated Na+, or Ca2+ channel blockers, suggesting that the activation of presynaptic glycine receptors might depolarize excitatory nerve terminals. The present results suggest that presynaptic glycine receptors can regulate the excitability of PAG neurons by enhancing glutamatergic transmission and therefore play an important role in the regulation of various physiological functions mediated by the PAG.

  14. The influence of single bursts versus single spikes at excitatory dendrodendritic synapses.

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    Masurkar, Arjun V; Chen, Wei R

    2012-02-01

    The synchronization of neuronal activity is thought to enhance information processing. There is much evidence supporting rhythmically bursting external tufted cells (ETCs) of the rodent olfactory bulb glomeruli coordinating the activation of glomerular interneurons and mitral cells via dendrodendritic excitation. However, as bursting has variable significance at axodendritic cortical synapses, it is not clear if ETC bursting imparts a specific functional advantage over the preliminary spike in dendrodendritic synaptic networks. To answer this question, we investigated the influence of single ETC bursts and spikes with the in vitro rat olfactory bulb preparation at different levels of processing, via calcium imaging of presynaptic ETC dendrites, dual electrical recording of ETC -interneuron synaptic pairs, and multicellular calcium imaging of ETC-induced population activity. Our findings supported single ETC bursts, versus single spikes, driving robust presynaptic calcium signaling, which in turn was associated with profound extension of the initial monosynaptic spike-driven dendrodendritic excitatory postsynaptic potential. This extension could be driven by either the spike-dependent or spike-independent components of the burst. At the population level, burst-induced excitation was more widespread and reliable compared with single spikes. This further supports the ETC network, in part due to a functional advantage of bursting at excitatory dendrodendritic synapses, coordinating synchronous activity at behaviorally relevant frequencies related to odor processing in vivo. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Optimal properties of analog perceptrons with excitatory weights.

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    Claudia Clopath

    Full Text Available The cerebellum is a brain structure which has been traditionally devoted to supervised learning. According to this theory, plasticity at the Parallel Fiber (PF to Purkinje Cell (PC synapses is guided by the Climbing fibers (CF, which encode an 'error signal'. Purkinje cells have thus been modeled as perceptrons, learning input/output binary associations. At maximal capacity, a perceptron with excitatory weights expresses a large fraction of zero-weight synapses, in agreement with experimental findings. However, numerous experiments indicate that the firing rate of Purkinje cells varies in an analog, not binary, manner. In this paper, we study the perceptron with analog inputs and outputs. We show that the optimal input has a sparse binary distribution, in good agreement with the burst firing of the Granule cells. In addition, we show that the weight distribution consists of a large fraction of silent synapses, as in previously studied binary perceptron models, and as seen experimentally.

  16. Inferring Trial-to-Trial Excitatory and Inhibitory Synaptic Inputs from Membrane Potential using Gaussian Mixture Kalman Filtering

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    Milad eLankarany

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Time-varying excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs govern activity of neurons and process information in the brain. The importance of trial-to-trial fluctuations of synaptic inputs has recently been investigated in neuroscience. Such fluctuations are ignored in the most conventional techniques because they are removed when trials are averaged during linear regression techniques. Here, we propose a novel recursive algorithm based on Gaussian mixture Kalman filtering for estimating time-varying excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs from single trials of noisy membrane potential in current clamp recordings. The Kalman filtering is followed by an expectation maximization algorithm to infer the statistical parameters (time-varying mean and variance of the synaptic inputs in a non-parametric manner. As our proposed algorithm is repeated recursively, the inferred parameters of the mixtures are used to initiate the next iteration. Unlike other recent algorithms, our algorithm does not assume an a priori distribution from which the synaptic inputs are generated. Instead, the algorithm recursively estimates such a distribution by fitting a Gaussian mixture model. The performance of the proposed algorithms is compared to a previously proposed PF-based algorithm (Paninski et al., 2012 with several illustrative examples, assuming that the distribution of synaptic input is unknown. If noise is small, the performance of our algorithms is similar to that of the previous one. However, if noise is large, they can significantly outperform the previous proposal. These promising results suggest that our algorithm is a robust and efficient technique for estimating time varying excitatory and inhibitory synaptic conductances from single trials of membrane potential recordings.

  17. Neuroligin-1 loss is associated with reduced tenacity of excitatory synapses.

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    Adel Zeidan

    Full Text Available Neuroligins (Nlgns are postsynaptic, integral membrane cell adhesion molecules that play important roles in the formation, validation, and maturation of synapses in the mammalian central nervous system. Given their prominent roles in the life cycle of synapses, it might be expected that the loss of neuroligin family members would affect the stability of synaptic organization, and ultimately, affect the tenacity and persistence of individual synaptic junctions. Here we examined whether and to what extent the loss of Nlgn-1 affects the dynamics of several key synaptic molecules and the constancy of their contents at individual synapses over time. Fluorescently tagged versions of the postsynaptic scaffold molecule PSD-95, the AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunit GluA2 and the presynaptic vesicle molecule SV2A were expressed in primary cortical cultures from Nlgn-1 KO mice and wild-type (WT littermates, and live imaging was used to follow the constancy of their contents at individual synapses over periods of 8-12 hours. We found that the loss of Nlgn-1 was associated with larger fluctuations in the synaptic contents of these molecules and a poorer preservation of their contents at individual synapses. Furthermore, rates of synaptic turnover were somewhat greater in neurons from Nlgn-1 knockout mice. Finally, the increased GluA2 redistribution rates observed in neurons from Nlgn-1 knockout mice were negated by suppressing spontaneous network activity. These findings suggest that the loss of Nlgn-1 is associated with some use-dependent destabilization of excitatory synapse organization, and indicate that in the absence of Nlgn-1, the tenacity of excitatory synapses might be somewhat impaired.

  18. Layer- and Cell Type-Specific Modulation of Excitatory Neuronal Activity in the Neocortex

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    Gabriele Radnikow

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available From an anatomical point of view the neocortex is subdivided into up to six layers depending on the cortical area. This subdivision has been described already by Meynert and Brodmann in the late 19/early 20. century and is mainly based on cytoarchitectonic features such as the size and location of the pyramidal cell bodies. Hence, cortical lamination is originally an anatomical concept based on the distribution of excitatory neuron. However, it has become apparent in recent years that apart from the layer-specific differences in morphological features, many functional properties of neurons are also dependent on cortical layer or cell type. Such functional differences include changes in neuronal excitability and synaptic activity by neuromodulatory transmitters. Many of these neuromodulators are released from axonal afferents from subcortical brain regions while others are released intrinsically. In this review we aim to describe layer- and cell-type specific differences in the effects of neuromodulator receptors in excitatory neurons in layers 2–6 of different cortical areas. We will focus on the neuromodulator systems using adenosine, acetylcholine, dopamine, and orexin/hypocretin as examples because these neuromodulator systems show important differences in receptor type and distribution, mode of release and functional mechanisms and effects. We try to summarize how layer- and cell type-specific neuromodulation may affect synaptic signaling in cortical microcircuits.

  19. Structural insights into viral determinants of nematode mediated Grapevine fanleaf virus transmission.

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    Pascale Schellenberger

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Many animal and plant viruses rely on vectors for their transmission from host to host. Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV, a picorna-like virus from plants, is transmitted specifically by the ectoparasitic nematode Xiphinema index. The icosahedral capsid of GFLV, which consists of 60 identical coat protein subunits (CP, carries the determinants of this specificity. Here, we provide novel insight into GFLV transmission by nematodes through a comparative structural and functional analysis of two GFLV variants. We isolated a mutant GFLV strain (GFLV-TD poorly transmissible by nematodes, and showed that the transmission defect is due to a glycine to aspartate mutation at position 297 (Gly297Asp in the CP. We next determined the crystal structures of the wild-type GFLV strain F13 at 3.0 Å and of GFLV-TD at 2.7 Å resolution. The Gly297Asp mutation mapped to an exposed loop at the outer surface of the capsid and did not affect the conformation of the assembled capsid, nor of individual CP molecules. The loop is part of a positively charged pocket that includes a previously identified determinant of transmission. We propose that this pocket is a ligand-binding site with essential function in GFLV transmission by X. index. Our data suggest that perturbation of the electrostatic landscape of this pocket affects the interaction of the virion with specific receptors of the nematode's feeding apparatus, and thereby severely diminishes its transmission efficiency. These data provide a first structural insight into the interactions between a plant virus and a nematode vector.

  20. Homeostatic regulation of excitatory synapses on striatal medium spiny neurons expressing the D2 dopamine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Dominic; Giguère, Nicolas; Loustalot, Fabien; Bourque, Marie-Josée; Ducrot, Charles; El Mestikawy, Salah; Trudeau, Louis-Éric

    2016-05-01

    Striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) are contacted by glutamatergic axon terminals originating from cortex, thalamus and other regions. The striatum is also innervated by dopaminergic (DAergic) terminals, some of which release glutamate as a co-transmitter. Despite evidence for functional DA release at birth in the striatum, the role of DA in the establishment of striatal circuitry is unclear. In light of recent work suggesting activity-dependent homeostatic regulation of glutamatergic terminals on MSNs expressing the D2 DA receptor (D2-MSNs), we used primary co-cultures to test the hypothesis that stimulation of DA and glutamate receptors regulates the homeostasis of glutamatergic synapses on MSNs. Co-culture of D2-MSNs with mesencephalic DA neurons or with cortical neurons produced an increase in spines and functional glutamate synapses expressing VGLUT2 or VGLUT1, respectively. The density of VGLUT2-positive terminals was reduced by the conditional knockout of this gene from DA neurons. In the presence of both mesencephalic and cortical neurons, the density of synapses reached the same total, compatible with the possibility of a homeostatic mechanism capping excitatory synaptic density. Blockade of D2 receptors increased the density of cortical and mesencephalic glutamatergic terminals, without changing MSN spine density or mEPSC frequency. Combined blockade of AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptors increased the density of cortical terminals and decreased that of mesencephalic VGLUT2-positive terminals, with no net change in total excitatory terminal density or in mEPSC frequency. These results suggest that DA and glutamate signaling regulate excitatory inputs to striatal D2-MSNs at both the pre- and postsynaptic level, under the influence of a homeostatic mechanism controlling functional output of the circuit.

  1. Disruption of Fgf13 causes synaptic excitatory-inhibitory imbalance and genetic epilepsy and febrile seizures plus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranam, Ram S; He, Xiao Ping; Yao, Lijun; Le, Tri; Jang, Wonjo; Rehder, Catherine W; Lewis, Darrell V; McNamara, James O

    2015-06-10

    We identified a family in which a translocation between chromosomes X and 14 was associated with cognitive impairment and a complex genetic disorder termed "Genetic Epilepsy and Febrile Seizures Plus" (GEFS(+)). We demonstrate that the breakpoint on the X chromosome disrupted a gene that encodes an auxiliary protein of voltage-gated Na(+) channels, fibroblast growth factor 13 (Fgf13). Female mice in which one Fgf13 allele was deleted exhibited hyperthermia-induced seizures and epilepsy. Anatomic studies revealed expression of Fgf13 mRNA in both excitatory and inhibitory neurons of hippocampus. Electrophysiological recordings revealed decreased inhibitory and increased excitatory synaptic inputs in hippocampal neurons of Fgf13 mutants. We speculate that reduced expression of Fgf13 impairs excitability of inhibitory interneurons, resulting in enhanced excitability within local circuits of hippocampus and the clinical phenotype of epilepsy. These findings reveal a novel cause of this syndrome and underscore the powerful role of FGF13 in control of neuronal excitability. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/358866-16$15.00/0.

  2. SynDIG4/Prrt1 Is Required for Excitatory Synapse Development and Plasticity Underlying Cognitive Function

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    Lucas Matt

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Altering AMPA receptor (AMPAR content at synapses is a key mechanism underlying the regulation of synaptic strength during learning and memory. Previous work demonstrated that SynDIG1 (synapse differentiation-induced gene 1 encodes a transmembrane AMPAR-associated protein that regulates excitatory synapse strength and number. Here we show that the related protein SynDIG4 (also known as Prrt1 modifies AMPAR gating properties in a subunit-dependent manner. Young SynDIG4 knockout (KO mice have weaker excitatory synapses, as evaluated by immunocytochemistry and electrophysiology. Adult SynDIG4 KO mice show complete loss of tetanus-induced long-term potentiation (LTP, while mEPSC amplitude is reduced by only 25%. Furthermore, SynDIG4 KO mice exhibit deficits in two independent cognitive assays. Given that SynDIG4 colocalizes with the AMPAR subunit GluA1 at non-synaptic sites, we propose that SynDIG4 maintains a pool of extrasynaptic AMPARs necessary for synapse development and function underlying higher-order cognitive plasticity.

  3. Effects of piracetam on the incorporation of 32P into the phospholipids of neurons and glial cells isolated from rabbit cerebral cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woelk, H.

    1979-01-01

    In the search for the biochemical basis of the action of Piracetam, the effects of this encephalotropic substance on the neuronal and glial phospholipid metabolism was investigated. Piracetam increases the incorporation of 32 P into phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidyl choline of both glia and neuronal cell bodies. When taking the important role of phosphatidylinoitol in the processes of synaptic transmission and axonal conduction into consideration, the data obtained in the present work suggest that piracetam may stimulate excitatory neurons and may be involved in the process of synaptic transmission. The stimulatory effect of piracetam on the incorporation of 32 P into phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidyl choline appears to be mediated by norepinephrine or another neurotransmitter. (orig.) [de

  4. Presynaptic CRF1 Receptors Mediate the Ethanol Enhancement of GABAergic Transmission in the Mouse Central Amygdala

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    Zhiguo Nie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF is a 41-amino-acid neuropeptide involved in stress responses initiated from several brain areas, including the amygdala formation. Research shows a strong relationship between stress, brain CRF, and excessive alcohol consumption. Behavioral studies suggest that the central amygdala (CeA is significantly involved in alcohol reward and dependence. We recently reported that the ethanol augmentation of GABAergic synaptic transmission in rat CeA involves CRF1 receptors, because both CRF and ethanol significantly enhanced the amplitude of evoked GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs in CeA neurons from wild-type (WT and CRF2 knockout (KO mice, but not in neurons of CRF1 KO mice. The present study extends these findings using selective CRF receptor ligands, gene KO models, and miniature IPSC (mIPSC analysis to assess further a presynaptic role for the CRF receptors in mediating ethanol effects in the CeA. In whole-cell patch recordings of pharmacologically isolated GABAAergic IPSCs from slices of mouse CeA, both CRF and ethanol augmented evoked IPSCs in a concentration-dependent manner, with low EC50s. A CRF1 (but not CRF2 KO construct and the CRF1-selective nonpeptide antagonist NIH-3 (LWH-63 blocked the augmenting effect of both CRF and ethanol on evoked IPSCs. Furthermore, the new selective CRF1 agonist stressin1, but not the CRF2 agonist urocortin 3, also increased evoked IPSC amplitudes. Both CRF and ethanol decreased paired-pulse facilitation (PPF of evoked IPSCs and significantly enhanced the frequency, but not the amplitude, of spontaneous miniature GABAergic mIPSCs in CeA neurons of WT mice, suggesting a presynaptic site of action. The PPF effect of ethanol was abolished in CeA neurons of CRF1 KO mice. The CRF1 antagonist NIH-3 blocked the CRF- and ethanol-induced enhancement of mIPSC frequency in CeA neurons. These data indicate that presynaptic CRF1 receptors play a critical role in permitting

  5. Virus-mediated suppression of host non-self recognition facilitates horizontal transmission of heterologous viruses.

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    Songsong Wu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-self recognition is a common phenomenon among organisms; it often leads to innate immunity to prevent the invasion of parasites and maintain the genetic polymorphism of organisms. Fungal vegetative incompatibility is a type of non-self recognition which often induces programmed cell death (PCD and restricts the spread of molecular parasites. It is not clearly known whether virus infection could attenuate non-self recognition among host individuals to facilitate its spread. Here, we report that a hypovirulence-associated mycoreovirus, named Sclerotinia sclerotiorum mycoreovirus 4 (SsMYRV4, could suppress host non-self recognition and facilitate horizontal transmission of heterologous viruses. We found that cell death in intermingled colony regions between SsMYRV4-infected Sclerotinia sclerotiorum strain and other tested vegetatively incompatible strains was markedly reduced and inhibition barrage lines were not clearly observed. Vegetative incompatibility, which involves Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins signaling pathway, is controlled by specific loci termed het (heterokaryon incompatibility loci. Reactive oxygen species (ROS plays a key role in vegetative incompatibility-mediated PCD. The expression of G protein subunit genes, het genes, and ROS-related genes were significantly down-regulated, and cellular production of ROS was suppressed in the presence of SsMYRV4. Furthermore, SsMYRV4-infected strain could easily accept other viruses through hyphal contact and these viruses could be efficiently transmitted from SsMYRV4-infected strain to other vegetatively incompatible individuals. Thus, we concluded that SsMYRV4 is capable of suppressing host non-self recognition and facilitating heterologous viruses transmission among host individuals. These findings may enhance our understanding of virus ecology, and provide a potential strategy to utilize hypovirulence-associated mycoviruses to control fungal diseases.

  6. Astrocytes mediate synapse elimination through MEGF10 and MERTK pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Won-Suk; Clarke, Laura E.; Wang, Gordon X.; Stafford, Benjamin K.; Sher, Alexander; Chakraborty, Chandrani; Joung, Julia; Foo, Lynette C.; Thompson, Andrew; Chen, Chinfei; Smith, Stephen J.; Barres, Ben A.

    2013-12-01

    To achieve its precise neural connectivity, the developing mammalian nervous system undergoes extensive activity-dependent synapse remodelling. Recently, microglial cells have been shown to be responsible for a portion of synaptic pruning, but the remaining mechanisms remain unknown. Here we report a new role for astrocytes in actively engulfing central nervous system synapses. This process helps to mediate synapse elimination, requires the MEGF10 and MERTK phagocytic pathways, and is strongly dependent on neuronal activity. Developing mice deficient in both astrocyte pathways fail to refine their retinogeniculate connections normally and retain excess functional synapses. Finally, we show that in the adult mouse brain, astrocytes continuously engulf both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. These studies reveal a novel role for astrocytes in mediating synapse elimination in the developing and adult brain, identify MEGF10 and MERTK as critical proteins in the synapse remodelling underlying neural circuit refinement, and have important implications for understanding learning and memory as well as neurological disease processes.

  7. Biochemistry of an olfactory purinergic system: dephosphorylation of excitatory nucleotides and uptake of adenosine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trapido-Rosenthal, H G; Carr, W E; Gleeson, R A

    1987-10-01

    The olfactory organ of the spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, is composed of chemosensory sensilla containing the dendrites of primary chemosensory neurons. Receptors on these dendrites are activated by the nucleotides AMP, ADP, and ATP but not by the nucleoside adenosine. It is shown here that the lobster chemosensory sensilla contain enzymes that dephosphorylate excitatory nucleotides and an uptake system that internalizes the nonexcitatory dephosphorylated product adenosine. The uptake of (/sup 3/H)-adenosine is saturable with increasing concentration, linear with time for up to 3 h, sodium dependent, insensitive to moderate pH changes and has a Km of 7.1 microM and a Vmax of 5.2 fmol/sensillum/min (573 fmol/micrograms of protein/min). Double-label experiments show that sensilla dephosphorylate nucleotides extracellularly; /sup 3/H from adenine-labeled AMP or ATP is internalized, whereas 32P from phosphate-labeled nucleotides is not. The dephosphorylation of AMP is very rapid; /sup 3/H from AMP is internalized at the same rate as /sup 3/H from adenosine. Sensillar 5'-ectonucleotidase activity is inhibited by ADP and the ADP analog alpha, beta-methylene ADP. Collectively, these results indicate that the enzymes and the uptake system whereby chemosensory sensilla of the lobster inactivate excitatory nucleotides and clear adenosine from extracellular spaces are very similar to those present in the internal tissues of vertebrates, where nucleotides have many neuroactive effects.

  8. Depression of Serotonin Synaptic Transmission by the Dopamine Precursor L-DOPA

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    Stephanie C. Gantz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Imbalance between the dopamine and serotonin (5-HT neurotransmitter systems has been implicated in the comorbidity of Parkinson’s disease (PD and psychiatric disorders. L-DOPA, the leading treatment of PD, facilitates the production and release of dopamine. This study assessed the action of L-DOPA on monoamine synaptic transmission in mouse brain slices. Application of L-DOPA augmented the D2-receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSC in dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra. This augmentation was largely due to dopamine release from 5-HT terminals. Selective optogenetic stimulation of 5-HT terminals evoked dopamine release, producing D2-receptor-mediated IPSCs following treatment with L-DOPA. In the dorsal raphe, L-DOPA produced a long-lasting depression of the 5-HT1A-receptor-mediated IPSC in 5-HT neurons. When D2 receptors were expressed in the dorsal raphe, application of L-DOPA resulted in a D2-receptor-mediated IPSC. Thus, treatment with L-DOPA caused ectopic dopamine release from 5-HT terminals and a loss of 5-HT-mediated synaptic transmission.

  9. Evidence that NMDA-dependent limbic neural plasticity in the right hemisphere mediates pharmacological stressor (FG-7142)-induced lasting increases in anxiety-like behavior. Study 1--Role of NMDA receptors in efferent transmission from the cat amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamec, R E

    1998-01-01

    The anxiogenic beta-carboline, FG-7142, produces intense anxiety in humans and anxiety-like behavior in animals. FG-7142 also mimics the effects of exogenous stressors. In cats, FG-7142 lastingly changes defensive and aggressive behavior. Long-term potentiation (LTP) of neural transmission between limbic structures known to modulate feline defensive response to threat accompany behavioral changes. A series of three reports describes experiments designed to test the hypothesis that behavioral changes depend upon an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-based LTP of efferent transmission from the amygdala. This first study characterizes the dose and time effects of injection of the NMDA receptor blocker 7-amino-phosphono-heptanoic acid (AP7) on efferent transmission from the cat amygdala to the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH). Effects of doses of 0.5-10mg/kg (i.v.) of AP7 on potentials evoked in the VMH by single pulse stimulation of the basal amygdala were examined. In order to localize the action of the drug, concurrent measurements were taken of potentials evoked in the VMH by stimulation of the efferent fibers from the amygdala to the VMH (ventral amygdalofugal pathway, VAF). There was a dose-dependent reduction in the amygdalo-VMH evoked potential. The greatest reduction occurred at 5 mg/kg. Effects peaked at 10 min, and persisted for at least 1 h after injection. In contrast, AP7 increased the VAF-VMH-evoked potential at 10 min after injection, with a maximal increase at 5mg/kg. The data suggest that NMDA receptors intrinsic to the amygdala modulate excitatory efferent transmission from amygdala to VMH in the cat. It is speculated that a glutamatergic projection to gamma-aminobutyric acid tonic inhibitory systems in the VMH accounts for the VAF-VMH results.

  10. Depression of NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission by four α2 adrenoceptor agonists on the in vitro rat spinal cord preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, E S L; Chambers, J P; Evans, R H

    1998-01-01

    α2-Adrenoceptor agonists have a spinal site of analgesic action. In the current study the synaptic depressant actions of xylazine, detomidine, romifidine and dexmedetomidine have been compared on segmental reflexes containing NMDA receptor-mediated components in the neonatal rat hemisected spinal cord preparation in vitro.Reflexes were evoked in the ventral root following either supramaximal electrical stimulation of the corresponding ipsilateral lumbar dorsal root to evoke the high intensity excitatory postsynaptic potential (e.p.s.p.) involving all primary afferent fibres, or low intensity stimulation to evoke the solely A fibre-mediated low intensity e.p.s.p. The high intensity e.p.s.p. contains a greater NMDA receptor-mediated component.Xylazine, romifidine, detomidine and dexmedetomidine all depressed both the high intensity e.p.s.p. and the low intensity e.p.s.p. giving respective EC50 values of 0.91±0.2 μM (n=12), 23.4±3 nM (n=12), 37.7±7 nM (n=8) and 0.84±0.1 nM (n=4) for depression of the high intensity e.p.s.p. and 0.76±0.1 μM (n=12), 22.0±3 nM (n=12), 24.9±6 nM (n=4) and 2.7±0.6 nM (n=4) for depression of the low intensity e.p.s.p., respectively. Unlike the other three drugs, the two values for dexmedetomidine, showing a greater selectivity for the high intensity e.p.s.p., are significantly different.Each of these depressant actions was reversed by the selective α2-adrenoceptor antagonist atipamezole (1 μM).In contrast to previous reports of the actions of α2-adrenoceptor agonists on the in vitro spinal cord preparation, at concentrations ten fold higher than the above EC50 values xylazine, romifidine, detomidine and dexmedetomidine depressed the initial population spike of motoneurons (MSR). This depression was not reversed by atipamezole.Comparison of the rank order of the present EC50 values for depression of the high intensity e.p.s.p. with potency ratios from in vivo analgesic tests in previous studies show a close

  11. Presynaptic Regulation of Leptin in a Defined Lateral Hypothalamus-Ventral Tegmental Area Neurocircuitry Depends on Energy State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Jing; Bello, Nicholas T; Pang, Zhiping P

    2017-12-06

    Synaptic transmission controls brain activity and behaviors, including food intake. Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, acts on neurons located in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) to maintain energy homeostasis and regulate food intake behavior. The specific synaptic mechanisms, cell types, and neural projections mediating this effect remain unclear. In male mice, using pathway-specific retrograde tracing, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and post hoc cell type identification, we found that leptin reduces excitatory synaptic strength onto both melanin-concentrating hormone- and orexin-expressing neurons projecting from the LHA to the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which may affect dopamine signaling and motivation for feeding. A presynaptic mechanism mediated by distinct intracellular signaling mechanisms may account for this regulation by leptin. The regulatory effects of leptin depend on intact leptin receptor signaling. Interestingly, the synaptic regulatory function of leptin in the LHA-to-VTA neuronal pathway is highly sensitive to energy states: both energy deficiency (acute fasting) and excessive energy storage (high-fat diet-induced obesity) blunt the effect of leptin. These data revealed that leptin may regulate synaptic transmission in the LHA-to-VTA neurocircuitry in an inverted "U-shape" fashion dependent on plasma glucose levels and related to metabolic states. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) to ventral tegmental area (VTA) projection is an important neural pathway involved in balancing whole-body energy states and reward. We found that the excitatory synaptic inputs to both orexin- and melanin-concentrating hormone expressing LHA neurons projecting to the VTA were suppressed by leptin, a peptide hormone derived from adipocytes that signals peripheral energy status to the brain. Interestingly, energy states seem to affect how leptin regulates synaptic transmission since both the depletion of energy induced by acute food

  12. Lindane blocks GABAA-mediated inhibition and modulates pyramidal cell excitability in the rat hippocampal slice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, R M; Walby, W F; Stark, L G; Albertson, T E

    1995-01-01

    An in vitro paired-pulse orthodromic stimulation technique was used to examine the effects of lindane on excitatory afferent terminals, CA1 pyramidal cells and recurrent collateral evoked inhibition in the rat hippocampal slice. This was done to establish simultaneous effects on a simple neural network and to develop procedures for more detailed analyses of the effects of lindane. Hippocampal slices 400 microns thick were perfused with oxygenated artificial cerebrospinal fluid. Electrodes were placed in the CA1 region to record extracellular population spike (PS) or excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) responses to stimulation of Schaffer collateral/commissural (SC/C) fibers. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated recurrent inhibition was measured using a paired-pulse technique. Perfusion with lindane produced both time and dose dependent changes in a number of the responses measured. The most striking effect produced by lindane was the loss of GABAA-mediated recurrent collateral inhibition. This tended to occur rapidly, often before changes in EPSP or PS responses could be detected. With longer exposures to lindane, repetitive discharge of pyramidal cells developed resulting in multiple PSs to single stimuli. Lindane (50 microM) also completely reversed the effects of the injectable anesthetic, propofol, a compound known to potentiate GABAA-mediated inhibition via a direct action on the GABAA receptor-chloride channel complex. An analysis of input/output relationships at varying stimulus intensities showed that lindane increased EPSP and PS response amplitudes at any given stimulus intensity resulting in a leftward shift in the EPSP amplitude/stimulus intensity, PS amplitude/stimulus intensity and PS amplitude/EPSP amplitude relationships. This effect was most noticeable with low intensity stimuli and became progressively less so as stimulus intensities approached those yielding maximal responses. In addition lindane significantly increased paired pulse

  13. Intracellular Na+ concentration influences short-term plasticity of glutamate transporter-mediated currents in neocortical astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unichenko, Petr; Myakhar, Olga; Kirischuk, Sergei

    2012-04-01

    Fast synaptic transmission requires a rapid clearance of the released neurotransmitter from the extracellular space. Glial glutamate transporters (excitatory amino acid transporters, EAATs) strongly contribute to glutamate removal. In this work, we investigated the paired-pulse plasticity of synaptically activated, glutamate transporter-mediated currents (STCs) in cortical layer 2/3 astrocytes. STCs were elicited by local electrical stimulation in layer 4 in the presence of ionotropic glutamate (AMPA and NMDA), GABAA, and GABAB receptor antagonists. In experiments with low [Na(+)]i (5 mM) intrapipette solution, STCs elicited by paired-pulse stimulation demonstrated paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) at short (astrocytic [Na(+)]i, reduced the mean STC amplitude, decreased PPF at short ISIs, and slowed STC kinetics. All GABA-induced changes were blocked by NO-711 and SNAP-5114, GABA transporter (GATs) antagonists. In experiments with the low intrapipette solution, GAT blockade under control conditions decreased PPF at short ISIs both at room and at near physiological temperatures. Dialysis of single astrocyte with low [Na(+)]i solution increased the amplitude and reduced PPR of evoked field potentials recorded in the vicinity of the astrocyte. We conclude that (1) endogenous GABA via GATs may influence EAAT functioning and (2) astrocytic [Na(+)]i modulates the short-term plasticity of STCs and in turn the efficacy of glutamate removal. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Excitatory amino acid transmission in health and disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Balázs, R; Bridges, Richard J; Cotman, Carl W

    2006-01-01

    ... Structure of the Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors, 23 3 AMPA RECEPTORS, 36 Molecular Structure, Properties, and Regulation, 36 Distribution of AMPA Receptors, 41 AMPA Receptor Pharmacology, 46 Th...

  15. The effect of propofol on CA1 pyramidal cell excitability and GABAA-mediated inhibition in the rat hippocampal slice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, T E; Walby, W F; Stark, L G; Joy, R M

    1996-05-24

    An in vitro paired-pulse orthodromic stimulation technique was used to examine the effects of propofol on excitatory afferent terminals, CA1 pyramidal cells and recurrent collateral evoked inhibition in the rat hippocampal slice. Hippocampal slices 400 microns thick were perfused with oxygenated artificial cerebrospinal fluid, and electrodes were placed in the CA1 region to record extracellular field population spike (PS) or excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) responses to stimulation of Schaffer collateral/commissural fibers. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated recurrent inhibition was measured using a paired-pulse technique. The major effect of propofol (7-28 microM) was a dose and time dependent increase in the intensity and duration of GABA-mediated inhibition. This propofol effect could be rapidly and completely reversed by exposure to known GABAA antagonists, including picrotoxin, bicuculline and pentylenetetrazol. It was also reversed by the chloride channel antagonist, 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS). It was not antagonized by central (flumazenil) or peripheral (PK11195) benzodiazepine antagonists. Reversal of endogenous inhibition was also noted with the antagonists picrotoxin and pentylenetetrazol. Input/output curves constructed using stimulus propofol caused only a small enhancement of EPSPs at higher stimulus intensities but had no effect on PS amplitudes. These studies are consistent with propofol having a GABAA-chloride channel mechanism causing its effect on recurrent collateral evoked inhibition in the rat hippocampal slice.

  16. Organization of left-right coordination of neuronal activity in the mammalian spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shevtsova, Natalia A.; Talpalar, Adolfo E.; Markin, Sergey N.

    2015-01-01

    and the left-right synchronous hopping-like pattern in mutants lacking specific neuron classes, and speed-dependent asymmetric changes of flexor and extensor phase durations. The models provide insights into the architecture of spinal network and the organization of parallel inhibitory and excitatory CIN....... In this study, we construct and analyse two computational models of spinal locomotor circuits consisting of left and right rhythm generators interacting bilaterally via several neuronal pathways mediated by different CINs. The CIN populations incorporated in the models include the genetically identified...... inhibitory (V0D) and excitatory (V0V) subtypes of V0 CINs and excitatory V3 CINs. The model also includes the ipsilaterally projecting excitatory V2a interneurons mediating excitatory drive to the V0V CINs. The proposed network architectures and CIN connectivity allow the models to closely reproduce...

  17. Discovery of the first selective inhibitor of excitatory amino acid transporter subtype 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Asbjørn; Erichsen, Mette Navy; Nielsen, Christina Wøhlk

    2009-01-01

    The discovery of the first class of subtype-selective inhibitors of the human excitatory amino acid transporter subtype 1 (EAAT1) and its rat orthologue GLAST is reported. An opening structure-activity relationship of 25 analogues is presented that addresses the influence of substitutions at the 4......- and 7-positions of the parental skeleton 2-amino-5-oxo-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4H-chromene-3-carbonitrile. The most potent analogue 1o displays high nanomolar inhibitory activity at EAAT1 and a >400-fold selectivity over EAAT2 and EAAT3, making it a highly valuable pharmacological tool....

  18. Enhanced pre-synaptic glutamate release in deep-dorsal horn contributes to calcium channel alpha-2-delta-1 protein-mediated spinal sensitization and behavioral hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickenson Anthony H

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nerve injury-induced expression of the spinal calcium channel alpha-2-delta-1 subunit (Cavα2δ1 has been shown to mediate behavioral hypersensitivity through a yet identified mechanism. We examined if this neuroplasticity modulates behavioral hypersensitivity by regulating spinal glutamatergic neurotransmission in injury-free transgenic mice overexpressing the Cavα2δ1 proteins in neuronal tissues. The transgenic mice exhibited hypersensitivity to mechanical stimulation (allodynia similar to the spinal nerve ligation injury model. Intrathecally delivered antagonists for N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA and α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA/kainate receptors, but not for the metabotropic glutamate receptors, caused a dose-dependent allodynia reversal in the transgenic mice without changing the behavioral sensitivity in wild-type mice. This suggests that elevated spinal Cavα2δ1 mediates allodynia through a pathway involving activation of selective glutamate receptors. To determine if this is mediated by enhanced spinal neuronal excitability or pre-synaptic glutamate release in deep-dorsal horn, we examined wide-dynamic-range (WDR neuron excitability with extracellular recording and glutamate-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents with whole-cell patch recording in deep-dorsal horn of the Cavα2δ1 transgenic mice. Our data indicated that overexpression of Cavα2δ1 in neuronal tissues led to increased frequency, but not amplitude, of miniature excitatory post synaptic currents mediated mainly by AMPA/kainate receptors at physiological membrane potentials, and also by NMDA receptors upon depolarization, without changing the excitability of WDR neurons to high intensity stimulation. Together, these findings support a mechanism of Cavα2δ1-mediated spinal sensitization in which elevated Cavα2δ1 causes increased pre-synaptic glutamate release that leads to reduced excitation thresholds of post-synaptic dorsal

  19. Enhanced pre-synaptic glutamate release in deep-dorsal horn contributes to calcium channel alpha-2-delta-1 protein-mediated spinal sensitization and behavioral hypersensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, David; Deng, Ping; Matthews, Elizabeth A; Kim, Doo-Sik; Feng, Guoping; Dickenson, Anthony H; Xu, Zao C; Luo, Z David

    2009-01-01

    Nerve injury-induced expression of the spinal calcium channel alpha-2-delta-1 subunit (Cavα2δ1) has been shown to mediate behavioral hypersensitivity through a yet identified mechanism. We examined if this neuroplasticity modulates behavioral hypersensitivity by regulating spinal glutamatergic neurotransmission in injury-free transgenic mice overexpressing the Cavα2δ1 proteins in neuronal tissues. The transgenic mice exhibited hypersensitivity to mechanical stimulation (allodynia) similar to the spinal nerve ligation injury model. Intrathecally delivered antagonists for N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA)/kainate receptors, but not for the metabotropic glutamate receptors, caused a dose-dependent allodynia reversal in the transgenic mice without changing the behavioral sensitivity in wild-type mice. This suggests that elevated spinal Cavα2δ1 mediates allodynia through a pathway involving activation of selective glutamate receptors. To determine if this is mediated by enhanced spinal neuronal excitability or pre-synaptic glutamate release in deep-dorsal horn, we examined wide-dynamic-range (WDR) neuron excitability with extracellular recording and glutamate-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents with whole-cell patch recording in deep-dorsal horn of the Cavα2δ1 transgenic mice. Our data indicated that overexpression of Cavα2δ1 in neuronal tissues led to increased frequency, but not amplitude, of miniature excitatory post synaptic currents mediated mainly by AMPA/kainate receptors at physiological membrane potentials, and also by NMDA receptors upon depolarization, without changing the excitability of WDR neurons to high intensity stimulation. Together, these findings support a mechanism of Cavα2δ1-mediated spinal sensitization in which elevated Cavα2δ1 causes increased pre-synaptic glutamate release that leads to reduced excitation thresholds of post-synaptic dorsal horn neurons to innocuous

  20. Synaptic Transmission Optimization Predicts Expression Loci of Long-Term Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rui Ponte; Padamsey, Zahid; D'Amour, James A; Emptage, Nigel J; Froemke, Robert C; Vogels, Tim P

    2017-09-27

    Long-term modifications of neuronal connections are critical for reliable memory storage in the brain. However, their locus of expression-pre- or postsynaptic-is highly variable. Here we introduce a theoretical framework in which long-term plasticity performs an optimization of the postsynaptic response statistics toward a given mean with minimal variance. Consequently, the state of the synapse at the time of plasticity induction determines the ratio of pre- and postsynaptic modifications. Our theory explains the experimentally observed expression loci of the hippocampal and neocortical synaptic potentiation studies we examined. Moreover, the theory predicts presynaptic expression of long-term depression, consistent with experimental observations. At inhibitory synapses, the theory suggests a statistically efficient excitatory-inhibitory balance in which changes in inhibitory postsynaptic response statistics specifically target the mean excitation. Our results provide a unifying theory for understanding the expression mechanisms and functions of long-term synaptic transmission plasticity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of the carbohydrate-binding sites of griffithsin in the prevention of DC-SIGN-mediated capture and transmission of HIV-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Hoorelbeke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The glycan-targeting C-type DC-SIGN lectin receptor is implicated in the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV by binding the virus and transferring the captured HIV-1 to CD4(+ T lymphocytes. Carbohydrate binding agents (CBAs have been reported to block HIV-1 infection. We have now investigated the potent mannose-specific anti-HIV CBA griffithsin (GRFT on its ability to inhibit the capture of HIV-1 to DC-SIGN, its DC-SIGN-directed transmission to CD4(+ T-lymphocytes and the role of the three carbohydrate-binding sites (CBS of GRFT in these processes. FINDINGS: GRFT inhibited HIV-1(IIIB infection of CEM and HIV-1(NL4.3 infection of C8166 CD4(+ T-lymphocytes at an EC50 of 0.059 and 0.444 nM, respectively. The single mutant CBS variants of GRFT (in which a key Asp in one of the CBS was mutated to Ala were about ∼20 to 60-fold less potent to prevent HIV-1 infection and ∼20 to 90-fold less potent to inhibit syncytia formation in co-cultures of persistently HIV-1 infected HuT-78 and uninfected C8166 CD4(+ T-lymphocytes. GRFT prevents DC-SIGN-mediated virus capture and HIV-1 transmission to CD4(+ T-lymphocytes at an EC50 of 1.5 nM and 0.012 nM, respectively. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR studies revealed that wild-type GRFT efficiently blocked the binding between DC-SIGN and immobilized gp120, whereas the point mutant CBS variants of GRFT were ∼10- to 15-fold less efficient. SPR-analysis also demonstrated that wild-type GRFT and its single mutant CBS variants have the capacity to expel bound gp120 from the gp120-DC-SIGN complex in a dose dependent manner, a property that was not observed for HHA, another mannose-specific potent anti-HIV-1 CBA. CONCLUSION: GRFT is inhibitory against HIV gp120 binding to DC-SIGN, efficiently prevents DC-SIGN-mediated transfer of HIV-1 to CD4(+ T-lymphocytes and is able to expel gp120 from the gp120-DC-SIGN complex. Functionally intact CBS of GRFT are important for the optimal action of

  2. Differentiated human midbrain-derived neural progenitor cells express excitatory strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors containing α2β subunits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Wegner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human fetal midbrain-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs may deliver a tissue source for drug screening and regenerative cell therapy to treat Parkinson's disease. While glutamate and GABA(A receptors play an important role in neurogenesis, the involvement of glycine receptors during human neurogenesis and dopaminergic differentiation as well as their molecular and functional characteristics in NPCs are largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we investigated NPCs in respect to their glycine receptor function and subunit expression using electrophysiology, calcium imaging, immunocytochemistry, and quantitative real-time PCR. Whole-cell recordings demonstrate the ability of NPCs to express functional strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors after differentiation for 3 weeks in vitro. Pharmacological and molecular analyses indicate a predominance of glycine receptor heteromers containing α2β subunits. Intracellular calcium measurements of differentiated NPCs suggest that glycine evokes depolarisations mediated by strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors and not by D-serine-sensitive excitatory glycine receptors. Culturing NPCs with additional glycine, the glycine-receptor antagonist strychnine, or the Na(+-K(+-Cl(- co-transporter 1 (NKCC1-inhibitor bumetanide did not significantly influence cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that NPCs derived from human fetal midbrain tissue acquire essential glycine receptor properties during neuronal maturation. However, glycine receptors seem to have a limited functional impact on neurogenesis and dopaminergic differentiation of NPCs in vitro.

  3. A novel role of dendritic gap junction and mechanisms underlying its interaction with thalamocortical conductance in fast spiking inhibitory neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Qian-Quan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the roles of dendritic gap junctions (GJs of inhibitory interneurons in modulating temporal properties of sensory induced responses in sensory cortices. Electrophysiological dual patch-clamp recording and computational simulation methods were used in combination to examine a novel role of GJs in sensory mediated feed-forward inhibitory responses in barrel cortex layer IV and its underlying mechanisms. Results Under physiological conditions, excitatory post-junctional potentials (EPJPs interact with thalamocortical (TC inputs within an unprecedented few milliseconds (i.e. over 200 Hz to enhance the firing probability and synchrony of coupled fast-spiking (FS cells. Dendritic GJ coupling allows fourfold increase in synchrony and a significant enhancement in spike transmission efficacy in excitatory spiny stellate cells. The model revealed the following novel mechanisms: 1 rapid capacitive current (Icap underlies the activation of voltage-gated sodium channels; 2 there was less than 2 milliseconds in which the Icap underlying TC input and EPJP was coupled effectively; 3 cells with dendritic GJs had larger input conductance and smaller membrane response to weaker inputs; 4 synchrony in inhibitory networks by GJ coupling leads to reduced sporadic lateral inhibition and increased TC transmission efficacy. Conclusion Dendritic GJs of neocortical inhibitory networks can have very powerful effects in modulating the strength and the temporal properties of sensory induced feed-forward inhibitory and excitatory responses at a very high frequency band (>200 Hz. Rapid capacitive currents are identified as main mechanisms underlying interaction between two transient synaptic conductances.

  4. Outline of therapeutic interventions with muscarinic receptor-mediated transmission

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jakubík, Jan; Šantrůčková, Eva; Randáková, Alena; Janíčková, Helena; Zimčík, Pavel; Rudajev, Vladimír; Michal, Pavel; El-Fakahany, E. E.; Doležal, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, Suppl.1 (2014), S177-S189 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/0681; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/0259; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E10060 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : cholinergic transmission * muscarinic receptors * therapy * Alzheimer's disease, * schizophrenia Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  5. Developmental changes in electrophysiological properties and a transition from electrical to chemical coupling between excitatory layer 4 neurons in the rat barrel cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fliza eValiullina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During development, sensory systems switch from an immature to an adult mode of function along with the emergence of the active cortical states. Here, we used patch-clamp recordings from neocortical slices in vitro to characterize the developmental changes in the basic electrophysiological properties of excitatory L4 neurons and their connectivity before and after the developmental switch, which occurs in the rat barrel cortex in vivo at postnatal day P8. Prior to the switch, L4 neurons had lower resting membrane potentials, higher input resistance, lower membrane capacity, as well as action potentials (APs with smaller amplitudes, longer durations and higher AP thresholds compared to the neurons after the switch. A sustained firing pattern also emerged around the switch. Dual patch-clamp recordings from L4 neurons revealed that recurrent connections between L4 excitatory cells do not exist before and develop rapidly across the switch. In contrast, electrical coupling between these neurons waned around the switch. We suggest that maturation of electrophysiological features, particularly acquisition of a sustained firing pattern, and a transition from the immature electrical to mature chemical synaptic coupling between excitatory L4 neurons, contributes to the developmental switch in the cortical mode of function.

  6. The excitatory/inhibitory input to orexin/hypocretin neuron soma undergoes day/night reorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laperchia, Claudia; Imperatore, Roberta; Azeez, Idris A; Del Gallo, Federico; Bertini, Giuseppe; Grassi-Zucconi, Gigliola; Cristino, Luigia; Bentivoglio, Marina

    2017-11-01

    Orexin (OX)/hypocretin-containing neurons are main regulators of wakefulness stability, arousal, and energy homeostasis. Their activity varies in relation to the animal's behavioral state. We here tested whether such variation is subserved by synaptic plasticity phenomena in basal conditions. Mice were sacrificed during day or night, at times when sleep or wake, respectively, predominates, as assessed by electroencephalography in matched mice. Triple immunofluorescence was used to visualize OX-A perikarya and varicosities containing the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGluT)2 or the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) combined with synaptophysin (Syn) as a presynaptic marker. Appositions on OX-A + somata were quantitatively analyzed in pairs of sections in epifluorescence and confocal microscopy. The combined total number of glutamatergic (Syn + /VGluT2 + ) and GABAergic (Syn + /VGAT + ) varicosities apposed to OX-A somata was similar during day and night. However, glutamatergic varicosities were significantly more numerous at night, whereas GABAergic varicosities prevailed in the day. Triple immunofluorescence in confocal microscopy was employed to visualize synapse scaffold proteins as postsynaptic markers and confirmed the nighttime prevalence of VGluT2 + together with postsynaptic density protein 95 + excitatory contacts, and daytime prevalence of VGAT + together with gephyrin + inhibitory contacts, while also showing that they formed synapses on OX-A + cell bodies. The findings reveal a daily reorganization of axosomatic synapses in orexinergic neurons, with a switch from a prevalence of excitatory innervation at a time corresponding to wakefulness to a prevalence of inhibitory innervations in the antiphase, at a time corresponding to sleep. This reorganization could represent a key mechanism of plasticity of the orexinergic network in basal conditions.

  7. Hyperactivity of newborn Pten knock-out neurons results from increased excitatory synaptic drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael R; DeSpenza, Tyrone; Li, Meijie; Gulledge, Allan T; Luikart, Bryan W

    2015-01-21

    Developing neurons must regulate morphology, intrinsic excitability, and synaptogenesis to form neural circuits. When these processes go awry, disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or epilepsy, may result. The phosphatase Pten is mutated in some patients having ASD and seizures, suggesting that its mutation disrupts neurological function in part through increasing neuronal activity. Supporting this idea, neuronal knock-out of Pten in mice can cause macrocephaly, behavioral changes similar to ASD, and seizures. However, the mechanisms through which excitability is enhanced following Pten depletion are unclear. Previous studies have separately shown that Pten-depleted neurons can drive seizures, receive elevated excitatory synaptic input, and have abnormal dendrites. We therefore tested the hypothesis that developing Pten-depleted neurons are hyperactive due to increased excitatory synaptogenesis using electrophysiology, calcium imaging, morphological analyses, and modeling. This was accomplished by coinjecting retroviruses to either "birthdate" or birthdate and knock-out Pten in granule neurons of the murine neonatal dentate gyrus. We found that Pten knock-out neurons, despite a rapid onset of hypertrophy, were more active in vivo. Pten knock-out neurons fired at more hyperpolarized membrane potentials, displayed greater peak spike rates, and were more sensitive to depolarizing synaptic input. The increased sensitivity of Pten knock-out neurons was due, in part, to a higher density of synapses located more proximal to the soma. We determined that increased synaptic drive was sufficient to drive hypertrophic Pten knock-out neurons beyond their altered action potential threshold. Thus, our work contributes a developmental mechanism for the increased activity of Pten-depleted neurons. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/350943-17$15.00/0.

  8. Differences in context sensitivity for second-learned inhibitory and excitatory stimuli in AAB and ABC designs

    OpenAIRE

    Elgueta, Tito

    2014-01-01

    Bouton (1997) proposed a model to explain Pavlovian conditioning according to which the order of the associations (first-learned or second-learned), not the valence of the associations (inhibitory or excitatory), determines context sensitivity in AAB and ABC renewal designs. As a consequence, Bouton’s model does not predict important differences in context sensitivity between AAB and ABC designs. However, evidence suggests that there are indeed differences in context sensitivity between these...

  9. Establishment of a mouse model for the complete mosquito-mediated transmission cycle of Zika virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ping Kuo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is primarily transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes in the subgenus Stegomyia but can also be transmitted sexually and vertically in humans. STAT1 is an important downstream factor that mediates type I and II interferon signaling. In the current study, we showed that mice with STAT1 knockout (Stat1-/- were highly susceptible to ZIKV infection. As low as 5 plaque-forming units of ZIKV could cause viremia and death in Stat1-/- mice. ZIKV replication was initially detected in the spleen but subsequently spread to the brain with concomitant reduction of the virus in the spleen in the infected mice. Furthermore, ZIKV could be transmitted from mosquitoes to Stat1-/- mice back to mosquitoes and then to naïve Stat1-/- mice. The 50% mosquito infectious dose of viremic Stat1-/- mouse blood was close to 810 focus-forming units (ffu/ml. Our further studies indicated that the activation of macrophages and conventional dendritic cells were likely critical for the resolution of ZIKV infection. The newly developed mouse and mosquito transmission models for ZIKV infection will be useful for the evaluation of antiviral drugs targeting the virus, vector, and host.

  10. Nootropic agents enhance the recruitment of fast GABAA inhibition in rat neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Douglas S F; Benardo, Larry S

    2005-07-01

    It is widely believed that nootropic (cognition-enhancing) agents produce their therapeutic effects by augmenting excitatory synaptic transmission in cortical circuits, primarily through positive modulation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptors (AMPARs). However, GABA-mediated inhibition is also critical for cognition, and enhanced GABA function may be likewise therapeutic for cognitive disorders. Could nootropics act through such a mechanism as well? To address this question, we examined the effects of nootropic agents on excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs and IPSCs) recorded from layer V pyramidal cells in acute slices of somatosensory cortex. Aniracetam, a positive modulator of AMPA/kainate receptors, increased the peak amplitude of evoked EPSCs and the amplitude and duration of polysynaptic fast IPSCs, manifested as a greater total charge carried by IPSCs. As a result, the EPSC/IPSC ratio of total charge was decreased, representing a shift in the excitation-inhibition balance that favors inhibition. Aniracetam did not affect the magnitude of either monosynaptic IPSCs (mono-IPSCs) recorded in the presence of excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists, or miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) recorded in the presence of tetrodotoxin. However, the duration of both mono-IPSCs and mIPSCs was prolonged, suggesting that aniracetam also directly modulates GABAergic transmission. Cyclothiazide, a preferential modulator of AMPAR function, enhanced the magnitude and duration of polysynaptic IPSCs, similar to aniracetam, but did not affect mono-IPSCs. Concanavalin A, a kainate receptor modulator, had little effect on EPSCs or IPSCs, suggesting there was no contribution from kainate receptor activity. These findings indicate that AMPAR modulators strengthen inhibition in neocortical pyramidal cells, most likely by altering the kinetics of AMPARs on synaptically connected interneurons and possibly by modulating GABA(A) receptor responses

  11. Abnormal cortical synaptic transmission in CaV2.1 knockin mice with the S218L missense mutation which causes a severe familial hemiplegic migraine syndrome in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchia, Dania; Tottene, Angelita; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M.J.M.; Pietrobon, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1) is caused by gain-of-function mutations in CaV2.1 (P/Q-type) Ca2+ channels. Knockin (KI) mice carrying the FHM1 R192Q missense mutation show enhanced cortical excitatory synaptic transmission at pyramidal cell synapses but unaltered cortical inhibitory neurotransmission at fast-spiking interneuron synapses. Enhanced cortical glutamate release was shown to cause the facilitation of cortical spreading depression (CSD) in R192Q KI mice. It, however, remains unknown how other FHM1 mutations affect cortical synaptic transmission. Here, we studied neurotransmission in cortical neurons in microculture from KI mice carrying the S218L mutation, which causes a severe FHM syndrome in humans and an allele-dosage dependent facilitation of experimental CSD in KI mice, which is larger than that caused by the R192Q mutation. We show gain-of-function of excitatory neurotransmission, due to increased action-potential evoked Ca2+ influx and increased probability of glutamate release at pyramidal cell synapses, but unaltered inhibitory neurotransmission at multipolar interneuron synapses in S218L KI mice. In contrast with the larger gain-of-function of neuronal CaV2.1 current in homozygous than heterozygous S218L KI mice, the gain-of-function of evoked glutamate release, the paired-pulse ratio and the Ca2+ dependence of the excitatory postsynaptic current were similar in homozygous and heterozygous S218L KI mice, suggesting compensatory changes in the homozygous mice. Furthermore, we reveal a unique feature of S218L KI cortical synapses which is the presence of a fraction of mutant CaV2.1 channels being open at resting potential. Our data suggest that, while the gain-of-function of evoked glutamate release may explain the facilitation of CSD in heterozygous S218L KI mice, the further facilitation of CSD in homozygous S218L KI mice is due to other CaV2.1-dependent mechanisms, that likely include Ca2+ influx at voltages sub-threshold for action

  12. Understanding complexities of synaptic transmission in medically intractable seizures: A paradigm of epilepsy research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotirmoy Banerjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigating the changes associated with the development of epileptic state in humans is complex and requires a multidisciplinary approach. Understanding the intricacies of medically intractable epilepsy still remains a challenge for neurosurgeons across the world. A significant number of patients who has undergone resective brain surgery for epilepsy still continue to have seizures. The reason behind this therapy resistance still eludes us. Thus to develop a cure for the difficult to treat epilepsy, we need to comprehensively study epileptogenesis. Although various animal models are developed but none of them replicate the pathological conditions in humans. So the ideal way to understand epileptogenecity is to examine the tissue resected for the treatment of intractable epilepsy. Advanced imaging and electrical localization procedures are utilized to establish the epileptogenic zone in epilepsy patients. Further molecular and cytological studies are required for the microscopic analysis of brain samples collected from the epileptogenic focus. As alterations in inhibitory as well as excitatory synaptic transmission are key features of epilepsy, understanding the regulation of neurotransmission in the resected surgery zone is of immense importance. Here we summarize various modalities of in vitro slice analysis from the resected brain specimen to understand the changes in GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic transmission in epileptogenic zone. We also review evidence pertaining to the proposed role of nicotinic receptors in abnormal synaptic transmission which is one of the major causes of epileptiform activity. Elucidation of current concepts in regulation of synaptic transmission will help develop therapies for epilepsy cases that cannot me managed pharmacologically.

  13. Near-infrared deep brain stimulation via upconversion nanoparticle–mediated optogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuo; Weitemier, Adam Z.; Zeng, Xiao; He, Linmeng; Wang, Xiyu; Tao, Yanqiu; Huang, Arthur J. Y.; Hashimotodani, Yuki; Kano, Masanobu; Iwasaki, Hirohide; Parajuli, Laxmi Kumar; Okabe, Shigeo; Teh, Daniel B. Loong; All, Angelo H.; Tsutsui-Kimura, Iku; Tanaka, Kenji F.; Liu, Xiaogang; McHugh, Thomas J.

    2018-02-01

    Optogenetics has revolutionized the experimental interrogation of neural circuits and holds promise for the treatment of neurological disorders. It is limited, however, because visible light cannot penetrate deep inside brain tissue. Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) absorb tissue-penetrating near-infrared (NIR) light and emit wavelength-specific visible light. Here, we demonstrate that molecularly tailored UCNPs can serve as optogenetic actuators of transcranial NIR light to stimulate deep brain neurons. Transcranial NIR UCNP-mediated optogenetics evoked dopamine release from genetically tagged neurons in the ventral tegmental area, induced brain oscillations through activation of inhibitory neurons in the medial septum, silenced seizure by inhibition of hippocampal excitatory cells, and triggered memory recall. UCNP technology will enable less-invasive optical neuronal activity manipulation with the potential for remote therapy.

  14. Opiate-like excitatory effects of steroid sulfates and calcium-complexing agents given cerebroventricularly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBella, F S; Havlicek, V; Pinsky, C

    1979-01-12

    Intracerebroventricular administration of 10--20 microgram of steroid-O-sulfates induced hypermotility, agitation, salivation, EEG abnormalities, stereotypies, wet dog shakes and seizures. Equivalent effects resulted from 30--200 microgram morphine sulfate (H2SO4 salt), 50 microgram EGTA or 300--400 microgram of sodium sulfate or phosphate, but not chloride, nitrate or acetate. Non-steroid sulfates, steroid glucuronides and steroid phosphates were inactive. Naloxone, previously found to antagonize the excitatory effects of androsterone sulfate, failed to antagonize those of cortisol sulfate, sodium sulfate or EGTA. These findings suggest a role for extracellular calcium ions and for sulfate derived from circulating steroids in central responses to opiates.

  15. Neuromodulation by Mg2+ and polyamines of excitatory amino acid currents in rodent neurones in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, E

    1996-12-01

    Excitatory amino-acid currents in rodent central neurones are mediated by the activation of glutamate receptors. Ionotropic types of the receptors are divided into alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA), kainate and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, and the former two are collectively called non-NMDA receptors. The NMDA receptor is modulated by a number of endogenous neuromodulators including Mg2+, polyamines, glycine and protons in extracellular solutions. Although it has been generally thought that each of the neuromodulators acts on a distinct site in the NMDA receptor, recent studies have revealed that these actions may be not necessarily independent of each other. The NMDA receptor response is not only inhibited but also potentiated by Mg2+, and the latter action is due to an interaction of a Mg2+ site with either glycine- or proton-binding site. In the presence of polyamines, a tonic inhibition by protons of the NMDA receptor response is relieved, resulting in a potentiation of the response. Alternatively, it has been recently revealed that there are some subtypes of non-NMDA receptors which are negatively modulated by polyamines in either extra- or intra cellular solutions. The difference in polyamine sensitivity among non-NMDA receptors is attributed to a distinction in their constituted subunits. The inhibition of non-NMDA receptor by intracellular polyamines results in inward rectification of the current-voltage relation which is not seen for polyamine-insensitive ones. This polyamine action is not mimicked by intracellular Mg2+.

  16. A new highly selective metabotropic excitatory amino acid agonist: 2-amino-4-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)butyric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Sløk, F A; Skjaerbaek, N

    1996-01-01

    The homologous series of acidic amino acids, ranging from aspartic acid (1) to 2-aminosuberic acid (5), and the corresponding series of 3-isoxazolol bioisosteres of these amino acids, ranging from (RS)-2-amino-2-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)acetic acid (AMAA, 6) to (RS)-2-amino-6-(3-hydroxy-5......-methylisoxazol-4-yl)hexanoic acid (10), were tested as ligands for metabotropic excitatory amino acid receptors (mGlu1 alpha, mGlu2, mGlu4a, and mGlu6). Whereas AMAA (6) and (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propinoic acid (AMPA, 7) are potent and highly selective agonists at N......-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and AMPA receptors, respectively, the higher homologue of AMPA (7), (RS)-2-amino-4-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)butyric acid (homo-AMPA, 8), is inactive at ionotropic excitatory amino acid receptors. Homo-AMPA (8), which is a 3-isoxazolol bioisostere of 2-aminoadipic acid (3), was...

  17. Predators and patterns of within-host growth can mediate both among-host competition and evolution of transmission potential of parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auld, Stuart K J R; Hall, Spencer R; Housley Ochs, Jessica; Sebastian, Mathew; Duffy, Meghan A

    2014-08-01

    Parasite prevalence shows tremendous spatiotemporal variation. Theory indicates that this variation might stem from life-history characteristics of parasites and key ecological factors. Here, we illustrate how the interaction of an important predator and the schedule of transmission potential of two parasites can explain parasite abundance. A field survey showed that a noncastrating fungus (Metschnikowia bicuspidata) commonly infected a dominant zooplankton host (Daphnia dentifera), while a castrating bacterial parasite (Pasteuria ramosa) was rare. This result seemed surprising given that the bacterium produces many more infectious propagules (spores) than the fungus upon host death. The fungus's dominance can be explained by the schedule of within-host growth of parasites (i.e., how transmission potential changes over the course of infection) and the release of spores from "sloppy" predators (Chaoborus spp., who consume Daphnia prey whole and then later regurgitate the carapace and parasite spores). In essence, sloppy predators create a niche that the faster-schedule fungus currently occupies. However, a selection experiment showed that the slower-schedule bacterium can evolve into this faster-schedule, predator-mediated niche (but pays a cost in maximal spore yield to do so). Hence, our study shows how parasite life history can interact with predation to strongly influence the ecology, epidemiology, and evolution of infectious disease.

  18. Beta-Sulfonamido Functionalized Aspartate Analogs as Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter Inhibitors: Distinct Subtype-Selectivity Profiles Arising from Subtle Structural Differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob Christian; Bjørn-Yoshimoto, Walden Emil; Bisballe, Niels

    2016-01-01

    In this study inspired by previous work on 3-substituted Asp analogues, we designed and synthesized a total of 32 β-sulfonamide Asp analogues and characterized their pharmacological properties at the excitatory amino acid transporter subtypes EAAT1, EAAT2, and EAAT3. In addition to several potent...

  19. THE EFFECT OF CAROVERINE AND ITS COMBINATION WITH AMINOOXYACETIC ACID ON SURVIVAL TIME OF MICE WITH EXPERIMENTAL TETANUS

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    Indira Mujezinović

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tetanus is a disease that occurs in humans and various animal species worldwide. Tetanus toxin, after binding itself to nerve structures in the spinal cord, blocking the release of inhibitory transmitors which results in predominance of excitatory transmitors, and this manifestes itself in skeletal muscle spasm. In theory, inhibition of excitatory transmission can try to antagonize a number of ways: by stimulating inhibitory transmission with application inhibitory transmitors, inhibition of excitatory transmission by application of antagonists of excitatory transmitors and combination of antagonists of excitatory transmitors. Bearing this in mind, we attempted to normalize the disorders by tetanus toxin with the use of caroverine, an antagonist of excitatory transmitors, alone and in combination with aminooxyacetic acid (substance that increases the level of GABA. Experiments were conducted on albino mice of both sexes, weight 20-25 g. The experimental tetanus was induced by application of tetanus toxin. The application of caroverine and combination with aminooxyacetic acid was carried out 24 hours after application of tetanus toxin, once per day, until the death. Caroverine, given alone in a dose of 1,2 mg/kg significantly prolonged the LD50 period of mice with experimental tetanus, so the obtained results can be said that its application only at this dose proved to be effective. The combination with aminooxyacetic acid was gave an insignificant extension of mice’s dying time with experimental tetanus in the trial, compared to the control group. Key words: tetanus, tetanus toxin, transmitors, caroverine, aminooxyacetic acid

  20. G protein betagamma-subunits activated by serotonin mediate presynaptic inhibition by regulating vesicle fusion properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photowala, Huzefa; Blackmer, Trillium; Schwartz, Eric; Hamm, Heidi E; Alford, Simon

    2006-03-14

    Neurotransmitters are thought to be released as quanta, where synaptic vesicles deliver packets of neurotransmitter to the synaptic cleft by fusion with the plasma membrane. However, synaptic vesicles may undergo incomplete fusion. We provide evidence that G protein-coupled receptors inhibit release by causing such incomplete fusion. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor signaling potently inhibits excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) between lamprey reticulospinal axons and their postsynaptic targets by a direct action on the vesicle fusion machinery. We show that 5-HT receptor-mediated presynaptic inhibition, at this synapse, involves a reduction in EPSC quantal size. Quantal size was measured directly by comparing unitary quantal amplitudes of paired EPSCs before and during 5-HT application and indirectly by determining the effect of 5-HT on the relationship between mean-evoked EPSC amplitude and variance. Results from FM dye-labeling experiments indicate that 5-HT prevents full fusion of vesicles. 5-HT reduces FM1-43 staining of vesicles with a similar efficacy to its effect on the EPSC. However, destaining of FM1-43-labeled vesicles is abolished by lower concentrations of 5-HT that leave a substantial EPSC. The use of a water-soluble membrane impermeant quenching agent in the extracellular space reduced FM1-43 fluorescence during stimulation in 5-HT. Thus vesicles contact the extracellular space during inhibition of synaptic transmission by 5-HT. We conclude that 5-HT, via free Gbetagamma, prevents the collapse of synaptic vesicles into the presynaptic membrane.

  1. Presynaptic inhibition of GABAergic synaptic transmission by adenosine in mouse hypothalamic hypocretin neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, J X; Xiong, J X; Wang, H K; Duan, S M; Ye, J N; Hu, Z A

    2012-01-10

    Hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus, a new wakefulness-promoting center, have been recently regarded as an important target involved in endogenous adenosine-regulating sleep homeostasis. The GABAergic synaptic transmissions are the main inhibitory afferents to hypocretin neurons, which play an important role in the regulation of excitability of these neurons. The inhibitory effect of adenosine, a homeostatic sleep-promoting factor, on the excitatory glutamatergic synaptic transmissions in hypocretin neurons has been well documented, whether adenosine also modulates these inhibitory GABAergic synaptic transmissions in these neurons has not been investigated. In this study, the effect of adenosine on inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in hypocretin neurons was examined by using perforated patch-clamp recordings in the acute hypothalamic slices. The findings demonstrated that adenosine suppressed the amplitude of evoked IPSCs in a dose-dependent manner, which was completely abolished by 8-cyclopentyltheophylline (CPT), a selective antagonist of adenosine A1 receptor but not adenosine A2 receptor antagonist 3,7-dimethyl-1-(2-propynyl) xanthine. A presynaptic origin was suggested as following: adenosine increased paired-pulse ratio as well as reduced GABAergic miniature IPSC frequency without affecting the miniature IPSC amplitude. Further findings demonstrated that when the frequency of electrical stimulation was raised to 10 Hz, but not 1 Hz, a time-dependent depression of evoked IPSC amplitude was detected in hypocretin neurons, which could be partially blocked by CPT. However, under a higher frequency at 100 Hz stimulation, CPT had no action on the depressed GABAergic synaptic transmission induced by such tetanic stimulation in these hypocretin neurons. These results suggest that endogenous adenosine generated under certain stronger activities of synaptic transmissions exerts an inhibitory effect on GABAergic synaptic transmission in hypocretin

  2. Development of GPCR modulation of GABAergic transmission in chicken nucleus laminaris neurons.

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    Zheng-Quan Tang

    Full Text Available Neurons in the nucleus laminaris (NL of birds act as coincidence detectors and encode interaural time difference to localize the sound source in the azimuth plane. GABAergic transmission in a number of CNS nuclei including the NL is subject to a dual modulation by presynaptic GABA(B receptors (GABA(BRs and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs. Here, using in vitro whole-cell patch clamp recordings from acute brain slices of the chick, we characterized the following important but unknown properties pertaining to such a dual modulation: (1 emergence of functional GABA synapses in NL neurons; (2 the temporal onset of neuromodulation mediated by GABA(BRs and mGluRs; and (3 the physiological conditions under which GABA(BRs and mGluRs are activated by endogenous transmitters. We found that (1 GABA(AR-mediated synaptic responses were observed in about half of the neurons at embryonic day 11 (E11; (2 GABA(BR-mediated modulation of the GABAergic transmission was detectable at E11, whereas the modulation by mGluRs did not emerge until E15; and (3 endogenous activity of GABA(BRs was induced by both low- (5 or 10 Hz and high-frequency (200 Hz stimulation of the GABAergic pathway, whereas endogenous activity of mGluRs was induced by high- (200 Hz but not low-frequency (5 or 10 Hz stimulation of the glutamatergic pathway. Furthermore, the endogenous activity of mGluRs was mediated by group II but not group III members. Therefore, autoreceptor-mediated modulation of GABAergic transmission emerges at the same time when the GABA synapses become functional. Heteroreceptor-mediated modulation appears at a later time and is receptor type dependent in vitro.

  3. Metabotropic glutamatergic receptors and their ligands in drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomierny-Chamioło, Lucyna; Rup, Kinga; Pomierny, Bartosz; Niedzielska, Ewa; Kalivas, Peter W; Filip, Małgorzata

    2014-06-01

    Glutamatergic excitatory transmission is implicated in physiological and pathological conditions like learning, memory, neuronal plasticity and emotions, while glutamatergic abnormalities are reported in numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases, epilepsy, stroke, traumatic brain injury, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia and pain. Also, several lines of evidence have accumulated indicating a pivotal role for glutamatergic neurotransmission in mediating addictive behaviors. Among the proteins regulating glutamatergic transmission, the metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) are being developed as pharmacological targets for treating many neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction. In this review we describe the molecular structure of mGluRs and their distribution, physiology and pharmacology in the central nervous system, as well as their use as targets in preclinical studies of drug addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. NPY gene transfer in the hippocampus attenuates synaptic plasticity and learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Andreas T; Kanter-Schlifke, Irene; Carli, Mirjana

    2008-01-01

    -mediated mechanisms. In addition, transgene NPY seems to be released during high frequency neuronal activity, leading to decreased glutamate release in excitatory synapses. Importantly, memory consolidation appears to be affected by the treatment. We found that long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 area...... processing. Here we show, by electrophysiological recordings in CA1 of the hippocampal formation of rats, that hippocampal NPY gene transfer into the intact brain does not affect basal synaptic transmission, but slightly alters short-term synaptic plasticity, most likely via NPY Y2 receptor....... Future clinical progress, however, requires more detailed evaluation of possible side effects of this treatment. Until now it has been unknown whether rAAV vector-based NPY overexpression in the hippocampus alters normal synaptic transmission and plasticity, which could disturb learning and memory...

  5. Efficient transmission of subthreshold signals in complex networks of spiking neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Joaquin J; Elices, Irene; Marro, J

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the efficient transmission and processing of weak, subthreshold signals in a realistic neural medium in the presence of different levels of the underlying noise. Assuming Hebbian weights for maximal synaptic conductances--that naturally balances the network with excitatory and inhibitory synapses--and considering short-term synaptic plasticity affecting such conductances, we found different dynamic phases in the system. This includes a memory phase where population of neurons remain synchronized, an oscillatory phase where transitions between different synchronized populations of neurons appears and an asynchronous or noisy phase. When a weak stimulus input is applied to each neuron, increasing the level of noise in the medium we found an efficient transmission of such stimuli around the transition and critical points separating different phases for well-defined different levels of stochasticity in the system. We proved that this intriguing phenomenon is quite robust, as it occurs in different situations including several types of synaptic plasticity, different type and number of stored patterns and diverse network topologies, namely, diluted networks and complex topologies such as scale-free and small-world networks. We conclude that the robustness of the phenomenon in different realistic scenarios, including spiking neurons, short-term synaptic plasticity and complex networks topologies, make very likely that it could also occur in actual neural systems as recent psycho-physical experiments suggest.

  6. Efficient transmission of subthreshold signals in complex networks of spiking neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquin J Torres

    Full Text Available We investigate the efficient transmission and processing of weak, subthreshold signals in a realistic neural medium in the presence of different levels of the underlying noise. Assuming Hebbian weights for maximal synaptic conductances--that naturally balances the network with excitatory and inhibitory synapses--and considering short-term synaptic plasticity affecting such conductances, we found different dynamic phases in the system. This includes a memory phase where population of neurons remain synchronized, an oscillatory phase where transitions between different synchronized populations of neurons appears and an asynchronous or noisy phase. When a weak stimulus input is applied to each neuron, increasing the level of noise in the medium we found an efficient transmission of such stimuli around the transition and critical points separating different phases for well-defined different levels of stochasticity in the system. We proved that this intriguing phenomenon is quite robust, as it occurs in different situations including several types of synaptic plasticity, different type and number of stored patterns and diverse network topologies, namely, diluted networks and complex topologies such as scale-free and small-world networks. We conclude that the robustness of the phenomenon in different realistic scenarios, including spiking neurons, short-term synaptic plasticity and complex networks topologies, make very likely that it could also occur in actual neural systems as recent psycho-physical experiments suggest.

  7. Low-Frequency rTMS Ameliorates Autistic-Like Behaviors in Rats Induced by Neonatal Isolation Through Regulating the Synaptic GABA Transmission

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    Tao Tan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD display abnormalities in neuronal development, synaptic function and neural circuits. The imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory (E/I synaptic transmission has been proposed to cause the main behavioral characteristics of ASD. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS can directly or indirectly induce excitability and synaptic plasticity changes in the brain noninvasively. However, whether rTMS can ameliorate autistic-like behaviors in animal model via regulating the balance of E/I synaptic transmission is unknown. By using our recent reported animal model with autistic-like behaviors induced by neonatal isolation (postnatal days 1–9, we found that low-frequency rTMS (LF-rTMS, 1 Hz treatment for 2 weeks effectively alleviated the acquired autistic-like symptoms, as reflected by an increase in social interaction and decrease in self-grooming, anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors in young adult rats compared to those in untreated animals. Furthermore, the amelioration in autistic-like behavior was accompanied by a restoration of the balance between E/I activity, especially at the level of synaptic transmission and receptors in synaptosomes. These findings indicated that LF-rTMS may alleviate the symptoms of ASD-like behaviors caused by neonatal isolation through regulating the synaptic GABA transmission, suggesting that LF-rTMS may be a potential therapeutic technique to treat ASD.

  8. ATM and ATR play complementary roles in the behavior of excitatory and inhibitory vesicle populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Aifang; Zhao, Teng; Tse, Kai-Hei; Chow, Hei-Man; Cui, Yong; Jiang, Liwen; Du, Shengwang; Loy, Michael M T; Herrup, Karl

    2018-01-09

    ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) and ATR (ATM and Rad3-related) are large PI3 kinases whose human mutations result in complex syndromes that include a compromised DNA damage response (DDR) and prominent nervous system phenotypes. Both proteins are nuclear-localized in keeping with their DDR functions, yet both are also found in cytoplasm, including on neuronal synaptic vesicles. In ATM- or ATR-deficient neurons, spontaneous vesicle release is reduced, but a drop in ATM or ATR level also slows FM4-64 dye uptake. In keeping with this, both proteins bind to AP-2 complex components as well as to clathrin, suggesting roles in endocytosis and vesicle recycling. The two proteins play complementary roles in the DDR; ATM is engaged in the repair of double-strand breaks, while ATR deals mainly with single-strand damage. Unexpectedly, this complementarity extends to these proteins' synaptic function as well. Superresolution microscopy and coimmunoprecipitation reveal that ATM associates exclusively with excitatory (VGLUT1 + ) vesicles, while ATR associates only with inhibitory (VGAT + ) vesicles. The levels of ATM and ATR respond to each other; when ATM is deficient, ATR levels rise, and vice versa. Finally, blocking NMDA, but not GABA, receptors causes ATM levels to rise while ATR levels respond to GABA, but not NMDA, receptor blockade. Taken together, our data suggest that ATM and ATR are part of the cellular "infrastructure" that maintains the excitatory/inhibitory balance of the nervous system. This idea has important implications for the human diseases resulting from their genetic deficiency.

  9. Resting-state hemodynamics are spatiotemporally coupled to synchronized and symmetric neural activity in excitatory neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Shaik, Mohammed A.; Kozberg, Mariel G.; Portes, Jacob P.; Timerman, Dmitriy

    2016-01-01

    Brain hemodynamics serve as a proxy for neural activity in a range of noninvasive neuroimaging techniques including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In resting-state fMRI, hemodynamic fluctuations have been found to exhibit patterns of bilateral synchrony, with correlated regions inferred to have functional connectivity. However, the relationship between resting-state hemodynamics and underlying neural activity has not been well established, making the neural underpinnings of functional connectivity networks unclear. In this study, neural activity and hemodynamics were recorded simultaneously over the bilateral cortex of awake and anesthetized Thy1-GCaMP mice using wide-field optical mapping. Neural activity was visualized via selective expression of the calcium-sensitive fluorophore GCaMP in layer 2/3 and 5 excitatory neurons. Characteristic patterns of resting-state hemodynamics were accompanied by more rapidly changing bilateral patterns of resting-state neural activity. Spatiotemporal hemodynamics could be modeled by convolving this neural activity with hemodynamic response functions derived through both deconvolution and gamma-variate fitting. Simultaneous imaging and electrophysiology confirmed that Thy1-GCaMP signals are well-predicted by multiunit activity. Neurovascular coupling between resting-state neural activity and hemodynamics was robust and fast in awake animals, whereas coupling in urethane-anesthetized animals was slower, and in some cases included lower-frequency (resting-state hemodynamics in the awake and anesthetized brain are coupled to underlying patterns of excitatory neural activity. The patterns of bilaterally-symmetric spontaneous neural activity revealed by wide-field Thy1-GCaMP imaging may depict the neural foundation of functional connectivity networks detected in resting-state fMRI. PMID:27974609

  10. Longitudinal Modeling of the Association Between Transmissible Risk, Affect During Drug Use and Development of Substance Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, Ralph E; Kirisci, Levent; Reynolds, Maureen; Horner, Michelle; Zhai, ZuWei; Gathuru, Irene; Vanyukov, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation examined the hypothesis that subjective experience during consumption of preferred drugs mediates the association of transmissible risk for substance use disorder (SUD) measured in childhood and adolescence, and SUD diagnosis in adulthood. Transmissible risk denotes the psychological characteristics having intergenerational continuity between parents and their biological children. The transmissible liability index (TLI) was administered to four hundred eighty-three 10 to 12-year-old boys (baseline). Follow-up evaluations were conducted when the boys attained 12-14, 16, 19, and 22 years of age, using age-specific versions of the TLI. Frequency of consumption of the participants' three most preferred drugs, affect on an ordinary day, affect while under influence of the preferred substances, and presence/absence of current SUD were assessed at 22 years of age. Consumption frequency of preferred drugs among boys mediates the association of transmissible risk during childhood, and adolescence and SUD diagnosis in adulthood. Severity of negative affect on a drug-free day predicts frequency of consumption of preferred drugs, which, in turn, predicts severity of negative affect during the drug use event. Neither affect on a drug-free day nor affect during the drug use event mediates the association of transmissible risk and SUD. Affect on drug-free days, and while under influence of preferred substances, covary with consumption frequency; however, affect is not related to transmissible SUD risk or SUD outcome.

  11. Mechanism of Transport Modulation by an Extracellular Loop in an Archaeal Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter (EAAT) Homolog*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Christopher; Mindell, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Secondary transporters in the excitatory amino acid transporter family terminate glutamatergic synaptic transmission by catalyzing Na+-dependent removal of glutamate from the synaptic cleft. Recent structural studies of the aspartate-specific archaeal homolog, GltPh, suggest that transport is achieved by a rigid body, piston-like movement of the transport domain, which houses the substrate-binding site, between the extracellular and cytoplasmic sides of the membrane. This transport domain is connected to an immobile scaffold by three loops, one of which, the 3–4 loop (3L4), undergoes substrate-sensitive conformational change. Proteolytic cleavage of the 3L4 was found to abolish transport activity indicating an essential function for this loop in the transport mechanism. Here, we demonstrate that despite the presence of fully cleaved 3L4, GltPh is still able to sample conformations relevant for transport. Optimized reconstitution conditions reveal that fully cleaved GltPh retains some transport activity. Analysis of the kinetics and temperature dependence of transport accompanied by direct measurements of substrate binding reveal that this decreased transport activity is not due to alteration of the substrate binding characteristics but is caused by the significantly reduced turnover rate. By measuring solute counterflow activity and cross-link formation rates, we demonstrate that cleaving 3L4 severely and specifically compromises one or more steps contributing to the movement of the substrate-loaded transport domain between the outward- and inward-facing conformational states, sparing the equivalent step(s) during the movement of the empty transport domain. These results reveal a hitherto unknown role for the 3L4 in modulating an essential step in the transport process. PMID:24155238

  12. Cultural mediation in museums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gherghina Boda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available If we perceive the museum not only as a place of storing and conserving the patrimony, but also of transmitting it, then we can also see it as a mediator through which cultures can become collective patrimony. Tightly connected to patrimonial appropriation, mediation appears from this perspective as a process and not an end, as it manifests itself in animation, communication and making knowledge popular in relation to a precise patrimony. That is why we can see cultural mediation as a transmission, as a transformation, as an action or social project which aims at creating social bonds, the museum thus being not only a place of meeting for the public with the objects exposed, but also as a place of meeting between different cultures. Thus, cultural mediation presents itself as the most efficient means for access to culture of all categories of the public, situated as the crossroads of culture, continuous education and entertainment and is inscribed in the field of informal education.

  13. Nutritional State-Dependent Ghrelin Activation of Vasopressin Neurons via Retrograde Trans-Neuronal–Glial Stimulation of Excitatory GABA Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haam, Juhee; Halmos, Katalin C.; Di, Shi

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and physiological coupling between energy balance and fluid homeostasis is critical for survival. The orexigenic hormone ghrelin has been shown to stimulate the secretion of the osmoregulatory hormone vasopressin (VP), linking nutritional status to the control of blood osmolality, although the mechanism of this systemic crosstalk is unknown. Here, we show using electrophysiological recordings and calcium imaging in rat brain slices that ghrelin stimulates VP neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in a nutritional state-dependent manner by activating an excitatory GABAergic synaptic input via a retrograde neuronal–glial circuit. In slices from fasted rats, ghrelin activation of a postsynaptic ghrelin receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a), in VP neurons caused the dendritic release of VP, which stimulated astrocytes to release the gliotransmitter adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP activation of P2X receptors excited presynaptic GABA neurons to increase GABA release, which was excitatory to the VP neurons. This trans-neuronal–glial retrograde circuit activated by ghrelin provides an alternative means of stimulation of VP release and represents a novel mechanism of neuronal control by local neuronal–glial circuits. It also provides a potential cellular mechanism for the physiological integration of energy and fluid homeostasis. PMID:24790191

  14. Up-Regulation of the Excitatory Amino Acid Transporters EAAT1 and EAAT2 by Mammalian Target of Rapamycin

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    Abeer Abousaab

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The excitatory amino-acid transporters EAAT1 and EAAT2 clear glutamate from the synaptic cleft and thus terminate neuronal excitation. The carriers are subject to regulation by various kinases. The EAAT3 isoform is regulated by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR. The present study thus explored whether mTOR influences transport by EAAT1 and/or EAAT2. Methods: cRNA encoding wild type EAAT1 (SLC1A3 or EAAT2 (SLC1A2 was injected into Xenopus oocytes without or with additional injection of cRNA encoding mTOR. Dual electrode voltage clamp was performed in order to determine electrogenic glutamate transport (IEAAT. EAAT2 protein abundance was determined utilizing chemiluminescence. Results: Appreciable IEAAT was observed in EAAT1 or EAAT2 expressing but not in water injected oocytes. IEAAT was significantly increased by coexpression of mTOR. Coexpression of mTOR increased significantly the maximal IEAAT in EAAT1 or EAAT2 expressing oocytes, without significantly modifying affinity of the carriers. Moreover, coexpression of mTOR increased significantly EAAT2 protein abundance in the cell membrane. Conclusions: The kinase mTOR up-regulates the excitatory amino acid transporters EAAT1 and EAAT2.

  15. Social buffering and contact transmission: network connections have beneficial and detrimental effects on Shigella infection risk among captive rhesus macaques

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    Krishna Balasubramaniam

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In social animals, group living may impact the risk of infectious disease acquisition in two ways. On the one hand, social connectedness puts individuals at greater risk or susceptibility for acquiring enteric pathogens via contact-mediated transmission. Yet conversely, in strongly bonded societies like humans and some nonhuman primates, having close connections and strong social ties of support can also socially buffer individuals against susceptibility or transmissibility of infectious agents. Using social network analyses, we assessed the potentially competing roles of contact-mediated transmission and social buffering on the risk of infection from an enteric bacterial pathogen (Shigella flexneri among captive groups of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. Our results indicate that, within two macaque groups, individuals possessing more direct and especially indirect connections in their grooming and huddling social networks were less susceptible to infection. These results are in sharp contrast to several previous studies that indicate that increased (direct contact-mediated transmission facilitates infectious disease transmission, including our own findings in a third macaque group in which individuals central in their huddling network and/or which initiated more fights were more likely to be infected. In summary, our findings reveal that an individual’s social connections may increase or decrease its chances of acquiring infectious agents. They extend the applicability of the social buffering hypothesis, beyond just stress and immune-function-related health benefits, to the additional health outcome of infectious disease resistance. Finally, we speculate that the circumstances under which social buffering versus contact-mediated transmission may occur could depend on multiple factors, such as living condition, pathogen-specific transmission routes, and/or an overall social context such as a group’s social stability.

  16. Locally excitatory, globally inhibitory oscillator networks: theory and application to scene segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, DeLiang; Terman, David

    1995-01-01

    A novel class of locally excitatory, globally inhibitory oscillator networks (LEGION) is proposed and investigated analytically and by computer simulation. The model of each oscillator corresponds to a standard relaxation oscillator with two time scales. The network exhibits a mechanism of selective gating, whereby an oscillator jumping up to its active phase rapidly recruits the oscillators stimulated by the same pattern, while preventing other oscillators from jumping up. We show analytically that with the selective gating mechanism the network rapidly achieves both synchronization within blocks of oscillators that are stimulated by connected regions and desynchronization between different blocks. Computer simulations demonstrate LEGION's promising ability for segmenting multiple input patterns in real time. This model lays a physical foundation for the oscillatory correlation theory of feature binding, and may provide an effective computational framework for scene segmentation and figure/ground segregation.

  17. Opiate-induced suppression of rat hypoglossal motoneuron activity and its reversal by ampakine therapy.

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    Amanda R Lorier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoglossal (XII motoneurons innervate tongue muscles and are vital for maintaining upper-airway patency during inspiration. Depression of XII nerve activity by opioid analgesics is a significant clinical problem, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Currently there are no suitable pharmacological approaches to counter opiate-induced suppression of XII nerve activity while maintaining analgesia. Ampakines accentuate alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA receptor responses. The AMPA family of glutamate receptors mediate excitatory transmission to XII motoneurons. Therefore the objectives were to determine whether the depressant actions of mu-opioid receptor activation on inspiratory activity includes a direct inhibitory action at the inspiratory premotoneuron to XII motoneuron synapse, and to identify underlying mechanism(s. We then examined whether ampakines counteract opioid-induced depression of XII motoneuron activity.A medullary slice preparation from neonatal rat that produces inspiratory-related output in vitro was used. Measurements of inspiratory burst amplitude and frequency were made from XII nerve roots. Whole-cell patch recordings from XII motoneurons were used to measure membrane currents and synaptic events. Application of the mu-opioid receptor agonist, DAMGO, to the XII nucleus depressed the output of inspiratory XII motoneurons via presynaptic inhibition of excitatory glutamatergic transmission. Ampakines (CX614 and CX717 alleviated DAMGO-induced depression of XII MN activity through postsynaptic actions on XII motoneurons.The inspiratory-depressant actions of opioid analgesics include presynaptic inhibition of XII motoneuron output. Ampakines counteract mu-opioid receptor-mediated depression of XII motoneuron inspiratory activity. These results suggest that ampakines may be beneficial in countering opiate-induced suppression of XII motoneuron activity and resultant impairment of airway patency.

  18. Different forms of glycine- and GABAA-receptor mediated inhibitory synaptic transmission in mouse superficial and deep dorsal horn neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brichta Alan M

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurons in superficial (SDH and deep (DDH laminae of the spinal cord dorsal horn receive sensory information from skin, muscle, joints and viscera. In both regions, glycine- (GlyR and GABAA-receptors (GABAARs contribute to fast synaptic inhibition. For rat, several types of GABAAR coexist in the two regions and each receptor type provides different contributions to inhibitory tone. Recent work in mouse has discovered an additional type of GlyR, (containing alpha 3 subunits in the SDH. The contribution of differing forms of the GlyR to sensory processing in SDH and DDH is not understood. Methods and Results Here we compare fast inhibitory synaptic transmission in mouse (P17-37 SDH and DDH using patch-clamp electrophysiology in transverse spinal cord slices (L3-L5 segments, 23°C. GlyR-mediated mIPSCs were detected in 74% (25/34 and 94% (25/27 of SDH and DDH neurons, respectively. In contrast, GABAAR-mediated mIPSCs were detected in virtually all neurons in both regions (93%, 14/15 and 100%, 18/18. Several Gly- and GABAAR properties also differed in SDH vs. DDH. GlyR-mediated mIPSC amplitude was smaller (37.1 ± 3.9 vs. 64.7 ± 5.0 pA; n = 25 each, decay time was slower (8.5 ± 0.8 vs. 5.5 ± 0.3 ms, and frequency was lower (0.15 ± 0.03 vs. 0.72 ± 0.13 Hz in SDH vs. DDH neurons. In contrast, GABAAR-mediated mIPSCs had similar amplitudes (25.6 ± 2.4, n = 14 vs. 25. ± 2.0 pA, n = 18 and frequencies (0.21 ± 0.08 vs. 0.18 ± 0.04 Hz in both regions; however, decay times were slower (23.0 ± 3.2 vs. 18.9 ± 1.8 ms in SDH neurons. Mean single channel conductance underlying mIPSCs was identical for GlyRs (54.3 ± 1.6 pS, n = 11 vs. 55.7 ± 1.8, n = 8 and GABAARs (22.7 ± 1.7 pS, n = 10 vs. 22.4 ± 2.0 pS, n = 11 in both regions. We also tested whether the synthetic endocanabinoid, methandamide (methAEA, had direct effects on Gly- and GABAARs in each spinal cord region. MethAEA (5 μM reduced GlyR-mediated mIPSC frequency in SDH

  19. Training Excitatory-Inhibitory Recurrent Neural Networks for Cognitive Tasks: A Simple and Flexible Framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Francis Song

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The ability to simultaneously record from large numbers of neurons in behaving animals has ushered in a new era for the study of the neural circuit mechanisms underlying cognitive functions. One promising approach to uncovering the dynamical and computational principles governing population responses is to analyze model recurrent neural networks (RNNs that have been optimized to perform the same tasks as behaving animals. Because the optimization of network parameters specifies the desired output but not the manner in which to achieve this output, "trained" networks serve as a source of mechanistic hypotheses and a testing ground for data analyses that link neural computation to behavior. Complete access to the activity and connectivity of the circuit, and the ability to manipulate them arbitrarily, make trained networks a convenient proxy for biological circuits and a valuable platform for theoretical investigation. However, existing RNNs lack basic biological features such as the distinction between excitatory and inhibitory units (Dale's principle, which are essential if RNNs are to provide insights into the operation of biological circuits. Moreover, trained networks can achieve the same behavioral performance but differ substantially in their structure and dynamics, highlighting the need for a simple and flexible framework for the exploratory training of RNNs. Here, we describe a framework for gradient descent-based training of excitatory-inhibitory RNNs that can incorporate a variety of biological knowledge. We provide an implementation based on the machine learning library Theano, whose automatic differentiation capabilities facilitate modifications and extensions. We validate this framework by applying it to well-known experimental paradigms such as perceptual decision-making, context-dependent integration, multisensory integration, parametric working memory, and motor sequence generation. Our results demonstrate the wide range of neural

  20. Training Excitatory-Inhibitory Recurrent Neural Networks for Cognitive Tasks: A Simple and Flexible Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2016-01-01

    The ability to simultaneously record from large numbers of neurons in behaving animals has ushered in a new era for the study of the neural circuit mechanisms underlying cognitive functions. One promising approach to uncovering the dynamical and computational principles governing population responses is to analyze model recurrent neural networks (RNNs) that have been optimized to perform the same tasks as behaving animals. Because the optimization of network parameters specifies the desired output but not the manner in which to achieve this output, “trained” networks serve as a source of mechanistic hypotheses and a testing ground for data analyses that link neural computation to behavior. Complete access to the activity and connectivity of the circuit, and the ability to manipulate them arbitrarily, make trained networks a convenient proxy for biological circuits and a valuable platform for theoretical investigation. However, existing RNNs lack basic biological features such as the distinction between excitatory and inhibitory units (Dale’s principle), which are essential if RNNs are to provide insights into the operation of biological circuits. Moreover, trained networks can achieve the same behavioral performance but differ substantially in their structure and dynamics, highlighting the need for a simple and flexible framework for the exploratory training of RNNs. Here, we describe a framework for gradient descent-based training of excitatory-inhibitory RNNs that can incorporate a variety of biological knowledge. We provide an implementation based on the machine learning library Theano, whose automatic differentiation capabilities facilitate modifications and extensions. We validate this framework by applying it to well-known experimental paradigms such as perceptual decision-making, context-dependent integration, multisensory integration, parametric working memory, and motor sequence generation. Our results demonstrate the wide range of neural activity

  1. Astroglial Metabolic Networks Sustain Hippocampal Synaptic Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouach, Nathalie; Koulakoff, Annette; Abudara, Veronica; Willecke, Klaus; Giaume, Christian

    2008-12-01

    Astrocytes provide metabolic substrates to neurons in an activity-dependent manner. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this function, as well as its role in synaptic transmission, remain unclear. Here, we show that the gap-junction subunit proteins connexin 43 and 30 allow intercellular trafficking of glucose and its metabolites through astroglial networks. This trafficking is regulated by glutamatergic synaptic activity mediated by AMPA receptors. In the absence of extracellular glucose, the delivery of glucose or lactate to astrocytes sustains glutamatergic synaptic transmission and epileptiform activity only when they are connected by gap junctions. These results indicate that astroglial gap junctions provide an activity-dependent intercellular pathway for the delivery of energetic metabolites from blood vessels to distal neurons.

  2. Astroglial metabolic networks sustain hippocampal synaptic transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouach, Nathalie; Koulakoff, Annette; Abudara, Veronica; Willecke, Klaus; Giaume, Christian

    2008-12-05

    Astrocytes provide metabolic substrates to neurons in an activity-dependent manner. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this function, as well as its role in synaptic transmission, remain unclear. Here, we show that the gap-junction subunit proteins connexin 43 and 30 allow intercellular trafficking of glucose and its metabolites through astroglial networks. This trafficking is regulated by glutamatergic synaptic activity mediated by AMPA receptors. In the absence of extracellular glucose, the delivery of glucose or lactate to astrocytes sustains glutamatergic synaptic transmission and epileptiform activity only when they are connected by gap junctions. These results indicate that astroglial gap junctions provide an activity-dependent intercellular pathway for the delivery of energetic metabolites from blood vessels to distal neurons.

  3. The role of adaptations in two-strain competition for sylvatic Trypanosoma cruzi transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kribs-Zaleta, Christopher M; Mubayi, Anuj

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a continuous-time model for the sylvatic transmission dynamics of two strains of Trypanosoma cruzi enzootic in North America, in order to study the role that adaptations of each strain to distinct modes of transmission (classical stercorarian transmission on the one hand, and vertical and oral transmission on the other) may play in the competition between the two strains. A deterministic model incorporating contact process saturation predicts competitive exclusion, and reproductive numbers for the infection provide a framework for evaluating the competition in terms of adaptive trade-off between distinct transmission modes. Results highlight the importance of oral transmission in mediating the competition between horizontal (stercorarian) and vertical transmission; its presence as a competing contact process advantages vertical transmission even without adaptation to oral transmission, but such adaptation appears necessary to explain the persistence of (vertically-adapted) T. cruzi IV in raccoons and woodrats in the southeastern United States.

  4. Plant-mediated interspecific horizontal transmission of an intracellular symbiont in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonella, Elena; Pajoro, Massimo; Marzorati, Massimo; Crotti, Elena; Mandrioli, Mauro; Pontini, Marianna; Bulgari, Daniela; Negri, Ilaria; Sacchi, Luciano; Chouaia, Bessem; Daffonchio, Daniele; Alma, Alberto

    2015-11-13

    Intracellular reproductive manipulators, such as Candidatus Cardinium and Wolbachia are vertically transmitted to progeny but rarely show co-speciation with the host. In sap-feeding insects, plant tissues have been proposed as alternative horizontal routes of interspecific transmission, but experimental evidence is limited. Here we report results from experiments that show that Cardinium is horizontally transmitted between different phloem sap-feeding insect species through plants. Quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization experiments indicated that the leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus releases Cardinium from its salivary glands during feeding on both artificial media and grapevine leaves. Successional time-course feeding experiments with S. titanus initially fed sugar solutions or small areas of grapevine leaves followed by feeding by the phytoplasma vector Macrosteles quadripunctulatus or the grapevine feeder Empoasca vitis revealed that the symbionts were transmitted to both species. Explaining interspecific horizontal transmission through plants improves our understanding of how symbionts spread, their lifestyle and the symbiont-host intermixed evolutionary pattern.

  5. Plant-mediated interspecific horizontal transmission of an intracellular symbiont in insects

    KAUST Repository

    Gonella, Elena

    2015-11-13

    Intracellular reproductive manipulators, such as Candidatus Cardinium and Wolbachia are vertically transmitted to progeny but rarely show co-speciation with the host. In sap-feeding insects, plant tissues have been proposed as alternative horizontal routes of interspecific transmission, but experimental evidence is limited. Here we report results from experiments that show that Cardinium is horizontally transmitted between different phloem sap-feeding insect species through plants. Quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization experiments indicated that the leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus releases Cardinium from its salivary glands during feeding on both artificial media and grapevine leaves. Successional time-course feeding experiments with S. titanus initially fed sugar solutions or small areas of grapevine leaves followed by feeding by the phytoplasma vector Macrosteles quadripunctulatus or the grapevine feeder Empoasca vitis revealed that the symbionts were transmitted to both species. Explaining interspecific horizontal transmission through plants improves our understanding of how symbionts spread, their lifestyle and the symbiont-host intermixed evolutionary pattern.

  6. Non-synaptic signaling from cerebellar climbing fibers modulates Golgi cell activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nietz, Angela K; Vaden, Jada H; Coddington, Luke T; Overstreet-Wadiche, Linda; Wadiche, Jacques I

    2017-10-13

    Golgi cells are the principal inhibitory neurons at the input stage of the cerebellum, providing feedforward and feedback inhibition through mossy fiber and parallel fiber synapses. In vivo studies have shown that Golgi cell activity is regulated by climbing fiber stimulation, yet there is little functional or anatomical evidence for synapses between climbing fibers and Golgi cells. Here, we show that glutamate released from climbing fibers activates ionotropic and metabotropic receptors on Golgi cells through spillover-mediated transmission. The interplay of excitatory and inhibitory conductances provides flexible control over Golgi cell spiking, allowing either excitation or a biphasic sequence of excitation and inhibition following single climbing fiber stimulation. Together with prior studies of spillover transmission to molecular layer interneurons, these results reveal that climbing fibers exert control over inhibition at both the input and output layers of the cerebellar cortex.

  7. Astrocyte matricellular proteins that control excitatory synaptogenesis are regulated by inflammatory cytokines and correlate with paralysis severity during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pennelope K. Blakely

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The matricellular proteins, secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC and SPARC-like 1 (SPARCL1, are produced by astrocytes and control excitatory synaptogenesis in the central nervous system. While SPARCL1 directly promotes excitatory synapse formation in vitro and in the developing nervous system in vivo, SPARC specifically antagonizes the synaptogenic actions of SPARCL1. We hypothesized these proteins also help maintain existing excitatory synapses in adult hosts, and that local inflammation in the spinal cord alters their production in a way that dynamically modulates motor synapses and impacts the severity of paralysis during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE in mice. Using a spontaneously remitting EAE model, paralysis severity correlated inversely with both expression of synaptic proteins and the number of synapses in direct contact with the perikarya of motor neurons in spinal grey matter. In both remitting and non-remitting EAE models, paralysis severity also correlated inversely with sparcl1:sparc transcript and SPARCL1:SPARC protein ratios directly in lumbar spinal cord tissue. In vitro, astrocyte production of both SPARCL1 and SPARC was regulated by T cell-derived cytokines, causing dynamic modulation of the SPARCL1:SPARC expression ratio. Taken together, these data support a model whereby proinflammatory cytokines inhibit SPARCL1 and/or augment SPARC expression by astrocytes in spinal grey matter that, in turn, cause either transient or sustained synaptic retraction from lumbar spinal motor neurons thereby regulating hind limb paralysis during EAE. Ongoing studies seek ways to alter this SPARCL1:SPARC expression ratio in favor of synapse reformation/maintenance and thus help to modulate neurologic deficits during times of inflammation. This could identify new astrocyte-targeted therapies for diseases such as multiple sclerosis.

  8. Somatodendritic and excitatory postsynaptic distribution of neuron-type dystrophin isoform, Dp40, in hippocampal neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Takahiro; Itoh, Kyoko, E-mail: kxi14@koto.kpu-m.ac.jp; Yaoi, Takeshi; Fushiki, Shinji

    2014-09-12

    Highlights: • Identification of dystrophin (Dp) shortest isoform, Dp40, is a neuron-type Dp. • Dp40 expression is temporally and differentially regulated in comparison to Dp71. • Somatodendritic and nuclear localization of Dp40. • Dp40 is localized to excitatory postsynapses. • Dp40 might play roles in dendritic and synaptic functions. - Abstract: The Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene produces multiple dystrophin (Dp) products due to the presence of several promoters. We previously reported the existence of a novel short isoform of Dp, Dp40, in adult mouse brain. However, the exact biochemical expression profile and cytological distribution of the Dp40 protein remain unknown. In this study, we generated a polyclonal antibody against the NH{sub 2}-terminal region of the Dp40 and identified the expression profile of Dp40 in the mouse brain. Through an analysis using embryonic and postnatal mouse cerebrums, we found that Dp40 emerged from the early neonatal stages until adulthood, whereas Dp71, an another Dp short isoform, was highly detected in both prenatal and postnatal cerebrums. Intriguingly, relative expressions of Dp40 and Dp71 were prominent in cultured dissociated neurons and non-neuronal cells derived from mouse hippocampus, respectively. Furthermore, the immunocytological distribution of Dp40 was analyzed in dissociated cultured neurons, revealing that Dp40 is detected in the soma and its dendrites, but not in the axon. It is worthy to note that Dp40 is localized along the subplasmalemmal region of the dendritic shafts, as well as at excitatory postsynaptic sites. Thus, Dp40 was identified as a neuron-type Dp possibly involving dendritic and synaptic functions.

  9. Somatodendritic and excitatory postsynaptic distribution of neuron-type dystrophin isoform, Dp40, in hippocampal neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Takahiro; Itoh, Kyoko; Yaoi, Takeshi; Fushiki, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Identification of dystrophin (Dp) shortest isoform, Dp40, is a neuron-type Dp. • Dp40 expression is temporally and differentially regulated in comparison to Dp71. • Somatodendritic and nuclear localization of Dp40. • Dp40 is localized to excitatory postsynapses. • Dp40 might play roles in dendritic and synaptic functions. - Abstract: The Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene produces multiple dystrophin (Dp) products due to the presence of several promoters. We previously reported the existence of a novel short isoform of Dp, Dp40, in adult mouse brain. However, the exact biochemical expression profile and cytological distribution of the Dp40 protein remain unknown. In this study, we generated a polyclonal antibody against the NH 2 -terminal region of the Dp40 and identified the expression profile of Dp40 in the mouse brain. Through an analysis using embryonic and postnatal mouse cerebrums, we found that Dp40 emerged from the early neonatal stages until adulthood, whereas Dp71, an another Dp short isoform, was highly detected in both prenatal and postnatal cerebrums. Intriguingly, relative expressions of Dp40 and Dp71 were prominent in cultured dissociated neurons and non-neuronal cells derived from mouse hippocampus, respectively. Furthermore, the immunocytological distribution of Dp40 was analyzed in dissociated cultured neurons, revealing that Dp40 is detected in the soma and its dendrites, but not in the axon. It is worthy to note that Dp40 is localized along the subplasmalemmal region of the dendritic shafts, as well as at excitatory postsynaptic sites. Thus, Dp40 was identified as a neuron-type Dp possibly involving dendritic and synaptic functions

  10. Kindling-induced potentiation of excitatory and inhibitory inputs to hippocampal dentate granule cells. II. Effects of the NMDA antagonist MK-801.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Robinson, G B

    1991-10-18

    The effect of the non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist MK-801 on the early development of kindling-induced potentiation was examined in the rabbit hippocampal dentate gyrus. MK-801 (0.5 mg\\/kg) was administered 2 h before each daily kindling stimulation was applied to the perforant path. This treatment continued for the first 10 days of kindling. MK-801 depressed the growth of the afterdischarge duration and suppressed development of behavioral seizures. MK-801 did not block kindling-induced potentiation of either the perforant path-dentate granule cell population spike or excitatory postsynaptic potential. Random impulse train stimulation and non-linear systems analytic techniques were used to examine kindling-induced potentiation of presumed GABAergic recurrent inhibitory circuits. Both the magnitude and duration of kindling-induced response inhibition, to the second of each pair of impulses within the train, were reduced in rabbits pretreated with MK-801. These results suggest that MK-801 differentially affects kindling-induced potentiation of excitatory and inhibitory circuits within the rabbit hippocampal dentate gyrus.

  11. The Role of Ion Selectivity of the Fusion Pore on Transmission and the Exocytosis of Neurotransmitters and Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacruz, Joannalyn Bongar

    influx and efflux through the fusion pore. The experiments reveal negatively charged transmitter release can occur through a fusion pore at larger conductance values, past a threshold range. Narrow fusion pores with lower conductance values favor cation selectivity, which would accelerate the release of positively charged transmitters such as acetylcholine in the neuromuscular junction. However, release of negatively charged neurotransmitters such as glutamate can occur if an expanded fusion pore mediates release of this fast major excitatory transmitter. The intention of this research is to expand our understanding of the nervous system, which can contribute to healthy shifts in our clinical and educational interventions that are commonly delivered.

  12. Characterization of neuronal intrinsic properties and synaptic transmission in layer I of anterior cingulate cortex from adult mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiang-Yao

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The neurons in neocortex layer I (LI provide inhibition to the cortical networks. Despite increasing use of mice for the study of brain functions, few studies were reported about mouse LI neurons. In the present study, we characterized intrinsic properties of LI neurons of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, a key cortical area for sensory and cognitive functions, by using whole-cell patch clamp recording approach. Seventy one neurons in LI and 12 pyramidal neurons in LII/III were recorded. Although all of the LI neurons expressed continuous adapting firing characteristics, the unsupervised clustering results revealed five groups in the ACC, including: Spontaneous firing neurons; Delay-sAHP neurons, Delay-fAHP neurons, and two groups of neurons with ADP, named ADP1 and ADP2, respectively. Using pharmacological approaches, we found that LI neurons received both excitatory (mediated by AMPA, kainate and NMDA receptors, and inhibitory inputs (which were mediated by GABAA receptors. Our studies provide the first report characterizing the electrophysiological properties of neurons in LI of the ACC from adult mice.

  13. Genetics coupled to quantitative intact proteomics links heritable aphid and endosymbiont protein isoform expression to polerovirus transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellow dwarf viruses in the family Luteoviridae, such as Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV), are vectored by aphids and cause the most economically important virus disease of cereal crops worldwide. The identification of aphid proteins mediating virus transmission will better define transmiss...

  14. Adenosine Inhibits the Excitatory Synaptic Inputs to Basal Forebrain Cholinergic, GABAergic and Parvalbumin Neurons in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun eYang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Coffee and tea contain the stimulants caffeine and theophylline. These compounds act as antagonists of adenosine receptors. Adenosine promotes sleep and its extracellular concentration rises in association with prolonged wakefulness, particularly in the basal forebrain (BF region involved in activating the cerebral cortex. However, the effect of adenosine on identified BF neurons, especially non-cholinergic neurons, is incompletely understood. Here we used whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in mouse brain slices prepared from two validated transgenic mouse lines with fluorescent proteins expressed in GABAergic or parvalbumin (PV neurons to determine the effect of adenosine. Whole-cell recordings were made BF cholinergic neurons and from BF GABAergic & PV neurons with the size (>20 µm and intrinsic membrane properties (prominent H-currents corresponding to cortically projecting neurons. A brief (2 min bath application of adenosine (100 μM decreased the frequency but not the amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents in all groups of BF cholinergic, GABAergic and PV neurons we recorded. In addition, adenosine decreased the frequency of miniature EPSCs in BF cholinergic neurons. Adenosine had no effect on the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in cholinergic neurons or GABAergic neurons with large H-currents but reduced them in a group of GABAergic neurons with smaller H-currents. All effects of adenosine were blocked by a selective, adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, cyclopentyltheophylline (CPT, 1 μM. Adenosine had no postsynaptic effects. Taken together, our work suggests that adenosine promotes sleep by an A1-receptor mediated inhibition of glutamatergic inputs to cortically-projecting cholinergic and GABA/PV neurons. Conversely, caffeine and theophylline promote attentive wakefulness by inhibiting these A1 receptors in BF thereby promoting the high-frequency oscillations in the cortex required for

  15. Diurnal inhibition of NMDA-EPSCs at rat hippocampal mossy fibre synapses through orexin-2 receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, Martina; Longordo, Fabio; Massonnet, Christine; Welker, Egbert; Lüthi, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Diurnal release of the orexin neuropeptides orexin-A (Ox-A, hypocretin-1) and orexin-B (Ox-B, hypocretin-2) stabilises arousal, regulates energy homeostasis and contributes to cognition and learning. However, whether cellular correlates of brain plasticity are regulated through orexins, and whether they do so in a time-of-day-dependent manner, has never been assessed. Immunohistochemically we found sparse but widespread innervation of hippocampal subfields through Ox-A- and Ox-B-containing fibres in young adult rats. The actions of Ox-A were studied on NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated excitatory synaptic transmission in acute hippocampal slices prepared around the trough (Zeitgeber time (ZT) 4–8, corresponding to 4–8 h into the resting phase) and peak (ZT 23) of intracerebroventricular orexin levels. At ZT 4–8, exogenous Ox-A (100 nm in bath) inhibited NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (NMDA-EPSCs) at mossy fibre (MF)–CA3 (to 55.6 ± 6.8% of control, P = 0.0003) and at Schaffer collateral–CA1 synapses (70.8 ± 6.3%, P = 0.013), whereas it remained ineffective at non-MF excitatory synapses in CA3. Ox-A actions were mediated postsynaptically and blocked by the orexin-2 receptor (OX2R) antagonist JNJ10397049 (1 μm), but not by orexin-1 receptor inhibition (SB334867, 1 μm) or by adrenergic and cholinergic antagonists. At ZT 23, inhibitory effects of exogenous Ox-A were absent (97.6 ± 2.9%, P = 0.42), but reinstated (87.2 ± 3.3%, P = 0.002) when endogenous orexin signalling was attenuated for 5 h through i.p. injections of almorexant (100 mg kg−1), a dual orexin receptor antagonist. In conclusion, endogenous orexins modulate hippocampal NMDAR function in a time-of-day-dependent manner, suggesting that they may influence cellular plasticity and consequent variations in memory performance across the sleep–wake cycle. PMID:25085886

  16. Repeated injections of piracetam improve spatial learning and increase the stimulation of inositol phospholipid hydrolysis by excitatory amino acids in aged rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canonico, P. L.; Aronica, E.; Aleppo, G.; Casabona, G.; Copani, A.; Favit, A.; Nicoletti, F.; Scapagnini, U.

    1991-01-01

    Repeated injections of piracetam (400 mg/kg, i.p. once a day for 15 days) to 16-month old rats led to an improved performance on an 8-arm radial maze, used as a test for spatial learning. This effect was accompanied by a greater ability of excitatory amino acids (ibotenate and glutamate) to

  17. Salsolinol facilitates glutamatergic transmission to dopamine neurons in the posterior ventral tegmental area of rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiqin Xie

    Full Text Available Although in vivo evidence indicates that salsolinol, the condensation product of acetaldehyde and dopamine, has properties that may contribute to alcohol abuse, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. We have reported previously that salsolinol stimulates dopamine neurons in the posterior ventral tegmental area (p-VTA partly by reducing inhibitory GABAergic transmission, and that ethanol increases glutamatergic transmission to VTA-dopamine neurons via the activation of dopamine D(1 receptors (D(1Rs. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that salsolinol stimulates dopamine neurons involving activation of D(1Rs. By using whole-cell recordings on p-VTA-dopamine neurons in acute brain slices of rats, we found that salsolinol-induced increase in spike frequency of dopamine neurons was substantially attenuated by DL-2-amino-5-phosphono-valeric acid and 6, 7-dinitroquinoxaline-2, 3-dione, the antagonists of glutamatergic N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors. Moreover, salsolinol increased the amplitude of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs and the frequency but not the amplitude of spontaneous EPSCs. Additionally, SKF83566, a D(1R antagonist attenuated the salsolinol-induced facilitation of EPSCs and of spontaneous firing of dopamine neurons. Our data reveal that salsolinol enhances glutamatergic transmission onto dopamine neurons via activation of D(1Rs at the glutamatergic afferents in dopamine neurons, which contributes to salsolinol's stimulating effect on p-VTA dopamine neurons. This appears to be a novel mechanism which contributes toward rewarding properties of salsolinol.

  18. Experimental realization of extraordinary acoustic transmission using Helmholtz resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Crow

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of extraordinary acoustic transmission through a solid barrier with an embedded Helmholtz resonator (HR is demonstrated. The Helmholtz resonator consists of an embedded cavity and two necks that protrude, one on each side of the barrier. Extraordinary transmission occurs for a narrow spectral range encompassing the resonant frequency of the Helmholtz resonator. We show that an amplitude transmission of 97.5% is achieved through a resonator whose neck creates an open area of 6.25% of the total barrier area. In addition to the enhanced transmission, we show that there is a smooth, continuous phase transition in the transmitted sound as a function of frequency. The frequency dependent phase transition is used to experimentally realize slow wave propagation for a narrow-band Gaussian wave packet centered at the maximum transmission frequency. The use of parallel pairs of Helmholtz resonators tuned to different resonant frequencies is experimentally explored as a means of increasing the transmission bandwidth. These experiments show that because of the phase transition, there is always a frequency between the two Helmholtz resonant frequencies at which destructive interference occurs whether the resonances are close or far apart. Finally, we explain how the phase transition associated with Helmholtz-resonator-mediated extraordinary acoustic transmission can be exploited to produce diffractive acoustic components including sub-wavelength thickness acoustic lenses.

  19. An Excitatory Neural Assembly Encodes Short-Term Memory in the Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonglu Tian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Short-term memory (STM is crucial for animals to hold information for a small period of time. Persistent or recurrent neural activity, together with neural oscillations, is known to encode the STM at the cellular level. However, the coding mechanisms at the microcircuitry level remain a mystery. Here, we performed two-photon imaging on behaving mice to monitor the activity of neuronal microcircuitry. We discovered a neuronal subpopulation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC that exhibited emergent properties in a context-dependent manner underlying a STM-like behavior paradigm. These neuronal subpopulations exclusively comprise excitatory neurons and mainly represent a group of neurons with stronger functional connections. Microcircuitry plasticity was maintained for minutes and was absent in an animal model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Thus, these results point to a functional coding mechanism that relies on the emergent behavior of a functionally defined neuronal assembly to encode STM.

  20. A Cyfip2-Dependent Excitatory Interneuron Pathway Establishes the Innate Startle Threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Kurt C; Jain, Roshan A; Wolman, Marc A; Echeverry, Fabio A; Nelson, Jessica C; Hayer, Katharina E; Miltenberg, Ben; Pereda, Alberto E; Granato, Michael

    2018-04-17

    Sensory experiences dynamically modify whether animals respond to a given stimulus, but it is unclear how innate behavioral thresholds are established. Here, we identify molecular and circuit-level mechanisms underlying the innate threshold of the zebrafish startle response. From a forward genetic screen, we isolated five mutant lines with reduced innate startle thresholds. Using whole-genome sequencing, we identify the causative mutation for one line to be in the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP)-interacting protein cyfip2. We show that cyfip2 acts independently of FMRP and that reactivation of cyfip2 restores the baseline threshold after phenotype onset. Finally, we show that cyfip2 regulates the innate startle threshold by reducing neural activity in a small group of excitatory hindbrain interneurons. Thus, we identify a selective set of genes critical to establishing an innate behavioral threshold and uncover a circuit-level role for cyfip2 in this process. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Estradiol attenuates ischemia-induced death of hippocampal neurons and enhances synaptic transmission in aged, long-term hormone-deprived female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Inagaki

    Full Text Available Transient global forebrain ischemia causes selective, delayed death of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, and the ovarian hormone 17β-estradiol (E2 reduces neuronal loss in young and middle-aged females. The neuroprotective efficacy of E2 after a prolonged period of hormone deprivation is controversial, and few studies examine this issue in aged animals given E2 treatment after induction of ischemia.The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of E2 administered immediately after global ischemia in aged female rats (15-18 months after 6 months of hormone deprivation. We also used electrophysiological methods to assess whether CA1 synapses in the aging hippocampus remain responsive to E2 after prolonged hormone withdrawal. Animals were ovariohysterectomized and underwent 10 min global ischemia 6 months later. A single dose of E2 (2.25 µg infused intraventricularly after reperfusion significantly increased cell survival, with 45% of CA1 neurons surviving vs 15% in controls. Ischemia also induced moderate loss of CA3/CA4 pyramidal cells. Bath application of 1 nM E2 onto brain slices derived from non-ischemic aged females after 6 months of hormone withdrawal significantly enhanced excitatory transmission at CA1 synapses evoked by Schaffer collateral stimulation, and normal long-term potentiation (LTP was induced. The magnitude of LTP and of E2 enhancement of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials was indistinguishable from that recorded in slices from young rats.The data demonstrate that 1 acute post-ischemic infusion of E2 into the brain ventricles is neuroprotective in aged rats after 6 months of hormone deprivation; and 2 E2 enhances synaptic transmission in CA1 pyramidal neurons of aged long-term hormone deprived females. These findings provide evidence that the aging hippocampus remains responsive to E2 administered either in vivo or in vitro even after prolonged periods of hormone withdrawal.

  2. Pursuit of Neurotransmitter Functions: Being Attracted with Fascination of the Synapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Shiro

    2017-01-01

    In the beginning of the 1970s, only two chemical substances, acetylcholine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), had been definitely established as neurotransmitters. Under such circumstances, I started my scientific career in Professor Masanori Otsuka's lab searching for the transmitter of primary sensory neurons. Until 1976, lines of evidence had accumulated indicating that the undecapeptide substance P could be released as a transmitter from primary afferent fibers into spinal synapses, although the substance P-mediated synaptic response had yet to be identified. Peripheral synapses could serve as a good model and thus, it was demonstrated in the prevertebral sympathetic ganglia by1985 that substance P released from axon collaterals of primary sensory neurons acts as the transmitter mediating non-cholinergic slow excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP). At that time, we also found that autonomic synapses were useful to uncover the transmitter role of the opioid peptide enkephalins, whose functions had been unknown since their discovery in 1975. Accordingly, enkephalins were found to serve a transmitter role in mediating presynaptic inhibition of cholinergic fast and non-cholinergic slow transmission in the prevertebral sympathetic ganglia. In 1990s, we attempted to devise a combined technique of brain slices and patch-clamp recordings. We applied it to study the regulatory mechanisms that operate around cerebellar GABAergic inhibitory synapses, because most of the studies then had centered on excitatory synapses and because inhibitory synapses are crucially involved in brain functions and disorders. Consequently, we discovered novel forms of heterosynaptic interactions, dual actions of a single transmitter, and receptor crosstalk, the details of which are described in this review.

  3. BACE1 Is Necessary for Experience-Dependent Homeostatic Synaptic Plasticity in Visual Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Petrus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the most common form of age-related dementia, which is thought to result from overproduction and/or reduced clearance of amyloid-beta (Aβ peptides. Studies over the past few decades suggest that Aβ is produced in an activity-dependent manner and has physiological relevance to normal brain functions. Similarly, physiological functions for β- and γ-secretases, the two key enzymes that produce Aβ by sequentially processing the amyloid precursor protein (APP, have been discovered over recent years. In particular, activity-dependent production of Aβ has been suggested to play a role in homeostatic regulation of excitatory synaptic function. There is accumulating evidence that activity-dependent immediate early gene Arc is an activity “sensor,” which acts upstream of Aβ production and triggers AMPA receptor endocytosis to homeostatically downregulate the strength of excitatory synaptic transmission. We previously reported that Arc is critical for sensory experience-dependent homeostatic reduction of excitatory synaptic transmission in the superficial layers of visual cortex. Here we demonstrate that mice lacking the major neuronal β-secretase, BACE1, exhibit a similar phenotype: stronger basal excitatory synaptic transmission and failure to adapt to changes in visual experience. Our results indicate that BACE1 plays an essential role in sensory experience-dependent homeostatic synaptic plasticity in the neocortex.

  4. Transmitter-controlled properties of α-motoneurones causing long-lasting motor discharge to brief excitatory inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, J.; Hultborn, H.; Kiehn, O.

    1986-01-01

    Brief sensory inputs to intact conscious subjects commonly trigger complex long-lasting motor responses, in which higher cerebral mechanisms, or even voluntary action, may be integrative parts. However, long-lasting motor discharge following brief afferent stimulation is also observed in reduced ...... flipflops, which are set at one of two levels by short excitatory or inhibitory inputs. However, when the whole motoneuronal pool is considered, many different levels can be maintained by recruitment of new units.......Brief sensory inputs to intact conscious subjects commonly trigger complex long-lasting motor responses, in which higher cerebral mechanisms, or even voluntary action, may be integrative parts. However, long-lasting motor discharge following brief afferent stimulation is also observed in reduced...

  5. The BDNF val-66-met Polymorphism Affects Neuronal Morphology and Synaptic Transmission in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons from Rett Syndrome Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Xu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf has been implicated in several neurological disorders including Rett syndrome (RTT, an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the transcriptional modulator methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2. The human BDNF gene has a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP—a methionine (met substitution for valine (val at codon 66—that affects BDNF’s trafficking and activity-dependent release and results in cognitive dysfunction. Humans that are carriers of the met-BDNF allele have subclinical memory deficits and reduced hippocampal volume and activation. It is still unclear whether this BDNF SNP affects the clinical outcome of RTT individuals. To evaluate whether this BDNF SNP contributes to RTT pathophysiology, we examined the consequences of expression of either val-BDNF or met-BDNF on dendrite and dendritic spine morphology, and synaptic function in cultured hippocampal neurons from wildtype (WT and Mecp2 knockout (KO mice. Our findings revealed that met-BDNF does not increase dendritic growth and branching, dendritic spine density and individual spine volume, and the number of excitatory synapses in WT neurons, as val-BDNF does. Furthermore, met-BDNF reduces dendritic complexity, dendritic spine volume and quantal excitatory synaptic transmission in Mecp2 KO neurons. These results suggest that the val-BDNF variant contributes to RTT pathophysiology, and that BDNF-based therapies should take into consideration the BDNF genotype of the RTT individuals.

  6. Excitatory strength of expressive faces: effects of happy and fear expressions and context on the extinction of a conditioned fear response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzetta, J T; Orr, S P

    1986-01-01

    In a recent study, Orr and Lanzetta (1984) showed that the excitatory properties of fear facial expressions previously described (Lanzetta & Orr, 1981; Orr & Lanzetta, 1980) do not depend on associative mechanisms; even in the absence of reinforcement, fear faces intensify the emotional reaction to a previously conditioned stimulus and disrupt extinction of an acquired fear response. In conjunction with the findings on acquisition, the failure to obtain extinction suggests that fear faces have some of the functional properties of "prepared" (fear-relevant) stimuli. In the present study we compared the magnitude of conditioned fear responses to happy and fear faces when a potent danger signal, the shock electrodes, are attached or unattached. If fear faces are functionally analogous to prepared stimuli, then, even in the absence of veridical support for an expectation of shock, they should retain excitatory strength, whereas happy faces should not. The results are consistent with this view of fear expressions. In the absence of reinforcement, and with shock electrodes removed, conditioned fear responses and basal levels of arousal were of greater magnitude for the fear-face condition than for the happy-face condition.

  7. Physiology of Normal Esophageal Motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Raj K; Chaudhury, Arun

    2009-01-01

    The esophagus consists of two different parts. In humans, the cervical esophagus is composed of striated muscles and the thoracic esophagus is composed of phasic smooth muscles. The striated muscle esophagus is innervated by the lower motor neurons and peristalsis in this segment is due to sequential activation of the motor neurons in the nucleus ambiguus. Both primary and secondary peristaltic contractions are centrally mediated. The smooth muscle of esophagus is phasic in nature and is innervated by intramural inhibitory (nitric oxide releasing) and excitatory (acetylcholine releasing) neurons that receive inputs from separate sets of preganglionic neurons located in the dorsal motor nucleus of vagus. The primary peristalsis in this segment involves both central and peripheral mechanisms. The primary peristalsis consist of inhibition (called deglutitive inhibition) followed by excitation. The secondary peristalsis is entirely due to peripheral mechanisms and also involves inhibition followed by excitation. The lower esophageal sphincter (LES) is characterized by tonic muscle that is different from the muscle of the esophageal body. The LES, like the esophageal body smooth muscle, is also innervated by the inhibitory and excitatory neurons. The LES maintains tonic closure due to its myogenic property. The LES tone is modulated by the inhibitory and the excitatory nerves. Inhibitory nerves mediate LES relaxation and the excitatory nerves mediate reflex contraction or rebound contraction of the LES. Clinical disorders of esophageal motility can be classified on the basis of disorders of the inhibitory and excitatory innervations and the smooth muscles. PMID:18364578

  8. Unpredictability and the transmission of numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John M.; Madjid, F. Hadi

    2016-03-01

    Curiously overlooked in physics is its dependence on the transmission of numbers. For example, the transmission of numerical clock readings is implicit in the concept of a coordinate system. The transmission of numbers and other logical distinctions is often achieved over a computer-mediated communications network in the face of an unpredictable environment. By unpredictable we mean something stronger than the spread of probabilities over given possible outcomes, namely an opening to unforeseeable possibilities. Unpredictability, until now overlooked in theoretical physics, makes the transmission of numbers interesting. Based on recent proofs within quantum theory that provide a theoretical foundation to unpredictability, here we show how regularities in physics rest on a background of channels over which numbers are transmitted. As is known to engineers of digital communications, numerical transmissions depend on coordination reminiscent of the cycle of throwing and catching by players tossing a ball back and forth. In digital communications, the players are computers, and the required coordination involves unpredictably adjusting "live clocks" that step these computers through phases of a cycle. We show how this phasing, which we call logical synchronization, constrains number-carrying networks, and, if a spacetime manifold in invoked, put "stripes" on spacetime. Via its logically synchronized channels, a network of live clocks serves as a reference against which to locate events. Such a network in any case underpins a coordinate frame, and in some cases the direct use of a network can be tailored to investigate an unpredictable environment. Examples include explorations of gravitational variations near Earth.

  9. A new structural class of subtype-selective inhibitor of cloned excitatory amino acid transporter, EAAT2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Hermit, M B; Nielsen, B

    2000-01-01

    We have studied the pharmacological effects of (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) and the enantiomers of (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-1,2, 5-thiadiazol-4-yl)propionic acid (TDPA) on cloned human excitatory amino acid transporter subtypes 1, 2 and 3 (EAAT1......-3) expressed in Cos-7 cells. Whereas AMPA and (R)-TDPA were both inactive as inhibitors of [3H]-(R)-aspartic acid uptake on all three EAAT subtypes, (S)-TDPA was shown to selectively inhibit uptake by EAAT2 with a potency equal to that of the endogenous ligand (S)-glutamic acid. (S)-TDPA thus represents a new...

  10. Impact of weak excitatory synapses on chaotic transients in a diffusively coupled Morris-Lecar neuronal network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafranceschina, Jacopo, E-mail: jlafranceschina@alaska.edu; Wackerbauer, Renate, E-mail: rawackerbauer@alaska.edu [Department of Physics, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska 99775-5920 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Spatiotemporal chaos collapses to either a rest state or a propagating pulse solution in a ring network of diffusively coupled, excitable Morris-Lecar neurons. Weak excitatory synapses can increase the Lyapunov exponent, expedite the collapse, and promote the collapse to the rest state rather than the pulse state. A single traveling pulse solution may no longer be asymptotic for certain combinations of network topology and (weak) coupling strengths, and initiate spatiotemporal chaos. Multiple pulses can cause chaos initiation due to diffusive and synaptic pulse-pulse interaction. In the presence of chaos initiation, intermittent spatiotemporal chaos exists until typically a collapse to the rest state.

  11. Impact of weak excitatory synapses on chaotic transients in a diffusively coupled Morris-Lecar neuronal network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafranceschina, Jacopo; Wackerbauer, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Spatiotemporal chaos collapses to either a rest state or a propagating pulse solution in a ring network of diffusively coupled, excitable Morris-Lecar neurons. Weak excitatory synapses can increase the Lyapunov exponent, expedite the collapse, and promote the collapse to the rest state rather than the pulse state. A single traveling pulse solution may no longer be asymptotic for certain combinations of network topology and (weak) coupling strengths, and initiate spatiotemporal chaos. Multiple pulses can cause chaos initiation due to diffusive and synaptic pulse-pulse interaction. In the presence of chaos initiation, intermittent spatiotemporal chaos exists until typically a collapse to the rest state

  12. An NMDA Receptor-Dependent Mechanism Underlies Inhibitory Synapse Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinglong Gu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the mammalian brain, GABAergic synaptic transmission provides inhibitory balance to glutamatergic excitatory drive and controls neuronal output. The molecular mechanisms underlying the development of GABAergic synapses remain largely unclear. Here, we report that NMDA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors (NMDARs in individual immature neurons are the upstream signaling molecules essential for GABAergic synapse development, which requires signaling via Calmodulin binding motif in the C0 domain of the NMDAR GluN1 subunit. Interestingly, in neurons lacking NMDARs, whereas GABAergic synaptic transmission is strongly reduced, the tonic inhibition mediated by extrasynaptic GABAA receptors is increased, suggesting a compensatory mechanism for the lack of synaptic inhibition. These results demonstrate a crucial role for NMDARs in specifying the development of inhibitory synapses, and suggest an important mechanism for controlling the establishment of the balance between synaptic excitation and inhibition in the developing brain.

  13. Force transmissibility versus displacement transmissibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Y. E.; Neves, M. M.; Maia, N. M. M.; Tcherniak, D.

    2014-10-01

    It is well-known that when a single-degree-of-freedom (sdof) system is excited by a continuous motion of the foundation, the force transmissibility, relating the force transmitted to the foundation to the applied force, equals the displacement transmissibility. Recent developments in the generalization of the transmissibility to multiple-degree-of-freedom (mdof) systems have shown that similar simple and direct relations between both types of transmissibility do not appear naturally from the definitions, as happens in the sdof case. In this paper, the authors present their studies on the conditions under which it is possible to establish a relation between force transmissibility and displacement transmissibility for mdof systems. As far as the authors are aware, such a relation is not currently found in the literature, which is justified by being based on recent developments in the transmissibility concept for mdof systems. Indeed, it does not appear naturally, but the authors observed that the needed link is present when the displacement transmissibility is obtained between the same coordinates where the applied and reaction forces are considered in the force transmissibility case; this implies that the boundary conditions are not exactly the same and instead follow some rules. This work presents a formal derivation of the explicit relation between the force and displacement transmissibilities for mdof systems, and discusses its potential and limitations. The authors show that it is possible to obtain the displacement transmissibility from measured forces, and the force transmissibility from measured displacements, opening new perspectives, for example, in the identification of applied or transmitted forces. With this novel relation, it becomes possible, for example, to estimate the force transmissibility matrix with the structure off its supports, in free boundary conditions, and without measuring the forces. As far as force identification is concerned, this

  14. The anticonvulsant action of the galanin receptor agonist NAX-5055 involves modulation of both excitatory- and inhibitory neurotransmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walls, Anne B; Flynn, Sean P; West, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    -based anti-convulsant drugs was prompted. Based on this, a rationally designed GalR1 preferring galanin analogue, NAX-5055, was synthesized. This compound demonstrates anti-convulsant actions in several animal models of epilepsy. However, the alterations at the cellular level leading to this anti......-convulsant action of NAX-5055 are not known. Here we investigate the action of NAX-5055 at the cellular level by determining its effects on excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission, i.e. vesicular release of glutamate and GABA, respectively, in cerebellar, neocortical and hippocampal preparations. In addition...

  15. Synaptic Plasticity and Excitation-Inhibition Balance in the Dentate Gyrus: Insights from In Vivo Recordings in Neuroligin-1, Neuroligin-2, and Collybistin Knockouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, Peter; Muellerleile, Julia; Schwarzacher, Stephan W

    2018-01-01

    The hippocampal dentate gyrus plays a role in spatial learning and memory and is thought to encode differences between similar environments. The integrity of excitatory and inhibitory transmission and a fine balance between them is essential for efficient processing of information. Therefore, identification and functional characterization of crucial molecular players at excitatory and inhibitory inputs is critical for understanding the dentate gyrus function. In this minireview, we discuss recent studies unraveling molecular mechanisms of excitatory/inhibitory synaptic transmission, long-term synaptic plasticity, and dentate granule cell excitability in the hippocampus of live animals. We focus on the role of three major postsynaptic proteins localized at excitatory (neuroligin-1) and inhibitory synapses (neuroligin-2 and collybistin). In vivo recordings of field potentials have the advantage of characterizing the effects of the loss of these proteins on the input-output function of granule cells embedded in a network with intact connectivity. The lack of neuroligin-1 leads to deficient synaptic plasticity and reduced excitation but normal granule cell output, suggesting unaltered excitation-inhibition ratio. In contrast, the lack of neuroligin-2 and collybistin reduces inhibition resulting in a shift towards excitation of the dentate circuitry.

  16. Synaptic Plasticity and Excitation-Inhibition Balance in the Dentate Gyrus: Insights from In Vivo Recordings in Neuroligin-1, Neuroligin-2, and Collybistin Knockouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jedlicka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampal dentate gyrus plays a role in spatial learning and memory and is thought to encode differences between similar environments. The integrity of excitatory and inhibitory transmission and a fine balance between them is essential for efficient processing of information. Therefore, identification and functional characterization of crucial molecular players at excitatory and inhibitory inputs is critical for understanding the dentate gyrus function. In this minireview, we discuss recent studies unraveling molecular mechanisms of excitatory/inhibitory synaptic transmission, long-term synaptic plasticity, and dentate granule cell excitability in the hippocampus of live animals. We focus on the role of three major postsynaptic proteins localized at excitatory (neuroligin-1 and inhibitory synapses (neuroligin-2 and collybistin. In vivo recordings of field potentials have the advantage of characterizing the effects of the loss of these proteins on the input-output function of granule cells embedded in a network with intact connectivity. The lack of neuroligin-1 leads to deficient synaptic plasticity and reduced excitation but normal granule cell output, suggesting unaltered excitation-inhibition ratio. In contrast, the lack of neuroligin-2 and collybistin reduces inhibition resulting in a shift towards excitation of the dentate circuitry.

  17. Auxin-dependent compositional change in Mediator in ARF7- and ARF19-mediated transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Jun; Fukaki, Hidehiro; Onoda, Makoto; Li, Lin; Li, Chuanyou; Tasaka, Masao; Furutani, Masahiko

    2016-06-07

    Mediator is a multiprotein complex that integrates the signals from transcription factors binding to the promoter and transmits them to achieve gene transcription. The subunits of Mediator complex reside in four modules: the head, middle, tail, and dissociable CDK8 kinase module (CKM). The head, middle, and tail modules form the core Mediator complex, and the association of CKM can modify the function of Mediator in transcription. Here, we show genetic and biochemical evidence that CKM-associated Mediator transmits auxin-dependent transcriptional repression in lateral root (LR) formation. The AUXIN/INDOLE 3-ACETIC ACID 14 (Aux/IAA14) transcriptional repressor inhibits the transcriptional activity of its binding partners AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 7 (ARF7) and ARF19 by making a complex with the CKM-associated Mediator. In addition, TOPLESS (TPL), a transcriptional corepressor, forms a bridge between IAA14 and the CKM component MED13 through the physical interaction. ChIP assays show that auxin induces the dissociation of MED13 but not the tail module component MED25 from the ARF7 binding region upstream of its target gene. These findings indicate that auxin-induced degradation of IAA14 changes the module composition of Mediator interacting with ARF7 and ARF19 in the upstream region of their target genes involved in LR formation. We suggest that this regulation leads to a quick switch of signal transmission from ARFs to target gene expression in response to auxin.

  18. Different AMPA receptor subtypes mediate the distinct kinetic components of a biphasic EPSC in hippocampal interneurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd eStincic

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available CA1 hippocampal interneurons at the border between stratum radiatum and stratum lacunosum-moleculare have AMPA receptor (AMPAR-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs that consist of two distinct phases: a typical fast component (FC, and a highly unusual slow component (SC that persists for hundreds of milliseconds. To determine whether these kinetically distinct components of the EPSC are mediated by distinct AMPAR subpopulations, we examined the relative contributions of GluA2-containing and –lacking AMPARs to the SC. GluA2-containing AMPARs mediated the majority of the FC whereas GluA2-lacking AMPARs preferentially generated the SC. When glutamate uptake through the glial glutamate transporter EAAT1 was inhibited, spill over-mediated AMPAR activation recruited an even slower third kinetic component that persisted for several seconds; however, this spillover-mediated current was mediated predominantly by GluA2-containing AMPARs and therefore was clearly distinct from the SC when uptake is intact. Thus, different AMPAR subpopulations that vary in GluA2 content mediate the distinct components of the AMPAR EPSC. The SC is developmentally downregulated in mice, declining after the second postnatal week. This downregulation affects both GluA2-containing and GluA2-lacking AMPARs mediating the SC, and is not accompanied by developmental changes in the GluA2 content of AMPARs underlying the FC. Thus, the downregulation of the SC appears to be independent of synaptic GluA2 expression, suggesting the involvement of another AMPAR subunit or an auxiliary protein. Our results therefore identify GluA2-dependent and GluA2-independent determinants of the SC: GluA2-lacking AMPARs preferentially contribute to the SC, while the developmental downregulation of the SC is independent of GluA2 content.

  19. Statistical modeling implicates neuroanatomical circuit mediating stress relief by 'comfort' food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Christiansen, Anne M; Wang, Xia; Song, Seongho; Herman, James P

    2016-07-01

    A history of eating highly palatable foods reduces physiological and emotional responses to stress. For instance, we have previously shown that limited sucrose intake (4 ml of 30 % sucrose twice daily for 14 days) reduces hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis responses to stress. However, the neural mechanisms underlying stress relief by such 'comfort' foods are unclear, and could reveal an endogenous brain pathway for stress mitigation. As such, the present work assessed the expression of several proteins related to neuronal activation and/or plasticity in multiple stress- and reward-regulatory brain regions of rats after limited sucrose (vs. water control) intake. These data were then subjected to a series of statistical analyses, including Bayesian modeling, to identify the most likely neurocircuit mediating stress relief by sucrose. The analyses suggest that sucrose reduces HPA activation by dampening an excitatory basolateral amygdala-medial amygdala circuit, while also potentiating an inhibitory bed nucleus of the stria terminalis principle subdivision-mediated circuit, resulting in reduced HPA activation after stress. Collectively, the results support the hypothesis that sucrose limits stress responses via plastic changes to the structure and function of stress-regulatory neural circuits. The work also illustrates that advanced statistical methods are useful approaches to identify potentially novel and important underlying relationships in biological datasets.

  20. ENDOGENOUS ANALGESIA, DEPENDENCE, AND LATENT PAIN SENSITIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bradley K; Corder, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous activation of μ-opioid receptors (MORs) provides relief from acute pain. Recent studies have established that tissue inflammation produces latent pain sensitization (LS) that is masked by spinal MOR signaling for months, even after complete recovery from injury and re-establishment of normal pain thresholds. Disruption with MOR inverse agonists reinstates pain and precipitates cellular, somatic and aversive signs of physical withdrawal; this phenomenon requires N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated activation of calcium-sensitive adenylyl cyclase type 1 (AC1). In this review, we present a new conceptual model of the transition from acute to chronic pain, based on the delicate balance between LS and endogenous analgesia that develops after painful tissue injury. First, injury activates pain pathways. Second, the spinal cord establishes MOR constitutive activity (MORCA) as it attempts to control pain. Third, over time, the body becomes dependent on MORCA, which paradoxically sensitizes pain pathways. Stress or injury escalates opposing inhibitory and excitatory influences on nociceptive processing as a pathological consequence of increased endogenous opioid tone. Pain begets MORCA begets pain vulnerability in a vicious cycle. The final result is a silent insidious state characterized by the escalation of two opposing excitatory and inhibitory influences on pain transmission: LS mediated by AC1 (which maintains accelerator), and pain inhibition mediated by MORCA (which maintains the brake). This raises the prospect that opposing homeostatic interactions between MORCA analgesia and latent NMDAR–AC1-mediated pain sensitization create a lasting vulnerability to develop chronic pain. Thus, chronic pain syndromes may result from a failure in constitutive signaling of spinal MORs and a loss of endogenous analgesic control. An overarching long-term therapeutic goal of future research is to alleviate chronic pain by either: a) facilitating endogenous opioid

  1. Feeding Behavior Modulates Biofilm-Mediated Transmission of Yersinia pestis by the Cat Flea, Ctenocephalides felis

    OpenAIRE

    Bland, David M.; Hinnebusch, B. Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, is prevalent worldwide, will parasitize animal reservoirs of plague, and is associated with human habitations in known plague foci. Despite its pervasiveness, limited information is available about the cat flea?s competence as a vector for Yersinia pestis. It is generally considered to be a poor vector, based on studies examining early-phase transmission during the first week after infection, but transmission potential by the biofilm-dependent p...

  2. Monkeys in the middle: parasite transmission through the social network of a wild primate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J J MacIntosh

    Full Text Available In wildlife populations, group-living is thought to increase the probability of parasite transmission because contact rates increase at high host densities. Physical contact, such as social grooming, is an important component of group structure, but it can also increase the risk of exposure to infection for individuals because it provides a mechanism for transmission of potentially pathogenic organisms. Living in groups can also create variation in susceptibility to infection among individuals because circulating levels of immunosuppressive hormones like glucocorticoids often depend on an individual's position within the group's social structure. Yet, little is known about the relative roles of socially mediated exposure versus susceptibility in parasite transmission among free-living animal groups. To address this issue, we investigate the relationship between host dominance hierarchy and nematode parasite transmission among females in a wild group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui. We use social network analysis to describe each individual female's position within the grooming network in relation to dominance rank and relative levels of infection. Our results suggest that the number of directly-transmitted parasite species infecting each female, and the relative amount of transmission stages that one of these species sheds in faeces, both increase with dominance rank. Female centrality within the network, which shows positive associations with dominance hierarchy, is also positively associated with infection by certain parasite species, suggesting that the measured rank-bias in transmission may reflect variation in exposure rather than susceptibility. This is supported by the lack of a clear relationship between rank and faecal cortisol, as an indicator of stress, in a subset of these females. Thus, socially mediated exposure appears to be important for direct transmission of nematode parasites, lending support to the idea that a

  3. Monkeys in the Middle: Parasite Transmission through the Social Network of a Wild Primate

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntosh, Andrew J. J.; Jacobs, Armand; Garcia, Cécile; Shimizu, Keiko; Mouri, Keiko; Huffman, Michael A.; Hernandez, Alexander D.

    2012-01-01

    In wildlife populations, group-living is thought to increase the probability of parasite transmission because contact rates increase at high host densities. Physical contact, such as social grooming, is an important component of group structure, but it can also increase the risk of exposure to infection for individuals because it provides a mechanism for transmission of potentially pathogenic organisms. Living in groups can also create variation in susceptibility to infection among individuals because circulating levels of immunosuppressive hormones like glucocorticoids often depend on an individual’s position within the group’s social structure. Yet, little is known about the relative roles of socially mediated exposure versus susceptibility in parasite transmission among free-living animal groups. To address this issue, we investigate the relationship between host dominance hierarchy and nematode parasite transmission among females in a wild group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui). We use social network analysis to describe each individual female’s position within the grooming network in relation to dominance rank and relative levels of infection. Our results suggest that the number of directly-transmitted parasite species infecting each female, and the relative amount of transmission stages that one of these species sheds in faeces, both increase with dominance rank. Female centrality within the network, which shows positive associations with dominance hierarchy, is also positively associated with infection by certain parasite species, suggesting that the measured rank-bias in transmission may reflect variation in exposure rather than susceptibility. This is supported by the lack of a clear relationship between rank and faecal cortisol, as an indicator of stress, in a subset of these females. Thus, socially mediated exposure appears to be important for direct transmission of nematode parasites, lending support to the idea that a classical fitness

  4. Development of mediator-type biosensor to wirelessly monitor whole cholesterol concentration in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Mai; Murata, Masataka; Hibi, Kyoko; Huifeng, Ren; Endo, Hideaki

    2014-04-01

    We developed a wireless monitoring system to monitor fish condition by tracking the change in whole cholesterol concentration. The whole cholesterol concentration of fish is a source of steroid hormones or indicator of immunity level, which makes its detection important for tracking physiological condition of fish. Wireless monitoring system comprises of mediator-type biosensor and wireless transmission device. Biosensor is implantable to fish body, and transmission device is so light, in that fish is allowed to swim freely during monitoring. Cholesterol esterase and oxidase were fixated on to the detection site of biosensor and used to detect the whole cholesterol concentration. However, cholesterol oxidase incorporates oxidation-reduction reaction of oxygen for detection, which concentration fluctuates easily due to change in environmental condition. Meanwhile, mediator-type biosensor enables monitoring of whole cholesterol concentration by using mediator to substitute that oxidation-reduction reaction of oxygen. Characteristic of fabricated mediator-type biosensor was tested. The sensor output current of mediator-type biosensor remained stable compared to output current of non-mediator-type biosensor under fluctuating oxygen concentration of 0-8 ppm, which implied that this sensor is less affected by change in dissolved oxygen concentration. That biosensor was then implanted into fish for wireless monitoring. As a result, approximately 48 h of real-time monitoring was successful.

  5. Dark matter prospects in deflected mirage mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Michael; Nelson, Brent D.

    2009-01-01

    The recently introduced deflected mirage mediation (DMM) model is a string-motivated paradigm in which all three of the major supersymmetry-breaking transmission mechanisms are operative. We begin a systematic exploration of the parameter space of this rich model context, paying special attention to the pattern of gaugino masses which arise. In this work we focus on the dark matter phenomenology of the DMM model as such signals are the least influenced by the model-dependent scalar masses. We find that a large portion of the parameter space in which the three mediation mechanisms have a similar effective mass scale of 1 TeV or less will be probed by future direct and indirect detection experiments. Distinguishing deflected mirage mediation from the mirage model without gauge mediation will prove difficult without collider input, though we indicate how gamma ray signals may provide an opportunity for distinguishing between the two paradigms

  6. Epidemiology of transmissible diseases: Array hybridization and next generation sequencing as universal nucleic acid-mediated typing tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Dunne, W; Pouseele, Hannes; Monecke, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf; van Belkum, Alex

    2017-09-21

    The magnitude of interest in the epidemiology of transmissible human diseases is reflected in the vast number of tools and methods developed recently with the expressed purpose to characterize and track evolutionary changes that occur in agents of these diseases over time. Within the past decade a new suite of such tools has become available with the emergence of the so-called "omics" technologies. Among these, two are exponents of the ongoing genomic revolution. Firstly, high-density nucleic acid probe arrays have been proposed and developed using various chemical and physical approaches. Via hybridization-mediated detection of entire genes or genetic polymorphisms in such genes and intergenic regions these so called "DNA chips" have been successfully applied for distinguishing very closely related microbial species and strains. Second and even more phenomenal, next generation sequencing (NGS) has facilitated the assessment of the complete nucleotide sequence of entire microbial genomes. This technology currently provides the most detailed level of bacterial genotyping and hence allows for the resolution of microbial spread and short-term evolution in minute detail. We will here review the very recent history of these two technologies, sketch their usefulness in the elucidation of the spread and epidemiology of mostly hospital-acquired infections and discuss future developments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. In vivo high-affinity uptake and axonal transport of D-(2,3-/sup 3/H)aspartate in excitatory neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storm-Mathisen, J.; Wold, J.E. (Oslo Univ. (Norway))

    1981-12-28

    D-(2,3-/sup 3/H)aspartate ((/sup 3/H)D-Asp) at ..mu..M concentrations in Krebs' solution was infused intracerebrally in rats, mice and hamsters. Neuropil sites in the hippocampal formation, septum and neostriatum, known to receive excitatory nerve inputs with glutamate and aspartate as putative transmitters, showed strong autoradiographic labeling after intraventricular infusions. There was evidence for retrograde axonal transport to pyramidal cell bodies in hippocampus CA3 and neocortex. Infusions into the hilus fasciae dentatae led to anterograde axonal transport of (/sup 3/H)D-Asp in the mossy fibers.

  8. Excitatory amino acid transporters EAAT-1 and EAAT-2 in temporal lobe and hippocampus in intractable temporal lobe epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarac, Sinan; Afzal, Shoaib; Broholm, Helle

    2009-01-01

    Intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is an invalidating disease and many patients are resistant to medical treatment. Increased glutamate concentration has been found in epileptogenic foci and may induce local over-excitation and cytotoxicity; one of the proposed mechanisms involves reduced...... extra-cellular clearance of glutamate by excitatory amino acid transporters (EAAT-1 to EAAT-5). EAAT-1 and EAAT-2 are mainly expressed on astroglial cells for the reuptake of glutamate from the extra-cellular space. We have studied the expression of EAAT-1 and EAAT-2 in the hippocampus and temporal lobe...

  9. Intercultural Transmission of Collectivism and Achievement Values in Two Acculturation Contexts: The Case of Turkish Families in Germany and Turkish and Moroccan Families in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalet, Karen; Schonpflug, Ute

    2001-01-01

    Examined the impact of immigrant parents' goals and acculturation contexts on family value transmission, surveying Turkish parent-child dyads in the Netherlands. Across cultures, parents' collectivism values were transmitted. Parental goals mediated value transmission. Transmission was significant after controlling for gender and education.…

  10. From Fathers to Sons: The Intergenerational Transmission of Parenting Behavior among African American Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geoffrey L; Kogan, Steven M; Kim, Jihyoung

    2018-03-01

    This study examined the intergenerational transmission of fathering among young, African American fathers in rural communities. A sample of 132 African American young men living in the rural South reported on the quality of their relationship with their biological and social fathers in the family of origin, their own involvement with their young children, and relational schemas of close, intimate relationships. Results of path analyses supported the hypothesized mediational model, such that a better relationship with one's biological (but not social) father predicted increased father involvement in the next generation, and this association was partially mediated through positive relational schema after controlling for a range of covariates. Tests of moderated mediation indicated that the link between relational schema and father involvement was significantly stronger among fathers of girls than fathers of boys. Findings highlight the unique influence of close, nurturing father-child relationships for downstream father involvement, and the role of relational schemas as a mechanism for intergenerational transmission among young, rural, African American fathers of girls. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  11. Statistical modeling implicates neuroanatomical circuit mediating stress relief by ‘comfort’ food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.; Christiansen, Anne M.; Wang, Xia; Song, Seongho; Herman, James P.

    2015-01-01

    A history of eating highly-palatable foods reduces physiological and emotional responses to stress. For instance, we have previously shown that limited sucrose intake (4 ml of 30% sucrose twice daily for 14 days) reduces hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis responses to stress. However, the neural mechanisms underlying stress relief by such ‘comfort’ foods are unclear, and could reveal an endogenous brain pathway for stress mitigation. As such, the present work assessed the expression of several proteins related to neuronal activation and/or plasticity in multiple stress- and reward-regulatory brain regions of rats after limited sucrose (vs. water control) intake. These data were then subjected to a series of statistical analyses, including Bayesian modeling, to identify the most likely neurocircuit mediating stress relief by sucrose. The analyses suggest that sucrose reduces HPA activation by dampening an excitatory basolateral amygdala - medial amygdala circuit, while also potentiating an inhibitory bed nucleus of the stria terminalis principle subdivision-mediated circuit, resulting in reduced HPA activation after stress. Collectively, the results support the hypothesis that sucrose limits stress responses via plastic changes to the structure and function of stress-regulatory neural circuits. The work also illustrates that advanced statistical methods are useful approaches to identify potentially novel and important underlying relationships in biological data sets. PMID:26246177

  12. Cannabinoid transmission in the prelimbic cortex bidirectionally controls opiate reward and aversion signaling through dissociable kappa versus μ-opiate receptor dependent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tasha; Lauzon, Nicole M; de Jaeger, Xavier; Laviolette, Steven R

    2013-09-25

    Cannabinoid, dopamine (DA), and opiate receptor pathways play integrative roles in emotional learning, associative memory, and sensory perception. Modulation of cannabinoid CB1 receptor transmission within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) regulates the emotional valence of both rewarding and aversive experiences. Furthermore, CB1 receptor substrates functionally interact with opiate-related motivational processing circuits, particularly in the context of reward-related learning and memory. Considerable evidence demonstrates functional interactions between CB1 and DA signaling pathways during the processing of motivationally salient information. However, the role of mPFC CB1 receptor transmission in the modulation of behavioral opiate-reward processing is not currently known. Using an unbiased conditioned place preference paradigm with rats, we examined the role of intra-mPFC CB1 transmission during opiate reward learning. We report that activation or inhibition of CB1 transmission within the prelimbic cortical (PLC) division of the mPFC bidirectionally regulates the motivational valence of opiates; whereas CB1 activation switched morphine reward signaling into an aversive stimulus, blockade of CB1 transmission potentiated the rewarding properties of normally sub-reward threshold conditioning doses of morphine. Both of these effects were dependent upon DA transmission as systemic blockade of DAergic transmission prevented CB1-dependent modulation of morphine reward and aversion behaviors. We further report that CB1-mediated intra-PLC opiate motivational signaling is mediated through a μ-opiate receptor-dependent reward pathway, or a κ-opiate receptor-dependent aversion pathway, directly within the ventral tegmental area. Our results provide evidence for a novel CB1-mediated motivational valence switching mechanism within the PLC, controlling dissociable subcortical reward and aversion pathways.

  13. Effects of intrinsic aerobic capacity and ovariectomy on voluntary wheel running and nucleus accumbens dopamine receptor gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Min; Kanaley, Jill A; Padilla, Jaume; Zidon, Terese; Welly, Rebecca J; Will, Matthew J; Britton, Steven L; Koch, Lauren G; Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Booth, Frank W; Thyfault, John P; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J

    2016-10-01

    Rats selectively bred for high (HCR) and low (LCR) aerobic capacity show a stark divergence in wheel running behavior, which may be associated with the dopamine (DA) system in the brain. HCR possess greater motivation for voluntary running along with greater brain DA activity compared to LCR. We recently demonstrated that HCR are not immune to ovariectomy (OVX)-associated reductions in spontaneous cage (i.e. locomotor) activity. Whether HCR and LCR rats differ in their OVX-mediated voluntary wheel running response is unknown. To determine whether HCR are protected from OVX-associated reduction in voluntary wheel running. Forty female HCR and LCR rats (age ~27weeks) had either SHM or OVX operations, and given access to a running wheel for 11weeks. Weekly wheel running distance was monitored throughout the intervention. Nucleus accumbens (NAc) was assessed for mRNA expression of DA receptors at sacrifice. Compared to LCR, HCR ran greater distance and had greater ratio of excitatory/inhibitory DA mRNA expression (both line main effects, PWheel running distance was significantly, positively correlated with the ratio of excitatory/inhibitory DA mRNA expression across animals. In both lines, OVX reduced wheel running (Pwheel running, they had greater OVX-induced reduction in wheel running than LCR such that no differences were found 11weeks after OVX between HCROVX and LCROVX (interaction, Pwheel running in HCR was associated with an OVX-mediated reduction in the ratio of excitatory/inhibitory DA mRNA expression. The DA system in the NAc region may play a significant role in motivation to run in female rats. Compared to LCR, HCR rats run significantly more, which associates with greater ratio of excitatory/inhibitory DA mRNA expression. However, despite greater inherent motivation to run and an associated brain DA mRNA expression profile, HCR rats are not protected against OVX-induced reduction in wheel running or OVX-mediated reduction in the ratio of excitatory

  14. Interface-mediated amorphization of coesite by 200 keV electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, W.L.; Wang, L.M.; Ewing, R.C.; Xie, H.S.

    1997-01-01

    Electron-induced amorphization of coesite was studied as a function of irradiation temperature by in situ transmission electron microscopy at an incident energy of 200 keV. Electron-induced amorphization of coesite is induced by an ionization mechanism and is mainly dominated by an interface-mediated, heterogeneous nucleation-and-growth controlled process. Amorphous domains nucleate at surfaces, crystalline-amorphous (c-a) interfaces, and grain boundaries. This is the same process as the interface-mediated vitrification of coesite by isothermal annealing above the thermodynamic melting temperature (875 K), but below the glass transition temperature (1480 K). The interface-mediated amorphization of coesite by electron irradiation is morphologically similar to interface-mediated thermodynamic melting. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  15. Oscillations, complex spatiotemporal behavior, and information transport in networks of excitatory and inhibitory neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destexhe, A.

    1994-01-01

    Various types of spatiotemporal behavior are described for two-dimensional networks of excitatory and inhibitory neurons with time delayed interactions. It is described how the network behaves as several structural parameters are varied, such as the number of neurons, the connectivity, and the values of synaptic weights. A transition from spatially uniform oscillations to spatiotemporal chaos via intermittentlike behavior is observed. The properties of spatiotemporally chaotic solutions are investigated by evaluating the largest positive Lyapunov exponent and the loss of correlation with distance. Finally, properties of information transport are evaluated during uniform oscillations and spatiotemporal chaos. It is shown that the diffusion coefficient increases significantly in the spatiotemporal phase similar to the increase of transport coefficients at the onset of fluid turbulence. It is proposed that such a property should be seen in other media, such as chemical turbulence or networks of oscillators. The possibility of measuring information transport from appropriate experiments is also discussed

  16. Spatially structured oscillations in a two-dimensional excitatory neuronal network with synaptic depression

    KAUST Repository

    Kilpatrick, Zachary P.

    2009-10-29

    We study the spatiotemporal dynamics of a two-dimensional excitatory neuronal network with synaptic depression. Coupling between populations of neurons is taken to be nonlocal, while depression is taken to be local and presynaptic. We show that the network supports a wide range of spatially structured oscillations, which are suggestive of phenomena seen in cortical slice experiments and in vivo. The particular form of the oscillations depends on initial conditions and the level of background noise. Given an initial, spatially localized stimulus, activity evolves to a spatially localized oscillating core that periodically emits target waves. Low levels of noise can spontaneously generate several pockets of oscillatory activity that interact via their target patterns. Periodic activity in space can also organize into spiral waves, provided that there is some source of rotational symmetry breaking due to external stimuli or noise. In the high gain limit, no oscillatory behavior exists, but a transient stimulus can lead to a single, outward propagating target wave. © Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009.

  17. Spatially structured oscillations in a two-dimensional excitatory neuronal network with synaptic depression

    KAUST Repository

    Kilpatrick, Zachary P.; Bressloff, Paul C.

    2009-01-01

    We study the spatiotemporal dynamics of a two-dimensional excitatory neuronal network with synaptic depression. Coupling between populations of neurons is taken to be nonlocal, while depression is taken to be local and presynaptic. We show that the network supports a wide range of spatially structured oscillations, which are suggestive of phenomena seen in cortical slice experiments and in vivo. The particular form of the oscillations depends on initial conditions and the level of background noise. Given an initial, spatially localized stimulus, activity evolves to a spatially localized oscillating core that periodically emits target waves. Low levels of noise can spontaneously generate several pockets of oscillatory activity that interact via their target patterns. Periodic activity in space can also organize into spiral waves, provided that there is some source of rotational symmetry breaking due to external stimuli or noise. In the high gain limit, no oscillatory behavior exists, but a transient stimulus can lead to a single, outward propagating target wave. © Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009.

  18. Enhancement of synaptic transmission induced by BDNF in cultured cortical neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun; Gong, Hui; Zeng, Shaoqun; Li, Yanling; Luo, Qingming

    2005-03-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), like other neurotrophins, has long-term effects on neuronal survival and differentiation; furthermore, BDNF has been reported to exert an acute potentiation of synaptic activity and are critically involved in long-term potentiation (LTP). We found that BDNF rapidly induced potentiation of synaptic activity and an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in cultured cortical neurons. Within minutes of BDNF application to cultured cortical neurons, spontaneous firing rate was dramatically increased as were the frequency and amplitude of excitatory spontaneous postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). Fura-2 recordings showed that BDNF acutely elicited an increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]c). This effect was partially dependent on [Ca2+]o; The BDNF-induced increase in [Ca2+]c can not be completely blocked by Ca2+-free solution. It was completely blocked by K252a and partially blocked by Cd2+ and TTX. The results demonstrate that BDNF can enhances synaptic transmission and that this effect is accompanied by a rise in [Ca2+]c that requires two route: the release of Ca2+ from intracellular calcium stores and influx of extracellular Ca2+ through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels in cultured cortical neurons.

  19. Nitric Oxide-Mediated Posttranslational Modifications: Impacts at the Synapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie A. Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is an important gasotransmitter molecule that is involved in numerous physiological processes throughout the nervous system. In addition to its involvement in physiological plasticity processes (long-term potentiation, LTP; long-term depression, LTD which can include NMDAR-mediated calcium-dependent activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS, new insights into physiological and pathological consequences of nitrergic signalling have recently emerged. In addition to the canonical cGMP-mediated signalling, NO is also implicated in numerous pathways involving posttranslational modifications. In this review we discuss the multiple effects of S-nitrosylation and 3-nitrotyrosination on proteins with potential modulation of function but limit the analyses to signalling involved in synaptic transmission and vesicular release. Here, crucial proteins which mediate synaptic transmission can undergo posttranslational modifications with either pre- or postsynaptic origin. During normal brain function, both pathways serve as important cellular signalling cascades that modulate a diverse array of physiological processes, including synaptic plasticity, transcriptional activity, and neuronal survival. In contrast, evidence suggests that aging and disease can induce nitrosative stress via excessive NO production. Consequently, uncontrolled S-nitrosylation/3-nitrotyrosination can occur and represent pathological features that contribute to the onset and progression of various neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and Huntington’s.

  20. GABAergic transmission and chloride equilibrium potential are not modulated by pyruvate in the developing optic tectum of Xenopus laevis tadpoles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arseny S Khakhalin

    Full Text Available In the developing mammalian brain, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA is thought to play an excitatory rather than an inhibitory role due to high levels of intracellular Cl(- in immature neurons. This idea, however, has been questioned by recent studies which suggest that glucose-based artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF may be inadequate for experiments on immature and developing brains. These studies suggest that immature neurons may require alternative energy sources, such as lactate or pyruvate. Lack of these other energy sources is thought to result in artificially high intracellular Cl(- concentrations, and therefore a more depolarized GABA receptor (GABAR reversal potential. Since glucose metabolism can vary widely among different species, it is important to test the effects of these alternative energy sources on different experimental preparations. We tested whether pyruvate affects GABAergic transmission in isolated brains of developing wild type Xenopus tadpoles in vitro by recording the responsiveness of tectal neurons to optic nerve stimulation, and by measuring currents evoked by local GABA application in a gramicidin perforated patch configuration. We found that, in contrast with previously reported results, the reversal potential for GABAR-mediated currents does not change significantly between developmental stages 45 and 49. Partial substitution of glucose by pyruvate had only minor effects on both the GABA reversal potential, and the responsiveness of tectal neurons at stages 45 and 49. Total depletion of energy sources from the ACSF did not affect neural responsiveness. We also report a strong spatial gradient in GABA reversal potential, with immature cells adjacent to the lateral and caudal proliferative zones having more positive reversal potentials. We conclude that in this experimental preparation standard glucose-based ACSF is an appropriate extracellular media for in vitro experiments.

  1. Neuregulin 3 Mediates Cortical Plate Invasion and Laminar Allocation of GABAergic Interneurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Bartolini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural circuits in the cerebral cortex consist of excitatory pyramidal cells and inhibitory interneurons. These two main classes of cortical neurons follow largely different genetic programs, yet they assemble into highly specialized circuits during development following a very precise choreography. Previous studies have shown that signals produced by pyramidal cells influence the migration of cortical interneurons, but the molecular nature of these factors has remained elusive. Here, we identified Neuregulin 3 (Nrg3 as a chemoattractive factor expressed by developing pyramidal cells that guides the allocation of cortical interneurons in the developing cortical plate. Gain- and loss-of-function approaches reveal that Nrg3 modulates the migration of interneurons into the cortical plate in a process that is dependent on the tyrosine kinase receptor ErbB4. Perturbation of Nrg3 signaling in conditional mutants leads to abnormal lamination of cortical interneurons. Nrg3 is therefore a critical mediator in the assembly of cortical inhibitory circuits.

  2. Isoflurane reversibly destabilizes hippocampal dendritic spines by an actin-dependent mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimcy Platholi

    Full Text Available General anesthetics produce a reversible coma-like state through modulation of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission. Recent evidence suggests that anesthetic exposure can also lead to sustained cognitive dysfunction. However, the subcellular effects of anesthetics on the structure of established synapses are not known. We investigated effects of the widely used volatile anesthetic isoflurane on the structural stability of hippocampal dendritic spines, a postsynaptic structure critical to excitatory synaptic transmission in learning and memory. Exposure to clinical concentrations of isoflurane induced rapid and non-uniform shrinkage and loss of dendritic spines in mature cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Spine shrinkage was associated with a reduction in spine F-actin concentration. Spine loss was prevented by either jasplakinolide or cytochalasin D, drugs that prevent F-actin disassembly. Isoflurane-induced spine shrinkage and loss were reversible upon isoflurane elimination. Thus, isoflurane destabilizes spine F-actin, resulting in changes to dendritic spine morphology and number. These findings support an actin-based mechanism for isoflurane-induced alterations of synaptic structure in the hippocampus. These reversible alterations in dendritic spine structure have important implications for acute anesthetic effects on excitatory synaptic transmission and synaptic stability in the hippocampus, a locus for anesthetic-induced amnesia, and have important implications for anesthetic effects on synaptic plasticity.

  3. Effects of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission on motor patterns of human sigmoid colon in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulí, M; Martínez, E; Gallego, D; Opazo, A; Espín, F; Martí-Gallostra, M; Jiménez, M; Clavé, P

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: To characterize the in vitro motor patterns and the neurotransmitters released by enteric motor neurons (EMNs) in the human sigmoid colon. Experimental approach: Sigmoid circular strips were studied in organ baths. EMNs were stimulated by electrical field stimulation (EFS) and through nicotinic ACh receptors. Key results: Strips developed weak spontaneous rhythmic contractions (3.67±0.49 g, 2.54±0.15 min) unaffected by the neurotoxin tetrodotoxin (TTX; 1 μM). EFS induced strong contractions during (on, 56%) or after electrical stimulus (off, 44%), both abolished by TTX. Nicotine (1–100 μM) inhibited spontaneous contractions. Latency of off-contractions and nicotine responses were reduced by NG-nitro-L-arginine (1 mM) and blocked after further addition of apamin (1 μM) or the P2Y1 receptor antagonist MRS 2179 (10 μM) and were unaffected by the P2X antagonist NF279 (10 μM) or α-chymotrypsin (10 U mL−1). Amplitude of on- and off-contractions was reduced by atropine (1 μM) and the selective NK2 receptor antagonist Bz-Ala-Ala-D-Trp-Phe-D-Pro-Pro-Nle-NH2 (1 μM). MRS 2179 reduced the amplitude of EFS on- and off-contractions without altering direct muscular contractions induced by ACh (1 nM–1 mM) or substance P (1 nM–10 μM). Conclusions and implications: Latency of EFS-induced off-contractions and inhibition of spontaneous motility by nicotine are caused by stimulation of inhibitory EMNs coreleasing NO and a purine acting at muscular P2Y1 receptors through apamin-sensitive K+ channels. EFS-induced on- and off-contractions are caused by stimulation of excitatory EMNs coreleasing ACh and tachykinins acting on muscular muscarinic and NK2 receptors. Prejunctional P2Y1 receptors might modulate the activity of excitatory EMNs. P2Y1 and NK2 receptors might be therapeutic targets for colonic motor disorders. PMID:18846038

  4. Retracing the evolutionary path that led to flea-borne transmission of Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi-Cheng; Jarrett, Clayton O; Bosio, Christopher F; Hinnebusch, B Joseph

    2014-05-14

    Yersinia pestis is an arthropod-borne bacterial pathogen that evolved recently from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, an enteric pathogen transmitted via the fecal-oral route. This radical ecological transition can be attributed to a few discrete genetic changes from a still-extant recent ancestor, thus providing a tractable case study in pathogen evolution and emergence. Here, we determined the genetic and mechanistic basis of the evolutionary adaptation of Y. pestis to flea-borne transmission. Remarkably, only four minor changes in the bacterial progenitor, representing one gene gain and three gene losses, enabled transmission by flea vectors. All three loss-of-function mutations enhanced cyclic-di-GMP-mediated bacterial biofilm formation in the flea foregut, which greatly increased transmissibility. Our results suggest a step-wise evolutionary model in which Y. pestis emerged as a flea-borne clone, with each genetic change incrementally reinforcing the transmission cycle. The model conforms well to the ecological theory of adaptive radiation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Theta frequency background tunes transmission but not summation of spiking responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya Parameshwaran

    Full Text Available Hippocampal neurons are known to fire as a function of frequency and phase of spontaneous network rhythms, associated with the animal's behaviour. This dependence is believed to give rise to precise rate and temporal codes. However, it is not well understood how these periodic membrane potential fluctuations affect the integration of synaptic inputs. Here we used sinusoidal current injection to the soma of CA1 pyramidal neurons in the rat brain slice to simulate background oscillations in the physiologically relevant theta and gamma frequency range. We used a detailed compartmental model to show that somatic current injection gave comparable results to more physiological synaptically driven theta rhythms incorporating excitatory input in the dendrites, and inhibitory input near the soma. We systematically varied the phase of synaptic inputs with respect to this background, and recorded changes in response and summation properties of CA1 neurons using whole-cell patch recordings. The response of the cell was dependent on both the phase of synaptic inputs and frequency of the background input. The probability of the cell spiking for a given synaptic input was up to 40% greater during the depolarized phases between 30-135 degrees of theta frequency current injection. Summation gain on the other hand, was not affected either by the background frequency or the phasic afferent inputs. This flat summation gain, coupled with the enhanced spiking probability during depolarized phases of the theta cycle, resulted in enhanced transmission of summed inputs during the same phase window of 30-135 degrees. Overall, our study suggests that although oscillations provide windows of opportunity to selectively boost transmission and EPSP size, summation of synaptic inputs remains unaffected during membrane oscillations.

  6. Gauge vs. gravity mediation in models with anomalous U(1)'s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudas, E.; Mambrini, Y.; Romagnoni, A.; Trapletti, M.; Pokorski, S.

    2009-01-01

    In an attempt to implement gauge mediation in string theory, we study string effective supergravity models of supersymmetry breaking, containing anomalous gauge factors. We discuss subtleties related to gauge invariance and the stabilization of the Green-Schwarz moduli, which set non-trivial constraints on the transmission of supersymmetry breaking to MSSM via gauge interactions. Given those constraints, it is difficult to obtain the dominance of gauge mediation over gravity mediation. Furthermore, generically the gauge contributions to soft terms contain additional non-standard terms coming from D-term contributions. Motivated by this, we study the phenomenology of recently proposed hybrid models, where gravity and gauge mediations compete at the GUT scale, and show that such a scenario can respect WMAP constraints and would be easily testable at LHC.

  7. No transmission of Potato spindle tuber viroid shown in experiments with thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis, Thrips tabaci), honey bees (Apis mellifera) and bumblebees (Bombus terrestris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen Lykke; Enkegaard, Annie; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    and Thrips tabaci by leaf sucking. The F. occidentalis experiments also included feeding on pollen prior to feeding on PSTVd-infected leaf. No thrips-mediated transmission of PSTVd was recorded. The possibility of PSTVd transmission by Apis mellifera and Bombus terrestris during their feeding...

  8. Cerebellar nuclei neurons show only small excitatory responses to optogenetic olivary stimulation in transgenic mice: in vivo and in vitro studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huo eLu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To study the olivary input to the cerebellar nuclei (CN we used optogenetic stimulation in transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2 in olivary neurons. We obtained in vivo extracellular Purkinje cell (PC and CN recordings in anesthetized mice while stimulating the contralateral inferior olive (IO with a blue laser (single pulse, 10 - 50 ms duration. Peri-stimulus histograms were constructed to show the spike rate changes after optical stimulation. Among 29 CN neurons recorded, 15 showed a decrease in spike rate of variable strength and duration, and only 1 showed a transient spiking response. These results suggest that direct olivary input to CN neurons is usually overridden by stronger Purkinje cell inhibition triggered by climbing fiber responses. To further investigate the direct input from the climbing fiber collaterals we also conducted whole cell recordings in brain slices, where we used local stimulation with blue light. Due to the expression of ChR2 in Purkinje cell axons as well as the IO in our transgenic line, strong inhibitory responses could be readily triggered with optical stimulation (13 of 15 neurons. After blocking this inhibition with GABAzine, only in 5 of 13 CN neurons weak excitatory responses were revealed. Therefore our in vitro results support the in vivo findings that the excitatory input to CN neurons from climbing fiber collaterals in adult mice is masked by the inhibition under normal conditions.

  9. Cortical synaptic transmission in CaV2.1 knockin mice with the S218L missense mutation which causes a severe familial hemiplegic migraine syndrome in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dania eVecchia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1 is caused by gain-of-function mutations in CaV2.1 (P/Q-type Ca2+ channels. Knockin (KI mice carrying the FHM1 R192Q missense mutation show enhanced cortical excitatory synaptic transmission at pyramidal cell synapses but unaltered cortical inhibitory neurotransmission at fast-spiking interneuron synapses. Enhanced cortical glutamate release was shown to cause the facilitation of cortical spreading depression (CSD in R192Q KI mice. It, however, remains unknown how other FHM1 mutations affect cortical synaptic transmission. Here, we studied neurotransmission in cortical neurons in microculture from KI mice carrying the S218L mutation, which causes a severe FHM syndrome in humans and an allele-dosage dependent facilitation of experimental CSD in KI mice, which is larger than that caused by the R192Q mutation. We show gain-of-function of excitatory neurotransmission, due to increased action-potential evoked Ca2+ influx and increased probability of glutamate release at pyramidal cell synapses, but unaltered inhibitory neurotransmission at multipolar interneuron synapses in S218L KI mice. In contrast with the larger gain-of-function of neuronal CaV2.1 current in homozygous than heterozygous S218L KI mice, the gain-of-function of evoked glutamate release, the paired-pulse ratio and the Ca2+ dependence of the EPSC were all similar in homozygous and heterozygous S218L KI mice, suggesting compensatory changes in the homozygous mice. Furthermore, we reveal a unique feature of S218L KI cortical synapses which is the presence of a fraction of mutant CaV2.1 channels being open at resting potential. Our data suggest that, while the gain-of-function of evoked glutamate release may explain the facilitation of CSD in heterozygous S218L KI mice, the further facilitation of CSD in homozygous S218L KI mice is due to other CaV2.1-dependent mechanisms, that likely include Ca2+ influx at voltages sub-threshold for action

  10. Electroacupuncture preconditioning-induced neuroprotection may be mediated by glutamate transporter type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoling; Yin, Jinbo; Li, Liaoliao; Ma, Lei; Tan, Hongying; Deng, Jiao; Chen, Shaoyang; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2013-10-01

    Electroacupuncture has been shown to induce a preconditioning effect in the brain. The mechanisms for this protection are not fully elucidated. We hypothesize that this protection is mediated by excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) that have been shown to be neuroprotective. To test this hypothesis, two-month old male Sprague-Dawley rats and EAAT type 3 (EAAT3) knockout mice received or did not receive 30-min electroacupuncture once a day for five consecutive days. They were subjected to a 120-min middle cerebral arterial occlusion (MCAO) at 24h after the last electroacupuncture. Neurological outcome was assessed 2days after the MCAO. Brain tissues were harvested at 24h after the last electroacupuncture for Western blotting. Rats subjected to electroacupuncture at the Baihui acupoint had smaller brain infarct volumes and better neurological deficit scores than control rats. Electroacupuncture increased EAAT type 2 (EAAT2) in the cerebral cortex, tended to increase EAAT3 in the hippocampus, and had no effect on EAAT type 1 expression. Dihydrokainate, an EAAT2 inhibitor, worsened the neurological outcome of rats with electroacupuncture pretreatment. Electroacupuncture pretreatment at the Baihui acupoint increased EAAT2 in the cerebral cortex and improved the neurological outcome of EAAT3 knockout mice. Together, our results suggest that EAAT2 may mediate the electroacupuncture preconditioning-induced neuroprotection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ionotropic excitatory amino acid receptor ligands. Synthesis and pharmacology of a new amino acid AMPA antagonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, U; Sløk, F A; Stensbøl, T B

    2000-01-01

    We have previously described the potent and selective (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptor agonist, (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-carboxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (ACPA), and the AMPA receptor antagonist (RS)-2-amino-3-[3-(carboxymethoxy)-5-methyl-4...... excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors using receptor binding and electrophysiological techniques, and for activity at metabotropic EAA receptors using second messenger assays. Compounds 1 and 4 were essentially inactive. (RS)-2-Amino-3-[3-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl]propionic acid (ACMP, 2......-isoxazolyl]propionic acid (AMOA). Using these AMPA receptor ligands as leads, a series of compounds have been developed as tools for further elucidation of the structural requirements for activation and blockade of AMPA receptors. The synthesized compounds have been tested for activity at ionotropic...

  12. Excitatory/inhibitory imbalance in autism spectrum disorders: Implications for interventions and therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunova, Genoveva; Pallanti, Stefano; Hollander, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Imbalance between excitation and inhibition and increased excitatory-inhibitory (E-I) ratio is a common mechanism in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) that is responsible for the learning and memory, cognitive, sensory, motor deficits, and seizures occurring in these disorders. ASD are very heterogeneous and better understanding of E-I imbalance in brain will lead to better diagnosis and treatments. We perform a critical literature review of the causes and presentations of E-I imbalance in ASD. E-I imbalance in ASD is due primarily to abnormal glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission in key brain regions such as neocortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and cerebellum. Other causes are due to dysfunction of neuropeptides (oxytocin), synaptic proteins (neuroligins), and immune system molecules (cytokines). At the neuropathological level E-I imbalance in ASD is presented as a "minicolumnopathy". E-I imbalance alters the manner by which the brain processes information and regulates behaviour. New developments for investigating E-I imbalance such as optogenetics and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are presented. Non-invasive brain stimulation methods such as TMS for treatment of the core symptoms of ASD are discussed. Understanding E-I imbalance has important implications for developing better pharmacological and behavioural treatments for ASD, including TMS, new drugs, biomarkers and patient stratification.

  13. Comparing the Efficacy of Excitatory Transcranial Stimulation Methods Measuring Motor Evoked Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Moliadze

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The common aim of transcranial stimulation methods is the induction or alterations of cortical excitability in a controlled way. Significant effects of each individual stimulation method have been published; however, conclusive direct comparisons of many of these methods are rare. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of three widely applied stimulation methods inducing excitability enhancement in the motor cortex: 1 mA anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (atDCS, intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS, and 1 mA transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS within one subject group. The effect of each stimulation condition was quantified by evaluating motor-evoked-potential amplitudes (MEPs in a fixed time sequence after stimulation. The analyses confirmed a significant enhancement of the M1 excitability caused by all three types of active stimulations compared to sham stimulation. There was no significant difference between the types of active stimulations, although the time course of the excitatory effects slightly differed. Among the stimulation methods, tRNS resulted in the strongest and atDCS significantly longest MEP increase compared to sham. Different time courses of the applied stimulation methods suggest different underlying mechanisms of action. Better understanding may be useful for better targeting of different transcranial stimulation techniques.

  14. Insights into mechanisms of transmission and pathogenesis from transgenic mouse models of prion diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Julie A.; Telling, Glenn C.

    2018-01-01

    Prions represent a new paradigm of protein-mediated information transfer. In the case of mammals, prions are the cause of fatal, transmissible neurodegenerative diseases, sometimes referred to as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE’s), which frequently occur as epidemics. An increasing body of evidence indicates that the canonical mechanism of conformational corruption of cellular prion protein (PrPC) by the pathogenic isoform (PrPSc) that is the basis of prion formation in TSE’s, is common to a spectrum of proteins associated with various additional human neurodegenerative disorders, including the more common Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. The peerless infectious properties of TSE prions, and the unparalleled tools for their study, therefore enable elucidation of mechanisms of template-mediated conformational propagation that are generally applicable to these related disease states. Many unresolved issues remain including the exact molecular nature of the prion, the detailed cellular and molecular mechanisms of prion propagation, and the means by which prion diseases can be both genetic and infectious. In addition, we know little about the mechanism by which neurons degenerate during prion diseases. Tied to this, the physiological role of the normal form of the prion protein remains unclear and it is uncertain whether or not loss of this function contributes to prion pathogenesis. The factors governing the transmission of prions between species remain unclear, in particular the means by which prion strains and PrP primary structure interact to affect inter-species prion transmission. Despite all these unknowns, advances in our understanding of prions have occurred because of their transmissibility to experimental animals and the development of transgenic (Tg) mouse models has done much to further our understanding about various aspects of prion biology. In this review we will focus on advances in our understanding of prion biology that

  15. Small passenger car transmission test-Chevrolet 200 transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The small passenger car transmission was tested to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commerically available transmissions which would enable them to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers could estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. A 1979 Chevrolet Model 200 automatic transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. The transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-eighty percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. Torque, speed and efficiency curves map the complete performance characteristics for Chevrolet Model 200 transmission.

  16. The Glycolytic Metabolite, Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, Blocks Epileptiform Bursts by Attenuating Voltage-Activated Calcium Currents in Hippocampal Slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Rong Shao

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Manipulation of metabolic pathways (e.g., ketogenic diet (KD, glycolytic inhibition alters neural excitability and represents a novel strategy for treatment of drug-refractory seizures. We have previously shown that inhibition of glycolysis suppresses epileptiform activity in hippocampal slices. In the present study, we aimed to examine the role of a “branching” metabolic pathway stemming off glycolysis (i.e., the pentose-phosphate pathway, PPP in regulating seizure activity, by using a potent PPP stimulator and glycolytic intermediate, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (F1,6BP. Employing electrophysiological approaches, we investigated the action of F1,6BP on epileptiform population bursts, intrinsic neuronal firing, glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic transmission and voltage-activated calcium currents (ICa in the CA3 area of hippocampal slices. Bath application of F1,6BP (2.5–5 mM blocked epileptiform population bursts induced in Mg2+-free medium containing 4-aminopyridine, in ~2/3 of the slices. The blockade occurred relatively rapidly (~4 min, suggesting an extracellular mechanism. However, F1,6BP did not block spontaneous intrinsic firing of the CA3 neurons (when synaptic transmission was eliminated with DNQX, AP-5 and SR95531, nor did it significantly reduce AMPA or NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCAMPA and EPSCNMDA. In contrast, F1,6BP caused moderate reduction (~50% in GABAA receptor-mediated current, suggesting it affects excitatory and inhibitory synapses differently. Finally and unexpectedly, F1,6BP consistently attenuated ICa by ~40% without altering channel activation or inactivation kinetics, which may explain its anticonvulsant action, at least in this in vitro seizure model. Consistent with these results, epileptiform population bursts in CA3 were readily blocked by the nonspecific Ca2+ channel blocker, CdCl2 (20 μM, suggesting that these bursts are calcium dependent. Altogether, these data

  17. Glutathione in Cellular Redox Homeostasis: Association with the Excitatory Amino Acid Carrier 1 (EAAC1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Aoyama

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are by-products of the cellular metabolism of oxygen consumption, produced mainly in the mitochondria. ROS are known to be highly reactive ions or free radicals containing oxygen that impair redox homeostasis and cellular functions, leading to cell death. Under physiological conditions, a variety of antioxidant systems scavenge ROS to maintain the intracellular redox homeostasis and normal cellular functions. This review focuses on the antioxidant system’s roles in maintaining redox homeostasis. Especially, glutathione (GSH is the most important thiol-containing molecule, as it functions as a redox buffer, antioxidant, and enzyme cofactor against oxidative stress. In the brain, dysfunction of GSH synthesis leading to GSH depletion exacerbates oxidative stress, which is linked to a pathogenesis of aging-related neurodegenerative diseases. Excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1 plays a pivotal role in neuronal GSH synthesis. The regulatory mechanism of EAAC1 is also discussed.

  18. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  19. Enzyme mediated synthesis of polypyrrole in the presence of chondroitin sulfate and redox mediators of natural origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grijalva-Bustamante, G.A.; Evans-Villegas, A.G.; Castillo-Castro, T. del; Castillo-Ortega, M.M.; Cruz-Silva, R.; Huerta, F.; Morallón, E.

    2016-01-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) was synthesized by enzyme mediated oxidation of pyrrole using naturally occurring compounds as redox mediators. The catalytic mechanism is an enzymatic cascade reaction in which hydrogen peroxide is the oxidizer and soybean peroxidase, in the presence of acetosyringone, syringaldehyde or vanillin, acts as a natural catalysts. The effect of the initial reaction composition on the polymerization yield and electrical conductivity of PPy was analyzed. Morphology of the PPy particles was studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy whereas the chemical structure was studied by X-ray photoelectron and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopic techniques. The redox mediators increased the polymerization yield without a significant modification of the electronic structure of PPy. The highest conductivity of PPy was reached when chondroitin sulfate was used simultaneously as dopant and template during pyrrole polymerization. Electroactive properties of PPy obtained from natural precursors were successfully used in the amperometric quantification of uric acid concentrations. PPy increases the amperometric sensitivity of carbon nanotube screen-printed electrodes toward uric acid detection. - Highlights: • A new method of pyrrole polymerization using naturally occurring redox mediators and doping agents was studied. • The catalytic efficiency of different redox mediators toward pyrrole oxidation was evaluated. • Two different naturally occurring polymers were studied as bifunctional steric stabilizer/doping agents. • Polypyrrole improves the amperometric response of carbon nanotube screen printed electrodes toward uric acid sensing.

  20. Enzyme mediated synthesis of polypyrrole in the presence of chondroitin sulfate and redox mediators of natural origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grijalva-Bustamante, G.A. [Departamento de Investigación en Polímeros y Materiales, Universidad de Sonora, CP 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Evans-Villegas, A.G. [Departamento de Ciencias Químico Biológicas, Universidad de Sonora, CP 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Castillo-Castro, T. del, E-mail: terecat@polimeros.uson.mx [Departamento de Investigación en Polímeros y Materiales, Universidad de Sonora, CP 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Castillo-Ortega, M.M. [Departamento de Investigación en Polímeros y Materiales, Universidad de Sonora, CP 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Cruz-Silva, R. [Research Center for Exotic Nanocarbons, Shinshu University, 4-17-1 Wakasato, 380-8553, Nagano (Japan); Huerta, F. [Departamento Ingeniería Textil y Papelera, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell, 1, E-03801 Alcoy (Spain); Morallón, E. [Departamento Química Física e Instituto Universitario de Materiales, Universidad de Alicante, Ap. 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2016-06-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) was synthesized by enzyme mediated oxidation of pyrrole using naturally occurring compounds as redox mediators. The catalytic mechanism is an enzymatic cascade reaction in which hydrogen peroxide is the oxidizer and soybean peroxidase, in the presence of acetosyringone, syringaldehyde or vanillin, acts as a natural catalysts. The effect of the initial reaction composition on the polymerization yield and electrical conductivity of PPy was analyzed. Morphology of the PPy particles was studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy whereas the chemical structure was studied by X-ray photoelectron and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopic techniques. The redox mediators increased the polymerization yield without a significant modification of the electronic structure of PPy. The highest conductivity of PPy was reached when chondroitin sulfate was used simultaneously as dopant and template during pyrrole polymerization. Electroactive properties of PPy obtained from natural precursors were successfully used in the amperometric quantification of uric acid concentrations. PPy increases the amperometric sensitivity of carbon nanotube screen-printed electrodes toward uric acid detection. - Highlights: • A new method of pyrrole polymerization using naturally occurring redox mediators and doping agents was studied. • The catalytic efficiency of different redox mediators toward pyrrole oxidation was evaluated. • Two different naturally occurring polymers were studied as bifunctional steric stabilizer/doping agents. • Polypyrrole improves the amperometric response of carbon nanotube screen printed electrodes toward uric acid sensing.

  1. The role of excitatory amino acids and substance P in the mediation of the cough reflex within the nucleus tractus solitarii of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutolo, Donatella; Bongianni, Fulvia; Fontana, Giovanni A; Pantaleo, Tito

    2007-09-28

    We hypothesized that cough evoked by mechanical stimulation of the tracheobronchial tree in the rabbit is primarily mediated by glutamatergic neurotransmission at the level of the caudal portions of the medial subnucleus of the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and the lateral commissural NTS where cough-related afferents terminate, and that this reflex is potentiated by local release of substance P. To test our hypothesis, we performed bilateral microinjections (30-50 nl) of ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists or substance P into these locations in pentobarbitone anaesthetized, spontaneously breathing rabbits. Blockade of NMDA and non-NMDA receptors by 50mM kynurenic acid abolished the cough reflex without affecting the Breuer-Hering inflation reflex or the pulmonary chemoreflex. Blockade of non-NMDA receptors using 10mM CNQX or 5mM NBQX caused identical effects. Blockade of NMDA receptors by 10mM D-AP5 strongly reduced, but did not abolish cough responses. Microinjections of 1mM substance P increased peak and rate of rise of abdominal muscle activity as well as cough number. These results are the first to provide evidence that ionotropic glutamate receptors, especially non-NMDA receptors, located within specific regions of NTS are primarily involved in the mediation of cough evoked by mechanical stimulation of the tracheobronchial tree in the rabbit. Present findings on substance P cough-enhancing effects extend previous observations and are relevant to the tachykinin-mediated central sensitization of the cough reflex. They also may provide hints for further studies on centrally acting antitussive drugs.

  2. K-Cl Cotransporter 2-mediated Cl- Extrusion Determines Developmental Stage-dependent Impact of Propofol Anesthesia on Dendritic Spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskarjov, Martin; Fiumelli, Hubert; Briner, Adrian; Bodogan, Timea; Demeter, Kornel; Lacoh, Claudia-Marvine; Mavrovic, Martina; Blaesse, Peter; Kaila, Kai; Vutskits, Laszlo

    2017-05-01

    General anesthetics potentiating γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated signaling are known to induce a persistent decrement in excitatory synapse number in the cerebral cortex when applied during early postnatal development, while an opposite action is produced at later stages. Here, the authors test the hypothesis that the effect of general anesthetics on synaptogenesis depends upon the efficacy of GABA receptor type A (GABAA)-mediated inhibition controlled by the developmental up-regulation of the potassium-chloride (K-Cl) cotransporter 2 (KCC2). In utero electroporation of KCC2 was used to prematurely increase the efficacy of (GABAA)-mediated inhibition in layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in the immature rat somatosensory cortex. Parallel experiments with expression of the inward-rectifier potassium channel Kir2.1 were done to reduce intrinsic neuronal excitability. The effects of these genetic manipulations (n = 3 to 4 animals per experimental group) were evaluated using iontophoretic injection of Lucifer Yellow (n = 8 to 12 cells per animal). The total number of spines analyzed per group ranged between 907 and 3,371. The authors found a robust effect of the developmental up-regulation of KCC2-mediated Cl transport on the age-dependent action of propofol on dendritic spines. Premature expression of KCC2, unlike expression of a transport-inactive KCC2 variant, prevented a propofol-induced decrease in spine density. In line with a reduction in neuronal excitability, the above result was qualitatively replicated by overexpression of Kir2.1. The KCC2-dependent developmental increase in the efficacy of GABAA-mediated inhibition is a major determinant of the age-dependent actions of propofol on dendritic spinogenesis.

  3. The Challenge of Interpreting Glutamate-Receptor Ion-Channel Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Mark L

    2017-11-21

    Ion channels activated by glutamate mediate excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. Similar to other ligand-gated ion channels, their gating cycle begins with transitions from a ligand-free closed state to glutamate-bound active and desensitized states. In an attempt to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying gating, numerous structures for glutamate receptors have been solved in complexes with agonists, antagonists, allosteric modulators, and auxiliary proteins. The embarrassingly rich library of structures emerging from this work reveals very dynamic molecules with a more complex conformational spectrum than anticipated from functional studies. Unanticipated conformations solved for complexes with competitive antagonists and a lack of understanding of the structural basis for ion channel subconductance states further highlight challenges that have yet to be addressed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Cortical Divergent Projections in Mice Originate from Two Sequentially Generated, Distinct Populations of Excitatory Cortical Neurons with Different Initial Axonal Outgrowth Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Yumiko; Namikawa, Tomohiro; Yamauchi, Kenta; Kawaguchi, Yasuo

    2016-05-01

    Excitatory cortical neurons project to various subcortical and intracortical regions, and exhibit diversity in their axonal connections. Although this diversity may develop from primary axons, how many types of axons initially occur remains unknown. Using a sparse-labeling in utero electroporation method, we investigated the axonal outgrowth of these neurons in mice and correlated the data with axonal projections in adults. Examination of lateral cortex neurons labeled during the main period of cortical neurogenesis (E11.5-E15.5) indicated that axonal outgrowth commonly occurs in the intermediate zone. Conversely, the axonal direction varied; neurons labeled before E12.5 and the earliest cortical plate neurons labeled at E12.5 projected laterally, whereas neurons labeled thereafter projected medially. The expression of Ctip2 and Satb2 and the layer destinations of these neurons support the view that lateral and medial projection neurons are groups of prospective subcortical and callosal projection neurons, respectively. Consistently, birthdating experiments demonstrated that presumptive lateral projection neurons were generated earlier than medial projection neurons, even within the same layer. These results suggest that the divergent axonal connections of excitatory cortical neurons begin from two types of primary axons, which originate from two sequentially generated distinct subpopulations: early-born lateral (subcortical) and later-born medial (callosal) projection neuron groups. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Short-term repeated corticosterone administration enhances glutamatergic but not GABAergic transmission in the rat motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, Joanna; Blasiak, Anna; Czerw, Anna; Tylko, Grzegorz; Sowa, Joanna; Hess, Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that stress impairs performance of skilled reaching and walking tasks in rats due to the action of glucocorticoids involved in the stress response. Skilled reaching and walking are controlled by the primary motor cortex (M1); however, it is not known whether stress-related impairments in skilled motor tasks are related to functional and/or structural alterations within the M1. We studied the effects of single and repeated injections of corticosterone (twice daily for 7 days) on spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs and sIPSCs) recorded from layer II/III pyramidal neurons in ex vivo slices of the M1, prepared 2 days after the last administration of the hormone. We also measured the density of dendritic spines on pyramidal cells and the protein levels of selected subunits of AMPA, NMDA, and GABAA receptors after repeated corticosterone administration. Repeatedly administered corticosterone induced an increase in the frequency but not in the amplitude of sEPSCs, while a single administration had no effect on the recorded excitatory currents. The frequency and amplitude of sIPSCs as well as the excitability of pyramidal cells were changed neither after single nor after repeated corticosterone administration. Treatment with corticosterone for 7 days did not modify the density of dendritic spines on pyramidal neurons. Corticosterone influenced neither the protein levels of GluA1, GluA2, GluN1, GluN2A, and GluN2B subunits of glutamate receptors nor those of α1, β2, and γ2 subunits of the GABAA receptor. The increase in sEPSCs frequency induced by repeated corticosterone administration faded out within 7 days. These data indicate that prolonged administration of exogenous corticosterone selectively and reversibly enhances glutamatergic, but not GABAergic transmission in the rat motor cortex. Our results suggest that corticosterone treatment results in an enhancement of spontaneous glutamate release from presynaptic

  6. Optimal width of quasicrystalline slabs of dielectric cylinders to microwave radiation transmission contrast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andueza, Ángel; Sevilla, Joaquín [Dpto. Ing. Eléctrica y Electrónica Universidad Pública de Navarra, 31006 Pamplona (Spain); Smart Cities Institute, Universidad Pública de Navarra, 31006 Pamplona (Spain); Wang, Kang [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, UMR CNRS/Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France); Pérez-Conde, Jesús [Dpto. de Física Universidad Pública de Navarra, 31006 Pamplona (Spain)

    2016-08-28

    Light confinement induced by resonant states in aperiodic photonic structures is interesting for many applications. A particular case of these resonances can be found in 2D quasicrystalline arrangements of dielectric cylinders. These systems present a rather isotropic band gap as well as isolated in-gap photonic states (as a result of spatially localized resonances). These states are built by high symmetry polygonal clusters that can be regarded as photonic molecules. In this paper, we study the transmission properties of a slab of glass cylinders arranged in approximants of the decagonal quasicrystalline structure. In particular, we investigate the influence of the slab width in the transmission contrast between the states and the gap. The study is both experimental and numerical in the microwave regime. We find that the best transmission contrast is found for a width of around three times the radiation wavelength. The transmission in the band gap region is mediated by the resonances of the photonic molecules. If the samples are thin enough, they become transparent except around a resonance of the photonic molecule which reflects the incoming light.

  7. Cognitive Bias as a Mediator in the Relation Between Fear-Enhancing Parental Behaviors and Anxiety Symptoms in Children: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliek, Lorraine; Dibbets, Pauline; Roelofs, Jeffrey; Muris, Peter

    2017-02-01

    The present cross-sectional study explored the relations between fear-enhancing parenting behaviors (modeling and threat information transmission) and children's cognitive biases and anxiety symptoms. Participants were 258 children aged 7-12 years (132 boys and 126 girls), and their mothers (n = 199) and/or fathers (n = 117). Children and parents completed the Parental Enhancement of Anxious Cognitions questionnaire, which measures parental modeling and threat information transmission, while children also filled in a scale for assessing anxiety symptoms. In addition, children conducted a number of computerized tasks for measuring confirmation and interpretation bias. The data indicated that both biases mediated the relationship between threat information transmission (of both parents) and children's anxiety symptoms. Only interpretation bias significantly mediated the relationship between modeling (of mothers) and anxiety symptoms. These findings give partial support for the hypothesis that cognitive biases play a mediating role in the relation between fear-enhancing parental behaviors and children's anxiety symptoms.

  8. Up-Regulation of Excitatory Amino Acid Transporters EAAT3 and EAAT4 by Lithium Sensitive Glycogen Synthase Kinase GSK3ß

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Abousaab

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cellular uptake of glutamate by the excitatory amino-acid transporters (EAATs decreases excitation and thus participates in the regulation of neuroexcitability. Kinases impacting on neuronal function include Lithium-sensitive glycogen synthase kinase GSK3ß. The present study thus explored whether the activities of EAAT3 and/or EAAT4 isoforms are sensitive to GSK3ß. Methods: cRNA encoding wild type EAAT3 (SLC1A1 or EAAT4 (SLC1A6 was injected into Xenopus oocytes without or with additional injection of cRNA encoding wild type GSK3ß or the inactive mutant K85AGSK3ß. Dual electrode voltage clamp was performed in order to determine glutamate-induced current (IEAAT. Results: Appreciable IEAAT was observed in EAAT3 or EAAT4 expressing but not in water injected oocytes. IEAAT was significantly increased by coexpression of GSK3ß but not by coexpression of K85AGSK3ß. Coexpression of GSK3ß increased significantly the maximal IEAAT in EAAT3 or EAAT4 expressing oocytes, without significantly modifying apparent affinity of the carriers. Lithium (1 mM exposure for 24 hours decreased IEAAT in EAAT3 and GSK3ß expressing oocytes to values similar to IEAAT in oocytes expressing EAAT3 alone. Lithium did not significantly modify IEAAT in oocytes expressing EAAT3 without GSK3ß. Conclusions: Lithium-sensitive GSK3ß is a powerful regulator of excitatory amino acid transporters EAAT3 and EAAT4.

  9. Huntingtin-Interacting Protein 1-Related Protein Plays a Critical Role in Dendritic Development and Excitatory Synapse Formation in Hippocampal Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Peng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Huntingtin-interacting protein 1-related (HIP1R protein is considered to be an endocytic adaptor protein like the other two members of the Sla2 family, Sla2p and HIP1. They all contain homology domains responsible for the binding of clathrin, inositol lipids and F-actin. Previous studies have revealed that HIP1R is highly expressed in different regions of the mouse brain and localizes at synaptic structures. However, the function of HIP1R in the nervous system remains unknown. In this study, we investigated HIP1R function in cultured rat hippocampal neurons using an shRNA knockdown approach. We found that, after HIP1R knockdown, the dynamics and density of dendritic filopodia, and dendritic branching and complexity were significantly reduced in developing neurons, as well as the densities of dendritic spines and PSD95 clusters in mature neurons. Moreover, HIP1R deficiency led to significantly reduced expression of the ionotropic glutamate receptor GluA1, GluN2A and GluN2B subunits, but not the GABAA receptor α1 subunit. Similarly, HIP1R knockdown reduced the amplitude and frequency of the miniature excitatory postsynaptic current, but not of the miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current. In addition, the C-terminal proline-rich region of HIP1R responsible for cortactin binding was found to confer a dominant-negative effect on dendritic branching in cultured developing neurons, implying a critical role of cortactin binding in HIP1R function. Taken together, the results of our study suggest that HIP1R plays important roles in dendritic development and excitatory synapse formation and function.

  10. Transmission eigenvalues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakoni, Fioralba; Haddar, Houssem

    2013-10-01

    In inverse scattering theory, transmission eigenvalues can be seen as the extension of the notion of resonant frequencies for impenetrable objects to the case of penetrable dielectrics. The transmission eigenvalue problem is a relatively late arrival to the spectral theory of partial differential equations. Its first appearance was in 1986 in a paper by Kirsch who was investigating the denseness of far-field patterns for scattering solutions of the Helmholtz equation or, in more modern terminology, the injectivity of the far-field operator [1]. The paper of Kirsch was soon followed by a more systematic study by Colton and Monk in the context of developing the dual space method for solving the inverse scattering problem for acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium [2]. In this paper they showed that for a spherically stratified media transmission eigenvalues existed and formed a discrete set. Numerical examples were also given showing that in principle transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the far-field data. This first period of interest in transmission eigenvalues was concluded with papers by Colton et al in 1989 [3] and Rynne and Sleeman in 1991 [4] showing that for an inhomogeneous medium (not necessarily spherically stratified) transmission eigenvalues, if they existed, formed a discrete set. For the next seventeen years transmission eigenvalues were ignored. This was mainly due to the fact that, with the introduction of various sampling methods to determine the shape of an inhomogeneous medium from far-field data, transmission eigenvalues were something to be avoided and hence the fact that transmission eigenvalues formed at most a discrete set was deemed to be sufficient. In addition, questions related to the existence of transmission eigenvalues or the structure of associated eigenvectors were recognized as being particularly difficult due to the nonlinearity of the eigenvalue problem and the special structure of the associated transmission

  11. Glucose level determines excitatory or inhibitory effects of adiponectin on arcuate POMC neuron activity and feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Shigetomo; Maekawa, Fumihiko; Maejima, Yuko; Kubota, Naoto; Kadowaki, Takashi; Yada, Toshihiko

    2016-08-09

    Adiponectin regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, acting against metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence suggest that adiponectin acts on the brain including hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), where proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons play key roles in feeding regulation. Several studies have examined intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of adiponectin and reported opposite effects, increase or decrease of food intake. These reports used different nutritional states. The present study aimed to clarify whether adiponectin exerts distinct effects on food intake and ARC POMC neurons depending on the glucose concentration. Adiponectin was ICV injected with or without glucose for feeding experiments and administered to ARC slices with high or low glucose for patch clamp experiments. We found that adiponectin at high glucose inhibited POMC neurons and increased food intake while at low glucose it exerted opposite effects. The results demonstrate that glucose level determines excitatory or inhibitory effects of adiponectin on arcuate POMC neuron activity and feeding.

  12. Serotonin increases synaptic activity in olfactory bulb glomeruli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Julia; Shao, Zuoyi; Puche, Adam C; Wachowiak, Matt; Shipley, Michael T

    2016-03-01

    Serotoninergic fibers densely innervate olfactory bulb glomeruli, the first sites of synaptic integration in the olfactory system. Acting through 5HT2A receptors, serotonin (5HT) directly excites external tufted cells (ETCs), key excitatory glomerular neurons, and depolarizes some mitral cells (MCs), the olfactory bulb's main output neurons. We further investigated 5HT action on MCs and determined its effects on the two major classes of glomerular interneurons: GABAergic/dopaminergic short axon cells (SACs) and GABAergic periglomerular cells (PGCs). In SACs, 5HT evoked a depolarizing current mediated by 5HT2C receptors but did not significantly impact spike rate. 5HT had no measurable direct effect in PGCs. Serotonin increased spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs and sIPSCs) in PGCs and SACs. Increased sEPSCs were mediated by 5HT2A receptors, suggesting that they are primarily due to enhanced excitatory drive from ETCs. Increased sIPSCs resulted from elevated excitatory drive onto GABAergic interneurons and augmented GABA release from SACs. Serotonin-mediated GABA release from SACs was action potential independent and significantly increased miniature IPSC frequency in glomerular neurons. When focally applied to a glomerulus, 5HT increased MC spontaneous firing greater than twofold but did not increase olfactory nerve-evoked responses. Taken together, 5HT modulates glomerular network activity in several ways: 1) it increases ETC-mediated feed-forward excitation onto MCs, SACs, and PGCs; 2) it increases inhibition of glomerular interneurons; 3) it directly triggers action potential-independent GABA release from SACs; and 4) these network actions increase spontaneous MC firing without enhancing responses to suprathreshold sensory input. This may enhance MC sensitivity while maintaining dynamic range. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Small passenger car transmission test; Chevrolet LUV transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    A 1978 Chevrolet LUV manual transmission tested per the applicable portions of a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the upper ninety percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test (torque, speed, and efficiency curves) are presented. Graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Chevrolet LUV transmission.

  14. Transmission issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, J.; Wilson, L.; Thon, S.; Millar, N.

    2005-01-01

    This session on transmission issues focused on the role that transmission plays in electricity markets and the importance of getting the market structure right in terms of generation divestiture with buy back contracts, demand side responsive programs, transmission upgrades and long term contracts. The difficulties of distinguishing between market power and scarcity were examined along with some of the complications that ensue if transmission experiences congestion, as exemplified by the August 2003 blackout in eastern North America. The presentations described the best ways to handle transmission issues, and debated whether transmission should be deregulated or follow market forces. Issues of interconnections and reliability of connections were also debated along with the attempt to integrate renewables into the grid. Some presentations identified what new transmission must be built and what must be done to ensure that transmission gets built. The challenges and business opportunities for transmission in Alberta were discussed with reference to plans to invest in new infrastructure, where it is going outside of the province and how it works with other jurisdictions. Manitoba's Conawapa Hydro Project and its 2000 MW tie line to Ontario was also discussed. Some examples of non-optimal use of interconnections in Europe were also discussed in an effort to learn from these mistakes and avoid them in Canada. tabs., figs

  15. Fast calcium wave propagation mediated by electrically conducted excitation and boosted by CICR.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusters, J.M.A.M.; Meerwijk, W.P. van; Ypey, D.L.; Theuvenet, A.P.R.; Gielen, C.C.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated synchronization and propagation of calcium oscillations, mediated by gap junctional excitation transmission. For that purpose we used an experimentally based model of normal rat kidney (NRK) cells, electrically coupled in a one-dimensional configuration (linear strand).

  16. Depression of Serotonin Synaptic Transmission by the Dopamine Precursor L-DOPA

    OpenAIRE

    Gantz, Stephanie C.; Levitt, Erica S.; Llamosas Muñozguren, Nerea; Neve, Kim A.; Williams, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Imbalance between the dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter systems has been implicated in the comorbidity of Parkinson's disease (PD) and psychiatric disorders. L-DOPA, the leading treatment of PD, facilitates the production and release of dopamine. This study assessed the action of L-DOPA on monoamine synaptic transmission in mouse brain slices. Application of L-DOPA augmented the D2-receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSC) in dopamine neurons of the substantia nigr...

  17. Acute morphine alters GABAergic transmission in the central amygdala during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal: role of cyclic AMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal eBajo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The central amygdala (CeA plays an important role in opioid addiction. Therefore, we examined the effects of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal (WD on GABAergic transmission in rat CeA neurons using whole-cell recordings with naloxone in the bath. The basal frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs increased in CeA neurons from WD compared to placebo rats. Acute morphine (10 M had mixed effects (> 20% change from baseline on mIPSCs in placebo and WD rats. In most CeA neurons (64% from placebo rats, morphine significantly decreased mIPSC frequency and amplitude. In 32% of placebo neurons, morphine significantly increased mIPSC amplitudes but had no effect on mIPSC frequency. In WD rats, acute morphine significantly increased mIPSC frequency but had no effect on mIPSC amplitude in 41% of CeA neurons. In 45% of cells, acute morphine significantly decreased mIPSC frequency and amplitude. Pre-treatment with the cyclic AMP inhibitor (R-adenosine, cyclic 3’,5’-(hydrogenphosphorothioate triethylammonium (RP, prevented acute morphine-induced potentiation of mIPSCs. Pre-treatment of slices with the Gi/o G-protein subunit inhibitor pertussis toxin (PTX did not prevent the acute morphine-induced enhancement or inhibition of mIPSCs. PTX and RP decreased basal mIPSC frequencies and amplitudes only in WD rats. The results suggest that inhibition of GABAergic transmission in the CeA by acute morphine is mediated by PTX-insensitive mechanisms, although PTX-sensitive mechanisms cannot be ruled out for non-morphine responsive cells; by contrast, potentiation of GABAergic transmission is mediated by activated cAMP signaling that also mediates the increased basal GABAergic transmission in WD rats. Our data indicate that during the acute phase of WD, the CeA opioid and GABAergic systems undergo neuroadaptative changes conditioned by a previous chronic morphine exposure and dependence.

  18. K-Cl Cotransporter 2–mediated Cl− Extrusion Determines Developmental Stage–dependent Impact of Propofol Anesthesia on Dendritic Spines

    KAUST Repository

    Puskarjov, Martin; Fiumelli, Hubert; Briner, Adrian; Bodogan, Timea; Demeter, Kornel; Lacoh, Claudia Marvine; Mavrovic, Martina; Blaesse, Peter; Kaila, Kai; Vutskits, Laszlo

    2017-01-01

    Background: General anesthetics potentiating γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated signaling are known to induce a persistent decrement in excitatory synapse number in the cerebral cortex when applied during early postnatal development, while an opposite action is produced at later stages. Here, the authors test the hypothesis that the effect of general anesthetics on synaptogenesis depends upon the efficacy of GABA receptor type A (GABA A)-mediated inhibition controlled by the developmental up-regulation of the potassium-chloride (K-Cl) cotransporter 2 (KCC2). Methods: In utero electroporation of KCC2 was used to prematurely increase the efficacy of (GABA A)-mediated inhibition in layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in the immature rat somatosensory cortex. Parallel experiments with expression of the inward-rectifier potassium channel Kir2.1 were done to reduce intrinsic neuronal excitability. The effects of these genetic manipulations (n = 3 to 4 animals per experimental group) were evaluated using iontophoretic injection of Lucifer Yellow (n = 8 to 12 cells per animal). The total number of spines analyzed per group ranged between 907 and 3,371. Results: The authors found a robust effect of the developmental up-regulation of KCC2-mediated Cl - transport on the age-dependent action of propofol on dendritic spines. Premature expression of KCC2, unlike expression of a transport-inactive KCC2 variant, prevented a propofol-induced decrease in spine density. In line with a reduction in neuronal excitability, the above result was qualitatively replicated by overexpression of Kir2.1. Conclusions: The KCC2-dependent developmental increase in the efficacy of GABA A -mediated inhibition is a major determinant of the age-dependent actions of propofol on dendritic spinogenesis.

  19. K-Cl Cotransporter 2–mediated Cl− Extrusion Determines Developmental Stage–dependent Impact of Propofol Anesthesia on Dendritic Spines

    KAUST Repository

    Puskarjov, Martin

    2017-03-16

    Background: General anesthetics potentiating γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated signaling are known to induce a persistent decrement in excitatory synapse number in the cerebral cortex when applied during early postnatal development, while an opposite action is produced at later stages. Here, the authors test the hypothesis that the effect of general anesthetics on synaptogenesis depends upon the efficacy of GABA receptor type A (GABA A)-mediated inhibition controlled by the developmental up-regulation of the potassium-chloride (K-Cl) cotransporter 2 (KCC2). Methods: In utero electroporation of KCC2 was used to prematurely increase the efficacy of (GABA A)-mediated inhibition in layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in the immature rat somatosensory cortex. Parallel experiments with expression of the inward-rectifier potassium channel Kir2.1 were done to reduce intrinsic neuronal excitability. The effects of these genetic manipulations (n = 3 to 4 animals per experimental group) were evaluated using iontophoretic injection of Lucifer Yellow (n = 8 to 12 cells per animal). The total number of spines analyzed per group ranged between 907 and 3,371. Results: The authors found a robust effect of the developmental up-regulation of KCC2-mediated Cl - transport on the age-dependent action of propofol on dendritic spines. Premature expression of KCC2, unlike expression of a transport-inactive KCC2 variant, prevented a propofol-induced decrease in spine density. In line with a reduction in neuronal excitability, the above result was qualitatively replicated by overexpression of Kir2.1. Conclusions: The KCC2-dependent developmental increase in the efficacy of GABA A -mediated inhibition is a major determinant of the age-dependent actions of propofol on dendritic spinogenesis.

  20. Non-canonical Opioid Signaling Inhibits Itch Transmission in the Spinal Cord of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Admire Munanairi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Chronic itch or pruritus is a debilitating disorder that is refractory to conventional anti-histamine treatment. Kappa opioid receptor (KOR agonists have been used to treat chronic itch, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, we find that KOR and gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR overlap in the spinal cord, and KOR activation attenuated GRPR-mediated histamine-independent acute and chronic itch in mice. Notably, canonical KOR-mediated Gαi signaling is not required for desensitizing GRPR function. In vivo and in vitro studies suggest that KOR activation results in the translocation of Ca2+-independent protein kinase C (PKCδ from the cytosol to the plasma membrane, which in turn phosphorylates and inhibits GRPR activity. A blockade of phospholipase C (PLC in HEK293 cells prevented KOR-agonist-induced PKCδ translocation and GRPR phosphorylation, suggesting a role of PLC signaling in KOR-mediated GRPR desensitization. These data suggest that a KOR-PLC-PKCδ-GRPR signaling pathway in the spinal cord may underlie KOR-agonists-induced anti-pruritus therapies. : Munanairi et al. show that the kappa opioid receptor (KOR agonists inhibit nonhistaminergic itch transmission by attenuating the function of the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR, an itch receptor in the spinal cord. KOR activation causes the translocation of PKCδ from plasma to membrane, which phosphorylates GRPR to dampen itch transmission. Keywords: KOR, GRPR, itch, PKC, phosphorylation, GPCR cross-signaling, spinal cord, mouse

  1. Coping with dehydration: sympathetic activation and regulation of glutamatergic transmission in the hypothalamic PVN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardgett, Megan E.; Chen, Qing-Hui; Guo, Qing; Calderon, Alfredo S.; Andrade, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    Autonomic and endocrine profiles of chronic hypertension and heart failure resemble those of acute dehydration. Importantly, all of these conditions are associated with exaggerated sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) driven by glutamatergic activation of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Here, studies sought to gain insight into mechanisms of disease by determining the role of PVN ionotropic glutamate receptors in supporting SNA and mean arterial pressure (MAP) during dehydration and by elucidating mechanisms regulating receptor activity. Blockade of PVN N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors reduced (P dehydrated (DH) (48 h water deprivation) rats, but had no effect in euhydrated (EH) controls. Blockade of PVN α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors had no effect in either group. NMDA in PVN caused dose-dependent increases of renal SNA and MAP in both groups, but the maximum agonist evoked response (Emax) of the renal SNA response was greater (P dehydration increases excitatory NMDA receptor tone in PVN. Reduced glial-mediated glutamate uptake was identified as a key contributing factor. Defective glutamate uptake in PVN could therefore be an important, but as yet unexplored, mechanism driving sympathetic hyperactivity in chronic cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24671240

  2. 24S-hydroxycholesterol and 25-hydroxycholesterol differentially impact hippocampal neuronal survival following oxygen-glucose deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Yu Sun

    Full Text Available N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs, a major subtype of glutamate receptor mediating excitatory transmission throughout the CNS, participate in ischemia-induced neuronal death. Unfortunately, undesired side effects have limited the strategy of inhibiting/blocking NMDARs as therapy. Targeting endogenous positive allosteric modulators of NMDAR function may offer a strategy with fewer downsides. Here, we explored whether 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-HC, an endogenous positive NMDAR modulator characterized recently by our group, participates in NMDAR-mediated excitotoxicity following oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD in primary neuron cultures. 24S-HC is the major brain cholesterol metabolite produced exclusively in neurons near sites of glutamate transmission. By selectively potentiating NMDAR current, 24S-HC may participate in NMDAR-mediated excitotoxicity following energy failure, thus impacting recovery after stroke. In support of this hypothesis, our findings indicate that exogenous application of 24S-HC exacerbates NMDAR-dependent excitotoxicity in primary neuron culture following OGD, an ischemic-like challenge. Similarly, enhancement of endogenous 24S-HC synthesis reduced survival rate. On the other hand, reducing endogenous 24S-HC synthesis alleviated OGD-induced cell death. We found that 25-HC, another oxysterol that antagonizes 24S-HC potentiation, partially rescued OGD-mediated cell death in the presence or absence of exogenous 24S-HC application, and 25-HC exhibited NMDAR-dependent/24S-HC-dependent neuroprotection, as well as NMDAR-independent neuroprotection in rat tissue but not mouse tissue. Our findings suggest that both endogenous and exogenous 24S-HC exacerbate OGD-induced damage via NMDAR activation, while 25-HC exhibits species dependent neuroprotection through both NMDAR-dependent and independent mechanisms.

  3. Optogenetic Examination of Prefrontal-Amygdala Synaptic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda-Carvalho, Maithe; Wu, Wan-Chen; Cummings, Kirstie A; Clem, Roger L

    2017-03-15

    A brain network comprising the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and amygdala plays important roles in developmentally regulated cognitive and emotional processes. However, very little is known about the maturation of mPFC-amygdala circuitry. We conducted anatomical tracing of mPFC projections and optogenetic interrogation of their synaptic connections with neurons in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) at neonatal to adult developmental stages in mice. Results indicate that mPFC-BLA projections exhibit delayed emergence relative to other mPFC pathways and establish synaptic transmission with BLA excitatory and inhibitory neurons in late infancy, events that coincide with a massive increase in overall synaptic drive. During subsequent adolescence, mPFC-BLA circuits are further modified by excitatory synaptic strengthening as well as a transient surge in feedforward inhibition. The latter was correlated with increased spontaneous inhibitory currents in excitatory neurons, suggesting that mPFC-BLA circuit maturation culminates in a period of exuberant GABAergic transmission. These findings establish a time course for the onset and refinement of mPFC-BLA transmission and point to potential sensitive periods in the development of this critical network. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Human mPFC-amygdala functional connectivity is developmentally regulated and figures prominently in numerous psychiatric disorders with a high incidence of adolescent onset. However, it remains unclear when synaptic connections between these structures emerge or how their properties change with age. Our work establishes developmental windows and cellular substrates for synapse maturation in this pathway involving both excitatory and inhibitory circuits. The engagement of these substrates by early life experience may support the ontogeny of fundamental behaviors but could also lead to inappropriate circuit refinement and psychopathology in adverse situations. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/372976-10$15.00/0.

  4. α(2A)-adrenergic receptors filter parabrachial inputs to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavin, Stephanie A; Matthews, Robert T; Wang, Qin; Muly, E Chris; Winder, Danny G

    2014-07-09

    α2-adrenergic receptors (AR) within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) reduce stress-reward interactions in rodent models. In addition to their roles as autoreceptors, BNST α(2A)-ARs suppress glutamatergic transmission. One prominent glutamatergic input to the BNST originates from the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) and consists of asymmetric axosomatic synapses containing calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and vGluT2. Here we provide immunoelectron microscopic data showing that many asymmetric axosomatic synapses in the BNST contain α(2A)-ARs. Further, we examined optically evoked glutamate release ex vivo in BNST from mice with virally delivered channelrhodopsin2 (ChR2) expression in PBN. In BNST from these animals, ChR2 partially colocalized with CGRP, and activation generated EPSCs in dorsal anterolateral BNST neurons that elicited two cell-type-specific outcomes: (1) feedforward inhibition or (2) an EPSP that elicited firing. We found that the α(2A)-AR agonist guanfacine selectively inhibited this PBN input to the BNST, preferentially reducing the excitatory response in ex vivo mouse brain slices. To begin to assess the overall impact of α(2A)-AR control of this PBN input on BNST excitatory transmission, we used a Thy1-COP4 mouse line with little postsynaptic ChR2 expression nor colocalization of ChR2 with CGRP in the BNST. In slices from these mice, we found that guanfacine enhanced, rather than suppressed, optogenetically initiated excitatory drive in BNST. Thus, our study reveals distinct actions of PBN afferents within the BNST and suggests that α(2A)-AR agonists may filter excitatory transmission in the BNST by inhibiting a component of the PBN input while enhancing the actions of other inputs. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/349319-13$15.00/0.

  5. Computational modeling reveals dendritic origins of GABA(A-mediated excitation in CA1 pyramidal neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Lewin

    Full Text Available GABA is the key inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult central nervous system, but in some circumstances can lead to a paradoxical excitation that has been causally implicated in diverse pathologies from endocrine stress responses to diseases of excitability including neuropathic pain and temporal lobe epilepsy. We undertook a computational modeling approach to determine plausible ionic mechanisms of GABA(A-dependent excitation in isolated post-synaptic CA1 hippocampal neurons because it may constitute a trigger for pathological synchronous epileptiform discharge. In particular, the interplay intracellular chloride accumulation via the GABA(A receptor and extracellular potassium accumulation via the K/Cl co-transporter KCC2 in promoting GABA(A-mediated excitation is complex. Experimentally it is difficult to determine the ionic mechanisms of depolarizing current since potassium transients are challenging to isolate pharmacologically and much GABA signaling occurs in small, difficult to measure, dendritic compartments. To address this problem and determine plausible ionic mechanisms of GABA(A-mediated excitation, we built a detailed biophysically realistic model of the CA1 pyramidal neuron that includes processes critical for ion homeostasis. Our results suggest that in dendritic compartments, but not in the somatic compartments, chloride buildup is sufficient to cause dramatic depolarization of the GABA(A reversal potential and dominating bicarbonate currents that provide a substantial current source to drive whole-cell depolarization. The model simulations predict that extracellular K(+ transients can augment GABA(A-mediated excitation, but not cause it. Our model also suggests the potential for GABA(A-mediated excitation to promote network synchrony depending on interneuron synapse location - excitatory positive-feedback can occur when interneurons synapse onto distal dendritic compartments, while interneurons projecting to the perisomatic

  6. Neuroglial Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundersen, Vidar; Storm-Mathisen, Jon; Bergersen, Linda Hildegard

    2015-01-01

    as a signaling substance recently shown to act on specific lactate receptors in the brain. Complementing neurotransmission at a synapse, neuroglial transmission often implies diffusion of the transmitter over a longer distance and concurs with the concept of volume transmission. Transmission from glia modulates...... synaptic neurotransmission based on energetic and other local conditions in a volume of tissue surrounding the individual synapse. Neuroglial transmission appears to contribute significantly to brain functions such as memory, as well as to prevalent neuropathologies....

  7. 47 CFR 25.212 - Narrowband analog transmissions, digital transmissions, and video transmissions in the GSO Fixed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Narrowband analog transmissions, digital transmissions, and video transmissions in the GSO Fixed-Satellite Service. 25.212 Section 25.212 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS...

  8. Intracortical inhibitory and excitatory circuits in subjects with minimal hepatic encephalopathy: a TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Raffaele; De Blasi, Pierpaolo; Höller, Yvonne; Brigo, Francesco; Golaszewski, Stefan; Frey, Vanessa N; Orioli, Andrea; Trinka, Eugen

    2016-10-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is the earliest form of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and affects up to 80 % of patients with liver cirrhosis. By definition, MHE is characterized by psychomotor slowing and subtle cognitive deficits,  but obvious clinical manifestations are lacking. Given its covert nature, MHE is often underdiagnosed. This study was aimed at detecting neurophysiological changes, as assessed by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), involved in the early pathogenesis of the HE. We investigated motor cortex excitability in 15 patients with MHE and in 15 age-matched age-matched cirrhotic patients without MHE; the resting motor threshold, the short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and the intracortical facilitation (ICF) were examined. Paired-pulse TMS revealed significant increased SICI and reduced ICF in the patients with MHE. These findings may reflect abnormalities in intrinsic brain activity and altered organization of functional connectivity networks. In particular, the results suggest a shift in the balance between intracortical inhibitory and excitatory mechanisms towards a net increase of inhibitory neurotransmission. Together with other neurophysiological (in particular EEG) and neuroimaging techniques, TMS may thus provide early markers of cerebral dysfunction in cirrhotic patients with MHE.

  9. Channel-Mediated Lactate Release by K+-Stimulated Astrocytes

    KAUST Repository

    Sotelo-Hitschfeld, T.

    2015-03-11

    Excitatory synaptic transmission is accompanied by a local surge in interstitial lactate that occurs despite adequate oxygen availability, a puzzling phenomenon termed aerobic glycolysis. In addition to its role as an energy substrate, recent studies have shown that lactate modulates neuronal excitability acting through various targets, including NMDA receptors and G-protein-coupled receptors specific for lactate, but little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the increase in interstitial lactate. Using a panel of genetically encoded fluorescence nanosensors for energy metabolites, we show here that mouse astrocytes in culture, in cortical slices, and in vivo maintain a steady-state reservoir of lactate. The reservoir was released to the extracellular space immediately after exposure of astrocytes to a physiological rise in extracellular K+ or cell depolarization. Cell-attached patch-clamp analysis of cultured astrocytes revealed a 37 pS lactate-permeable ion channel activated by cell depolarization. The channel was modulated by lactate itself, resulting in a positive feedback loop for lactate release. A rapid fall in intracellular lactate levels was also observed in cortical astrocytes of anesthetized mice in response to local field stimulation. The existence of an astrocytic lactate reservoir and its quick mobilization via an ion channel in response to a neuronal cue provides fresh support to lactate roles in neuronal fueling and in gliotransmission.

  10. Defective glycinergic synaptic transmission in zebrafish motility mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Hirata

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brainstem. Recently, in vivo analysis of glycinergic synaptic transmission has been pursued in zebrafish using molecular genetics. An ENU mutagenesis screen identified two behavioral mutants that are defective in glycinergic synaptic transmission. Zebrafish bandoneon (beo mutants have a defect in glrbb, one of the duplicated glycine receptor (GlyR β subunit genes. These mutants exhibit a loss of glycinergic synaptic transmission due to a lack of synaptic aggregation of GlyRs. Due to the consequent loss of reciprocal inhibition of motor circuits between the two sides of the spinal cord, motor neurons activate simultaneously on both sides resulting in bilateral contraction of axial muscles of beo mutants, eliciting the so-called ‘accordion’ phenotype. Similar defects in GlyR subunit genes have been observed in several mammals and are the basis for human hyperekplexia/startle disease. By contrast, zebrafish shocked (sho mutants have a defect in slc6a9, encoding GlyT1, a glycine transporter that is expressed by astroglial cells surrounding the glycinergic synapse in the hindbrain and spinal cord. GlyT1 mediates rapid uptake of glycine from the synaptic cleft, terminating synaptic transmission. In zebrafish sho mutants, there appears to be elevated extracellular glycine resulting in persistent inhibition of postsynaptic neurons and subsequent reduced motility, causing the ‘twitch once’ phenotype. We review current knowledge regarding zebrafish ‘accordion’ and ‘twitch once’ mutants, including beo and sho, and report the identification of a new α2 subunit that revises the phylogeny of zebrafish GlyRs.

  11. Defective Glycinergic Synaptic Transmission in Zebrafish Motility Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Hiromi; Carta, Eloisa; Yamanaka, Iori; Harvey, Robert J.; Kuwada, John Y.

    2009-01-01

    Glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brainstem. Recently, in vivo analysis of glycinergic synaptic transmission has been pursued in zebrafish using molecular genetics. An ENU mutagenesis screen identified two behavioral mutants that are defective in glycinergic synaptic transmission. Zebrafish bandoneon (beo) mutants have a defect in glrbb, one of the duplicated glycine receptor (GlyR) β subunit genes. These mutants exhibit a loss of glycinergic synaptic transmission due to a lack of synaptic aggregation of GlyRs. Due to the consequent loss of reciprocal inhibition of motor circuits between the two sides of the spinal cord, motor neurons activate simultaneously on both sides resulting in bilateral contraction of axial muscles of beo mutants, eliciting the so-called ‘accordion’ phenotype. Similar defects in GlyR subunit genes have been observed in several mammals and are the basis for human hyperekplexia/startle disease. By contrast, zebrafish shocked (sho) mutants have a defect in slc6a9, encoding GlyT1, a glycine transporter that is expressed by astroglial cells surrounding the glycinergic synapse in the hindbrain and spinal cord. GlyT1 mediates rapid uptake of glycine from the synaptic cleft, terminating synaptic transmission. In zebrafish sho mutants, there appears to be elevated extracellular glycine resulting in persistent inhibition of postsynaptic neurons and subsequent reduced motility, causing the ‘twitch-once’ phenotype. We review current knowledge regarding zebrafish ‘accordion’ and ‘twitch-once’ mutants, including beo and sho, and report the identification of a new α2 subunit that revises the phylogeny of zebrafish GlyRs. PMID:20161699

  12. Blocking effects of human tau on squid giant synapse transmission and its prevention by T-817 MA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman eMoreno

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Filamentous tau inclusions are hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD and related neurodegenerative tauopathies, but the molecular mechanisms involved in tau mediated changes in neuronal function and their possible effects on synaptic transmission are unknown. We have evaluated the effects of human tau protein injected directly into the presynaptic terminal axon of the squid giant synapse, which affords functional, structural, and biochemical analysis of its action on the synaptic release process. Indeed, we have found that at physiological concentrations recombinant human tau isoforms (h-tau 42 become phosphorylated, produce a rapid synaptic transmission block, and induce the formation of clusters of aggregated synaptic vesicles in the vicinity of the active zone. Presynaptic voltage clamp recordings demonstrate that h-tau does not modify the presynaptic calcium current amplitude or kinetics. Analysis of synaptic noise at the post-synaptic axon following pre-synaptic h-tau42 microinjection revealed an initial phase of increase spontaneous transmitter release followed by a marked reduction in noise. Finally, systemic administration of T-817MA, a proposed neuro-protective agent, rescued tau-induced synaptic abnormalities. Our results show novel mechanisms of h-tau42 mediated synaptic transmission failure and more importantly identify a potential therapeutic agent to treat/prevent tau-related neurotoxicity.

  13. Blocking Effects of Human Tau on Squid Giant Synapse Transmission and Its Prevention by T-817 MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Herman; Choi, Soonwook; Yu, Eunah; Brusco, Janaina; Avila, Jesus; Moreira, Jorge E.; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinás, Rodolfo R.

    2011-01-01

    Filamentous tau inclusions are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease and related neurodegenerative tauopathies, but the molecular mechanisms involved in tau-mediated changes in neuronal function and their possible effects on synaptic transmission are unknown. We have evaluated the effects of human tau protein injected directly into the presynaptic terminal axon of the squid giant synapse, which affords functional, structural, and biochemical analysis of its action on the synaptic release process. Indeed, we have found that at physiological concentration recombinant human tau (h-tau42) becomes phosphorylated, produces a rapid synaptic transmission block, and induces the formation of clusters of aggregated synaptic vesicles in the vicinity of the active zone. Presynaptic voltage clamp recordings demonstrate that h-tau42 does not modify the presynaptic calcium current amplitude or kinetics. Analysis of synaptic noise at the post-synaptic axon following presynaptic h-tau42 microinjection revealed an initial phase of increase spontaneous transmitter release followed by a marked reduction in noise. Finally, systemic administration of T-817MA, a proposed neuro-protective agent, rescued tau-induced synaptic abnormalities. Our results show novel mechanisms of h-tau42 mediated synaptic transmission failure and identify a potential therapeutic agent to treat tau-related neurotoxicity. PMID:21629767

  14. Localization of Presynaptic Plasticity Mechanisms Enables Functional Independence of Synaptic and Ectopic Transmission in the Cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine L. Dobson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the cerebellar molecular layer parallel fibre terminals release glutamate from both the active zone and from extrasynaptic “ectopic” sites. Ectopic release mediates transmission to the Bergmann glia that ensheathe the synapse, activating Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors and glutamate transporters. Parallel fibre terminals exhibit several forms of presynaptic plasticity, including cAMP-dependent long-term potentiation and endocannabinoid-dependent long-term depression, but it is not known whether these presynaptic forms of long-term plasticity also influence ectopic transmission to Bergmann glia. Stimulation of parallel fibre inputs at 16 Hz evoked LTP of synaptic transmission, but LTD of ectopic transmission. Pharmacological activation of adenylyl cyclase by forskolin caused LTP at Purkinje neurons, but only transient potentiation at Bergmann glia, reinforcing the concept that ectopic sites lack the capacity to express sustained cAMP-dependent potentiation. Activation of mGluR1 caused depression of synaptic transmission via retrograde endocannabinoid signalling but had no significant effect at ectopic sites. In contrast, activation of NMDA receptors suppressed both synaptic and ectopic transmission. The results suggest that the signalling mechanisms for presynaptic LTP and retrograde depression by endocannabinoids are restricted to the active zone at parallel fibre synapses, allowing independent modulation of synaptic transmission to Purkinje neurons and ectopic transmission to Bergmann glia.

  15. Actions of Bupivacaine, a Widely Used Local Anesthetic, on NMDA Receptor Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganelli, Meaghan A.

    2015-01-01

    NMDA receptors mediate excitatory neurotransmission in brain and spinal cord and play a pivotal role in the neurological disease state of chronic pain, which is caused by central sensitization. Bupivacaine is the indicated local anesthetic in caudal, epidural, and spinal anesthesia and is widely used clinically to manage acute and chronic pain. In addition to blocking Na+ channels, bupivacaine affects the activity of many other channels, including NMDA receptors. Importantly, bupivacaine inhibits NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, an area critically involved in central sensitization. We used recombinant NMDA receptors expressed in HEK293 cells and found that increasing concentrations of bupivacaine decreased channel open probability in GluN2 subunit- and pH-independent manner by increasing the mean duration of closures and decreasing the mean duration of openings. Using kinetic modeling of one-channel currents, we attributed the observed current decrease to two main mechanisms: a voltage-dependent “foot-in-the-door” pore block and an allosteric gating effect. Further, the inhibition was state-independent because it occurred to the same degree whether the drug was applied before or after glutamate stimulation and was mediated by extracellular and intracellular inhibitory sites, via hydrophilic and hydrophobic pathways. These results predict that clinical doses of bupivacaine would decrease the peak and accelerate the decay of synaptic NMDA receptor currents during normal synaptic transmission. These quantitative predictions inform possible applications of bupivacaine as preventative and therapeutic approaches in chronic pain. PMID:25589775

  16. Quantifying Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolhouse, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Transmissibility is the defining characteristic of infectious diseases. Quantifying transmission matters for understanding infectious disease epidemiology and designing evidence-based disease control programs. Tracing individual transmission events can be achieved by epidemiological investigation coupled with pathogen typing or genome sequencing. Individual infectiousness can be estimated by measuring pathogen loads, but few studies have directly estimated the ability of infected hosts to transmit to uninfected hosts. Individuals' opportunities to transmit infection are dependent on behavioral and other risk factors relevant given the transmission route of the pathogen concerned. Transmission at the population level can be quantified through knowledge of risk factors in the population or phylogeographic analysis of pathogen sequence data. Mathematical model-based approaches require estimation of the per capita transmission rate and basic reproduction number, obtained by fitting models to case data and/or analysis of pathogen sequence data. Heterogeneities in infectiousness, contact behavior, and susceptibility can have substantial effects on the epidemiology of an infectious disease, so estimates of only mean values may be insufficient. For some pathogens, super-shedders (infected individuals who are highly infectious) and super-spreaders (individuals with more opportunities to transmit infection) may be important. Future work on quantifying transmission should involve integrated analyses of multiple data sources.

  17. When is an Inhibitory Synapse Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ning; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    1990-10-01

    Interactions between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs on dendrites determine the level of activity in neurons. Models based on the cable equation predict that silent shunting inhibition can strongly veto the effect of an excitatory input. The cable model assumes that ionic concentrations do not change during the electrical activity, which may not be a valid assumption, especially for small structures such as dendritic spines. We present here an analysis and computer simulations to show that for large Cl^- conductance changes, the more general Nernst-Planck electrodiffusion model predicts that shunting inhibition on spines should be much less effective than that predicted by the cable model. This is a consequence of the large changes in the intracellular ionic concentration of Cl^- that can occur in small structures, which would alter the reversal potential and reduce the driving force for Cl^-. Shunting inhibition should therefore not be effective on spines, but it could be significantly more effective on the dendritic shaft at the base of the spine. In contrast to shunting inhibition, hyperpolarizing synaptic inhibition mediated by K^+ currents can be very effective in reducing the excitatory synaptic potentials on the same spine if the excitatory conductance change is less than 10 nS. We predict that if the inhibitory synapses found on cortical spines are to be effective, then they should be mediated by K^+ through GABA_B receptors.

  18. Volume Transmission in Central Dopamine and Noradrenaline Neurons and Its Astroglial Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuxe, Kjell; Agnati, Luigi F; Marcoli, Manuela; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O

    2015-12-01

    Already in the 1960s the architecture and pharmacology of the brainstem dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) neurons with formation of vast numbers of DA and NA terminal plexa of the central nervous system (CNS) indicated that they may not only communicate via synaptic transmission. In the 1980s the theory of volume transmission (VT) was introduced as a major communication together with synaptic transmission in the CNS. VT is an extracellular and cerebrospinal fluid transmission of chemical signals like transmitters, modulators etc. moving along energy gradients making diffusion and flow of VT signals possible. VT interacts with synaptic transmission mainly through direct receptor-receptor interactions in synaptic and extrasynaptic heteroreceptor complexes and their signaling cascades. The DA and NA neurons are specialized for extrasynaptic VT at the soma-dendrtitic and terminal level. The catecholamines released target multiple DA and adrenergic subtypes on nerve cells, astroglia and microglia which are the major cell components of the trophic units building up the neural-glial networks of the CNS. DA and NA VT can modulate not only the strength of synaptic transmission but also the VT signaling of the astroglia and microglia of high relevance for neuron-glia interactions. The catecholamine VT targeting astroglia can modulate the fundamental functions of astroglia observed in neuroenergetics, in the Glymphatic system, in the central renin-angiotensin system and in the production of long-distance calcium waves. Also the astrocytic and microglial DA and adrenergic receptor subtypes mediating DA and NA VT can be significant drug targets in neurological and psychiatric disease.

  19. Transmission Line Series Compensation for Wind Energy Transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanichamy, C; Wong, Y C

    2015-01-01

    Wind energy has demonstrated to be a clean, copious and absolutely renewable source of energy, and the large penetration of it into the power grid indicates that wind energy is considered an effective means of power generation, Transmission of wind energy from remote locations to load centers necessitates long transmission lines. Series compensation is a proven and economical transmission solution to address system power transfer strength, grid stability, and voltage profile issues of long transmission lines. In this paper, a programmable approach to determine the capacitive reactance of series capacitor and optimum location for its placement to achieve maximum power transfer gas been presented. The respective program with sample solutions has been provided for real-time applications. (paper)

  20. Synapse geometry and receptor dynamics modulate synaptic strength.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Freche

    Full Text Available Synaptic transmission relies on several processes, such as the location of a released vesicle, the number and type of receptors, trafficking between the postsynaptic density (PSD and extrasynaptic compartment, as well as the synapse organization. To study the impact of these parameters on excitatory synaptic transmission, we present a computational model for the fast AMPA-receptor mediated synaptic current. We show that in addition to the vesicular release probability, due to variations in their release locations and the AMPAR distribution, the postsynaptic current amplitude has a large variance, making a synapse an intrinsic unreliable device. We use our model to examine our experimental data recorded from CA1 mice hippocampal slices to study the differences between mEPSC and evoked EPSC variance. The synaptic current but not the coefficient of variation is maximal when the active zone where vesicles are released is apposed to the PSD. Moreover, we find that for certain type of synapses, receptor trafficking can affect the magnitude of synaptic depression. Finally, we demonstrate that perisynaptic microdomains located outside the PSD impacts synaptic transmission by regulating the number of desensitized receptors and their trafficking to the PSD. We conclude that geometrical modifications, reorganization of the PSD or perisynaptic microdomains modulate synaptic strength, as the mechanisms underlying long-term plasticity.

  1. Space power transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuribayashi, Shizuma [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo, (Japan)

    1989-10-05

    There being a conception to utilize solar energy by use of a space power station (SPS), a method to bring that universal grace to mankind is wireless energy transmission. The wireless energy transmission is regarded to be microwave transmission or laser beam transmission. The microwave transmission is to transmit 2.45GHz band microwave from the SPS to a receiving station on the ground to meet power demand on earth. The microwave, as small in attenuation in atmosphere and resistant against rain and cloud, is made candidate and, however, problematic in influence on organism, necessary large area of receiving antenna and many other points to be studied. While the laser transmission, as more convergent of beam than the microwave transmission, is advantageous with enabling the receiving area to be small and, however, disadvantageous with being not resistant against dust, rain and cloud, if used for the energy transmission between the space and earth. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Wireless Transmission of Big Data: A Transmission Time Analysis over Fading Channel

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Wen-Jing; Yang, Hong-Chuan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the transmission time of a large amount of data over fading wireless channel with adaptive modulation and coding (AMC). Unlike traditional transmission systems, where the transmission time of a fixed amount of data is typically regarded as a constant, the transmission time with AMC becomes a random variable, as the transmission rate varies with the fading channel condition. To facilitate the design and optimization of wireless transmission schemes for big data applications, we present an analytical framework to determine statistical characterizations for the transmission time of big data with AMC. In particular, we derive the exact statistics of transmission time over block fading channels. The probability mass function (PMF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) of transmission time are obtained for both slow and fast fading scenarios. We further extend our analysis to Markov channel, where transmission time becomes the sum of a sequence of exponentially distributed time slots. Analytical expression for the probability density function (PDF) of transmission time is derived for both fast fading and slow fading scenarios. These analytical results are essential to the optimal design and performance analysis of future wireless transmission systems for big data applications.

  3. Wireless Transmission of Big Data: A Transmission Time Analysis over Fading Channel

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Wen-Jing

    2018-04-10

    In this paper, we investigate the transmission time of a large amount of data over fading wireless channel with adaptive modulation and coding (AMC). Unlike traditional transmission systems, where the transmission time of a fixed amount of data is typically regarded as a constant, the transmission time with AMC becomes a random variable, as the transmission rate varies with the fading channel condition. To facilitate the design and optimization of wireless transmission schemes for big data applications, we present an analytical framework to determine statistical characterizations for the transmission time of big data with AMC. In particular, we derive the exact statistics of transmission time over block fading channels. The probability mass function (PMF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) of transmission time are obtained for both slow and fast fading scenarios. We further extend our analysis to Markov channel, where transmission time becomes the sum of a sequence of exponentially distributed time slots. Analytical expression for the probability density function (PDF) of transmission time is derived for both fast fading and slow fading scenarios. These analytical results are essential to the optimal design and performance analysis of future wireless transmission systems for big data applications.

  4. Enhanced NMDA receptor-mediated intracellular calcium signaling in magnocellular neurosecretory neurons in heart failure rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Javier E; Potapenko, Evgeniy S

    2013-08-15

    An enhanced glutamate excitatory function within the hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricluar nuclei is known to contribute to increased neurosecretory and presympathetic neuronal activity, and hence, neurohumoral activation, during heart failure (HF). Still, the precise mechanisms underlying enhanced glutamate-driven neuronal activity in HF remain to be elucidated. Here, we performed simultaneous electrophysiology and fast confocal Ca²⁺ imaging to determine whether altered N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated changes in intracellular Ca²⁺ levels (NMDA-ΔCa²⁺) occurred in hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) in HF rats. We found that activation of NMDA receptors resulted in a larger ΔCa²⁺ in MNCs from HF when compared with sham rats. The enhanced NMDA-ΔCa²⁺ was neither dependent on the magnitude of the NMDA-mediated current (voltage clamp) nor on the degree of membrane depolarization or firing activity evoked by NMDA (current clamp). Differently from NMDA receptor activation, firing activity evoked by direct membrane depolarization resulted in similar changes in intracellular Ca²⁺ in sham and HF rats. Taken together, our results support a relatively selective alteration of intracellular Ca²⁺ homeostasis and signaling following activation of NMDA receptors in MNCs during HF. The downstream functional consequences of such altered ΔCa²⁺ signaling during HF are discussed.

  5. New World feline APOBEC3 potently controls inter-genus lentiviral transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Yoriyuki; Nagaoka, Shumpei; Kimura, Izumi; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Kagawa, Yumiko; Kumata, Ryuichi; Aso, Hirofumi; Ueda, Mahoko Takahashi; Nakagawa, So; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Koyanagi, Yoshio; Sato, Kei

    2018-04-10

    The apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3; A3) gene family appears only in mammalian genomes. Some A3 proteins can be incorporated into progeny virions and inhibit lentiviral replication. In turn, the lentiviral viral infectivity factor (Vif) counteracts the A3-mediated antiviral effect by degrading A3 proteins. Recent investigations have suggested that lentiviral vif genes evolved to combat mammalian APOBEC3 proteins, and have further proposed that the Vif-A3 interaction may help determine the co-evolutionary history of cross-species lentiviral transmission in mammals. Here we address the co-evolutionary relationship between two New World felids, the puma (Puma concolor) and the bobcat (Lynx rufus), and their lentiviruses, which are designated puma lentiviruses (PLVs). We demonstrate that PLV-A Vif counteracts the antiviral action of APOBEC3Z3 (A3Z3) of both puma and bobcat, whereas PLV-B Vif counteracts only puma A3Z3. The species specificity of PLV-B Vif is irrespective of the phylogenic relationships of feline species in the genera Puma, Lynx and Acinonyx. We reveal that the amino acid at position 178 in the puma and bobcat A3Z3 is exposed on the protein surface and determines the sensitivity to PLV-B Vif-mediated degradation. Moreover, although both the puma and bobcat A3Z3 genes are polymorphic, their sensitivity/resistance to PLV Vif-mediated degradation is conserved. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study suggesting that the host A3 protein potently controls inter-genus lentiviral transmission. Our findings provide the first evidence suggesting that the co-evolutionary arms race between lentiviruses and mammals has occurred in the New World.

  6. Interactions between superficial and deep dorsal horn spinal cord neurons in the processing of nociceptive information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitjean, Hugues; Rodeau, Jean-Luc; Schlichter, Rémy

    2012-12-01

    In acute rat spinal cord slices, the application of capsaicin (5 μm, 90 s), an agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptors expressed by a subset of nociceptors that project to laminae I-II of the spinal cord dorsal horn, induced an increase in the frequency of spontaneous excitatory and spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in about half of the neurons in laminae II, III-IV and V. In the presence of tetrodotoxin, which blocks action potential generation and polysynaptic transmission, capsaicin increased the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents in only 30% of lamina II neurons and had no effect on the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents in laminae III-V or on the frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents in laminae II-V. When the communication between lamina V and more superficial laminae was interrupted by performing a mechanical section between laminae IV and V, capsaicin induced an increase in spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current frequency in laminae II-IV and an increase in spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current frequency in lamina II that were similar to those observed in intact slices. However, in laminae III-IV of transected slices, the increase in spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current frequency was virtually abolished. Our results indicate that nociceptive information conveyed by transient receptor potential vanilloid 1-expressing nociceptors is transmitted from lamina II to deeper laminae essentially by an excitatory pathway and that deep laminae exert a 'feedback' control over neurons in laminae III-IV by increasing inhibitory synaptic transmission in these laminae. Moreover, we provide evidence that laminae III-IV might play an important role in the processing of nociceptive information in the dorsal horn. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. The role of between-parent values agreement in parent-to-child transmission of academic values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gniewosz, Burkhard; Noack, Peter

    2012-08-01

    The present study investigates the intergenerational transmission of academic task values within family in early adolescence. Social learning processes are assumed to operate through the students' perceptions of their parents' values. The major goal of this study is to show that this values transmission is facilitated by between-parent value agreement. Based on a longitudinal data set including 1019 German students, their mothers (N = 847), and fathers (N = 733), structural equation models showed significant effects of the parents' task values regarding math and German language as academic subjects on the respective task values reported by the students, mediated through the student-perceived parental values. This transmission chain was only found if the between-parent agreement was high. The results are discussed in terms of parent-specific mechanisms fostering transmission if both parents agree on academic values, such as an improved perceptive accuracy as well as the increased salience and mutual reinforcement of parental messages. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of Adult Attachment in the Intergenerational Transmission of Violence: Mediator, Moderator, or Independent Predictor?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Merrill, Lex L; Thomsen, Cynthia J; Crouch, Julie L; May, Patricia; Gold, Steven R; Milner, Joel S

    2002-01-01

    ...], child sexual abuse [CSA], domestic violence [DV]) on adult CPA risk and examined whether adult attachment serves as a mediator or moderator of these relationships, or as an independent predictor of CPA risk...

  9. Tuning synaptic transmission in the hippocampus by stress: The CRH system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuncai eChen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available To enhance survival, an organism needs to remember--and learn from--threatening or stressful events. This fact necessitates the presence of mechanisms by which stress can influence synaptic transmission in brain regions, such as hippocampus, that subserve learning and memory. A major focus of this series of monographs is on the role and actions of adrenal-derived hormones, corticosteroids, and of brain-derived neurotransmitters, on synaptic function in the stressed hippocampus. Here we focus on the contribution of hippocampus-intrinsic, stress-activated CRH-CRH receptor signaling to the function and structure of hippocampal synapses. CRH is expressed in interneurons of adult hippocampus, and is released from axon terminals during stress. The peptide exerts time- and dose-dependent effects on learning and memory via modulation of synaptic function and plasticity. Whereas physiological levels of CRH, acting over seconds to minutes, augment memory processes, exposure to presumed severe-stress levels of the peptide results in spine retraction and loss of synapses over more protracted time-frames. Loss of dendritic spines (and hence of synapses takes place through actin cytoskeleton collapse downstream of CRHR1 receptors that reside within excitatory synapses on spine heads. Chronic exposure to stress levels of CRH may promote dying-back (atrophy of spine-carrying dendrites. Thus, the acute effects of CRH may contribute to stress-induced adaptive mechanisms, whereas chronic or excessive exposure to the peptide may promote learning problems and premature cognitive decline.

  10. Cross-Excitation in Peripheral Sensory Ganglia Associated with Pain Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiro Omoto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the absence of synaptic contacts, cross-excitation of neurons in sensory ganglia during signal transmission is considered to be chemically mediated and appears increased in chronic pain states. In this study, we modulated neurotransmitter release in sensory neurons by direct application of type A botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT/A to sensory ganglia in an animal model of neuropathic pain and evaluated the effect of this treatment on nocifensive. Unilateral sciatic nerve entrapment (SNE reduced the ipsilateral hindpaw withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimulation and reduced hindpaw withdrawal latency to thermal stimulation. Direct application of BoNT/A to the ipsilateral L4 dorsal root ganglion (DRG was localized in the cell bodies of the DRG and reversed the SNE-induced decreases in withdrawal thresholds within 2 days of BoNT/A administration. Results from this study suggest that neurotransmitter release within sensory ganglia is involved in the regulation of pain-related signal transmission.

  11. Differential Effect of Neuropeptides on Excitatory Synaptic Transmission in Human Epileptic Hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledri, Marco; Sorensen, Andreas T.; Madsen, Marita G.

    2015-01-01

    therapy is an evolving innovative approach that may prove useful for clinical applications. In animal models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), gene therapy treatments based on viral vectors encoding NPY or galanin have been shown to effectively suppress seizures. However, how this translates to human TLE...... remains unknown. A unique possibility to validate these animal studies is provided by a surgical therapeutic approach, whereby resected epileptic tissue from temporal lobes of pharmacoresistant patients are available for neurophysiological studies in vitro. To test whether NPY and galanin have...

  12. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-induced mitochondrial motility arrest and presynaptic docking contribute to BDNF-enhanced synaptic transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Bo; Ji, Yun-Song; Sun, Xu-lu; Liu, Xiang-Hua; Chen, Zhe-Yu

    2014-01-17

    Appropriate mitochondrial transport and distribution are essential for neurons because of the high energy and Ca(2+) buffering requirements at synapses. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an essential role in regulating synaptic transmission and plasticity. However, whether and how BDNF can regulate mitochondrial transport and distribution are still unclear. Here, we find that in cultured hippocampal neurons, application of BDNF for 15 min decreased the percentage of moving mitochondria in axons, a process dependent on the activation of the TrkB receptor and its downstream PI3K and phospholipase-Cγ signaling pathways. Moreover, the BDNF-induced mitochondrial stopping requires the activation of transient receptor potential canonical 3 and 6 (TRPC3 and TRPC6) channels and elevated intracellular Ca(2+) levels. The Ca(2+) sensor Miro1 plays an important role in this process. Finally, the BDNF-induced mitochondrial stopping leads to the accumulation of more mitochondria at presynaptic sites. Mutant Miro1 lacking the ability to bind Ca(2+) prevents BDNF-induced mitochondrial presynaptic accumulation and synaptic transmission, suggesting that Miro1-mediated mitochondrial motility is involved in BDNF-induced mitochondrial presynaptic docking and neurotransmission. Together, these data suggest that mitochondrial transport and distribution play essential roles in BDNF-mediated synaptic transmission.

  13. Regulation of the Postsynaptic Compartment of Excitatory Synapses by the Actin Cytoskeleton in Health and Its Disruption in Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Stefen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Disruption of synaptic function at excitatory synapses is one of the earliest pathological changes seen in wide range of neurological diseases. The proper control of the segregation of neurotransmitter receptors at these synapses is directly correlated with the intact regulation of the postsynaptic cytoskeleton. In this review, we are discussing key factors that regulate the structure and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton, the major cytoskeletal building block that supports the postsynaptic compartment. Special attention is given to the complex interplay of actin-associated proteins that are found in the synaptic specialization. We then discuss our current understanding of how disruption of these cytoskeletal elements may contribute to the pathological events observed in the nervous system under disease conditions with a particular focus on Alzheimer’s disease pathology.

  14. Targeting the Conserved Fusion Loop of HAP2 Inhibits the Transmission of Plasmodium berghei and falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Angrisano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Inhibiting transmission of Plasmodium is a central strategy in malarial eradication, and the biological process of gamete fusion during fertilization is a proven target for this approach. The lack of a structure or known molecular function of current anti-malarial vaccine targets has previously been a hindrance in the development of transmission-blocking vaccines. Structure/function studies have indicated that the conserved gamete membrane fusion protein HAP2 is a class II viral fusion protein. Here, we demonstrate that targeting a function-critical site of the fusion/cd loop with species-specific antibodies reduces Plasmodium berghei transmission in vivo by 58.9% and in vitro fertilization by up to 89.9%. A corresponding reduction in P. falciparum transmission (75.5%/36.4% reductions in intensity/prevalence is observed in complimentary field studies. These results emphasize conserved mechanisms of fusion in Apicomplexa, while highlighting an approach to design future anti-malarial transmission-blocking vaccines. : Angrisano et al. find that the HAP2 cd-loop can be targeted as an anti-malarial intervention, is immunogenic across multiple plasmodial species, can induce antibodies that specifically recognize the sexual stages of the parasitic life cycle, and can mediate transmission-blocking immunity in the lab and the field. Keywords: HAP2, malaria, transmission, fusion, vaccine

  15. Immune Evasion Strategies of Pathogens in Macrophages: the Potential for Limiting Pathogen Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yuwei; Khan, Faheem Ahmed; Pandupuspitasari, Nuruliarizki Shinta; Zhang, Shujun

    2017-01-01

    Preventing pathogen transmission to a new host is of major interest to the immunologist and could benefit from a detailed investigation of pathogen immune evasion strategies. The first line of defense against pathogen invasion is provided by macrophages. When they sense pathogens, macrophages initiate signals to inflammatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) subsequently mediating phagocytosis and inflammation. The macrophage immune machinery classically includes two subsets: the activated M1 and the activated M2 that respond accordingly in diverse immune challenges. The lipid and glycogen metabolic pathways work together with the lysosome to help the mature phagosome to degrade and eliminate intracellular pathogens in macrophages. The viral evasion strategies are even more complex due to the interplay between autophagy and apoptosis. However, pathogens evolve several strategies to camouflage themselves against immune responses in order to ensure their survival, replication and transmission. These strategies include the muting of PRRs initiated inflammatory responses, attenuation of M1 and/or induction of M2 macrophages, suppression of autophago-lysosomal formation, interference with lipid and glycogen metabolism, and viral mediation of autophagy and apoptosis cross-talk to enhance viral replication. This review focuses on pathogen immune evasion methods and on the strategies used by the host against camouflaged pathogens.

  16. The Impact of Stimulation Induced Short Term Synaptic Plasticity on Firing Patterns in the Globus Pallidus of the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenia eBugaysen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrical stimulation in the globus pallidus (GP leads to complex modulations of neuronal activity in the stimulated nucleus. Multiple in-vivo studies have demonstrated the modulation of both firing rates and patterns during and immediately following the GP stimulation. Previous in-vitro studies, together with computational studies, have suggested the involvement of short-term synaptic plasticity (STP during the stimulation. The aim of the current study was to explore in-vitro the effects of STP on neuronal activity of GP neurons during local repetitive stimulation. We recorded synaptic potentials and assessed the modulations of spontaneous firing in a postsynaptic neuron in acute brain slices via a whole-cell pipette. Low-frequency repetitive stimulation locked the firing of the neuron to the stimulus. However, high-frequency repetitive stimulation in the GP generated a biphasic modulation of the firing frequency consisting of inhibitory and excitatory phases. Using blockers of synaptic transmission, we show that GABAergic synapses mediated the inhibitory and glutamatergic synapses the excitatory part of the response. Furthermore, we report that at high stimulation frequencies both types of synapses undergo short-term depression leading to a time dependent modulation of the neuronal firing. These findings indicate that STP modulates the dynamic responses of pallidal activity during electrical stimulation, and may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism underlying deep brain stimulation (DBS like protocols.

  17. Like grandparents, like parents: Empirical evidence and psychoanalytic thinking on the transmission of parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carli, Pietro; Tagini, Angela; Sarracino, Diego; Santona, Alessandra; Bonalda, Valentina; Cesari, Paola Elena; Parolin, Laura

    2018-01-01

    The authors discuss the issue of intergenerational transmission of parenting from an empirical and psychoanalytic perspective. After presenting a framework to explain their conception of parenting, they describe intergenerational transmission of parenting as a key to interpreting and eventually changing parenting behaviors. Then they present (1) the empirical approach aimed at determining if there is actually a stability across generations that contributes to harsh parenting and eventually maltreatment and (2) the psyphoanalytic thinking that seeks to explain the continuity in terms of representations and clinical phenomena. The authors also discuss the relationship between the attachment and the caregiving systems and hypothesize a common base for the two systems in childhood experience. Finally, they propose the psychoanalytic perspective as a fruitful theoretical framework to integrate the evidence for the neurophysiological mediators and moderators of intergenerational transmission. Psychoanalytically informed research can provide clinically relevant insights and hypotheses to be tested.

  18. Does interspecific competition have a moderating effect on Taenia solium transmission dynamics in Southeast Asia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, James V; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Fenwick, Stanley; Blacksell, Stuart D; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2009-09-01

    It is well understood that sociocultural practices strongly influence Taenia solium transmission; however, the extent to which interspecific parasite competition moderates Taenia transmission has yet to be determined. This is certainly the case in Southeast Asia where T. solium faces competition in both the definitive host (people) and the intermediate host (pigs). In people, adult worms of T. solium, T. saginata and T. asiatica compete through density-dependent crowding mechanisms. In pigs, metacestodes of T. solium, T. hydatigena and T. asiatica compete through density-dependent immune-mediated interactions. Here, we describe the biological and epidemiological implications of Taenia competition and propose that interspecific competition has a moderating effect on the transmission dynamics of T. solium in the region. Furthermore, we argue that this competitive ecological scenario should be considered in future research and surveillance activities examining T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Southeast Asia.

  19. NMDA Receptor-Dependent Synaptic Activity in Dorsal Motor Nucleus of Vagus Mediates the Enhancement of Gastric Motility by Stimulating ST36

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyan Gao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of electroacupuncture at ST36 for patients with gastrointestinal motility disorders. While several lines of evidence suggest that the effect may involve vagal reflex, the precise molecular mechanism underlying this process still remains unclear. Here we report that the intragastric pressure increase induced by low frequency electric stimulation at ST36 was blocked by AP-5, an antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs. Indeed, stimulating ST36 enhanced NMDAR-mediated, but not 2-amino-3-(5-methyl-3-oxo-1,2-oxazol-4-ylpropanoic-acid-(AMPA- receptor-(AMPAR- mediated synaptic transmission in gastric-projecting neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV. We also identified that suppression of presynaptic μ-opioid receptors may contribute to upregulation of NMDAR-mediated synaptic transmission induced by electroacupuncture at ST36. Furthermore, we determined that the glutamate-receptor-2a-(NR2A- containing NMDARs are essential for NMDAR-mediated enhancement of gastric motility caused by stimulating ST36. Taken together, our results reveal an important role of NMDA receptors in mediating enhancement of gastric motility induced by stimulating ST36.

  20. Towards a many-body theory for the combined elastic and inelastic transmission through a single molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, E.G.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the nonequilibrium density matrix method, a unified approach to describe tunnel and sequential components of the current mediated by a molecule embedded in between the electrodes is proposed. It is shown that inelastic hopping processes not only form a sequential current component but simultaneously lead to molecular recharge. As the efficiency of a tunnel transmission depends strongly on a charge state of the molecule, the inelastic transfer processes can modify the elastic tunnel transmission via the alternation of the number of extra electrons at the molecule. Detailed analysis of the current-voltage characteristics has been carried out for a molecule with a single reaction level. The analytic expressions have been derived for both sequential (inelastic) and tunnel (elastic) current components, and the role of molecular recharge in the formation of specific transmission channels has been clarified

  1. Planning Electric Transmission Lines: A Review of Recent Regional Transmission Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-04-13

    The first Quadrennial Energy Review (QER) recommends that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conduct a national review of transmission plans and assess the barriers and incentives to their implementation. DOE tasked Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to prepare two reports to support the agency’s response to this recommendation. This report reviews regional transmission plans and regional transmission planning processes that have been directed by Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order Nos. 890 and 1000. We focus on the most recent regional transmission plans (those issued in 2015 and through approximately mid-year 2016) and current regional transmission planning processes. A companion report focuses on non-plan-related factors that affect transmission projects.

  2. Organization of left–right coordination of neuronal activity in the mammalian spinal cord: Insights from computational modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevtsova, Natalia A; Talpalar, Adolfo E; Markin, Sergey N; Harris-Warrick, Ronald M; Kiehn, Ole; Rybak, Ilya A

    2015-01-01

    Different locomotor gaits in mammals, such as walking or galloping, are produced by coordinated activity in neuronal circuits in the spinal cord. Coordination of neuronal activity between left and right sides of the cord is provided by commissural interneurons (CINs), whose axons cross the midline. In this study, we construct and analyse two computational models of spinal locomotor circuits consisting of left and right rhythm generators interacting bilaterally via several neuronal pathways mediated by different CINs. The CIN populations incorporated in the models include the genetically identified inhibitory (V0D) and excitatory (V0V) subtypes of V0 CINs and excitatory V3 CINs. The model also includes the ipsilaterally projecting excitatory V2a interneurons mediating excitatory drive to the V0V CINs. The proposed network architectures and CIN connectivity allow the models to closely reproduce and suggest mechanistic explanations for several experimental observations. These phenomena include: different speed-dependent contributions of V0D and V0V CINs and V2a interneurons to left–right alternation of neural activity, switching gaits between the left–right alternating walking-like activity and the left–right synchronous hopping-like pattern in mutants lacking specific neuron classes, and speed-dependent asymmetric changes of flexor and extensor phase durations. The models provide insights into the architecture of spinal network and the organization of parallel inhibitory and excitatory CIN pathways and suggest explanations for how these pathways maintain alternating and synchronous gaits at different locomotor speeds. The models propose testable predictions about the neural organization and operation of mammalian locomotor circuits. Key points Coordination of neuronal activity between left and right sides of the mammalian spinal cord is provided by several sets of commissural interneurons (CINs) whose axons cross the midline. Genetically identified inhibitory V

  3. Pharmacological characterization of human excitatory amino acid transporters EAAT1, EAAT2 and EAAT3 in a fluorescence-based membrane potential assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders A.; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2004-01-01

    We have expressed the human excitatory amino acid transporters EAAT1, EAAT2 and EAAT3 stably in HEK293 cells and characterized the transporters pharmacologically in a conventional [(3) H]-d-aspartate uptake assay and in a fluorescence-based membrane potential assay, the FLIPR Membrane Potential...... (FMP) assay. The K(m) and K(i) values obtained for 12 standard EAAT ligands at EAAT1, EAAT2 and EAAT3 in the FMP assay correlated well with the K(i) values obtained in the [(3) H]-d-aspartate assay (r(2) values of 0.92, 0.92, and 0.95, respectively). Furthermore, the pharmacological characteristics...

  4. Drugs acting on amino acid neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, B S

    1986-01-01

    The most potent agents currently available for suppressing myoclonic activity in animals and humans act to enhance GABA-mediated inhibition and/or to diminish amino acid-induced excitation. Postsynaptic GABA-mediated inhibition plays an important role at the cortical level, diminishing the effect of augmented afferent activity and preventing pathologically enhanced output. Enhancement of GABAergic inhibition, principally at the cortical level but also at lower levels, by clonazepam and by valproate appears to be a predominant element in their antimyoclonic action. Studies in various animal models, including photically induced myoclonus in the baboon, P papio, indicate the value of other approaches to enhancing GABA-mediated inhibition. Among such approaches meriting evaluation in humans are inhibition of GABA-transaminase activity by gamma-vinyl GABA and action at some of the benzodiazepine receptors to enhance the action of GABA, as by the novel anticonvulsant beta-carbolines. Excitatory transmission mediated by dicarboxylic amino acids appears to play a role in myoclonus, especially at the spinal level, but also in the brainstem, cerebellum, basal ganglia, and cortex. Among various novel agents that act at the postsynaptic receptor site to antagonize such excitation, those specifically blocking excitation induced by aspartate and/or NMDA prevent myoclonic activity in a wide range of animal models. Further research is required before such agents can be evaluated in humans.

  5. Longitudinal transmission pathways of borderline personality disorder symptoms: from mother to child?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinelt, Eva; Stopsack, Malte; Aldinger, Maren; Ulrich, Ines; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Barnow, Sven

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence that the borderline symptomatology of the mother longitudinally predicts the number of borderline criteria met by the children. However, possible underlying mechanisms have rarely been examined. In line with transactional models of borderline personality disorder (BPD), we analyzed a broad concept of maladaptive mother-child interactions of mothers with BPD symptoms towards their children, including insensitive parenting and mother-child discrepancies, in reporting the child's psychopathological behavior. SAMPLING/METHODS: The sample was drawn from the population-based Greifswald Family Study and consisted of 295 children and their biological mothers. Both were examined at two points in time, first when the children were about 15 years old (T0) and again 5 years later (T1), using path analyses. Maladaptive mother-child interactions (especially an overprotective and rejecting parenting style and high discrepancies regarding internalizing problems) mediate the longitudinal transmission of borderline symptoms from mother to child. Furthermore, our data revealed that this result is consistent for various youth symptoms which are associated with BPD such as impulsivity or dissociation. The data of the current study imply that the transmission of borderline symptoms from mother to child is mediated by maladaptive mother-child interactions. For this reason early and professional support may be useful to prevent these children from developing severe psychopathology. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Colossal photon bunching in quasiparticle-mediated nanodiamond cathodoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Matthew A.; Dumitrescu, Eugene F.; Bridges, Denzel; Chisholm, Matthew F.; Davidson, Roderick B.; Evans, Philip G.; Hachtel, Jordan A.; Hu, Anming; Pooser, Raphael C.; Haglund, Richard F.; Lawrie, Benjamin J.

    2018-02-01

    Nanoscale control over the second-order photon correlation function g(2 )(τ ) is critical to emerging research in nonlinear nanophotonics and integrated quantum information science. Here we report on quasiparticle control of photon bunching with g(2 )(0 ) >45 in the cathodoluminescence of nanodiamond nitrogen vacancy (NV0) centers excited by a converged electron beam in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope. Plasmon-mediated NV0 cathodoluminescence exhibits a 16-fold increase in luminescence intensity correlated with a threefold reduction in photon bunching compared with that of uncoupled NV0 centers. This effect is ascribed to the excitation of single temporally uncorrelated NV0 centers by single surface plasmon polaritons. Spectrally resolved Hanbury Brown-Twiss interferometry is employed to demonstrate that the bunching is mediated by the NV0 phonon sidebands, while no observable bunching is detected at the zero-phonon line. The data are consistent with fast phonon-mediated recombination dynamics, a conclusion substantiated by agreement between Bayesian regression and Monte Carlo models of superthermal NV0 luminescence.

  7. Horizontal transmissible protection against myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease by using a recombinant myxoma virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárcena, J; Morales, M; Vázquez, B; Boga, J A; Parra, F; Lucientes, J; Pagès-Manté, A; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M; Blasco, R; Torres, J M

    2000-02-01

    We have developed a new strategy for immunization of wild rabbit populations against myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) that uses recombinant viruses based on a naturally attenuated field strain of myxoma virus (MV). The recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV major capsid protein (VP60) including a linear epitope tag from the transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) nucleoprotein. Following inoculation, the recombinant viruses induced specific antibody responses against MV, RHDV, and the TGEV tag. Immunization of wild rabbits by the subcutaneous and oral routes conferred protection against virulent RHDV and MV challenges. The recombinant viruses showed a limited horizontal transmission capacity, either by direct contact or in a flea-mediated process, promoting immunization of contact uninoculated animals.

  8. Direct Effect of Remifentanil and Glycine Contained in Ultiva® on Nociceptive Transmission in the Spinal Cord: In Vivo and Slice Patch Clamp Analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Sumie

    Full Text Available Ultiva® is commonly administered intravenously for analgesia during general anaesthesia and its main constituent remifentanil is an ultra-short-acting μ-opioid receptor agonist. Ultiva® is not approved for epidural or intrathecal use in clinical practice. Previous studies have reported that Ultiva® provokes opioid-induced hyperalgesia by interacting with spinal dorsal horn neurons. Ultiva® contains glycine, an inhibitory neurotransmitter but also an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor co-activator. The presence of glycine in the formulation of Ultiva® potentially complicates its effects. We examined how Ultiva® directly affects nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord.We made patch-clamp recordings from substantia gelatinosa (SG neurons in the adult rat spinal dorsal horn in vivo and in spinal cord slices. We perfused Ultiva® onto the SG neurons and analysed its effects on the membrane potentials and synaptic responses activated by noxious mechanical stimuli.Bath application of Ultiva® hyperpolarized membrane potentials under current-clamp conditions and produced an outward current under voltage-clamp conditions. A barrage of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs evoked by the stimuli was suppressed by Ultiva®. Miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs were depressed in frequency but not amplitude. Ultiva®-induced outward currents and suppression of mEPSCs were not inhibited by the μ-opioid receptor antagonist naloxone, but were inhibited by the glycine receptor antagonist strychnine. The Ultiva®-induced currents demonstrated a specific equilibrium potential similar to glycine.We found that intrathecal administration of Ultiva® to SG neurons hyperpolarized membrane potentials and depressed presynaptic glutamate release predominantly through the activation of glycine receptors. No Ultiva®-induced excitatory effects were observed in SG neurons. Our results suggest different analgesic mechanisms of Ultiva® between intrathecal and intravenous

  9. High-pass filtering and dynamic gain regulation enhance vertical bursts transmission along the mossy fiber pathway of cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Mapelli

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Signal elaboration in the cerebellum mossy fiber input pathway presents controversial aspects, especially concerning gain regulation and the spot-like (rather than beam-like appearance of granular-to-molecular layer transmission. By using voltage-sensitive dye (VSD imaging in rat cerebellar slices (Mapelli et al., 2010, we found that mossy fiber bursts optimally excited the granular layer above ~50 Hz and the overlaying molecular layer above ~100 Hz, thus generating a cascade of high-pass filters. NMDA receptors enhanced transmission in the granular, while GABA-A receptors depressed transmission in both the granular and molecular layer. Burst transmission gain was controlled through a dynamic frequency-dependent involvement of these receptors. Moreover, while high-frequency transmission was enhanced along vertical lines connecting the granular to molecular layer, no high-frequency enhancement was observed along the parallel fiber axis in the molecular layer. This was probably due to the stronger effect of Purkinje cell GABA-A receptor-mediated inhibition occurring along the parallel fibers than along the granule cell axon ascending branch. The consequent amplification of burst responses along vertical transmission lines could explain the spot-like activation of Purkinje cells observed following punctuate stimulation in vivo .

  10. Mediation Analysis with Multiple Mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWeele, T J; Vansteelandt, S

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in the causal inference literature on mediation have extended traditional approaches to direct and indirect effects to settings that allow for interactions and non-linearities. In this paper, these approaches from causal inference are further extended to settings in which multiple mediators may be of interest. Two analytic approaches, one based on regression and one based on weighting are proposed to estimate the effect mediated through multiple mediators and the effects through other pathways. The approaches proposed here accommodate exposure-mediator interactions and, to a certain extent, mediator-mediator interactions as well. The methods handle binary or continuous mediators and binary, continuous or count outcomes. When the mediators affect one another, the strategy of trying to assess direct and indirect effects one mediator at a time will in general fail; the approach given in this paper can still be used. A characterization is moreover given as to when the sum of the mediated effects for multiple mediators considered separately will be equal to the mediated effect of all of the mediators considered jointly. The approach proposed in this paper is robust to unmeasured common causes of two or more mediators.

  11. Co-Application of Corticosterone and Growth Hormone Upregulates NR2B Protein and Increases the NR2B:NR2A Ratio and Synaptic Transmission in the Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada S. Mahmoud

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This in vitro study aimed to investigate the possible mechanism underlying the protective effect of growth hormone (GH on hippocampal function during periods of heightened glucocorticoid exposure. Methods: This study was conducted between January and June 2005 at the Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, Marshall University, in Huntington, West Virginia, USA. The effects of the co-application of GH and corticosterone (CORT were tested at different concentrations on the field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs of the hippocampal slices of rats in two different age groups. Changes in the protein expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR subunits NR1, NR2B and NR2A were measured in hippocampal brain slices treated with either artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF, low doses of CORT alone or both CORT and GH for three hours. Results: The co-application of CORT and GH was found to have an additive effect on hippocampal synaptic transmission compared to either drug alone. Furthermore, the combined use of low concentrations of GH and CORT was found to have significantly higher effects on the enhancement of fEPSPs in older rats compared to young ones. Both GH and CORT enhanced the protein expression of the NR2A subunit. Simultaneous exposure to low concentrations of GH and CORT significantly enhanced NR2B expression and increased the NR2B:NR2A ratio. In contrast, perfusion with CORT alone caused significant suppression in the NR1 and NR2B protein expression and a decrease in the NR2B:NR2A ratio. Conclusion: These results suggest that NMDARs provide a potential target for mediating the GH potential protective effect against stress and age-related memory and cognitive impairment.

  12. OCD candidate gene SLC1A1/EAAT3 impacts basal ganglia-mediated activity and stereotypic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zike, Isaac D; Chohan, Muhammad O; Kopelman, Jared M; Krasnow, Emily N; Flicker, Daniel; Nautiyal, Katherine M; Bubser, Michael; Kellendonk, Christoph; Jones, Carrie K; Stanwood, Gregg; Tanaka, Kenji Fransis; Moore, Holly; Ahmari, Susanne E; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2017-05-30

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic, disabling condition with inadequate treatment options that leave most patients with substantial residual symptoms. Structural, neurochemical, and behavioral findings point to a significant role for basal ganglia circuits and for the glutamate system in OCD. Genetic linkage and association studies in OCD point to SLC1A1 , which encodes the neuronal glutamate/aspartate/cysteine transporter excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3)/excitatory amino acid transporter 1 (EAAC1). However, no previous studies have investigated EAAT3 in basal ganglia circuits or in relation to OCD-related behavior. Here, we report a model of Slc1a1 loss based on an excisable STOP cassette that yields successful ablation of EAAT3 expression and function. Using amphetamine as a probe, we found that EAAT3 loss prevents expected increases in ( i ) locomotor activity, ( ii ) stereotypy, and ( iii ) immediate early gene induction in the dorsal striatum following amphetamine administration. Further, Slc1a1 -STOP mice showed diminished grooming in an SKF-38393 challenge experiment, a pharmacologic model of OCD-like grooming behavior. This reduced grooming is accompanied by reduced dopamine D 1 receptor binding in the dorsal striatum of Slc1a1 -STOP mice. Slc1a1 -STOP mice also exhibit reduced extracellular dopamine concentrations in the dorsal striatum both at baseline and following amphetamine challenge. Viral-mediated restoration of Slc1a1 /EAAT3 expression in the midbrain but not in the striatum results in partial rescue of amphetamine-induced locomotion and stereotypy in Slc1a1 -STOP mice, consistent with an impact of EAAT3 loss on presynaptic dopaminergic function. Collectively, these findings indicate that the most consistently associated OCD candidate gene impacts basal ganglia-dependent repetitive behaviors.

  13. Criticality predicts maximum irregularity in recurrent networks of excitatory nodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Karimipanah

    Full Text Available A rigorous understanding of brain dynamics and function requires a conceptual bridge between multiple levels of organization, including neural spiking and network-level population activity. Mounting evidence suggests that neural networks of cerebral cortex operate at a critical regime, which is defined as a transition point between two phases of short lasting and chaotic activity. However, despite the fact that criticality brings about certain functional advantages for information processing, its supporting evidence is still far from conclusive, as it has been mostly based on power law scaling of size and durations of cascades of activity. Moreover, to what degree such hypothesis could explain some fundamental features of neural activity is still largely unknown. One of the most prevalent features of cortical activity in vivo is known to be spike irregularity of spike trains, which is measured in terms of the coefficient of variation (CV larger than one. Here, using a minimal computational model of excitatory nodes, we show that irregular spiking (CV > 1 naturally emerges in a recurrent network operating at criticality. More importantly, we show that even at the presence of other sources of spike irregularity, being at criticality maximizes the mean coefficient of variation of neurons, thereby maximizing their spike irregularity. Furthermore, we also show that such a maximized irregularity results in maximum correlation between neuronal firing rates and their corresponding spike irregularity (measured in terms of CV. On the one hand, using a model in the universality class of directed percolation, we propose new hallmarks of criticality at single-unit level, which could be applicable to any network of excitable nodes. On the other hand, given the controversy of the neural criticality hypothesis, we discuss the limitation of this approach to neural systems and to what degree they support the criticality hypothesis in real neural networks. Finally

  14. Change in the balance of excitatory and inhibitory midline fiber crossing as an explanation for the hopping phenotype in EphA4 knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Restrepo, Carlos E.; Margaryan, Gayane; Borgius, Lotta

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal networks in the spinal cord termed central pattern generators (CPGs) are responsible for the generation of rhythmic movements, such as walking. The axon guidance molecule EphA4 has been suggested to play a role in the configuration of spinal CPG networks in mammals. In EphA4 knockout (Eph...... compared with EphA4 lacZ/+ mice. These results show that the hopping phenotype is the result of a change in the balance between excitatory and inhibitory signals across the midline and that EphA4-positive neurons play an essential role in the mammalian CPG....

  15. Efficient prion disease transmission through common environmental materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritzkow, Sandra; Morales, Rodrigo; Lyon, Adam; Concha-Marambio, Luis; Urayama, Akihiko; Soto, Claudio

    2018-03-02

    Prion diseases are a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases associated with a protein-based infectious agent, termed prion. Compelling evidence suggests that natural transmission of prion diseases is mediated by environmental contamination with infectious prions. We hypothesized that several natural and man-made materials, commonly found in the environments of wild and captive animals, can bind prions and may act as vectors for disease transmission. To test our hypothesis, we exposed surfaces composed of various common environmental materials ( i.e. wood, rocks, plastic, glass, cement, stainless steel, aluminum, and brass) to hamster-adapted 263K scrapie prions and studied their attachment and retention of infectivity in vitro and in vivo Our results indicated that these surfaces, with the sole exception of brass, efficiently bind, retain, and release prions. Prion replication was studied in vitro using the protein misfolding cyclic amplification technology, and infectivity of surface-bound prions was analyzed by intracerebrally challenging hamsters with contaminated implants. Our results revealed that virtually all prion-contaminated materials transmitted the disease at high rates. To investigate a more natural form of exposure to environmental contamination, we simply housed animals with large contaminated spheres made of the different materials under study. Strikingly, most of the hamsters developed classical clinical signs of prion disease and typical disease-associated brain changes. Our findings suggest that prion contamination of surfaces commonly present in the environment can be a source of disease transmission, thus expanding our understanding of the mechanisms for prion spreading in nature. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Nootropic dipeptide noopept enhances inhibitory synaptic transmission in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povarov, I S; Kondratenko, R V; Derevyagin, V I; Ostrovskaya, R U; Skrebitskii, V G

    2015-01-01

    Application of nootropic agent Noopept on hippocampal slices from Wistar rats enhanced the inhibitory component of total current induced by stimulation of Shaffer collaterals in CA1 pyramidal neurons, but did not affect the excitatory component. A direct correlation between the increase in the amplitude of inhibitory current and agent concentration was found. The substance did not affect the release of inhibitory transmitters from terminals in the pyramidal neurons, which indicated changes in GABAergic interneurons.

  17. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate (S1P) Impacts Presynaptic Functions by Regulating Synapsin I Localization in the Presynaptic Compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riganti, Loredana; Antonucci, Flavia; Gabrielli, Martina; Prada, Ilaria; Giussani, Paola; Viani, Paola; Valtorta, Flavia; Menna, Elisabetta; Matteoli, Michela; Verderio, Claudia

    2016-04-20

    Growing evidence indicates that sphingosine-1-P (S1P) upregulates glutamate secretion in hippocampal neurons. However, the molecular mechanisms through which S1P enhances excitatory activity remain largely undefined. The aim of this study was to identify presynaptic targets of S1P action controlling exocytosis. Confocal analysis of rat hippocampal neurons showed that S1P applied at nanomolar concentration alters the distribution of Synapsin I (SynI), a presynaptic phosphoprotein that controls the availability of synaptic vesicles for exocytosis. S1P induced SynI relocation to extrasynaptic regions of mature neurons, as well as SynI dispersion from synaptic vesicle clusters present at axonal growth cones of developing neurons. S1P-induced SynI relocation occurred in a Ca(2+)-independent but ERK-dependent manner, likely through the activation of S1P3 receptors, as it was prevented by the S1P3 receptor selective antagonist CAY1044 and in neurons in which S1P3 receptor was silenced. Our recent evidence indicates that microvesicles (MVs) released by microglia enhance the metabolism of endogenous sphingolipids in neurons and stimulate excitatory transmission. We therefore investigated whether MVs affect SynI distribution and whether endogenous S1P could be involved in the process. Analysis of SynI immunoreactivity showed that exposure to microglial MVs induces SynI mobilization at presynaptic sites and growth cones, whereas the use of inhibitors of sphingolipid cascade identified S1P as the sphingolipid mediating SynI redistribution. Our data represent the first demonstration that S1P induces SynI mobilization from synapses, thereby indicating the phosphoprotein as a novel target through which S1P controls exocytosis. Growing evidence indicates that the bioactive lipid sphingosine and its metabolite sphingosine-1-P (S1P) stimulate excitatory transmission. While it has been recently clarified that sphingosine influences directly the exocytotic machinery by activating the

  18. Formalin-induced behavioural hypersensitivity and neuronal hyperexcitability are mediated by rapid protein synthesis at the spinal level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, Curtis O; Wallace, Victoria C; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2009-01-01

    Background The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of mRNA translation whose action can be inhibited by the drug rapamycin. Forms of long-term plasticity require protein synthesis and evidence indicates that mRNA in dendrites, axon terminals and cell bodies is essential for long-term synaptic plasticity. Specific to pain, shifts in pain thresholds and responsiveness are an expression of neuronal plasticity and this likely contributes to persistent pain. We investigated this by inhibiting the activity of mTOR with rapamycin at the spinal level, of rats that were subjected to the formalin test, using both behavioural and electrophysiological techniques. Results For in vivo electrophysiology, Sprague Dawley rats were fully anaesthetised and single-unit extracellular recordings were obtained from lamina V wide dynamic range (WDR) dorsal horn spinal neurones at the region where input is received from the hind paw. Neuronal responses from naive rats showed that rapamycin-sensitive pathways were important in nociceptive-specific C-fibre mediated transmission onto WDR neurones as well mechanically-evoked responses since rapamycin was effective in attenuating these measures. Formalin solution was injected into the hind paw prior to which, rapamycin or vehicle was applied directly onto the exposed spinal cord. When rapamycin was applied to the spinal cord prior to hind paw formalin injection, there was a significant attenuation of the prolonged second phase of the formalin test, which comprises continuing afferent input to the spinal cord, neuronal hyperexcitability and an activated descending facilitatory drive from the brainstem acting on spinal neurones. In accordance with electrophysiological data, behavioural studies showed that rapamycin attenuated behavioural hypersensitivity elicited by formalin injection into the hind paw. Conclusion We conclude that mTOR has a role in maintaining persistent pain states via mRNA translation and thus protein

  19. Formalin-induced behavioural hypersensitivity and neuronal hyperexcitability are mediated by rapid protein synthesis at the spinal level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Victoria C

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR is a key regulator of mRNA translation whose action can be inhibited by the drug rapamycin. Forms of long-term plasticity require protein synthesis and evidence indicates that mRNA in dendrites, axon terminals and cell bodies is essential for long-term synaptic plasticity. Specific to pain, shifts in pain thresholds and responsiveness are an expression of neuronal plasticity and this likely contributes to persistent pain. We investigated this by inhibiting the activity of mTOR with rapamycin at the spinal level, of rats that were subjected to the formalin test, using both behavioural and electrophysiological techniques. Results For in vivo electrophysiology, Sprague Dawley rats were fully anaesthetised and single-unit extracellular recordings were obtained from lamina V wide dynamic range (WDR dorsal horn spinal neurones at the region where input is received from the hind paw. Neuronal responses from naive rats showed that rapamycin-sensitive pathways were important in nociceptive-specific C-fibre mediated transmission onto WDR neurones as well mechanically-evoked responses since rapamycin was effective in attenuating these measures. Formalin solution was injected into the hind paw prior to which, rapamycin or vehicle was applied directly onto the exposed spinal cord. When rapamycin was applied to the spinal cord prior to hind paw formalin injection, there was a significant attenuation of the prolonged second phase of the formalin test, which comprises continuing afferent input to the spinal cord, neuronal hyperexcitability and an activated descending facilitatory drive from the brainstem acting on spinal neurones. In accordance with electrophysiological data, behavioural studies showed that rapamycin attenuated behavioural hypersensitivity elicited by formalin injection into the hind paw. Conclusion We conclude that mTOR has a role in maintaining persistent pain states via m

  20. Feeder density enhances house finch disease transmission in experimental epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, Sahnzi C; Adelman, James S; Farine, Damien R; Thomason, Courtney A; Hawley, Dana M

    2018-05-05

    Anthropogenic food provisioning of wildlife can alter the frequency of contacts among hosts and between hosts and environmental sources of pathogens. Despite the popularity of garden bird feeding, few studies have addressed how feeders influence host contact rates and disease dynamics. We experimentally manipulated feeder density in replicate aviaries containing captive, pathogen-naive, groups of house finches ( Haemorhous mexicanus ) and continuously tracked behaviours at feeders using radio-frequency identification devices. We then inoculated one bird per group with Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg), a common bacterial pathogen for which feeders are fomites of transmission, and assessed effects of feeder density on house finch behaviour and pathogen transmission. We found that pathogen transmission was significantly higher in groups with the highest density of bird feeders, despite a significantly lower rate of intraspecific aggressive interactions relative to the low feeder density groups. Conversely, among naive group members that never showed signs of disease, we saw significantly higher concentrations of Mg-specific antibodies in low feeder density groups, suggesting that birds in low feeder density treatments had exposure to subclinical doses of Mg. We discuss ways in which the density of garden bird feeders could play an important role in mediating the intensity of Mg epidemics.This article is part of the theme issue 'Anthropogenic resource subsidies and host-parasite dynamics in wildlife'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  1. Glutamatergic transmission in the nucleus tractus solitarii: from server to peripherals in the cardiovascular information superhighway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talman W.T.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Afferent nerves carrying signals from mechanoreceptors in the aortic arch and carotid sinus terminate predominantly in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS. Signal transduction and neurotransmission in the NTS are critical for central cardiovascular reflex control, but little was known about either until the late 1970's. None of the numerous neuroactive chemicals found in the NTS had met strict criteria as a neurotransmitter in the baroreflex arc until data suggested that the excitatory amino acid L-glutamate (GLU might be released from baroreceptor afferent terminals in the NTS. In anesthetized animals microinjection into the NTS of GLU, which can be demonstrated in terminals in the NTS, produces cardiovascular responses like those seen with activation of the baroreceptor reflex. Similar responses occur in awake animals if the chemoreceptor reflex is eliminated; otherwise, in conscious animals responses mimic those of chemoreceptor reflex activation. GLU is released in the NTS upon selective activation of the baroreceptor, and possibly the chemoreceptor, reflex. Responses to selective agonists as well as baroreflex responses are eliminated by GLU antagonists microinjected into the NTS. Non-NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptors seem to predominate at primary baroreceptor synapses in the NTS while NMDA receptors may be involved at later synapses. Although inhibition of soluble guanylate cyclase attenuates responses to ionotropic glutamate agonists in the NTS, nitric oxide does not seem to play a role in glutamate transmission in the NTS. GLU may also participate in transmission at cardiovascular neurons beyond the NTS. For example, a role has been suggested for GLU in the ventrolateral medulla and spinal cord. Work continues concerning GLU signal transduction and mechanisms that modulate that transduction both at the NTS and at other cardiovascular nuclei

  2. Serotonergic transmission at Merkel discs: modulation by exogenously applied chemical messengers and involvement of Ih currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Weipang; Kanda, Hirosato; Ikeda, Ryo; Ling, Jennifer; Gu, Jianguo G

    2017-05-01

    The Merkel disc is a main type of tactile end organ consisting of Merkel cells and Aβ-afferent endings that responds to tactile stimulation with slowly adapting type 1 (SA1) afferent impulses. Our recent study has shown that Merkel discs in whisker hair follicles are serotonergic synapses using endogenous serotonin to transmit tactile signals from Merkel cells to Aβ-afferent endings. In this study, we hypothesize that tactile sensitivity of Merkel discs can be modulated by chemical messengers. We tested this hypothesis by determining whether and how SA1 responses of mouse whisker hair follicles may be affected by exogenously applied chemical messengers. We found that SA1 responses were potentiated by serotonin at low concentration (10 μM) but almost completely occluded by serotonin at high concentration (2 mM). In contrast, SA1 responses were not significantly affected by ATP and its metabolically stable analog α,β-methylene-ATP, glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and histamine. SA1 responses were also not affected by antagonists for P2X receptors, ionotropic glutamate receptors, and ionotropic GABA and glycine receptors. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings reconfirm the presence of both ionotropic and metabotropic 5-HT receptors on afferent neurons and their terminals innervating whisker hair follicles. All whisker afferent neurons expressed hyperpolarization-activated inward currents (I h ), which are potentiated by serotonin through the activation of metabotropic 5-HT receptors. Taken together, the findings substantiate the serotonergic mechanism of tactile transmission at Merkel discs and identify the involvement of I h currents in postsynaptic excitatory actions of serotonin. In addition, the findings do not favor any significant involvement of ATP, glutamate, histamine, GABA, or glycine in tactile transmission at the Merkel discs of whisker hair follicles. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  3. Glutamate acts as a neurotransmitter for gastrin releasing peptide-sensitive and insensitive itch-related synaptic transmission in mammalian spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Jennifer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Itch sensation is one of the major sensory experiences of human and animals. Recent studies have proposed that gastrin releasing peptide (GRP is a key neurotransmitter for itch in spinal cord. However, no direct evidence is available to indicate that GRP actually mediate responses between primary afferent fibers and dorsal horn neurons. Here we performed integrative neurobiological experiments to test this question. We found that a small population of rat dorsal horn neurons responded to GRP application with increases in calcium signaling. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings revealed that a part of superficial dorsal horn neurons responded to GRP application with the increase of action potential firing in adult rats and mice, and these dorsal horn neurons received exclusively primary afferent C-fiber inputs. On the other hands, few Aδ inputs receiving cells were found to be GRP positive. Finally, we found that evoked sensory responses between primary afferent C fibers and GRP positive superficial dorsal horn neurons are mediated by glutamate but not GRP. CNQX, a blocker of AMPA and kainate (KA receptors, completely inhibited evoked EPSCs, including in those Fos-GFP positive dorsal horn cells activated by itching. Our findings provide the direct evidence that glutamate is the principal excitatory transmitter between C fibers and GRP positive dorsal horn neurons. Our results will help to understand the neuronal mechanism of itch and aid future treatment for patients with pruritic disease.

  4. Structure and affinity of two bicyclic glutamate analogues at AMPA and kainate receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllerud, Stine; Pinto, Andrea; Marconi, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) are involved in most of the fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. These receptors are important for learning and memory formation, but are also involved in the development of diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, epilepsy...

  5. Rosiglitazone Suppresses In Vitro Seizures in Hippocampal Slice by Inhibiting Presynaptic Glutamate Release in a Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Bing Wong

    Full Text Available Peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ is a nuclear hormone receptor whose agonist, rosiglitazone has a neuroprotective effect to hippocampal neurons in pilocarpine-induced seizures. Hippocampal slice preparations treated in Mg2+ free medium can induce ictal and interictal-like epileptiform discharges, which is regarded as an in vitro model of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor-mediated temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. We applied rosiglitazone in hippocampal slices treated in Mg2+ free medium. The effects of rosiglitazone on hippocampal CA1-Schaffer collateral synaptic transmission were tested. We also examined the neuroprotective effect of rosiglitazone toward NMDA excitotoxicity on cultured hippocampal slices. Application of 10 μM rosiglitazone significantly suppressed amplitude and frequency of epileptiform discharges in CA1 neurons. Pretreatment with the PPARγ antagonist GW9662 did not block the effect of rosiglitazone on suppressing discharge frequency, but reverse the effect on suppressing discharge amplitude. Application of rosiglitazone suppressed synaptic transmission in the CA1-Schaffer collateral pathway. By miniature excitatory-potential synaptic current (mEPSC analysis, rosiglitazone significantly suppressed presynaptic neurotransmitter release. This phenomenon can be reversed by pretreating PPARγ antagonist GW9662. Also, rosiglitazone protected cultured hippocampal slices from NMDA-induced excitotoxicity. The protective effect of 10 μM rosiglitazone was partially antagonized by concomitant high dose GW9662 treatment, indicating that this effect is partially mediated by PPARγ receptors. In conclusion, rosiglitazone suppressed NMDA receptor-mediated epileptiform discharges by inhibition of presynaptic neurotransmitter release. Rosiglitazone protected hippocampal slice from NMDA excitotoxicity partially by PPARγ activation. We suggest that rosiglitazone could be a potential agent to treat patients with TLE.

  6. Essays on electricity transmission investment and financial transmission rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Wenzhuo

    The U.S. electric power industry has been going through fundamental restructuring and realignment since the 1990's. Many issues and problems have emerged during the transition, and both economists and engineers have been looking for the solutions fervently. In this dissertation, which consists primarily of three essays, we apply economics theory and techniques to the power industry and address two related issues, transmission investment and financial transmission rights (FTRs). The first essay takes the decentralized perspective and investigates the efficiency attribute of market-based transmission investment under perfect competition. We clarify, for the first time, the nature of the externality created by loop flows that causes transmission investment to be inefficient. Our findings have important implications for better understanding of transmission market design and creating incentives for efficient transmission investment. In the second essay, we define several rules for allocating transmission investment cost within the framework of cooperative game theory. These rules provide fair, stable or efficient cost allocations in theory and are good benchmarks against which the allocation mechanism in practice can be compared and improved upon. In the last essay, we make exploratory efforts in analyzing and assessing empirically the performance of the Midwest independent system operator (MISO) FTR auction market. We reveal some stylized facts about this young market and find that it is not efficient under the risk-neutrality assumption. We also point out and correct the drawbacks in previous related work and suggest about more complete empirical work in future. In all, this dissertation makes both theoretic and empirical analysis of the two hot issues related to the power industry and comes up with findings that have important implications for the development of this industry.

  7. Prenatal ethanol exposure reduces the effects of excitatory amino acids in the rat hippocampus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, E.P.; Ritchie, T.

    1989-01-01

    Chronic alcohol ingestion during pregnancy can lead to the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a disorder marked by learning disabilities. A rat model of FAS was used by introducing pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to a liquid diet containing 35% ethanol-derived calories (E), while a second group was pair-fed an isocaloric liquid diet without ethanol (P). A third group of pregnant dams received ad libitum lab chow (C). At parturition, pups from the E and P groups were cross fostered by C mothers and all groups received lab chow. During adulthood, male offspring were sacrificed and hippocampal and prefrontal cortical slices were prelabeled with [3H]inositol. Phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis was determined by measuring the accumulation of [3H]inositol phosphates in the presence of LiCl in response to activation of various excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors. In hippocampal slices, ibotenate- and quisqualate-induced PI hydrolysis was reduced in E compared to P and C animals. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) on carbachol-induced PI hydrolysis, evident in P and C animals, was completely abolished in the hippocampus of E animals. In contrast, in the prefrontal cerebral cortex, this inhibitory effect of NMDA prevailed even in the E animals. The evidence suggests that prenatal ethanol exposure alters the activity of EAA receptors in the hippocampal generation of 2nd messengers

  8. Multiple loci condition seed transmission of soybean mosaic virus (SMV) and SMV-induced seed coat mottling in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domier, Leslie L; Hobbs, Houston A; McCoppin, Nancy K; Bowen, Charles R; Steinlage, Todd A; Chang, Sungyul; Wang, Yi; Hartman, Glen L

    2011-06-01

    Infection of soybean plants with Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), which is transmitted by aphids and through seed, can cause significant reductions in seed production and quality. Because seedborne infections are the primary sources of inoculum for SMV infections in North America, host-plant resistance to seed transmission can limit the pool of plants that can serve as sources of inoculum. To examine the inheritance of SMV seed transmission in soybean, crosses were made between plant introductions (PIs) with high (PI88799), moderate (PI60279), and low (PI548391) rates of transmission of SMV through seed. In four F(2) populations, SMV seed transmission segregated as if conditioned by two or more genes. Consequently, a recombinant inbred line population was derived from a cross between PIs 88799 and 548391 and evaluated for segregation of SMV seed transmission, seed coat mottling, and simple sequence repeat markers. Chromosomal regions on linkage groups C1 and C2 were significantly associated with both transmission of isolate SMV 413 through seed and SMV-induced seed coat mottling, and explained ≈42.8 and 46.4% of the variability in these two traits, respectively. Chromosomal regions associated with seed transmission and seed coat mottling contained homologues of Arabidopsis genes DCL3 and RDR6, which encode enzymes involved in RNA-mediated transcriptional and posttranscriptional gene silencing.

  9. Sexual transmission of hepatitis C Transmissão sexual da hepatite C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma de Paula Cavalheiro

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available It is generally agreed that the hepatitis C virus (HCV can be efficiently transmitted parenterally, although data on viral transmission by sexual or non-sexual intrafamilial contact are conflicting. Since data collection began in 1989, the first study dealt with the risk of sexual transmission among multiple sex partners. Other investigations followed, emphasizing that risk increases in specific groups such as patients co-infected with HIV and HBV, sex workers, homosexuals, illicit drug users and patients attended at sexually transmittable disease clinics. The question arises as to what might be the risk for monogamous heterosexuals in the general population, in which one of the partners has HCV? The literature provides overall rates that vary from zero to 27%; however, most studies affirm that the chances of sexual transmission are low or almost null, with rates for this mode fluctuating from zero to 3%. Intrafamilial transmission is strongly considered but inconclusive, since when mentioning transmission between sex partners within the same household, specific situations also should be considered, such as the sharing of personal hygiene items, like razorblades, toothbrushes, nail clippers and manicure pliers, which are important risk factors in HCV transmission. In this review, we discuss the hypotheses of sexual and/or intrafamilial transmission.A eficiência da transmissão parenteral da hepatite C é consenso, porém dados na literatura sobre transmissão sexual e intrafamiliar são conflitantes. Data de 1989 o primeiro trabalho que relaciona o risco de transmissão sexual a múltiplos parceiros sexuais, na seqüência, outros estudos também reforçam que os riscos aumentam em populações específicas como co-infectados HIV, HBV, profissionais do sexo, homossexuais, usuários de drogas ilícitas e populações de clínicas de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis. Agora, na população geral qual seria o risco para casais monog

  10. Modification of GABA-mediated inhibition by various injectable anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, T E; Walby, W F; Joy, R M

    1992-09-01

    Increasing doses of the injectable anesthetics etomidate, Saffan, thiopental, ketamine, and xylazine and the vehicles saline and propylene glycol were administered to urethane-anesthetized rats. Their effects in vivo on perforant pathway-evoked field excitatory post-synaptic potentials and population spikes in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were determined. The primary purpose was to ascertain whether these compounds affect hippocampal excitability in a manner consistent with their proposed mechanisms of action. Compared with their respective vehicles, thiopental, etomidate, and xylazine reduced the amplitude of population spikes to single perforant pathway stimulation by 20-30% at the highest doses tested. Xylazine also increased the latency to onset of the population spike. No other effects were observed. Using paired pulse paradigms, it was determined that etomidate produced a dramatic, prolonged reduction in granule cell excitability at interpulse intervals of 10-100 ms. The magnitude of the effect was dose related and was reversible with the discontinuance of administration of the drug. Similar changes occurred with Saffan (althesin) and thiopental. Ketamine produced a small but significant depression in granule cell excitability during intervals of 10-200 ms. Xylazine had no effect. These data corroborate the importance of a prolongation of gamma-aminobutyric acid A-mediated inhibition to the mechanism of actions of etomidate, thiopental, and Saffan at relevant exposure concentrations in vivo.

  11. 4,4-Dimethyl- and diastereomeric 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-(2S)-glutamate analogues display distinct pharmacological profiles at ionotropic glutamate receptors and excitatory amino acid transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunch, Lennart; Pickering, Darryl S; Gefflaut, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    this approach has provided important insight into the structure-activity relationships (SAR) for ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs and mGluRs), as well as the excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs). In this work, three 4,4-disubstituted Glu analogues 1-3, which are hybrid structures......Subtype-selective ligands are of great interest to the scientific community, as they provide a tool for investigating the function of one receptor or transporter subtype when functioning in its native environment. Several 4-substituted (S)-glutamate (Glu) analogues were synthesized, and altogether...

  12. Biochemical characterization of an autoradiographic method for studying excitatory amino acid receptors using L-[3H]glutamate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cincotta, M.; Summers, R.J.; Beart, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    A method was developed for radiolabeling excitatory amino acid receptors of rat brain with L-[ 3 H]glutamate. Effective labeling of glutamate receptors in slide-mounted 10-microns sections was obtained using a low incubation volume (0.15 ml) and rapid washing: a procedure where high ligand concentrations were achieved with minimal waste. Saturation experiments using [ 3 H]glutamate revealed a single binding site of micromolar affinity. The Bmax was trebled in the presence of Ca2+ (2.5 mM) and Cl- (20 mM) with no change in the Kd. Binding was rapid, saturable, stereospecific, and sensitive to glutamate receptor agonists. The proportions of [ 3 H]glutamate binding sensitive to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), kainate, and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) were 34, 54, and 51%, respectively. NMDA inhibited binding at a distinct subset of L-[ 3 H]glutamate sites, whereas AMPA and kainate competed for some common sites. Labeling of sections with L-[ 3 H]glutamate in the presence of the selective agonists allowed autoradiographic visualization of glutamate receptor subtypes in brain tissue

  13. Pyk2 modulates hippocampal excitatory synapses and contributes to cognitive deficits in a Huntington’s disease model

    KAUST Repository

    Giralt, Albert; Brito, Veronica; Chevy, Quentin; Simonnet, Clé mence; Otsu, Yo; Cifuentes-Dí az, Carmen; Pins, Benoit de; Coura, Renata; Alberch, Jordi; Giné s, Sí lvia; Poncer, Jean-Christophe; Girault, Jean-Antoine

    2017-01-01

    The structure and function of spines and excitatory synapses are under the dynamic control of multiple signalling networks. Although tyrosine phosphorylation is involved, its regulation and importance are not well understood. Here we study the role of Pyk2, a non-receptor calcium-dependent protein-tyrosine kinase highly expressed in the hippocampus. Hippocampal-related learning and CA1 long-term potentiation are severely impaired in Pyk2-deficient mice and are associated with alterations in NMDA receptors, PSD-95 and dendritic spines. In cultured hippocampal neurons, Pyk2 has autophosphorylation-dependent and -independent roles in determining PSD-95 enrichment and spines density. Pyk2 levels are decreased in the hippocampus of individuals with Huntington and in the R6/1 mouse model of the disease. Normalizing Pyk2 levels in the hippocampus of R6/1 mice rescues memory deficits, spines pathology and PSD-95 localization. Our results reveal a role for Pyk2 in spine structure and synaptic function, and suggest that its deficit contributes to Huntington’s disease cognitive impairments.

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