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Sample records for median mixing ratio

  1. Mixing ratio sensor of alcohol mixed fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Shigeru; Matsubara, Yoshihiro

    1987-08-07

    In order to improve combustion efficiency of an internal combustion engine using gasoline-alcohol mixed fuel and to reduce harmful substance in its exhaust gas, it is necessary to control strictly the air-fuel ratio to be supplied and the ignition timing and change the condition of control depending upon the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel. In order to detect the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel, the above mixing ratio has so far been detected by casting a ray of light to the mixed fuel and utilizing a change of critical angle associated with the change of the composition of the fluid of the mixed fuel. However, in case when a light emitting diode is used for the light source above, two kinds of sensors are further needed. Concerning the two kinds of sensors above, this invention offers a mixing ratio sensor for the alcohol mixed fuel which can abolish a temperature sensor to detect the environmental temperature by making a single compensatory light receiving element deal with the compensation of the amount of light emission of the light emitting element due to the temperature change and the compensation of the critical angle caused by the temperature change. (6 figs)

  2. Mixing ratio sensor for alcohol mixed fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Shigeru; Matsubara, Yoshihiro

    1987-08-24

    In order to improve the combustion efficiency of an internal combustion engine using gasoline-alcohol mixed fuel and to reduce harmful substance in its exhaust gas, it is necessary to control strictly the air-fuel ratio to be supplied and the ignition timing. In order to detect the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel, a mixing ratio sensor has so far been proposed to detect the above mixing ratio by casting a ray of light to the mixed fuel and utilizing a change of critical angle associated with the change of the composition of the fluid of the mixed fuel. However, because of the arrangement of its transparent substance in the fuel passage with the sealing material in between, this sensor invited the leakage of the fluid due to deterioration of the sealing material, etc. and its cost became high because of too many parts to be assembled. In view of the above, in order to reduce the number of parts, to lower the cost of parts and the assembling cost and to secure no fluid leakage from the fuel passage, this invention formed the above fuel passage and the above transparent substance both concerning the above mixing ratio sensor in an integrated manner using light transmitting resin. (3 figs)

  3. Property Mix Heterogeneity and Market Cycles: How Much Can We Rely on Median-Price Indices?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilon Ricardo da Hora Gonçalves Fernandes Costa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Understand in which types of location median-price indices could provide reasonable estimates of rent growth. As far as our research allows, the market-based measures developed througout this study are the first to emphasize office properties in Brazil using an hedonic framework.Methodology. Create appraisal-based indices of rent growth using median-price and hedonic-based techniques for two regions with different degrees of property mix heterogeneity and compare their behavior overtime.Findings. Volatility in median-price measures is larger than hedonic-based measures in market peaks and throughs due to different weighting of high and low-tier properties overtime. This result is stronger in the location with higher property mix heterogeneity and, consequently, exacerbates market cycles in this region.  Limitations. We do not find statistically significant differences between the measures considered. Nevertheless, we do not consider whether this similarity would hold when using transactional-based data.    Value. Our results suggest that researchers, policy makers and investors need to take into account the “undesired fluctuation” of median-price measures when interpreting such indices.  

  4. MARKETING MIX BY BED OCCUPANCY RATIO (BOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Muhith

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bed Occupancy Ratio (BOR in RSI Arafah Mojosari during the last three years are at under ideal rate and the lowest of the three existing hospitals in the area of Mojosari. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship marketing mix with Bed Occupancy Ratio in RSI Arafah Mojosari. Methods: This research uses analytic methods with crossectional approach. Variables in the study is marketing mix and Bed Occupancy Ratio (BOR. The population in this study were all patients hospitalized in the RSI Arafah Mojosari. Samples amounted 44 respondents taken by the Stratified random sampling technique. Data were collected using the questionnaire and analyzed using Fisher's Exact test. Result: The results obtained more than 50% of respondents (59.1% rate well against the marketing mix is developed by the hospital management and the majority of respondents (79.5% are in the treatment room that has a number BOR is not ideal. Fisher Exact test test results obtained probabililty value=0.02<0.05 so that H0 is rejected, which means there is a relationship marketing mix with the Bed Occupancy Ratio in RSI Arafah Mojosari. Discussion: Hospitals which able to develop the marketing mix very well, can attract consumers to use inpatient services at the hospital, with that BOR value will increase as the increased use of inpatient services. Hospital management must be able to formulate a good marketing mix strategy that hospital marketing objectives can be achieved. Conformity between service quality and service rates must be addressed, otherwise it extent of media promotions can attract patients to inpatient services.

  5. Mixing ratios of carbon monoxide in the troposphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, P.C.; Steele, L.P. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States)); Tans, P.P. (NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States))

    1992-12-20

    Carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios were measured in air samples collected weekly at eight locations. The air was collected as part of the CMDL/NOAA cooperative flask sampling program (Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, formerly Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change, Air Resources Laboratory/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) at Point Barrow, Alaska, Niwot Ridge, Colorado, Mauna Loa and Cape Kumakahi, Hawaii, Guam, Marianas Islands, Christmas Island, Ascension Island and American Samoa. Half-liter or 3-L glass flasks fitted with glass piston stopcocks holding teflon O rings were used for sample collection. CO levels were determined within several weeks of collection using gas chromatography followed by mercuric oxide reduction detection, and mixing ratios were referenced against the CMDL/NOAA carbon monoxide standard scale. During the period of study (mid-1988 through December 1990) CO levels were greatest in the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere (mean mixing ratio from January 1989 to December 1990 at Point Barrow was approximately 154 ppb) and decreased towards the south (mean mixing ratio at Samoa over a similar period was 65 ppb). Mixing ratios varied seasonally, the amplitude of the seasonal cycle was greatest in the north and decreased to the south. Carbon monoxide levels were affected by both local and regional scale processes. The difference in CO levels between northern and southern latitudes also varied seasonally. The greatest difference in CO mixing ratios between Barrow and Samoa was observed during the northern winter (about 150 ppb). The smallest difference, 40 ppb, occurred during the austral winter. The annually averaged CO difference between 71[degrees]N and 14[degrees]S was approximately 90 ppb in both 1989 and 1990; the annually averaged interhemispheric gradient from 71[degrees]N to 41[degrees]S is estimated as approximately 95 ppb. 66 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Cooling modifies mixed median and ulnar palmar studies in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Rogério Gayer Machado de; Kouyoumdjian, João Aris

    2007-09-01

    Temperature is an important and common variable that modifies nerve conduction study parameters in practice. Here we compare the effect of cooling on the mixed palmar median to ulnar negative peak-latency difference (PMU) in electrodiagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Controls were 22 subjects (19 women, mean age 42.1 years, 44 hands). Patients were diagnosed with mild symptomatic CTS (25 women, mean age 46.6 years, 34 hands). PMU was obtained at the usual temperature, >32 degrees C, and after wrist/hand cooling to PMU and mixed ulnar palmar latency in patients versus controls. We concluded that cooling significantly modifies the PMU. We propose that the latencies of compressed nerve overreact to cooling and that this response could be a useful tool for incipient CTS electrodiagnosis. There was a significant latency overreaction of the ulnar nerve to cooling in CTS patients. We hypothesize that subclinical ulnar nerve compression is associated with CTS.

  7. Mixing Ratios and Photostationary State of NO and NO2 Observed During the POPCORN Field Campaign at a Rural Site in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohrer, F.; Brüning, D.; Grobler, E.S.; Weber, M.; Ehhalt, D.H.; Neubert, R.; Schüßler, W.; Levin, I.

    1998-01-01

    Ambient mixing ratios of NO, NO2, and O3 were determined together with the photolysis frequency of NO2, JNO2, at a rural, agricultural site in Germany. The data were collected during the POPCORN-campaign from August 1 to August 24, 1994, in a maize field 6 m above ground. The medians of the NO, NO2,

  8. A NEW MODIFIED RATIO ESTIMATOR FOR ESTIMATION OF POPULATION MEAN WHEN MEDIAN OF THE AUXILIARY VARIABLE IS KNOWN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jambulingam Subramani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with a modified ratio estimator for estimation of population mean of the study variable when the population median of the auxiliary variable is known. The bias and mean squared error of the proposed estimator are derived and are compared with that of existing modified ratio estimators for certain known populations. Further we have also derived the conditions for which the proposed estimator performs better than the existing modified ratio estimators. From the numerical study it is also observed that the proposed modified ratio estimator performs better than the existing modified ratio estimators for certain known populations.

  9. Density-ratio effects on buoyancy-driven variable-density turbulent mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslangil, Denis; Livescu, Daniel; Banerjee, Arindam

    2017-11-01

    Density-ratio effects on the turbulent mixing of two incompressible, miscible fluids with different densities subject to constant acceleration are studied by means of high-resolution Direct Numerical Simulations. In a triply periodic domain, turbulence is generated by stirring in response to the differential buoyancy forces within the flow. Later, as the fluids become molecularly mixed, dissipation starts to overcome turbulence generation by bouyancy. Thus, the flow evolution includes both turbulence growth and decay, and it displays features present in the core region of the mixing layer of the Rayleigh-Taylor as well as Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities. We extend the previous studies by investigating a broad range of density-ratio, from 1-14.4:1, corresponding to Atwood numbers of 0.05-0.87. Here, we focus on the Atwood number dependence of mixing-efficiency, that is defined based on the energy-conversion ratios from potential energy to total and turbulent kinetic energies, the decay characteristics of buoyancy-assisted variable-density homogeneous turbulence, and the effects of high density-ratios on the turbulence structure and mixing process. Authors acknowledge financial support from DOE-SSAA (DE-NA0003195) and NSF CAREER (#1453056) awards.

  10. Multipole mixing ratios in /sup 154/Gd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Won Mo; Song, Choong Sik; Joo, Koan Sik

    1985-06-01

    We have measured gamma-gamma angular correlations to determine the mixing ratios of several gamma transitions in /sup 154/Gd. The results are compared with those derived from the pairing-plus-quadrupole model and from the interacting boson model.

  11. Permasalahan P-Hub Median Dengan Lintasan Terpendek

    OpenAIRE

    Pasaribu, Raja David

    2013-01-01

    Hub are facilities that serve as sorting, switching, and transhipment in a transportation network. P-hub median problem is a discrete case location allocation problem which all hub is fully connected. In this paper will be intoduced Mixed Integrer Linear Programming (MILP) formulation models of cost for p-hub median problem allocation for uncapacitaced single allocation p-hub median(USApHMP). In this paper also introduced Floyd-Warshall shortest path algorithm to solve p-hub median problems a...

  12. The median hazard ratio: a useful measure of variance and general contextual effects in multilevel survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Peter C; Wagner, Philippe; Merlo, Juan

    2017-03-15

    Multilevel data occurs frequently in many research areas like health services research and epidemiology. A suitable way to analyze such data is through the use of multilevel regression models (MLRM). MLRM incorporate cluster-specific random effects which allow one to partition the total individual variance into between-cluster variation and between-individual variation. Statistically, MLRM account for the dependency of the data within clusters and provide correct estimates of uncertainty around regression coefficients. Substantively, the magnitude of the effect of clustering provides a measure of the General Contextual Effect (GCE). When outcomes are binary, the GCE can also be quantified by measures of heterogeneity like the Median Odds Ratio (MOR) calculated from a multilevel logistic regression model. Time-to-event outcomes within a multilevel structure occur commonly in epidemiological and medical research. However, the Median Hazard Ratio (MHR) that corresponds to the MOR in multilevel (i.e., 'frailty') Cox proportional hazards regression is rarely used. Analogously to the MOR, the MHR is the median relative change in the hazard of the occurrence of the outcome when comparing identical subjects from two randomly selected different clusters that are ordered by risk. We illustrate the application and interpretation of the MHR in a case study analyzing the hazard of mortality in patients hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction at hospitals in Ontario, Canada. We provide R code for computing the MHR. The MHR is a useful and intuitive measure for expressing cluster heterogeneity in the outcome and, thereby, estimating general contextual effects in multilevel survival analysis. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. On the graphical extraction of multipole mixing ratios of nuclear transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezynkina, K.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Hauschild, K.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a novel graphical method for determining the mixing ratios δ and their associated uncertainties for mixed nuclear transitions. It incorporates the uncertainties on both the measured and the theoretical conversion coefficients. The accuracy of the method has been studied by deriving the corresponding probability density function. The domains of applicability of the method are carefully defined.

  14. On the graphical extraction of multipole mixing ratios of nuclear transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezynkina, K., E-mail: kseniia.rezynkina@csnsm.in2p3.fr; Lopez-Martens, A.; Hauschild, K.

    2017-02-01

    We propose a novel graphical method for determining the mixing ratios δ and their associated uncertainties for mixed nuclear transitions. It incorporates the uncertainties on both the measured and the theoretical conversion coefficients. The accuracy of the method has been studied by deriving the corresponding probability density function. The domains of applicability of the method are carefully defined.

  15. Mixing ratio and species affect the use of substrate-derived CO2 by Sphagnum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpens, J.; Robroek, B.J.M.; Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Tomassen, H.B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Question: Can mixing ratio and species affect the use of substrate-derived CO2 by Sphagnum? Location: Poor fen in south Sweden and greenhouse in Wageningen, The Netherlands. Methods: Two mixing ratios of Sphagnum cuspidatum and S. magellanicum were exposed to two levels of CO2 by pumping CO2

  16. Changes in monoterpene mixing ratios during summer storms in rural New Hampshire (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, K.B.; Jordan, C.; Mentis, E.; Cottrell, L.; Mayne, H.R.; Talbot, R.; Sive, B.C.

    2011-01-01

    Monoterpenes are an important class of biogenic hydrocarbons that influence ambient air quality and are a principle source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Emitted from vegetation, monoterpenes are a product of photosynthesis and act as a response to a variety of environmental factors. Most parameterizations of monoterpene emissions are based on clear weather models that do not take into account episodic conditions that can drastically change production and release rates into the atmosphere. Here, the ongoing monoterpene dataset from the rural Thompson Farm measurement site in Durham, New Hampshire is examined in the context of a set of known severe storm events. While some storm systems had a negligible influence on ambient monoterpene mixing ratios, the average storm event increased mixing ratios by 0.59 ?? 0.21 ppbv, a factor of 93 % above pre-storm levels. In some events, mixing ratios reached the 10's of ppbv range and persisted overnight. These mixing ratios correspond to increases in the monoterpene emission rate, ranging from 120 to 1240 g km-2 h -1 compared to an estimated clear weather rate of 116 to 193 g km-2 h-1. Considering the regularity of storm events over most forested areas, this could be an important factor to consider when modeling global monoterpene emissions and their resulting influence on the formation of organic aerosols. ?? 2011 Author(s).

  17. Changes in monoterpene mixing ratios during summer storms in rural New Hampshire (USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Haase

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Monoterpenes are an important class of biogenic hydrocarbons that influence ambient air quality and are a principle source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA. Emitted from vegetation, monoterpenes are a product of photosynthesis and act as a response to a variety of environmental factors. Most parameterizations of monoterpene emissions are based on clear weather models that do not take into account episodic conditions that can drastically change production and release rates into the atmosphere. Here, the monoterpene dataset from the rural Thompson Farm measurement site in Durham, New Hampshire is examined in the context of a set of known severe storm events. While some storm systems had a negligible influence on ambient monoterpene mixing ratios, the average storm event increased mixing ratios by 0.59 ± 0.21 ppbv, a factor of 93% above pre-storm levels. In some events, mixing ratios reached the 10's of ppbv range and persisted overnight. These mixing ratios correspond to increases in the monoterpene emission rate, ranging from 120 to 1240 g km−2 h−1 compared to an estimated clear weather rate of 116 to 193 g km−2 h−1. Considering the regularity of storm events over most forested areas, this could be an important factor to consider when modeling global monoterpene emissions and their resulting influence on the formation of organic aerosols.

  18. Volatile organic compound mixing ratios above Beijing in November and December 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, William; Shaw, Marvin; Huang, Zhonghui; Wang, Zhaoyi; Wang, Xinming; Zhang, Yanli; Davison, Brian; Langford, Ben; Mullinger, Neil; Nemitz, Eiko; Fu, Pingqing; Squires, Freya; Carpenter, Lucy; Lewis, Alastair; Hewitt, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted into the atmosphere from vegetation and anthropogenic sources such as fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and the evaporation of petroleum products. These compounds play an important role in the chemistry of the lower atmosphere through secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and facilitating the formation of tropospheric ozone. As well as their indirect impact on human health via the formation of ozone and SOA, some VOCs, including benzene, directly affect human health adversely. Here we report VOC mixing ratios measured in Beijing during a 5 week intensive field campaign from the 7th November to the 10th December 2016. This work was carried out as part of the Sources and Emissions of Air Pollutants in Beijing (AIRPOLL-Beijing) work project within the Air Pollution and Human Health in a Developing Megacity (APHH-Beijing) research programme. APHH is a large multi-institutional study which aims to record the concentrations and identify the sources of urban air pollutants in Beijing, determine exposure, understand their effects on human health, and to identify solutions. VOC mixing ratios were recorded using a Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS, Ionicon Analytik) and a Selected Ion Flow Tube-Mass Spectrometer (SIFT-MS, SYFT Technologies). During the measurement period Beijing was subject to multiple pollution events that alternated with periods of relatively good air quality, allowing the VOCs within the polluted air masses to be identified and quantified. VOCs were sampled at 102 m with additional gradient measurements made at 3, 15, 32 and 64 m providing a vertical profile of VOC mixing ratios. Mixing ratios of methanol, acetonitrile, acetaldehyde, acetone, isoprene and aromatics species will be reported together with a discussion of potential sources. Comparisons will then be drawn with other large cities.

  19. Control device of air-fuel ratio of alcohol-gasoline mixed fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Kazuo

    1987-08-19

    Concerning alcohol-gasoline mixed fuel, even the same amount of the fuel shows different air-fuel ratio depending upon alcohol concentration in the fuel, accordingly it is required to know the alcohol concentration when it is intended to make the air-fuel ratio to be the same as the predetermined ratio. Although a sensor which can detect in quick response and exactly the alcohol concentration has not been developed, the alcohol concentration in gasoline can be detected by detecting the concentration of the water in exhaust gas and many hygrometers which can detect the concentration of the water with high precision are available. With regard to an internal combustion engine equipped with a fuel supply device in order to supply alcohol-gasoline mixed fuel into an engine suction passage, this invention offers an air-fuel ratio control device to control the amount of the fuel to be supplied from the fuel supply device by detecting the concentration of alcohol in the gasoline from among the output signals of the main hygrometer and the auxiliary hygrometer. The former hygrometer to detect the concentration of the water in the exhaust gas is set in the engine exhaust gas passage and the latter is installed to detect the concentration of the water in the air. (4 figs)

  20. Atmospheric ammonia mixing ratios at an open-air cattle feeding facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiranuma, Naruki; Brooks, Sarah D; Thornton, Daniel C O; Auvermann, Brent W

    2010-02-01

    Mixing ratios of total and gaseous ammonia were measured at an open-air cattle feeding facility in the Texas Panhandle in the summers of 2007 and 2008. Samples were collected at the nominally upwind and downwind edges of the facility. In 2008, a series of far-field samples was also collected 3.5 km north of the facility. Ammonium concentrations were determined by two complementary laboratory methods, a novel application of visible spectrophotometry and standard ion chromatography (IC). Results of the two techniques agreed very well, and spectrophotometry is faster, easier, and cheaper than chromatography. Ammonia mixing ratios measured at the immediate downwind site were drastically higher (approximately 2900 parts per billion by volume [ppbv]) than thos measured at the upwind site (open-air animal feeding operations, especially under the hot and dry conditions present during these measurements.

  1. Atmospheric carbon tetrachloride in rural background and industry surrounded urban areas in Northern Iberian Peninsula: Mixing ratios, trends, and potential sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blas, Maite de; Uria-Tellaetxe, Iratxe; Gomez, Maria Carmen; Navazo, Marino; Alonso, Lucio; García, Jose Antonio; Durana, Nieves; Iza, Jon; Ramón, Jarol Derley

    2016-01-01

    Latest investigations on atmospheric carbon tetrachloride (CTC) are focused on its ozone depleting potential, adverse effects on the human health, and radiative efficiency and Global Warming Potential as a greenhouse gas. CTC mixing ratios have been thoroughly studied since its restriction under the Montreal Protocol, mostly in remote areas with the aim of reporting long-term trends after its banning. The observed decrease of the CTC background mixing ratio, however, was not as strong as expected. In order to explain this behavior CTC lifetime should be adjusted by estimating the relative significance of its sinks and by identifying ongoing potential sources. Looking for possible sources, CTC was measured with high-time resolution in two sites in Northern Spain, using auto-GC systems and specifically developed acquisition and processing methodologies. The first site, Bilbao, is an urban area influenced by the surrounding industry, where measurements were performed with GC–MSD for a one-year period (2007–2008). The second site, at Valderejo Natural Park (VNP), is a rural background area where measurements were carried out with GC-FID and covering CTC data a nonsuccessive five-year period (2003–2005, 2010–2011, and 2014–2015 years). Median yearly CTC mixing ratios were slightly higher in the urban area (120 pptv) than in VNP (80–100 pptv). CTC was reported to be well mixed in the atmosphere and no sources were noticed to impact the rural site. The observed long-term trend in VNP was in agreement with the estimated global CTC emissions. In the urban site, apart from industrial and commercial CTC sources, chlorine-bleach products used as cleaning agents were reported as promotors of indoor sources. - Highlights: • A methodology was developed to measure CTC using GC-MSD and GC-FID. • CTC ongoing sources were noticed in an industry surrounded urban area. • No noticeable nearby CTC sources impacted the rural site. • Long-term CTC trend in agreement

  2. Atmospheric carbon tetrachloride in rural background and industry surrounded urban areas in Northern Iberian Peninsula: Mixing ratios, trends, and potential sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blas, Maite de, E-mail: maite.deblas@ehu.eus [School of Engineering of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain); Uria-Tellaetxe, Iratxe; Gomez, Maria Carmen [School of Engineering of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain); Navazo, Marino [University College of Engineering of Vitoria-Gasteiz, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain); Alonso, Lucio; García, Jose Antonio; Durana, Nieves; Iza, Jon; Ramón, Jarol Derley [School of Engineering of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain)

    2016-08-15

    Latest investigations on atmospheric carbon tetrachloride (CTC) are focused on its ozone depleting potential, adverse effects on the human health, and radiative efficiency and Global Warming Potential as a greenhouse gas. CTC mixing ratios have been thoroughly studied since its restriction under the Montreal Protocol, mostly in remote areas with the aim of reporting long-term trends after its banning. The observed decrease of the CTC background mixing ratio, however, was not as strong as expected. In order to explain this behavior CTC lifetime should be adjusted by estimating the relative significance of its sinks and by identifying ongoing potential sources. Looking for possible sources, CTC was measured with high-time resolution in two sites in Northern Spain, using auto-GC systems and specifically developed acquisition and processing methodologies. The first site, Bilbao, is an urban area influenced by the surrounding industry, where measurements were performed with GC–MSD for a one-year period (2007–2008). The second site, at Valderejo Natural Park (VNP), is a rural background area where measurements were carried out with GC-FID and covering CTC data a nonsuccessive five-year period (2003–2005, 2010–2011, and 2014–2015 years). Median yearly CTC mixing ratios were slightly higher in the urban area (120 pptv) than in VNP (80–100 pptv). CTC was reported to be well mixed in the atmosphere and no sources were noticed to impact the rural site. The observed long-term trend in VNP was in agreement with the estimated global CTC emissions. In the urban site, apart from industrial and commercial CTC sources, chlorine-bleach products used as cleaning agents were reported as promotors of indoor sources. - Highlights: • A methodology was developed to measure CTC using GC-MSD and GC-FID. • CTC ongoing sources were noticed in an industry surrounded urban area. • No noticeable nearby CTC sources impacted the rural site. • Long-term CTC trend in agreement

  3. Ozone mixing ratios inside tropical deep convective clouds from OMI satellite measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Ziemke

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new technique for estimating ozone mixing ratio inside deep convective clouds. The technique uses the concept of an optical centroid cloud pressure that is indicative of the photon path inside clouds. Radiative transfer calculations based on realistic cloud vertical structure as provided by CloudSat radar data show that because deep convective clouds are optically thin near the top, photons can penetrate significantly inside the cloud. This photon penetration coupled with in-cloud scattering produces optical centroid pressures that are hundreds of hPa inside the cloud. We combine measured column ozone and the optical centroid cloud pressure derived using the effects of rotational-Raman scattering to estimate O3 mixing ratio in the upper regions of deep convective clouds. The data are obtained from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI onboard NASA's Aura satellite. Our results show that low O3 concentrations in these clouds are a common occurrence throughout much of the tropical Pacific. Ozonesonde measurements in the tropics following convective activity also show very low concentrations of O3 in the upper troposphere. These low amounts are attributed to vertical injection of ozone poor oceanic boundary layer air during convection into the upper troposphere followed by convective outflow. Over South America and Africa, O3 mixing ratios inside deep convective clouds often exceed 50 ppbv which are comparable to mean background (cloud-free amounts and are consistent with higher concentrations of injected boundary layer/lower tropospheric O3 relative to the remote Pacific. The Atlantic region in general also consists of higher amounts of O3 precursors due to both biomass burning and lightning. Assuming that O3 is well mixed (i.e., constant mixing ratio with height up to the tropopause, we can estimate the stratospheric column O3 over

  4. Numerical Investigation of Mixing Characteristics in Cavity Flow at Various Aspect Ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Myung Seob [Dongyang Mirae University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Seung Deok; Yoon, Joon Yong [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    This study numerically examined the mixing characteristics of rectangular cavity flows by using the hybrid lattice Boltzmann method (HLBM) applied to the finite difference method (FDM). Multi-relaxation time was used along with a passive scalar method which assumes that two substances have the same mass and that there is no interaction. First, we studied numerical results such as the stream function, position of vortices, and velocity profile for a square cavity and rectangular cavity with an aspect ratio of 2. The data were compared with previous numerical results that have been proven to be reliable. We also studied the mixing characteristics of a rectangular cavity flow such as the concentration profile and average Sherwood number at various Pe numbers and aspect ratios.

  5. Separate patient serum sodium medians from males and females provide independent information on analytical bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Steen Ingemann; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Lund, Flemming; Fraser, Callum G; Sölétormos, György

    2017-10-26

    During monitoring of monthly medians of results from patients undertaken to assess analytical stability in routine laboratory performance, the medians for serum sodium for male and female patients were found to be significantly related. Daily, weekly and monthly patient medians of serum sodium for both male and female patients were calculated from results obtained on samples from the population >18 years on three analysers in the hospital laboratory. The half-range of medians was applied as an estimate of the maximum bias. Further, the ratios between the two medians were calculated. The medians of both genders demonstrated dispersions over time, but they were closely connected in like patterns, which were confirmed by the half-range of the ratios of medians for males and females that varied from 0.36% for daily, 0.14% for weekly and 0.036% for monthly ratios over all instruments. The tight relationship between the gender medians for serum sodium is only possible when raw laboratory data are used for calculation. The two patient medians can be used to confirm both and are useful as independent estimates of analytical bias during constant calibration periods. In contrast to the gender combined median, the estimate of analytical bias can be confirmed further by calculation of the ratios of medians for males and females.

  6. Balanced detection for self-mixing interferometry to improve signal-to-noise ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changming; Norgia, Michele; Li, Kun

    2018-01-01

    We apply balanced detection to self-mixing interferometry for displacement and vibration measurement, using two photodiodes for implementing a differential acquisition. The method is based on the phase opposition of the self-mixing signal measured between the two laser diode facet outputs. The balanced signal obtained by enlarging the self-mixing signal, also by canceling of the common-due noises mainly due to disturbances on laser supply and transimpedance amplifier. Experimental results demonstrate the signal-to-noise ratio significantly improves, with almost twice signals enhancement and more than half noise decreasing. This method allows for more robust, longer-distance measurement systems, especially using fringe-counting.

  7. Pitfalls with the use of enhancement ratios or normalized excess mixing ratios measured in plumes to characterize pollution sources and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Yokelson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Normalized excess mixing ratios (NEMRs, also known as enhancement ratios, are a common way to characterize plumes of pollution in atmospheric research. As single-source pollutant plumes disperse in the atmosphere, they are diluted by mixing with the adjacent background air. Changes in the composition of this background air can cause large changes to the NEMR that is subsequently measured by remote-sensing, airborne, or ground-based instruments. This scenario is common when boundary layer plumes enter the free troposphere and could also impact long-range transport or plumes near the top of the troposphere. We provide a context for these issues and an example showing that neglect of this effect could lead to serious errors in data interpretation.

  8. On the cross-sensitivity between water vapor mixing ratio and stable isotope measurements of in-situ analyzers

    KAUST Repository

    Parkes, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing amount of water vapor stable isotope data collected using in-situ instrumentation. A number of papers have characterized the performance of these in-situ analyzers and suggested methods for calibrating raw measurements. The cross-sensitivity of the isotopic measurements on the mixing ratio has been shown to be a major uncertainty and a variety of techniques have been suggested to characterize this inaccuracy. However, most of these are based on relating isotopic ratios to water vapor mixing ratios from in-situ analyzers when the mixing ratio is varied and the isotopic composition kept constant. An additional correction for the span of the isotopic ratio scale is then applied by measuring different isotopic standards. Here we argue that the water vapor cross-sensitivity arises from different instrument responses (span and offset) of the parent H2O isotope and the heavier isotopes, rather than spectral overlap that could cause a true variation in the isotopic ratio with mixing ratio. This is especially relevant for commercial laser optical instruments where absorption lines are well resolved. Thus, the cross-sensitivity determined using more conventional techniques is dependent on the isotopic ratio of the standard used for the characterization, although errors are expected to be small. Consequently, the cross-sensitivity should be determined by characterizing the span and zero offset of each isotope mixing ratio. In fact, this technique makes the span correction for the isotopic ratio redundant. In this work we model the impact of changes in the span and offset of the heavy and light isotopes and illustrate the impact on the cross-sensitivity of the isotopic ratios on water vapor. This clearly shows the importance of determining the zero offset for the two isotopes. The cross-sensitivity of the isotopic ratios on water vapor is then characterized by determining the instrument response for the individual isotopes for a

  9. On the cross-sensitivity between water vapor mixing ratio and stable isotope measurements of in-situ analyzers

    KAUST Repository

    Parkes, Stephen; Wang,  Lixin; McCabe, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing amount of water vapor stable isotope data collected using in-situ instrumentation. A number of papers have characterized the performance of these in-situ analyzers and suggested methods for calibrating raw measurements. The cross-sensitivity of the isotopic measurements on the mixing ratio has been shown to be a major uncertainty and a variety of techniques have been suggested to characterize this inaccuracy. However, most of these are based on relating isotopic ratios to water vapor mixing ratios from in-situ analyzers when the mixing ratio is varied and the isotopic composition kept constant. An additional correction for the span of the isotopic ratio scale is then applied by measuring different isotopic standards. Here we argue that the water vapor cross-sensitivity arises from different instrument responses (span and offset) of the parent H2O isotope and the heavier isotopes, rather than spectral overlap that could cause a true variation in the isotopic ratio with mixing ratio. This is especially relevant for commercial laser optical instruments where absorption lines are well resolved. Thus, the cross-sensitivity determined using more conventional techniques is dependent on the isotopic ratio of the standard used for the characterization, although errors are expected to be small. Consequently, the cross-sensitivity should be determined by characterizing the span and zero offset of each isotope mixing ratio. In fact, this technique makes the span correction for the isotopic ratio redundant. In this work we model the impact of changes in the span and offset of the heavy and light isotopes and illustrate the impact on the cross-sensitivity of the isotopic ratios on water vapor. This clearly shows the importance of determining the zero offset for the two isotopes. The cross-sensitivity of the isotopic ratios on water vapor is then characterized by determining the instrument response for the individual isotopes for a

  10. Effect of plant density and mixing ratio on crop yield in sweet corn/mungbean intercropping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlak, S; Aghaalikhani, M; Zand, B

    2008-09-01

    In order to evaluate the ear and forage yield of sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. Saccarata) in pure stand and intercropped with mung bean (Vigna radiata L.), a field experiment was conducted at Varamin region on summer 2006. Experiment was carried out in a split plot design based on randomized complete blocks with 4 replications. Plant density with 3 levels [Low (D1), Mean (D2) and High (D3) respecting 6, 8 and 10 m(-2) for sweet corn, cultivar S.C.403 and 10, 20 and 30 m(-2) for mung bean cultivar, Partow] was arranged in main plots and 5 mixing ratios [(P1) = 0/100, (P2) = 25/75, (P3) = 50/50, (P4) = 75/25, (P5) = 100/0% for sweet corn/mung bean, respectively] were arranged in subplots. Quantitative attributes such as plant height, sucker numbers, LER, dry matter distribution in different plant organs were measured in sweet corn economical maturity. Furthermore the yield of cannable ear corn and yield components of sweet corn and mung bean were investigated. Results showed that plant density has not any significant effect on evaluated traits, while the effect of mixing ratio was significant (p ratio of 75/25 (sweet corn/mung bean) could be introduced as the superior mixing ratio; because of it's maximum rate of total sweet corn's biomass, forage yield, yield and yield components of ear corn in intercropping. Regarding to profitability indices of intercropping, the mixing ratio 75/25 (sweet corn/mung bean) in low density (D1P2) which showed the LER = 1.03 and 1.09 for total crop yield before ear harvesting and total forage yield after ear harvest respectively, was better than corn or mung bean monoculture.

  11. Mixed-mode chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullagh, James S O

    2010-03-15

    Liquid chromatography coupled to molecular mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has been a standard technique since the early 1970s but liquid chromatography coupled to high-precision isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS) has only been available commercially since 2004. This development has, for the first time, enabled natural abundance and low enrichment delta(13)C measurements to be applied to individual analytes in aqueous mixtures creating new opportunities for IRMS applications, particularly for the isotopic study of biological molecules. A growing number of applications have been published in a range of areas including amino acid metabolism, carbohydrates studies, quantification of cellular and plasma metabolites, dietary tracer and nucleic acid studies. There is strong potential to extend these to new compounds and complex matrices but several challenges face the development of LC/IRMS methods. To achieve accurate isotopic measurements, HPLC separations must provide baseline-resolution between analyte peaks; however, the design of current liquid interfaces places severe restrictions on compatible flow rates and in particular mobile phase compositions. These create a significant challenge on which reports associated with LC/IRMS have not previously focused. Accordingly, this paper will address aspects of chromatography in the context of LC/IRMS, in particular focusing on mixed-mode separations and their benefits in light of these restrictions. It aims to provide an overview of mixed-mode stationary phases and of ways to improve high aqueous separations through manipulation of parameters such as column length, temperature and mobile phase pH. The results of several practical experiments are given using proteogenic amino acids and nucleosides both of which are of noted importance in the LC/IRMS literature. This communication aims to demonstrate that mixed-mode stationary phases provide a flexible approach given the constraints of LC/IRMS interface design and acts as a

  12. A new method for the determination of the mixing ratio hydrogen to helium in the giant planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, D.; Grossman, K.

    1972-01-01

    By using a numerical iterative method, it is demonstrated that the mixing ratio H2/He on the giant planets can be inferred from spectral measurements of the intensity emitted by these planets in the far infrared range. The method is successfully applied to synthetic spectra of Saturn computed from atmospheric thermal models. The effect of random and systematic measurement errors on the determination of the mixing ratio is also studied.

  13. Hydrothermal synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic activity of mixed-phase TiO2 powders with controllable anatase/rutile ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Qiao, Zhi; Jiang, Peng; Kuang, Jianlei; Liu, Wenxiu; Cao, Wenbin

    2018-03-01

    In this study, mixed-phase TiO2 powders were novelly synthesized via a facile and mild hydrothermal method without any post-heat treatment. TiOSO4 and peroxide titanic acid (PTA) were used as inorganic titanium sources, while no special solvent or additive were introduced. The XRD and TEM results showed the mixed-phase TiO2 powders were composed of anatase and rutile phases, and the PTA sol played an important role on forming the rutile nucleus. The proportion of rutile in the mixed-phase TiO2 could be easily controlled in the range of 0%-70.5% by changing the amount of PTA sol used in the synthesis process. The UV-Visible absorption spectra indicated the prepared mixed-phase TiO2 showed enhanced visible light absorption with the increase of rutile ratio. The photodegradation experiments revealed the mixed-phase TiO2 exhibited the best photocatalytic activity at the rutile ratio of 41.5%, while a higher or lower rutile ratio both resulted in the decrease of photocatalytic activity.

  14. E2,M1 multipole mixing ratios in even-even nuclei, 58< or =A< or =150

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, K.S.

    1977-01-01

    A survey is presented of E2,M1 multipole mixing ratios of gamma-ray transitions in even-even nuclei in the mass range 58< or =A< or =150. Angular distribution and correlation data from the literature are analyzed in terms of a consistent choice of the phase relationship between the E2 and M1 matrix elements. A set of recommended values of the mixing ratios is included based on averages of results from various studies. The survey includes data available in the literature up to December 1976

  15. Determination of the oxygen-metal-ratio of uranium-americium mixed oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartscher, W.

    1982-01-01

    During the dissolution of uranium-americium mixed oxides in phosphoric acid under nitrogen tetravalent uranium is oxidized by tetravalent americium. The obtained hexavalent uranium is determined by constant potential coulometry. The coulombs measured are equivalent to the oxygen in excess of the minimum composition of UO 2 x AmO 1 . 5 . The total uranium content of the sample is determined in a subsequent coulometric titration. The oxygen-metal ratio of the sample can be calculated for a given uranium-americium ratio. An excess of uranium dioxide is necessary in order to suppress the oxidation of water by tetravalent americium. The standard deviation of the method is 0.0017 O/M units. (orig.) [de

  16. Retrieval of water vapor mixing ratios from a laser-based sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, George F.

    1995-01-01

    Langley Research Center has developed a novel external path sensor which monitors water vapor along an optical path between an airplane window and reflective material on the plane's engine. An infrared tunable diode laser is wavelength modulated across a water vapor absorption line at a frequency f. The 2f and DC signals are measured by a detector mounted adjacent to the laser. The 2f/DC ratio depends on the amount of wavelength modulation, the water vapor absorption line being observed, and the temperature, pressure, and water vapor content of the atmosphere. The present work concerns efforts to quantify the contributions of these factors and to derive a method for extracting the water vapor mixing ratio from the measurements. A 3 m cell was fabricated in order to perform laboratory tests of the sensor. Measurements of 2f/DC were made for a series of pressures and modulation amplitudes. During my 1994 faculty fellowship, a computer program was created which allowed 2f/DC to be calculated for any combination of the variables which effect it. This code was used to generate 2f/DC values for the conditions measured in the laboratory. The experimental and theoretical values agreed to within a few percent. As a result, the laser modulation amplitude can now be set in the field by comparing the response of the instrument to the calculated response as a function of modulation amplitude. Once the validity of the computer code was established, it was used to investigate possible candidate absorption lines. 2f/DC values were calculated for pressures, temperatures, and water vapor mixing ratios expected to be encountered in future missions. The results have been incorporated into a database which will be used to select the best line for a particular mission. The database will also be used to select a retrieval technique. For examples under some circumstances there is little temperature dependence in 2f/DC so temperature can be neglected. In other cases, there is a dependence

  17. Responses of mixed methanotrophic consortia to variable Cu2+/Fe2+ ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambarampadmavathy, Karthigeyan; Karthikeyan, Obulisamy Parthiba; Huerlimann, Roger; Maes, Gregory E; Heimann, Kirsten

    2017-07-15

    Methane mitigation in landfill top cover soils is mediated by methanotrophs whose optimal methane (CH 4 ) oxidation capacity is governed by environmental and complex microbial community interactions. Optimization of CH 4 remediating bio-filters need to take microbial responses into account. Divalent copper (Cu 2+ ) and iron (Fe 2+ ) are present in landfills at variable ratios and play a vital role in methane oxidation capacity and growth of methanotrophs. This study, as a first of its kind, therefore quantified effects of variable Cu 2+ and Fe 2+ (5:5, 5:25 and 5:50 μM) ratios on mixed methanotrophic communities enriched from landfill top cover (LB) and compost soils (CB). CH 4 oxidation capacity, CH 4 removal efficiencies, fatty acids content/profiles and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB; a biopolymer) contents were also analysed to quantify performance and potential co-product development. Mixed methanotroph cultures were raised in 10 L continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTRs, Bioflo ® & Celligen ® 310 Fermentor/Bioreactor; John Morris Scientific, Chatswood, NSW, Australia). Community structure was determined by amplifying the V3-V4 region of 16s rRNA gene. Community structure and, consequently, fatty acid-profiles changed significantly with increasing Cu 2+ /Fe 2+ ratios, and responses were different for LB and CB. Effects on methane oxidation capacities and PHB content were similar in the LB- and CB-CSTR, decreasing with increasing Cu 2+ /Fe 2+ ratios, while biomass growth was unaffected. In general, high Fe 2+ concentration favored growth of the type -II methanotroph Methylosinus in the CB-CSTR, but methanotroph abundances decreased in the LB-CSTR. Increase in Cu 2+ /Fe 2+ ratio increased the growth of Sphingopyxis in both systems, while Azospirllum was co-dominant in the LB- but absent in the CB-CSTR. After 13 days, methane oxidation capacities and PHB content decreased by ∼50% and more in response to increasing Fe 2+ concentrations. Although methanotroph

  18. Convective mixing length and the galactic carbon to oxygen ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, A; Peimbert, M [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Inst. de Astronomia

    1981-01-01

    We have studied chemical evolution models, assuming instantaneous recycling, and considering: a) the effects of mass loss both in massive stars and in intermediate mass stars, and b) the initial mass function of the solar neighbourhood (Serrano 1978). From these models we have derived the yields of carbon and oxygen. It is concluded that the condition C/O approximately 0.58 in the solar neighbourhood can only be satisfied if, during advanced stages of stellar evolution of intermediate mass stars, the ratio of the convective mixing length to the pressure scale height is > approximately 2.

  19. Dental amalgam: effects of alloy/mercury mixing ratio, uses and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kefi, I.; Maria, A.; Sana, J.; Afreen, J.; Adel, S.; Iftikhar, A.; Yawer, A.; Kaleem, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Silver dental amalgam is one of the oldest filling materials used in dentistry. The American Dental Association (ADA) has estimated that billions of amalgam restorations have been placed in patients in the last 150 years. Due to the presence of mercury and mishandling during the filling make it more controversial. The objective of this study was to conduct a survey of the use of different brands and to assess any deviations in practice from the hand mixing manual method of elemental mercury and alloy in a pestle/mortar and encapsulated form. Methods: A questionnaire was sent to 250 of randomly selected dental practitioner in various localities of Karachi. Data was analysed to record the specified brands used along with their powder/liquid (P/L) ratio and the different methods for disposing off mercury in this study. Results: The most commonly used form of dispensing method was hand mixing (57%) and only 30% of the dentists followed the manufacturer instruction for hand mixing ratio. Eighty-seven percent of dental amalgam restoration was performed and 13% removed by the dentist per month and the method of disposing the amalgam wastage that 55%, 25%, and 20% dentists were used the sink, bin and other methods respectively in their dental clinics. Conclusion: Amalgam restoration is still popular filling material in the posterior region of the mouth but we need to create awareness among the dentists who do not follow the ADA specifications. (author)

  20. Universality in the mixed SU(2) lattice gauge theory. Nonperturbative approach to the ratio of Λ parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makeenko, Yu.M.; Polikarpov, M.I.; Zhelonkin, A.V.

    1983-01-01

    The mixed SU(2) lattice gauge theory (LGT) is approximately represented as an effective SU(2) LGT with Wilson's action. This approach is applied to the nonperturbative calculation of the ratio of Λ-parameters in the mixed SU(2) LGT. It is shown that the formulas obtained fairly describe the Monte Carlo data so that universality holds in the mixed SU(2) LGT

  1. Atmospheric mixing ratios of methyl ethyl ketone (2-butanone in tropical, boreal, temperate and marine environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Yáñez-Serrano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK enters the atmosphere following direct emission from vegetation and anthropogenic activities, as well as being produced by the gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs such as n-butane. This study presents the first overview of ambient MEK measurements at six different locations, characteristic of forested, urban and marine environments. In order to understand better the occurrence and behaviour of MEK in the atmosphere, we analyse diel cycles of MEK mixing ratios, vertical profiles, ecosystem flux data, and HYSPLIT back trajectories, and compare with co-measured VOCs. MEK measurements were primarily conducted with proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS instruments. Results from the sites under biogenic influence demonstrate that vegetation is an important source of MEK. The diel cycle of MEK follows that of ambient temperature and the forest structure plays an important role in air mixing. At such sites, a high correlation of MEK with acetone was observed (e.g. r2 = 0.96 for the SMEAR Estonia site in a remote hemiboreal forest in Tartumaa, Estonia, and r2 = 0.89 at the ATTO pristine tropical rainforest site in central Amazonia. Under polluted conditions, we observed strongly enhanced MEK mixing ratios. Overall, the MEK mixing ratios and flux data presented here indicate that both biogenic and anthropogenic sources contribute to its occurrence in the global atmosphere.

  2. Effect of Mixing Ratio between Pork Loin and Chicken Breast on Textural and Sensory Properties of Emulsion Sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This study is conducted to evaluate the effects of the mixing ratio between pork loin and chicken breast for textural and sensory properties of emulsion sausages. Meat homogenates are prepared by using five mixing ratios between pork loin and chicken breast (100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 30:70, and 0:100), and the emulsion sausages are also formulated with five mixing ratios. The additions of chicken breast increase the salt soluble protein solubility due to high pH levels of chicken breast, thereby resulting in the reduction of cooking losses. In addition, the apparent viscosity of meat homogenates increase with increasing amounts of chicken breast. In terms of emulsion sausages formulated with pork loin and chicken breast, the addition of chicken breast above 50% may contribute to a softer and more flexible texture of emulsion sausages. For sensory evaluations, an increase in the added amount of chicken breast contributes to a rich umami taste and deeper flavor within the emulsion sausages, resulting in the high overall acceptance score for the formulation of 0-30% pork loin and 70-100% chicken breast. Therefore, the optimal mixing ratios between pork loin and chicken breast are 0-30% and 70-100% for enhancing the textural and sensory properties of emulsion sausages. PMID:26760930

  3. Finite mixture models for the computation of isotope ratios in mixed isotopic samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffler, Daniel; Laaha, Gregor; Leisch, Friedrich; Kappel, Stefanie; Prohaska, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Finite mixture models have been used for more than 100 years, but have seen a real boost in popularity over the last two decades due to the tremendous increase in available computing power. The areas of application of mixture models range from biology and medicine to physics, economics and marketing. These models can be applied to data where observations originate from various groups and where group affiliations are not known, as is the case for multiple isotope ratios present in mixed isotopic samples. Recently, the potential of finite mixture models for the computation of 235U/238U isotope ratios from transient signals measured in individual (sub-)µm-sized particles by laser ablation - multi-collector - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICPMS) was demonstrated by Kappel et al. [1]. The particles, which were deposited on the same substrate, were certified with respect to their isotopic compositions. Here, we focus on the statistical model and its application to isotope data in ecogeochemistry. Commonly applied evaluation approaches for mixed isotopic samples are time-consuming and are dependent on the judgement of the analyst. Thus, isotopic compositions may be overlooked due to the presence of more dominant constituents. Evaluation using finite mixture models can be accomplished unsupervised and automatically. The models try to fit several linear models (regression lines) to subgroups of data taking the respective slope as estimation for the isotope ratio. The finite mixture models are parameterised by: • The number of different ratios. • Number of points belonging to each ratio-group. • The ratios (i.e. slopes) of each group. Fitting of the parameters is done by maximising the log-likelihood function using an iterative expectation-maximisation (EM) algorithm. In each iteration step, groups of size smaller than a control parameter are dropped; thereby the number of different ratios is determined. The analyst only influences some control

  4. Continued increase of CFC-113a (CCl3CF3) mixing ratios in the global atmosphere: emissions, occurrence and potential sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adcock, Karina E.; Reeves, Claire E.; Gooch, Lauren J.; Leedham Elvidge, Emma C.; Ashfold, Matthew J.; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Chou, Charles; Fraser, Paul J.; Langenfelds, Ray L.; Hanif, Norfazrin Mohd; O'Doherty, Simon; Oram, David E.; Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Moi Phang, Siew; Abu Samah, Azizan; Röckmann, Thomas; Sturges, William T.; Laube, Johannes C.

    2018-04-01

    Atmospheric measurements of the ozone-depleting substance CFC-113a (CCl3CF3) are reported from ground-based stations in Australia, Taiwan, Malaysia and the United Kingdom, together with aircraft-based data for the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Building on previous work, we find that, since the gas first appeared in the atmosphere in the 1960s, global CFC-113a mixing ratios have been increasing monotonically to the present day. Mixing ratios of CFC-113a have increased by 40 % from 0.50 to 0.70 ppt in the Southern Hemisphere between the end of the previously published record in December 2012 and February 2017. We derive updated global emissions of 1.7 Gg yr-1 on average between 2012 and 2016 using a two-dimensional model. We compare the long-term trends and emissions of CFC-113a to those of its structural isomer, CFC-113 (CClF2CCl2F), which still has much higher mixing ratios than CFC-113a, despite its mixing ratios and emissions decreasing since the 1990s. The continued presence of northern hemispheric emissions of CFC-113a is confirmed by our measurements of a persistent interhemispheric gradient in its mixing ratios, with higher mixing ratios in the Northern Hemisphere. The sources of CFC-113a are still unclear, but we present evidence that indicates large emissions in East Asia, most likely due to its use as a chemical involved in the production of hydrofluorocarbons. Our aircraft data confirm the interhemispheric gradient as well as showing mixing ratios consistent with ground-based observations and the relatively long atmospheric lifetime of CFC-113a. CFC-113a is the only known CFC for which abundances are still increasing substantially in the atmosphere.

  5. Estimated SAGE II ozone mixing ratios in early 1993 and comparisons with Stratospheric Photochemistry, Aerosols and Dynamic Expedition measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, G. K.; Veiga, R. E.; Poole, L. R.; Zawodny, J. M.; Proffitt, M. H.

    1994-01-01

    An empirical time-series model for estimating ozone mixing ratios based on Stratospheric Aerosols and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) monthly mean ozone data for the period October 1984 through June 1991 has been developed. The modeling results for ozone mixing ratios in the 10- to 30- km region in early months of 1993 are presented. In situ ozone profiles obtained by a dual-beam UV-absorption ozone photometer during the Stratospheric Photochemistry, Aerosols and Dynamics Expedition (SPADE) campaign, May 1-14, 1993, are compared with the model results. With the exception of two profiles at altitudes below 16 km, ozone mixing ratios derived by the model and measured by the ozone photometer are in relatively good agreement within their individual uncertainties. The identified discrepancies in the two profiles are discussed.

  6. Meteorological controls on the diurnal variability of carbon monoxide mixing ratio at a mountaintop monitoring site in the Appalachian Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temple R. Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The variability of trace gases such as carbon monoxide (CO at surface monitoring stations is affected by meteorological forcings that are particularly complicated over mountainous terrain. A detailed understanding of the impact of meteorological forcings on trace gas variability is challenging, but is vital to distinguish trace gas measurements affected by local pollutant sources from measurements representative of background mixing ratios. In the present study, we investigate the meteorological and CO characteristics at Pinnacles (38.61 N, 78.35 W, 1017 m above mean sea level, a mountaintop monitoring site in northwestern Virginia, USA, in the Appalachian Mountains, from 2009 to 2012, and focus on understanding the dominant meteorological forcings affecting the CO variability on diurnal timescales. The annual mean diurnal CO cycle shows a minimum in the morning between 0700 and 0900 LST and a maximum in the late afternoon between 1600 and 2000 LST, with a mean (median daily CO amplitude of 39.2±23.7 ppb (33.2 ppb. CO amplitudes show large day-to-day variability. The largest CO amplitudes, in which CO mixing ratios can change >100 ppb in <3 h, occur in the presence of synoptic disturbances. Under fair weather conditions, local- to regional-scale transport processes are found to be more important drivers of the diurnal CO variability. On fair weather days with northwesterly winds, boundary layer dilution causes a daytime CO decrease, resembling the variability observed atop tall towers in flat terrain. Fair weather days with a wind shift from the northwest to the south are characterised by an afternoon CO increase and resemble the variability observed at mountaintops influenced by the vertical transport of polluted air from adjacent valleys.

  7. Comparison of N2O5 mixing ratios during NO3Comp 2007 in SAPHIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Rollins

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available N2O5 detection in the atmosphere has been accomplished using techniques which have been developed during the last decade. Most techniques use a heated inlet to thermally decompose N2O5 to NO3, which can be detected by either cavity based absorption at 662 nm or by laser-induced fluorescence. In summer 2007, a large set of instruments, which were capable of measuring NO3 mixing ratios, were simultaneously deployed in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR in Jülich, Germany. Some of these instruments measured N2O5 mixing ratios either simultaneously or alternatively. Experiments focused on the investigation of potential interferences from, e.g., water vapour or aerosol and on the investigation of the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds by NO3. The comparison of N2O5 mixing ratios shows an excellent agreement between measurements of instruments applying different techniques (3 cavity ring-down (CRDS instruments, 2 laser-induced fluorescence (LIF instruments. Datasets are highly correlated as indicated by the square of the linear correlation coefficients, R2, which values were larger than 0.96 for the entire datasets. N2O5 mixing ratios well agree within the combined accuracy of measurements. Slopes of the linear regression range between 0.87 and 1.26 and intercepts are negligible. The most critical aspect of N2O5 measurements by cavity ring-down instruments is the determination of the inlet and filter transmission efficiency. Measurements here show that the N2O5 inlet transmission efficiency can decrease in the presence of high aerosol loads, and that frequent filter/inlet changing is necessary to quantitatively sample N2O5 in some environments. The analysis of data also demonstrates that a general correction for degrading filter transmission is not applicable for all conditions encountered during this campaign. Besides the effect of a gradual degradation of the inlet transmission efficiency aerosol exposure, no other interference

  8. Effective Giromagnetic Ratios in Artifical Nuclear Magnetization Pumping of the Noble Gases Mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov E.N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic of the nuclear magnetization of the two noble gases mix was studied in this research. Nuclear magnetization pumped along the induction of external magnetic field. Vector of nuclear magnetization is given a tilt by the week rotational magnetic field, which makes NMR for noble gases. Interaction between the nuclear magnetic moments of the different noble gases adducted to shifts at the frequency of nuclear moments precession in external magnetic field. Effective gyromagnetic ratios of the nuclear of noble gases is defined and it different from the tabulated value. There is theoretical calculation of effective gyromagnetic ratios in this research.

  9. Functional Median Polish

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying

    2012-08-03

    This article proposes functional median polish, an extension of univariate median polish, for one-way and two-way functional analysis of variance (ANOVA). The functional median polish estimates the functional grand effect and functional main factor effects based on functional medians in an additive functional ANOVA model assuming no interaction among factors. A functional rank test is used to assess whether the functional main factor effects are significant. The robustness of the functional median polish is demonstrated by comparing its performance with the traditional functional ANOVA fitted by means under different outlier models in simulation studies. The functional median polish is illustrated on various applications in climate science, including one-way and two-way ANOVA when functional data are either curves or images. Specifically, Canadian temperature data, U. S. precipitation observations and outputs of global and regional climate models are considered, which can facilitate the research on the close link between local climate and the occurrence or severity of some diseases and other threats to human health. © 2012 International Biometric Society.

  10. Spatial variability of mixing ratios of ammonia and tracer gases in a naturally ventilated dairy cow barn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendes, Luciano B.; Edouard, Nadège; Ogink, Nico W.M.; Dooren, van Hendrik Jan C.; Fátima F. TinÔco, de Ilda; Mosquera Losada, Julio

    2015-01-01

    The use of the tracer gas ratio method to estimate emissions from naturally ventilated (NV) livestock barns excludes the need of monitoring ventilation rates. However, it requires accurate measurement of tracer release rate (QT) and a representative estimate of the mixing ratio between

  11. Parameterizing radiative transfer to convert MAX-DOAS dSCDs into near-surface box-averaged mixing ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sinreich

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel parameterization method to convert multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS differential slant column densities (dSCDs into near-surface box-averaged volume mixing ratios. The approach is applicable inside the planetary boundary layer under conditions with significant aerosol load, and builds on the increased sensitivity of MAX-DOAS near the instrument altitude. It parameterizes radiative transfer model calculations and significantly reduces the computational effort, while retrieving ~ 1 degree of freedom. The biggest benefit of this method is that the retrieval of an aerosol profile, which usually is necessary for deriving a trace gas concentration from MAX-DOAS dSCDs, is not needed. The method is applied to NO2 MAX-DOAS dSCDs recorded during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area 2006 (MCMA-2006 measurement campaign. The retrieved volume mixing ratios of two elevation angles (1° and 3° are compared to volume mixing ratios measured by two long-path (LP-DOAS instruments located at the same site. Measurements are found to agree well during times when vertical mixing is expected to be strong. However, inhomogeneities in the air mass above Mexico City can be detected by exploiting the different horizontal and vertical dimensions probed by the MAX-DOAS and LP-DOAS instruments. In particular, a vertical gradient in NO2 close to the ground can be observed in the afternoon, and is attributed to reduced mixing coupled with near-surface emission inside street canyons. The existence of a vertical gradient in the lower 250 m during parts of the day shows the general challenge of sampling the boundary layer in a representative way, and emphasizes the need of vertically resolved measurements.

  12. E2,M1 multipole mixing ratios in even--even nuclei, A greater than or equal to 152

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, K.S.

    1975-01-01

    A survey is presented of E2,M1 mixing ratios of gamma-ray transitions in even-even nuclei with mass numbers A greater than or equal to 152. Angular distribution and correlation data from the literature are analyzed in terms of a consistent choice of the phase relationship between the E2 and M1 matrix elements. The cutoff date for the literature was June 1975. Based on an average of the experimental results from the literature, a recommended value of the E2,M1 mixing ratio for each transition is included

  13. The Impact of Volute Aspect Ratio on the Performance of a Mixed Flow Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel P. Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Current trends in the automotive industry towards engine downsizing mean turbocharging now plays a vital role in engine performance. A turbocharger increases charge air density using a turbine to extract waste energy from the exhaust gas to drive a compressor. Most turbocharger applications employ a radial inflow turbine. However, mixed flow turbines can offer non-zero blade angles, reducing leading edge (LE separation at low velocity ratios. The current paper investigates the performance of a mixed flow turbine with three different volute aspect ratio (AR designs (AR = 0.5, 1 and 2. With constant A/r (ratio of volute area to centroid radius, the AR = 0.5 volute design produced a 4.3% increase in cycle averaged mass flow parameter (MFP compared to the AR = 2 design. For the purpose of performance comparison, it was necessary to manipulate the volute A/r’s to ensure constant MFP for aerodynamic similarity. With the volute A/r’s manipulated to ensure constant MFP for aerodynamic similarity, the maximum variation of cycle averaged normalized efficiency measured between the designs was 1.47%. Purely in the rotor region, the variation in normalized cycle averaged efficiency was 1%. The smallest tested volute aspect ratio showed a significant increase in volute loss while the ARs of 1 and 2 showed similar levels of loss. The smallest AR volute showed significant secondary flow development in the volute. The resulting variation in LE incidence was found to vary as a result.

  14. Effect of different ratios of cow manure and corn straw on the mixed anaerobic fermentation rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongshan JIANG

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of the different ratios on the anaerobic fermentation rate is investigated, and the rate-limiting factors are preliminarily determined, at mesophilic (38±1℃ condition, with anaerobic granular sludge as inoculums, different ratios of cow manure and corn straw are used as substrate for mixed anaerobic fermentation. By measuring daily biogas production, the concentrations of CH4 and CO2 in the marsh gas, TC, the concentration of VFAs and pH value, The results show that under the mixture ratio of 2∶1, the hydrolysis rate constants, cumulative biogas yield and biodegradability CH4 reach their high limits, which are 0.043 7 d-1, 271.93 mL/g and 71.59%, respectively. Moreover, it is found that the concentration of acetic acid is proportional to the amount of cow manure at the beginning (the first day of mixed fermentation, and the concentration of propionicacid is proportional to the amount of corn straw in medium fermentation stage (the fifth day. In addition, rate-limiting step of biogas production is related to the ratio of cow manure and corn in fermentation material. With the increasing of corn straw proportion, on the 1st day, it tends to hydrolysis acidogenesis; from the 2th day to 15th day, it tends to hydrogen-production acetogenisis; and from the 16th day to 30th day, it is hydrolysis acidogenesis. The paper focuses on the relationship between the ratio of cow manure and corn straw and the rate-limiting step for biogas production, which could provide a theoretical and experimental support for improving the efficiency of biogas production in mixed fermentation.

  15. Investigation of Atwood ratio influence on turbulent mixing transition of a shock-driven variable density flow after reshock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaghar, Mohammad; Carter, John; Pathikonda, Gokul; Ranjan, Devesh

    2017-11-01

    The current study experimentally investigates the influence of the initial Atwood ratio (At) on the evolution of Richtmyer-Meshkov instability at the Georgia Tech Shock Tube and Advanced Mixing Laboratory. Two Atwood numbers (At =0.22 and 0.67) are studied, which correspond to the gas combinations of nitrogen seeded with acetone vapor (light) over carbon dioxide (heavy) and same light gas over sulfur hexafluoride (heavy) respectively. A perturbed, multi-mode, inclined interface (with an amplitude to wavelength ratio of 0.088) is impulsively accelerated by the incident shock traveling vertically from light to heavy gas with a Mach number 1.55. The effect of Atwood ratio on turbulent mixing transition after reshock at the same non-dimensional times between the two cases is examined through ensemble-averaged turbulence statistics from simultaneous planar laser induced uorescence (PLIF) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. Preliminary studies over the smaller Atwood number indicates that turbulent mixing transition criteria can be satisfied after reshock. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation CAREER Award No. 1451994.

  16. Effects of strain rate, mixing ratio, and stress-strain definition on the mechanical behavior of the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) material as related to its biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanafer, Khalil; Duprey, Ambroise; Schlicht, Marty; Berguer, Ramon

    2009-04-01

    Tensile tests on Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) materials were conducted to illustrate the effects of mixing ratio, definition of the stress-strain curve, and the strain rate on the elastic modulus and stress-strain curve. PDMS specimens were prepared according to the ASTM standards for elastic materials. Our results indicate that the physiological elastic modulus depends strongly on the definition of the stress-strain curve, mixing ratio, and the strain rate. For various mixing ratios and strain rates, true stress-strain definition results in higher stress and elastic modulus compared with engineering stress-strain and true stress-engineering strain definitions. The elastic modulus increases as the mixing ratio increases up-to 9:1 ratio after which the elastic modulus begins to decrease even as the mixing ratio continues to increase. The results presented in this study will be helpful to assist the design of in vitro experiments to mimic blood flow in arteries and to understand the complex interaction between blood flow and the walls of arteries using PDMS elastomer.

  17. Effect of metal ratio and calcination temperature of chromium based mixed oxides catalyst on FAME density from palm fatty acid distillate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Z.; Fatimah, S.; Shahar, S.; Noor, A. C.

    2017-09-01

    Mixed oxides chromium based catalysts were synthesized via sol-gel method for the esterification of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) to produce fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). The reactions were conducted in a batch reactor at reaction temperature of 160 °C for 4 h and methanol to PFAD molar ratio of 3:1. The effects of catalyst preparation conditions which are the mixed metal ratio and calcination temperature were studied. The various metal ratio of Cr:Mn (1:0, 0:1, 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1) and Cr:Ti (0:1, 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1) resulted in FAME density ranges from 1.041 g/cm3 to 0.853 g/cm3 and 1.107 g/cm3 to 0.836 g/cm3, respectively. The best condition catalyst was found to be Cr:Ti metal ratio of 1:2 and Cr:Mn metal ratio of 1:1. The calcination temperature of the mixed oxides between 300 °C to 700°C shows effect on the FAME density obtained in the reaction. The calcination at 500°C gave the lowest FAME density of 0.836 g/cm3 and 0.853 g/cm3 for Cr:Ti and Cr:Mn mixed oxides, respectively. The density of FAME is within the value range of the biodiesel fuel property. Thus, mixed oxides of Cr-Ti and Cr-Mn have good potentials as heterogeneous catalyst for FAME synthesis from high acid value oils such as PFAD.

  18. Separate patient serum sodium medians from males and females provide independent information on analytical bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steen Ingemann; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Lund, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During monitoring of monthly medians of results from patients undertaken to assess analytical stability in routine laboratory performance, the medians for serum sodium for male and female patients were found to be significantly related. METHODS: Daily, weekly and monthly patient medians...... all instruments. CONCLUSIONS: The tight relationship between the gender medians for serum sodium is only possible when raw laboratory data are used for calculation. The two patient medians can be used to confirm both and are useful as independent estimates of analytical bias during constant...... calibration periods. In contrast to the gender combined median, the estimate of analytical bias can be confirmed further by calculation of the ratios of medians for males and females....

  19. Extrusion-mixing compared with hand-mixing of polyether impression materials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Caroline; Kinsella, Daniel; Fleming, Garry J P

    2010-12-01

    The hypotheses tested were two-fold (a) whether altering the base:catalyst ratio influences working time, elastic recovery and strain in compression properties of a hand-mixed polyether impression material and (b) whether an extrusion-mixed polyether impression material would have a significant advantage over a hand-mixed polyether impression material mixed to the optimum base:catalyst ratio. The polyether was hand-mixed at the optimum (manufacturers recommended) base:catalyst ratios (7:1) and further groups were made by increasing or decreasing the catalyst length by 25%. Additionally specimens were also made from an extrusion-mixed polyether impression material and compared with the optimum hand-mixed base:catalyst ratio. A penetrometer assembly was used to measure the working time (n=5). Five cylindrical specimens for each hand-mixed and extrusion mixed group investigated were employed for elastic recovery and strain in compression testing. Hand-mixing polyether impression materials with 25% more catalyst than that recommended significantly decreased the working time while hand-mixing with 25% less catalyst than that recommended significantly increased the strain in compression. The extrusion-mixed polyether impression material provided similar working time, elastic recovery and strain in compression to the hand-mixed polyether mixed at the optimum base:catalyst ratio.

  20. Studies on O/M ratio determination in uranium oxide, plutonium oxide and uranium-plutonium mixed oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampath, S.; Chawla, K.L.

    1975-01-01

    Thermogravimetric studies were carried out in unsintered and sintered samples of uranium oxide, plutonium oxide and uranium-plutonium mixed oxide under different atmospheric conditions (air, argon and moist argon/hydrogen). Moisture loss was found to occur below 200 0 C for uranium dioxide samples, upto 700 0 C for sintered plutonium dioxide and negligible for sintered samples. The O/M ratios for non-stoichiometric uranium dioxide (sintered and unsintered), plutonium dioxide and mixed uranium and plutonium oxides (sintered) could be obtained with a precision of +- 0.002. Two reference states UOsub(2.000) and UOsub(2.656) were obtained for uranium dioxide and the reference state MOsub(2.000) was used for other cases. For unsintered plutonium dioxide samples, accurate O/M ratios could not be obtained of overlap of moisture loss with oxygen loss/gain. (author)

  1. Median Hetero-Associative Memories Applied to the Categorization of True-Color Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Roberto A.; Sossa, Humberto

    Median associative memories (MED-AMs) are a special type of associative memory based on the median operator. This type of associative model has been applied to the restoration of gray scale images and provides better performance than other models, such as morphological associative memories, when the patterns are altered with mixed noise. Despite of his power, MED-AMs have not been applied in problems involving true-color patterns. In this paper we describe how a median hetero-associative memory (MED-HAM) could be applied in problems that involve true-color patterns. A complete study of the behavior of this associative model in the restoration of true-color images is performed using a benchmark of 14400 images altered by different type of noises. Furthermore, we describe how this model can be applied to an image categorization problem.

  2. Influence of air mass source sector on variations in CO2 mixing ratio at a boreal site in northern Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalto, T.; Hatakka, J.; Viisanen, Y.

    2003-01-01

    CO 2 mixing ratio in air masses coming from different source sectors was studied at Pallas measurement station in Lapland. Source sectors were defined using back trajectories and wind direction measurements. Air masses from the North and West sectors showed an annual variation of 17 ppm, possibly affected by a long range transported marine air. A larger variation of 20 ppm was observed in air masses from the more continental South and East sectors. During late autumn mixing ratios in air masses from the South sector were high in comparison with the other sectors. Different methods for a source sector definition were considered for the site, located in a contoured terrain. 52%-73% of wind direction-based source sector definitions agreed with trajectory- based definitions. However, the number of cases with reliable sector definitions may remain low when considering all observations. Different definition methods can cause differences of the order of 1 ppm in sectorially selected monthly mean CO 2 mixing ratios. (orig.)

  3. Correlating oxygen vacancies and phase ratio/interface with efficient photocatalytic activity in mixed phase TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Ranjana; Samdarshi, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The correlation of interfacial behavior and oxygen vacancies in mixed phase titania nanoparticles on their performance as photocatalyst has been investigated to explain the impact of photoactivity under UV and visible irradiation compared to pristine counterparts. The defects at the junction effectively reduce the band gap as well decrease the carrier recombination to enhance the photocatalytic activity. - Highlights: • Pristine and mixed phases (A/R ratio) TiO 2 synthesized by sol gel route. • Photoactivity variation has been correlated with the changes in the phase ratio. • Enhanced UV and visible activity attributable to oxygen vacancy present at the interface. • Role of A/R ratio and oxygen vacancy in the photoactivity of mixed TiO 2 depicted through a model. - Abstract: The photocatalytic activity is a result of the synergy of a succession of phenomena-photogeneration, separation, and participation of the charge carriers in redox reaction at the catalyst surface. While the extent of photogeneration is assessable in terms of absorption spectrum (band gap), the redox reaction can be correlated to specific surface area. However the respective change in the photocatalytic activity has not been rationally and consistently correlated with the above mentioned parameters. A satisfactory explanation of suppression of recombination based on separation of carriers due to differential mobility/diffusivity in the material phase(s) and/or intrinsic potential barrier exists but its correlation with common identifiable parameter/characteristics is still elusive. This paper attempts to address this issue by correlating the carrier separation with the phase ratio (phase interface) in mixed phase titania and generalizing it with the presence of oxygen vacancy at the phase interface. It essentially appears to complete the quest for identifiable parameters in the sequence of phenomena, which endow a photocatalyst with an efficient activity level. It has

  4. Gender-partitioned patient medians of serum albumin requested by general practitioners for the assessment of analytical stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Steen Ingemann; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Lund, Flemming; Fraser, Callum G; Sölétormos, György

    2018-04-25

    Recently, the use of separate gender-partitioned patient medians of serum sodium has revealed potential for monitoring analytical stability within the optimum analytical performance specifications for laboratory medicine. The serum albumin concentration depends on whether a patient is sitting or recumbent during phlebotomy. We therefore investigated only examinations requested by general practitioners (GPs) to provide data from sitting patients. Weekly and monthly patient medians of serum albumin requested by GP for both male and female patients were calculated from the raw data obtained from three analysers in the hospital laboratory on examination of samples from those >18 years. The half-range of medians were applied as an estimate of the maximum bias. Further, the ratios between the two medians were calculated (females/males). The medians for male and female patients were closely related despite considerable variation due to the current analytical variation. This relationship was confirmed by the calculated half-range for the monthly ratio between the genders of 0.44%, which surpasses the optimum analytical performance specification for bias of serum albumin (0.72%). The weekly ratio had a half-range of 1.83%, which surpasses the minimum analytical performance specifications of 2.15%. Monthly gender-partitioned patient medians of serum albumin are useful for monitoring of long-term analytical stability, where the gender medians are two independent estimates of changes in (delta) bias: only results requested by GP are of value in this application to ensure that all patients are sitting during phlebotomy.

  5. A Three End-Member Mixing Model Based on Isotopic Composition and Elemental Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kon-Kee Liu Shuh-Ji Kao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A three end-member mixing model based on nitrogen isotopic composition and organic carbon to nitrogen ratio of suspended particulate matter in an aquatic environment has been developed. Mathematical expressions have been derived for the calculation of the fractions of nitrogen or organic carbon originating from three different sources of distinct isotopic and elemental compositions. The model was successfully applied to determine the contributions from anthropogenic wastes, soils and bedrock-derived sediments to particulate nitrogen and particulate organic carbon in the Danshuei River during the flood caused by Typhoon Bilis in August 2000. The model solutions have been expressed in a general form that allows applications to mixtures with other types of isotopic compositions and elemental ratios or in forms other than suspended particulate matter.

  6. E2,M1 Multipole mixing ratios in odd-mass nuclei, 59< or =A< or =149

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, K.S.

    1977-01-01

    A survey is presented of the E2,M1 mxing ratios of gamma-ray transitions in odd-mass nuclei with 59< or =A< or =149. Angular distribution and correlation data from the literature are analyzed in terms of a consistent choice of the phase relationship between the E2 and M1 matrix elements. A set of recommended values of the mixing ratios is included, based on averages of results from various studies. The survey includes data available in the literature up to September 1976

  7. FORMATION CONDITIONS OF ICY MATERIALS IN COMET C/2004 Q2 (MACHHOLZ). I. MIXING RATIOS OF ORGANIC VOLATILES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Hitomi; Kawakita, Hideyo

    2009-01-01

    We observed comet C/2004 Q2 (Machholz) with the Keck II telescope in late 2005 January and we obtained the spectra of C/2004 Q2 including many emission lines of volatile species such as H 2 O, HCN, C 2 H 2 , NH 3 , CH 4 , C 2 H 6 , CH 3 OH, and H 2 CO with high-signal-to-noise ratios. Based on our observations, we determined the mixing ratios of the molecules relative to H 2 O in C/2004 Q2. Since C/2004 Q2 is one of Oort Cloud comets, it is interesting to compare our results with other Oort Cloud comets. The mixing ratios of C 2 H 2 /H 2 O and C 2 H 6 /H 2 O in C/2004 Q2 are lower than typical Oort Cloud comets. Especially, C 2 H 2 /H 2 O ratio in C/2004 Q2 is as lower as Jupiter Family comets. However, mixing ratios of other molecules in C/2004 Q2 are similar to typical Oort Cloud comets. C/2004 Q2 might be the intermediate type between Oort Cloud and Jupiter Family comets. To investigate the formation conditions of such intermediate type comet, we focused on the (C 2 H 2 +C 2 H 6 )/H 2 O ratios and C 2 H 6 /(C 2 H 6 +C 2 H 2 ) ratios in comets from the viewpoint of conversion from C 2 H 2 to C 2 H 6 in the precometary ices. We found that (C 2 H 2 +C 2 H 6 )/H 2 O ratio in C/2004 Q2 is lower than the ratio in typical Oort Cloud comets while C 2 H 6 /(C 2 H 6 +C 2 H 2 ) ratio in C/2004 Q2 is consistent with the ratio of the typical Oort Cloud comets and Jupiter family comets. If we assume that the cometary volatiles such as H 2 O, CH 4 , and C 2 H 2 formed similar environment, the C 2 H 6 /(C 2 H 6 +C 2 H 2 ) ratio might not be sensitive in the temperature range where hydrogen-addition reactions occurred and cometesimals formed (∼30 K). We employed the dynamical-evolutional model and the chemical-evolutional model to determine the formation region of C/2004 Q2 more precisely. We found that comet C/2004 Q2 might have formed in relatively inner region of the solar nebula than the typical Oort Cloud comet (but slightly further than 5 AU from the proto-Sun).

  8. Performance of composite sand cement brick containing recycle concrete aggregate and waste polyethylene terephthalate with different mix design ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, N. B.; Khalid, F. S.; Irwan, J. M.; Mazenan, P. N.; Zahir, Z.; Shahidan, S.

    2018-04-01

    This study is focuses to the performance of composite sand cement brick containing recycle concrete aggregate and waste polyethylene terephthalate. The objective is to determine the mechanical properties such as compressive strength and water absorption of composite brick containing recycled concrete aggregate and polyethylene terephthalate waste and to determine the optimum mix ratio of bricks containing recycled concrete aggregate and polyethylene terephthalate waste. The bricks specimens were prepared by using 100% natural sand, they were then replaced by RCA at 25%, 50% and 75% with proportions of PET consists of 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0% and 2.5% by weight of natural sand. Based on the results of compressive strength, it indicates that the replacement of RCA shows an increasing strength as the strength starts to increase from 25% to 50% for both mix design ratio. The strength for RCA 75% volume of replacement started to decrease as the volume of PET increase. However, the result of water absorption with 50% RCA and 1.0% PET show less permeable compared to control brick at both mix design ratio. Thus, one would expect the density of brick decrease and the water absorption to increase as the RCA and PET content is increased.

  9. Sosiaalisen median mahdollisuudet Tilastokeskukselle

    OpenAIRE

    Vesterinen, Anu

    2011-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena oli sosiaalisen median mahdollisuudet Tilastokeskuksen viestinnässä. Työn tavoitteena oli kartoittaa sosiaalisen median käyttöön liittyviä mahdollisuuksia ja haasteita sekä selvittää siihen liittyviä odotuksia Tilastokeskuksen henkilöstön keskuudessa. Työn teoriaosuudessa tarkasteltiin sosiaalista mediaa käsitteenä ja esiteltiin sosiaalisen median käyttöä organisaation ulkoisen viestinnän välineenä. Opinnäytetyössä selvitettiin teoriatietoon pohjautuen sekä ca...

  10. A conceptual framework to quantify the influence of convective boundary layer development on carbon dioxide mixing ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Peters, W.; Schröter, J.; van Heerwaarden, C. C.; Krol, M. C.

    2012-01-01

    Interpretation of observed diurnal carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratios near the surface requires knowledge of the local dynamics of the planetary boundary layer. In this paper, we study the relationship between the boundary layer dynamics and the CO2 budget in convective conditions through a newly

  11. Sosiaalisen median markkinointistrategia

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    Insinöörityön tavoitteena oli suunnitella toimeksiantajayritykselle sopiva sosiaalisen median markkinointistrategia ja avustaa sen toteutuksessa sekä tuottaen sisältöä sovittuihin kanaviin. Pyrkimyksenä oli myös kouluttaa yrityksen henkilökuntaa käyttämään sosiaalista mediaa yleisellä tasolla ja markkinoinnissa tutustuttamalla heidät sosiaalisen median erilaisiin kanaviin ja mainostyökaluihin. Opinnäytetyössä keskityttiin tutkimaan Facebookissa toimivaa markkinointia ja siinä toimivia mai...

  12. Inter-annual and seasonal variations in transport to a measuring site in western Siberia, and their impact on the observed atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eneroth, Kristina

    2002-01-01

    Inter-annual and seasonal variations in atmospheric transport to a CO 2 measuring site in western Siberia were studied using three-dimensional trajectories. We identified large differences in transport between summer and winter, but also some differences between the years. Cluster analysis was applied to the trajectory data to determine to what degree different atmospheric flow patterns influence the variability of the atmospheric CO 2 mixing ratio. The observed CO 2 mixing ratio was also compared to observed CO 2 surface fluxes to study the impact of local sources and sinks. It was found that during July the correlation between atmospheric transport from distant source regions and CO 2 mixing ratios was poor. Furthermore the correlation was also weak between the CO 2 mixing ratio and the local eddy flux measurements. We conclude that the short-term variability in atmospheric CO 2 during summer probably is dominated by larger scale (tens up to one hundred kilometers) CO 2 surface fluxes and local meteorology. The weaker biogenic CO 2 fluxes during winter, resulted in CO 2 mixing ratios more clearly influenced by long-range transport Of CO 2 . However, the highest atmospheric CO 2 concentrations were not observed in connection with westerly winds representing transport of polluted air from Europe, but during periods with stagnant flow conditions. It was conjected that these high CO 2 mixing ratios were due to respired CO 2 trapped and accumulated in the lower parts of the planetary boundary layer. The mean duration for the identified flow patterns was in the order of two days, with a maximum duration of a week. This means that to have a chance to detect variations in CO 2 mixing ratio due to air mass changes the sampling frequency (e.g. flask samples and flight measurements) must be at least every other day. Our results show that the atmospheric transport varies with season, year and altitude. This, together with the heterogeneity of the source and sink regions are

  13. Sensor for mixing ratio of gasoline and alcohol or the like

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Shigeru; Matsubara, Yoshihiro

    1992-01-14

    An improved sensor is disclosed which is capable of continuously measuring a ratio of alcohol and gasoline with high precision, irrespective of the ambient temperature, in order to obtain the most appropriate timing of ignition and injection when employed, for example, in an internal combustion engine. The sensor has a cylindrical enclosure having both inlet and outlet openings to act as a passage through which the liquid fuel mixture flows. A transparent column is concentrically disposed in the enclosure, an outer surface of which is at least in partial contact with the fuel mixture. A light emitting diode is placed at one end of the column so that light from the diode enters the column to reach a boundary between the column and the fuel mixture. A photo diode at the other end of the column receives light beams totally reflected back at the boundary to produce an output, the magnitude of which depends on the mixing ratio of the fuel mixture. A temperature compensation means is also provided in the form of a temperature compensation photo diode and an amplifier, in order to maintain a uniform intensity of light beams emitted from the light emitting diode irrespective of changes in ambient temperature. 8 figs.

  14. Mix ratio measurements of pozzolanic blends by Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebagay, T.V.; Dodd, D.A.

    1992-07-01

    The disposal of low-level radioactive liquid wastes at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, involves mixing the wastes with pozzolanic grout-forming solid blends. Checking the quality of each blend component and its mix ratio will ensure processibility of the blend and the long-term performance of the resulting waste grout. In earlier work at Hanford laboratories, Fourier transform infrared-transmission method (FTIR-TR) using KBr pellet was applied successfully in the analysis of blends consisting of cement, fly ash, and clays. This method involves time-consuming sample preparation resulting in slow turnaround for repetitive sampling. Because reflection methods do not require elaborate sample preparation, they have the potential to reduce turnaround analysis time. Neat samples may be examined making these methods attractive for quality control. This study investigates the capability of Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance method (FTIR-ATR) to analyze pozzolanic blends

  15. The effect of symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome on ultrasonographic median nerve measures before and after wheelchair propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impink, Bradley G; Collinger, Jennifer L; Boninger, Michael L

    2011-09-01

    To quantify median nerve characteristics before and after strenuous wheelchair propulsion and relate them to symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). We hypothesized that persons with and without symptoms of CTS would have significantly different nerve characteristics at baseline and after propulsion. A repeated-measures design was used to obtain ultrasound images of the median nerve at 3 levels of the wrist (radius, pisiform, and hamate) before and after wheelchair propulsion. Investigators were blinded to subject history related to CTS. The 2007 and 2008 National Veterans Wheelchair Games and the Human Engineering Research Laboratories. Fifty-four participants between the ages of 18 and 65 years with a nonprogressive disability who used a manual wheelchair as their primary means of mobility completed this study. Participants completed questionnaires regarding demographics and the presence and severity of symptoms of CTS. Ultrasound images of the median nerve were obtained before and after a 15-minute strenuous wheelchair-propulsion task. Baseline values and post-propulsion changes were determined for median nerve cross-sectional area, flattening ratio, and swelling ratio. Differences in median nerve variables between symptomatic and asymptomatic groups were assessed. No significant differences between symptom groups were identified at baseline; however, persons with symptoms of CTS showed a significantly different percent change from baseline compared with the asymptomatic participants for cross-sectional area at pisiform (P = .014) and flattening ratio at hamate (P = .022), and they showed a strong trend toward a difference in swelling ratio (P = .0502). For each of these variables, the change in the symptomatic group was in the opposite direction of the change in the asymptomatic group. We found several median nerve responses to wheelchair propulsion associated with symptoms of CTS. These responses occurred even though no baseline ultrasound difference was

  16. Gender-partitioned patient medians of serum albumin requested by general practitioners for the assessment of analytical stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steen Ingemann; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Lund, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, the use of separate gender-partitioned patient medians of serum sodium has revealed potential for monitoring analytical stability within the optimum analytical performance specifications for laboratory medicine. The serum albumin concentration depends on whether a patient...... patients were closely related despite considerable variation due to the current analytical variation. This relationship was confirmed by the calculated half-range for the monthly ratio between the genders of 0.44%, which surpasses the optimum analytical performance specification for bias of serum albumin...... (0.72%). The weekly ratio had a half-range of 1.83%, which surpasses the minimum analytical performance specifications of 2.15%. CONCLUSIONS: Monthly gender-partitioned patient medians of serum albumin are useful for monitoring of long-term analytical stability, where the gender medians are two...

  17. The ratio (fBs/fB)/(fDs/fD) and its implications for B-bar B mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinstein, B.

    1993-01-01

    We observe that quantities like (f Bs /f B )/(f Ds /f D ) are predicted to be unity both by heavy quark and by light quark flavor symmetries. Hence, the deviation from the symmetry prediction must be simultaneously small in both symmetry breaking parameters, i.e., order of the ratio of light to heavy quark masses. We estimate the size of the correction. We observe that the ratio of (ΔM/Γ) for B s- bar Bs to B-bar B mixing can be expressed in terms of the measurable ratio f Ds /f D with good precision. We comment on applications of these ideas to other processes

  18. Thrombosed persistent median artery causing carpal tunnel syndrome associated with bifurcated median nerve: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salter, M.; Sinha, N. R.; Szmigielski, W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome is a sporadically occurring abnormality due to compression of median nerve. It is exceedingly rare for it to be caused by thrombosis of persistent median artery. Case Report: A forty two year old female was referred for ultrasound examination due to ongoing wrist pain, not relived by pain killers and mild paraesthesia on the radial side of the hand. High resolution ultrasound and Doppler revealed a thrombosed persistent median artery and associated bifurcated median nerve. The thrombus resolved on treatment with anticoagulants. Conclusions: Ultrasound examination of the wrist when done for patients with carpal tunnel syndrome should preferably include looking for persistent median artery and its patency. (authors)

  19. Inter-annual and seasonal variations in transport to a measuring site in western Siberia, and their impact on the observed atmospheric CO{sub 2} mixing ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eneroth, Kristina

    2002-05-01

    Inter-annual and seasonal variations in atmospheric transport to a CO{sub 2} measuring site in western Siberia were studied using three-dimensional trajectories. We identified large differences in transport between summer and winter, but also some differences between the years. Cluster analysis was applied to the trajectory data to determine to what degree different atmospheric flow patterns influence the variability of the atmospheric CO{sub 2} mixing ratio. The observed CO{sub 2} mixing ratio was also compared to observed CO{sub 2} surface fluxes to study the impact of local sources and sinks. It was found that during July the correlation between atmospheric transport from distant source regions and CO{sub 2} mixing ratios was poor. Furthermore the correlation was also weak between the CO{sub 2} mixing ratio and the local eddy flux measurements. We conclude that the short-term variability in atmospheric CO{sub 2} during summer probably is dominated by larger scale (tens up to one hundred kilometers) CO{sub 2} surface fluxes and local meteorology. The weaker biogenic CO{sub 2} fluxes during winter, resulted in CO{sub 2} mixing ratios more clearly influenced by long-range transport Of CO{sub 2}. However, the highest atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations were not observed in connection with westerly winds representing transport of polluted air from Europe, but during periods with stagnant flow conditions. It was conjected that these high CO{sub 2} mixing ratios were due to respired CO{sub 2} trapped and accumulated in the lower parts of the planetary boundary layer. The mean duration for the identified flow patterns was in the order of two days, with a maximum duration of a week. This means that to have a chance to detect variations in CO{sub 2} mixing ratio due to air mass changes the sampling frequency (e.g. flask samples and flight measurements) must be at least every other day. Our results show that the atmospheric transport varies with season, year and altitude

  20. A comparison of freeway median crash frequency, severity, and barrier strike outcomes by median barrier type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Brendan J; Savolainen, Peter T

    2018-08-01

    Median-crossover crashes are among the most hazardous events that can occur on freeways, often resulting in severe or fatal injuries. The primary countermeasure to reduce the occurrence of such crashes is the installation of a median barrier. When installation of a median barrier is warranted, transportation agencies are faced with the decision among various alternatives including concrete barriers, beam guardrail, or high-tension cable barriers. Each barrier type differs in terms of its deflection characteristics upon impact, the required installation and maintenance costs, and the roadway characteristics (e.g., median width) where installation would be feasible. This study involved an investigation of barrier performance through an in-depth analysis of crash frequency and severity data from freeway segments where high-tension cable, thrie-beam, and concrete median barriers were installed. A comprehensive manual review of crash reports was conducted to identify crashes in which a vehicle left the roadway and encroached into the median. This review also involved an examination of crash outcomes when a barrier strike occurred, which included vehicle containment, penetration, or re-direction onto the travel lanes. The manual review of crash reports provided critical supplementary information through narratives and diagrams not normally available through standard fields on police crash report forms. Statistical models were estimated to identify factors that affect the frequency, severity, and outcomes of median-related crashes, with particular emphases on differences between segments with varying median barrier types. Several roadway-, traffic-, and environmental-related characteristics were found to affect these metrics, with results varying across the different barrier types. The results of this study provide transportation agencies with important guidance as to the in-service performance of various types of median barrier. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  1. Sosiaalisen median riskit yritysmaailmassa

    OpenAIRE

    Kilpinen, Joni

    2015-01-01

    Sosiaalisen median palveluista on kirjoitettu lukuisia kirjoja ja artikkeleita, joissa niitä ylistetään varsinkin yritysnäkökulmasta. Vaikka sosiaalinen media on muuttanut olennaisesti tapaa, jolla keskustella, mainostaa, etsiä ja jakaa tietoa, piilee sen palveluiden käytössä kuitenkin erilaisia uhkakuvia. Yritykset ja asiantuntijat pelkäävät sosiaalisen median avoimuuden aiheuttavan suuria tietoturvariskejä. Lisäksi asiantuntijat ovat varoitelleet sosiaalisessa mediassa olevista haittaohjelm...

  2. GPU Accelerated Vector Median Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Rifat; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-01-01

    Noise reduction is an important step for most image processing tasks. For three channel color images, a widely used technique is vector median filter in which color values of pixels are treated as 3-component vectors. Vector median filters are computationally expensive; for a window size of n x n, each of the n(sup 2) vectors has to be compared with other n(sup 2) - 1 vectors in distances. General purpose computation on graphics processing units (GPUs) is the paradigm of utilizing high-performance many-core GPU architectures for computation tasks that are normally handled by CPUs. In this work. NVIDIA's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) paradigm is used to accelerate vector median filtering. which has to the best of our knowledge never been done before. The performance of GPU accelerated vector median filter is compared to that of the CPU and MPI-based versions for different image and window sizes, Initial findings of the study showed 100x improvement of performance of vector median filter implementation on GPUs over CPU implementations and further speed-up is expected after more extensive optimizations of the GPU algorithm .

  3. Switching non-local median filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Jyohei; Koga, Takanori; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a novel image filtering method for removal of random-valued impulse noise superimposed on grayscale images. Generally, it is well known that switching-type median filters are effective for impulse noise removal. In this paper, we propose a more sophisticated switching-type impulse noise removal method in terms of detail-preserving performance. Specifically, the noise detector of the proposed method finds out noise-corrupted pixels by focusing attention on the difference between the value of a pixel of interest (POI) and the median of its neighboring pixel values, and on the POI's isolation tendency from the surrounding pixels. Furthermore, the removal of the detected noise is performed by the newly proposed median filter based on non-local processing, which has superior detail-preservation capability compared to the conventional median filter. The effectiveness and the validity of the proposed method are verified by some experiments using natural grayscale images.

  4. The effect of mixing ratio variation of sludge and organic solid waste on biodrying process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, A. C.; Kristanto, G. A.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, organic waste was co-biodried with sludge cake to determine which mixing ratio gave the best result. The organic waste was consisted of dried leaves and green leaves, while the sludge cake was obtained from a waste water treatment plant in Bekasi. The experiment was performed on 3 lab-scale reactors with same specifications. After 21 days of experiment, it was found that the reactor with the lowest mixing fraction of sludge (5:1) has the best temperature profile and highest moisture content depletion compared with others. Initial moisture content and initial volatile solid content of this reactor’s feedstock was 52.25% and 82.4% respectively. The airflow rate was 10 lpm. After biodrying was done, the final moisture content of the feedstock from Reactor C was 22.0% and the final volatile solid content was 75.9%.The final calorific value after biodrying process was 3179,28kcal/kg.

  5. Influence of oxygen-metal ratio on mixed-oxide fuel performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, L.A.; Leggett, R.D.

    1979-04-01

    The fuel oxygen-to-metal ratio (O/M) is recognized as an important consideration for performance of uranium--plutonium oxide fuels. An overview of the effects of differing O/M's on the irradiation performance of reference design mixed-oxide fuel in the areas of chemical and mechanical behavior, thermal performance, and fission gas behavior is presented. The pellet fuel has a nominal composition of 75 wt% UO 2 + 25 wt% PuO 2 at a pellet density of approx. 90% TD. for nominal conditions this results in a smeared density of approx. 85%. The cladding in all cases is 20% CW type 316 stainless steel with an outer diameter of 5.84 to 6.35 mm. O/M has been found to significantly influence fuel pin chemistry, mainly FCCI and fission product and fuel migration. It has little effect on thermal performance and overall mechanical behavior or fission gas release. The effects of O/M (ranging from 1.938 to 1.984) in the areas of fuel pin chemistry, to date, have not resulted in any reduction in fuel pin performance capability to goal burnups of approx. 8 atom% or more

  6. Functional Median Polish

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying; Genton, Marc G.

    2012-01-01

    polish is demonstrated by comparing its performance with the traditional functional ANOVA fitted by means under different outlier models in simulation studies. The functional median polish is illustrated on various applications in climate science

  7. Five Roots Pattern of Median Nerve Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Natsis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An unusual combination of median nerve’s variations has been encountered in a male cadaver during routine educational dissection. In particular, the median nerve was formed by five roots; three roots originated from the lateral cord of the brachial plexus joined individually the median nerve’s medial root. The latter (fourth root was united with the lateral (fifth root of the median nerve forming the median nerve distally in the upper arm and not the axilla as usually. In addition, the median nerve was situated medial to the brachial artery. We review comprehensively the relevant variants, their embryologic development and their potential clinical applications.

  8. Validity of F-wave minimal latency of median and ulnar nerves for diagnosis and severity assessment of carpal tunnel syndrome in type II diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Habib, S.S.; Omar, S.A.; Drees, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Type II diabetes mellitus is a common problem and is sometimes associated with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) due to compression of median nerve at wrist. Electrophysiological tests are frequently used for its diagnosis. In this work, F-wave minimal latency (FWML) difference between median and ulnar nerve and F-ratio is used to facilitate the diagnosis and severity of CTS in type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Thirty control cases were selected who were physically fit for normal electrophysiological values. Thirty-two patients with a long history of type II diabetes mellitus were studied for electro-diagnostic tests. All patients had clinical evidence of CTS. Among all diabetics about 20 cases had poor glycaemic control (HbA1c>7.5). F-wave minimal latency (FWML) were measured in median and ulnar nerves and F-ratio of median nerve were also noted. The mean values in different groups were compared using t-test and p greater or equal to 0.05 was considered significant. Results: In control group, the ulnar FWML was either equal or slightly longer that the median FWML value. In CTS group with type II diabetes mellitus the FWML value of median nerve were significantly longer than FWML of the ulnar nerve. Moreover, in uncontrolled diabetic patients the FWML values was very much longer than controlled group. Similarly the F-ratio of median nerve was significantly low. Conclusion: In addition to the specific criteria for CTS diagnosis, the parameters like FWML difference in median and ulnar nerve with reduced F-ratio of median nerve can be useful in establishing the diagnosis and severity of CTS in type II diabetes mellitus. (author)

  9. Dual-mixed HIV-1 coreceptor tropism and HIV-associated neurocognitive deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Sheldon R; Woods, Steven Paul; Deutsch, Reena; Little, Susan J; Wagner, Gabriel; Morgan, Erin E; Heaton, Robert K; Letendre, Scott L; Grant, Igor; Smith, Davey M

    2013-10-01

    HIV coreceptor usage of CXCR4 (X4) is associated with decreased CD4+ T-cell counts and accelerated disease progression, but the role of X4 tropism in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) has not previously been described. This longitudinal study evaluated data on 197 visits from 72 recently HIV-infected persons who had undergone up to four sequential neurocognitive assessments over a median of 160 days (IQR, 138–192). Phenotypic tropism testing (Trofile ES, Monogram, Biosciences) was performed on stored blood samples. Multivariable mixed model repeated measures regression was used to determine the association between HAND and dual-mixed (DM) viral tropism, estimated duration of infection (EDI), HIV RNA, CD4 count, and problematic methamphetamine use. Six subjects (8.3 %) had DM at their first neurocognitive assessment and four converted to DM in subsequent sampling (for total of 10 DM) at a median EDI of 10.1 months (IQR, 7.2–12.2). There were 44 (61.1 %) subjects who demonstrated HAND on at least one study visit. HAND was associated with DM tropism (odds ratio, 4.4; 95 % CI, 0.9–20.5) and shorter EDI (odds ratio 1.1 per month earlier; 95 % CI, 1.0–1.2). This study found that recency of HIV-1 infection and the development of DM tropism may be associated with HAND in the relatively early stage of infection. Together, these data suggest that viral interaction with cellular receptors may play an important role in the early manifestation of HAND.

  10. Contrasting winter and summer VOC mixing ratios at a forest site in the Western Mediterranean Basin: the effect of local biogenic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco, R.; Peñuelas, J.; Filella, I.; Llusià, J.; Molowny-Horas, R.; Schallhart, S.; Metzger, A.; Müller, M.; Hansel, A.

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are involved in ozone and aerosol generation, thus having implications for air quality and climate. VOCs and their emissions by vegetation also have important ecological roles as they can protect plants from stresses and act as communication cues between plants and between plants and animals. In spite of these key environmental and biological roles, the reports on seasonal and daily VOC mixing ratios in the literature for Mediterranean natural environments are scarce. We conducted seasonal (winter and summer) measurements of VOC mixing ratios in an elevated (720 m a.s.l.) holm oak Mediterranean forest site near the metropolitan area of Barcelona (NE Iberian Peninsula). Methanol was the most abundant compound among all the VOCs measured in both seasons. While aromatic VOCs showed almost no seasonal variability, short-chain oxygenated VOCs presented higher mixing ratios in summer, presumably due to greater emission by vegetation and increased photochemistry, both enhanced by the high temperatures and solar radiation in summer. Isoprenoid VOCs showed the biggest seasonal change in mixing ratios: they increased by one order of magnitude in summer, as a result of the vegetation's greater physiological activity and emission rates. The maximum diurnal concentrations of ozone increased in summer too, most likely due to more intense photochemical activity and the higher levels of VOCs in the air. The daily variation of VOC mixing ratios was mainly governed by the wind regime of the mountain, as the majority of the VOC species analyzed followed a very similar diel cycle. Mountain and sea breezes that develop after sunrise advect polluted air masses to the mountain. These polluted air masses had previously passed over the urban and industrial areas surrounding the Barcelona metropolitan area, where they were enriched in NOx and in VOCs of biotic and abiotic origin. Moreover, these polluted air masses receive additional biogenic

  11. Variability in case-mix adjusted in-hospital cardiac arrest rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Raina M; Yang, Lin; Becker, Lance B; Berg, Robert A; Nadkarni, Vinay; Nichol, Graham; Carr, Brendan G; Mitra, Nandita; Bradley, Steven M; Abella, Benjamin S; Groeneveld, Peter W

    2012-02-01

    It is unknown how in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) rates vary across hospitals and predictors of variability. Measure variability in IHCA across hospitals and determine if hospital-level factors predict differences in case-mix adjusted event rates. Get with the Guidelines Resuscitation (GWTG-R) (n=433 hospitals) was used to identify IHCA events between 2003 and 2007. The American Hospital Association survey, Medicare, and US Census were used to obtain detailed information about GWTG-R hospitals. Adult patients with IHCA. Case-mix-adjusted predicted IHCA rates were calculated for each hospital and variability across hospitals was compared. A regression model was used to predict case-mix adjusted event rates using hospital measures of volume, nurse-to-bed ratio, percent intensive care unit beds, palliative care services, urban designation, volume of black patients, income, trauma designation, academic designation, cardiac surgery capability, and a patient risk score. We evaluated 103,117 adult IHCAs at 433 US hospitals. The case-mix adjusted IHCA event rate was highly variable across hospitals, median 1/1000 bed days (interquartile range: 0.7 to 1.3 events/1000 bed days). In a multivariable regression model, case-mix adjusted IHCA event rates were highest in urban hospitals [rate ratio (RR), 1.1; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0-1.3; P=0.03] and hospitals with higher proportions of black patients (RR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.3; P=0.01) and lower in larger hospitals (RR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.45-0.66; PCase-mix adjusted IHCA event rates varied considerably across hospitals. Several hospital factors associated with higher IHCA event rates were consistent with factors often linked with lower hospital quality of care.

  12. Mixed protocols: Multiple ratios of FSH and LH bioactivity using highly purified, human-derived FSH (BRAVELLE and highly purified hMG (MENOPUR are unaltered by mixing together in the same syringe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raike Elizabeth

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of mixed or blended protocols, that utilize both FSH and hMG, for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation is increasing in use. To reduce the number of injections a patient must administer, many physicians instruct their patients to mix their FSH and hMG together to be given as a single injection. Therefore, the goal of this study was to definitively determine if the FSH and LH bioactivities of highly purified, human-derived FSH (Bravelle(R and highly purified hMG (Menopur(R were altered by reconstituting in 0.9% saline and mixing in the same syringe. Methods Bravelle(R and Menopur(R were reconstituted in 0.9% saline and mixed in a Becton Dickinson plastic syringe. The FSH and LH bioactivities of the products were determined after injecting female and male rats, respectively, with Bravelle(R, Menopur(R, or a mixture of Bravelle(R and Menopur(R. Ratios of FSH:LH activity tested were 150:75 IU (1 vial Bravelle(R: 1 vial Menopur(R, 300:75 IU (3 vials Bravelle(R: 1 vial Menopur(R or 300:225 IU (1 vial Bravelle(R: 3 vials of Menopur(R. Results There were no statistically significant changes in either FSH or LH bioactivity that occurred after mixing Bravelle(R with Menopur(R in the same syringe. The theoretical vs. actual FSH bioactivity for Bravelle(R and Menopur(R were 75 vs. 76.58 IU/mL and 75 vs. 76.0 IU/mL, respectively. For the 3 ratios of FSH:LH activity tested, 150:75 IU (1 vial Bravelle(R: 1 vial Menopur(R, 300:75 IU (3 vials Bravelle(R: 1 vial Menopur(R or 300:225 IU (1 vial Bravelle(R: 3 vials of Menopur(R tested, the theoretical vs. actual FSH bioactivities were 150 vs. 156.86 IU/mL, 300 vs. 308.69 IU/mL and 300 vs. 306.58 IU/mL, respectively. The theoretical vs. actual LH bioactivity for Menopur(R in the above mentioned ratios tested were 75 vs. 77.50 IU/mL. For the 3 ratios of FSH:LH activity tested, 150:75 IU (1 vial Bravelle(R: 1 vial Menopur(R, 300:75 IU (3 vials Bravelle(R: 1 vial Menopur(R or 300:225 IU (1

  13. Study on the Spectral Mixing Model for Mineral Pigments Based on Derivative of Ratio Spectroscopy-Take Vermilion and Stone Yellow for Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H.; Hao, Y.; Liu, X.; Hou, M.; Zhao, X.

    2018-04-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing is a completely non-invasive technology for measurement of cultural relics, and has been successfully applied in identification and analysis of pigments of Chinese historical paintings. Although the phenomenon of mixing pigments is very usual in Chinese historical paintings, the quantitative analysis of the mixing pigments in the ancient paintings is still unsolved. In this research, we took two typical mineral pigments, vermilion and stone yellow as example, made precisely mixed samples using these two kinds of pigments, and measured their spectra in the laboratory. For the mixing spectra, both fully constrained least square (FCLS) method and derivative of ratio spectroscopy (DRS) were performed. Experimental results showed that the mixing spectra of vermilion and stone yellow had strong nonlinear mixing characteristics, but at some bands linear unmixing could also achieve satisfactory results. DRS using strong linear bands can reach much higher accuracy than that of FCLS using full bands.

  14. Analysis of plutonium isotope ratios including 238Pu/239Pu in individual U-Pu mixed oxide particles by means of a combination of alpha spectrometry and ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaka, Fumitaka; Yasuda, Kenichiro; Suzuki, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Magara, Masaaki

    2017-04-01

    Isotope ratio analysis of individual uranium-plutonium (U-Pu) mixed oxide particles contained within environmental samples taken from nuclear facilities is proving to be increasingly important in the field of nuclear safeguards. However, isobaric interferences, such as 238 U with 238 Pu and 241 Am with 241 Pu, make it difficult to determine plutonium isotope ratios in mass spectrometric measurements. In the present study, the isotope ratios of 238 Pu/ 239 Pu, 240 Pu/ 239 Pu, 241 Pu/ 239 Pu, and 242 Pu/ 239 Pu were measured for individual Pu and U-Pu mixed oxide particles by a combination of alpha spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). As a consequence, we were able to determine the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu, 241 Pu/ 239 Pu, and 242 Pu/ 239 Pu isotope ratios with ICP-MS after particle dissolution and chemical separation of plutonium with UTEVA resins. Furthermore, 238 Pu/ 239 Pu isotope ratios were able to be calculated by using both the 238 Pu/( 239 Pu+ 240 Pu) activity ratios that had been measured through alpha spectrometry and the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu isotope ratios determined through ICP-MS. Therefore, the combined use of alpha spectrometry and ICP-MS is useful in determining plutonium isotope ratios, including 238 Pu/ 239 Pu, in individual U-Pu mixed oxide particles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Measurement of low-ppm mixing ratios of water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere using chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Thornberry

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS instrument has been developed for the fast, precise, and accurate measurement of water vapor (H2O at low mixing ratios in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS. A low-pressure flow of sample air passes through an ionization volume containing an α-particle radiation source, resulting in a cascade of ion-molecule reactions that produce hydronium ions (H3O+ from ambient H2O. The production of H3O+ ions from ambient H2O depends on pressure and flow through the ion source, which were tightly controlled in order to maintain the measurement sensitivity independent of changes in the airborne sampling environment. The instrument was calibrated every 45 min in flight by introducing a series of H2O mixing ratios between 0.5 and 153 parts per million (ppm, 10−6 mol mol−1 generated by Pt-catalyzed oxidation of H2 standards while overflowing the inlet with dry synthetic air. The CIMS H2O instrument was deployed in an unpressurized payload area aboard the NASA WB-57F high-altitude research aircraft during the Mid-latitude Airborne Cirrus Properties Experiment (MACPEX mission in March and April 2011. The instrument performed successfully during seven flights, measuring H2O mixing ratios below 5 ppm in the lower stratosphere at altitudes up to 17.7 km, and as low as 3.5 ppm near the tropopause. Data were acquired at 10 Hz and reported as 1 s averages. In-flight calibrations demonstrated a typical sensitivity of 2000 Hz ppm−1 at 3 ppm with a signal to noise ratio (2 σ, 1 s greater than 32. The total measurement uncertainty was 9 to 11%, derived from the uncertainty in the in situ calibrations.

  16. Contrasting winter and summer VOC mixing ratios at a forest site in the Western Mediterranean Basin: the effect of local biogenic emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Seco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs are involved in ozone and aerosol generation, thus having implications for air quality and climate. VOCs and their emissions by vegetation also have important ecological roles as they can protect plants from stresses and act as communication cues between plants and between plants and animals. In spite of these key environmental and biological roles, the reports on seasonal and daily VOC mixing ratios in the literature for Mediterranean natural environments are scarce.

    We conducted seasonal (winter and summer measurements of VOC mixing ratios in an elevated (720 m a.s.l. holm oak Mediterranean forest site near the metropolitan area of Barcelona (NE Iberian Peninsula. Methanol was the most abundant compound among all the VOCs measured in both seasons. While aromatic VOCs showed almost no seasonal variability, short-chain oxygenated VOCs presented higher mixing ratios in summer, presumably due to greater emission by vegetation and increased photochemistry, both enhanced by the high temperatures and solar radiation in summer. Isoprenoid VOCs showed the biggest seasonal change in mixing ratios: they increased by one order of magnitude in summer, as a result of the vegetation's greater physiological activity and emission rates. The maximum diurnal concentrations of ozone increased in summer too, most likely due to more intense photochemical activity and the higher levels of VOCs in the air.

    The daily variation of VOC mixing ratios was mainly governed by the wind regime of the mountain, as the majority of the VOC species analyzed followed a very similar diel cycle. Mountain and sea breezes that develop after sunrise advect polluted air masses to the mountain. These polluted air masses had previously passed over the urban and industrial areas surrounding the Barcelona metropolitan area, where they were enriched in NOx and in VOCs of biotic and abiotic origin. Moreover, these

  17. CKM parameter fits, the Bs0- anti Bs0 mixing ratio xs and CP-violating phases in B decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; London, D.

    1993-02-01

    We review and update constraints on the parameters of the flavour mixing matrix (V CKM ) in the Standard Model. In performing these fits, we use inputs from the measurements of parallel ε parallel , the CP-violating parameter in K decays, x d = (ΔM)/Γ, the mixing parameter in B 0 d -anti B 0 d mixing, and the present measurements of the matrix elements parallel V cb parallel and parallel V ub parallel . We take into account the next-to-leading order QCD results in our analysis, wherever available, and incorporate results stemming from the ongoing lattice calculations of the B-meson coupling constants, which predict a value f Bd = 200 ± 30 MeV, though for the sake of comparison we also show the CKM fits for smaller values of f Bd . We use the updated CKM matrix to predict the mixing ration x, relevant for B 0 s - anti B 0 s , mixing, and the phases in the CKM unitarity triangle, sin 2α, sin 2β and sin 2γ, which determine the CP-violating asymmetries on B-decays. The importance of measuring the ratio x, in restricting the allowed values of the CKM parameters is emphasized. (orig.)

  18. The Ultrasonographic Findings of Bifid Median Nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee Jin; Park, Noh Hyuck; Joh, Joon Hee; Lee, Sung Moon

    2009-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the ultrasonographic findings of bifid median nerve and its clinical significance. We retrospectively reviewed five cases (three men and two women, mean age: 54 years) of incidentally found bifid median nerve from 264 cases of clinically suspected carpal-tunnel syndrome that were seen at our hospital during last 6 years. Doppler sonography was performed in all five cases and MR angiography was done in one case for detecting a persistent median artery. The difference (ΔCSA) between the sum of the cross-sectional areas of the bifid median nerve at the pisiform level (CSA2) and the cross-sectional area proximal to the bifurcation(CSA1) was calculated. The incidence of a bifid median nerve was 1.9%. All the patients presented with a tingling sensation on a hand and two patients had nocturnal pain. All the cases showed bifurcation of the nerve bundle proximal to the carpal tunnel. The margins appeared relatively smooth and each bundle showed a characteristic fascicular pattern. A persistent median artery was noted between the bundles in four cases. ΔCSA was more than 2 mm 2 in four cases. Bifid median nerve with a persistent median artery is a relatively rare normal variance and these are very important findings before performing surgical intervention to avoid potential nerve injury and massive bleeding. We highly suggest that radiologists should understand the anatomical characteristics of this anomaly and make efforts to detect it

  19. Testing the gravity p-median model empirically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Carling

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the location of a facility, the presumption in the widely used p-median model is that the customer opts for the shortest route to the nearest facility. However, this assumption is problematic on free markets since the customer is presumed to gravitate to a facility by the distance to and the attractiveness of it. The recently introduced gravity p-median model offers an extension to the p-median model that account for this. The model is therefore potentially interesting, although it has not yet been implemented and tested empirically. In this paper, we have implemented the model in an empirical problem of locating vehicle inspections, locksmiths, and retail stores of vehicle spare-parts for the purpose of investigating its superiority to the p-median model. We found, however, the gravity p-median model to be of limited use for the problem of locating facilities as it either gives solutions similar to the p-median model, or it gives unstable solutions due to a non-concave objective function.

  20. Switching non-local vector median filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Jyohei; Koga, Takanori; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes a novel image filtering method that removes random-valued impulse noise superimposed on a natural color image. In impulse noise removal, it is essential to employ a switching-type filtering method, as used in the well-known switching median filter, to preserve the detail of an original image with good quality. In color image filtering, it is generally preferable to deal with the red (R), green (G), and blue (B) components of each pixel of a color image as elements of a vectorized signal, as in the well-known vector median filter, rather than as component-wise signals to prevent a color shift after filtering. By taking these fundamentals into consideration, we propose a switching-type vector median filter with non-local processing that mainly consists of a noise detector and a noise removal filter. Concretely, we propose a noise detector that proactively detects noise-corrupted pixels by focusing attention on the isolation tendencies of pixels of interest not in an input image but in difference images between RGB components. Furthermore, as the noise removal filter, we propose an extended version of the non-local median filter, we proposed previously for grayscale image processing, named the non-local vector median filter, which is designed for color image processing. The proposed method realizes a superior balance between the preservation of detail and impulse noise removal by proactive noise detection and non-local switching vector median filtering, respectively. The effectiveness and validity of the proposed method are verified in a series of experiments using natural color images.

  1. The High Accuracy Measurement of CO2 Mixing Ratio Profiles Using Ground Based 1.6 μm CO2-DIAL with Temperature Measurement Techniques in the Lower-Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo, M.; Shibata, Y.; Nagasawa, C.

    2017-12-01

    We have developed a ground based direct detection three-wavelength 1.6 μm differential absorption lidar (DIAL) to achieve measurements of vertical CO2 concentration and temperature profiles in the atmosphere. As the spectra of absorption lines of any molecules are influenced basically by the temperature and pressure in the atmosphere, it is important to measure them simultaneously so that the better accuracy of the DIAL measurement is realized. Conventionally, we have obtained the vertical profile of absorption cross sections using the atmospheric temperature profile by the objective analysis and the atmospheric pressure profile calculated by the pressure height equation. Comparison of atmospheric pressure profiles calculated from this equation and those obtained from radiosonde observations at Tateno, Japan is consistent within 0.2 % below 3 km altitude. But the temperature dependency of the CO2 density is 0.25 %/°C near the surface. Moreover, the CO2 concentration is often evaluated by the mixing ratio. Because the air density is related by the ideal gas law, the mixing ratio is also related by the atmospheric temperature. Therefore, the temperature affects not only accuracy of CO2 concentration but the CO2 mixing ratio. In this paper, some experimental results of the simultaneous measurement of atmospheric temperature profiles and CO2 mixing ratio profiles are reported from 0.4 to 2.5 km altitude using the three-wavelength 1.6 μm DIAL system. Temperature profiles of CO2 DIAL measurement were sometimes different from those of objective analysis below 1.5 km altitude. These differences are considered to be due to regionality at the lidar site. The temperature difference of 5.0 °C corresponds to a CO2 mixing ratio difference of 8.0 ppm at 500 m altitude. This cannot be ignored in estimates of regional sources and sinks of CO2. This three-wavelength CO2 DIAL technique can estimate accurately temporal behavior of CO2 mixing ratio profiles in the lower atmosphere

  2. Bioremediation of storage tank bottom sludge by using a two-stage composting system: Effect of mixing ratio and nutrients addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolivand, Ali; Rajaei, Mohammad Sadegh; Ghanadzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Saeedi, Reza; Abtahi, Hamid; Godini, Kazem

    2017-07-01

    The effect of mixing ratio and nutrients addition on the efficiency of a two-stage composting system in removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) from storage tank bottom sludge (STBS) was investigated. The system consisted of ten windrow piles as primary composting (PC) followed by four in-vessel reactors as secondary composting (SC). Various initial C/N/P and mixing ratios of STBS to immature compost (IC) were examined in the PC and SC for 12 and 6weeks, respectively. The removal rates of TPH in the two-stage system (93.72-95.24%) were higher than those in the single-stage one. Depending on the experiments, TPH biodegradation fitted to the first- and second-order kinetics with the rate constants of 0.051-0.334d -1 and 0.002-0.165gkg -1 d -1 , respectively. The bacteria identified were Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp., Klebsiella sp., Staphylococcus sp., and Proteus sp. The study verified that a two-stage composting system is effective in treating the STBS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Aviation NOx-induced CH4 effect: Fixed mixing ratio boundary conditions versus flux boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodayari, Arezoo; Olsen, Seth C.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Phoenix, Daniel B.

    2015-07-01

    Atmospheric chemistry-climate models are often used to calculate the effect of aviation NOx emissions on atmospheric ozone (O3) and methane (CH4). Due to the long (∼10 yr) atmospheric lifetime of methane, model simulations must be run for long time periods, typically for more than 40 simulation years, to reach steady-state if using CH4 emission fluxes. Because of the computational expense of such long runs, studies have traditionally used specified CH4 mixing ratio lower boundary conditions (BCs) and then applied a simple parameterization based on the change in CH4 lifetime between the control and NOx-perturbed simulations to estimate the change in CH4 concentration induced by NOx emissions. In this parameterization a feedback factor (typically a value of 1.4) is used to account for the feedback of CH4 concentrations on its lifetime. Modeling studies comparing simulations using CH4 surface fluxes and fixed mixing ratio BCs are used to examine the validity of this parameterization. The latest version of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), with the CAM5 atmospheric model, was used for this study. Aviation NOx emissions for 2006 were obtained from the AEDT (Aviation Environmental Design Tool) global commercial aircraft emissions. Results show a 31.4 ppb change in CH4 concentration when estimated using the parameterization and a 1.4 feedback factor, and a 28.9 ppb change when the concentration was directly calculated in the CH4 flux simulations. The model calculated value for CH4 feedback on its own lifetime agrees well with the 1.4 feedback factor. Systematic comparisons between the separate runs indicated that the parameterization technique overestimates the CH4 concentration by 8.6%. Therefore, it is concluded that the estimation technique is good to within ∼10% and decreases the computational requirements in our simulations by nearly a factor of 8.

  4. Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome: A Single-Center Experience with 23 Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasr, Layla A. [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (Lebanon); Faraj, Walid G. [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Department of Surgery (Lebanon); Al-Kutoubi, Aghiad [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (Lebanon); Hamady, Mohamad [Imperial College-London Faculty of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Khalifeh, Mohamad; Hallal, Ali; Halawani, Hamzeh M. [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Department of Surgery (Lebanon); Wazen, Joelle; Haydar, Ali A., E-mail: ah24@aub.edu.lb [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (Lebanon)

    2017-05-15

    BackgroundMedian arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS) is a rare entity that occurs when the median arcuate ligament of the diaphragm is low-lying, causing a compression to the underlying celiac trunk. We reviewed the vascular changes associated with MALS in an effort to emphasize the seriousness of this disease and the complications that may result.MethodsThis is a retrospective descriptive analysis of 23 consecutive patients diagnosed with MALS between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2015 at a tertiary medical center. Computed tomographic (CT) scans, medical records, and patient follow-up were reviewed.ResultsThe number of patients included herein was 23. The median age was 56 years (17–83). Sixteen patients (69.6%) had a significant arterial collateral circulation. Eleven patients (47.8%) were found to have visceral artery aneurysms; 4 patients (36.4%) bled secondary to aneurysm rupture. All ruptured aneurysms were treated with endovascular approach. The severity of the hemodynamic changes appears to be greater with complete occlusion,ConclusionsMALS causes pathological hemodynamic changes within the abdominal vasculature. Follow-up is advised for patients who develop a collateral circulation. Resulting aneurysms should preferably be treated when the size ratio approaches three. Treatment of these aneurysms can be done via an endovascular approach coupled with possible celiac artery decompression to restore physiologic blood flow.

  5. Median Nerve Conduction in Healthy Nigerians: Normative Data

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of median nerve disease using multiple studies, and rendering ... Aim: To develop normative values for motor and sensory median nerve ..... Table 5: Comparison of median motor nerve conduction study parameters to studies elsewhere. Study.

  6. Relationships between the Brook Street Terrane and Median Tectonic Zone (Median Batholith) : evidence from Jurassic conglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulloch, A.J.; Kimbrough, D.L.; Landis, C.A.; Mortimer, N.; Johnston, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    U-Pb zircon ages of 237-180 Ma and c. 280 Ma of seven granitoid clasts from the Rainy River Conglomerate which lies within the eastern Median Tectonic Zone (Median Batholith) in Nelson, and the Barretts Formation of the Brook Street Terrane in Southland, constrain the depositional ages of both units to be no older than c. 180-200 Ma (Early Jurassic). The minimum age of the Rainy River Conglomerate is constrained by the 147 +2 -1 Ma (Latest Jurassic) emplacement age of the One Mile Gabbronorite (new name: previously western Buller Diorite). The ages and chemistry of five of the granitoid clasts are broadly compatible with derivation from rocks that are now represented by Triassic plutons of the Median Tectonic Zone (Median Batholith), although ages as young as 180 Ma are slightly outside the range of the latter as currently exposed in New Zealand. The age (273-290 Ma, 237 +/- 3 Ma) and chemistry of the other two clasts (one each from Rainy River Conglomerate and Barretts Formation) suggest derivation from the Brook Street Terrane. Similarity in stratigraphic age, depositional characteristics, granitoid clast ages and composition between Rainy River Conglomerate and Barretts Formation suggests that they are broadly correlative and collectively overlapped a combined Brook Street Terrane - Median Batholith (MTZ) before the Late Jurassic (147 +2 -1 Ma). Sedimentary overlap may also have continued across to Middle Jurassic conglomeratic strata in the Murihiku Terrane to the east of the Brook Street Terrane. A U-Pb zircon age of 261 +/- 2 Ma is reported for Pourakino Trondhjemite of the Brook Street Terrane. (author). 56 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Median and ulnar neuropathies in university guitarists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Rachel H; Hutcherson, Kimberly J; Kain, Jennifer B; Phillips, Alicia L; Halle, John S; Greathouse, David G

    2006-02-01

    Descriptive study. To determine the presence of median and ulnar neuropathies in both upper extremities of university guitarists. Peripheral nerve entrapment syndromes of the upper extremities are well documented in musicians. Guitarists and plucked-string musicians are at risk for entrapment neuropathies in the upper extremities and are prone to mild neurologic deficits. Twenty-four volunteer male and female guitarists (age range, 18-26 years) were recruited from the Belmont University School of Music and the Vanderbilt University Blair School of Music. Individuals were excluded if they were pregnant or had a history of recent upper extremity or neck injury. Subjects completed a history form, were interviewed, and underwent a physical examination. Nerve conduction status of the median and ulnar nerves of both upper extremities was obtained by performing motor, sensory, and F-wave (central) nerve conduction studies. Descriptive statistics of the nerve conduction study variables were computed using Microsoft Excel. Six subjects had positive findings on provocative testing of the median and ulnar nerves. Otherwise, these guitarists had normal upper extremity neural and musculoskeletal function based on the history and physical examinations. When comparing the subjects' nerve conduction study values with a chart of normal nerve conduction studies values, 2 subjects had prolonged distal motor latencies (DMLs) of the left median nerve of 4.3 and 4.7 milliseconds (normal, DMLs are compatible with median neuropathy at or distal to the wrist. Otherwise, all electrophysiological variables were within normal limits for motor, sensory, and F-wave (central) values. However, comparison studies of median and ulnar motor latencies in the same hand demonstrated prolonged differences of greater than 1.0 milliseconds that affected the median nerve in 2 additional subjects, and identified contralateral limb involvement in a subject with a prolonged distal latency. The other 20

  8. Variability and Reliability of Paired-Pulse Depression and Cortical Oscillation Induced by Median Nerve Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Hideaki; Otsuru, Naofumi; Kojima, Sho; Miyaguchi, Shota; Saito, Kei; Inukai, Yasuto; Yamashiro, Koya; Sato, Daisuke; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Shirozu, Hiroshi; Kameyama, Shigeki

    2018-05-08

    Paired-pulse depression (PPD) has been widely used to investigate the functional profiles of somatosensory cortical inhibition. However, PPD induced by somatosensory stimulation is variable, and the reasons for between- and within-subject PPD variability remains unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to clarify the factors influencing PPD variability induced by somatosensory stimulation. The study participants were 19 healthy volunteers. First, we investigated the relationship between the PPD ratio of each component (N20m, P35m, and P60m) of the somatosensory magnetic field, and the alpha, beta, and gamma band changes in power [event-related desynchronization (ERD) and event-related synchronization (ERS)] induced by median nerve stimulation. Second, because brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene polymorphisms reportedly influence the PPD ratio, we assessed whether BDNF genotype influences PPD ratio variability. Finally, we evaluated the test-retest reliability of PPD and the alpha, beta, and gamma ERD/ERS induced by somatosensory stimulation. Significant positive correlations were observed between the P60m_PPD ratio and beta power change, and the P60m_PPD ratio was significantly smaller for the beta ERD group than for the beta ERS group. P35m_PPD was found to be robust and highly reproducible; however, P60m_PPD reproducibility was poor. In addition, the ICC values for alpha, beta, and gamma ERD/ERS were 0.680, 0.760, and 0.552 respectively. These results suggest that the variability of PPD for the P60m deflection may be influenced by the ERD/ERS magnitude, which is induced by median nerve stimulation.

  9. Oxygen-to-metal ratio control during fabrication of mixed oxide fast breeder reactor fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, D.E.; Benecke, M.W.; Jentzen, W.R.; McCord, R.B.

    1979-05-01

    Oxygen-to-metal ratio (O/M) of mixed oxide fuel pellets can be controlled during fabrication by proper selection of binder (type and content) and sintering conditions. Sintering condition adjustments involved the passing of Ar--8% H 2 sintering gas across a cryostat ice bath controlled to temperatures ranging from -5 to -60 0 C to control as-sintered pellet O/M ratio. As-sintered fuel pellet O/M decreased with increasing Sterotex binder and PuO 2 concentrations, increasing sintering temperature, and decreasing sintering gas dew point. Approximate relationships between Sterotex binder level and O/M were established for PuO 2 --UO 2 and PuO 2 --ThO 2 fuels. O/M was relatively insensitive to Carbowax binder concentration. Several methods of increasing O/M using post-sintering pellet heat treatments were demonstrated, with the most reliable being a two-step process of first raising the O/M to 2.00 (stoichiometric) at 650 0 C in Ar--8% H 2 bubbled through H 2 O, followed by hydrogen reduction to specification O/M in oxygen-gettered Ar-8% H 2 at temperatures ranging from 1200 to 1690 0 C

  10. Measurement of glass transition temperature, residual heat of reaction and mixing ratio of epoxy resins using near infrared spectroscopy: a preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houmøller, Lars Plejdrup; Laursen, Peter Clemen

    2003-01-01

    As a measure of the degree of curing of epoxy resins, the glass transition temperature, Tg, and the residual heat of reaction, DeltaHr, are often used. In this study, near infrared spectroscopy and multivariate calibration (partial least squares regression (PLSR)) have been used to monitor the two...... variables, using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as the reference method. The epoxy under study was a commercial system consisting of the resin, trimethylolpropanetriglycidylether, and the hardener, 3-aminomethyl-3,5,5,-trimethylcyclohexylamine. Using samples cured under different conditions......, calibrations resulted in root mean square errors of cross-validation (RMSECV) of 18 J/g for DeltaHr (range for Hr: 6.1-231.3 J/g) and 7.2ºC for Tg (range for Tg: 41.5-98.8ºC). Also, a PLSR model for mixing ratio of hardener and resin was obtained, resulting in a RMSECV of 0.0040 (range for mixing ratio: 0.180-0.380)...

  11. Effect of Cell-to-matrix Ratio in Polyvinyl Alcohol Immobilized Pure and Mixed Cultures on Atrazine Degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siripattanakul, Sumana; Wirojanagud, Wanpen; McEvoy, John; Khan, Eakalak

    2008-01-01

    Atrazine biodegradation by immobilized pure and mixed cultures was examined. A pure atrazine-degrading culture, Agrobacterium radiobacter J14a (J14a), and a mixed culture (MC), isolated from an atrazine-contaminated crop field, were immobilized using phosphorylated-polyvinyl alcohol (PPVA). An existing cell immobilization procedure was modified to enhance PPVA matrix stability. The results showed that the matrices remained mechanically and chemically stable after shaking with glass beads over 15 days under various salt solutions and pH values. The immobilization process had a slight effect on cell viability. With the aid of scanning electron microscopy, a suitable microstructure of PPVA matrices for cell entrapment was observed. There were two porous layers of spherical gel matrices, the outside having an encapsulation property and the inside containing numerous pores for bacteria to occupy. J14a and MC were immobilized at three cell-to-matrix ratios of 3.5, 6.7, and 20 mg dry cells/mL matrix. The atrazine biodegradation tests were conducted in an aerobic batch system, which was inoculated with cells at 2,000 mg/L. The tests were also conducted using free (non-immobilized) J14a and MC for comparative purpose. The cell-to-matrix ratio of 3.5 mg/mL provided the highest atrazine removal efficiency of 40-50% in 120 h for both J14a and MC. The free cell systems, for both cultures, presented much lower atrazine removal efficiencies compared to the immobilized cell systems at the same level of inoculation

  12. Effects of mix ratio, moisture content and aeration rate on sulfur odor emissions during pig manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Bing; Li, Shuyan; Michel, Frederick; Li, Guoxue; Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Difang; Li, Yangyang

    2016-10-01

    Sulfur compounds in swine manure can cause odor emissions during composting if conditions are not conducive to their rapid oxidation and degradation. In this study, the effects of controllable composting process variables on sulfur odor emissions were investigated. These included pig manure to corn stalk mix ratio (0.7:1, 1.5:1 and 2.2:1dw basis), initial moisture content (60%, 65%, 70% and 75%) and aeration rate (1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0m(3)m(-3)h(-1)). The compounds measured were carbonyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, ethyl mercaptan, diethyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide (Me2S) and dimethyl disulfide (Me2SS). The results showed that total sulfur losses ranged from 3.9% to 18.3% after 26days of composting. Me2S and Me2SS were the primary (>59.61%) sulfur compounds released during this period. After turning, emission rates of both Me2S and Me2SS increased. Emissions of the other six sulfur compounds were low and inconsistent during composting. Within the compost, feedstock mix ratio significantly influenced the concentration of Me2SS, while aeration rate significantly affected Me2S concentration (pMoisture content did not have a significant effect on the concentrations of either of these two compounds. Concentrations of sulfur odor compounds were the lowest at the highest aeration rate. Therefore, high aeration rates during the thermophilic phase, especially after turning, are recommended to minimize sulfur odors produced during swine manure composting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A single gas chromatograph for accurate atmospheric mixing ratio measurements of CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6 and CO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. J. Meijer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an adapted gas chromatograph capable of measuring simultaneously and semi-continuously the atmospheric mixing ratios of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, N2O and SF6 and the trace gas CO with high precision and long-term stability. The novelty of our design is that all species are measured with only one device, making it a very cost-efficient system. No time lags are introduced between the measured mixing ratios. The system is designed to operate fully autonomously which makes it ideal for measurements at remote and unmanned stations. Only a small amount of sample air is needed, which makes this system also highly suitable for flask air measurements. In principle, only two reference cylinders are needed for daily operation and only one calibration per year against international WMO standards is sufficient to obtain high measurement precision and accuracy. The system described in this paper is in use since May 2006 at our atmospheric measurement site Lutjewad near Groningen, The Netherlands at 6°21´ E, 53°24´N, 1 m a.s.l. Results show the long-term stability of the system. Observed measurement precisions at our remote research station Lutjewad were: ±0.04 ppm for CO2, ±0.8 ppb for CH4, ±0.8 ppb for CO, ±0.3 ppb for N2O, and ±0.1 ppt for SF6. The ambient mixing ratios of all measured species as observed at station Lutjewad for the period of May 2007 to August 2008 are presented as well.

  14. Characterization of Organic Thin Film Solar Cells of PCDTBT : PC71BM Prepared by Different Mixing Ratio and Effect of Hole Transport Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Srinivasan Murugesan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The organic thin film solar cells (OTFSCs have been successfully fabricated using PCDTBT : PC71BM with different mixing ratios (1 : 1 to 1 : 8 and the influence of hole transport layer thickness (PEDOT : PSS. The active layers with different mixing ratios of PCDTBT : PC71BM have been fabricated using o-dichlorobenzene (o-DCB. The surface morphology of the active layers and PEDOT : PSS layer with different thicknesses were characterized by AFM analysis. Here, we report that the OTFSCs with high performance have been optimized with 1 : 4 ratios of PCDTBT : PC71BM. The power conversion efficiency (PCE = 5.17% of the solar cells was significantly improved by changing thickness of PEDOT : PSS layer. The thickness of the PEDOT : PSS layer was found to be of significant importance; the thickness of the PEDOT : PSS layer at 45 nm (higher spin speed 5000 rpm shows higher short circuit current density (Jsc and lower series resistance (Rs and higher PCE.

  15. MEDIAN: Wireless broadband LAN for multimedia applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, P.J. van

    1998-01-01

    MEDIAN is one of the projects in the mobile domain of the Advanced Communications Technologies and Services (ACTS) programme of the European Commission. The main obiective of the MEDIAN project is to evaluate and implement a high speed Wireless Customer Premises / Local Area Network (WCPN/WLAN)

  16. On Preliminary Test Estimator for Median

    OpenAIRE

    Okazaki, Takeo; 岡崎, 威生

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to discuss about estimation of median with a preliminary test. Two procedures are presented, one uses Median test and the other uses Wilcoxon two-sample test for the preliminary test. Sections 3 and 4 give mathematical formulations of such properties, including mean square errors with one specified case. Section 5 discusses their optimal significance levels of the preliminary test and proposes their numerical values by Monte Carlo method. In addition to mea...

  17. Development of Kinematic Graphs of Median Nerve during Active Finger Motion: Implications of Smartphone Use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoi-Chi Woo

    Full Text Available Certain hand activities cause deformation and displacement of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel due to the gliding motion of tendons surrounding it. As smartphone usage escalates, this raises the public's concern whether hand activities while using smartphones can lead to median nerve problems.The aims of this study were to 1 develop kinematic graphs and 2 investigate the associated deformation and rotational information of median nerve in the carpal tunnel during hand activities.Dominant wrists of 30 young adults were examined with ultrasonography by placing a transducer transversely on their wrist crease. Ultrasound video clips were recorded when the subject performing 1 thumb opposition with the wrist in neutral position, 2 thumb opposition with the wrist in ulnar deviation and 3 pinch grip with the wrist in neutral position. Six still images that were separated by 0.2-second intervals were then captured from the ultrasound video for the determination of 1 cross-sectional area (CSA, 2 flattening ratio (FR, 3 rotational displacement (RD and 4 translational displacement (TD of median nerve in the carpal tunnel, and these collected information of deformation, rotational and displacement of median nerve were compared between 1 two successive time points during a single hand activity and 2 different hand motions at the same time point. Finally, kinematic graphs were constructed to demonstrate the mobility of median nerve during different hand activities.Performing different hand activities during this study led to a gradual reduction in CSA of the median nerve, with thumb opposition together with the wrist in ulnar deviation causing the greatest extent of deformation of the median nerve. Thumb opposition with the wrist in ulnar deviation also led to the largest extent of TD when compared to the other two hand activities of this study. Kinematic graphs showed that the motion pathways of median nerve during different hand activities were complex

  18. Detecting Non-Gaussian and Lognormal Characteristics of Temperature and Water Vapor Mixing Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliewer, A.; Fletcher, S. J.; Jones, A. S.; Forsythe, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Many operational data assimilation and retrieval systems assume that the errors and variables come from a Gaussian distribution. This study builds upon previous results that shows that positive definite variables, specifically water vapor mixing ratio and temperature, can follow a non-Gaussian distribution and moreover a lognormal distribution. Previously, statistical testing procedures which included the Jarque-Bera test, the Shapiro-Wilk test, the Chi-squared goodness-of-fit test, and a composite test which incorporated the results of the former tests were employed to determine locations and time spans where atmospheric variables assume a non-Gaussian distribution. These tests are now investigated in a "sliding window" fashion in order to extend the testing procedure to near real-time. The analyzed 1-degree resolution data comes from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Global Forecast System (GFS) six hour forecast from the 0Z analysis. These results indicate the necessity of a Data Assimilation (DA) system to be able to properly use the lognormally-distributed variables in an appropriate Bayesian analysis that does not assume the variables are Gaussian.

  19. Combined slope ratio analysis and linear-subtraction: An extension of the Pearce ratio method

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waal, Sybrand A.

    1996-07-01

    A new technique, called combined slope ratio analysis, has been developed by extending the Pearce element ratio or conserved-denominator method (Pearce, 1968) to its logical conclusions. If two stoichiometric substances are mixed and certain chemical components are uniquely contained in either one of the two mixing substances, then by treating these unique components as conserved, the composition of the substance not containing the relevant component can be accurately calculated within the limits allowed by analytical and geological error. The calculated composition can then be subjected to rigorous statistical testing using the linear-subtraction method recently advanced by Woronow (1994). Application of combined slope ratio analysis to the rocks of the Uwekahuna Laccolith, Hawaii, USA, and the lavas of the 1959-summit eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, USA, yields results that are consistent with field observations.

  20. Impact of Sundarban mangrove biosphere on the carbon dioxide and methane mixing ratios at the NE Coast of Bay of Bengal, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.K.; Biswas, H.; De, T.K.; Jana, T.K.; Sen, B.K.; Sen, S.

    2002-01-01

    Diurnal and seasonal variations in carbon dioxide and methane fluxes between Sundarban biosphere and atmosphere were measured using micrometeorological method during 1998-2000. Study of the diurnal variation of micrometeorological conditions in the atmosphere was found to be necessary to determine the duration of neutral stability when flux estimation was reliable. Neutral stability of the atmosphere occurred in the limited micrometeorological conditions, when friction velocity ranged between 0.360 and 0.383ms -1 . The value of drag coefficient (1.62-20.6) x 10 3 obtained at variable wind speed could be deemed specific for this particular surface. 58.2% drop of carbon dioxide and 63.4% drop of methane in the atmosphere at 1m height were observed during day time, between dawn and early evening. Diurnal variations in methane and carbon dioxide mixing ratios showed a positive correlation with Richardson's number (Ri). This environment acted as a net source for carbon dioxide and methane. The mixing ratios of methane were found to vary between 1.42 and 2.07ppmv, and that of carbon dioxide, between 324.3 and 528.7ppmv during the study period. The biosphere-atmosphere flux of carbon dioxide ranged between - 3.29 and 34.4mgm -2 s -1 , and that of methane, between - 4.53 and 8.88μgm -2 s -1 . The overall annual estimate of carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from this ecosystem to atmosphere were estimated to be 694Tgyr -1 and 184Ggyr -1 , respectively. Considerable variations in mixing ratios of carbon dioxide and methane at the NE coast of Bay of Bengal were observed due to the seasonal variations of their fluxes from the biosphere to the atmosphere. The composition was inferred by fitting model prediction to measurements. (Author)

  1. A single gas chromatograph for accurate atmospheric mixing ratio measurements of CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6 and CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, S.; Neubert, R. E. M.; Meijer, H. A. J.; Simpson, W.R.

    2009-01-01

    We present an adapted gas chromatograph capable of measuring simultaneously and semi-continuously the atmospheric mixing ratios of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, N2O and SF6 and the trace gas CO with high precision and long-term stability. The novelty of our design is that all species are measured

  2. The Effect of the Interannual Variability of the OH Sink on the Interannual Variability of the Atmospheric Methane Mixing Ratio and Carbon Stable Isotope Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillermo Nuñez Ramirez, Tonatiuh; Houweling, Sander; Marshall, Julia; Williams, Jason; Brailsford, Gordon; Schneising, Oliver; Heimann, Martin

    2013-04-01

    The atmospheric hydroxyl radical concentration (OH) varies due to changes in the incoming UV radiation, in the abundance of atmospheric species involved in the production, recycling and destruction of OH molecules and due to climate variability. Variability in carbon monoxide emissions from biomass burning induced by El Niño Southern Oscillation are particularly important. Although the OH sink accounts for the oxidation of approximately 90% of atmospheric CH4, the effect of the variability in the distribution and strength of the OH sink on the interannual variability of atmospheric methane (CH4) mixing ratio and stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C-CH4) has often been ignored. To show this effect we simulated the atmospheric signals of CH4 in a three-dimensional atmospheric transport model (TM3). ERA Interim reanalysis data provided the atmospheric transport and temperature variability from 1990 to 2010. We performed simulations using time dependent OH concentration estimations from an atmospheric chemistry transport model and an atmospheric chemistry climate model. The models assumed a different set of reactions and algorithms which caused a very different strength and distribution of the OH concentration. Methane emissions were based on published bottom-up estimates including inventories, upscaled estimations and modeled fluxes. The simulations also included modeled concentrations of atomic chlorine (Cl) and excited oxygen atoms (O(1D)). The isotopic signal of the sources and the fractionation factors of the sinks were based on literature values, however the isotopic signal from wetlands and enteric fermentation processes followed a linear relationship with a map of C4 plant fraction. The same set of CH4emissions and stratospheric reactants was used in all simulations. Two simulations were done per OH field: one in which the CH4 sources were allowed to vary interannually, and a second where the sources were climatological. The simulated mixing ratios and

  3. Effects of wavelength mixing ratio and photoperiod on microalgal biomass and lipid production in a two-phase culture system using LED illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirisuk, Phunlap; Ra, Chae-Hun; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2018-04-01

    Blue and red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were used to study the effects of wavelength mixing ratios, photoperiod regimes, and green wavelength stress on Nannochloropsis salina, Isochrysis galbana, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum cell biomass and lipid production. The maximum specific growth rates of I. galbana and P. tricornutum were obtained under a 50:50 mixing ratio of blue and red wavelength LEDs; that of N. salina was obtained under red LED. Maximum cell biomass for N. salina and P. tricornutum was 0.75 and 1.07 g dcw/L, respectively, obtained under a 24:0 h light/dark cycle. However, the maximum I. galbana biomass was 0.89 g dcw/L under an 18:6 h light/dark cycle. The maximum lipid contents for N. salina, I. galbana, and P. tricornutum were 49.4, 63.3 and 62.0% (w/w), respectively, after exposure to green LED. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were obtained 1% in P. tricornutum and 2% in I. galbana. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Geographically Weighted Regression Models in Estimating Median Home Prices in Towns of Massachusetts Based on an Urban Sustainability Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaxiong Ma

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Housing is a key component of urban sustainability. The objective of this study was to assess the significance of key spatial determinants of median home price in towns in Massachusetts that impact sustainable growth. Our analysis investigates the presence or absence of spatial non-stationarity in the relationship between sustainable growth, measured in terms of the relationship between home values and various parameters including the amount of unprotected forest land, residential land, unemployment, education, vehicle ownership, accessibility to commuter rail stations, school district performance, and senior population. We use the standard geographically weighted regression (GWR and Mixed GWR models to analyze the effects of spatial non-stationarity. Mixed GWR performed better than GWR in terms of Akaike Information Criterion (AIC values. Our findings highlight the nature and spatial extent of the non-stationary vs. stationary qualities of key environmental and social determinants of median home price. Understanding the key determinants of housing values, such as valuation of green spaces, public school performance metrics, and proximity to public transport, enable towns to use different strategies of sustainable urban planning, while understanding urban housing determinants—such as unemployment and senior population—can help modify urban sustainable housing policies.

  5. Combined Effect of Contraction Ratio and Chamber Pressure on the Performance of a Gaseous Hydrogen-Liquid-Oxygen Combustor for a Given Propellant Weight Flow and Oxidant-Fuel Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersch, Martin

    1961-01-01

    The effect of contraction ratio and chamber pressure on the combustion performance of a gaseous-hydrogen-liquid-oxygen combustor was investigated analytically and experimentally. The experiment was conducted with a "two-dimensional" gaseous-hydrogen-liquid-oxygen engine of about 150-pound thrust. The contraction ratio was varied from 1.5 to 6 by changing the nozzle throat area. This variation resulted in a chamber pressure variation of about 25 to 120 pounds per square inch. The experimental results were corrected for heat transfer to the engine walls and momentum pressure losses. The experimental performance, as evaluated in terms of characteristic exhaust velocity, was 98 percent of theoretical at contraction ratios greater than 3 but decreased very rapidly at smaller contraction ratios. The heat-transfer rate increased with increasing contraction ratio and chamber pressure; it was about 1 Btu per square inch per second at a contraction ratio of 1.5 and increased to about 3 at a contraction ratio of 6. The combined effects of contraction-ratio and chamber-pressure changes on performance were investigated analytically with a mixing model and a vaporization model. The mixing model predicted very poor mixing at contraction ratios below 3 and almost perfect mixing at higher contraction ratios. The performance predicted by the vaporization model was very close to 100 percent for all contraction ratios. From these results, it was concluded that the performance was limited by poor mixing at low contraction ratios and chamber pressures.

  6. Dose dependency of the frequency of micronucleated binucleated clone cells and of division related median clone sizes difference. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, G,; Kreczik, A.; Treichel, M.

    1996-01-01

    Following irradiation of the progenitor cells the clone growth of CHO cells decreases as a result of cell losses. Lethally acting expressions of micronuclei are produced by heritable lethal mutations. The dependency of the frequency of micronucleated binucleated clone cells and of the median clone sizes difference on the radiation dose was measured and compared to non-irradiated controls. Using the cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-method binucleated cells with micronuclei were counted as ratio of all binucleated cells within a clone size distribution. This ratio (shortened: micronucleus yield) was determined for all clone size distributions, which had been exposed to different irradiation doses and incubation times. The micronucleus yields were compared to the corresponding median clone sizes differences. The micronucleus yield is linearly dependent on the dose and is independent of the incubation time. The same holds true for the division related median clone sizes difference, which as a result is also linearly dependent on the micronucleus yield. Due to the inevitably errors of the cell count of micronucleated binucleated cells, an automatic measurement of the median clone sizes differences is the preferred method for evaluation of cellular radiation sensitivity for heritable lethal mutations. This value should always be determined in addition, if clone survival fractions are used as predictive test because it allows for an estimation of the remission probability of surviving cells. (orig.) [de

  7. Modelling lactation curve for milk fat to protein ratio in Iranian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) using non-linear mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein-Zadeh, Navid Ghavi

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare seven non-linear mathematical models (Brody, Wood, Dhanoa, Sikka, Nelder, Rook and Dijkstra) to examine their efficiency in describing the lactation curves for milk fat to protein ratio (FPR) in Iranian buffaloes. Data were 43 818 test-day records for FPR from the first three lactations of Iranian buffaloes which were collected on 523 dairy herds in the period from 1996 to 2012 by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran. Each model was fitted to monthly FPR records of buffaloes using the non-linear mixed model procedure (PROC NLMIXED) in SAS and the parameters were estimated. The models were tested for goodness of fit using Akaike's information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and log maximum likelihood (-2 Log L). The Nelder and Sikka mixed models provided the best fit of lactation curve for FPR in the first and second lactations of Iranian buffaloes, respectively. However, Wood, Dhanoa and Sikka mixed models provided the best fit of lactation curve for FPR in the third parity buffaloes. Evaluation of first, second and third lactation features showed that all models, except for Dijkstra model in the third lactation, under-predicted test time at which daily FPR was minimum. On the other hand, minimum FPR was over-predicted by all equations. Evaluation of the different models used in this study indicated that non-linear mixed models were sufficient for fitting test-day FPR records of Iranian buffaloes.

  8. Transverse mixing of ellipsoidal particles in a rotating drum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Siyuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotating drums are widely used in industry for mixing, milling, coating and drying processes. In the past decades, mixing of granular materials in rotating drums has been extensively investigated, but most of the studies are based on spherical particles. Particle shape has an influence on the flow behaviour and thus mixing behaviour, though the shape effect has as-yet received limited study. In this work, discrete element method (DEM is employed to study the transverse mixing of ellipsoidal particles in a rotating drum. The effects of aspect ratio and rotating speed on mixing quality and mixing rate are investigated. The results show that mixing index increases exponentially with time for both spheres and ellipsoids. Particles with various aspect ratios are able to reach well-mixed states after sufficient revolutions in the rolling or cascading regime. Ellipsoids show higher mixing rate when rotational speed is set between 25 and 40 rpm. The relationship between mixing rate and aspect ratio of ellipsoids is established, demonstrating that, particles with aspect ratios of 0.5 and 2.0 achieve the highest mixing rates. Increasing rotating speed from 15 rpm to 40 rpm does not necessarily increase the mixing speed of spheres, while monotonous increase is observed for ellipsoids.

  9. M1-E2 mixing ratios and B(E2) values for transitions in 131Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijay Sai, K.; Deepa, S.; Ashish, T.; Venkataramaniah, K.; Madhusudan, K.

    2012-01-01

    The accuracies of M1-E2 mixing ratios calculated from the experimental conversion coefficients α i depend upon the accuracy with which the conversion coefficients are determined and also on the accuracy of the theoretical values. Recently a new calculation of ICCs by Band et al, BRICC has been published. The calculations are based on the relativistic DF method in which the exchange interactions between bound electrons and free electrons receding to infinity during the conversion process are treated exactly. Gerl et al showed that BRICC values are more closer to experimental values when compared to earlier theoretical values of Hager and Seltzer and Rosel. The availability of the BRICC values is expected to increase the accuracy with which the estimated quadrupole contents can be obtained

  10. Dual pathology proximal median nerve compression of the forearm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Siun M

    2013-12-01

    We report an unusual case of synchronous pathology in the forearm- the coexistence of a large lipoma of the median nerve together with an osteochondroma of the proximal ulna, giving rise to a dual proximal median nerve compression. Proximal median nerve compression neuropathies in the forearm are uncommon compared to the prevalence of distal compression neuropathies (eg Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). Both neural fibrolipomas (Refs. 1,2) and osteochondromas of the proximal ulna (Ref. 3) in isolation are rare but well documented. Unlike that of a distal compression, a proximal compression of the median nerve will often have a definite cause. Neural fibrolipoma, also called fibrolipomatous hamartoma are rare, slow-growing, benign tumours of peripheral nerves, most often occurring in the median nerve of younger patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such dual pathology in the same forearm, giving rise to a severe proximal compression of the median nerve. In this case, the nerve was being pushed anteriorly by the osteochondroma, and was being compressed from within by the intraneural lipoma. This unusual case highlights the advantage of preoperative imaging as part of the workup of proximal median nerve compression.

  11. Efficient Scalable Median Filtering Using Histogram-Based Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Oded

    2018-05-01

    Median filtering is a smoothing technique for noise removal in images. While there are various implementations of median filtering for a single-core CPU, there are few implementations for accelerators and multi-core systems. Many parallel implementations of median filtering use a sorting algorithm for rearranging the values within a filtering window and taking the median of the sorted value. While using sorting algorithms allows for simple parallel implementations, the cost of the sorting becomes prohibitive as the filtering windows grow. This makes such algorithms, sequential and parallel alike, inefficient. In this work, we introduce the first software parallel median filtering that is non-sorting-based. The new algorithm uses efficient histogram-based operations. These reduce the computational requirements of the new algorithm while also accessing the image fewer times. We show an implementation of our algorithm for both the CPU and NVIDIA's CUDA supported graphics processing unit (GPU). The new algorithm is compared with several other leading CPU and GPU implementations. The CPU implementation has near perfect linear scaling with a speedup on a quad-core system. The GPU implementation is several orders of magnitude faster than the other GPU implementations for mid-size median filters. For small kernels, and , comparison-based approaches are preferable as fewer operations are required. Lastly, the new algorithm is open-source and can be found in the OpenCV library.

  12. Portfolio optimization using median-variance approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Mohd, Wan Rosanisah; Mohamad, Daud; Mohamed, Zulkifli

    2013-04-01

    Optimization models have been applied in many decision-making problems particularly in portfolio selection. Since the introduction of Markowitz's theory of portfolio selection, various approaches based on mathematical programming have been introduced such as mean-variance, mean-absolute deviation, mean-variance-skewness and conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) mainly to maximize return and minimize risk. However most of the approaches assume that the distribution of data is normal and this is not generally true. As an alternative, in this paper, we employ the median-variance approach to improve the portfolio optimization. This approach has successfully catered both types of normal and non-normal distribution of data. With this actual representation, we analyze and compare the rate of return and risk between the mean-variance and the median-variance based portfolio which consist of 30 stocks from Bursa Malaysia. The results in this study show that the median-variance approach is capable to produce a lower risk for each return earning as compared to the mean-variance approach.

  13. Charm mixing at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Di Canto, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    We report a measurement of the time-dependent ratio of $D^0\\to K^+\\pi^-$ to $D^0\\to K^-\\pi^+$ decay rates in $D^{*+}$-tagged events using 1.0\\,fb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity recorded by the LHCb experiment. We measure the mixing parameters $x'^2=(-0.9\\pm1.3)\\times10^{-4}$, $y'=(7.2\\pm2.4)\\times10^{-3}$ and the ratio of doubly-Cabibbo-suppressed to Cabibbo-favored decay rates $R_D=(3.52\\pm0.15)\\times10^{-3}$. The result excludes the no-mixing hypothesis with a probability corresponding to 9.1 standard deviations and represents the first observation of charm mixing from a single measurement

  14. Mixing ratios and eddy covariance flux measurements of volatile organic compounds from an urban canopy (Manchester, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Langford

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mixing ratios and fluxes of six selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs were measured above the city of Manchester (UK during the summer of 2006. A proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer was used for the measurement of mixing ratios, and fluxes were calculated from these using both the disjunct and the virtual disjunct eddy covariance techniques. The two flux systems, which operated in alternate half hours, showed good agreement, with R2 values ranging between 0.74 and 0.9 for the individual analytes. On average, fluxes measured in the disjunct mode were approximately 20% lower than those measured in the virtual mode. This difference is due to both the dampening of the VOC signal by the disjunct flux sampler and carry over from one sample to the next. Correcting for these effects reduced the difference to less than 7%. Observed fluxes are thought to be largely controlled by anthropogenic sources, with vehicle emissions the major contributor. However, both evaporative and biogenic emissions may account for some of the VOCs present. Concentrations and fluxes of the oxygenated compounds were highest on average, ranging between 0.15 to 1 mg m−2 h−1; the fluxes of aromatic compounds were lower, between 0.12 to 0.28 mg m−2 h−1. The observed fluxes were up-scaled to give city wide emission estimates for each compound and the results compared to estimates made by the National Atmospheric Emission Inventory (NAEI for the same flux footprint. Fluxes of toluene and benzene compared most closely differing by approximately 50%, while in contrast the oxygenated fluxes were found to be between 3.6–6.3 times larger than the annual average predicted by the NAEI.

  15. Papillary carcinoma in median aberrant thyroid (ectopic) - case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbar K, Ashwin; K, Shashidhar; Deshmane, Vijaya Laxmi; Kumar, Veerendra; Arjunan, Ravi

    2014-06-01

    Median ectopic thyroid may be encountered anywhere from the foramen caecum to the diaphragm. Non lingual median aberrant thyroid (incomplete descent) usually found in the infrahyoid region and malignant transformation in this ectopic thyroid tissue is very rare. We report an extremely rare case of papillary carcinoma in non lingual median aberrant thyroid in a 25-year-old female. The differentiation between a carcinoma arising in the median ectopic thyroid tissue and a metastatic papillary carcinoma from an occult primary in the main thyroid gland is also discussed.

  16. Coupling End-Member Mixing Analysis and Isotope Mass Balancing (222-Rn) for Differentiation of Fresh and Recirculated Submarine Groundwater Discharge Into Knysna Estuary, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petermann, E.; Knöller, K.; Rocha, C.; Scholten, J.; Stollberg, R.; Weiß, H.; Schubert, M.

    2018-02-01

    Quantification of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is essential for evaluating the vulnerability of coastal water bodies to groundwater pollution and for understanding water body material cycles response due to potential discharge of nutrients, organic compounds, or heavy metals. Here we present an environmental tracer-based methodology for quantifying SGD into Knysna Estuary, South Africa. Both components of SGD, (1) fresh, terrestrial (FSGD) and (2) saline, recirculated (RSGD), were differentiated. We conducted an end-member mixing analysis for radon (222Rn) and salinity time series of estuary water over two tidal cycles to determine fractions of seawater, riverwater, FSGD, and RSGD. The mixing analysis was treated as a constrained optimization problem for finding the end-member mixing ratio that is producing the best fit to observations at every time step. Results revealed highest FSGD and RSGD fractions in the estuary during peak low tide. Over a 24 h time series, the portions of FSGD and RSGD in the estuary water were 0.2% and 0.8% near the estuary mouth and the FSGD/RSGD ratio was 1:3.3. We determined a median FSGD of 41,000 m³ d-1 (1.4 m³ d-1 per m shoreline) and a median RSGD of 135,000 m³ d-1 (4.5 m³ d-1 per m shoreline) which suggests that SGD exceeds river discharge by a factor of 1.0-2.1. By comparison to other sources, this implies that SGD is responsible for 28-73% of total DIN fluxes into Knysna Estuary.

  17. Robust median estimator in logisitc regression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hobza, T.; Pardo, L.; Vajda, Igor

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 138, č. 12 (2008), s. 3822-3840 ISSN 0378-3758 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Grant - others:Instituto Nacional de Estadistica (ES) MPO FI - IM3/136; GA MŠk(CZ) MTM 2006-06872 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Logistic regression * Median * Robustness * Consistency and asymptotic normality * Morgenthaler * Bianco and Yohai * Croux and Hasellbroeck Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.679, year: 2008 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/SI/vajda-robust%20median%20estimator%20in%20logistic%20regression.pdf

  18. Dual pathology proximal median nerve compression of the forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Siun M; Browne, Katherine; Tuite, David J; O'Shaughnessy, Michael

    2013-12-01

    We report an unusual case of synchronous pathology in the forearm- the coexistence of a large lipoma of the median nerve together with an osteochondroma of the proximal ulna, giving rise to a dual proximal median nerve compression. Proximal median nerve compression neuropathies in the forearm are uncommon compared to the prevalence of distal compression neuropathies (eg Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). Both neural fibrolipomas (Refs. 1,2) and osteochondromas of the proximal ulna (Ref. 3) in isolation are rare but well documented. Unlike that of a distal compression, a proximal compression of the median nerve will often have a definite cause. Neural fibrolipoma, also called fibrolipomatous hamartoma are rare, slow-growing, benign tumours of peripheral nerves, most often occurring in the median nerve of younger patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such dual pathology in the same forearm, giving rise to a severe proximal compression of the median nerve. In this case, the nerve was being pushed anteriorly by the osteochondroma, and was being compressed from within by the intraneural lipoma. This unusual case highlights the advantage of preoperative imaging as part of the workup of proximal median nerve compression. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Median nail dystrophy involving the thumb nail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahulkrishna Kota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Median canaliform dystrophy of Heller is a rare entity characterized by a midline or a paramedian ridge or split and canal formation in nail plate of one or both the thumb nails. It is an acquired condition resulting from a temporary defect in the matrix that interferes with nail formation. Habitual picking of the nail base may be responsible for some cases. Histopathology classically shows parakeratosis, accumulation of melanin within and between the nail bed keratinocytes. Treatment of median nail dystrophy includes injectable triamcinalone acetonide, topical 0.1% tacrolimus, and tazarotene 0.05%, which is many a times challenging for a dermatologist. Psychiatric opinion should be taken when associated with the depressive, obsessive-compulsive, or impulse-control disorder. We report a case of 19-year-old male diagnosed as median nail dystrophy.

  20. Large window median filtering on Clip7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, K N

    1983-07-01

    Median filtering has been found to be a useful operation to perform on images in order to reduce random noise while preserving edges of objects. However, in some cases, as the resolution of the image increases, so too does the required window size of the filter. For parallel array processors, this leads to problems when dealing with the large amount of data involved. That is to say that there tend to be problems over slow access of data from pixels over a large neighbourhood, lack of available storage of this data during the operation and long computational times for finding the median. An algorithm for finding the median, designed for use on byte wide architecture parallel array processors is presented together with its implementation on Clip7, a scanning array of such processors. 6 references.

  1. Strain ratio measurement of femoral cartilage by real-time elastosonography: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipek, Ali; Unal, Ozlem; Kartal, Merve Gulbiz; Arslan, Halil; Isik, Cetin; Bozkurt, Murat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate strain ratio measurement of femoral cartilage using real-time elastosonography. Twenty-five patients with femoral cartilage pathology on MRI (study group) were prospectively compared with 25 subjects with normal findings on MRI (control group) using real-time elastosonography. Strain ratio measurements of pathologic and normal cartilage were performed and compared, both within the study group and between the two groups. Elastosonography colour-scale coding showed a colour change from blue to red in pathologic cartilage and only blue colour-coding in normal cartilage. In the study group, the median strain ratio was higher in pathologic cartilage areas compared to normal areas (median, 1.49 [interquartile range, 0.80-2.53] vs. median, 0.01 [interquartile range, 0.01-0.01], p < 0.001, respectively). The median strain ratio of the control group was 0.01 (interquartile range, 0.01-0.01), and there was no significant difference compared to normal areas of the study group. There was, however, a significant difference between the control group cartilage and pathologic cartilage of the study group (p < 0.001). Elastosonography may be an effective, easily accessible, and relatively simple tool to demonstrate pathologic cartilage and to differentiate it from normal cartilage in the absence of advanced imaging facility such as MRI. (orig.)

  2. Mix Proportion Design of Asphalt Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianhu; Gao, Lingling; Du, Shoujun

    2017-12-01

    Based on the gradation of AC and SMA, this paper designs a new type of anti slide mixture with two types of advantages. Chapter introduces the material selection, ratio of ore mixture ratio design calculation, and determine the optimal asphalt content test and proportioning design of asphalt concrete mix. This paper introduces the new technology of mix proportion.

  3. Tropospheric mixing ratios of NO and NOy obtained during TROPOZ II in the latitude region 67 deg N-56 deg S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, F.; Bruening, D.; Ehhalt, D.H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Chemie

    1997-12-31

    Tropospheric mixing ratios of NO and NOy were measured along the flight track of the TROPOZ II aircraft campaign. These measurements cover regions along the east coast of North America, the Pacific and Atlantic coast of South America and the Atlantic coast of North Africa and Europe. The meteorological conditions are close to the climatological mean: westerly winds at high and mid latitudes, variable and weak winds at low latitudes. (author) 2 refs.

  4. Tropospheric mixing ratios of NO and NOy obtained during TROPOZ II in the latitude region 67 deg N-56 deg S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, F; Bruening, D; Ehhalt, D H [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Chemie

    1998-12-31

    Tropospheric mixing ratios of NO and NOy were measured along the flight track of the TROPOZ II aircraft campaign. These measurements cover regions along the east coast of North America, the Pacific and Atlantic coast of South America and the Atlantic coast of North Africa and Europe. The meteorological conditions are close to the climatological mean: westerly winds at high and mid latitudes, variable and weak winds at low latitudes. (author) 2 refs.

  5. Median prior constrained TV algorithm for sparse view low-dose CT reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Shangguan, Hong; Zhang, Quan; Zhu, Hongqing; Shu, Huazhong; Gui, Zhiguo

    2015-05-01

    It is known that lowering the X-ray tube current (mAs) or tube voltage (kVp) and simultaneously reducing the total number of X-ray views (sparse view) is an effective means to achieve low-dose in computed tomography (CT) scan. However, the associated image quality by the conventional filtered back-projection (FBP) usually degrades due to the excessive quantum noise. Although sparse-view CT reconstruction algorithm via total variation (TV), in the scanning protocol of reducing X-ray tube current, has been demonstrated to be able to result in significant radiation dose reduction while maintain image quality, noticeable patchy artifacts still exist in reconstructed images. In this study, to address the problem of patchy artifacts, we proposed a median prior constrained TV regularization to retain the image quality by introducing an auxiliary vector m in register with the object. Specifically, the approximate action of m is to draw, in each iteration, an object voxel toward its own local median, aiming to improve low-dose image quality with sparse-view projection measurements. Subsequently, an alternating optimization algorithm is adopted to optimize the associative objective function. We refer to the median prior constrained TV regularization as "TV_MP" for simplicity. Experimental results on digital phantoms and clinical phantom demonstrated that the proposed TV_MP with appropriate control parameters can not only ensure a higher signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the reconstructed image, but also its resolution compared with the original TV method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sosiaalisen median markkinoinnin vuosikello Weecos Oy:lle

    OpenAIRE

    Heinämäki, Lotta; Huuskonen, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoitus oli luoda kokonaisvaltainen ja selkeä suunnitelma Weecos Oy:n markkinointitoimenpiteille valituissa sosiaalisen median kanavissa. Weecos on vuonna 2012 perustettu ekologisia yrityksiä yhteen keräävä verkkokauppa-alusta. Pienestä koostaan johtuen se ei ole pystynyt toteuttamaan sosiaalisen median markkinointia toivomallaan tavalla ja markkinoinnin suunnittelu ja toteutus on ollut epäsäännöllistä. Markkinointisuunnitelman tavoitteena oli helpottaa yrityksen markkinoi...

  7. On-line determination of ammonia at low pptv mixing ratios in the CLOUD chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, F; Mathot, S; Baltensperger, U

    2012-01-01

    A new instrument for the on-line determination of ammonia was developed. Since ammonia is a rather sticky compound, sampling losses were minimised with a new sam- pling device where the ammonia was transferred to the liq- uid phase only 5 mm after the inlet tip. The liquid phase was then analyzed by long pathlength absorption spectrophotom- etry using the Berthelot reaction with phenol and hypochlo- rite as reagents. The measurements were made during the CLOUD3 campaign at CERN where the influence of ammo- nia on the nucleation rate was studied. At stable conditions the detection limit reached with this instrument was 35 pptv (air flow rate of 2 l min − 1 , liquid flow rate of 0.3 ml min − 1 ), although occasionally the instrument was affected by back- ground problems. The range of mixing ratios during this campaign was varied from the background contamination ( < 35 pptv) up to around 2 ppbv. The measured ammonia concentration was correlated with the rate of ammonia in- jected into the chamber, but wi...

  8. Measurement of disintegration rate and decay branching ratio for nuclide 192Ir with β-, EC mixing decays by using 4πβ-γ coincidence counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Chunguang; Pei Wulang; Li Wei; Qu Decheng; Xiong Jing; Chang Yongfu

    1995-01-01

    The absolute disintegration rates for nuclide 192 Ir were measured with a 4πβ-γ (HPGe) coincidence apparatus by using parameter method and extrapolation method. The final uncertainties obtained were 0.4% and 0.5% respectively for a confidence level of 99.7%. The method with which both the disintegration rate and the decay branching ratio can be measured for nuclides with β - and EC mixing decays was proposed and described. The β - branching ratio in 192 Ir decays was measured being 0.9572. The final uncertainties of disintegration rates and β - decay branching ratio with this method were 1.5% and 1.8% respectively

  9. Distress and functioning in mixed anxiety and depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małyszczak, Krzysztof; Pawłowski, Tomasz

    2006-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the validity of mixed anxiety and depressive disorder (MADD) with reference to functional characteristics and symptomatic characteristics in comparison with anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, and groups showing subthreshold symptoms (exclusively depressive or anxiety related). The present study was carried out in the following three medical settings: two psychiatric and one primary care. Patients seeking care in psychiatric institutions due to anxiety and depressive symptoms and attending primary medical settings for any reason were taken into account. A total of 104 patients (65 women and 39 men, mean age 41.1 years) were given a General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and Present State Examination questionnaire, a part of Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry, Version 2.0. There were no statistically relevant differences between MADD and anxiety disorders in median GHQ score (19 vs 16) and median GAF score (median 68.5 vs 65). When considering depressive disorders the median GHQ score (28) was higher, and median GAF score (59) was lower than that in MADD. In groups with separated subthreshold anxiety or depressive symptoms, median GHQ scores (12) were lower and median GAF scores (75) were higher than that in MADD. The most frequent symptoms of MADD are symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and depression. Mixed anxiety and depressive disorder differs significantly from GAD only in higher rates of depressed mood and lower rates of somatic anxiety symptoms. Distinction from depression was clearer; six of 10 depressive symptoms are more minor in severity in MADD than in the case of depression. Distress and interference with personal functions in MADD are similar to that of other anxiety disorders. A pattern of MADD symptoms locates this disorder between depression and GAD.

  10. Carbon isotope ratios in field Population II giant stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneden, C.; Pilachowski, C.A.; Vandenberg, D.A.; Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ; Victoria Univ., Canada)

    1986-01-01

    Carbon isotope ratios have been derived from high-resolution spectra of the CH G-band in 15 very metal-poor Population II giant stars and two similar dwarf stars. Many of the giants possess very low C-12/C-13 ratios, some approaching the CN cycle equilibrium value. The metal-poor dwarfs do not have detectable CH-13 features; thus the low carbon isotope ratios in the giants probably are due to their internal evolutions. These results strongly support the idea that at least part of the anomalously low C/N values in Population II giants arises from very efficient mixing of their envelopes into the CN cycle burning layers. Detailed calculations of the expected CNO surface abundances in Population II giants in different evolutionary states have been performed. These computations demonstrate that the observed carbon isotope ratios cannot be produced during the first dredge-up mixing phases in low-mass, low metal abundance stars. Numerical experiments show that theoretical and observational results can be brought into agreement with artificially induced extra mixing. An agent to provoke this additional mixing has not been identified with certainty yet, although internal stellar rotation is a promising candidate. 63 references

  11. Observations of molecular hydrogen mixing ratio and stable isotopic composition at the Cabauw tall tower in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batenburg, A. M.; Popa, M. E.; Vermeulen, A. T.; van den Bulk, W. C. M.; Jongejan, P. A. C.; Fisher, R. E.; Lowry, D.; Nisbet, E. G.; Röckmann, T.

    2016-12-01

    Measurements of the stable isotopic composition (δD(H2) or δD) of atmospheric molecular hydrogen (H2) are a useful addition to mixing ratio (χ(H2)) measurements for understanding the atmospheric H2 cycle. δD datasets published so far consist mostly of observations at background locations. We complement these with observations from the Cabauw tall tower at the CESAR site, situated in a densely populated region of the Netherlands. Our measurements show a large anthropogenic influence on the local H2 cycle, with frequently occurring pollution events that are characterized by χ(H2) values that reach up to ≈1 ppm and low δD values. An isotopic source signature analysis yields an apparent source signature below -400‰, which is much more D-depleted than the fossil fuel combustion source signature commonly used in H2 budget studies. Two diurnal cycles that were sampled at a suburban site near London also show a more D-depleted source signature (≈-340‰), though not as extremely depleted as at Cabauw. The source signature of the Northwest European vehicle fleet may have shifted to somewhat lower values due to changes in vehicle technology and driving conditions. Even so, the surprisingly depleted apparent source signature at Cabauw requires additional explanation; microbial H2 production seems the most likely cause. The Cabauw tower site also allowed us to sample vertical profiles. We found no decrease in χ(H2) at lower sampling levels (20 and 60 m) with respect to higher sampling levels (120 and 200 m). There was a significant shift to lower median δD values at the lower levels. This confirms the limited role of soil uptake around Cabauw, and again points to microbial H2 production during an extended growing season, as well as to possible differences in average fossil fuel combustion source signature between the different footprint areas of the sampling levels. So, although knowledge of the background cycle of H2 has improved over the last decade, surprising

  12. Oral fluid/plasma cannabinoid ratios following controlled oral THC and smoked cannabis administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dayong; Vandrey, Ryan; Milman, Garry; Bergamaschi, Mateus; Mendu, Damodara R; Murray, Jeannie A; Barnes, Allan J; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2013-09-01

    Oral fluid (OF) is a valuable biological alternative for clinical and forensic drug testing. Evaluating OF to plasma (OF/P) cannabinoid ratios provides important pharmacokinetic data on the disposition of drug and factors influencing partition between matrices. Eleven chronic cannabis smokers resided on a closed research unit for 51 days. There were four 5-day sessions of 0, 30, 60, and 120 mg oral ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/day followed by a five-puff smoked cannabis challenge on Day 5. Each session was separated by 9 days ad libitum cannabis smoking. OF and plasma specimens were analyzed for THC and metabolites. During ad libitum smoking, OF/P THC ratios were high (median, 6.1; range, 0.2-348.5) within 1 h after last smoking, decreasing to 0.1-20.7 (median, 2.1) by 13.0-17.1 h. OF/P THC ratios also decreased during 5-days oral THC dosing, and after the smoked cannabis challenge, median OF/P THC ratios decreased from 1.4 to 5.5 (0.04-245.6) at 0.25 h to 0.12 to 0.17 (0.04-5.1) at 10.5 h post-smoking. In other studies, longer exposure to more potent cannabis smoke and oromucosal cannabis spray was associated with increased OF/P THC peak ratios. Median OF/P 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) ratios were 0.3-2.5 (range, 0.1-14.7) ng/μg, much more consistent in various dosing conditions over time. OF/P THC, but not THCCOOH, ratios were significantly influenced by oral cavity contamination after smoking or oromucosal spray of cannabinoid products, followed by time-dependent decreases. Establishing relationships between OF and plasma cannabinoid concentrations is essential for making inferences of impairment or other clinical outcomes from OF concentrations.

  13. Gas-mixing system for drift chambers using solenoid valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, W.E.; Sugano, K.; Trentlage, D.B.

    1983-04-01

    We describe an inexpensive system for mixing argon and ethane drift chamber gas which is used for the E-605 experiment at Fermilab. This system is based on the idea of intermittent mixing of gases with fixed mixing flow rates. A dual-action pressure switch senses the pressure in a mixed gas reservoir tank and operates solenoid valves to control mixing action and regulate reservoir pressure. This system has the advantages that simple controls accurately regulate the mixing ratio and that the mixing ratio is nearly flow rate independent. We also report the results of the gas analysis of various samplings, and the reliability of the system in long-term running

  14. Effect of mixing geopolymer and peat on bearing capacity in Ogan Komering Ilir (OKI) by California bearing ratio (CBR) test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raharja, Danang S.; Hadiwardoyo, Sigit P.; Rahayu, Wiwik; Zain, Nasuhi

    2017-06-01

    Geopolymer is binder material that consists of solid material and the activator solution. Geopolymer material has successfully replaced cement in the manufacture of concrete with aluminosilicate bonding system. Geopolymer concrete has properties similar to cement concrete with high compressive strength, low shrinkage value, relatively low creep value, as well as acid-resistant. Based on these, the addition of polymers in peat soils is expected to improve the bearing capacity of peat soils. A study on the influence of geopolymer addition in peat soils was done by comparing before and after the peat soil was mixed with geopolymer using CBR (California Bearing Ratio) test in unsoaked and soaked conditions. 10% mixture content of the peat dry was used, weighted with a variety of curing time 4 hours, 5 days, and 10 days. There were two methods of mixing: first, peat was mixed with fly ash geopolymer activators and mixed solution (waterglass, NaOH, water), and second, peat was mixed with fly ash and mixed geopolymer (waterglass, NaOH, water, fly ash). Changes were observed in specific gravity, dry density, acidity (pH), and the microscopic structure with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Curing time did not significantly affect the CBR value. It even shows a tendency to decline with longer curing time. The first type mixture obtained CBR value of: 5.4% for 4 hours curing, 4.6% for 5 days curing and 3.6% for 10 days curing. The second type mixture obtained CBR value of: 6.1% for 4 hours curing, 5.2% for 5 days curing and 5.2% for 10 days curing. Furthermore, the specific gravity value, dry density, pH near neutral and swelling percentage increased. From both variants, the second type mixture shows better results than the first type mixture. The results of SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) show the structure of the peat which became denser with the fly ash particles filling the peat microporous. Also, the reaction of fly ash with geopolymer is indicated by the solid

  15. Improvement in ferroelectric properties of Pt/PZT/Pt capacitors etched as a function of Ar/O2 gas mixing ratio into Cl2/CF4 plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Kyu-Tae; Koo, Seong-Mo; Kim, Kyoung-Tae; Kim, Dong-Pyo; Kim, Chang-Il

    2004-01-01

    In this work, to investigate improvement of the damage using oxygen containing plasma, we etched PZT films as a function of Ar (x%)/O 2 (y%) gas mixing ratio in Cl 2 (56%)/CF 4 (14%) plasma (where the sum of x and y is 30). The maximum etch rate of the PZT thin films was 146 nm/min for Ar (30%)/O 2 (0%) added into the Cl 2 /CF 4 plasma. After the etching, the plasma-induced damages were characterized in terms of hysteresis curves, leakage current, switching polarization and retention capacity as a function of the gas mixing ratio. When the ferroelectric properties of PZT films were etched as a function of O 2 and Ar and the gas mixing ratios were compared, the value of remnant polarization in O 2 (30%) added Cl 2 /CF 4 plasma is higher than that in Ar (30%). The results showed that after the etching the charges accumulated by oxygen vacancies prevented further domain switching at the top electrode-ferroelectric interface and created leakage current because of modification of the interfacial Schottky barrier during the etching process. The physical damage to the near surface and the crystal structure of the etched PZT thin films was evaluated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The remnant polarization, leakage current, retention and fatigue properties are improved with increasing O 2 content. From XRD results, the improvement in the ferroelectric properties of PZT capacitors etched in O 2 containing plasma was consistent with the increased intensities of the (100) and (200) peaks

  16. Neutrino mixing in SO(10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, K.; Hama, S.; Nandi, S.; Tanaka, K.

    1980-01-01

    Neutrino mixing angles were computed in terms of upquark mass ratios in a grand unified field theory based on the gauge group SO(10) supplemented by a discrete symmetry. Only large ν/sub μ/ - ν/sub tau/ mixing were found

  17. High-resolution quantification of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Stephanie C.; Murphy, Jennifer G.; Vogel, Felix R.; Moran, Michael D.; Zhang, Junhua; Zheng, Qiong; Stroud, Craig A.; Ren, Shuzhan; Worthy, Douglas; Broquet, Gregoire

    2018-03-01

    Many stakeholders are seeking methods to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in urban areas, but reliable, high-resolution inventories are required to guide these efforts. We present the development of a high-resolution CO2 inventory available for the Greater Toronto Area and surrounding region in Southern Ontario, Canada (area of ˜ 2.8 × 105 km2, 26 % of the province of Ontario). The new SOCE (Southern Ontario CO2 Emissions) inventory is available at the 2.5 × 2.5 km spatial and hourly temporal resolution and characterizes emissions from seven sectors: area, residential natural-gas combustion, commercial natural-gas combustion, point, marine, on-road, and off-road. To assess the accuracy of the SOCE inventory, we developed an observation-model framework using the GEM-MACH chemistry-transport model run on a high-resolution grid with 2.5 km grid spacing coupled to the Fossil Fuel Data Assimilation System (FFDAS) v2 inventories for anthropogenic CO2 emissions and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) land carbon model C-TESSEL for biogenic fluxes. A run using FFDAS for the Southern Ontario region was compared to a run in which its emissions were replaced by the SOCE inventory. Simulated CO2 mixing ratios were compared against in situ measurements made at four sites in Southern Ontario - Downsview, Hanlan's Point, Egbert and Turkey Point - in 3 winter months, January-March 2016. Model simulations had better agreement with measurements when using the SOCE inventory emissions versus other inventories, quantified using a variety of statistics such as correlation coefficient, root-mean-square error, and mean bias. Furthermore, when run with the SOCE inventory, the model had improved ability to capture the typical diurnal pattern of CO2 mixing ratios, particularly at the Downsview, Hanlan's Point, and Egbert sites. In addition to improved model-measurement agreement, the SOCE inventory offers a sectoral breakdown of emissions

  18. High-resolution quantification of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Pugliese

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Many stakeholders are seeking methods to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions in urban areas, but reliable, high-resolution inventories are required to guide these efforts. We present the development of a high-resolution CO2 inventory available for the Greater Toronto Area and surrounding region in Southern Ontario, Canada (area of  ∼ 2.8 × 105 km2, 26 % of the province of Ontario. The new SOCE (Southern Ontario CO2 Emissions inventory is available at the 2.5 × 2.5 km spatial and hourly temporal resolution and characterizes emissions from seven sectors: area, residential natural-gas combustion, commercial natural-gas combustion, point, marine, on-road, and off-road. To assess the accuracy of the SOCE inventory, we developed an observation–model framework using the GEM-MACH chemistry–transport model run on a high-resolution grid with 2.5 km grid spacing coupled to the Fossil Fuel Data Assimilation System (FFDAS v2 inventories for anthropogenic CO2 emissions and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF land carbon model C-TESSEL for biogenic fluxes. A run using FFDAS for the Southern Ontario region was compared to a run in which its emissions were replaced by the SOCE inventory. Simulated CO2 mixing ratios were compared against in situ measurements made at four sites in Southern Ontario – Downsview, Hanlan's Point, Egbert and Turkey Point – in 3 winter months, January–March 2016. Model simulations had better agreement with measurements when using the SOCE inventory emissions versus other inventories, quantified using a variety of statistics such as correlation coefficient, root-mean-square error, and mean bias. Furthermore, when run with the SOCE inventory, the model had improved ability to capture the typical diurnal pattern of CO2 mixing ratios, particularly at the Downsview, Hanlan's Point, and Egbert sites. In addition to improved model–measurement agreement, the SOCE inventory offers a

  19. On the correctness of the thermoluminescent high-temperature ratio (HTR) method for estimating ionization density effects in mixed radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilski, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    The high-temperature ratio (HTR) method which exploits changes in the LiF:Mg,Ti glow-curve due to high-LET radiation, has been used for several years to estimate LET in an unknown radiation field. As TL efficiency is known to decrease after doses of densely ionizing radiation, a LET estimate is used to correct the TLD-measured values of dose. The HTR method is purely empirical and its general correctness is questionable. The validity of the HTR method was investigated by theoretical simulation of various mixed radiation fields. The LET eff values estimated with the HTR method for mixed radiation fields were found in general to be incorrect, in some cases underestimating the true values of dose-averaged LET by an order of magnitude. The method produced correct estimates of average LET only in cases of almost mono-energetic fields (i.e. in non-mixed radiation conditions). The value of LET eff found by the HTR method may therefore be treated as a qualitative indicator of increased LET, but not as a quantitative estimator of average LET. However, HTR-based correction of the TLD-measured dose value (HTR-B method) was found to be quite reliable. In all cases studied, application of this technique improved the result. Most of the measured doses fell within 10% of the true values. A further empirical improvement to the method is proposed. One may therefore recommend the HTR-B method to correct for decreased TL efficiency in mixed high-LET fields.

  20. Regularization of DT-MRI Using 3D Median Filtering Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soondong Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DT-MRI (diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging tractography is a method to determine the architecture of axonal fibers in the central nervous system by computing the direction of the principal eigenvectors obtained from tensor matrix, which is different from the conventional isotropic MRI. Tractography based on DT-MRI is known to need many computations and is highly sensitive to noise. Hence, adequate regularization methods, such as image processing techniques, are in demand. Among many regularization methods we are interested in the median filtering method. In this paper, we extended two-dimensional median filters already developed to three-dimensional median filters. We compared four median filtering methods which are two-dimensional simple median method (SM2D, two-dimensional successive Fermat method (SF2D, three-dimensional simple median method (SM3D, and three-dimensional successive Fermat method (SF3D. Three kinds of synthetic data with different altitude angles from axial slices and one kind of human data from MR scanner are considered for numerical implementation by the four filtering methods.

  1. Safety performance evaluation of cable median barriers on freeways in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alluri, Priyanka; Haleem, Kirolos; Gan, Albert; Mauthner, John

    2016-07-03

    This article aims to evaluate the safety performance of cable median barriers on freeways in Florida. The safety performance evaluation was based on the percentages of barrier and median crossovers by vehicle type, crash severity, and cable median barrier type (Trinity Cable Safety System [CASS] and Gibraltar system). Twenty-three locations with cable median barriers totaling about 101 miles were identified. Police reports of 6,524 crashes from years 2005-2010 at these locations were reviewed to verify and obtain detailed crash information. A total of 549 crashes were determined to be barrier related (i.e., crashes involving vehicles hitting the cable median barrier) and were reviewed in further detail to identify crossover crashes and the manner in which the vehicles crossed the barriers; that is, by either overriding, underriding, or penetrating the barriers. Overall, 2.6% of vehicles that hit the cable median barrier crossed the median and traversed into the opposite travel lane. Overall, 98.1% of cars and 95.5% of light trucks that hit the barrier were prevented from crossing the median. In other words, 1.9% of cars and 4.5% of light trucks that hit the barrier had crossed the median and encroached on the opposite travel lanes. There is no significant difference in the performance of cable median barrier for cars versus light trucks in terms of crossover crashes. In terms of severity, overrides were more severe compared to underrides and penetrations. The statistics showed that the CASS and Gibraltar systems performed similarly in terms of crossover crashes. However, the Gibraltar system experienced a higher proportion of penetrations compared to the CASS system. The CASS system resulted in a slightly higher percentage of moderate and minor injury crashes compared to the Gibraltar system. Cable median barriers are successful in preventing median crossover crashes; 97.4% of the cable median barrier crashes were prevented from crossing over the median. Of all of

  2. Performance evaluation of cable median barrier systems in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Since 2003, the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) has embarked on an aggressive campaign to install : median barriers to prevent cross-median crashes on freeway facilities statewide. In the few years prior to 2003, : virtually all fatalities...

  3. CALCIUM, CREATININE AND URINARY PHOSPHATE/CREATININE RATIO CONCENTRATIONS IN NEONATES OF VARIOUS GESTATIONAL AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Fomina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: specify peculiarities of calcium and phosphates excretion in neonates of various gestational ages and types of feeding in neonatal period. Patients and methods. Calcium-creatinine (Ca/Cr and phosphate-creatinine (P/Cr ratio concentrations were determined in 96 healthy neonates of 38-40 weeks of gestational age and 146 premature infants of 28-37 weeks of gestational age of various types of feeding. Results. The Ca/Cr ratio concentration in healthy term infants in the early neonatal period amounted to 0.9-2.2 (median – 1.8, the P/Cr ratio concentration – 0.8-2.1 (median – 1.6. The Ca/Cr ratio concentration in premature infants (28-37 weeks of gestational age amounted to 0.9-2.4 (median – 1.9, which is comparable to this parameter’s value in term infants. The P/Cr ratio concentration amounted to 0.7-3.1 (median – 2.4, which exceeds this parameter’s value in term infants. The lesser the gestational age and birth weight, the higher the Ca/Cr and P/Cr ratio concentrations. The authors revealed hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia in premature infants with a very low body weight fed with specialized formulas. Conclusions. Use of specialized formulas in small premature infants (gestational age < 33 weeks with VLBW results in excessive calcium and phosphates excretion. It is reasonable to monitor their concentrations using a non-invasive and informative method of determining Ca/Cr and P/Cr ratios. Feeding of premature infants with BW > 1,500 g with breast milk only (in case of the mother’s adequate lactation allows avoiding hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia and preventing risk of a renal pathology. 

  4. Class B Fire-Extinguishing Performance Evaluation of a Compressed Air Foam System at Different Air-to-Aqueous Foam Solution Mixing Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ho Rie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to evaluate the fire-extinguishing performance of a compressed air foam system at different mixing ratios of pressurized air. In this system, compressed air is injected into an aqueous solution of foam and then discharged. The experimental device uses an exclusive fire-extinguishing technology with compressed air foam that is produced based on the Canada National Laboratory and UL (Underwriters Laboratories 162 standards, with a 20-unit oil fire model (Class B applied as the fire extinguisher. Compressed air is injected through the air mixture, and results with different air-to-aqueous solution foam ratios of 1:4, 1:7, and 1:10 are studied. In addition, comparison experiments between synthetic surfactant foam and a foam type which forms an aqueous film are carried out at an air-to-aqueous solution foam ratio of 1:4. From the experimental results, at identical discharging flows, it was found that the fire-extinguishing effect of the aqueous film-forming foam is greatest at an air-to-aqueous solution foam ratio of 1:7 and weakest at 1:10. Moreover, the fire-extinguishing effect of the aqueous film-forming foam in the comparison experiments between the aqueous film-forming foam and the synthetic surfactant foam is greatest.

  5. Relationship between median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials and spinal cord injury levels in patients with quadriplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arruda Serra Gaspar, M I F; Cliquet, A; Fernandes Lima, V M; de Abreu, D C C

    2009-05-01

    Cross-sectional study. To observe if there is a relationship between the level of injury by the American Spinal Cord Injury Association (ASIA) and cortical somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) recordings of the median nerve in patients with quadriplegia. Rehabilitation Outpatient Clinic at the university hospital in Brazil. Fourteen individuals with quadriplegia and 8 healthy individuals were evaluated. Electrophysiological assessment of the median nerve was performed by evoked potential equipment. The injury level was obtained by ASIA. N(9), N(13) and N(20) were analyzed based on the presence or absence of responses. The parameters used for analyzing these responses were the latency and the amplitude. Data were analyzed using mixed-effect models. N(9) responses were found in all patients with quadriplegia with a similar latency and amplitude observed in healthy individuals; N(13) responses were not found in any patients with quadriplegia. N(20) responses were not found in C5 patients with quadriplegia but it was present in C6 and C7 patients. Their latencies were similar to healthy individuals (P>0.05) but the amplitudes were decreased (P<0.05). This study suggests that the SSEP responses depend on the injury level, considering that the individuals with C6 and C7 injury levels, both complete and incomplete, presented SSEP recordings in the cortical area. It also showed a relationship between the level of spinal cord injury assessed by ASIA and the median nerve SSEP responses, through the latency and amplitude recordings.

  6. A novel approach of anaerobic co-digestion between organic fraction of food waste and waste sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant: Effect of mixing ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nga, Dinh Thi; Ngoc, Tran Thi Minh; Van Ty, Nguyen; Thuan, Van Tan

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mixing ratio of co-anaerobic digestion between dewatered waste sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant (DS) and organic fraction of food waste (FW). The experiment was carried out in 3L reactors for 16 days at ambient temperature. Four mixing ratios of DW and FW was investigated including 100 % DS : 0 % FW (Run S100); 75% DS : 25 % FW (Run S75); 50% DS : 50% FW (Run S50); and 25% DS : 75% FW (Run S25) in term of VS concentration. As a result, the Run S50 achieved best performance among the four funs indicated in biogas accumulation of 32.48 L biogas and methane yield of 358.9 400ml CH4/g VS removal after 16 days operation at ambient temperature. Biogas accumulation of Run S25 was higher than that of Run S75. Run S100 produced the lowest of biogas of all runs. It is concluded that co-anaerobic digestion of different organic sources could enhance the performance of methane fermentation.

  7. Cancer patient experience, hospital performance and case mix: evidence from England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Gary A; Saunders, Catherine L; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios

    2014-01-01

      This study aims to explore differences between crude and case mix-adjusted estimates of hospital performance with respect to the experience of cancer patients. This study analyzed the English 2011/2012 Cancer Patient Experience Survey covering all English National Health Service hospitals providing cancer treatment (n = 160). Logistic regression analysis was used to predict hospital performance for each of the 64 evaluative questions, adjusting for age, gender, ethnic group and cancer diagnosis. The degree of reclassification was explored across three categories (bottom 20%, middle 60% and top 20% of hospitals). There was high concordance between crude and adjusted ranks of hospitals (median Kendall's τ = 0.84; interquartile range: 0.82-0.88). Across all questions, a median of 5.0% (eight) of hospitals (interquartile range: 3.8-6.4%; six to ten hospitals) moved out of the extreme performance categories after case mix adjustment. In this context, patient case mix has only a small impact on measured hospital performance for cancer patient experience.

  8. Study of recurrent branch of median nerve (Thenar's muscular branch in relation to the flexor retinaculum and median in 64 hands (32 Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirsadri R

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Variation of recurred branch of median nerve in relation to the median and flexor retinaculum are significant for both hand surgeons and specialists always. In this study, 64 cadaver hands (32 men have been dissected. The median nerve was identified at the proximal edge of the flexor retinaculum, and in order to expose carpal tunnel the ligament was divided, and the above subjects were studied. The results are: 1 The relation of recurrent nerve to the flexor retinaculum was classified into 4 types: A In (53.1% of subjects, this branch arises from the median after the flexor retinaculum. B In (31.3% of subjects, it arises from the median in the carpal tunnel and the moves around the lower edge of flexor retinaculum and enters the thenar region. C In (14.1% of subjects, it arises from the median in the carpal tunnel and pierces the flexor retinaculum. D In (1.56% of subjects it arises, in the carpal tunnel and it divides into two subbranches here. One follows pattern A and the other pattern C. 2 In this step, the relation of the recurrent branch to the median nerve was studied. The results show that inspite of this image even though most often the recurrent branch arises from the lateral side of median, in (68.75% of subjects it arises from it's anterior surface. The MC Nemar test reveals that there is no relation between manifestation of mentioned patterns with right or left hands.

  9. Comparison of Mixing Calculations for Reacting and Non-Reacting Flows in a Cylindrical Duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oechsle, V. L.; Mongia, H. C.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    A production 3-D elliptic flow code has been used to calculate non-reacting and reacting flow fields in an experimental mixing section relevant to a rich burn/quick mix/lean burn (RQL) combustion system. A number of test cases have been run to assess the effects of the variation in the number of orifices, mass flow ratio, and rich-zone equivalence ratio on the flow field and mixing rates. The calculated normalized temperature profiles for the non-reacting flow field agree qualitatively well with the normalized conserved variable isopleths for the reacting flow field indicating that non-reacting mixing experiments are appropriate for screening and ranking potential rapid mixing concepts. For a given set of jet momentum-flux ratio, mass flow ratio, and density ratio (J, MR, and DR), the reacting flow calculations show a reduced level of mixing compared to the non-reacting cases. In addition, the rich-zone equivalence ratio has noticeable effect on the mixing flow characteristics for reacting flows.

  10. Allegheny County Median Age at Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The median age at death is calculated for each municipality in Allegheny County. Data is based on the decedent's residence at the time of death, not the location...

  11. A theoretical analysis of the median LMF adaptive algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Tommy Kristensen; Rusu, C.

    1999-01-01

    Higher order adaptive algorithms are sensitive to impulse interference. In the case of the LMF (Least Mean Fourth), an easy and effective way to reduce this is to median filter the instantaneous gradient of the LMF algorithm. Although previous published simulations have indicated that this reduces...... the speed of convergence, no analytical studies have yet been made to prove this. In order to enhance the usability, this paper presents a convergence and steady-state analysis of the median LMF adaptive algorithm. As expected this proves that the median LMF has a slower convergence and a lower steady...

  12. Correlation between peak and median blocking temperatures by magnetization measurement on isolated ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic particle systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Mørup, Steen

    1997-01-01

    The influence of the particle size distribution on the ratio of the peak temperature, T-peak, to the blocking temperature, T-Bm, in zero field cooled (ZFD) magnetization curves has studied for both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic particle systems. In both systems the ratio beta=T-peak/T-Bm does...... not depend on the median particle volume. However, T-Bm can be considerably different from T-peak in both systems. These results show that the ZFD measurements can be used to determine T-Bm values only if the particle size distribution of the system is known. Otherwise, the estimated T-Bm values will have...... a large uncertainty, especially in systems with a broad particle size distribution....

  13. The Investigation of Median Frequency Changes in Paraspinal Muscles Following Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Talebian

    2009-10-01

    Conclusion: Median frequency shift toward low values following fatigue in global and local paraspinal muscles was seen. However, median frequency values for the local stabilizer muscle were higher than median frequency values for the global muscles.

  14. Intraneural synovial sarcoma of the median nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Kasukurthi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Synovial sarcomas are soft-tissue malignancies with a poor prognosis and propensity for distant metastases. Although originally believed to arise from the synovium, these tumors have been found to occur anywhere in the body. We report a rare case of synovial sarcoma arising from the median nerve. To our knowledge, this is the twelfth reported case of intraneural synovial sarcoma, and only the fourth arising from the median nerve. Because the diagnosis may not be apparent until after pathological examination of the surgical speci­men, synovial sarcoma should be kept in mind when dealing with what may seem like a benign nerve tumor.

  15. Direct-acting Antivirals in Kidney Transplant Patients: Successful Hepatitis C Treatment and Short Term Reduction in Urinary Protein/Creatinine Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Goetsch

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The role of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV clearance in long-term kidney graft survival is unknown. In this study, we examined short-term trends of urinary protein/creatinine (P/C ratios in a cohort of HCV-infected kidney transplant recipients with stable graft function and treated with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 19 kidney transplant patients with chronic HCV infection treated with DAAs at the University of Alabama at Birmingham 1917 Viral Hepatitis Clinic between January 2013 and June 2016. Markers of glomerular damage were assessed using average protein/creatinine (P/C ratios measured pre- and post-treatment. We also described treatment efficacy using sustained virologic response at 12 weeks post-HCV treatment (SVR12. Results: The median age of the 19 patients included was 59 years (Q1=58, Q3=64 at completion of treatment. Of these patients, 68% were African American, 32% were White and 63% were male. The median time between kidney transplant and initiation of DAA therapy was 2.25 years (Q1=0.79, Q3=3.79. Post-treatment P/C ratios (median=0.127, Q1=0.090, Q3=0.220 were significantly lower (p=0.01 than pre-treatment ratios (median=0.168, Q1=0.118, Q3=0.385. P/C ratios decreased in 14 of 19 patients (74% with median change of -0.072 (median percent change= -40%. Post-treatment eGFRs (median=58.9, Q1=48.9, Q3=72.3 were not significantly different (p=0.82 than the pre-treatment values (median=57.0, Q1=48.8, Q3=67.8. Conclusions: In this preliminary study, there was a statistically significant decrease in P/C ratios associated with HCV clearance, suggesting a potential role for DAAs in improving kidney graft survival. Larger cohort studies will be needed to assess the clinical and long-term benefits of DAAs in this special population of HCV infected patients.

  16. Alloactivated HLA class II-positive T-cell lines induce IL-2 reactivity but lack accessory cell function in mixed leukocyte culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odum, N; Dickmeiss, E; Hofmann, B

    1989-01-01

    in the primary mixed leukocyte reaction (median counts per minute (cpm) 5.5 x 10(3] was significantly lower than that of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (cpm: 44.0 x 10(3]. The stimulation by Ta was almost only seen when the Ta were specifically directed against the class II antigens of the responder...... peripheral blood mononuclear cells (i.e., in combinations with "backstimulation") (median cpm: 21,000). In mixed leukocyte reaction combinations without backstimulation, significantly weaker reactions were seen (median cpm: 1,000). This observation may explain previous controversies concerning...

  17. Fermentative biohydrogen and biomethane co-production from mixture of food waste and sewage sludge: Effects of physiochemical properties and mix ratios on fermentation performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Jun; Ding, Lingkan; Lin, Richen; Yue, Liangchen; Liu, Jianzhong; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Microanalyses revealed food waste had more gelatinized organics and less mineral ash. • Mixed food waste and sewage sludge at 5 ratios were used for H_2 and CH_4 co-production. • Highest H_2 yield of 174.6 mL/gVS was achieved when food waste:sewage sludge was 3:1. • Co-fermentation enhanced carbon conversion by strengthening hydrolysis of substrates. • Energy yield rose from 1.9 kJ/gVS in H_2 to 11.3 kJ/gVS in H_2 and CH_4 co-production. - Abstract: The accumulation of increasingly generated food waste and sewage sludge is currently a heavy burden on environment in China. In this study, the physiochemical properties of food waste and sewage sludge were identified using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to investigate the effects on the fermentation performance in the co-fermentation of food waste and sewage sludge for biohydrogen production. The high gelatinized organic components in food waste, the enhanced bioaccessibility due to the dilution of mineral compounds in sewage sludge, and the balanced C/N ratio synergistically improved the fermentative biohydrogen production through the co-fermentation of food waste and sewage sludge at a volatile solids (VS) mix ratio of 3:1. The biohydrogen yield of 174.6 mL/gVS was 49.9% higher than the weighted average calculated from mono-fermentation of food waste and sewage sludge. Co-fermentation also strengthened the hydrolysis and acidogenesis of the mixture, resulting in a total carbon conversion efficiency of 63.3% and an energy conversion efficiency of 56.6% during biohydrogen production. After the second-stage anaerobic digestion of hydrogenogenic effluent, the energy yield from the mixed food waste and sewage sludge significantly increased from 1.9 kJ/gVS in the first-stage biohydrogen production to 11.3 kJ/gVS in the two-stage fermentative biohydrogen and biomethane co-production.

  18. [Use of sFlt-1/PlGF ratio in preeclampsia : a monocentric retrospective analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeurgt, L; Chantraine, F; De Marchin, J; Minon, J-M; Nisolle, M

    2017-09-01

    Soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) is an anti-angiogenic factor released in higher amounts in preeclampsia and implicated in endothelial dysfunction. sFlt-1/PlGF ratio is used in the prediction of preeclampsia. An sFlt-1/PlGF ratio inferior to 38 predicts the short-term absence of preeclampsia. A ratio ? 85 (early-onset PE) or ? 110 (late-onset of PE) could diagnose preeclampsia. In this study, sFlt-1/PlGF ratio has been measured in 183 patients. Sixty-seven preeclampsia have been diagnosed preeclamptic at delivery. The median sFlt-1/PlGF ratio was 100.3. The median ratio among women with preeclampsia (N=67) versus no preeclampsia (N=116) was 212.7 versus 35.4. In accordance with this analysis, an sFlt-1/PlGF ratio ? 38 has a sensibility of 95,5 % and a specificity of 73.3 %. The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value were 67.4 % and 96.6 %, respectively. These results suggest that sFlt-1/PlGF ratio is helpful in the diagnosis of preeclampsia.

  19. GUT Scale Fermion Mass Ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrath, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We present a series of recent works related to group theoretical factors from GUT symmetry breaking which lead to predictions for the ratios of quark and lepton Yukawa couplings at the unification scale. New predictions for the GUT scale ratios y μ /y s , y τ /y b and y t /y b in particular are shown and compared to experimental data. For this comparison it is important to include possibly large supersymmetric threshold corrections. Due to this reason the structure of the fermion masses at the GUT scale depends on TeV scale physics and makes GUT scale physics testable at the LHC. We also discuss how this new predictions might lead to predictions for mixing angles by discussing the example of the recently measured last missing leptonic mixing angle θ 13 making this new class of GUT models also testable in neutrino experiments

  20. Improvement of the tetrachloromercurate absorption technique for measuring low atmospheric SO2 mixing ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeschke, W.; Beltz, N.; Haunold, W.; Krischke, U.

    1997-07-01

    During the Gas-Phase Sulfur Intercomparison Experiment (GASIE) in 1994 an analytical system for measuring sulfur dioxide mixing ratios at low parts per trillion (pptv) levels was employed. It is based on the absorption of SO2 on a tetrachloromercurate(II)-impregnated filter. The subsequent analysis uses a chemiluminescence reaction by treating the resulting disulfitomercurate(II) complex with an acidic cerium sulfate solution. An improved sampling device has been introduced that increases the maximum sampling volume from 200 L to 500 L. It is also possible to determine the blank value accurately for each sample. The absorption efficiency of the sampling system is 98.7±6.4% at a nominal flow rate of 10 L/min. The calculated (3σ) detection limit is 3±1 pptv SO2. The sample solution is stable for up to 30 days, which allows the samples to be safely stored or shipped before analysis. This permits the use of a sensitive, compact, and reliable sampling system in the field with subsequent analysis under optimal conditions in the laboratory. A continuous flow chemiluminescence (CFCL) analyzer for on-line measurements is also presented. The system is based on the same chemical principles as the described filter technique.

  1. PIV Measurements of Supersonic Internally-Mixed Dual-Stream Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, James E.; Wernet, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    While externally mixed, or separate flow, nozzle systems are most common in high bypass-ratio aircraft, they are not as attractive for use in lower bypass-ratio systems and on aircraft that will fly supersonically. The noise of such propulsion systems is also dominated by jet noise, making the study and noise reduction of these exhaust systems very important, both for military aircraft and future civilian supersonic aircraft. This paper presents particle image velocimetry of internally mixed nozzle with different area ratios between core and bypass, and nozzles that are ideally expanded and convergent. Such configurations independently control the geometry of the internal mixing layer and of the external shock structure. These allow exploration of the impact of shocks on the turbulent mixing layers, the impact of bypass ratio on broadband shock noise and mixing noise, and the impact of temperature on the turbulent flow field. At the 2009 AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference the authors presented data and analysis from a series of tests that looked at the acoustics of supersonic jets from internally mixed nozzles. In that paper the broadband shock and mixing noise components of the jet noise were independently manipulated by holding Mach number constant while varying bypass ratio and jet temperature. Significant portions of that analysis was predicated on assumptions regarding the flow fields of these jets, both shock structure and turbulence. In this paper we add to that analysis by presenting particle image velocimetry measurements of the flow fields of many of those jets. In addition, the turbulent velocity data documented here will be very useful for validation of computational flow codes that are being developed to design advanced nozzles for future aircraft.

  2. Cold intolerance following median and ulnar nerve injuries : prognosis and predictors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, A.C.J; Jaquet, J-B.; van Riel, W. G.; Daanen, H. A M; Hovius, S.E.R.

    This study describes the predictors for cold intolerance and the relationship to sensory recovery after median and ulnar nerve injuries. The study population consisted of 107 patients 2 to 10 years after median, ulnar or combined median and ulnar nerve injuries. Patients were asked to fill out the

  3. Cold intolerance following median and ulnar nerve injuries : prognosis and predictors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, A.C.J.; Jaquet, J.B.; Riel, W.G. van; Daanen, H.A.M.; Hovius, S.E.R.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the predictors for cold intolerance and the relationship to sensory recovery after median and ulnar nerve injuries. The study population consisted of 107 patients 2 to 10 years after median, ulnar or combined median and ulnar nerve injuries. Patients were asked to fill out the

  4. Robust non-local median filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Jyohei; Koga, Takanori; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes a novel image filter with superior performance on detail-preserving removal of random-valued impulse noise superimposed on natural gray-scale images. The non-local means filter is in the limelight as a way of Gaussian noise removal with superior performance on detail preservation. By referring the fundamental concept of the non-local means, we had proposed a non-local median filter as a specialized way for random-valued impulse noise removal so far. In the non-local processing, the output of a filter is calculated from pixels in blocks which are similar to the block centered at a pixel of interest. As a result, aggressive noise removal is conducted without destroying the detailed structures in an original image. However, the performance of non-local processing decreases enormously in the case of high noise occurrence probability. A cause of this problem is that the superimposed noise disturbs accurate calculation of the similarity between the blocks. To cope with this problem, we propose an improved non-local median filter which is robust to the high level of corruption by introducing a new similarity measure considering possibility of being the original signal. The effectiveness and validity of the proposed method are verified in a series of experiments using natural gray-scale images.

  5. Usefulness of ultrasound assessment of median nerve mobility in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gi-Young; Kwon, Dong Rak; Seok, Jung Im; Park, Dong-Soon; Cho, Hee Kyung

    2018-01-01

    Background Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common peripheral compression neuropathy of the upper extremity. Recently, dynamic ultrasound (US) imaging has shown differences in median nerve mobility between the affected and unaffected sides in CTS. Purpose The present study was performed to compare the median nerve mobility between patients with CTS and healthy individuals, and to correlate median nerve mobility with the severity of CTS. Material and Methods A total of 101 patients (128 wrists) with CTS and 43 healthy individuals (70 wrists) were evaluated. Electrodiagnostic studies were initially conducted to determine the neurophysiological grading scale (NGS). The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve and the grade of median nerve mobility were measured using US. Results The mean grade of median nerve mobility in the CTS group (1.9) was significantly lower than that in the control group (2.6; P mobility and distal motor latency of the median nerve (r = -0.218, P = 0.015), NGS (r = -0.207, P = 0.020) and CSA of the median nerve (r = -0.196, P = 0.028). Conclusion The grade of median nerve mobility was negatively correlated with the severity of CTS. US assessment of median nerve mobility may be useful in diagnosing and determining the severity of CTS.

  6. Observation of charm mixing at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Meson-antimeson mixing has been observed in the K0−K0bar, B0−B0bar and B0s−B0sbar systems. Evidence of mixing in the charm system has been reported by three experiments using different D0 decay channels, but only the combination of these results provides confirmation of D0−D0bar mixing with more than 5σ significance. We report a measurement of charm mixing using the time-dependent ratio of D0 → K+π− to D0 → K−π+ decay rates in D∗+-tagged events reconstructed in 1.0 fb−1 of integrated luminosity recorded by the LHCb experiment in 2011. We measure the mixing parameters x'2 = (−0.9 ± 1.3) × 10−4, y' = (7.2 ± 2.4) × 10−3 and the ratio of doubly-Cabibbo-suppressed to Cabibbo-favored decay rates RD = (3.52 ± 0.15) × 10−3. The result excludes the no-mixing hypothesis with a probability corresponding to 9.1σ and represents the first observation of D0−D0bar oscillations from a single measurement.

  7. Dynamic Roughness Ratio-Based Framework for Modeling Mixed Mode of Droplet Evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunjan, Madhu Ranjan; Raj, Rishi

    2017-07-18

    The spatiotemporal evolution of an evaporating sessile droplet and its effect on lifetime is crucial to various disciplines of science and technology. Although experimental investigations suggest three distinct modes through which a droplet evaporates, namely, the constant contact radius (CCR), the constant contact angle (CCA), and the mixed, only the CCR and the CCA modes have been modeled reasonably. Here we use experiments with water droplets on flat and micropillared silicon substrates to characterize the mixed mode. We visualize that a perfect CCA mode after the initial CCR mode is an idealization on a flat silicon substrate, and the receding contact line undergoes intermittent but recurring pinning (CCR mode) as it encounters fresh contaminants on the surface. The resulting increase in roughness lowers the contact angle of the droplet during these intermittent CCR modes until the next depinning event, followed by the CCA mode of evaporation. The airborne contaminants in our experiments are mostly loosely adhered to the surface and travel along with the receding contact line. The resulting gradual increase in the apparent roughness and hence the extent of CCR mode over CCA mode forces appreciable decrease in the contact angle observed during the mixed mode of evaporation. Unlike loosely adhered airborne contaminants on flat samples, micropillars act as fixed roughness features. The apparent roughness fluctuates about the mean value as the contact line recedes between pillars. Evaporation on these surfaces exhibits stick-jump motion with a short-duration mixed mode toward the end when the droplet size becomes comparable to the pillar spacing. We incorporate this dynamic roughness into a classical evaporation model to accurately predict the droplet evolution throughout the three modes, for both flat and micropillared silicon surfaces. We believe that this framework can also be extended to model the evaporation of nanofluids and the coffee-ring effect, among

  8. Sosiaalisen median rooli kunnan viestinnässä

    OpenAIRE

    Selkämaa, Kati

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selvittää sosiaalisen median roolia kunnan viestinnässä sekä tutkia, miten sosiaalista mediaa hyödynnetään kuntien viestinnässä. Teoriaosuudessa tarkasteltiin sosiaalista mediaa, tutustuttiin sen tunnetuimpiin sovelluksiin sekä perehdyttiin kuntien viestintään yleisesti. Työssä tarkasteltiin myös kuntien viestintään vaikuttavia ja sitä sääteleviä lakeja. Kuntien sosiaalisen median käyttöön tutustuttiin Kuntaliiton tekemän viestintätutkimuksen tulosten pohjalt...

  9. Development of guidelines for cable median barrier systems in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Since 2003, the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) has embarked on an aggressive campaign to install : median barriers to prevent cross-median crashes on freeway facilities statewide. In the few years prior to 2003, : virtually all fatalities...

  10. Air/fuel ratio visualization in a diesel spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabell, Kevin David

    1993-01-01

    To investigate some features of high pressure diesel spray ignition, we have applied a newly developed planar imaging system to a spray in an engine-fed combustion bomb. The bomb is designed to give flow characteristics similar to those in a direct injection diesel engine yet provide nearly unlimited optical access. A high pressure electronic unit injector system with on-line manually adjustable main and pilot injection features was used. The primary scalar of interest was the local air/fuel ratio, particularly near the spray plumes. To make this measurement quantitative, we have developed a calibration LIF technique. The development of this technique is the key contribution of this dissertation. The air/fuel ratio measurement was made using biacetyl as a seed in the air inlet to the engine. When probed by a tripled Nd:YAG laser the biacetyl fluoresces, with a signal proportional to the local biacetyl concentration. This feature of biacetyl enables the fluorescent signal to be used as as indicator of local fuel vapor concentration. The biacetyl partial pressure was carefully controlled, enabling estimates of the local concentration of air and the approximate local stoichiometry in the fuel spray. The results indicate that the image quality generated with this method is sufficient for generating air/fuel ratio contours. The processes during the ignition delay have a marked effect on ignition and the subsequent burn. These processes, vaporization and pre-flame kinetics, very much depend on the mixing of the air and fuel. This study has shown that poor mixing and over-mixing of the air and fuel will directly affect the type of ignition. An optimal mixing arrangement exists and depends on the swirl ratio in the engine, the number of holes in the fuel injector and the distribution of fuel into a pilot and main injection. If a short delay and a diffusion burn is desired, the best mixing parameters among those surveyed would be a high swirl ratio, a 4-hole nozzle and a

  11. prediction of concrete mix cost using modified regression theory

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kambula

    2013-07-02

    Jul 2, 2013 ... one can predict the cost per cubic meter of concrete if the mix ratios are given. The model can also give possible mix ratios for a specified cost. Statistical tool was used to verify the adequacy of this model. The concrete cost analysis is based on the current market prices of concrete constituent materials.

  12. 3He/4He production ratios by tetrahedral symmetric condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Akito

    2006-01-01

    The present paper treats application of the Electronic Quasi-Particle Expansion Theory (EQPET) model for Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensate (TSC) of H/D mixed systems for Pd host metal. Production ratios of 3 He/ 4 He for multi-body fusion reactions in H/D mixed TSC systems are calculated as a function of H/D mixing ratio. The model is further extended to treat direct nuclear interactions between host-metal nucleus and TSC of pure four protons (or four deuterons), since TSC can become very small (far less than 1 pm radius) charge-neutral pseudo-particle. Results for the case of Ni + 4p/TSC are discussed with Ni + p capture reactions and Ni + 4p fission reactions. (authors)

  13. Fatigue crack closure behavior at high stress ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, C. Christopher; Carman, C. Davis; Hillberry, Ben M.

    1988-01-01

    Fatigue crack delay behavior at high stress ratio caused by single peak overloads was investigated in two thicknesses of 7475-T731 aluminum alloy. Closure measurements indicated no closure occurred before or throughout the overload plastic zones following the overload. This was further substantiated by comparing the specimen compliance following the overload with the compliance of a low R ratio test when the crack was fully open. Scanning electron microscope studies revealed that crack tunneling and possibly reinitiation of the crack occurred, most likely a result of crack-tip blunting. The number of delay cycles was greater for the thinner mixed mode stress state specimen than for the thicker plane strain stress state specimen, which is similar to low R ratio test results and may be due to a larger plastic zone for the mixed mode cased.

  14. Development of a balloonborne radiosonde to measure extremely low mixing ratios of nitric oxide in the atmosphere up to the altitude of 40 km first measured and stratospheric vertical profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiler, K H

    1979-01-01

    Vertical profiles of NO were measured at midlatitudes by means of a balloonborne payload using the chemiluminescent principle. A newly developed pressure dependent turbofan enables sufficient main flow even under near vacuum conditions, as low as 3 mb a flight duration of 20 hours. The data are continuously transmitted via a PCM-system to the ground station. The whole instrument was sealed prior to the flight and opened above the clouds by telecommand in order to avoid contamination by water vapour. Extensive laboratory and in situ calibration procedures led for the first time to overall errors of less than +-5% for the midday mean value between 3 to 10 mb and +- 25% at 150 mb. The resolving power is better than 20 pptsub(v) (10/sup -11/) depending on the actual temperature, maniflow, and pressure. At about 25 mb, the reduction in NO with the setting of the sun was observed. A very slow decrease in the mixing ratio was found, which agrees with measurements of other workers but not with present model predictions. The mixing ratio between 7 and 10 mb was between 3 and 4 ppbsub(v) (10/sup -9/). The minimum mixing ratio of about 0.07 ppbsub(v) was observed at about 60 mb. Also a hysteresis between ascent and descent was observed. It is concluded that the different diurnal variations of NO are strongly dependent on vertical exchange processes, scattering processes, and the surface albedo.

  15. Millimeter-wave Line Ratios and Sub-beam Volume Density Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroy, Adam K.; Gallagher, Molly [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Usero, Antonio [Observatorio Astronmico Nacional (IGN), C/Alfonso XII, 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Schruba, Andreas [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstraße 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bigiel, Frank [Institute für theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Schinnerer, Eva [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstraße 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kepley, Amanda [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Blanc, Guillermo A. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Bolatto, Alberto D. [Department of Astronomy, Laboratory for Millimeter-wave Astronomy, and Joint Space Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Cormier, Diane; Jiménez-Donaire, Maria J. [Max Planck Institute für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Hughes, Annie [CNRS, IRAP, 9 av. du Colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Rosolowsky, Erik [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2017-02-01

    We explore the use of mm-wave emission line ratios to trace molecular gas density when observations integrate over a wide range of volume densities within a single telescope beam. For observations targeting external galaxies, this case is unavoidable. Using a framework similar to that of Krumholz and Thompson, we model emission for a set of common extragalactic lines from lognormal and power law density distributions. We consider the median density of gas that produces emission and the ability to predict density variations from observed line ratios. We emphasize line ratio variations because these do not require us to know the absolute abundance of our tracers. Patterns of line ratio variations have the potential to illuminate the high-end shape of the density distribution, and to capture changes in the dense gas fraction and median volume density. Our results with and without a high-density power law tail differ appreciably; we highlight better knowledge of the probability density function (PDF) shape as an important area. We also show the implications of sub-beam density distributions for isotopologue studies targeting dense gas tracers. Differential excitation often implies a significant correction to the naive case. We provide tabulated versions of many of our results, which can be used to interpret changes in mm-wave line ratios in terms of adjustments to the underlying density distributions.

  16. Lepton mixing in A_5 family symmetry and generalized CP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Cai-Chang; Ding, Gui-Jun

    2015-01-01

    We study lepton mixing patterns which can be derived from the A_5 family symmetry and generalized CP. We find five phenomenologically interesting mixing patterns for which one column of the PMNS matrix is (√(((5+√5)/10)),(1/(√(5+√5))),(1/(√(5+√5))))"T (the first column of the golden ratio mixing), (√(((5−√5)/10)),(1/(√(5−√5))),(1/(√(5−√5))))"T (the second column of the golden ratio mixing), (1,1,1)"T/√3 or (√5+1,−2,√5−1)"T/4. The three lepton mixing angles are determined in terms of a single real parameter θ, and agreement with experimental data can be achieved for certain values of θ. The Dirac CP violating phase is predicted to be trivial or maximal while Majorana phases are trivial. We construct a supersymmetric model based on A_5 family symmetry and generalized CP. The lepton mixing is exactly the golden ratio pattern at leading order, and the mixing patterns of case III and case IV are reproduced after higher order corrections are considered.

  17. Mixed carboranethiol self-assembled monolayers on gold surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavuz, Adem [Micro and Nanotechnology Department, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Science, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Sohrabnia, Nima [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Yilmaz, Ayşen [Micro and Nanotechnology Department, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Science, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Danışman, M. Fatih, E-mail: danisman@metu.edu.tr [Micro and Nanotechnology Department, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Science, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • M1 binds to the gold surface preferentially when co-deposited with M9 or O1. • Contact angles show similar trends regardless of the gold substrate roughness. • Contact angles were lower, with higher hysteresis, on template stripped gold. • Mixed carboranethiol SAMs have similar morphological properties regardless of mixing ratio. - Abstract: Carboranethiol self-assembled monolayers on metal surfaces have been shown to be very convenient systems for surface engineering. Here we have studied pure and mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of three different carboranethiol (CT) isomers on gold surfaces. The isomers were chosen with dipole moments pointing parallel to (m-1-carboranethiol, M1), out of (m-9-carboranethiol, M9) and into (o-1-carboranethiol, O1) the surface plane, in order to investigate the effect of dipole moment orientation on the film properties. In addition, influence of the substrate surface morphology on the film properties was also studied by using flame annealed (FA) and template stripped (TS) gold surfaces. Contact angle measurements indicate that in M1/M9 and M1/O1 mixed SAMs, M1 is the dominant species on the surface even for low M1 ratio in the growth solution. Whereas for O1/M9 mixed SAMs no clear evidence could be observed indicating dominance of one of the species over the other one. Though contact angle values were lower and hysteresis values were higher for SAMs grown on TS gold surfaces, the trends in the behavior of the contact angles with changing mixing ratio were identical for SAMs grown on both substrates. Atomic force microscopy images of the SAMs on TS gold surfaces indicate that the films have similar morphological properties regardless of mixing ratio.

  18. Elliptic nozzle aspect ratio effect on controlled jet propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S M Aravindh; Rathakrishnan, Ethirajan, E-mail: aravinds@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: erath@iitk.ac.in [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India)

    2017-04-15

    The present study deals with the control of a Mach 2 elliptic jet from a convergent–divergent elliptic nozzle of aspect ratio 4 using tabs at the nozzle exit. The experiments were carried out for rectangular and triangular tabs of the same blockage, placed along the major and minor axes of the nozzle exit, at different levels of nozzle expansion. The triangular tabs along the minor axis promoted superior mixing compared to the other controlled jets and caused substantial core length reduction at all the nozzle pressure ratios studied. The rectangular tabs along the minor axis caused core length reduction at all pressure ratios, but the values were minimal compared to that of triangular tabs along the minor axis. For all the test conditions, the mixing promotion caused by tabs along the major axis was inferior to that of tabs along the minor axis. The waves present in the core of controlled jets were visualized using a shadowgraph. Comparison of the present results with the results of a controlled Mach 2 elliptic jet of aspect ratio 2 (Aravindh Kumar and Sathakrishnan 2016 J. Propulsion Power 32 121–33, Aravindh Kumar and Rathakrishnan 2016 J. Aerospace Eng. at press (doi:10.1177/0954410016652921)) show that for all levels of expansion, the mixing effectiveness of triangular tabs along the minor axis of an aspect ratio 4 nozzle is better than rectangular or triangular tabs along the minor axis of an aspect ratio 2 nozzle. (paper)

  19. Elliptic nozzle aspect ratio effect on controlled jet propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S M Aravindh; Rathakrishnan, Ethirajan

    2017-01-01

    The present study deals with the control of a Mach 2 elliptic jet from a convergent–divergent elliptic nozzle of aspect ratio 4 using tabs at the nozzle exit. The experiments were carried out for rectangular and triangular tabs of the same blockage, placed along the major and minor axes of the nozzle exit, at different levels of nozzle expansion. The triangular tabs along the minor axis promoted superior mixing compared to the other controlled jets and caused substantial core length reduction at all the nozzle pressure ratios studied. The rectangular tabs along the minor axis caused core length reduction at all pressure ratios, but the values were minimal compared to that of triangular tabs along the minor axis. For all the test conditions, the mixing promotion caused by tabs along the major axis was inferior to that of tabs along the minor axis. The waves present in the core of controlled jets were visualized using a shadowgraph. Comparison of the present results with the results of a controlled Mach 2 elliptic jet of aspect ratio 2 (Aravindh Kumar and Sathakrishnan 2016 J. Propulsion Power 32 121–33, Aravindh Kumar and Rathakrishnan 2016 J. Aerospace Eng. at press (doi:10.1177/0954410016652921)) show that for all levels of expansion, the mixing effectiveness of triangular tabs along the minor axis of an aspect ratio 4 nozzle is better than rectangular or triangular tabs along the minor axis of an aspect ratio 2 nozzle. (paper)

  20. MEAN OF MEDIAN ABSOLUTE DERIVATION TECHNIQUE MEAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    development of mean of median absolute derivation technique based on the based on the based on .... of noise mean to estimate the speckle noise variance. Noise mean property ..... Foraging Optimization,” International Journal of. Advanced ...

  1. Median Modified Wiener Filter for nonlinear adaptive spatial denoising of protein NMR multidimensional spectra

    KAUST Repository

    Cannistraci, Carlo Vittorio

    2015-01-26

    Denoising multidimensional NMR-spectra is a fundamental step in NMR protein structure determination. The state-of-the-art method uses wavelet-denoising, which may suffer when applied to non-stationary signals affected by Gaussian-white-noise mixed with strong impulsive artifacts, like those in multi-dimensional NMR-spectra. Regrettably, Wavelet\\'s performance depends on a combinatorial search of wavelet shapes and parameters; and multi-dimensional extension of wavelet-denoising is highly non-trivial, which hampers its application to multidimensional NMR-spectra. Here, we endorse a diverse philosophy of denoising NMR-spectra: less is more! We consider spatial filters that have only one parameter to tune: the window-size. We propose, for the first time, the 3D extension of the median-modified-Wiener-filter (MMWF), an adaptive variant of the median-filter, and also its novel variation named MMWF*. We test the proposed filters and the Wiener-filter, an adaptive variant of the mean-filter, on a benchmark set that contains 16 two-dimensional and three-dimensional NMR-spectra extracted from eight proteins. Our results demonstrate that the adaptive spatial filters significantly outperform their non-adaptive versions. The performance of the new MMWF* on 2D/3D-spectra is even better than wavelet-denoising. Noticeably, MMWF* produces stable high performance almost invariant for diverse window-size settings: this signifies a consistent advantage in the implementation of automatic pipelines for protein NMR-spectra analysis.

  2. Median Modified Wiener Filter for nonlinear adaptive spatial denoising of protein NMR multidimensional spectra

    KAUST Repository

    Cannistraci, Carlo Vittorio; Abbas, Ahmed; Gao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Denoising multidimensional NMR-spectra is a fundamental step in NMR protein structure determination. The state-of-the-art method uses wavelet-denoising, which may suffer when applied to non-stationary signals affected by Gaussian-white-noise mixed with strong impulsive artifacts, like those in multi-dimensional NMR-spectra. Regrettably, Wavelet's performance depends on a combinatorial search of wavelet shapes and parameters; and multi-dimensional extension of wavelet-denoising is highly non-trivial, which hampers its application to multidimensional NMR-spectra. Here, we endorse a diverse philosophy of denoising NMR-spectra: less is more! We consider spatial filters that have only one parameter to tune: the window-size. We propose, for the first time, the 3D extension of the median-modified-Wiener-filter (MMWF), an adaptive variant of the median-filter, and also its novel variation named MMWF*. We test the proposed filters and the Wiener-filter, an adaptive variant of the mean-filter, on a benchmark set that contains 16 two-dimensional and three-dimensional NMR-spectra extracted from eight proteins. Our results demonstrate that the adaptive spatial filters significantly outperform their non-adaptive versions. The performance of the new MMWF* on 2D/3D-spectra is even better than wavelet-denoising. Noticeably, MMWF* produces stable high performance almost invariant for diverse window-size settings: this signifies a consistent advantage in the implementation of automatic pipelines for protein NMR-spectra analysis.

  3. Electroacupuncture and Acupuncture Promote the Rat’s Transected Median Nerve Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, C. Y.; Yao, C. H.; Chen, W. C.; Shen, W. C.; Bau, D. T.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments of damaged nerves may aid nerve regeneration related to hindlimb function, but the effects on the forelimb-related median nerve were not known. Methods. A gap was made in the median nerve of each rat by suturing the stumps into silicone rubber tubes. The influences of acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments on transected median nerve regeneration were evaluated from morphological, electrophysiological, and functional angles. Resu...

  4. Multiple injected and natural conservative tracers quantify mixing in a stream confluence affected by acid mine drainage near Silverton, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemel, L.E.; Cox, M.H.; Runkel, R.L.; Kimball, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    The acidic discharge from Cement Creek, containing elevated concentrations of dissolved metals and sulphate, mixed with the circumneutral-pH Animas River over a several hundred metre reach (mixing zone) near Silverton, CO, during this study. Differences in concentrations of Ca, Mg, Si, Sr, and SO42- between the creek and the river were sufficiently large for these analytes to be used as natural tracers in the mixing zone. In addition, a sodium chloride (NaCl) tracer was injected into Cement Creek, which provided a Cl- 'reference' tracer in the mixing zone. Conservative transport of the dissolved metals and sulphate through the mixing zone was verified by mass balances and by linear mixing plots relative to the injected reference tracer. At each of seven sites in the mixing zone, five samples were collected at evenly spaced increments of the observed across-channel gradients, as determined by specific conductance. This created sets of samples that adequately covered the ranges of mixtures (mixing ratios, in terms of the fraction of Animas River water, %AR). Concentrations measured in each mixing zone sample and in the upstream Animas River and Cement Creek were used to compute %AR for the reference and natural tracers. Values of %AR from natural tracers generally showed good agreement with values from the reference tracer, but variability in discharge and end-member concentrations and analytical errors contributed to unexpected outlier values for both injected and natural tracers. The median value (MV) %AR (calculated from all of the tracers) reduced scatter in the mixing plots for the dissolved metals, indicating that the MV estimate reduced the effects of various potential errors that could affect any tracer.

  5. Multiple injected and natural conservative tracers quantify mixing in a stream confluence affected by acid mine drainage near Silverton, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemel, Laurence E.; Cox, Marisa H.; Runkel, Robert L.; Kimball, Briant A.

    2006-08-01

    The acidic discharge from Cement Creek, containing elevated concentrations of dissolved metals and sulphate, mixed with the circumneutral-pH Animas River over a several hundred metre reach (mixing zone) near Silverton, CO, during this study. Differences in concentrations of Ca, Mg, Si, Sr, and SO42- between the creek and the river were sufficiently large for these analytes to be used as natural tracers in the mixing zone. In addition, a sodium chloride (NaCl) tracer was injected into Cement Creek, which provided a Cl- reference tracer in the mixing zone. Conservative transport of the dissolved metals and sulphate through the mixing zone was verified by mass balances and by linear mixing plots relative to the injected reference tracer. At each of seven sites in the mixing zone, five samples were collected at evenly spaced increments of the observed across-channel gradients, as determined by specific conductance. This created sets of samples that adequately covered the ranges of mixtures (mixing ratios, in terms of the fraction of Animas River water, %AR). Concentratis measured in each mixing zone sample and in the upstream Animas River and Cement Creek were used to compute %AR for the reference and natural tracers. Values of %AR from natural tracers generally showed good agreement with values from the reference tracer, but variability in discharge and end-member concentrations and analytical errors contributed to unexpected outlier values for both injected and natural tracers. The median value (MV) %AR (calculated from all of the tracers) reduced scatter in the mixing plots for the dissolved metals, indicating that the MV estimate reduced the effects of various potential errors that could affect any tracer.

  6. Mixed-Species Effects on Soil C and N Stocks, C/N Ratio and pH Using a Transboundary Approach in Adjacent Common Garden Douglas-Fir and Beech Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seid Muhie Dawud

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mixed forest of Douglas-fir and beech has been suggested as one of the possible future forest types in Northwest Europe but the effects of this mixed forest on soil properties relative to monoculture stands are unknown. In a transboundary investigation of adjacent common garden Douglas-fir and beech stands, we determined the effects on topsoil properties. However, responses of C and N stocks, the C/N ratio and pH were site- and soil layer-specific and were mainly single-sided and without synergistic effects. Beech reduced the soil C and N stocks in Douglas-fir at the nutrient-poor site, caused an increase in the C/N ratio in the forest floor and mineral soil at both nutrient-poor and -rich sites, and reduced the acidifying effect of Douglas-fir at the nutrient-poor site. These results do not support the hypothesis that mixture effects would be consistent across sites and soil layers. The lack of synergistic effects may be attributed to the relatively similar litter quality or rooting depth that prevented any larger niche differentiation and complementarity. The results indicate that the transboundary approach within a mature common garden proved useful as a platform to test tree species interactions, and this approach could be explored in soil studies until dedicated mixed-species common gardens reach maturity.

  7. Median Filtering Methods for Non-volcanic Tremor Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiao, L. G.; Nadeau, R. M.; Dreger, D. S.; Luna, B.; Zhang, H.

    2016-12-01

    Various properties of median filtering over time and space are used to address challenges posed by the Non-volcanic tremor detection problem. As part of a "Big-Data" effort to characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of ambient tremor throughout the Northern San Andreas Fault system, continuous seismic data from multiple seismic networks with contrasting operational characteristics and distributed over a variety of regions are being used. Automated median filtering methods that are flexible enough to work consistently with these data are required. Tremor is characterized by a low-amplitude, long-duration signal-train whose shape is coherent at multiple stations distributed over a large area. There are no consistent phase arrivals or mechanisms in a given tremor's signal and even the durations and shapes among different tremors vary considerably. A myriad of masquerading noise, anthropogenic and natural-event signals must also be discriminated in order to obtain accurate tremor detections. We present here results of the median methods applied to data from four regions of the San Andreas Fault system in northern California (Geysers Geothermal Field, Napa, Bitterwater and Parkfield) to illustrate the ability of the methods to detect tremor under diverse conditions.

  8. On watermass mixing ratios and regenerated silicon in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.P.; Sarma, V.V.; Rao, V.S.; Sudhakar, U.; Gupta, G.V.M.

    Regeneration of silicon on mixing in the Bay of Bengal have been computed from six water masses [Bay of Bengal low saline water (BBLS), Bay of Bengal subsurface water (BBSS), northern southeast high salinity water (NSEHS), north Indian intermediate...

  9. Density effect on the mixing efficiency and flow modes in T-shaped micromixers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobasov Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow patterns and mixing of liquids with different densities in T-shaped micromixers are numerically investigated at Reynolds number range from 1 to 250. The density ratio of the mixing media varies from 1 to 2; its effect on the flow structure and the mixing is studied. The dependences of the mixing efficiency and the pressure difference in this mixer on the density ratio and the Reynolds number are obtained. It is shown that the density ratio has a considerable effect on the flow structure, especially before the transition from the symmetric to the asymmetric flow pattern.

  10. Lapset median käyttäjinä

    OpenAIRE

    Jalonen, Taru; Suomela, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    Laurea-ammattikorkeakoulu Tiivistelmä Hyvinkää Sosiaali-, terveys- ja liikunta-ala Hoitotyön koulutusohjelma Terveydenhoitaja AMK Sairaanhoitaja AMK Taru Jalonen, Sonja Suomela Lapset median käyttäjinä Vuosi ‎2010‎ Sivumäärä ‎63‎ Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää lasten tottumuksia ja kokemuksia mediasta sekä ‎niiden herättämiä tunteita. Lisäksi selvitimme lasten käyttämiä mediaympäristöjä sekä median ‎näkymistä lasten leikeissä. Tämä työ on os...

  11. The development of a balloonborne radiosonde to measure extremely low mixing ratios of nitric oxide in the atmosphere up to the altitude of 40 km first measured and stratospheric vertical profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiler, K.H.

    1979-01-01

    Vertical profiles of NO were measured at midlatitudes by means of a balloonborne payload using the chemiluminescent principle. A newly developed pressure dependent turbofan enables sufficient main flow even under near vacuum conditions, as low as 3 mb a flight duration of 20 hours. The data are continuously transmitted via a PCM-system to the ground station. The whole instrument was sealed prior to the flight and opened above the clouds by telecommand in order to avoid contamination by water vapour. Extensive laboratory and in situ calibration procedures led for the first time to overall errors of less than +-5% for the midday mean value between 3 to 10 mb and +- 25% at 150 mb. The resolving power is better than 20 pptsub(v) (10 -11 ) depending on the actual temperature, maniflow, and pressure. At about 25 mb, the reduction in NO with the setting of the sun was observed. A very slow decrease in the mixing ratio was found, which agrees with measurements of other workers but not with present model predictions. The mixing ratio between 7 and 10 mb was between 3 and 4 ppbsub(v) (10 -9 ). The minimum mixing ratio of about 0.07 ppbsub(v) was observed at about 60 mb. Also a hysteresis between ascent and descent was observed. It is concluded that the different diurnal variations of NO are strongly dependent on vertical exchange processes, scattering processes, and the surface albedo. (orig.) [de

  12. NUCLEAR MIXING METERS FOR CLASSICAL NOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Keegan J.; Iliadis, Christian; Downen, Lori; Champagne, Art [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); José, Jordi [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, EUETIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, E-08036 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-11-10

    Classical novae are caused by mass transfer episodes from a main-sequence star onto a white dwarf via Roche lobe overflow. This material possesses angular momentum and forms an accretion disk around the white dwarf. Ultimately, a fraction of this material spirals in and piles up on the white dwarf surface under electron-degenerate conditions. The subsequently occurring thermonuclear runaway reaches hundreds of megakelvin and explosively ejects matter into the interstellar medium. The exact peak temperature strongly depends on the underlying white dwarf mass, the accreted mass and metallicity, and the initial white dwarf luminosity. Observations of elemental abundance enrichments in these classical nova events imply that the ejected matter consists not only of processed solar material from the main-sequence partner but also of material from the outer layers of the underlying white dwarf. This indicates that white dwarf and accreted matter mix prior to the thermonuclear runaway. The processes by which this mixing occurs require further investigation to be understood. In this work, we analyze elemental abundances ejected from hydrodynamic nova models in search of elemental abundance ratios that are useful indicators of the total amount of mixing. We identify the abundance ratios ΣCNO/H, Ne/H, Mg/H, Al/H, and Si/H as useful mixing meters in ONe novae. The impact of thermonuclear reaction rate uncertainties on the mixing meters is investigated using Monte Carlo post-processing network calculations with temperature-density evolutions of all mass zones computed by the hydrodynamic models. We find that the current uncertainties in the {sup 30}P(p, γ){sup 31}S rate influence the Si/H abundance ratio, but overall the mixing meters found here are robust against nuclear physics uncertainties. A comparison of our results with observations of ONe novae provides strong constraints for classical nova models.

  13. CSF/serum albumin ratio in dementias: a cross-sectional study on 1861 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skillbäck, Tobias; Delsing, Louise; Synnergren, Jane; Mattsson, Niklas; Janelidze, Shorena; Nägga, Katarina; Kilander, Lena; Hicks, Ryan; Wimo, Anders; Winblad, Bengt; Hansson, Oskar; Blennow, Kaj; Eriksdotter, Maria; Zetterberg, Henrik

    2017-11-01

    A connection between dementias and blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction has been suggested, but previous studies have yielded conflicting results. We examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/serum albumin ratio in a large cohort of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD, early onset [EAD, n = 130], late onset AD [LAD, n = 666]), vascular dementia (VaD, n = 255), mixed AD and VaD (MIX, n = 362), Lewy body dementia (DLB, n = 50), frontotemporal dementia (FTD, n = 56), Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD, n = 23), other dementias (other, n = 48), and dementia not otherwise specified (NOS, n = 271). We compared CSF/serum albumin ratio to 2 healthy control groups (n = 292, n = 20), between dementia diagnoses, and tested biomarker associations. Patients in DLB, LAD, VaD, MIX, other, and NOS groups had higher CSF/serum albumin ratio than controls. CSF/serum albumin ratio correlated with CSF neurofilament light in LAD, MIX, VaD, and other groups but not with AD biomarkers. Our data show that BBB leakage is common in dementias. The lack of association between CSF/serum albumin ratio and AD biomarkers suggests that BBB dysfunction is not inherent to AD but might represent concomitant cerebrovascular pathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Groundwater Mixing Process Identification in Deep Mines Based on Hydrogeochemical Property Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Karst collapse columns, as a potential water passageway for mine water inrush, are always considered a critical problem for the development of deep mining techniques. This study aims to identify the mixing process of groundwater deriving two different limestone karst-fissure aquifer systems. Based on analysis of mining groundwater hydrogeochemical properties, hydraulic connection between the karst-fissure objective aquifer systems was revealed. In this paper, piper diagram was used to calculate the mixing ratios at different sampling points in the aquifer systems, and PHREEQC Interactive model (Version 2.5, USGS, Reston, VA, USA, 2001 was applied to modify the mixing ratios and model the water–rock interactions during the mixing processes. The analysis results show that the highest mixing ratio is 0.905 in the C12 borehole that is located nearest to the #2 karst collapse column, and the mixing ratio decreases with the increase of the distance from the #2 karst collapse column. It demonstrated that groundwater of the two aquifers mixed through the passage of #2 karst collapse column. As a result, the proposed Piper-PHREEQC based method can provide accurate identification of karst collapse columns’ water conductivity, and can be applied to practical applications.

  15. Optimal design of work zone median crossovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The use of temporary median crossovers in work zones allows for the closure of one side of a multi-lane roadway while : maintaining two-way traffic on the opposite side. This process provides the ability for construction and maintenance crews : to co...

  16. The impact of acquisition time of planar cardiac 123I-MIBG imaging on the late heart to mediastinum ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitriu-Leen, Aukelien C.; Veltman, Caroline E.; Bax, Jeroen J.; Scholte, Arthur J.H.A.; Gimelli, Alessia; Al Younis, Imad; Verberne, Hein J.; Wolterbeek, Ron; Zandbergen-Harlaar, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether performing the late cardiac 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scan earlier than 4 h post-injection (p.i.) has relevant impact on the late heart to mediastinum ratio (H/M ratio) in patients with heart failure (HF). Forty-nine patients with HF (median left ventricular ejection fraction of 31 %, 51 % ischaemic HF) referred for cardiac 123 I-MIBG scintigraphy were scanned at 15 min (early) p.i. and at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h (late) p.i. of 123 I-MIBG. Late H/M ratios were calculated and evaluated using a linear mixed model with the mean late H/M ratio at 4 h p.i. as a reference. A difference in late H/M ratios of more than 0.10 between the different acquisition times in comparison with the late H/M ratio at 4 h p.i. was considered as clinically relevant. Statistically significant mean differences were observed between the late H/M ratios at 1, 2 and 3 h p.i. compared with the late H/M ratio at 4 h p.i. (0.09, 0.05 and 0.02, respectively). However, the mean differences did not exceed the cut-off value of 0.10. On an individual patient level, compared to the late H/M ratio at 4 h p.i., the late H/M ratios at 1, 2 and 3 h p.i. differed more than 0.10 in 24 (50 %), 9 (19 %) and 2 (4 %) patients, respectively. Variation in acquisition time of 123 I-MIBG between 2 and 4 h p.i. does not lead to a clinically significant change in the late H/M ratio. An earlier acquisition time seems to be justified and may warrant a more time-efficient cardiac 123 I-MIBG imaging protocol. (orig.)

  17. Experimental observations of thermal mixing characteristics in T-junction piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Mei-Shiue, E-mail: chenms@mx.nthu.edu.tw; Hsieh, Huai-En; Ferng, Yuh-Ming; Pei, Bau-Shi

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • The effects of flow velocity ratio on thermal mixing phenomenon are the major parameters. • The flow velocity ratio (V{sub b}/V{sub m}) is greater than 13.6, reverse flow occurs. • The flow velocity ratio is greater than 13.7, a “good” mixing quality is achieved. - Abstract: The T-junction piping is frequently used in many industrial applications, including the nuclear plants. For a pressurized water reactor (PWR), the emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) inject cold water into the primary loops if a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) happens. Inappropriate mixing of the two streams with significant temperature different at a junction may cause strong thermal stresses to the downstream structures in the reactor vessel. The downstream structures may be damaged. This study is an experimental investigation into the thermal mixing effect occurring at a T-junction. A small-scale test facility was established to observe the mixing effect of flows with different temperature. Thermal mixing effect with different flow rates in the main and branch pipes are investigated by measuring the temperature distribution along the main pipe. In test condition I, we found that lower main pipe flow rate leads to better mixing effect with constant branch pipe flow rate. And in conditions II and III, higher injection flow velocity would enhance the turbulence effect which results in better thermal mixing. The results will be useful for applications with mixing fluids with different temperature.

  18. Program-level and contextual-level determinants of low-median CD4+ cell count in cohorts of persons initiating ART in eight sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Denis; Wu, Yingfeng; Elul, Batya; Hoos, David; El Sadr, Wafaa

    2011-07-31

    In sub-Saharan Africa, many patients initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) at CD4 cell counts much lower than those recommended in national guidelines. We examined program-level and contextual-level factors associated with low median CD4 cell count at ART initiation in populations initiating ART. Multilevel analysis of aggregate and program-level service delivery data. We examined data on 1690 cohorts of patients initiating ART during 2004-2008 in eight sub-Saharan African countries. Cohorts with median CD4 less than 111 cells/μl (the lowest quartile) were classified as having low median CD4 cell count at ART initiation. Cohort information was combined with time-updated program-level data and subnational contextual-level data, and analyzed using multilevel models. The 1690 cohorts had median CD4 cell count of 136 cells/μl and included 121,504 patients initiating ART at 267 clinics. Program-level factors associated with low cohort median CD4 cell count included urban setting [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.3], lower provider-to-patient ratio (AOR 2.2; 95% CI 1.3-4.0), no PMTCT program (AOR 3.6; 95% CI 1.0-12.8), outreach services for ART patients only vs. both pre-ART and ART patients (AOR 2.4; 95% CI 1.5-3.9), fewer vs. more adherence support services (AOR 1.6; 95% CI 1.0-2.5), and smaller cohort size (AOR 2.5; 95% CI 1.4-4.5). Contextual-level factors associated with low cohort median CD4 cell count included initiating ART in areas where a lower proportion of the population heard of AIDS, tested for HIV recently, and a higher proportion believed 'limiting themselves to one HIV-uninfected sexual partner reduces HIV risk'. Determinants of CD4 cell count at ART initiation in populations initiating ART operate at multiple levels. Structural interventions targeting points upstream from ART initiation along the continuum from infection to diagnosis to care engagement are needed.

  19. Posterior distributions for likelihood ratios in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hout, Ardo; Alberink, Ivo

    2016-09-01

    Evaluation of evidence in forensic science is discussed using posterior distributions for likelihood ratios. Instead of eliminating the uncertainty by integrating (Bayes factor) or by conditioning on parameter values, uncertainty in the likelihood ratio is retained by parameter uncertainty derived from posterior distributions. A posterior distribution for a likelihood ratio can be summarised by the median and credible intervals. Using the posterior mean of the distribution is not recommended. An analysis of forensic data for body height estimation is undertaken. The posterior likelihood approach has been criticised both theoretically and with respect to applicability. This paper addresses the latter and illustrates an interesting application area. Copyright © 2016 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dynamics of nitrogen oxides and ozone above and within a mixed hardwood forest in northern Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Seok

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic behavior of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2 and ozone (O3 above and within the canopy at the University of Michigan Biological Station AmeriFlux (UMBS Flux site was investigated by continuous multi-height vertical gradient measurements during the summer and the fall of 2008. A daily maximum in nitric oxide (NO mixing ratios was consistently observed during the morning hours between 06:00 and 09:00 EST above the canopy. Daily NO maxima ranged between 0.1 and 2 ppbv (with a median of 0.3 ppbv, which were 2 to 20 times above the atmospheric background. The sources and causes of the morning NO maximum were evaluated using NOx and O3 measurements and synoptic and micrometeorological data. Numerical simulations with a multi-layer canopy-exchange model were done to further support this analysis. The observations indicated that the morning NO maximum was caused by the photolysis of NO2 from non-local air masses, which were transported into the canopy from aloft during the morning breakup of the nocturnal boundary layer. The analysis of simulated process tendencies indicated that the downward turbulent transport of NOx into the canopy compensates for the removal of NOx through chemistry and dry deposition. The sensitivity of NOx and O3 concentrations to soil and foliage NOx emissions was also assessed with the model. Uncertainties associated with the emissions of NOx from the soil or from leaf-surface nitrate photolysis did not explain the observed diurnal behavior in NOx (and O3 and, in particular, the morning peak in NOx mixing ratios. However, a ~30% increase in early morning NOx and NO peak mixing ratios was simulated when a foliage exchange NO2 compensation point was considered. This increase suggests the potential importance of leaf-level, bidirectional exchange of NO2 in understanding the observed temporal variability in NOx at UMBS.

  1. Sosiaalisen median markkinointisuunnitelma uudelle hoitoalan konseptoidulle työvaatemallistolle

    OpenAIRE

    Leppälä, Sanna

    2017-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä pohdittiin keinoja saada uuden konseptoidun työvaatemalliston näkyvyyttä esille sosiaalisen median keinoin. Toimeksiantaja-yrityksenä toimi suomalainen Virtually Oy ja kohteena oli sen uusi hoitajille suunnattu työvaatemallisto. Malliston ympärille halutaan luoda kestävä brändi ja sosiaalisen median markkinointi on tukemassa brändin tunnettavuutta ja myyntiä. Sosiaalinen media ei yritysten välisessä liiketoiminnassa toimi ainoana markkinoinnin työkaluna, vaan se on tukemas...

  2. A Financial Ratio Analysis of For-Profit and Non-Profit Rural Referral Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Michael J.; Nayar, Preethy

    2009-01-01

    Context: National financial data show that rural referral center (RRC) hospitals have performed well financially. RRC hospitals' median cash flow margin ratio was 10.04% in 2002 and grew to 11.04% in 2004. Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the ratio analysis of key operational and financial performance measures of for-profit RRCs to…

  3. Measurements of $B^{0}-\\overline{B}^{0}$ Mixing, $\\Gamma(Z^{0} \\to b\\overline{b}) / \\Gamma (Z^{0} \\to$ Hadrons) and Semileptonic Branching Ratios for $b$-Flavoured Hadrons in Hadronic $Z^{0}$ Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Akers, R J; Allison, J; Anderson, K J; Arcelli, S; Astbury, Alan; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Baines, J T M; Ball, A H; Banks, J; Barlow, R J; Barnett, S; Bartoldus, R; Batley, J Richard; Beaudoin, G; Beck, A; Beck, G A; Becker, J; Beeston, C; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bentkowski, P; Berlich, P; Bethke, Siegfried; Biebel, O; Bloodworth, Ian J; Bock, P; Boden, B; Bosch, H M; Boutemeur, M; Breuker, Horst; Bright-Thomas, P G; Brown, R M; Buijs, A; Burckhart, Helfried J; Burgard, C; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chu, S L; Clarke, P E L; Clayton, J C; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooper, M; Coupland, M; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallavalle, G M; De Jong, S; del Pozo, L A; Deng, H; Dieckmann, A; Dittmar, Michael; Dixit, M S; do Couto e Silva, E; Duboscq, J E; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Dumas, D J P; Elcombe, P A; Estabrooks, P G; Etzion, E; Evans, H G; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Fabbro, B; Fierro, M; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fischer, H M; Fong, D G; Foucher, M; Gaidot, A; Gary, J W; Gascon, J; Geddes, N I; Geich-Gimbel, C; Gensler, S W; Gentit, F X; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, R; Gibson, V; Gibson, W R; Gillies, James D; Goldberg, J; Gingrich, D M; Goodrick, M J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Grant, F C; Hagemann, J; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hargrove, C K; Harrison, P F; Hart, J; Hattersley, P M; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Heflin, E; Hemingway, Richard J; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hill, J C; Hillier, S J; Hilse, T; Hinshaw, D A; Hobbs, J D; Hobson, P R; Hochman, D; Homer, R James; Honma, A K; Hughes-Jones, R E; Humbert, R; Igo-Kemenes, P; Ihssen, H; Imrie, D C; Janissen, A C; Jawahery, A; Jeffreys, P W; Jeremie, H; Jimack, Martin Paul; Jones, M; Jones, R W L; Jovanovic, P; Jui, C; Karlen, D A; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; King, J; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Koetke, D S; Kokott, T P; Komamiya, S; Kral, J F; Kowalewski, R V; Von Krogh, J; Kroll, J; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Lafoux, H; Lahmann, R; Lamarche, F; Lauber, J; Layter, J G; Leblanc, P; Lee, A M; Lefebvre, E; Lehto, M H; Lellouch, Daniel; Leroy, C; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Lorah, J M; Lorazo, B; Losty, Michael J; Lou, X C; Ludwig, J; Luig, A; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Markus, C; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; Maur, U; McKenna, J A; McMahon, T J; McNutt, J R; Meijers, F; Menszner, D; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Michelini, Aldo; Middleton, R P; Mikenberg, G; Mildenberger, J L; Miller, D J; Mir, R; Mohr, W; Moisan, C; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Morii, M; Müller, U; Nellen, B; Nguyen, H H; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Oram, C J; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pansart, J P; Panzer-Steindel, B; Paschievici, P; Patrick, G N; Paz-Jaoshvili, N; Pearce, M J; Pfister, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, James L; Pitman, D; Plane, D E; Poffenberger, P R; Poli, B; Pritchard, T W; Przysiezniak, H; Quast, G; Redmond, M W; Rees, D L; Richards, G E; Rison, M; Robins, S A; Robinson, D; Rollnik, A; Roney, J M; Ros, E; Rossberg, S; Rossi, A M; Rosvick, M; Routenburg, P; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Rust, D R; Sasaki, M; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Schappert, W; Scharf, F; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schenk, P; Schmitt, B; von der Schmitt, H; Schröder, M; Schwick, C; Schwiening, J; Scott, W G; Settles, M; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Skillman, A; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Smith, T J; Snow, G A; Sobie, Randall J; Springer, R W; Sproston, M; Stahl, A; Stegmann, C; Stephens, K; Steuerer, J; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Tarem, S; Tecchio, M; Teixeira-Dias, P; Tesch, N; Thomson, M A; Torrente-Lujan, E; Towers, S; Tranströmer, G; Tresilian, N J; Tsukamoto, T; Turner, M F; Van den Plas, D; Van Kooten, R; VanDalen, G J; Vasseur, G; Wagner, A; Wagner, D L; Wahl, C; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Weber, M; Weber, P; Wells, P S; Wermes, N; Whalley, M A; Wilkens, B; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Winterer, V H; Wlodek, T; Wolf, G; Wotton, S A; Wyatt, T R; Yaari, R; Yeaman, A; Yekutieli, G; Yurko, M; Zeuner, W; Zorn, G T

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of $B^{0}-\\overline{B}^{0}$ Mixing, $\\Gamma(Z^{0} \\to b\\overline{b}) / \\Gamma (Z^{0} \\to$ Hadrons) and Semileptonic Branching Ratios for $b$-Flavoured Hadrons in Hadronic $Z^{0}$ Decays

  4. Sosiaalisen median rooli mikroyrittäjän ostoprosessissa

    OpenAIRE

    Martikainen, Inkeri

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoite oli selvittää sosiaalisen median rooli mikroyrittäjän ostoprosessissa; miten mikroyrittäjä hakee tietoa sosiaalisesta mediasta ja millainen vaikutus sieltä löytyvillä käyttäjäarvioilla on ostopäätökseen. Opinnäytetyö tehtiin erään finanssialan yrityksen toimeksiantona. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli antaa digitaalisen markkinoinnin ammattilaisille tietoa siitä, miten mikroyrittäjiä voidaan tavoittaa sosiaalisen median kautta, ja saada näin uusia asiakkaita. Tutkimus...

  5. Median forehead flap - beyond classic indication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian R. Jecan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The paramedian forehead flap is one of the best options for reconstruction of the median upper two-thirds of the face due to its vascularity, color, texture match and ability to resurface all or part of the reconstructed area. The forehead flap is the gold standard for nasal soft tissue reconstruction and the flap of choice for larger cutaneous nasal defects having a robust pedicle and large amount of tissue. Materials and Methods. We are reporting a clinical series of cutaneous tumors involving the nose, medial canthus, upper and lower eyelid through a retrospective review of 6 patients who underwent surgical excision of the lesion and primary reconstruction using a paramedian forehead flap. Results. The forehead flap was used for total nose reconstruction, eyelids and medial canthal reconstruction. All flaps survived completely and no tumor recurrence was seen in any of the patients. Cosmetic and functional results were favorable. Conclusions. The forehead flap continues to be one of the best options for nose reconstruction and for closure of surgical defects of the nose larger than 2 cm. Even though is not a gold standard, median forehead flap can be an advantageous technique in periorbital defects reconstruction.

  6. Probabilistic broadcasting of mixed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lvjun; Li Lvzhou; Wu Lihua; Zou Xiangfu; Qiu Daowen

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that the non-broadcasting theorem proved by Barnum et al is a fundamental principle of quantum communication. As we are aware, optimal broadcasting (OB) is the only method to broadcast noncommuting mixed states approximately. In this paper, motivated by the probabilistic cloning of quantum states proposed by Duan and Guo, we propose a new way for broadcasting noncommuting mixed states-probabilistic broadcasting (PB), and we present a sufficient condition for PB of mixed states. To a certain extent, we generalize the probabilistic cloning theorem from pure states to mixed states, and in particular, we generalize the non-broadcasting theorem, since the case that commuting mixed states can be exactly broadcast can be thought of as a special instance of PB where the success ratio is 1. Moreover, we discuss probabilistic local broadcasting (PLB) of separable bipartite states

  7. Ultrahigh-frequency ultrasound of fascicles in the median nerve at the wrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Michael S; Baute, Vanessa; Caress, James B; Walker, Francis O

    2017-10-01

    An ultrahigh-frequency (70 MHZ) ultrasound device has recently been approved for human use. This study seeks to determine whether this device facilitates counting of fascicles within the median nerve at the wrist. Twenty healthy volunteers underwent imaging of the median nerve at the wrist bilaterally. The number of fascicles in each nerve was counted by two independent raters. The mean fascicle number was 22.68. Correlation was strong between the two raters (r = 0.68, P nerve area did not predict fascicle number. Those with bifid median nerves and persistent median arteries had lower fascicle density than those without anatomic anomalies (1.79 vs. 2.29; P = 0.01). Fascicles within the median nerve at the wrist can be readily imaged. Ultrahigh-frequency ultrasound technology may be informative in a variety of disorders affecting the peripheral nervous system. Muscle Nerve 56: 819-822, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The Second "Ring of Towers": Over-sampling the Mid Continent Intensive region CO2 mixing ratio?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, S.; Miles, N.; Davis, K.; Crosson, E.; Denning, S.; Zupanksi, D.; Uliasz, M.

    2007-12-01

    A central barrier preventing the scientific community from understanding the carbon balance of the continent is methodological; it is technically difficult to bridge the gap in spatial scales that exists between the detailed understanding of ecological processes that can be gathered via intensive local field study, and the overarching but mechanistically poor understanding of the global carbon cycle that is gained by analyzing the atmospheric CO2 budget. The NACP's Midcontinental Intensive (MCI) study seeks to bridge this gap by conducting a rigorous methodological test of our ability to measure the terrestrial carbon balance of the upper Midwest. A critical need in bridging this gap is increased data density. A primary goal of the project is to increase the regional atmospheric CO2 data density so that 1) atmospheric inversions can derive well-constrained regional ecosystem carbon flux estimates and 2) the trade off between data density and accuracy of the flux estimates can be determined quantitatively using field observations, thus providing guidance to future observational network designs. Our work adds a regional network of five communications-tower based atmospheric CO2 observations to the planned long-term atmospheric CO2 observing network (tall towers, flux towers and aircraft profiles) in the midcontinent intensive region. Measurements began in April-June 2007, If the measurements are shown to be spatially dense enough to over sample the CO2 mixing ratio, the experiment will provide an upper bounds on the density of measurements required to produce the most accurate flux possible with current atmospheric inversions. The five sites for "Ring 2" and deployment dates are Centerville, IA (Apr 07), Round Lake, MN (May 07), Kewanee, IL (Apr 07), Mead, NE (Apr 07), Galesville, WI (June 07). Two heights are sampled at each tower (30 m AGL and between 110 and 140 m AGL). More details are available at www.ring2.psu.edu. In addition, two systems in PSU's network of

  9. Quantitative Reconstruction of Sulfur Deposition Using a Mixing Model Based on Sulfur Isotope Ratios in Tree Rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Takuya; Tayasu, Ichiro; Takenaka, Chisato

    2015-11-01

    Quantification of sulfur (S) deposition is critical to deciphering the environmental archive of S in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we propose a mixing model that quantifies S deposition based on the S isotope ratio (δS) in tree rings. We collected samples from Japanese cedar ( D. Don) stumps from two sites: one near Yokkaichi City (YOK), which is well known for having the heaviest S air pollution in the world, and one at Inabu-cho (INA) in central Japan, which has been much less affected by air pollution. The δS profiles at both sites are consistent with S air pollution and contributions of anthropogenic S. The minimum value in YOK is lower than the δS values of anthropogenic S or any other possible source. Because the δS in the tree rings is affected by fractionation in the forest ecosystems, we used a mixing model to account for the isotope effects and to distinguish the sources of S. Based on the model results, we infer that the peak of S emissions at YOK occurred sometime between the late 1960s and early 1970s (489 mmol m yr). This estimated value is comparable with the highest reported values in Europe. This is the first quantitative estimate of anthropogenic input of S in forest systems based on δS in tree rings. Our results suggest that tree ring data can be used when monitoring stations of atmospheric S are lacking and that estimates of S deposition using δS in tree rings will advance our understanding of the local-scale S dynamics and the effect of human activities on it. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  10. Performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namliwan, Nattapong; Wongwuttanasatian, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5-17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consumption of mixed fuels was 7-33% higher than using diesel B3. The components of gas emissions by using mixed fuel had 1.6-52% fewer amount of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxygen (O2) than those of diesel B3. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NO X ) emissions when using mixed fuels were 10-39% higher than diesel B3. By comparing the physical properties, the performance of the engine, and the amount of gas emissions of mixed fuel, we found out that the 95 : 5 ratio by volume was a suitable ratio for agricultural diesel engine (low-speed diesel engine).

  11. Median Robust Extended Local Binary Pattern for Texture Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Lao, Songyang; Fieguth, Paul W; Guo, Yulan; Wang, Xiaogang; Pietikäinen, Matti

    2016-03-01

    Local binary patterns (LBP) are considered among the most computationally efficient high-performance texture features. However, the LBP method is very sensitive to image noise and is unable to capture macrostructure information. To best address these disadvantages, in this paper, we introduce a novel descriptor for texture classification, the median robust extended LBP (MRELBP). Different from the traditional LBP and many LBP variants, MRELBP compares regional image medians rather than raw image intensities. A multiscale LBP type descriptor is computed by efficiently comparing image medians over a novel sampling scheme, which can capture both microstructure and macrostructure texture information. A comprehensive evaluation on benchmark data sets reveals MRELBP's high performance-robust to gray scale variations, rotation changes and noise-but at a low computational cost. MRELBP produces the best classification scores of 99.82%, 99.38%, and 99.77% on three popular Outex test suites. More importantly, MRELBP is shown to be highly robust to image noise, including Gaussian noise, Gaussian blur, salt-and-pepper noise, and random pixel corruption.

  12. High-temperature apparatus for chaotic mixing of natural silicate melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgavi, D.; Petrelli, M.; Vetere, F. P.; González-García, D.; Perugini, D., E-mail: diego.perugini@unipg.it [Department of Physics and Geology, Petro-Volcanology Research Group (PVRG), University of Perugia, Piazza Università, Perugia 06100 (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    A unique high-temperature apparatus was developed to trigger chaotic mixing at high-temperature (up to 1800 °C). This new apparatus, which we term Chaotic Magma Mixing Apparatus (COMMA), is designed to carry out experiments with high-temperature and high-viscosity (up to 10{sup 6} Pa s) natural silicate melts. This instrument allows us to follow in time and space the evolution of the mixing process and the associated modulation of chemical composition. This is essential to understand the dynamics of magma mixing and related chemical exchanges. The COMMA device is tested by mixing natural melts from Aeolian Islands (Italy). The experiment was performed at 1180 °C using shoshonite and rhyolite melts, resulting in a viscosity ratio of more than three orders of magnitude. This viscosity ratio is close to the maximum possible ratio of viscosity between high-temperature natural silicate melts. Results indicate that the generated mixing structures are topologically identical to those observed in natural volcanic rocks highlighting the enormous potential of the COMMA to replicate, as a first approximation, the same mixing patterns observed in the natural environment. COMMA can be used to investigate in detail the space and time development of magma mixing providing information about this fundamental petrological and volcanological process that would be impossible to investigate by direct observations. Among the potentials of this new experimental device is the construction of empirical relationships relating the mixing time, obtained through experimental time series, and chemical exchanges between the melts to constrain the mixing-to-eruption time of volcanic systems, a fundamental topic in volcanic hazard assessment.

  13. High-temperature apparatus for chaotic mixing of natural silicate melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgavi, D.; Petrelli, M.; Vetere, F. P.; González-García, D.; Perugini, D.

    2015-01-01

    A unique high-temperature apparatus was developed to trigger chaotic mixing at high-temperature (up to 1800 °C). This new apparatus, which we term Chaotic Magma Mixing Apparatus (COMMA), is designed to carry out experiments with high-temperature and high-viscosity (up to 10 6 Pa s) natural silicate melts. This instrument allows us to follow in time and space the evolution of the mixing process and the associated modulation of chemical composition. This is essential to understand the dynamics of magma mixing and related chemical exchanges. The COMMA device is tested by mixing natural melts from Aeolian Islands (Italy). The experiment was performed at 1180 °C using shoshonite and rhyolite melts, resulting in a viscosity ratio of more than three orders of magnitude. This viscosity ratio is close to the maximum possible ratio of viscosity between high-temperature natural silicate melts. Results indicate that the generated mixing structures are topologically identical to those observed in natural volcanic rocks highlighting the enormous potential of the COMMA to replicate, as a first approximation, the same mixing patterns observed in the natural environment. COMMA can be used to investigate in detail the space and time development of magma mixing providing information about this fundamental petrological and volcanological process that would be impossible to investigate by direct observations. Among the potentials of this new experimental device is the construction of empirical relationships relating the mixing time, obtained through experimental time series, and chemical exchanges between the melts to constrain the mixing-to-eruption time of volcanic systems, a fundamental topic in volcanic hazard assessment

  14. Linear signal noise summer accurately determines and controls S/N ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundry, J. L.

    1966-01-01

    Linear signal noise summer precisely controls the relative power levels of signal and noise, and mixes them linearly in accurately known ratios. The S/N ratio accuracy and stability are greatly improved by this technique and are attained simultaneously.

  15. A heritable component in sex ratio and caste determination in a Cardiocondyla ant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinze Jürgen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Studies on sex ratios in social insects provide among the most compelling evidence for the importance of kin selection in social evolution. The elegant synthesis of Fisher's sex ratio principle and Hamilton's inclusive fitness theory predicts that colony-level sex ratios vary with the colonies' social and genetic structures. Numerous empirical studies in ants, bees, and wasps have corroborated these predictions. However, the evolutionary optimization of sex ratios requires genetic variation, but one fundamental determinant of sex ratios - the propensity of female larvae to develop into young queens or workers ("queen bias" - is thought to be largely controlled by the environment. Evidence for a genetic influence on sex ratio and queen bias is as yet restricted to a few taxa, in particular hybrids. Because of the very short lifetime of their queens, ants of the genus Cardiocondyla are ideal model systems for the study of complete lifetime reproductive success, queen bias, and sex ratios. We found that lifetime sex ratios of the ant Cardiocondyla kagutsuchi have a heritable component. In experimental single-queen colonies, 22 queens from a genetic lineage with a highly female-biased sex ratio produced significantly more female-biased offspring sex ratios than 16 queens from a lineage with a more male-biased sex ratio (median 91.5% vs. 58.5% female sexuals. Sex ratio variation resulted from different likelihood of female larvae developing into sexuals (median 50% vs. 22.6% female sexuals even when uniformly nursed by workers from another colony. Consistent differences in lifetime sex ratios and queen bias among queens of C. kagutsuchi suggest that heritable, genetic or maternal effects strongly affect caste determination. Such variation might provide the basis for adaptive evolution of queen and worker strategies, though it momentarily constrains the power of workers and queens to optimize caste ratios.

  16. A heritable component in sex ratio and caste determination in a Cardiocondyla ant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohschammer, Sabine; Heinze, Jürgen

    2009-10-28

    Studies on sex ratios in social insects provide among the most compelling evidence for the importance of kin selection in social evolution. The elegant synthesis of Fisher's sex ratio principle and Hamilton's inclusive fitness theory predicts that colony-level sex ratios vary with the colonies' social and genetic structures. Numerous empirical studies in ants, bees, and wasps have corroborated these predictions. However, the evolutionary optimization of sex ratios requires genetic variation, but one fundamental determinant of sex ratios - the propensity of female larvae to develop into young queens or workers ("queen bias") - is thought to be largely controlled by the environment. Evidence for a genetic influence on sex ratio and queen bias is as yet restricted to a few taxa, in particular hybrids.Because of the very short lifetime of their queens, ants of the genus Cardiocondyla are ideal model systems for the study of complete lifetime reproductive success, queen bias, and sex ratios. We found that lifetime sex ratios of the ant Cardiocondyla kagutsuchi have a heritable component. In experimental single-queen colonies, 22 queens from a genetic lineage with a highly female-biased sex ratio produced significantly more female-biased offspring sex ratios than 16 queens from a lineage with a more male-biased sex ratio (median 91.5% vs. 58.5% female sexuals). Sex ratio variation resulted from different likelihood of female larvae developing into sexuals (median 50% vs. 22.6% female sexuals) even when uniformly nursed by workers from another colony.Consistent differences in lifetime sex ratios and queen bias among queens of C. kagutsuchi suggest that heritable, genetic or maternal effects strongly affect caste determination. Such variation might provide the basis for adaptive evolution of queen and worker strategies, though it momentarily constrains the power of workers and queens to optimize caste ratios.

  17. Generic evolution of mixing in heterogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dreuzy, J.; Carrera, J.; Dentz, M.; Le Borgne, T.

    2011-12-01

    Mixing in heterogeneous media results from the competition bewteen flow fluctuations and local scale diffusion. Flow fluctuations quickly create concentration contrasts and thus heterogeneity of the concentration field, which is slowly homogenized by local scale diffusion. Mixing first deviates from Gaussian mixing, which represents the potential mixing induced by spreading before approaching it. This deviation fundamentally expresses the evolution of the interaction between spreading and local scale diffusion. We characterize it by the ratio γ of the non-Gaussian to the Gaussian mixing states. We define the Gaussian mixing state as the integrated squared concentration of the Gaussian plume that has the same longitudinal dispersion as the real plume. The non-Gaussian mixing state is the difference between the overall mixing state defined as the integrated squared concentration and the Gaussian mixing state. The main advantage of this definition is to use the full knowledge previously acquired on dispersion for characterizing mixing even when the solute concentration field is highly non Gaussian. Using high precision numerical simulations, we show that γ quickly increases, peaks and slowly decreases. γ can be derived from two scales characterizing spreading and local mixing, at least for large flux-weighted solute injection conditions into classically log-normal Gaussian correlated permeability fields. The spreading scale is directly related to the longitudinal dispersion. The local mixing scale is the largest scale over which solute concentrations can be considered locally uniform. More generally, beyond the characteristics of its maximum, γ turns out to have a highly generic scaling form. Its fast increase and slow decrease depend neither on the heterogeneity level, nor on the ratio of diffusion to advection, nor on the injection conditions. They might even not depend on the particularities of the flow fields as the same generic features also prevail for

  18. Plant lighting system with five wavelength-band light-emitting diodes providing photon flux density and mixing ratio control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yano Akira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant growth and development depend on the availability of light. Lighting systems therefore play crucial roles in plant studies. Recent advancements of light-emitting diode (LED technologies provide abundant opportunities to study various plant light responses. The LED merits include solidity, longevity, small element volume, radiant flux controllability, and monochromaticity. To apply these merits in plant light response studies, a lighting system must provide precisely controlled light spectra that are useful for inducing various plant responses. Results We have developed a plant lighting system that irradiated a 0.18 m2 area with a highly uniform distribution of photon flux density (PFD. The average photosynthetic PFD (PPFD in the irradiated area was 438 micro-mol m–2 s–1 (coefficient of variation 9.6%, which is appropriate for growing leafy vegetables. The irradiated light includes violet, blue, orange-red, red, and far-red wavelength bands created by LEDs of five types. The PFD and mixing ratio of the five wavelength-band lights are controllable using a computer and drive circuits. The phototropic response of oat coleoptiles was investigated to evaluate plant sensitivity to the light control quality of the lighting system. Oat coleoptiles irradiated for 23 h with a uniformly distributed spectral PFD (SPFD of 1 micro-mol m–2 s–1 nm–1 at every peak wavelength (405, 460, 630, 660, and 735 nm grew almost straight upwards. When they were irradiated with an SPFD gradient of blue light (460 nm peak wavelength, the coleoptiles showed a phototropic curvature in the direction of the greater SPFD of blue light. The greater SPFD gradient induced the greater curvature of coleoptiles. The relation between the phototropic curvature (deg and the blue-light SPFD gradient (micro-mol m–2 s–1 nm–1 m–1 was 2 deg per 1 micro-mol m–2 s–1 nm–1 m–1. Conclusions The plant lighting system, with a computer with a

  19. Speckle Reduction and Structure Enhancement by Multichannel Median Boosted Anisotropic Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new approach to reduce speckle noise and enhance structures in speckle-corrupted images. It utilizes a median-anisotropic diffusion compound scheme. The median-filter-based reaction term acts as a guided energy source to boost the structures in the image being processed. In addition, it regularizes the diffusion equation to ensure the existence and uniqueness of a solution. We also introduce a decimation and back reconstruction scheme to further enhance the processing result. Before the iteration of the diffusion process, the image is decimated and a subpixel shifted image set is formed. This allows a multichannel parallel diffusion iteration, and more importantly, the speckle noise is broken into impulsive or salt-pepper noise, which is easy to remove by median filtering. The advantage of the proposed technique is clear when it is compared to other diffusion algorithms and the well-known adaptive weighted median filtering (AWMF scheme in both simulation and real medical ultrasound images.

  20. Tracking control of WMRs on loose soil based on mixed H2/H∞ control with longitudinal slip ratio estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haibo; Chen, Chao; Ding, Liang; Li, Weihua; Yu, Haitao; Xia, Kerui; Liu, Zhen

    2017-11-01

    Wheeled mobile robots (WMRs) often suffer from the longitudinal slipping when moving on the loose soil of the surface of the moon during exploration. Longitudinal slip is the main cause of WMRs' delay in trajectory tracking. In this paper, a nonlinear extended state observer (NESO) is introduced to estimate the longitudinal velocity in order to estimate the slip ratio and the derivative of the loss of velocity which are used in modelled disturbance compensation. Owing to the uncertainty and disturbance caused by estimation errors, a multi-objective controller using the mixed H2/H∞ method is employed to ensure the robust stability and performance of the WMR system. The final inputs of the trajectory tracking consist of the feedforward compensation, compensation for the modelled disturbances and designed multi-objective control inputs. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the controller, which exhibits a satisfactory tracking performance.

  1. Hypoxic Prostate/Muscle PO2 Ratio Predicts for Outcome in Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer: Long-Term Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turaka, Aruna; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Horwitz, Eric M.; Greenberg, Richard E.; Movsas, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To correlate tumor oxygenation status with long-term biochemical outcome after prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Custom-made Eppendorf PO 2 microelectrodes were used to obtain PO 2 measurements from the prostate (P), focused on positive biopsy locations, and normal muscle tissue (M), as a control. A total of 11,516 measurements were obtained in 57 men with localized prostate cancer immediately before prostate brachytherapy was given. The Eppendorf histograms provided the median PO 2 , mean PO 2 , and % 2 ratio on BF. Results: With a median follow-up time of 8 years, 12 men had ASTRO BF and 8 had Phoenix BF. On multivariate analysis, P/M PO 2 ratio 2 ratio 2 ratio) significantly predicts for poor long-term biochemical outcome, suggesting that novel hypoxic strategies should be investigated.

  2. Mixed alcohols production from syngas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.R.; Conway, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    A process is described for selectively producing mixed alcohols from synthesis gas comprising contacting a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide with a catalytic amount of a catalyst containing components of (1) a catalytically active metal of molybdenum or tungsten, in free or combined form; (2) a cocatalytic metal or cobalt or nickel in free or combined form; and (3) a Fischer-Tropsch promoter of an alkali or alkaline earth series metal, in free or combined form; the components combined by dry mixing, mixing as a wet paste, wet impregnation, and then sulfided, the catalyst excluding rhodium, ruthenium and copper, at a pressure of at least about 500 psig and under conditions sufficient to form the mixed alcohols in at least 20 percent CO/sub 2/ free carbon selectivity, the mixed alcohols containing a C/sub 1/ to C/sub 2-5/ alcohol weight ratio of less than about 1:1

  3. Study of a zero Poisson’s ratio honeycomb used for flexible skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Jiaxin; Zhou, Li

    2017-04-01

    Flexible skin used in morphing wings is required to provide adequate cooperation deformation as well as bear the air load. Besides, according to the requirement of smoothness, the non-deformation direction of flexible skin needs to be restrained. This paper studies the mechanical properties of a cruciform honeycomb under a zero Poisson’s ratio constraint. The in-plane morphing capacity of the honeycomb is improved by optimizing the shape parameters of the honeycomb unit. To improve the out-of-plane bending capacity, a zero Poisson’s ratio mixed cruciform honeycomb with additional ribs is proposed. The mechanical properties of the mixed honeycomb are studied by theoretical analysis and simulation. Based on the design requirements of variable-camber trailing-edge flexible skin, the specific design parameters and performance parameters of the skin based on the mixed honeycomb are given. The results show that the zero Poisson’s ratio mixed cruciform honeycomb has high bending rigidity itself and can have better deformation capacity in-plane and higher bending rigidity out-of-plane by optimizing the shape parameters. The designed skin also has advantages in driving force, deformation capacity and quality over conventional skin.

  4. An investigation on the noise reduction performance of profiled rigid median barriers at highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Monazzam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Median barriers as a portion of a divided highway are provided to minimize the cross-median crashes. Moreover, median barriers similar to roadside noise barriers could protect people from transportation noise. Thus, there is a need to investigate various median barrier models to identify changes of insertion loss over a simple rigid barrier. In order to estimate the acoustical influence of median barrier′s profile in the shadow zone, different median barrier models are presented and their insertion losses are calculated over a frequency range from 50 to 4000 Hz using a two-dimensional boundary element method. The present investigation has clearly revealed that among the profiled median barriers, T-shape, Y-shape, and L-shape provide better performance than that of the other shapes. It is also found that among inclined barriers, V-shape barrier significantly presents higher values of attenuation. Based on the calculation of different geometrics, it has been shown that a further 2 dB (A in efficiency could be obtained by a better design of the median barrier which is labeled model "L."

  5. Mixing Characteristics of Elliptical Jet Control with Crosswire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manigandan, S.; Vijayaraja, K.

    2018-02-01

    The aerodynamic mixing efficiency of elliptical sonic jet flow with the effect of crosswire is studied computationally and experimentally at different range of nozzle pressure ratio with different orientation along the minor axis of the exit. The cross wire of different orientation is found to reduce the strength of the shock wave formation. Due to the presence of crosswire the pitot pressure oscillation is reduced fast, which weakens the shock cell structure. When the cross wire is placed at center position we see high mixing along the major axis. Similarly, when the cross wire is placed at ¼ and ¾ position we see high mixing promotion along minor axis. It also proves, as the position of the cross wire decreased along minor axis there will be increase in the mixing ratio. In addition to that we also found that, jet spread is high in major axis compared to minor axis due to bifurcation of jet along upstream

  6. Mixed carboranethiol self-assembled monolayers on gold surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Adem; Sohrabnia, Nima; Yilmaz, Ayşen; Danışman, M. Fatih

    2017-08-01

    Carboranethiol self-assembled monolayers on metal surfaces have been shown to be very convenient systems for surface engineering. Here we have studied pure and mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of three different carboranethiol (CT) isomers on gold surfaces. The isomers were chosen with dipole moments pointing parallel to (m-1-carboranethiol, M1), out of (m-9-carboranethiol, M9) and into (o-1-carboranethiol, O1) the surface plane, in order to investigate the effect of dipole moment orientation on the film properties. In addition, influence of the substrate surface morphology on the film properties was also studied by using flame annealed (FA) and template stripped (TS) gold surfaces. Contact angle measurements indicate that in M1/M9 and M1/O1 mixed SAMs, M1 is the dominant species on the surface even for low M1 ratio in the growth solution. Whereas for O1/M9 mixed SAMs no clear evidence could be observed indicating dominance of one of the species over the other one. Though contact angle values were lower and hysteresis values were higher for SAMs grown on TS gold surfaces, the trends in the behavior of the contact angles with changing mixing ratio were identical for SAMs grown on both substrates. Atomic force microscopy images of the SAMs on TS gold surfaces indicate that the films have similar morphological properties regardless of mixing ratio.

  7. COLOUR IMAGE STEGANOGRAPHY USING MEDIAN MAINTENANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Arivazhagan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Steganographic algorithms in the recent past have been producing stego images with perceptual invisibility, better secrecy and certain robustness against attacks like cropping, filtering etc. Recovering a good quality secret from a good quality stego image may not always be possible. The method proposed in this paper works in transform domain and attempts to extract the secret almost as same as the embedded one maintaining minimal changes to the cover image by using techniques like median maintenance, offset and quantization.

  8. Child-to-Teacher Ratio and Day Care Teacher Sickeness Absenteeism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Mette; Andersson, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    time periods, 2002–2003 and 2005–2006, by using generalized method of moments with lagged levels of the child-to-teacher ratio as instrument. Our estimation results are somewhat mixed. Generally, the results indicate that the child-to-teacher ratio is positively related to short-term sickness absence...

  9. Electromyogram median power frequency in dynamic exercise at medium exercise intensities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, W; Bonga, GJJ; Hof, AL; Verkerke, GJ

    The electromyogram (EMG) median power Frequency of the calf muscles was investigated during an exhausting treadmill exercise and a 20-min recovery period. The exercise was an uphill run at a speed of 5 km . h(-1) and a gradient of 20%. During exercise there was no decrease of EMG median power

  10. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Diesel B3 Mixed with Crude Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namliwan, Nattapong; Wongwuttanasatian, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5–17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consumption of mixed fuels was 7–33% higher than using diesel B3. The components of gas emissions by using mixed fuel had 1.6–52% fewer amount of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxygen (O2) than those of diesel B3. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions when using mixed fuels were 10–39% higher than diesel B3. By comparing the physical properties, the performance of the engine, and the amount of gas emissions of mixed fuel, we found out that the 95 : 5 ratio by volume was a suitable ratio for agricultural diesel engine (low-speed diesel engine). PMID:24688402

  11. Median mental sinus in twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, S T; Ngeow, W C

    1999-05-01

    Sinus on the chin can be the result of a chronic apical abscess due to pulp necrosis of a mandibular anterior tooth. The tooth is usually asymptomatic, and a dental cause is therefore not apparent to the patient or the unsuspecting clinician. Not infrequently, the patient may seek treatment from a dermatologist or general surgeon instead of a dentist. Excision and repair of the fistula may be carried out with subsequent breakdown because the dental pathology is not removed. This paper reports the presence of median mental sinus of dental origin in twins. One case healed following root canal therapy while the other required both root canal therapy and surgery to eliminate the infection.

  12. [Growth effect of eucalyptus-acacia mixed plantation in South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zeng-Jiang; Xu, Da-Ping; Chen, Wen-Ping; Huang, Lie-Jian; Li, Shang-Jun; Chen, Yuan

    2009-10-01

    Eucalyptus U6 and Acacia crassicarpa were mixed planted with different ratios and modes to investigate the growth parameters of the two tree species. In the 2-3 years old mixed plantation, the wind-throw of A. crassicarpa decreased markedly with increasing ratio of Eucalyptus U6, the decrement being 26.14% when the Eucalyptus U6/A. crassicarpa ratio was 3 : 1, but the survival rates of Eucalyptus U6 and A. crassicarpa had no significant difference under different planting modes. Mixed planting retarded the A. crassicarpa growth to some extent, with the DBH being 90% of that in pure A. crassicarpa stand. The mixed planting had little effects on the height growth of Eucalyptus U6, but promoted its DBH growth markedly, and the beneficial effect increased with increasing ratio of A. crassicarpa. In the 6 years old 1 : 1 Eucalyptus U6/A. crassicarpa plantation, the Eucalyptus U6 individuals with DBH > 15 cm occupied 32.1%; while in pure Eucalyptus U6 stand, they only accounted for 5.83%. Mixed planting with 2 : 1 Eucalyptus U6/A. crassicarpa could obtain a maximum total biomass of 198.8 m3 x hm(-2), which was 118.8% of the total biomass in pure Eucalyptus U6 stand, or 169.9% of that in pure A. crassicarpa stand. Mixture of Eucalyptus with Acacia would be a good choice to produce Eucalyptus trees with larger DBH.

  13. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    and several natural special cases thereof. The rst special case is known as range median, which arises when k is xed to b(j 􀀀 i + 1)=2c. The second case, denoted prex selection, arises when i is xed to 0. Finally, we also consider the bounded rank prex selection problem and the xed rank range......Range selection is the problem of preprocessing an input array A of n unique integers, such that given a query (i; j; k), one can report the k'th smallest integer in the subarray A[i];A[i+1]; : : : ;A[j]. In this paper we consider static data structures in the word-RAM for range selection...... selection problem. In the former, data structures must support prex selection queries under the assumption that k for some value n given at construction time, while in the latter, data structures must support range selection queries where k is xed beforehand for all queries. We prove cell probe lower bounds...

  14. Voimaa visuaalisuudesta : Narratiivinen kirjallisuuskatsaus visuaalisen sosiaalisen median vaikutuksista nuorten aikuisten hyvinvointiin

    OpenAIRE

    Viita, Shir

    2017-01-01

    Viita, Shir. Voimaa visuaalisuudesta – Narratiivinen kirjallisuuskatsaus visuaalisen sosiaalisen median vaikutuksista nuorten aikuisten hyvinvointiin. Kevät 2016. 52 s., 1 liite. Diakonia ammattikorkeakoulu. Sosiaalialan koulutusohjelma, sosionomin suuntautumisvaihtoehto. Sosionomi (AMK). Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on tuottaa tietoa sosiaalialan ammattilaisille visuaalisen sosiaalisen median sivustojen Instagramin ja Snapchatin vaikutuksista nuorten aikuisten hyvinvointiin. Opinnäyte...

  15. Theory for the mixed-valence state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    A theory is presented which explains why mixed-valence compounds behave as two component Fermi liquids, and why TmSe orders magnetically while the other known mixed-valence compounds do not. The variation of Tsub(N) and the field Hsub(T) to obtain ferromagnetic alignment with changing Tm 2+ /Tm 3+ ratio is quantitatively explained. For Tm 2+ concentration > = 0.3, TmSe is predicted to order ferromagnetically

  16. Application of median-equation approach for outlier detection in geodetic networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serif Hekimoglu

    Full Text Available In geodetic measurements some outliers may occur sometimes in data sets, depending on different reasons. There are two main approaches to detect outliers as Tests for outliers (Baarda's and Pope's Tests and robust methods (Danish method, Huber method etc.. These methods use the Least Squares Estimation (LSE. The outliers affect the LSE results, especially it smears the effects of the outliers on the good observations and sometimes wrong results may be obtained. To avoid these effects, a method that does not use LSE should be preferred. The median is a high breakdown point estimator and if it is applied for the outlier detection, reliable results can be obtained. In this study, a robust method which uses median with or as a treshould value on median residuals that are obtained from median equations is proposed. If the a priori variance of the observations is known, the reliability of the new approch is greater than the one in the case where the a priori variance is unknown.

  17. hf alkylation in the 1980's: the role of isobutane/olefin ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutson, T. Jr.

    1978-08-01

    Research devoted to maximizing no-lead octane numbers in motor fuel is reported. Results of the studies are the basis for the following conclusions: 1. Isobutane alkylate made from either propylene, butene-2, or C/sub 3/--C/sub 4/ mixed olefins is a low sensitivity, high motor octane product. Typically, C/sub 3/--C/sub 4/ mixed olefin alkylate has a clear motor octane number of about 92.2 and a clear Research octane number of about 93.5. 2. In separate studies with propylene, butene-2 and C/sub 3/--C/sub 4/ mixed olefins, increasing the isobutane-to-olefin ratio suppressed the formation of high molecular weight residue, indicating a substantial reduction in the role of olefin polymerization to large ions. The overall result of increasing ratio was an improvement in selectivity to high-octane components in the alkylate. 3. When alkylating isobutane with propylene, increasing the ratio resulted in a decrease in the concentration of C/sub 7/-fraction (primary product) and an increase in the C/sub 8/-fraction (from chain initiation and subsequent hydrogen transfer). At the same time, the production of chain-termination-product propane also increased. 4. When alkylating isobutane with C/sub 3/--C/sub 4/ mixed olefins, increasing the ratio showed the same trend obtained in separate alkylation tests with propylene and butene-2. As the ratio increased, the concentration of C/sub 7/-fraction (primary propylene--isobutane product) decreased and the concentration of C/sub 8/-fraction increased markedly. Thus, increasing isobutane-to-olefin ratio exerted a strong effect on alkylate quality in the area of about 5 to 1 to 20 to 1; this effect diminished at ratios 20:1.

  18. Reconstructing the microstructure of polyimide-silicalite mixed-matrix membranes and their particle connectivity using FIB-SEM tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diblíková, P; Veselý, M; Sysel, P; Čapek, P

    2018-03-01

    Properties of a composite material made of a continuous matrix and particles often depend on microscopic details, such as contacts between particles. Focusing on processing raw focused-ion beam scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM) tomography data, we reconstructed three mixed-matrix membrane samples made of 6FDA-ODA polyimide and silicalite-1 particles. In the first step of image processing, backscattered electron (BSE) and secondary electron (SE) signals were mixed in a ratio that was expected to obtain a segmented 3D image with a realistic volume fraction of silicalite-1. Second, after spatial alignment of the stacked FIB-SEM data, the 3D image was smoothed using adaptive median and anisotropic nonlinear diffusion filters. Third, the image was segmented using the power watershed method coupled with a seeding algorithm based on geodesic reconstruction from the markers. If the resulting volume fraction did not match the target value quantified by chemical analysis of the sample, the BSE and SE signals were mixed in another ratio and the procedure was repeated until the target volume fraction was achieved. Otherwise, the segmented 3D image (replica) was accepted and its microstructure was thoroughly characterized with special attention paid to connectivity of the silicalite phase. In terms of the phase connectivity, Monte Carlo simulations based on the pure-phase permeability values enabled us to calculate the effective permeability tensor, the main diagonal elements of which were compared with the experimental permeability. In line with the hypothesis proposed in our recent paper (Čapek, P. et al. (2014) Comput. Mater. Sci. 89, 142-156), the results confirmed that the existence of particle clusters was a key microstructural feature determining effective permeability. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  19. A GPU-Based Genetic Algorithm for the P-Median Problem

    OpenAIRE

    AlBdaiwi, Bader F.; AboElFotoh, Hosam M. F.

    2016-01-01

    The p-median problem is a well-known NP-hard problem. Many heuristics have been proposed in the literature for this problem. In this paper, we exploit a GPGPU parallel computing platform to present a new genetic algorithm implemented in Cuda and based on a Pseudo Boolean formulation of the p-median problem. We have tested the effectiveness of our algorithm using a Tesla K40 (2880 Cuda cores) on 290 different benchmark instances obtained from OR-Library, discrete location problems benchmark li...

  20. Median nerve fascicular anatomy as a basis for distal neural prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planitzer, Uwe; Steinke, Hanno; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Bechmann, Ingo; Hammer, Niels; Winkler, Dirk

    2014-05-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) serves as a possible therapy to restore missing motor functions of peripheral nerves by means of cuff electrodes. FES is established for improving lower limb function. Transferring this method to the upper extremity is complex, due to a lack of anatomical data on the physiological configuration of nerve fascicles. Our study's aim was to provide an anatomical basis for FES of the median nerve in the distal forearm and hand. We investigated 21 distal median nerves from 12 body donors. The peripheral fascicles were traced back by removing the external and interfascicular epineurium and then assigned to 4 quadrants. A distinct motor and sensory distribution was observed. The fascicles innervating the thenar eminence and the first lumbrical muscle originated from the nerves' radial parts in 82%. The fascicle supplying the second lumbrical muscle originated from the ulnar side in 78%. No macroscopically visible plexus formation was observed for the distal median nerve in the forearm. The findings on the distribution of the motor branches of the median nerve and the missing plexus formation may likely serve as an anatomical basis for FES of the distal forearm. However, due to the considerable variability of the motor branches, cuff electrodes will need to be adapted individually in FES. Taking into account the sensory distribution of the median nerve, FES may also possibly be applied in the treatment of regional pain syndromes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Oil mixing behavior after an oil spill: identification conflicts of different fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shijie; Yu, Hongjun; Luo, Yongming; Wang, Chuanyuan; Li, Xueshuang; Li, Zhongping

    2018-04-01

    Clearing up whether spilled oil is mixed or not can strengthen the accuracy of oil spill identification. In the present study, the biomarkers in spilled oil samples were detected. The weathering modes of different types of diagnostic ratio and carbon isotope values of individual n-alkanes were also analyzed. The results showed that the diagnostic ratios of steroids, terpenes and aromatics, and weathering characteristics of carbon isotope composition (δ 13 C) of individual n-alkanes supported the idea that Dalian oil spill emerged from a single oil source. Furthermore, commonly used diagnostic ratios of n-alkanes indicated that the Dalian oil spill had undergone the oil mixing process. The different identifying outcomes indicate that some kinds of n-alkane-rich substance (such as oil dispersants) were mixed in the Dalian spilled oil and interfered with the routine diagnosis ratios of n-alkanes.

  2. Variant palmaris profundus enclosed by an unusual loop of the median nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHOU, HSIU-CHU; JENG, HELLEN; KO, TSUI-LING; PAI, MAN-HUI; CHANG, CHIU-YUN; WU, CHING-HSIANG

    2001-01-01

    According to the usual description in most anatomy texts, the median nerve in the forearm passes between the 2 heads of pronator teres. It continues distally between flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus almost to the retinaculum. Muscular branches leave the nerve near the elbow and supply all superficial muscles of the anterior part of the forearm except flexor carpi ulnaris. Many variations of the median nerve in the forearm have been reported (Urban & Krosman, 1992). The palmaris profundus is also a rare anomaly of the forearm (Dyreby & Engber, 1982). It originates from the radial side of the common flexor tendon in the proximal forearm and inserts into the undersurface of the palmar aponeurosis. The origin of palmaris profundus may be close to the median nerve and its branches, and may be involved in compressive neuropathy of the anterior interosseous nerve. Its tendon crossing through the carpal canal has been implicated in the carpal tunnel syndrome (reviewed by Lahey & Aulicino, 1986). In some cases, palmaris profundus was found enclosed in a common fascial sheath with the median nerve (Stark, 1992; Sahinoglu et al. 1994). To indicate its close association with the median nerve, the palmaris profundus was also named ‘musculus comitans nervi mediani’ (Sahinoglu et al. 1994). This article reports an unusual loop of the median nerve encircling an anomalous palmaris profundus in the forearm, which, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously described. PMID:11693311

  3. Simulation and Visualization of Flows Laden with Cylindrical Nanoparticles in a Mixing Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqian Lin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The motion of cylindrical particles in a mixing layer is studied using the pseudospectral method and discrete particle model. The effect of the Stokes number and particle aspect ratio on the mixing and orientation distribution of cylindrical particles is analyzed. The results show that the rollup of mixing layer drives the particles to the edge of the vortex by centrifugal force. The cylindrical particles with the small Stokes number almost follow fluid streamlines and are mixed thoroughly, while those with the large Stokes number, centrifugalized and accumulated at the edge of the vortex, are poorly mixed. The mixing degree of particles becomes worse as the particle aspect ratio increases. The cylindrical particles would change their orientation under two torques and rotate around their axis of revolution aligned to the vorticity direction when the shear rate is low, while aligning on the flow-gradient plane beyond a critical shear rate value. More particles are oriented with the flow direction, and this phenomenon becomes more obvious with the decrease of the Stokes number and particle aspect ratio.

  4. Optimization of Orifice Geometry for Cross-Flow Mixing in a Cylindrical Duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, J. T.; Sowa, W. A.; Samuelsen, G. S.

    1996-01-01

    Mixing of gaseous jets in a cross-flow has significant applications in engineering, one example of which is the dilution zone of a gas turbine combustor. Despite years of study, the design of the jet injection in combustors is largely based on practical experience. The emergence of NO(x) regulations for stationary gas turbines and the anticipation of aero-engine regulations requires an improved understanding of jet mixing as new combustor concepts are introduced. For example, the success of the staged combustor to reduce the emission of NO(x) is almost entirely dependent upon the rapid and complete dilution of the rich zone products within the mixing section. It is these mixing challenges to which the present study is directed. A series of experiments was undertaken to delineate the optimal mixer orifice geometry. A cross-flow to core-flow momentum-flux ratio of 40 and a mass flow ratio of 2.5 were selected as representative of a conventional design. An experimental test matrix was designed around three variables: the number of orifices, the orifice length-to- width ratio, and the orifice angle. A regression analysis was performed on the data to arrive at an interpolating equation that predicted the mixing performance of orifice geometry combinations within the range of the test matrix parameters. Results indicate that the best mixing orifice geometry tested involves eight orifices with a long-to-short side aspect ratio of 3.5 at a twenty-three degree inclination from the center-line of the mixing section.

  5. Social Security: a financial appraisal for the median voter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galasso, V

    Several explanations have been proposed for why voters continue to support unfunded social security systems. Browning (1975) suggests that the extremely large unfunded pension systems of most democracies depend on the existence of a voting majority composed of middle-aged and older people who fail to fully internalize the cost of financing the system. In fact, when voting, economically rational workers consider only their current and future contributions to the system and their expected pension benefits--not their past contributions, which they regard as sunk costs. If, for a majority of voters, the expected continuation return from social security exceeds the return from alternative assets, an unfunded social security system is politically sustainable. This article explores the validity of Browning's proposition by quantifying the returns that U.S. voters in presidential elections from 1964 to 1996 have obtained, or expect to obtain, from Social Security. Did "investments" in Social Security outperform alternative forms of investment, such as mutual funds or pension funds, for a majority of the voters? What can be expected for the future? The U.S. Social Security system redistributes income within age cohorts on the basis of sex, income, and marital status. To account for some of these features, the median voter is represented by a family unit whose members--a husband who accounts for 70 percent of household earnings and a wife who accounts for 30 percent--make joint economic and voting decisions. Thus, retirement and survival benefits paid out to the spouse of an insured worker can be included in the calculation of Social Security returns. Interval estimates of voters' family incomes from the U.S. Census Bureau were used to obtain the median voter's household earnings. The median voter's age is derived from the ages of those who voted in presidential elections, not from the ages of the entire electorate. The median voter's contributions to Social Security are the

  6. Topoisomerase I copy number alterations as biomarker for irinotecan efficacy in metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palshof, Jesper Andreas; Hogdall, Estrid Vilma Solyom; Poulsen, Tim Svenstrup

    2017-01-01

    Background No biomarker exists to guide the optimal choice of chemotherapy for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. We examined the copy numbers (CN) of topoisomerase I (TOP1) as well as the ratios of TOP1/CEN-20 and TOP1/CEN-2 as biomarkers for irinotecan efficacy in patients...... were produced. FISH analysis was performed using two probe-mixes: TOP1/CEN-20 and TOP1/CEN-2. Only samples harboring all three signals (TOP1, CEN-20 and CEN-2) using FISH were included in the analyses. Results In the TOP1/CEN-20 probe-mix the median TOP1- and CEN-20 CN were 4.46 (range: 1.5–9.5) and 2.......00 (range: 0.55–4.55), respectively. The median TOP1- and CEN-2 CN in the TOP1/CEN-2 probe-mix, were 4.57 (range: 1.82–10.43) and 1.98 (range: 1.22–6.14), respectively. The median TOP1/CEN-20 ratio and TOP1/CEN-2 ratio were 1.25 (range: 0.92–2.90) and 2.05 (range: 1.00–6.00), respectively. None...

  7. The Median Solution of the Newsvendor Problem and Some Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Pritibhushan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider the median solution of the Newsvendor Problem. Some properties of such a solution are shown through a theoretical analysis and a numerical experiment. Sometimes, though not often, median solution may be better than solutions maximizing expected profit, or maximizing minimum possible, over distribution with the same average and standard deviation, expected profit, according to some criteria. We discuss the practical suitability of the objective function set and the solution derived, for the Newsvendor Problem, and other such random optimization problems.

  8. Mixing and thermonuclear processes in stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, Norbert; Heger, Alexander; Herwig, Falk; Wellstein, Stephan

    2001-01-01

    According to standard wisdom, six different nuclear burning stages, from hydrogen to silicon burning, can occur during the hydrostatic evolution of stars. However, several instabilities can lead to the mixing of layers with different compositions and produce non-standard composition mixtures. Those--when at high enough temperatures--burn due to nuclear reactions which are unimportant otherwise. We provide various examples of such occurrences, for different ratios of burning over mixing time scale

  9. Chloride/bromide ratios in leachate derived from farm-animal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudak, P.F.

    2003-01-01

    Results have important implications for identifying animal sources of contaminated groundwater. - Ratios of conservative chemicals have been used to identify sources of groundwater contamination. While chloride/bromide ratios have been reported for several common sources of groundwater contamination, little work has been done on leachate derived from farm-animal waste. In this study, chloride/bromide ratios were measured in leachate derived from longhorn-cattle, quarter-horse, and pygme-goat waste at a farm in Abilene, Texas, USA. (Minimum, median, and maximum) chloride/bromide ratios of (66.5, 85.6, and 167), (119, 146, and 156), and (35.4, 57.8, and 165) were observed for cattle, horses, and goats, respectively. These ratios are below typical values for domestic wastewater and within the range commonly observed for oilfield brine. Results of this study have important implications for identifying sources of contaminated groundwater in settings with significant livestock and/or oil production

  10. An 8-year, high-resolution reanalysis of atmospheric carbon dioxide mixing ratios based on OCO-2 and GOSAT-ACOS retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, B.; Chatterjee, A.; Ott, L. E.; Pawson, S.

    2017-12-01

    This talk presents an overview of results from the GEOS-Carb reanalysis of retrievals of average-column carbon dioxide (XCO2) from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2) and Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) satellite missions. The reanalysis is a Level 3 (L3) product: a collection of 3D fields of carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratios every 6 hours beginning in April 2009 going until the present on a grid with a 0.5 degree horizontal resolution and 72 vertical levels from the surface to 0.01 hPa. Using an assimilation methodology based on the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) atmospheric data assimilation system (ADAS), the L3 fields are weighted averages of the two satellite retrievals and predictions from the GEOS general circulation model driven by assimilated meteorology from the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2). In places and times where there are a dense number of soundings, the observations dominate the predicted mixing ratios, while the model is used to fill in locations with fewer soundings, e.g., high latitudes and the Amazon. Blending the satellite observations with model predictions has at least two notable benefits. First, it provides a bridge for evaluating the satellite retrievals and their uncertainties against a heterogeneous collection of observations including those from surface sites, towers, aircraft, and soundings from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). Extensive evaluations of the L3 reanalysis clearly demonstrate both the strength and the deficiency of the satellite retrievals. Second, it is possible to estimate variables from the reanalysis without introducing bias due to spatiotemporal variability in sounding coverage. For example, the assimilated product provides robust estimates of the monthly CO2 global growth rate. These monthly growth rate estimates show significant differences from estimates based on in situ observations, which have sparse coverage

  11. Exploring the possibility to store the mixed oxygen-hydrogen cluster in clathrate hydrate in molar ratio 1:2 (O2+2H2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yan; Du, Qi-Shi; Xie, Neng-Zhong; Li, Jian-Xiu; Huang, Ri-Bo

    2017-05-01

    An interesting possibility is explored: storing the mixture of oxygen and hydrogen in clathrate hydrate in molar ratio 1:2. The interaction energies between oxygen, hydrogen, and clathrate hydrate are calculated using high level quantum chemical methods. The useful conclusion points from this study are summarized as follows. (1) The interaction energies of oxygen-hydrogen mixed cluster are larger than the energies of pure hydrogen molecular cluster. (2) The affinity of oxygen molecules with water molecules is larger than that of the hydrogen molecules with water molecules. (3) The dimension of O 2 -2H 2 interaction structure is smaller than the dimension of CO 2 -2H 2 interaction structure. (4) The escaping energy of oxygen molecules from the hydrate cell is larger than that of the hydrogen molecules. (5) The high affinity of the oxygen molecules with both the water molecules and the hydrogen molecules may promote the stability of oxygen-hydrogen mixture in the clathrate hydrate. Therefore it is possible to store the mixed (O 2 +2H 2 ) cluster in clathrate hydrate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of the Manaus urban plume on trace gas mixing ratios near the surface in the Amazon Basin: Implications for the NO-NO2-O-3 photostationary state and peroxy radical levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trebs, I.; Mayol-Bracero, O.L.; Pauliquevis, T.; Kuhn, U.; Sander, R.; Ganzeveld, L.N.; Meixner, F.X.; Kesselmeier, J.; Artaxo, P.; Andreae, M.O.

    2012-01-01

    We measured the mixing ratios of NO, NO2, O-3, and volatile organic carbon as well as the aerosol light-scattering coefficient on a boat platform cruising on rivers downwind of the city of Manaus (Amazonas State, Brazil) in July 2001 (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in

  13. Bioconversion of mixed volatile fatty acids into microbial lipids by Cryptococcus curvatus ATCC 20509.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Yuan, Ming; Liu, Jia-Nan; Huang, Xiang-Feng

    2017-10-01

    The oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus curvatus ATCC 20509 can use 5-40g/L of acetic, propionic, or butyric acid as sole carbon source to produce lipids. High concentrations (30g/L) of mixed volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were used to cultivate C. curvatus to explore the effects of different ratios of mixed VFAs on lipid production and composition. When mixed VFAs (VFA ratio was 15:5:10) were used as carbon sources, the highest cell mass and lipid concentration were 8.68g/L and 4.93g/L, respectively, which were significantly higher than those when 30g/L of acetic acid was used as sole carbon source. The highest content and yield of odd-numbered fatty acids were 45.1% (VFA ratio was 0:15:15) and 1.62g/L (VFA ratio was 5:15:10), respectively. These results indicate that adjusting the composition ratios of mixed VFAs effectively improves microbial lipid synthesis and the yield of odd-numbered fatty acids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. CFD simulation on reactor flow mixing phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, T.S.; Kim, K.H.

    2016-01-01

    A pre-test calculation for multi-dimensional flow mixing in a reactor core and downcomer has been studied using a CFD code. To study the effects of Reactor Coolant Pump (RCP) and core zone on the boron mixing behaviors in a lower downcomer and core inlet, a 1/5-scale CFD model of flow mixing test facility for the APR+ reference plant was simulated. The flow paths of the 1/5-scale model were scaled down by the linear scaling method. The aspect ratio (L/D) of all flow paths was preserved to 1. To preserve a dynamic similarity, the ratio of Euler number was also preserved to 1. A single phase water flow at low pressure and temperature conditions was considered in this calculation. The calculation shows that the asymmetric effect driven by RCPs shifted the high velocity field to the failed pump's flow zone. The borated water flow zone at the core inlet was also shifted to the failed RCP side. (author)

  15. Leaching of boron, arsenic and selenium from sedimentary rocks: I. Effects of contact time, mixing speed and liquid-to-solid ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabelin, Carlito Baltazar, E-mail: carlito@trans-er.eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Soil Environment Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Hashimoto, Ayaka, E-mail: a.hashimoto@diaconsult.co.jp [DIA Consultants Co. Ltd., Sapporo (Japan); Igarashi, Toshifumi, E-mail: tosifumi@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Groundwater and Mass Transport, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Yoneda, Tetsuro, E-mail: yonet@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Soil Environment Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    2014-02-01

    Sedimentary rocks of marine origin excavated in tunnel projects were recently identified as potentially hazardous because they could release significant amounts of toxic trace elements when exposed to the environment. This study investigated the leaching characteristics of B, As, Se and the major coexisting ions under various conditions to identify the factors and processes controlling their evolution in the leachate. In addition, we evaluated whether the parameters of the currently used leachability test for excavated rocks were adequate. Although the leachabilities of B, As and Se similarly increased at longer contact times, only those of B and As were influenced by the mixing speed and/or liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S). The majority of trace elements dissolved in the leachate originated from the dissolution of soluble salts formed from seawater of the Cretaceous trapped during the formation of the sedimentary rocks. Moreover, the alkaline pH of the leachates could be attributed to the simultaneous dissolutions at varying degrees of the mineral components of the rocks as well as the precipitation of clay minerals. In the leaching test of excavated rocks for regulatory purposes, the best values of contact time and mixing speed should represent conditions of the highest trace element extractabilities, which in this study were found at longer contact times ( > 48 h) and the fastest mixing speed (200 rpm). The most appropriate L/S for the leaching test is 10 because it was around this L/S that the extractabilities and leaching concentrations of the trace elements were simultaneously observed at their highest values. - Highlights: • B, As and Se leaching increased with time reaching equilibrium after ca. 48 h. • Effect of L/S on B and As leaching was strong but not that much on Se. • All leachates were alkaline regardless of the contact time, mixing speed and L/S. • Na{sup +}–SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and Na{sup +}–HCO{sub 3}{sup −} type leachates were produced

  16. Myofibroma in the Palm Presenting with Median Nerve Compression Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Sarkozy, PA-C, BS

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary: A myofibroma is a benign proliferation of myofibroblasts in the connective tissue. Solitary myofibromas are a rare finding especially in an adult. We report a case of a 23-year-old man presenting with an enlarging mass over his right palm. The patient is an active weight lifter. He reported numbness and tingling in the median nerve distribution. Nerve conduction studies and magnetic resonance imaging scans suggested a tumor involving or compressing the median nerve. The final diagnosis of myofibroma was made only after the histopathological diagnosis.

  17. Ranking Exponential Trapezoidal Fuzzy Numbers by Median Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rezvani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we want represented a method for ranking of two exponential trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. A median value is proposed for the ranking of exponential trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. For the validation the results of the proposed approach are compared with different existing approaches.

  18. The Effects of Substitution of The Natural Sand by Steel Slag in The Properties of Eco-Friendly Concrete with The 1:2:3 Ratio Mixing Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, A.; Saputro, I. N.

    2018-03-01

    This study was motivated by the need for the development of eco-friendly concrete, and the use of large quantities of steel slag as an industrial waste which is generated from the steel manufacturers. This eco-friendly concrete was developed with steel slag as a substitute for natural sand. Properties of concrete which used waste slag as the fine aggregate with the 1 cement: 2 sand : 3 coarse aggregate ratio mixing method were examined. That ratio was in volume. Then a part of natural sand replaced with steel slag sand in six variations percentages that were 0 %, 20 %, 40 %, 60 %, 80 % and 100 %. The compressive strength, tensile strength, and flexural strength of concrete specimens were determined after curing for 28 days. The research results demonstrate that waste steel slag can increase the performance of concrete. The optimal percentage substitution natural sand by steel slag sand reached of slag on the percentage of 20 % which reached strength ratios of steel slag concrete to the strength of conventional concrete with natural sandstone were 1.37 for compressive strength and 1.13 for flexural strength. While the tensile strength reached a higher ratio of concrete with steel slag sand to the concrete with natural sand on the 80% substitution of natural sand with steel slag sand.

  19. Bayesian median regression for temporal gene expression data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Keming; Vinciotti, Veronica; Liu, Xiaohui; 't Hoen, Peter A. C.

    2007-09-01

    Most of the existing methods for the identification of biologically interesting genes in a temporal expression profiling dataset do not fully exploit the temporal ordering in the dataset and are based on normality assumptions for the gene expression. In this paper, we introduce a Bayesian median regression model to detect genes whose temporal profile is significantly different across a number of biological conditions. The regression model is defined by a polynomial function where both time and condition effects as well as interactions between the two are included. MCMC-based inference returns the posterior distribution of the polynomial coefficients. From this a simple Bayes factor test is proposed to test for significance. The estimation of the median rather than the mean, and within a Bayesian framework, increases the robustness of the method compared to a Hotelling T2-test previously suggested. This is shown on simulated data and on muscular dystrophy gene expression data.

  20. Intraneural hemangioma of the median nerve: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevinç Teoman

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hemangiomas of the median nerve are very rare and, so far, only ten cases of intraneural hemangioma of this nerve have been reported in the literature. We present a case of 14-year-old girl who had a soft tissue mass in the region of the left wrist with signs and symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. Total removal of the mass was achieved using microsurgical epineural and interfasicular dissection. The symptoms were relieved completely, after this procedure, without any neurologic deficit. On follow-up two years later, no recurrence was observed. Whenever a child or young adult patient presents with CTS the possibility of a hemangioma involving the median nerve should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis.

  1. Brain malformation in single median maxillary central incisor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, I; Wagner, Aa; Thomsen, L L

    2009-01-01

    Clinical and radiographic examinations and MR scan of a 12-year-old girl with SMMCI (single median maxillary central incisor) showed impaired growth and a midline defect involving the central incisor, cranium and the midline structures in the brain, falx cerebri and pituitary gland. She had a sev...

  2. Colloid normalizes resuscitation ratio in pediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraklas, Iris; Lam, Uyen; Cochran, Amalia; Stoddard, Gregory; Saffle, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Fluid resuscitation of burned children is challenging because of their small size and intolerance to over- or underresuscitation. Our American Burn Association-verified regional burn center has used colloid "rescue" as part of our pediatric resuscitation protocol. With Institutional Review Board approval, the authors reviewed children with ≥15% TBSA burns admitted from January 1, 2004, to May 1, 2009. Resuscitation was based on the Parkland formula, which was adjusted to maintain urine output. Patients requiring progressive increases in crystalloid were placed on a colloid protocol. Results were expressed as an hourly resuscitation ratio (I/O ratio) of fluid infusion (ml/kg/%TBSA/hr) to urine output (ml/kg/hr). We reviewed 53 patients; 29 completed resuscitation using crystalloid alone (lactated Ringer's solution [LR]), and 24 received colloid supplementation albumin (ALB). Groups were comparable in age, gender, weight, and time from injury to admission. ALB patients had more inhalation injuries and larger total and full-thickness burns. LR patients maintained a median I/O of 0.17 (range, 0.08-0.31), whereas ALB patients demonstrated escalating ratios until the institution of albumin produced a precipitous return of I/O comparable with that of the LR group. Hospital stay was lower for LR patients than ALB patients (0.59 vs 1.06 days/%TBSA, P = .033). Twelve patients required extremity or torso escharotomy, but this did not differ between groups. There were no decompressive laparotomies. The median resuscitation volume for ALB group was greater than LR group (9.7 vs 6.2 ml/kg/%TBSA, P = .004). Measuring hourly I/O is a helpful means of evaluating fluid demands during burn shock resuscitation. The addition of colloid restores normal I/O in pediatric patients.

  3. The golden-mean surface pattern to enhance flow mixing in micro-channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J F; Liu, Y; Xu, Y S

    2009-04-01

    Mixing of analytes and reagents in microfluidic devices is often crucial to the effective functioning of lab-on-a-chip. It is possible to affect the mixing in microfluidics by intelligently controlling the thermodynamic and chemical properties of the substrate surface. Numerous studies have shown that the phase behavior of mixtures is significantly affected by surface properties of microfluidics. For example, the phase separation between the fluids can be affected by heterogeneous patterns on the substrate. The patterned substrate can offer an effective means to control fluid behavior and in turn to enhance mixing. The golden mean is a ratio that is present in the growth patterns of many biological systems--the spiral formed by a shell or the curve of a fern, for example. The golden mean or golden section was derived by the ancient Greeks. Like "pi" the golden mean ratio is an irrational number 1.618, or (square root{5} + 1) / 2. It was found that the golden mean was an optimum ratio in natural convection heat transfer problem (Liu and Phan-Thien, Numer Heat Transf 37:613-630, 2000). In this study, we numerically studied the effect of optimum surface pattern on mixing in a micro channel and found that the flow oscillation and chaotic mixing were enhanced apparently when the ratio of hydrophobic and hydrophilic boundary follows the golden mean.

  4. Tracing lead pollution sources in abandoned mine areas using stable Pb isotope ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Eun-Jin; Lee, Jung-A; Park, Jae-Seon; Lee, Khanghyun; Lee, Won-Seok; Han, Jin-Seok; Choi, Jong-Woo

    2014-02-01

    This study focused on Pb isotope ratios of sediments in areas around an abandoned mine to determine if the ratios can be used as a source tracer. For pretreatment, sediment samples were dissolved with mixed acids, and a multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS, Nu plasma II) was used to investigate the Pb isotopic composition of the samples. The measured isotope ratios were then corrected for instrumental mass fractionation by measuring the (203)Tl/(205)Tl ratio. Repeated measurements with the NIST SRM 981 reference material showed that the precision of all ratios was below 104 ppm (±2σ) for 50 ng/g. The isotope ratios ((207)Pb/(206)Pb) found were 0.85073 ± 0.0004~0.85373 ± 0.0003 for the main stream, while they were 0.83736 ± 0.0010 for the tributary and 0.84393 ± 0.0002 for the confluence. A binary mixing equation for isotope ratios showed that the contributions of mine lead to neighboring areas were up to 60%. Therefore, Pb isotope ratios can be a good source tracer for areas around abandoned mines.

  5. The puzzle of the CNO isotope ratios in asymptotic giant branch carbon stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abia, C.; Hedrosa, R. P.; Domínguez, I.; Straniero, O.

    2017-03-01

    Context. The abundance ratios of the main isotopes of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen are modified by the CNO-cycle in the stellar interiors. When the different dredge-up events mix the burning material with the envelope, valuable information on the nucleosynthesis and mixing processes can be extracted by measuring these isotope ratios. Aims: Previous determinations of the oxygen isotopic ratios in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) carbon stars were at odds with the existing theoretical predictions. We aim to redetermine the oxygen ratios in these stars using new spectral analysis tools and further develop discussions on the carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios in order to elucidate this problem. Methods: Oxygen isotopic ratios were derived from spectra in the K-band in a sample of galactic AGB carbon stars of different spectral types and near solar metallicity. Synthetic spectra calculated in local thermodynamic equillibrium (LTE) with spherical carbon-rich atmosphere models and updated molecular line lists were used. The CNO isotope ratios derived in a homogeneous way, were compared with theoretical predictions for low-mass (1.5-3 M⊙) AGB stars computed with the FUNS code assuming extra mixing both during the RGB and AGB phases. Results: For most of the stars the 16O/17O/18O ratios derived are in good agreement with theoretical predictions confirming that, for AGB stars, are established using the values reached after the first dredge-up (FDU) according to the initial stellar mass. This fact, as far as the oxygen isotopic ratios are concerned, leaves little space for the operation of any extra mixing mechanism during the AGB phase. Nevertheless, for a few stars with large 16O/17O/18O, the operation of such a mechanism might be required, although their observed 12C/13C and 14N/15N ratios would be difficult to reconcile within this scenario. Furthermore, J-type stars tend to have lower 16O/17O ratios than the normal carbon stars, as already indicated in previous studies

  6. HEMS inter-facility transfer: a case-mix analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rocco, Damien; Pasquier, Mathieu; Albrecht, Eric; Carron, Pierre-Nicolas; Dami, Fabrice

    2018-05-16

    Helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) are popular rescue systems despite inconsistent evidence in the scientific literature to support their use for primary interventions, as well as for inter-facility transfer (IFT). There is little research about IFT by HEMS, hence questions remain about the appropriateness of this method of transport. The aim of this study was to describe a case-mix of operational and medical characteristics for IFT activity of a sole HEMS base, and identify indicators of over-triage. This is a retrospective study on HEMS IFT over 36 months, from January 1st 2013 to December 31st 2015. Medical and operational data from the database of the Emergency Department of Lausanne University Hospital, which provides the emergency physicians for this helicopter base, were reviewed. It included distance and time of flight transport, type of care during flight, and estimated distance of transport if conducted by ground. There were 2194 HEMS missions including 979 IFT (44.6%). Most transfers involved adults (> 17 years old; 799 patients, 81.6%). Forty patients (4.1%) were classified as having benefitted from resuscitation or life-saving measures performed in flight, 615 (62.8%) from emergency treatment and 324 (33.1%) from simple clinical examination. The median distance by air between hospitals was 35.4 km. The estimated median distance by road was 47.7 km. The median duration time from origin to destination by air was 12 min. This case-mix of IFTs by HEMS presents a high severity. There are many signs in favour of over-triage. We propose indicators to help choosing whether HEMS is the most appropriate mean of transport to perform the transfer regarding patient condition, geography, and medical competences available aboard ground ambulances; this may reduce over-triage.

  7. Isotopic mixing in carbon monoxide catalyzed by zinc oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnisio, G.; Garbassi, F.; Petrini, G.; Parravano, G.

    1978-01-01

    The rate of the isotopic mixing in CO has been studied at 300 0 C, for CO partial pressures from 6 to 100 Torr and a total pressure of 250 Torr on ZnO catalysts. Significant deviations from a first-order rate in p/sub co/ were found. The rate of oxygen exchange between ZnO and gas-phase CO was also measured and the results were employed to calculate the fraction of surface sites active for the CO isotopic mixing. Values on the order of 0.001 were found. The turnover rate and surface collision efficiency varied between 0.7 and 107 min -1 and 0.13 and 2.24 x 10 -8 , respectively. H 2 additions to CO increased the rate of isotopic mixing, whereas the rate of H 2 + D 2 was decreased by the presence of CO. The H 2 + D 2 rate was faster than that of isotopic mixing in CO, but as the ratio p/sub H 2 //p/sub co/ decreased the rates became about equal. It is argued that on ZnO samples, in which the rate of CO isotopic mixing and the rate of ZnO--CO oxygen exchange were influenced in a similar manner by the CO pressure, the isotopic mixing in CO took place via the ZnO oxygen, while oxide oxygen participation was not kinetically significant for ZnO samples in which the two reactions had different kinetics. The crucial factor controlling the path followed by the isotopic mixing in CO seems to be the surface Zn/O ratio, since a close correlation was found between the former and the reaction kinetics of the CO isotopic mixing reaction. Solid-state conditions which may vary the Zn/O surface ratio (foreign additions) are indicated. The implications of these findings to the problem of product selectivity from CO-H 2 mixtures reacting on metal oxide surfaces are discussed

  8. O/M ratio measurement in pure and mixed oxide fuels - where are we now?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, J.; Chidester, K.; Thompson, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The scale-down in the US and Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles has produced a surplus of weapons grade plutonium and highly enriched uranium. The incorporation into mixed-oxide fuel (MOX) is one of the currently favored routes for surplus weapons-grade plutonium. The use of MOX as a nuclear reactor fuel is well established, particularly in Europe and Japan but not in the US. The primary purpose of this investigation was to evaluate existing analytical techniques for their applicability to O/M (oxygen-to-metal ratio) measurements of MOX derived from excess weapons plutonium. The second objective of this investigation was to bring up-to-date the literature on O/M measurement methods, which has not been undertaken in over 20 years. There are several classification schemes that can be used to organize O/M measurement methods. The most popular schemes are based on (a) whether the analysis is performed in solution (wet chemical) or on solid material (dry), and (b) whether the concentration of major constituents are analyzed directly (direct) or are inferred (indirect). Solid state coulometric titration is currently used extensively in studies of phase equilibria, defect chemistry, thermochemical measurement of oxides, including ferrites. Regardless of which indirect method is used (solid state coulometric titration or thermogravimetry), a primary, direct method will also be required for the establishment of the MO{sub 2} reference state, determination of method bias, and periodic calibration. It was recommended that the following direct method be adapted for this purpose: oxygen measurement by inert gas fusion/carbon reduction, and total U, Pu by controlled potential coulometry. In a table are listed the experimental values of accuracy for about 30 O/M methods. (A.C.)

  9. Weak mixing angles and heavy flavours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarlskog, C.

    1984-05-01

    The present status of the weak mixing angles, in the standard six quark model, is reviewed. The implications of the recent measurements of the beauty lifetime and branching ratios are discussed, in the framework of the Kobayashi-Maskawa and the Wolfenstein parametrizations. Expectations for B(sup)o - B(sup)-o mixing and consequences for the collider data are given. Other topics briefly reviewed are CP-violation, top quark mass and possible implications of the existence of a fourth family. (author)

  10. Experimental observations of flow instabilities and rapid mixing of two dissimilar viscoelastic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiong Yap Gan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Viscoelastically induced flow instabilities, via a simple planar microchannel, were previously used to produce rapid mixing of two dissimilar polymeric liquids (i.e. at least a hundredfold different in shear viscosity even at a small Reynolds number. The unique advantage of this mixing technology is that viscoelastic liquids are readily found in chemical and biological samples like organic and polymeric liquids, blood and crowded proteins samples; their viscoelastic properties could be exploited. As such, an understanding of the underlying interactions will be important especially in rapid microfluidic mixing involving multiple-stream flow of complex (viscoelastic fluids in biological assays. Here, we use the same planar device to experimentally show that the elasticity ratio (i.e. the ratio of stored elastic energy to be relaxed between two liquids indeed plays a crucial role in the entire flow kinematics and the enhanced mixing. We demonstrate here that the polymer stretching dynamics generated in the upstream converging flow and the polymer relaxation events occurring in the downstream channel are not exclusively responsible for the transverse flow mixing, but the elasticity ratio is also equally important. The role of elasticity ratio for transverse flow instability and the associated enhanced mixing were illustrated based on experimental observations. A new parameter Deratio = Deside / Demain (i.e. the ratio of the Deborah number (De of the sidestream to the mainstream liquids is introduced to correlate the magnitude of energy discontinuity between the two liquids. A new Deratio-Demain operating space diagram was constructed to present the observation of the effects of both elasticity and energy discontinuity in a compact manner, and for a general classification of the states of flow development.

  11. Experimental investigation of thermal mixing phenomena in a tee pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Mei-Shiue; Hsieh, Huai-En; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Pei, Bau-Shi [National Tsing Hua Univ., Taiwan (China). Inst. of Nuclear Engineering and Science

    2015-05-15

    T-pipe designs have been widely used in the industry. Among them, mixing of hot and cold water is a common application. In the mixing process, cold and hot fluids are respectively injected through main and branch pipes, and are mixed in the downstream area of T-tube. High temperature hot water flows through the main pipe for a long time; hence, the pipe wall is at high temperatures. The fluid injected into the branch pipe is a cooling fluid. After mixing, the wall of the main pipe is under high thermal fluctuations causing strong thermal stresses, which will eventually lead to pipe damage and water loss. Through flow rate adjustments of the branch and main pipes, when the branch/main velocity ratio was greater than 7.8, showing that cold water hit the bottom of the main pipe and created a reverse flow. This reverse flow created large thermal stresses on the wall. Hence, the branch/main velocity ratio and the hot-water-mixing phenomenon are the focus of this study.

  12. Interpretable inference on the mixed effect model with the Box-Cox transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, K; Yamaguchi, Y; Noma, H; Gosho, M

    2017-07-10

    We derived results for inference on parameters of the marginal model of the mixed effect model with the Box-Cox transformation based on the asymptotic theory approach. We also provided a robust variance estimator of the maximum likelihood estimator of the parameters of this model in consideration of the model misspecifications. Using these results, we developed an inference procedure for the difference of the model median between treatment groups at the specified occasion in the context of mixed effects models for repeated measures analysis for randomized clinical trials, which provided interpretable estimates of the treatment effect. From simulation studies, it was shown that our proposed method controlled type I error of the statistical test for the model median difference in almost all the situations and had moderate or high performance for power compared with the existing methods. We illustrated our method with cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) data in an AIDS clinical trial, where the interpretability of the analysis results based on our proposed method is demonstrated. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. PERBANDINGAN TRANSFORMASI BOX-COX DAN REGRESI KUANTIL MEDIAN DALAM MENGATASI HETEROSKEDASTISITAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NI WAYAN YUNI CAHYANI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ordinary least square (OLS is a method that can be used to estimate the parameter in linear regression analysis. There are some assumption which should be satisfied on OLS, one of this assumption is homoscedasticity, that is the variance of error is constant. If variance of the error is unequal that so-called heteroscedasticity. The presence heteroscedasticity can cause estimation with OLS becomes inefficient. Therefore, heteroscedasticity shall be overcome. There are some method that can used to overcome heteroscedasticity, two among those are Box-Cox power transformation and median quantile regression. This research compared Box-Cox power transformation and median quantile regression to overcome heteroscedasticity. Applied Box-Cox power transformation on OLS result ????2point are greater, smaller RMSE point and confidencen interval more narrow, therefore can be concluded that applied of Box-Cox power transformation on OLS better of median quantile regression to overcome heteroscedasticity.

  14. PERBANDINGAN TRANSFORMASI BOX-COX DAN REGRESI KUANTIL MEDIAN DALAM MENGATASI HETEROSKEDASTISITAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NI WAYAN YUNI CAHYANI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ordinary least square (OLS is a method that can be used to estimate the parameter in linear regression analysis. There are some assumption which should be satisfied on OLS, one of this assumption is homoscedasticity, that is the variance of error is constant. If variance of the error is unequal that so-called heteroscedasticity. The presence heteroscedasticity can cause estimation with OLS becomes inefficient. Therefore, heteroscedasticity shall be overcome. There are some method that can used to overcome heteroscedasticity, two among those are Box-Cox power transformation and median quantile regression. This research compared Box-Cox power transformation and median quantile regression to overcome heteroscedasticity. Applied Box-Cox power transformation on OLS result ????2point are greater, smaller RMSE point and confidencen interval more narrow, therefore can be concluded that applied of Box-Cox power transformation on OLS better of median quantile regression to overcome heteroscedasticity.

  15. Analysis of Passive Mixing in a Serpentine Microchannel with Sinusoidal Side Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usman Javaid

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sample mixing is difficult in microfluidic devices because of laminar flow. Micromixers are designed to ensure the optimal use of miniaturized devices. The present study aims to design a chaotic-advection-based passive micromixer with enhanced mixing efficiency. A serpentine-shaped microchannel with sinusoidal side walls was designed, and three cases, with amplitude to wavelength (A/λ ratios of 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2 were investigated. Numerical simulations were conducted using the Navier–Stokes equations, to determine the flow field. The flow was then coupled with the convection–diffusion equation to obtain the species concentration distribution. The mixing performance of sinusoidal walled channels was compared with that of a simple serpentine channel for Reynolds numbers ranging from 0.1 to 50. Secondary flows were observed at high Reynolds numbers that mixed the fluid streams. These flows were dominant in the proposed sinusoidal walled channels, thereby showing better mixing performance than the simple serpentine channel at similar or less mixing cost. Higher mixing efficiency was obtained by increasing the A/λ ratio.

  16. Microfluidic active mixers employing ultra-high aspect-ratio rare-earth magnetic nano-composite polymer artificial cilia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahbar, Mona; Gray, Bonnie L; Shannon, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    We present a new micromixer based on highly magnetic, flexible, high aspect-ratio, artificial cilia that are fabricated as individual micromixer elements or in arrays for improved mixing performance. These new cilia enable high efficiency, fast mixing in a microchamber, and are controlled by small electromagnetic fields. The artificial cilia are fabricated using a new micromolding process for nano-composite polymers. Cilia fibers with aspect-ratios as high as 8:0.13 demonstrate the fabrication technique's capability in creating ultra-high aspect-ratio microstructures. Cilia, which are realized in polydimethylsiloxane doped with rare-earth magnetic powder, are magnetized to produce permanent magnetic structures with bidirectional deflection capabilities, making them highly suitable as mixers controlled by electromagnetic fields. Due to the high magnetization level of the polarized nano-composite polymer, we are able to use miniature electromagnets providing relatively small magnetic fields of 1.1 to 7 mT to actuate the cilia microstructures over a very wide motion range. Mixing performances of a single cilium, as well as different arrays of multiple cilia ranging from 2 to 8 per reaction chamber, are characterized and compared with passive diffusion mixing performance. The mixer cilia are actuated at different amplitudes and frequencies to optimize mixing performance. We demonstrate that more than 85% of the total volume of the reaction chamber is fully mixed after 3.5 min using a single cilium mixer at 7 mT compared with only 20% of the total volume mixed with passive diffusion. The time to achieve over 85% mixing is further reduced to 70 s using an array of eight cilia microstructures. The novel microfabrication technique and use of rare-earth permanently-magnetizable nano-composite polymers in mixer applications has not been reported elsewhere by other researchers. We further demonstrate improved mixing over other cilia micromixers as enabled by the high

  17. The mixing effects for real gases and their mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, M. Q.; Luo, E. C.; Wu, J. F.

    2004-10-01

    The definitions of the adiabatic and isothermal mixing effects in the mixing processes of real gases were presented in this paper. Eight substances with boiling-point temperatures from cryogenic temperature to the ambient temperature were selected from the interest of low temperature refrigeration to study their binary and multicomponent mixing effects. Detailed analyses were made on the parameters of the mixing process to know their influences on mixing effects. Those parameters include the temperatures, pressures, and mole fraction ratios of pure substances before mixing. The results show that the maximum temperature variation occurs at the saturation state of each component in the mixing process. Those components with higher boiling-point temperatures have higher isothermal mixing effects. The maximum temperature variation which is defined as the adiabatic mixing effect can even reach up to 50 K, and the isothermal mixing effect can reach about 20 kJ/mol. The possible applications of the mixing cooling effect in both open cycle and closed cycle refrigeration systems were also discussed.

  18. Mixed, charge and heat noises in thermoelectric nanosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crépieux, Adeline; Michelini, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    Mixed, charge and heat current fluctuations as well as thermoelectric differential conductances are considered for non-interacting nanosystems connected to reservoirs. Using the Landauer-Büttiker formalism, we derive general expressions for these quantities and consider their possible relationships in the entire ranges of temperature, voltage and coupling to the environment or reservoirs. We introduce a dimensionless quantity given by the ratio between the product of mixed noises and the product of charge and heat noises, distinguishing between the auto-ratio defined in the same reservoir and the cross-ratio between distinct reservoirs. From the linear response regime to the high-voltage regime, we further specify the analytical expressions of differential conductances, noises and ratios of noises, and examine their behavior in two concrete nanosystems: a quantum point contact in an ohmic environment and a single energy level quantum dot connected to reservoirs. In the linear response regime, we find that these ratios are equal to each other and are simply related to the figure of merit. They can be expressed in terms of differential conductances with the help of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. In the non-linear regime, these ratios radically distinguish between themselves as the auto-ratio remains bounded by one, while the cross-ratio exhibits rich and complex behaviors. In the quantum dot nanosystem, we moreover demonstrate that the thermoelectric efficiency can be expressed as a ratio of noises in the non-linear Schottky regime. In the intermediate voltage regime, the cross-ratio changes sign and diverges, which evidences a change of sign in the heat cross-noise.

  19. Rheologic properties of fresh cement mixes for repository sealing applications: effects of superplasticizers, mixing procedures, and time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.M.; Asaga, K.

    1982-09-01

    As part of the design of optimally durable, hardened cementitious plugging materials for repository borheole plugging, shaft and tunnel sealing, detailed studies of rheological properties have been made. The effects of mixing procedures upon measured rheological properties of fresh cement mixes with and without superplasticizing admixtures condensates of sulfonated naphthalene- and melamine-formaldehyde have been investigated. Coaxial cylindrical viscometer measurements were made, recording shear stress-shear rate relationships and defining yield stress and plastic viscosity. In the absence of admixture, yield stress and plastic viscosity decreased substantially with increasing intensity of mixing, which caused a breakdown of particulate aggregates. However, with admixture present, the rheological properties of already well-dispersed mixes did not change significantly with increasingly intense mixing. The changes of the viscometric functions with time were investigated, and were related to admixture type and concentration, cement type, and volume concentration of cement. The mechanisms of action of the superplasticizers and their use in generating reliable workable low water/cement ratio mixes are discussed. 36 figures, 3 tables

  20. Consideration of reinforcement mechanism in the short fiber mixing granular materials by granular element simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kentaro; Kaneko, Kenji; Hashizume, Yutaka

    2017-06-01

    The short fiber mixing method is well known as one of the method to improve the strength of gran- ular soils in geotechnical engineering. Mechanical properties of the short fiber mixing granular materials are influenced by many factors, such as the mixture ratio of the short fiber, the material of short fiber, the length, and the orientation. In particular, the mixture ratio of the short fibers is very important in mixture design. In the past study, we understood that the strength is reduced by too much short fiber mixing by a series of tri-axial compression experiments. Namely, there is "optimum mixture ratio" in the short fiber mixing granular soils. In this study, to consider the mechanism of occurrence of the optimum mixture ratio, we carried out the numerical experiments by granular element method. As the results, we can understand that the strength decrease when too much grain-fiber contact points exist, because a friction coefficient is smaller than the grain-grain contact points.

  1. Impact of keyboard typing on the morphological changes of the median nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeap Loh, Ping; Liang Yeoh, Wen; Nakashima, Hiroki; Muraki, Satoshi

    2017-09-28

    The primary objective was to investigate the effects of continuous typing on median nerve changes at the carpal tunnel region at two different keyboard slopes (0° and 20°). The secondary objective was to investigate the differences in wrist kinematics and the changes in wrist anthropometric measurements when typing at the two different keyboard slopes. Fifteen healthy right-handed young men were recruited. A randomized sequence of the conditions (control, typing I, and typing II) was assigned to each participant. Wrist anthropometric measurements, wrist kinematics data collection and ultrasound examination to the median nerve was performed at designated time block. Typing activity and time block do not cause significant changes to the wrist anthropometric measurements. The wrist measurements remained similar across all the time blocks in the three conditions. Subsequently, the wrist extensions and ulnar deviations were significantly higher in both the typing I and typing II conditions than in the control condition for both wrists (ptyping I and typing II conditions after the typing task than before the typing task. The MNCSA significantly decreased in the recovery phase after the typing task. This study demonstrated the immediate changes in the median nerve after continuous keyboard typing. Changes in the median nerve were greater during typing using a keyboard tilted at 20° than during typing using a keyboard tilted at 0°. The main findings suggest wrist posture near to neutral position caused lower changes of the median nerve.

  2. Effect of particle diameter of porous media on flow and heat transfer in a mixing tee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yongwei; Lu, Tao; Wang, Kuisheng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Three particle diameter cases of 28 mm, 14 mm and 7 mm were simulated by LES. ► With the diameter decreasing, mixing scale tends to decrease in the mixing tee. ► With the diameter decreasing, thermal mixing is weakened. ► With the diameter decreasing, the thermal stratification is obvious. ► When the particle diameter ratio is 4:2:1, pressure drop ratio is 1:2:4. -- Abstract: Numerical simulations have been carried out to investigate flow and heat transfer in a mixing tee filled with periodic sintered copper spheres. Three particle diameter cases of 28 mm, 14 mm and 7 mm with the array of 4 × 4, 8 × 8 and 16 × 16 at the same porosity of 0.3 have been calculated using large-eddy simulations and the Smagorinsky–Lilly sub-grid scale model. With the particle diameter decreasing, the mixture scale of hot and cold fluid tends to decrease in the mixing tee; the pressure drop of fluid flow through porous media increases. When the particle diameter ratios are 4:2:1 and the specific surface ratios are 1:2:4, the pressure drop ratios are 1:2:4; the thermal mixing in porous media is weakened because the temperature fluctuation decreases and the stratification of hot and cold fluids is observed.

  3. Actinide Oxidation State and O/M Ratio in Hypostoichiometric Uranium-Plutonium-Americium U0.750Pu0.246Am0.004O2-x Mixed Oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauchy, Romain; Belin, Renaud C; Robisson, Anne-Charlotte; Lebreton, Florent; Aufore, Laurence; Scheinost, Andreas C; Martin, Philippe M

    2016-03-07

    Innovative americium-bearing uranium-plutonium mixed oxides U1-yPuyO2-x are envisioned as nuclear fuel for sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors (SFRs). The oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio, directly related to the oxidation state of cations, affects many of the fuel properties. Thus, a thorough knowledge of its variation with the sintering conditions is essential. The aim of this work is to follow the oxidation state of uranium, plutonium, and americium, and so the O/M ratio, in U0.750Pu0.246Am0.004O2-x samples sintered for 4 h at 2023 K in various Ar + 5% H2 + z vpm H2O (z = ∼ 15, ∼ 90, and ∼ 200) gas mixtures. The O/M ratios were determined by gravimetry, XAS, and XRD and evidenced a partial oxidation of the samples at room temperature. Finally, by comparing XANES and EXAFS results to that of a previous study, we demonstrate that the presence of uranium does not influence the interactions between americium and plutonium and that the differences in the O/M ratio between the investigated conditions is controlled by the reduction of plutonium. We also discuss the role of the homogeneity of cation distribution, as determined by EPMA, on the mechanisms involved in the reduction process.

  4. Study of the daily and seasonal atmospheric CH4 mixing ratio variability in a rural Spanish region using 222Rn tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Claudia; Vogel, Felix R.; Curcoll, Roger; Àgueda, Alba; Vargas, Arturo; Rodó, Xavier; Morguí, Josep-Anton

    2018-04-01

    The ClimaDat station at Gredos (GIC3) has been continuously measuring atmospheric (dry air) mixing ratios of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), as well as meteorological parameters, since November 2012. In this study we investigate the atmospheric variability of CH4 mixing ratios between 2013 and 2015 at GIC3 with the help of co-located observations of 222Rn concentrations, modelled 222Rn fluxes and modelled planetary boundary layer heights (PBLHs). Both daily and seasonal changes in atmospheric CH4 can be better understood with the help of atmospheric concentrations of 222Rn (and the corresponding fluxes). On a daily timescale, the variation in the PBLH is the main driver for 222Rn and CH4 variability while, on monthly timescales, their atmospheric variability seems to depend on emission changes. To understand (changing) CH4 emissions, nocturnal fluxes of CH4 were estimated using two methods: the radon tracer method (RTM) and a method based on the EDGARv4.2 bottom-up emission inventory, both using FLEXPARTv9.0.2 footprints. The mean value of RTM-based methane fluxes (FR_CH4) is 0.11 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 with a standard deviation of 0.09 or 0.29 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 with a standard deviation of 0.23 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 when using a rescaled 222Rn map (FR_CH4_rescale). For our observational period, the mean value of methane fluxes based on the bottom-up inventory (FE_CH4) is 0.33 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 with a standard deviation of 0.08 mg CH4 m-2 h-1. Monthly CH4 fluxes based on RTM (both FR_CH4 and FR_CH4_rescale) show a seasonality which is not observed for monthly FE_CH4 fluxes. During January-May, RTM-based CH4 fluxes present mean values 25 % lower than during June-December. This seasonal increase in methane fluxes calculated by RTM for the GIC3 area appears to coincide with the arrival of transhumant livestock at GIC3 in the second half of the year.

  5. Stochastic model of Rayleigh-Taylor turbulent mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abarzhi, S.I.; Cadjan, M.; Fedotov, S.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a stochastic model to describe the random character of the dissipation process in Rayleigh-Taylor turbulent mixing. The parameter alpha, used conventionally to characterize the mixing growth-rate, is not a universal constant and is very sensitive to the statistical properties of the dissipation. The ratio between the rates of momentum loss and momentum gain is the statistic invariant and a robust parameter to diagnose with or without turbulent diffusion accounted for

  6. Grain growth kinetics in uranium-plutonium mixed oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sari, C.

    1986-01-01

    Grain growth rates were investigated in uranium-plutonium mixed oxide specimens with oxygen-to-metal ratios 1.97 and 2.0. The specimens in the form of cylindrical pellets were heated in a temperature gradient similar to that existing in a fast reactor. The results are in agreement with the cubic rate law. The mean grain size D(μm) after annealing for time t (min) is represented by D 3 -D 0 3 =1.11x10 12 . exp(-445870/RT).t and D 3 -D 0 3 =2.55x10 9 .exp(-319240/RT).t for specimens with overall oxygen-to-metal ratios 1.97 and 2.0, respectively (activation energies expressed in J/mol). An example for the influence of the oxygen-to-metal ratio on the grain growth in mixed oxide fuel during operation in a fast reactor is also given. (orig.)

  7. Role of Cu-Mg-Al mixed oxide catalysts in lignin depolymerization in supercritical ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, X.; Ceylanpinar, A.; Koranyi, T.I.; Boot, M.D.; Hensen, E.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the role of Cu-Mg-Al mixed oxides in depolymerization of soda lignin in supercritical ethanol. A series of mixed oxides with varying Cu content and (Cu+Mg)/Al ratio were prepared. The optimum catalyst containing 20 wt% Cu and having a (Cu+Mg)/Al ratio of 4 yielded 36 wt% monomers

  8. Nuorten sosiaalisen median käyttö seurustelusuhteissa : "Onksiul snappii, kikkii tai whatsappii?"

    OpenAIRE

    Pöllänen, Kati

    2016-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin nuorten sosiaalisen median käyttöä seurustelusuhteissa. Seurustelusuhteella tarkoitetaan kahden toisistaan pitävän ihmisen romanttista suhdetta. Työssä tarkasteltiin keskinuorten ja myöhäisnuorten käyttämiä sosiaalisen median sovelluksia, käyttömääriä ja –tapoja. Lisäksi selvitettiin, millainen rooli sosiaalisella medialla on seurustelusuhteen eri vaiheissa. Työssä tutustuttiin nuorten sosiaalisen median käyttöön kenttätutkimuksella, jossa nu...

  9. Mass spectrometric measurement of urinary kynurenine-to-tryptophan ratio in children with and without urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbrough, Melanie L; Briden, Kelleigh E; Mitsios, John V; Weindel, Annette L; Terrill, Cindy M; Hunstad, David A; Dietzen, Dennis J

    2018-04-19

    Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) catalyzes the first step of tryptophan (Trp) catabolism, yielding kynurenine (Kyn) metabolites. The kynurenine-to-tryptophan (K/T) ratio is used as a surrogate for biological IDO enzyme activity. IDO expression is increased during Escherichia coli urinary tract infection (UTI). Thus, our objective was to develop a method for measurement of Kyn/Trp ratio in human blood and urine and evaluate its use as a biomarker of UTI. A mass spectrometric method was developed to measure Trp and Kyn in serum and urine specimens. The method was applied to clinical urine specimens from symptomatic pediatric patients with laboratory-confirmed UTI or other acute conditions and from healthy controls. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was linear to 500 μmol/L for both Trp and Kyn. Imprecision ranged from 5 to 15% for Trp and 6-20% for Kyn. Analytical recoveries of Trp and Kyn ranged from 96 to 119% in serum and 90-97% in urine. No correlation was found between the K/T ratio and circulating IDO mass (r = 0.110) in serum. Urinary Kyn and Trp in the pediatric test cohort demonstrated elevations in the K/T ratio in symptomatic patients with UTI (median 13.08) and without UTI (median 14.38) compared to healthy controls (median 4.93; p < 0.001 for both comparisons). No significant difference in K/T ratio was noted between symptomatic patients with and without UTI (p = 0.84). Measurement of Trp and Kyn by LC-MS/MS is accurate and precise in serum and urine specimens. While urinary K/T ratio is not a specific biomarker for UTI, it may represent a general indicator of a systemic inflammatory process. Copyright © 2018 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mix for production of heavy concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skvara, F.; Halen, S.; Kolar, K.; Novotny, J.; Zadak, Z.; Zezulka, J.

    1981-01-01

    The mix consists of 76 to 99.79 wt.% of cement clay of a specific area of 150 to 3000 m 2 /kg, of heavy aggregate (in a ratio of 1 part of cement clay to more than 1 part of the heavy aggregate) and of 0.1 to 8 wt.% of lignosulphonic acid salt. The mix also contains 0.1 to 8 wt.% of boric acid, 0.01 to 8 wt.% of a carbonate or a hydrogen carbonate of an alkali metal. (H.S.)

  11. Median sternotomy for double lung transplantation with cardiopulmonary bypass in seven consecutive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohno, Mitsutomo; Steinbrüchel, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    We describe our technique of using median sternotomy to perform double lung transplantations with cardiopulmonary bypass. By sparing the respiratory muscles, median sternotomy is probably less invasive and preserves lung function. Furthermore, it causes less long-term discomfort than intercostal...

  12. Influence of Mixed Mode I-Mode II Loading on Fatigue Delamination Growth Characteristics of a Graphite Epoxy Tape Laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, James G.; Johnston, William M., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Mixed mode I-mode II interlaminar tests were conducted on IM7/8552 tape laminates using the mixed-mode bending test. Three mixed mode ratios, G(sub II)/G(sub T) = 0.2, 0.5, and 0.8, were considered. Tests were performed at all three mixed-mode ratios under quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions, where the former static tests were used to determine initial loading levels for the latter fatigue tests. Fatigue tests at each mixed-mode ratio were performed at four loading levels, Gmax, equal to 0.5G(sub c), 0.4G(sub c), 0.3G(sub c), and 0.2G(sub c), where G(sub c) is the interlaminar fracture toughness of the corresponding mixed-mode ratio at which a test was performed. All fatigue tests were performed using constant-amplitude load control and delamination growth was automatically documented using compliance solutions obtained from the corresponding quasi-static tests. Static fracture toughness data yielded a mixed-mode delamination criterion that exhibited monotonic increase in Gc with mixed-mode ratio, G(sub II)/G(sub T). Fatigue delamination onset parameters varied monotonically with G(sub II)/G(sub T), which was expected based on the fracture toughness data. Analysis of non-normalized data yielded a monotonic change in Paris law exponent with mode ratio. This was not the case when normalized data were analyzed. Fatigue data normalized by the static R-curve were most affected in specimens tested at G(sub II)/G(sub T)=0.2 (this process has little influence on the other data). In this case, the normalized data yielded a higher delamination growth rate compared to the raw data for a given loading level. Overall, fiber bridging appeared to be the dominant mechanism, affecting delamination growth rates in specimens tested at different load levels and differing mixed-mode ratios.

  13. Ratios of charmed and bottom meson decay constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    It is shown that general features of the standard theory require the double ratio (f Bs /f Bd )/(f Ds /f Dd ) to be very nearly unity with only very small corrections. The ratios f Bs /f Bd and f Ds /f Dd are both also near unity, within small corrections which partially cancel in the double ratio. A precise measurement of f Ds /f Dd therefore provides a sensitive test of some generally accepted features of the standard Lagrangian, as well as determines the value of f Bs /f Bd , which is important for calculating the relative strengths of B s- bar B s and B d- bar B d mixing

  14. A case of fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the median nerve with macrodactyly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathish Arakeri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of nerve is a tumor-like lipomatous process principally involving affecting young persons. The median nerve is most commonly affectedinvolved. The lesion is characterized by a soft slowly growing mass, surrounding and infiltrating major nerves and their branches. It may cause symptoms of compression neuropathy and is associated with macrodactyly in one third of cases. Here, we present a case of Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of nerve in the wrist of a young man arising from median nerve. Debulking of the tumour was performed.

  15. Educational system, income inequality and growth: the median voter's decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joilson Dias

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available I analyze a long run educational policy as a mechanism to close the income gap among low, median and high-income families. If the choice is made endogenous by the use of the median voter theorem, the results are as follow: i public education system guarantees income convergence, however the income growth rate of the median voter is smaller; ii the combination public and private (hybrid educational system allows faster income growth rate, but income inequality is almost the natural outcome. The ending result is that the combination public and private system will prevail, since the income growth rate of the median voter is higher in this system. This might explain the persistence and differences of income inequality among the economies.O objetivo deste artigo é analisar a utilização da política educacional no longo prazo como mecanismo para a redução da desigualdade de renda entre famílias de renda baixa, mediana e alta. Se a decisão sobre a política for endogeneizada, de acordo com o teorema do eleitor mediano, os resultados são os seguintes: i o sistema educacional público para todos, apesar de garantir convergência de renda, produz uma menor taxa de crescimento da renda do eleitor mediano; ii a combinação público-privado (sistema educacional híbrido permite uma maior taxa de crescimento da renda do eleitor mediano, no entanto a desigualdade de renda é inerente a este sistema. Como resultado final, o eleitor mediano irá escolher o sistema público-privado, pois o crescimento da sua renda é maior, o que pode explicar a persistência e as diferenças na desigualdade de renda das economias.

  16. Epidemiology of mixed, stress, and urgency urinary incontinence in middle-aged/older women: the importance of incontinence history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komesu, Yuko M; Schrader, Ronald M; Ketai, Loren H; Rogers, Rebecca G; Dunivan, Gena C

    2016-05-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is common and the relationship among its subtypes complex. Our objective was to describe the natural history and predictors of the incontinence subtypes stress, urgency, and mixed, in middle-aged and older US women. We tested our hypothesis that UI subtype history predicted future occurrence, evaluating subtype incidence/remission over multiple time points in a stable cohort of women. We analyzed longitudinal urinary incontinence data in 10,572 community-dwelling women aged ≥50 in the 2004-2010 Health and Retirement Study. Mixed, stress, and urgency incontinence prevalence (2004, 2006, 2008, 2010) and 2-year cumulative incidence and remissions (2004-2006, 2006-2008, 2008-2010) were estimated. Patient characteristics and incontinence subtype status 2004-2008 were entered into a multivariable, transition model to determine predictors for incontinence subtype occurrence in 2010. The prevalence of each subtype in this population (median age 63-66) was 2.6-8.9 %. Subtype incidence equaled 2.1-3.5 % and remissions for each varied between 22.3 and 48.7 %. Incontinence subtype incidence predictors included ethnicity/race, age, body mass index, and functional limitations. Compared with white women, black women had decreased odds of incident stress incontinence and Hispanic women had increased odds of stress incontinence remission. The age range 80-90 and severe obesity predicted incident mixed incontinence. Functional limitations predicted mixed and urgency incontinence. The strongest predictor of incontinence subtype was subtype history. The presence of the respective incontinence subtypes in 2004 and 2006 strongly predicted 2010 recurrence (odds ratio [OR] stress incontinence = 30.7, urgency OR = 47.4, mixed OR = 42.1). Although the number of remissions was high, a previous history of incontinence subtypes predicted recurrence. Incontinence status is dynamic, but tends to recur over the longer term.

  17. Neutron activation analysis of calcium/phosphorus ratio in rib bone of healthy humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzaphlidou, Margaret; Zaichick, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    The Ca/P ratio was estimated in intact rib bone samples from healthy humans, 37 women and 45 men, aged from 15 to 55 years using instrumental neutron activation analysis. No statistically significant differences (p>0.05) age- or sex-related differences in the Ca/P ratio were observed. The mean value (M±SD) for the investigated parameter for the whole group studied, 2.33±0.34, was within a very wide range of published data and close to the median value

  18. Area Median Income and Metropolitan Versus Nonmetropolitan Location of Care for Acute Coronary Syndromes: A Complex Interaction of Social Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabreau, Gabriel E; Leung, Alexander A; Southern, Danielle A; James, Matthew T; Knudtson, Merrill L; Ghali, William A; Ayanian, John Z

    2016-02-23

    Metropolitan versus nonmetropolitan status and area median income may independently affect care for and outcomes of acute coronary syndromes. We sought to determine whether location of care modifies the association among area income, receipt of cardiac catheterization, and mortality following an acute coronary syndrome in a universal health care system. We studied a cohort of 14 012 acute coronary syndrome patients admitted to cardiology services between April 18, 2004, and December 31, 2011, in southern Alberta, Canada. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine the odds of cardiac catheterization within 1 day and 7 days of admission and the odds of 30-day and 1-year mortality according to area median household income quintile for patients presenting at metropolitan and nonmetropolitan hospitals. In models adjusting for area income, patients who presented at nonmetropolitan facilities had lower adjusted odds of receiving cardiac catheterization within 1 day of admission (odds ratio 0.22, 95% CI 0.11-0.46, Pcommunities. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  19. Processes that generate and deplete liquid water and snow in thin midlevel mixed-phase clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam J.; Larson, Vincent E.; Niu, Jianguo; Kankiewicz, J. Adam; Carey, Lawrence D.

    2009-06-01

    This paper uses a numerical model to investigate microphysical, radiative, and dynamical processes in mixed-phase altostratocumulus clouds. Three cloud cases are chosen for study, each of which was observed by aircraft during the fifth or ninth Complex Layered Cloud Experiment (CLEX). These three clouds are numerically modeled using large-eddy simulation (LES). The observed and modeled clouds consist of a mixed-phase layer with a quasi-adiabatic profile of liquid, and a virga layer below that consists of snow. A budget of cloud (liquid) water mixing ratio is constructed from the simulations. It shows that large-scale ascent/descent, radiative cooling/heating, turbulent transport, and microphysical processes are all significant. Liquid is depleted indirectly via depositional growth of snow (the Bergeron-Findeisen process). This process is more influential than depletion of liquid via accretional growth of snow. Also constructed is a budget of snow mixing ratio, which turns out to be somewhat simpler. It shows that snow grows by deposition in and below the liquid (mixed-phase) layer, and sublimates in the remainder of the virga region below. The deposition and sublimation are balanced primarily by sedimentation, which transports the snow from the growth region to the sublimation region below. In our three clouds, the vertical extent of the virga layer is influenced more by the profile of saturation ratio below the liquid (mixed-phase) layer than by the mixing ratio of snow at the top of the virga layer.

  20. Role of medium heterogeneity and viscosity contrast in miscible flow regimes and mixing zone growth: A computational pore-scale approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Saied; Hejazi, S. Hossein; Kantzas, Apostolos

    2018-05-01

    Miscible displacement of fluids in porous media is often characterized by the scaling of the mixing zone length with displacement time. Depending on the viscosity contrast of fluids, the scaling law varies between the square root relationship, a sign for dispersive transport regime during stable displacement, and the linear relationship, which represents the viscous fingering regime during an unstable displacement. The presence of heterogeneities in a porous medium significantly affects the scaling behavior of the mixing length as it interacts with the viscosity contrast to control the mixing of fluids in the pore space. In this study, the dynamics of the flow and transport during both unit and adverse viscosity ratio miscible displacements are investigated in heterogeneous packings of circular grains using pore-scale numerical simulations. The pore-scale heterogeneity level is characterized by the variations of the grain diameter and velocity field. The growth of mixing length is employed to identify the nature of the miscible transport regime at different viscosity ratios and heterogeneity levels. It is shown that as the viscosity ratio increases to higher adverse values, the scaling law of mixing length gradually shifts from dispersive to fingering nature up to a certain viscosity ratio and remains almost the same afterwards. In heterogeneous media, the mixing length scaling law is observed to be generally governed by the variations of the velocity field rather than the grain size. Furthermore, the normalization of mixing length temporal plots with respect to the governing parameters of viscosity ratio, heterogeneity, medium length, and medium aspect ratio is performed. The results indicate that mixing length scales exponentially with log-viscosity ratio and grain size standard deviation while the impact of aspect ratio is insignificant. For stable flows, mixing length scales with the square root of medium length, whereas it changes linearly with length during

  1. Median Sternotomy or Right Thoracotomy Techniques for Total Artificial Heart Implantation in Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimov, Jamshid H; Moazami, Nader; Sunagawa, Gengo; Kobayashi, Mariko; Byram, Nicole; Sale, Shiva; Such, Kimberly A; Horvath, David J; Golding, Leonard A R; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka

    2016-10-01

    The choice of optimal operative access technique for mechanical circulatory support device implantation ensures successful postoperative outcomes. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated the median sternotomy and lateral thoracotomy incisions for placement of the Cleveland Clinic continuous-flow total artificial heart (CFTAH) in a bovine model. The CFTAH was implanted in 17 calves (Jersey calves; weight range, 77.0-93.9 kg) through a median sternotomy (n = 9) or right thoracotomy (n = 8) for elective chronic implantation periods of 14, 30, or 90 days. Similar preoperative preparation, surgical techniques, and postoperative care were employed. Implantation of the CFTAH was successfully performed in all cases. Both methods provided excellent surgical field visualization. After device connection, however, the median sternotomy approach provided better visualization of the anastomoses and surgical lines for hemostasis confirmation and repair due to easier device displacement, which is severely limited following right thoracotomy. All four animals sacrificed after completion of the planned durations (up to 90 days) were operated through full median sternotomy. Our data demonstrate that both approaches provide excellent initial field visualization. Full median sternotomy provides larger viewing angles at the anastomotic suture line after device connection to inflow and outflow ports. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The prognostic value of lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio in retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Xiang Hu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the associations between development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP and serum lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR, and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed, involving infants who were screened for ROP from January 2015 to December 2015. Preterm newborns of ≤32 gestational weeks with ROP were enrolled as the observation group, and non-ROP infants were enrolled as the control group, whose complete blood cell were measured within the first 24h of life. The levels of NLR, LMR and PLR were determined in all groups. The data obtained were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: In this study, 40 cases of ROP were enrolled and 40 cases of non-ROP as controls. The LMR levels were significantly higher (P<0.001 in ROP group (3.96±1.16 compared to non-ROP group (2.85±0.79. The NLR levels were significantly lower (P=0.035 in ROP group {median [interquartile range (IQR], 0.88 (0.67-1.46} compared to non-ROP group [median (IQR, 1.20 (0.85-1.89]. The median PLR values were 61.99 (IQR, 50.23-75.98 in ROP group and 69.24 (IQR, 55.52-88.12 in non-ROP group (P=0.104. Logistic regression analysis suggested that LMR was an independent risk factor for ROP (OR: 0.275; 95% CI: 0.134-0.564; P=0.001. CONCLUSION: The findings demonstrate that higher LMR is independently and significantly associated with the development of ROP, and the LMR may be invoked as a predictive tool for identifying risk for ROP.

  3. Blood profile and meat quality of Holstein-Friesian steers finished on total mixed ration or flaxseed oil-supplemented pellet mixed with reed canary grass haylage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utama, D T; Lee, S G; Baek, K H; Chung, W S; Chung, I A; Kim, D I; Kim, G Y; Lee, S K

    2018-02-01

    Holstein-Friesian steer beef production is renowned globally as a secondary product of the milk industry. Grass feeding is a common practice in raising Holstein steers because of its low cost. Furthermore, grass feeding is an alternative way to produce beef with a balanced n-6 to n-3 fatty acids (FAs) ratio. However, the performance and meat quality of Holstein-Friesian cattle is more likely to depend on a high-quality diet. The aim of this study was to observe whether feeding two mixed diets; a corn-based total mixed ration (TMR) with winter ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or flaxseed oil-supplemented pellets with reed canary grass haylage (n-3 mix) provided benefits on carcass weight, meat quality and FA composition compared with cattle fed with reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) haylage alone. In all, 15 21-month-old Holstein-Friesian steers were randomly assigned to three group pens, were allowed free access to water and were fed different experimental diets for 150 days. Blood samples were taken a week before slaughter. Carcass weight and meat quality were evaluated after slaughter. Plasma lipid levels and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were determined. Diet did not affect plasma triglyceride levels and GGT activity. Plasma cholesterol levels, including low-density and high-density lipoproteins, were higher in both mixed-diet groups than in the haylae group. The highest activities of plasma AST, CK and ALP were observed in the haylage group, followed by n-3 mix and TMR groups, respectively. Carcass weight was lower in the haylage group than in the other groups and no differences were found between the TMR and n-3 mix groups. Although the n-3 mix-fed and haylage-fed beef provided lower n-6 to n-3 FAs ratio than TMR-fed beef, the roasted beef obtained from the TMR group was more acceptable with better overall meat physicochemical properties and sensory scores

  4. Effects of smartphone overuse on hand function, pinch strength, and the median nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnal, Esra Erkol; Demİrcİ, kadİr; Çetİntürk, Azİze; Akgönül, Mehmet; Savaş, Serpİl

    2015-08-01

    In this study we investigated the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon and median nerve in smartphone users by ultrasonography to assess the effects of smartphone addiction on the clinical and functional status of the hands. One hundred two students were divided into 3 groups: non-users, and high or low smartphone users. Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS) scores and grip and pinch strengths were recorded. Pain in thumb movement and rest and hand function were evaluated on the visual analog scale (VAS) and the Duruöz Hand Index (DHI), respectively. The cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the median nerve and the FPL tendon were calculated bilaterally using ultrasonography. Significantly higher median nerve CSAs were observed in the dominant hands of the high smartphone users than in the non-dominant hands (PSmartphone overuse enlarges the median nerve, causes pain in the thumb, and decreases pinch strength and hand functions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Pore Structure Control of Ordered Mesoporous Silica Film Using Mixed Surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Jung Ha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Materials with nanosized and well-arranged pores have been researched actively in order to be applied to new technology fields. Especially, mesoporous material containing various pore structures is expected to have different pore structure. To form a mixed pore structure, ordered mesoporous silica films were prepared with a mixture of surfactant; Brij-76 and P-123 block copolymer. In mixed surfactant system, mixed pore structure was observed in the region of P-123/(Brij-76 + P-123 with about 50.0 wt.% while a single pore structure was observed in regions which have large difference in ratio between Brij-76 and P-123 through the X-ray diffraction analysis. Regardless of surfactant ratio, porosity was retained almost the same. It is expected that ordered mesoporous silica film with mixed pore structure can be one of the new materials which has distinctive properties.

  6. A study of retrograde degeneration of median nerve forearm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mona Mokhtar El Bardawil

    2013-10-22

    Oct 22, 2013 ... tient clinic of the Physical Medicine Rheumatology and Reha- bilitation ... F-wave to calculate axillary F central loop (AFCL) latency of median and ..... amplitude which substantially results from the block of faster ... Postoperative electrophysiological follow up for ... Regional rheumatic pain syndromes. In:.

  7. A novel image inpainting technique based on median diffusion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    numerical methods such as anisotropic diffusion and multiresolution schemes. Some steps ... Roth & Black (2005) have developed a framework for learning a generic and expressive image priors that ..... This paper presents a new approach for image inpainting by propagating median information .... J. Graphics Tools 9(1):.

  8. Olmesartan medoxomil-loaded mixed micelles: Preparation, characterization and in-vitro evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. El-Gendy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Olmesartan medoxomil (OLM is highly lipophilic in nature (log p = 4.31 which attributes to its low aqueous solubility contributing to its low bioavailability 25.6%. OLM was loaded into mixed micelles carriers in a trial to enhance its solubility, thus improving its oral bioavailability. OLM-loaded mixed micelles were prepared, using a Pluronic® mixture of F127 and P123, adopting the thin-film hydration method. Three drug: Pluronic® mixture ratios (1:40, 1:50and 1: 60 and various F127: P123 ratios were prepared. OLM Loaded mixed micelles showed stability up to 12 h. The particle size of the systems varied from 364.00 nm (F3 to 13.73 nm (F18 with accepted Poly dispersity index (PDI values. The in-vitro release studies of OLM from mixed micelles versus drug aqueous suspension were assessed using the reverse dialysis technique in a USP Dissolution tester apparatus (type II. The highest RE% (43% was achieved with OLM-loaded mixed micelles (F8 when compared to (35% of drug suspension.

  9. Sensitivity of fluvial sediment source apportionment to mixing model assumptions: A Bayesian model comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard J; Krueger, Tobias; Hiscock, Kevin M; Rawlins, Barry G

    2014-11-01

    Mixing models have become increasingly common tools for apportioning fluvial sediment load to various sediment sources across catchments using a wide variety of Bayesian and frequentist modeling approaches. In this study, we demonstrate how different model setups can impact upon resulting source apportionment estimates in a Bayesian framework via a one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) sensitivity analysis. We formulate 13 versions of a mixing model, each with different error assumptions and model structural choices, and apply them to sediment geochemistry data from the River Blackwater, Norfolk, UK, to apportion suspended particulate matter (SPM) contributions from three sources (arable topsoils, road verges, and subsurface material) under base flow conditions between August 2012 and August 2013. Whilst all 13 models estimate subsurface sources to be the largest contributor of SPM (median ∼76%), comparison of apportionment estimates reveal varying degrees of sensitivity to changing priors, inclusion of covariance terms, incorporation of time-variant distributions, and methods of proportion characterization. We also demonstrate differences in apportionment results between a full and an empirical Bayesian setup, and between a Bayesian and a frequentist optimization approach. This OFAT sensitivity analysis reveals that mixing model structural choices and error assumptions can significantly impact upon sediment source apportionment results, with estimated median contributions in this study varying by up to 21% between model versions. Users of mixing models are therefore strongly advised to carefully consider and justify their choice of model structure prior to conducting sediment source apportionment investigations. An OFAT sensitivity analysis of sediment fingerprinting mixing models is conductedBayesian models display high sensitivity to error assumptions and structural choicesSource apportionment results differ between Bayesian and frequentist approaches.

  10. Equivalence ratio and constriction effects on RBCC thrust augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koupriyanov, M.; Etele, J.

    2011-06-01

    A theoretical analysis of a variable area rocket based combined cycle engine with and without simultaneous mixing and combustion is presented. The flowfield is solved using a steady, quasi-one-dimensional, inviscid control volume formulation with combustion effects included via a generalized equilibrium calculation. Compression augmentation is shown to be sensitive to the equivalence ratio within the primary rocket chamber, where ejector section performance is greatest at both low and high equivalence ratios but near a minimum at stoichiometric conditions. The thrust generated by the RBCC engine compared to that generated by the same rocket in isolation can be increased by as much as 12% at constriction ratios of between 45% and 50%. Thrust augmentation is also shown to vary with equivalence ratio, where for a fixed geometry the maximum thrust is generated at equivalence ratios slightly below unity.

  11. Scalar Glueball-Quarkonium Mixing and the Structure of the QCD Vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Kharzeev, Dima E

    1999-01-01

    We use Ward identities of broken scale invariance to infer the amount of scalar glueball--$\\bar{q}q$ meson mixing from the ratio of quark and gluon condensates in the QCD vacuum. Assuming dominance by a single scalar state, as suggested by a phase-shift analysis, we find a mixing angle $\\gamma \\sim 36^{\\circ}$, corresponding to near-maximal mixing of the glueball and

  12. Clinical Outcomes following median to radial nerve transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Wilson Z.; Mackinnon, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose In this study the authors evaluate the clinical outcomes in patients with radial nerve palsy who underwent nerve transfers utilizing redundant fascicles of median nerve (innervating the flexor digitorum superficialis and flexor carpi radialis muscles) to the posterior interosseous nerve and the nerve to the extensor carpi radialis brevis. Methods A retrospective review of the clinical records of 19 patients with radial nerve injuries who underwent nerve transfer procedures using the median nerve as a donor nerve were included. All patients were evaluated using the Medical Research Council (MRC) grading system. Results The mean age of patients was 41 years (range 17 – 78 years). All patients received at least 12 months of follow-up (20.3 ± 5.8 months). Surgery was performed at a mean of 5.7 ± 1.9 months post-injury. Post-operative functional evaluation was graded according to the following scale: grades MRC 0/5 - MRC 2/5 were considered poor outcomes, while MRC of 3/5 was a fair result, MRC grade 4/5 was a good result, and grade 4+/5 was considered an excellent outcome. Seventeen patients (89%) had a complete radial nerve palsy while two patients (11%) had intact wrist extension but no finger or thumb extension. Post-operatively all patients except one had good to excellent recovery of wrist extension. Twelve patients recovered good to excellent finger and thumb extension, two patients had fair recovery, five patients had a poor recovery. Conclusions The radial nerve is a commonly injured nerve, causing significant morbidity in affected patients. The median nerve provides a reliable source of donor nerve fascicles for radial nerve reinnervation. This transfer was first performed in 1999 and evolved over the subsequent decade. The important nuances of both surgical technique and motor re-education critical for to the success of this transfer have been identified and are discussed. PMID:21168979

  13. Are encapsulated anterior glass-ionomer restoratives better than their hand-mixed equivalents?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dowling, Adam H

    2009-02-01

    The performance of encapsulated anterior GI restoratives were compared with their hand-mixed equivalents for the range of powder to liquid mixing ratios routinely encountered clinically. The clinically induced variability of powder to liquid mixing variations of an anhydrous GI restorative formulation was also compared with conventional GI restorative formulations that contained a polyalkenoic acidic liquid.

  14. CT morphology of benign median nerve tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feyerabend, T.; Schmitt, R.; Lanz, U.; Warmuth-Metz, M.; Wuerzburg Univ.

    1990-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was performed in 3 patients with benign tumors of the median nerve, histologically confirmed as neurilemmoma, fibrolipoma and hemangioma. The neurilemmoma showed a ring-shaped contrast enhancement. The fibrolipoma presented with areas of solid soft tissue and areas of fat. The hemangioma was a solid tumor with a lacunar, vascular contrast enhancement. According to our experience and to the previous literature CT gives useful information regarding the anatomic location, size, and relationship of peripheral nerve sheath tumors to surrounding structures, and may help to differentiate between various tumor types. (orig.)

  15. Prevalence and anatomical pattern of the median artery among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of the anatomy of median arteries is important in the diagnosis and management of carpal tunnel and pronator teres syndromes, reconstructive surgery in the forearm, minimizing inadvertent vascular injury as well as in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The anatomical pattern displays ...

  16. Conversion of Syngas-Derived C2+ Mixed Oxygenates to C3-C5 Olefins over ZnxZryOz Mixed Oxides Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Colin D.; Lebarbier, Vanessa M.; Flake, Matthew D.; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Kovarik, Libor; Bowden, Mark E.; Onfroy, Thomas; Dagle, Robert A.

    2016-04-01

    In this study we report on a ZnxZryOz mixed oxide type catalyst capable of converting a syngas-derived C2+ mixed oxygenate feedstock to isobutene-rich olefins. Aqueous model feed comprising of ethanol, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, ethyl acetate, methanol, and propanol was used as representative liquid product derived from a Rh-based mixed oxygenate synthesis catalyst. Greater than 50% carbon yield to C3-C5 mixed olefins was demonstrated when operating at 400-450oC and 1 atm. In order to rationalize formation of the products observed feed components were individually evaluated. Major constituents of the feed mixture (ethanol, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, and ethyl acetate) were found to produce isobutene-rich olefins. C-C coupling was also demonstrated for propanol feedstock - a minor constituent of the mixed oxygenate feed - producing branched C6 olefins, revealing scalability to alcohols higher than ethanol following an analogous reaction pathway. Using ethanol and propanol feed mixtures, cross-coupling reactions produced mixtures of C4, C5, and C6 branched olefins. The presence of H2 in the feed was found to facilitate hydrogenation of the ketone intermediates, thus producing straight chain olefins as byproducts. While activity loss from coking is observed complete catalyst regeneration is achieved by employing mild oxidation. For conversion of the mixed oxygenate feed a Zr/Zn ratio of 2.5 and a reaction temperature of 450oC provides the best balance of stability, activity, and selectivity. X-ray diffraction and scanning transmission electron microscopy analysis reveals the presence of primarily cubic phase ZrO2 and a minor amount of the monoclinic phase, with ZnO being highly dispersed in the lattice. The presence of ZnO appears to stabilize the cubic phase resulting in less monoclinic phase as the ZnO concentration increases. Infrared spectroscopy shows the mixed oxide acid sites are characterized as primarily Lewis type acidity. The direct relationship between

  17. A Microdrop Generator for the Calibration of a Water Vapor Isotope Ratio Spectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iannone, Rosario Q.; Romanini, Daniele; Kassi, Samir; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Kerstel, Erik R. Th.

    A microdrop generator is described that produces water vapor with a known isotopic composition and volume mixing ratio for the calibration of a near-infrared diode laser water isotope ratio spectrometer. The spectrometer is designed to measure in situ the water vapor deuterium and oxygen ((17)O and

  18. Median nerve cross-sectional area and MRI diffusion characteristics: normative values at the carpal tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Lawrence; Gai, Neville

    2009-01-01

    Enlargement of the median nerve is an objective potential imaging sign of carpal tunnel syndrome. Diffusion tensor MRI (DTI) may provide additional structural information that may prove useful in characterizing median neuropathy. This study further examines normal values for median nerve cross-sectional area (CSA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and fractional anisotropy (FA). Twenty-three wrists in 17 healthy volunteers underwent MRI of the wrist at 3 T. In 13 subjects, DTI was performed at a B value of 600 mm 2 /s. Median nerve CSA, ADC, and FA were analyzed at standardized anatomic levels. Mean (SD) median nerve CSA within the proximal carpal tunnel was 10.0 (3.4) mm 2 . The mean (SD) FA of the median nerve was 0.71 (0.06) and 0.70 (0.13) proximal to and within the carpal tunnel, respectively. There was a significant difference between nerve CSA and ADC, but not FA, at the distal forearm and proximal carpal tunnel. Nerve CSA, ADC, and FA did not differ between men and women or between dominant and non-dominant wrists. Nerve CSA at the proximal carpal tunnel was positively correlated with subject age and body mass index. Our results suggest a 90% upper confidence limit for normal median nerve CSA of 14.4 mm 2 at the proximal carpal tunnel, higher than normal limits reported by many ultrasound studies. We observed a difference between the CSA and ADC, but not the FA, of the median nerve at the distal forearm and proximal carpal tunnel levels. (orig.)

  19. Asymptotic behavior of the mixed mass in Rayleigh–Taylor and Richtmyer–Meshkov instability induced flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ye; Cabot, William H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Thornber, Ben [The University of Sydney, School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, New South Wales 2006, Sydney (Australia)

    2016-05-15

    Rayleigh–Taylor instability (RTI) and Richtmyer–Meshkov instability (RMI) are serious practical issues in inertial confinement fusion research, and also have relevance to many cases of astrophysical fluid dynamics. So far, much of the attention has been paid to the late-time scaling of the mixed width, which is used as a surrogate to how well the fluids have been mixed. Yet, the actual amount of mixed mass could be viewed as a more direct indicator on the evolution of the mixing layers due to hydrodynamic instabilities. Despite its importance, there is no systematic study as yet on the scaling of the mixed mass for either the RTI or the RMI induced flow. In this article, the normalized mixed mass (Ψ) is introduced for measuring the efficiency of the mixed mass. Six large numerical simulation databases have been employed: the RTI cases with heavy-to-light fluid density ratios of 1.5, 3, and 9; the single shock RMI cases with density ratios of 3 and 20; and a reshock RMI case with density ratio of 3. Using simulated flow fields, the normalized mixed mass Ψ is shown to be more sensitive in discriminating the variation with Atwood number for the RTI flows. Moreover, Ψ is demonstrated to provide more consistent results for both the RTI and RMI flows when compared with the traditional mixedness parameters, Ξ and Θ.

  20. Chemical Reactions in Turbulent Mixing Flows. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-02

    jet diameter F2 fluorine H2 hydrogen HF hydrogen fluoride I(y) instantaneous fluorescence intensity distribution L-s flame length measured from...virtual origin -.4 of turbulent region (L-s). flame length at high Reynolds number LIF laser induced fluorescence N2 nitrogen PI product thickness (defined...mixing is attained as a function of the equivallence ratio. For small values of the equivalence ratio f, the flame length - defined here as the

  1. Comparative Analysis of Alternative Spectral Bands of CO2 and O2 for the Sensing of CO2 Mixing Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliutau, Denis; Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2013-01-01

    We performed comparative studies to establish favorable spectral regions and measurement wavelength combinations in alternative bands of CO2 and O2, for the sensing of CO2 mixing ratios (XCO2) in missions such as ASCENDS. The analysis employed several simulation approaches including separate layers calculations based on pre-analyzed atmospheric data from the modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications (MERRA), and the line-byline radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) to obtain achievable accuracy estimates as a function of altitude and for the total path over an annual span of variations in atmospheric parameters. Separate layer error estimates also allowed investigation of the uncertainties in the weighting functions at varying altitudes and atmospheric conditions. The parameters influencing the measurement accuracy were analyzed independently and included temperature sensitivity, water vapor interferences, selection of favorable weighting functions, excitations wavelength stabilities and other factors. The results were used to identify favorable spectral regions and combinations of on / off line wavelengths leading to reductions in interferences and the improved total accuracy.

  2. Computational fluid dynamics study on mixing mode and power consumption in anaerobic mono- and co-digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Yu, Guangren; Yu, Liang; Siddhu, Muhammad Abdul Hanan; Gao, Mengjiao; Abdeltawab, Ahmed A; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Chen, Xiaochun

    2016-03-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was applied to investigate mixing mode and power consumption in anaerobic mono- and co-digestion. Cattle manure (CM) and corn stover (CS) were used as feedstock and stirred tank reactor (STR) was used as digester. Power numbers obtained by the CFD simulation were compared with those from the experimental correlation. Results showed that the standard k-ε model was more appropriate than other turbulence models. A new index, net power production instead of gas production, was proposed to optimize feedstock ratio for anaerobic co-digestion. Results showed that flow field and power consumption were significantly changed in co-digestion of CM and CS compared with those in mono-digestion of either CM or CS. For different mixing modes, the optimum feedstock ratio for co-digestion changed with net power production. The best option of CM/CS ratio for continuous mixing, intermittent mixing I, and intermittent mixing II were 1:1, 1:1 and 1:3, respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Numerical modelling of the atmospheric mixing-layer diurnal evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnary, L. de.

    1990-03-01

    This paper introduce a numeric procedure to determine the temporal evolution of the height, potential temperature and mixing ratio in the atmospheric mixing layer. The time and spatial derivatives were evaluated via forward in time scheme to predict the local evolution of the mixing-layer parameters, and a forward in time, upstream in space scheme to predict the evolution of the mixing-layer over a flat region with a one-dimensional advection component. The surface turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat were expressed using a simple sine wave that is function of the hour day and kind of the surface (water or country). (author) [pt

  4. A complete metric in the set of mixing transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhonov, Sergei V

    2007-01-01

    A metric in the set of mixing measure-preserving transformations is introduced making of it a complete separable metric space. Dense and massive subsets of this space are investigated. A generic mixing transformation is proved to have simple singular spectrum and to be a mixing of arbitrary order; all its powers are disjoint. The convolution powers of the maximal spectral type for such transformations are mutually singular if the ratio of the corresponding exponents is greater than 2. It is shown that the conjugates of a generic mixing transformation are dense, as are also the conjugates of an arbitrary fixed Cartesian product. Bibliography: 28 titles.

  5. On the origin of the mixed alkali effect on indentation in silicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Jonas; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Mauro, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    The compositional scaling of Vickers hardness (Hv) in mixed alkali oxide glasses manifests itself as a positive deviation from linearity as a function of the network modifier/modifier ratio, with a maximum deviation at the ratio of 1:1. In this work, we investigate the link between the indentation...... deformation processes (elastic deformation, plastic deformation, and densification) and Hv in two mixed sodium–potassium silicate glass series. We show that the mixed alkali effect in Hv originates from the nonlinear scaling of the resistance to plastic deformation. We thus confirm a direct relation between...... the resistance to plastic flow and Hv in mixed modifier glasses. Furthermore, we find that the mixed alkali effect also manifests itself as a positive deviation from linearity in the compositional scaling of density for glasses with high alumina content. This trend could be linked to a compaction of the network...

  6. A study of retrograde degeneration of median nerve forearm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a disorder of the hand which results from compression of the median nerve within its fibro-osseous tunnel at the wrist. The slowing in the forearm motor conduction velocity suggests the presence of retrograde degeneration. Existing studies conflict regarding a correlation ...

  7. Development and evaluation of a regression-based model to predict cesium concentration ratios for freshwater fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinder, John E.; Rowan, David J.; Rasmussen, Joseph B.; Smith, Jim T.; Hinton, Thomas G.; Whicker, F.W.

    2014-01-01

    Data from published studies and World Wide Web sources were combined to produce and test a regression model to predict Cs concentration ratios for freshwater fish species. The accuracies of predicted concentration ratios, which were computed using 1) species trophic levels obtained from random resampling of known food items and 2) K concentrations in the water for 207 fish from 44 species and 43 locations, were tested against independent observations of ratios for 57 fish from 17 species from 25 locations. Accuracy was assessed as the percent of observed to predicted ratios within factors of 2 or 3. Conservatism, expressed as the lack of under prediction, was assessed as the percent of observed to predicted ratios that were less than 2 or less than 3. The model's median observed to predicted ratio was 1.26, which was not significantly different from 1, and 50% of the ratios were between 0.73 and 1.85. The percentages of ratios within factors of 2 or 3 were 67 and 82%, respectively. The percentages of ratios that were <2 or <3 were 79 and 88%, respectively. An example for Perca fluviatilis demonstrated that increased prediction accuracy could be obtained when more detailed knowledge of diet was available to estimate trophic level. - Highlights: • We developed a model to predict Cs concentration ratios for freshwater fish species. • The model uses only two variables to predict a species CR for any location. • One variable is the K concentration in the freshwater. • The other is a species mean trophic level measure easily obtained from (fishbase.org). • The median observed to predicted ratio for 57 independent test cases was 1.26

  8. Study on the coal mixing ratio optimization for a power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y. A.; Cheng, J. W.; Bai, Q.; Li, W. B.

    2017-12-01

    For coal-fired power plants, the application of blended coal combustion has been a great issue due to the shortage and rising prices of high-rank coal. This paper describes the optimization of blending methods between Xing'an lignite coal, Shaltala lignite coal, Ura lignite coal, and Inner Mongolia bituminous coal. The multi-objective decision-making method based on fuzzy mathematics was used to determine the optimal blending ratio to improve the power plant coal-fired economy.

  9. Study on effect of mixing mechanism by the transverse gaseous injection flow in scramjet engine with variable parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Siddhita; Pandey, K. M.

    2018-04-01

    In scramjet engine the mixing mechanism of fuel and atmospheric air is very complicated, because the fuel have time in milliseconds for mixing with atmospheric air in combustion chamber having supersonic speed. Mixing efficiency of fuel and atmospheric air depends on mainly these parameters: Aspect ratio of injector, vibration amplitude, shock type, number of injector, jet to transverse flow momentum flux ratio, injector geometry, injection angle, molecular weight, incoming air stream angle, jet to transverse flow pressure ratio, spacing variation, mass flow rate of fuel etc. here is a very brief study of these parameters from previously done research on these parameters for the improvement of mixing efficiency. The mixing process have the significant role for the working of engine, and mixing between the atmospheric air and the jet fuel is significant factor for improving the overall thrust of the engine. The results obtained by study of papers are obtained by the 3D-Reynolds Average-Nervier-Stokes(RANS) equations along with the 2-equation k-ω shear-stress-transport (SST) turbulence model. Engine having multi air jets have 60% more mixing efficiency than single air jet, thus if the jets are increased, the mixing efficiency of engine can also be increased up to 150% by changing jet from 1 to 16. When using delta shape of injector the mixing efficiency is inversely proportional to the pressure ratio. When the fuel is injected inside the combustor from the top and bottom walls of the engine efficiency of mixing in reacting zone is higher than the single wall injection and in comparison to parallel flow, the transverse type flow is better as the atmospheric air jet can penetrate smoothly in the fuel jets and mixes well in less time. Hence this study of parameters and their effects on mixing can enhance the efficiency of mixing in engine.

  10. Productivity and profitability of maize-pumpkin mix cropping in Chitwan, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Shiva Chandra Dhakal; Punya Prasad Regmi; Resham Bahadur Thapa; Shrawan Kumar Sah; Dilli Bahadur Khatri-Chhetri

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the productivity, profitability and resource use efficiency of maize-pumpkin mix crop production in Chitwan. The study used 53 maize-pumpkin mix crop adopting farmers from among 300 farmers adopting different pollinator friendly practices. Descriptive and statistical tools including Cobb-Douglas production function were used to analyze data, collected from structured interview schedule. The benefit cost ratio (1.58) indicates that maize-pumpkin mix croppin...

  11. Ground-based measurement of column-averaged mixing ratios of methane and carbon dioxide in the Sichuan Basin of China by a desktop optical spectrum analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiu-Chun; Nakayama, Tomoki; Matsumi, Yutaka; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Ono, Akiko; Hayashida, Sachiko; Imasu, Ryoichi; Lei, Li-Ping; Murata, Isao; Kuroki, Takahiro; Ohashi, Masafumi

    2018-01-01

    Remote sensing of the atmospheric greenhouse gases, methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), contributes to the understanding of global warming and climate change. A portable ground-based instrument consisting of a commercially available desktop optical spectrum analyzer and a small sun tracker has been applied to measure the column densities of atmospheric CH4 and CO2 at Yanting observation station in a mountainous paddy field of the Sichuan Basin from September to November 2013. The column-averaged dry-air molar mixing ratios, XCH4/XCO2, are compared with those retrieved by satellite observations in the Sichuan Basin and by ground-based network observations in the same latitude zone as the Yanting observation station.

  12. Quadratic Assignment of Hubs in p-Hub Median Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin

    We introduce Generalized p-Hub Median Problem (GpHMP) that seeks to locate p hub nodes and install p distinct hub facilities/operators on the hubs while discount factor resulted by consolidation of flow on the hub links depends on the facilities/operators that are installed/operating on both hub...

  13. Effect of Modified Rubber Particles Mixing Amount on Properties of Cement Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Xue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The crumb rubber cement mortar is prepared by the crumb rubber aggregates in 60 mesh which are modified by 1% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA solution. Some mechanical properties of cement mortar with different crumb rubber aggregate amounts are researched including compressive strength, flexural strength, the ratio of compressive strength to flexural strength, impact resistance, and dry contraction percentage. In our tests, we consider six kinds of the rubber contents, 0%, 7.5%, 15%, 19%, 22.5%, and 30%, respectively. The optimal mixing amount of crumb rubber is determined by measuring three indices, the ratio of compressive strength to flexural strength, impact resistance, and dry contraction percentage. It is shown by test that the ratio of compressive strength to flexural strength is the smallest when the mixing amount of rubber is 19%; meanwhile high impact resistance and rational drying shrinkage are observed. The optimal mixing amount of the rubber particles is 19% determined by this test.

  14. Sputtering and mixing of supported nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez-Sáez, J.C.; Pérez-Martín, A.M.C.; Jiménez-Rodríguez, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Sputtering and mixing of Co nanoparticles supported in Cu(0 0 1) under 1-keV argon bombardment are studied using molecular-dynamics simulations. Particles of different initial size have been considered. The cluster height decreases exponentially with increasing fluence. In nanoparticles, sputtering yield is significantly enhanced compared to bulk. In fact, the value of this magnitude depends on the cluster height. A theoretical model for sputtering is introduced with acceptable results compared to those obtained by simulation. Discrepancies happen mainly for very small particles. Mixing rate at the interface is quantified; and besides, the influence of border effects for clusters of different initial size is assessed. Mixing rate and border length–surface area ratio for the initial interface show a proportionality relation. The phenomenon of ion-induced burrowing of metallic nanoparticles is analysed

  15. Regularization of DT-MR images using a successive Fermat median filtering method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kiwoon; Kim, Dongyoun; Kim, Sunghee; Park, Insung; Jeong, Jaewon; Kim, Taehwan; Hong, Cheolpyo; Han, Bongsoo

    2008-05-21

    Tractography using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) is a method to determine the architecture of axonal fibers in the central nervous system by computing the direction of greatest diffusion in the white matter of the brain. To reduce the noise in DT-MRI measurements, a tensor-valued median filter, which is reported to be denoising and structure preserving in the tractography, is applied. In this paper, we proposed the successive Fermat (SF) method, successively using Fermat point theory for a triangle contained in the two-dimensional plane, as a median filtering method. We discussed the error analysis and numerical study about the SF method for phantom and experimental data. By considering the computing time and the image quality aspects of the numerical study simultaneously, we showed that the SF method is much more efficient than the simple median (SM) and gradient descents (GD) methods.

  16. Regularization of DT-MR images using a successive Fermat median filtering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Kiwoon; Kim, Dongyoun; Kim, Sunghee; Park, Insung; Jeong, Jaewon; Kim, Taehwan; Hong, Cheolpyo; Han, Bongsoo

    2008-01-01

    Tractography using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) is a method to determine the architecture of axonal fibers in the central nervous system by computing the direction of greatest diffusion in the white matter of the brain. To reduce the noise in DT-MRI measurements, a tensor-valued median filter, which is reported to be denoising and structure preserving in the tractography, is applied. In this paper, we proposed the successive Fermat (SF) method, successively using Fermat point theory for a triangle contained in the two-dimensional plane, as a median filtering method. We discussed the error analysis and numerical study about the SF method for phantom and experimental data. By considering the computing time and the image quality aspects of the numerical study simultaneously, we showed that the SF method is much more efficient than the simple median (SM) and gradient descents (GD) methods

  17. Regularization of DT-MR images using a successive Fermat median filtering method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kiwoon; Kim, Dongyoun; Kim, Sunghee; Park, Insung; Jeong, Jaewon; Kim, Taehwan [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yonsei University, Wonju, 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Cheolpyo; Han, Bongsoo [Department of Radiological Science, Yonsei University, Wonju, 220-710 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: bshan@yonsei.ac.kr

    2008-05-21

    Tractography using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) is a method to determine the architecture of axonal fibers in the central nervous system by computing the direction of greatest diffusion in the white matter of the brain. To reduce the noise in DT-MRI measurements, a tensor-valued median filter, which is reported to be denoising and structure preserving in the tractography, is applied. In this paper, we proposed the successive Fermat (SF) method, successively using Fermat point theory for a triangle contained in the two-dimensional plane, as a median filtering method. We discussed the error analysis and numerical study about the SF method for phantom and experimental data. By considering the computing time and the image quality aspects of the numerical study simultaneously, we showed that the SF method is much more efficient than the simple median (SM) and gradient descents (GD) methods.

  18. Influence of median surgeon operative duration on adverse outcomes in bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reames, Bradley N; Bacal, Daniel; Krell, Robert W; Birkmeyer, John D; Birkmeyer, Nancy J O; Finks, Jonathan F

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that prolonged operative time adversely affects surgical outcomes. However, whether faster surgeons have better outcomes is unclear, as a surgeon׳s speed could reflect skill and efficiency, but may alternatively reflect haste. This study evaluates whether median surgeon operative time is associated with adverse surgical outcomes after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. We performed a retrospective cohort study using statewide clinical registry data from the years 2006 to 2012. Surgeons were ranked by their median operative time and grouped into terciles. Multivariable logistic regression with robust standard errors was used to evaluate the influence of median surgeon operative time on 30-day surgical outcomes, adjusting for patient and surgeon characteristics, trainee involvement, concurrent procedures, and the complex interaction between these variables. A total of 16,344 patients underwent surgery during the study period. Compared to surgeons in the fastest tercile, slow surgeons required 53 additional minutes to complete a gastric bypass procedure (median [interquartile range] 139 [133-150] versus 86 [69-91], Ppatient characteristic only, slow surgeons had significantly higher adjusted rates of any complication, prolonged length of stay, emergency department visits or readmissions, and venous thromboembolism (VTE). After further adjustment for surgeon characteristics, resident involvement, and the interaction between these variables, slow surgeons had higher rates of any complication (10.5% versus 7.1%, P=.039), prolonged length of stay (14.0% versus 4.4%, P=.002), and VTE (0.39% versus .22%, P<.001). Median surgeon operative duration is independently associated with adjusted rates of certain adverse outcomes after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Improving surgeon efficiency while operating may reduce operative time and improve the safety of bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by

  19. Ultrasound analysis of gray-scale median value of carotid plaques is a useful reference index for cerebro-cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyoshi, Kyoko; Okuya, Shigeru; Kunitsugu, Ichiro; Matsunaga, Kimie; Nagao, Yuko; Nomiyama, Ryuta; Takeda, Komei; Tanizawa, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of plaque echogenicity, the gray-scale median (GSM), were shown to correlate inversely with risk factors for cerebro-cardiovascular disease (CVD). The eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/arachidonic acid (AA) ratio is a potential predictor of CVD risk. In the present study, we assessed the usefulness of carotid plaque GSM values and EPA/AA ratios in atherosclerotic diabetics. A total of 84 type 2 diabetics with carotid artery plaques were enrolled. On admission, platelet aggregation and lipid profiles, including EPA and AA, were examined. Using ultrasound, mean intima media thickness and plaque score were measured in carotid arteries. Plaque echogenicity was evaluated using computer-assisted quantification of GSM. The patients were then further observed for approximately 3 years. Gray-scale median was found to be a good marker of CVD events. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, GSM <32 and plaque score ≥5 were significantly associated with past history and onset of CVD during the follow-up period, the odds ratios being 7.730 (P = 0.014) and 4.601 (P = 0.046), respectively. EPA/AA showed a significant correlation with GSM (P = 0.012) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.039), and an inverse correlation with platelet aggregation (P = 0.046) and triglyceride (P = 0.020). Although most patients with CVD had both low GSM and low EPA/AA values, an association of EPA/AA with CVD events could not be statistically confirmed. The present results suggest the GSM value to be useful as a reference index for CVD events in high-risk atherosclerotic diabetics. Associations of the EPA/AA ratio with known CVD risk factors warrant a larger and more extensive study to show the usefulness of this parameter.

  20. Variability of pudendal and median nerve sensory perception thresholds in healthy persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaghebeur, Jörgen; Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques

    2015-04-01

    Normative current perception thresholds (CPTs) are used for the evaluation of sensory function in a variety of diseases. To evaluate the reproducibility of CPT measurements with sinusoidal current in healthy volunteers. Neuroselective CPT evaluations of the median and pudendal nerve in healthy volunteers were repeated with 1 week interval (T1 and T2). In the study group (N = 41) no difference between genders for age (MW-U: P = 0.91) and BMI (t-test: P = 0.18) were found. No significant difference between T1 and T2 was found (Paired t-test: all P-values > 0.05), although the intraclass correlation for each person was low. The variability of measures for the pudendal nerve was: ICC 2 kHz: 0.41; 250 Hz: 0.30; 5 Hz: 0.38, and for the median nerve respectively: 0.58; 0.46; 0.40. Normal CPTs were shown for the pudendal nerve: 2 kHz: 51%; 250 Hz: 76%; 5 Hz: 71%, and median nerve respectively: 78%; 98%; 80%. The pudendal nerve showed more deviating values compared to the median nerve. Both nerves showed deviating values. CPT values with sinusoidal current assessed with 1 week interval, showed a weak intraclass correlation. This finding limits the use of CPT values with this current for longitudinal studies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Reduced brain/serum glucose ratios predict cerebral metabolic distress and mortality after severe brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Pedro; Claassen, Jan; Schmidt, J Michael; Helbok, Raimund; Hanafy, Khalid A; Presciutti, Mary; Lantigua, Hector; Connolly, E Sander; Lee, Kiwon; Badjatia, Neeraj; Mayer, Stephan A

    2013-12-01

    The brain is dependent on glucose to meet its energy demands. We sought to evaluate the potential importance of impaired glucose transport by assessing the relationship between brain/serum glucose ratios, cerebral metabolic distress, and mortality after severe brain injury. We studied 46 consecutive comatose patients with subarachnoid or intracerebral hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, or cardiac arrest who underwent cerebral microdialysis and intracranial pressure monitoring. Continuous insulin infusion was used to maintain target serum glucose levels of 80-120 mg/dL (4.4-6.7 mmol/L). General linear models of logistic function utilizing generalized estimating equations were used to relate predictors of cerebral metabolic distress (defined as a lactate/pyruvate ratio [LPR] ≥ 40) and mortality. A total of 5,187 neuromonitoring hours over 300 days were analyzed. Mean serum glucose was 133 mg/dL (7.4 mmol/L). The median brain/serum glucose ratio, calculated hourly, was substantially lower (0.12) than the expected normal ratio of 0.40 (brain 2.0 and serum 5.0 mmol/L). In addition to low cerebral perfusion pressure (P = 0.05) and baseline Glasgow Coma Scale score (P brain/serum glucose ratios below the median of 0.12 were independently associated with an increased risk of metabolic distress (adjusted OR = 1.4 [1.2-1.7], P brain/serum glucose ratios were also independently associated with in-hospital mortality (adjusted OR = 6.7 [1.2-38.9], P brain/serum glucose ratios, consistent with impaired glucose transport across the blood brain barrier, are associated with cerebral metabolic distress and increased mortality after severe brain injury.

  2. Prognostic value of the serum free light chain ratio in newly diagnosed myeloma: proposed incorporation into the international staging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snozek, C L H; Katzmann, J A; Kyle, R A; Dispenzieri, A; Larson, D R; Therneau, T M; Melton, L J; Kumar, S; Greipp, P R; Clark, R J; Rajkumar, S V

    2008-10-01

    To determine if the serum free light chain (FLC) ratio has prognostic value in patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM), baseline serum samples from a well-characterized cohort of 790 newly diagnosed MM patients were tested with the FLC assay. FLC ratio was calculated as kappa/lambda (reference range 0.26-1.65). On the basis of the distribution of values, a cutpoint kappa/lambda FLC ratio of 32 was chosen for further analysis. Overall survival was significantly inferior in patients with an abnormal FLC ratio of 32 (n=479) compared with those with an FLC ratio between 0.03 and 32 (n=311), with median survival of 30 versus 39 months, respectively. We incorporated abnormal FLC ratio with the International Staging System (ISS) risk factors (that is, albumin or=3.5 g/l), to create a risk stratification model with improved prognostic capabilities. Patients with 0, 1, 2 or 3 adverse risk factors had significantly different overall survival, with median survival times of 51, 39, 30 and 22 months, respectively (P<0.001). These findings suggest that the serum FLC ratio at initial diagnosis is an important predictor of prognosis in myeloma, and can be incorporated into the ISS for improved risk stratification.

  3. Mixing efficiency inside micro-droplets coalesced by two components in cross-structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yanlin; Liu, Zhaomiao; Pang, Yan

    2017-11-01

    The mixing of micro-droplets is used in analytical chemistry, medicine production and material synthesis owing to its advantages including the encapsulation and narrow time residence distribution. In this work, droplets are coalesced by two dispersed phase with different flow rates, generated in cross-structure and mixed in planar serpentine structure. The mixing efficiency of micro-droplets under control characters including the width of entrance and the flow rate of dispersed phases have been investigated by experiments and numerical simulations. The UDS (user-defined scalar) as dimensionless concentration of the solution is adopted in simulation, and is used to calculate the concentration and the mixing effect. By changing the flow rates and the entrances` width, the changing rules of the mixing characters have been obtained. The asymmetry distributions of components make rapid mixing process in half part of each droplet when travel through a straight channel. Increasing of the ratio of entrance width result into larger droplet and weaken the chaotic mixing effect. Meanwhile, the coalesced mechanism can be performed by ranging the ratio of flow rates, the ranges are also determined by the widths of entrances. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11572013).

  4. Stochastic resonance in a time-delayed asymmetric bistable system with mixed periodic signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong-Feng, Guo; Wei, Xu; Liang, Wang

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the phenomenon of stochastic resonance in an asymmetric bistable system with time-delayed feedback and mixed periodic signal by using the theory of signal-to-noise ratio in the adiabatic limit. A general approximate Fokker–Planck equation and the expression of the signal-to-noise ratio are derived through the small time delay approximation at both fundamental harmonics and mixed harmonics. The effects of the additive noise intensity Q, multiplicative noise intensity D, static asymmetry r and delay time τ on the signal-to-noise ratio are discussed. It is found that the higher mixed harmonics and the static asymmetry r can restrain stochastic resonance, and the delay time τ can enhance stochastic resonance. Moreover, the longer the delay time τ is, the larger the additive noise intensity Q and the multiplicative noise intensity D are, when the stochastic resonance appears. (general)

  5. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1203 - ISO Headform-Basic, Reference, and Median Planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false ISO Headform-Basic, Reference, and Median Planes 2 Figure 2 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT... Headform-Basic, Reference, and Median Planes ER10MR98.002 ...

  6. A Rare Variation of the Human Median Nerve Direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barfi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The brachial plexus, a complex network of nerves, innervates to the upper limbs. Variation in the course of the nerves in the upper limb is common. Case Presentation This paper describes two cases of upper limb variations in a cadaver dissected at Lorestan University of Medical Sciences. In the first variation, the median nerve in the arm has a different route, so that the median moves deep into the brachialis muscle. In the latter case, after piercing the coracobrachialis muscle a musculocutaneous nerve exists between the brachialis and biceps and goes to the lateral region of the forearm. This is known as the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm nerve, and innervates the skin of the lateral part of the forearm and the dorsal part of the hand. Conclusions Because of the possibility of damage to the brachial plexus branches is high in upper limb injuries and surgeries, full knowledge of normal anatomy and variations of these branches is essential for orthopedic specialists, neurosurgeons, radiologists, and anatomists.

  7. Ion sensing properties of vanadium/tungsten mixed oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidelli, Eder Jose; Guerra, Elidia Maria; Mulato, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    Vanadium/tungsten mixed oxide (V 2 O 5 /WO 3 ) sensing membranes were deposited on glassy carbon substrates and used as the H + sensor of the extended gate field effect transistor (EGFET) device. X-ray diffractograms indicated a decrease of the interplanar spacing of V 2 O 5 after the insertion of WO 3 revealing that the lamellar structure is under compressive stress. The crystallinity increases with increasing WO 3 molar ratio. The film is not homogeneous, with more WO 3 material sitting at the surface. This influences the response of pH sensors using the EGFET configuration. The maximum sensitivity of 68 mV pH -1 was obtained for the sample with 5% WO 3 molar ratio. For higher WO 3 molar ratios, the behavior is not linear. It can be concluded that V 2 O 5 dominates for acidic solutions while WO 3 dominates for basic solutions. Therefore, the mixed oxide with low amount of WO 3 is the main candidate for further use as biosensor.

  8. Synthesis of Mixed Cu/Ce Oxide Nanoparticles by the Oil-in-Water Microemulsion Reaction Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemartin-Biernath, Kelly; Vela-González, Andrea V.; Moreno-Trejo, Maira B.; Leyva-Porras, César; Castañeda-Reyna, Iván E.; Juárez-Ramírez, Isaías; Solans, Conxita; Sánchez-Domínguez, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Cerium oxide and mixed Cu/Ce oxide nanoparticles were prepared by the oil-in-water (O/W) microemulsion reaction method in mild conditions. The Cu/Ce molar ratio was varied between 0/100 and 50/50. According to X-ray diffraction (XRD), below 30/70 Cu/Ce molar ratio, the materials presented a single phase consistent with cubic fluorite CeO2. However, above Cu/Ce molar ratio 30/70, an excess monoclinic CuO phase in coexistence with the predominant Cu/Ce mixed oxide was detected by XRD and High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). Raman spectroscopy showed that oxygen vacancies increased significantly as the Cu content was increased. Band gap (Eg) was investigated as a function of the Cu/Ce molar ratio, resulting in values from 2.91 eV for CeO2 to 2.32 eV for the mixed oxide with 30/70 Cu/Ce molar ratio. These results indicate that below 30/70 Cu/Ce molar ratio, Cu2+ is at least partially incorporated into the ceria lattice and very well dispersed in general. In addition, the photodegradation of Indigo Carmine dye under visible light irradiation was explored for selected samples; it was shown that these materials can remove such contaminants, either by adsorption and/or photodegradation. The results obtained will encourage investigation into the optical and photocatalytic properties of these mixed oxides, for widening their potential applications. PMID:28773602

  9. Synthesis of Mixed Cu/Ce Oxide Nanoparticles by the Oil-in-Water Microemulsion Reaction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Pemartin-Biernath

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerium oxide and mixed Cu/Ce oxide nanoparticles were prepared by the oil-in-water (O/W microemulsion reaction method in mild conditions. The Cu/Ce molar ratio was varied between 0/100 and 50/50. According to X-ray diffraction (XRD, below 30/70 Cu/Ce molar ratio, the materials presented a single phase consistent with cubic fluorite CeO2. However, above Cu/Ce molar ratio 30/70, an excess monoclinic CuO phase in coexistence with the predominant Cu/Ce mixed oxide was detected by XRD and High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM. Raman spectroscopy showed that oxygen vacancies increased significantly as the Cu content was increased. Band gap (Eg was investigated as a function of the Cu/Ce molar ratio, resulting in values from 2.91 eV for CeO2 to 2.32 eV for the mixed oxide with 30/70 Cu/Ce molar ratio. These results indicate that below 30/70 Cu/Ce molar ratio, Cu2+ is at least partially incorporated into the ceria lattice and very well dispersed in general. In addition, the photodegradation of Indigo Carmine dye under visible light irradiation was explored for selected samples; it was shown that these materials can remove such contaminants, either by adsorption and/or photodegradation. The results obtained will encourage investigation into the optical and photocatalytic properties of these mixed oxides, for widening their potential applications.

  10. A center-median filtering method for detection of temporal variation in coronal images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plowman Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Events in the solar corona are often widely separated in their timescales, which can allow them to be identified when they would otherwise be confused with emission from other sources in the corona. Methods for cleanly separating such events based on their timescales are thus desirable for research in the field. This paper develops a technique for identifying time-varying signals in solar coronal image sequences which is based on a per-pixel running median filter and an understanding of photon-counting statistics. Example applications to “EIT waves” (named after EIT, the EUV Imaging Telescope on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and small-scale dynamics are shown, both using 193 Å data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The technique is found to discriminate EIT waves more cleanly than the running and base difference techniques most commonly used. It is also demonstrated that there is more signal in the data than is commonly appreciated, finding that the waves can be traced to the edge of the AIA field of view when the data are rebinned to increase the signal-to-noise ratio.

  11. Design of flexible skin based on a mixed cruciform honeycomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Jiaxin; Zhou, Li

    2017-04-01

    As the covering of morphing wings, flexible skin is required to provide adequate cooperation deformation, keep the smoothness of the aerodynamic configuration and bear the air load. The non-deformation direction of flexible skin is required to be restrained to keep the smoothness during morphing. This paper studies the deformation mechanisms of a cruciform honeycomb under zero Poisson's ratio constraint. The morphing capacity and in-plane modulus of the cruciform honeycomb are improved by optimizing the shape parameters of honeycomb unit. To improve the out-of-plane bending capacity, a zero Poisson's ratio mixed cruciform honeycomb is proposed by adding ribs into cruciform honeycomb, which can be used as filling material of flexible skin. The mechanical properties of the mixed honeycomb are studied by theoretical analysis and simulation. The local deformation of flexible skin under air load is also analyzed. Targeting the situation of non-uniform air load, a gradient density design scheme is referred. According to the design requirements of the variable camber trailing edge wing flexible skin, the specific design parameters and performance parameters of the skin based on the mixed honeycomb are given. The results show that the zero Poisson's ratio mixed cruciform honeycomb has a large bending rigidity itself and can have a better deformation capacity in-plane and a larger bending rigidity out-of-plane by optimizing the shape parameters. Besides, the designed skin also has advantages in driving force, deformation capacity and quality compared with conventional skin.

  12. Persistent elevation of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio associated with new onset atrial fibrillation following percutaneous coronary intervention for acute st segment elevation myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavarria, N.; Wong, C.; Hussain, H.; Joiya, H.U.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation plays an important role in initiation and maintaining of atrial fibrillation (AF). The Neutrophil to Lymphocyte (N/L) Ratio is an easily derived and readily available parameter that has emerged as marker of inflammation with predictive and prognostic value. We investigated the association between N/L ratio and incidence of atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization for acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods: This cross sectional descriptive study was carried out at New York Hospital Queens. We retrospectively analysed clinical, hematologic and angiographic data of 290 patients who underwent coronary angiography with stent placement for acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction between 2008-2011. Results: Study cohort of 290 patients had mean age 63.3 ± 13.0 years consisting of 81.4% male. The N/L ratio was measured at time points: <6 hours pre-catheterization, <12, 48 and 96 hours post catheterization. Patients who developed AF (n=40, 13.8%), had higher post catheterization N/L ratios at 48 hours (median 5.23 vs 3.00, p=0.05) and 96 hours (median 4.67 vs 3.56, p=0.03), with no differences in the immediate pre and post procedural measurements, <6 hours pre catheterization (median 2.49 vs 2.82, p=0.467) and <12 hours post catheterization (median 5.93 vs 5.03, p=0.741) respectively. Conclusion: In conclusion, these findings support an inflammatory aetiology contributing to new onset AF following percutaneous coronary intervention for acute STEMI. Further studies are warranted to elucidate these findings. (author)

  13. Design approach for granular emulsion mixes (GEMS)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, JE

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available binder contents of less than 1,5%, using test methods such as the California Bearing Ratio test method. The mix and structural design procedures for both approaches are discussed. The research was done on behalf of the Southern African Bitumen and Tar...

  14. Amplitude damping for single-qubit system with single-qubit mixed-state environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Eylee; Hwang, Mi-Ra; Ju, You Hwan; Park, D K; Kim, Hungsoo; Kim, Min-Soo; Son, Jin-Woo

    2008-01-01

    We study a generalized amplitude damping channel when environment is initially in the single-qubit mixed state. Representing the affine transformation of the generalized amplitude damping by a three-dimensional volume, we plot explicitly the volume occupied by the channels simulatable by a single-qubit mixed-state environment. As expected, this volume is embedded in the total volume by the channels which is simulated by a two-qubit enviroment. The volume ratio is approximately 0.08 which is much smaller than 3/8, the volume ratio for generalized depolarizing channels

  15. Lactate: creatinine ratio in babies with thin meconium staining of amniotic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Rishi Kant; Singh, Saroj K; Batra, Sanjay; Sreenivas, V; Puliyel, Jacob M

    2006-01-01

    Background ACOG states meconium stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) as one of the historical indicators of perinatal asphyxia. Thick meconium along with other indicators is used to identify babies with severe intrapartum asphyxia. Lactate creatinine ratio (L: C ratio) of 0.64 or higher in first passed urine of babies suffering severe intrapartum asphyxia has been shown to predict Hypoxic Ischaemic Encephalopathy (HIE). Literature review shows that meconium is passed in distress and thin meconium results from mixing and dilution over time, which may be hours to days. Thin meconium may thus be used as an indicator of antepartum asphyxia. We tested L: C ratios in a group of babies born through thin and thick meconium, and for comparison, in a group of babies without meconium at birth. Methods 86 consecutive newborns, 36 to 42 weeks of gestation, with meconium staining of liquor, were recruited for the study. 52 voided urine within 6 hours of birth; of these 27 had thick meconium and 25 had thin meconium at birth. 42 others, who did not have meconium or any other signs of asphyxia at birth provided controls. Lactate and creatinine levels in urine were tested by standard enzymatic methods in the three groups. Results Lactate values are highest in the thin MSAF group followed by the thick MSAF and controls. Creatinine was lowest in the thin MSAF, followed by thick MSAF and controls. Normal babies had an average L: C ratio of 0.13 (± 0.09). L: C ratio was more among thin MSAF babies (4.3 ± 11.94) than thick MSAF babies (0.35 ± 0.35). Median L: C ratio was also higher in the thin MSAF group. Variation in the values of these parameters is observed to be high in the thin MSAF group as compared to other groups. L: C ratio was above the cutoff of 0.64 of Huang et al in 40% of those with thin meconium. 2 of these developed signs of HIE with convulsions (HIE Sarnat and Sarnat Stage II) during hospital stay. One had L: C Ratio of 93 and the other of 58.6. A smaller proportion (20

  16. Transsphenoidal Surgery for Mixed Pituitary Gangliocytoma-Adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Matthew J; Elzoghby, Mohamed A; Ghanim, Daffer; Lopes, M Beatriz S; Jane, John A

    2017-12-01

    Most sellar gangliocytomas are discovered with a concurrent pituitary adenoma, also known as a mixed gangliocytoma-adenoma (MGA). MGAs are rare, with fewer than 100 cases reported in the literature to date and only 1 previously documented surgical series. Because MGAs are radiologically indistinguishable from pituitary adenomas, they are often diagnosed after surgery. Combined with the paucity of clinical outcome data for these tumors, this makes their diagnosis and management challenging. Here we describe the clinical presentation and outcomes of 10 individuals who were diagnosed with a MGA at a single institution. This retrospective case series study included patients diagnosed with a combined sellar MGA between 1993 and 2016. This series comprised 10 patients, mean age of 44 years (range, 28-63 years) diagnosed with an MGA. The mean tumor size was 1.6 cm (range, 0.4-2.4 cm). Five patients presented with acromegaly, and 1 patient had recurrent Cushing disease. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed in all cases, and gross total resection was achieved in 7 patients (70%). Histologically, 9 of the 10 MGAs were identified as mixed somatotroph adenoma-gangliocytomas. The median duration of follow-up was 74 months (range, 2-180 months). Following adjuvant treatment (n = 3), all patients with acromegaly (n = 4) achieved biochemical remission, and no patient experienced recurrence of the pituitary tumor with a median radiographic follow-up of 48 months. MGAs are often associated with a hypersecretory adenoma. Transsphenoidal surgery is well tolerated by most patients, and when performed in combination with adjuvant therapy, a low rate of recurrence and reversal of preoperative endocrinopathy can be expected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas: new clinical and pathological features in a contemporary series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Run; Jih, Lily; Zhai, Jing; Nissen, Nicholas N; Colquhoun, Steven; Wolin, Edward; Dhall, Deepti

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the novel clinical and pathological features of mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas. This was a retrospective review of medical records and surgical pathology specimens of patients with a diagnosis of mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center between 2005 and 2011. Additional immunohistochemistry was performed on the specimens of some patients. Five patients were identified. The median age at presentation was 74 years (range, 59-89 years), and all patients were male. The presenting symptoms were all related to tumor mass effects. The median size of the tumor was 10 cm (range, 3.9-16 cm). Preoperative clinical diagnosis aided by fine-needle aspiration biopsy was incorrect in all 5 cases. Most tumors (3/5) exhibited predominantly endocrine differentiation without hormonal production. Only 10% to 30% of cells were truly amphicrine, whereas most were differentiated into either endocrine or acinar phenotype. The clinical behavior ranged from moderate to aggressive with postoperative survival from 2.5 months to more than 3 years. Four patients received neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy with variable responses. Mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas appears to be not uncommon in men, may harbor predominantly endocrine component, is often misdiagnosed by cytology, and exhibits variable clinical behavior. Mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas should be considered in older patients with sizable pancreatic mass and may warrant aggressive surgical resection and chemotherapy.

  18. Pudendal and median nerve sensory perception threshold: a comparison between normative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaghebeur, Jörgen; Wyndaele, Jean Jacques

    2014-12-01

    For the evaluation of sensory innervation, normative data are necessary as a comparison. To compare our current perception thresholds (CPTs) with normative data from other research. Healthy volunteers were assessed for 2000, 250, and 5 Hz CPTs of the median and pudendal nerve and data were compared with other studies. Normative data in the studied group n = 41 (male: 21; female: 20) for the median nerve, 2 kHz, 250 Hz, and 5 Hz were respectively: 241.85 ± 67.72 (140-444); 106.27 ± 39.12 (45-229); 82.05 ± 43.40 (13-271). Pudendal nerve CPTs 250 Hz were: 126.44 ± 69.46 (6-333). For men 2 kHz: 349.95 ± 125.76 (100-588); 5 Hz: 132.67 ± 51.81 (59-249) and women 2 kHz:226.20 ± 119.65 (64-528); 5 Hz: 92.45 ± 44.66 (35-215). For the median nerve no statistical differences for gender were shown. For the pudendal nerve, only 250 Hz showed no difference for gender (t-test: 0.516). Comparison of our data with CPTs of other normative data showed no agreement for the pudendal nerve. For the median nerve only 2 kHz showed agreement in three studies and for 5 Hz with one study. Comparing normative data of multiple studies shows a variety of results and poor agreement. Therefore, referring to normative data of other studies should be handled with caution.

  19. KERMA ratios in pediatric CT dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, Walter; Ogden, Kent M.; Lavallee, Robert L.; Roskopf, Marsha L.; Scalzetti, Ernest M.

    2012-01-01

    Patient organ doses may be estimated from CTDI values. More accurate estimates may be obtained by measuring KERMA (Kinetic Energy Released in Matter) in anthropomorphic phantoms and referencing these values to free-in-air X-ray intensity. To measure KERMA ratios (R K ) in pediatric phantoms at CT. CT scans produce an air KERMA K in a phantom and an air KERMA K CT at isocenter. KERMA ratios (R K ) are defined as (K/K CT ), measured using TLD chips in phantoms representing newborns to 10-year-olds. R K in the newborn is approximately constant. For the other phantoms, there is a peak R K value in the neck. The median R K values for the GE scanner at 120 kV were 0.92, 0.83, 0.77 and 0.76 for newborns, 1-year-olds, 5-year-olds and 10-year-olds, respectively. Organ R K values were 0.91 ± 0.04, 0.84 ± 0.07, 0.74 ± 0.09 and 0.72 ± 0.10 in newborns, 1-year-olds, 5-year-olds and 10-year-olds, respectively. At 120 kV, a Siemens Sensation 16 scanner had R K values 5% higher than those of the GE LightSpeed Ultra. KERMA ratios may be combined with air KERMA measurements at the isocenter to estimate organ doses in pediatric CT patients. (orig.)

  20. In uncertainty we trust: a median voter model with risk aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel A. Yakovlev

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The principal-agent problem and uncertainty are some of the key factors affecting financial and political markets. Fear of the unknown plays an important role in human decision making, including voting. This article describes a theoretical model where voter risk aversion towards uncertainty gives political incumbents a significant advantage over their challengers, exacerbating the principal-agent problem between voters and legislators. The model presented predicts that a rise in voter uncertainty concerning the challenger allows the incumbent to deviate from the median voter’s policy preference without losing the election. This model reconciles the paradoxical coexistence of ideological shirking and high incumbent reelection rates without abandoning the elegant median voter framework.

  1. Sosiaalisen median kehittäminen pk-yrityksissä Töpseli-verkoston avulla

    OpenAIRE

    Palander, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää, minkälaisena mahdollisuutena pk-yrittäjät kokevat sosiaalisen median ja miten he ymmärtävät sen. Läntisellä Uudellamaalla toimivia yrityksiä on osallistunut Laurea-ammattikorkeakoulun Lohjan toimipisteen Töpseli-verkostoon. Verkoston tarkoituksena on vahvistaa länsi Uudellamaalla toimivien pk-yritysten kilpailukykyä, parantamalla yrittäjien ymmärrystä sosiaalisen median tarjoamista mahdollisuuksista. Työtä varten selvitettiin myös ammattikorkea...

  2. [Safety of repeat median sternotomy in the palliative treatment of patients with a univentricular heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díliz-Nava, Héctor; Meléndez-Sagaón, Isis; Tamaríz-Cruz, Orlando; García-Benítez, Luis; Araujo-Martínez, Aric; Palacios-Macedo, Alexis

    To establish the morbidity and mortality of patients with univentricular hearts who underwent a repeat median sternotomy at the Instituto Nacional de Pediatría. A retrospective review was performed on the clinical charts of all patients who underwent a repeat median sternotomy from 2001 to 2016. Sixty-five patients underwent 76 surgeries by repeat median sternotomy. Fifty-nine patients had a first repeat median sternotomy, with a mean age of 36 months (range: 4-176 months) and a mean weight of 12.2 kg (range: 3.2-21.5 kg). Forty patients had a Glenn procedure, and 19 patients had a Fontan procedure. There were 17 patients with a second repeat median sternotomy, with a mean age of 89 months (range 48-156 months), and a mean weight of 22.7 kg (14.4-41 kg). A Fontan procedure was performed on all these 17 patients. A section of the right coronary artery with electrocardiographic changes and a right atrium tear that caused hypotension occurred during first repeat sternotomy. An aortic tear occurred during a second repeat sternotomy with massive bleeding and subsequent death. This represents 3.9% of re-entry injuries. It is concluded that repeat median sternotomy is a safe procedure. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  3. A Rank Test on Equality of Population Medians

    OpenAIRE

    Pooi Ah Hin

    2012-01-01

    The Kruskal-Wallis test is a non-parametric test for the equality of K population medians. The test statistic involved is a measure of the overall closeness of the K average ranks in the individual samples to the average rank in the combined sample. The resulting acceptance region of the test however may not be the smallest region with the required acceptance probability under the null hypothesis. Presently an alternative acceptance region is constructed such that it has the smallest size, ap...

  4. Tessier Number 30 Median Mandibular Cleft With Congenital Heart Anomalies in Qena, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ahmed Ali Abdelrahim

    2018-01-01

    Median cleft deformities of the lower lip and mandible are very rare congenital anomalies. Our patient had median cleft of the lower lip, mandible, and the chin with tongue duplication, ankyloglossia, and cleft strap muscles with 2 neck contracture bands. This anomaly was associated with congenital heart disease transposition of great vessels, large ventricular septal defect, and severe pulmonary stenosis. Early repair was done at 6 months to improve feeding.

  5. Impact of standard rate of VAT on tax mix in EU 27

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Šinkyříková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Value Added Tax (VAT is one of the key resources within tax collection and therefore VAT effectiveness and VAT complexity represent one of the current world topics. Standard rates of VAT may and may not be the simple key to define whether VAT is important in the tax mix or not. This paper focuses on the question whether the amount of the VAT rate has an impact on the share of VAT in the tax mix. The VAT share on total taxes is studied in connection of average and median standard rates applied so as to answer the question: “Do the countries with higher share of VAT in the tax mix set its standard rates of VAT beyond the average of EU 27?” The paper examines this issue using data EU member countries, especially EU 27, in years 1995–2010.

  6. Predicting intrapartum fetal compromise using the fetal cerebro-umbilical ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabdia, S; Greer, R M; Prior, T; Kumar, S

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between the cerebro-umbilical ratio measured at 35-37 weeks and intrapartum fetal compromise. This retrospective cross sectional study was conducted at the Mater Mothers' Hospital in Brisbane, Australia. Maternal demographics and fetal Doppler indices at 35-37 weeks gestation for 1381 women were correlated with intrapartum and neonatal outcomes. Babies born by caesarean section or instrumental delivery for fetal compromise had the lowest median cerebro-umbilical ratio 1.60 (IQR 1.22-2.08) compared to all other delivery groups (vaginal delivery, emergency delivery for failure to progress, emergency caesarean section for other reasons or elective caesarean section). The percentage of infants with a cerebro-umbilical ratio cerebro-umbilical ratio between the 10th-90th centile and 9.6% of infants with a cerebro-umbilical ratio > 90th centile required delivery for the same indication (p cerebro-umbilical ratio was associated with an increased risk of emergency delivery for fetal compromise, OR 2.03 (95% CI 1.41-2.92), p cerebro-umbilical ratio measured at 35-37 weeks is associated with a greater risk of intrapartum compromise. This is a relatively simple technique which could be used to risk stratify women in diverse healthcare settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of a non-proprietary, high-tension, four-cable median barrier on level terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    During the last decade, the use of cable median barriers has risen dramatically. Cable barriers are often utilized in depressed medians : with widths ranging from 30 to 50 ft (9.1 to 15.2 m) and with fill slopes as steep as 4H:1V. A careful review of...

  8. INVESTIGATION ON PHYSICAL AND ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF THE SiO2-ZnO NANOCOMPOSITE AT DIFFERENT COMPOSITION MIXINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Sinol

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical and electrical properties of The SiO2-ZnO mixing at different compositions were investigated. The experiment used simple mixing method at the sintering temperature 600oC. It was used the composition mixing ratio of SiO2:ZnO ie. 0:10; 7:3; 5:5; 3:7; and 10:0 (%Wt. Based on X-Ray Diffraction (XRD results, it obtained that a new phase in each sample was not formed even though having different diffraction peak. The mixing ratio of SiO2: ZnO nanocomposite (7:3 %wt had the biggest grain size (77,92 nm, the highest dielectric constant (3.00E+05 and the smallest conductivity (0,726549 (Ωm-1. On the other side, the mixing ratio of SiO2: ZnO nanocomposite (5:5 %wt had the smallest grain size (35.42nm, dielectric constant (3.00E+2 and the highest conductivity (25.36729  (Ωm-1. It can be concluded that the difference of composition ratio offered the change on both physical and electrical properties of SiO2-ZnO nanocomposite.

  9. New England observed and predicted median July stream/river temperature points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted median July stream/river temperatures in New England based on a spatial statistical network...

  10. New England observed and predicted median August stream/river temperature points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted median August stream/river temperatures in New England based on a spatial statistical network...

  11. Recent charm mixing results from BABAR, Belle, and CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, M.

    2009-01-01

    A summary of the results of several recent studies of charm mixing is presented. A number of different methods were used, including the measurement of lifetime ratios for final states of different CP, time dependence of wrong-sign hadronic decays, fits to time-dependent Dalitz plots, and searches for wrong-sign semi-leptonic decays. Taken together, they suggest mixing is of order 1%. The status of searches for indirect CP violation is also reported

  12. Recent charm mixing results from BABAR, Belle, and CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    A summary of the results of several recent studies of charm mixing is presented. A number of different methods were used, including the measurement of lifetime ratios for final states of different CP, time dependence of wrong-sign hadronic decays, fits to time-dependent Dalitz plots, and searches for wrong-sign semi-leptonic decays. Taken together, they suggest mixing is of order 1%. The status of searches for indirect CP violation is also reported

  13. Parameterization of general Z-γ-Z' mixing in an electroweak chiral theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ying; Wang Qing

    2012-01-01

    A new general parameterization with eight mixing parameters among Z, γ and an extra neutral gauge boson Z ' is proposed and subjected to phenomenological analysis. We show that in addition to the conventional Weinberg angle θ W , there are seven other phenomenological parameters, G ' , ξ, η, θ 1 , θ r , r and l, for the most general Z-γ-Z ' mixings, in which parameter G ' arises due to the presence of an extra Stueckelbergtype mass coupling. Combined with the conventional Z-Z ' mass mixing angle 0', the remaining six parameters, ξ, η, θ l -θ ' , θ r - θ ' , r and l, are caused by general kinetic mixing. In all eight phenomenological parameters, θ W , G ' , ξ, η, θ 1 , θ r , r and l, we can determine the Z-Z ' mass mixing angle θ ' and the mass ratio M Z /M Z ' . The Z-γ-Z ' mixing that we discuss are based on the model-independent description of the extended electroweak chiral Lagrangian (EWCL) previously proposed by us. In addition, we show that there are eight corresponding independent theoretical coefficients in our EWCL, which are fully fixed by our eight phenomenological mixing parameters. We further find that the experimental measurability of these eight parameters does not rely on the extended neutral current for Z ' , but depends on the Z-Z ' mass ratio. (authors)

  14. The mean, the median, and the St. Petersburg paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Benjamin Y; Platt, Michael L

    2009-06-01

    The St. Petersburg Paradox is a famous economic and philosophical puzzle that has generated numerous conflicting explanations. To shed empirical light on this phenomenon, we examined subjects' bids for one St. Petersburg gamble with a real monetary payment. We found that bids were typically lower than twice the smallest payoff, and thus much lower than is generally supposed. We also examined bids offered for several hypothetical variants of the St. Petersburg Paradox. We found that bids were weakly affected by truncating the gamble, were strongly affected by repeats of the gamble, and depended linearly on the initial "seed" value of the gamble. One explanation, which we call the median heuristic , strongly predicts these data. Subjects following this strategy evaluate a gamble as if they were taking the median rather than the mean of the payoff distribution. Finally, we argue that the distribution of outcomes embodied in the St. Petersburg paradox is so divergent from the Gaussian form that the statistical mean is a poor estimator of expected value, so that the expected value of the St. Petersburg gamble is undefined. These results suggest that this classic paradox has a straightforward explanation rooted in the use of a statistical heuristic.

  15. Birth weight ratio as an alternative to birth weight percentile to express infant weight in research and clinical practice: a nationwide cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskamp, Bart Jan; Kazemier, Brenda M.; Schuit, Ewoud; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Buimer, Maarten; Pajkrt, Eva; Ganzevoort, Wessel

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To compare birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile to express infant weight when assessing pregnancy outcome. Study Design. We performed a national cohort study. Birth weight ratio was calculated as the observed birth weight divided by the median birth weight for gestational age.

  16. Pattern of neutrino mixing in grand unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, K.; Tanaka, K.

    1981-01-01

    It was found previously in SO(10) grand unified theories that if the neutrinos have a Dirac mass and a right-handed Majorana mass (approx. 10 15 GeV) but no left-handed Majorana mass, there is small ν/sub e/ mixing but ν/sub μ/ - ν/sub tau/ mixing can be substantial. This problem is reexamined on the basis of a formalism that assumes that the up, down, lepton, and neutrino mass matrices arise from a single complex 10 and a single 126 Higgs boson. This formalism determines the Majorana mass matrix in terms of quark mass matrices. Adopting three different sets of quark mass matrices that produce acceptable fermion mass ratios and Cabbibo mixing produces results consistent with the above; however, in the optimum case, ν/sub e/ - ν/sub μ/ mixing can be of the order of the Cabbibo angle

  17. Carbon isotopic ratio of suspended organic matter of the Gironde estuary. Application to particulate Zn and Pb distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontugne, Michel; Jouanneau, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    In the Gironde estuary, the isotopic ratio of particulate organic carbon (P.O.C.), and the ratio metal/P.O.C. indicate the occurrence of two zones. Up-river, the concentration decreases due to the consumption of the organo-metallic phase and by mixing in the ''mud plug'' with terrestrial particles impoverished in metal and P.O.C. Down-stream, the mixing of metal rich terrestrial P.O.C. with poorer marine particles determines the metal concentrations [fr

  18. Median and ulnar neuropathies in U.S. Army Medical Command Band members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Scott W; Koreerat, Nicholas R; Gordon, Lindsay B; Santillo, Douglas R; Moore, Josef H; Greathouse, David G

    2013-12-01

    Musicians have been reported as having a high prevalence of upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders, including carpal tunnel syndrome. The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of median and ulnar neuropathies in U.S. Army Medical Command (MEDCOM) Band members at Fort Sam Houston, Texas. Thirty-five MEDCOM Band members (30 males, 5 females) volunteered to participate. There were 33 right-handed musicians, and the mean length of time in the MEDCOM Band was 12.2 yrs (range, 1-30 yrs). Subjects completed a history form, were interviewed, and underwent a physical examination of the cervical spine and bilateral upper extremities. Nerve conduction studies of the bilateral median and ulnar nerves were performed. Electrophysiological variables served as the reference standard for median and ulnar neuropathy and included distal sensory latencies, distal motor latencies, amplitudes, conduction velocities, and comparison study latencies. Ten of the 35 subjects (29%) presented with abnormal electrophysiologic values suggestive of an upper extremity mononeuropathy. Nine of the subjects had abnormal median nerve electrophysiologic values at or distal to the wrist; 2 had bilateral abnormal values. One had an abnormal ulnar nerve electrophysiologic assessment at the elbow. Nine of these 10 subjects had clinical examination findings consistent with the electrophysiological findings. The prevalence of mononeuropathies in this sample of band members is similar to that found in previous research involving civilian musicians (20-36%) and far exceeds that reported in the general population. Prospective research investigating screening, examination items, and injury prevention measures in musicians appears to be warranted.

  19. PROJECTIONS OF DORSAL AND MEDIAN RAPHE NUCLEI TO DORSAL AND VENTRAL STRIATUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Hassanzadeh G. Behzadi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The ascending serotonergic projections are derived mainly from mesencephalic raphe nuclei. Topographical projections from mesencephalic raphe nuclei to the striatum were examined in the rat by the retrograde transport technique of HRP (horseradish peroxidase. In 29 rats stereotaxically injection of HRP enzyme were performed in dorsal and ventral parts of striatum separately. The extent of the injection sites and distribution of retrogradely labeled neuronal cell bodies were drawed on representative sections using a projection microscope. Following ipsilateral injection of HRP into the dorsal striatum, numerous labeled neurons were seen in rostral portion of dorsal raphe (DR nucleus. In the same level the cluster of labeled neurons were hevier through caudal parts of DR. A few neurons were also located in lateral wing of DR. More caudally some labeled neurons were found in lateral, medial line of DR. In median raphe nucleus (MnR the labeled neurons were scattered only in median portion of this nucleus. The ipsilateral injection of HRP into the ventral region of striatum resulted on labeling of numerous neurons in rostral, caudal and lateral portions of DR. Through the caudal extension of DR on 4th ventricle level, a large number of labeled neurons were distributed along the ventrocaudal parts of DR. In MnR, labeled neurons were observed only in median part of this nucleus. These findings suggest the mesencephalic raphe nuclei projections to caudo-putamen are topographically organized. In addition dorsal and median raphe nuclei have a stronger projection to the ventral striatum.

  20. Mixed-ligand complexes of zirconium (IV) and uranium with salicylaldehyde and some heterocyclic azopyrazolones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amrallahi, A.H.

    1994-01-01

    Mixed-ligand complexes of Zr(IV) and U(IV) with salicylaldehyde (SA) and some heterocyclic azopyrazolenes have been studied spectrophotometrically. All formed chelates have ratio 1:1:1. The stoichiometry and stability of the binary mixed chelates been evaluated. Elemental analysis, molar conductance and IR spectra have been used for identification of solid mixed complexes. (author)

  1. Serum estradiol does not differentiate stress, mixed and urge incontinent women around menopause. A report from the Women's Health in the Lund Area (WHILA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Maria Andrada; Källén, Karin; Lidfeldt, Jonas; Samsioe, Göran; Teleman, Pia

    2011-11-01

    To outline serum estradiol levels in perimenopausal women with stress, mixed or urge incontinence. We believe the majority of urgency symptoms in perimenopausal women to be caused by a pelvic floor dysfunction and a hypermobility of the bladder neck. If this is the case, there would be no difference in estradiol levels between the groups. University hospital. In the observational Women's Health in the Lund Area study, a subset of 400/2221 women reporting urinary incontinence completed a detailed questionnaire regarding lower urinary tract symptoms and had their serum steroid hormone levels measured. Statistical analyses were made by Chi-square test, nonparametrical tests, ANOVA, multi- and univariate logistic regression analysis. Stress incontinence was reported by 196, mixed incontinence by 153 and urge incontinence by 43 women; in 369, serumestradiol values were available. Serum estradiol did not differ significantly between stress incontinent (median 49.5 pmo/l, range 2.63-875.4), urge incontinent (median 31.6 pmol/l, range 2.63-460.7) or mixed incontinent women (median 35.5 pmol/l, range 2.63-787.9, p=0.62). Logistic regression analysis correcting for age, parity, hormonal status, smoking, hysterectomy and BMI also failed to show any difference in estradiol levels between the groups (p=0.41-0.58). No significant differences in serum estradiol levels between stress, mixed or urge incontinent perimenopausal women could be demonstrated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Digitaalisen markkinoinnin ja sosiaalisen median hyödyntäminen kampaamoalalla : Pienyritykset

    OpenAIRE

    Myllymäki, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena oli digitaalisen markkinoinnin ja sosiaalisen median hyödyntäminen kampaamoalalla, erityisesti pienissä yrityksissä. Tavoitteena oli opastaa lukijaa ymmärtämään digitaalisen markkinoinnin ja sosiaalisen median keskeisimmät perusteet ja antaa neuvoja parturi-kampaamoalan yrittäjälle, joka ei ole vielä huomioinut tai osannut hyödyntää niiden työkaluja. Työn teoriaosuudessa käsiteltiin mitä markkinointiviestintä on ja mitä sosiaalisen media on. Tämän lisäksi käsit...

  3. Median sep and blink reflex in thyroid diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oflazoğlu, B; Somay, G; Us, O; Surardamar, A; Tanridağ, T

    2006-11-01

    Pathological disturbances of thyroid hormones is associated with central and peripheral nervous system disturbances. The aim of this study is to evaluate median nerve stimulated somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) and blink reflex of thyroid patients (hypo and hyperthyroidism). Median SEP was performed in 40 patients (21 with hyperthyroidism and 19 with hypothyroidism). We evaluated the latencies of N9, N11, N13, P9, P11, P14, N20 and P25 waves and the N9-N20, N9-N13, N13-N20 and P14-N20 interpeak latencies. We compared the results of patients with the control group (26 persons). We found that the N20 latency was longer in patients with hyperthyroidism than in the control group and the difference was statistically significant. There was not any statistically significant difference regarding the N9, N11, N13, P9, P11, P14, N20 and P25 latencies and the N9-N20, N9-N13, N13-N20 and P14-N20 interpeak latencies between hypothyroid patients and controls. We performed the blink reflex study in 28 of 40 patients (14 patients with hyperthyroidism and 14 patients with hypothyroidism). Comparing the R1, R2, CR2 (contralateral R2) latencies and durations of the patients and controls, we found that R2 and CR2 duration was shorter in patients with hyperthyroidism. This difference was statistically significant.

  4. Effect of finger motion on transverse median nerve movement in the carpal tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyo Jung; Yoon, Joon Shik

    2016-10-01

    We used ultrasonography (US) to investigate the effects of finger motion on movement of the median nerve in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and the correlation between these US parameters and CTS severity. Ultrasonographic measures were performed in 23 control wrists and 22 CTS wrists in women. During first through third finger flexion and grip motion, median nerve movements were obtained using US and a tracing program. Nerve movements during third finger flexion in the dorsopalmar axis and grip motion in both axes, and during second finger flexion in the radioulnar axis, differed significantly between the control and CTS groups. US parameters correlated negatively with cross-sectional area. This study shows that transverse median nerve movements decreased during grip using US and correlated negatively with CTS severity. Muscle Nerve, 2016 Muscle Nerve 54: -, 2016 Muscle Nerve 54: 738-742, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Diagnostic pharmaco-scintigraphy with hepatic intra-arterial technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin in the determination of tumour to non-tumour uptake ratio in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, W.Y.; Leung, T.W.T.; Chan, M.; Leung, N.W.Y.; Metreweli, C.; Li, A.K.C.

    1994-01-01

    Between October 1990 and March 1993, 124 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) underwent diagnostic pharmaco-scintigraphy with hepatic intraarterial technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin (TcMAA) to determine the tumorous to non-tumorous liver tissue uptake ratio (T/N ratio). There were 110 males and 14 females. Ages ranged from 16 to 73 with a median of 55 years. The range of T/N ratio was 0.7 to 19.3 with a median of 3.8. 12 patients with inoperable HCC were subsequently selected by predetermined criteria to undergo treatment with hepatic intraarterial yttrium-90 microspheres and the T/N ratios in these patients were validated by beta probe dosimetry and liquid scintillation count of multiple liver biopsies. The T/N ratio determined by preoperative diagnostic TcMAA scan corrected well with intraoperative beta probe dosimetry, with coefficient of correlation r = 0.82. Preoperative TcMAA scan also correlated well with liquid scintillation count of biopsy specimens. (author)

  6. A simulation study of interface mixing during ion-assisted deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzhi Li; Fuzhai Cui; Yi Liao; Hengde Li

    1990-01-01

    Ion-beam assisted deposition (IAD) can produce strong film to substrate adhesion. The adhesion depends heavily on atom mixing near the interface. In order to study the dependence of the width of the mixed interface on the experimental parameters, a Monte Carlo study has been made using the dynamic simulation code TCIS-6. The simulation mode and calculational procedure are described. Simulation calculations indicate that the mixing increases with the bombarding energies and a saturation width appears at high energies. There is a strong relationship between the amount of mixing and the ion-to-atom arrival ratio. Some comparisons of the calculations with experimental data in the literature are also presented. (author)

  7. Case Report: A true median facial cleft (crano-facial dysraphia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case Report: A true median facial cleft (crano-facial dysraphia, atessier type O) in Bingham University Teaching Hospital, Jos. ... Patient had a multidisciplinary care by the obstetrician, Neonatologist, anesthesiologist and the plastic surgery team who scheduled a soft tissue repair of the upper lip defect, columella and ...

  8. SOSIAALISEN MEDIAN HYÖDYNTÄMINEN KUNTOKESKUS BALANCEN MARKKINOINNISSA

    OpenAIRE

    Arvola, Timo

    2011-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä oli kyse kehittämistehtävästä. Kehittämistehtävän tarkoitus oli tarkastella voiko Kuntokes-kus Balance hyödyntää sosiaalista mediaa markkinoinnissaan. Empiirisessä osassa on ohje Facebook-sivun luomi-seen. Teorian alussa tarkastellaan sosiaalista mediaa käsitteenä. Sosiaalisesta mediasta käsitteenä siirrytään sosiaalisen median sovelluksiin ja niiden ominaisuuksiin. Sovelluksista käsitellään Facebook, Youtube, Twitter, Wikipedia, blogit, Movescount ja HeiaHeia. ...

  9. Nuorten sosiaalisen median käyttö tiedonhankinnassa

    OpenAIRE

    Simolin, Annina

    2017-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön toimeksiantajana on Hämeen ammattikorkeakoulun strateginen viestintä, joka vastaa muun muassa opiskelijahankinnasta. HAMKilla on tällä hetkellä käytössään useita sosiaalisen median kanavia, ja työllä haluttiin selvittää mistä kanavista ja mitä tietoa nuoret erityisesti hakevat jatko-opintoja suunnitellessaan. Lisäksi haluttiin selvittää miten nuoret haluavat itse olla yhteydessä oppilaitoksiin hakuaikana. Teoriaosiossa on käsitelty nuorten mediakäyttäytymistä sekä useita sosiaal...

  10. Relating masses and mixing angles. A model-independent model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollik, Wolfgang Gregor [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Saldana-Salazar, Ulises Jesus [CINVESTAV (Mexico)

    2016-07-01

    In general, mixing angles and fermion masses are seen to be independent parameters of the Standard Model. However, exploiting the observed hierarchy in the masses, it is viable to construct the mixing matrices for both quarks and leptons in terms of the corresponding mass ratios only. A closer view on the symmetry properties leads to potential realizations of that approach in extensions of the Standard Model. We discuss the application in the context of flavored multi-Higgs models.

  11. Differences in case-mix can influence the comparison of standardised mortality ratios even with optimal risk adjustment: an analysis of data from paediatric intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manktelow, Bradley N; Evans, T Alun; Draper, Elizabeth S

    2014-09-01

    The publication of clinical outcomes for consultant surgeons in 10 specialties within the NHS has, along with national clinical audits, highlighted the importance of measuring and reporting outcomes with the aim of monitoring quality of care. Such information is vital to be able to identify good and poor practice and to inform patient choice. The need to adequately adjust outcomes for differences in case-mix has long been recognised as being necessary to provide 'like-for-like' comparisons between providers. However, directly comparing values of the standardised mortality ratio (SMR) between different healthcare providers can be misleading even when the risk-adjustment perfectly quantifies the risk of a poor outcome in the reference population. An example is shown from paediatric intensive care. Using observed case-mix differences for 33 paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) in the UK and Ireland for 2009-2011, SMRs were calculated under four different scenarios where, in each scenario, all of the PICUs were performing identically for each patient type. Each scenario represented a clinically plausible difference in outcome from the reference population. Despite the fact that the outcome for any patient was the same no matter which PICU they were to be admitted to, differences between the units were seen when compared using the SMR: scenario 1, 1.07-1.21; scenario 2, 1.00-1.14; scenario 3, 1.04-1.13; scenario 4, 1.00-1.09. Even if two healthcare providers are performing equally for each type of patient, if their patient populations differ in case-mix their SMRs will not necessarily take the same value. Clinical teams and commissioners must always keep in mind this weakness of the SMR when making decisions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Relationship Between Column-Density and Surface Mixing Ratio: Statistical Analysis of O3 and NO2 Data from the July 2011 Maryland DISCOVER-AQ Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Clare; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Crawford, James H.; Lamsol, Lok; Krotkov, Nickolay; Herman, Jay; Weinheimer, Andrew; Chen, Gao; Liu, Xiong; Szykman, James; hide

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the ability of column (or partial column) information to represent surface air quality, results of linear regression analyses between surface mixing ratio data and column abundances for O3 and NO2 are presented for the July 2011 Maryland deployment of the DISCOVER-AQ mission. Data collected by the P-3B aircraft, ground-based Pandora spectrometers, Aura/OMI satellite instrument, and simulations for July 2011 from the CMAQ air quality model during this deployment provide a large and varied data set, allowing this problem to be approached from multiple perspectives. O3 columns typically exhibited a statistically significant and high degree of correlation with surface data (R(sup 2) > 0.64) in the P- 3B data set, a moderate degree of correlation (0.16 analysis.

  13. Low CD4/CD8 Ratio Is Associated with Non AIDS-Defining Cancers in Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy: ANRS CO8 (Aproco/Copilote Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Noelie Hema

    Full Text Available To study the association between CD4/CD8 ratio and morbidity in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART.The APROCO/COPILOTE cohort enrolled patients initiating a protease inhibitor-containing ART in 1997-1999. The association between occurrence of first non AIDS-defining severe events (NADE and time-dependent measures of immune restoration was assessed by 4 Cox models with different definitions of restoration, CD4+ cell counts (CD4, CD4/CD8 ratio, both CD4 and CD4/CD8 ratio, or a composite variable (CD4 500/mm3 and CD4/CD8 ratio 500/mm3 and CD4/CD8 ratio > 1. Models adjusted on baseline characteristics and time-dependent viral load were compared using Akaike Information Criterion.We included 1227 patients. Median duration of follow-up was 9.2 years (IQR: 4.2-11.4. Median CD4 was 530/mm3 at 9 years. Median CD4/CD8 ratio was 0.3 (IQR: 0.2-0.5 at baseline and 0.6 (IQR: 0.4-0.9 after 9 years. Incidence of first NADE was 7.4/100 person-years, the most common being bacterial infections (21%, cardiovascular events (14% and cancers (10%. For both bacterial infections and cardiovascular events, the CD4/CD8 ratio did not add predictive information to the CD4 cell count. However, low CD4/CD8 ratio was the best predictor of non-AIDS cancers (adjusted HR = 2.13 for CD4/CD8 < 0.5; 95% CI = 1.32-3.44.CD4/CD8 ratio remains < 1 in most HIV-infected patients despite long-term CD4+ cell counts restoration on ART. A CD4/CD8 ratio < 0.5 could identify patients who require a more intensive strategy of cancer prevention or screening.

  14. Median survival time of patients after transcatheter chemo-embolization for hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, Z.; Haq, T.; Munir, K.; Usman, M.U.; Azeemuddin, M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect on survival after trans arterial chemo embolization (TACE) in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Design: Longitudinal cohort study. Place and Duration of Study: Radiology Department, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Stadium Road, Karachi, from December 1997 to September 2005. Patients and Methods: Patients undergoing TACE procedure for HCC were prospectively followed. Forty three patients were enrolled from December 1997 to March 2003 in the study and subjected to chemo embolization therapy. Eight out of 43 patients were excluded from the study, who lost to follow-up. All the patients were followed till their death. Median and mean survival were calculated. Results: The median survival of these 35 patients was 410 days (13.6 months), with 95% confidence interval (236 days lower bound and 536 days upper bound). Mean survival time was 603 days (20.1 months) with 95% confidence interval (394 days lower bound and 812 days upper bound). There was significant difference in mean survival time (in days) by Child's Pugh class (X2 = 12.384; df=2, p-value=0.002). Conclusion: The study showed that TACE is an effective palliative treatment. TACE increases the median survival time. (author)

  15. Properties of experimental titanium cast investment mixing with water reducing agent solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zutai; Ding, Ning; Tamaki, Yukimichi; Hotta, Yasuhiro; Han-Cheol, Cho; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a dental investment for titanium casting. ZrO(2) and Al(2)O(3) were selected as refractory materials to prepare three investments (Codes: A-C) according to the quantity of Zr. Al(2)O(3) cement was used as a binder at a ratio of 15%, they were mixed with special mixing liquid. B1 was used as a control mixed with water. Fundamental examinations were statistically evaluated. A casting test was performed with investment B. Fluidities, setting times, and green strengths showed no remarkable differences; however, they were significantly different from those of B1. Expansion values for A, B, C, and B1 at 850°C were 1.03%±0.08%, 1.96%±0.17%, 4.35%±0.23%, and 1.50%±0.28%, respectively. Castings were covered by only small amounts of mold materials. The hardness test showed no significant differences between castings from B and the ones from commercial investments. The experimental special mixing liquid effectively reduced the water/powder ratio and improved the strength and thermal expansion.

  16. Prognostic value of the urea:creatinine ratio in decompensated heart failure and its relationship with acute kidney damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josa-Laorden, C; Sola, A; Giménez-López, I; Rubio-Gracia, J; Garcés-Horna, V; Pérez-Calvo, J I

    Worsening renal function is associated with an adverse prognosis for patients with acute heart failure (AHF). Urea-creatinine ratio (U:C ratio) might be useful for measuring renal function and could help stratify patients with AHF. An observational and prospective study was conducted to analyse the prognostic value of the U:C ratio, measured during the first 24-28 hours of admission, for patients hospitalised for decompensated Heart failure, and its relationship with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and acute kidney injury (AKI). The study included 204 patients, with a mean age of 79.3 years, and a median eGFR of 55 mL/min/1.73m 2 . In the multivariate analysis, an U:C ratio above the median (50) was related to the development of AKI (36.5% vs. 21.9%) and to increased mortality, both overall (OR 2.75) and by HF (OR 3.50) in long term. In combination with eGFR, the U:C ratio showed prognostic value in patients with normal eGFR (mortality of 4.4% for an U:C ratio ≤ 50 vs. 22% for U:C ratio > 50; p=0.01), as well as a better predictive capacity for AKI than each of them separately (AUC, 0.718; 95% CI 0.643-0.793; p>.000). An U:C ratio > 50 is a predictor of increased long-term mortality for patients hospitalised for decompensated HF and with normal eGFR. Given the simplicity of this biomarker, its use in clinical practice should be more systematic. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  17. The mean, the median, and the St. Petersburg paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Y. Hayden

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The St.~Petersburg Paradox is a famous economic and philosophical puzzle that has generated numerous conflicting explanations. To shed empirical light on this phenomenon, we examined subjects' bids for one St.~Petersburg gamble with a real monetary payment. We found that bids were typically lower than twice the smallest payoff, and thus much lower than is generally supposed. We also examined bids offered for several hypothetical variants of the St.~Petersburg Paradox. We found that bids were weakly affected by truncating the gamble, were strongly affected by repeats of the gamble, and depended linearly on the initial ``seed'' value of the gamble. One explanation, which we call the extit{median} extit{heuristic}, strongly predicts these data. Subjects following this strategy evaluate a gamble as if they were taking the median rather than the mean of the payoff distribution. Finally, we argue that the distribution of outcomes embodied in the St.~Petersburg paradox is so divergent from the Gaussian form that the statistical mean is a poor estimator of expected value, so that the expected value of the St.~Petersburg gamble is undefined. These results suggest that this classic paradox has a straightforward explanation rooted in the use of a statistical heuristic.

  18. Critical assessment of bone scan quantitation (bone to soft tissue ratios) in the diagnosis of metabolic bone disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogelman, I.; Gordon, D.; Bessent, R.G.

    1981-03-01

    Accurate quantitation from the bone scan image of skeletal uptake of radiopharmaceutical would be of value in the assessment of patients with metabolic bone disease. Repeat measurements of bone to soft tissue (B/ST) ratios on the one set of images were made for 103 subjects, a) by the same observer using lumbar vertebra 2 for the area of bone; b) by the same observer using lumbar vertebra 2 then lumbar vertebra 4; c) by two observers both using lumbar vertebra 2. The median difference between repeat measurements by the same observer was well under 1% but the 5-95 percentile range was -13 to +14%. Between the two observers there was a median difference of 10.6% with a 5-95 percentile range of -11 to +44%. We also measured B/ST ratios in 150 control subjects and 139 patients with various metabolic bone disorders. While statistically significant differences for B/ST ratios were found between the osteomalacia, renal osteodystrophy, Paget's groups, and the control population (P < 0.001 in all cases), there was appreciable overlap between individual patient results and the control range. It is concluded, therefore, that measurement of B/ST ratios for the individual is of limited value in clinical practice.

  19. Measurements and Interpretation of Surface Mixing Ratios of CH4 and CO and δ 13C and δ D of CH4 in Air from Pacific Ocean Transects Between Auckland, New Zealand and Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajie, H. O.; Tyler, S. C.; Gotoh, A. A.; McMillan, A. M.; Rice, A. L.; Lowe, D. C.

    2003-12-01

    We report on measurements of atmospheric CH4 and CO mixing ratios and δ 13C of CH4 from air samples collected every 2.5 to 5° latitude along a transect over the Pacific Ocean using container ships of P&O Nedlloyd (formerly Blue Star) shipping line. Data presented here begins in June 1996 and extends to January 2002. Scientists from the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research in New Zealand and from University of California, Irvine alternate sampling trips so that a transect between Auckland, New Zealand (35° S) and Los Angeles, California (35° N) can be sampled over a period of ˜15 days approximately every four months. Data sets from the two laboratories are intercalibrated through a sample exchange program. The data provide detail on the spatial and seasonal variation of CH4 and CO mixing ratios and stable isotope ratios of CH4 over the Pacific equatorial region, including the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and both northern and southern temperate zones to about 30° latitude, including the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). Data from 18 transect samplings so far clearly show that δ 13C in the mid latitudes of both hemispheres are ˜6 months out of phase. In June, a minimum in δ 13C CH4 in the southern hemisphere (SH) coincides approximately with the maximum in the northern hemisphere (NH) seasonal cycle. Because the NH is less enriched in 13C than the SH this situation results in a remarkably flat gradient between 30° N and 30° S. In November the opposite situation occurs with the SH mid latitude maximum coinciding with the minimum in the NH cycle, leading to a relatively large gradient of ˜0.5‰ between the hemispheres. We discuss how CH4 and CO mixing ratios are related to the changing positions and strengths of the ITCZ and SPCZ and how this data can be used in multi-dimensional models of atmospheric chemistry and transport to better define CH4 sources and sinks both temporally and spatially.

  20. What is Neptune's D/H ratio really telling us about its water abundance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Dib, Mohamad; Lakhlani, Gunjan

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the deep-water abundance of Neptune using a simple two-component (core + envelope) toy model. The free parameters of the model are the total mass of heavy elements in the planet (Z), the mass fraction of Z in the envelope (fenv), and the D/H ratio of the accreted building blocks (D/Hbuild).We systematically search the allowed parameter space on a grid and constrain it using Neptune's bulk carbon abundance, D/H ratio, and interior structure models. Assuming solar C/O ratio and cometary D/H for the accreted building blocks are forming the planet, we can fit all of the constraints if less than ˜15 per cent of Z is in the envelope (f_{env}^{median} ˜ 7 per cent), and the rest is locked in a solid core. This model predicts a maximum bulk oxygen abundance in Neptune of 65× solar value. If we assume a C/O of 0.17, corresponding to clathrate-hydrates building blocks, we predict a maximum oxygen abundance of 200× solar value with a median value of ˜140. Thus, both cases lead to oxygen abundance significantly lower than the preferred value of Cavalié et al. (˜540× solar), inferred from model-dependent deep CO observations. Such high-water abundances are excluded by our simple but robust model. We attribute this discrepancy to our imperfect understanding of either the interior structure of Neptune or the chemistry of the primordial protosolar nebula.

  1. Elevations in the Fasting Serum Proinsulin–to–C-Peptide Ratio Precede the Onset of Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Emily K.; Chaudhry, Zunaira; Watkins, Renecia; Syed, Farooq; Blum, Janice; Ouyang, Fangqian; Perkins, Susan M.; Mirmira, Raghavendra G.; Sosenko, Jay; DiMeglio, Linda A.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We tested whether an elevation in the serum proinsulin–to–C-peptide ratio (PI:C), a biomarker of β-cell endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dysfunction, was associated with progression to type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Fasting total PI and C levels were measured in banked serum samples obtained from TrialNet Pathway to Prevention (PTP) participants, a cohort of autoantibody-positive relatives without diabetes of individuals with type 1 diabetes. Samples were obtained ∼12 months before diabetes onset from PTP progressors in whom diabetes developed (n = 60), and were compared with age-, sex-, and BMI-matched nonprogressors who remained normoglycemic (n = 58). PI:C ratios were calculated as molar ratios and were multiplied by 100% to obtain PI levels as a percentage of C levels. RESULTS Although absolute PI levels did not differ between groups, PI:C ratios were significantly increased in antibody-positive subjects in whom there was progression to diabetes compared with nonprogressors (median 1.81% vs. 1.17%, P = 0.03). The difference between groups was most pronounced in subjects who were ≤10 years old, where the median progressor PI:C ratio was nearly triple that of nonprogressors; 90.0% of subjects in this age group within the upper PI:C quartile progressed to the development of diabetes. Logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age and BMI, demonstrated increased odds of progression for higher natural log PI:C ratio values (odds ratio 1.44, 95% CI 1.02, 2.05). CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that β-cell ER dysfunction precedes type 1 diabetes onset, especially in younger children. Elevations in the serum PI:C ratio may have utility in predicting the onset of type 1 diabetes in the presymptomatic phase. PMID:27385327

  2. Elevations in the Fasting Serum Proinsulin-to-C-Peptide Ratio Precede the Onset of Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Emily K; Chaudhry, Zunaira; Watkins, Renecia; Syed, Farooq; Blum, Janice; Ouyang, Fangqian; Perkins, Susan M; Mirmira, Raghavendra G; Sosenko, Jay; DiMeglio, Linda A; Evans-Molina, Carmella

    2016-09-01

    We tested whether an elevation in the serum proinsulin-to-C-peptide ratio (PI:C), a biomarker of β-cell endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dysfunction, was associated with progression to type 1 diabetes. Fasting total PI and C levels were measured in banked serum samples obtained from TrialNet Pathway to Prevention (PTP) participants, a cohort of autoantibody-positive relatives without diabetes of individuals with type 1 diabetes. Samples were obtained ∼12 months before diabetes onset from PTP progressors in whom diabetes developed (n = 60), and were compared with age-, sex-, and BMI-matched nonprogressors who remained normoglycemic (n = 58). PI:C ratios were calculated as molar ratios and were multiplied by 100% to obtain PI levels as a percentage of C levels. Although absolute PI levels did not differ between groups, PI:C ratios were significantly increased in antibody-positive subjects in whom there was progression to diabetes compared with nonprogressors (median 1.81% vs. 1.17%, P = 0.03). The difference between groups was most pronounced in subjects who were ≤10 years old, where the median progressor PI:C ratio was nearly triple that of nonprogressors; 90.0% of subjects in this age group within the upper PI:C quartile progressed to the development of diabetes. Logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age and BMI, demonstrated increased odds of progression for higher natural log PI:C ratio values (odds ratio 1.44, 95% CI 1.02, 2.05). These data suggest that β-cell ER dysfunction precedes type 1 diabetes onset, especially in younger children. Elevations in the serum PI:C ratio may have utility in predicting the onset of type 1 diabetes in the presymptomatic phase. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  3. Evaluation of the Combined Effect of Recombinant High-Density Lipoprotein Carrier and the Encapsulated Lovastatin in RAW264.7 Macrophage Cells Based on the Median-Effect Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cuiping; Zhao, Yi; Yang, Yun; He, Jianhua; Zhang, Wenli; Liu, Jianping

    2018-03-05

    Recombinant high-density lipoprotein (rHDL) displays a similar anti-atherosclerotic effect with native HDL and could also be served as a carrier of cardiovascular drug for atherosclerotic plaque targeting. In our previous studies, rHDL has shown a more potent anti-atherosclerotic efficacy as compared to the other conventional nanoparticles with a payload of lovastatin (LS). Therefore, we hypothesized that a synergistic anti-atherosclerotic effect of the rHDL carrier and the encapsulated LS might exist. In this study, the dose-effect relationships and the combined effect of the rHDL and LS were quantitatively evaluated in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells using the median-effect analysis, in which the rHDL carrier was regarded as a drug combined. Median-effect analysis suggested that rHDL and LS exerted a desirable synergistic inhibition on the oxLDL internalization at a ratio of 6:1 ( D m,LS : D m,rHDL ) in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. About 50% of the reduction on the intracellular lipid contents was found when RAW264.7 cells were treated with LS-loaded rHDLs at their respective median-effect dose ( D m ) concentrations and a synergistic effect on the mediating cholesterol efflux was also observed, which verified the accuracy of the results obtained from the median-effect analysis. The mechanism underlying the synergistic effect of the rHDL carrier and the drug might be attributed to their potent inhibitory effects on SR-A expression. In conclusion, the median-effect analysis was proven to be a feasible method to quantitatively evaluate the synergistic effect of the biofunctional carrier and the drug encapsulated.

  4. Preparation of catalysts based on Ce-Mn mixed oxide by coprecipitation for combustion of n-hexane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picasso, Gino; Zavala, Cesar; Cruz, Romulo; Sun Kou, Rosario; Lopez, Alcides

    2013-01-01

    Catalysts based on Ce-Mn mixed with different Ce/Mn molar ratios ranging from 0,5 to 2 have been prepared by coprecipitation at pH constant with ageing times of 4, 18 and 24 h for combustion of n-hexane. XRD patterns of the mixed oxides showed the majority presence of fluorite phase. Specific BET surface areas of mixed oxides were always higher than their single counterparts and their adsorption isotherm depicted a mesoporous surface of Type IV. TPR thermograms confirmed the presence of mixed oxide phase, whose profile shifted to smaller temperatures with increasing content of ceria. Catalytic tests were performed with 2000 ppm of n-hexane and WHSV of 80 h -1 in a fixed-bed reactor. For all samples, only CO 2 and water were observed at total conversion and no partial combustion products were obtained. Ce-Mn mixed oxides were more active than simple oxide samples no matter the aging time. Mixed samples presented thermal stability in contrast with simple ones. Mixed sample with Ce/Mn molar ratio of 2 depicted the highest activity probably due to higher surface area and better reducibility ability of mixed phase. (author)

  5. Unified parametrization for quark and lepton mixing angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodejohann, Werner

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new parametrization for the quark and lepton mixing matrices: the two 12-mixing angles (the Cabibbo angle and the angle responsible for solar neutrino oscillations) are at zeroth order π/12 and π/5, respectively. The resulting 12-elements in the CKM and PMNS matrices, V us and U e2 , are in this order irrational but simple algebraic numbers. We note that the cosine of π/5 is the golden ratio divided by two. The difference between π/5 and the observed best-fit value of solar neutrino mixing is of the same order as the difference between the observed value and the one for tri-bimaximal mixing. In order to reproduce the central values of current fits, corrections to the zeroth order expressions are necessary. They are small and of the same order and sign for quarks and leptons. We parametrize the perturbations to the CKM and PMNS matrices in a 'triminimal' way, i.e., with three small rotations in an order corresponding to the order of the rotations in the PDG-description of mixing matrices

  6. Elucidation of thermal hydraulic mixing mechanism in a mixing tee area with a 90-degree bend upstream and development of thermal-striping relaxation and control methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Yoshimasa; Yuki, Kazuhisa; Hashizume, Hidetoshi; Tanaka, Masa-aki; Muramatsu, Toshiharu

    2004-10-01

    In the region where two fluids with different temperatures mix, unstable fluid mixing like thermal striping occurs accompanying with unsteady temperature fluctuation of fluid. This temperature fluctuation is transported toward the surrounding area and becomes an important factor that induces thermal fatigue of structural materials, which sometimes results in crack generation of them. In fast breeder reactors that utilize liquid sodium as a coolant, the fluid temperature fluctuation could be easier to conduct toward the structural materials due to its high thermal conductivity, so that careful consideration for the thermal fatigue is required. In particular, since the low frequency band of temperature fluctuation strongly affects the thermal fatigue, evaluation and development of the relaxation and control methods for it become important issues. In this study, non-isothermal fluid mixing experiments in a T-junction area with a 90-degree bend upstream were carried out to estimate the fluid-temperature fluctuation in the vicinity of wall. The temperature fluctuations for various flow mixing conditions were measured, changing a velocity ratio and a pipe diameter ratio of a main pipe to a branch pipe to quantitatively evaluate the effect of a secondary flow on the temperature fluctuation. In addition, by analyzing both the visualization data taken by a PIV system and the temperature fluctuation data, it was attempted to construct a prediction formula for the temperature fluctuation. Our findings are summarized below. (1) Classifying the flow mixing pattern of jet flow running out from the branch pipe makes it possible to predict the maximum temperature fluctuation in the mixing area with higher accuracy by using the flow velocity ratio (0.2 -0.06 (d/D) 0.22 . Re-attachment Flow - deflecting Flow: Max(ΔTrms*)=0.64(v/V) -0.92 (d/D) 1.11 . (2) Prediction formulas for the maximum temperature fluctuation in the case of the curvature ratio of 1.0 are also constructed as

  7. Experimental and numerical analysis on the effect of inlet distortion on the performance of a centrifugal fan with a mixing chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Liang; Wang, Tong; Yang, Bo; Gu, Chuangang [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)

    2013-02-15

    Inlet flow distortions, which are caused by fluid mixing, cause a significant deterioration in fan performance. An experimental test rig for an industrial fan with dual inlets and a mixing chamber was constructed. The flow fields in the mixing chamber of the fan were numerically investigated. Consequently, impact parameters, including the length of the mixing chamber (100, 200, and 300 mm) and the mass flow rate ratio (1 to 10), as well as their effects on fan performance, were discussed. A generalized formula considering the Reynolds number, hydraulic diameter, and mixing length was proposed to predict the pressure drop in dual inlets. Results show that the efficiency of and pressure in the fan decreased by 6.5% and 203 Pa, respectively, under mixing inlet condition. Optimum fan performance is achieved at a flow rate ratio of 5 under the same mass flow rate. The increase in the flow rate ratio kept the fan performance almost constant. At the design stage, fan performance and pressure decrease by an average of 2% and 70 Pa in increments of 100 mm mixing length, respectively. The results presented in this paper provide a basis in the design optimization of mixing structures.

  8. Experimental and numerical analysis on the effect of inlet distortion on the performance of a centrifugal fan with a mixing chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Liang; Wang, Tong; Yang, Bo; Gu, Chuangang

    2013-01-01

    Inlet flow distortions, which are caused by fluid mixing, cause a significant deterioration in fan performance. An experimental test rig for an industrial fan with dual inlets and a mixing chamber was constructed. The flow fields in the mixing chamber of the fan were numerically investigated. Consequently, impact parameters, including the length of the mixing chamber (100, 200, and 300 mm) and the mass flow rate ratio (1 to 10), as well as their effects on fan performance, were discussed. A generalized formula considering the Reynolds number, hydraulic diameter, and mixing length was proposed to predict the pressure drop in dual inlets. Results show that the efficiency of and pressure in the fan decreased by 6.5% and 203 Pa, respectively, under mixing inlet condition. Optimum fan performance is achieved at a flow rate ratio of 5 under the same mass flow rate. The increase in the flow rate ratio kept the fan performance almost constant. At the design stage, fan performance and pressure decrease by an average of 2% and 70 Pa in increments of 100 mm mixing length, respectively. The results presented in this paper provide a basis in the design optimization of mixing structures.

  9. Influence of grid aspect ratio on planetary boundary layer turbulence in large-eddy simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nishizawa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine the influence of the grid aspect ratio of horizontal to vertical grid spacing on turbulence in the planetary boundary layer (PBL in a large-eddy simulation (LES. In order to clarify and distinguish them from other artificial effects caused by numerical schemes, we used a fully compressible meteorological LES model with a fully explicit scheme of temporal integration. The influences are investigated with a series of sensitivity tests with parameter sweeps of spatial resolution and grid aspect ratio. We confirmed that the mixing length of the eddy viscosity and diffusion due to sub-grid-scale turbulence plays an essential role in reproducing the theoretical −5/3 slope of the energy spectrum. If we define the filter length in LES modeling based on consideration of the numerical scheme, and introduce a corrective factor for the grid aspect ratio into the mixing length, the theoretical slope of the energy spectrum can be obtained; otherwise, spurious energy piling appears at high wave numbers. We also found that the grid aspect ratio has influence on the turbulent statistics, especially the skewness of the vertical velocity near the top of the PBL, which becomes spuriously large with large aspect ratio, even if a reasonable spectrum is obtained.

  10. A high ratio of apoptosis to proliferation correlates with improved survival after radiotherapy for cervical adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheridan, Mary T.; Cooper, Rachel A.; West, Catharine M.L.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: A retrospective study was made of the role of apoptosis in determining radiotherapy outcome in 39 adenocarcinoma of the cervix. A comparison was also made of the detection of apoptosis by morphology and the TdT dUtp nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. Methods and Materials: The level of apoptosis was assessed in paraffin-embedded sections by cell morphology, the TUNEL assay, and a combination of the two. A total of 2,000 cells were counted per section, to obtain apoptotic (AI) and mitotic (MI) indices. Results: Patients with a high AI had a higher survival rate than those with a low AI, however, the difference was not significant. Using a ratio of apoptosis to proliferation indices, patients with an AI:MI > median had significantly better survival than those with AI:MI < median. This was true where the AI was quantified by morphology alone (p = 0.030) or in combination with the TUNEL assay (p = 0.008). Where the AI was quantified by a combination of morphology and TUNEL, the 5-year survival rates for women with AI:MI greater or less than the median were 81% and 25%, respectively. Conclusion: A high ratio of AI:MI in adenocarcinoma of the cervix indicates a good prognosis. A combination of the TUNEL assay and morphology provided the best discrimination between outcome groups

  11. Meteoric 10Be/9Be ratios in marine sedimentary records: Deciphering the mixing between their marine and terrestrial sources and influence of costal trace metal fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, H.; von Blanckenburg, F.; Mohtadi, M.; Christl, M.; Bernhardt, A.

    2017-12-01

    Meteoric 10Be to stable 9Be ratios combine a cosmogenic nuclide produced in the atmosphere at a rate known from reconstructions of magnetic field strength with a stable isotope that records the present and past continental weathering and erosion flux. In seawater, the 10Be/9Be ratio provides important information on metal release from bottom sediments, called boundary exchange, and the oceanic mixing of reactive trace metals due to the inherently different sources of the two isotopes. When measured in the authigenic phase of marine sediments, the 10Be/9Be ratio allows deriving the feedbacks between erosion, weathering, and climate in the geologic past. At an ocean margin site 37°S offshore Chile, we use the 10Be/9Be ratio to trace changes in terrestrial particulate composition due to exchange with seawater. We analyzed the reactive (sequentially extracted) phase of marine surface sediments along a coast-perpendicular transect, and compared to samples from their riverine source. We find evidence for growth of authigenic rims through co-precipitation, not via reversible adsorption, that incorporate an open ocean 10Be/9Be signature from a deep water source only 30 km from the coast, thereby overprinting terrestrial riverine 10Be/9Be signatures. We show that the measured 10Be/9Be ratios in marine sediments comprise a mixture between seawater-derived and riverine-sourced phases. As 10Be/9Be ratios increase due to exchange with seawater, particulate-bound Fe concentrations increase, which we attribute to release of Fe-rich pore waters during boundary exchange in the sediment. The implications for the use of 10Be/9Be in sedimentary records for paleo-denudation flux reconstructions are that in coast-proximal sites that are neither affected by deeper water nor by narrow boundary currents, the authigenic record will be a direct recorder of terrigenous denudation of the adjacent river catchments. Hence archive location and past oceanic circulation have to be accounted for

  12. CD4/CD8 Ratio and KT Ratio Predict Yellow Fever Vaccine Immunogenicity in HIV-Infected Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelino-Silva, Vivian I; Miyaji, Karina T; Hunt, Peter W; Huang, Yong; Simoes, Marisol; Lima, Sheila B; Freire, Marcos S; Caiaffa-Filho, Helio H; Hong, Marisa A; Costa, Dayane Alves; Dias, Juliana Zanatta C; Cerqueira, Natalia B; Nishiya, Anna Shoko; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira; Sartori, Ana M; Kallas, Esper G

    2016-12-01

    HIV-infected individuals have deficient responses to Yellow Fever vaccine (YFV) and may be at higher risk for adverse events (AE). Chronic immune activation-characterized by low CD4/CD8 ratio or high indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO) activity-may influence vaccine response in this population. We prospectively assessed AE, viremia by the YFV virus and YF-specific neutralizing antibodies (NAb) in HIV-infected (CD4>350) and -uninfected adults through 1 year after vaccination. The effect of HIV status on initial antibody response to YFV was measured during the first 3 months following vaccination, while the effect on persistence of antibody response was measured one year following vaccination. We explored CD4/CD8 ratio, IDO activity (plasma kynurenine/tryptophan [KT] ratio) and viremia by Human Pegivirus as potential predictors of NAb response to YFV among HIV-infected participants with linear mixed models. 12 HIV-infected and 45-uninfected participants were included in the final analysis. HIV was not significantly associated with AE, YFV viremia or NAb titers through the first 3 months following vaccination. However, HIV-infected participants had 0.32 times the NAb titers observed for HIV-uninfected participants at 1 year following YFV (95% CI 0.13 to 0.83, p = 0.021), independent of sex, age and prior vaccination. In HIV-infected participants, each 10% increase in CD4/CD8 ratio predicted a mean 21% higher post-baseline YFV Nab titer (p = 0.024). Similarly, each 10% increase in KT ratio predicted a mean 21% lower post-baseline YFV Nab titer (p = 0.009). Viremia by Human Pegivirus was not significantly associated with NAb titers. HIV infection appears to decrease the durability of NAb responses to YFV, an effect that may be predicted by lower CD4/CD8 ratio or higher KT ratio.

  13. CD4/CD8 Ratio and KT Ratio Predict Yellow Fever Vaccine Immunogenicity in HIV-Infected Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Peter W.; Huang, Yong; Simoes, Marisol; Lima, Sheila B.; Freire, Marcos S.; Caiaffa-Filho, Helio H.; Hong, Marisa A.; Costa, Dayane Alves; Dias, Juliana Zanatta C.; Cerqueira, Natalia B.; Nishiya, Anna Shoko; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira; Sartori, Ana M.; Kallas, Esper G.

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV-infected individuals have deficient responses to Yellow Fever vaccine (YFV) and may be at higher risk for adverse events (AE). Chronic immune activation–characterized by low CD4/CD8 ratio or high indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO) activity—may influence vaccine response in this population. Methods We prospectively assessed AE, viremia by the YFV virus and YF-specific neutralizing antibodies (NAb) in HIV-infected (CD4>350) and -uninfected adults through 1 year after vaccination. The effect of HIV status on initial antibody response to YFV was measured during the first 3 months following vaccination, while the effect on persistence of antibody response was measured one year following vaccination. We explored CD4/CD8 ratio, IDO activity (plasma kynurenine/tryptophan [KT] ratio) and viremia by Human Pegivirus as potential predictors of NAb response to YFV among HIV-infected participants with linear mixed models. Results 12 HIV-infected and 45-uninfected participants were included in the final analysis. HIV was not significantly associated with AE, YFV viremia or NAb titers through the first 3 months following vaccination. However, HIV–infected participants had 0.32 times the NAb titers observed for HIV-uninfected participants at 1 year following YFV (95% CI 0.13 to 0.83, p = 0.021), independent of sex, age and prior vaccination. In HIV-infected participants, each 10% increase in CD4/CD8 ratio predicted a mean 21% higher post-baseline YFV Nab titer (p = 0.024). Similarly, each 10% increase in KT ratio predicted a mean 21% lower post-baseline YFV Nab titer (p = 0.009). Viremia by Human Pegivirus was not significantly associated with NAb titers. Conclusions HIV infection appears to decrease the durability of NAb responses to YFV, an effect that may be predicted by lower CD4/CD8 ratio or higher KT ratio. PMID:27941965

  14. Sosiaalisen median merkitys mikroyrityksille - Case: TallFits Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Nousiainen, Ari; Koskivuori, Timo

    2011-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena on sosiaalinen media mikroyritysten näkökulmasta. Työssä käsi-tellään sosiaalista mediaa ja markkinoinnissa tapahtunutta muutosta sekä niitä toimintatapoja, joita interaktiivinen mediaympäristö yrityksille ja sen asiakkaille tarjoaa. Työn tavoitteena on tuottaa tietoa sosiaalisen median hyödyistä ja haasteista mikroyrityksille ja lisätä koh-deyrityksemme TallFits Oy:n myyntiä ja löydettävyyttä. Tavoitteiden saavuttamiseksi opinnäytetyömme tarkoituksena oli tehd...

  15. Prognostic Impact of Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio, Platelet Count, CRP, and Albumin Levels in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients Treated with FOLFIRI-Bevacizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaç, Mehmet; Uysal, Mükremin; Karaağaç, Mustafa; Korkmaz, Levent; Er, Zehra; Güler, Tunç; Börüban, Melih Cem; Bozcuk, Hakan

    2017-06-01

    Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is a lethal disease and fluorouracil-leucovorin-irinotecan (FOLFIRI) plus bevacizumab (bev) is a standard approach. Hence, there is a strong need for identifying new prognostic factors to show the efficacy of FOLFIRI-bev. This is a retrospective study including patients (n = 90) with mCRC from two centers in Turkey. Neutrophil/lymphocyte (N/L) ratio, platelet count, albumin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were recorded before FOLFIRI-bev therapy. The efficacy of these factors on progression-free survival (PFS) was analyzed with Kaplan Meier and Cox regression analysis. And the cutoff value of N/L ratio was analyzed with ROC analysis. The median age was 56 years (range 21-80). Forty-seven percent of patients with N/L ratio >2.5 showed progressive disease versus 43 % in patients with N/L ratio ratio >2.5 versus 13.5 months for the patients with N/L ratio analysis, high baseline neutrophil count, LDH, N/L ratio, and CRP were all significantly associated with poor prognosis. At multivariate Cox regression analysis, CRP was confirmed to be a better independent prognostic factor. CRP variable was divided into above the upper limit of normal (ULN) and normal value. The median PFSs of the patients with normal and above ULN were 11.3 versus 5.8 months, respectively (p = 0.022). CRP and N/L ratio are potential predictors for advanced mCRC treated with FOLFIRI-bev.

  16. Median Filter Noise Reduction of Image and Backpropagation Neural Network Model for Cervical Cancer Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutsqa, D. U.; Marwah, M.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we consider spatial operation median filter to reduce the noise in the cervical images yielded by colposcopy tool. The backpropagation neural network (BPNN) model is applied to the colposcopy images to classify cervical cancer. The classification process requires an image extraction by using a gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) method to obtain image features that are used as inputs of BPNN model. The advantage of noise reduction is evaluated by comparing the performances of BPNN models with and without spatial operation median filter. The experimental result shows that the spatial operation median filter can improve the accuracy of the BPNN model for cervical cancer classification.

  17. Median and Morphological Specialized Processors for a Real-Time Image Data Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Wiatr

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the considerations on selecting a multiprocessor MISD architecture for fast implementation of the vision image processing. Using the author′s earlier experience with real-time systems, implementing of specialized hardware processors based on the programmable FPGA systems has been proposed in the pipeline architecture. In particular, the following processors are presented: median filter and morphological processor. The structure of a universal reconfigurable processor developed has been proposed as well. Experimental results are presented as delays on LCA level implementation for median filter, morphological processor, convolution processor, look-up-table processor, logic processor and histogram processor. These times compare with delays in general purpose processor and DSP processor.

  18. Hygroscopic properties of internally mixed particles composed of NaCl and water-soluble organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorai, Suman; Wang, Bingbing; Tivanski, Alexei; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-02-18

    Atmospheric aging of naturally emitted marine aerosol often leads to formation of internally mixed particles composed of sea salts and water-soluble organic compounds of anthropogenic origin. Mixing of sea salt and organic components has profound effects on the evolving chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of the resulted particles, which are poorly understood. Here, we have studied chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of laboratory generated NaCl particles mixed with malonic acid (MA) and glutaric acid (GA) at different molar ratios using micro-FTIR spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray elemental microanalysis. Hygroscopic properties of internally mixed NaCl and organic acid particles were distinctly different from pure components and varied significantly with the type and amount of organic compound present. Experimental results were in a good agreement with the AIM modeling calculations of gas/liquid/solid partitioning in studied systems. X-ray elemental microanalysis of particles showed that Cl/Na ratio decreased with increasing organic acid component in the particles with MA yielding lower ratios relative to GA. We attribute the depletion of chloride to the formation of sodium malonate and sodium glutarate salts resulted by HCl evaporation from dehydrating particles.

  19. Thermal mixing of two miscible fluids in a T-shaped microchannel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Wong, Teck Neng; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Che, Zhizhao; Chai, John Chee Kiong

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, thermal mixing characteristics of two miscible fluids in a T-shaped microchannel are investigated theoretically, experimentally, and numerically. Thermal mixing processes in a T-shaped microchannel are divided into two zones, consisting of a T-junction and a mixing channel. An analytical two-dimensional model was first built to describe the heat transfer processes in the mixing channel. In the experiments, de-ionized water was employed as the working fluid. Laser induced fluorescence method was used to measure the fluid temperature field in the microchannel. Different combinations of flow rate ratios were studied to investigate the thermal mixing characteristics in the microchannel. At the T-junction, thermal diffusion is found to be dominant in this area due to the striation in the temperature contours. In the mixing channel, heat transfer processes are found to be controlled by thermal diffusion and convection. Measured temperature profiles at the T-junction and mixing channel are compared with analytical model and numerical simulation, respectively.

  20. Ratio of dialytic coefficients of hydrogen and tritium in permeation through palladium alloy film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Haruyuki; Fujita, Kunio; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Higashi, Kunio; Okada, Sakae.

    1982-01-01

    The dialytic coefficient for hydrogen is especially large in palladium and its alloys. Recently, with the research on fusion reactors, the dialytic coefficient of tritium permeating through solids and its isotopic effect have been the object of interest. The ratio of the dialytic coefficients of tritium and hydrogen has been usually assumed to be 3. The measurement of the dialytic coefficient in solids using pure tritium is practically difficult. Therefore, the authors carried out the experiment to determine the ratio of the dialytic coefficients of pure T 2 and pure H 2 by permeating the mixed gas of T and H through Pd-Au-Ag alloy. The mixed hydrogen gas was filled in a separation cell containing a palladium alloy tube, and the separation factor of tritium and hydrogen was measured by changing pressure, flow rate and temperature. The separation factor depends mainly on the relative dialytic coefficients of tritium and hydrogen, therefore, the ratio of dialytic coefficients can be determined by the simple analysis of the experimental results. This experimental method is suitable to determine the relative value of dialytic coefficients, and the obtained ratio was about 2.1. (Kako, I.)

  1. AN AMELIORATED DETECTION STATISTICS FOR ADAPTIVE MASK MEDIAN FILTRATION OF HEAVILY NOISED DIGITAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Hanji

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Noise reduction is an important area of research in image processing applications. The performance of the digital image noise filtering method primarily depends upon the accuracy of noise detection scheme. This paper presents an effective detector based, adaptive mask, median filtration of heavily noised digital images affected with fixed value (or salt and pepper impulse noise. The proposed filter presents a novel approach; an ameliorated Rank Ordered Absolute Deviation (ROAD statistics to judge whether the input pixel is noised or noise free. If a pixel is detected as corrupted, it is subjected to adaptive mask median filtration; otherwise, it is kept unchanged. Extensive experimental results and comparative performance evaluations demonstrate that the proposed filter outperforms the existing decision type, median based filters with powerful noise detectors in terms of objective performance measures and visual retrieviation accuracy.

  2. Partnership Selection Involving Mixed Types of Uncertain Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ching Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Partnership selection is an important issue in management science. This study proposes a general model based on mixed integer programming and goal-programming analytic hierarchy process (GP-AHP to solve partnership selection problems involving mixed types of uncertain or inconsistent preferences. The proposed approach is designed to deal with crisp, interval, step, fuzzy, or mixed comparison preferences, derive crisp priorities, and improve multiple solution problems. The degree of fulfillment of a decision maker’s preferences is also taken into account. The results show that the proposed approach keeps more solution ratios within the given preferred intervals and yields less deviation. In addition, the proposed approach can treat incomplete preference matrices with flexibility in reducing the number of pairwise comparisons required and can also be conveniently developed into a decision support system.

  3. Dielectric relaxation of selenium-tellurium mixed former glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palui, A.; Ghosh, A.

    2017-05-01

    We report the study of dielectric properties of mixed network former glasses of composition 0.3Ag2O-0.7(xSeO2-(1-x)TeO2); x=0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 in a wide frequency 10 Hz - 2 MHz and temperature range 223 K - 403 K. The experimental data have been analyzed in the framework of complex dielectric permittivity. The dielectric permittivity data have been analyzed using the Cole-Cole function. The inverse temperature dependence of relaxation time obtained from real part of dielectric permittivity data follows the Arrhenius relation. The activation energy shows mixed glass former effect with variation of mixed former ratio. A non-zero value of shape parameters is observed and it is almost independent of temperature and composition.

  4. Ampullary Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinoma: Surprise Histology, Familiar Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahansaria, Shyam Sunder; Agrawal, Nikhil; Arora, Asit; Bihari, Chhagan; Appukuttan, Murali; Chattopadhyay, Tushar Kanti

    2017-10-01

    Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC) has recently been defined by the World Health Organization in 2010. These are rare tumors and MANECs of ampullary region are even rarer. Only 19 cases have been reported in literature. We present 3 cases; the largest series, second case of amphicrine tumor and first case associated with chronic pancreatitis. Retrospective review of 3 patients who were diagnosed to have ampullary MANEC. All 3 patients were diagnosed preoperatively as neuroendocrine carcinoma and underwent margin negative pancreaticoduodenectomy. The histopathology revealed MANECs of small cell, mixed type in 2 patients and large cell, amphicrine type in 1 patient. The neuroendocrine component was grade 3 in all, the tumor was T3 in 2 and T2 in 1 and all had nodal metastases. Two patients received adjuvant chemotherapy and 2 of them had recurrence at 13 and 16 months. The median survival was 15 months. Ampullary MANECs are rare tumors. They are diagnosed on histopathologic examination of the resected specimen. Clinical presentation, management, and prognosis is similar to ampullary adenocarcinoma in literature.

  5. D/H ratios of the inner Solar System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallis, L J

    2017-05-28

    The original hydrogen isotope (D/H) ratios of different planetary bodies may indicate where each body formed in the Solar System. However, geological and atmospheric processes can alter these ratios through time. Over the past few decades, D/H ratios in meteorites from Vesta and Mars, as well as from S- and C-type asteroids, have been measured. The aim of this article is to bring together all previously published data from these bodies, as well as the Earth, in order to determine the original D/H ratio for each of these inner Solar System planetary bodies. Once all secondary processes have been stripped away, the inner Solar System appears to be relatively homogeneous in terms of water D/H, with the original water D/H ratios of Vesta, Mars, the Earth, and S- and C-type asteroids all falling between δD values of -100‰ and -590‰. This homogeneity is in accord with the 'Grand tack' model of Solar System formation, where giant planet migration causes the S- and C-type asteroids to be mixed within 1 AU to eventually form the terrestrial planets.This article is part of the themed issue 'The origin, history and role of water in the evolution of the inner Solar System'. © 2017 The Authors.

  6. Experimental Investigation of Biogas Production from Kitchen Waste Mixed with Chicken Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mousa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ogas produced from solid kitchen waste (KW mixed with chicken manure (M at different mass ratios was investigated. The effect of the ratio of the amount of water to the mixed solid waste on the amount of biogas produced was studied. The results showed that at a fixed ratio of water-to-solid waste, the amount of biogas increased as the amount of chicken M increased. At a fixed M-to-KW ratio, the amount of biogas produced increased as the solid content increased and then decreased, reaching its maximum value at a solid waste-to-water ratio of 1:1. The pH of the bioreactor containing the KW-M mixture dropped with time, resulting in a decrease in the amount of biogas produced. Controlling the pH value by titrating with NaOH solution improved the production of biogas. Investigating biogas produced from sludge showed that the pH of the reactor slightly decreased and then increased slightly. The results also showed that the amount of biogas produced from sludge containing 3% solid waste was larger than the amount produced from sludge containing 6% solid waste.

  7. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and mural nodule height as predictive factors for malignant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yusuke; Niina, Yusuke; Nishihara, Kazuyoshi; Okayama, Takafumi; Tamiya, Sadafumi; Nakano, Toru

    2018-01-15

    Accurate preoperative prediction for malignant IPMN is still challenging. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and mural nodule height (MNH) for predicting malignant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). The medical records of 60 patients who underwent pancreatectomy for IPMN were retrospectively reviewed. NLR tended to be higher in malignant IPMN (median: 2.23) than in benign IPMN (median: 2.04; p = .14). MNH was significantly greater in malignant IPMN (median: 16 mm) than in benign IPMN (median: 8 mm; p MNH were 3.60 and 11 mm, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of NLR ≥3.60 for predicting malignant IPMN were 40% and 93%, and those of MNH ≥11 mm were 73% and 77%, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that NLR ≥3.60 (p MNH ≥11 mm (p MNH ≥11 mm were not. NLR and MNH are suboptimal tests in predicting malignant IPMN; however, they can be useful to assist in clinical decision-making.

  8. Mixing and NOx Emission Calculations of Confined Reacting Jet Flows in Cylindrical and Annular Ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oechsle, Victor L.; Connor, Christopher H.; Holdeman, James D. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Rapid mixing of cold lateral jets with hot cross-stream flows in confined configurations is of practical interest in gas turbine combustors as it strongly affects combustor exit temperature quality, and gaseous emissions in for example rich-lean combustion. It is therefore important to further improve our fundamental understanding of the important processes of dilution jet mixing especially when the injected jet mass flow rate exceeds that of the cross-stream. The results reported in this report describe some of the main flow characteristics which develop in the mixing process in a cylindrical duct. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code has been used to predict the mixing flow field characteristics and NOx emission in a quench section of a rich-burn/quick-mix/lean-burn (RQL) combustor. Sixty configurations have been analyzed in both circular and annular geometries in a fully reacting environment simulating the operating condition of an actual RQL gas turbine combustion liner. The evaluation matrix was constructed by varying the number of orifices per row and orifice shape. Other parameters such as J (momentum-flux ratio), MR (mass flowrate ratio), DR (density ratio), and mixer sector orifice ACd (effective orifice area) were maintained constant throughout the entire study. The results indicate that the mixing flow field can be correlated with the NOx production if they are referenced with the stoichiometric equivalence ratio value and not the equilibrium value. The mixing flowfields in both circular and annular mixers are different. The penetration of equal jets in both annular and circular geometries is vastly different which significantly affects the performance of the mixing section. In the computational results with the circular mixer, most of the NOx formation occurred behind the orifice starting at the orifice wake region. General trends have been observed in the NOx production as the number of orifices is changed and this appears to be

  9. Transesterification of Jatropha curcas crude oil to biodiesel on calcium lanthanum mixed oxide catalyst: Effect of stoichiometric composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Teo, Siow Hwa; Rashid, Umer; Islam, Aminul; Hussien, Mohd Zobir; Lee, Keat Teong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Biodiesel synthesis from Jatropha curcas oil catalyzed by CaO–La 2 O 3 mixed oxide. • Effects of Ca-to-La ratio, catalyst concentration, methanol/oil ratio and reaction temperature were optimized. • Biodiesel yield >85% was achieved at 65 °C temperature. • CaO–La 2 O 3 catalyst can be easy regenerated. - Abstract: Heterogeneous solid mixed oxide (CaO–La 2 O 3 ) catalysts with different molar ratios of calcium to lanthanum (Ca-to-La) were synthesized by co-precipitation method. The synthesized solid CaO–La 2 O 3 mixed metal oxide catalysts were utilized in transesterification of Jatropha curcus oil as feedstock to produce biodiesel. Under the optimized conditions at 65 °C, 4% catalyst dose with 24:1 MeOH to Jatropha oil molar ratio, the transesterification reaction exhibited 86.51% of biodiesel yield. The prepared catalysts were characterized using various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen sorption with Brunauer–Emmer–Teller (BET) method, temperature-programmed desorption of CO 2 (CO 2 -TPD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Influence of Ca-to-La atomic ratio in the mixed metal oxide catalyst, catalyst amount, methanol to oil molar ratio, reaction time, different oils on the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield were appraised. Different catalyst regeneration procedures were also performed to investigate the reusability of the CaO–La 2 O 3 catalyst

  10. Nuclear fuel technology - Determination of the O/M ratio in MOX pellets - Gravimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This International Standard describes a method for determining the oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio in mixed uranium-plutonium oxide pellets. The (U,Pu)O 2 x sample is submitted to controlled oxidation-reduction under thermodynamic conditions designed to change the O/M ratio to a value of 2,000. The initial stoichiometric deviation, X, is determined from the sample mass difference before and after heat treatment

  11. Preoperative platelet-lymphocyte ratio is superior to neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio as a prognostic factor for soft-tissue sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Que, Yi; Qiu, Haibo; Li, Yuanfang; Chen, Yongming; Xiao, Wei; Zhou, Zhiwei; Zhang, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation can promote tumor growth, invasion, angiogenesis and even metastasis. Inflammatory markers have been identified as prognostic indicators in various malignances. This study compared the usefulness of platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) with that of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) for predicting outcomes of patients who underwent radical resection for soft tissue sarcoma (STS). We included 222 STS patients in this retrospective study. Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariate Cox proportional models were used to calculate overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS). In univariate analysis, elevated PLR and NLR were both significantly associated with decreased OS. In multivariate analysis, PLR (HR: 2.60; 95 % CI: 1.17–5.74, P = 0.019) but not NLR was still identified as independent predictors of outcome. Median OS was 62 and 76 months for the high PLR and low PLR groups, respectively. High PLR and NLR were both significantly associated with shorter DFS in univariate analysis, with median DFS of 18 and 57 months in the high PLR and low PLR groups. In multivariate analysis, elevated PLR (HR: 1.77; 95 % CI: 1.05–2.97, P = 0.032) was also related to decreased DFS. Our findings provide a new and valuable clue for diagnosing and monitoring STS. Prediction of disease progression is not only determined by the use of clinical or histopathological factors including tumor grade, tumor size, and tumor site but also by host-response factors such as performance status, weight loss, and systemic inflammatory response. They also significantly affect clinical outcomes. Thus, PLR can be used to enhance clinical prognostication. Furthermore, the PLR can be assessed from peripheral blood tests that are routinely available without any other complicated expenditure, thus providing lower cost and greater convenience for the prognostication. Elevated preoperative PLR as an independent prognostic factor is superior to NLR in predicting clinical outcome in patients with STS

  12. Structure of mixed β-lactoglobulin/pectin adsorbed layers at air/water interfaces; a spectroscopy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzevles, R.A.; Fokkink, R.; Vliet, T. van; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Jongh, H.H.J. de

    2008-01-01

    Based on earlier reported surface rheological behaviour two factors appeared to be important for the functional behaviour of mixed protein/polysaccharide adsorbed layers at air/water interfaces: (1) protein/polysaccharide mixing ratio and (2) formation history of the layers. In this study complexes

  13. Structure of mixed Beta-lactoglobulin/pectin adsorbed layers at air/water interfaces; a spectroscopy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzevles, R.A.; Fokkink, R.G.; Vliet, van T.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Jongh, de H.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Based on earlier reported surface rheological behaviour two factors appeared to be important for the functional behaviour of mixed protein/polysaccharide adsorbed layers at air/water interfaces: (1) protein/polysaccharide mixing ratio and (2) formation history of the layers. In this study complexes

  14. Effect of mix parameters on longevity of bituminous mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Clayton Matthew

    This study was performed to evaluate the effects of varying aggregate sources, aggregate gradations on the stripping and rutting potential of bituminous based plant mixes specified by the Missouri Department of Transportation. The different aggregate combinations included two different aggregate sources (Potosi Dolomite and Jefferson City Dolomite) including two variations for the Jefferson City Dolomite mix to simulate a marginally in-specification mix and an out-of-specification but in-field tolerance mix. The "field" mix simulated the marginal mix where field tolerance of high dust and low binder content were maximized. All three mixes were evaluated for stripping susceptibility using the Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR) test and the Hamburg Wheel Tracking Device (HWTD). The mix characteristics (unit weight, effective binder content, and air voids) were used for a Level 3 analysis in the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) to determine long term pavement distress conditions such as fatigue cracking, rutting, and IRI (smoothness). The Potosi mix exhibited the best resistance to rutting and stripping during both the TSR testing as well as the Hamburg testing. The Jefferson City In-Spec and Out-of-Spec mixes showed less resistance to rutting and stripping in order, respectively. This was expected for the Jefferson City mixes where the aggregate was of lower quality (higher Los Angeles Abrasion, Micro Deval loss, absorption, and deleterious materials). Also, in the case of the Jefferson City Out-of-Spec mix, the binder content was lower. Upon evaluating the mixes using the MEPDG software, it was shown that mix characteristics such as air voids, VMA, and VFA influenced the fatigue cracking, rutting, and IRI predictions to a minor degree.

  15. Balancing carbon/nitrogen ratio to improve nutrients removal and algal biomass production in piggery and brewery wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongli; Liu, Mingzhi; Lu, Qian; Wu, Xiaodan; Ma, Yiwei; Cheng, Yanling; Addy, Min; Liu, Yuhuan; Ruan, Roger

    2018-02-01

    To improve nutrients removal from wastewaters and enhance algal biomass production, piggery wastewater was mixed with brewery wastewaters. The results showed that it was a promising way to cultivate microalga in piggery and brewery wastewaters by balancing the carbon/nitrogen ratio. The optimal treatment condition for the mixed piggery-brewery wastewater using microalga was piggery wastewater mixed with brewery packaging wastewater by 1:5 at pH 7.0, resulting in carbon/nitrogen ratio of 7.9, with the biomass concentration of 2.85 g L -1 , and the removal of 100% ammonia, 96% of total nitrogen, 90% of total phosphorus, and 93% of chemical oxygen demand. The application of the established strategies can enhance nutrient removal efficiency of the wastewaters while reducing microalgal biomass production costs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of Goiter Prevalence and Iodine to Creatinine Ratio among School-aged Girls in Urmia County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J nourooz-zadeh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Clinical evaluation of iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs is often accomplished by assessment of urinary iodine excretion (UIE in random samples; however, the utilization of 24 hour urine samples is a more reliable biomarker of nutritional iodine status. This study was designed to evaluate total goiter prevalence (TGP and iodine/creatinine ratio among school-aged children in Urmia County. Methods: Schoolchildren (n=500 were recruited by cluster sampling from different educational areas in Urmia County. Goiter prevalence was assessed by thyroid palpation, UIE was determined by Sandell-Koltoff reaction, and Urinary creatinine was measured by the Jaffe-method. Results: In general, TGP was 12.2%. Among these, there were 48 individuals (9.6% with grade I goiter and 13 subjects (2.6% with grade II goiter. Mean urinary creatinine, median UIE and median I/Cr ratio were respectively 1.36±0.76 mg/dL, 14.3µg/dL, and 11.5µg/mg. Prevalence of iodine deficiency according to UIE criteria was 22.8% and that of I/Cr ratio was 41.2%. There was a correlation between age and UIE (P=001; r=0.163. UIE and urinary creatinine were correlated as well (P<0.003; r= 0.133. A correlation was also detected between I/Cr ratios and UIE (P=0.003; r=0.133 whilst a negative association was seen between age and I/Cr ratios (P=0.001; and r=–0.263. Conclusion: This investigation reconfirms that there is slight-to-mild iodine deficiency in Urmia County. The utilization of I/Cr ratio in conjugation with UIE and palpation may provide a better assessment in investigating nutritional iodine status.

  17. Australasian microtektites: Impactor identification using Cr, Co and Ni ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folco, L.; Glass, B. P.; D'Orazio, M.; Rochette, P.

    2018-02-01

    Impactor identification is one of the challenges of large-scale impact cratering studies due to the dilution of meteoritic material in impactites (typically ratios in a Co/Ni vs Cr/Ni space (46 microtektites analyzed in this work by Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma -Mass Spectrometry and 31 from literature by means of Neutron Activation Analyses with Cr, Co and Ni concentrations up to ∼370, 50 and 680 μg/g, respectively). Despite substantial overlap in Cr/Ni versus Co/Ni composition for several meteorite types with chondritic composition (chondrites and primitive achondrites), regression calculation based on ∼85% of the studied microtektites best fit a mixing line between crustal compositions and an LL chondrite. However, due to some scatter mainly in the Cr versus Ni ratios in the considered dataset, an LL chondrite may not be the best fit to the data amongst impactors of primitive compositions. Eight high Ni/Cr and five low Ni/Cr outlier microtektites (∼15% in total) deviate from the above mixing trend, perhaps resulting from incomplete homogenization of heterogeneous impactor and target precursor materials at the microtektite scale, respectively. Together with previous evidence from the ∼35 Myr old Popigai impact spherules and the ∼1 Myr old Ivory Coast microtektites, our finding suggests that at least three of the five known Cenozoic distal impact ejecta were generated by the impacts of large stony asteroids of chondritic composition, and possibly of ordinary chondritic composition. The impactor signature found in Australasian microtektites documents mixing of target and impactor melts upon impact cratering. This requires target-impactor mixing in both the two competing models in literature for the formation of the Australasian tektites/microtektites: the impact cratering and low-altitude airburst plume models.

  18. Use of emulsion for warm mix asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahabir Panda

    2017-06-01

    (ITS, while satisfying the other Marshall parameters. It is also seen that the optimum binder contents for warm mixes are 5.1% with 80B:20E bitumen-emulsion composition for warm mix, prepared at 120 °C. The tensile strength ratio and retained stability parameters are also found to be reasonably satisfactory in such warm mixes, thus prepared.

  19. Platelet-rich plasma limits the nerve injury caused by 10% dextrose in the rabbit median nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gi-Young; Kwon, Dong Rak

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection in a rabbit model of dextrose-induced median nerve injury. New Zealand white rabbits (n = 15) were divided randomly into 3 groups. Three different regimens (group 1: 0.1 ml saline; group 2: 10% dextrose with PRP; group 3: 10% dextrose with saline) were injected within the carpal tunnel. Electrophysiological and histological findings were evaluated 12 weeks after the injection. The mean median motor latency in group 3 was significantly longer than that in groups 1 and 2. The cross-sectional area of the median nerve and subsynovial connective tissue thickness in group 3 were significantly larger than those in groups 1 and 2. PRP injection may be effective in controlling median nerve injury, as demonstrated by improvement in electrophysiological and histological findings 12 weeks after dextrose injection. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Heat capacity measurements and XPS studies on uranium-lanthanum mixed oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkata Krishnan, R.; Mittal, V.K.; Babu, R.; Senapati, Abhiram; Bera, Santanu; Nagarajan, K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Heat capacity measurements were carried out on (U 1-y La y )O 2±x (y = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8) using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) in the temperature range 298-800 K. → Enthalpy increment measurements were carried out on the above solid solution using high temperature drop calorimetry in the temperature range 800-1800 K. → Chemical states of U and La in the solid solutions of mixed oxides were determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). → The anomalous increase in the heat capacity is attributed to certain thermal excitation process namely Frenkel pair defect of oxygen. → From the XPS investigation, it is observed that the O/M ratio at the surface is higher than that to the bulk. → In uranium rich mixed oxide samples, the surface O/M is greater than 2 whereas that in La rich mixed oxides, it is less than 2, though the bulk O/M in all the samples are less than 2. - Abstract: Heat capacity measurements were carried out on (U 1-y La y )O 2±x (y = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8) using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) in the temperature range 298-800 K. Enthalpy increment measurements were carried out on the above solid solutions using high temperature drop calorimetry in the temperature range 800-1800 K. Chemical states of U and La in the solid solutions of mixed oxides were determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Oxygen to metal ratios of (U 1-y La y )O 2±x were estimated from the ratios of different chemical states of U present in the sample. Anomalous increase in the heat capacity is observed for (U 1-y La y )O 2±x (y = 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8) with onset temperatures in the range of 1000-1200 K. The anomalous increase in the heat capacity is attributed to certain thermal excitation process, namely, Frenkel pair defect of oxygen. The heat capacity value of (U 1-y La y )O 2±x (y = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8) at 298 K are 65.3, 64.1, 57.7, 51.9 J K -1 mol -1 , respectively. From the XPS investigations

  1. Degradation of organophosphorus pesticide parathion methyl on nanostructured titania-iron mixed oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henych, Jiří, E-mail: henych@iic.cas.cz [Department of Material Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 25068 Řež (Czech Republic); Štengl, Václav; Slušná, Michaela; Matys Grygar, Tomáš [Department of Material Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 25068 Řež (Czech Republic); Janoš, Pavel; Kuráň, Pavel; Štastný, Martin [Faculty of the Environment, J.E. Purkyně University, Králova Výšina 7, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic)

    2015-07-30

    Highlights: • Ti–Fe mixed oxides were synthesized via low-temperature one-pot method. • Mixed oxides were used for degradation of parathion methyl. • Pure reference oxide samples showed no degradation ability. • Mixed oxides reached 70% degree of conversion of parathion methyl. - Abstract: Titania-iron mixed oxides with various Ti:Fe ratio were prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis of aqueous solutions of titanium(IV) oxysulphate and iron(III) sulphate with urea as a precipitating agent. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman and infrared spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, XRF analysis, specific surface area (BET) and porosity determination (BJH). These oxides were used for degradation of organophosporus pesticide parathion methyl. The highest degradation efficiency approaching <70% was found for the samples with Ti:Fe ratio 0.25:1 and 1:0.25. Contrary, parathion methyl was not degraded on the surfaces of pure oxides. In general, the highest degradation rate exhibited samples consisted of the iron or titanium oxide containing a moderate amount of the admixture. However, distinct correlations between the degradation rate and the sorbent composition were not identified.

  2. Fatigue Debond Growth in Sandwich Structures Loaded in Mixed Mode Bending (MMB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2008-01-01

    Static and cyclic debond growth in sandwich specimens loaded in mixed mode bending (MMB) is examined. The MMB sandwich specimens were manufactured using H100 PVC foam core and E-glass/polyester non-crimp quadro-axial [0/45/90/-45]s DBLT-850 face sheets. Static test were performed to determine...... the fracture toughness of the debonded sandwich specimens at different mixed mode loadings. The mixed mode ratio (mode I to mode II) was controlled by changing the lever arm distance of the MMB test rig. Compliance technique and visual inspection was employed to measure the crack length during fatigue. Fatigue...... tests were performed at 90% of the static fracture toughness at a loading ratio of R=0.1. Fatigue results revealed higher debond crack growth rates when the lever arm distance was increased. For some specimens, the crack propagated just below the face/core interface in the foam core and for others...

  3. Radiographic signs of open median sternotomy in neonates and infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, George [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, PA (United States); Jaimes, Camilo; Markowitz, Richard I. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Gaynor, J.W. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Surgery, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Leaving the median sternotomy wound open following cardiac surgery is employed to avoid cardiovascular compression. Horizontal struts can be used. Radiologists interpreting portable radiographs might be unaware of the open median sternotomy (OMS). To describe the frequency of radiographic signs of OMS and to increase awareness among radiologists to prevent misdiagnosis of pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum. Radiographs of 41 infants (17 girls/24 boys) with OMS were studied (age range 2 days to 8 months, mean 33 days). Central lucency and sternal edges were noted. Interclavicular distances before and after sternotomy were compared. Central lucency was seen in 25/41 (61%) children. Sternal struts were apparent in 27 (66%). In 14 without struts, central lucency was present in 8 (57%). In 27 children with struts, central lucency was present in 17 (63%) and absent in 10 (37%). Split sternal centers were identified in 6/41 (15%). The mean interclavicular distance was 23.5 mm (SD = 4.39) before sternotomy and 38.2 mm (SD = 7.0 mm) after sternotomy (P < 0.001). OMS has characteristic signs in the majority of cases. Recognition of these findings is useful and can prevent misinterpretation. (orig.)

  4. Transformation of Summary Statistics from Linear Mixed Model Association on All-or-None Traits to Odds Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Jones, Luke R; Robinson, Matthew R; Yang, Jian; Visscher, Peter M

    2018-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified thousands of loci that are robustly associated with complex diseases. The use of linear mixed model (LMM) methodology for GWAS is becoming more prevalent due to its ability to control for population structure and cryptic relatedness and to increase power. The odds ratio (OR) is a common measure of the association of a disease with an exposure ( e.g. , a genetic variant) and is readably available from logistic regression. However, when the LMM is applied to all-or-none traits it provides estimates of genetic effects on the observed 0-1 scale, a different scale to that in logistic regression. This limits the comparability of results across studies, for example in a meta-analysis, and makes the interpretation of the magnitude of an effect from an LMM GWAS difficult. In this study, we derived transformations from the genetic effects estimated under the LMM to the OR that only rely on summary statistics. To test the proposed transformations, we used real genotypes from two large, publicly available data sets to simulate all-or-none phenotypes for a set of scenarios that differ in underlying model, disease prevalence, and heritability. Furthermore, we applied these transformations to GWAS summary statistics for type 2 diabetes generated from 108,042 individuals in the UK Biobank. In both simulation and real-data application, we observed very high concordance between the transformed OR from the LMM and either the simulated truth or estimates from logistic regression. The transformations derived and validated in this study improve the comparability of results from prospective and already performed LMM GWAS on complex diseases by providing a reliable transformation to a common comparative scale for the genetic effects. Copyright © 2018 by the Genetics Society of America.

  5. Alvar engine. An engine with variable compression ratio. Experiments and tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlandsson, Olof

    1998-09-01

    This report is focused on tests with Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) engines, according to the Alvar engine principle. Variable compression ratio means an engine design where it is possible to change the nominal compression ratio. The purpose is to increase the fuel efficiency at part load by increasing the compression ratio. At maximum load, and maybe supercharging with for example turbocharger, it is not possible to keep a high compression ratio because of the knock phenomena. Knock is a shock wave caused by self-ignition of the fuel-air mix. If knock occurs, the engine will be exposed to a destructive load. Because of the reasons mentioned it would be an advantage if it would be possible to change the compression ratio continuously when the load changes. The Alvar engine provides a solution for variable compression ratio based on well-known engine components. This paper provides information about efficiency and emission characteristics from tests with two Alvar engines. Results from tests with a phase shift mechanism (for automatic compression ratio control) for the Alvar engine are also reviewed Examination paper. 5 refs, 23 figs, 2 tabs, 5 appendices

  6. Effect of mix proportion of high density concrete on compressive strength, density and radiation absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Azreen Masenwat; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Suhairy Sani; Ismail Mustapha; Nasharuddin Isa; Mohamad Haniza Mahmud; Mohammad Shahrizan Samsu

    2014-01-01

    To prevent radiation leaks at nuclear reactors, high-density concrete is used as an absorbent material for radiation from spreading into the environment. High-density concrete is a mixture of cement, sand, aggregate (usually high-density minerals) and water. In this research, hematite stone is used because of its mineral density higher than the granite used in conventional concrete mixing. Mix concrete in this study were divided into part 1 and part 2. In part 1, the concrete mixture is designed with the same ratio of 1: 2: 4 but differentiated in terms of water-cement ratio (0.60, 0.65, 0.70, 0.75, 0.80 ). Whereas, in part 2, the concrete mixture is designed to vary the ratio of 1: 1: 2, 1: 1.5: 3, 1: 2: 3, 1: 3: 6, 1: 2: 6 with water-cement ratio (0.7, 0.8, 0.85, 0.9). In each section, the division has also performed in a mixture of sand and fine sand hematite. Then, the physical characteristics of the density and the compressive strength of the mixture of part 1 and part 2 is measured. Comparisons were also made in terms of absorption of radiation by Cs-137 and Co-60 source for each mix. This paper describes and discusses the relationship between the concrete mixture ratio, the relationship with the water-cement ratio, compressive strength, density, different mixture of sand and fine sand hematite. (author)

  7. Influence of gas inlet angle on the mixing process in a Venturi mixer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romańczyk Mathias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper numerical analysis were performed to investigate the influence of gas inlet angle on mixing process in a Venturi mixer. Performance of an industrial gas engine depends significantly on the quality of mixing air and fuel; therefore, on the homogeneity of the mixture. In addition, there must be a suitable, adapted to the current load of fuel, air ratio. Responsible for this fact, among others, is the mixer located before entering the combustion chamber of the engine. Incorrect mixture proportion can lead to unstable operation of the engine, as well as higher emissions going beyond current environmental standards in the European Union. To validate the simulation the Air-Fuel Ratio (AFR was mathematically calculated for the air-fuel mixture of lean combustion gas engine. In this study, an open source three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD modelling software OpenFOAM has been used, to investigate and analyse the influence of different gas inlet angles on mixer characteristics and their performances. Attention was focused on the air-fuel ratio changes, pressure loss, as well as improvement of the mixing quality in the Venturi mixer.

  8. Robust K-Median and K-Means Clustering Algorithms for Incomplete Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Incomplete data with missing feature values are prevalent in clustering problems. Traditional clustering methods first estimate the missing values by imputation and then apply the classical clustering algorithms for complete data, such as K-median and K-means. However, in practice, it is often hard to obtain accurate estimation of the missing values, which deteriorates the performance of clustering. To enhance the robustness of clustering algorithms, this paper represents the missing values by interval data and introduces the concept of robust cluster objective function. A minimax robust optimization (RO formulation is presented to provide clustering results, which are insensitive to estimation errors. To solve the proposed RO problem, we propose robust K-median and K-means clustering algorithms with low time and space complexity. Comparisons and analysis of experimental results on both artificially generated and real-world incomplete data sets validate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

  9. Seasonal and diurnal variations of atmospheric mercury across the US determined from AMNet monitoring data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Lan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Speciated atmospheric mercury observations collected over the period from 2008 to 2010 at the Environmental Protection Agency and National Atmospheric Deposition Program Atmospheric Mercury Network sites (AMNet were analyzed for its spatial, seasonal, and diurnal characteristics across the US. Median values of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM and particulate bound mercury (PBM at 11 different AMNet sites ranged from 148–226 ppqv (1.32–2.02 ng m−3, 0.05–1.4 ppqv (0.47–12.4 pg m−3 and 0.18–1.5 ppqv (1.61–13.7 pg m−3, respectively. Common characteristics of these sites were the similar median levels of GEM as well as its seasonality, with the highest mixing ratios occurring in winter and spring and the lowest in fall. However, discernible differences in monthly average GEM were as large as 30 ppqv, which may be caused by sporadic influence from local emission sources. The largest diurnal variation amplitude of GEM occurred in the summer. Seven rural sites displayed similar GEM summer diurnal patterns, in that the lowest levels appeared in the early morning, and then the GEM mixing ratio increased after sunrise and reached its maxima at noon or in the early afternoon. Unlike GEM, GOM exhibited higher mixing ratios in spring and summer. The largest diurnal variation amplitude of GOM occurred in spring for most AMNet sites. The GOM diurnal minima appeared before sunrise and maxima appeared in the afternoon. The increased GOM mixing ratio in the afternoon indicated a photochemically driven oxidation of GEM resulting in GOM formation. PBM exhibited diurnal fluctuations in summertime. The summertime PBM diurnal pattern displayed daily maxima in the early afternoon and lower mixing ratios at night, implying photochemical production of PBM in summer.

  10. Establishment of a JSME code for the evaluation of high-cycle thermal fatigue in mixing tees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, Shoichi; Fukuda, Toshihiko; Matsunaga, Tomoya; Hirayama, Hiroshi; Shiina, Kouji; Tanimoto, Koichi

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a JSME code for high-cycle thermal fatigue evaluation by thermal striping in mixing tees with hot and cold water flows. The evaluation of thermal striping in a mixing tee has four steps to screen design parameters one-by-one according to the severity of the thermal load assessed from design conditions using several evaluation charts. In order to make these charts, visualization tests with acrylic pipes and temperature measurement tests with metal pipes were conducted. The influence of the configurations of mixing tees, flow velocity ratio, pipe diameter ratio and so on was examined from the results of the experiments. This paper makes a short mention of the process of providing these charts. (author)

  11. Generation of maximally entangled mixed states of two atoms via on-resonance asymmetric atom-cavity couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shang-Bin

    2007-01-01

    A scheme for generating the maximally entangled mixed state of two atoms on-resonance asymmetrically coupled to a single mode optical cavity field is presented. The part frontier of both maximally entangled mixed states and maximal Bell violating mixed states can be approximately reached by the evolving reduced density matrix of two atoms if the ratio of coupling strengths of two atoms is appropriately controlled. It is also shown that exchange symmetry of global maximal concurrence is broken if and only if coupling strength ratio lies between (√(3)/3) and √(3) for the case of one-particle excitation and asymmetric coupling, while this partial symmetry breaking cannot be verified by detecting maximal Bell violation

  12. Calculation of statistic estimates of kinetic parameters from substrate uncompetitive inhibition equation using the median method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro L. Valencia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We provide initial rate data from enzymatic reaction experiments and tis processing to estimate the kinetic parameters from the substrate uncompetitive inhibition equation using the median method published by Eisenthal and Cornish-Bowden (Cornish-Bowden and Eisenthal, 1974; Eisenthal and Cornish-Bowden, 1974. The method was denominated the direct linear plot and consists in the calculation of the median from a dataset of kinetic parameters Vmax and Km from the Michaelis–Menten equation. In this opportunity we present the procedure to applicate the direct linear plot to the substrate uncompetitive inhibition equation; a three-parameter equation. The median method is characterized for its robustness and its insensibility to outlier. The calculations are presented in an Excel datasheet and a computational algorithm was developed in the free software Python. The kinetic parameters of the substrate uncompetitive inhibition equation Vmax, Km and Ks were calculated using three experimental points from the dataset formed by 13 experimental points. All the 286 combinations were calculated. The dataset of kinetic parameters resulting from this combinatorial was used to calculate the median which corresponds to the statistic estimator of the real kinetic parameters. A comparative statistical analyses between the median method and the least squares was published in Valencia et al. [3].

  13. Design and development of a digital phase ratio meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majee, B C [Reactor Control Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Roy, S B; Meghal, A M [Uranium Extraction Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Uranium purification at Uranium Metal Plant is being carried out using solvent extraction process. The feed is aqueous uranyl nitrate solution with 2-4% insoluble silica particles. The solvent is tri-butyl phosphate diluted with commercial grade kerosene. Extraction is conducted in a slurry extractor equipment using compressed air as mixing and solution-interstage transferring medium. To ensure the organic continuous mode in the mixer and to avoid stable emulsion formation, organic to aqueous ratio maintained in each mixer is 10 to 12 whereas optimum extraction process requires an overall organic to aqueous ratio of 2. Therefore, a high volume of internal recirculation of organic is being arranged by the air-lift in mixers. For a smooth, continuous efficient extraction, mixer organic to aqueous ratio is a very critical parameter and it is required to be monitored periodically to take corrective actions during the operation by controlling the compressed air flow rate. Trials were conducted to select a suitable method of autocontrol of this phase ratio and a system has been designed for this purpose. (author). 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Magnetic nanoparticles colourization by a mixing-frequency method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Liang; Wu, Kai; Klein, Todd; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Brownian and Néel relaxation of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) can be characterized by a highly sensitive mixing-frequency method using a search-coil based detection system. The unique magnetic properties of MNPs have been used for biomarkers detection. In this paper, we present a theory and implement an experimental detection scheme using the mixing-frequency method to identify different MNPs simultaneously. A low-frequency sinusoidal magnetic field is applied to saturate the MNPs periodically. A high-frequency sinusoidal magnetic field is then applied to generate mixing-frequency signals that are highly specific to the magnetization of MNPs. The spectra of each MNP can be defined as the complex magnetization of the MNPs over the field frequency. The magnetic spectra of various MNPs and magnetic beads have been characterized and compared. The differences between the MNPs spectra enable us to identify the individual MNPs at the same time. A test has been done to verify the ratio of two different MNPs in mixed samples based on the proposed theory. The experimental results show that the mixing-frequency method is a promising method for MNPs colourization. (paper)

  15. Compressive strength of a concrete mix for pavement blocks incorporating industrial by-product

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokoena, Refiloe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available - reference 3 0 0.26 808 0 1062 344 210 0 - Mix 8 50 0.28 404 404 1062 212 226 0 0 Mix 8A 50 0.28 404 404 1062 212 226 3.10 5 Mix 8B 50 0.28 404 404 1062 212 226 6.21 10 Mix 9 90 0.28 81 727 1062 106 226 0 55 *water:binder ratio where fly ash and cement... was made for the 90% fly ash specimens due to the specimens disintegrating once placed in water. These specimens were therefore cured in heavy duty plastic bags; mixes 3, 6 and 9 were cured in the heavy duty bags before crushing on the appropriate days...

  16. Median artery of the forearm in human fetuses in northeastern Brazil: anatomical study and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, José Aderval; da Silva, Ana Caroline Ferreira; Anunciação, Caio Barretto; Reis, Francisco Prado

    2017-01-01

    A persistent median artery is a rare anomaly. It accompanies the median nerve along its course in the forearm and is of variable origin. It is associated with other local anatomical variations and may contribute significantly towards formation of the superficial palmar arch. In embryos, it is responsible mainly for the blood supply to the hand. The objective of this study was to research the frequency, type (forearm or palmar) and origin of the median artery in fetuses, correlating its presence with sex and body side. Red-colored latex was injected into 32 brachial arteries of human fetuses until its arrival in the hand could be seen. Twenty-four hours after the injection, the median arteries were dissected without the aid of optical instruments. Among the 32 forearms dissected, the median artery was present in 81.25 % (26) of the cases, and it was found more frequently in females and on the left side. Regarding origin, most of the median arteries originated in the common interosseous artery (38.5 %) and anterior interosseous artery (34.6 %). The mean length of the median arteries was 21.1 mm for the palmar type and 19.8 mm for the forearm type. The median artery has a high rate of persistence. It is important to be aware of this anatomical variation, since its presence may give rise to difficulties during routine surgical procedures on the wrist. Its presence may cause serious functional complications in the carpal tunnel, anterior interosseous nerve, round pronator syndromes, and ischemia of the hand.

  17. An equivalent method of mixed dielectric constant in passive microwave/millimeter radiometric measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jinlong; Tian, Yan; Hu, Fei; Gui, Liangqi; Cheng, Yayun; Peng, Xiaohui

    2017-10-01

    Dielectric constant is an important role to describe the properties of matter. This paper proposes This paper proposes the concept of mixed dielectric constant(MDC) in passive microwave radiometric measurement. In addition, a MDC inversion method is come up, Ratio of Angle-Polarization Difference(RAPD) is utilized in this method. The MDC of several materials are investigated using RAPD. Brightness temperatures(TBs) which calculated by MDC and original dielectric constant are compared. Random errors are added to the simulation to test the robustness of the algorithm. Keywords: Passive detection, microwave/millimeter, radiometric measurement, ratio of angle-polarization difference (RAPD), mixed dielectric constant (MDC), brightness temperatures, remote sensing, target recognition.

  18. Do Mixed-Flora Preoperative Urine Cultures Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polin, Michael R; Kawasaki, Amie; Amundsen, Cindy L; Weidner, Alison C; Siddiqui, Nazema Y

    2017-06-01

    To determine whether mixed-flora preoperative urine cultures, as compared with no-growth preoperative urine cultures, are associated with a higher prevalence of postoperative urinary tract infections (UTIs). This was a retrospective cohort study. Women who underwent urogynecologic surgery were included if their preoperative clean-catch urine culture result was mixed flora or no growth. Women were excluded if they received postoperative antibiotics for reasons other than treatment of a UTI. Women were divided into two cohorts based on preoperative urine culture results-mixed flora or no growth; the prevalence of postoperative UTI was compared between cohorts. Baseline characteristics were compared using χ 2 or Student t tests. A logistic regression analysis then was performed. We included 282 women who were predominantly postmenopausal, white, and overweight. There were many concomitant procedures; 46% underwent a midurethral sling procedure and 68% underwent pelvic organ prolapse surgery. Preoperative urine cultures resulted as mixed flora in 192 (68%) and no growth in 90 (32%) patients. Overall, 14% were treated for a UTI postoperatively. There was no difference in the proportion of patients treated for a postoperative UTI between the two cohorts (25 mixed flora vs 13 no growth, P = 0.77). These results remained when controlling for potentially confounding variables in a logistic regression model (adjusted odds ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.43-1.96). In women with mixed-flora compared with no-growth preoperative urine cultures, there were no differences in the prevalence of postoperative UTI. The clinical practice of interpreting mixed-flora cultures as negative is appropriate.

  19. Some haltuun : Murrosikäisen sosiaalisen median käytön ohjaus terveydenhoitajan työssä

    OpenAIRE

    Paavola, Pinja; Haapala, Lotta

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli lisätä terveydenhoitajien tietämystä sosiaalisesta mediasta, jotta he osaavat ohjata murrosikäisiä sosiaalisen median turvallisessa käytössä ja, että murrosikäinen voi käyttää sosiaalista mediaa turvallisesti. Tarkoituksena oli selvittää, miten murrosikäinen käyttää sosiaalisen median sovelluksia ja miten terveydenhoitaja voisi ohjata sosiaalisen median turvalliseen käyttöön. Tutkimuskysymyksinä oli selvittää; mitä murrosikäinen tietää sosiaalisen median turvalli...

  20. The "p"-Median Model as a Tool for Clustering Psychological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Hans-Friedrich; Steinley, Douglas; Brusco, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The "p"-median clustering model represents a combinatorial approach to partition data sets into disjoint, nonhierarchical groups. Object classes are constructed around "exemplars", that is, manifest objects in the data set, with the remaining instances assigned to their closest cluster centers. Effective, state-of-the-art implementations of…

  1. The double mass hierarchy pattern: Simultaneously understanding quark and lepton mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollik, Wolfgang Gregor; Saldaña Salazar, Ulises Jesús

    2015-03-01

    The charged fermion masses of the three generations exhibit the two strong hierarchies m3 ≫m2 ≫m1. We assume that also neutrino masses satisfy mν3 >mν2 >mν1 and derive the consequences of the hierarchical spectra on the fermionic mixing patterns. The quark and lepton mixing matrices are built in a general framework with their matrix elements expressed in terms of the four fermion mass ratios, mu /mc, mc /mt, md /ms and ms /mb, and me /mμ, mμ /mτ, mν1 /mν2 and mν2 /mν3, for the quark and lepton sector, respectively. In this framework, we show that the resulting mixing matrices are consistent with data for both quarks and leptons, despite the large leptonic mixing angles. The minimal assumption we take is the one of hierarchical masses and minimal flavor symmetry breaking that strongly follows from phenomenology. No special structure of the mass matrices has to be assumed that cannot be motivated by this minimal assumption. This analysis allows us to predict the neutrino mass spectrum and set the mass of the lightest neutrino well below 0.01 eV. The method also gives the 1σ allowed ranges for the leptonic mixing matrix elements. Contrary to the common expectation, leptonic mixing angles are found to be determined solely by the four leptonic mass ratios without any relation to symmetry considerations as commonly used in flavor model building. Still, our formulae can be used to build up a flavor model that predicts the observed hierarchies in the masses - the mixing follows then from the procedure which is developed in this work.

  2. Resuscitation therapy for traumatic brain injury-induced coma in rats: mechanisms of median nerve electrical stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, rats were put into traumatic brain injury-induced coma and treated with median nerve electrical stimulation. We explored the wake-promoting effect, and possible mechanisms, of median nerve electrical stimulation. Electrical stimulation upregulated the expression levels of orexin-A and its receptor OX1R in the rat prefrontal cortex. Orexin-A expression gradually increased with increasing stimulation, while OX1R expression reached a peak at 12 hours and then decreased. In addition, after the OX1R antagonist, SB334867, was injected into the brain of rats after traumatic brain injury, fewer rats were restored to consciousness, and orexin-A and OXIR expression in the prefrontal cortex was downregulated. Our findings indicate that median nerve electrical stimulation induced an up-regulation of orexin-A and OX1R expression in the prefrontal cortex of traumatic brain injury-induced coma rats, which may be a potential mechanism involved in the wake-promoting effects of median nerve electrical stimulation.

  3. PENERAPAN METODE LEAST MEDIAN SQUARE-MINIMUM COVARIANCE DETERMINANT (LMS-MCD DALAM REGRESI KOMPONEN UTAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I PUTU EKA IRAWAN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Principal Component Regression is a method to overcome multicollinearity techniques by combining principal component analysis with regression analysis. The calculation of classical principal component analysis is based on the regular covariance matrix. The covariance matrix is optimal if the data originated from a multivariate normal distribution, but is very sensitive to the presence of outliers. Alternatives are used to overcome this problem the method of Least Median Square-Minimum Covariance Determinant (LMS-MCD. The purpose of this research is to conduct a comparison between Principal Component Regression (RKU and Method of Least Median Square - Minimum Covariance Determinant (LMS-MCD in dealing with outliers. In this study, Method of Least Median Square - Minimum Covariance Determinant (LMS-MCD has a bias and mean square error (MSE is smaller than the parameter RKU. Based on the difference of parameter estimators, still have a test that has a difference of parameter estimators method LMS-MCD greater than RKU method.

  4. Correlation of the Na2SiO3 to NaOH Ratios and Solid to Liquid Ratios to the Kedah’s Soil Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hamzah Hazamaah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Geopolymer was used for the soil stabilization of Kedah’s soil at different ratios of solid to liquid and Na2SiO3 to NaOH in order to achieve the desired compressive strength. The geopolymerization process which produces an aluminosilicate gel was occurred due to the mixing of Kedah’s soil and fly ash with Na2SiO3 and NaOH. Soil stabilization by geopolymer was synthesized by the activation of fly ash and Kedah’s soil with Na2SiO3 and NaOH at different ratios of solid to liquid (1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 and Na2SiO3 to NaOH (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 at a specific constant concentration of NaOH solution of 6M. The compressive strength up to 5.12 MPa was obtained at 3.0 of solid to liquid ratio and 2.5 of Na2SiO3 to NaOH ratio in 7 days curing at room temperature.

  5. The relationship between size, book-to-market equity ratio, earnings–price ratio, and return for the Tehran stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Sadeghi Lafmejani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine whether or there is any difference between the returns of two value and growth portfolios, sorted by price-to-earnings (P/E and price-to-book value (P/BV, in terms of the ratios of market sensitivity to index (β, firm size and market liquidity in listed firms in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE over the period 2001-2008. The selected firms were collected from those with existing two-consecutive positive P/E and P/BV ratios and by excluding financial and holding firms. There were five independent variables for the proposed study of this paper including P/E, P/B, market size, market sensitivity beta (β and market liquidity. In each year, we first sort firms in non-decreasing order and setup four set of portfolios with equal firms. Therefore, the first portfolio with the lowest P/E ratio is called value portfolio and the last one with the highest P/E ratio is called growth portfolio. This process was repeated based on P/BV ratio to determine value and growth portfolios, accordingly. The study investigated the characteristics of two portfolios based on firm size, β and liquidity. The study has implemented t-student and Levin’s test to examine different hypotheses and the results have indicated mix effects of market sensitivity, firm size and market liquidity on returns of the firms in various periods.

  6. Jet-Surface Interaction - High Aspect Ratio Nozzle Test: Test Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Clifford A.

    2016-01-01

    The Jet-Surface Interaction High Aspect Ratio Nozzle Test was conducted in the Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center in the fall of 2015. There were four primary goals specified for this test: (1) extend the current noise database for rectangular nozzles to higher aspect ratios, (2) verify data previously acquired at small-scale with data from a larger model, (3) acquired jet-surface interaction noise data suitable for creating verifying empirical noise models and (4) investigate the effect of nozzle septa on the jet-mixing and jet-surface interaction noise. These slides give a summary of the test with representative results for each goal.

  7. Neutrino mass and mixing with discrete symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Stephen F; Luhn, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    This is a review paper about neutrino mass and mixing and flavour model building strategies based on discrete family symmetry. After a pedagogical introduction and overview of the whole of neutrino physics, we focus on the PMNS mixing matrix and the latest global fits following the Daya Bay and RENO experiments which measure the reactor angle. We then describe the simple bimaximal, tri-bimaximal and golden ratio patterns of lepton mixing and the deviations required for a non-zero reactor angle, with solar or atmospheric mixing sum rules resulting from charged lepton corrections or residual trimaximal mixing. The different types of see-saw mechanism are then reviewed as well as the sequential dominance mechanism. We then give a mini-review of finite group theory, which may be used as a discrete family symmetry broken by flavons either completely, or with different subgroups preserved in the neutrino and charged lepton sectors. These two approaches are then reviewed in detail in separate chapters including mechanisms for flavon vacuum alignment and different model building strategies that have been proposed to generate the reactor angle. We then briefly review grand unified theories (GUTs) and how they may be combined with discrete family symmetry to describe all quark and lepton masses and mixing. Finally, we discuss three model examples which combine an SU(5) GUT with the discrete family symmetries A 4 , S 4 and Δ(96). (review article)

  8. Usability testing of wireless broadband LAN in the MEDIAN user trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, C. van; Vliet, P.J. van; Schuurman, K.; Maltha, S.R.; Leyten, A.J.M.; Dirks, M.W.S.

    1999-01-01

    The main objective of the ACTS MEDIAN project is to build a high speed WCPN/LAN demonstrator system for multimedia applications and demonstrate it in user trials. The demonstrator system, consisting of one base station and two portable stations, is capable of handling high speed (up to 150 Mbit/s)

  9. Turbulent mixing and wave radiation in non-Boussinesq internal bores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borden, Zac; Koblitz, Tilman; Meiburg, Eckart

    2012-01-01

    Bores, or hydraulic jumps, appear in many natural settings and are useful in many industrial applications. If the densities of the two fluids between which a bore propagates are very different (i.e., water and air), the less dense fluid can be neglected when modeling a bore analytically-a single...... ratio, defined as the ratio of the density of the lighter fluid to the heavier fluid, is greater than approximately one half. For smaller density ratios, undular waves generated at the bore's front dominate over the effects of turbulent mixing, and the expanding layer loses energy across the bore. Based...

  10. Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part I: Single layer cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Stephen A.; McCoy, Renata B.; Morrison, Hugh; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Avramov, Alexander; de Boer, Gijs; Chen, Mingxuan; Cole, Jason N.S.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Falk, Michael; Foster, Michael J.; Fridlind, Ann; Golaz, Jean-Christophe; Hashino, Tempei; Harrington, Jerry Y.; Hoose, Corinna; Khairoutdinov, Marat F.; Larson, Vincent E.; Liu, Xiaohong; Luo, Yali; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Menon, Surabi; Neggers, Roel A. J.; Park, Sungsu; Poellot, Michael R.; Schmidt, Jerome M.; Sednev, Igor; Shipway, Ben J.; Shupe, Matthew D.; Spangenberg, Douglas A.; Sud, Yogesh C.; Turner, David D.; Veron, Dana E.; von Salzen, Knut; Walker, Gregory K.; Wang, Zhien; Wolf, Audrey B.; Xie, Shaocheng; Xu, Kuan-Man; Yang, Fanglin; Zhang, Gong

    2009-02-02

    Results are presented from an intercomparison of single-column and cloud-resolving model simulations of a cold-air outbreak mixed-phase stratocumulus cloud observed during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. The observed cloud occurred in a well-mixed boundary layer with a cloud top temperature of -15 C. The observed average liquid water path of around 160 g m{sup -2} was about two-thirds of the adiabatic value and much greater than the average mass of ice crystal precipitation which when integrated from the surface to cloud top was around 15 g m{sup -2}. The simulations were performed by seventeen single-column models (SCMs) and nine cloud-resolving models (CRMs). While the simulated ice water path is generally consistent with the observed values, the median SCM and CRM liquid water path is a factor of three smaller than observed. Results from a sensitivity study in which models removed ice microphysics suggest that in many models the interaction between liquid and ice-phase microphysics is responsible for the large model underestimate of liquid water path. Despite this general underestimate, the simulated liquid and ice water paths of several models are consistent with the observed values. Furthermore, there is evidence that models with more sophisticated microphysics simulate liquid and ice water paths that are in better agreement with the observed values, although considerable scatter is also present. Although no single factor guarantees a good simulation, these results emphasize the need for improvement in the model representation of mixed-phase microphysics.

  11. Hydrothermal synthesis, crystal structures and photoluminescence properties of mixed europium–yttrium organic frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yinfeng; Fu Lianshe; Mafra, Luís; Shi, Fa-Nian

    2012-01-01

    Three mixed europium–yttrium organic frameworks: Eu 2−x Y x (Mel)(H 2 O) 6 (Mel=mellitic acid or benzene-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexacarboxylic acid, x=0.38 1, 0.74 2, and 0.86 3) have been synthesized and characterized. All the compounds contain a 3-D net with (4, 8)-flu topology. The study indicates that the photoluminescence properties are effectively affected by the different ratios of europium and yttrium ions, the quantum efficiency is increased and the Eu 3+ lifetime becomes longer in these MOFs than those of the Eu analog. - Graphical abstract: Three mixed europium and yttrium organic frameworks: Eu 2−x Y x (Mel)(H 2 O) 6 (Mel=mellitic acid) have been synthesized and characterized. All the compounds contain a 3-D net with (4, 8)-flu topology. The study indicates that the photoluminescence properties are effectively affected by the different ratios of europium and yttrium ions, the quantum efficiency is increased and the Eu 3+ lifetime becomes longer in these MOFs than those of the Eu analog. Highlights: ► Three (4, 8)-flu topological mixed Eu and Y MOFs were synthesized under mild conditions. ► Metal ratios were refined by the single crystal data consistent with the EDS analysis. ► Mixed Eu and Y MOFs show longer lifetime and higher quantum efficiency than the Eu analog. ► Adding inert lanthanide into luminescent MOFs enlarges the field of luminescent MOFs.

  12. Robust Mediation Analysis Based on Median Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; MacKinnon, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Mediation analysis has many applications in psychology and the social sciences. The most prevalent methods typically assume that the error distribution is normal and homoscedastic. However, this assumption may rarely be met in practice, which can affect the validity of the mediation analysis. To address this problem, we propose robust mediation analysis based on median regression. Our approach is robust to various departures from the assumption of homoscedasticity and normality, including heavy-tailed, skewed, contaminated, and heteroscedastic distributions. Simulation studies show that under these circumstances, the proposed method is more efficient and powerful than standard mediation analysis. We further extend the proposed robust method to multilevel mediation analysis, and demonstrate through simulation studies that the new approach outperforms the standard multilevel mediation analysis. We illustrate the proposed method using data from a program designed to increase reemployment and enhance mental health of job seekers. PMID:24079925

  13. The Ratio Between Metastatic and Examined Lymph Nodes (N Ratio) Is an Independent Prognostic Factor in Gastric Cancer Regardless of the Type of Lymphadenectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchet, Alberto; Mocellin, Simone; Ambrosi, Alessandro; Morgagni, Paolo; Garcea, Domenico; Marrelli, Daniele; Roviello, Franco; de Manzoni, Giovanni; Minicozzi, Annamaria; Natalini, Giovanni; De Santis, Francesco; Baiocchi, Luca; Coniglio, Arianna; Nitti, Donato

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the ratio between metastatic and examined lymph nodes (N ratio) is a better prognostic factor as compared with traditional staging systems in patients with gastric cancer regardless of the extension of lymph node dissection. Patients & Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the data of 1853 patients who underwent radical resection for gastric carcinoma at 6 Italian centers. Patients with >15 (group 1, n = 1421) and those with ≤15 (group 2, n = 432) lymph nodes examined were separately analyzed. N ratio categories (N ratio 0, 0%; N ratio 1, 1%–9%; N ratio 2, 10%–25%; N ratio 3, >25%) were determined by the best cut-off approach. Results: After a median follow-up of 45.5 months (range, 4–182 months), the 5-year overall survival of N0, N1, and N2 patients of group 1 versus group 2 was 83.4% versus 74.2% (P = 0.0026), 54.3% versus 44.3% (P = 0.018), and 32.7% versus 14.7% (P = 0.004), respectively, suggesting that a low number of excised lymph nodes can lead to the understaging of patients. N ratio identified subsets of patients with significantly different survival rates within N1 and N2 stages in both groups. At multivariate analysis, the N ratio (but not N stage) was retained as an independent prognostic factor both in group 1 and group 2 (HR for N ratio 1, N ratio 2, and N ratio 3 = 1.67, 2.96, and 6.59, and 1.56, 2.68, and 4.28, respectively). In our series, the implementation of N ratio led to the identification of subgroups of patients prognostically more homogeneous than those classified by the TNM system. Conclusion: N ratio is a simple and reproducible prognostic tool that can stratify patients with gastric cancer also in case of limited lymph node dissection. These data may represent the rational for improving the prognostic power of current UICC TNM staging system and ultimately the selection of patients who may most benefit from adjuvant treatments. PMID:17414602

  14. The Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio at Diagnosis Is Significantly Associated with Survival in Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Piciucchi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Different inflammation-based scores such as the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR, the Odonera Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI, the Glasgow Prognostic Score, the platelet/lymphocyte ratio, and the C-reactive protein/albumin ratio have been found to be significantly associated with pancreatic cancer (PDAC prognosis. However, most studies have investigated patients undergoing surgery, and few of them have compared these scores. We aimed at evaluating the association between inflammatory-based scores and PDAC prognosis. In a single center cohort study, inflammatory-based scores were assessed at diagnosis and their prognostic relevance as well as that of clinic-pathological variables were evaluated through multiple logistic regression and survival probability analysis. In 206 patients, age, male sex, tumor size, presence of distant metastasis, access to chemotherapy, and an NLR > 5 but not other scores were associated with overall survival (OS at multivariate analysis. Patients with an NLR < 5 had a median survival of 12 months compared to 4 months in those with an NLR > 5. In the 81 patients with distant metastasis at diagnosis, an NLR > 5 resulted in the only variable significantly associated with survival. Among patients with metastatic disease who received chemotherapy, the median survival was 3 months in patients with an NLR > 5 and 7 months in those with an NLR < 5. The NLR might drive therapeutic options in PDAC patients, especially in the setting of metastatic disease.

  15. Day 100 Peripheral Blood Absolute Lymphocyte/Monocyte Ratio and Survival in Classical Hodgkin's Lymphoma Postautologous Peripheral Blood Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Porrata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Day 100 prognostic factors of postautologous peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (APBHSCT to predict clinical outcome in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL patients have not been evaluated. Thus, we studied if the day 100 peripheral blood absolute lymphocyte/monocyte ratio (Day 100 ALC/AMC affects clinical outcomes by landmark analysis from day 100 post-APBHSCT. Only cHL patients achieving a complete remission at day 100 post-APBHSCT were studied. From 2000 to 2010, 131 cHL consecutive patients qualified for the study. The median followup from day 100 was 4.1 years (range: 0.2–12.3 years. Patients with a Day 100 ALC/AMC ≥ 1.3 experienced superior overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS compared with Day 100 ALC/AMC < 1.3 (from day 100: OS, median not reached versus 2.8 years; 5 years OS rates of 93% (95% CI, 83%–97% versus 35% (95% CI, 19%–51%, resp., P<0.0001; from day 100: PFS, median not reached versus 1.2 years; 5 years PFS rates of 79% (95% CI, 69%–86% versus 27% (95% CI, 14%–45%, resp., P<0.0001. Day ALC/AMC ratio was an independent predictor for OS and PFS. Thus, Day 100 ALC/AMC ratio is a simple biomarker that can help to assess clinical outcomes from day 100 post-APBHSCT in cHL patients.

  16. Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part I: Single layer cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, S A; McCoy, R B; Morrison, H; Ackerman, A; Avramov, A; deBoer, G; Chen, M; Cole, J; DelGenio, A; Golaz, J; Hashino, T; Harrington, J; Hoose, C; Khairoutdinov, M; Larson, V; Liu, X; Luo, Y; McFarquhar, G; Menon, S; Neggers, R; Park, S; Poellot, M; von Salzen, K; Schmidt, J; Sednev, I; Shipway, B; Shupe, M; Spangenberg, D; Sud, Y; Turner, D; Veron, D; Falk, M; Foster, M; Fridlind, A; Walker, G; Wang, Z; Wolf, A; Xie, S; Xu, K; Yang, F; Zhang, G

    2008-02-27

    Results are presented from an intercomparison of single-column and cloud-resolving model simulations of a cold-air outbreak mixed-phase stratocumulus cloud observed during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. The observed cloud occurred in a well-mixed boundary layer with a cloud top temperature of -15 C. The observed liquid water path of around 160 g m{sup -2} was about two-thirds of the adiabatic value and much greater than the mass of ice crystal precipitation which when integrated from the surface to cloud top was around 15 g m{sup -2}. The simulations were performed by seventeen single-column models (SCMs) and nine cloud-resolving models (CRMs). While the simulated ice water path is generally consistent with the observed values, the median SCM and CRM liquid water path is a factor of three smaller than observed. Results from a sensitivity study in which models removed ice microphysics indicate that in many models the interaction between liquid and ice-phase microphysics is responsible for the large model underestimate of liquid water path. Despite this general underestimate, the simulated liquid and ice water paths of several models are consistent with the observed values. Furthermore, there is some evidence that models with more sophisticated microphysics simulate liquid and ice water paths that are in better agreement with the observed values, although considerable scatter is also present. Although no single factor guarantees a good simulation, these results emphasize the need for improvement in the model representation of mixed-phase microphysics. This case study, which has been well observed from both aircraft and ground-based remote sensors, could be a benchmark for model simulations of mixed-phase clouds.

  17. Extraction of Lithium from Lepidolite Using Mixed Grinding with Sodium Sulfide