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Sample records for median iqr range

  1. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    and several natural special cases thereof. The rst special case is known as range median, which arises when k is xed to b(j 􀀀 i + 1)=2c. The second case, denoted prex selection, arises when i is xed to 0. Finally, we also consider the bounded rank prex selection problem and the xed rank range......Range selection is the problem of preprocessing an input array A of n unique integers, such that given a query (i; j; k), one can report the k'th smallest integer in the subarray A[i];A[i+1]; : : : ;A[j]. In this paper we consider static data structures in the word-RAM for range selection...... selection problem. In the former, data structures must support prex selection queries under the assumption that k for some value n given at construction time, while in the latter, data structures must support range selection queries where k is xed beforehand for all queries. We prove cell probe lower bounds...

  2. Patients' time in therapeutic range on warfarin among US patients with atrial fibrillation: Results from ORBIT-AF registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorney, Sean D; Simon, DaJuanicia N; Thomas, Laine; Fonarow, Gregg C; Kowey, Peter R; Chang, Paul; Singer, Daniel E; Ansell, Jack; Blanco, Rosalia G; Gersh, Bernard; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Hylek, Elaine M; Go, Alan S; Piccini, Jonathan P; Peterson, Eric D

    2015-07-01

    Time in therapeutic range (TTR) of international normalized ratio (INR) of 2.0 to 3.0 is important for the safety and effectiveness of warfarin anticoagulation. There are few data on TTR among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) in community-based clinical practice. Using the US Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation (ORBIT-AF), we examined TTR (using a modified Rosendaal method) among 5,210 patients with AF on warfarin and treated at 155 sites. Patients were grouped into quartiles based on TTR data. Multivariable logistic regression modeling with generalized estimating equations was used to determine patient and provider factors associated with the lowest (worst) TTR. Overall, 59% of the measured INR values were between 2.0 and 3.0, with an overall mean and median TTR of 65% ± 20% and 68% (interquartile range [IQR] 53%-79%). The median times below and above the therapeutic range were 17% (IQR 8%-29%) and 10% (IQR 3%-19%), respectively. Patients with renal dysfunction, advanced heart failure, frailty, prior valve surgery, and higher risk for bleeding (ATRIA score) or stroke (CHA2DS2-VASc score) had significantly lower TTR (P range. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Validity of using tri-axial accelerometers to measure human movement - Part II: Step counts at a wide range of gait velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortune, Emma; Lugade, Vipul; Morrow, Melissa; Kaufman, Kenton

    2014-06-01

    A subject-specific step counting method with a high accuracy level at all walking speeds is needed to assess the functional level of impaired patients. The study aim was to validate step counts and cadence calculations from acceleration data by comparison to video data during dynamic activity. Custom-built activity monitors, each containing one tri-axial accelerometer, were placed on the ankles, thigh, and waist of 11 healthy adults. ICC values were greater than 0.98 for video inter-rater reliability of all step counts. The activity monitoring system (AMS) algorithm demonstrated a median (interquartile range; IQR) agreement of 92% (8%) with visual observations during walking/jogging trials at gait velocities ranging from 0.1 to 4.8m/s, while FitBits (ankle and waist), and a Nike Fuelband (wrist) demonstrated agreements of 92% (36%), 93% (22%), and 33% (35%), respectively. The algorithm results demonstrated high median (IQR) step detection sensitivity (95% (2%)), positive predictive value (PPV) (99% (1%)), and agreement (97% (3%)) during a laboratory-based simulated free-living protocol. The algorithm also showed high median (IQR) sensitivity, PPV, and agreement identifying walking steps (91% (5%), 98% (4%), and 96% (5%)), jogging steps (97% (6%), 100% (1%), and 95% (6%)), and less than 3% mean error in cadence calculations. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Interrater reliability and accuracy of clinicians and trained research assistants performing prospective data collection in emergency department patients with potential acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Carlos O; Meshberg, Emily B; Shofer, Frances S; McCusker, Christine M; Chang, Anna Marie; Hollander, Judd E

    2009-07-01

    Clinical research requires high-quality data collection. Data collected at the emergency department evaluation is generally considered more precise than data collected through chart abstraction but is cumbersome and time consuming. We test whether trained research assistants without a medical background can obtain clinical research data as accurately as physicians. We hypothesize that they would be at least as accurate because they would not be distracted by clinical requirements. We conducted a prospective comparative study of 33 trained research assistants and 39 physicians (35 residents) to assess interrater reliability with respect to guideline-recommended clinical research data. Immediately after the research assistant and clinician evaluation, the data were compared by a tiebreaker third person who forced the patient to choose one of the 2 answers as the correct one when responses were discordant. Crude percentage agreement and interrater reliability were assessed (kappa statistic). One hundred forty-three patients were recruited (mean age 50.7 years; 47% female patients). Overall, the median agreement was 81% (interquartile range [IQR] 73% to 92%) and interrater reliability was fair (kappa value 0.36 [IQR 0.26 to 0.52]) but varied across categories of data: cardiac risk factors (median 86% [IQR 81% to 93%]; median 0.69 [IQR 0.62 to 0.83]), other cardiac history (median 93% [IQR 79% to 95%]; median 0.56 [IQR 0.29 to 0.77]), pain location (median 92% [IR 86% to 94%]; median 0.37 [IQR 0.25 to 0.29]), radiation (median 86% [IQR 85% to 87%]; median 0.37 [IQR 0.26 to 0.42]), quality (median 85% [IQR 75% to 94%]; median 0.29 [IQR 0.23 to 0.40]), and associated symptoms (median 74% [IQR 65% to 78%]; median 0.28 [IQR 0.20 to 0.40]). When discordant information was obtained, the research assistant was more often correct (median 64% [IQR 53% to 72%]). The relatively fair interrater reliability observed in our study is consistent with previous studies evaluating

  5. Quantitative Maximum Shear-Wave Stiffness of Breast Masses as a Predictor of Histopathologic Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Wendie A; Mendelson, Ellen B; Cosgrove, David O; Doré, Caroline J; Gay, Joel; Henry, Jean-Pierre; Cohen-Bacrie, Claude

    2015-08-01

    The objective of our study was to compare quantitative maximum breast mass stiffness on shear-wave elastography (SWE) with histopathologic outcome. From September 2008 through September 2010, at 16 centers in the United States and Europe, 1647 women with a sonographically visible breast mass consented to undergo quantitative SWE in this prospective protocol; 1562 masses in 1562 women had an acceptable reference standard. The quantitative maximum stiffness (termed "Emax") on three acquisitions was recorded for each mass with the range set from 0 (very soft) to 180 kPa (very stiff). The median Emax and interquartile ranges (IQRs) were determined as a function of histopathologic diagnosis and were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. We considered the impact of mass size on maximum stiffness by performing the same comparisons for masses 9 mm or smaller and those larger than 9 mm in diameter. The median patient age was 50 years (mean, 51.8 years; SD, 14.5 years; range, 21-94 years), and the median lesion diameter was 12 mm (mean, 14 mm; SD, 7.9 mm; range, 1-53 mm). The median Emax of the 1562 masses (32.1% malignant) was 71 kPa (mean, 90 kPa; SD, 65 kPa; IQR, 31-170 kPa). Of 502 malignancies, 23 (4.6%) ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) masses had a median Emax of 126 kPa (IQR, 71-180 kPa) and were less stiff than 468 invasive carcinomas (median Emax, 180 kPa [IQR, 138-180 kPa]; p = 0.002). Benign lesions were much softer than malignancies (median Emax, 43 kPa [IQR, 24-83 kPa] vs 180 kPa [IQR, 129-180 kPa]; p masses. Despite overlap in Emax values, maximum stiffness measured by SWE is a highly effective predictor of the histopathologic severity of sonographically depicted breast masses.

  6. Longevity of Cane Corso Italiano dog breed and its relationship with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The median lifespan of the whole examined group is 9.29 years (IQR 6.98-11.12, IQR = Interquartile Range). This paper is the first to describe the possible relationship between median lifespan and hair colour within one breed. The longest living group is formed by black brindle coloured dogs, with a median of 10.30 years ...

  7. Image Denoising Using Interquartile Range Filter with Local Averaging

    OpenAIRE

    Jassim, Firas Ajil

    2013-01-01

    Image denoising is one of the fundamental problems in image processing. In this paper, a novel approach to suppress noise from the image is conducted by applying the interquartile range (IQR) which is one of the statistical methods used to detect outlier effect from a dataset. A window of size kXk was implemented to support IQR filter. Each pixel outside the IQR range of the kXk window is treated as noisy pixel. The estimation of the noisy pixels was obtained by local averaging. The essential...

  8. Constipation-Related Health Care Utilization in Children Before and After Hospitalization for Constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, John R; Steiner, Michael J; DeJong, Neal; Rodean, Jonathan; Hall, Matt; Richardson, Troy; Berry, Jay G

    2018-01-01

    We studied constipation-related health care among children before and after constipation admission. Index admissions for constipation in 2010-2011 were identified in the Truven Marketscan Database, which includes children receiving Medicaid in 10 states. We measured number of and spending for outpatient constipation visits 12 months before and after index hospitalizations. We also measured spending for constipation hospitalizations and rehospitalization rate. There were 780 index constipation admissions. The median number of outpatient constipation visits was 1 (interquartile range [IQR] = 0, 3) in the 12 months before and 2 (IQR [0, 4]) after admission ( P = .001). Median outpatient spending for constipation was $110 (IQR [0, 429]) before and $132 (IQR [0, 431]) after admission ( P = .2). Median spending for index constipation admissions was $5295 (IQR [2756, 8267]); 78 children (10%) were rehospitalized for constipation within 12 months. Constipation-related health care utilization increased after constipation admission. Median spending for one constipation admission was 50 times the median spending for 12 months of outpatient constipation visits.

  9. Restoration of continence following rectopexy for rectal prolapse and recovery of the internal anal sphincter electromyogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, R; Duthie, G S; Bartolo, D C; MacGregor, A B

    1992-05-01

    Twenty-two patients with full-thickness rectal prolapse underwent ambulatory fine wire electromyography of the internal and sphincter (IAS), external and sphincter and puborectalis, together with anorectal manometry, using a computerized system. Examinations were performed both before and 3 to 4 months after rectopexy. The median (interquartile range (i.q.r.)) preoperative IAS electromyogram (EMG) frequency was 0.18 (0.05-0.31) Hz and the median (i.q.r.) preoperative resting anal pressure was 28 (15-64) cmH2O. An improvement in the IAS EMG frequency, median (i.q.r.) 0.29 (0.19-0.38) Hz (P less than 0.03), and resting anal pressure, median (i.q.r.) 41 (20-72) cmH2O (P less than 0.05), was recorded after operation, but these variables remained significantly lower than those found in normal controls: median (i.q.r.) IAS EMG frequency 0.44 (0.36-0.48) Hz and median (i.q.r.) resting anal pressure 92 (74-98) cmH2O. We suggest that repair of the prolapse allows the IAS to recover by removing the cause of persistent rectoanal inhibition.

  10. Consumer Preferences, Product Characteristics, and Potentially Allergenic Ingredients in Best-selling Moisturizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuai; Kwa, Michael; Lohman, Mary E; Evers-Meltzer, Rachel; Silverberg, Jonathan I

    2017-11-01

    Because moisturizer use is critical for the prevention and treatment of numerous dermatological conditions, patients frequently request product recommendations from dermatologists. To determine the product performance characteristics and ingredients of best-selling moisturizers. This cohort study involved publicly available data of the top 100 best-selling whole-body moisturizing products at 3 major online retailers (Amazon, Target, and Walmart). Products marketed for use on a specific body part (eg, face, hands, eyelids) were excluded. Pairwise comparisons of median price per ounce on the basis of marketing claims (eg, dermatologist recommended, fragrance free, hypoallergenic) and presence of ingredients represented in the North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) series were conducted using Wilcoxon rank sum tests. The effect of vehicle type (eg, ointment, lotion, cream, butter) was assessed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Cross-reactors and botanicals for fragrances were derived from the American Contact Dermatitis Society's Contact Allergen Management Program database. A total of 174 unique best-selling moisturizer products were identified, constituting 109 713 reviews as of August 2016. The median price per ounce was $0.59 (range, $0.10-$9.51 per ounce) with a wide range (9400%). The most popular vehicles were lotions (102 [59%]), followed by creams (22 [13%]), oils (21 [12%]), butters (14 [8%]), and ointments (3 [2%]). Only 12% (n = 21) of best-selling moisturizer products were free of NACDG allergens. The 3 most common allergens were fragrance mix (n = 87), paraben mix (n = 75), and tocopherol (n = 74). Products with the claim "dermatologist recommended" had higher median price per ounce ($0.79; interquartile range [IQR], $0.56-$1.27) than products without the claim ($0.59; IQR, $0.34-$0.92). Products with the claim "phthalate free" had higher median price per ounce ($1.38; IQR, $0.86-$1.63) than products without the claim ($0.59; IQR

  11. Weight loss and weight loss maintenance efficacy of a novel weight loss program: The retrospective RNPC® cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Fabre, Odile; Legrand, Rémy

    2018-01-01

    or obese patients treated in 54 RNPC® weight loss clinics in France. Results: A total of 10,809 (89%) patients completed the initial weight loss phase and 2996 (25%) completed the full program. Median weight loss percentage was 10.7% (Interquartile range [IQR]: 5.8; 16.5) after a median of 105 days (IQR...

  12. Is nelfinavir exposure associated with cancer incidence in HIV-positive individuals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boettiger, David C; Sabin, Caroline A; Grulich, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    (50% white, 73% male) contributed 303 005 person-years of follow-up between 1 January 2004 and 1 February 2014. At study enrolment, median age was 40 [interquartile range (IQR) 33-46] years and 8305 individuals had a history of nelfinavir use [median duration 1.7 (IQR 0.7-3.4) years]. During follow...

  13. Quality of life of obese children in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzaid, Hana; Talib, Ruzita Abd; Azizi, Nor Hidayah; Maamor, Nathirah; Reilly, John J; Wafa, Sharifah Wajihah

    2011-10-01

    Quality of life (QoL) is impaired in childhood obesity, but the literature on this is all from Western countries. Aim. To test for impairment of QoL in obese children in Malaysia, using parent-reported and child-reported QoL. Health-related Quality of Life was measured using the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory version 4.0. Comparison of QoL between a community sample of 90 obese children (as defined by US CDC and Cole-IOTF definitions), median age 9.5 y (interquartile range [IQR] 8.6, 10.5 y) and 90 control children of healthy weight (BMI less than the 85th centile of US reference data), median age 10.0 y (IQR 9.6, 10.5 y). Children were matched pair-wise for age, gender, and ethnic group, and controls were recruited from schools in the same area as obese participants. For child self-report, the healthy weight group had significantly higher QoL for the physical (median 82.9, IQR 65.7, 90.6), and psychosocial domains (median, 73.3, IQR 64.4, 83.3), and total QoL (median 76.1, IQR 64.1, 84.8) compared to the obese group (median 67.2, IQR 59.4, 81.3; median 62.5, IQR 53.3, 75.4; median 60.9, IQR 50.8, 73.9; all p obese and healthy weight group for parent-reported physical health, psychosocial health, or total QoL. Obese children in Malaysia have markedly poorer QoL than their peers, but this is not evident when parent reports of QoL are used.

  14. Localised treatment and 6-month outcomes in patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment was per clinic protocols and patients were followed up with structured data collection for up to 6 months. Results. Eight individuals, all HIV infected and 50% female, were identified and enrolled. At enrolment, median age was 38 years (interquartile range (IQR) 32 - 39 years), median CD4 count 20 cells/ìl (IQR 13 ...

  15. Reasons for Failure of Prevention of Mother-To-Child HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Median gestation at first antenatal consultation (ANC) was 22.5 (interquartile range [IQR] 19.25–24). Eleven (57.9%) mothers were HIV positive at first ANC, whilst eight tested negative and later positive (2 antepartum, 6 postpartum). Median maternal CD4 was 408 cells/μL (IQR 318–531). Six (31.6%) received no antenatal ...

  16. Longevity of Cane Corso Italiano dog breed and its relationship with hair colour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evžen Korec

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Cane Corso Italiano belongs among the new dog breeds that were fully recognised by Federation Cynologique Internationale (FCI in 2007. For the first time, this study describes a median lifespan using the data of 232 dogs of the Cane Corso Italiano breed collected from kennels and individual owners from 25 countries. The median lifespan of the whole examined group is 9.29 years (IQR 6.98-11.12, IQR = Interquartile Range. This paper is the first to describe the possible relationship between median lifespan and hair colour within one breed. The longest living group is formed by black brindle coloured dogs, with a median of 10.30 years (IQR 8.33-13.00, and brindle coloured dogs, with a median of 10.13 years (IQR 7.12-11.25. The median lifespan of black brindle dogs exceeded the overall median lifespan of all dogs by 1.01 year and the median lifespan of other colour dogs by 2.21 years. Our results suggest a possible way for a prolongation of age at death of the Cane Corso Italiano breed using appropriate breeding. The median lifespan of male Cane Corso Italiano dogs is 9.25 years (IQR 6.97-11.00 and female Cane Corso Italiano dogs 9.33 years (IQR 7.00-11.31. The statistical analysis using the Independent Samples Student’s t test confirmed that the lifespan of female dogs did not exceed the median lifespan of male dogs (P>0.01.

  17. Pelvic floor function following ventral rectopexy versus STARR in the treatment of obstructed defecation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altomare, D F; Picciariello, A; Memeo, R; Fanelli, M; Digennaro, R; Chetta, N; De Fazio, M

    2018-04-01

    Obstructed defecation syndrome (ODS), most commonly found in females, can be treated by a transanal or abdominal approach with good success rate. Nevertheless, patients may experience de novo or persisting pelvic floor dysfunctions after surgery. The aim of this study was to compare the functional outcome of stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR) and ventral rectopexy (VRP) in a series of ODS patients. Forty-nine female patients who had surgery for ODS between 2006 and 2016 were retrospectively evaluated: 28 (median age 60 years, IQR 54-69 years) had VRP and 21 (median age 58 years, IQR 51-66 years) had STARR. ODS was scored with the ODS score while the overall pelvic floor function was assessed with the three axial perineal evaluation (TAPE) score. Quality-of-life was evaluated by the patient assessment of constipation quality-of-life (PAC-Qol) questionnaire administered preoperatively and after 1 year of follow-up. The preoperative median ODS score and TAPE score were comparable in both groups. After a median follow-up of 12 months (range 12-18 months), the median ODS score was 12 (range 10-20) in the STARR group and 9 (range 3-15) in the VRP one (p = 0.02), while the median TAPE score was 70.5 (IQR 60.6-77.3) in the former and 76.8 (IQR 70.2-89.7) in the latter (p = 0.01). Postoperatively the physical domain of the PAC-QoL score had a median value of 2.74 (IQR 1.7-3.75) in the STARR group compared to 1.5 (IQR 1-2.5) in the VRP group (p = 0.03). No major complications were recorded in either group. VRP and STARR can improve defecation in patients with ODS with minimal complications, but the overall pelvic wellness evaluated by the TAPE score improves significantly only after VRP, suggesting a better performance of VRP than STARR when overall pelvic floor function is concerned.

  18. Impact of the severity of trauma on early retirement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhlman, Michael Bilde; Lohse, Nicolai; Sørensen, Anne Marie

    2014-01-01

    . SETTING: Level-one urban trauma centre. PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged 18-64 years entering the trauma centre in Copenhagen during 1999-2007 who were alive after three days were followed until early retirement, death or emigration. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was early retirement, defined...... and gender. RESULTS: Of all 6687 patients admitted to the trauma centre, a total of 1722 trauma patients were included and followed for a median of 6.2 years (interquartile range (IQR) 3.7-9.1). Of these, 1305 (75.8%) were males, median age was 35.0 years (IQR 25.4-46.5), and median ISS was 16 (IQR 9...

  19. Time-resolved magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) at 3.0 Tesla for evaluation of hemodynamic characteristics of vascular malformations: description of distinct subgroups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, Simone; Fellner, Claudia; Wohlgemuth, Walter A. [University Hospital Regensburg, Department of Radiology, Regensburg (Germany); Uller, Wibke [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); University Hospital Regensburg, Department of Radiology, Regensburg (Germany); Manger, Florentine [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Zeman, Florian [University Hospital Regensburg, Center for Clinical Trials, Regensburg (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    Quantitative evaluation of hemodynamic characteristics of arteriovenous and venous malformations using time-resolved magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) at 3.0 Tesla. Time-resolved MRA with interleaved stochastic trajectories (TWIST) at 3.0 Tesla was studied in 83 consecutive patients with venous malformations (VM) and arteriovenous malformations (AVM). Enhancement characteristics were calculated as percentage increase of signal intensity above baseline over time. Maximum percentage signal intensity increase (signal{sub max}), time intervals between onset of arterial enhancement and lesion enhancement (t{sub onset}), and time intervals between beginning of lesion enhancement and maximum percentage of lesion enhancement (t{sub max}) were analyzed. All AVMs showed a high-flow hemodynamic pattern. Two significantly different (p < 0.001) types of venous malformations emerged: VMs with arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) (median signal{sub max} 737 %, IQR [interquartile range] = 511 - 1182 %; median t{sub onset} 5 s, IQR = 5 - 10 s; median t{sub max} 35 s, IQR = 26 - 40 s) and without AVFs (median signal{sub max} 284 %, IQR = 177-432 %; median t{sub onset} 23 s, IQR = 15 - 30 s; median t{sub max} 60 s, IQR = 55 - 75 s). Quantitative evaluation of time-resolved MRA at 3.0 Tesla provides hemodynamic characterization of vascular malformations. VMs can be subclassified into two hemodynamic subgroups due to presence or absence of AVFs. (orig.)

  20. Determination of Gastrointestinal Transit Times in Barred Owls ( Strix varia ) by Contrast Fluoroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Grayson A; Williams, Jackie M; Mans, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    Contrast imaging studies are routinely performed in avian patients when an underlying abnormality of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is suspected. Fluoroscopy offers several advantages over traditional radiography and can be performed in conscious animals with minimal stress and restraint. Although birds of prey are commonly encountered as patients, little is known about GI transit times and contrast imaging studies in these species, especially owls. Owls are commonly encountered in zoological, educational, and wildlife settings. In this study, 12 adult barred owls ( Strix varia ) were gavage fed a 30% weight-by-volume barium suspension (25 mL/kg body weight). Fluoroscopic exposures were recorded at 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300 minutes after administration. Overall GI transit time and transit times of various GI organs were recorded. Median (interquartile range [IQR]) overall GI transit time was 60 minutes (IQR: 19-60 minutes) and ranged from 5-120 minutes. Ventricular and small intestinal contrast filling was rapid. Ventricular emptying was complete by a median of 60 minutes (IQR: 30-120 minutes; range: 30-240 minutes), whereas small intestinal emptying was not complete in 9/12 birds by 300 minutes. Median small intestinal contraction rate was 15 per minute (IQR: 13-16 minutes; range: 10-19 minutes). Median overall GI transit time in barred owls is more rapid than mean transit times reported for psittacine birds and red-tailed hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ). Fluoroscopy is a safe, suitable method for investigating GI motility and transit in this species.

  1. Do clinicians prescribe exercise similarly in patients with different cardiovascular diseases? Findings from the EAPC EXPERT working group survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, Dominique; Rovelo Ruiz, Gustavo; Doherty, Patrick; Iliou, Marie-Christine; Vromen, Tom; Hinton, Sally; Frederix, Ines; Wilhelm, Matthias; Schmid, Jean-Paul; Abreu, Ana; Ambrosetti, Marco; Garcia-Porrero, Esteban; Coninx, Karin; Dendale, Paul

    2018-01-01

    peak), frequency (median (IQR): 4 (2) days/week), session duration (median (IQR): 45 (18) min/session), programme duration (median (IQR): 12 (18) weeks), total exercise volume (median (IQR): 1215 (1961) peak-effort training hours) and prescription of strength training exercises (prescribed in 78% of

  2. Assessing the Accuracy and Readability of Online Health Information for Patients With Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storino, Alessandra; Castillo-Angeles, Manuel; Watkins, Ammara A; Vargas, Christina; Mancias, Joseph D; Bullock, Andrea; Demirjian, Aram; Moser, A James; Kent, Tara S

    2016-09-01

    The degree to which patients are empowered by written educational materials depends on the text's readability level and the accuracy of the information provided. The association of a website's affiliation or focus on treatment modality with its readability and accuracy has yet to be thoroughly elucidated. To compare the readability and accuracy of patient-oriented online resources for pancreatic cancer by treatment modality and website affiliation. An online search of 50 websites discussing 5 pancreatic cancer treatment modalities (alternative therapy, chemotherapy, clinical trials, radiation therapy, and surgery) was conducted. The website's affiliation was identified. Readability was measured by 9 standardized tests, and accuracy was assessed by an expert panel. Nine standardized tests were used to compute the median readability level of each website. The median readability scores were compared among treatment modality and affiliation categories. Accuracy was determined by an expert panel consisting of 2 medical specialists and 2 surgical specialists. The 4 raters independently evaluated all websites belonging to the 5 treatment modalities (a score of 1 indicates that readability and accuracy based on the focus of the treatment modality and the website's affiliation. Websites discussing surgery (with a median readability level of 13.7 and an interquartile range [IQR] of 11.9-15.6) were easier to read than those discussing radiotherapy (median readability level, 15.2 [IQR, 13.0-17.0]) (P = .003) and clinical trials (median readability level, 15.2 [IQR, 12.8-17.0]) (P = .002). Websites of nonprofit organizations (median readability level, 12.9 [IQR, 11.2-15.0]) were easier to read than media (median readability level, 16.0 [IQR, 13.4-17.0]) (P readability level, 14.8 [IQR, 12.9-17.0]) (P readability level, 14.0 [IQR, 12.1-16.1]) were easier to read than media websites (P = .001). Among treatment modalities, alternative therapy websites exhibited the

  3. Systematic reviews of anesthesiologic interventions reported as statistically significant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imberger, Georgina; Gluud, Christian; Boylan, John

    2015-01-01

    statistically significant meta-analyses of anesthesiologic interventions, we used TSA to estimate power and imprecision in the context of sparse data and repeated updates. METHODS: We conducted a search to identify all systematic reviews with meta-analyses that investigated an intervention that may......: From 11,870 titles, we found 682 systematic reviews that investigated anesthesiologic interventions. In the 50 sampled meta-analyses, the median number of trials included was 8 (interquartile range [IQR], 5-14), the median number of participants was 964 (IQR, 523-1736), and the median number...

  4. Accuracy of iodine quantification using dual energy CT in latest generation dual source and dual layer CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelgrim, Gert Jan; Oudkerk, Matthijs [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging - North East Netherlands, P.O. Box EB44, Groningen (Netherlands); Hamersvelt, Robbert W. van; Willemink, Martin J.; Schilham, Arnold; Leiner, Tim [Utrecht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Schmidt, Bernhard T.; Flohr, Thomas [Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Forchheim (Germany); Milles, Julien [Philips Healthcare, Best (Netherlands); Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging - North East Netherlands, P.O. Box EB44, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2017-09-15

    To determine the accuracy of iodine quantification with dual energy computed tomography (DECT) in two high-end CT systems with different spectral imaging techniques. Five tubes with different iodine concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 mg/ml) were analysed in an anthropomorphic thoracic phantom. Adding two phantom rings simulated increased patient size. For third-generation dual source CT (DSCT), tube voltage combinations of 150Sn and 70, 80, 90, 100 kVp were analysed. For dual layer CT (DLCT), 120 and 140 kVp were used. Scans were repeated three times. Median normalized values and interquartile ranges (IQRs) were calculated for all kVp settings and phantom sizes. Correlation between measured and known iodine concentrations was excellent for both systems (R = 0.999-1.000, p < 0.0001). For DSCT, median measurement errors ranged from -0.5% (IQR -2.0, 2.0%) at 150Sn/70 kVp and -2.3% (IQR -4.0, -0.1%) at 150Sn/80 kVp to -4.0% (IQR -6.0, -2.8%) at 150Sn/90 kVp. For DLCT, median measurement errors ranged from -3.3% (IQR -4.9, -1.5%) at 140 kVp to -4.6% (IQR -6.0, -3.6%) at 120 kVp. Larger phantom sizes increased variability of iodine measurements (p < 0.05). Iodine concentration can be accurately quantified with state-of-the-art DECT systems from two vendors. The lowest absolute errors were found for DSCT using the 150Sn/70 kVp or 150Sn/80 kVp combinations, which was slightly more accurate than 140 kVp in DLCT. (orig.)

  5. The BRACELET Study: surveys of mortality in UK neonatal and paediatric intensive care trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Platt Martin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The subject of death and bereavement in the context of randomised controlled trials in neonatal or paediatric intensive care is under-researched. The objectives of this phase of the Bereavement and RAndomised ControlLEd Trials (BRACELET Study were to determine trial activity in UK neonatal and paediatric intensive care (2002-06; numbers of deaths before hospital discharge; and variation in mortality across intensive care units and trials and to determine whether bereavement support policies were available within trials. These are essential prerequisites to considering the implications of future policies and practice subsequent to bereavement following a child's enrolment in a trial. Methods The units survey involved neonatal units providing level 2 or 3 care, and paediatric units providing level II care or above; the trials survey involved trials where allocation was randomized and interventions were delivered to intensive care patients, or to parents but designed to affect patient outcomes. Results Information was available from 191/220 (87% neonatal units (149 level 2 or 3 care; and 28/32 (88% paediatric units. 90/177 (51% eligible responding units participated in one or more trial (76 neonatal, 14 paediatric and 54 neonatal units and 6 paediatric units witnessed at least one death. 50 trials were identified (36 neonatal, 14 paediatric. 3,137 babies were enrolled in neonatal trials, 210 children in paediatric trials. Deaths ranged 0-278 (median [IQR interquartile range] 2 [1, 14.5] per neonatal trial, 0-4 (median [IQR] 1 [0, 2.5] per paediatric trial. 534 (16% participants died post-enrolment: 522 (17% in neonatal trials, 12 (6% in paediatric trials. Trial participants ranged 1-236 (median [IQR] 21.5 [8, 39.8] per neonatal unit, 1-53 (median [IQR] 11.5 [2.3, 33.8] per paediatric unit. Deaths ranged 0-37 (median [IQR] 3.5 [0.3, 8.8] per neonatal unit, 0-7 (median [IQR] 0.5 [0, 1.8] per paediatric unit. Three trials had a

  6. Estimating the sample mean and standard deviation from the sample size, median, range and/or interquartile range

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Xiang; Wang, Wenqian; Liu, Jiming; Tong, Tiejun

    2014-01-01

    Background In systematic reviews and meta-analysis, researchers often pool the results of the sample mean and standard deviation from a set of similar clinical trials. A number of the trials, however, reported the study using the median, the minimum and maximum values, and/or the first and third quartiles. Hence, in order to combine results, one may have to estimate the sample mean and standard deviation for such trials. Methods In this paper, we propose to improve the existing literature in ...

  7. Prevalence and predictors of episiotomy among women at first birth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    interquartile range (IQR): 2.9-3.5]) was statistically higher than those of women who did not receive episiotomy (median, 3.1 kg [IQR: 2.7-3.4]), (Z = −3.415, P = 0.001). Proportion of newborns with low 1st min Apgar scores in the episiotomy group ...

  8. Fast-track access to urologic care for patients with macroscopic haematuria is efficient and cost-effective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liedberg, Fredrik; Gerdtham, Ulf; Gralén, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    : In all 275 patients who called 'the Red Phone' hotline were investigated, and 47 of them (17%) were diagnosed with cancer and 36 of those had bladder cancer. Median time from patient-reported haematuria to diagnosis was 29 (interquartile range (IQR) 14-104) days and 50 (IQR 27-165) days...

  9. Rapid Inpatient Titration of Intravenous Treprostinil for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Safe and Tolerable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kersh, Karim; Ruf, Kathryn M; Smith, J Shaun

    There is no standard protocol for intravenous treprostinil dose escalation. In most cases, slow up-titration is performed in the outpatient setting. However, rapid up-titration in an inpatient setting is an alternative that provides opportunity for aggressive treatment of common side effects experienced during dose escalation. In this study, we describe our experience with inpatient rapid up-titration of intravenous treprostinil. This was a single-center, retrospective study in which we reviewed the data of subjects with pulmonary arterial hypertension treated at our center who underwent inpatient rapid up-titration of intravenous treprostinil. Our treprostinil dose escalation protocol included initiation at 2 ng·kg·min with subsequent up-titration by 1 ng·kg·min every 6 to 8 hours as tolerated by side effects. A total of 16 subjects were identified. Thirteen subjects were treprostinil naive (naive group), and 3 subjects were receiving subcutaneous treprostinil but were hospitalized for further intravenous up-titration of treprostinil dose (nonnaive group). In the naive group, the median maximum dose achieved was 20 ng·kg·min with an interquartile range (IQR) of 20-23 ng·kg·min. The median up-titration interval was 6 days (IQR: 4-9). In the nonnaive group, the median maximum dose achieved was 20 ng·kg·min (range: 17-30). The median up-titration interval was 8.5 days (range: 1.5-11). Overall, the median maximum dose achieved was 20 ng·kg·min (IQR: 20-23.5), and the median up-titration interval was 6 days (IQR: 4.6-9.25), with no reported significant adverse hemodynamic events. In patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, rapid inpatient titration of intravenous treprostinil is safe and tolerable.

  10. Mother and Infant Body Mass Index, Breast Milk Leptin and Their Serum Leptin Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Francesco; Sardo, Allegra; Rossi, Lorenza; Benetti, Stefania; Savino, Andrea; Silvestro, Leandra

    2016-06-21

    This study investigates correlations between mother and infant Body Mass Index (BMI), their serum leptin values and breast milk leptin concentration in early infancy. We determined serum leptin values in 58 healthy infants and leptin values in their mothers' breast milk, using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Infant and maternal anthropometrics were measured. Median leptin concentration was 3.9 ng/mL (interquartile range (IQR): 2.75) in infant serum, 4.27 ng/mL (IQR: 5.62) in maternal serum and 0.89 ng/mL (IQR: 1.32) in breast milk. Median maternal BMI and weight were 24 kg/m² (IQR: 4.41) and 64 kg (IQR: 15). Median infant BMI was 15.80 kg/cm² (IQR: 4.02), while average weight was 5.130 kg (IQR: 1.627). Infants serum leptin values positively correlated with infants' BMI (p = 0.001; r = 0.213) and breast milk leptin (p = 0.03; r = 0.285). Maternal serum leptin values positively correlated with maternal BMI (p = 0.000, r = 0.449) and breast milk leptin ones (p = 0.026; r = 0.322). Breast milk leptin and maternal BMI could influence infant serum leptin values. Further studies are needed to better elucidate the role of genetics and environment on infant leptin production and risk of obesity later in life.

  11. Assessment of Type I Interferon Signaling in Pediatric Inflammatory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Gillian I; Melki, Isabelle; Frémond, Marie-Louise; Briggs, Tracy A; Rodero, Mathieu P; Kitabayashi, Naoki; Oojageer, Anthony; Bader-Meunier, Brigitte; Belot, Alexandre; Bodemer, Christine; Quartier, Pierre; Crow, Yanick J

    2017-02-01

    Increased type I interferon is considered relevant to the pathology of a number of monogenic and complex disorders spanning pediatric rheumatology, neurology, and dermatology. However, no test exists in routine clinical practice to identify enhanced interferon signaling, thus limiting the ability to diagnose and monitor treatment of these diseases. Here, we set out to investigate the use of an assay measuring the expression of a panel of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) in children affected by a range of inflammatory diseases. A cohort study was conducted between 2011 and 2016 at the University of Manchester, UK, and the Institut Imagine, Paris, France. RNA PAXgene blood samples and clinical data were collected from controls and symptomatic patients with a genetically confirmed or clinically well-defined inflammatory phenotype. The expression of six ISGs was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the median fold change was used to calculate an interferon score (IS) for each subject compared to a previously derived panel of 29 controls (where +2 SD of the control data, an IS of >2.466, is considered as abnormal). Results were correlated with genetic and clinical data. Nine hundred ninety-two samples were analyzed from 630 individuals comprising symptomatic patients across 24 inflammatory genotypes/phenotypes, unaffected heterozygous carriers, and controls. A consistent upregulation of ISG expression was seen in 13 monogenic conditions (455 samples, 265 patients; median IS 10.73, interquartile range (IQR) 5.90-18.41), juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (78 samples, 55 patients; median IS 10.60, IQR 3.99-17.27), and juvenile dermatomyositis (101 samples, 59 patients; median IS 9.02, IQR 2.51-21.73) compared to controls (78 samples, 65 subjects; median IS 0.688, IQR 0.427-1.196), heterozygous mutation carriers (89 samples, 76 subjects; median IS 0.862, IQR 0.493-1.942), and individuals with non-molecularly defined autoinflammation (89 samples, 69

  12. Femoral component loosening after hip resurfacing arthroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zustin, Jozef; Sauter, Guido; Hahn, Michael; Morlock, Michael M.; Ruether, Wolfgang; Amling, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Before the re-introduction of the current generation of total hip resurfacing arthroplasty, component loosening and osteolysis were of great concern to the orthopaedic community. Early, mid- and long-term clinical results are encouraging, but component loosening still exists. Macroscopic, contact radiographic and histopathological analyses after undecalcified preparation of bone tissue specimens were performed. To investigate the frequency and morphological patterns of the loosening of the femoral component, we analysed a series of 190 retrieved femoral remnants that were revised for aseptic failures. Thirty-five (18.4%) hips were revised for clinical and/or radiographic loosening of the femoral component. Pseudoarthrosis (n = 17; median in situ time: 16 weeks, interquartile range [IQR]: 9 to 34), collapsed osteonecrosis (n = 5; median in situ time: 79 weeks, IQR: 63 to 97), cement-socket debonding (n = 3; median in situ time: 89 weeks, IQR: 54 to 97) and at later follow-up bone-cement loosening (n = 10; median in situ time: 175 weeks; IQR 112 to 198; p =0.005) were distinct patterns of the femoral remnant-implant loosening. Fibrocartilaginous metaplasia of interface bone trabeculae (n = 38; median in situ time: 61 weeks, IQR: 32 to 138) was strongly associated with femoral component loosening (p = 0.009). Both the trabecular hyperosteoidosis (n = 32; median in situ time: 71 weeks, IQR 50 to 129) and excessive intraosseous lymphocyte infiltration (n = 12; median in situ time: 75 weeks, IQR 51 to 98) at the bone-cement interface correlated strongly with fibrocartilaginous metaplasia (p = 0.001 and p = 0.016 respectively) and all three lesions were associated with the female gender (p = 0.021, p = 0.009, and p = 0.051). Femoral component loosening at early follow-up was mostly caused by pathological changes of the femoral remnant bone tissue: pseudoarthrosis and collapsed osteonecrosis. Fibrocartilaginous metaplasia was frequently observed in hips with femoral

  13. Real-life effectiveness of omalizumab in severe allergic asthma above the recommended dosing range criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hew, M; Gillman, A; Sutherland, M; Wark, P; Bowden, J; Guo, M; Reddel, H K; Jenkins, C; Marks, G B; Thien, F; Rimmer, J; Katsoulotos, G P; Cook, M; Yang, I; Katelaris, C; Bowler, S; Langton, D; Wright, C; Bint, M; Yozghatlian, V; Burgess, S; Sivakumaran, P; Yan, K Y; Kritikos, V; Peters, M; Baraket, M; Aminazad, A; Robinson, P; Jaffe, A; Powell, H; Upham, J W; McDonald, V M; Gibson, P G

    2016-11-01

    Omalizumab (Xolair) dosing in severe allergic asthma is based on serum IgE and bodyweight. In Australia, patients eligible for omalizumab but exceeding recommended ranges for IgE (30-1500 IU/mL) and bodyweight (30-150 kg) may still receive a ceiling dose of 750 mg/4 weeks. About 62% of patients receiving government-subsidized omalizumab are enrolled in the Australian Xolair Registry (AXR). To determine whether AXR participants above the recommended dosing ranges benefit from omalizumab and to compare their response to within-range participants. Data were stratified according to dose range status (above-range or within-range). Further sub-analyses were conducted according to the reason for being above the dosing range (IgE only vs. IgE and weight). Data for 179 participants were analysed. About 55 (31%) were above recommended dosing criteria; other characteristics were similar to within-range participants. Above-range participants had higher baseline IgE [812 (IQR 632, 1747) IU/mL vs. 209 (IQR 134, 306) IU/mL] and received higher doses of omalizumab [750 (IQR 650, 750) mg] compared to within-range participants [450 (IQR, 300, 600) mg]. At 6 months, improvements in Juniper 5-item Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ-5, 3.61 down to 2.01 for above-range, 3.47 down to 1.93 for within-range, P omalizumab have significantly improved symptom control, quality of life and lung function to a similar degree to within-range participants, achieved without dose escalation above 750 mg. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Estimating the sample mean and standard deviation from the sample size, median, range and/or interquartile range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiang; Wang, Wenqian; Liu, Jiming; Tong, Tiejun

    2014-12-19

    In systematic reviews and meta-analysis, researchers often pool the results of the sample mean and standard deviation from a set of similar clinical trials. A number of the trials, however, reported the study using the median, the minimum and maximum values, and/or the first and third quartiles. Hence, in order to combine results, one may have to estimate the sample mean and standard deviation for such trials. In this paper, we propose to improve the existing literature in several directions. First, we show that the sample standard deviation estimation in Hozo et al.'s method (BMC Med Res Methodol 5:13, 2005) has some serious limitations and is always less satisfactory in practice. Inspired by this, we propose a new estimation method by incorporating the sample size. Second, we systematically study the sample mean and standard deviation estimation problem under several other interesting settings where the interquartile range is also available for the trials. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed methods through simulation studies for the three frequently encountered scenarios, respectively. For the first two scenarios, our method greatly improves existing methods and provides a nearly unbiased estimate of the true sample standard deviation for normal data and a slightly biased estimate for skewed data. For the third scenario, our method still performs very well for both normal data and skewed data. Furthermore, we compare the estimators of the sample mean and standard deviation under all three scenarios and present some suggestions on which scenario is preferred in real-world applications. In this paper, we discuss different approximation methods in the estimation of the sample mean and standard deviation and propose some new estimation methods to improve the existing literature. We conclude our work with a summary table (an Excel spread sheet including all formulas) that serves as a comprehensive guidance for performing meta-analysis in different

  15. Economic consequences of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in a rural Bangladeshi community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Masayo; Islam, Shamim; Rahman, Kazi Mizanur; Rahman, Anisur; Luby, Stephen P; Bern, Caryn

    2011-09-01

    Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a complication of visceral leishmaniasis. Bangladesh national treatment guidelines during the study period called for 120 intramuscular injections of sodium antimony gluconate (SAG). We assessed care-seeking behavior, diagnosis and treatment costs, and coping strategies among 134 PKDL patients; 56 (42%) patients had been treated with SAG, and 78 (58%) remained untreated. The median direct cost per patient treated was US$367 (interquartile range [IQR] = 90-284), more than two times the estimated per capita annual income for the study population. The most common coping strategy was to take a loan; the median amount borrowed was US$98 (IQR = 71-150), with a median interest of US$32 (IQR = 16-95). Households lost a median of 123 work-days per patient treated. The current regimen for PKDL imposes a significant financial burden, reinforcing the link between poverty and visceral leishmaniasis. More practical shorter-course regimens for PKDL are urgently needed to achieve national and regional visceral leishmaniasis elimination goals.

  16. Relative validity and reliability of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire for adults in Guam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael T. Leon Guerrero

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Guam is a US territory in the western Pacific with a diverse population that includes understudied ethnic groups such as Chamorros and Filipinos. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ to estimate dietary intake was needed to facilitate studies of diet and health among adults living in Guam. Objective: To develop and validate an FFQ to assess dietary intake over a 1-year period among adult Guam residents. Design: A three-part study was conducted: 1 an initial cross-sectional study using 24-h recalls to identify a food and beverage list for the FFQ and resulting in a final FFQ containing 142 food and drink items; 2 to test reliability, 56 different individuals completed the FFQ twice; and 3 to test relative validity, self-administered FFQs and up to 2 days of food record data from an additional 109 individuals were collected, and daily nutrient intake from the two methods was compared. Results: The reliability of the FFQ was very good (ρ range=0.65–0.75, and the relative validity of the FFQ was good for women (median Spearman's correlation [ρ] between instruments of 0.45 across 20 nutrients and an interquartile range [IQR] of 0.42–0.58 and generally adequate for men (median ρ=0.31, IQR=0.23–0.55. Validity was also good for Chamorros (median ρ=0.47, IQR=0.38–0.53 and generally adequate for Filipinos (median ρ=0.42, IQR=0.20–0.62. Correlations after energy adjustment were lower (overall median ρ=0.20, IQR=0.14–0.26. Conclusions: The FFQ can be used to rank nutrient intake for adults in Guam and may be helpful in the analysis of relationships between diet and chronic disease in Guam.

  17. Functional Median Polish

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying

    2012-08-03

    This article proposes functional median polish, an extension of univariate median polish, for one-way and two-way functional analysis of variance (ANOVA). The functional median polish estimates the functional grand effect and functional main factor effects based on functional medians in an additive functional ANOVA model assuming no interaction among factors. A functional rank test is used to assess whether the functional main factor effects are significant. The robustness of the functional median polish is demonstrated by comparing its performance with the traditional functional ANOVA fitted by means under different outlier models in simulation studies. The functional median polish is illustrated on various applications in climate science, including one-way and two-way ANOVA when functional data are either curves or images. Specifically, Canadian temperature data, U. S. precipitation observations and outputs of global and regional climate models are considered, which can facilitate the research on the close link between local climate and the occurrence or severity of some diseases and other threats to human health. © 2012 International Biometric Society.

  18. Access to Grafts in a Liver Transplant Center: Does It Rely on the Severity of the Waiting List Population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daciuk, N I; Quiñonez, E G; Poupard, M; Vergara Sandoval, R M; Mattera, F J

    2018-03-01

    The number of transplants performed relies, partially, on recipients' variables on the waiting list. The goal of this study was to compare recipients from a high-volume liver center in Argentina with the rest of the country. This study was a retrospective analysis of liver transplant recipients nationally between January 2013 and April 2017. It involved extracting data from the open database CRESI-SINTRA (the Argentinian database of the National Procurement Organization, an equivalent to the United Network for Organ Sharing); expressing results by percentages, medians, and interquartile ranges (IQRs); and comparing the national population with the population transplanted at Hospital El Cruce (HEC). The Mann-Whitney U test was used for analysis. Nationally, 1434 liver transplants were performed. A total of 177 (12.34%) were emergency status; 811 (56.6%) were by the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) (n = 759)/PELD (Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease) (n = 52), with a median graft assignment position of 5 (IQR, 3-10) in 57.2 days (IQR, 11-217). Median MELD access was 29 points (IQR, 24-33). A total of 446 (31.1%) had MELD exceptions; 249 (55.8%) of these were due to Milan hepatocellular carcinoma. At the HEC, 167 liver transplantations were performed; 26 (15.6%) were emergency status and 97 (58.1%) by MELD (none PELD). Their median graft assignment position was 4 (IQR, 4-16) in 19.1 days (IQR, 4-90); median MELD access was 28 points (IQR, 24-31). Forty-five patients (26.9%) had MELD exceptions; 31 (68.9%) were due to hepatocellular carcinoma. Our center has a larger proportion of recipients transplanted by emergency status and MELD, similar MELD access, and less waiting list time, reflecting our wide policy of liver graft acceptance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. An evaluation of the indications for caesarean sections at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Adam

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Background:A systematic review concluded that a caesarean section that is performed for medical indications will save lives, but is associated with short and long term complications. The caesarean section rate at CHBAH was 39.78% in 2015. Objectives:To evaluate the indications for caesarean section.Methods:This was a cross-sectional study  in the week 23rd June to the 29th June 2015. Each file was  evaluated for the  correctness of the decision by at least two researchers. Each reviewer could state that he/she absolutely agreed, partially agreed, did not agree or could not make an assessmen.Results:The mean age was 27.01 (6.35; range- 15-44. The median parity was 1(IQR=0-2; range=0-4. No co-morbdities was found in 20 (13.61%. Complications occurred in 25 (17.01% women. The median gestational age at delivery was 38.14 (IQR=36.39-40.14; range-28.0-42.4. The median Apgar (5 min was 10 (IQR=9-10; range- 0-10. The median birth weight was 3040 g (IQR=2530-3440; range- 825-4575 g. The most common indications were fetal distress (n=73; 49.66% and dystocia (n=42; 28.57%. There was absolute agreement between the 2 reviewers in the following; retained 2nd twin, APH of unknown origin, placenta previa, severe IUGR, multiple pregnancy, abnormal presentation, eclampsia, two caesarean sections. When the indication was fetal distress, dystocia, 2nd stage caesarean section, or with 1 previous caesarean the absolute agreement was between 73.85% and 90.24%.Conclusion:There were  few absolute disagreements with the indication. There needs to be an evaluation of methods to diagnose fetal distress and dystocia.  

  20. Accuracy of iodine quantification using dual energy CT in latest generation dual source and dual layer CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelgrim, Gert Jan; van Hamersvelt, Robbert W; Willemink, Martin J; Schmidt, Bernhard T; Flohr, Thomas; Schilham, Arnold; Milles, Julien; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Leiner, Tim; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2017-09-01

    To determine the accuracy of iodine quantification with dual energy computed tomography (DECT) in two high-end CT systems with different spectral imaging techniques. Five tubes with different iodine concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 mg/ml) were analysed in an anthropomorphic thoracic phantom. Adding two phantom rings simulated increased patient size. For third-generation dual source CT (DSCT), tube voltage combinations of 150Sn and 70, 80, 90, 100 kVp were analysed. For dual layer CT (DLCT), 120 and 140 kVp were used. Scans were repeated three times. Median normalized values and interquartile ranges (IQRs) were calculated for all kVp settings and phantom sizes. Correlation between measured and known iodine concentrations was excellent for both systems (R = 0.999-1.000, p < 0.0001). For DSCT, median measurement errors ranged from -0.5% (IQR -2.0, 2.0%) at 150Sn/70 kVp and -2.3% (IQR -4.0, -0.1%) at 150Sn/80 kVp to -4.0% (IQR -6.0, -2.8%) at 150Sn/90 kVp. For DLCT, median measurement errors ranged from -3.3% (IQR -4.9, -1.5%) at 140 kVp to -4.6% (IQR -6.0, -3.6%) at 120 kVp. Larger phantom sizes increased variability of iodine measurements (p < 0.05). Iodine concentration can be accurately quantified with state-of-the-art DECT systems from two vendors. The lowest absolute errors were found for DSCT using the 150Sn/70 kVp or 150Sn/80 kVp combinations, which was slightly more accurate than 140 kVp in DLCT. • High-end CT scanners allow accurate iodine quantification using different DECT techniques. • Lowest measurement error was found in scans with largest photon energy separation. • Dual-source CT quantified iodine slightly more accurately than dual layer CT.

  1. Feasibility and safety of ultrasound-guided nerve block for management of limb injuries by emergency care physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Bhoi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients require procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA for the treatment of acute traumatic injuries. PSA has complications. Ultrasound (US guided peripheral nerve block is a safe alternative. Aim: Ultrasound guided nerve blocks for management of traumatic limb emergencies in Emergency Department (ED. Setting and Design: Prospective observational study conducted in ED. Materials and Methods: Patients above five years requiring analgesia for management of limb emergencies were recruited. Emergency Physicians trained in US guided nerve blocks performed the procedure. Statistical analysis: Effectiveness of pain control, using visual analogue scale was assessed at baseline and at 15 and 60 minutes after the procedure. Paired t test was used for comparison. Results: Fifty US guided nerve blocks were sciatic- 4 (8%, femoral-7 (14%, brachial- 29 (58%, median -6 (12%, and radial 2 (4% nerves. No patients required rescue PSA. Initial median VAS score was 9 (Inter Quartile Range [IQR] 7-10 and at 1 hour was 2(IQR 0-4. Median reduction in VAS score was 7.44 (IQR 8-10(75%, 1-2(25% (P=0.0001. Median procedure time was 9 minutes (IQR 3, 12 minutes and median time to reduction of pain was 5 minutes (IQR 1,15 minutes. No immediate or late complications noticed at 3 months. Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided nerve blocks can be safely and effectively performed for upper and lower limb emergencies by emergency physicians with adequate training.

  2. Gammaknife radiosurgery in patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdur, Fatih M; Kilic, Türker; Peker, Selcuk; Celik, Ozlem; Kadioglu, Pinar

    2011-12-01

    We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and reliability of gamma-knife radiosurgery (GKR) in 22 patients with acromegaly at the Endocrinology-Metabolism Clinic of Cerrahpasa Medical School. We collected data retrospectively from hospital records on disease activity and other pituitary functions, pituitary MRI and visual fields, before GKR and 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months after GKR. The median follow-up duration after GKR was 60 months (interquartile range [IQR]: 24-60 months). The remission rate was 54.5% after the 60 months of follow-up. The median growth hormone (GH) level at 60 months after GKR (0.99 ng/mL [IQR: 0.36-2.2]) was significantly lower than the median GH level before GKR (5.65 ng/mL [IQR: 3.85-7.2] (p=0.002). The median insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) level 60 months after GKR (221.5 ng/mL [IQR: 149-535]) was significantly lower than the median IGF-1 level before GKR (582.5 ng/mL [IQR: 515-655]) (p=0.008). Tumour growth was well controlled in 20 patients (95.2%). Six patients (28.6%) developed new-onset hypopituitarism. We concluded that GKR is an effective adjuvant treatment to control tumour growth, lower GH and IGF-1 levels, and to increase remission rates in patients with acromegaly who were refractory to surgical and medical treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of vitamin D supplementation, directly or via breast milk for term infants, on serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D and related biochemistry, and propensity to infection: a randomised placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandy, David D; Kare, Jahnavi; Singh, Shakal N; Agarwal, Anjoo; Das, Vinita; Singh, Urmila; Ramesh, V; Bhatia, Vijayalakshmi

    2016-07-01

    We assessed the effect of vitamin D supplementation on related biochemistry, infection and dentition of the infant. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted in Lucknow, India (latitude 26°N), 230 mother -newborn pairs were randomised to receive, for 9 months, 3000µg/month oral vitamin D3 by the mother (group A) or 10µg/d by the infant (group B) or double placebo (group C). All babies received 15 min of sun exposure (unclothed) during massage. Infants' median 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was lower in group C (median 45·3; interquartile range (IQR) 22-59·5 nmol/l) than in groups A (median 60·8; IQR 41·3-80·5 nmol/l (P7.5µkat/l) was significantly more frequent in group C babies (16 %) than in group A (4 %) or group B (0 %) babies. The number of days with respiratory or diarrhoeal infection by 9 months of age was higher in group C (median 46·5; IQR 14·8-73·3 d) than in group A (median 18·5; IQR 8·8-31·0 d (P<0·01)) or group B (median 13·0; IQR 7·0-28·5 (P<0·05)). We conclude that monthly maternal or daily infant supplementation with vitamin D along with sun exposure is superior to sun exposure alone in maintaining normal infant 25(OH)D at 3·5 months, and provide protection from elevated alkaline phosphatase and infectious morbidity.

  4. Subtraction MR venography acquired from time-resolved contrast-enhanced MR angiography: Comparison with phase-contrast MR venography and single-phase contrast-enhanced MR venography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jin Hee; Kim, Bum Soo; KIm, Bom Yi; Choi, Hyun Seok; Jung, So Lyung; Ahn, Kook Jin; Sung, Ji Kyeong

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the image characteristics of subtraction magnetic resonance venography (SMRV) from time-resolved contrast-enhanced MR angiography (TRMRA) compared with phase-contrast MR venography (PCMRV) and single-phase contrast-enhanced MR venography (CEMRV). Twenty-one patients who underwent brain MR venography (MRV) using standard protocols (PCMRV, CEMRV, and TRMRA) were included. SMRV was made by subtracting the arterial phase data from the venous phase data in TRMRA. Co-registration and subtraction of the two volume data was done using commercially available software. Image quality and the degree of arterial contamination of the three MRVs were compared. In the three MRVs, 19 pre-defined venous structures (14 dural sinuses and 5 cerebral veins) were evaluated. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the three MRVs were also compared. Single-phase contrast-enhanced MR venography showed better image quality (median score 4 in both reviewers) than did the other two MRVs (p < 0.001), whereas SMRV (median score 3 in both reviewers) and PCMRV (median score 3 in both reviewers) had similar image quality (p ≥ 0.951). SMRV (median score 0 in both reviewers) suppressed arterial signal better than did the other MRVs (median score 1 in CEMRV, median score 2 in PCMRV, both reviewers) (p < 0.001). The dural sinus score of SMRV (median and interquartile range [IQR] 48, 43-50 for reviewer 1, 47, 43-49 for reviewer 2) was significantly higher than for PCMRV (median and IQR 31, 25-34 for reviewer 1, 30, 23-32 for reviewer 2) (p < 0.01) and did not differ from that of CEMRV (median and IQR 50, 47-52 for reviewer 1, 49, 45-51 for reviewer 2) (p = 0.146 in reviewer 1 and 0.123 in reviewer 2). The SNR and CNR of SMRV (median and IQR 104.5, 83.1-121.2 and 104.1, 74.9-120.5, respectively) were between those of CEMRV (median and IQR 150.3, 111-182.6 and 148.4, 108-178.2) and PCMRV (median and IQR 59.4, 49.2-74.9 and 53.6, 43.8-69.2). Subtraction magnetic

  5. Variation in Emergency Department vs Internal Medicine Excess Charges in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tim; Park, Angela; Bai, Ge; Joo, Sarah; Hutfless, Susan M; Mehta, Ambar; Anderson, Gerard F; Makary, Martin A

    2017-08-01

    Uninsured and insured but out-of-network emergency department (ED) patients are often billed hospital chargemaster prices, which exceed amounts typically paid by insurers. To examine the variation in excess charges for services provided by emergency medicine and internal medicine physicians. Retrospective analysis was conducted of professional fee payment claims made by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services for all services provided to Medicare Part B fee-for-service beneficiaries in calendar year 2013. Data analysis was conducted from January 1 to July 31, 2016. Markup ratios for ED and internal medicine professional services, defined as the charges submitted by the hospital divided by the Medicare allowable amount. Our analysis included 12 337 emergency medicine physicians from 2707 hospitals and 57 607 internal medicine physicians from 3669 hospitals in all 50 states. Services provided by emergency medicine physicians had an overall markup ratio of 4.4 (340% excess charges), which was greater than the markup ratio of 2.1 (110% excess charges) for all services performed by internal medicine physicians. Markup ratios for all ED services ranged by hospital from 1.0 to 12.6 (median, 4.2; interquartile range [IQR], 3.3-5.8); markup ratios for all internal medicine services ranged by hospital from 1.0 to 14.1 (median, 2.0; IQR, 1.7-2.5). The median markup ratio by hospital for ED evaluation and management procedure codes varied between 4.0 and 5.0. Among the most common ED services, laceration repair had the highest median markup ratio (7.0); emergency medicine physician review of a head computed tomographic scan had the greatest interhospital variation (range, 1.6-27.7). Across hospitals, markups in the ED were often substantially higher than those in the internal medicine department for the same services. Higher ED markup ratios were associated with hospital for-profit ownership (median, 5.7; IQR, 4.0-7.1), a greater percentage of uninsured patients seen

  6. Technology-assisted title and abstract screening for systematic reviews: a retrospective evaluation of the Abstrackr machine learning tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Allison; Johnson, Cydney; Hartling, Lisa

    2018-03-12

    Machine learning tools can expedite systematic review (SR) processes by semi-automating citation screening. Abstrackr semi-automates citation screening by predicting relevant records. We evaluated its performance for four screening projects. We used a convenience sample of screening projects completed at the Alberta Research Centre for Health Evidence, Edmonton, Canada: three SRs and one descriptive analysis for which we had used SR screening methods. The projects were heterogeneous with respect to search yield (median 9328; range 5243 to 47,385 records; interquartile range (IQR) 15,688 records), topic (Antipsychotics, Bronchiolitis, Diabetes, Child Health SRs), and screening complexity. We uploaded the records to Abstrackr and screened until it made predictions about the relevance of the remaining records. Across three trials for each project, we compared the predictions to human reviewer decisions and calculated the sensitivity, specificity, precision, false negative rate, proportion missed, and workload savings. Abstrackr's sensitivity was > 0.75 for all projects and the mean specificity ranged from 0.69 to 0.90 with the exception of Child Health SRs, for which it was 0.19. The precision (proportion of records correctly predicted as relevant) varied by screening task (median 26.6%; range 14.8 to 64.7%; IQR 29.7%). The median false negative rate (proportion of records incorrectly predicted as irrelevant) was 12.6% (range 3.5 to 21.2%; IQR 12.3%). The workload savings were often large (median 67.2%, range 9.5 to 88.4%; IQR 23.9%). The proportion missed (proportion of records predicted as irrelevant that were included in the final report, out of the total number predicted as irrelevant) was 0.1% for all SRs and 6.4% for the descriptive analysis. This equated to 4.2% (range 0 to 12.2%; IQR 7.8%) of the records in the final reports. Abstrackr's reliability and the workload savings varied by screening task. Workload savings came at the expense of potentially missing

  7. Adolescents' Sexual Wellbeing in Southwestern Uganda: A Cross-Sectional Assessment of Body Image, Self-Esteem and Gender Equitable Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemigisha, Elizabeth; Nyakato, Viola N; Bruce, Katharine; Ndaruhutse Ruzaaza, Gad; Mlahagwa, Wendo; Ninsiima, Anna B; Coene, Gily; Leye, Els; Michielsen, Kristien

    2018-02-22

    Measures of sexual wellbeing and positive aspects of sexuality in the World Health Organization definition for sexual health are rarely studied and remain poorly understood, especially among adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to assess sexual wellbeing in its broad sense-i.e., body image, self-esteem, and gender equitable norms-and associated factors in young adolescents in Uganda. A cross-sectional survey of adolescents ages 10-14 years in schools was carried out between June and July 2016. Among 1096 adolescents analyzed, the median age was 12 (Inter-Quartile Range (IQR): 11, 13) and 58% were female. Self-esteem and body image scores were high with median 24 (IQR: 22, 26, possible range: 7-28) and median 22 (IQR: 19, 24, possible range: 5-25) respectively. Gender equitable norms mean score was 28.1 (SD 5.2: possible range 11-44). We noted high scores for self-esteem and body image but moderate scores on gender equitable norms. Girls had higher scores compared to boys for all outcomes. A higher age and being sexually active were associated with lower scores on gender equitable norms. Gender equitable norms scores decreased with increasing age of adolescents. Comprehensive and timely sexuality education programs focusing on gender differences and norms are recommended.

  8. Prevention of Hospital-Acquired Adverse Drug Reactions in Older People Using Screening Tool of Older Persons' Prescriptions and Screening Tool to Alert to Right Treatment Criteria: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Marie N; O'Sullivan, David; Gallagher, Paul F; Eustace, Joseph; Byrne, Stephen; O'Mahony, Denis

    2016-08-01

    To determine whether use of the Screening Tool of Older Persons' Prescriptions (STOPP) and Screening Tool to Alert to Right Treatment (START) criteria reduces incident hospital-acquired adverse drug reactions (ADRs), 28-day medication costs, and median length of hospital stay in older adults admitted with acute illness. Single-blind cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) of unselected older adults hospitalized over a 13-month period. Tertiary referral hospital in southern Ireland. Consecutively admitted individuals aged 65 and older (N = 732). Single time point presentation to attending physicians of potentially inappropriate medications according to the STOPP/START criteria. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants experiencing one or more ADRs during the index hospitalization. Secondary outcomes were median length of stay (LOS) and 28-day total medication cost. One or more ADRs occurred in 78 of the 372 control participants (21.0%; median age 78, interquartile range (IQR) 72-84) and in 42 of the 360 intervention participants (11.7%; median age 80, IQR 73-85) (absolute risk reduction = 9.3%, number needed to treat = 11). The median LOS in the hospital was 8 days (IQR 4-14 days) in both groups. At discharge, median medication cost was significantly lower in the intervention group (€73.16, IQR €38.68-121.72) than in the control group (€90.62, IQR €49.38-162.53) (Wilcoxon rank test Z statistic = -3.274, P older adults but did not affect median LOS. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  9. Rifaximin Reduces Markers of Inflammation and Bacterial 16S rRNA in Zambian Adults with Hepatosplenic Schistosomiasis: A Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkala, Edford; Zyambo, Kanekwa; Besa, Ellen; Kaonga, Patrick; Nsokolo, Bright; Kayamba, Violet; Vinikoor, Michael; Zulu, Rabison; Bwalya, Martin; Foster, Graham R; Kelly, Paul

    2018-04-01

    Cirrhosis is the dominant cause of portal hypertension globally but may be overshadowed by hepatosplenic schistosomiasis (HSS) in the tropics. In Zambia, schistosomiasis seroprevalence can reach 88% in endemic areas. Bacterial translocation (BT) drives portal hypertension in cirrhosis contributing to mortality but remains unexplored in HSS. Rifaximin, a non-absorbable antibiotic may reduce BT. We aimed to explore the influence of rifaximin on BT, inflammation, and fibrosis in HSS. In this phase II open-label trial (ISRCTN67590499), 186 patients with HSS in Zambia were evaluated and 85 were randomized to standard care with or without rifaximin for 42 days. Changes in markers of inflammation, BT, and fibrosis were the primary outcomes. BT was measured using plasma 16S rRNA, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, and lipopolysaccharide, whereas hyaluronan was used to measure fibrosis. Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and soluble cluster of differentiation 14 (sCD14) assessed inflammation. 16S rRNA reduced from baseline (median 146 copies/µL, interquartile range [IQR] 9, 537) to day 42 in the rifaximin group (median 63 copies/µL, IQR 12, 196), P < 0.01. The rise in sCD14 was lower ( P < 0.01) in the rifaximin group (median rise 122 ng/mL, IQR-184, 783) than in the non-rifaximin group (median rise 832 ng/mL, IQR 530, 967). TNFR1 decreased ( P < 0.01) in the rifaximin group (median -39 ng/mL IQR-306, 563) but increased in the non-rifaximin group (median 166 ng/mL, IQR 3, 337). Other markers remained unaffected. Rifaximin led to a reduction of inflammatory markers and bacterial 16S rRNA which may implicate BT in the inflammation in HSS.

  10. Using Simulation as an Investigational Methodology to Explore the Impact of Technology on Team Communication and Patient Management: A Pilot Evaluation of the Effect of an Automated Compression Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittinger, Matthew; Brolliar, Sarah M; Grand, James A; Nichol, Graham; Fernandez, Rosemarie

    2017-06-01

    This pilot study used a simulation-based platform to evaluate the effect of an automated mechanical chest compression device on team communication and patient management. Four-member emergency department interprofessional teams were randomly assigned to perform manual chest compressions (control, n = 6) or automated chest compressions (intervention, n = 6) during a simulated cardiac arrest with 2 phases: phase 1 baseline (ventricular tachycardia), followed by phase 2 (ventricular fibrillation). Patient management was coded using an Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support-based checklist. Team communication was categorized in the following 4 areas: (1) teamwork focus; (2) huddle events, defined as statements focused on re-establishing situation awareness, reinforcing existing plans, and assessing the need to adjust the plan; (3) clinical focus; and (4) profession of team member. Statements were aggregated for each team. At baseline, groups were similar with respect to total communication statements and patient management. During cardiac arrest, the total number of communication statements was greater in teams performing manual compressions (median, 152.3; interquartile range [IQR], 127.6-181.0) as compared with teams using an automated compression device (median, 105; IQR, 99.5-123.9). Huddle events were more frequent in teams performing automated chest compressions (median, 4.0; IQR, 3.1-4.3 vs. 2.0; IQR, 1.4-2.6). Teams randomized to the automated compression intervention had a delay to initial defibrillation (median, 208.3 seconds; IQR, 153.3-222.1 seconds) as compared with control teams (median, 63.2 seconds; IQR, 30.1-397.2 seconds). Use of an automated compression device may impact both team communication and patient management. Simulation-based assessments offer important insights into the effect of technology on healthcare teams.

  11. Integration of TB and ART services fails to improve TB treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The median CD4+ count of HIV-positive patients was 152 cells/μl (interquartile range (IQR) 71 - 277) for integrated facilities and 148 cells/μl (IQR 67 - 260) for single-service facilities. There was no statistical difference in the TB treatment outcome profile between integrated and single-service facilities for all TB patients (p=0.

  12. Relationships between the Brook Street Terrane and Median Tectonic Zone (Median Batholith) : evidence from Jurassic conglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulloch, A.J.; Kimbrough, D.L.; Landis, C.A.; Mortimer, N.; Johnston, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    U-Pb zircon ages of 237-180 Ma and c. 280 Ma of seven granitoid clasts from the Rainy River Conglomerate which lies within the eastern Median Tectonic Zone (Median Batholith) in Nelson, and the Barretts Formation of the Brook Street Terrane in Southland, constrain the depositional ages of both units to be no older than c. 180-200 Ma (Early Jurassic). The minimum age of the Rainy River Conglomerate is constrained by the 147 +2 -1 Ma (Latest Jurassic) emplacement age of the One Mile Gabbronorite (new name: previously western Buller Diorite). The ages and chemistry of five of the granitoid clasts are broadly compatible with derivation from rocks that are now represented by Triassic plutons of the Median Tectonic Zone (Median Batholith), although ages as young as 180 Ma are slightly outside the range of the latter as currently exposed in New Zealand. The age (273-290 Ma, 237 +/- 3 Ma) and chemistry of the other two clasts (one each from Rainy River Conglomerate and Barretts Formation) suggest derivation from the Brook Street Terrane. Similarity in stratigraphic age, depositional characteristics, granitoid clast ages and composition between Rainy River Conglomerate and Barretts Formation suggests that they are broadly correlative and collectively overlapped a combined Brook Street Terrane - Median Batholith (MTZ) before the Late Jurassic (147 +2 -1 Ma). Sedimentary overlap may also have continued across to Middle Jurassic conglomeratic strata in the Murihiku Terrane to the east of the Brook Street Terrane. A U-Pb zircon age of 261 +/- 2 Ma is reported for Pourakino Trondhjemite of the Brook Street Terrane. (author). 56 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Superior Oblique Anterior Transposition with Horizontal Recti Recession-Resection for Total Third-Nerve Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhsin Eraslan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To report the results of lateral rectus muscle recession, medial rectus muscle resection, and superior oblique muscle transposition in the restoration and maintenance of ocular alignment in primary position for patients with total third-nerve palsy. Methods. The medical records of patients who underwent surgery between March 2007 and September 2011 for total third-nerve palsy were reviewed. All patients underwent a preoperative assessment, including a detailed ophthalmologic examination. Results. A total of 6 patients (age range, 14–45 years were included. The median preoperative horizontal deviation was 67.5 Prism Diopter (PD (interquartile range [IQR] 57.5–70 and vertical deviation was 13.5 PD (IQR 10–20. The median postoperative horizontal residual exodeviation was 8.0 PD (IQR 1–16, and the vertical deviation was 0 PD (IQR 0–4. The median correction of hypotropia following superior oblique transposition was 13.5 ± 2.9 PD (range, 10–16. All cases were vertically aligned within 5 PD. Four of the six cases were aligned within 10 PD of the horizontal deviation. Adduction and head posture were improved in all patients. All patients gained new area of binocular single vision in the primary position after the operation. Conclusion. Lateral rectus recession, medial rectus resection, and superior oblique transposition may be used to achieve satisfactory cosmetic and functional results in total third-nerve palsy.

  14. The changing face of orthostatic and neurocardiogenic syncope with age.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooke, J

    2012-01-31

    AIM: Reports of the outcomes of syncope assessment across a broad spectrum of ages in a single population are scarce. It is our objective to chart the varying prevalence of orthostatic and neurocardiogenic syncope (NCS) as a patient ages. METHODS: This was a retrospective study. All consecutive patients referred to a tertiary referral syncope unit over a decade were included. Patients were referred with recurrent falls or orthostatic intolerance. Tilt tests and carotid sinus massage (CSM) were performed in accordance with best practice guidelines. RESULTS: A total of 3002 patients were included (1451 short tilt, 127 active stand, 1042 CSM and 382 prolonged tilt). Ages ranged from 11 to 91 years with a median (IQR) of 75 (62-81) years. There were 1914 females; 1088 males. Orthostatic hypotension (OH) was the most commonly observed abnormality (test positivity of 60.3%). Those with OH had a median (IQR) age of 78 (71-83) years. Symptomatic patients were significantly younger than asymptomatic (P = 0.03). NCS demonstrated a bimodal age distribution. Of 194 patients with carotid sinus hypersensitivity, the median age (IQR) was 77 (68-82) years. Those with vasovagal syncope (n = 80) had a median (IQR) age of 30 (19-44) years. There were 57 patients with isolated postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. Of the total patients, 75% were female. They had a median (IQR) age of 23 (17-29) years. CONCLUSION: We have confirmed, in a single population, a changing pattern in the aetiology of syncope as a person ages. The burden of disease is greatest in the elderly.

  15. Similar head impact acceleration measured using instrumented ear patches in a junior rugby union team during matches in comparison with other sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Doug A; Hume, Patria A; Gissane, Conor; Clark, Trevor N

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE Direct impact with the head and the inertial loading of the head have been postulated as major mechanisms of head-related injuries, such as concussion. METHODS This descriptive observational study was conducted to quantify the head impact acceleration characteristics in under-9-year-old junior rugby union players in New Zealand. The impact magnitude, frequency, and location were collected with a wireless head impact sensor that was worn by 14 junior rugby players who participated in 4 matches. RESULTS A total of 721 impacts > 10g were recorded. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) number of impacts per player was 46 (IQR 37-58), resulting in 10 (IQR 4-18) impacts to the head per player per match. The median impact magnitudes recorded were 15g (IQR 12g-21g) for linear acceleration and 2296 rad/sec(2) (IQR 1352-4152 rad/sec(2)) for rotational acceleration. CONCLUSIONS There were 121 impacts (16.8%) above the rotational injury risk limit and 1 (0.1%) impact above the linear injury risk limit. The acceleration magnitude and number of head impacts in junior rugby union players were higher than those previously reported in similar age-group sports participants. The median linear acceleration for the under-9-year-old rugby players were similar to 7- to 8-year-old American football players, but lower than 9- to 12-year-old youth American football players. The median rotational accelerations measured were higher than the median and 95th percentiles in youth, high school, and collegiate American football players.

  16. High Lifetime Pregnancy and Low Contraceptive Usage Among Sex Workers Who Use Drugs- An Unmet Reproductive Health Need

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexson Debbie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to describe levels of pregnancy and contraceptive usage among a cohort of street-based female sex workers (FSWs in Vancouver. Methods The study sample was obtained from a community-based prospective cohort study (2006-2008 of 211 women in street-based sex work who use drugs, 176 of whom had reported at least one prior pregnancy. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate lifetime pregnancy prevalence, pregnancy outcomes (miscarriage, abortion, adoption, child apprehension, child custody, and contraceptive usage. In secondary analyses, associations between contraceptive usage, individual and interpersonal risk factors and high number of lifetime pregnancies (defined as greater than the sample mean of 4 were examined. Results Among our sample, 84% reported a prior pregnancy, with a mean of 4 lifetime pregnancies (median = 3; IQR: 2-5. The median age of women reporting 5+ pregnancies was 38 years old [interquartile range (IQR: 25.0-39.0] compared to 34 years [IQR: 25.0-39.0] among women reporting 4 or fewer prior pregnancies. 45% were Caucasian and 47% were of Aboriginal ancestry. We observed high rates of previous abortion (median = 1;IQR:1-3, apprehension (median = 2; IQR:1-4 and adoption (median = 1; IQR:1-2 among FSWs who reported prior pregnancy. The use of hormonal and insertive contraceptives was limited. In bivariate analysis, tubal ligation (OR = 2.49; [95%CI = 1.14-5.45], and permanent contraceptives (e.g., tubal ligation and hysterectomy (OR = 2.76; [95%CI = 1.36-5.59] were both significantly associated with having five or more pregnancies. Conclusion These findings demonstrate high levels of unwanted pregnancy in the context of low utilization of effective contraceptives and suggest a need to improve the accessibility and utilization of reproductive health services, including family planning, which are appropriately targeted and tailored for FSWs in Vancouver.

  17. Economic Consequences of Post–Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis in a Rural Bangladeshi Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Masayo; Islam, Shamim; Rahman, Kazi Mizanur; Rahman, Anisur; Luby, Stephen P.; Bern, Caryn

    2011-01-01

    Post–kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a complication of visceral leishmaniasis. Bangladesh national treatment guidelines during the study period called for 120 intramuscular injections of sodium antimony gluconate (SAG). We assessed care-seeking behavior, diagnosis and treatment costs, and coping strategies among 134 PKDL patients; 56 (42%) patients had been treated with SAG, and 78 (58%) remained untreated. The median direct cost per patient treated was US$367 (interquartile range [IQR] = 90–284), more than two times the estimated per capita annual income for the study population. The most common coping strategy was to take a loan; the median amount borrowed was US$98 (IQR = 71–150), with a median interest of US$32 (IQR = 16–95). Households lost a median of 123 work-days per patient treated. The current regimen for PKDL imposes a significant financial burden, reinforcing the link between poverty and visceral leishmaniasis. More practical shorter-course regimens for PKDL are urgently needed to achieve national and regional visceral leishmaniasis elimination goals. PMID:21896817

  18. Median and ulnar neuropathies in university guitarists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Rachel H; Hutcherson, Kimberly J; Kain, Jennifer B; Phillips, Alicia L; Halle, John S; Greathouse, David G

    2006-02-01

    Descriptive study. To determine the presence of median and ulnar neuropathies in both upper extremities of university guitarists. Peripheral nerve entrapment syndromes of the upper extremities are well documented in musicians. Guitarists and plucked-string musicians are at risk for entrapment neuropathies in the upper extremities and are prone to mild neurologic deficits. Twenty-four volunteer male and female guitarists (age range, 18-26 years) were recruited from the Belmont University School of Music and the Vanderbilt University Blair School of Music. Individuals were excluded if they were pregnant or had a history of recent upper extremity or neck injury. Subjects completed a history form, were interviewed, and underwent a physical examination. Nerve conduction status of the median and ulnar nerves of both upper extremities was obtained by performing motor, sensory, and F-wave (central) nerve conduction studies. Descriptive statistics of the nerve conduction study variables were computed using Microsoft Excel. Six subjects had positive findings on provocative testing of the median and ulnar nerves. Otherwise, these guitarists had normal upper extremity neural and musculoskeletal function based on the history and physical examinations. When comparing the subjects' nerve conduction study values with a chart of normal nerve conduction studies values, 2 subjects had prolonged distal motor latencies (DMLs) of the left median nerve of 4.3 and 4.7 milliseconds (normal, DMLs are compatible with median neuropathy at or distal to the wrist. Otherwise, all electrophysiological variables were within normal limits for motor, sensory, and F-wave (central) values. However, comparison studies of median and ulnar motor latencies in the same hand demonstrated prolonged differences of greater than 1.0 milliseconds that affected the median nerve in 2 additional subjects, and identified contralateral limb involvement in a subject with a prolonged distal latency. The other 20

  19. Is There a Relationship Between Body Mass Index and Fluoroscopy Time During Sacroiliac Joint Injection? A Multicenter Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Zachary L; Cushman, Daniel; Lee, David T; Scholten, Paul; Chu, Samuel K; Babu, Ashwin N; Caldwell, Mary; Ziegler, Craig; Ashraf, Humaira; Sundar, Bindu; Clark, Ryan; Gross, Claire; Cara, Jeffrey; McCormick, Kristen; Ross, Brendon; Smith, Clark C; Press, Joel; Smuck, Matthew; Walega, David R

    2016-07-01

    To determine the relationship between BMI and fluoroscopy time during intra-articular sacroiliac joint (SIJ) injections performed for a pain indication. Multicenter retrospective cohort study. Three academic, outpatient pain treatment centers. Patients who underwent fluoroscopy guided SIJ injection with encounter data regarding fluoroscopy time during the procedure and body mass index (BMI). Median and 25-75% Interquartile Range (IQR) fluoroscopy time. 459 SIJ injections (350 patients) were included in this study. Patients had a median age of 57 (IQR 44, 70) years, and 72% were female. The median BMI in the normal weight, overweight, and obese groups were 23 (IQR 21, 24), 27 (IQR 26, 29), and 35 (IQR 32, 40), respectively. There was no significant difference in the median fluoroscopy time recorded between these BMI classes (p = 0.45). First-time SIJ injection (p = 0.53), bilateral injection (p = 0.30), trainee involvement (p = 0.47), and new trainee involvement (trainee participation during the first 2 months of the academic year) (p = 0.85) were not associated with increased fluoroscopy time for any of the three BMI categories. Fluoroscopy time during sacroiliac joint injection is not increased in patients who are overweight or obese, regardless of whether a first-time sacroiliac joint injection was performed, bilateral injections were performed, a trainee was involved, or a new trainee was involved. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The prevalence and predictive value of dipstick urine protein in HIV-positive persons in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocroft, Amanda; Ryom, Lene; Lapadula, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    sex with men (n=809; 49.3%). Median age at baseline was 45 (IQR 37-52 years), and CD4 was 570 (IQR 406-760/mm(3)). The median baseline date was 2/12 (IQR 11/11-6/12), and median eGFR was 99 (IQR 88-109 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). Sixty-nine persons had PTU (4.2%, 95% CI 3.2-4.7%). Persons with diabetes had...

  1. A serosurvey of bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease in a convenience sample of sheep and cattle herds in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Stuart J G; Bolwell, Charlotte; Rogers, Chris W; Musuka, Godfrey; Kelly, Patrick; Guthrie, Alan; Mellor, Philip S; Hamblin, Chris

    2017-11-14

    A convenience sample of sheep and cattle herds around the cities of Harare, Kwekwe and Bulawayo, located in the Highveld region of Zimbabwe, was used to estimate the seroprevalence and sero-incidence of bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) antibodies. A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to identify serum antibodies against BTV and EHDV across three rainy seasons. The median sero-prevalence of BTV and EHDV antibodies in cattle was 62% (interquartile range [IQR]: 30-89) and 56% (IQR: 5-77), respectively. In sheep, the median sero-prevalence of BTV and EHDV was 41% (IQR: 19-63) and 0% (IQR: 0-21), respectively. Median sero-incidences of BTV and EHDV antibodies in cattle of 43% (IQR: 22-67) and 27% (IQR: 9-57) respectively were recorded. The median sero-incidence of BTV in sheep was 14% (IQR: 6-23). Based on these preliminary findings, animal health workers in Zimbabwe should continue to monitor the exposure rates of cattle and sheep to BTV and consider the possibility of strains emerging with increased pathogenicity. There are no previous published reports of antibodies against EHDV in Zimbabwe so the possibility of epizootic haemorrhagic disease existing in domestic livestock should now be considered by Zimbabwean animal health officials. Seroconversions to BTV and EHDV occurred predominantly at the end of each rainy season (March and April), which generally corresponds to high numbers of the Culicoides vectors. BTV isolations were made from three individual cows in two of the sentinel herds and all three were identified as serotype 3. This is the first time BTV serotype 3 has been recorded in Zimbabwe, although its presence in neighbouring South Africa is well documented.

  2. Adolescents’ Sexual Wellbeing in Southwestern Uganda: A Cross-Sectional Assessment of Body Image, Self-Esteem and Gender Equitable Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemigisha, Elizabeth; Nyakato, Viola N.; Bruce, Katharine; Ndaruhutse Ruzaaza, Gad; Mlahagwa, Wendo; Ninsiima, Anna B.; Coene, Gily; Leye, Els; Michielsen, Kristien

    2018-01-01

    Measures of sexual wellbeing and positive aspects of sexuality in the World Health Organization definition for sexual health are rarely studied and remain poorly understood, especially among adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to assess sexual wellbeing in its broad sense—i.e., body image, self-esteem, and gender equitable norms—and associated factors in young adolescents in Uganda. A cross-sectional survey of adolescents ages 10–14 years in schools was carried out between June and July 2016. Among 1096 adolescents analyzed, the median age was 12 (Inter-Quartile Range (IQR): 11, 13) and 58% were female. Self-esteem and body image scores were high with median 24 (IQR: 22, 26, possible range: 7–28) and median 22 (IQR: 19, 24, possible range: 5–25) respectively. Gender equitable norms mean score was 28.1 (SD 5.2: possible range 11–44). We noted high scores for self-esteem and body image but moderate scores on gender equitable norms. Girls had higher scores compared to boys for all outcomes. A higher age and being sexually active were associated with lower scores on gender equitable norms. Gender equitable norms scores decreased with increasing age of adolescents. Comprehensive and timely sexuality education programs focusing on gender differences and norms are recommended. PMID:29470388

  3. Reference curves for CD4 T-cell count response to combination antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected treatment-naïve patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouteloup, V; Sabin, C; Mocroft, A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to provide a reference for the CD4 T-cell count response in the early months after the initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-1-infected patients. METHODS: All patients in the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research....... Unadjusted and adjusted references curves and predictions were obtained using quantile regressions. RESULTS: A total of 28 992 patients were included in the study. The median CD4 T-cell count at treatment initiation was 249 [interquartile range (IQR) 150, 336] cells/μL. The median observed CD4 counts at 6, 9...... and 12 months were 382 (IQR 256, 515), 402 (IQR 274, 543) and 420 (IQR 293, 565) cells/μL. The two main factors explaining the variation of CD4 count at 6 months were AIDS stage and CD4 count at cART initiation. A CD4 count increase of ≥ 100 cells/mL is generally required in order that patients stay 'on...

  4. Intramyocardial bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation in ischemic heart failure: Long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Miia; Pätilä, Tommi; Kankuri, Esko; Lauerma, Kirsi; Sinisalo, Juha; Laine, Mika; Kupari, Markku; Vento, Antti; Harjula, Ari

    2015-07-01

    Long-term results regarding treatment of chronic ischemic heart failure with bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs) have been few. We received encouraging results at the 1-year follow-up of patients treated with combined coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and BMMCs, so we decided to extend the follow-up. The study patients had received injections of BMMCs or vehicle into the myocardial infarction border area during CABG in a randomized and double-blind manner. We could contact 36 of the 39 patients recruited for the original study. Pre-operatively and after an extended follow-up period, we performed magnetic resonance imaging, measured pro-B-type amino-terminal natriuretic peptide, reviewed patient records from the follow-up period, and determined current quality of life with the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 (SF-36) Health Survey. The median follow-up time was 60.7 months (interquartile range [IQR], 45.1-72.6 months). No statistically significant difference was detected in change of pro-B-type amino-terminal natriuretic peptide values or in quality of life between groups. The median change in left ventricular ejection fraction was 4.9% (IQR, -2.1% to 12.3%) for controls and 3.9% (IQR, -5.2% to 10.2%) for the BMMC group (p = 0.647). Wall thickening in injected segments increased by a median of 17% (IQR, -5% to 30%) for controls and 15% (IQR, -12% to 19%) for BMMC patients (p = 0.434). Scar size in injected segments increased by a median of 2% (IQR, -7% to 19%) for controls but diminished for BMMC patients, with a median change of -17% (IQR, -30% to -6%; p = 0.011). In the treatment of chronic ischemic heart failure, combining intramyocardial BMMC therapy with CABG fails to affect cardiac function but can sustainably reduce scar size, even in the long-term. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An implemented MRI program to eliminate radiation from the evaluation of pediatric appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaylat, Afif N; Moore, Michael M; Engbrecht, Brett W; Brian, James M; Khaku, Aliasgher; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Rocourt, Dorothy V; Hulse, Michael A; Olympia, Robert P; Santos, Mary C; Methratta, Sosamma T; Dillon, Peter W; Cilley, Robert E

    2015-08-01

    Recent efforts have been directed at reducing ionizing radiation delivered by CT scans to children in the evaluation of appendicitis. MRI has emerged as an alternative diagnostic modality. The clinical outcomes associated with MRI in this setting are not well-described. Review of a 30-month institutional experience with MRI as the primary diagnostic evaluation for suspected appendicitis (n=510). No intravenous contrast, oral contrast, or sedation was administered. Radiologic and clinical outcomes were abstracted. MRI diagnostic characteristics were: sensitivity 96.8% (95% CI: 92.1%-99.1%), specificity 97.4% (95% CI: 95.3-98.7), positive predictive value 92.4% (95% CI: 86.5-96.3), and negative predictive value 98.9% (95% CI: 97.3%-99.7%). Radiologic time parameters included: median time from request to scan, 71 minutes (IQR: 51-102), imaging duration, 11 minutes (IQR: 8-17), and request to interpretation, 2.0 hours (IQR: 1.6-2.6). Clinical time parameters included: median time from initial assessment to admit order, 4.1 hours (IQR: 3.1-5.1), assessment to antibiotic administration 4.7 hours (IQR: 3.9-6.7), and assessment to operating room 9.1 hours (IQR: 5.8-12.7). Median length of stay was 1.2 days (range: 0.2-19.5). Given the diagnostic accuracy and favorable clinical outcomes, without the potential risks of ionizing radiation, MRI may supplant the role of CT scans in pediatric appendicitis imaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Examination of placental three-dimensional power Doppler indices and perinatal outcome in pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, András; Surányi, Andrea; Jakó, Mária; Nyári, Tibor; Németh, Gábor

    2017-07-01

    Development of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can be traced back to maternal or fetal factors, but in many cases we find placental factors (reduced placental circulation) in the background. Our aim was to examine whether the reduced placental bloodperfusion and vascularity show any correlation with cesarean section frequency and the clinical outcome in IUGR pregnancies. The aim of the present study was also to use a properly calibrated and reproducible method for evaluating placental blood flow, that can later be incorporated into the routine examination. 254 women were recruited in our prospective case-control study. The 3 dimensional power Doppler (3DPD) ultrasound indices; vascularisation index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularization flow index (VFI) were measured on each participant. Median VI was 3.7% (interquartile range [IQR] 3.2%-4.2%) in the IUGR group and 10.1% (IQR 8.6%-10.9%) in the control group (p = 0.001). Median FI value was 40.0 (IQR 39.7-42.5) in the IUGR group and 45.1 (IQR 44.1-53.1) in the control group (p = 0.012). Median VFI was 2.2 (IQR 2.1-2.4) in the IUGR group and 4.8 (IQR 4.4-5.3) in the control. The 3DPD indices may be useful for examining changes in circulation in IUGR pregnancies to characterize the underlying pathology. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(26): 1008-1013.

  7. Is YouTube Useful as a Source of Health Information for Adults With Type 2 Diabetes? A South Asian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Amanda Y; Sanghera, Ravina; Jhajj, Jaspreet; Desai, Nandini; Jammu, Bikramjit Singh; Makowsky, Mark J

    2017-12-25

    To investigate the content, quality and popularity of information about type 2 diabetes available on YouTube. We searched YouTube with the terms Diabetes, Diabetes type 2, Diabetes South Asians, Diabetes Punjabi and Diabetes Hindi to identify videos concerning type 2 diabetes. A team of health-care providers independently classified the first 20 videos from each search as useful, misleading, or personal experience, rated them on a 5-point global quality scale (GQS) and categorized their content on a 26-point scale in duplicate. Useful videos were rated for reliability by using a 5-point modified DISCERN scale. Higher scores represent better quality, reliability and comprehensiveness. Of 100 videos, 71 met the inclusion criteria; 45 (63.4%) were rated as useful (median GQS, 3; interquartile range [IQR], 2 to 4); and 23 (32.4%) were deemed misleading (median GQS, 1; IQR, 1 to 2). Median reliability and content scores for useful videos were 3 (IQR, 2 to 3) and 5 (IQR, 3 to 10), respectively, and 6 videos met ≥ 4 of 5 reliability criteria. Overall, misleading videos were more popular than useful videos (median, 233 views/day; IQR, 26 to 523; vs. 8.3 views/day; IQR, 0.4 to 134.6; p<0.01). Culturally tailored videos were just as likely to be misleading and had similar GQS scores in comparison to nonculturally tailored videos (32.1% vs. 32.6% and 3 vs. 3, respectively). The quality of identified videos concerning type 2 diabetes was variable, and misleading videos were popular. Further creation and curation of high-quality video resources is required. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Predictors of survival among adult Ethiopian patients in the national ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The median CD4 count at start of ART was 144 cells/μl (interquartile range (IQR) 78-205), and 34.2% (330/965) had CD4 < 100. Sixty-three percent (536/851) had viral load greater than 5 log copies/ml (IQR 4.7-5.7) at base line. One hundred and one deaths were recorded during follow-up period, all-cause mortality rate ...

  9. A Turbine-Driven Ventilator Improves Adherence to Advanced Cardiac Life Support Guidelines During a Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Scott G; Brewer, Lara; Gillis, Erik S; Pace, Nathan L; Sakata, Derek J; Orr, Joseph A

    2017-09-01

    Research has shown that increased breathing frequency during cardiopulmonary resuscitation is inversely correlated with systolic blood pressure. Rescuers often hyperventilate during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Current American Heart Association advanced cardiac life support recommends a ventilation rate of 8-10 breaths/min. We hypothesized that a small, turbine-driven ventilator would allow rescuers to adhere more closely to advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) guidelines. Twenty-four ACLS-certified health-care professionals were paired into groups of 2. Each team performed 4 randomized rounds of 2-min cycles of CPR on an intubated mannikin, with individuals altering between compressions and breaths. Two rounds of CPR were performed with a self-inflating bag, and 2 rounds were with the ventilator. The ventilator was set to deliver 8 breaths/min, pressure limit 22 cm H 2 O. Frequency, tidal volume (V T ), peak inspiratory pressure, and compression interruptions (hands-off time) were recorded. Data were analyzed with a linear mixed model and Welch 2-sample t test. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) frequency with the ventilator was 7.98 (7.98-7.99) breaths/min. Median (IQR) frequency with the self-inflating bag was 9.5 (8.2-10.7) breaths/min. Median (IQR) ventilator V T was 0.5 (0.5-0.5) L. Median (IQR) self-inflating bag V T was 0.6 (0.5-0.7) L. Median (IQR) ventilator peak inspiratory pressure was 22 (22-22) cm H 2 O. Median (IQR) self-inflating bag peak inspiratory pressure was 30 (27-35) cm H 2 O. Mean ± SD hands-off times for ventilator and self-inflating bag were 5.25 ± 2.11 and 6.41 ± 1.45 s, respectively. When compared with a ventilator, volunteers ventilated with a self-inflating bag within ACLS guidelines. However, volunteers ventilated with increased variation, at higher V T levels, and at higher peak pressures with the self-inflating bag. Hands-off time was also significantly lower with the ventilator. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT

  10. Hepatitis C virus infection epidemiology among people who inject drugs in Europe: a systematic review of data for scaling up treatment and prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Wiessing

    Full Text Available People who inject drugs (PWID are a key population affected by hepatitis C virus (HCV. Treatment options are improving and may enhance prevention; however access for PWID may be poor. The availability in the literature of information on seven main topic areas (incidence, chronicity, genotypes, HIV co-infection, diagnosis and treatment uptake, and burden of disease to guide HCV treatment and prevention scale-up for PWID in the 27 countries of the European Union is systematically reviewed.We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library for publications between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2012, with a search strategy of general keywords regarding viral hepatitis, substance abuse and geographic scope, as well as topic-specific keywords. Additional articles were found through structured email consultations with a large European expert network. Data availability was highly variable and important limitations existed in comparability and representativeness. Nine of 27 countries had data on HCV incidence among PWID, which was often high (2.7-66/100 person-years, median 13, Interquartile range (IQR 8.7-28. Most common HCV genotypes were G1 and G3; however, G4 may be increasing, while the proportion of traditionally 'difficult to treat' genotypes (G1+G4 showed large variation (median 53, IQR 43-62. Twelve countries reported on HCV chronicity (median 72, IQR 64-81 and 22 on HIV prevalence in HCV-infected PWID (median 3.9%, IQR 0.2-28. Undiagnosed infection, assessed in five countries, was high (median 49%, IQR 38-64, while of those diagnosed, the proportion entering treatment was low (median 9.5%, IQR 3.5-15. Burden of disease, where assessed, was high and will rise in the next decade.Key data on HCV epidemiology, care and disease burden among PWID in Europe are sparse but suggest many undiagnosed infections and poor treatment uptake. Stronger efforts are needed to improve data availability to guide an increase in HCV treatment among PWID.

  11. Clinical features and lung function in HIV-infected children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 56 children identified, the median age was 5 (interquartile range (IQR) 2 - 8) years with equal gender ratio. The majority (93%) had been previously treated for tuberculosis and/or pneumonia (71%). The most common CLD identified was lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis (54%). The median nadir CD4 percentage was ...

  12. Metrics for Electronic-Nursing-Record-Based Narratives: Cross-sectional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kidong; Jeong, Suyeon; Lee, Kyogu; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Min, Yul Ha; Lee, Joo Yun; Kim, Yekyung; Yoo, Sooyoung; Doh, Gippeum

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives We aimed to determine the characteristics of quantitative metrics for nursing narratives documented in electronic nursing records and their association with hospital admission traits and diagnoses in a large data set not limited to specific patient events or hypotheses. Methods We collected 135,406,873 electronic, structured coded nursing narratives from 231,494 hospital admissions of patients discharged between 2008 and 2012 at a tertiary teaching institution that routinely uses an electronic health records system. The standardized number of nursing narratives (i.e., the total number of nursing narratives divided by the length of the hospital stay) was suggested to integrate the frequency and quantity of nursing documentation. Results The standardized number of nursing narratives was higher for patients aged 70 years (median = 30.2 narratives/day, interquartile range [IQR] = 24.0–39.4 narratives/day), long (8 days) hospital stays (median = 34.6 narratives/day, IQR = 27.2–43.5 narratives/day), and hospital deaths (median = 59.1 narratives/day, IQR = 47.0–74.8 narratives/day). The standardized number of narratives was higher in “pregnancy, childbirth, and puerperium” (median = 46.5, IQR = 39.0–54.7) and “diseases of the circulatory system” admissions (median = 35.7, IQR = 29.0–43.4). Conclusions Diverse hospital admissions can be consistently described with nursing-document-derived metrics for similar hospital admissions and diagnoses. Some areas of hospital admissions may have consistently increasing volumes of nursing documentation across years. Usability of electronic nursing document metrics for evaluating healthcare requires multiple aspects of hospital admissions to be considered. PMID:27901174

  13. Assessing the impact of mass rape on the incidence of HIV in conflict-affected countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supervie, Virginie; Halima, Yasmin; Blower, Sally

    2010-11-27

    To quantify the potential impact of mass rape on HIV incidence in seven conflict-afflicted countries (CACs), with severe HIV epidemics, in sub-Saharan Africa. Uncertainty analysis of a risk equation model. A mathematical model was used to evaluate the potential impact of mass rape on increasing HIV incidence in women and girls in Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, southern Sudan and Uganda. The model was parameterized with data from UNAIDS/WHO and the US Census Bureau's International Database. Incidence data from UNAIDS/WHO were used for calibration. Mass rape could cause approximately five HIV infections per 100,000 females per year in the DRC, Sudan, Somalia and Sierra Leone, double the number in Burundi and Rwanda, and quadruple the number in Uganda. The number of females infected per year due to mass rape is likely to be relatively low in Somalia and Sierra Leone at 127 [median (interquartile range [IQR] 55-254)] and 156 [median (IQR 69-305)], respectively. Numbers could be high in the DRC and Uganda: 1120 [median (IQR 527-2360)] and 2172 [median (IQR 1031-4668)], respectively. In Burundi, Rwanda and Sudan, the numbers are likely to be intermediate. Under extreme conditions, 10,000 women and girls could be infected per year in the DRC and 20 000 women and girls could be infected per year in Uganda. Mass rape could increase annual incidence by approximately 7% [median (IQR 3-15)]. Interventions and treatment targeted to rape survivors during armed conflicts could reduce HIV incidence. Support should be provided both on the basis of human rights and public health.

  14. Stroke rehabilitation at home before and after discharge reduced disability and improved quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard; Østergaard, Ann; Kjær, Pia

    2016-01-01

    part of usual treatment and rehabilitation services. Thirty-three control patients received treatment and rehabilitation following usual guidelines for the treatment of stroke patients. MAIN MEASURES: Ninety days post-stroke the modified Rankin Scale score was the primary endpoint. Other outcome...... score (Intervention median = 2, IQR = 2-3; Control median = 3, IQR = 2-4; P=0.04). EuroQol-5D™ quality of life median scores were improved in intervention patients (Intervention median = 0.77, IQR = 0.66-0.79; Control median = 0.66, IQR = 0.56 - 0.72; P=0.03). The total amount of home-based training...... and increased quality of life. Compared to standard care, home-based stroke rehabilitation was more cost-effective....

  15. Surgical stabilization of rib fractures using Inion OTPS wraps--techniques and quality of life follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Nicole; Conaglen, Paul; Martin, Katherine; Antippa, Phillip

    2009-09-01

    A variety of operative techniques have been described in the past for the surgical stabilization of fractured ribs. From February 2004 to November 2008, consecutive patients who underwent open reduction and internal fixation of traumatic fractured ribs during their index admission using the Inion orthopedic trauma plating system (OTPS) at a Level I trauma center were retrospectively analyzed. Demographics, Injury Severity Scores, number and site of rib fractures, operative details, and complications were recorded. All patients were followed-up with a questionnaire assessing chest symptoms, disability, and quality of life. Thirty-two patients underwent surgical stabilization with Inion OTPS. Road crashes were the commonest mechanism of injury (81%), followed by falls. Seventy-two percent of patients were male, with a median age at operation of 53 years (interquartile range [IQR], 40-64 years). Median number of ribs fixed was 3 (IQR, 2-4), while median number of fractures was 9 (IQR, 6-13). Median time to fixation was 5 days (IQR, 3-7 days), intensive care unit stay 3 days (IQR, 0.8-6.3 days), and total hospital stay 13.5 days (IQR, 8.8-22 days). Wound infection occurred in 19%, with nonunion of a fixed fracture in one patient. Sixty-three percent of patients completed the survey with a mean time between open reduction and internal fixation and questionnaire of 1,039 days (+/-480 days). Patients reported low levels of pain at rest and with coughing (median at rest 1.0/10 [IQR, 0-2.3/10]; with coughing 1.3/10 [IQR, 0-3.75/10]). Chest wall stiffness was experienced by 60% of patients, while dyspnoea at rest was reported by 20% of patients. Mean return to work (for 55%) was 3.9 months (+/-3.3 months). All patients were satisfied with the results of their operation. Patients demonstrated low levels of pain and satisfactory rehabilitation. The Inion OTPS system has several advantages including gradual transference of stress loads to bone, micromotion across the fracture

  16. Deconstruction of Interhospital Transfer Workflow in Large Vessel Occlusion: Real-World Data in the Thrombectomy Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Felix C; Low, Essie; Andrew, Emily; Smith, Karen; Campbell, Bruce C V; Hand, Peter J; Crompton, Douglas E; Wijeratne, Tissa; Dewey, Helen M; Choi, Philip M

    2017-07-01

    Interhospital transfer is a critical component in the treatment of acute anterior circulation large vessel occlusive stroke transferred for mechanical thrombectomy. Real-world data for benchmarking and theoretical modeling are limited. We sought to characterize transfer workflow from primary stroke center (PSC) to comprehensive stroke center after the publication of positive thrombectomy trials. Consecutive patients transferred from 3 high-volume PSCs to a single comprehensive stroke center between January 2015 and August 2016 were included in a retrospective study. Factors associated with key time metrics were analyzed with emphasis on PSC intrahospital workflow. Sixty-seven patients were identified. Median age was 74 years (interquartile range [IQR], 63.5-78) and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale 17 (IQR, 12-21). Median transfer time measured by PSC-door-to-comprehensive stroke center-door was 128 minutes (IQR, 107-164), of which 82.8% was spent at PSCs (door-in-door-out [DIDO]; 106 minutes; IQR, 86-143). The lengthiest component of DIDO was computed-tomography-to-retrieval-request (median 59.5 minutes; IQR, 44-83). The 37.3% had DIDO exceeding 120 minutes. DIDO times differed significantly between PSCs ( P =0.01). In multivariate analyses, rerecruiting the initial ambulance crew for transfer ( P workflow represents a major opportunity to expedite mechanical thrombectomy and improve patient outcomes. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Use of social media to engage membership of a state health-system pharmacy organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabato, Leah A; Barone, Caroline; McKinney, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    The influence of targeted strategies implemented to increase member engagement on a social media page of a professional pharmacy organization was studied. The Ohio Society of Health-System Pharmacists (OSHP) implemented posting strategies to increase member engagement with its social media page in late 2013. Data were collected retrospectively for a nine-month period in 2013 (preimplementation) and a matching nine-month period in 2014 (postimplementation). The primary endpoint was reach (as provided by the social media website). Data regarding reach were reported to OSHP page administrators on a weekly basis. Posts during the study period were characterized by the day of week, time of day, type of post, and corresponding reach. Continuous variables were represented using means and standard deviations or medians and interquartile ranges (IQRs); categorical data were represented by percentages. The total reach of posts during the nine-month study period increased postimplementation, from 10,826 to 32,338. Further, the median reach per post on the OSHP Facebook page was higher postimplementation (214; IQR, 107-380) versus preimplementation (152; IQR, 89-224; p = 0.035). Evening posts had significantly greater reach compared with nonevening posts. The median reach for evening posts was 232 (IQR, 143-378) versus 131 (IQR, 77-200) for nonevening posts (p system pharmacy organization's social media page. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sub-dissociative-dose intranasal ketamine for moderate to severe pain in adult emergency department patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaman, Fiona; Meek, Robert; Egerton-Warburton, Diana; Rosengarten, Pamela; Graudins, Andis

    2014-06-01

    There are currently no studies assessing effectiveness of sub-dissociative intranasal (IN) ketamine as the initial analgesic for adult patients in the ED. The study aims to examine the effectiveness of sub-dissociative IN ketamine as a primary analgesic agent for adult patients in the ED. This is a prospective, observational study of adult ED patients presenting with severe pain (≥6 on 11-point scale at triage). IN ketamine dose was 0.7 mg/kg, with secondary dose of 0.5 mg/kg at 15 min if pain did not improve. After 6 months, initial dose was increased to 1.0 mg/kg with the same optional secondary dose. The primary outcomes are change in VAS rating at 30 min; percentage of patients reporting clinically significant reduction in VAS (≥20 mm) at 30 min; dose resulting in clinically significant pain reduction. Of the 72 patients available for analysis, median age was 34.5 years and 64% were men. Median initial VAS rating was 76 mm (interquartile range [IQR]: 65-82). Median total dose of IN ketamine for all patients was 0.98 mg/kg (IQR: 0.75-1.15, range: 0.59-1.57). Median reduction in VAS rating at 30 min was 24 mm (IQR: 2-45). Forty (56%, 95% CI: 44.0-66.7) reported VAS reduction ≥20 mm, these patients having had a total median ketamine dose of 0.94 mg/kg (IQR: 0.72-1.04). IN ketamine, at a dose of about 1 mg/kg, was an effective analgesic agent in 56% of study patients. The place of IN ketamine in analgesic guidelines for adults requires further investigation. © 2014 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  19. Logistics and safety of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in medical retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Brian J; Habig, Karel; Reid, Cliff; Kernick, Paul; Wilkinson, Chris; Tall, Gary; Coombes, Sarah; Manning, Ron

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the logistics and safety of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) medical retrieval in New South Wales, Australia. We describe the logistics involved in ECMO road and rotary-wing retrieval by a multidisciplinary team during the H1N1 influenza epidemic in winter 2009 (i.e., June 1 to August 31, 2009). Basic patient demographics and key retrieval time lines were analyzed. There were 17 patients retrieved on ECMO, with their ages ranging from 22 to 55 years. The median weight was 110 kg. Four critical events were recorded during retrieval, with no adverse outcomes. The retrieval distance varied from 20.8 to 430 km. There were delays in times from retrieval booking to both retrieval tasking and retrieval team departure in 88% of retrievals. The most common reasons cited were "patient not ready" 23.5% (4/17); "vehicle not available," 23.5% (4/17); and "complex retrieval," 41.2% (7/17). The median time (hours:minutes) from booking with the medical retrieval unit (MRU) to tasking was 4:35 (interquartile range [IQR] 3:27-6:15). The median time lag from tasking to departure was 1:00 (IQR 00:10-2:20). The median stabilization time was 1:30 (IQR 1:20-1:55). The median retrieval duration was 7:35 (IQR 5:50-10:15). The process of development of ECMO retrieval was enabled by the preexistence of a high-volume experienced medical retrieval service. Although ECMO retrieval is not a new concept, we describe an entire process for ECMO retrieval that we believe will benefit other retrieval service providers. The increased workload of ECMO retrieval during the swine flu pandemic has led to refinement in the system and process for the future.

  20. Patient acceptability of CT colonography compared with double contrast barium enema: results from a multicentre randomised controlled trial of symptomatic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Christian von; Smith, Samuel; Ghanouni, Alex; Power, Emily; Wardle, Jane; Halligan, Steve; Lilford, Richard J.; Morton, Dion; Dadswell, Edward; Atkin, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    To determine patient acceptability of barium enema (BE) or CT colonography (CTC). After ethical approval, 921 consenting patients with symptoms suggestive of colorectal cancer who had been randomly assigned and completed either BE (N = 606) or CTC (N = 315) received a questionnaire to assess experience of the clinical episode including bowel preparation, procedure and complications. Satisfaction, worry and physical discomfort were assessed using an adapted version of a validated acceptability scale. Non-parametric methods assessed differences between the randomised tests and the effect of patient characteristics. Patients undergoing BE were significantly less satisfied (median 61, interquartile range [IQR] 54-67 vs. median 64, IQR 56-69; p = 0.003) and experienced more physical discomfort (median 40, IQR 29-52 vs. median 35.5, IQR 25-47; p < 0.001) than those undergoing CTC. Post-test, BE patients were significantly more likely to experience 'abdominal pain/cramps' (68% vs. 57%; p = 0.007), 'soreness' (57% vs. 37%; p < 0.001), 'nausea/vomiting' (16% vs. 8%; p = 0.009), 'soiling' (31% vs. 23%; p = 0.034) and 'wind' (92% vs. 84%; p = 0.001) and in the case of 'wind' to also rate it as severe (27% vs. 15%; p < 0.001). CTC is associated with significant improvements in patient experience. These data support the case for CTC to replace BE. (orig.)

  1. Patient acceptability of CT colonography compared with double contrast barium enema: results from a multicentre randomised controlled trial of symptomatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wagner, Christian; Smith, Samuel; Halligan, Steve; Ghanouni, Alex; Power, Emily; Lilford, Richard J; Morton, Dion; Dadswell, Edward; Atkin, Wendy; Wardle, Jane

    2011-10-01

    To determine patient acceptability of barium enema (BE) or CT colonography (CTC). After ethical approval, 921 consenting patients with symptoms suggestive of colorectal cancer who had been randomly assigned and completed either BE (N = 606) or CTC (N = 315) received a questionnaire to assess experience of the clinical episode including bowel preparation, procedure and complications. Satisfaction, worry and physical discomfort were assessed using an adapted version of a validated acceptability scale. Non-parametric methods assessed differences between the randomised tests and the effect of patient characteristics. Patients undergoing BE were significantly less satisfied (median 61, interquartile range [IQR] 54-67 vs. median 64, IQR 56-69; p = 0.003) and experienced more physical discomfort (median 40, IQR 29-52 vs. median 35.5, IQR 25-47; p < 0.001) than those undergoing CTC. Post-test, BE patients were significantly more likely to experience 'abdominal pain/cramps' (68% vs. 57%; p = 0.007), 'soreness' (57% vs. 37%; p < 0.001), 'nausea/vomiting' (16% vs. 8%; p = 0.009), 'soiling' (31% vs. 23%; p = 0.034) and 'wind' (92% vs. 84%; p = 0.001) and in the case of 'wind' to also rate it as severe (27% vs. 15%; p < 0.001). CTC is associated with significant improvements in patient experience. These data support the case for CTC to replace BE.

  2. Separate patient serum sodium medians from males and females provide independent information on analytical bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Steen Ingemann; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Lund, Flemming; Fraser, Callum G; Sölétormos, György

    2017-10-26

    During monitoring of monthly medians of results from patients undertaken to assess analytical stability in routine laboratory performance, the medians for serum sodium for male and female patients were found to be significantly related. Daily, weekly and monthly patient medians of serum sodium for both male and female patients were calculated from results obtained on samples from the population >18 years on three analysers in the hospital laboratory. The half-range of medians was applied as an estimate of the maximum bias. Further, the ratios between the two medians were calculated. The medians of both genders demonstrated dispersions over time, but they were closely connected in like patterns, which were confirmed by the half-range of the ratios of medians for males and females that varied from 0.36% for daily, 0.14% for weekly and 0.036% for monthly ratios over all instruments. The tight relationship between the gender medians for serum sodium is only possible when raw laboratory data are used for calculation. The two patient medians can be used to confirm both and are useful as independent estimates of analytical bias during constant calibration periods. In contrast to the gender combined median, the estimate of analytical bias can be confirmed further by calculation of the ratios of medians for males and females.

  3. Excellent adherence to antiretrovirals in HIV+ Zambian children is compromised by disrupted routine, HIV nondisclosure, and paradoxical income effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E Haberer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART adherence in sub-Saharan Africa is necessary to develop interventions to sustain high levels of adherence.Adherence among 96 HIV-infected Zambian children (median age 6, interquartile range [IQR] 2,9 initiating fixed-dose combination ART was measured prospectively (median 23 months; IQR 20,26 with caregiver report, clinic and unannounced home-based pill counts, and medication event monitoring systems (MEMS. HIV-1 RNA was determined at 48 weeks. Child and caregiver characteristics, socio-demographic status, and treatment-related factors were assessed as predictors of adherence. Median adherence was 97.4% (IQR 96.1,98.4% by visual analog scale, 94.8% (IQR 86,100% by caregiver-reported last missed dose, 96.9% (IQR 94.5,98.2% by clinic pill count, 93.4% (IQR 90.2,96.7% by unannounced home-based pill count, and 94.8% (IQR 87.8,97.7% by MEMS. At 48 weeks, 72.6% of children had HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/ml. Agreement among adherence measures was poor; only MEMS was significantly associated with viral suppression (p = 0.013. Predictors of poor adherence included changing residence, school attendance, lack of HIV disclosure to children aged nine to 15 years, and increasing household income.Adherence among children taking fixed-dose combination ART in sub-Saharan Africa is high and sustained over two years. However, certain groups are at risk for treatment failure, including children with disrupted routines, no knowledge of their HIV diagnosis among older children, and relatively high household income, possibly reflecting greater social support in the setting of greater poverty.

  4. Efficacy of pneumodilation in achalasia after failed Heller myotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, C M G; Ponds, F A M; Schijven, M P; Smout, A J P M; Bredenoord, A J

    2016-11-01

    Heller myotomy is an effective treatment for the majority of achalasia patients. However, a small proportion of patients suffer from persistent or recurrent symptoms after surgery and they are usually subsequently treated with pneumodilation (PD). Data on the efficacy of PD as secondary treatment for achalasia are scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the efficacy of PD as treatment for achalasia patients suffering from persistent or recurrent symptoms after Heller myotomy. Patients with recurrent or persistent symptoms (Eckardt score >3) after Heller myotomy were selected. Patients were treated with PD, using a graded distension protocol with balloon sizes ranging from 30 to 40 mm. After each dilation symptoms were assessed to evaluate whether a subsequent dilation with a larger balloon size was required. Patients with recurrent or persistent symptoms (Eckardt score >3) after treatment with a 40-mm balloon were identified as failures. Twenty-four patients were included in total; 15 patients with achalasia type I, seven with achalasia type II and two with achalasia type III. Median relapse time was 2.5 years after Heller myotomy (IQR: 9 years and 3 months). Three patients were not suitable for PD; one patient was morbidly obese and not fit for any form of sedation and two had a siphon-shaped esophagus leaving 21 patients to treat. Eight patients were successfully treated with a single 30-mm balloon dilation (median follow-up time: 6.5 years; IQR: 7.5 years). Four patients required dilations with 30- and 35-mm balloons (median follow-up time: 11 years; IQR: 3 years). Nine patients failed on the 35-mm balloon dilation and underwent a subsequent dilation with a 40-mm balloon, and all failed on this balloon as well. Thus, PD was successful in 12 of the 21 treatable patients, resulting in a success rate of 57% for treatable patients or 50% for all patients. Baseline Eckardt scores were also higher in those that failed (median: 8; IQR: 2) than those that

  5. Bony Regeneration of the Sella after Transsphenoidal Pituitary Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia-Cherif, Mehdi; Delpierre, Isabelle; Hassid, Sergio; De Witte, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the possible bony regrowth of the sella after transsphenoidal surgery without any intraoperative sellar reconstruction. Radiologic findings of the sella were reviewed in patients with pituitary tumors treated by transsphenoidal surgery. In 17 patients who had postoperative cranial computed tomography scans, bony regeneration of the sellar floor was evaluated by comparing immediate and late postoperative scans. The bony opening reduction was measured in transverse and sagittal planes. The median bony opening diameter in the transverse plane was 8.8 mm (interquartile range [IQR] 5.7-11.4) on the first scan and 4.2 mm (IQR 0.8-6.8) on the second scan. In the sagittal plane, it was 4.8 mm (IQR 1.8-6.8) on the first scan and 2.9 mm (IQR 1.6-3.9) on the second scan. These changes occurred in a median time of 36 months (IQR 22-42). There was a statistically significant decrease of the bony opening diameters in both the transverse and sagittal planes (P transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effective cataract surgical coverage: An indicator for measuring quality-of-care in the context of Universal Health Coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Ramke

    Full Text Available To define and demonstrate effective cataract surgical coverage (eCSC, a candidate UHC indicator that combines a coverage measure (cataract surgical coverage, CSC with quality (post-operative visual outcome.All Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB surveys with datasets on the online RAAB Repository on April 1 2016 were downloaded. The most recent study from each country was included. By country, cataract surgical outcome (CSOGood, 6/18 or better; CSOPoor, worse than 6/60, CSC (operated cataract as a proportion of operable plus operated cataract and eCSC (operated cataract and a good outcome as a proportion of operable plus operated cataract were calculated. The association between CSC and CSO was assessed by linear regression. Gender inequality in CSC and eCSC was calculated.Datasets from 20 countries were included (2005-2013; 67,337 participants; 5,474 cataract surgeries. Median CSC was 53.7% (inter-quartile range[IQR] 46.1-66.6%, CSOGood was 58.9% (IQR 53.7-67.6% and CSOPoor was 17.7% (IQR 11.3-21.1%. Coverage and quality of cataract surgery were moderately associated-every 1% CSC increase was associated with a 0.46% CSOGood increase and 0.28% CSOPoor decrease. Median eCSC was 36.7% (IQR 30.2-50.6%, approximately one-third lower than the median CSC. Women tended to fare worse than men, and gender inequality was slightly higher for eCSC (4.6% IQR 0.5-7.1% than for CSC (median 2.3% IQR -1.5-11.6%.eCSC allows monitoring of quality in conjunction with coverage of cataract surgery. In the surveys analysed, on average 36.7% of people who could benefit from cataract surgery had undergone surgery and obtained a good visual outcome.

  7. A Comparison of Outcomes Following Laparoscopic and Open Hysterectomy With or Without Lymphadenectomy for Presumed Early-Stage Endometrial Cancer: Results From the Medical Research Council ASTEC Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrgiou, Maria; Swart, Anne-Marie; Qian, Wendi; Warwick, Jane

    2015-10-01

    Laparoscopic hysterectomy (LH) is increasingly used for the management of endometrial malignancy. Its benefits may be particularly pronounced as these women are more likely to be older or obese. The aim of this study was to determine whether outcomes for LH are comparable to the open hysterectomy (OH). This was a prospective cohort study nested within the multicenter ASTEC (A Study in the Treatment of Endometrial Cancer) randomized controlled trial (1998-2005). Women with presumed early endometrial cancer were included. Laparoscopic hysterectomy was compared with OH with or without systematic lymphadenectomy. Overall survival, time to first recurrence, complication rates, and surgical outcomes were the main outcome measures. Of 1408 women, 1309 (93%) received OH, and 99 (7%) had LH. LH was associated with longer operating time (median, LH 105 minutes [interquartile range (IQR), 60-150] vs OH 80 minutes [IQR, 60-95]; P < 0.001) but 50% shorter hospital stay (median, LH 4 days [IQR, 3-5] vs OH 6 days [IQR, 5-7]). The number of harvested lymph nodes was similar (median, LH 13 [IQR, 10-16] vs OH 12 [IQR, 11-13]; P = 0.67). LH had fewer intraoperative and postoperative adverse events (9% difference, LH 21% vs OH 30%; borderline significance; P = 0.07). The rate of conversion to laparotomy for the LH group was high (27%). The median follow-up was 37 months. After adjusting for significant prognostic factors, the hazard ratio for overall survival in those who underwent LH compared with those who underwent OH was 0.67 (95% confidence interval, 0.31-1.43) (P = 0.30). Laparoscopic hysterectomy for early endometrial cancer is safe. Although it requires longer operating time it is associated with shorter hospital stay and favorable morbidity profile. Further studies are required to assess the long-term safety.

  8. Cocaine-related admissions to an intensive care unit: a five-year study of incidence and outcomes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Galvin, S

    2010-02-01

    Cocaine misuse is increasing and it is evidently considered a relatively safe drug of abuse in Ireland. To address this perception, we reviewed the database of an 18-bed Dublin intensive care unit, covering all admissions from 2003 to 2007. We identified cocaine-related cases, measuring hospital mortality and long-term survival in early 2009. Cocaine-related admissions increased from around one annually in 2003-05 to 10 in 2007. Their median (IQR [range]) age was 25 (21-35 [17-47]) years and 78% were male. The median (IQR [range]) APACHE II score was 16 (11-27 [5-36]) and length of intensive care stay was 5 (3-9 [1-16]) days. Ten patients died during their hospital stay. A further five had died by the time of follow-up, a median of 24 months later. One was untraceable. Cocaine toxicity necessitating intensive care is increasingly common in Dublin. Hospital mortality in this series was 52%. These findings may help to inform public attitudes to cocaine.

  9. Do clinicians prescribe exercise similarly in patients with different cardiovascular diseases? Findings from the EAPC EXPERT working group survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Dominique; Rovelo Ruiz, Gustavo; Doherty, Patrick; Iliou, Marie-Christine; Vromen, Tom; Hinton, Sally; Frederix, Ines; Wilhelm, Matthias; Schmid, Jean-Paul; Abreu, Ana; Ambrosetti, Marco; Garcia-Porrero, Esteban; Coninx, Karin; Dendale, Paul

    2018-05-01

    Background Although disease-specific exercise guidelines for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are widely available, it remains uncertain whether these different exercise guidelines are integrated properly for patients with different CVDs. The aim of this study was to assess the inter-clinician variance in exercise prescription for patients with various CVDs and to compare these prescriptions with recommendations from the EXercise Prescription in Everyday practice and Rehabilitative Training (EXPERT) tool, a digital decision support system for integrated state-of-the-art exercise prescription in CVD. Design The study was a prospective observational survey. Methods Fifty-three CV rehabilitation clinicians from nine European countries were asked to prescribe exercise intensity (based on percentage of peak heart rate (HR peak )), frequency, session duration, programme duration and exercise type (endurance or strength training) for the same five patients. Exercise prescriptions were compared between clinicians, and relationships with clinician characteristics were studied. In addition, these exercise prescriptions were compared with recommendations from the EXPERT tool. Results A large inter-clinician variance was found for prescribed exercise intensity (median (interquartile range (IQR)): 83 (13) % of HR peak ), frequency (median (IQR): 4 (2) days/week), session duration (median (IQR): 45 (18) min/session), programme duration (median (IQR): 12 (18) weeks), total exercise volume (median (IQR): 1215 (1961) peak-effort training hours) and prescription of strength training exercises (prescribed in 78% of all cases). Moreover, clinicians' exercise prescriptions were significantly different from those of the EXPERT tool ( p < 0.001). Conclusions This study reveals significant inter-clinician variance in exercise prescription for patients with different CVDs and disagreement with an integrated state-of-the-art system for exercise prescription, justifying the need for

  10. Sosiaalisen median mahdollisuudet Tilastokeskukselle

    OpenAIRE

    Vesterinen, Anu

    2011-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena oli sosiaalisen median mahdollisuudet Tilastokeskuksen viestinnässä. Työn tavoitteena oli kartoittaa sosiaalisen median käyttöön liittyviä mahdollisuuksia ja haasteita sekä selvittää siihen liittyviä odotuksia Tilastokeskuksen henkilöstön keskuudessa. Työn teoriaosuudessa tarkasteltiin sosiaalista mediaa käsitteenä ja esiteltiin sosiaalisen median käyttöä organisaation ulkoisen viestinnän välineenä. Opinnäytetyössä selvitettiin teoriatietoon pohjautuen sekä ca...

  11. Implementation and outcome evaluation of the Medical Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implementation and outcome evaluation of the Medical Education ... the pretest median score was 55% (interquartile range (IQR) 40 - 62%) and the posttest ... This education mode offers the opportunity for health researchers to advance their ...

  12. Incidence of nevirapine-associated hepatitis in an antenatal clinic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based highly active antiretroviral therapy at a dedicated antenatal antiretroviral clinic between July 2004 and December 2006. Results. Three hundred and ninety women were included in the analysis. Median age was 29 (interquartile range (IQR)

  13. The Effect of Heart Rate on Exposure Window and Best Phase for Stress Perfusion Computed Tomography: Lessons From the CORE320 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steveson, Chloe; Schuijf, Joanne D; Vavere, Andrea L; Mather, Richard T; Caton, Teresa; Mehra, Vishal; Betoko, Aisha; Cox, Christopher; Lima, Joao Ac; George, Richard T

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of heart rate on exposure window, best phase, and image quality for stress computed tomography perfusion (CTP) in the CORE320 study. The CTP data sets were analyzed to determine the best phase for perfusion analysis. A predefined exposure window covering 75% to 95% of the R-R cycle was used. Of the 368 patients included in the analysis, 93% received oral β blockade before the rest scan. The median heart rate during the stress acquisition was 69 bpm (interquartile range [IQR], 60-77). The median best phase was 81% (IQR, 76-90), and length of exposure window was 22% (IQR, 19-24). The best phase was significantly later in the cardiac cycle with higher heart rates (P stress scan was 5.3 mSv (IQR, 3.8-6.1). Stress myocardial CTP imaging can be performed using prospective electrocardiography triggering, an exposure window of 75% to 95%, and β-blockade resulting in good or excellent image quality in the majority (80%) of patients while maintaining a low effective radiation dose.

  14. Liver Stiffness Decreases Rapidly in Response to Successful Hepatitis C Treatment and Then Plateaus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta Chekuri

    Full Text Available To investigate the impact of a sustained virological response (SVR to hepatitis C virus (HCV treatment on liver stiffness (LS.LS, measured by transient elastography (FibroScan, demographic and laboratory data of patients treated with interferon (IFN-containing or IFN-free regimens who had an SVR24 (undetectable HCV viral load 24 weeks after the end of treatment were analyzed using two-tailed paired t-tests, Mann-Whitney Wilcoxon Signed-rank tests and linear regression. Two time intervals were investigated: pre-treatment to SVR24 and SVR24 to the end of follow-up. LS scores ≥ 12.5 kPa indicated LS-defined cirrhosis. A p-value below 0.05 was considered statistically significant.The median age of the patients (n = 100 was 60 years [IQR (interquartile range 54-64; 72% were male; 60% were Caucasian; and 42% had cirrhosis pre-treatment according to the FibroScan measurement. The median LS score dropped from 10.40 kPa (IQR: 7.25-18.60 pre-treatment to 7.60 kPa (IQR: 5.60-12.38 at SVR24, p <0.01. Among the 42 patients with LS-defined cirrhosis pre-treatment, 25 (60% of patients still had LS scores ≥ 12.5 kPa at SVR24, indicating the persistence of cirrhosis. The median change in LS was similar in patients receiving IFN-containing and IFN-free regimens: -1.95 kPa (IQR: -5.75 --0.38 versus -2.40 kPa (IQR: -7.70 --0.23, p = 0.74. Among 56 patients with a post-SVR24 LS measurement, the LS score changed by an additional -0.90 kPa (IQR: -2.98-0.5 during a median follow-up time of 1.17 (IQR: 0.88-1.63 years, which was not a statistically significant decrease (p = 0.99.LS decreased from pre-treatment to SVR24, but did not decrease significantly during additional follow-up. Earlier treatment may be needed to reduce the burden of liver disease.

  15. Sosiaalisen median markkinointistrategia

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    Insinöörityön tavoitteena oli suunnitella toimeksiantajayritykselle sopiva sosiaalisen median markkinointistrategia ja avustaa sen toteutuksessa sekä tuottaen sisältöä sovittuihin kanaviin. Pyrkimyksenä oli myös kouluttaa yrityksen henkilökuntaa käyttämään sosiaalista mediaa yleisellä tasolla ja markkinoinnissa tutustuttamalla heidät sosiaalisen median erilaisiin kanaviin ja mainostyökaluihin. Opinnäytetyössä keskityttiin tutkimaan Facebookissa toimivaa markkinointia ja siinä toimivia mai...

  16. Nursing Leaders' Satisfaction with Information Systems in the Day-to-Day Operations Management in Hospital Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltonen, Laura-Maria; Junttila, Kristiina; Salanterä, Sanna

    2018-01-01

    Information usage in the day-to-day operations management of hospital units is complex due to numerous information systems in use. The aim of this study was to describe and compare nurse leaders' satisfaction with information systems used in the day-to-day operations management in hospital units. The design was a cross-sectional survey with five questions rated from one (disagree) to five (fully agree). The response rate was 65 % (n = 453). Respondents reported fair satisfaction with how information systems support decision-making (median 4, IQR 3-4) and improve ease of access to information (median 4, IQR 3-4). However, respondents were less satisfied with how systems improve speed of access to information (median 3, IQR 3-4). Nor did respondents think that systems were developed for them (median 3, IQR 2-4). Respondents further reported needing numerous systems daily to support decision-making (median 4, IQR 3-5). A clear need for one system, which would gather important information for display was stated (median 5, IQR 4-5). Work experience, gender and time when overseeing the unit were associated with some aspects related to satisfaction. In conclusion, information system improvements are needed to better support the day-to-day operations management in hospital units.

  17. Near total parathyroidectomy is effective therapy for tertiary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewberry, Lindel Krige; Weber, Collin; Sharma, Jyotirmay

    2014-07-01

    Tertiary hyperparathyroidism (3°HPT) is defined as persistent hyperparathyroidism with hypercalcemia after renal transplantation. Near total parathyroidectomy (NTPTX) is the current standard for surgical intervention. The purpose of this study was to identify outcomes of NTPTX. A retrospective review was conducted of surgeries performed between 1994 and 2013. NTPTX resulted in resolution of 96.9 per cent of patients' hypercalcemia at a median follow-up of three years (interquartile range [IQR], 1 to 8). However, 3.1 per cent of patients remained hypercalcemic with a mean calcium of 10.5 ± 0.2 mg/dL. A total of 78.4 per cent of patients had parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels below 250 pg/mL at a median follow-up of two years (IQR, 2 to 8). The remaining 21.6 per cent had a median PTH of 535 (IQR, 345 to 857). PTH levels dropped from a median of 745 (IQR, 285.75 to 1594.25) pg/mL to 97 (IQR, 60 to 285) pg/mL one month post-NTPTX (P < 0.01). The most frequent complication was transient hypocalcemia in 27.1 per cent of patients, but no patients became permanently hypocalcemic. In the 1-month postoperative period, only one patient had a cardiac complication, and there was 0 per cent all-cause mortality. Glomerular filtration rate fell from 57.9 ± 28.3 mL/min pre-NTPTX to 53.2 ± 27.5 mL/min at 1-year post-NTPTX (P < 0.01). NTPTX effectively treats hypercalcemia in 3°HPT. However, PTH remains elevated (greater than 250) in 21.6 per cent of patients.

  18. Cytokine expression during syphilis infection in HIV-1-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Andreas; Benfield, Thomas; Kofoed, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about cytokine responses to syphilis infection in HIV-1-infected individuals. METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients with HIV-1 and Treponema pallidum coinfection. Plasma samples from before, during, and after coinfection were analyzed for interleukin (IL)-2, IL......-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients were included. IL-10 levels increased significantly in patients with primary or secondary stage syphilis from a median of 12.8 pg/mL [interquartile range (IQR), 11.0-27.8] before...... infection to 46.7 pg/mL (IQR, 28.4-78.9) at the time of diagnosis (P = 0.027) and decreased to 13.0 pg/mL (IQR, 6.2-19.4) after treatment of syphilis (P syphilis in patients with primary or secondary stage syphilis (median 3.9 pg...

  19. Patient acceptability of CT colonography compared with double contrast barium enema: results from a multicentre randomised controlled trial of symptomatic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Christian von; Smith, Samuel; Ghanouni, Alex; Power, Emily; Wardle, Jane [University College London, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, London (United Kingdom); Halligan, Steve [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); University College Hospital, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Lilford, Richard J. [Birmingham University, Department of Epidemiology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Morton, Dion [Birmingham University, Department of Surgery, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Dadswell, Edward; Atkin, Wendy [Imperial College London, Department of Surgery and Cancer, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    To determine patient acceptability of barium enema (BE) or CT colonography (CTC). After ethical approval, 921 consenting patients with symptoms suggestive of colorectal cancer who had been randomly assigned and completed either BE (N = 606) or CTC (N = 315) received a questionnaire to assess experience of the clinical episode including bowel preparation, procedure and complications. Satisfaction, worry and physical discomfort were assessed using an adapted version of a validated acceptability scale. Non-parametric methods assessed differences between the randomised tests and the effect of patient characteristics. Patients undergoing BE were significantly less satisfied (median 61, interquartile range [IQR] 54-67 vs. median 64, IQR 56-69; p = 0.003) and experienced more physical discomfort (median 40, IQR 29-52 vs. median 35.5, IQR 25-47; p < 0.001) than those undergoing CTC. Post-test, BE patients were significantly more likely to experience 'abdominal pain/cramps' (68% vs. 57%; p = 0.007), 'soreness' (57% vs. 37%; p < 0.001), 'nausea/vomiting' (16% vs. 8%; p = 0.009), 'soiling' (31% vs. 23%; p = 0.034) and 'wind' (92% vs. 84%; p = 0.001) and in the case of 'wind' to also rate it as severe (27% vs. 15%; p < 0.001). CTC is associated with significant improvements in patient experience. These data support the case for CTC to replace BE. (orig.)

  20. Do people with intellectual disability use Nintendo Wii when placed in their home as part of a physiotherapy program? An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Alison M J; Harvey, Lisa A; Hassett, Leanne M

    2016-01-01

    To examine how much, and in what way, Nintendo Wii™ (Wii) is used when prescribed as part of a home-physiotherapy program for people with intellectual disability. Twenty people with intellectual disability were recruited. The following parameters were recorded about play patterns over a 12-week period: frequency, duration, perceived exertion, play position, play mode, initiation of play and games from Wii Sports and Wii Fit Plus. Participants used the Wii for a median of 101 min per week (interquartile range [IQR]: 50-172) in weeks one and two across a median of three days per week (IQR: 3-4), decreasing down to a median of 35 min per week (IQR: 0-141) in weeks 11 and 12 across a median of one day per week (IQR: 0-3). Usage of the Wii drops off rapidly when it is placed in the homes of people with intellectual disability as part of a physiotherapy program. Implications for Rehabilitation Usage of the Nintendo Wii drops off rapidly when it is placed in the homes of people with intellectual disability and they are instructed to use it as part of a home physiotherapy program. Games commonly played include bowling and boxing in Wii Sport, and penguin slide, ski jump and tight rope walk in Wii Fit Plus. Physiotherapists should use person and family centred practice to ensure that Nintendo Wii is a suitable intervention for the person with an intellectual disability and provide support to encourage ongoing usage.

  1. Development, Usability, and Efficacy of a Serious Game to Help Patients Learn About Pain Management After Surgery: An Evaluation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingadottir, Brynja; Blondal, Katrin; Thue, David; Zoega, Sigridur; Thylen, Ingela; Jaarsma, Tiny

    2017-05-10

    Postoperative pain is a persistent problem after surgery and can delay recovery and develop into chronic pain. Better patient education has been proposed to improve pain management of patients. Serious games have not been previously developed to help patients to learn how to manage their postoperative pain. The aim of this study was to describe the development of a computer-based game for surgical patients to learn about postoperative pain management and to evaluate the usability, user experience, and efficacy of the game. A computer game was developed by an interdisciplinary team following a structured approach. The usability, user experience, and efficacy of the game were evaluated using self-reported questionnaires (AttrakDiff2, Postoperative Pain Management Game Survey, Patient Knowledge About Postoperative Pain Management questionnaire), semi-structured interviews, and direct observation in one session with 20 participants recruited from the general public via Facebook (mean age 48 [SD 14]; 11 women). Adjusted Barriers Questionnaire II and 3 questions on health literacy were used to collect background information. Theories of self-care and adult learning, evidence for the educational needs of patients about pain management, and principles of gamification were used to develop the computer game. Ease of use and usefulness received a median score between 2.00 (IQR 1.00) and 5.00 (IQR 2.00) (possible scores 0-5; IQR, interquartile range), and ease of use was further confirmed by observation. Participants expressed satisfaction with this novel method of learning, despite some technological challenges. The attributes of the game, measured with AttrakDiff2, received a median score above 0 in all dimensions; highest for attraction (median 1.43, IQR 0.93) followed by pragmatic quality (median 1.31, IQR 1.04), hedonic quality interaction (median 1.00, IQR 1.04), and hedonic quality stimulation (median 0.57, IQR 0.68). Knowledge of pain medication and pain management

  2. Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Posaconazole in Critically Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sime, Fekade B; Stuart, Janine; Butler, Jenie; Starr, Therese; Wallis, Steven C; Pandey, Saurabh; Lipman, Jeffrey; Roberts, Jason A

    2018-06-01

    To date, there is no information on the intravenous (i.v.) posaconazole pharmacokinetics for intensive care unit (ICU) patients. This prospective observational study aimed to describe the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of i.v. posaconazole in critically ill patients. Patients with no history of allergy to triazole antifungals and requiring systemic antifungal therapy were enrolled if they were aged ≥18 years, central venous access was available, they were not pregnant, and they had not received prior posaconazole or drugs interacting with posaconazole. A single dose of 300 mg posaconazole was administered over 90 min. Total plasma concentrations were measured from serial plasma samples collected over 48 h, using a validated chromatographic method. The pharmacokinetic data set was analyzed by noncompartmental methods. Eight patients (7 male) were enrolled with the following characteristics: median age, 46 years (interquartile range [IQR], 40 to 51 years); median weight, 68 kg (IQR, 65 to 82 kg); and median albumin concentration, 20 g/liter (IQR, 18 to 24 g/liter). Median (IQR) pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were as follows: observed maximum concentration during sampling period ( C max ), 1,702 ng/ml (1,352 to 2,141 ng/ml); area under the concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUC 0-∞ ), 17,932 ng · h/ml (13,823 to 27,905 ng · h/ml); clearance (CL), 16.8 liters/h (11.1 to 21.7 liters/h); and volume of distribution ( V ), 529.1 liters (352.2 to 720.6 liters). The V and CL were greater than 2-fold and the AUC 0-∞ was 39% of the values reported for heathy volunteers. The AUC 0-∞ was only 52% of the steady-state AUC 0-24 reported for hematology patients. The median of estimated average steady-state concentrations was 747 ng/ml (IQR, 576 to 1,163 ng/ml), which is within but close to the lower end of the previously recommended therapeutic range of 500 to 2,500 ng/ml. In conclusion, we observed different pharmacokinetics of i.v. posaconazole in

  3. Mobile pediatric neurosurgery: rapid response neurosurgery for remote or urgent pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owler, Brian K; Carmo, Kathryn A Browning; Bladwell, Wendy; Fa'asalele, T Arieta; Roxburgh, Jane; Kendrick, Tina; Berry, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Time-critical neurosurgical conditions require urgent operative treatment to prevent death or neurological deficits. In New South Wales/Australian Capital Territory patients' distance from neurosurgical care is often great, presenting a challenge in achieving timely care for patients with acute neurosurgical conditions. A protocol was developed to facilitate consultant neurosurgery locally. Children with acute, time-critical neurosurgical emergencies underwent operations in hospitals that do not normally offer neurosurgery. The authors describe the developed protocol, the outcome of its use, and the lessons learned in the 9 initial cases where the protocol has been used. Three cases are discussed in detail. Nine children were treated by a neurosurgeon at 5 rural hospitals, and 2 children were treated at a smaller metropolitan hospital. Road ambulance, fixed wing aircraft, and medical helicopters were used to transport the Newborn and Paediatric Emergency Transport Service (NETS) team, neurosurgeon, and patients. In each case, the time to definitive neurosurgical intervention was significantly reduced. The median interval from triage at the initial hospital to surgical start time was 3:55 hours, (interquartile range [IQR] 03:29-05:20 hours). The median distance traveled to reach a patient was 232 km (range 23-637 km). The median interval from the initial NETS call requesting patient retrieval to surgical start time was 3:15 hours (IQR 00:47-03:37 hours). The estimated median "time saved" was approximately 3:00 hours (IQR 1:44-3:15 hours) compared with the travel time to retrieve the child to the tertiary center: 8:31 hours (IQR 6:56-10:08 hours). Remote urgent neurosurgical interventions can be performed safely and effectively. This practice is relevant to countries where distance limits urgent access for patients to tertiary pediatric care. This practice is lifesaving for some children with head injuries and other acute neurosurgical conditions.

  4. Cost-benefit of infection control interventions targeting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in hospitals: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbman, L; Avni, T; Rubinovitch, B; Leibovici, L; Paul, M

    2013-12-01

    Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) incur significant costs. We aimed to examine the cost and cost-benefit of infection control interventions against MRSA and to examine factors affecting economic estimates. We performed a systematic review of studies assessing infection control interventions aimed at preventing spread of MRSA in hospitals and reporting intervention costs, savings, cost-benefit or cost-effectiveness. We searched PubMed and references of included studies with no language restrictions up to January 2012. We used the Quality of Health Economic Studies tool to assess study quality. We report cost and savings per month in 2011 US$. We calculated the median save/cost ratio and the save-cost difference with interquartile range (IQR) range. We examined the effects of MRSA endemicity, intervention duration and hospital size on results. Thirty-six studies published between 1987 and 2011 fulfilled inclusion criteria. Fifteen of the 18 studies reporting both costs and savings reported a save/cost ratio >1. The median save/cost ratio across all 18 studies was 7.16 (IQR 1.37-16). The median cost across all studies reporting intervention costs (n = 31) was 8648 (IQR 2025-19 170) US$ per month; median savings were 38 751 (IQR 14 206-75 842) US$ per month (23 studies). Higher save/cost ratios were observed in the intermediate to high endemicity setting compared with the low endemicity setting, in hospitals with 6 months. Infection control intervention to reduce spread of MRSA in acute-care hospitals showed a favourable cost/benefit ratio. This was true also for high MRSA endemicity settings. Unresolved economic issues include rapid screening using molecular techniques and universal versus targeted screening. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  5. [Safety of repeat median sternotomy in the palliative treatment of patients with a univentricular heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díliz-Nava, Héctor; Meléndez-Sagaón, Isis; Tamaríz-Cruz, Orlando; García-Benítez, Luis; Araujo-Martínez, Aric; Palacios-Macedo, Alexis

    To establish the morbidity and mortality of patients with univentricular hearts who underwent a repeat median sternotomy at the Instituto Nacional de Pediatría. A retrospective review was performed on the clinical charts of all patients who underwent a repeat median sternotomy from 2001 to 2016. Sixty-five patients underwent 76 surgeries by repeat median sternotomy. Fifty-nine patients had a first repeat median sternotomy, with a mean age of 36 months (range: 4-176 months) and a mean weight of 12.2 kg (range: 3.2-21.5 kg). Forty patients had a Glenn procedure, and 19 patients had a Fontan procedure. There were 17 patients with a second repeat median sternotomy, with a mean age of 89 months (range 48-156 months), and a mean weight of 22.7 kg (14.4-41 kg). A Fontan procedure was performed on all these 17 patients. A section of the right coronary artery with electrocardiographic changes and a right atrium tear that caused hypotension occurred during first repeat sternotomy. An aortic tear occurred during a second repeat sternotomy with massive bleeding and subsequent death. This represents 3.9% of re-entry injuries. It is concluded that repeat median sternotomy is a safe procedure. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  6. Factors influencing time to diagnosis and initiation of treatment of endemic Burkitt Lymphoma among children in Uganda and western Kenya: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Geoffrey C; Collins, Jennifer Pfau; Sumba, Peter Odada; Nakalema, Beccy; Omenah, Dorine; Stiffler, Kristine; Casper, Corey; Otieno, Juliana A; Orem, Jackson; Moormann, Ann M

    2013-09-30

    Survival rates for children diagnosed with Burkitt lymphoma (BL) in Africa are far below those achieved in developed countries. Late stage of presentation contributes to poor prognosis, therefore this study investigated factors leading to delays in BL diagnosis and treatment of children in Uganda and western Kenya. Guardians of children diagnosed with BL were interviewed at the Jaramogi Oginga Odinga Teaching and Referral Hospital (JTRH) and Uganda Cancer Institute (UCI) from Jan-Dec 2010. Information on sociodemographics, knowledge, attitudes, illness perceptions, health-seeking behaviors and prior health encounters was collected using a standardized, pre-tested questionnaire. Eighty-two guardians were interviewed (20 JTRH, 62 UCI). Median "total delay" (1st symptoms to BL diagnosis) was 12.1 weeks [interquartile range (IQR) 4.9-19.9] in Kenya and 12.9 weeks (IQR 4.3-25.7) in Uganda. In Kenya, median "guardian delay" (1st symptoms to 1st health encounter) and "health system delay" (1st health encounter to BL diagnosis) were 9.0 weeks (IQR 3.6-15.7) and 2.0 weeks (IQR 1.6-5.8), respectively. Data on guardian and health system delay in Uganda were only available for those with system delay 2.6 weeks (range 0.1-16.0), and total delay 10.7 weeks (range 1.7-154.3). Guardians in Uganda reported more health encounters than those in Kenya (median 5, range 3-16 vs. median 3, range 2-6). Among Kenyan guardians, source of income was the only independent predictor of delay, whereas in Uganda, guardian delay was influenced by guardians' beliefs on the curability of cancer, health system delay, by guardians' perceptions of cancer as a contagious disease, and total delay, by the number of children in the household and guardians' role as caretaker. Qualitative findings suggest financial costs, transportation, and other household responsibilities were major barriers to care. Delays from symptom onset to BL treatment were considerable given the rapid growth rate of this

  7. Patient Handoffs: Is Cross Cover or Night Shift Better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Alanna; Brannen, Melissa L; Heiman, Heather L; Adler, Mark D

    2017-06-01

    Studies show singular handoffs between health care providers to be risky. Few describe sequential handoffs or compare handoffs from different provider types. We investigated the transfer of information across 2 handoffs using a piloted survey instrument. We compared cross-cover (every fourth night call) with dedicated night-shift residents. Surveys assessing provider knowledge of hospitalized patients were administered to pediatric residents. Primary teams were surveyed about their handoff upon completion of daytime coverage of a patient. Night-shift or cross-covering residents were surveyed about their handoff of the same patient upon completion of overnight coverage. Pediatric hospitalists rated the consistency of information between the surveys. Absolute difference was calculated between the 2 providers' rating of a patient's (a) complexity and (b) illness severity. Scores were compared across provider type. Fifty-nine complete handoff pairs were obtained. Fourteen and 45 handoff surveys were completed by a cross-covering and a night-shift provider, respectively. There was no significant difference in information consistency between primary and night-shift (median, 4.0; interquartile range [IQR], 3-4) versus primary and cross-covering providers (median, 4.0; IQR, 3-4). There was no significant difference in median patient complexity ratings (night shift, 3.0; IQR, 1-5, versus cross cover, 3.5; IQR, 1-5) or illness severity ratings (night shift, 2.0; IQR, 1-4, versus cross-cover, 3.0; IQR, 1-6) when comparing provider types giving a handoff. We did not find a difference in physicians' transfer of information during 2 handoffs among providers taking traditional call or on night shift. Development of tools to measure handoff consistency is needed.

  8. Impact of a logistics management program on admitted patient boarders within an emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy-Rodriguez, Mary Anne; Freer, Chris; Pontiggia, Laura; Wilson, Rula; Metraux, Steve; Lord, Lyndsey

    2014-03-01

    ED crowding is a public health issue, and hospitals across the country must pursue aggressive strategies to improve patient flow to help solve this growing problem. The logistics management program (LMP) is an expansion of the bed management process to include a systematic approach to patient flow management throughout the facility and a clinical liaison or field agent to drive throughput at all points of care. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an LMP on ED length of stay (ED evaluation times and ED placement times), as well as inpatient length of stay (IPLOS). This is a quasi-experimental study of 28,684 ED admissions in a suburban, tertiary medical center before and after implementing an LMP (2008 vs 2009). The median ED evaluation time was 219 minutes (interquartile range [IQR], 178 minutes) in 2008 versus 207 minutes (IQR, 171 minutes) in 2009 (P < .001). The median ED placement time was 219 minutes (IQR, 259 minutes) in 2008 versus 193 minutes (IQR, 158 minutes) in 2009 (P < .001). The median IPLOS was 3.93 days (IQR, 4.9 days) in 2008 versus 3.83 days (IQR, 4.7 days) in 2009 (P < .001), which represents a reduction of 1,483 inpatient days in 2009. The results provide strong evidence to support the impact of an LMP on decreasing ED evaluation times, ED placement times, and IPLOS. Further exploration is needed to examine the program as a best practice, as well as its applicability for other facilities. Copyright © 2014 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The influence of ApoE genotype on the lipid profile and lipoproteins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    median=4.1, IQR 3.6-4.7 vs median 3.5, IQR 3.1-3.5, respectively p=0.0167). The median LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol did not change. Higher proportions of small density LDL species were seen during pregnancy compared to after ...

  10. Predicting performance using background characteristics of international medical graduates in an inner-city university-affiliated Internal Medicine residency training program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhuetie Jane

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IMGs constitute about a third of the United States (US internal medicine graduates. US residency training programs face challenges in selection of IMGs with varied background features. However data on this topic is limited. We analyzed whether any pre-selection characteristics of IMG residents in our internal medicine program are associated with selected outcomes, namely competency based evaluation, examination performance and success in acquiring fellowship positions after graduation. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 51 IMGs at our ACGME accredited teaching institution between 2004 and 2007. Background resident features namely age, gender, self-reported ethnicity, time between medical school graduation to residency (pre-hire time, USMLE step I & II clinical skills scores, pre-GME clinical experience, US externship and interest in pursuing fellowship after graduation expressed in their personal statements were noted. Data on competency-based evaluations, in-service exam scores, research presentation and publications, fellowship pursuance were collected. There were no fellowships offered in our hospital in this study period. Background features were compared between resident groups according to following outcomes: (a annual aggregate graduate PGY-level specific competency-based evaluation (CBE score above versus below the median score within our program (scoring scale of 1 – 10, (b US graduate PGY-level specific resident in-training exam (ITE score higher versus lower than the median score, and (c those who succeeded to secure a fellowship within the study period. Using appropriate statistical tests & adjusted regression analysis, odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results 94% of the study sample were IMGs; median age was 35 years (Inter-Quartile range 25th – 75th percentile (IQR: 33–37 years; 43% women and 59% were Asian physicians. The median pre-hire time was 5 years (IQR: 4–7

  11. Thrombosed persistent median artery causing carpal tunnel syndrome associated with bifurcated median nerve: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salter, M.; Sinha, N. R.; Szmigielski, W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome is a sporadically occurring abnormality due to compression of median nerve. It is exceedingly rare for it to be caused by thrombosis of persistent median artery. Case Report: A forty two year old female was referred for ultrasound examination due to ongoing wrist pain, not relived by pain killers and mild paraesthesia on the radial side of the hand. High resolution ultrasound and Doppler revealed a thrombosed persistent median artery and associated bifurcated median nerve. The thrombus resolved on treatment with anticoagulants. Conclusions: Ultrasound examination of the wrist when done for patients with carpal tunnel syndrome should preferably include looking for persistent median artery and its patency. (authors)

  12. The natural history of fibroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrelos, D; Ben-Nagi, J; Holland, T; Hoo, W; Naftalin, J; Jurkovic, D

    2010-02-01

    Fibroids are common, hormone-dependent, benign uterine tumors. They can cause significant morbidity and the symptoms depend largely on their size. The aim of this study was to describe the natural history of fibroids and identify factors that may influence their growth. This was a retrospective longitudinal study of premenopausal women who were diagnosed with uterine fibroids on ultrasound examination. All women underwent at least two transvaginal ultrasound scans, which were all performed by a single operator. Fibroids were measured in three perpendicular planes and the mean diameter was calculated. The size and position of every individual fibroid was assessed and recorded on a computerized database. The volume of each fibroid was calculated using the formula for a sphere. A total of 122 women were included in the study. Their median age at the initial examination was 40 (range, 27-45) years. Seventy-two (59.0%) were nulliparous and 74 (60.7%) had multiple fibroids. The median interval between the initial and final examination was 21.5 (range, 8-90) months. The median fibroid volume increased by 35.2% per year. Small fibroids (< 20 mm mean diameter) grew significantly faster than larger fibroids (P = 0.007). The median increase in size was significantly higher in cases of intramural fibroids (53.2 (interquartile range (IQR), 11.2-217)%) than in subserous fibroids (25.1 (IQR, 1.1-87.1)%) and submucous fibroids (22.8 (IQR, - 11.7 to 48.3)%) (P = 0.012). Multivariate analysis retained only fibroid size at presentation as an independent predictor of fibroid growth. The growth of fibroids in premenopausal women is influenced by the tumor's size at presentation.

  13. Pelvic Floor Physical Therapy as Primary Treatment of Pelvic Floor Disorders With Urinary Urgency and Frequency-Predominant Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Sonia R; Dessie, Sybil G; Dodge, Laura E; Mckinney, Jessica L; Hacker, Michele R; Elkadry, Eman A

    2015-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of pelvic floor physical therapy (PFPT) as primary treatment of urinary urgency and frequency symptoms We conducted a prospective cohort study of women with urinary urgency and frequency symptoms. Participants underwent PFPT once or twice per week for 10 weeks. Symptom improvement was assessed by validated questionnaires (Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory-Short Form 20 and Patient Global Impression of Improvement), voiding diaries, and subjective measures. Fifty-seven participants enrolled; 21 (36.8%) withdrew or completed less than 5 weeks of PFPT. Thirty-one (54.4%) of the remaining 36 participants completed 10 weeks of PFPT. The mean age of the study group (n = 36) was 48.9 ± 15.0 years. The primary diagnoses were overactive bladder syndrome (n = 24, 66.7%) and painful bladder syndrome (n = 12, 33.3%). Women attended a median of 14.0 (interquartile range [IQR], 8.0-16.0) PFPT visits over a median of 11.9 weeks (IQR, 10.0-18.1). At baseline, the median Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory-Short Form 20 score was 79.2 (IQR, 53.1-122.9), and decreased to 50.0 (IQR, 25.0-88.5; P therapies. The high dropout rates suggest that motivation or logistic factors may play a significant role in the utilization and success of this treatment option.

  14. Stroke rehabilitation at home before and after discharge reduced disability and improved quality of life: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard; Østergaard, Ann; Kjær, Pia; Skerris, Anja; Skou, Christina; Christoffersen, Jane; Seest, Line Skou; Poulsen, Mai Bang; Rønholt, Finn; Overgaard, Karsten

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate if home-based rehabilitation of inpatients improved outcome compared to standard care. Interventional, randomised, safety/efficacy open-label trial. University hospital stroke unit in collaboration with three municipalities. Seventy-one eligible stroke patients (41 women) with focal neurological deficits hospitalised in a stroke unit for more than three days and in need of rehabilitation. Thirty-eight patients were randomised to home-based rehabilitation during hospitalization and for up to four weeks after discharge to replace part of usual treatment and rehabilitation services. Thirty-three control patients received treatment and rehabilitation following usual guidelines for the treatment of stroke patients. Ninety days post-stroke the modified Rankin Scale score was the primary endpoint. Other outcome measures were the modified Barthel-100 Index, Motor Assessment Scale, CT-50 Cognitive Test, EuroQol-5D, Body Mass Index and treatment-associated economy. Thirty-one intervention and 30 control patients completed the study. Patients in the intervention group achieved better modified Rankin Scale score (Intervention median = 2, IQR = 2-3; Control median = 3, IQR = 2-4; P=0.04). EuroQol-5D quality of life median scores were improved in intervention patients (Intervention median = 0.77, IQR = 0.66-0.79; Control median = 0.66, IQR = 0.56 - 0.72; P=0.03). The total amount of home-based training in minutes highly correlated with mRS, Barthel, Motor Assessment Scale and EuroQol-5D™ scores (P-values ranging from Prehabilitation reduced disability and increased quality of life. Compared to standard care, home-based stroke rehabilitation was more cost-effective. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Automated FiO2-SpO2 control system in neonates requiring respiratory support: a comparison of a standard to a narrow SpO2 control range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilinska, Maria; Bachman, Thomas; Swietlinski, Janusz; Kostro, Maria; Twardoch-Drozd, Marta

    2014-05-28

    Managing the oxygen saturation of preterm infants to a target range has been the standard of care for a decade. Changes in target ranges have been shown to significantly impact mortality and morbidity. Selecting and implementing the optimal target range are complicated not only by issues of training, but also the realities of staffing levels and demands. The potential for automatic control is becoming a reality. Results from the evaluation of different systems have been promising and our own experience encouraging. This study was conducted in two tertiary level newborn nurseries, routinely using an automated FiO2-SpO2 control system (Avea-CLiO2, Yorba Linda CA, USA). The aim of this study was to compare the performance of the system as used routinely (set control range of 87-93% SpO2), to a narrower higher range (90-93%). We employed a 12-hour cross-over design with the order of control ranges randomly assigned for each of up to three days. The primary prospectively identified end points were time in the 87-93% SpO2 target range, time at SpO2 extremes and the distribution of the SpO2 exposure. Twenty-one infants completed the study. The infants were born with a median EGA of 27 weeks and studied at a median age of 17 days and weight of 1.08 kg. Their median FiO2 was 0.32; 8 were intubated, and the rest noninvasively supported (7 positive pressure ventilation and 6 CPAP). The control in both arms was excellent, and required less than 2 manual FiO2 adjustments per day. There were no differences in the three primary endpoints. The narrower/higher set control range resulted in tighter control (IQR 3.0 vs. 4.3 p < 0.001), and less time with the SpO2 between 80-86 (6.2% vs. 8.4%, p = 0.006). We found that a shift in the median of the set control range of an automated FiO2-SpO2 control system had a proportional effect on the median and distribution of SpO2 exposure. We found that a dramatic narrowing of the set control range had a disproportionally smaller impact. Our

  16. TRACnet Internet and Short Message Service Technology Improves Time to Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation Among HIV-infected Infants in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayumba, Kizito; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Binagwaho, Agnes; Mugwaneza, Placidie; Rusine, John; Remera, Eric; Koama, Jean Baptiste; Ndahindwa, Vedaste; Johnson, Pamela; Riedel, David J; Condo, Jeanine

    2016-07-01

    Delays in testing HIV-exposed infants and obtaining results in resource-limited settings contribute to delays for initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in infants. To overcome this challenge, Rwanda expanded its national mobile and Internet-based HIV/AIDS informatics system, called TRACnet, to include HIV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results in 2010. This study was performed to evaluate the impact of TRACnet technology on the time to delivery of test results and the subsequent initiation of ART in HIV-infected infants. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 380 infants who initiated ART in 190 health facilities in Rwanda from March 2010 to June 2013. Program data collected by the TRACnet system were extracted and analyzed. Since the introduction of TRACnet for processing PCR results, the time to receive results has significantly decreased from a median of 144 days [interquartile range (IQR): 121-197 days] to 23 days (IQR: 17-43 days). The number of days between PCR sampling and health facility receipt of results decreased substantially from a median of 90 days (IQR: 83-158 days) to 5 days (IQR: 2-8 days). After receiving PCR results at a health facility, it takes a median of 44 days (IQR: 32-77 days) before ART initiation. Result turnaround time was significantly associated with time to initiating ART (P technology for communication of HIV PCR results, coupled with well-trained and skilled personnel, can reduce delays in communicating results to providers. Such reductions may improve timely ART initiation in resource-limited settings.

  17. Air suctioning during colon biopsy forceps removal reduces bacterial air contamination in the endoscopy suite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavricka, S R; Tutuian, R; Imhof, A; Wildi, S; Gubler, C; Fruehauf, H; Ruef, C; Schoepfer, A M; Fried, M

    2010-09-01

    Bacterial contamination of endoscopy suites is of concern; however studies evaluating bacterial aerosols are lacking. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of air suctioning during removal of biopsy forceps in reducing bacterial air contamination. This was a prospective single-blinded trial involving 50 patients who were undergoing elective nontherapeutic colonoscopy. During colonoscopy, endoscopists removed the biopsy forceps first without and then with suctioning following contact with the sigmoid mucosa. A total of 50 L of air was collected continuously for 30 seconds at 30-cm distance from the biopsy channel valve of the colonoscope, with time starting at forceps removal. Airborne bacteria were collected by an impactor air sampler (MAS-100). Standard Petri dishes with CNA blood agar were used to culture Gram-positive bacteria. Main outcome measure was the bacterial load in endoscopy room air. At the beginning and end of the daily colonoscopy program, the median (and interquartile [IQR] range) bioaerosol burden was 4 colony forming units (CFU)/m (3) (IQR 3 - 6) and 16 CFU/m (3) (IQR 13 - 18), respectively. Air suctioning during removal of the biopsy forceps reduced the bioaerosol burden from a median of 14 CFU/m (3) (IQR 11 - 29) to a median of 7 CFU/m (3) (IQR 4 - 16) ( P = 0.0001). Predominantly enterococci were identified on the agar plates. The bacterial aerosol burden during handling of biopsy forceps can be reduced by applying air suction while removing the forceps. This simple method may reduce transmission of infectious agents during gastrointestinal endoscopies. Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  18. A comparison of freeway median crash frequency, severity, and barrier strike outcomes by median barrier type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Brendan J; Savolainen, Peter T

    2018-08-01

    Median-crossover crashes are among the most hazardous events that can occur on freeways, often resulting in severe or fatal injuries. The primary countermeasure to reduce the occurrence of such crashes is the installation of a median barrier. When installation of a median barrier is warranted, transportation agencies are faced with the decision among various alternatives including concrete barriers, beam guardrail, or high-tension cable barriers. Each barrier type differs in terms of its deflection characteristics upon impact, the required installation and maintenance costs, and the roadway characteristics (e.g., median width) where installation would be feasible. This study involved an investigation of barrier performance through an in-depth analysis of crash frequency and severity data from freeway segments where high-tension cable, thrie-beam, and concrete median barriers were installed. A comprehensive manual review of crash reports was conducted to identify crashes in which a vehicle left the roadway and encroached into the median. This review also involved an examination of crash outcomes when a barrier strike occurred, which included vehicle containment, penetration, or re-direction onto the travel lanes. The manual review of crash reports provided critical supplementary information through narratives and diagrams not normally available through standard fields on police crash report forms. Statistical models were estimated to identify factors that affect the frequency, severity, and outcomes of median-related crashes, with particular emphases on differences between segments with varying median barrier types. Several roadway-, traffic-, and environmental-related characteristics were found to affect these metrics, with results varying across the different barrier types. The results of this study provide transportation agencies with important guidance as to the in-service performance of various types of median barrier. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  19. Prospective pilot study of CT-guided microwave ablation in the treatment of osteoid osteomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prud' homme, Clara; Nueffer, Jean-Philippe; Runge, Michel; Dubut, Jonathan [University Hospital of Besancon, Department of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Besancon (France); Kastler, Bruno [University Hospital of Besancon, Department of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Besancon (France); I4S Laboratory, INSERM EA4268, University of Franche-Comte, Besancon (France); Aubry, Sebastien [University Hospital of Besancon, Department of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Besancon (France); Nanomedecine Laboratory, INSERM EA4662, University of Franche-Comte, Besancon (France)

    2017-03-15

    The aims of this work were to assess the feasibility and efficacy of CT-guided microwave ablation (MWA) in the treatment of osteoid osteomas (OOs). Thirteen consecutive patients (range 11-31 years old) presenting with OO were prospectively included and treated by CT-guided MWA. Power and duration of MWA were both recorded. The patient's pain was assessed using a numeric pain rating scale (NRS), and side effects were recorded during procedures, after 1 day, 7 days and 1 month. The nidus vascularization and the volume of necrosis induced by MWA were assessed using contrast-enhanced MRI. Success was defined as the complete relief of the patient's pain 1 month after the first procedure, associated with necrosis of the nidus on follow-up MRI. The success rate was up to 92.3% (12/13). At 1 day, 7 days and 1 month, the median NRSs were respectively 5 [interquartile range (IQR) 2-5], 0 (IQR 0-1) and 0 (IQR 0-0). Side effects observed were one partial and self-resolving lesion of a sensory branch of the radial nerve and two skin burns. The median power of the MWA used was 60 W (IQR 50-60) with a 1.5-min duration (IQR 1-2), leading to MWA-induced necrosis measuring on average 23 x 15 x 16 mm. CT-guided MWA of OO has a success rate that appears to be almost similar to that of laser or radiofrequency ablation, but care must be taken to prevent nerve or skin lesions. (orig.)

  20. Prospective pilot study of CT-guided microwave ablation in the treatment of osteoid osteomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prud'homme, Clara; Nueffer, Jean-Philippe; Runge, Michel; Dubut, Jonathan; Kastler, Bruno; Aubry, Sebastien

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this work were to assess the feasibility and efficacy of CT-guided microwave ablation (MWA) in the treatment of osteoid osteomas (OOs). Thirteen consecutive patients (range 11-31 years old) presenting with OO were prospectively included and treated by CT-guided MWA. Power and duration of MWA were both recorded. The patient's pain was assessed using a numeric pain rating scale (NRS), and side effects were recorded during procedures, after 1 day, 7 days and 1 month. The nidus vascularization and the volume of necrosis induced by MWA were assessed using contrast-enhanced MRI. Success was defined as the complete relief of the patient's pain 1 month after the first procedure, associated with necrosis of the nidus on follow-up MRI. The success rate was up to 92.3% (12/13). At 1 day, 7 days and 1 month, the median NRSs were respectively 5 [interquartile range (IQR) 2-5], 0 (IQR 0-1) and 0 (IQR 0-0). Side effects observed were one partial and self-resolving lesion of a sensory branch of the radial nerve and two skin burns. The median power of the MWA used was 60 W (IQR 50-60) with a 1.5-min duration (IQR 1-2), leading to MWA-induced necrosis measuring on average 23 x 15 x 16 mm. CT-guided MWA of OO has a success rate that appears to be almost similar to that of laser or radiofrequency ablation, but care must be taken to prevent nerve or skin lesions. (orig.)

  1. Evaluation of a non-proprietary, high-tension, four-cable median barrier on level terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    During the last decade, the use of cable median barriers has risen dramatically. Cable barriers are often utilized in depressed medians : with widths ranging from 30 to 50 ft (9.1 to 15.2 m) and with fill slopes as steep as 4H:1V. A careful review of...

  2. Bubble CPAP versus CPAP with variable flow in newborns with respiratory distress: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagui, Ana Cristina Zanon; Vale, Luciana Assis Pires Andrade; Haddad, Luciana Branco; Prado, Cristiane; Rossi, Felipe Souza; Deutsch, Alice D Agostini; Rebello, Celso Moura

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) using devices with variable flow or bubble continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) regarding CPAP failure, presence of air leaks, total CPAP and oxygen time, and length of intensive care unit and hospital stay in neonates with moderate respiratory distress (RD) and birth weight (BW) ≥ 1,500 g. Forty newborns requiring NCPAP were randomized into two study groups: variable flow group (VF) and continuous flow group (CF). The study was conducted between October 2008 and April 2010. Demographic data, CPAP failure, presence of air leaks, and total CPAP and oxygen time were recorded. Categorical outcomes were tested using the chi-square test or the Fisher's exact test. Continuous variables were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. The level of significance was set at p CPAP failure (21.1 and 20.0% for VF and CF, respectively; p = 1.000), air leak syndrome (10.5 and 5.0%, respectively; p = 0.605), total CPAP time (median: 22.0 h, interquartile range [IQR]: 8.00-31.00 h and median: 22.0 h, IQR: 6.00-32.00 h, respectively; p = 0.822), and total oxygen time (median: 24.00 h, IQR: 7.00-85.00 h and median: 21.00 h, IQR: 9.50-66.75 h, respectively; p = 0.779). In newborns with BW ≥ 1,500 g and moderate RD, the use of continuous flow NCPAP showed the same benefits as the use of variable flow NCPAP.

  3. Withdrawal-associated injury site pain (WISP): a descriptive case series of an opioid cessation phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieb, Launette Marie; Norman, Wendy V; Martin, Ruth Elwood; Berkowitz, Jonathan; Wood, Evan; McNeil, Ryan; Milloy, M-J

    2016-12-01

    Withdrawal pain can be a barrier to opioid cessation. Yet, little is known about old injury site pain in this context. We conducted an exploratory mixed-methods descriptive case series using a web-based survey and in-person interviews with adults recruited from pain and addiction treatment and research settings. We included individuals who self-reported a past significant injury that was healed and pain-free before the initiation of opioids, which then became temporarily painful upon opioid cessation-a phenomenon we have named withdrawal-associated injury site pain (WISP). Screening identified WISP in 47 people, of whom 34 (72%) completed the descriptive survey, including 21 who completed qualitative interviews. Recalled pain severity scores for WISP were typically high (median: 8/10; interquartile range [IQR]: 2), emotionally and physically aversive, and took approximately 2 weeks to resolve (median: 14; IQR: 24 days). Withdrawal-associated injury site pain intensity was typically slightly less than participants' original injury pain (median: 10/10; IQR: 3), and more painful than other generalized withdrawal symptoms which also lasted approximately 2 weeks (median: 13; IQR: 25 days). Fifteen surveyed participants (44%) reported returning to opioid use because of WISP in the past. Participants developed theories about the etiology of WISP, including that the pain is the brain's way of communicating a desire for opioids. This research represents the first known documentation that previously healed, and pain-free injury sites can temporarily become painful again during opioid withdrawal, an experience which may be a barrier to opioid cessation, and a contributor to opioid reinitiation.

  4. Comprehensive Study of Human External Exposure to Organophosphate Flame Retardants via Air, Dust, and Hand Wipes: The Importance of Sampling and Assessment Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fuchao; Giovanoulis, Georgios; van Waes, Sofie; Padilla-Sanchez, Juan Antonio; Papadopoulou, Eleni; Magnér, Jorgen; Haug, Line Småstuen; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-07-19

    We compared the human exposure to organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) via inhalation, dust ingestion, and dermal absorption using different sampling and assessment strategies. Air (indoor stationary air and personal ambient air), dust (floor dust and surface dust), and hand wipes were sampled from 61 participants and their houses. We found that stationary air contains higher levels of ΣPFRs (median = 163 ng/m(3), IQR = 161 ng/m(3)) than personal air (median = 44 ng/m(3), IQR = 55 ng/m(3)), suggesting that the stationary air sample could generate a larger bias for inhalation exposure assessment. Tris(chloropropyl) phosphate isomers (ΣTCPP) accounted for over 80% of ΣPFRs in both stationary and personal air. PFRs were frequently detected in both surface dust (ΣPFRs median = 33 100 ng/g, IQR = 62 300 ng/g) and floor dust (ΣPFRs median = 20 500 ng/g, IQR = 30 300 ng/g). Tris(2-butoxylethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) accounted for 40% and 60% of ΣPFRs in surface and floor dust, respectively, followed by ΣTCPP (30% and 20%, respectively). TBOEP (median = 46 ng, IQR = 69 ng) and ΣTCPP (median = 37 ng, IQR = 49 ng) were also frequently detected in hand wipe samples. For the first time, a comprehensive assessment of human exposure to PFRs via inhalation, dust ingestion, and dermal absorption was conducted with individual personal data rather than reference factors of the general population. Inhalation seems to be the major exposure pathway for ΣTCPP and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), while participants had higher exposure to TBOEP and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) via dust ingestion. Estimated exposure to ΣPFRs was the highest with stationary air inhalation (median =34 ng·kg bw(-1)·day(-1), IQR = 38 ng·kg bw(-1)·day(-1)), followed by surface dust ingestion (median = 13 ng·kg bw(-1)·day(-1), IQR = 28 ng·kg bw(-1)·day(-1)), floor dust ingestion and personal air inhalation. The median dermal exposure on hand wipes was 0.32 ng·kg bw(-1)·day(-1) (IQR

  5. Sosiaalisen median riskit yritysmaailmassa

    OpenAIRE

    Kilpinen, Joni

    2015-01-01

    Sosiaalisen median palveluista on kirjoitettu lukuisia kirjoja ja artikkeleita, joissa niitä ylistetään varsinkin yritysnäkökulmasta. Vaikka sosiaalinen media on muuttanut olennaisesti tapaa, jolla keskustella, mainostaa, etsiä ja jakaa tietoa, piilee sen palveluiden käytössä kuitenkin erilaisia uhkakuvia. Yritykset ja asiantuntijat pelkäävät sosiaalisen median avoimuuden aiheuttavan suuria tietoturvariskejä. Lisäksi asiantuntijat ovat varoitelleet sosiaalisessa mediassa olevista haittaohjelm...

  6. GPU Accelerated Vector Median Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Rifat; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-01-01

    Noise reduction is an important step for most image processing tasks. For three channel color images, a widely used technique is vector median filter in which color values of pixels are treated as 3-component vectors. Vector median filters are computationally expensive; for a window size of n x n, each of the n(sup 2) vectors has to be compared with other n(sup 2) - 1 vectors in distances. General purpose computation on graphics processing units (GPUs) is the paradigm of utilizing high-performance many-core GPU architectures for computation tasks that are normally handled by CPUs. In this work. NVIDIA's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) paradigm is used to accelerate vector median filtering. which has to the best of our knowledge never been done before. The performance of GPU accelerated vector median filter is compared to that of the CPU and MPI-based versions for different image and window sizes, Initial findings of the study showed 100x improvement of performance of vector median filter implementation on GPUs over CPU implementations and further speed-up is expected after more extensive optimizations of the GPU algorithm .

  7. Sympathoadrenal Activation and Endothelial Damage Are Inter Correlated and Predict Increased Mortality in Patients Resuscitated after Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    I. Johansson, Pär; Bro-Jeppesen, John; Kjaergaard, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    site ICU. Blood was sampled a median 135 min (Inter Quartile Range (IQR) 103-169) after OHCA. Plasma catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline) and serum endothelial biomarkers (syndecan-1, thrombomodulin, sE-selectin, sVE-cadherin) were measured at admission (immediately after randomization). We had...

  8. An investigation on the noise reduction performance of profiled rigid median barriers at highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Monazzam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Median barriers as a portion of a divided highway are provided to minimize the cross-median crashes. Moreover, median barriers similar to roadside noise barriers could protect people from transportation noise. Thus, there is a need to investigate various median barrier models to identify changes of insertion loss over a simple rigid barrier. In order to estimate the acoustical influence of median barrier′s profile in the shadow zone, different median barrier models are presented and their insertion losses are calculated over a frequency range from 50 to 4000 Hz using a two-dimensional boundary element method. The present investigation has clearly revealed that among the profiled median barriers, T-shape, Y-shape, and L-shape provide better performance than that of the other shapes. It is also found that among inclined barriers, V-shape barrier significantly presents higher values of attenuation. Based on the calculation of different geometrics, it has been shown that a further 2 dB (A in efficiency could be obtained by a better design of the median barrier which is labeled model "L."

  9. The Association Between Maternal Chronic Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Long-term Health Outcomes in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jølving, Line R; Nielsen, Jan; Beck-Nielsen, Signe S

    2017-01-01

    -term child morbidities. RESULTS: The cohort comprised 9238 children born to women with IBD (exposed), and 1,371,407 born to women without IBD (unexposed). Median follow-up time among the exposed was 9.7 years (interquartile range [IQR] 4.9-15.7) and 13.8 (interquartile range 7.4-19.9) among the unexposed...

  10. Switching non-local median filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Jyohei; Koga, Takanori; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a novel image filtering method for removal of random-valued impulse noise superimposed on grayscale images. Generally, it is well known that switching-type median filters are effective for impulse noise removal. In this paper, we propose a more sophisticated switching-type impulse noise removal method in terms of detail-preserving performance. Specifically, the noise detector of the proposed method finds out noise-corrupted pixels by focusing attention on the difference between the value of a pixel of interest (POI) and the median of its neighboring pixel values, and on the POI's isolation tendency from the surrounding pixels. Furthermore, the removal of the detected noise is performed by the newly proposed median filter based on non-local processing, which has superior detail-preservation capability compared to the conventional median filter. The effectiveness and the validity of the proposed method are verified by some experiments using natural grayscale images.

  11. Clinical Epidemiology of Buruli Ulcer from Benin (2005-2013: Effect of Time-Delay to Diagnosis on Clinical Forms and Severe Phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Capela

    Full Text Available Buruli Ulcer (BU is a neglected infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans that is responsible for severe necrotizing cutaneous lesions that may be associated with bone involvement. Clinical presentations of BU lesions are classically classified as papules, nodules, plaques and edematous infiltration, ulcer or osteomyelitis. Within these different clinical forms, lesions can be further classified as severe forms based on focality (multiple lesions, lesions' size (>15 cm diameter or WHO Category (WHO Category 3 lesions. There are studies reporting an association between delay in seeking medical care and the development of ulcerative forms of BU or osteomyelitis, but the effect of time-delay on the emergence of lesions classified as severe has not been addressed. To address both issues, and in a cohort of laboratory-confirmed BU cases, 476 patients from a medical center in Allada, Benin, were studied. In this laboratory-confirmed cohort, we validated previous observations, demonstrating that time-delay is statistically related to the clinical form of BU. Indeed, for non-ulcerated forms (nodule, edema, and plaque the median time-delay was 32.5 days (IQR 30.0-67.5, while for ulcerated forms it was 60 days (IQR 20.0-120.0 (p = 0.009, and for bone lesions, 365 days (IQR 228.0-548.0. On the other hand, we show here that time-delay is not associated with the more severe phenotypes of BU, such as multi-focal lesions (median 90 days; IQR 56-217.5; p = 0.09, larger lesions (diameter >15 cm (median 60 days; IQR 30-120; p = 0.92 or category 3 WHO classification (median 60 days; IQR 30-150; p = 0.20, when compared with unifocal (median 60 days; IQR 30-90, small lesions (diameter ≤15 cm (median 60 days; IQR 30-90, or WHO category 1+2 lesions (median 60 days; IQR 30-90, respectively. Our results demonstrate that after an initial period of progression towards ulceration or bone involvement, BU lesions become stable regarding size and focal

  12. Gender-partitioned patient medians of serum albumin requested by general practitioners for the assessment of analytical stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Steen Ingemann; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Lund, Flemming; Fraser, Callum G; Sölétormos, György

    2018-04-25

    Recently, the use of separate gender-partitioned patient medians of serum sodium has revealed potential for monitoring analytical stability within the optimum analytical performance specifications for laboratory medicine. The serum albumin concentration depends on whether a patient is sitting or recumbent during phlebotomy. We therefore investigated only examinations requested by general practitioners (GPs) to provide data from sitting patients. Weekly and monthly patient medians of serum albumin requested by GP for both male and female patients were calculated from the raw data obtained from three analysers in the hospital laboratory on examination of samples from those >18 years. The half-range of medians were applied as an estimate of the maximum bias. Further, the ratios between the two medians were calculated (females/males). The medians for male and female patients were closely related despite considerable variation due to the current analytical variation. This relationship was confirmed by the calculated half-range for the monthly ratio between the genders of 0.44%, which surpasses the optimum analytical performance specification for bias of serum albumin (0.72%). The weekly ratio had a half-range of 1.83%, which surpasses the minimum analytical performance specifications of 2.15%. Monthly gender-partitioned patient medians of serum albumin are useful for monitoring of long-term analytical stability, where the gender medians are two independent estimates of changes in (delta) bias: only results requested by GP are of value in this application to ensure that all patients are sitting during phlebotomy.

  13. Adult Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Reference Ranges in a Zimbabwean Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaneka, Wadzanai P; Mandozana, Gibson; Tinago, Willard; Nhando, Nehemiah; Mgodi, Nyaradzo M; Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Mutsawashe F; Munjoma, Marshall W; Gomo, Zvenyika A R; Chirenje, Zvavahera M; Hakim, James G

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory reference ranges used for clinical care and clinical trials in various laboratories in Zimbabwe were derived from textbooks and research studies conducted more than ten years ago. Periodic verification of these ranges is essential to track changes over time. The purpose of this study was to establish hematology and chemistry laboratory reference ranges using more rigorous methods. A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Harare, Chitungwiza, and Mutoko. A multistage sampling technique was used. Samples were transported from the field for analysis at the ISO15189 certified University of Zimbabwe-University of California San Francisco Central Research Laboratory. Hematology and clinical chemistry reference ranges lower and upper reference limits were estimated at the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles respectively. A total of 769 adults (54% males) aged 18 to 55 years were included in the analysis. Median age was 28 [IQR: 23-35] years. Males had significantly higher red cell counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin compared to females. Females had higher white cell counts, platelets, absolute neutrophil counts, and absolute lymphocyte counts compared to males. There were no gender differences in eosinophils, monocytes, and absolute basophil count. Males had significantly higher levels of urea, sodium, potassium, calcium, creatinine, amylase, total protein, albumin and liver enzymes levels compared to females. Females had higher cholesterol and lipase compared with males. There are notable differences in the white cell counts, neutrophils, cholesterol, and creatinine kinase when compared with the currently used reference ranges. Data from this study provides new country specific reference ranges which should be immediately adopted for routine clinical care and accurate monitoring of adverse events in research studies.

  14. Functional Median Polish

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying; Genton, Marc G.

    2012-01-01

    polish is demonstrated by comparing its performance with the traditional functional ANOVA fitted by means under different outlier models in simulation studies. The functional median polish is illustrated on various applications in climate science

  15. Five Roots Pattern of Median Nerve Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Natsis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An unusual combination of median nerve’s variations has been encountered in a male cadaver during routine educational dissection. In particular, the median nerve was formed by five roots; three roots originated from the lateral cord of the brachial plexus joined individually the median nerve’s medial root. The latter (fourth root was united with the lateral (fifth root of the median nerve forming the median nerve distally in the upper arm and not the axilla as usually. In addition, the median nerve was situated medial to the brachial artery. We review comprehensively the relevant variants, their embryologic development and their potential clinical applications.

  16. Procalcitonin levels in gram-positive, gram-negative, and fungal bloodstream infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leli, Christian; Ferranti, Marta; Moretti, Amedeo; Al Dhahab, Zainab Salim; Cenci, Elio; Mencacci, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT) can discriminate bacterial from viral systemic infections and true bacteremia from contaminated blood cultures. The aim of this study was to evaluate PCT diagnostic accuracy in discriminating Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and fungal bloodstream infections. A total of 1,949 samples from patients with suspected bloodstream infections were included in the study. Median PCT value in Gram-negative (13.8 ng/mL, interquartile range (IQR) 3.4-44.1) bacteremias was significantly higher than in Gram-positive (2.1 ng/mL, IQR 0.6-7.6) or fungal (0.5 ng/mL, IQR 0.4-1) infections (P Gram-negatives from Gram-positives at the best cut-off value of 10.8 ng/mL and an AUC of 0.944 (95% CI 0.919-0.969, P Gram-negatives from fungi at the best cut-off of 1.6 ng/mL. Additional results showed a significant difference in median PCT values between Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermentative Gram-negative bacteria (17.1 ng/mL, IQR 5.9-48.5 versus 3.5 ng/mL, IQR 0.8-21.5; P Gram-negative from Gram-positive and fungal bloodstream infections. Nevertheless, its utility to predict different microorganisms needs to be assessed in further studies.

  17. The Safety and Feasibility of Image-Guided BrainPath-Mediated Transsulcul Hematoma Evacuation: A Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, Mohamed A; Shah, Mitesh; Kassam, Amin B; Young, Ronald; Zucker, Lloyd; Maioriello, Anthony; Britz, Gavin; Agbi, Charles; Day, J D; Gallia, Gary; Kerr, Robert; Pradilla, Gustavo; Rovin, Richard; Kulwin, Charles; Bailes, Julian

    2017-04-01

    Subcortical injury resulting from conventional surgical management of intracranial hemorrhage may counteract the potential benefits of hematoma evacuation. To evaluate the safety and potential benefits of a novel, minimally invasive approach for clot evacuation in a multicenter study. The integrated approach incorporates 5 competencies: (1) image interpretation and trajectory planning, (2) dynamic navigation, (3) atraumatic access system (BrainPath, NICO Corp, Indianapolis, Indiana), (4) extracorporeal optics, and (5) automated atraumatic resection. Twelve neurosurgeons from 11 centers were trained to use this approach through a continuing medical education-accredited course. Demographical, clinical, and radiological data of patients treated over 2 years were analyzed retrospectively. Thirty-nine consecutive patients were identified. The median Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score at presentation was 10 (range, 5-15). The thalamus/basal ganglion regions were involved in 46% of the cases. The median hematoma volume and depth were 36 mL (interquartile range [IQR], 27-65 mL) and 1.4 cm (IQR, 0.3-2.9 cm), respectively. The median time from ictus to surgery was 24.5 hours (IQR, 16-66 hours). The degree of hematoma evacuation was ≥90%, 75% to 89%, and 50% to 74% in 72%, 23%, and 5.0% of the patients, respectively. The median GCS score at discharge was 14 (range, 8-15). The improvement in GCS score was statistically significant ( P < .001). Modified Rankin Scale data were available for 35 patients. Fifty-two percent of those patients had a modified Rankin Scale score of ≤2. There were no mortalities. The approach was safely performed in all patients with a relatively high rate of clot evacuation and functional independence. Copyright © 2016 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  18. The diagnosis of gastro-esophageal reflux disease cannot be made with barium esophagograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, C M G; Smout, A J P M; Bredenoord, A J

    2015-02-01

    For over 50 years, barium studies have been used to diagnose gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), but the value of this test is controversial. Our study aimed to determine if barium esophagograms can be used to diagnose GERD. Barium esophagograms and pH-impedance measurement were performed in 20 subjects with reflux symptoms. pH-impedance measurements were used as gold standard for the diagnosis of GERD. Gastro-esophageal reflux measured with the barium study was defined as a positive outcome. 50% of patients presented gastro-esophageal reflux on the barium esophagogram. No significant differences were observed in acid exposure time between subjects with (median: 7.4%; interquartile range, IQR: 8.4%) or without reflux at barium esophagography (median: 5.95%; IQR: 13.05%; p > 0.05). Nor did we find differences in median proximal extent of reflux measured with impedance monitoring between patients with a positive (median: 6.7%; IQR: 1.95%) and negative barium study (median: 7.1%; IQR: 0.68%; p > 0.05). Patients with reflux on barium esophagogram did not have a positive symptom association probability more often than those who did not have reflux at barium esophagography. Lastly, there were no differences in numbers of acid, weakly acidic or total reflux episodes between those with positive or negative barium esophagogram (p > 0.05). No correlations were found between the maximum proximal extent of gastro-esophageal reflux during esophagography and pH-impedance parameters. Presence or absence of gastro-esophageal reflux during barium esophagography does not correlate with incidence or extent of reflux observed during 24-h pH-impedance monitoring and is not of value for the diagnosis of GERD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Predicting performance using background characteristics of international medical graduates in an inner-city university-affiliated Internal Medicine residency training program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanna, Balavenkatesh; Gu, Ying; Akhuetie, Jane; Dimitrov, Vihren

    2009-01-01

    Background IMGs constitute about a third of the United States (US) internal medicine graduates. US residency training programs face challenges in selection of IMGs with varied background features. However data on this topic is limited. We analyzed whether any pre-selection characteristics of IMG residents in our internal medicine program are associated with selected outcomes, namely competency based evaluation, examination performance and success in acquiring fellowship positions after graduation. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 51 IMGs at our ACGME accredited teaching institution between 2004 and 2007. Background resident features namely age, gender, self-reported ethnicity, time between medical school graduation to residency (pre-hire time), USMLE step I & II clinical skills scores, pre-GME clinical experience, US externship and interest in pursuing fellowship after graduation expressed in their personal statements were noted. Data on competency-based evaluations, in-service exam scores, research presentation and publications, fellowship pursuance were collected. There were no fellowships offered in our hospital in this study period. Background features were compared between resident groups according to following outcomes: (a) annual aggregate graduate PGY-level specific competency-based evaluation (CBE) score above versus below the median score within our program (scoring scale of 1 – 10), (b) US graduate PGY-level specific resident in-training exam (ITE) score higher versus lower than the median score, and (c) those who succeeded to secure a fellowship within the study period. Using appropriate statistical tests & adjusted regression analysis, odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results 94% of the study sample were IMGs; median age was 35 years (Inter-Quartile range 25th – 75th percentile (IQR): 33–37 years); 43% women and 59% were Asian physicians. The median pre-hire time was 5 years (IQR: 4–7 years) and USMLE step

  20. Influence of intrapulmonary percussive ventilation in upright position on gastro-oesophageal reflux in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ginderdeuren, F; Kerckhofs, E; Deneyer, M; Vanlaethem, S; Buyl, R; Vandenplas, Y

    2016-10-01

    To determine the influence of physiotherapy using intrapulmonary percussive ventilation on gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) in infants reflux episodes (RE) over a 20-min period was registered for each infant and a mean per 20 min was calculated in order to obtain a baseline value. The number of RE during IPV R intervention was compared to baseline. Fifty infants with a median age of 133 days were recruited of whom 21 were diagnosed with pathological GOR. During IPV R , the incidence of RE in the entire group was significantly lower compared to baseline; median (inter-quartile range [IQR]) 0 (0-1) versus 0.71 (0-1.33) RE, respectively, P = 0.003. The subgroup with abnormal GOR showed also a significant decrease of RE during IPV R ; median (IQR) 0 (0-1) versus 1.17 (0.55-2.16) RE, respectively, P = 0.03. No difference was detected in the group with normal reflux; median (IQR) 0.6 (0-1) compared to 0 (0-1) RE, respectively, P = 0.34. IPV R does not induce, nor aggravate GOR in infants without and with pathological GOR, respectively, but on the contrary decreases the number of RE in patients with pathological reflux. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:1065-1071. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Concordance of Barthel Index, ECOG-PS, and Palliative Performance Scale in the assessment of functional status in patients with advanced medical diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Quiles, C; Bernabeu-Wittel, M; Pérez-Belmonte, L M; Macías-Mir, P; Camacho-González, D; Massa, B; Maiz-Jiménez, M; Ollero-Baturone, M

    2017-09-01

    Analysing most relevant clinical features and concordance between different functional scales in patients with advanced medical diseases (PAMD). Cross-sectional multicentre study that included PAMD (heart, lung, kidney, liver, and neurological diseases) in hospital settings from February 2009 to October 2010. We analysed clinical, biological and functional features in performing activities of daily living (ADL) by medians of Barthel Index (BI); additionally we assessed their performance status by medians of Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-Performance Status (ECOG-PS) and Palliative Performance Scale (PPS) scores. We evaluated the concordance of these instruments in assessing functional impairment by κ and intraclass correlation coefficient tests. 1847 patients were included (average age 79 years, 50.1% men). Most common symptoms were dyspnoea (62.31%), asthenia (23%) and delirium (20.14%). Functional assessment showed a high prevalence of severe or total impairment in performing basic ADL by medians of used instruments (BI median=35 (IQR=70), and 52.1% of patients with severe-total impairment; ECOG-PS median=2 (IQR 30), and 44% of patients with severe-total impairment; and PPS median=50 (IQR 30), and 32% of patients with severe-total impairment). Concordance among these instruments was acceptably good ( κ indexes ranging from 0.653 to 0.745 (pmanagement. Assessment of functional ability in this population by BI, ECOG-PS, and PPS showed good concordance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Repeatability of junctional zone measurements using three-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound in healthy, fertile women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina Kjærgaard; Glavind, Julie; Madsen, Lene Duch

    2016-01-01

    -observer repeatability was evaluated according to the Bland-Altman method and expressed as coefficient of repeatability (CoR). Results: Using 3D-TVS we visualised a thin and regular JZ in most women. The posterior uterine wall had the largest median (interquartile range; iqr) value of JZmax (5.2 (iqr 3.8-6.5)mm. Ten out....... Correlations between measurements were poor in the narrow range of JZ thickness. Conclusions: The JZ has an indistinct outline by 3D-TVS resulting in an error of JZ measurement within a broad range of ±2-4 mm, but reduced by average measurements. The thickness of JZ varied within a narrow range of this healthy......, fertile population and reliability measurements of JZ thickness has to be evaluated in women with a wider range of JZ thickness....

  3. Dyslipidaemia in HIV-infected women on antiretroviral therapy. Analysis of 922 patients from the Spanish VACH cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrada Vicente

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information concerning lipid disturbances in HIV-infected women on antiretroviral therapy (ART is scarce. The objective of the study is to describe the lipid profile in a large cohort of HIV-infected women on contemporary ART and analyse differences between regimes and patient's characteristics. Methods Observational, multicentre, cross-sectional study from the Spanish VACH Cohort. 922 women on stable ART without lipid-lowering treatment were included. Results Median age was 42 years, median CD4 lymphocyte count was 544 cells/mm3, and 85.6% presented undetectable HIV-1 viral load. Median total cholesterol (TC was 189 mg/dL (interquartile range, IQR, 165-221, HDL cholesterol 53 mg/dL (IQR, 44-64, LDL cholesterol 108 mg/dL (IQR, 86-134, and triglycerides 116 mg/dL (IQR, 85-163. Mean accumulated time on ART was 116 months; 47.4% were on NNRTI-based regimes, 44.7% on PI, and 6.7% on only-NRTI therapy. 43.8% were also hepatitis C (HCV coinfected. Patients on PI treatment presented higher TC/HDL ratio than those on NNRTI (p Conclusions In HIV-infected women, the NNRTI-based ART is associated with a better lipid profile than the PI-based. Factors unrelated to ART selection may also exert an independent, significant influence on lipids; in particular, age, and triglyceride levels are associated with an increased TC/HDL ratio while HCV co-infection is associated with a reduced TC/HDL ratio.

  4. Urology Residents' Experience and Attitude Toward Surgical Simulation: Presenting our 4-Year Experience With a Multi-institutional, Multi-modality Simulation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Alexander K; Sherer, Benjamin A; Yura, Emily; Kielb, Stephanie; Kocjancic, Ervin; Eggener, Scott; Turk, Thomas; Park, Sangtae; Psutka, Sarah; Abern, Michael; Latchamsetty, Kalyan C; Coogan, Christopher L

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the Urological resident's attitude and experience with surgical simulation in residency education using a multi-institutional, multi-modality model. Residents from 6 area urology training programs rotated through simulation stations in 4 consecutive sessions from 2014 to 2017. Workshops included GreenLight photovaporization of the prostate, ureteroscopic stone extraction, laparoscopic peg transfer, 3-dimensional laparoscopy rope pass, transobturator sling placement, intravesical injection, high definition video system trainer, vasectomy, and Urolift. Faculty members provided teaching assistance, objective scoring, and verbal feedback. Participants completed a nonvalidated questionnaire evaluating utility of the workshop and soliciting suggestions for improvement. Sixty-three of 75 participants (84%) (postgraduate years 1-6) completed the exit questionnaire. Median rating of exercise usefulness on a scale of 1-10 ranged from 7.5 to 9. On a scale of 0-10, cumulative median scores of the course remained high over 4 years: time limit per station (9; interquartile range [IQR] 2), faculty instruction (9, IQR 2), ease of use (9, IQR 2), face validity (8, IQR 3), and overall course (9, IQR 2). On multivariate analysis, there was no difference in rating of domains between postgraduate years. Sixty-seven percent (42/63) believe that simulation training should be a requirement of Urology residency. Ninety-seven percent (63/65) viewed the laboratory as beneficial to their education. This workshop model is a valuable training experience for residents. Most participants believe that surgical simulation is beneficial and should be a requirement for Urology residency. High ratings of usefulness for each exercise demonstrated excellent face validity provided by the course. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Thermal ablation of a confluent lesion in the porcine kidney with a clinically available MR-HIFU system

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breugel, J. M. M.; de Greef, M.; Wijlemans, J. W.; Schubert, G.; van den Bosch, M. A. A. J.; Moonen, C. T. W.; Ries, M. G.

    2017-07-01

    The incidence of small renal masses (SRMs) sized  weighted MR (T 1 w) imaging. Cell viability staining was performed to visualize the extent of necrosis. Results: a median NPV of 0.62 ml was observed on CE-T 1 w images (IQR 0.58-1.57 ml, range 0.33-2.75 ml). Cell viability staining showed a median damaged volume of 0.59 ml (IQR 0.24-1.35 ml, range 0-4.1 ml). Overlooking of the false rib, shivering of the pig, and too large depth combined with a large heat-sink effect resulted in insufficient heating in 4 cases. The NPV and necrosed volume were confluent in all cases in which an ablated volume could be observed. Our results demonstrated the feasibility of creating a confluent volume of ablated kidney cortical tissue in vivo with MR-HIFU on a clinically available system using respiratory gating and near-field cooling and showed its reproducibility.

  6. Fasting serum insulin and the homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in the monitoring of lifestyle interventions in obese persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeser, Michael; König, Daniel; Frey, Ingrid; Predel, Hans-Georg; Parhofer, Klaus Georg; Berg, Aloys

    2007-09-01

    Lifestyle changes with increased physical activity and balanced energy intake are recognized as the principal interventions in obesity and insulin resistance. Only few prospective studies, however, have so far addressed the potential role of routine biochemical markers of insulin sensitivity in the monitoring of respective interventions. Fasting insulin and glucose was measured in 33 obese individuals undergoing a lifestyle modification program (MOBILIS) at baseline and after 1 year. The HOMA-IR index (homeostasis model of insulin resistance) was calculated as [fasting serum glucose*fasting serum insulin/22.5], with lower values indicating a higher degree of insulin sensitivity. While the median body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference decreased by 10% and 11%, respectively, the HOMA-IR index decreased in an over-proportional manner by 45% within 1 year (BMI baseline, median 35.7, interquartile range (IQR) 33.7-37.7; after 1 year, median 32.2, IQR 29.6-35.1. HOMA-IR baseline, median 2.9, IQR 1.5-4.6; after 1 year 1.6, IQR 0.9-2.7). In contrast to HOMA-IR and fasting serum insulin, no significant changes in fasting serum glucose were observed. Baseline and post-intervention HOMA-IR showed a high degree of inter-individual variation with eight individuals maintaining high HOMA-IR values despite weight loss after 1 year of intervention. Individual changes in the carbohydrate metabolism achieved by a lifestyle intervention program were displayed by fasting serum insulin concentrations and the HOMA-IR but not by fasting glucose measurement alone. Therefore, assessment of the HOMA-IR may help to individualize lifestyle interventions in obesity and to objectify improvements in insulin sensitivity after therapeutic lifestyle changes.

  7. Red wine polyphenols do not improve obesity-associated insulin resistance: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woerdeman, Jorn; Del Rio, Daniele; Calani, Luca; Eringa, Etto C; Smulders, Yvo M; Serné, Erik H

    2018-01-01

    Preclinical studies have suggested that polyphenols extracted from red wine (RWPs) favourably affect insulin sensitivity, but there is controversy over whether RWPs exert similar effects in humans. The aim of the present study was to determine whether RWPs improve insulin sensitivity in obese volunteers. Obese (body mass index >30 kg/m 2 ) volunteers were randomly allocated to RWPs 600 mg/d (n = 14) or matched placebo (n = 15) in a double-blind parallel-arm study for 8 weeks. The participants were investigated at baseline and at the end of the study. Insulin sensitivity was determined using a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp (M-value), a mixed-meal test (Matsuda index), and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). RWPs elicited no significant changes in M-value (RWP group: median [interquartile range; IQR] baseline 3.0 [2.4; 3.6]; end of study 3.3 [2.4; 4.8] vs placebo group: median [IQR] baseline 3.4 [2.8; 4.4]; end of study 2.9 [2.8; 5.9] mg/kg/min; P = .65), in Matsuda index (RWP group: median [IQR] baseline 3.3 [2.2; 4.8]; end of study 3.6 [2.4; 4.8] vs placebo group: median [IQR] baseline 4.0 [3.0; 6.0]; end of study 4.0 [3.0; 5.2]; P = .88), or in HOMA-IR. This study showed that 8 weeks of RWP supplementation did not improve insulin sensitivity in 29 obese volunteers. Our findings were not consistent with the hypothesis that RWPs ameliorate insulin resistance in human obesity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Incidental perifissural nodules on routine chest computed tomography. Lung cancer or not?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mets, Onno M.; Veldhuis, Wouter B.; Jong, Pim A. de [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Chung, Kaman; Scholten, Ernst T.; Ginneken, Bram van [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Diagnostic Image Analysis Group, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Prokop, M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Diagnostic Image Analysis Group, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Meander Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2018-03-15

    Perifissural nodules (PFNs) are a common finding on chest CT, and are thought to represent non-malignant lesions. However, data outside a lung cancer-screening setting are currently lacking. In a nested case-control design, out of a total cohort of 16,850 patients ≥ 40 years of age who underwent routine chest CT (2004-2012), 186 eligible subjects with incident lung cancer and 511 controls without were investigated. All non-calcified nodules ≥ 4 mm were semi-automatically annotated. Lung cancer location and subject characteristics were recorded. Cases (56 % male) had a median age of 64 years (IQR 59-70). Controls (60 % male) were slightly younger (p<0.01), median age of 61 years (IQR 51-70). A total of 262/1,278 (21 %) unique non-calcified nodules represented a PFN. None of these were traced to a lung malignancy over a median follow-up of around 4.5 years. PFNs were most often located in the lower lung zones (72 %, p<0.001). Median diameter was 4.6 mm (range: 4.0-8.1), volume 51 mm{sup 3} (range: 32-278). Some showed growth rates < 400 days. Our data show that incidental PFNs do not represent lung cancer in a routine care, heterogeneous population. This confirms prior screening-based results. (orig.)

  9. Safety and efficacy of cryopreserved autologous platelet concentrates in HLA-alloimmunized patients with hematologic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Bernhard; Alberio, Lorenzo; Rochat, Sophie; Stenner, Frank; Manz, Markus G; Buser, Andy; Schanz, Urs; Stussi, Georg

    2016-10-01

    Curative chemotherapy approaches in patients with malignancies and platelet (PLT) transfusion refractoriness due to alloimmunization may be hampered by the lack of suitable PLT donors. For these patients, transfusion of cryopreserved autologous PLTs is an option, but is time- and resource-consuming. We aimed at further simplifying this process. A retrospective single-center analysis was conducted on the transfusion of cryopreserved autologous PLTs in nine female alloimmunized, PLT transfusion-refractory patients treated for acute leukemia (n = 8) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n = 1). No additional processing was used before transfusion, and most notably, washing and centrifugation steps were omitted. Clinical efficacy and safety, as well as a flow cytometric assessment of structural and functional PLT changes, were analyzed. A total of 40 autologous PLT concentrates were thawed at bedside and transfused a median of 32 (range, 9 to 994) days after cryopreservation. No major bleeds and no severe dimethyl sulfoxide toxicity were observed. The median PLT count increments did not differ 1 and 18 to 24 hours after transfusion and reached 6 × 10 9 /L (interquartile range [IQR], 3 × 10 9 -7.5 × 10 9 /L) and 6 × 10 9 /L (IQR, 2.5 × 10 9 -9.5 × 10 9 /L), respectively. Cryopreservation resulted in partial activation of one-third of the PLTs. In vitro stimulation with strong agonists induced additional full activation of cryopreserved PLTs: median, 55% (IQR, 42%-60%) after thrombin and 39% (IQR, 36%-39%) after convulxin. The transfusion of cryopreserved autologous PLTs is feasible and safe. Despite the cryopreservation process, PLT functionality is partially maintained. © 2016 AABB.

  10. Clinical utility of breath ammonia for evaluation of ammonia physiology in healthy and cirrhotic adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spacek, Lisa A; Mudalel, Matthew; Tittel, Frank; Risby, Terence H; Solga, Steven F

    2016-01-01

    Blood ammonia is routinely used in clinical settings to assess systemic ammonia in hepatic encephalopathy and urea cycle disorders. Despite its drawbacks, blood measurement is often used as a comparator in breath studies because it is a standard clinical test. We sought to evaluate sources of measurement error and potential clinical utility of breath ammonia compared to blood ammonia. We measured breath ammonia in real time by quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectrometry and blood ammonia in 10 healthy and 10 cirrhotic participants. Each participant contributed 5 breath samples and blood for ammonia measurement within 1 h. We calculated the coefficient of variation (CV) for 5 breath ammonia values, reported medians of healthy and cirrhotic participants, and used scatterplots to display breath and blood ammonia. For healthy participants, mean age was 22 years (±4), 70% were men, and body mass index (BMI) was 27 (±5). For cirrhotic participants, mean age was 61 years (±8), 60% were men, and BMI was 31 (±7). Median blood ammonia for healthy participants was within normal range, 10 μmol L−1 (interquartile range (IQR), 3–18) versus 46 μmol L−1 (IQR, 23–66) for cirrhotic participants. Median breath ammonia was 379 pmol mL−1 CO2 (IQR, 265–765) for healthy versus 350 pmol mL−1 CO2 (IQR, 180–1013) for cirrhotic participants. CV was 17 ± 6%. There remains an important unmet need in the evaluation of systemic ammonia, and breath measurement continues to demonstrate promise to fulfill this need. Given the many differences between breath and blood ammonia measurement, we examined biological explanations for our findings in healthy and cirrhotic participants. We conclude that based upon these preliminary data breath may offer clinically important information this is not provided by blood ammonia. PMID:26658550

  11. Auditing HIV Testing Rates across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raben, D; Mocroft, A; Rayment, M

    2015-01-01

    European guidelines recommend the routine offer of an HIV test in patients with a number of AIDS-defining and non-AIDS conditions believed to share an association with HIV; so called indicator conditions (IC). Adherence with this guidance across Europe is not known. We audited HIV testing behaviour...... audits from 23 centres, representing 7037 patients. The median test rate across audits was 72% (IQR 32-97), lowest in Northern Europe (median 44%, IQR 22-68%) and highest in Eastern Europe (median 99%, IQR 86-100). Uptake of testing was close to 100% in all regions. The median HIV+ rate was 0.9% (IQR 0.......0-4.9), with 29 audits (60.4%) having an HIV+ rate >0.1%. After adjustment, there were no differences between regions of Europe in the proportion with >0.1% testing positive (global p = 0.14). A total of 113 patients tested HIV+. Applying the observed rates of testing HIV+ within individual ICs and regions to all...

  12. Influence of body mass index in anti-Müllerian hormone levels in 951 non-polycystic ovarian syndrome women followed at a reproductive medicine unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões-Pereira, Joana; Nunes, Joaquim; Aguiar, Ana; Sousa, Sandra; Rodrigues, Cátia; Sampaio Matias, Joaquim; Calhaz-Jorge, Carlos

    2018-02-22

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a useful marker of ovarian reserve. Obesity/overweight are increasing and may affect the reproductive health. Previous studies regarding the effect of body mass index (BMI) on AMH levels are discordant. Our main goal was to evaluate the influence of BMI on AMH levels in women without polycystic ovarian syndrome. Revision of medical records of 951 women who performed AMH determinations as part of their fertility workup, between 2011 and 2016. Median AMH concentration was 1.75 [interquartile range (IQR) 2] ng/mL (12.9 pmol/mL) and median age at AMH determination was 35 (IQR 6) years. These women evidenced a median BMI of 23 (IQR 5) kg/m 2 . Caucasian women were more represented [889(89.3%)]. Smoking habits (present/past) were present in 359(36.1%), and 147(14.8%) harboured a history of ovarian surgery. On univariable analysis AMH was not correlated with BMI (r = 0.048/p = 0.135); the only factors influencing AMH were age (p ovarian surgery (p ovarian reserve. BMI does not seem to affect AMH levels. The reported concerns on infertility in overweight and obese women may be related to follicular development/oocyte maturation or endometrial disorders, rather than decreased ovarian reserve.

  13. Added value of CT perfusion compared to CT angiography in predicting clinical outcomes of stroke patients treated with mechanical thrombectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsogkas, Ioannis; Knauth, Michael; Schregel, Katharina; Behme, Daniel; Psychogios, Marios Nikos [University Medicine Goettingen, Department of Neuroradiology, Goettingen (Germany); Wasser, Katrin; Maier, Ilko; Liman, Jan [University Medicine Goettingen, Department of Neurology, Goettingen (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    CTP images analyzed with the Alberta stroke program early CT scale (ASPECTS) have been shown to be optimal predictors of clinical outcome. In this study we compared two biomarkers, the cerebral blood volume (CBV)-ASPECTS and the CTA-ASPECTS as predictors of clinical outcome after thrombectomy. Stroke patients with thrombosis of the M1 segment of the middle cerebral artery were included in our study. All patients underwent initial multimodal CT with CTP and CTA on a modern CT scanner. Treatment consisted of full dose intravenous tissue plasminogen activator, when applicable, and mechanical thrombectomy. Three neuroradiologists separately scored CTP and CTA images with the ASPECTS score. Sixty-five patients were included. Median baseline CBV-ASPECTS and CTA-ASPECTS for patients with favourable clinical outcome at follow-up were 8 [interquartile range (IQR) 8-9 and 7-9 respectively]. Patients with poor clinical outcome showed a median baseline CBV-ASPECTS of 6 (IQR 5-8, P < 0.0001) and a median baseline CTA-ASPECTS of 7 (IQR 7-8, P = 0.18). Using CBV-ASPECTS and CTA-ASPECTS raters predicted futile reperfusions in 96 % and 56 % of the cases, respectively. CBV-ASPECTS is a significant predictor of clinical outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with mechanical thrombectomy. (orig.)

  14. Physical Activity Levels Among Adults in Uganda: Findings From a Countrywide Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guwatudde, David; Kirunda, Barbara E; Wesonga, Ronald; Mutungi, Gerald; Kajjura, Richard; Kasule, Hafisa; Muwonge, James; Bahendeka, Silver K

    2016-09-01

    Being physically active is associated with lower risk of many noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). We analyzed physical activity (PA) data collected as part of Uganda's countrywide NCD risk factor survey conducted in 2014, to describe PA levels in Uganda. PA data were collected on the domains of work, travel and leisure. We calculated the percentage of participants meeting the World Health Organization (WHO) PA recommendations, and the types of intense-specific duration of PA. Prevalence ratios (PR) were used to identify factors associated with meeting WHO PA recommendations. Of the 3987 participants, 3758 (94.3%) met the WHO PA recommendations. Work-related PA of moderate intensity, and travel-related PA contributed most to participants' overall weekly duration of PA, each contributing 49.6% and 25.2% respectively. The median weekly duration of all moderate-intensity PA was 1470 minutes (interquartile range [IQR] = 540 to 2460). Weekly duration of all vigorous-intensity PA was low with a median of 0 minutes (IQR = 0 to 1080). The median daily sedentary time was 120 minutes (IQR = 60 to 240). Factors significantly associated with meeting WHO PA recommendations were body mass index and level of education. PA levels in Uganda are high, mostly achieved through travel and work-related activities of moderate intensity.

  15. Adult clonidine overdose: prolonged bradycardia and central nervous system depression, but not severe toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbister, Geoffrey K; Heppell, Simon P; Page, Colin B; Ryan, Nicole M

    2017-03-01

    There are limited reports of adult clonidine overdose. We aimed to describe the clinical effects and treatment of clonidine overdose in adults. This was a retrospective review of a prospective cohort of poisoned patients who took clonidine overdoses (>200 μg). Demographic information, clinical effects, treatment, complications (central nervous system and cardiovascular effects) and length of stay (LOS) were extracted from a clinical database or medical records. From 133 admissions for clonidine poisoning (1988-2015), no medical record was available in 14 and 11 took staggered ingestions. Of 108 acute clonidine overdoses (median age 27 years; 14-65 years; 68 females), 40 were clonidine alone ingestions and 68 were clonidine with co-ingestants. Median dose taken was 2100 μg (interquartile range [IQR]: 400-15,000 μg). Median LOS was 21h (IQR: 14-35 h) and there were no deaths. Glasgow coma score [GCS] central nervous system depression and bradycardia. Naloxone was not associated with improved outcomes.

  16. Cognitive Style and Mobile E-Learning in Emergent Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Disorders for Millennial Undergraduate Medical Students: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yi-Ping; Huang, Chung-Guei; Fang, Ji-Tseng; Wang, Shu-Ling; Chuang, Cheng-Keng; Kang, Chung-Jan; Hsin, Li-Jen; Lin, Wan-Ni; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Li, Hsueh-Yu

    2018-01-01

    Background Electronic learning (e-learning) through mobile technology represents a novel way to teach emergent otorhinolaryngology-head and neck surgery (ORL-HNS) disorders to undergraduate medical students. Whether a cognitive style of education combined with learning modules can impact learning outcomes and satisfaction in millennial medical students is unknown. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the impact of cognitive styles and learning modules using mobile e-learning on knowledge gain, competence gain, and satisfaction for emergent ORL-HNS disorders. Methods This randomized controlled trial included 60 undergraduate medical students who were novices in ORL-HNS at an academic teaching hospital. The cognitive style of the participants was assessed using the group embedded figures test. The students were randomly assigned (1:1) to a novel interactive multimedia (IM) group and conventional Microsoft PowerPoint show (PPS) group matched by age, sex, and cognitive style. The content for the gamified IM module was derived from and corresponded to the textbook-based learning material of the PPS module (video lectures). The participants were unblinded and used fully automated courseware containing the IM or PPS module on a 7-inch tablet for 100 min. Knowledge and competence were assessed using multiple-choice questions and multimedia situation tests, respectively. Each participant also rated their global satisfaction. Results All of the participants (median age 23 years, range 22-26 years; 36 males and 24 females) received the intended intervention after randomization. Overall, the participants had significant gains in knowledge (median 50%, interquartile range [IQR]=17%-80%, P<.001) and competence (median 13%, IQR=0%-33%, P=.006). There were no significant differences in knowledge gain (40%, IQR=13%-76% vs 60%, IQR=20%-100%, P=.42) and competence gain (0%, IQR= −21% to 38% vs 25%, IQR=0%-33%, P=.16) between the IM and PPS groups. However, the IM group had

  17. Permasalahan P-Hub Median Dengan Lintasan Terpendek

    OpenAIRE

    Pasaribu, Raja David

    2013-01-01

    Hub are facilities that serve as sorting, switching, and transhipment in a transportation network. P-hub median problem is a discrete case location allocation problem which all hub is fully connected. In this paper will be intoduced Mixed Integrer Linear Programming (MILP) formulation models of cost for p-hub median problem allocation for uncapacitaced single allocation p-hub median(USApHMP). In this paper also introduced Floyd-Warshall shortest path algorithm to solve p-hub median problems a...

  18. A study on the efficacy and safety of combining dental surgery with tonsillectomy in pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed F

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Faizaan Syed,1 Joshua C Uffman,1,2 Dmitry Tumin,1 Catherine M Flaitz,3,4 Joseph D Tobias,1,2 Vidya T Raman1,2 1Department of Anesthesiology & Pain Medicine, Nationwide Children’s Hospital, 2Department of Anesthesiology & Pain Medicine, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, 3Department of Dentistry, Nationwide Children’s Hospital, 4Division of Dentistry, The Ohio State University College of Dentistry, Columbus, OH, USA Purpose: Few data exist on combining pediatric surgical procedures under a single general anesthetic encounter (general anesthesia. We compared perioperative outcomes of combining dental surgical procedures with tonsillectomy during one anesthetic vs separate encounters. Methods: We classified elective tonsillectomy ± adenoidectomy and restorative dentistry as combined (group C or separate (group S. Outcomes included anesthesia time, recovery duration, the need for overnight hospital stay, and postoperative complications. Results: Patients aged 4±1 years underwent tonsillectomy and dental surgery in combination (n=7 or separately (n=27. No differences were noted in total anesthesia time (C: median: 150, interquartile range [IQR]: 99, 165 vs S: median: 109, IQR: 92, 132; 95% CI of difference in median: –58, +10 minutes; P=0.115 and total recovery time (C: median: 54, IQR: 40, 108 vs S: median: 72, IQR: 58, 109; 95% CI of difference in median: –16, +48 minutes; P=0.307. The need for overnight stay (C: 4 of 7, S: 20 of 27; P=0.394 did not differ between the groups. No postoperative complications were noted in either group. Conclusion: These preliminary data support the potential feasibility of combining dental procedures with tonsillectomy during a single anesthetic encounter. Such care may not only reduce costs but also limit parental work absences and increase convenience for patient families. When compared with procedures performed separately, combined procedures did not result in increased morbidity or

  19. Volumetric gain of the human pancreas after left partial pancreatic resection: A CT-scan based retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillip, Veit; Zahel, Tina; Danninger, Assiye; Erkan, Mert; Dobritz, Martin; Steiner, Jörg M; Kleeff, Jörg; Schmid, Roland M; Algül, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Regeneration of the pancreas has been well characterized in animal models. However, there are conflicting data on the regenerative capacity of the human pancreas. The aim of the present study was to assess the regenerative capacity of the human pancreas. In a retrospective study, data from patients undergoing left partial pancreatic resection at a single center were eligible for inclusion (n = 185). Volumetry was performed based on 5 mm CT-scans acquired through a 256-slice CT-scanner using a semi-automated software. Data from 24 patients (15 males/9 females) were included. Mean ± SD age was 68 ± 11 years (range, 40-85 years). Median time between surgery and the 1st postoperative CT was 9 days (range, 0-27 days; IQR, 7-13), 55 days (range, 21-141 days; IQR, 34-105) until the 2nd CT, and 191 days (range, 62-1902; IQR, 156-347) until the 3rd CT. The pancreatic volumes differed significantly between the first and the second postoperative CT scans (median volume 25.6 mL and 30.6 mL, respectively; p = 0.008) and had significantly increased further by the 3rd CT scan (median volume 37.9 mL; p = 0.001 for comparison with 1st CT scan and p = 0.003 for comparison with 2nd CT scan). The human pancreas shows a measurable and considerable potential of volumetric gain after partial resection. Multidetector-CT based semi-automated volume analysis is a feasible method for follow-up of the volume of the remaining pancreatic parenchyma after partial pancreatectomy. Effects on exocrine and endocrine pancreatic function have to be evaluated in a prospective manner. Copyright © 2015 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Adult Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Reference Ranges in a Zimbabwean Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadzanai P Samaneka

    Full Text Available Laboratory reference ranges used for clinical care and clinical trials in various laboratories in Zimbabwe were derived from textbooks and research studies conducted more than ten years ago. Periodic verification of these ranges is essential to track changes over time. The purpose of this study was to establish hematology and chemistry laboratory reference ranges using more rigorous methods.A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Harare, Chitungwiza, and Mutoko. A multistage sampling technique was used. Samples were transported from the field for analysis at the ISO15189 certified University of Zimbabwe-University of California San Francisco Central Research Laboratory. Hematology and clinical chemistry reference ranges lower and upper reference limits were estimated at the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles respectively.A total of 769 adults (54% males aged 18 to 55 years were included in the analysis. Median age was 28 [IQR: 23-35] years. Males had significantly higher red cell counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin compared to females. Females had higher white cell counts, platelets, absolute neutrophil counts, and absolute lymphocyte counts compared to males. There were no gender differences in eosinophils, monocytes, and absolute basophil count. Males had significantly higher levels of urea, sodium, potassium, calcium, creatinine, amylase, total protein, albumin and liver enzymes levels compared to females. Females had higher cholesterol and lipase compared with males. There are notable differences in the white cell counts, neutrophils, cholesterol, and creatinine kinase when compared with the currently used reference ranges.Data from this study provides new country specific reference ranges which should be immediately adopted for routine clinical care and accurate monitoring of adverse events in research studies.

  1. The Ultrasonographic Findings of Bifid Median Nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee Jin; Park, Noh Hyuck; Joh, Joon Hee; Lee, Sung Moon

    2009-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the ultrasonographic findings of bifid median nerve and its clinical significance. We retrospectively reviewed five cases (three men and two women, mean age: 54 years) of incidentally found bifid median nerve from 264 cases of clinically suspected carpal-tunnel syndrome that were seen at our hospital during last 6 years. Doppler sonography was performed in all five cases and MR angiography was done in one case for detecting a persistent median artery. The difference (ΔCSA) between the sum of the cross-sectional areas of the bifid median nerve at the pisiform level (CSA2) and the cross-sectional area proximal to the bifurcation(CSA1) was calculated. The incidence of a bifid median nerve was 1.9%. All the patients presented with a tingling sensation on a hand and two patients had nocturnal pain. All the cases showed bifurcation of the nerve bundle proximal to the carpal tunnel. The margins appeared relatively smooth and each bundle showed a characteristic fascicular pattern. A persistent median artery was noted between the bundles in four cases. ΔCSA was more than 2 mm 2 in four cases. Bifid median nerve with a persistent median artery is a relatively rare normal variance and these are very important findings before performing surgical intervention to avoid potential nerve injury and massive bleeding. We highly suggest that radiologists should understand the anatomical characteristics of this anomaly and make efforts to detect it

  2. Scotoma analysis of 10-2 visual field testing with a white target in screening for hydroxychloroquine retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Browning DJ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available David J Browning, Chong Lee Department of Ophthalmology, Charlotte Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Associates, Charlotte, NC, USA Objective: To quantify the variability of scotomas detected by 10-2 visual field (VF testing in patients taking hydroxychloroquine without and with retinopathy.Design: Retrospective review of clinical charts and visual fields.Subjects: Twenty-one patients taking hydroxychloroquine without retinopathy, and nine patients taking hydroxychloroquine and one patient taking chloroquine with retinopathy.Methods: Retinopathy was defined by annular scotomas on 10-2 VF testing with corroborative spectral domain optical coherence tomographic outer retinal changes and multifocal electroretinographic changes leading to cessation of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine. Location and depth of scotoma points on 10-2 VF testing were recorded and their fates followed in serial, reliable 10-2 VFs performed with a white target over time.Main outcome measures: Number of scotoma points and locations, percentage of persistent scotoma points, size of scotomas, location of scotomas, and percentage of scotomas deepening.Results: A median of five, interquartile range (IQR 3–8 scotoma points per VF occurred in patients without retinopathy. A median of 86%, IQR 63%–100% of these points resolve on the subsequent field. For patients with retinopathy, a median of 22%, IQR 10%–59% resolve. The median percentage of scotoma points in the zone 2–8 degrees from fixation in eyes with retinopathy was 79%, IQR 68%–85% compared to 60%, IQR 54%–75% in eyes without retinopathy (P=0.0094. Single-point scotomas were more common in eyes without than with retinopathy. Scotomas consisting of more than four contiguous scotoma points were generally indicative of retinopathy.Conclusion: Point scotomas are common and variable in 10-2 VF testing with a white target for hydroxychloroquine retinopathy in subjects without retinopathy. The annular zone 2 to 8

  3. Decontamination of stethoscope membranes with chlorhexidine: Should it be recommended?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, José A; Ruíz, Susana R; Mosqueda, Juan L; León, Ximena; Arreguín, Virginia; Macías, Alejandro E; Macias, Juan H

    2016-11-01

    To determine differences in the recontamination of stethoscope membranes after cleaning with chlorhexidine, triclosan, or alcohol. Experimental, controlled, blinded trial to determine differences in the bacterial load on stethoscope membranes. Membranes were cultured by direct imprint after disinfection with 70% isopropyl alcohol, 1% triclosan, or 1% chlorhexidine and normal use for 4 hours. As a baseline and an immediate effect control, bacterial load of membranes without disinfection and after 1 minute of disinfection with isopropyl alcohol was determined as well. Three hundred seventy cultures of in-use stethoscopes were taken, 74 from each arm. In the baseline arm the median growth was 10 CFU (interquartile range [IQR], 32-42 CFU); meanwhile, in the isopropyl alcohol immediate-effect arm it was 0 CFU (IQR, 0-0 CFU). In the arms cultured after 4 hours, a median growth of 8 CFU (IQR, 1-28 CFU) in the isopropyl alcohol arm, 4 CFU (IQR, 0-17 CFU) in the triclosan arm, and 0 CFU (IQR, 0-1 CFU) in the chlorhexidine arm were seen. No significant differences were observed between the bacterial load of the chlorhexidine arm (after 4 hours of use) and that of the isopropyl alcohol arm (after 1 minute without use) (Z= 2.41; P > .05). Chlorhexidine can inhibit recontamination of stethoscope membranes and its use could help avoid cross-infection. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Scotoma analysis of 10–2 visual field testing with a red target in screening for hydroxychloroquine retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Browning DJ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available David J Browning, Chong LeeDepartment of Ophthalmology, Charlotte Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Associates, Charlotte, NC, USAObjective: To quantify the variability of scotomas detected by 10–2 visual field (VF testing with a red target in patients taking hydroxychloroquine without and with retinopathy.Design: Retrospective review of clinical charts and VFs.Methods: Twenty-four patients taking hydroxychloroquine without retinopathy, and eight patients taking hydroxychloroquine with retinopathy were tested in this study. Retinopathy was defined by annular scotomas on 10–2 VF testing with corroborative spectral domain optical coherence tomographic outer retinal changes and multifocal electroretinographic changes leading to cessation of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine. Location and depth of scotoma points on 10–2 VF testing were recorded and their fates followed in serial, reliable 10–2 VFs performed with a red target over time. The main outcome measures for this study were the number of scotoma points and locations, percentage of persistent scotoma points, size of scotomas, location of scotomas, and percentage of scotomas deepening. Results: A median of 3, interquartile range (IQR (2, 5, scotoma points per VF occurred in patients without retinopathy. A median of 86%, IQR (77, 100, of these resolved on the subsequent field. For patients with retinopathy, a median of 50%, IQR (46, 79, resolved, a difference compared to patients without retinopathy that was significant (P=0.0158. The median percentage of scotoma points in the zone from 2° to 8° from fixation in eyes with retinopathy was 72%, IQR (54, 100, compared to 49%, IQR (40, 54, in eyes without retinopathy (P=0.0069. The number of persistent scotoma locations at the last visit was higher in eyes with retinopathy: 3, IQR (1, 3, versus 0, IQR (0, 1, in patients without retinopathy, P=0.0156.Conclusion: Point scotomas are common and variable in 10–2 VF testing with a red target for

  5. Physical activity level, leisure activities and related quality of life 1 year after lumbar decompression or total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolving, Nanna; Obling, Kirstine H; Christensen, Finn B; Fonager, Kirsten

    2013-04-01

    Lumbar decompression surgery (LDS) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) are frequently performed in the elderly population, but very little is known about their subsequent physical capacity and participation in leisure activities. Despite similar demographics and comorbidities, it is questionable whether LDS patients achieve equally high levels of physical capacity and quality of life postoperatively as do THA patients. The aim was to compare the physical activity level, participation in leisure activities and related quality of life 1 year after an LDS and THA procedure. Data from 95 THA patients and 83 LDS patients were gathered from questionnaires on self-reported physical activity level, leisure activities and quality of life. LDS and THA patients reported equally moderate levels of physical activity. The median score was 42.3 METs/day (IQR 37.9; 47.7) for the LDS group and 41.0 METs/day (IQR 38.5; 48.5) for the THA group (p = 0.79). Weekly time consumption for leisure activities in the LDS group was a median of 420 min/week (IQR 210; 660) compared to a median of 480 min/week (IQR 240; 870) in the THA group (p = 0.16). Regarding quality of life, LDS patients reported significantly worse Euroqol Five Dimensions scores with a median value of 0.740 (IQR 0.68; 0.82) compared to THA patients' median of 0.824 (IQR 0.72; 1.0), p leisure activities, LDS patients did not achieve a quality of life comparable to that of THA patients 1 year postoperatively.

  6. Testing the gravity p-median model empirically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Carling

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the location of a facility, the presumption in the widely used p-median model is that the customer opts for the shortest route to the nearest facility. However, this assumption is problematic on free markets since the customer is presumed to gravitate to a facility by the distance to and the attractiveness of it. The recently introduced gravity p-median model offers an extension to the p-median model that account for this. The model is therefore potentially interesting, although it has not yet been implemented and tested empirically. In this paper, we have implemented the model in an empirical problem of locating vehicle inspections, locksmiths, and retail stores of vehicle spare-parts for the purpose of investigating its superiority to the p-median model. We found, however, the gravity p-median model to be of limited use for the problem of locating facilities as it either gives solutions similar to the p-median model, or it gives unstable solutions due to a non-concave objective function.

  7. Switching non-local vector median filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Jyohei; Koga, Takanori; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes a novel image filtering method that removes random-valued impulse noise superimposed on a natural color image. In impulse noise removal, it is essential to employ a switching-type filtering method, as used in the well-known switching median filter, to preserve the detail of an original image with good quality. In color image filtering, it is generally preferable to deal with the red (R), green (G), and blue (B) components of each pixel of a color image as elements of a vectorized signal, as in the well-known vector median filter, rather than as component-wise signals to prevent a color shift after filtering. By taking these fundamentals into consideration, we propose a switching-type vector median filter with non-local processing that mainly consists of a noise detector and a noise removal filter. Concretely, we propose a noise detector that proactively detects noise-corrupted pixels by focusing attention on the isolation tendencies of pixels of interest not in an input image but in difference images between RGB components. Furthermore, as the noise removal filter, we propose an extended version of the non-local median filter, we proposed previously for grayscale image processing, named the non-local vector median filter, which is designed for color image processing. The proposed method realizes a superior balance between the preservation of detail and impulse noise removal by proactive noise detection and non-local switching vector median filtering, respectively. The effectiveness and validity of the proposed method are verified in a series of experiments using natural color images.

  8. Implementation and Operational Research: A Time-Motion Analysis of HIV Transmission Prevention Counseling and Antiretroviral Adherence Messages in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Were, Martin C; Kessler, Jason; Shen, Changyu; Sidle, John; Macharia, Stephen; Lizcano, John; Siika, Abraham; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara; Kurth, Ann

    2015-08-01

    Shortages of health workers and large number of HIV-infected persons in Africa mean that time to provide antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and other messages to patients is limited. Using time-motion methodology, we documented the intensity and nature of counseling delivered to patients. The study was conducted at a rural and an urban HIV clinic in western Kenya. We recorded all activities of 190 adult patients on ART during their return clinic visits to assess type, frequency, and duration of counseling messages. Mean visit length for patients at the rural clinic was 44.5 (SD = 27.9) minutes and at urban clinic was 78.2 (SD = 42.1) minutes. Median time spent receiving any counseling during a visit was 4.07 minutes [interquartile range (IQR), 1.57-7.33] at rural and 3.99 (IQR, 2.87-6.25) minutes at urban, representing 11% and 8% of total mean visit time, respectively. Median time patients received ART adherence counseling was 1.29 (IQR, 0.77-2.83) minutes at rural and 1.76 (IQR, 1.23-2.83) minutes at urban (P = 0.001 for difference). Patients received a median time of 0.18 (0-0.72) minutes at rural and 0.28 (IQR, 0-0.67) minutes at urban clinic of counseling regarding contraception and pregnancy. Most patients in the study did not receive any counseling regarding alcohol/substance use, emerging risks for ongoing HIV transmission. Although ART adherence was discussed with most patients, time was limited. Reproductive counseling was provided to only half of the patients, and "positive prevention" messaging was minimal. There are strategic opportunities to enhance counseling and information received by clients within HIV programs in resource-limited settings.

  9. Preventing Excessive Blood Loss During Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy by Using Tranexamic Acid: A Double Blinded Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Siddiq

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL is most frequently performed procedure for renal stones 2 cm and larger. Perioperative hemorrhage being most common complication, warrants as important predicting factor of adverse outcomes. Prevention with inexpensive and safe drug like tranexamic acid (TA would ultimately turn out to be cornerstone for establishing future guidelines. Aim of this study is to evaluate whether TA is efficacious in preventing blood loss during PCNL. Materials and Methods: Ethical review board approval taken. Sample size calculation yielded 240 patients, comprising 120 in each group. Group A receiving TA and group B receiving placebo. Age, gender, body mass index (BMI, stone size, volume and location, preoperative blood count, creatinine, urine analysis, coagulation profile and necessary radiological investigations done. Randomization through lottery method. Both patient and investigator were blinded. Hemoglobin (Hb and hematocrit (Hct levels done at 24 hours postoperatively and fall in values recorded. Results: Both groups were equal in characteristics like age, gender, BMI, stone size, volume and location (p>0.05. Operative variables like calyx punctured, position of puncture and operative time were also found to be similar in both groups. Median change in Hb in placebo group was 1.6 interquartile range (IQR 4, while in TA group was 1.3 (IQR 7.8 (p=0.001. Similarly, median change in Hct level in placebo group was 3.6 (IQR 11.8 and in TA group was 2.4 (IQR 13 (p<0.001. Sixteen patients were transfused after surgery; 12 (75% belonged to placebo group while 4 (25% belonged to TA group (p=0.038. Hospital stay was not significantly different in both groups (p=0.177 with median of 4.0 and IQR of 0 in both groups. Conclusion: TA during PCNL reduces blood loss and minimizes blood transfusion rate.

  10. Comparison of Topical Hemostatic Agents in a Swine Model of Extremity Arterial Hemorrhage: BloodSTOP iX Battle Matrix vs. QuikClot Combat Gauze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixi Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BloodSTOP iX Battle Matrix (BM and QuikClot Combat Gauze (CG have both been used to treat traumatic bleeding. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy and initial safety of both products in a swine extremity arterial hemorrhage model, which mimics combat injury. Swine (37.13 ± 0.56 kg, NBM = 11, NCG = 9 were anesthetized and splenectomized. We then isolated the femoral arteries and performed a 6 mm arteriotomy. After 45 s of free bleeding, either BM or CG was applied. Fluid resuscitation was provided to maintain a mean arterial pressure of 65 mmHg. Animals were observed for three hours or until death. Fluoroscopic angiography and wound stability challenge tests were performed on survivors. Tissue samples were collected for histologic examination. Stable hemostasis was achieved in 11/11 BM and 5/9 CG subjects, with recovery of mean arterial pressure and animal survival for three hours (p < 0.05, Odds Ratio (OR = 18.82 (0.85–415.3. Time to stable hemostasis was shorter for the BM-treated group (4.8 ± 2.5 min vs. 58 ± 20.1 min; Median = 2, Interquartile Range (IQR = 0 min vs. Median = 60, IQR = 120 min; p < 0.05 and experienced longer total stable hemostasis (175.2 ± 2.5 min vs. 92.4 ± 29.9 min; Median = 178, IQR = 0 min vs. Median = 120, IQR = 178 min; p < 0.05. Post-treatment blood loss was lower with BM (9.5 ± 2.4 mL/kg, Median = 10.52, IQR = 13.63 mL/kg compared to CG (29.9 ± 9.9 mL/kg, Median = 29.38, IQR = 62.44 mL/kg (p = 0.2875. Standard BM products weighed less compared to CG (6.9 ± 0.03 g vs. 20.2 ± 0.4 g (p < 0.05 and absorbed less blood (3.4 ± 0.8 g vs. 41.9 ± 12.3 g (p < 0.05. Fluoroscopic angiography showed recanalization in 5/11 (BM and 0/5 (CG surviving animals (p = 0.07, OR = 9.3 (0.41–208.8. The wound stability challenge test resulted in wound re-bleeding in 1/11 (BM and 5/5 (CG surviving animals (p < 0.05, OR = 0.013 (0.00045–0.375. Histologic evidence indicated no wound site, distal limb or major

  11. Indoor and Outdoor Levels and Sources of Submicron Particles (PM1) at Homes in Edmonton, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Md Aynul; Kindzierski, Warren B; Wallace, Lance A; Wheeler, Amanda J; MacNeill, Morgan; Héroux, Marie-Ève

    2015-06-02

    Exposure to submicron particles (PM1) is of interest due to their possible chronic and acute health effects. Seven consecutive 24-h PM1 samples were collected during winter and summer 2010 in a total of 74 nonsmoking homes in Edmonton, Canada. Median winter concentrations of PM1 were 2.2 μg/m(3) (interquartile range, IQR = 0.8-6.1 μg/m(3)) and 3.3 μg/m(3) (IQR = 1.5-6.9 μg/m(3)) for indoors and outdoors, respectively. In the summer, indoor (median 4.4 μg/m(3), IQR = 2.4-8.6 μg/m(3)) and outdoor (median 4.3 μg/m(3), IQR = 2.6-7.4 μg/m(3)) levels were similar. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to identify and apportion indoor and outdoor sources of elements in PM1 mass. Nine sources contributing to both indoor and outdoor PM1 concentrations were identified including secondary sulfate, soil, biomass smoke and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), traffic, settled and mixed dust, coal combustion, road salt/road dust, and urban mixture. Three additional indoor sources were identified i.e., carpet dust, copper-rich, and silver-rich. Secondary sulfate, soil, biomass smoke and ETS contributed more than 70% (indoors: 0.29 μg/m(3), outdoors: 0.39 μg/m(3)) of measured elemental mass in PM1. These findings can aid understanding of relationships between submicron particles and health outcomes for indoor/outdoor sources.

  12. Usefulness of underwater endoscopic submucosal dissection in saline solution with a monopolar knife for colorectal tumors (with videos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Mitsuru

    2018-05-01

    Generally, colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is performed with a monopolar knife with CO 2 supply from an endoscope. There are few case reports about underwater ESD (UESD) in saline solution with a bipolar knife. The usefulness and safety of UESD in saline solution with a monopolar knife are unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the usefulness and safety of UESD in saline solution with a monopolar knife for colorectal tumors. This retrospective, observational study on UESD for colorectal tumors included 26 colorectal tumors from 24 patients treated with UESD at our department between October 2015 and February 2017. The characteristics of patients, factors associated with ESD difficulty, treatment results, and variations in blood test data before and after UESD were analyzed. En bloc resection was successful in all lesions without any serious adverse events. The median major diameter of the resected specimens was 30 mm (interquartile range [IQR], 28-35) and of the tumor 22.5 mm (IQR, 17.8-25.3). The median procedure time was 60 minutes (IQR, 45-111) and median speed of dissection 10.4 mm 2 /min (IQR, 6.4-12.2). No cases of perforation occurred. Post-ESD bleeding occurred in only 1 case, and endoscopic hemostasis was achieved. There was no case of electrolyte imbalance requiring treatment after UESD. UESD in saline solution with a monopolar knife for colorectal tumors is useful and safe. UESD has potential advantages that should be further assessed. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sun protection policies of Australian primary schools in a region of high sun exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, S L; Garzón-Chavez, D R; Nikles, C J

    2016-06-01

    Queensland, Australia has the highest rates of skin cancer globally. Predetermined criteria were used to score the comprehensiveness of sun protection policies (SPP) of primary schools across Queensland. SPP were sought for schools in 10 regions (latitude range 16.3°S-28.1°S) from 2011 to 2014. Of the 723 schools sampled, 90.9% had a written SPP available publicly. Total SPP scores were low {mean 3.6 [95% CI: 3.4-3.9]; median 2 [interquartile range (IQR) 2, 4]}, with only 3.2% of schools achieving the maximum score of 12. Median SPP scores were higher in Northern and Central Queensland [both 2 (IQR 2, 6) and (IQR 2, 5), respectively] than in Southern Queensland [2 (IQR 2, 3); P = 0.004]. Clothing and hat-wearing were addressed in most policies (96% and 89%) while few schools used their SPP to plan outdoor events (5.2%) or reschedule activities to minimize sun exposure (11.7%). The SunSmart Schools program has been operating in Queensland for 17 years, and while most primary schools now have a written SPP, most are not comprehensive. Incentive-based approaches (5-star-rating award scheme and grants) may assist in addressing this issue, to reduce sun exposure of students and teachers. These data provide a baseline from which improvements in the comprehensiveness of school SPPs can be evaluated. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement by a Novel Suprasternal Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codner, Pablo; Pugliese, Daniel; Kouz, Rémi; Patel, Amisha; Chen, Cheng-Han; Terre, Juan; Eudailey, Kyle W; Nazif, Tamim; Vahl, Torsten P; George, Isaac; Khalique, Omar K; Hahn, Rebecca T; Leon, Martin B; Kodali, Susheel; Borger, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) provides therapy for patients with severe aortic stenosis at extreme, high, or intermediate surgical risk. Transfemoral access has been the preferred access route; however, this approach is not suitable for many TAVR candidates. A suprasternal approach may allow for earlier ambulation and shorter hospital stay as compared with other, nontransfemoral approaches. A total of 11 patients with unsuitable transfemoral access underwent suprasternal TAVR. Propensity matching was used to compare suprasternal patients to patients undergoing transaortic, transapical, and trans-subclavian TAVR. Groups were well matched for baseline characteristics. A self-expanding valve device was used in 6 (54.5%) and a balloon-expandable valve in 5 (45.5%) of the 11 patients treated by the suprasternal route. Suprasternal and trans-subclavian patients were able to ambulate earlier than patients treated by the transaortic route, a median 1.6 days (interquartile range [IQR]: 0.9 to 1.8), 1.6 days (IQR: 0.9 to 2.7), and 3.9 days (IQR: 1.9 to 4.5) after the procedure for suprasternal, trans-subclavian, and transaortic patients, respectively (p = 0.001). Length of hospitalization was shorter for patients treated by suprasternal or trans-subclavian access in comparison with patients treated by the transaortic or transapical approach: median 4 days (IQR: 3 to 8) and 4 days (IQR: 4 to 8) versus 8 days (IQR: 6 to 14) and 6 days (IQR: 7 to 11) for suprasternal and trans-subclavian versus transaortic and transapical, respectively (p = 0.01). Suprasternal and trans-subclavian access are associated with earlier ambulation and shorter hospitalization than other nontransfemoral TAVR routes, without an increase in complications. Further study is required to determine if suprasternal is the alternative access of choice for TAVR patients with poor transfemoral vasculature. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  15. Insulinaemic and glycaemic responses to three forages in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carslake, H B; Argo, C McG; Pinchbeck, G L; Dugdale, A H A; McGowan, C M

    2018-05-01

    Reduction of the hyperinsulinaemic response to feeding is central to the management of insulin dysregulation (ID). The aim of this study was to compare insulinaemic and glycaemic responses to soaked hay, dry hay and haylage in ponies. Twelve ponies of mixed breeds were maintained under identical management conditions. A randomised four-way crossover trial was conducted, in which fasted animals were fed a meal of 0.25% body weight as dry matter intake soaked hay, dry hay or haylage, or administered an oral glucose test (OGT). Blood glucose and serum insulin concentrations were measured before and at 2h following OGT, and regularly for 5h following forage meals. Median and interquartile range (IQR) area under the curve (AUC) for insulin (AUC i ) was greater for haylage (median 6495; IQR 17352) vs. dry hay (2932; IQR 5937; P=0.019) and soaked hay (1066; IQR 1753; P=0.002), and greater for dry hay vs. soaked hay (P=0.002). The AUC for glucose (AUC g ) was lower for soaked hay (1021; IQR 99) vs. dry hay (1075; IQR 105; P=0.002) and haylage (1107; IQR 221; P=0.003). Six ponies were classified as having ID based on the OGT. AUC i was greater in ID vs. non-ID ponies after all forages. In contrast, there was no detectable effect of ID status on AUC g . On an equivalent dry matter basis, soaked hay produced the lowest insulinaemic and glycaemic responses to feeding, while haylage produced the highest responses. The insulinaemic effects of all forages were greater in ponies with ID. These data support the practice of soaking hay with water to reduce postprandial insulinaemic responses in ponies. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Precision of quantitative computed tomography texture analysis using image filtering: A phantom study for scanner variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasaka, Koichiro; Akai, Hiroyuki; Mackin, Dennis; Court, Laurence; Moros, Eduardo; Ohtomo, Kuni; Kiryu, Shigeru

    2017-05-01

    Quantitative computed tomography (CT) texture analyses for images with and without filtration are gaining attention to capture the heterogeneity of tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate how quantitative texture parameters using image filtering vary among different computed tomography (CT) scanners using a phantom developed for radiomics studies.A phantom, consisting of 10 different cartridges with various textures, was scanned under 6 different scanning protocols using four CT scanners from four different vendors. CT texture analyses were performed for both unfiltered images and filtered images (using a Laplacian of Gaussian spatial band-pass filter) featuring fine, medium, and coarse textures. Forty-five regions of interest were placed for each cartridge (x) in a specific scan image set (y), and the average of the texture values (T(x,y)) was calculated. The interquartile range (IQR) of T(x,y) among the 6 scans was calculated for a specific cartridge (IQR(x)), while the IQR of T(x,y) among the 10 cartridges was calculated for a specific scan (IQR(y)), and the median IQR(y) was then calculated for the 6 scans (as the control IQR, IQRc). The median of their quotient (IQR(x)/IQRc) among the 10 cartridges was defined as the variability index (VI).The VI was relatively small for the mean in unfiltered images (0.011) and for standard deviation (0.020-0.044) and entropy (0.040-0.044) in filtered images. Skewness and kurtosis in filtered images featuring medium and coarse textures were relatively variable across different CT scanners, with VIs of 0.638-0.692 and 0.430-0.437, respectively.Various quantitative CT texture parameters are robust and variable among different scanners, and the behavior of these parameters should be taken into consideration.

  17. Armodafinil for fatigue associated with menopause: an open-label trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Fremonta; Freeman, Marlene P; Petrillo, Laura; Barsky, Maria; Galvan, Thania; Kim, Semmie; Cohen, Lee; Joffe, Hadine

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to obtain preliminary data on the efficacy of armodafinil for improving menopause-related fatigue and quality of life. Women (aged 40-65 y) experiencing menopause-related fatigue received open-label armodafinil therapy (up to 150 mg/d) for 4 weeks. Changes from baseline in Brief Fatigue Inventory score and Menopause-Specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) physical domain score were examined using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Exploratory analyses examined the effects of armodafinil on hot flashes, overall quality of life, insomnia, depression, anxiety, and perceived cognitive performance. After open-label treatment, participants were randomized to double-blind continuation of armodafinil versus placebo for 2 weeks to examine whether treatment discontinuation would precipitate symptom recurrence. Of 29 eligible participants, 20 women (69.0%) completed the trial. During treatment with armodafinil (mean dose, 120 mg/d), median Brief Fatigue Inventory scores decreased by 57.7% from 5.2 (interquartile range [IQR], 4.6-6.2) to 2.2 (IQR, 1.1-4.4; P = 0.0002), and median MENQOL physical domain scores decreased by 51.3% from 3.9 (IQR, 2.3-4.8) to 1.9 (IQR, 1.3-2.7; P = 0.0001). Median hot flashes for 24 hours decreased by 48.3% from 2.9 (IQR, 1.1-4.6) to 1.5 (IQR, 0.4-2.4; P = 0.0005). Improvements in MENQOL total score (49%; P = 0.0001), cognitive function (59.2%; P = 0.0002), depressive symptoms (64.7%; P = 0.0006), insomnia (72.7%; P = 0.0012), and excessive sleepiness (57.1%; P = 0.0006) were noted. Randomized continuation (n = 10) or discontinuation (n = 10) did not indicate group differences. Armodafinil was well-tolerated; three women (12%) were withdrawn for adverse events. These preliminary results suggest a therapeutic effect of armodafinil on fatigue affecting quality of life during menopause, and a potential benefit for other menopause-related symptoms.

  18. Forty month follow-up of persistent and difficultly controlled acromegalic patients treated with depot long acting somatostatin analog octreotide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yetkin, D.O.; Boysan, S.N.; Tiryakioglu, O.; Yalin, A.S.; Kadioglu, P.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of octreotide long acting release (S-LAR) preparation on growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 serum concentrations and pituitary tumor size in patients with persistent and difficultly controlled acromegaly even after adjuvant irradiation and/or dopamine agonists. Thirty-three patients with active acromegaly (26 female and 7 male, mean age; 43.94±14.01 standard deviation (SD) years) were included in this study. Patients were evaluated at baseline and at 6, 12, 30 and 40 months for GH, IGF-1, and GH response to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and biliary ultrasonography. Sella MRI was performed at initial and at 40 months. All patients received 20 mg S-LAR. Afterwards, the dosage was titrated to improve individual GH response and reduction of IGF-1 into normal ranges. Basal serum IGF-1 levels decreased from median: 530 μg/l [IQR: 420-600] to 340 μg/l [IQR: 230-460] at 6 months (p=0.01), to 400 μg/l [IQR: 222.4-600] at 12 months (p=0.48), to 396 μg/l [IQR: 318-468] at 30 months (p=0.49), to 482 μg/l [308-580] at 40 months (p=0.47). Nadir GH levels in OGTT fell from 2.70 ng/ml [IQR: 1.35-6.90] to 1.60 ng/ml [IQR: 0.36-4.10] at 6 months (p=0.03), to 0.31 ng/ml [IQR: 0.18-0.65] at 12 months (p<0.0001), to 1.50 ng/ml [IQR: 0.83-4.00] at 30 months (p=0.398) and to 0.89 ng/ml [IQR: 0.58-1.35] at 40 months (p<0.0001). Initially, pituitary adenoma volume was median: 1.18 ml [IQR: 0.08-3.50] and it shrank to 0.21 ml [IQR: 0-2.1] at 40 months (p=0.08). Gallstones were detected in 12 patients and six of them underwent cholecystectomy. S-LAR is an effective treatment regimen in reducing GH and IGF-1 concentrations and as well as in shrinking tumor volume in persistent and difficultly controlled acromegalic patients. (author)

  19. The Dynamics of Cardiovascular Biomarkers in non-Elite Marathon Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Emma; Nescolarde, Lexa; Lupón, Josep; Barallat, Jaume; Januzzi, James L; Liu, Peter; Cruz Pastor, M; Bayes-Genis, Antoni

    2017-04-01

    The number of recreational/non-elite athletes participating in marathons is increasing, but data regarding impact of endurance exercise on cardiovascular health are conflicting. This study evaluated 79 recreational athletes of the 2016 Barcelona Marathon (72% men; mean age 39 ± 6 years; 71% ≥35 years). Blood samples were collected at baseline (24-48 h before the race), immediately after the race (1-2 h after the race), and 48-h post-race. Amino-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP, a marker of myocardial strain), ST2 (a marker of extracellular matrix remodeling and fibrosis, inflammation, and myocardial strain), and high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT, a marker of myocyte stress/injury) were assayed. The median (interquartile range, IQR) years of training was 7 (5-11) years and median (IQR) weekly training hours was 6 (5-8) h/week, respectively. The median (IQR) race time (h:min:s) was 3:32:44 (3:18:50-3:51:46). Echocardiographic indices were within normal ranges. Immediately after the race, blood concentration of the three cardiac biomarkers increased significantly, with 1.3-, 1.6-, and 16-fold increases in NT-proBNP, ST2, and hs-TnT, respectively. We found an inverse relationship between weekly training hours and increased ST2 (p = 0.007), and a direct relationship between race time and increased hs-TnT (p marathon running may affect multiple pathways affecting the cardiovascular system. More data and long-term follow-up studies in non-elite and elite athletes are needed.

  20. Sub-dissociative dose intranasal ketamine for limb injury pain in children in the emergency department: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaman, Fiona; Oakley, Ed; Meek, Robert; Graudins, Andis

    2013-04-01

    The present study aims to conduct a pilot study examining the effectiveness of intranasal (IN) ketamine as an analgesic for children in the ED. The present study used an observational study on a convenience sample of paediatric ED patients aged 3-13 years, with moderate to severe (≥6/10) pain from isolated limb injury. IN ketamine was administered at enrolment, with a supplementary dose after 15 min, if required. Primary outcome was change in median pain rating at 30 min. Secondary outcomes included change in median pain rating at 60 min, patient/parent satisfaction, need for additional analgesia and adverse events being reported. For the 28 children included in the primary analysis, median age was 9 years (interquartile range [IQR] 6-10). Twenty-three (82.1%) were male. Eighteen (64%) received only one dose of IN ketamine (mean dose 0.84 mg/kg), whereas 10 (36%) required a second dose at 15 min (mean for second dose 0.54 mg/kg). The total mean dose for all patients was 1.0 mg/kg (95% CI: 0.92-1.14). The median pain rating decreased from 74.5 mm (IQR 60-85) to 30 mm (IQR 12-51.5) at 30 min (P pain rating was 25 mm (IQR 4-44). Twenty (83%) subjects were satisfied with their analgesia. Eight (33%) were given additional opioid analgesia and the 28 reported adverse events were all transient and mild. In this population, an average dose of 1.0 mg/kg IN ketamine provided adequate analgesia by 30 min for most patients. © 2013 The Authors. EMA © 2013 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  1. F wave index: A diagnostic tool for peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathya, G R; Krishnamurthy, N; Veliath, Susheela; Arulneyam, Jayanthi; Venkatachalam, J

    2017-03-01

    Each skeletal muscle is usually supplied by two or more nerve roots and if one nerve root is affected and the other is spared, the clinically used F wave minimum latency can still be normal. An F wave index was constructed taking into consideration the other parameters of the F wave such as persistence, chronodispersion, latency, arm-length to determine its usefulness in the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy. This study was undertaken to construct the F wave index in the upper limb for the median nerve in normal healthy adult males and in patients with peripheral neuropathy and to compare the values obtained in both groups. This hospital-based study was carried out on 40 males who were diagnosed to have peripheral neuropathy and on 40 age matched healthy males who served as the control group. The F wave recording was done using a digitalized nerve conduction/electromyography/EP machine in a quiet and dimly lit room. All recordings were done between 0900 and 1100 h at an ambient temperature of 22°C. The F wave recording was obtained from a fully relaxed muscle by stimulating the median nerve. The median value for F wave index obtained from median nerve (abductor pollicis brevis) in patients with peripheral neuropathy [right arm - 35.85, interquartile range (IQR) - 35.26; left arm - 39.49, IQR - 39.49] was significantly lower (P=0.001) as compared to the control group (right arm - 102.62, IQR - 83.76; left arm - 77.43, IQR - 58.02). Our results showed that F wave index in upper limb was significantly lower in patients with peripheral neuropathy than the healthy controls, and could be used for early detection of peripheral neuropathy.

  2. A prospective, blinded evaluation of a video-assisted '4-stage approach' during undergraduate student practical skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerdtfeger, Katrin; Wand, Saskia; Schmid, Oliver; Roessler, Markus; Quintel, Michael; Leissner, Kay B; Russo, Sebastian G

    2014-05-22

    The 4-stage approach (4-SA) is used as a didactic method for teaching practical skills in international courses on resuscitation and the structured care of trauma patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate objective and subjective learning success of a video-assisted 4-SA in teaching undergraduate medical students. The participants were medical students learning the principles of the acute treatment of trauma patients in their multidiscipline course on emergency and intensive care medicine. The participants were quasi- randomly divided into two groups. The 4-SA was used in both groups. In the control group, all four steps were presented by an instructor. In the study group, the first two steps were presented as a video. At the end of the course a 5-minute objective, structured clinical examination (OSCE) of a simulated trauma patient was conducted. The test results were divided into objective results obtained through a checklist with 9 dichotomous items and the assessment of the global performance rated subjectively by the examiner on a Likert scale from 1 to 6. 313 students were recruited; the results of 256 were suitable for analysis. The OSCE results were excellent in both groups and did not differ significantly (control group: median 9, interquantil range (IQR) 8-9, study group: median 9, IQR 8-9; p = 0.29). The global performance was rated significantly better for the study group (median 1, IQR 1-2 vs. median 2, IQR 1-3; p students in their evaluation after the course, was greater in the study group (85% vs. 80%). It is possible to employ video assistance in the classical 4-SA with comparable objective test results in an OSCE. The global performance was significantly improved with use of video assistance.

  3. Management of patients with incurable colorectal cancer: a retrospective audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavanesan, N; Abdalkoddus, M; Yao, C; Lai, C W; Stubbs, B M

    2018-04-13

    Counselling patients and their relatives about non-curative management options in colorectal cancer is difficult because of a paucity of published data. This study aims to determine outcomes in patients unsuitable for curative surgery and the rates of subsequent surgical intervention. This was an analysis of all colorectal cancers managed without curative surgery in a district general hospital from a prospectively maintained cancer registry between 2009 and 2016, as decided by a multidisciplinary team. Primary outcomes were overall survival and secondary outcomes were subsequent intervention rates and impact of tumour stage. In all, 183 patients out of 976 patients (18.8%) were identified. The median age at diagnosis was 81 years [interquartile range (IQR) 71-87 years]. Overall median survival from diagnosis was 205 days (IQR 60-532 days). One-year mortality was 62.3%. Patients were classified into two groups depending on the reason for a non-curable approach: patient-related (PR) or disease-related (DR). The difference in survival between PR (median 277 days, IQR 70-593) and DR (median 179 days, IQR 51-450) was 98 days (P = 0.023). Twenty-four patients were alive at the end of the study period; 19 out of 91 cases in PR (20.8%) and five out of 92 cases in DR (5.4%). Overall intervention rates were 11.9%, with higher rates in the DR group (P = 0.005). Disease stage was not associated with subsequent surgical intervention between the two groups (P = 0.392). Life expectancy for non-curatively managed patients within our unit was 6.8 months with one in nine patients requiring subsequent surgical admission for palliation. This information may be useful when counselling patients with incurable colorectal malignancy. Colorectal Disease © 2018 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  4. Diabetes diagnosis and care in sub-Saharan Africa: pooled analysis of individual data from 12 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne-Goehler, Jennifer; Atun, Rifat; Stokes, Andrew; Goehler, Alexander; Houinato, Dismand; Houehanou, Corine; Hambou, Mohamed Msaidie Salimani; Mbenza, Benjamin Longo; Sobngwi, Eugène; Balde, Naby; Mwangi, Joseph Kibachio; Gathecha, Gladwell; Ngugi, Paul Waweru; Wesseh, C Stanford; Damasceno, Albertino; Lunet, Nuno; Bovet, Pascal; Labadarios, Demetre; Zuma, Khangelani; Mayige, Mary; Kagaruki, Gibson; Ramaiya, Kaushik; Agoudavi, Kokou; Guwatudde, David; Bahendeka, Silver K; Mutungi, Gerald; Geldsetzer, Pascal; Levitt, Naomi S; Salomon, Joshua A; Yudkin, John S; Vollmer, Sebastian; Bärnighausen, Till

    2016-11-01

    Despite widespread recognition that the burden of diabetes is rapidly growing in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, nationally representative estimates of unmet need for diabetes diagnosis and care are in short supply for the region. We use national population-based survey data to quantify diabetes prevalence and met and unmet need for diabetes diagnosis and care in 12 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. We further estimate demographic and economic gradients of met need for diabetes diagnosis and care. We did a pooled analysis of individual-level data from nationally representative population-based surveys that met the following inclusion criteria: the data were collected during 2005-15; the data were made available at the individual level; a biomarker for diabetes was available in the dataset; and the dataset included information on use of core health services for diabetes diagnosis and care. We first quantified the population in need of diabetes diagnosis and care by estimating the prevalence of diabetes across the surveys; we also quantified the prevalence of overweight and obesity, as a major risk factor for diabetes and an indicator of need for diabetes screening. Second, we determined the level of met need for diabetes diagnosis, preventive counselling, and treatment in both the diabetic and the overweight and obese population. Finally, we did survey fixed-effects regressions to establish the demographic and economic gradients of met need for diabetes diagnosis, counselling, and treatment. We pooled data from 12 nationally representative population-based surveys in sub-Saharan Africa, representing 38 311 individuals with a biomarker measurement for diabetes. Across the surveys, the median prevalence of diabetes was 5% (range 2-14) and the median prevalence of overweight or obesity was 27% (range 16-68). We estimated seven measures of met need for diabetes-related care across the 12 surveys: (1) percentage of the overweight or obese population who received a

  5. Renal and obstetric outcomes in pregnancy after kidney transplantation: Twelve-year experience in a Singapore transplant center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwek, Jia Liang; Tey, Vanessa; Yang, Liying; Kanagalingam, Devendra; Kee, Terence

    2015-09-01

    Renal and obstetric outcomes in pregnancy after kidney transplantation in Singapore were last studied in 2002. A review of these outcomes in Singapore is now timely following advances in transplant and obstetric medicine. The aim was to evaluate the renal and obstetric outcomes in pregnancy after kidney transplantation in a Singapore tertiary center. Kidney transplant recipients who underwent pregnancy after transplantation at Singapore General Hospital between January 2001 and December 2012 were identified. Data on demographics, comorbidities and clinical outcomes were collected. There were 10 pregnancies identified in nine recipients. The median age of recipient at childbearing was 34.6 years (IQR, 32.8-36.8) and the median interval from transplantation to conception was 69 months (IQR, 38-97). There was no difference between the median pre-pregnancy estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (47.9 mL/min/1.73 m(2); IQR, 38.4-56.8) and median eGFR at time of last post-partum follow up (43.9 mL/min/1.73 m(2); IQR, 34.5-48.7, P = 0.549). Borderline allograft rejection occurred in one recipient (10.0%) 36 days after birth due to non-adherence to immunosuppressive medication, with subsequent allograft loss 37 months after birth. No mortalities were recorded during the study period. All the 10 pregnancies (100%) ended in singleton live births. Pre-eclampsia occurred in five pregnancies (50.0%), and there were seven (70.0%) preterm deliveries. The median gestational age was 35.4 weeks (IQR, 32.6-38.2) and the median birthweight was 2353 g (IQR, 1811-2648). Post-transplantation pregnancies ended successfully with no significant worsening of allograft function, but they were associated with risks to both recipients and newborns. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. The impact of airway management on quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation: an observational study in patients during cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Joyce; Chilwan, Mehboob; Field, Richard; Davies, Robin; Gao, Fang; Perkins, Gavin D

    2014-07-01

    Minimising interruptions in chest compressions is associated with improved survival from cardiac arrest. Current in-hospital guidelines recommend continuous chest compressions after the airway is secured on the premise that this will reduce no flow time. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of advanced airway use on the no flow ratio and other measures of CPR quality. Consecutive adult patients who sustained an in-hospital cardiac arrest were enrolled in this prospective observational study. The quality of CPR was measured using the Q-CPR device (Phillips, UK) before and after an advanced airway device (endotracheal tube [ET] or laryngeal mask airway [LMA]) was inserted. Patients receiving only bag-mask ventilation were used as the control cohort. The primary outcome was no flow ratio (NFR). Secondary outcomes were chest compression rate, depth, compressions too shallow, compressions with leaning, ventilation rate, inflation time, change in impedance and time required to successfully insert airway device. One hundred patients were enrolled in the study (2008-2011). Endotracheal tube and LMA placement took similar durations (median 15.8 s (IQR 6.8-19.4) vs. LMA median 8.0s (IQR 5.5-15.9), p=0.1). The use of an advanced airway was associated with improved no flow ratios (endotracheal tube placement (n=50) improved NFR from baseline median 0.24 IQR 0.17-0.40) to 0.15 to (IQR 0.09-0.28), p=0.012; LMA (n=25) from median 0.28 (IQR 0.23-0.40) to 0.13 (IQR 0.11- 0.19), p=0.0001). There was no change in NFR in patients managed solely with bag valve mask (BVM) (n=25) (median 0.29 (IQR 0.18-0.59) vs. median 0.26 (IQR 0.12-0.37), p=0.888). There was no significant difference in time taken to successfully insert the airway device between the two groups. The use of an advanced airway (ETT or LMA) during in-hospital cardiac arrest was associated with improved no flow ratio. Further studies are required to determine the effect of airway devices on overall patient

  7. Is postoperative cognitive dysfunction a risk factor for dementia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinmetz, J; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Kessing, L V

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: /st>Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a common complication in elderly patients after major surgery. An association between POCD and the development of dementia has been suspected. In this study, we assessed if POCD was a risk factor for the occurrence of dementia. METHODS...... surgery, using a neuropsychological test battery. The time of (first) occurrence of dementia after surgery was assessed using the National Patient Register and the Psychiatric Central Research Register. Recorded dementia diagnoses (ICD-8 and ICD-10) were: Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia......, frontotemporal dementia, or dementia without specification. The risk of dementia according to POCD was assessed in the Cox regression models. RESULTS: /st>A total of 686 patients with a median age of 67 [inter-quartile range (IQR) 61-74] yr were followed for a median of 11.1 (IQR 5.2-12.6) yr. Only 32 patients...

  8. Efficacy of an expanded ventilator bundle for the reduction of ventilator-associated pneumonia in the medical intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blamoun, John; Alfakir, Maria; Rella, Marie E; Wojcik, Janice M; Solis, Roberto A; Anees Khan, M; DeBari, Vincent A

    2009-03-01

    The ventilator bundle (VB) includes a group of clinical maneuvers (head-of-bed elevation, "sedation vacation," deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis, and peptic ulcer disease prophylaxis) to improve outcomes in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. We modified the standard VB in our medical intensive care unit to include a group of respiratory therapist-driven protocols and, postimplementation, observed a statistically significant (P = .0006) reduction in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), from a median of 14.1 cases/10(3) ventilator-days (interquartile range [IQR] = 12.1 to 20.6) to 0 cases/10(3) ventilator-days (IQR = 0 to 1.1).

  9. Three Year RSA Evaluation of Vitamin E Diffused Highly Cross-linked Polyethylene Liners and Cup Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Nanna H; Greene, Meridith E; Nebergall, Audrey K

    2015-01-01

    10-year RSA. This is the first evaluation of the multicenter cohort after 3-years. All patients received E-XLPE liners (E1, Biomet) and porous-titanium coated cups (Regenerex, Biomet). There was no difference (P=0.450) in median femoral head penetration into the E-XLPE liners at 3-years comparing...... cobalt-chrome heads (-0.028mm; inter-quartile range (IQR) - 0.065 to 0.047) with ceramic heads (-0.043mm, IQR - 0.143to0.042). The 3-year follow-up indicates minimal E-XLPE liner penetration regardless of head material and minimal early cup movement....

  10. Median Nerve Conduction in Healthy Nigerians: Normative Data

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of median nerve disease using multiple studies, and rendering ... Aim: To develop normative values for motor and sensory median nerve ..... Table 5: Comparison of median motor nerve conduction study parameters to studies elsewhere. Study.

  11. Gender-partitioned patient medians of serum albumin requested by general practitioners for the assessment of analytical stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steen Ingemann; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Lund, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, the use of separate gender-partitioned patient medians of serum sodium has revealed potential for monitoring analytical stability within the optimum analytical performance specifications for laboratory medicine. The serum albumin concentration depends on whether a patient...... patients were closely related despite considerable variation due to the current analytical variation. This relationship was confirmed by the calculated half-range for the monthly ratio between the genders of 0.44%, which surpasses the optimum analytical performance specification for bias of serum albumin...... (0.72%). The weekly ratio had a half-range of 1.83%, which surpasses the minimum analytical performance specifications of 2.15%. CONCLUSIONS: Monthly gender-partitioned patient medians of serum albumin are useful for monitoring of long-term analytical stability, where the gender medians are two...

  12. Median Sternotomy or Right Thoracotomy Techniques for Total Artificial Heart Implantation in Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimov, Jamshid H; Moazami, Nader; Sunagawa, Gengo; Kobayashi, Mariko; Byram, Nicole; Sale, Shiva; Such, Kimberly A; Horvath, David J; Golding, Leonard A R; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka

    2016-10-01

    The choice of optimal operative access technique for mechanical circulatory support device implantation ensures successful postoperative outcomes. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated the median sternotomy and lateral thoracotomy incisions for placement of the Cleveland Clinic continuous-flow total artificial heart (CFTAH) in a bovine model. The CFTAH was implanted in 17 calves (Jersey calves; weight range, 77.0-93.9 kg) through a median sternotomy (n = 9) or right thoracotomy (n = 8) for elective chronic implantation periods of 14, 30, or 90 days. Similar preoperative preparation, surgical techniques, and postoperative care were employed. Implantation of the CFTAH was successfully performed in all cases. Both methods provided excellent surgical field visualization. After device connection, however, the median sternotomy approach provided better visualization of the anastomoses and surgical lines for hemostasis confirmation and repair due to easier device displacement, which is severely limited following right thoracotomy. All four animals sacrificed after completion of the planned durations (up to 90 days) were operated through full median sternotomy. Our data demonstrate that both approaches provide excellent initial field visualization. Full median sternotomy provides larger viewing angles at the anastomotic suture line after device connection to inflow and outflow ports. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Remnant Cholesterol and Myocardial Infarction in Normal Weight, Overweight, and Obese Individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We tested whether high remnant cholesterol is associated with high myocardial infarction risk, independent of whether an individual is normal weight, overweight, or obese. METHODS: A total of 106216 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study were followed for up to 11......) of obese). RESULTS: Median calculated remnant cholesterol was 0.40 mmol/L [interquartile range (IQR), 0.30-0.55 mmol/L] [15 mg/dL (12-21 mg/dL)] for underweight, 0.50 mmol/L (IQR, 0.37-0.71 mmol....../L) [19 mg/dL (14-27 mg/dL)] for normal weight, 0.70 mmol/L (IQR, 0.49-1.00 mmol/L) [27 mg/dL (19-39 mg/dL)] for overweight, and 0.85 mmol/L (IQR, 0.61-1.20 mmol/L) [(33 mg/dL (24-46 mg/dL)] for obese individuals. On continuous scales, remnant cholesterol was positively correlated with BMI until reaching...

  14. Patient characteristics, resource use and outcomes associated with general internal medicine hospital care: the General Medicine Inpatient Initiative (GEMINI) retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Amol A; Guo, Yishan; Kwan, Janice L; Lapointe-Shaw, Lauren; Rawal, Shail; Tang, Terence; Weinerman, Adina; Cram, Peter; Dhalla, Irfan A; Hwang, Stephen W; Laupacis, Andreas; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Shadowitz, Steven; Upshur, Ross; Reid, Robert J; Razak, Fahad

    2017-12-11

    The precise scope of hospital care delivered under general internal medicine services remains poorly quantified. The purpose of this study was to describe the demographic characteristics, medical conditions, health outcomes and resource use of patients admitted to general internal medicine at 7 hospital sites in the Greater Toronto Area. This was a retrospective cohort study involving all patients who were admitted to or discharged from general internal medicine at the study sites between Apr. 1, 2010, and Mar. 31, 2015. Clinical data from hospital electronic information systems were linked to administrative data from each hospital. We examined trends in resource use and patient characteristics over the study period. There were 136 208 admissions to general internal medicine involving 88 121 unique patients over the study period. General internal medicine admissions accounted for 38.8% of all admissions from the emergency department and 23.7% of all hospital bed-days. Over the study period, the number of admissions to general internal medicine increased by 32.4%; there was no meaningful change in the median length of stay or cost per hospital stay. The median patient age was 73 (interquartile range [IQR] 57-84) years, and the median number of coexisting conditions was 6 (IQR 3-9). The median acute length of stay was 4.6 (IQR 2.5-8.6) days, and the median total cost per hospital stay was $5850 (IQR $3915-$10 061). Patients received at least 1 computed tomography scan in 52.2% of admissions. The most common primary discharge diagnoses were pneumonia (5.0% of admissions), heart failure (4.7%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (4.1%), urinary tract infection (4.0%) and stroke (3.6%). Patients admitted to general internal medicine services represent a large, heterogeneous, resource-intensive and growing population. Understanding and improving general internal medicine care is essential to promote a high-quality, sustainable health care system. Copyright 2017

  15. Changes in gene expression following trauma are related to the age of transfused packed red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Hew D T; Vivian, Mark E; Brohi, Karim; Prowle, John R; Pearse, Rupert M; Owen, Helen C; Hinds, Charles J; O'Dwyer, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    Transfusion of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) is associated with an increased incidence of nosocomial infections and an increased risk of death. The duration of storage before transfusion may influence these outcomes. Here, we explore the association between the age of transfused PRBCs and specific patterns of inflammatory gene expression in severely injured trauma patients. Severely injured trauma patients requiring intensive care unit treatment and receiving transfusion of PRBCs within 24 hours of the injury were recruited. Blood samples were obtained within 2 hours of the trauma, at 24 hours, and at 72 hours. Messenger RNA was extracted from whole blood, and gene expression was quantified using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The median age of the units of PRBCs transfused to each patient was recorded. The primary outcome measure was the change in candidate gene expression over the initial 72 hours. Sixty-four patients were studied. Fifty-three patients (83%) were male, and the median age was 40.5 years (interquartile range [IQR], 31-59). Median Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 31.5 (IQR, 23-43), and 55 patients (86%) experienced a blunt injury. Forty-one patients (64%) developed a nosocomial infection, and 15 patients (23%) died before hospital discharge. Each patient received a median of 5 U of PRBCs (IQR, 4-9.8 U) during the first 24 hours of hospital admission. The median age of the units of PRBCs transfused in each patient was 20 days (IQR, 17-22 days). Older blood was associated with greater decreases in interleukin 12 (IL-12), IL-23, and RORγt (all p's < 0.05) gene expression over the initial 24 hours, greater decreases in IL-12 gene expression over 72 hours, and a rise in transforming growth factor β gene expression over the first 72 hours. A multivariate analysis confirmed the independence of these associations. Increasing the duration of storage of PRBCs before transfusion is associated with a pattern of gene expression consistent with more

  16. Wait times in the emergency department for patients with mental illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzema, Clare L.; Schull, Michael J.; Kurdyak, Paul; Menezes, Natasja M.; Wilton, Andrew S.; Vermuelen, Marian J.; Austin, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that patients with mental illness wait longer for care than other patients in the emergency department. We determined wait times for patients with and without mental health diagnoses during crowded and noncrowded periods in the emergency department. Methods: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort analysis of adults seen in 155 emergency departments in Ontario between April 2007 and March 2009. We compared wait times and triage scores for patients with mental illness to those for all other patients who presented to the emergency department during the study period. Results: The patients with mental illness (n = 51 381) received higher priority triage scores than other patients, regardless of crowding. The time to assessment by a physician was longer overall for patients with mental illness than for other patients (median 82, interquartile range [IQR] 41–147 min v. median 75 [IQR 36–140] min; p < 0.001). The median time from the decision to admit the patient to hospital to ward transfer was markedly shorter for patients with mental illness than for other patients (median 74 [IQR 15–215] min v. median 152 [IQR 45–605] min; p < 0.001). After adjustment for other variables, patients with mental illness waited 10 minutes longer to see a physician compared with other patients during noncrowded periods (95% confidence interval [CI] 8 to 11), but they waited significantly less time than other patients as crowding increased (mild crowding: −14 [95% CI −12 to −15] min; moderate crowding: −38 [95% CI −35 to −42] min; severe crowding: −48 [95% CI −39 to −56] min; p < 0.001). Interpretation: Patients with mental illness were triaged appropriately in Ontario’s emergency departments. These patients waited less time than other patients to see a physician under crowded conditions and only slightly longer under noncrowded conditions. PMID:23148052

  17. Maple syrup urine disease in Brazil: a panorama of the last two decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvani Herber

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize a sample of Brazilian patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD diagnosed between 1992 and 2011. METHODS: In this retrospective study, patients were identified through a national reference laboratory for the diagnosis of MSUD and through contact with other medical genetics services across Brazil. Data were collected by means of a chart review. RESULTS: Eighty-three patients from 75 families were enrolled in the study (median age, 3 years; interquartile range [IQR], 0.57-7. Median age at onset of symptoms was 10 days (IQR 5-30, whereas median age at diagnosis was 60 days (IQR 29-240, p = 0.001. Only three (3.6% patients were diagnosed before the onset of clinical manifestations. A comparison between patients with (n = 12 and without (n = 71 an early diagnosis shows that early diagnosis is associated with the presence of positive family history and decreased prevalence of clinical manifestations at the time of diagnosis, but not with a better outcome. Overall, 98.8% of patients have some psychomotor or neurodevelopmental delay. CONCLUSION: In Brazil, patients with MSUD are usually diagnosed late and exhibit neurological involvement and poor survival even with early diagnosis. We suggest that specific public policies for diagnosis and treatment of MSUD should be developed and implemented in the country.

  18. High Protein Intake Does Not Prevent Low Plasma Levels of Conditionally Essential Amino Acids in Very Preterm Infants Receiving Parenteral Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Colin; Burgess, Laura

    2017-03-01

    We have shown that increasing protein intake using a standardized, concentrated, added macronutrients parenteral (SCAMP) nutrition regimen improves head growth in very preterm infants (VPIs) compared with a control parenteral nutrition (PN) regimen. VPIs are at risk of conditionally essential amino acid (CEAA) deficiencies because of current neonatal PN amino acid (AA) formulations. We hypothesized that the SCAMP regimen would prevent low plasma levels of CEAAs. To compare the plasma AA profiles at approximately day 9 of life in VPIs receiving SCAMP vs a control PN regimen. VPIs (parenteral and enteral protein, energy, and individual AA intake and the first plasma AA profile. Plasma profiles of the 20 individual protogenic AA levels were measured using ion exchange chromatography. Plasma AA profiles were obtained at median (interquartile range [IQR]) age of 9 (8-10) days in both SCAMP (n = 59) and control (n = 67) groups after randomizing 150 VPIs. Median (IQR) plasma levels of individual essential AAs were higher than the reference population mean (RPM) in both groups, especially for threonine. SCAMP infants had higher plasma levels of essential AAs than did the controls. Median (IQR) plasma levels of glutamine, arginine, and cysteine (CEAAs) were lower than the RPM in both groups. Plasma AA levels in PN-dependent VPIs indicate there is an imbalance in essential and CEAA provision in neonatal PN AA formulations that is not improved by increasing protein intake.

  19. The Clinical Spectrum of Plumbism; an Experience from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Jafri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:Lead toxicity continues to remain a concerning health problem for developing nations like Pakistan. Due to the lack of studies, we aim to highlight the clinical spectrum of lead poisoning in patients presenting to an urban-based tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Method:This is a retrospective review of patients admitted form January 2011 to December 2014 using a structured questionnaire for recording demographics, comorbidities, clinical findings, biochemical abnormalities, clinical findings and treatment provided. Patients were categorized as children (≤18yrs and adults (>18yrs, further divided into three groups; desired blood lead levels (BLLs [lead levels 70ug/dl]. Result: A total of 86 patients were included in the final analysis, majority (69.6% of whom were adult males with median age of 35 yrs. Median (IQR BLL was 6.3 ug/dl (12.8-2.7 in all age groups with BLL in children and adults of 4.2 ug/dl (3.1-5.7 and 6.5 ug/dl (2.6-14.7, respectively. 72% of the children had complaints related to the central nervous system with majority complaining of irritability. The gastrointestinal system was most commonly implicated in adults (93% with most common complaint of abdominal pain. The commonest risk factor showing a positive correlation with BLLs was battery handling in adults [median (IQR BLL 18.4ug/dl (8.35-36.1] and pica eating in children with BLLs in high but non-toxic range [median (IQR BLL 5.2ug/dl (2.7-5.7]. The highest BLLs were observed to lie within the high but non-toxic range group in one adult herbal medicine user (54.4 ug/dl and in children observed in the toxic range group (>10ug/dl due to occupational battery work exposure and residence in a congested zone.   Conclusion:Lead toxicity continues to be hazardous due to unchecked environmental and occupational exposure. Increasing awareness is tantamount in order to find a solution.

  20. Deep-vein thrombosis in the era of high HIV and tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participants were predominantly black (79.8%) and female (64.6%), with a median age of 46 (interquartile range (IQR) 38 - 57) years. The prevalences of HIV and TB were 53.0% and 21.2%, respectively. The most common risk factors for thrombosis were TB (17.2%) and malignancies (14.1%). Thrombophilia screening had ...

  1. Closed and open breathing circuit function in healthy volunteers during exercise at Mount Everest base camp (5300 m).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMorrow, R C N

    2012-08-01

    We present a randomised, controlled, crossover trial of the Caudwell Xtreme Everest (CXE) closed circuit breathing system vs an open circuit and ambient air control in six healthy, hypoxic volunteers at rest and exercise at Everest Base Camp, at 5300 m. Compared with control, arterial oxygen saturations were improved at rest with both circuits. There was no difference in the magnitude of this improvement as both circuits restored median (IQR [range]) saturation from 75%, (69.5-78.9 [68-80]%) to > 99.8% (p = 0.028). During exercise, the CXE closed circuit improved median (IQR [range]) saturation from a baseline of 70.8% (63.8-74.5 [57-76]%) to 98.8% (96.5-100 [95-100]%) vs the open circuit improvement to 87.5%, (84.1-88.6 [82-89]%; p = 0.028). These data demonstrate the inverse relationship between supply and demand with open circuits and suggest that ambulatory closed circuits may offer twin advantages of supplying higher inspired oxygen concentrations and\\/or economy of gas use for exercising hypoxic adults.

  2. "How much will I get charged for this?" Patient charges for top ten diagnoses in the emergency department.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolan Caldwell

    Full Text Available We examined the charges, their variability, and respective payer group for diagnosis and treatment of the ten most common outpatient conditions presenting to the Emergency department (ED.We conducted a cross-sectional study of the 2006-2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Analysis was limited to outpatient visits with non-elderly, adult (years 18-64 patients with a single discharge diagnosis.We studied 8,303 ED encounters, representing 76.6 million visits. Median charges ranged from $740 (95% CI $651-$817 for an upper respiratory infection to $3437 (95% CI $2917-$3877 for a kidney stone. The median charge for all ten outpatient conditions in the ED was $1233 (95% CI $1199- $1268, with a high degree of charge variability. All diagnoses had an interquartile range (IQR greater than $800 with 60% of IQRs greater than $1550.Emergency department charges for common conditions are expensive with high charge variability. Greater acute care charge transparency will at least allow patients and providers to be aware of the emergency department charges patients may face in the current health care system.

  3. Relationship of Circulating C5a and Complement Factor H Levels With Disease Control in Pregnant Women With Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohács, Anikó; Bikov, András; Ivancsó, István; Czaller, Ibolya; Böcskei, Renáta; Müller, Veronika; Rigó, János; Losonczy, György; Tamási, Lilla

    2016-04-01

    Asthma often complicates pregnancy and represents a risk of serious pregnancy complications. The complement system contributes to asthma pathogenesis and is up-regulated in healthy gestation as well. The anaphylatoxin C5a has a major pro-inflammatory role, and the complement factor H is a main soluble regulator protein both in asthma and during pregnancy; however, peripheral levels of these complement factors and their relationship to disease control have not yet been evaluated in pregnant subjects with asthma. The present study aimed to investigate circulating C5a and complement factor H levels in asthma (non-pregnant subjects with asthma; n = 19) and in pregnancy with asthma (pregnant subjects with asthma; n = 22), compared with healthy non-pregnant (n = 21) and healthy pregnant women (n = 13) and to test their relationship to clinical parameters of asthma (lung function, airway inflammation, and symptoms). Circulating C5a levels were higher in the pregnant asthma subject group compared with the healthy non-pregnant, healthy pregnant, and non-pregnant asthma groups: median 2.629 (interquartile range [IQR] 2.257-3.052) ng/mL versus 1.84 (IQR 1.576-2.563), 1.783 (IQR 0.6064-2.786), and 2.024 (IQR 1.232-2.615) ng/mL, respectively (P = .02 in all cases). C5a correlated negatively with FEV1 (r = -0.44, P = .039) and FVC values (r = -0.64, P = .001) in the pregnant asthma group and positively with fraction of exhaled nitric oxide levels in the non-pregnant asthma group (n = 12, r = 0.78, P = .004). Complement factor H levels were elevated in both the healthy pregnant and pregnant asthma subject groups compared with the healthy non-pregnant group (median 1,082 [IQR 734.9-1,224] and 910.7 [IQR 614.5-1076] μg/mL vs. 559.7 [IQR 388.7-783.1] μg/mL, P = .002 and P = .004, respectively) but not in the pregnant asthma group compared with the non-pregnant asthma group (median 687.4 [IQR 441.6-947.6] μg/mL, P = .10). Asthma during pregnancy increases the circulating level of

  4. Propionyl-L-carnitine hydrochloride for treatment of mild to moderate colonic inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merra, Giuseppe; Gasbarrini, Giovanni; Laterza, Lucrezia; Pizzoferrato, Marco; Poscia, Andrea; Scaldaferri, Franco; Arena, Vincenzo; Fiore, Francesca; Cittadini, Achille; Sgambato, Alessandro; Franceschi, Francesco; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2012-09-28

    To assess clinical and endoscopic response to propionyl-L-carnitine hydrochloride (PLC) in colonic inflammatory bowel disease. Patients suffering from mild to moderate ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD) colitis, with disease activity index (DAI) between 3 and 10 and under stable therapy with oral aminosalicylates, mercaptopurine or azathioprine, for at least 8 wk prior to baseline assessments, were considered suitable for enrollment. Fourteen patients were enrolled to assume PLC 2 g/d (two active tablets twice daily) orally. Clinical-endoscopic and histological activity were assessed by DAI and histological index (HI), respectively, following a colonoscopy performed immediately before and after 4 wk treatment. Clinical response was defined as a lowering of at least 3 points in DAI and clinical remission as a DAI score ≤ 2. Histological response was defined as an improvement of HI of at least 1 point. We used median values for the analysis. Differences pre- and post-treatment were analyzed by Wilcoxon signed rank test. All patients enrolled completed the study. One patient, despite medical advice, took deflazacort 5 d before follow-up colonoscopy examination. No side effects were reported by patients during the trial. After treatment, 71% (SE 12%) of patients achieved clinical response, while 64% (SE 13%) obtained remission. Separating UC from CD patients, we observed a clinical response in 60% (SE 16%) and 100%, respectively. Furthermore 60% (SE 16%) of UC patients and 75% (SE 25%) of CD patients were in clinical remission after therapy. The median DAI was 7 [interquartile range (IQR): 4-8] before treatment and decreased to 2 (IQR: 1-3) (P stability; none showed HI worsening. Median HI decreased from 1 (IQR: 1-2), to 0.5 (IQR: 0-1) at the endoscopic control in the whole population (P < 0.01), while it changed from 1 (IQR: 1-2) to 0.5 (IQR: 0-1) in UC patients (P < 0.01) and from 1.5 (IQR: 1-2) to 0.5 (IQR: 0-1) in CD patients (P = not significant

  5. Travel distance and use of salvage palliative chemotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shahid; Iqbal, Mahjabeen; Le, Duc; Iqbal, Nayyer; Pahwa, Punam

    2018-04-01

    Salvage palliative chemotherapy in metastatic colorectal cancer has been associated with significant improvement in survival. However, not all patients receive all available therapies. Travel burden can affect patient access and use of future therapy. The present study aims to determine relationship between travel distance (TD) and salvage palliative chemotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. A patient cohort diagnosed with metastatic colorectal cancer during 2006-2010 in the province of Saskatchewan, Canada was studied. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess relationship between travel distance and subsequent line therapies. The median age of 264 eligible patients was 62 years [interquartile range (IQR): 53-72]. The patients who received salvage systemic therapy had a median distance to travel of 60.0 km (IQR: 4.7-144) compared with 88.1 km (IQR: 4.8-189) if they did not receive second- or third-line therapy (P=0.06). In multivariate analysis distance to the cancer center therapies. Our result revealed that travel distance to the cancer center greater than 100 km was associated less frequent use of second or subsequent line therapies in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

  6. Non-Seasonal Variation of Airborne Aspergillus Spore Concentration in a Hospital Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Oberle

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial fungal infections are gaining increased attention from infectiologists. An adequate investigation into the levels of airborne Aspergillus and other fungal spores in hospital settings, under normal conditions, is largely unknown. We monitored airborne spore contamination in a Swiss hospital building in order to establish a seasonally-dependent base-line level. Air was sampled using an impaction technique, twice weekly, at six different locations over one year. Specimens were seeded in duplicate on Sabouraud agar plates. Grown colonies were identified to genus levels. The airborne Aspergillus spore concentration was constantly low throughout the whole year, at a median level of 2 spores/m3 (inter-quartile range = IQR 1–4, and displayed no seasonal dependency. The median concentration of other fungal spores was higher and showed a distinct seasonal variability with the ambient temperature change during the different seasons: 82 spores/m3 (IQR 26–126 in summer and 9 spores/m3 (IQR 6–15 in winter. The spore concentration varied considerably between the six sampling sites in the building (10 to 26 spores/m3. This variability may explain the variability of study results in the literature.

  7. Utility of newly developed short-type double-balloon endoscopy for endoscopic retrograde cholangiography in postoperative patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimatani, Masaaki; Tokuhara, Mitsuo; Kato, Kota; Miyamoto, Sachi; Masuda, Masataka; Sakao, Masayuki; Fukata, Norimasa; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Ikeura, Tsukasa; Takaoka, Makoto; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2017-07-01

    The utility of conventional short-type double-balloon endoscopy (DBE) for pancreatobiliary disease in patients with postoperative anatomy had been widely acknowledged and accepted. However, some technical difficulties yet remained. In an attempt to solve these problems, the new short-type DBE (N-short DBE) was uniquely designed for therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) in postoperative patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of N-short DBE for ERC in postoperative patients. From August 2015 to April 2016, ERC using N-short DBE (DB-ERC) was performed in 100 postoperative patients (112 procedures). We retrospectively studied the success rate of reaching the blind end, the median time to reach the blind end, the diagnostic success rate, the therapeutic success rate, the median time to complete ERC-related interventions, the overall success rate, the median time to complete DB-ERC, and adverse events. The success rate of reaching the blind end was 99.1%. The median time to reach the blind end was 10 min (interquartile range [IQR], 6-19 min). The diagnostic success rate was 98.2%. The therapeutic success rate was 100%. The median time to complete ERC-related interventions was 36 min (IQR, 22-62 min). The overall DB-ERC success rate was 97.3%. The median time to complete DB-ERC was 54 min (IQR, 37-73 min). The occurrence of adverse events was 2.7%. The N-short DBE for ERC in postoperative patients is useful and safe. DB-ERC is promising therapeutic modality in such patients and should be selected as the first-line policy. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. The Value of E-Learning for the Prevention of Healthcare-Associated Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labeau, Sonia O; Rello, Jordi; Dimopoulos, George; Lipman, Jeffrey; Sarikaya, Aklime; Oztürk, Candan; Vandijck, Dominique M; Vogelaers, Dirk; Vandewoude, Koenraad; Blot, Stijn I

    2016-09-01

    BACKGROUND Healthcare workers (HCWs) lack familiarity with evidence-based guidelines for the prevention of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). There is good evidence that effective educational interventions help to facilitate guideline implementation, so we investigated whether e-learning could enhance HCW knowledge of HAI prevention guidelines. METHODS We developed an electronic course (e-course) and tested its usability and content validity. An international sample of voluntary learners submitted to a pretest (T0) that determined their baseline knowledge of guidelines, and they subsequently studied the e-course. Immediately after studying the course, posttest 1 (T1) assessed the immediate learning effect. After 3 months, during which participants had no access to the course, a second posttest (T2) evaluated the residual learning effect. RESULTS A total of 3,587 HCWs representing 79 nationalities enrolled: 2,590 HCWs (72%) completed T0; 1,410 HCWs (39%) completed T1; and 1,011 HCWs (28%) completed T2. The median study time was 193 minutes (interquartile range [IQR], 96-306 minutes) The median scores were 52% (IQR, 44%-62%) for T0, 80% (IQR, 68%-88%) for T1, and 74% (IQR, 64%-84%) for T2. The immediate learning effect (T0 vs T1) was +24% (IQR, 12%-34%; P300 minutes yielded the greatest residual effect (24%). CONCLUSIONS Moderate time invested in e-learning yielded significant immediate and residual learning effects. Decision makers could consider promoting e-learning as a supporting tool in HAI prevention. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:1052-1059.

  9. Meeting increased demand for total knee replacement and follow-up: determining optimal follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meding, J B; Ritter, M A; Davis, K E; Farris, A

    2013-11-01

    The strain on clinic and surgeon resources resulting from a rise in demand for total knee replacement (TKR) requires reconsideration of when and how often patients need to be seen for follow-up. Surgeons will otherwise require increased paramedical staff or need to limit the number of TKRs they undertake. We reviewed the outcome data of 16 414 primary TKRs undertaken at our centre to determine the time to re-operation for any reason and for specific failure mechanisms. Peak risk years for failure were determined by comparing the conditional probability of failure, the number of failures divided by the total number of TKRs cases, for each year. The median times to failure for the most common failure mechanisms were 4.9 years (interquartile range (IQR) 1.7 to 10.7) for femoral and tibial loosening, 1.9 years (IQR 0.8 to 3.9) for infection, 3.1 years (IQR 1.6 to 5.5) for tibial collapse and 5.6 years (IQR 3.4 to 9.3) for instability. The median time to failure for all revisions was 3.3 years (IQR 1.2 to 8.5), with an overall revision rate of 1.7% (n = 282). Results from our patient population suggest that patients be seen for follow-up at six months, one year, three years, eight years, 12 years, and every five years thereafter. Patients with higher pain in the early post-operative period or high body mass index (≥ 41 kg/m(2)) should be monitored more closely.

  10. [Infective endocarditis. 5-years experience in a third-level reference center in Yucatan, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Sánchez, Angel Emmanuel; Santaularia-Tomas, Miguel; Pérez-Román, Diana Isabel; Cortés-Telles, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Infective endocarditis is a disease with high morbidity and mortality. The clinical characteristics differ among populations. Therefore it is important to know the characteristics of the disease in our region. This is an observational study that included all patients diagnosed with infective endocarditis from 1 January 2009 until 31 December 2014. The data are showed as frequencies and percentages altogether with medians with interquartile range. 10 cases were included. The median age was 34 years (IQR 26-41). Several risk factors were identified and included: previous valvular heart disease, patients with chronic kidney disease who have had a vascular access and previous history of immunological disease. The native mitral valve was the most affected. The size of vegetations had a median length of 14 mm (IQR 9.3-16). Streptococcus alpha hemolytic was the most common organism. In-hospital mortality rate was 10 %. The behavior of the disease is similar to other national series. We identify risk factors that could be related to the type of morbidities in the region.

  11. A tool for assessing the quality of nursing handovers: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Paolo; Terzoni, Stefano; Davì, Salvatore; Bisesti, Alberto; Destrebecq, Anne

    2017-08-10

    Handover, in particular between two shifts, is a crucial aspect of nursing for patient safety, aimed at ensuring continuity of care. During this process, several factors can affect quality of care and cause errors. This study aimed to assess quality of handovers, by validating the Handoff CEX-Italian scale. The scale was translated from English into Italian and the content validity index was calculated and internal consistency assessed. The scale was used in several units of the San Paolo Teaching Hospital in Milan, Italy. A total of 48 reports were assessed (192 evaluations). The median score was 6, interquartile range (IQR) [5;7] and was not influenced by specific (p=0.21) or overall working experience (p=0.13). The domains showing the lowest median values (median=6, IQR [4;8]) were context, communication, and organisation. Night to morning handovers obtained the lowest scores. CVI-S was 0.96, Cronbach's alpha was 0.79. The Handoff CEX-Italian scale is valid and reliable and it can be used to assess the quality of nurse handovers.

  12. Academic Productivity of Faculty Associated With Craniofacial Surgery Fellowship Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Qing Zhao; Ricci, Joseph A; Silvestre, Jason; Ho, Olivia A; Ganor, Oren; Lee, Bernard T

    2017-11-01

    The H-index is increasingly being used as a measure of academic productivity and has been applied to various surgical disciplines. Here the authors calculate the H-index of craniofacial surgery fellowship faculty in North America in order to determine its utility for academic productivity among craniofacial surgeons. A list of fellowship programs was obtained from the website of the American Society of Craniofacial Surgery. Faculty demographics and institution characteristics were obtained from official program websites and the H-index was calculated using Scopus (Elsevier, USA). Data were assessed using bivariate analysis tools (Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests) to determine the relationship between independent variables and career publications, H-index and 5-year H-index (H5-index) of faculty. Dunn test for multiple comparisons was also calculated. A total of 102 faculty members from 29 craniofacial surgery fellowship programs were identified and included. Faculty demographics reflected a median age of 48 (interquartile range [IQR] 13), a predominantly male sample (88/102, 89.7%), and the rank of assistant professor being the most common among faculty members (41/102, 40.2%). Median of career publications per faculty was 37 (IQR 52.5) and medians of H-index and H5-index were 10.0 (IQR 13.75) and 3.5 (IQR 3.25), respectively. Greater age, male gender, Fellow of the American College of Surgeons membership, higher academic rank, and program affiliation with ranked research medical schools were significantly associated with higher H-indices. Variables associated with seniority were positively associated with the H-index. These results suggest that the H-index may be used as an adjunct in determining academic productivity for promotions among craniofacial surgeons.

  13. What is the fate of artificial urinary sphincters among men undergoing repetitive bladder cancer treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mitchell Heiner

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Functional characteristics and durability of the artificial urinary sphincter (AUS among patients who develop bladder cancer has been poorly characterized. We sought to evaluate AUS outcomes among patients subsequently diagnosed with bladder cancer, in order to describe device survivability when subject to diagnostic and therapeutic procedures such as cystoscopy, transurethral resection, and cystectomy. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 1,803 male patients treated with AUS surgery at a single institution between 1983–2014. We describe AUS device outcomes among patients undergoing surveillance and treatment for bladder cancer. Results: Following AUS placement, 14 (0.8% patients were subsequently diagnosed with and treated for bladder cancer and 4 patients with bladder cancer undergoing treatment and screening, subsequently received AUS placement. The median follow-up from device placement was 7.2 years (interquartile range [IQR], 2.8–11.5, and the median time from AUS placement to bladder cancer diagnosis was 6 (IQR, 0–9. There were a total of 8 primary and 1 secondary devices failures. Despite a median of 2 diagnostic cystoscopies (IQR, 1–6 and 0 bladder tumor resections (IQR, 0–0 per patient following device implantation, only 1 (5.6% patient experienced an iatrogenic erosion related to urethral manipulation. Among those undergoing cystectomy (n=4, 1 device was left in situ without complication. Conclusions: Bladder cancer surveillance and treatment with an AUS device in place appears to confer minimal additional risk to AUS survival. Careful attention should be given to device deactivation and use of the smallest caliber instruments available to minimize the risk of iatrogenic urethral erosion.

  14. Hybrid Single-Incision Laparoscopic Colon Cancer Surgery Using One Additional 5 mm Trocar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Ook; Choi, Dae Jin; Lee, Donghyoun; Lee, Sung Ryol; Jung, Kyung Uk; Kim, Hungdai; Chun, Ho-Kyung

    2018-02-01

    Single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) is a feasible and safe procedure for colorectal cancer. However, SILS has some technical limitations such as collision between instruments and inadequate countertraction. We present a hybrid single-incision laparoscopic surgery (hybrid SILS) technique for colon cancer that involves use of one additional 5 mm trocar. Hybrid SILS for colon cancer was attempted in 70 consecutive patients by a single surgeon between August 2014 and July 2016 at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine. Using prospectively collected data, an observational study was performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Hybrid SILS was technically completed in 66 patients, with a failure rate of 5.7% (4/70). One patient was converted to open surgery for para-aortic lymph node dissection. Another was converted to open surgery due to severe peritoneal adhesion. An additional trocar was inserted for adhesiolysis in the other two cases. Median lengths of proximal and distal margins were 12.8 cm (interquartile range [IQR], 10.0-18.6), and 8.2 cm (IQR, 5.5-18.3), respectively. Median total number of lymph nodes harvested was 24 (IQR, 18-33). Overall rate of postoperative morbidity was 12.9%, but there were no Clavien-Dindo grade III or IV complications. There was no postoperative mortality or reoperation. Median postoperative hospital stay was 6 days (IQR, 5-7). Hybrid SILS using one additional 5 mm trocar is a safe and effective minimally invasive surgical technique for colon cancer. Experienced laparoscopic surgeons can perform hybrid SILS without a learning curve based on the formulaic surgical techniques presented in this article.

  15. HIV seroprevalence and high-risk sexual behavior among female sex workers in Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Fernanda R P; Mousquer, Gina J; Castro, Lisie S; Puga, Marco A; Tanaka, Tayana S O; Rezende, Grazielli R; Pinto, Clarice S; Bandeira, Larissa M; Martins, Regina M B; Francisco, Roberta B L; Teles, Sheila A; Motta-Castro, Ana R C

    2014-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) are considered a high-risk group for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection due to their social vulnerability and factors associated with their work. We estimated the prevalence of HIV, and identified viral subtypes and risk factors among FSWs. A cross-sectional study using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method was conducted among 402 FSWs in Campo Grande city, Brazil, from 2009 to 2011. Participants were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire about sociodemograpic characteristics and risk behavior. Blood samples were collected for serological testing of HIV. Of the 402 FSWs, median age and age of initiating sex work were 25 years (Interquartile range [IQR]: 9) and 20 years (IQR: 6), respectively. The majority reported use of alcohol (88.5%), had 5-9 years (median: 9; IQR: 3) of schooling (54.5%), 68.6% had tattoos/body piercings, and 45.1% had more than seven clients per week (median: 7; IQR: 10). Only 32.9% of FSW reported using a condom with nonpaying partners in the last sexual contact. Prevalence of HIV infection was 1.0% (95% CI: 0.1-2.6%). Genotyping for HIV-1 performed on three samples detected subtypes B, C, and F1. Sex work in the Midwestern region of Brazil is characterized by reduced education, large numbers of clients per week, and inconsistent condom use, mainly with nonpaying partners. Although prevalence of HIV infection is currently low, elevated levels of high-risk sexual behavior confirm a need to implement prevention measures. Specific interventions targeting FSWs must emphasize the risk associated with both clients and nonpaying partners while providing knowledge about HIV prevention.

  16. Rapid detection of enterovirus in cerebrospinal fluid by a fully-automated PCR assay is associated with improved management of aseptic meningitis in adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulieri, Stefano G; Chapuis-Taillard, Caroline; Manuel, Oriol; Hugli, Olivier; Pinget, Christophe; Wasserfallen, Jean-Blaise; Sahli, Roland; Jaton, Katia; Marchetti, Oscar; Meylan, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus (EV) is the most frequent cause of aseptic meningitis (AM). Lack of microbiological documentation results in unnecessary antimicrobial therapy and hospitalization. To assess the impact of rapid EV detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by a fully-automated PCR (GeneXpert EV assay, GXEA) on the management of AM. Observational study in adult patients with AM. Three groups were analyzed according to EV documentation in CSF: group A = no PCR or negative PCR (n=17), group B = positive real-time PCR (n = 20), and group C = positive GXEA (n = 22). Clinical, laboratory and health-care costs data were compared. Clinical characteristics were similar in the 3 groups. Median turn-around time of EV PCR decreased from 60 h (IQR (interquartile range) 44-87) in group B to 5h (IQR 4-11) in group C (p<0.0001). Median duration of antibiotics was 1 (IQR 0-6), 1 (0-1.9), and 0.5 days (single dose) in groups A, B, and C, respectively (p < 0.001). Median length of hospitalization was 4 days (2.5-7.5), 2 (1-3.7), and 0.5 (0.3-0.7), respectively (p < 0.001). Median hospitalization costs were $5458 (2676-6274) in group A, $2796 (2062-5726) in group B, and $921 (765-1230) in group C (p < 0.0001). Rapid EV detection in CSF by a fully-automated PCR improves management of AM by significantly reducing antibiotic use, hospitalization length and costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of tumour necrosis factor inhibitor treatment on radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis patients in clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ornbjerg, Lykke Midtbøll; Østergaard, Mikkel; Bøyesen, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    radiographic progression rates during the DMARD (prebaseline to baseline x-ray) and TNF-I (baseline to follow-up x-ray) periods were calculated.RESULTS: 517 RA patients (76% women, 80% IgM rheumatoid factor positive, 65% anticyclic citrullinated peptide positive, 40% current smokers, age 54 years (range 21......OBJECTIVES: To compare radiographic progression during treatment with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) and subsequent treatment with tumour necrosis factor α inhibitors (TNF-I) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in clinical practice.METHODS: Conventional radiographs (x......-1002) and the median TNF-I period was 562 days (IQR 405-766). The median radiographic progression rate decreased from 0.7 (IQR 0-2.9) total Sharp score units/year (dTSS) in the DMARD period to 0 (0-0.9) units/year in the TNF-I period (p0) in the DMARD period compared with 158 patients in the TNF-I period (p...

  18. Safety and Efficacy of Focused Ultrasound Thalamotomy for Patients With Medication-Refractory, Tremor-Dominant Parkinson Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Aaron E; Shah, Binit B; Huss, Diane S; Dallapiazza, Robert F; Warren, Amy; Harrison, Madaline B; Sperling, Scott A; Wang, Xin-Qun; Gwinn, Ryder; Witt, Jennie; Ro, Susie; Elias, W Jeffrey

    2017-12-01

    Clinical trials have confirmed the efficacy of focused ultrasound (FUS) thalamotomy in essential tremor, but its effectiveness and safety for managing tremor-dominant Parkinson disease (TDPD) is unknown. To assess safety and efficacy at 12-month follow-up, accounting for placebo response, of unilateral FUS thalamotomy for patients with TDPD. Of the 326 patients identified from an in-house database, 53 patients consented to be screened. Twenty-six were ineligible, and 27 were randomized (2:1) to FUS thalamotomy or a sham procedure at 2 centers from October18, 2012, to January 8, 2015. The most common reasons for disqualification were withdrawal (8 persons [31%]), and not being medication refractory (8 persons [31%]). Data were analyzed using intention-to-treat analysis, and assessments were double-blinded through the primary outcome. Twenty patients were randomized to unilateral FUS thalamotomy, and 7 to sham procedure. The sham group was offered open-label treatment after unblinding. The predefined primary outcomes were safety and difference in improvement between groups at 3 months in the on-medication treated hand tremor subscore from the Clinical Rating Scale for Tremor (CRST). Secondary outcomes included descriptive results of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores and quality of life measures. Of the 27 patients, 26 (96%) were male and the median age was 67.8 years (interquartile range [IQR], 62.1-73.8 years). On-medication median tremor scores improved 62% (IQR, 22%-79%) from a baseline of 17 points (IQR, 10.5-27.5) following FUS thalamotomy and 22% (IQR, -11% to 29%) from a baseline of 23 points (IQR, 14.0-27.0) after sham procedures; the between-group difference was significant (Wilcoxon P = .04). On-medication median UPDRS motor scores improved 8 points (IQR, 0.5-11.0) from a baseline of 23 points (IQR, 15.5-34.0) following FUS thalamotomy and 1 point (IQR, -5.0 to 9.0) from a baseline of 25 points (IQR, 15.0-33.0) after sham

  19. Progress in the Fight Against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria? A Review of U.S. Food and Drug Administration-Approved Antibiotics, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deak, Dalia; Outterson, Kevin; Powers, John H; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2016-09-06

    A weak antibiotic pipeline and the increase in drug-resistant pathogens have led to calls for more new antibiotics. Eight new antibiotics were approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) between January 2010 and December 2015: ceftaroline, fidaxomicin, bedaquiline, dalbavancin, tedizolid, oritavancin, ceftolozane-tazobactam, and ceftazidime-avibactam. This study evaluates the development course and pivotal trials of these antibiotics for their innovativeness, development process, documented patient outcomes, and cost. Data sources were FDA approval packages and databases (January 2010 to December 2015); the Red Book (Truven Health Analytics); Orange Book: Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations (FDA); and supplementary information from company filings, press releases, and media reports. Four antibiotics were approved for acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infection. Seven had similar mechanisms of action to those of previously approved drugs. Six were initially developed by small to midsized companies, and 7 are currently marketed by 1 of 3 large companies. The drugs spent a median of 6.2 years in clinical trials (interquartile range [IQR], 5.4 to 8.8 years) and 8 months in FDA review (IQR, 7.5 to 8 months). The median number of patients enrolled in the pivotal trials was 666 (IQR, 553 to 739 patients; full range, 44 to 1005 patients), and median trial duration was 18 months (IQR, 15 to 22 months). Seven drugs were approved on the basis of pivotal trials evaluating noninferiority. One drug demonstrated superiority on an exploratory secondary end point, 2 showed decreased efficacy in patients with renal insufficiency, and 1 showed increased mortality compared with older drugs. Seven of the drugs are substantially more expensive than their trial comparators. Limitations are that future research may show benefit to patients, new drugs from older classes may show superior effectiveness in specific patient populations, and

  20. Greater body mass index is a better predictor of subclinical cardiac damage at long-term follow-up in men than is insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Lundgren; Pareek, Manan; Gerke, Oke

    2015-01-01

    -aged, otherwise healthy males. METHODS: Prospective population-based cohort study with a median (IQR) follow-up time of 28 (27-28) years, in which traditional cardiovascular risk factors, including HOMA-%S and BMI, were assessed at baseline, and echocardiographic determination of LVM and LV diastolic function...... was performed at follow-up. Associations between risk factors and echocardiographic variables were tested using multivariable linear and binary logistic regression. RESULTS: The study population comprised 247 men with a median (IQR) age of 47 (47-48) years. Mean (SD) BMI was 25.1 +/- 3.0 kg/m(2), and median......-up, mean (SD) LVM and LVMI were 202 +/- 61 g and 103 +/- 31 g/m(2), respectively, whereas median (IQR) E/é was 10 (8-12). Moreover, 36 % had grade 2 or 3 diastolic dysfunction. In multivariable analyses, greater BMI, but not low insulin sensitivity was independently associated with later detection...

  1. Head-to-head comparison of peak supine bicycle exercise echocardiography and treadmill exercise echocardiography at peak and at post-exercise for the detection of coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteiro, Jesús; Bouzas-Mosquera, Alberto; Estevez, Rodrigo; Pazos, Pablo; Piñeiro, Miriam; Castro-Beiras, Alfonso

    2012-03-01

    Supine bicycle exercise (SBE) echocardiography and treadmill exercise (TME) echocardiography have been used for evaluation of coronary artery disease (CAD). Although peak imaging acquisition has been considered unfeasible with TME, higher sensitivity for the detection of CAD has been recently found with this method compared with post-TME echocardiography. However, peak TME echocardiography has not been previously compared with the more standardized peak SBE echocardiography. The aim of this study was to compare peak TME echocardiography, peak SBE echocardiography, and post-TME echocardiography for the detection of CAD. A series of 116 patients (mean age, 61 ± 10 years) referred for evaluation of CAD underwent SBE (starting at 25 W, with 25-W increments every 2-3 min) and TME with peak and postexercise imaging acquisition, in a random sequence. Digitized images at baseline, at peak TME, after TME, and at peak SBE were interpreted in a random and blinded fashion. All patients underwent coronary angiography. Maximal heart rate was higher during TME, whereas systolic blood pressure was higher during SBE, resulting in similar rate-pressure products. On quantitative angiography, 75 patients had coronary stenosis (≥50%). In these patients, wall motion score indexes at maximal exercise were higher at peak TME (median, 1.45; interquartile range [IQR], 1.13-1.75) than at peak SBE (median, 1.25; IQR, 1.0-1.56) or after TME (median, 1.13; IQR, 1.0-1.38) (P = .002 between peak TME and peak SBE imaging, P peak TME (median, 5; IQR, 2-12) compared with peak SBE (median, 3; IQR, 0-8) or after TME (median, 2; IQR, 0-4) (P peak TME and peak SBE imaging, P peak TME, peak SBE, and post-TME echocardiography for CAD was 84%, 75%, and 60% (P = .001 between post-TME and peak TME echocardiography, P = .055 between post-TME and peak SBE echocardiography), with specificity of 63%, 80%, and 78%, respectively (P = NS) and accuracy of 77%, 77%, and 66%, respectively (P = NS). Peak TME

  2. Characteristics of HIV-Infected Children at Enrollment into Care and at Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation in Central Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebola Adedimeji

    Full Text Available Despite the World Health Organization (WHO regularly updating guidelines to recommend earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART in children, timely enrollment into care and initiation of ART in sub-Saharan Africa in children lags behind that of adults. The impact of implementing increasingly less restrictive ART guidelines on ART initiation in Central Africa has not been described.Data are from the Central Africa International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA pediatric cohort of 3,426 children (0-15 years entering HIV care at 15 sites in Burundi, DRC, and Rwanda. Measures include CD4 count, WHO clinical stage, age, and weight-for-age Z score (WAZ, each at enrollment into HIV care and at ART initiation. Changes in the medians or proportions of each measure by year of enrollment and year of ART initiation were assessed to capture potential impacts of changing ART guidelines.Median age at care enrollment decreased from 77.2 months in 2004-05 to 30.3 months in 2012-13. The median age at ART initiation (n = 2058 decreased from 83.0 months in 2004-05 to 66.9 months in 2012-13. The proportion of children ≤24 months of age at enrollment increased from 12.7% in 2004-05 to 46.7% in 2012-13, and from 9.6% in 2004-05 to 24.2% in 2012-13 for ART initiation. The median CD4 count at enrollment into care increased from 563 (IQR: 275, 901 in 2004-05 to 660 (IQR: 339, 1071 cells/μl in 2012-13, and the median CD4 count at ART initiation increased from 310 (IQR:167, 600 in 2004-05 to 589 (IQR: 315, 1113 cells/μl in 2012-13. From 2004-05 to 2012-13, median WAZ improved from -2 (IQR: -3.4, -1.1 to -1 (IQR: -2.5, -0.2 at enrollment in care and from -2 (IQR: -3.8, -1.6 to -1 (IQR: -2.6, -0.4 at ART initiation.Although HIV-infected children ≤24 months of age accounted for half of all children enrolling in care in our cohort during 2012-13, they represented less than a quarter of all those who were initiated on ART during the same period

  3. MEDIAN: Wireless broadband LAN for multimedia applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, P.J. van

    1998-01-01

    MEDIAN is one of the projects in the mobile domain of the Advanced Communications Technologies and Services (ACTS) programme of the European Commission. The main obiective of the MEDIAN project is to evaluate and implement a high speed Wireless Customer Premises / Local Area Network (WCPN/WLAN)

  4. On Preliminary Test Estimator for Median

    OpenAIRE

    Okazaki, Takeo; 岡崎, 威生

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to discuss about estimation of median with a preliminary test. Two procedures are presented, one uses Median test and the other uses Wilcoxon two-sample test for the preliminary test. Sections 3 and 4 give mathematical formulations of such properties, including mean square errors with one specified case. Section 5 discusses their optimal significance levels of the preliminary test and proposes their numerical values by Monte Carlo method. In addition to mea...

  5. Characteristics of HIV-1 serodiscordant couples enrolled in a clinical trial of antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mujugira

    Full Text Available Stable heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Africa have high HIV-1 transmission rates and are a critical population for evaluation of new HIV-1 prevention strategies. The Partners PrEP Study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of tenofovir and emtricitabine-tenofovir pre-exposure prophylaxis to decrease HIV-1 acquisition within heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. We describe the trial design and characteristics of the study cohort.HIV-1 serodiscordant couples, in which the HIV-1 infected partner did not meet national guidelines for initiation of antiretroviral therapy, were enrolled at 9 research sites in Kenya and Uganda. The HIV-1 susceptible partner was randomized to daily oral tenofovir, emtricitabine-tenofovir, or matching placebo with monthly follow-up for 24-36 months.From July 2008 to November 2010, 7920 HIV-1 serodiscordant couples were screened and 4758 enrolled. For 62% (2966/4758 of enrolled couples, the HIV-1 susceptible partner was male. Median age was 33 years for HIV-1 susceptible and HIV-1 infected partners [IQR (28-40 and (26-39 respectively]. Most couples (98% were married, with a median duration of partnership of 7.0 years (IQR 3.0-14.0 and recent knowledge of their serodiscordant status [median 0.4 years (IQR 0.1-2.0]. During the month prior to enrollment, couples reported a median of 4 sex acts (IQR 2-8; 27% reported unprotected sex and 14% of male and 1% of female HIV-1 susceptible partners reported sex with outside partners. Among HIV-1 infected partners, the median plasma HIV-1 level was 3.94 log(10 copies/mL (IQR 3.31-4.53 and median CD4 count was 496 cells/µL (IQR 375-662; the majority (64% had WHO stage 1 HIV-1 disease.Couples at high risk of HIV-1 transmission were rapidly recruited into the Partners PrEP Study, the largest efficacy trial of oral PrEP. (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00557245.

  6. Long-term quality of life in children treated for posterior fossa brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Piscione, Janine; Shams, Iffat; Bouffet, Eric

    2013-09-01

    In the face of increasing survival, quality of life (QOL) has become an important indicator of treatment success in children with posterior fossa brain tumors (PFBTs). The authors' objective was to assess the long-term QOL in survivors of PFBT. The authors conducted a cross-sectional study of children who, between birth and age 18 years at diagnosis, had previously been treated at their institution for a PFBT. At the time of assessment for this study, children were between 5 and 19 years old and had received standard treatment for PFBT ending at least 6 months before the assessment. The QOL was measured with the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) generic score scales and the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3). Multivariate analyses were used to assess several variables (patient related, treatment related, and socioeconomic) for association with QOL. A total of 62 children participated in the study (median age at assessment 11.9 years, interquartile range [IQR] 7.8-14.8, and median age at tumor diagnosis of 4.9 years, IQR 2.5-6.9). Median time since active treatment for their PFBT was 5.2 years (IQR 2.4-10.1). Tumor types included cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma (45.2%), medulloblastoma (30.6%), ependymoma (11.3%), and brainstem astrocytoma (11.3%). Adjuvant therapy included chemotherapy (40.3%) or radiotherapy (14.5% focal and 21.0% craniospinal radiotherapy). Permanent treatment for hydrocephalus was required in 38.7% of the patients. Tumors recurred in 11.3%, requiring repeat treatment in these patients. The median HUI3 utility score was 0.91 (IQR 0.71-1.00) and the median PedsQL total score was 78.3 (IQR 64.1-92.4). Only the following variables were significantly associated with decreased QOL in multivariable model testing (all p size, decreased family functioning, and lower family income. As a group, long-term survivors of pediatric PFBT appear to have QOL indicators that are similar to those of the general population, although a reasonable

  7. Hamstring Reinjuries Occur at the Same Location and Early After Return to Sport: A Descriptive Study of MRI-Confirmed Reinjuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, Arnlaug; Tol, Johannes L; Witvrouw, Erik; Van Linschoten, Robbart; Almusa, Emad; Hamilton, Bruce; Bahr, Roald

    2016-08-01

    Despite relatively high reinjury rates after acute hamstring injuries, there is a lack of detailed knowledge about where and when hamstring reinjuries occur, and studies including imaging-confirmed reinjuries are scarce. To investigate the location, radiological severity, and timing of reinjuries on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compared with the index injury. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A MRI scan was obtained ≤5 days after an acute hamstring index injury in 180 athletes, and time to return to sport (RTS) was registered. Athletes with an MRI-confirmed reinjury in the same leg ≤365 days after RTS were included. Categorical grading and standardized MRI parameters of the index injury and reinjury were scored by a single radiologist (with excellent intraobserver reliability). To determine the location of the reinjury, axial and coronal views of the index injury and reinjury were directly compared on proton density-weighted fat-suppressed images. In the 19 athletes included with reinjury, 79% of these reinjuries occurred in the same location within the muscle as the index injury. The median time to RTS after the index injury was 19 days (range, 5-37 days; interquartile range [IQR], 15 days). The median time between the index injury and reinjury was 60 days (range, 20-316 days; IQR, 131 days) and the median time between RTS after the index injury and the reinjury was 24 days (range, 4-311 days; IQR, 140 days). More than 50% of reinjuries occurred within 25 days (4 weeks) after RTS from the index injury and 50% occurred within 50 days after the index injury. All reinjuries with more severe radiological grading occurred in the same location as the index injury. The majority of the hamstring reinjuries occurred in the same location as the index injury, early after RTS and with a radiologically greater extent, suggesting incomplete biological and/or functional healing of the index injury. Specific exercise programs focusing on reinjury prevention initiated

  8. Assessment of the biomass related indoor air pollution in Kwale district in Kenya using short term monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdan, Marek; Svaro, Miroslav; Bodo, Jan; Taylor, Mark; Muendo, Redempta Malinda

    2015-09-01

    Indoor air pollution remains an important health problem in some countries. Although research data on this issue is available, routine monitoring in affected areas is limited. The aims of this study were to quantify exposure to biomass-related indoor air pollution; assess the respiratory health of subjects; and explore the feasibility of routine monitoring in Kwale district, Kenya. We sampled 125 rural houses using short-term monitoring for levels of CO, CO2 and TSP. Additional exposure information was obtained using a checklist. Respiratory health was also assessed using a questionnaire, and electronic spirometer in 172 inhabitants. The overall median levels of CO in the sampled houses on all study sites ranged from 5.9 (IQR 3-14.5) to 10 (5.5-21.2) mg/m3, levels of CO2 ranged from 774 (IQR 724-846) to 839 (IQR 749-961) mg/m3) and the levels of TSP ranged from 295 (IQR 79-853 to 1384 (IQR 557-3110) µg/m(3) which indicates that safe levels recommended by WHO and USEPA could be exceeded. Relatively high incidences of respiratory illness or symptoms were reported and the spirometry readings suggested impaired lung function in over 80% of respondents. Our results quantify that the use of biomass fuel can give rise to high levels of indoor air pollution. Given that poor lung function contributes to public health problems in rural regions of East Africa, such as Kwale in Kenya, our findings create grounds for more detailed investigations of the problem and may provide motivation for community based interventions.

  9. Outcomes of Multiple Listing for Adult Heart Transplantation in the United States: Analysis of OPTN Data From 2000 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, Raymond C; Dardas, Todd; Clerkin, Kevin J; Restaino, Susan; Schulze, P Christian; Mancini, Donna M

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to assess the association of multiple listing with waitlist outcomes and post-heart transplant (HT) survival. HT candidates in the United States may register at multiple centers. Not all candidates have the resources and mobility needed for multiple listing; thus this policy may advantage wealthier and less sick patients. We identified 33,928 adult candidates for a first single-organ HT between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2013 in the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network database. We identified 679 multiple-listed (ML) candidates (2.0%) who were younger (median age, 53 years [interquartile range (IQR): 43 to 60 years] vs. 55 years [IQR: 45 to 61 years]; p < 0.0001), more often white (76.4% vs. 70.7%; p = 0.0010) and privately insured (65.5% vs. 56.3%; p < 0.0001), and lived in zip codes with higher median incomes (US$90,153 [IQR: US$25,471 to US$253,831] vs. US$68,986 [IQR: US$19,471 to US$219,702]; p = 0.0015). Likelihood of ML increased with the primary center's median waiting time. ML candidates had lower initial priority (39.0% 1A or 1B vs. 55.1%; p < 0.0001) and predicted 90-day waitlist mortality (2.9% [IQR: 2.3% to 4.7%] vs. 3.6% [IQR: 2.3% to 6.0]%; p < 0.0001), but were frequently upgraded at secondary centers (58.2% 1A/1B; p < 0.0001 vs. ML primary listing). ML candidates had a higher HT rate (74.4% vs. 70.2%; p = 0.0196) and lower waitlist mortality (8.1% vs. 12.2%; p = 0.0011). Compared with a propensity-matched cohort, the relative ML HT rate was 3.02 (95% confidence interval: 2.59 to 3.52; p < 0.0001). There were no post-HT survival differences. Multiple listing is a rational response to organ shortage but may advantage patients with the means to participate rather than the most medically needy. The multiple-listing policy should be overturned. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Internal Urethrotomy With Intralesional Mitomycin C: An Effective Option for Endoscopic Management of Recurrent Bulbar and Bulbomembranous Urethral Strictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, M Ryan; Lawrenz, Cedric W; Levine, Laurence A

    2017-12-01

    To describe our experience with direct visual internal urethrotomy (DVIU) and mitomycin C (MMC) for recurrent bulbar and bulbomembranous urethral strictures of radiation and non-radiation-induced etiologies. We reviewed our database of consecutive patients presenting to our tertiary care institution with recurrent bulbar and bulbomembranous urethral strictures who underwent DVIU with MMC from 2011 to 2016. Patients were stratified by radiation-induced strictures (RIS) vs non-RIS. Cold-knife incisions were made at 12-, 3-, and 9-o'clock positions followed by intralesional injection of 10 mL MMC (0.4 mg/mL) in 0.2-0.4 mL aliquots and 1 month of postoperative daily clean intermittent catheterization (CIC). All 44 patients (RIS n = 18, non-RIS n = 26) failed prior endoscopic management or urethroplasty. Median stricture length was 2.0 cm (interquartile range [IQR] 1.0-2.5). Over a median follow-up of 25.8 months (IQR 12.9-47.2), 75.0% of patients (33/44) required no additional surgical intervention (RIS 12/18, 66.7%; non-RIS 21/26, 80.8%). Median time to stricture recurrence among those who recurred was 10.7 months (IQR 3.9-17.6; RIS 9.4 months, IQR 3.5-17.6; non-RIS 11.2 months, IQR 8.0-25.6). Four patients (RIS n = 2, non-RIS n = 2) elected to undergo urethroplasty for recurrence. A second DVIU with MMC was performed in the remaining recurrences (n = 7) with no further surgical intervention required in 37 of 40 of patients (92.5%) overall (RIS 14/16, 87.5%; non-RIS 23/24, 95.8%). No long-term complications were attributable to MMC. DVIU with MMC and short-term CIC for recurrent, short, bulbar and bulbomembranous urethral strictures is a safe endoscopic modality with promising early results. This approach may be useful for patients who are suboptimal candidates for open reconstruction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-term functional outcomes after radical cystectomy with ileal bladder substitute: does the definition of continence matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedberg, Fredrik; Ahlgren, Göran; Baseckas, Gediminas; Gudjonsson, Sigurdur; Håkansson, Ulf; Lindquist, Sara; Löfgren, Annica; Patschan, Oliver; Siller, Carina; Sjödahl, Gottfrid

    2017-02-01

    Functional outcomes after ileal bladder substitution reflect the expectations of future patients at a particular centre. The aim of this study was to use validated questionnaires and a pad-weighing test to investigate functional outcomes after neobladder reconstruction at long-term follow-up in patients at a single centre. During 2005 - 2015, 75 patients received a Studer ileal bladder substitute at the Department of Urology, Malmö. Forty-six of these patients were alive for follow-up and were evaluated using the pad-weighing test and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence Short Form (ICIQ-UI-SF), the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). Five of 37 evaluable patients (14%) were considered fully continent, reporting a pad-weighing test result of 0 g and an ICIQ-UI-SF score of 0. The median ICIQ-UI-SF score was 8 [interquartile range (IQR) 3-11], and seven patients (17%) were continent according to the ICIQ-UI-SF score only. In the pad-weighing test, 28 out of 37 patients (76%) reported 0 g day-time leakage whereas only 12 out of 37 patients (32%) reported 0 g night-time leakage. At follow-up, nine out of 39 (23%) of evaluable male patients were potent. The median ICIQ-UI-SF score was significantly lower during the second half of the study period [4 (IQR 0-8) vs 10 (IQR 6-14); p = .003]. The inverse applied to the median IIEF score [5 (IQR 3-12) vs 2 (IQR 1-4); p = .02]. Functional outcomes at long-term follow-up after radical cystectomy and Studer ileal bladder substitute were at best modest in this series. Better outcomes during the second half of the study period might be explained by improved patient selection and a refined surgical technique, but possibly also by longer follow-up of patients during the first half of the period resulting in a more pronounced time-dependent decline in functional outcomes.

  12. Very low calorie diet without aspartame in obese subjects: improved metabolic control after 4 weeks treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norén, Erik; Forssell, Henrik

    2014-07-28

    Very low calorie diet (VLCD) is routinely used in programs for treatment of obesity and before bariatric surgery in order to reduce risk of postoperative complications. Aspartame, an artificial sweetener, is commonly used in VLCD and is well approved as a food additive without any adverse effects. The development of a new fructose containing VLCD formula without aspartame raises questions as to effects on glucose and lipid control. As part of an ongoing study of a novel bariatric surgery procedure, twenty-five obese subjects with mean body mass index (BMI) 39.8 kg/m2 and mean age of 48.8 years enrolled in a single center observational study. Seven subjects presented with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The subjects underwent four weeks dietary treatment with VLCD Slanka (Slanka). Blood samples including fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, cholesterol and triglycerides were performed at start and after four weeks of diet. Blood pressure and weight were noted. All subjects completed the diet without any adverse events. Mean weight reduction was 8.2 kg with 95% confidence interval 7.1-9.2 kg (p = 0.001). Excess weight (i.e. proportion of weight exceeding BMI 25) loss decreased by median 19.5% (inter quartile range (IQR) 16,8-24,2). Median fasting plasma glucose was at inclusion 5,6 mmol/l (IQR 5,3-6,8) and after diet 4.8 mmol/l (IQR 4,6-5,2) (p = 0.001). Median HbA1c changed from 39 mmol/mol (IQR 37-44) to 37 mmol/mol (IQR 35-43) (p = 0.001). There was also significant reduction in cholesterol and triglyceride levels as well as in systolic blood pressure. Changes in other monitored blood chemistry values were without clinical importance. Four weeks treatment with fructose containing VLCD of obese subjects preparing for bariatric surgery gave a substantial weight reduction without any significant negative metabolic effects.

  13. Early docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid supplementation in extremely-low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Daniel T; Caplan, Michael; Carlson, Susan E; Yoder, Rachel; Murthy, Karna; Frost, Brandy

    2016-10-01

    Extremely-low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants accrue large deficits in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) and require improved supplementation strategies. We hypothesized that once daily DHA+ARA drops applied to buccal mucosa will increase blood levels. Thirty ELBW infants were randomized to receive DHA 20 mg/kg/d + ARA 40 or 60 mg/kg/d + ARA 120 mg/kg/d or placebo within 72 h of age for 8 wk duration. Red blood cell phospholipid levels of DHA (primary) and ARA (secondary) were measured at 2 and 8 wk of age. Twenty-eight survivors with a median birth weight of 806 g completed dosing and sampling. Red blood cell levels were similar between the three groups at 2 wk (DHA: 4.62 wt% (interquartile range (IQR) 4.1-5.5) for all, P = 0.29 between groups; ARA: 21.1 wt% (IQR 18.78-22.6) for all, P = 0.41 between groups) and 8 wk (DHA: 6.0 wt% (IQR 5.1-7.1) for all, P = 0.57 between groups; ARA: 20.1 wt% (IQR 18.3-23.1) for all, P = 0.63 between groups). DHA in all infants showed a median increase of 31% from 2 to 8 wk (P 0.6). Daily buccal DHA and ARA supplements did not affect fatty acid levels in ELBW infants.

  14. Quantitative attenuation analysis for identification of early Barrett's neoplasia in volumetric laser endomicroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swager, Anne-Fre; Faber, Dirk J.; de Bruin, Daniel M.; Weusten, Bas L.; Meijer, Sybren L.; Bergman, Jacques J.; Curvers, Wouter L.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    2017-08-01

    Early neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus (BE) is difficult to detect. Volumetric laser endomicroscopy (VLE) incorporates optical coherence tomography, providing a circumferential scan of the esophageal wall layers. The attenuation coefficient (μVLE) quantifies decay of detected backscattered light versus depth, and could potentially improve BE neoplasia detection. The aim is to investigate feasibility of μVLE for identification of early BE neoplasia. In vivo and ex vivo VLE scans with histological correlation from BE patients ± neoplasia were used. Quantification by μVLE was performed manually on areas of interest (AoIs) to differentiate neoplasia from nondysplastic (ND)BE. From ex vivo VLE scans from 16 patients (13 with neoplasia), 68 AoIs were analyzed. Median μVLE values (mm-1) were 3.7 [2.1 to 4.4 interquartile range (IQR)] for NDBE and 4.0 (2.5 to 4.9 IQR) for neoplasia, not statistically different (p=0.82). Fourteen in vivo scans were used: nine from neoplastic and five from NDBE patients. Median μVLE values were 1.8 (1.5 to 2.6 IQR) for NDBE and 2.1 (1.9 to 2.6 IQR) for neoplasia, with no statistically significant difference (p=0.37). In conclusion, there was no significant difference in μVLE values in VLE scans from early neoplasia versus NDBE. Future studies with a larger sample size should explore other quantitative methods for detection of neoplasia during BE surveillance.

  15. Compliance with nutrition support guidelines in acutely burned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Brennen; Graves, Caran; Faraklas, Iris; Cochran, Amalia

    2012-08-01

    Adequate and timely provision of nutritional support is a crucial component of care of the critically ill burn patient. The goal of this study was to assess a single center's consistency with Society of Critical Care Medicine/American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (SCCM/ASPEN) guidelines for nutritional support in critically ill patients. Acutely burned patients >45kg in weight admitted to a regional burn center during a two-year period and who required 5 or more days of full enteral nutritional support were eligible for inclusion in this retrospective review. Specific outcomes evaluated include time from admission to feeding tube placement and enteral feeding initiation and percent of nutritional goal received within the first week of hospital stay. Descriptive statistics were used for all analyses. IRB approval was obtained. Thirty-seven patients were included in this retrospective review. Median age of patients was 44.9 years (IQR: 24.2-55.1), and median burn injury size was 30% (IQR: 19-47). Median time to feeding tube placement was 31.1h post admission (IQR: 23.6-50.2h), while median time to initiation of EN was 47.9h post admission (IQR: 32.4-59.9h). The median time required for patients to reach 60% of caloric goal was 3 days post-admission (IQR: 3-4.5). The median time for initiation of enteral nutrition was within the SCCM/ASPEN guidelines for initial nutrition in the critically ill patient. This project identified a 16h time lag between placement of enteral access and initiation of enteral nutrition. Development of a protocol for feeding tube placement and enteral nutrition management may optimize early nutritional support in the acutely injured burn patient. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Hospital costs and revenue are similar for resuscitated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and ST-segment acute myocardial infarction patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swor, Robert; Lucia, Victoria; McQueen, Kelly; Compton, Scott

    2010-06-01

    Care provided to patients who survive to hospital admission after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA) is sometimes viewed as expensive and a poor use of hospital resources. The objective was to describe financial parameters of care for patients resuscitated from OOHCA. This was a retrospective review of OOHCA patients admitted to one academic teaching hospital from January 2004 to October 2007. Demographic data, length of stay (LOS), and discharge disposition were obtained for all patients. Financial parameters of patient care including total cost, net revenue, and operating margin were calculated by hospital cost accounting and reported as median and interquartile range (IQR). Groups were dichotomized by survival to discharge for subgroup analysis. To provide a reference group for context, similar financial data were obtained for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients admitted during the same time period, reported with medians and IQRs. During the study period, there were 72 admitted OOCHA patients and 404 STEMI patients. OOCHA and STEMI groups were similar for age, sex, and insurance type. Overall, 27 (38.6%) OOHCA patients survived to hospital discharge. Median LOS for OOHCA patients was 4 days (IQR = 1-8 days), with most of those hospitalized for Financial parameters for OOHCA patients are similar to those of STEMI patients. Financial issues should not be a negative incentive to providing care for these patients. (c) 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  17. Sputum Microscopy With Fluorescein Diacetate Predicts Tuberculosis Infectiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sumona; Sherman, Jonathan M; Tovar, Marco A; Bravard, Marjory A; Valencia, Teresa; Montoya, Rosario; Quino, Willi; D'Arcy, Nikki; Ramos, Eric S; Gilman, Robert H; Evans, Carlton A

    2017-09-01

    Sputum from patients with tuberculosis contains subpopulations of metabolically active and inactive Mycobacterium tuberculosis with unknown implications for infectiousness. We assessed sputum microscopy with fluorescein diacetate (FDA, evaluating M. tuberculosis metabolic activity) for predicting infectiousness. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was quantified in pretreatment sputum of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis using FDA microscopy, culture, and acid-fast microscopy. These 35 patients' 209 household contacts were followed with prevalence surveys for tuberculosis disease for 6 years. FDA microscopy was positive for a median of 119 (interquartile range [IQR], 47-386) bacteria/µL sputum, which was 5.1% (IQR, 2.4%-11%) the concentration of acid-fast microscopy-positive bacteria (2069 [IQR, 1358-3734] bacteria/μL). Tuberculosis was diagnosed during follow-up in 6.4% (13/209) of contacts. For patients with lower than median concentration of FDA microscopy-positive M. tuberculosis, 10% of their contacts developed tuberculosis. This was significantly more than 2.7% of the contacts of patients with higher than median FDA microscopy results (crude hazard ratio [HR], 3.8; P = .03). This association maintained statistical significance after adjusting for disease severity, chemoprophylaxis, drug resistance, and social determinants (adjusted HR, 3.9; P = .02). Mycobacterium tuberculosis that was FDA microscopy negative was paradoxically associated with greater infectiousness. FDA microscopy-negative bacteria in these pretreatment samples may be a nonstaining, slowly metabolizing phenotype better adapted to airborne transmission. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  18. Comparisons of citations in Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar for articles published in general medical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Aziz, Brittany; Shams, Iffat; Busse, Jason W

    2009-09-09

    Until recently, Web of Science was the only database available to track citation counts for published articles. Other databases are now available, but their relative performance has not been established. To compare the citation count profiles of articles published in general medical journals among the citation databases of Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar. Cohort study of 328 articles published in JAMA, Lancet, or the New England Journal of Medicine between October 1, 1999, and March 31, 2000. Total citation counts for each article up to June 2008 were retrieved from Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar. Article characteristics were analyzed in linear regression models to determine interaction with the databases. Number of citations received by an article since publication and article characteristics associated with citation in databases. Google Scholar and Scopus retrieved more citations per article with a median of 160 (interquartile range [IQR], 83 to 324) and 149 (IQR, 78 to 289), respectively, than Web of Science (median, 122; IQR, 66 to 241) (P Scopus retrieved more citations from non-English-language sources (median, 10.2% vs 4.1%) and reviews (30.8% vs 18.2%), and fewer citations from articles (57.2% vs 70.5%), editorials (2.1% vs 5.9%), and letters (0.8% vs 2.6%) (all P Scopus, and Google Scholar produced quantitatively and qualitatively different citation counts for articles published in 3 general medical journals.

  19. Unreported links between trial registrations and published articles were identified using document similarity measures in a cross-sectional analysis of ClinicalTrials.gov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Adam G; Coiera, Enrico; Bourgeois, Florence T

    2018-03-01

    Trial registries can be used to measure reporting biases and support systematic reviews, but 45% of registrations do not provide a link to the article reporting on the trial. We evaluated the use of document similarity methods to identify unreported links between ClinicalTrials.gov and PubMed. We extracted terms and concepts from a data set of 72,469 ClinicalTrials.gov registrations and 276,307 PubMed articles and tested methods for ranking articles across 16,005 reported links and 90 manually identified unreported links. Performance was measured by the median rank of matching articles and the proportion of unreported links that could be found by screening ranked candidate articles in order. The best-performing concept-based representation produced a median rank of 3 (interquartile range [IQR] 1-21) for reported links and 3 (IQR 1-19) for the manually identified unreported links, and term-based representations produced a median rank of 2 (1-20) for reported links and 2 (IQR 1-12) in unreported links. The matching article was ranked first for 40% of registrations, and screening 50 candidate articles per registration identified 86% of the unreported links. Leveraging the growth in the corpus of reported links between ClinicalTrials.gov and PubMed, we found that document similarity methods can assist in the identification of unreported links between trial registrations and corresponding articles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of the effect of rocuronium dosing based on corrected or lean body weight on rapid sequence induction and neuromuscular blockade duration in obese female patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakızcı-Uyar, Bahar; Çelik, Şeref; Postacı, Aysun; Bayraktar, Yeşim; Dikmen, Bayazit; Özkoçak-Turan, Işıl; Saçan, Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To compare onset time, duration of action, and tracheal intubation conditions in obese patients when the intubation dose of rocuronium was based on corrected body weight (CBW) versus lean body weight (LBW) for rapid sequence induction. Methods: This prospective study was carried out at Numune Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey between August 2013 and May 2014. Forty female obese patients scheduled for laparoscopic surgery under general anesthesia were randomized into 2 groups. Group CBW (n=20) received 1.2 mg/kg rocuronium based on CBW, and group LBW (n=20) received 1.2 mg/kg rocuronium based on LBW. Endotracheal intubation was performed 60 seconds after injection of muscle relaxant, and intubating conditions were evaluated. Neuromuscular transmission was monitored using acceleromyography of the adductor pollicis. Onset time, defined as time to depression of the twitch tension to 95% of its control value, and duration of action, defined as time to achieve one response to train-of-four stimulation (T1) were recorded. Results: No significant differences were observed between the groups in intubation conditions or onset time (50-60 seconds median, 30-30 interquartile range [IQR]). Duration of action was significantly longer in the CBW group (60 minutes median, 12 IQR) than the LBW group (35 minutes median, 16 IQR; procuronium based on LBW provides excellent or good tracheal intubating conditions within 60 seconds after administration and does not lead to prolonged duration of action. PMID:26739976

  1. Transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus in children weighing 10 kg or less: Initial experience at Sohag University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Safaa; El Sisi, Amel

    2016-04-01

    To assess the challenges, feasibility, and efficacy of device closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in small children weighing ⩽10 kg for different types of devices used in an initial experience at Sohag University hospital. Between March 2011 and September 2014, 91 patients with PDA underwent transcatheter closure in our institute, among whom 54 weighed ⩽10 kg. All of these patients underwent transcatheter closure of PDA using either a Cook Detachable Coil, PFM Nit-Occlud, or Amplatzer duct occluder. A retrospective review of the treatment results and adverse events was performed. Successful device placement was achieved in 53/54 small children (98.1%). The median minimum PDA diameter was 2.4 mm [interquartile range (IQR, 1.8-3.5 mm), median weight 8 kg (IQR, 7-10 kg), and median age 10 months (IQR, 8-17 months)]. Mild aortic obstruction occurred in one case (1.9%), as the device became displaced towards the aorta after release. The device embolized in one case (1.9%) and no retrieval attempt was made. Five cases (9.3%) had minor vascular complications. With the current availability of devices for PDA closure, transcatheter closure of PDA is considered safe and efficacious in small children weighing ⩽10 kg with good mid-term outcome. The procedure had a low rate of high-severity adverse events even with the initial experience of the catheterization laboratory.

  2. Nonalbumin proteinuria predominates in biopsy-proven tenofovir nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sise, Meghan E; Hirsch, Jamie S; Canetta, Pietro A; Herlitz, Leal; Mohan, Sumit

    2015-05-15

    Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) nephrotoxicity is characterized by proximal renal tubular injury and dysmorphic mitochondria resulting in proteinuria, orthoglycemic glycosuria, and other markers of proximal tubular dysfunction. The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of proteinuria in patients with biopsy-proven TDF nephrotoxicity. Retrospective chart review. Patients with biopsy-proven TDF nephrotoxicity were identified and their medical charts and biopsy reports were reviewed. Comparison was made with HIV-infected patients not on TDF who underwent kidney biopsy. We identified 43 biopsy-proven cases of TDF nephrotoxicity; mean age 54.7 ± 0.4 years, 53% men, 42% whites. Thirty-seven cases reported proteinuria by dipstick of which only 60% had at least 2+ proteinuria. Twenty-seven patients had urine protein quantified by either 24-h collection or spot urine protein-to-creatinine ratio; median proteinuria was 1742 mg/day [interquartile range (IQR) 1200-2000 mg] and 1667 mg/g creatinine (IQR 851-1967 mg/g), respectively. Ten patients had concurrent urinary albumin measured, with a median 236 mg/g creatinine (IQR 137-343 mg/g). The mean urine albumin-to-urine protein ratio (uAPR) was 0.17 (IQR 0.14-0.19), confirming that TDF nephrotoxicity is primarily associated with nonalbumin proteinuria. Control cases had a uAPR of 0.65 (IQR 0.55-0.79) P < 0.001. Histopathology showed the predominance of proximal tubular injury with characteristic mitochondrial abnormalities. In the largest published cohort of patients with biopsy-proven TDF nephrotoxicity, we show that low uAPR is a reliable feature of this disease. Because of the predominance of nonalbumin proteinuria, dipstick urinalysis may be unreliable in TDF nephrotoxicity.

  3. Procalcitonin Levels in Gram-Positive, Gram-Negative, and Fungal Bloodstream Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Leli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Procalcitonin (PCT can discriminate bacterial from viral systemic infections and true bacteremia from contaminated blood cultures. The aim of this study was to evaluate PCT diagnostic accuracy in discriminating Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and fungal bloodstream infections. A total of 1,949 samples from patients with suspected bloodstream infections were included in the study. Median PCT value in Gram-negative (13.8 ng/mL, interquartile range (IQR 3.4–44.1 bacteremias was significantly higher than in Gram-positive (2.1 ng/mL, IQR 0.6–7.6 or fungal (0.5 ng/mL, IQR 0.4–1 infections (P<0.0001. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed an area under the curve (AUC for PCT of 0.765 (95% CI 0.725–0.805, P<0.0001 in discriminating Gram-negatives from Gram-positives at the best cut-off value of 10.8 ng/mL and an AUC of 0.944 (95% CI 0.919–0.969, P<0.0001 in discriminating Gram-negatives from fungi at the best cut-off of 1.6 ng/mL. Additional results showed a significant difference in median PCT values between Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermentative Gram-negative bacteria (17.1 ng/mL, IQR 5.9–48.5 versus 3.5 ng/mL, IQR 0.8–21.5; P<0.0001. This study suggests that PCT may be of value to distinguish Gram-negative from Gram-positive and fungal bloodstream infections. Nevertheless, its utility to predict different microorganisms needs to be assessed in further studies.

  4. Dual pathology proximal median nerve compression of the forearm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Siun M

    2013-12-01

    We report an unusual case of synchronous pathology in the forearm- the coexistence of a large lipoma of the median nerve together with an osteochondroma of the proximal ulna, giving rise to a dual proximal median nerve compression. Proximal median nerve compression neuropathies in the forearm are uncommon compared to the prevalence of distal compression neuropathies (eg Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). Both neural fibrolipomas (Refs. 1,2) and osteochondromas of the proximal ulna (Ref. 3) in isolation are rare but well documented. Unlike that of a distal compression, a proximal compression of the median nerve will often have a definite cause. Neural fibrolipoma, also called fibrolipomatous hamartoma are rare, slow-growing, benign tumours of peripheral nerves, most often occurring in the median nerve of younger patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such dual pathology in the same forearm, giving rise to a severe proximal compression of the median nerve. In this case, the nerve was being pushed anteriorly by the osteochondroma, and was being compressed from within by the intraneural lipoma. This unusual case highlights the advantage of preoperative imaging as part of the workup of proximal median nerve compression.

  5. Efficient Scalable Median Filtering Using Histogram-Based Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Oded

    2018-05-01

    Median filtering is a smoothing technique for noise removal in images. While there are various implementations of median filtering for a single-core CPU, there are few implementations for accelerators and multi-core systems. Many parallel implementations of median filtering use a sorting algorithm for rearranging the values within a filtering window and taking the median of the sorted value. While using sorting algorithms allows for simple parallel implementations, the cost of the sorting becomes prohibitive as the filtering windows grow. This makes such algorithms, sequential and parallel alike, inefficient. In this work, we introduce the first software parallel median filtering that is non-sorting-based. The new algorithm uses efficient histogram-based operations. These reduce the computational requirements of the new algorithm while also accessing the image fewer times. We show an implementation of our algorithm for both the CPU and NVIDIA's CUDA supported graphics processing unit (GPU). The new algorithm is compared with several other leading CPU and GPU implementations. The CPU implementation has near perfect linear scaling with a speedup on a quad-core system. The GPU implementation is several orders of magnitude faster than the other GPU implementations for mid-size median filters. For small kernels, and , comparison-based approaches are preferable as fewer operations are required. Lastly, the new algorithm is open-source and can be found in the OpenCV library.

  6. Nurse practitioner coverage is associated with a decrease in length of stay in a pediatric chronic ventilator dependent unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Courtney M; Cristea, A Ioana; Hamilton, Jennifer C; Taylor, Nicole M; Nitu, Mara E; Ackerman, Veda L

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To hypothesize a dedicated critical care nurse practitioner (NP) is associated with a decreased length of stay (LOS) from a pediatric chronic ventilator dependent unit (PCVDU). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients requiring care in the PCVDU from May 2001 through May 2011 comparing the 5 years prior to the 5 years post implementation of the critical care NP in 2005. LOS and room charges were obtained. RESULTS: The average LOS decreased from a median of 55 d [interquartile range (IQR): 9.8-108.3] to a median of 12 (IQR: 4.0-41.0) with the implementation of a dedicated critical care NP (P < 1.0001). Post implementation of a dedicated NP, a savings of 25738049 in room charges was noted over 5 years. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrates a critical care NP coverage model in a PCVDU is associated with a significantly reduced LOS demonstrating that the NP is an efficient and likely cost-effective addition to a medically comprehensive service. PMID:27170929

  7. Energy contribution from non-breastmilk items in low-income Guatemalan infantsin their sixth month of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Vossenaar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the nature and energy contribution of complementary feeding in breastfed infants in their sixth month of life, and the prevalence of the use of bottles as a delivery method. Materials and methods. We recruited 156 breastfeeding infants at a health clinic in metropolitan Quetzaltenango, Guatemala. A previous-day recall was performed. Results. Sixty nine mothers (44% reported offering items other than breastmilk. The median contribution of energy from complementary foods among infants with mixed feeding (n=66 was 197 kcal/day (interquartile range [IQR] 49-353. The median energy contribution of formula or cow’s milk among consumers (n=39 was 212 kcal/day (IQR 84-394. Bottles were used on the previous day by 55 (80% of the 69 mothers not offering exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusions. Premature introduction of non-breastmilk items is commonly practiced in feeding Guatemalan infants. Adherence to the internationally recognized guidelines for early infant feeding should be an intervention priority for this population.

  8. Serial casting for elbow flexion contractures in neonatal brachial plexus palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijnisveld, B J; Steenbeek, D; Nelissen, R G H H

    2016-09-02

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of serial casting of elbow flexion contractures in neonatal brachial plexus palsy. A prospective consecutive cohort study was performed with a median follow-up of 5 years. Forty-one patients with elbow flexion contractures ≥ 30° were treated with serial casting until the contracture was ≤ 10°, for a maximum of 8 weeks. Range of motion, number of recurrences and patient satisfaction were recorded and analyzed using Wilcoxon signed-rank and Cox regression tests. Passive extension increased from a median of -40° (IQR -50 to -30) to -15° (IQR -10 to -20, p casting had to be prematurely replaced by night splinting due to complaints. Serial casting improved elbow flexion contractures, although recurrences were frequent. The severity of elbow flexion contracture is a predictor of recurrence. We recommend more research on muscle degeneration and determinants involved in elbow flexion contractures to improve treatment strategies and prevent side-effects.

  9. Diagnosis of bile acid diarrhoea by fasting and postprandial measurements of fibroblast growth factor 19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Christian; Syversen, Charlotte; Bouchelouche, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A deficiency in the ileal hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) has been described in patients with bile acid diarrhoea (BAD), but fasting FGF19 levels have insufficient diagnostic power. We assess whether single postprandial sampling of FGF19 has greater discriminative value than...... fasting FGF19 for detection of BAD and we evaluate the reproducibility of fasting FGF19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients consecutively referred to Se homocholic acid retention test (SeHCAT) were included. Serum FGF19 was measured after an overnight fast and again 1 h postprandially and again...... in the fasting state 1 week later. RESULTS: Nine of 26 patients had SeHCAT less than 10% and fasting FGF19 was lower [median 62 pg/ml, interquartile range (IQR): 47-67] than in the 17 diarrhoea controls with SeHCAT at least 10% (median 103 pg/ml, IQR: 77-135, P=0.006). Postprandial FGF19 in BAD patients (61 pg...

  10. Congenital Factor VII Deficiency in Children at Tertiary Health Care Facility in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Muhammad Matloob; Moiz, Bushra; Rehman, Karim Abdur; Jethwani, Priyanka; Fadoo, Zehra

    2015-10-01

    This study presents the demographics, clinical spectrum, and outcome of patients with congenital factor VII (FVII) deficiency at a tertiary care center over a period of 12 years. Of the 49 patients, 27 (55%) patients were males. Consanguinity was found in 92% of the patients. The median age of symptom onset was 2.4 (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.1-6.5) years with a median age of 5.8 (IQR: 3.1-10) years at diagnosis. Life-threatening complications like intracranial bleeding (ICB) and intra-abdominal bleeding (IAB) were observed in 8 (16.4%) patients. We found that 11 (55%) of the 20 patients with FVII coagulant activity (FVIIc) 5% were affected by severe symptoms. Age factor associated with development of life-threatening bleeding episodes (P = .042; odds ratio 6.46). Overall, 4 (8.2%) died as a consequence of ICB (3 patients) and IAB (1 patient). © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. Is quality and completeness of reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in high impact radiology journals associated with citation rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pol, Christian B; McInnes, Matthew D F; Petrcich, William; Tunis, Adam S; Hanna, Ramez

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether study quality and completeness of reporting of systematic reviews (SR) and meta-analyses (MA) published in high impact factor (IF) radiology journals is associated with citation rates. All SR and MA published in English between Jan 2007-Dec 2011, in radiology journals with an IF >2.75, were identified on Ovid MEDLINE. The Assessing the Methodologic Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) checklist for study quality, and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist for study completeness, was applied to each SR & MA. Each SR & MA was then searched in Google Scholar to yield a citation rate. Spearman correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationship between AMSTAR and PRISMA results with citation rate. Multivariate analyses were performed to account for the effect of journal IF and journal 5-year IF on correlation with citation rate. Values were reported as medians with interquartile range (IQR) provided. 129 studies from 11 journals were included (50 SR and 79 MA). Median AMSTAR result was 8.0/11 (IQR: 5-9) and median PRISMA result was 23.0/27 (IQR: 21-25). The median citation rate for SR & MA was 0.73 citations/month post-publication (IQR: 0.40-1.17). There was a positive correlation between both AMSTAR and PRISMA results and SR & MA citation rate; ρ=0.323 (P=0.0002) and ρ=0.327 (P=0.0002) respectively. Positive correlation persisted for AMSTAR and PRISMA results after journal IF was partialed out; ρ=0.243 (P=0.006) and ρ=0.256 (P=0.004), and after journal 5-year IF was partialed out; ρ=0.235 (P=0.008) and ρ=0.243 (P=0.006) respectively. There is a positive correlation between the quality and the completeness of a reported SR or MA with citation rate which persists when adjusted for journal IF and journal 5-year IF.

  12. Portfolio optimization using median-variance approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Mohd, Wan Rosanisah; Mohamad, Daud; Mohamed, Zulkifli

    2013-04-01

    Optimization models have been applied in many decision-making problems particularly in portfolio selection. Since the introduction of Markowitz's theory of portfolio selection, various approaches based on mathematical programming have been introduced such as mean-variance, mean-absolute deviation, mean-variance-skewness and conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) mainly to maximize return and minimize risk. However most of the approaches assume that the distribution of data is normal and this is not generally true. As an alternative, in this paper, we employ the median-variance approach to improve the portfolio optimization. This approach has successfully catered both types of normal and non-normal distribution of data. With this actual representation, we analyze and compare the rate of return and risk between the mean-variance and the median-variance based portfolio which consist of 30 stocks from Bursa Malaysia. The results in this study show that the median-variance approach is capable to produce a lower risk for each return earning as compared to the mean-variance approach.

  13. Development of De Novo Diabetes in Long-Term Follow-up After Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor Hanipah, Zubaidah; Punchai, Suriya; Brethauer, Stacy A; Schauer, Philip R; Aminian, Ali

    2018-03-09

    While bariatric surgery leads to significant prevention and improvement of type 2 diabetes, patients may rarely develop diabetes after bariatric surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and the characteristic of new-onset diabetes after bariatric surgery over a 17-year period at our institution. Non-diabetic patients who underwent bariatric surgery at a single academic center (1997-2013) and had a postoperative glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5%, fasting blood glucose (FBG) ≥ 126 mg/dl, or positive glucose tolerance test were identified and studied. Out of 2263 non-diabetic patients at the time of bariatric surgery, 11 patients had new-onset diabetes in the median follow-up time of 9 years (interquartile range [IQR], 4-12). Bariatric procedures performed were Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n = 7), adjustable gastric banding (n = 3), and sleeve gastrectomy (n = 1). The median interval between surgery and diagnosis of diabetes was 6 years (IQR, 2-9). At the last follow-up, the median HbA1c and FBG values were 6.3% (IQR, 6.1-6.5) and 95 mg/dl (IQR, 85-122), respectively. Possible etiologic factors leading to diabetes were weight regain to baseline (n = 6, 55%), steroid-induced after renal transplantation (n = 1), pancreatic insufficiency after pancreatitis (n = 1), and unknown (n = 3). De novo diabetes after bariatric surgery is rare with an incidence of 0.4% based on our cohort. Weight regain was common (> 50%) in patients who developed new-onset diabetes suggesting recurrent severe obesity as a potential etiologic factor. All patients had good glycemic control (HbA1c ≤ 7%) in the long-term postoperative follow-up.

  14. Incidence of cerebrovascular accidents in patients undergoing minimally invasive valve surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPietra, Angelo; Santana, Orlando; Mihos, Christos G; DeBeer, Steven; Rosen, Gerald P; Lamas, Gervasio A; Lamelas, Joseph

    2014-07-01

    Minimally invasive valve surgery has been associated with increased cerebrovascular complications. Our objective was to evaluate the incidence of cerebrovascular accidents in patients undergoing minimally invasive valve surgery. We retrospectively reviewed all the minimally invasive valve surgery performed at our institution from January 2009 to June 2012. The operative times, lengths of stay, postoperative complications, and mortality were analyzed. A total of 1501 consecutive patients were identified. The mean age was 73 ± 13 years, and 808 patients (54%) were male. Of the 1501 patients, 206 (13.7%) had a history of a cerebrovascular accident, and 225 (15%) had undergone previous heart surgery. The procedures performed were 617 isolated aortic valve replacements (41.1%), 658 isolated mitral valve operations (43.8%), 6 tricuspid valve repairs (0.4%), 216 double valve surgery (14.4%), and 4 triple valve surgery (0.3%). Femoral cannulation was used in 1359 patients (90.5%) and central cannulation in 142 (9.5%). In 1392 patients (92.7%), the aorta was clamped, and in 109 (7.3%), the surgery was performed with the heart fibrillating. The median aortic crossclamp and cardiopulmonary bypass times were 86 minutes (interquartile range [IQR], 70-107) minutes and 116 minutes (IQR, 96-143), respectively. The median intensive care unit length of stay was 47 hours (IQR, 29-74), and the median postoperative hospital length of stay was 7 days (IQR, 5-10). A total of 23 cerebrovascular accidents (1.53%) and 38 deaths (2.53%) had occurred at 30 days postoperatively. Minimally invasive valve surgery was associated with an acceptable stroke rate, regardless of the cannulation technique. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The prognostic value of lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio in retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Xiang Hu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the associations between development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP and serum lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR, and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed, involving infants who were screened for ROP from January 2015 to December 2015. Preterm newborns of ≤32 gestational weeks with ROP were enrolled as the observation group, and non-ROP infants were enrolled as the control group, whose complete blood cell were measured within the first 24h of life. The levels of NLR, LMR and PLR were determined in all groups. The data obtained were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: In this study, 40 cases of ROP were enrolled and 40 cases of non-ROP as controls. The LMR levels were significantly higher (P<0.001 in ROP group (3.96±1.16 compared to non-ROP group (2.85±0.79. The NLR levels were significantly lower (P=0.035 in ROP group {median [interquartile range (IQR], 0.88 (0.67-1.46} compared to non-ROP group [median (IQR, 1.20 (0.85-1.89]. The median PLR values were 61.99 (IQR, 50.23-75.98 in ROP group and 69.24 (IQR, 55.52-88.12 in non-ROP group (P=0.104. Logistic regression analysis suggested that LMR was an independent risk factor for ROP (OR: 0.275; 95% CI: 0.134-0.564; P=0.001. CONCLUSION: The findings demonstrate that higher LMR is independently and significantly associated with the development of ROP, and the LMR may be invoked as a predictive tool for identifying risk for ROP.

  16. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation and off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery: an effective hybrid procedure in selected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Benedikt; Firschke, Christian; Erlebach, Magdalena; Bleiziffer, Sabine; Krane, Markus; Joner, Michael; Herold, Ulf; Nöbauer, Christian; Lange, Rüdiger; Deutsch, Marcus-André

    2018-02-26

    Simultaneous surgical off-pump coronary revascularization and transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) as a hybrid procedure may be a therapeutic option for patients with a TAVI indication who are not suitable for percutaneous coronary intervention and for patients who have an indication for combined surgical aortic valve implantation and coronary artery bypass grafting but present with a porcelain aorta. Early outcomes of these patients are analysed in this study. From February 2011 to April 2017, hybrid TAVI/off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) was performed in 12 (60%) patients, hybrid TAVI/minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass in 6 (30%) patients and staged TAVI/OPCAB in 2 (10%) patients. Endpoints of this study were 30-day mortality, device success and postoperative adverse events as defined by the updated Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC-2). The median age at the time of surgery was 77 years [interquartile range (IQR), 70-81] with a median logistic EuroSCORE and Society of Thoracic Surgeons' Predicted Risk score of 16.1% (IQR, 9.3-28.1) and 3.9% (IQR, 2.2-5.6), respectively. The median Synergy between PCI with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery score was 16.5 (IQR, 9.8-22.8). TAVI implantation routes were transaortic in 9 (45%) patients, transapical and transfemoral in 5 (25%) patients each and transsubclavian in 1 (5%) patient. Complete myocardial revascularization was achieved in 75% of patients. Device success rate was 100%. Paravalvular aortic regurgitation did not exceed mild in any patient. Stroke/transient ischaemic attack, vascular complications and myocardial infarction were not observed. Re-exploration for bleeding was required in 1 (5%) patient. Thirty-day mortality was 0%. Hybrid OPCAB/MIDCAB and TAVI prove to be a safe and effective alternative treatment option in selected higher risk patients.

  17. Influence of median surgeon operative duration on adverse outcomes in bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reames, Bradley N; Bacal, Daniel; Krell, Robert W; Birkmeyer, John D; Birkmeyer, Nancy J O; Finks, Jonathan F

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that prolonged operative time adversely affects surgical outcomes. However, whether faster surgeons have better outcomes is unclear, as a surgeon׳s speed could reflect skill and efficiency, but may alternatively reflect haste. This study evaluates whether median surgeon operative time is associated with adverse surgical outcomes after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. We performed a retrospective cohort study using statewide clinical registry data from the years 2006 to 2012. Surgeons were ranked by their median operative time and grouped into terciles. Multivariable logistic regression with robust standard errors was used to evaluate the influence of median surgeon operative time on 30-day surgical outcomes, adjusting for patient and surgeon characteristics, trainee involvement, concurrent procedures, and the complex interaction between these variables. A total of 16,344 patients underwent surgery during the study period. Compared to surgeons in the fastest tercile, slow surgeons required 53 additional minutes to complete a gastric bypass procedure (median [interquartile range] 139 [133-150] versus 86 [69-91], Ppatient characteristic only, slow surgeons had significantly higher adjusted rates of any complication, prolonged length of stay, emergency department visits or readmissions, and venous thromboembolism (VTE). After further adjustment for surgeon characteristics, resident involvement, and the interaction between these variables, slow surgeons had higher rates of any complication (10.5% versus 7.1%, P=.039), prolonged length of stay (14.0% versus 4.4%, P=.002), and VTE (0.39% versus .22%, P<.001). Median surgeon operative duration is independently associated with adjusted rates of certain adverse outcomes after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Improving surgeon efficiency while operating may reduce operative time and improve the safety of bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by

  18. Clinical Outcomes following median to radial nerve transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Wilson Z.; Mackinnon, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose In this study the authors evaluate the clinical outcomes in patients with radial nerve palsy who underwent nerve transfers utilizing redundant fascicles of median nerve (innervating the flexor digitorum superficialis and flexor carpi radialis muscles) to the posterior interosseous nerve and the nerve to the extensor carpi radialis brevis. Methods A retrospective review of the clinical records of 19 patients with radial nerve injuries who underwent nerve transfer procedures using the median nerve as a donor nerve were included. All patients were evaluated using the Medical Research Council (MRC) grading system. Results The mean age of patients was 41 years (range 17 – 78 years). All patients received at least 12 months of follow-up (20.3 ± 5.8 months). Surgery was performed at a mean of 5.7 ± 1.9 months post-injury. Post-operative functional evaluation was graded according to the following scale: grades MRC 0/5 - MRC 2/5 were considered poor outcomes, while MRC of 3/5 was a fair result, MRC grade 4/5 was a good result, and grade 4+/5 was considered an excellent outcome. Seventeen patients (89%) had a complete radial nerve palsy while two patients (11%) had intact wrist extension but no finger or thumb extension. Post-operatively all patients except one had good to excellent recovery of wrist extension. Twelve patients recovered good to excellent finger and thumb extension, two patients had fair recovery, five patients had a poor recovery. Conclusions The radial nerve is a commonly injured nerve, causing significant morbidity in affected patients. The median nerve provides a reliable source of donor nerve fascicles for radial nerve reinnervation. This transfer was first performed in 1999 and evolved over the subsequent decade. The important nuances of both surgical technique and motor re-education critical for to the success of this transfer have been identified and are discussed. PMID:21168979

  19. Sport concussion assessment tool-Third edition normative reference values for professional Rugby Union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, G W; Govind, O; Tucker, R; Raftery, M

    2018-04-01

    To establish normative reference data for the SCAT3 in professional Rugby Union players. A cross sectional study in professional Rugby Union players competing in national and international professional competitions between 2015 and 2016. The SCAT3 was administered pre-season or prior to tournaments. Data was collected electronically using a custom tablet application. SCAT3 subcomponents distributions were described and normative ranges determined using percentile cut-offs for average, unusually low/high, and extremely low/high scores. The association between player characteristics and performance in SCAT3 subcomponents was also investigated in exploratory analyses. A total of 3611 professional Rugby Union players were included. The most common baseline symptom was fatigue (14%). The symptom score median (md) was 0 (interquartile range (IQR)=0-1). Symptom severity md was 0 (IQR=0-1). The md of the SAC score was 28 (IQR=26-29). The md of the MBESS was 2 (IQR=0-4). The Tandem gait md was 11.1s (IQR=10.0-12.7s). Upper limb coordination was normal in 98.4%. Younger age and lower educational level were associated with worse performance on delayed recall and reverse month sub-components of the SCAT3 (pRugby Union players are provided. Baseline performance on concentration and delayed recall tests may be lower in younger athletes or in those with lower educational level. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Infection prevention and control training and capacity building during the Ebola epidemic in Guinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi M Soeters

    Full Text Available During the 2014-2016 Ebola epidemic in West Africa, a key epidemiological feature was disease transmission within healthcare facilities, indicating a need for infection prevention and control (IPC training and support.IPC training was provided to frontline healthcare workers (HCW in healthcare facilities that were not Ebola treatment units, as well as to IPC trainers and IPC supervisors placed in healthcare facilities. Trainings included both didactic and hands-on components, and were assessed using pre-tests, post-tests and practical evaluations. We calculated median percent increase in knowledge.From October-December 2014, 20 IPC courses trained 1,625 Guineans: 1,521 HCW, 55 IPC trainers, and 49 IPC supervisors. Median test scores increased 40% (interquartile range [IQR]: 19-86% among HCW, 15% (IQR: 8-33% among IPC trainers, and 21% (IQR: 15-30% among IPC supervisors (all P<0.0001 to post-test scores of 83%, 93%, and 93%, respectively.IPC training resulted in clear improvements in knowledge and was feasible in a public health emergency setting. This method of IPC training addressed a high demand among HCW. Valuable lessons were learned to facilitate expansion of IPC training to other prefectures; this model may be considered when responding to other large outbreaks.

  1. MP3 player listening habits of 17 to 23 year old university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Kylie; Keith, Stephen E; Feder, Katya; Konkle, Anne T M; Michaud, David S

    2010-08-01

    This study evaluated the potential risk to hearing associated with the use of portable digital audio players. Twenty-eight university students (12 males, 16 females; aged 17-23) completed a 49-item questionnaire assessing user listening habits and subjective measures of hearing health. Sound level measurements of participants' self-identified typical and 'worst case' volume levels were taken in different classrooms with background sound levels between 43 and 52 dBA. The median frequency and duration of use was 2 h per day, 6.5 days a week. The median sound levels and interquartile ranges (IQR) at typical and 'worst case' volume settings were 71 dBA (IQR=12) and 79 dBA (IQR=9), respectively. When typical sound levels were considered with self-reported duration of daily use, none of the participants surpassed Leq(8) 85 dBA. On the questionnaire, 19 students reported experiencing at least one symptom of possible noise-induced hearing loss. Significant differences in MP3 user listening patterns were found between respondents who had experienced tinnitus and those who had not. The findings add to a growing body of literature that collectively supports a need for further research investigating MP3 player user listening habits in order to assess their potential risk to hearing health.

  2. Natural History of Untreated Prostate Specific Antigen Radiorecurrent Prostate Cancer in Men with Favorable Prognostic Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil E. Martin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Life expectancy data could identify men with favorable post-radiation prostate-specific antigen (PSA failure kinetics unlikely to require androgen deprivation therapy (ADT. Materials and Methods. Of 206 men with unfavorable-risk prostate cancer in a randomized trial of radiation versus radiation and ADT, 53 experienced a PSA failure and were followed without salvage ADT. Comorbidity, age and established prognostic factors were assessed for relationship to death using Cox regression analyses. Results. The median age at failure, interval to PSA failure, and PSA doubling time were 76.6 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 71.8–79.3, 49.1 months (IQR: 37.7–87.4, and 25 months (IQR: 13.1–42.8, respectively. After a median follow up of 4.0 years following PSA failure, 45% of men had died, none from prostate cancer and no one had developed metastases. Both increasing age at PSA failure (HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.03–1.25; P=0.008 and the presence of moderate to severe comorbidity (HR: 12.5; 95% CI: 3.81–41.0; P2 years following post-radiation PSA failure appear to be good candidates for observation without ADT intervention.

  3. Decreasing Histology Turnaround Time Through Stepwise Innovation and Capacity Building in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspard Muvugabigwi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Minimal turnaround time for pathology results is crucial for highest-quality patient care in all settings, especially in low- and middle-income countries, where rural populations may have limited access to health care. Methods: We retrospectively determined the turnaround times (TATs for anatomic pathology specimens, comparing three different modes of operation that occurred throughout the development and implementation of our pathology laboratory at the Butaro Cancer Center of Excellence in Rwanda. Before opening this laboratory, TAT was measured in months because of inconsistent laboratory operations and a paucity of in-country pathologists. Results: We analyzed 2,514 individual patient samples across the three modes of study. Diagnostic mode 1 (samples sent out of the country for analysis had the highest median TAT, with an overall time of 30 days (interquartile range [IQR], 22 to 43 days. For diagnostic mode 2 (static image telepathology, the median TAT was 14 days (IQR, 7 to 27 days, and for diagnostic mode 3 (onsite expert diagnosis, it was 5 days (IQR, 2 to 9 days. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that telepathology is a significant improvement over external expert review and can greatly assist sites in improving their TATs until pathologists are on site.

  4. Infection prevention and control training and capacity building during the Ebola epidemic in Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivogui, Lamine; de Beer, Lindsey; Johnson, Candice Y.; Diaby, Dianka; Ouedraogo, Abdoulaye; Touré, Fatoumata; Bangoura, Fodé Ousmane; Chang, Michelle A.; Chea, Nora; Dotson, Ellen M.; Finlay, Alyssa; Fitter, David; Hamel, Mary J.; Hazim, Carmen; Larzelere, Maribeth; Park, Benjamin J.; Rowe, Alexander K.; Thompson-Paul, Angela M.; Twyman, Anthony; Barry, Moumié; Ntaw, Godlove; Diallo, Alpha Oumar

    2018-01-01

    Background During the 2014–2016 Ebola epidemic in West Africa, a key epidemiological feature was disease transmission within healthcare facilities, indicating a need for infection prevention and control (IPC) training and support. Methods IPC training was provided to frontline healthcare workers (HCW) in healthcare facilities that were not Ebola treatment units, as well as to IPC trainers and IPC supervisors placed in healthcare facilities. Trainings included both didactic and hands-on components, and were assessed using pre-tests, post-tests and practical evaluations. We calculated median percent increase in knowledge. Results From October–December 2014, 20 IPC courses trained 1,625 Guineans: 1,521 HCW, 55 IPC trainers, and 49 IPC supervisors. Median test scores increased 40% (interquartile range [IQR]: 19–86%) among HCW, 15% (IQR: 8–33%) among IPC trainers, and 21% (IQR: 15–30%) among IPC supervisors (all P<0.0001) to post-test scores of 83%, 93%, and 93%, respectively. Conclusions IPC training resulted in clear improvements in knowledge and was feasible in a public health emergency setting. This method of IPC training addressed a high demand among HCW. Valuable lessons were learned to facilitate expansion of IPC training to other prefectures; this model may be considered when responding to other large outbreaks. PMID:29489885

  5. Effectiveness and Risk Factors for Virological Outcome of Raltegravir-Based Therapy for Treatment-Experienced HIV-Infected Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Marín, José Antonio; Smeke, Ariane Estrella Weiser; Rodriguez, Mariana Rotzinger; Chávez-García, Marcelino; Banda-Lara, Marco Isaac; Rios, Alma Minerva Pérez; Nuñez-Rodríguez, Nohemí; Domínguez-Hermosillo, Juan Carlos; Sánchez, Alberto Chaparro; Juarez-Kasusky, Irene; Herrera, Javier Enrique Cruz; Ramírez, Jorge Luis Sandoval; Gaytán-Martínez, Jesús

    2017-03-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of a raltegravir (RAL)-containing regimen plus an optimized background regimen in HIV-1 highly treatment-experienced patients. A retrospective cohort, multicentre study was conducted. Adult (>16 years old) HIV treatment-experience patients starting therapy with a RAL-containing regimen were included. Effectiveness was evaluated as the percentage of patients with an undetectable HIV-1 RNA viral load (treatment failure. Of the 107 patients in the cohort, 86% were men, the median age was 45 years [interquartile range (IQR) 40-52] and the median number of previous regimens was six (IQR 4-7). After 48 weeks of treatment, 73% (IQR 63-80%) of patients (n = 78) had a viral load of HIV-1 RNA of 40 years [odds ratio (OR) 5.61; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.61-18.84; P = 0.006] and use of tenofovir in the regimen (OR 0.16; 95% CI 0.03-0.80; P = 0.026). In this Mexican cohort, RAL achieved high rates of virological suppression and an increase in CD4+ cell count in highly treatment-experienced patients infected with HIV-1. Age >40 years was associated with a good virological outcome, contrary to tenofovir use, which was associated with a poor virological outcome.

  6. Papillary carcinoma in median aberrant thyroid (ectopic) - case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbar K, Ashwin; K, Shashidhar; Deshmane, Vijaya Laxmi; Kumar, Veerendra; Arjunan, Ravi

    2014-06-01

    Median ectopic thyroid may be encountered anywhere from the foramen caecum to the diaphragm. Non lingual median aberrant thyroid (incomplete descent) usually found in the infrahyoid region and malignant transformation in this ectopic thyroid tissue is very rare. We report an extremely rare case of papillary carcinoma in non lingual median aberrant thyroid in a 25-year-old female. The differentiation between a carcinoma arising in the median ectopic thyroid tissue and a metastatic papillary carcinoma from an occult primary in the main thyroid gland is also discussed.

  7. Robust median estimator in logisitc regression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hobza, T.; Pardo, L.; Vajda, Igor

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 138, č. 12 (2008), s. 3822-3840 ISSN 0378-3758 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Grant - others:Instituto Nacional de Estadistica (ES) MPO FI - IM3/136; GA MŠk(CZ) MTM 2006-06872 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Logistic regression * Median * Robustness * Consistency and asymptotic normality * Morgenthaler * Bianco and Yohai * Croux and Hasellbroeck Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.679, year: 2008 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/SI/vajda-robust%20median%20estimator%20in%20logistic%20regression.pdf

  8. Dual pathology proximal median nerve compression of the forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Siun M; Browne, Katherine; Tuite, David J; O'Shaughnessy, Michael

    2013-12-01

    We report an unusual case of synchronous pathology in the forearm- the coexistence of a large lipoma of the median nerve together with an osteochondroma of the proximal ulna, giving rise to a dual proximal median nerve compression. Proximal median nerve compression neuropathies in the forearm are uncommon compared to the prevalence of distal compression neuropathies (eg Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). Both neural fibrolipomas (Refs. 1,2) and osteochondromas of the proximal ulna (Ref. 3) in isolation are rare but well documented. Unlike that of a distal compression, a proximal compression of the median nerve will often have a definite cause. Neural fibrolipoma, also called fibrolipomatous hamartoma are rare, slow-growing, benign tumours of peripheral nerves, most often occurring in the median nerve of younger patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such dual pathology in the same forearm, giving rise to a severe proximal compression of the median nerve. In this case, the nerve was being pushed anteriorly by the osteochondroma, and was being compressed from within by the intraneural lipoma. This unusual case highlights the advantage of preoperative imaging as part of the workup of proximal median nerve compression. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Higher Energy Intake Variability as Predisposition to Obesity: Novel Approach Using Interquartile Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forejt, Martin; Brázdová, Zuzana Derflerová; Novák, Jan; Zlámal, Filip; Forbelská, Marie; Bienert, Petr; Mořkovská, Petra; Zavřelová, Miroslava; Pohořalá, Aneta; Jurášková, Miluše; Salah, Nabil; Bienertová-Vašků, Julie

    2017-12-01

    It is known that total energy intake and its distribution during the day influences human anthropometric characteristics. However, possible association between variability in total energy intake and obesity has thus far remained unexamined. This study was designed to establish the influence of energy intake variability of each daily meal on the anthropometric characteristics of obesity. A total of 521 individuals of Czech Caucasian origin aged 16–73 years (390 women and 131 men) were included in the study, 7-day food records were completed by all study subjects and selected anthropometric characteristics were measured. The interquartile range (IQR) of energy intake was assessed individually for each meal of the day (as a marker of energy intake variability) and subsequently correlated with body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (%BF), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and waist circumference (cW). Four distinct models were created using multiple logistic regression analysis and backward stepwise logistic regression. The most precise results, based on the area under the curve (AUC), were observed in case of the %BF model (AUC=0.895) and cW model (AUC=0.839). According to the %BF model, age (p<0.001) and IQR-lunch (p<0.05) seem to play an important prediction role for obesity. Likewise, according to the cW model, age (p<0.001), IQR-breakfast (p<0.05) and IQR-dinner (p <0.05) predispose patients to the development of obesity. The results of our study show that higher variability in the energy intake of key daily meals may increase the likelihood of obesity development. Based on the obtained results, it is necessary to emphasize the regularity in meals intake for maintaining proper body composition. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017

  10. Median nail dystrophy involving the thumb nail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahulkrishna Kota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Median canaliform dystrophy of Heller is a rare entity characterized by a midline or a paramedian ridge or split and canal formation in nail plate of one or both the thumb nails. It is an acquired condition resulting from a temporary defect in the matrix that interferes with nail formation. Habitual picking of the nail base may be responsible for some cases. Histopathology classically shows parakeratosis, accumulation of melanin within and between the nail bed keratinocytes. Treatment of median nail dystrophy includes injectable triamcinalone acetonide, topical 0.1% tacrolimus, and tazarotene 0.05%, which is many a times challenging for a dermatologist. Psychiatric opinion should be taken when associated with the depressive, obsessive-compulsive, or impulse-control disorder. We report a case of 19-year-old male diagnosed as median nail dystrophy.

  11. Large window median filtering on Clip7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, K N

    1983-07-01

    Median filtering has been found to be a useful operation to perform on images in order to reduce random noise while preserving edges of objects. However, in some cases, as the resolution of the image increases, so too does the required window size of the filter. For parallel array processors, this leads to problems when dealing with the large amount of data involved. That is to say that there tend to be problems over slow access of data from pixels over a large neighbourhood, lack of available storage of this data during the operation and long computational times for finding the median. An algorithm for finding the median, designed for use on byte wide architecture parallel array processors is presented together with its implementation on Clip7, a scanning array of such processors. 6 references.

  12. Factors Related to Blood Hydroxychloroquine Concentration in Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon Lee, Ji; Lee, Jennifer; Ki Kwok, Seung; Hyeon Ju, Ji; Su Park, Kyung; Park, Sung-Hwan

    2017-04-01

    To identify factors associated with blood concentrations of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and its major metabolite, N-desethylhydroxychloroquine (DHCQ), in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; lupus) receiving long-term oral HCQ treatment. SLE patients who had been taking HCQ for more than 3 months were recruited. Various clinical characteristics, laboratory values, and SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) scores were examined. The concentrations of HCQ and DHCQ ([HCQ] and [DHCQ]) were measured by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, and the relationship between [HCQ], [DHCQ], and [HCQ]:[DHCQ] ratio to various factors was investigated. In total, 189 SLE patients receiving long-term HCQ treatment were included in the analysis. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) [HCQ] was 515 (IQR 353-720) ng/ml, the median [DHCQ] was 417 (IQR 266-591) ng/ml, and the median [HCQ]:[DHCQ] ratio was 1.3 (range 1.0-1.7). [HCQ] was closely associated with [DHCQ] (r = 0.81, P < 0.0001). The weight-adjusted oral HCQ dose was strongly associated with both [HCQ] (P < 0.001) and [DHCQ] (P < 0.001). Time since last dose was associated with [HCQ] (P < 0.001). No statistically significant association was found between renal function or smoking and [HCQ] or [DHCQ]. Use of additional immunosuppressants increased both [HCQ] and [DHCQ] after adjusting for possible confounders (P = 0.04 and P = 0.03, respectively). The lower SLEDAI score was significantly related to higher [HCQ], after adjusting for age, sex, weight-adjusted HCQ dose, time since last dose, number of other immunosuppressants, and smoking status (P = 0.007). Various factors affected blood levels of [HCQ], [DHCQ], or the [HCQ]:[DHCQ] ratio of SLE patients receiving long-term oral HCQ treatment. Notably, higher [HCQ] was associated with a lower SLEDAI score in our typical outpatient clinic population with lupus. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  13. Coital frequency and infertility: which male factors predict less frequent coitus among infertile couples?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlis, Nathan; Lo, Kirk C; Grober, Ethan D; Spencer, Leia; Jarvi, Keith

    2013-08-01

    To determine the coital frequency among infertile couples and which factors are associated with less frequent coitus. Cross-sectional study. Tertiary-level male infertility clinic. A total of 1,298 infertile men. Administration of computer-based survey, semen analysis, and serum hormone evaluation. Monthly coital frequency. A total of 1,298 patients presented to clinic for infertility consultation and completed the computer-based survey. The median male age was 35 years (interquartile range [IQR] 32-39 years) and the median duration of infertility was 2 years (IQR 1-4 years) before consultation. Median monthly coital frequency was seven (IQR 5-10; range 0-40); 24% of couples were having intercourse ≤ 4 times per month. Overall, 0.6%, 2.7%, 4.8%, 5.8%, and 10.8% of the men reported having intercourse 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 times per month, respectively. When simultaneously taking into account the influence of age, libido, erectile function, and semen volume on coital frequency, older patients had 1.05 times higher odds (per year of age) of less frequent coitus (odds ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.08). In addition, patients with better erectile function had 1.12 times higher odds (per point on Sexual Health Inventory for Men scale) of more frequent coitus (odds ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval 1.09-1.18). Similar to the general population, most infertile couples report having coitus more than four times per month. Older male age and erectile dysfunction are independent risk factors for less frequent coitus among infertile men, which could have an impact on fertility. Coital frequency should be considered in infertility assessments. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Distribution of specialized care centers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Henry E; Yealy, Donald M

    2012-11-01

    As a recommended strategy for optimally managing critical illness, regionalization of care involves matching the needs of the target population with available hospital resources. The national supply and characteristics of hospitals providing specialized critical care services is currently unknown. We seek to characterize the current distribution of specialized care centers in the United States. Using public data linked with the American Hospital Association directory and US Census, we identified US general acute hospitals providing specialized care for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) (≥40 annual primary percutaneous coronary interventions reported in Medicare Hospital Compare), stroke (The Joint Commission certified stroke centers), trauma (American College of Surgeons or state-designated, adult or pediatric, level I or II), and pediatric critical care (presence of a pediatric ICU) services. We determined the characteristics and state-level distribution and density of specialized care centers (centers per state and centers per state population). Among 4,931 acute care hospitals in the United States, 1,325 (26.9%) provided one of the 4 defined specialized care services, including 574 STEMI, 763 stroke, 508 trauma, and 457 pediatric critical care centers. Approximately half of the 1,325 hospitals provided 2 or more specialized services, and one fifth provided 3 or 4 specialized services. There was variation in the number of each type of specialized care center in each state: STEMI median 7 interquartile range (IQR 2 to 14), stroke 8 (IQR 3 to 17), trauma 6 (IQR 3 to 11), pediatric specialized care 6 (IQR 3 to 11). Similarly, there was variation in the number of each type of specialized care center per population: STEMI median 1 center per 585,135 persons (IQR 418,729 to 696,143), stroke 1 center per 412,188 persons (IQR 321,604 to 572,387), trauma 1 center per 610,589 persons (IQR 406,192 to 917,588), and pediatric critical care 1 center per 665

  15. Race-based differences in length of stay among patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Eric B; Calkins, Keri L; Weiss, Matthew J; Herman, Joseph M; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Makary, Martin A; Ahuja, Nita; Haider, Adil H; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2014-09-01

    Race-based disparities in operative morbidity and mortality have been demonstrated for various procedures, including pancreatoduodenectomy (PD). Race-based differences in hospital length-of-stay (LOS), especially related to provider volume at the surgeon and hospital level, remain poorly defined. Using the 2003-2009 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, we determined year-specific PD volumes for surgeons and hospitals and grouped them into terciles. Patient race (white, black, or Hispanic), age, sex, and comorbidities were examined. Median length of stay was calculated, and multivariable logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with increased LOS. Among 4,319 eligible individuals, 3,502 (81.1%) were white, 423 (9.8%) were black, and 394 (9.1%) were Hispanic. Overall median LOS was 12 days (range, 0-234). Median annual surgeon volume was 8 (interquartile range [IQR], 2-19; range, 1-54). Annual hospital volume ranged from 1 to 129 (median, 19; IQR, 7-55). White patients were more likely to have been treated at medium- to high-volume hospitals (odds ratio [OR] 1.53, P < .001) and by medium- to high-volume surgeons (OR 1.62, P < .001) than black or Hispanic patients. After PD, white, black, and Hispanic patients demonstrated similar in-hospital mortality (5.1%, 5.7% and 7.2% respectively P = .250). After adjustment, black (OR 1.36, P = .010) and Hispanic (OR 1.68, P < .001) patients were more likely to have a greater LOS after PD. Black and Hispanic PD patients were less likely than white patients to be treated at higher-volume hospitals and by higher-volume surgeons. Proportional mortality and LOS after PD were greater among black and Hispanic patients. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Allied Health Professional Support in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Survey from the Canadian Children Inflammatory Bowel Disease Network—A Joint Partnership of CIHR and the CH.I.L.D. Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael El-Matary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The current number of healthcare providers (HCP caring for children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD across Canadian tertiary-care centres is underinvestigated. The aim of this survey was to assess the number of healthcare providers (HCP in ambulatory pediatric IBD care across Canadian tertiary-care centres. Methods. Using a self-administered questionnaire, we examined available resources in academic pediatric centres within the Canadian Children IBD Network. The survey evaluated the number of HCP providing ambulatory care for children with IBD. Results. All 12 tertiary pediatric gastroenterology centres participating in the network responded. Median full-time equivalent (FTE of allied health professionals providing IBD care at each site was 1.0 (interquartile range (IQR 0.6–1.0 nurse, 0.5 (IQR 0.2–0.8 dietitian, 0.3 (IQR 0.2–0.8 social worker, and 0.1 (IQR 0.02–0.3 clinical psychologists. The ratio of IBD patients to IBD physicians was 114 : 1 (range 31 : 1–537 : 1, patients to nurses/physician assistants 324 : 1 (range 150 : 1–900 : 1, dieticians 670 : 1 (range 250 : 1–4500 : 1, social workers 1558 : 1 (range 250 : 1–16000 : 1, and clinical psychologists 2910 : 1 (range 626 : 1–3200 : 1. Conclusions. There was a wide variation in HCP support among Canadian centres. Future work will examine variation in care including patients’ outcomes and satisfaction across Canadian centres.

  17. Social Security: a financial appraisal for the median voter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galasso, V

    product of the joint employer/employee Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) tax rate and employee earnings. Data on actual contributions are available for median voters in the 1964 to 1976 elections; Social Security Administration (SSA) estimates are used for future tax rates and average wage growth rates. Data on actual old-age, retirement, and survivor benefits, as well as estimates of future benefits, are also available from SSA. Analysis of ex-post returns from "investing" in Social Security and from a buy-and-hold strategy applied to three alternative assets--the Standard & Poor's Composite Index (S&P), the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA), and U.S. government bonds--shows surprising results. In 1964 and 1968, Social Security largely outperformed the other three assets. In 1972, Social Security and the stock market performed almost equally. In 1976, however, the median voter would have been better off in the stock market. The expected returns for median voters in later elections cannot be directly compared with realized returns from alternative assets. However, estimates range from 5.7 percent in 1984 to 7.0 percent in 1996 and thus compare favorably with average returns of 5.6 percent for S&P, 5.3 percent for DJIA, and 2.1 percent for government bonds over the 1964-1996 period. Although these findings must be taken with caution since they compare ex-post returns, they show that, despite a continuous reduction in profitability, Social Security still represents a safe, high-return asset for a majority of families.

  18. Characteristics of Misclassified CT Perfusion Ischemic Core in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph R E G Geuskens

    Full Text Available CT perfusion (CTP is used to estimate the extent of ischemic core and penumbra in patients with acute ischemic stroke. CTP reliability, however, is limited. This study aims to identify regions misclassified as ischemic core on CTP, using infarct on follow-up noncontrast CT. We aim to assess differences in volumetric and perfusion characteristics in these regions compared to areas that ended up as infarct on follow-up.This study included 35 patients with >100 mm brain coverage CTP. CTP processing was performed using Philips software (IntelliSpace 7.0. Final infarct was automatically segmented on follow-up noncontrast CT and used as reference. CTP and follow-up noncontrast CT image data were registered. This allowed classification of ischemic lesion agreement (core on CTP: rMTT≥145%, aCBV<2.0 ml/100g and infarct on follow-up noncontrast CT and misclassified ischemic core (core on CTP, not identified on follow-up noncontrast CT regions. False discovery ratio (FDR, defined as misclassified ischemic core volume divided by total CTP ischemic core volume, was calculated. Absolute and relative CTP parameters (CBV, CBF, and MTT were calculated for both misclassified CTP ischemic core and ischemic lesion agreement regions and compared using paired rank-sum tests.Median total CTP ischemic core volume was 49.7ml (IQR:29.9ml-132ml; median misclassified ischemic core volume was 30.4ml (IQR:20.9ml-77.0ml. Median FDR between patients was 62% (IQR:49%-80%. Median relative mean transit time was 243% (IQR:198%-289% and 342% (IQR:249%-432% for misclassified and ischemic lesion agreement regions, respectively. Median absolute cerebral blood volume was 1.59 (IQR:1.43-1.79 ml/100g (P<0.01 and 1.38 (IQR:1.15-1.49 ml/100g (P<0.01 for misclassified ischemic core and ischemic lesion agreement, respectively. All CTP parameter values differed significantly.For all patients a considerable region of the CTP ischemic core is misclassified. CTP parameters significantly

  19. Median and ulnar neuropathies in U.S. Army Medical Command Band members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Scott W; Koreerat, Nicholas R; Gordon, Lindsay B; Santillo, Douglas R; Moore, Josef H; Greathouse, David G

    2013-12-01

    Musicians have been reported as having a high prevalence of upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders, including carpal tunnel syndrome. The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of median and ulnar neuropathies in U.S. Army Medical Command (MEDCOM) Band members at Fort Sam Houston, Texas. Thirty-five MEDCOM Band members (30 males, 5 females) volunteered to participate. There were 33 right-handed musicians, and the mean length of time in the MEDCOM Band was 12.2 yrs (range, 1-30 yrs). Subjects completed a history form, were interviewed, and underwent a physical examination of the cervical spine and bilateral upper extremities. Nerve conduction studies of the bilateral median and ulnar nerves were performed. Electrophysiological variables served as the reference standard for median and ulnar neuropathy and included distal sensory latencies, distal motor latencies, amplitudes, conduction velocities, and comparison study latencies. Ten of the 35 subjects (29%) presented with abnormal electrophysiologic values suggestive of an upper extremity mononeuropathy. Nine of the subjects had abnormal median nerve electrophysiologic values at or distal to the wrist; 2 had bilateral abnormal values. One had an abnormal ulnar nerve electrophysiologic assessment at the elbow. Nine of these 10 subjects had clinical examination findings consistent with the electrophysiological findings. The prevalence of mononeuropathies in this sample of band members is similar to that found in previous research involving civilian musicians (20-36%) and far exceeds that reported in the general population. Prospective research investigating screening, examination items, and injury prevention measures in musicians appears to be warranted.

  20. Edible Cricothyrotomy Model: A Low-Cost Alternative to Pig Tracheas and Plastic Models for Teaching Cricothyrotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Bryant

    2017-01-01

    , Interquartile Range [IQR] 24-41 sec and PM (median 33 sec, IQR 28-39 sec than on the EC (44 sec, IQR 35-63. There was a statistically significant divergence in preference (p=0.0001 with participants rating the PT first (median rank 1, IQR 1-1, the EC second (median rank 2, IQR 2-2, and the PM third (median rank 3, IQR 2.5-3. Cost of the models at the time of analysis (October, 2104 was $2.77 for EC and $7.64 for PT. The plastic model was built from materials obtained in the emergency department (ventilator tubing, 4-inch white foam tape, ½ inch white tape, and Coban. These materials were not purchased, so cost per plastic model was not calculated. Conclusion: A novel, edible cricothyrotomy training model is a suitable and cost effective alternative to a pig trachea and has a role for learners seeking multiple attempts at the procedure for skills maintenance and retention.

  1. Comprehensive evaluation of electronic medical record system use and user satisfaction at five low-resource setting hospitals in ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Binyam; Fritz, Fleur

    2015-05-25

    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems are increasingly being implemented in hospitals of developing countries to improve patient care and clinical service. However, only limited evaluation studies are available concerning the level of adoption and determinant factors of success in those settings. The objective of this study was to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinants of health professional's satisfaction towards a comprehensive EMR system implemented in Ethiopia where parallel documentation using the EMR and the paper-based medical records is in practice. A quantitative, cross-sectional study design was used to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinant factors of an EMR system implemented in Ethiopia based on the DeLone and McLean model of information system success. Descriptive statistical methods were applied to analyze the data and a binary logistic regression model was used to identify determinant factors. Health professionals (N=422) from five hospitals were approached and 406 responded to the survey (96.2% response rate). Out of the respondents, 76.1% (309/406) started to use the system immediately after implementation and user training, but only 31.7% (98/309) of the professionals reported using the EMR during the study (after 3 years of implementation). Of the 12 core EMR functions, 3 were never used by most respondents, and they were also unaware of 4 of the core EMR functions. It was found that 61.4% (190/309) of the health professionals reported over all dissatisfaction with the EMR (median=4, interquartile range (IQR)=1) on a 5-level Likert scale. Physicians were more dissatisfied (median=5, IQR=1) when compared to nurses (median=4, IQR=1) and the health management information system (HMIS) staff (median=2, IQR=1). Of all the participants, 64.4% (199/309) believed that the EMR had no positive impact on the quality of care. The participants indicated an agreement with the system and information

  2. Plasma YKL-40 levels are elevated in patients with chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathcke, C.N.; Kistorp, C.; Raymond, I.

    2010-01-01

    . Median YKL-40 levels were approximately 77% higher in patients with CHF (106 (IQR, 66-184) ng/ml vs. 60 (IQR, 42-97) ng/ml, p creatinine ratio (UACR) (beta = 0.12, p = 0.08). YKL-40 levels were not predictive...

  3. Radiographic signs of open median sternotomy in neonates and infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, George [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, PA (United States); Jaimes, Camilo; Markowitz, Richard I. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Gaynor, J.W. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Surgery, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Leaving the median sternotomy wound open following cardiac surgery is employed to avoid cardiovascular compression. Horizontal struts can be used. Radiologists interpreting portable radiographs might be unaware of the open median sternotomy (OMS). To describe the frequency of radiographic signs of OMS and to increase awareness among radiologists to prevent misdiagnosis of pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum. Radiographs of 41 infants (17 girls/24 boys) with OMS were studied (age range 2 days to 8 months, mean 33 days). Central lucency and sternal edges were noted. Interclavicular distances before and after sternotomy were compared. Central lucency was seen in 25/41 (61%) children. Sternal struts were apparent in 27 (66%). In 14 without struts, central lucency was present in 8 (57%). In 27 children with struts, central lucency was present in 17 (63%) and absent in 10 (37%). Split sternal centers were identified in 6/41 (15%). The mean interclavicular distance was 23.5 mm (SD = 4.39) before sternotomy and 38.2 mm (SD = 7.0 mm) after sternotomy (P < 0.001). OMS has characteristic signs in the majority of cases. Recognition of these findings is useful and can prevent misinterpretation. (orig.)

  4. Sosiaalisen median markkinoinnin vuosikello Weecos Oy:lle

    OpenAIRE

    Heinämäki, Lotta; Huuskonen, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoitus oli luoda kokonaisvaltainen ja selkeä suunnitelma Weecos Oy:n markkinointitoimenpiteille valituissa sosiaalisen median kanavissa. Weecos on vuonna 2012 perustettu ekologisia yrityksiä yhteen keräävä verkkokauppa-alusta. Pienestä koostaan johtuen se ei ole pystynyt toteuttamaan sosiaalisen median markkinointia toivomallaan tavalla ja markkinoinnin suunnittelu ja toteutus on ollut epäsäännöllistä. Markkinointisuunnitelman tavoitteena oli helpottaa yrityksen markkinoi...

  5. Concurrent immunomodulator therapy is associated with higher adalimumab trough levels during scheduled maintenance therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Ashley; Dodd, Susanna; Fisher, Gareth; Skouras, Thomas; Subramanian, Sreedhar

    2017-02-01

    Combination therapy with infliximab and immunomodulators is superior to monotherapy, resulting in better outcomes and higher trough levels of infliximab. The role of concurrent immunomodulatory therapy on adalimumab trough levels has not been adequately investigated. We evaluated the impact of concomitant immunomodulation on adalimumab trough levels in patients on scheduled maintenance therapy. We conducted a prospective observational, cross-sectional study of all inflammatory bowel disease patients on maintenance therapy who had adalimumab trough levels measured between January 2013 and January 2016. Drug level and anti-drug antibody measurements were performed on sera using a solid phase assay. Pairwise comparison of means was used to compare trough levels in patients with and without concomitant immune modulator therapy. In total, 79 patients were included. Twenty-three patients (29.1%) were on weekly dosing whereas 56 (70.9%) were on alternate weeks. Median adalimumab trough levels were comparable in patients with and without clinical remission (6.8 μg/ml (IQR 5.6-8.1) versus 6.7 μg/ml (IQR 3.9-8.1), respectively. Patients with an elevated faecal calprotectin >250 μg/g had lower adalimumab trough levels (median 6.7, IQR 3.9-8) compared to patients with faecal calprotectin <250 μg/g (median 7.7, IQR 6.1-8.1) though this did not achieve statistical significance (p = .062). Median adalimumab trough levels among patients on concurrent immunomodulators was 7.2 μg/ml (IQR 5.7-8.1) compared to those not on concurrent immunomodulator, 6.1 μg/ml (IQR 2.7-7.7, p = .0297). Adalimumab trough levels were significantly higher in patients on concurrent immunomodulators during maintenance therapy. There was a trend towards a lower adalimumab trough level in patients with elevated calprotectin.

  6. Mentoring and Training of Cancer-Related Health Disparities Researchers Committed to Community-Based Participatory Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Tisha M; Braun, Kathryn L; Brandt, Heather M; Khan, Samira; Tanjasiri, Sora; Friedman, Daniela B; Armstead, Cheryl A; Okuyemi, Kolawole S; Hébert, James R

    2015-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Community Networks Program Centers (CNPCs) provide community-based participatory research (CBPR)-oriented mentoring and training to prepare early-stage/midcareer investigators and student trainees (trainees) in disparities reduction. This paper describes the academic, mentoring, training, and work-life balance experiences of CNPC-affiliated trainees. We used a collaborative and iterative process to develop a 57-item, web-based questionnaire completed by trainees from the 23 CNPCs between August 2012 and February 2013. Their CNPC mentors completed a 47-item questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were calculated. The final analytic sample included 189 of 269 individuals (70%) identified as active participants in CNPC research or training/mentoring. Mentors (n=45) were mostly non-Hispanic White (77.8%) and 48.9% were male. Mentors published a median of 6 (interquartile range [IQR], 3-12) first-authored and 15 (IQR, 6-25) senior authored manuscripts, and secured 15 (IQR, 11-29) grants from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and other sources in the previous 5 years. Most trainees (n=144) were female (79.2%), 43.7% were underrepresented racial/ethnic minorities, and 36.8% were first-generation college graduates. Over the previous 5 years, trainees reported a median of 4 (IQR, 1-6) publications as first author and 4 (IQR, 2-8) as co-author; 27.1% reported having one or more NIH R01s. Trainees reported satisfaction with their CNPC mentor (79.1%) and confidence in demonstrating most CBPR competencies. The CNPC training program consists of a scientifically productive pool of mentors and trainees. Trainees reported rates of scholarly productivity comparable to other national training programs and provided insights into relationships with mentors, academic pressures, and professional-personal life balance.

  7. Mentoring and Training of Cancer-Related Health Disparities Researchers Committed to Community-Based Participatory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Tisha M.; Braun, Kathryn L.; Brandt, Heather M.; Khan, Samira; Tanjasiri, Sora; Friedman, Daniela B.; Armstead, Cheryl A.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Hébert, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective The National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) Community Networks Program Centers (CNPCs) provide community-based participatory research (CBPR)-oriented mentoring and training to prepare early-stage/midcareer investigators and student trainees (trainees) in disparities reduction. This paper describes the academic, mentoring, training, and work–life balance experiences of CNPC-affiliated trainees. Methods We used a collaborative and iterative process to develop a 57-item, web-based questionnaire completed by trainees from the 23 CNPCs between August 2012 and February 2013. Their CNPC mentors completed a 47-item questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Results The final analytic sample included 189 of 269 individuals (70%) identified as active participants in CNPC research or training/mentoring. Mentors (n = 45) were mostly non-Hispanic White (77.8%) and 48.9% were male. Mentors published a median of 6 (interquartile range [IQR], 3–12) first-authored and 15 (IQR, 6–25) senior authored manuscripts, and secured 15 (IQR, 11–29) grants from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and other sources in the previous 5 years. Most trainees (n = 144) were female (79.2%), 43.7% were underrepresented racial/ethnic minorities, and 36.8% were first-generation college graduates. Over the previous 5 years, trainees reported a median of 4 (IQR, 1–6) publications as first author and 4 (IQR, 2–8) as co-author; 27.1% reported having one or more NIH R01s. Trainees reported satisfaction with their CNPC mentor (79.1%) and confidence in demonstrating most CBPR competencies. Conclusion The CNPC training program consists of a scientifically productive pool of mentors and trainees. Trainees reported rates of scholarly productivity comparable to other national training programs and provided insights into relationships with mentors, academic pressures, and professional–personal life balance. PMID:26213409

  8. Effect of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (flacs) on endothelial cell count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.S.; Habib, A.; Ishaq, M.; Yaqub, A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To compare the change in endothelial cell count after femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) versus conventional phacoemulsification. Study Design:Randomized controlled clinical trial. Place and Duration of Study:Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan from January 2016 to August 2017. Methodology:Patients with senile cataract and age ranging from 40 to 80 years were included in the study. Patients with any other cause of endothelial cell loss, history of trauma, documented diabetes millitis, hypertention and glaucoma were excluded. Preoperative detailed ocular examination, including both anterior and posterior examination, was carried out. Patients were distributed into two groups. Group GP were planned for conventional phacoemulsification, while group GF underwent FLACS. All the surgeries were performed under local anesthesia by same ophthalmic surgeon. Specular microscope (Topcon specular microscope sp-3000p) was utilized to measure the endothelial cell count (ECC) before and 4 weeks after the surgery. Results:Fifty eyes (25 in each group) of 48 patients underwent cataract surgery by phacoemulsification or FLACS. Twenty-five (52.08%) out of the total were females while 23 (47.91%) were males. Median age of the participants in hacoemulsification group was 55 years (IQR 20.50), while in FLACS group it was 54 years (IQR 8). The median change in endothelial cell count was 228 (IQR 532) in Phaco group, while 23 (IQR 35) in FLACS group. (p<0.05 Mann Whitney U-test). Conclusion:FLACS is a safe and effective modality for cataract treatment and it induces significantly less endothelial cell loss than conventional phacoemulsification. (author)

  9. QT and JT dispersion and cardiac performance in children with neonatal Bartter syndrome: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacihamdioglu, Duygu Ovunc; Fidanci, Kursat; Kilic, Ayhan; Gok, Faysal; Topaloglu, Rezan

    2013-10-01

    QT dispersion and JT dispersion are simple noninvasive arrhythmogenic markers that can be used to assess the homogeneity of cardiac repolarization. The aim of this study was to assess QT and JT dispersion and their relation with left ventricular systolic and diastolic functions in children with Bartter syndrome (BS). Nine neonatal patients with BS (median age 9.7 years) and 20 controls (median age 8 years) were investigated at rest. Both study and control subjects underwent electrocardiography (ECG) in which the interval between two R waves and QT intervals, corrected QT, QT dispersion, corrected QT dispersion, JT, corrected JT, JT dispersion and corrected JT dispersion were measured with 12-lead ECG. Two-dimensional, Doppler echocardiographic examinations were performed. Patients and controls did not differ for gender and for serum levels of potassium, magnesium, and calcium (p > 0.05). Both study and control subjects had normal echocardiographic examination and baseline myocardial performance indexes. The QT dispersion and JT dispersion were significantly prolonged in patients with BS compared to those of the controls {37.5 ms [interquartile range (IQR) 32.5-40] vs. 25.5 ms (IQR 20-30), respectively, p = 0.014 and 37.5 ms (IQR 27.5-40) vs. 22.5 ms (IQR 20-30), respectively, p = 0.003}. Elevated QT and JT dispersion during asymptomatic and normokalemic periods may be risk factors for the development of cardiac complications and arrhythmias in children with BS. In these patients the need for systematic cardiac screening and management protocol is extremely important for effective prevention.

  10. Peripheral tissue oximetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Hessel, Trine Witzner; Greisen, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of regional tissue oxygenation (rStO2) by near infrared spectroscopy enables non-invasive end-organ oxygen balance monitoring and could be a valuable tool in intensive care. However, the diverse absolute values and dynamics of different devices, and overall poor repeatability of measur......Estimation of regional tissue oxygenation (rStO2) by near infrared spectroscopy enables non-invasive end-organ oxygen balance monitoring and could be a valuable tool in intensive care. However, the diverse absolute values and dynamics of different devices, and overall poor repeatability......, and response to changing oxygenation by the down slope of rStO2 during vascular occlusion in the respective arm. 10 healthy adults, 21-29 years old, with double skinfolds on the forearm less than 10 mm participated. The median rStO2 was 70.7% (interquartile range (IQR) 7.7%), 68.4% (IQR 8.4%), and 64.6% (IQR 4...

  11. Description of hot debriefings after in-hospital cardiac arrests in an international pediatric quality improvement collaborative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweberg, Todd; Sen, Anita I; Mullan, Paul C; Cheng, Adam; Knight, Lynda; Del Castillo, Jimena; Ikeyama, Takanari; Seshadri, Roopa; Hazinski, Mary Fran; Raymond, Tia; Niles, Dana E; Nadkarni, Vinay; Wolfe, Heather

    2018-05-22

    The American Heart Association recommends debriefing after attempted resuscitation from in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) to improve resuscitation quality and outcomes. This is the first published study detailing the utilization, process and content of hot debriefings after pediatric IHCA. Using prospective data from the Pediatric Resuscitation Quality Collaborative (pediRES-Q), we analyzed data from 227 arrests occurring between February 1, 2016, and August 31, 2017. Hot debriefings, defined as occurring within minutes to hours of IHCA, were evaluated using a modified Team Emergency Assessment Measure framework for qualitative content analysis of debriefing comments. Hot debriefings were performed following 108 of 227 IHCAs (47%). The median interval to debriefing was 130 min (Interquartile range [IQR] 45, 270). Median debriefing duration was 15 min (IQR 10, 20). Physicians facilitated 95% of debriefings, with a median of 9 participants (IQR 7, 11). After multivariate analysis, accounting for hospital site, debriefing frequency was not associated with patient age, gender, race, illness category or unit type. The most frequent positive (plus) comments involved cooperation/coordination (60%), communication (47%) and clinical standards (41%). The most frequent negative (delta) comments involved equipment (46%), cooperation/coordination (45%), and clinical standards (36%). Approximately half of pediatric IHCAs were followed by hot debriefings. Hot debriefings were multi-disciplinary, timely, and often addressed issues of team cooperation/coordination, communication, clinical standards, and equipment. Additional studies are warranted to identify barriers to hot debriefings and to evaluate the impact of these debriefings on patient outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Direct costs of care for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with hepatitis C cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapper, Elliot B; Catana, Andreea M; Sethi, Nidhi; Mansuri, Daniel; Sethi, Saurabh; Vong, Annie; Afdhal, Nezam H

    2016-03-15

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the commonest cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the United States. The benefits of HCV therapy may be measured in part by the prevention of HCC and other complications of cirrhosis. The true cost of care of the HCV patient with HCC is unknown. One hundred patients were randomly selected from a cohort of all HCC patients with HCV at a US transplant center between 2003 and 2013. Patients were categorized by the primary treatment modality, Barcelona class, and ultimate transplant status. Costs included the unit costs of procedures, imaging, hospitalizations, medications, and all subsequent care of the HCC patient until either death or the end of follow-up. Associations with survival and cost were assessed in multivariate regression models. Overall costs included a median of $176,456 (interquartile range [IQR], $84,489-$292,192) per patient or $6279 (IQR, $4043-$9720) per patient-month of observation. The median costs per patient-month were $7492 (IQR, $5137-$11,057) for transplant patients and $4830 for nontransplant patients. The highest median monthly costs were for transplant patients with Barcelona A4 disease ($11,349) and patients who received chemoembolization whether they underwent transplantation ($10,244) or not ($8853). Transarterial chemoembolization and radiofrequency ablation were independently associated with a 28% increase and a 22% decrease in costs, respectively, with adjustments for the severity of liver disease and Barcelona class. These data represent real-world estimates of the cost of HCC care provided at a transplant center and should inform economic studies of HCV therapy. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  13. Etiology of Sudden Cardiac Arrest in Patients with Epilepsy: Experience of Tertiary Referral Hospital in Sapporo City, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Kei; Ochi, Satoko; Enatsu, Rei; Wanibuchi, Masahiko; Mikuni, Nobuhiro; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Uemura, Shuji; Tanno, Katsuhiko; Narimatsu, Eichi; Maekawa, Kunihiko; Usui, Keiko; Mizobuchi, Masahiro

    2016-05-15

    It has been reported that epilepsy patients had higher risk of sudden death than that of the general population. However, in Japan, there is very little literature on the observational research conducted on sudden fatal events in epilepsy. We performed a single-center, retrospective study on all the out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients treated in our emergency department between 2007 and 2013. Among the OHCA patients, we extracted those with a history of epilepsy and then analyzed the characteristics of the fatal events and the background of epilepsy. From 1,823 OHCA patients, a total of 10 cases were enrolled in our study. The median age was 34 years at the time of the incident [9-52 years; interquartile range (IQR), 24-45]. We determined that half of our cases resulted from external causes of death such as drowning and suffocation and the other half were classified as sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). In addition, asphyxia was implicated as the cause in eight cases. Only the two near-drowning patients were immediately resuscitated, but the remaining eight patients died. The median age of first onset of epilepsy was 12 years (0.5-30; IQR, 3-21), and the median disease duration was 25 years (4-38; IQR, 6-32). Patients with active epilepsy accounted for half of our series and they were undergoing poly anti-epileptic drug therapy. The fatal events related to epilepsy tended to occur in the younger adult by external causes. An appropriate therapeutic intervention and a thorough observation were needed for its prevention.

  14. Noninvasive ventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: effects on sleep quality and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandoorne, Eva; Vrijsen, Bart; Belge, Catharina; Testelmans, Dries; Buyse, Bertien

    2016-12-01

    Little is known about the effects of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) on sleep quality in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We aim to evaluate the long-term effects of NIV on sleep quality and quality of life in patients with ALS. In this prospective observational study, 13 ALS patients were followed for one year after initiating NIV. We evaluated sleep quality, quality of life and functional status with several questionnaires: Epworth sleepiness Scale (ESS), Pittsburg sleep quality index (PSQI), Short Form 36 Health Questionnaire (SF-36), McGill Quality of Life questionnaire (McGillQoL) and revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale scores (ALSFRS-R). Median and interquartile range (IQR) at the start of NIV was 59 (53-65) years. The ALSFRS-R at start was 30 (24-37) (median, IQR), with three patients having severe bulbar impairment (ALSFRS-R-bulbar ≤ 9). The P a CO 2 at start of NIV treatment was 48 (43-52) mmHg (median, IQR). During the one-year follow-up period, a significant decrease in the ALSFRS-R was observed. The impact of NIV in a short term (1 month) revealed a statistically significant decrease in ESS, decrease in total PSQI and of four PSQI subscales and improvement of almost all subscales of the McGill questionnaire. Long-term analyses (9 months to 1 year) revealed that amelioration in ESS and total PSQI was sustained. We conclude that accurately titrated NIV in ALS patients can stabilize sleep quality and quality of life for at least one year, despite significant disease progression.

  15. The relationship of socioeconomic status with coronary artery calcification and pericardial fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafakhi, Hussein; Almosawi, Abdulameer; Alnafakh, Hasan; Mousa, Widad

    2017-01-01

    Little data currently exist supporting the correlation of socioeconomic status (SES) to markers of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. The main aim was to investigate the relationship of SES measured by economic status and educational level with coronary artery calcification (CAC) and pericardial fat volume (PFV) assessed by multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). A total of 220 consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery disease, who underwent 64-slice MDCT angiography for assessment of coronary atherosclerosis, were recruited between January 2014 and March 2015. Of these, 186 patients were enrolled in this cross sectional study. Low economic status patients showed higher PFV values; median (inter-quartile range [IQR] was 94 [50-140] cm3, p = 0.00001 and r = 0.37, compared to patients with high economic status, and this association persisted even after multiple logistic regression to conventional cardiac risk factors (p = 0.004, CI 7.3-30.4), while patients with low economic status reported a higher calcium score (but statistically non significant) (p = 0.12) compared to high economic status patients. Pa-tients with no formal education showed higher PFV (median [IQR] was 93 [48-140] cm3, p = 0.01) compared to patients with bachelor's degree (median [IQR] was 56 [28-92] cm3), but this association was attenuated after further adjustment for conventional cardiac risk factors (p = 0.1, CI -9.52-10.88), while CAC showed no significant correlation with educational level (p = 0.2, r = 0.117). Socioeconomic status, particularly economic status measure, reported a significant inverse relationship with PFV independent of conventional cardiac risk factors.

  16. Effect of Topical Intranasal Therapy on Epistaxis Frequency in Patients With Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Kevin J; Sautter, Nathan B; McWilliams, Justin P; Chakinala, Murali M; Merlo, Christian A; Johnson, Maribeth H; James, Melissa; Everett, Eric M; Clancy, Marianne S; Faughnan, Marie E; Oh, S Paul; Olitsky, Scott E; Pyeritz, Reed E; Gossage, James R

    2016-09-06

    Epistaxis is a major factor negatively affecting quality of life in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT; also known as Osler-Weber-Rendu disease). Optimal treatment for HHT-related epistaxis is uncertain. To determine whether topical therapy with any of 3 drugs with differing mechanisms of action is effective in reducing HHT-related epistaxis. The North American Study of Epistaxis in HHT was a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial performed at 6 HHT centers of excellence. From August 2011 through March 2014, there were 121 adult patients who met the clinical criteria for HHT and had experienced HHT-related epistaxis with an Epistaxis Severity Score of at least 3.0. Follow-up was completed in September 2014. Patients received twice-daily nose sprays for 12 weeks with either bevacizumab 1% (4 mg/d), estriol 0.1% (0.4 mg/d), tranexamic acid 10% (40 mg/d), or placebo (0.9% saline). The primary outcome was median weekly epistaxis frequency during weeks 5 through 12. Secondary outcomes included median duration of epistaxis during weeks 5 through 12, Epistaxis Severity Score, level of hemoglobin, level of ferritin, need for transfusion, emergency department visits, and treatment failure. Among the 121 patients who were randomized (mean age, 52.8 years [SD, 12.9 years]; 44% women with a median of 7.0 weekly episodes of epistaxis [interquartile range {IQR}, 3.0-14.0]), 106 patients completed the study duration for the primary outcome measure (43 were women [41%]). Drug therapy did not significantly reduce epistaxis frequency (P = .97). After 12 weeks of treatment, the median weekly number of bleeding episodes was 7.0 (IQR, 4.5-10.5) for patients in the bevacizumab group, 8.0 (IQR, 4.0-12.0) for the estriol group, 7.5 (IQR, 3.0-11.0) for the tranexamic acid group, and 8.0 (IQR, 3.0-14.0) for the placebo group. No drug treatment was significantly different from placebo for epistaxis duration. All groups had a significant

  17. More than a camera holder: teaching surgical skills to medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Paulette; Holder-Haynes, Juliet; Taylor, Deborah J; Scott, Bradford G; Brandt, Mary L; Naik-Mathuria, Bindi

    2015-05-15

    Students often experience passive learning in their surgical rotations as they are delegated to holding the camera during laparoscopic cases. We introduced a laparoscopic skills course to medical students to provide hands-on experience. We hypothesized that the course will improve basic laparoscopic skills and increase interest in a surgical career. All students on the core surgery rotation attended two sessions in the surgical simulation laboratory lead by Department of Surgery faculty members. Surveys were used before and after the course to assess video game (VG) use and interest in a surgical career. Course effectiveness was assessed with a laparoscopic peg transfer exercise. One hundred one students participated with 82 students documenting preinstruction and postinstruction peg transfer times. There was an overall improvement in median transfer times after instruction (before 63 s [interquartile range {IQR} 46-84.5] versus after 50.5 s [IQR 39-65.2], P men (n = 40) had faster median preintervention peg transfer times than women (n = 61; 65 s [IQR 51-88]) versus 81 s [IQR 65-98] (P = 0.030). However, both genders had equivalent postinstruction transfer times (men 48 s [IQR 36-61] versus women 51.3 s [IQR 43.2-68.3], P = 0.478). A similar trend was observed between students with and without prior VG use. Of the 50 students who completed both surveys, there was no significant increase (pre-24% versus post-34%, P = 0.29) or decrease (pre-32% versus post-22%, P = 0.13) in interest in a surgical career after the course. A laparoscopic course for medical students is effective in improving laparoscopic skills. Although male gender and VG use may be associated with better intrinsic skills, instruction and practice allow female students and non-VG users to "catch up." A longer follow-up study is warranted to determine true interest in a surgical career. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of tracheal intubation using the Airtraq® and Mc Coy laryngoscope in the presence of rigid cervical collar simulating cervical immobilisation for traumatic cervical spine injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmaja Durga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is difficult to visualise the larynx using conventional laryngoscopy in the presence of cervical spine immobilisation. Airtraq® provides for easy and successful intubation in the neutral neck position. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of Airtraq in comparison with the Mc Coy laryngoscope, when performing tracheal intubation in patients with neck immobilisation using hard cervical collar and manual in-line axial cervical spine stabilisation. Methods: A randomised, cross-over, open-labelled study was undertaken in 60 ASA I and II patients aged between 20 and 50 years, belonging to either gender, scheduled to undergo elective surgical procedures. Following induction and adequate muscle relaxation, they were intubated using either of the techniques first, followed by the other. Intubation time and Intubation Difficulty Score (IDS were noted using Mc Coy laryngoscope and Airtraq. The anaesthesiologist was asked to grade the ease of intubation on a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS of 1-10. Chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between the groups and paired sample t-test for comparison of continuous data. IDS score and VAS were compared using Wilcoxon Signed ranked test. Results: The mean intubation time was 33.27 sec (13.25 for laryngoscopy and 28.95 sec (18.53 for Airtraq (P=0.32. The median IDS values were 4 (interquartile range (IQR 1-6 and 0 (IQR 0-1 for laryngoscopy and Airtraq, respectively (P=0.007. The median Cormack Lehane glottic view grade was 3 (IQR 2-4 and 1 (IQR 1-1 for laryngoscopy and Airtraq, respectively (P=0.003. The ease of intubation on VAS was graded as 4 (IQR 3-5 for laryngoscopy and 2 (IQR 2-2 for Airtraq (P=0.033. There were two failures to intubate with the Airtraq. Conclusion: Airtraq improves the ease of intubation significantly when compared to Mc Coy blade in patients immobilised with cervical collar and manual in-line stabilisation simulating cervical spine injury.

  19. 'Trifecta' outcomes of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy in solitary kidney: a Vattikuti Collective Quality Initiative (VCQI) database analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sohrab; Abaza, Ronney; Adshead, James M; Ahlawat, Rajesh K; Challacombe, Benjamin J; Dasgupta, Prokar; Gandaglia, Giorgio; Moon, Daniel A; Yuvaraja, Thyavihally B; Capitanio, Umberto; Larcher, Alessandro; Porpiglia, Francesco; Porter, James R; Mottrie, Alexander; Bhandari, Mahendra; Rogers, Craig

    2018-01-01

    To analyse the outcomes of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) in patients with a solitary kidney in a large multi-institutional database. In all, 2755 patients in the Vattikuti Collective Quality Initiative database underwent RAPN by 22 surgeons at 14 centres in nine countries. Of these patients, 74 underwent RAPN with a solitary kidney between 2007 and 2016. We retrospectively analysed the functional and oncological outcomes of these 74 patients. A 'trifecta' of outcomes was assessed, with trifecta defined as a warm ischaemia time (WIT) of negative surgical margins, and no complications intraoperatively or within 3 months of RAPN. All 74 patients underwent RAPN successfully with one conversion to radical nephrectomy. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) operative time was 180 (142-230) min. Early unclamping was used in 11 (14.9%) patients and zero ischaemia was used in 12 (16.2%). Trifecta outcomes were achieved in 38 of 66 patients (57.6%). The median (IQR) WIT was 15.5 (8.75-20.0) min for the entire cohort. The overall complication rate was 24.1% and the rate of Clavien-Dindo grade ≤II complications was 16.3%. Positive surgical margins were present in four cases (5.4%). The median (IQR) follow-up was 10.5 (2.12-24.0) months. The median drop in estimated glomerular filtration rate at 3 months was 7.0 mL/min/1.72 m 2 (11.01%). Our findings suggest that RAPN is a safe and effective treatment option for select renal tumours in solitary kidneys in terms of a trifecta of negative surgical margins, WIT of <20 min, and low operative and perioperative morbidity. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Relationship of leptin and insulin-like growth factor I to nutritional status in hemodialyzed children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besbas, Nesrin; Ozaltin, Fatih; Coşkun, Turgay; Ozalp, Sila; Saatçi, Umit; Bakkaloğlu, Aysin; El Nahas, A Meguid

    2003-12-01

    Malnutrition is prevalent in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Elevated serum leptin levels were thought to contribute to the anorexia and poor nutrition in renal failure. However, studies of the relationship between nutritional status and leptin concentration in chronic renal failure have yielded conflicting results. Plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) level has been used as an indicator of nutritional status in patients with renal failure. The relationship between leptin and IGF-I is controversial. The present study was conducted with the aim of assessing the relationship between nutritional status, hyperleptinemia, and serum IGF-I. Seventeen ESRD patients (8 male, 9 female), aged 8-18 years (mean 15.3+/-3.3 years) and undergoing standard hemodialysis for 58.8+/-23.1 months were enrolled. Nine age-matched healthy children served as controls. In all patients, energy and protein intakes were 40-70 kcal/kg per day and 1-1.54 g/kg per day, respectively. Predialysis serum leptin and IGF-I levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Body mass index was decreased in 13 (76%) patients. Triceps skinfold thickness (TST) was reduced (below the 5th percentile) in 7 (41%), whereas mid arm circumference and mid arm muscle circumference were reduced in 14 (82.5%) and 13 (76.5%), respectively. The median serum leptin level was significantly higher in patients than in controls [13.7 interquartile range (IQR) 30.50 pg/ml vs. 6.50 IQR 8.65 pg/ml, P=0.01]. The median serum IGF-I level was lower in the patients (205.1 ng/ml IQR 194.4 ng/l) than controls (418.0 ng/l IQR 310.5 ng/ml) ( P=0.01). IGF-I levels were more decreased in patients with severe malnutrition, defined according to TST (145.0 ng/ml IQR 125.5 ng/l) than patients without malnutrition (301.2 ng/l IQR 218.8 ng/ml) ( P=0.03) and healthy children ( P=0.002). Although statistically not significant, IGF-I levels tended to be decreased, while leptin levels were increased. The median plasma insulin

  1. {sup 177}Lu-PSMA-617 radioligand therapy and outcome in patients with metastasized castration-resistant prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeuer, Axel; Grubert, Lena Sophie; Roll, Wolfgang; Schaefers, Michael; Rahbar, Kambiz [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Muenster (Germany); Schrader, Andres Jan; Boegemann, Martin [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Urology, Muenster (Germany)

    2017-09-15

    Radioligand therapies targeting prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) have been established for the treatment of metastasized castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) in the last decade and show promising response rates and a favourable toxicity profile. The aim of this study was to evaluate the overall survival (OS) and to identify parameters predicting outcome in mCRPC patients treated with {sup 177}Lu-PSMA-617. Between December 2014 and January 2017, 59 consecutive patients (median age 72 years); interquartile range, (IQR, 66-76 years) with mCRPC, who had been treated with at least one next-generation antihormonal drug as well as chemotherapy, were included in this study. Biochemical response was evaluated using Prostate Cancer Working Group 3 (PCWG3) criteria. Survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox regression proportional hazards model. Toxicity was assessed using Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE). The study was approved by the local ethics committee. The 59 patients were treated with a total of 159 cycles (median 3 cycles, range 1-7) of {sup 177}Lu-PSMA-617 (median dose 6.11 GBq, IQR 5.9-6.3 GBq). The median follow-up was 24 weeks (IQR 15-36 weeks). Follow-up data for at least 12 weeks (PCWG3) were available in 76% (45) of the patients. For outcome results data from all patients treated with at least one cycle were analysed. A decline in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of ≥50% occurred in 53%, and a decline in PSA of any amount in 91% of patients. The estimated median OS was 32 weeks. An initial alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level <220 U/L and a PSA decline after the first cycle were associated with a longer OS (56 vs. 28 weeks, p < 0.01, and 56 vs. 29 weeks, p = 0.04, respectively). The median estimated PSA progression-free survival (PPFS) was 18 weeks. Only ALP level <220 U/L was significantly associated with a longer PPFS (41 vs. 18 weeks, p < 0.01). A PSA decline after the first cycle of {sup 177}Lu-PSMA-617

  2. "1"7"7Lu-PSMA-617 radioligand therapy and outcome in patients with metastasized castration-resistant prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braeuer, Axel; Grubert, Lena Sophie; Roll, Wolfgang; Schaefers, Michael; Rahbar, Kambiz; Schrader, Andres Jan; Boegemann, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Radioligand therapies targeting prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) have been established for the treatment of metastasized castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) in the last decade and show promising response rates and a favourable toxicity profile. The aim of this study was to evaluate the overall survival (OS) and to identify parameters predicting outcome in mCRPC patients treated with "1"7"7Lu-PSMA-617. Between December 2014 and January 2017, 59 consecutive patients (median age 72 years); interquartile range, (IQR, 66-76 years) with mCRPC, who had been treated with at least one next-generation antihormonal drug as well as chemotherapy, were included in this study. Biochemical response was evaluated using Prostate Cancer Working Group 3 (PCWG3) criteria. Survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox regression proportional hazards model. Toxicity was assessed using Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE). The study was approved by the local ethics committee. The 59 patients were treated with a total of 159 cycles (median 3 cycles, range 1-7) of "1"7"7Lu-PSMA-617 (median dose 6.11 GBq, IQR 5.9-6.3 GBq). The median follow-up was 24 weeks (IQR 15-36 weeks). Follow-up data for at least 12 weeks (PCWG3) were available in 76% (45) of the patients. For outcome results data from all patients treated with at least one cycle were analysed. A decline in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of ≥50% occurred in 53%, and a decline in PSA of any amount in 91% of patients. The estimated median OS was 32 weeks. An initial alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level <220 U/L and a PSA decline after the first cycle were associated with a longer OS (56 vs. 28 weeks, p < 0.01, and 56 vs. 29 weeks, p = 0.04, respectively). The median estimated PSA progression-free survival (PPFS) was 18 weeks. Only ALP level <220 U/L was significantly associated with a longer PPFS (41 vs. 18 weeks, p < 0.01). A PSA decline after the first cycle of "1"7"7Lu-PSMA-617 and an

  3. Favorable bed utilization and readmission rates for emergency department observation unit heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrager, Justin; Wheatley, Matthew; Georgiopoulou, Vasiliki; Osborne, Anwar; Kalogeropoulos, Andreas; Hung, Olivia; Butler, Javed; Ross, Michael

    2013-06-01

    The objective was to compare readmission rates and hospital bed-days between acute decompensated heart failure (AHF) patients admitted or discharged following accelerated treatment protocol (ATP)-driven care in an emergency department observation unit (OU). This was a retrospective cohort study conducted at two urban university-affiliated hospitals. A total of 358 selected AHF patients received treatment on an ATP in the OU between October 1, 2007, and June 30, 2011. The comparison of interest was admission or discharge following OU treatment. The outcome of interest was readmission within 30 and 90 days of hospital discharge following care in the OU. We also examined resource use (inpatient, inpatient plus outpatient-days) between the admitted and discharged groups. Time to readmission analysis was performed with Cox proportional hazards regression. Discharged and admitted patients were similar with respect to age, race, sex, ED length of stay (LOS), and OU LOS. Patients admitted from the OU had a higher median B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP; 1,063 pg/mL [interquartile range {IQR} = 552 to 2,067 pg/mL] vs. 708 pg/mL [IQR = 254 to 1,683 pg/mL]; p = 0.002) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN; 19 mg/dL [IQR = 14 to 26 mg/dL] vs. 17 mg/dL [IQR = 13 to 23 mg/dL]) than those discharged (p = 0.04) and a lower median ejection fraction (EF; 22.5% [15% to 43%] vs. 35% [IQR 20% to 55%]; p = 0.002). In models controlling for age, race, sex, clinical site, BNP, BUN, creatinine, and EF, the 30-day readmission rate (13.8% in the study population as a whole) was not significantly different between the patients discharged or admitted following OU care (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.47 to 2.10). The readmission rates were also not significantly different at 90 days (HR = 1.07; 95% CI = 0.65 to 1.77). Within 30 days of discharge from the OU, patients spent a median of 1.7 days (IQR = 0.0 to 5.1 days) as inpatients, compared to 3.5 days (IQR = 2.3 to 5.8 days

  4. Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Use by Breastfeeding HIV-Uninfected Women: A Prospective Short-Term Study of Antiretroviral Excretion in Breast Milk and Infant Absorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth K Mugwanya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP becomes more widely used in heterosexual populations, an important consideration is its safety in infants who are breastfed by women taking PrEP. We investigated whether tenofovir and emtricitabine are excreted into breast milk and then absorbed by the breastfeeding infant in clinically significant concentrations when used as PrEP by lactating women.We conducted a prospective short-term, open-label study of daily oral emtricitabine-tenofovir disoproxil fumarate PrEP among 50 HIV-uninfected breastfeeding African mother-infant pairs between 1-24 wk postpartum (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02776748. The primary goal was to quantify the steady-state concentrations of tenofovir and emtricitabine in infant plasma ingested via breastfeeding. PrEP was administered to women through daily directly observed therapy (DOT for ten consecutive days and then discontinued thereafter. Non-fasting peak and trough samples of maternal plasma and breast milk were obtained at drug concentration steady states on days 7 and 10, and a single infant plasma sample was obtained on day 7. Peak blood and breast milk samples were obtained 1-2 h after the maternal DOT PrEP dose, while maternal trough samples were obtained at the end of the PrEP dosing interval (i.e., 23 to 24 h after maternal DOT PrEP dose. Tenofovir and emtricitabine concentrations were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS assays. Of the 50 mother-infant pairs enrolled, 48% were ≤12 wk and 52% were 13-24 wk postpartum, and median maternal age was 25 y (interquartile range [IQR] 22-28. During study follow-up, the median (IQR daily reported frequency of infant breastfeeding was 15 times (12 to 18 overall, 16 (14 to 19 for the ≤12 weeks, and 14 (12 to 17 for the 13-24 wk infant age groups. Overall, median (IQR time-averaged peak concentrations in breast milk were 3.2 ng/mL (2.3 to 4.7 for tenofovir and 212.5 ng/mL (140.0 to 405.0 for

  5. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is prevalent in vulnerable groups in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Perslev, Kathrine; Andersen, Stine Linding

    2016-01-01

    -containing supplements (86%). The median UIC was 118 (interquartile range (IQR): 79-196) µg/l in iodine supplement users and 82 (IQR: 41-122) µg/l in non-users (p education, non-Danish origin and pre-pregnancy obesity....... CONCLUSIONS: The iodine status in Danish pregnant women was below WHO recommendations. Iodine supplement non-users are at a particular risk of iodine deficiency. Low maternal education, non-Danish origin and pre-pregnancy obesity are predictors of non-iodine supplement use. An increase in iodine fortification......INTRODUCTION: Iodine is essential for the production of thyroid hormones. In pregnancy, physiological changes occur that can lead to iodine deficiency and impairment of fetal neurological development. We aimed to assess the iodine intake in pregnant women in Eastern Denmark, compare iodine levels...

  6. Regularization of DT-MRI Using 3D Median Filtering Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soondong Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DT-MRI (diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging tractography is a method to determine the architecture of axonal fibers in the central nervous system by computing the direction of the principal eigenvectors obtained from tensor matrix, which is different from the conventional isotropic MRI. Tractography based on DT-MRI is known to need many computations and is highly sensitive to noise. Hence, adequate regularization methods, such as image processing techniques, are in demand. Among many regularization methods we are interested in the median filtering method. In this paper, we extended two-dimensional median filters already developed to three-dimensional median filters. We compared four median filtering methods which are two-dimensional simple median method (SM2D, two-dimensional successive Fermat method (SF2D, three-dimensional simple median method (SM3D, and three-dimensional successive Fermat method (SF3D. Three kinds of synthetic data with different altitude angles from axial slices and one kind of human data from MR scanner are considered for numerical implementation by the four filtering methods.

  7. Safety performance evaluation of cable median barriers on freeways in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alluri, Priyanka; Haleem, Kirolos; Gan, Albert; Mauthner, John

    2016-07-03

    This article aims to evaluate the safety performance of cable median barriers on freeways in Florida. The safety performance evaluation was based on the percentages of barrier and median crossovers by vehicle type, crash severity, and cable median barrier type (Trinity Cable Safety System [CASS] and Gibraltar system). Twenty-three locations with cable median barriers totaling about 101 miles were identified. Police reports of 6,524 crashes from years 2005-2010 at these locations were reviewed to verify and obtain detailed crash information. A total of 549 crashes were determined to be barrier related (i.e., crashes involving vehicles hitting the cable median barrier) and were reviewed in further detail to identify crossover crashes and the manner in which the vehicles crossed the barriers; that is, by either overriding, underriding, or penetrating the barriers. Overall, 2.6% of vehicles that hit the cable median barrier crossed the median and traversed into the opposite travel lane. Overall, 98.1% of cars and 95.5% of light trucks that hit the barrier were prevented from crossing the median. In other words, 1.9% of cars and 4.5% of light trucks that hit the barrier had crossed the median and encroached on the opposite travel lanes. There is no significant difference in the performance of cable median barrier for cars versus light trucks in terms of crossover crashes. In terms of severity, overrides were more severe compared to underrides and penetrations. The statistics showed that the CASS and Gibraltar systems performed similarly in terms of crossover crashes. However, the Gibraltar system experienced a higher proportion of penetrations compared to the CASS system. The CASS system resulted in a slightly higher percentage of moderate and minor injury crashes compared to the Gibraltar system. Cable median barriers are successful in preventing median crossover crashes; 97.4% of the cable median barrier crashes were prevented from crossing over the median. Of all of

  8. Performance evaluation of cable median barrier systems in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Since 2003, the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) has embarked on an aggressive campaign to install : median barriers to prevent cross-median crashes on freeway facilities statewide. In the few years prior to 2003, : virtually all fatalities...

  9. Accuracy and Feasibility of an Android-Based Digital Assessment Tool for Post Stroke Visual Disorders-The StrokeVision App.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Terence J; Livingstone, Iain; Weir, Alexander; Shaw, Robert; Breckenridge, Andrew; McAlpine, Christine; Tarbert, Claire M

    2018-01-01

    Visual impairment affects up to 70% of stroke survivors. We designed an app (StrokeVision) to facilitate screening for common post stroke visual issues (acuity, visual fields, and visual inattention). We sought to describe the test time, feasibility, acceptability, and accuracy of our app-based digital visual assessments against (a) current methods used for bedside screening and (b) gold standard measures. Patients were prospectively recruited from acute stroke settings. Index tests were app-based assessments of fields and inattention performed by a trained researcher. We compared against usual clinical screening practice of visual fields to confrontation, including inattention assessment (simultaneous stimuli). We also compared app to gold standard assessments of formal kinetic perimetry (Goldman or Octopus Visual Field Assessment); and pencil and paper-based tests of inattention (Albert's, Star Cancelation, and Line Bisection). Results of inattention and field tests were adjudicated by a specialist Neuro-ophthalmologist. All assessors were masked to each other's results. Participants and assessors graded acceptability using a bespoke scale that ranged from 0 (completely unacceptable) to 10 (perfect acceptability). Of 48 stroke survivors recruited, the complete battery of index and reference tests for fields was successfully completed in 45. Similar acceptability scores were observed for app-based [assessor median score 10 (IQR: 9-10); patient 9 (IQR: 8-10)] and traditional bedside testing [assessor 10 (IQR: 9-10); patient 10 (IQR: 9-10)]. Median test time was longer for app-based testing [combined time to completion of all digital tests 420 s (IQR: 390-588)] when compared with conventional bedside testing [70 s, (IQR: 40-70)], but shorter than gold standard testing [1,260 s, (IQR: 1005-1,620)]. Compared with gold standard assessments, usual screening practice demonstrated 79% sensitivity and 82% specificity for detection of a stroke-related field defect

  10. Effectiveness of increasing the frequency of posaconazole syrup administration to achieve optimal plasma concentrations in patients with haematological malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Wan Beom; Cho, Joo-Youn; Park, Sang-In; Kim, Eun Jung; Yoon, Seonghae; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Koh, Youngil; Song, Kyoung-Ho; Choe, Pyoeng Gyun; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Kim, Eu Suk; Bang, Su Mi; Kim, Nam Joong; Kim, Inho; Oh, Myoung-Don; Kim, Hong Bin; Song, Sang Hoon

    2016-07-01

    Few data are available on whether adjusting the dose of posaconazole syrup is effective in patients receiving anti-cancer chemotherapy. The aim of this prospective study was to analyse the impact of increasing the frequency of posaconazole administration on optimal plasma concentrations in adult patients with haematological malignancy. A total of 133 adult patients receiving chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome who received posaconazole syrup 200 mg three times daily for fungal prophylaxis were enrolled in this study. Drug trough levels were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In 20.2% of patients (23/114) the steady-state concentration of posaconazole was suboptimal (increased to 200 mg four times daily. On Day 15, the median posaconazole concentration was significantly increased from 368 ng/mL [interquartile range (IQR), 247-403 ng/mL] to 548 ng/mL (IQR, 424-887 ng/mL) (P = 0.0003). The median increase in posaconazole concentration was 251 ng/mL (IQR, 93-517 ng/mL). Among the patients with initially suboptimal levels, 79% achieved the optimal level unless the steady-state level was increasing the administration frequency of posaconazole syrup is effective for achieving optimal levels in patients with haematological malignancy undergoing chemotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  11. Secondhand smoke exposure in hospitality venues in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Maria J; Nebot, Manel; Albertini, Marco; Birkui, Pierre; Centrich, Francesc; Chudzikova, Monika; Georgouli, Maria; Gorini, Giuseppe; Moshammer, Hanns; Mulcahy, Maurice; Pilali, Maria; Serrahima, Eulalia; Tutka, Piotr; Fernandez, Esteve

    2008-11-01

    Although in the last few years some European countries have implemented smoking bans in hospitality venues, the levels of secondhand smoke (SHS) in this occupational sector could still be extremely high in most countries. The aim of this study was to assess exposure to SHS in hospitality venues in 10 European cities. We included 167 hospitality venues (58 discotheques and pubs, 82 restaurants and cafeterias, and 27 fast-food restaurants) in this cross-sectional study. We carried out fieldwork in 10 European cities: Vienna (Austria), Paris (France), Athens (Greece), Florence and Belluno (Italy), Galway (Ireland), Barcelona (Spain), Warsaw and Lublin (Poland), and Bratislava (Slovak Republic). We measured vapor-phase nicotine as an SHS marker. We analyzed 504 samples and found nicotine in most samples (97.4%). We found the highest median concentrations in discos/pubs [32.99 microg/m(3); interquartile range (IQR), 8.06-66.84 microg/m(3)] and lower median concentrations in restaurants/cafeterias (2.09 microg/m(3); IQR, 0.49-6.73 microg/m(3)) and fast-food restaurants (0.31 microg/m(3); IQR, 0.11-1.30 microg/m(3)) (p Hospitality venues from European cities without smoking regulations have very high levels of SHS exposure. Monitoring of SHS on a regular basis as well as a total smoking ban in hospitality sector would be needed.

  12. Outcomes of Reintervention on the Autograft After Ross Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Ram; Bansal, Neeraj; Wells, Winfield J; Starnes, Vaughn A

    2016-11-01

    After a Ross procedure, a small subset of patients requires reintervention for autograft dilatation or valve insufficiency. We sought to determine the indications, nature, and outcomes of autograft reinterventions in the left ventricular outflow tract after a Ross procedure. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 316 consecutive patients, age 4 days to 70 years, who underwent a Ross procedure at our institution. Of these, 47 patients (15%) required autograft reintervention during a median follow-up of 8.2 years. Forty-seven patients, median age 26 years (interquartile range [IQR], 14.4 to 44.8 years), 32 (68%) men, required autograft reintervention a median 5.5 years (IQR, 1.8 to 9.4 years) after a Ross procedure. In 47% (22 of 47 patients), the autograft valve could be salvaged (15 valve-sparing aortic replacements, 7 valve repairs). The remaining 53% underwent replacement of the root (10 mechanical, 5 homograft) or valve alone (7 mechanical, 3 bioprosthetic). Twenty patients presented without autograft root dilatation 1 year (IQR, 0.5 to 2.9 years) after Ross. Fifteen of them (75%) required valve replacement. The 27 patients who demonstrated root dilatation presented 6.9 years (IQR, 4.5 to 9.7 years; p Ross, and 17 (63%) of these valves could be spared (p = 0.01). There was no surgical mortality and 5 (11%) major morbidity events. Patients were followed up for 4.9 years (IQR, 2.1 to 7 years) after left ventricular outflow tract reintervention. For patients whose autograft valve could be spared, 3-, 5-, and 8-year freedom from valve replacement was 92%, 86%, and 86%, respectively. At last follow-up, only 1 patient had greater than mild aortic insufficiency, and all but 1 had normal ejection fraction. Autograft reintervention after a Ross appears to follow a bimodal distribution. Patients with primary autograft leaflet problems tend to present early without root dilatation and frequently require valve replacement. The autograft valve can be salvaged in the

  13. Assessment of the storz video Macintosh laryngoscope for use in difficult airways: A human simulator study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Aaron E; Olmsted, Kalani; Brown, Calvin A; Barker, Tobias; Pallin, Daniel; Walls, Ron M

    2010-10-01

    Video laryngoscopy has been shown to improve glottic exposure when compared to direct laryngoscopy in operating room studies. However, its utility in the hands of emergency physicians (EPs) remains undefined. A simulated difficult airway was used to determine if intubation by EPs using a video Macintosh system resulted in an improved glottic view, was easier, was faster, or was more successful than conventional direct laryngoscopy. Emergency medicine (EM) residents and attending physicians at two academic institutions performed endotracheal intubation in one normal and two identical difficult airway scenarios. With the difficult scenarios, the participants used video laryngoscopy during the second case. Intubations were performed on a medium-fidelity human simulator. The difficult scenario was created by limiting cervical spine mobility and inducing trismus. The primary outcome was the proportion of direct versus video intubations with a grade I or II Cormack-Lehane glottic view. Ease of intubation (self-reported via 10-cm visual analog scale [VAS]), time to intubation, and success rate were also recorded. Descriptive statistics as well as medians with interquartile ranges (IQRs) are reported where appropriate. The Wilcoxon matched pairs signed-rank test was used for comparison testing of nonparametric data. Participants (n = 39) were residents (59%) and faculty. All had human intubation experience; 51% reported more than 100 prior intubations. On difficult laryngoscopy, a Cormack-Lehane grade I or II view was obtained in 20 (51%) direct laryngoscopies versus 38 (97%) of the video-assisted laryngoscopies (p < 0.01). The median VAS score for difficult airways was 50 mm (IQR = 28–73 mm) for direct versus 18 mm (IQR = 9–50 mm) for video (p < 0.01). The median time to intubation in difficult airways was 25 seconds (IQR = 16–44 seconds) for direct versus 20 seconds (IQR = 12–35 seconds) for video laryngoscopy (p < 0.01). All intubations were successful without

  14. An interactive internet-based plate for assessing lunchtime food intake: a validation study on male employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Madeleine; Bellocco, Rino; Bakkman, Linda; Trolle Lagerros, Ylva

    2013-01-18

    Misreporting food intake is common because most health screenings rely on self-reports. The more accurate methods (eg, weighing food) are costly, time consuming, and impractical. We developed a new instrument for reporting food intake--an Internet-based interactive virtual food plate. The objective of this study was to validate this instrument's ability to assess lunch intake. Participants were asked to compose an ordinary lunch meal using both a virtual and a real lunch plate (with real food on a real plate). The participants ate their real lunch meals on-site. Before and after pictures of the composed lunch meals were taken. Both meals included identical food items. Participants were randomized to start with either instrument. The 2 instruments were compared using correlation and concordance measures (total energy intake, nutritional components, quantity of food, and participant characteristics). A total of 55 men (median age: 45 years, median body mass index [BMI]: 25.8 kg/m(2)) participated. We found an overall overestimation of reported median energy intake using the computer plate (3044 kJ, interquartile range [IQR] 1202 kJ) compared with the real lunch plate (2734 kJ, IQR 1051 kJ, P<.001). Spearman rank correlations and concordance correlations for energy intake and nutritional components ranged between 0.58 to 0.79 and 0.65 to 0.81, respectively. Although it slightly overestimated, our computer plate provides promising results in assessing lunch intake.

  15. Study of recurrent branch of median nerve (Thenar's muscular branch in relation to the flexor retinaculum and median in 64 hands (32 Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirsadri R

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Variation of recurred branch of median nerve in relation to the median and flexor retinaculum are significant for both hand surgeons and specialists always. In this study, 64 cadaver hands (32 men have been dissected. The median nerve was identified at the proximal edge of the flexor retinaculum, and in order to expose carpal tunnel the ligament was divided, and the above subjects were studied. The results are: 1 The relation of recurrent nerve to the flexor retinaculum was classified into 4 types: A In (53.1% of subjects, this branch arises from the median after the flexor retinaculum. B In (31.3% of subjects, it arises from the median in the carpal tunnel and the moves around the lower edge of flexor retinaculum and enters the thenar region. C In (14.1% of subjects, it arises from the median in the carpal tunnel and pierces the flexor retinaculum. D In (1.56% of subjects it arises, in the carpal tunnel and it divides into two subbranches here. One follows pattern A and the other pattern C. 2 In this step, the relation of the recurrent branch to the median nerve was studied. The results show that inspite of this image even though most often the recurrent branch arises from the lateral side of median, in (68.75% of subjects it arises from it's anterior surface. The MC Nemar test reveals that there is no relation between manifestation of mentioned patterns with right or left hands.

  16. Nevirapine, sodium concentration and HIV-1 RNA in breast milk and plasma among HIV-infected women receiving short-course antiretroviral prophylaxis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Theilgaard, Zahra Persson; Chiduo, Mercy G.

    2015-01-01

    and breast milk after intrapartum single-dose nevirapine combined with either 1-week tail of Combivir (zidovudine/lamivudine) or single-dose Truvada (tenofovir/emtricitabine). Methods Maternal plasma and bilateral breast milk samples were collected between April 2008 and April 2011 at 1, 4 and 6 weeks...... postpartum from HIV-infected Tanzanian women. Moreover, plasma samples were collected at delivery from mother and infant. Results HIV-1 RNA was quantified in 1,212 breast milk samples from 273 women. At delivery, 96% of the women and 99% of the infants had detectable nevirapine in plasma with a median...... (interquartile range, IQR) of 1.5 μg/mL (0.75–2.20 μg/mL) and 1.04 μg/mL (0.39–1.71 μg/mL), respectively (P women had detectable nevirapine in plasma and breast milk, with a median (IQR) of 0.13 μg/mL (0.13–0.39 μg/mL) and 0.22 μg/mL (0.13–0.34 μg...

  17. Athletes with inguinal disruption benefit from endoscopic totally extraperitoneal (TEP) repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, M M; Bakker, W J; Goedhart, E A; Verleisdonk, E J M M; Clevers, G J; Voorbrood, C E H; Sanders, F B M; Naafs, D B; Burgmans, J P J

    2018-06-01

    Inguinal disruption, a common condition in athletes, is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of endoscopic totally extraperitoneal (TEP) repair in athletes with inguinal disruption, selected through a multidisciplinary, systematic work-up. An observational, prospective cohort study was conducted in 32 athletes with inguinal disruption. Athletes were assessed by a sports medicine physician, radiologist and hernia surgeon and underwent subsequent endoscopic TEP repair with placement of polypropylene mesh. The primary outcome was pain reduction during exercise on the numeric rating scale (NRS) 3 months postoperatively. Secondary outcomes were sports resumption, physical functioning and long-term pain intensity. Patients were assessed preoperatively, 3 months postoperatively and after a median follow-up of 19 months. Follow-up was completed in 30 patients (94%). The median pain score decreased from 8 [interquartile range (IQR) 7-8] preoperatively to 2 (IQR 0-5) 3 months postoperatively (p disruption, selected through a multidisciplinary, systematic work-up, benefit from TEP repair.

  18. Using the Five Domains Model to Assess the Adverse Impacts of Husbandry, Veterinary, and Equitation Interventions on Horse Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Paul; Berger, Jeannine; de Brauwere, Nic; Doherty, Orla; Harrison, Anna; Fiedler, Julie; Jones, Claudia; McDonnell, Sue; McLean, Andrew; Nakonechny, Lindsay; Nicol, Christine; Preshaw, Liane; Thomson, Peter; Tzioumis, Vicky; Webster, John; Wolfensohn, Sarah; Yeates, James; Jones, Bidda

    2018-03-18

    The aim of this study was to conduct a series of paper-based exercises in order to assess the negative (adverse) welfare impacts, if any, of common interventions on domestic horses across a broad range of different contexts of equine care and training. An international panel (with professional expertise in psychology, equitation science, veterinary science, education, welfare, equestrian coaching, advocacy, and community engagement; n = 16) met over a four-day period to define and assess these interventions, using an adaptation of the domain-based assessment model. The interventions were considered within 14 contexts: C1 Weaning; C2 Diet; C3 Housing; C4 Foundation training; C5 Ill-health and veterinary interventions (chiefly medical); C6 Ill-health and veterinary interventions (chiefly surgical); C7 Elective procedures; C8 Care procedures; C9 Restraint for management procedures; C10 Road transport; C11 Activity-competition; C12 Activity-work; C13 Activity-breeding females; and C14 Activity-breeding males. Scores on a 1-10 scale for Domain 5 (the mental domain) gathered during the workshop were compared with overall impact scores on a 1-10 scale assigned by the same panellists individually before the workshop. The most severe (median and interquartile range, IQR) impacts within each context were identified during the workshop as: C1 abrupt, individual weaning (10 IQR 1); C2 feeding 100% low-energy concentrate (8 IQR 2.5); C3 indoor tie stalls with no social contact (9 IQR 1.5); C4 both (i) dropping horse with ropes (9 IQR 0.5) and forced flexion (9 IQR 0.5); C5 long-term curative medical treatments (8 IQR 3); C6 major deep intracavity surgery (8.5 IQR 1); C7 castration without veterinary supervision (10 IQR 1); C8 both (i) tongue ties (8 IQR 2.5) and (ii) restrictive nosebands (8 IQR 2.5); C9 ear twitch (8 IQR 1); C10 both (i) individual transport (7.00 IQR 1.5) and group transport with unfamiliar companions (7 IQR 1.5); C11 both (i) jumps racing (8 IQR 2.5) and

  19. Using the Five Domains Model to Assess the Adverse Impacts of Husbandry, Veterinary, and Equitation Interventions on Horse Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul McGreevy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to conduct a series of paper-based exercises in order to assess the negative (adverse welfare impacts, if any, of common interventions on domestic horses across a broad range of different contexts of equine care and training. An international panel (with professional expertise in psychology, equitation science, veterinary science, education, welfare, equestrian coaching, advocacy, and community engagement; n = 16 met over a four-day period to define and assess these interventions, using an adaptation of the domain-based assessment model. The interventions were considered within 14 contexts: C1 Weaning; C2 Diet; C3 Housing; C4 Foundation training; C5 Ill-health and veterinary interventions (chiefly medical; C6 Ill-health and veterinary interventions (chiefly surgical; C7 Elective procedures; C8 Care procedures; C9 Restraint for management procedures; C10 Road transport; C11 Activity—competition; C12 Activity—work; C13 Activity—breeding females; and C14 Activity—breeding males. Scores on a 1–10 scale for Domain 5 (the mental domain gathered during the workshop were compared with overall impact scores on a 1–10 scale assigned by the same panellists individually before the workshop. The most severe (median and interquartile range, IQR impacts within each context were identified during the workshop as: C1 abrupt, individual weaning (10 IQR 1; C2 feeding 100% low-energy concentrate (8 IQR 2.5; C3 indoor tie stalls with no social contact (9 IQR 1.5; C4 both (i dropping horse with ropes (9 IQR 0.5 and forced flexion (9 IQR 0.5; C5 long-term curative medical treatments (8 IQR 3; C6 major deep intracavity surgery (8.5 IQR 1; C7 castration without veterinary supervision (10 IQR 1; C8 both (i tongue ties (8 IQR 2.5 and (ii restrictive nosebands (8 IQR 2.5; C9 ear twitch (8 IQR 1; C10 both (i individual transport (7.00 IQR 1.5 and group transport with unfamiliar companions (7 IQR 1.5; C11 both (i jumps racing (8 IQR 2

  20. Systematic review of discharge coding accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, E.M.; Rigby, E.; Mamidanna, R.; Bottle, A.; Aylin, P.; Ziprin, P.; Faiz, O.D.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Routinely collected data sets are increasingly used for research, financial reimbursement and health service planning. High quality data are necessary for reliable analysis. This study aims to assess the published accuracy of routinely collected data sets in Great Britain. Methods Systematic searches of the EMBASE, PUBMED, OVID and Cochrane databases were performed from 1989 to present using defined search terms. Included studies were those that compared routinely collected data sets with case or operative note review and those that compared routinely collected data with clinical registries. Results Thirty-two studies were included. Twenty-five studies compared routinely collected data with case or operation notes. Seven studies compared routinely collected data with clinical registries. The overall median accuracy (routinely collected data sets versus case notes) was 83.2% (IQR: 67.3–92.1%). The median diagnostic accuracy was 80.3% (IQR: 63.3–94.1%) with a median procedure accuracy of 84.2% (IQR: 68.7–88.7%). There was considerable variation in accuracy rates between studies (50.5–97.8%). Since the 2002 introduction of Payment by Results, accuracy has improved in some respects, for example primary diagnoses accuracy has improved from 73.8% (IQR: 59.3–92.1%) to 96.0% (IQR: 89.3–96.3), P= 0.020. Conclusion Accuracy rates are improving. Current levels of reported accuracy suggest that routinely collected data are sufficiently robust to support their use for research and managerial decision-making. PMID:21795302

  1. Allegheny County Median Age at Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The median age at death is calculated for each municipality in Allegheny County. Data is based on the decedent's residence at the time of death, not the location...

  2. A theoretical analysis of the median LMF adaptive algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Tommy Kristensen; Rusu, C.

    1999-01-01

    Higher order adaptive algorithms are sensitive to impulse interference. In the case of the LMF (Least Mean Fourth), an easy and effective way to reduce this is to median filter the instantaneous gradient of the LMF algorithm. Although previous published simulations have indicated that this reduces...... the speed of convergence, no analytical studies have yet been made to prove this. In order to enhance the usability, this paper presents a convergence and steady-state analysis of the median LMF adaptive algorithm. As expected this proves that the median LMF has a slower convergence and a lower steady...

  3. Ebola Virus Persistence in Ocular Tissues and Fluids (EVICT Study: Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction and Cataract Surgery Outcomes of Ebola Survivors in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica G. Shantha

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ebola virus disease (EVD survivors are at risk for uveitis during convalescence. Vision loss has been observed following uveitis due to cataracts. Since Ebola virus (EBOV may persist in the ocular fluid of EVD survivors for an unknown duration, there are questions about the safety and feasibility of vision restorative cataract surgery in EVD survivors. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of EVD survivors anticipating cataract surgery and patients with active uveitis to evaluate EBOV RNA persistence in ocular fluid, as well as vision outcomes post cataract surgery. Patients with aqueous humor that tested negative for EBOV RNA were eligible to proceed with manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS. Findings: We screened 137 EVD survivors from June 2016 – August 2017 for enrolment. We enrolled 50 EVD survivors; 46 with visually significant cataract, 1 with a subluxated lens, 2 with active uveitis and 1 with a blind painful eye due to uveitis. The median age was 24.0 years (IQR 17–35 and 35 patients (70% were female. The median logMAR visual acuity (VA was 3.0 (Snellen VA Hand motions; Interquartile Range, IQR: 1.2-3.0, Snellen VA 20/320 – Hand motions. All patients tested negative for EBOV RNA by RT-PCR in aqueous humor/vitreous fluid and conjunctiva at a median of 19 months (IQR 18-20 from EVD diagnosis in Phase 1 of ocular fluid sampling and 34 months (IQR 32-36 from EVD diagnosis in Phase 2 of ocular fluid sampling. Thirty-four patients underwent MSICS, with a preoperative median VA improvement from hand motions to 20/30 at three-month postoperative follow-up (P < 0.001. Interpretation: EBOV persistence by RT-PCR was not identified in ocular fluid or conjunctivae of fifty EVD survivors with ocular disease. Cataract surgery can be performed safely with vision restorative outcomes in patients who test negative for EBOV RNA in ocular fluid specimens. These findings impact the thousands of West African EVD

  4. Cumulative Radiation Exposure during Follow-Up after Curative Surgery for Gastric Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yeo Jin; Chung, Yong Eun; Lim, Joon Seok; Kim, Joo Hee; Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Hye Jeong; Kim, Myeong Jin; Kim, Ki Whang; You, Je Sung

    2012-01-01

    To quantify the cumulative effective dose (cED) of radiation due to repeated CT and PET/CT examinations after curative resection of gastric cancer and to assess the lifetime attributable risk (LAR) estimates based on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation VII models. Patients who underwent a curative resection for gastric cancer between January 2006 and December 2006 and were followed-up until May 2010 were included in this study. The cED was calculated by using the dose-length product values and conversion factors for quantitative risk assessment of radiation exposure. cED and LAR were compared between early and advanced gastric cancer patients and among American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM stage groups (stage I, II, and III). The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests, followed by a post-hoc analysis with Bonferroni adjustment, were employed as part of the statistical analysis. The overall median cED was 57.8 mSv (interquartile range [IQR], 43.9-74.7). The cED was significantly higher in the advanced (median, 67.0; IQR, 49.1-102.3) than in the early gastric cancer group (median, 52.3; IQR, 41.5-67.9) (p < 0.001), and increased as the TNM stage increased. For radiation exposure, 62% of all patients received an estimated cED of over 50 mSv, while 11% of patients received over 100 mSv. The median LAR of cancer incidence was 0.28% (IQR, 0.20-0.40) and there were significant differences between the early gastric cancer and advanced gastric cancer group (p < 0.001) as well as among the three TNM stage groups (p = 0.015). The LAR of cancer incidence exceeded 1% in 2.4% of the patients. The cED increases proportionally along with tumor stage and, even in early gastric cancer or stage I patients, cED is much higher than that found among the general population. Considering the very good prognosis of early gastric cancer after curative surgery, the cED should be considered when designing a postoperative follow-up CT protocol.

  5. Radiographers supporting radiologists in the interpretation of screening mammography: a viable strategy to meet the shortage in the number of radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; Smith, Robert A.; Carranza-Flores, María de la Luz; Bogart, Andy; Martínez-Matsushita, Louis; Miglioretti, Diana L.; Kerlikowske, Karla; Ortega-Olvera, Carolina; Montemayor-Varela, Ernesto; Angeles-Llerenas, Angélica; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Sánchez-González, Gilberto; Martínez-Montañez, Olga G.; Uscanga-Sánchez, Santos R.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    An alternative approach to the traditional model of radiologists interpreting screening mammography is necessary due to the shortage of radiologists to interpret screening mammograms in many countries. We evaluated the performance of 15 Mexican radiographers, also known as radiologic technologists, in the interpretation of screening mammography after a 6 months training period in a screening setting. Fifteen radiographers received 6 months standardized training with radiologists in the interpretation of screening mammography using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) system. A challenging test set of 110 cases developed by the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium was used to evaluate their performance. We estimated sensitivity, specificity, false positive rates, likelihood ratio of a positive test (LR+) and the area under the subject-specific Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) for diagnostic accuracy. A mathematical model simulating the consequences in costs and performance of two hypothetical scenarios compared to the status quo in which a radiologist reads all screening mammograms was also performed. Radiographer’s sensitivity was comparable to the sensitivity scores achieved by U.S. radiologists who took the test but their false-positive rate was higher. Median sensitivity was 73.3 % (Interquartile range, IQR: 46.7–86.7 %) and the median false positive rate was 49.5 % (IQR: 34.7–57.9 %). The median LR+ was 1.4 (IQR: 1.3-1.7 %) and the median AUC was 0.6 (IQR: 0.6–0.7). A scenario in which a radiographer reads all mammograms first, and a radiologist reads only those that were difficult for the radiographer, was more cost-effective than a scenario in which either the radiographer or radiologist reads all mammograms. Given the comparable sensitivity achieved by Mexican radiographers and U.S. radiologists on a test set, screening mammography interpretation by radiographers appears to be a possible adjunct to radiologists

  6. Emergency medicine journal impact factor and change compared to other medical and surgical specialties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Joshua C; Menegazzi, James J; Yealy, Donald M

    2012-11-01

    A journal impact factor represents the mean number of citations per article published. Designed as one tool to measure the relative importance of a journal, impact factors are often incorporated into academic evaluation of investigators. The authors sought to determine how impact factors of emergency medicine (EM) journals compare to journals from other medical and surgical specialties and if any change has taken place over time. The 2010 impact factors and 5-year impact factors for each journal indexed by the Thomson Reuters ISI Web of Knowledge Journal Citation Reports (JCR) were collected, and EM, medical, and surgical specialties were evaluated. The maximum, median, and interquartile range (IQR) of the current impact factor and 5-year impact factor in each journal category were determined, and specialties were ranked according to the summary statistics. The "top three" impact factor journals for each specialty were analyzed, and growth trends from 2001 through 2010 were examined with random effects linear regression. Data from 2,287 journals in 31 specialties were examined. There were 23 EM journals with a current maximum impact factor of 4.177, median of 1.269, and IQR of 0.400 to 2.176. Of 23 EM journals, 57% had a 5-year impact factor available, with a maximum of 4.531, median of 1.325, and IQR of 0.741 to 2.435. The top three EM journals had a mean standard deviation (±SD) impact factor of 3.801 (±0.621) and median of 4.142 and a mean (±SD) 5-year impact factor of 3.788 (±1.091) and median of 4.297, with a growth trend of 0.211 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.177 to 0.245; p journals ranked no higher than 24th among 31 specialties. Emergency medicine journals rank low in impact factor summary statistics and growth trends among 31 medical and surgical specialties. © 2012 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  7. Pressure Wire Compared to Microcatheter Sensing for Coronary Fractional Flow Reserve: The PERFORM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ziad A; Parviz, Yasir; Brinkman, Matthew; Matsumura, Mitsuaki; Redfors, Björn; Brogno, David A; Corral, Maria D; Fall, Khady N; Mintz, Gary S; Stone, Gregg W; Maehara, Akiko; Jeremias, Allen; Kirtane, Ajay J

    2018-05-15

    Among technologies used to assess FFR, a monorail, sensor-tipped micro pressure catheter (PC) may be advantageous for delivery and re-assessment. We sought to determine whether the larger cross-sectional area of the PC influences FFR measurements compared to the pressure wire. PERFORM was a single-center, prospective study designed to determine the precision and accuracy of the PC compared with the pressure wire (PW) for measurement of FFR. Eligible patients had native coronary artery target lesions with visually estimated diameter stenosis of 40-90%. The independently adjudicated primary endpoint was the difference in hyperemic PW-determined minimal FFR with and without the PC distal to the stenosis. Seventy-four patients (95 lesions) were prospectively analyzed between December 2015 and December 2016. Median hyperemic FFR was 0.84 [IQR 0.78, 0.89] with the PW and 0.79 [IQR 0.73, 0.85] with the PC distal to the stenosis (p0.80 to ≤0.80 in 17 of 95 measurements (19%). Median resting Pd/Pa was lower following introduction of the PC compared with the PW alone (0.93 [IQR 0.90, 0.97] versus 0.90 [IQR 0.86, 0.95], p<0.001). Median pressure drift was not different between the PW and the PC (0.01 [IQR -0.01, 0.05] versus 0.01 [IQR 0.00, 0.02], p=0.38). Introduction of the PC reduced device success and both hyperemic FFR and resting Pd/Pa compared with the PW alone, leading to re-classifying physiological significance to below ischemic threshold in one out of five assessments.

  8. Manual vacuum aspirator: a safe and effective tool for decentralization of post miscarriage care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasnim, N.; Fatima, S.; Mahmud, G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of Manual Vacuum Aspiration (MVA) performed as outpatient versus inpatient procedure in terms of success rate, blood loss, hospital stay and procedure related complications. Study Design: A quasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Maternal and Child Health Centre (MCHC), Unit-I, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad, from December 2009 to December 2010. Methodology: Cases with early pregnancy failure (incomplete, missed and an embryonic) at gestational age less than 12 weeks were allocated to MVA as outpatient or elective procedure performed in the operation theatre. Studied variables were noted as above. Results: A total of 177 women were eligible for study, out of whom 78 underwent MVA as outpatient procedure and 99 as indoor procedure. The baseline characteristics were comparable in both groups except significantly high multipara in the indoor group. Complete evacuation was achieved in 96.1% in outpatient vs. 79.7% in indoor cases (p=0.001). Outpatient group had a shorter hospital stay (median 3 hours, IQR-1 vs. 10 hours, IQR-4; p = 0.001), though the median hospital cost was less but statistically insignificant (Rs. 800, IQR-25 vs. 735, IQR-1265; p=0.728). Blood loss was comparable in both groups (median 60 ml, IQR-20 vs. 60 ml-IQR-30; p=0.350). There were two uterine perforations noted in the inpatient group (2.02%) vs. none in outpatient setting. Conclusion: Outpatient based manual vacuum aspiration is a safe and effective tool for management of early pregnancy loss. A decentralized approach proved useful in reducing hospital stay. (author)

  9. The Investigation of Median Frequency Changes in Paraspinal Muscles Following Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Talebian

    2009-10-01

    Conclusion: Median frequency shift toward low values following fatigue in global and local paraspinal muscles was seen. However, median frequency values for the local stabilizer muscle were higher than median frequency values for the global muscles.

  10. Protective Effect of HLA-B*5701 and HLA-C -35 Genetic Variants in HIV-Positive Caucasians from Northern Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Leszczyszyn-Pynka

    Full Text Available Association of two HLA class I variants with HIV-1 pretreatment viremia, CD4+ T cell count at the care-entry and CD4+ T cell nadir.414 HIV-positive Caucasians (30% women aged 19-73 years were genotyped for HLA-C -35 (rs9264942 and HLA-B*5701 variants. HIV-1 viral load, as well as CD4+ T cell count at care-entry and nadir, were compared across alleles, genotypes and haplotypes.HLA-C -35 C/C genotype was found in 17.6% patients, C/T genotype in 48.1%, and T/T genotype in 34.3% patients. HLA-B*5701 variant was present in 5.8% of studied population. HIV plasma viremia in the group with C allele was significantly lower (p=0.0002 compared to T/T group [mean:4.66 log (SD:1.03 vs. 5.07 (SD:0.85 log HIV-RNA copies/ml, respectively], while CD4+ T cell count at baseline was notably higher among C allele carriers compared to T/T homozygotes [median: 318 (IQR:127-537 cells/μl vs. median: 203 (IQR:55-410 cells/μl, respectively] (p=0.0007. Moreover, CD4+ T cell nadir among patients with C allele [median: 205 (IQR:83.5-390 cells/μl] was significantly higher compared to T/T group [median: 133 (IQR:46-328 cells/μl] (p=0.006. Among cases with HLA-B*5701 allele, significantly lower pretreatment viremia and higher baseline CD4+ T cell count were found (mean: 4.08 [SD: 1.2] vs. mean: 4.84 [SD:0.97] log HIV-RNA copies/ml, p=0.003 and 431 vs. 270 cells/μl, p=0.04, respectively compared to HLA-B*5701 negative individuals. The lowest viremia (mean: 3.85 log [SD:1.3] HIV-RNA copies/ml and the highest baseline and nadir CD4+ T cell [median: 476 (IQR:304-682 vs. median: 361 (IQR: 205-574 cells/μl, respectively were found in individuals with HLA-B*5701(+/HLA-C -35 C/C haplotype.HLA-C -35 C and HLA-B*5701 allele exert a favorable effect on the immunological (higher baseline and nadir CD4+ T cell count and virologic (lower pretreatment HIV viral load variables. This protective effect is additive for the compound HLA-B*5701(+/HLA-C -35 C/C haplotype.

  11. Prospective assessment of the safety and early outcomes of sublaminar band placement for the prevention of proximal junctional kyphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Vibhu K; Kukreja, Sunil; Minnema, Amy J; Farhadi, H Francis

    2018-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) can progress to proximal junctional failure (PJF), a widely recognized early and serious complication of multisegment spinal instrumentation for the treatment of adult spinal deformity (ASD). Sublaminar band placement has been suggested as a possible technique to prevent PJK and PJF but carries the theoretical possibility of a paradoxical increase in these complications as a result of the required muscle dissection and posterior ligamentous disruption. In this study, the authors prospectively assess the safety as well as the early clinical and radiological outcomes of sublaminar band insertion at the upper instrumented vertebra (UIV) plus 1 level (UIV+1). METHODS Between August 2015 and February 2017, 40 consecutive patients underwent either upper (T2-4) or lower (T8-10) thoracic sublaminar band placement at the UIV+1 during long-segment thoracolumbar arthrodesis surgery. Outcome measures were prospectively collected and uploaded to a web-based REDCap database specifically designed to include demographic, clinical, and radiological data. All patients underwent clinical assessment, as well as radiological assessment with anteroposterior and lateral 36-inch whole-spine standing radiographs both pre- and postoperatively. RESULTS Forty patients (24 women and 16 men) were included in this study. Median age at surgery was 64.0 years with an IQR of 57.7-70.0 years. Median follow-up was 12 months (IQR 6-15 months). Three procedure-related complications were noted, including 2 intraoperative cerebrospinal spinal fluid leaks and 1 transient neurological deficit. Median visual analog scale (VAS) scores for back pain significantly improved after surgery (preoperatively: 8.0, IQR 6.0-10.0; 1-year follow-up: 2.0, IQR 0.0-6.0; p = 0.001). Median Oswestry Disability Index (version 2.1a) scores also significantly improved after surgery (preoperatively: 56.0, IQR 45.0-64.0; 1-year follow-up: 46.0, IQR 22.2-54.0; p < 0.001). Sagittal

  12. Intraneural synovial sarcoma of the median nerve

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    Rahul Kasukurthi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Synovial sarcomas are soft-tissue malignancies with a poor prognosis and propensity for distant metastases. Although originally believed to arise from the synovium, these tumors have been found to occur anywhere in the body. We report a rare case of synovial sarcoma arising from the median nerve. To our knowledge, this is the twelfth reported case of intraneural synovial sarcoma, and only the fourth arising from the median nerve. Because the diagnosis may not be apparent until after pathological examination of the surgical speci­men, synovial sarcoma should be kept in mind when dealing with what may seem like a benign nerve tumor.

  13. Efficacy and tolerability of intravenous morphine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) in women undergoing cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andziak, Marta; Beta, Jarosław; Barwijuk, Michal; Issat, Tadeusz; Jakimiuk, Artur J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate analgesic efficacy and tolerability of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with intravenous morphine. Our observational study included 50 women who underwent a Misgav-Ladach or modified Misgav-Ladach cesarean section. Automated PCA infusion device (Medima S-PCA Syringe Pump, Medima, Krakow, Poland) was used for postoperative pain control. Time of morphine administration or initiation of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA) with morphine was recorded, as well as post-operative pain at rest assessed by a visual analogue scale (VAS). All patients were followed up for 24 hours after discharge from the operating room, taking into account patient records, worst pain score at rest, number of IV PCA attempts, and drug consumption. Median of total morphine doses used during the postoperative period was 42.9mg (IQR 35.6-48.5), with median infusion time of 687.0 min. (IQR 531.0-757.5). Pain severity and total drug consumption improved after the first 3 hours following cesarean delivery (p PCA attempts per patient was 33 (IQR: 24-37), with median of 11 placebo attempts (IQR: 3-27). Patient-controlled analgesia with morphine is an efficient and acceptable analgesic method in women undergoing cesarean section.

  14. Availability and Use of HIV Monitoring and Early Infant Diagnosis Technologies in WHO Member States in 2011-2013: Analysis of Annual Surveys at the Facility Level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Habiyambere

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets have reinforced the importance of functioning laboratory services to ensure prompt diagnosis and to assess treatment efficacy. We surveyed the availability and utilization of technologies for HIV treatment monitoring and early infant diagnosis (EID in World Health Organization (WHO Member States.The survey questionnaire included 14 structured questions focusing on HIV testing, cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4 testing, HIV viral load (VL testing, and EID and was administered annually from 2012 to 2014 through WHO country offices, with each survey covering the previous 12-mo period. Across 127 targeted countries, survey response rates were 60% in 2012, 67% in 2013, and 78% in 2014. There were encouraging trends towards increased procurement of CD4 and VL/EID instruments in reporting countries. Globally, the capacity of available CD4 instruments was sufficient to meet the demand of all people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA, irrespective of treatment status (4.62 theoretical tests per PLWHA in 2013 [median 7.33; interquartile range (IQR 3.44-17.75; median absolute deviation (MAD 4.35]. The capacity of VL instruments was inadequate to cover all PLWHA in many reporting countries (0.44 tests per PLWHA in 2013 [median 0.90; IQR 0.30-2.40; MAD 0.74]. Of concern, only 13.7% of existing CD4 capacity (median 4.3%; IQR 1.1%-12.1%; MAD 3.8% and only 36.5% of existing VL capacity (median 9.4%; IQR 2.3%-28.9%; MAD 8.2% was being utilized across reporting countries in 2013. By the end of 2013, 7.4% of all CD4 instruments (5.8% CD4 conventional instruments and 11.0% of CD4 point of care [POC] and 10% of VL/EID instruments were reportedly not in use because of lack of reagents, the equipment not being installed or deployed, maintenance, and staff training requirements. Major limitations of this survey included under-reporting and/or incomplete reporting in some national programmes and

  15. GPS Tracking of Free-Ranging Pigs to Evaluate Ring Strategies for the Control of Cysticercosis/Taeniasis in Peru.

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    Ian W Pray

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium, a parasitic cestode that affects humans and pigs, is the leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. T. solium eggs are released into the environment through the stool of humans infected with an adult intestinal tapeworm (a condition called taeniasis, and cause cysticercosis when ingested by pigs or other humans. A control strategy to intervene within high-risk foci in endemic communities has been proposed as an alternative to mass antihelminthic treatment. In this ring strategy, antihelminthic treatment is targeted to humans and pigs residing within a 100 meter radius of a pig heavily-infected with cysticercosis. Our aim was to describe the roaming ranges of pigs in this region, and to evaluate whether the 100 meter radius rings encompass areas where risk factors for T. solium transmission, such as open human defecation and dense pig activity, are concentrated.In this study, we used Global Positioning System (GPS devices to track pig roaming ranges in two rural villages of northern Peru. We selected 41 pigs from two villages to participate in a 48-hour tracking period. Additionally, we surveyed all households to record the locations of open human defecation areas. We found that pigs spent a median of 82.8% (IQR: 73.5, 94.4 of their time roaming within 100 meters of their homes. The size of home ranges varied significantly by pig age, and 93% of the total time spent interacting with open human defecation areas occurred within 100 meters of pig residences.These results indicate that 100 meter radius rings around heavily-infected pigs adequately capture the average pig's roaming area (i.e., home range and represent an area where the great majority of exposure to human feces occurs.

  16. GPS Tracking of Free-Ranging Pigs to Evaluate Ring Strategies for the Control of Cysticercosis/Taeniasis in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pray, Ian W; Swanson, Dallas J; Ayvar, Viterbo; Muro, Claudio; Moyano, Luz M; Gonzalez, Armando E; Garcia, Hector H; O'Neal, Seth E

    2016-04-01

    Taenia solium, a parasitic cestode that affects humans and pigs, is the leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. T. solium eggs are released into the environment through the stool of humans infected with an adult intestinal tapeworm (a condition called taeniasis), and cause cysticercosis when ingested by pigs or other humans. A control strategy to intervene within high-risk foci in endemic communities has been proposed as an alternative to mass antihelminthic treatment. In this ring strategy, antihelminthic treatment is targeted to humans and pigs residing within a 100 meter radius of a pig heavily-infected with cysticercosis. Our aim was to describe the roaming ranges of pigs in this region, and to evaluate whether the 100 meter radius rings encompass areas where risk factors for T. solium transmission, such as open human defecation and dense pig activity, are concentrated. In this study, we used Global Positioning System (GPS) devices to track pig roaming ranges in two rural villages of northern Peru. We selected 41 pigs from two villages to participate in a 48-hour tracking period. Additionally, we surveyed all households to record the locations of open human defecation areas. We found that pigs spent a median of 82.8% (IQR: 73.5, 94.4) of their time roaming within 100 meters of their homes. The size of home ranges varied significantly by pig age, and 93% of the total time spent interacting with open human defecation areas occurred within 100 meters of pig residences. These results indicate that 100 meter radius rings around heavily-infected pigs adequately capture the average pig's roaming area (i.e., home range) and represent an area where the great majority of exposure to human feces occurs.

  17. Analgesic efficacy of local anaesthetic wound administration in knee arthroplasty: volume vs concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L Ø; Gaarn-Larsen, L; Kristensen, B B

    2010-01-01

    arthroplasty were randomly assigned to receive either a high volume/low concentration solution of ropivacaine (20 ml, 0.5%) or a low volume/high concentration solution of ropivacaine (10 ml, 1%), 6 and 24 h postoperatively through an intracapsular catheter. Pain was assessed for 2 h after administration. Pain...... was reduced in both groups with ropivacaine administration 24 h postoperatively (p ropivacaine injection 6 h postoperatively. The median (IQR [range]) dose of oxycodone administered...

  18. Publication Speed, Reporting Metrics, and Citation Impact of Cardiovascular Trials Supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David; Cooper-Arnold, Katharine; Lauer, Michael

    2015-07-31

    We previously demonstrated that cardiovascular (CV) trials funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) were more likely to be published in a timely manner and receive high raw citation counts if they focused on clinical endpoints. We did not examine the metrics of trial reports, and our citation measures were limited by failure to account for topic-related citation behaviors. Of 244 CV trials completed between 2000 and 2011, we identified 184 whose main results were published by August 20, 2014. One investigator who was blinded to rapidity of publication and citation data read each publication and characterized it according to modified Delphi criteria. There were 46 trials (25%) that had Delphi scores of 8 or 9 (of a possible 9); these trials published faster (median time from trial completion to publication, 12.6 [interquartile range {IQR}, 6.7 to 23.3] vs. 21.8 [IQR, 12.1 to 34.9] months; Pcitation impact (median citation percentile for topic and date of publication, with 0 best and 100 worst, 1.92 [IQR, 0.64 to 7.83] vs. 8.41 [IQR, 1.80 to 24.75]; P=0.002). By random forest regression, we found that the 3 most important predictors of normalized citation percentile values were total costs, intention-to-treat analyses (as a modified Delphi quality measure), and focus on clinical (not surrogate) endpoints. NHLBI CV trials were more likely to publish results quickly and yield higher topic-normalized citation impact if they reported results according to well-defined metrics, along with focus on clinical endpoints. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  19. Positive Peer-Pressured Productivity (P-QUAD): Novel Use of Increased Transparency and a Weighted Lottery to Increase a Division's Academic Output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Michael B; Furnival, Ronald A; Zhang, Lei; Weber-Main, Anne M; Raymond, Nancy C; Jacob, Abraham K

    2017-03-01

    Evaluate a dual incentive model combining positive peer pressure through increased transparency of peers' academic work with a weighted lottery where entries are earned based on degree of productivity. We developed a dual-incentive peer mentoring model, Positive Peer-Pressured Productivity (P-QUAD), for faculty in the Pediatric Hospital Medicine Division at the University of Minnesota Masonic Children's Hospital. This model provided relative value-based incentives, with points assigned to different scholarly activities (eg. 1 point for abstract submission, 2 points for poster presentation, 3 points for oral presentation, etc.). These points translated into to lottery tickets for a semi-annual drawing for monetary prizes. Productivity was compared among faculty for P-QUAD year to the preintervention year. Fifteen (83%) of 18 eligible faculty members participated. Overall annual productivity per faculty member as measured by total P-QUAD score increased from a median of 3 (interquartile range [IQR] 0-14) in the preintervention year to 4 (IQR 0-27) in the P-QUAD year (P = .051). Submissions and acceptances increased in all categories except posters which were unchanged. Annual abstract submissions per faculty member significantly increased from a median of 1 (IQR 0-2) to 2 (IQR 0-2; P = .047). Seventy-three percent (8 of 11) of post-survey respondents indicated that the financial incentive motivated them to submit academic work; 100% indicated that increased awareness of their peers' work was a motivator. The combination of increased awareness of peers' academic productivity and a weighted lottery financial incentive appears to be a useful model for stimulating academic productivity in early-career faculty. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Endovascular Thrombectomy for Ischemic Stroke Increases Disability-Free Survival, Quality of Life, and Life Expectancy and Reduces Cost

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    Bruce C. V. Campbell

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEndovascular thrombectomy improves functional outcome in large vessel occlusion ischemic stroke. We examined disability, quality of life, survival and acute care costs in the EXTEND-IA trial, which used CT-perfusion imaging selection.MethodsLarge vessel ischemic stroke patients with favorable CT-perfusion were randomized to endovascular thrombectomy after alteplase versus alteplase-only. Clinical outcome was prospectively measured using 90-day modified Rankin scale (mRS. Individual patient expected survival and net difference in Disability/Quality-adjusted life years (DALY/QALY up to 15 years from stroke were modeled using age, sex, 90-day mRS, and utility scores. Level of care within the first 90 days was prospectively measured and used to estimate procedure and inpatient care costs (US$ reference year 2014.ResultsThere were 70 patients, 35 in each arm, mean age 69, median NIHSS 15 (IQR 12–19. The median (IQR disability-weighted utility score at 90 days was 0.65 (0.00–0.91 in the alteplase-only versus 0.91 (0.65–1.00 in the endovascular group (p = 0.005. Modeled life expectancy was greater in the endovascular versus alteplase-only group (median 15.6 versus 11.2 years, p = 0.02. The endovascular thrombectomy group had fewer simulated DALYs lost over 15 years [median (IQR 5.5 (3.2–8.7 versus 8.9 (4.7–13.8, p = 0.02] and more QALY gained [median (IQR 9.3 (4.2–13.1 versus 4.9 (0.3–8.5, p = 0.03]. Endovascular patients spent less time in hospital [median (IQR 5 (3–11 days versus 8 (5–14 days, p = 0.04] and rehabilitation [median (IQR 0 (0–28 versus 27 (0–65 days, p = 0.03]. The estimated inpatient costs in the first 90 days were less in the thrombectomy group (average US$15,689 versus US$30,569, p = 0.008 offsetting the costs of interhospital transport and the thrombectomy procedure (average US$10,515. The average saving per patient treated with thrombectomy was US$4

  1. Self-assembling peptide matrix for the prevention of esophageal stricture after endoscopic resection: a randomized controlled trial in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, M; Bordaçahar, B; Beuvon, F; Terris, B; Camus, M; Coriat, R; Chaussade, S; Batteux, F; Prat, F

    2017-05-01

    Esophageal stricture formation after extensive endoscopic resection remains a major limitation of endoscopic therapy for early esophageal neoplasia. This study assessed a recently developed self-assembling peptide (SAP) matrix as a wound dressing after endoscopic resection for the prevention of esophageal stricture. Ten pigs were randomly assigned to the SAP or the control group after undergoing a 5-cm-long circumferential endoscopic submucosal dissection of the lower esophagus. Esophageal diameter on endoscopy and esophagogram, weight variation, and histological measurements of fibrosis, granulation tissue, and neoepithelium were assessed in each animal. The rate of esophageal stricture at day 14 was 40% in the SAP-treated group versus 100% in the control group (P = 0.2). Median interquartile range (IQR) esophageal diameter at day 14 was 8 mm (2.5-9) in the SAP-treated group versus 4 mm (3-4) in the control group (P = 0.13). The median (IQR) stricture indexes on esophagograms at day 14 were 0.32 (0.14-0.48) and 0.26 (0.14-0.33) in the SAP-treated and control groups, respectively (P = 0.42). Median (IQR) weight variation during the study was +0.2 (-7.4; +1.8) and -3.8 (-5.4; +0.6) in the SAP-treated and control groups, respectively (P = 0.9). Fibrosis, granulation tissue, and neoepithelium were not significantly different between the groups. The application of SAP matrix on esophageal wounds after a circumferential endoscopic submucosal dissection delayed the onset of esophageal stricture in a porcine model. © International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Increased population density of neurosurgeons associated with decreased risk of death from motor vehicle accidents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Atman; Bekelis, Kimon; Zhao, Wenyan; Ball, Perry A

    2012-09-01

    Motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) are a leading cause of death and disability in young people. Given that a major cause of death from MVAs is traumatic brain injury, and neurosurgeons hold special expertise in this area relative to other members of a trauma team, the authors hypothesized that neurosurgeon population density would be related to reduced mortality from MVAs across US counties. The Area Resource File (2009-2010), a national health resource information database, was retrospectively analyzed. The primary outcome variable was the 3-year (2004-2006) average in MVA deaths per million population for each county. The primary independent variable was the density of neurosurgeons per million population in the year 2006. Multiple regression analysis was performed, adjusting for population density of general practitioners, urbanicity of the county, and socioeconomic status of the county. The median number of annual MVA deaths per million population, in the 3141 counties analyzed, was 226 (interquartile range [IQR] 151-323). The median number of neurosurgeons per million population was 0 (IQR 0-0), while the median number of general practitioners per million population was 274 (IQR 175-410). Using an unadjusted analysis, each increase of 1 neurosurgeon per million population was associated with 1.90 fewer MVA deaths per million population (p neurosurgeon per million population was associated with 1.01 fewer MVA deaths per million population (p neurosurgeons is associated with a significant reduction in deaths from MVAs, a major cause of death nationally. This suggests that the availability of local neurosurgeons is an important factor in the overall likelihood of survival from an MVA, and therefore indicates the importance of promoting neurosurgical education and practice throughout the country.

  3. Pediatric blood transfusion practices at a regional referral hospital in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabwera, Helen M; Fegan, Greg; Shavadia, Jay; Denje, Douglas; Mandaliya, Kishor; Bates, Imelda; Maitland, Kathryn; Hassall, Oliver W

    2016-11-01

    Severe anemia in children is a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study we describe clinical and operational aspects of blood transfusion in children admitted to Coast Provincial General Hospital, Kenya. This was an observational study where over a 2-year period, demographic and laboratory data were collected on all children for whom the hospital blood bank received a transfusion request. Clinical data were obtained by retrospective review of case notes over the first year. There were 2789 requests for blood for children (median age, 1.8 years; interquartile range [IQR], 0.6-6.6 years); 70% (1950) of the samples were crossmatched with 85% (1663/1950) issued. Ninety percent (1505/1663) were presumed transfused. Median time from laboratory receipt of request to collection of blood was 3.6 hours (IQR, 1.4-12.8 hr). Case notes of 590 children were reviewed and median pretransfusion hemoglobin level was 6.0 g/dL (IQR, 4.2-9.1 g/dL). Ninety-four percent (186) were transfused "appropriately" while 52% (120) were transfused "inappropriately." There was significant disagreement between the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of severe anemia (exact McNemar's test; p blood transfusions but only 41% (106) of these had a positive blood film. In this setting, clinicians often order blood based on the clinical impression of "severe anemia." This has implications for laboratory workload and the blood supply itself. However, the majority of children with severe anemia were appropriately transfused. The use of antimalarials with blood transfusions irrespective of blood film results is common practice. © 2016 The Authors. Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.

  4. Pulmonary hypertension not a major feature of early mixed connective tissue disease: A prospective clinicoserological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon N

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD has features common to lupus, scleroderma and myositis with high levels of antibodies to U1 ribonucleoprotein (U1 RNP. Identification of a high incidence of pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH has changed its prospect. We report the largest series from India. Settings and Design: Rheumatology unit of a tertiary care centre in India; prospective. Materials and Methods: Patients seen between January 2002 and June 2004, satisfying the Kasukawa criteria were enrolled. All patients had a complete laboratory work-up including pulmonary function test, 2-D echocardiography, and Schirmer′s test, antinuclear antibodies (ANA and antibodies to extractable nuclear antigens. HRCT of chest was done where indicated. All patients were given standard treatment and followed up regularly. Results: Out of 1500 patients, thirteen (one male were diagnosed to have MCTD. The median follow-up period was 18 months [Interquartile range (IQR 12-22]. The median age of onset of symptoms was 36 years (IQR 22-39 and the median duration of disease was three years (IQR 1.75-4. The most common manifestation was polyarthritis followed by puffy fingers. Sjogren′s syndrome, dysphagia and interstitial lung disease, was present in four, three and two patients respectively. Two patients each had myositis and migraine. None had PAH, serositis or renal involvement. Arthritis, puffy fingers and RaynaudÆs phenomenon were the most common manifestations at onset. All patients were positive for ANA and anti U1 RNP. Two patients each had antibodies to Sm and SSA. Response to treatment also was noted. Conclusion: Pulmonary artery hypertension is not common in early MCTD.

  5. Implementation and evaluation of early gastroscopy for patients with dyspepsia and warning signs in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alonso, Francisco Javier; Hernández Tejero, María; Rubio Benito, Elvira; Valer, Paz; Guerra, Iván; García Ceballos, Victoria Gema; Noguerol, Mar; Llinares, Victoria; Bermejo, Fernando

    2017-05-01

    Dyspepsia is a common disorder in both Primary (PC) and Specialised Care (SC). Gastroscopy is recommended at the start of the study if there are warning signs, although it is not always available in PC. We developed a pilot project establishing an early gastroscopy programme for patients with dyspepsia and warning signs in PC, subsequently extending it to the entire healthcare area. The aim was to evaluate the requirements, impact and opinion of this service at the PC level. Demographic, symptomatic and endoscopic variables on the patients referred to SC from the pilot centre were recorded. A satisfaction survey was conducted among the PC physicians. The one-year pilot study and the first year of implementation of the programme were evaluated. A total of 355 patients were included (median age 56.4 years; IQR 45.5-64.3); 61.2% (56.1-66.3%) were women. The waiting time for examination was 1.5 weeks (IQR 1.5-2.5). Gastroscopy was correctly indicated in 82.7% (78.4-86.3%) of patients. The median number of requests per month was 1.1 per 10,000 adults (range 0.8-1.6). Monthly referrals to SC clinics from the pilot centre fell by 11 subjects (95% CI 5.9-16) with respect to the previous median of 58 (IQR 48-64.5). Almost all those polled (98.4%) considered the programme useful in routine practice. The availability of an early gastroscopy programme in PC for patients with dyspepsia and warning signs reduced the number of referrals to SC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U., AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  6. Sequential analysis in neonatal research-systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lava, Sebastiano A G; Elie, Valéry; Ha, Phuong Thi Viet; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne

    2018-05-01

    As more new drugs are discovered, traditional designs come at their limits. Ten years after the adoption of the European Paediatric Regulation, we performed a systematic review on the US National Library of Medicine and Excerpta Medica database of sequential trials involving newborns. Out of 326 identified scientific reports, 21 trials were included. They enrolled 2832 patients, of whom 2099 were analyzed: the median number of neonates included per trial was 48 (IQR 22-87), median gestational age was 28.7 (IQR 27.9-30.9) weeks. Eighteen trials used sequential techniques to determine sample size, while 3 used continual reassessment methods for dose-finding. In 16 studies reporting sufficient data, the sequential design allowed to non-significantly reduce the number of enrolled neonates by a median of 24 (31%) patients (IQR - 4.75 to 136.5, p = 0.0674) with respect to a traditional trial. When the number of neonates finally included in the analysis was considered, the difference became significant: 35 (57%) patients (IQR 10 to 136.5, p = 0.0033). Sequential trial designs have not been frequently used in Neonatology. They might potentially be able to reduce the number of patients in drug trials, although this is not always the case. What is known: • In evaluating rare diseases in fragile populations, traditional designs come at their limits. About 20% of pediatric trials are discontinued, mainly because of recruitment problems. What is new: • Sequential trials involving newborns were infrequently used and only a few (n = 21) are available for analysis. • The sequential design allowed to non-significantly reduce the number of enrolled neonates by a median of 24 (31%) patients (IQR - 4.75 to 136.5, p = 0.0674).

  7. Association of active human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) infection with autoimmune thyroid gland diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultanova, A; Cistjakovs, M; Gravelsina, S; Chapenko, S; Roga, S; Cunskis, E; Nora-Krukle, Z; Groma, V; Ventina, I; Murovska, M

    2017-01-01

    Viral infections frequently have been cited as important environmental factors implicated in the onset of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT). The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of HHV-6 infection in the development of autoimmune thyroiditis. This study included 45 patients (42 female and 3 male; median age 47.00 IQR 38.50-57.00) with histologically, laboratory, and clinically confirmed autoimmune thyroiditis, as well as 30 autopsied subjects (26 female and 4 male; median age 58.50, IQR 51.50-67.00) without thyroid pathologies and 30 healthy blood donors (25 female and 5 male; median age 33.50, IQR 27.75-44.25) as controls. Results were obtained by applying molecular virology and immunohistochemistry techniques. The presence of persistent HHV-6 infection in AIT patients was significantly higher (p 0.0058) than in the control group (44/45 (98%) vs. 23/30 (77%), respectively). Also, a significantly higher frequency of HHV-6 activation marker (U79/80 mRNA) was found in patients' thyroid gland tissue samples with AIT in comparison with the control group (18/44 (41%) vs. 1/17 (6%), respectively; p 0.0118). The median HHV-6 load was found to be higher in patients with active viral infection than in patients without it (2147, IQR 971-4188 vs. 551, IQR 145-1589 copies/1×10 6 cells; p 0.003). The presence of HHV-6 antigen expression was demonstrated in intrafollicular cellular clusters and immunohistochemistry indicated thyrocytes in the follicle wall. These findings provide evidence of strong HHV-6 infection association with AIT development. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mixed methods inquiry into traditional healers' treatment of mental, neurological and substance abuse disorders in rural South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn M Audet

    Full Text Available Traditional healers are acceptable and highly accessible health practitioners throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Patients in South Africa often seek concurrent traditional and allopathic treatment leading to medical pluralism.We studied the cause of five traditional illnesses known locally as "Mavabyi ya nhloko" (sickness of the head, by conducting 27 in-depth interviews and 133 surveys with a randomly selected sample of traditional healers living and working in rural, northeastern South Africa. These interviews were carried out to identify treatment practices of mental, neurological, and substance abuse (MNS disorders. Participating healers were primarily female (77%, older in age (median: 58.0 years; interquartile range [IQR]: 50-67, had very little formal education (median: 3.7 years; IQR: 3.2-4.2, and had practiced traditional medicine for many years (median: 17 years; IQR: 9.5-30. Healers reported having the ability to successfully treat: seizure disorders (47%, patients who have lost touch with reality (47%, paralysis on one side of the body (59%, and substance abuse (21%. Female healers reported a lower odds of treating seizure disorders (Odds Ratio (OR:0.47, patients who had lost touch with reality (OR:0.26; p-value<0.05, paralysis of one side of the body (OR:0.36, and substance abuse (OR:0.36 versus males. Each additional year of education received was found to be associated with lower odds, ranging from 0.13-0.27, of treating these symptoms. Each additional patient seen by healers in the past week was associated with roughly 1.10 higher odds of treating seizure disorders, patients who have lost touch with reality, paralysis of one side of the body, and substance abuse. Healers charged a median of 500 South African Rand (~US$35 to treat substance abuse, 1000 Rand (~US$70 for seizure disorders or paralysis of one side of the body, and 1500 Rand (~US$105 for patients who have lost touch with reality.While not all healers elect to treat MNS

  9. Comparison of inflammation and oxidative stress levels by the severity of obesity in prepubertal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Putu Surya Candra Eka Pertiwi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Children with severe obesity are more likely to develop diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. Inflammation and oxidative stress associated with childhood obesity may be important in the development of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Objective To compare levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP and malondialdehyde (MDA by the severity of obesity in prepubertal children aged 6 to 10 years. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study at the Pediatric Nutrition and Metabolic Syndrome Clinic, Sanglah Hospital, Bali, from August to December 2015. Subjects were categorized into three body mass index (BMI groups, according to the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth chart: overweight (85th-94.9th percentile, obese (95th-98.9th percentile, or severely obese (≥ 99th percentile. Plasma MDA and serum hsCRP were analyzed in blood specimens obtained at enrollment. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Mann-Whitney U test for post-hoc comparison between groups. Results Subjects were 20 overweight children, 29 obese children, and 28 severely obese children. Levels of MDA were significantly higher in the severely obese [median 0.25 (IQR 0.1 μmol/L] than in obese subjects [median 0.19 (IQR 0.1 μmol/L; P=0.001], and than in overweight subjects [median 0.16 (IQR 0.1 μmol/L; P<0.0001]. Also, the severely obese children had significantly higher hsCRP levels compared to obese [median 3.2 (IQR 2.0 mg/L vs. 1.3 (1.6 mg/L, respectively; P<0.0001] and compared to overweight children [median 0.7 (IQR 0.6 mg/L; P<0.0001].     Conclusion Prepubertal children at the ≥ 99th percentile for BMI (severely obese are more likely to have significantly higher hsCRP and MDA compared to those in the obese and overweight groups.

  10. Cold intolerance following median and ulnar nerve injuries : prognosis and predictors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, A.C.J; Jaquet, J-B.; van Riel, W. G.; Daanen, H. A M; Hovius, S.E.R.

    This study describes the predictors for cold intolerance and the relationship to sensory recovery after median and ulnar nerve injuries. The study population consisted of 107 patients 2 to 10 years after median, ulnar or combined median and ulnar nerve injuries. Patients were asked to fill out the

  11. Cold intolerance following median and ulnar nerve injuries : prognosis and predictors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, A.C.J.; Jaquet, J.B.; Riel, W.G. van; Daanen, H.A.M.; Hovius, S.E.R.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the predictors for cold intolerance and the relationship to sensory recovery after median and ulnar nerve injuries. The study population consisted of 107 patients 2 to 10 years after median, ulnar or combined median and ulnar nerve injuries. Patients were asked to fill out the

  12. Robust non-local median filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Jyohei; Koga, Takanori; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes a novel image filter with superior performance on detail-preserving removal of random-valued impulse noise superimposed on natural gray-scale images. The non-local means filter is in the limelight as a way of Gaussian noise removal with superior performance on detail preservation. By referring the fundamental concept of the non-local means, we had proposed a non-local median filter as a specialized way for random-valued impulse noise removal so far. In the non-local processing, the output of a filter is calculated from pixels in blocks which are similar to the block centered at a pixel of interest. As a result, aggressive noise removal is conducted without destroying the detailed structures in an original image. However, the performance of non-local processing decreases enormously in the case of high noise occurrence probability. A cause of this problem is that the superimposed noise disturbs accurate calculation of the similarity between the blocks. To cope with this problem, we propose an improved non-local median filter which is robust to the high level of corruption by introducing a new similarity measure considering possibility of being the original signal. The effectiveness and validity of the proposed method are verified in a series of experiments using natural gray-scale images.

  13. Usefulness of ultrasound assessment of median nerve mobility in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gi-Young; Kwon, Dong Rak; Seok, Jung Im; Park, Dong-Soon; Cho, Hee Kyung

    2018-01-01

    Background Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common peripheral compression neuropathy of the upper extremity. Recently, dynamic ultrasound (US) imaging has shown differences in median nerve mobility between the affected and unaffected sides in CTS. Purpose The present study was performed to compare the median nerve mobility between patients with CTS and healthy individuals, and to correlate median nerve mobility with the severity of CTS. Material and Methods A total of 101 patients (128 wrists) with CTS and 43 healthy individuals (70 wrists) were evaluated. Electrodiagnostic studies were initially conducted to determine the neurophysiological grading scale (NGS). The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve and the grade of median nerve mobility were measured using US. Results The mean grade of median nerve mobility in the CTS group (1.9) was significantly lower than that in the control group (2.6; P mobility and distal motor latency of the median nerve (r = -0.218, P = 0.015), NGS (r = -0.207, P = 0.020) and CSA of the median nerve (r = -0.196, P = 0.028). Conclusion The grade of median nerve mobility was negatively correlated with the severity of CTS. US assessment of median nerve mobility may be useful in diagnosing and determining the severity of CTS.

  14. The association between creatinine versus cystatin C-based eGFR and cardiovascular risk in children with chronic kidney disease using a modified PDAY risk score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sheena; Denburg, Michelle R; Furth, Susan L

    2017-08-01

    Children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors which may contribute to the development of cardiovascular events in adulthood. Among adults with CKD, cystatin C-based estimates of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) demonstrate a stronger predictive value for cardiovascular events than creatinine-based eGFR. The PDAY (Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth) risk score is a validated tool used to estimate the probability of advanced coronary atherosclerotic lesions in young adults. To assess the association between cystatin C-based versus creatinine-based eGFR (eGFR cystatin C and eGFR creatinine, respectively) and cardiovascular risk using a modified PDAY risk score as a proxy for CVD in children and young adults. We performed a cross-sectional study of 71 participants with CKD [median age 15.5 years; inter-quartile range (IQR) 13, 17], and 33 healthy controls (median age 15.1 years; IQR 13, 17). eGFR was calculated using age-appropriate creatinine- and cystatin C-based formulas. Median eGFR creatinine and eGFR cystatin C for CKD participants were 50 (IQR 30, 75) and 53 (32, 74) mL/min/1.73 m 2 , respectively. For the healthy controls, median eGFR creatinine and eGFR cystatin were 112 (IQR 85, 128) and 106 mL/min/1.73m 2 (95, 123) mL/min/1.73 m 2 , respectively. A modified PDAY risk score was calculated based on sex, age, serum lipoprotein concentrations, obesity, smoking status, hypertension, and hyperglycemia. Modified PDAY scores ranged from -2 to 20. The Spearman's correlations of eGFR creatinine and eGFR cystatin C with coronary artery PDAY scores were -0.23 (p = 0.02) and -0.28 (p = 0.004), respectively. Ordinal logistic regression also showed a similar association of higher eGFR creatinine and higher eGFR cystatin C with lower PDAY scores. When stratified by age creatinine and eGFR cystatin C with PDAY score were modest and similar in children [-0.29 (p = 0.008) vs. -0.32 (p = 0

  15. Is nelfinavir exposure associated with cancer incidence in HIV-positive individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettiger, David C; Sabin, Caroline A; Grulich, Andrew; Ryom, Lene; Bonnet, Fabrice; Reiss, Peter; Monforte, Antonella d'arminio; Kirk, Ole; Phillips, Andrew; Bower, Mark; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Lundgren, Jens D; Law, Matthew

    2016-06-19

    Nelfinavir exhibits potent anticancer properties against a range of tumours. However, in 2006/2007, nelfinavir supplies were accidently contaminated with a carcinogen. This analysis investigated the association between nelfinavir use and cancer risk in HIV-positive persons. Observational cohort study. D:A:D study data was analysed using Poisson regression models to examine associations between cancer incidence and cumulative nelfinavir exposure, current nelfinavir exposure, and exposure to nelfinavir between 1 July 2006-30 June 2007. A total of 42 006 individuals (50% white, 73% male) contributed 303 005 person-years of follow-up between 1 January 2004 and 1 February 2014. At study enrolment, median age was 40 [interquartile range (IQR) 33-46] years and 8305 individuals had a history of nelfinavir use [median duration 1.7 (IQR 0.7-3.4) years]. During follow-up, nelfinavir was used by 2476 individuals for a median of 1.7 (IQR 0.7-3.8) years; 1063 were exposed to nelfinavir between 1 July 2006 and 30 June 2007. Overall, 2279 cancers were diagnosed at a rate of 0.75 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.72-0.78] per 100 person-years. Neither greater cumulative exposure to nelfinavir [adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 0.93 for every additional 5 years, 95% CI 0.82-1.06, P = 0.26] nor current use of nelfinavir (aRR 0.98 vs other protease inhibitor use, 95% CI 0.68-1.41, P = 0.92) were associated with cancer risk. The adjusted risk of cancer for participants exposed to nelfinavir between 1 July 2006 and 30 June 2007 compared to those receiving other treatment over this period was 1.07 (95% CI 0.78-1.46, P = 0.68). Nelfinavir use was not associated with a lower cancer incidence than other protease inhibitor regimens. As of February 2014, exposure to the 2006/2007 contamination of nelfinavir does not appear to be associated with increased cancer incidence.

  16. Podocyte Number in Children and Adults: Associations with Glomerular Size and Numbers of Other Glomerular Resident Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puelles, Victor G.; Douglas-Denton, Rebecca N.; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A.; Li, Jinhua; Hughson, Michael D.; Hoy, Wendy E.; Kerr, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Increases in glomerular size occur with normal body growth and in many pathologic conditions. In this study, we determined associations between glomerular size and numbers of glomerular resident cells, with a particular focus on podocytes. Kidneys from 16 male Caucasian-Americans without overt renal disease, including 4 children (≤3 years old) to define baseline values of early life and 12 adults (≥18 years old), were collected at autopsy in Jackson, Mississippi. We used a combination of immunohistochemistry, confocal microscopy, and design-based stereology to estimate individual glomerular volume (IGV) and numbers of podocytes, nonepithelial cells (NECs; tuft cells other than podocytes), and parietal epithelial cells (PECs). Podocyte density was calculated. Data are reported as medians and interquartile ranges (IQRs). Glomeruli from children were small and contained 452 podocytes (IQR=335–502), 389 NECs (IQR=265–498), and 146 PECs (IQR=111–206). Adult glomeruli contained significantly more cells than glomeruli from children, including 558 podocytes (IQR=431–746; P<0.01), 1383 NECs (IQR=998–2042; P<0.001), and 367 PECs (IQR=309–673; P<0.001). However, large adult glomeruli showed markedly lower podocyte density (183 podocytes per 106 µm3) than small glomeruli from adults and children (932 podocytes per 106 µm3; P<0.001). In conclusion, large adult glomeruli contained more podocytes than small glomeruli from children and adults, raising questions about the origin of these podocytes. The increased number of podocytes in large glomeruli does not match the increase in glomerular size observed in adults, resulting in relative podocyte depletion. This may render hypertrophic glomeruli susceptible to pathology. PMID:25568174

  17. A national survey of emergency pharmacy practice in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael C; Acquisto, Nicole M; Shirk, Mary Beth; Patanwala, Asad E

    2016-03-15

    The results of a survey to characterize pharmacy practice in emergency department (ED) settings are reported. An electronic survey was sent to all members of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists' Emergency Medicine Connect group and the American College of Clinical Pharmacy's Emergency Medicine Practice and Research Network. Approximately 400 nontrainee pharmacy practitioners were invited to participate in the survey, which was open for 30 days. Descriptive statistics were used for all analyses. Two hundred thirty-three responses to the survey that were at least partially completed were received. After the removal of duplicate responses and null records, 187 survey responses were retained. The majority of respondents were from community hospitals (59.6%) or academic medical centers (36.1%). A pharmacist's presence in the ED of more than eight hours per day on weekdays and weekends was commonly reported (68.7% of respondents); 49.4% of institutions provided more than eight hours of coverage daily. Nearly one in three institutions (34.8%) provided no weekend ED staffing. The most frequently reported hours of coverage were during the 1 p.m.-midnight time frame. The distribution of ED pharmacist activities, by category, was as follows (data are median reported time commitments): clinical, 25% (interquartile range [IQR], 15-40%); emergency response, 15% (IQR, 10-20%); order processing, 15% (IQR, 5-25%); medication reconciliation/history-taking, 10% (IQR, 5-25%); teaching, 10% (IQR, 5-15%); administrative, 5% (IQR, 3-10%); and scholarly endeavors, 0% (IQR, 0-5%). Pharmacists from academic and community EDs perform a variety of clinical, educational, and administrative activities. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Infected hardware after surgical stabilization of rib fractures: Outcomes and management experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiels, Cornelius A; Aho, Johnathon M; Naik, Nimesh D; Zielinski, Martin D; Schiller, Henry J; Morris, David S; Kim, Brian D

    2016-05-01

    Surgical stabilization of rib fracture (SSRF) is increasingly used for treatment of rib fractures. There are few data on the incidence, risk factors, outcomes, and optimal management strategy for hardware infection in these patients. We aimed to develop and propose a management algorithm to help others treat this potentially morbid complication. We retrospectively searched a prospectively collected rib fracture database for the records of all patients who underwent SSRF from August 2009 through March 2014 at our institution. We then analyzed for the subsequent development of hardware infection among these patients. Standard descriptive analyses were performed. Among 122 patients who underwent SSRF, most (73%) were men; the mean (SD) age was 59.5 (16.4) years, and median (interquartile range [IQR]) Injury Severity Score was 17 (13-22). The median number of rib fractures was 7 (5-9) and 48% of the patients had flail chest. Mortality at 30 days was 0.8%. Five patients (4.1%) had a hardware infection on mean (SD) postoperative day 12.0 (6.6). Median Injury Severity Score (17 [range, 13-42]) and hospital length of stay (9 days [6-37 days]) in these patients were similar to the values for those without infection (17 days [range, 13-22 days] and 9 days [6-12 days], respectively). Patients with infection underwent a median (IQR) of 2 (range, 2-3) additional operations, which included wound debridement (n = 5), negative-pressure wound therapy (n = 3), and antibiotic beads (n = 4). Hardware was removed in 3 patients at 140, 190, and 192 days after index operation. Cultures grew only gram-positive organisms. No patients required reintervention after hardware removal, and all achieved bony union and were taking no narcotics or antibiotics at the latest follow-up. Although uncommon, hardware infection after SSRF carries considerable morbidity. With the use of an aggressive multimodal management strategy, however, bony union and favorable long-term outcomes can be achieved

  19. Statistical properties of the deviations of f 0 F 2 from monthly medians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tulunay

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The deviations of hourly f 0 F 2 from monthly medians for 20 stations in Europe during the period 1958-1998 are studied. Spectral analysis is used to show that, both for original data (for each hour and for the deviations from monthly medians, the deterministic components are the harmonics of 11 years (solar cycle, 1 year and its harmonics, 27 days and 12 h 50.49 m (2nd harmonic of lunar rotation period L 2 periodicities. Using histograms for one year samples, it is shown that the deviations from monthly medians are nearly zero mean (mean < 0.5 and approximately Gaussian (relative difference range between %10 to %20 and their standard deviations are larger for daylight hours (in the range 5-7. It is shown that the amplitude distribution of the positive and negative deviations is nearly symmetrical at night hours, but asymmetrical for day hours. The positive and negative deviations are then studied separately and it is observed that the positive deviations are nearly independent of R12 except for high latitudes, but negative deviations are modulated by R12 . The 90% confidence interval for negative deviations for each station and each hour is computed as a linear model in terms of R12. After correction for local time, it is shown that for all hours the confidence intervals increase with latitude but decrease above 60N. Long-term trend analysis showed that there is an increase in the amplitude of positive deviations from monthly means irrespective of the solar conditions. Using spectral analysis it is also shown that the seasonal dependency of negative deviations is more accentuated than the seasonal dependency of positive deviations especially at low latitudes. In certain stations, it is also observed that the 4th harmonic of 1 year corresponding to a periodicity of 3 months, which is missing in f 0 F 2 data, appears in the spectra of negative variations.

  20. Sosiaalisen median rooli kunnan viestinnässä

    OpenAIRE

    Selkämaa, Kati

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selvittää sosiaalisen median roolia kunnan viestinnässä sekä tutkia, miten sosiaalista mediaa hyödynnetään kuntien viestinnässä. Teoriaosuudessa tarkasteltiin sosiaalista mediaa, tutustuttiin sen tunnetuimpiin sovelluksiin sekä perehdyttiin kuntien viestintään yleisesti. Työssä tarkasteltiin myös kuntien viestintään vaikuttavia ja sitä sääteleviä lakeja. Kuntien sosiaalisen median käyttöön tutustuttiin Kuntaliiton tekemän viestintätutkimuksen tulosten pohjalt...

  1. Ultrasound-Guided Out-of-Plane vs. In-Plane Interscalene Catheters: A Randomized, Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Eric S; Gandhi, Kishor; Baratta, Jaime L; Torjman, Marc; Epstein, Richard H; Chung, Jaeyoon; Vaghari, Benjamin A; Beausang, David; Bojaxhi, Elird; Grady, Bernadette

    2015-12-01

    Continuous interscalene blocks provide excellent analgesia after shoulder surgery. Although the safety of the ultrasound-guided in-plane approach has been touted, technical and patient factors can limit this approach. We developed a caudad-to-cephalad out-of-plane approach and hypothesized that it would decrease pain ratings due to better catheter alignment with the brachial plexus compared to the in-plane technique in a randomized, controlled study. To compare an out-of-plane interscalene catheter technique to the in-plane technique in a randomized clinical trial. Eighty-four patients undergoing open shoulder surgery were randomized to either the in-plane or out-of-plane ultrasound-guided continuous interscalene technique. The primary outcome was VAS pain rating at 24 hours. Secondary outcomes included pain ratings in the recovery room and at 48 hours, morphine consumption, the incidence of catheter dislodgments, procedure time, and block difficulty. Procedural data and all pain ratings were collected by blinded observers. There were no differences in the primary outcome of median VAS pain rating at 24 hours between the out-of-plane and in-plane groups (1.50; IQR, [0 - 4.38] vs. 1.25; IQR, [0 - 3.75]; P = 0.57). There were also no differences, respectively, between out-of-plane and in-plane median PACU pain ratings (1.0; IQR, [0 - 3.5] vs. 0.25; IQR, [0 - 2.5]; P = 0.08) and median 48-hour pain ratings (1.25; IQR, [1.25 - 2.63] vs. 0.50; IQR, [0 - 1.88]; P = 0.30). There were no differences in any other secondary endpoint. Our out-of-plane technique did not provide superior analgesia to the in-plane technique. It did not increase the number of complications. Our technique is an acceptable alternative in situations where the in-plane technique is difficult to perform.

  2. Development of guidelines for cable median barrier systems in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Since 2003, the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) has embarked on an aggressive campaign to install : median barriers to prevent cross-median crashes on freeway facilities statewide. In the few years prior to 2003, : virtually all fatalities...

  3. HIV RNA Suppression during and after Pregnancy among Women in the HIV Outpatient Study, 1996 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Monita; Tedaldi, Ellen; Armon, Carl; Nesheim, Steven; Lampe, Margaret; Palella, Frank; Novak, Richard; Sutton, Madeline; Buchacz, Kate

    2018-01-01

    To examine HIV viral suppression during/after pregnancy. Prospective observational cohort. We identified pregnancies from 1996 to 2015. We examined HIV RNA viral load (VL), VL suppression (≤500 copies/mL), and antiretroviral therapy (ART) status at pregnancy start, end, and 6 months postpartum. We estimated risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for VL nonsuppression. Among 253 pregnancies analyzed, 34.8% of women exhibited VL suppression at pregnancy start, 60.1% at pregnancy end, and 42.7% at 6 months postpartum. Median VL (log 10 copies/mL) was 2.80 (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.40-3.85) at pregnancy start, 1.70 (IQR: 1.40-2.82) at pregnancy end, and 2.30 (IQR: 1.40-3.86) at postpartum. Risk of postpartum VL nonsuppression was also lower among women on ART and with VL suppression at pregnancy end (versus those not; adjusted RR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.17-0.53). Maintaining VL suppression among US women remains a challenge, particularly during postpartum. Achieving VL suppression earlier during pregnancy benefits women subsequently.

  4. Prevalence and characteristics of chronic kidney disease among Danish adults with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Kristina H; Ryom, Lene; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    median duration of chronic pulmonary infection (28.3 (20.0-35.8) vs. 20.0 (9.9-34.7) years; p=0.008) and with longer intravenous aminoglycosides use (606 (IQR, 455-917) vs. 273 (IQR, 91-826) days, p=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: The CKD prevalence is high and related to age, diabetes, chronic infection...

  5. Myeloid malignancies in the real-world: Occurrence, progression and survival in the UK's population-based Haematological Malignancy Research Network 2004-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Eve; Smith, Alex; Appleton, Simon; Crouch, Simon; Kelly, Richard; Kinsey, Sally; Cargo, Catherine; Patmore, Russell

    2016-06-01

    Population-based information on cancer incidence, prevalence and outcome are required to inform clinical practice and research; but contemporary data are lacking for many myeloid malignancy subtypes. Set within a socio-demographically representative UK population of ∼4 million, myeloid malignancy data (N=5231 diagnoses) are from an established patient cohort. Information on incidence, survival (relative & overall), transformation/progression, and prevalence is presented for >20 subtypes. The median diagnostic age was 72.4years (InterQuartile Range 61.6-80.2), but there was considerable subtype heterogeneity, particularly among the acute myeloid leukaemias (AML) where medians ranged from 20.3 (IQR 13.9-43.8) for AML 11q23 through to 73.7 (IQR 57.3-79.1) for AML with no recurrent genetic changes. Five-year Relative Survival (RS) estimates varied hugely; from 85% for indolent/treatable conditions like chronic myeloid leukaemia (89.8%, 95% CI 84.0-93.6). With a couple of notable exceptions, males experienced higher rates and worse survival than females: the age-standardized incidence rates of several conditions was 2-4 higher in males than females, and the 5-year RS for all subtypes combined was 48.8% (95% CI 46.5-51.2) and 60.4% (95% CI 57.7-62.9) for males and females respectively. During follow-up (potential minimum 2 years and maximum 11years) myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) progression to AML ranged from 25% for refractory anaemia with excess blasts through to 5% for refractory anaemia with ring sideroblasts: the median interval between MDS and AML diagnosis was 9.0 months (IQR 4.8-17.4months). The marked incidence and outcome variations seen by subtype, sex and age, confirm the requirement for "real-world" longitudinal data to inform aetiological hypotheses, healthcare planning, and future monitoring of therapeutic change. Several challenges for routine cancer registration were identified, including the need to link more effectively to diagnostic and clinical

  6. Impaired systemic tetrahydrobiopterin bioavailability and increased dihydrobiopterin in adult falciparum malaria: association with disease severity, impaired microvascular function and increased endothelial activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsin W Yeo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH₄ is a co-factor required for catalytic activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS and amino acid-monooxygenases, including phenylalanine hydroxylase. BH4 is unstable: during oxidative stress it is non-enzymatically oxidized to dihydrobiopterin (BH₂, which inhibits NOS. Depending on BH₄ availability, NOS oscillates between NO synthase and NADPH oxidase: as the BH₄/BH₂ ratio decreases, NO production falls and is replaced by superoxide. In African children and Asian adults with severe malaria, NO bioavailability decreases and plasma phenylalanine increases, together suggesting possible BH₄ deficiency. The primary three biopterin metabolites (BH₄, BH₂ and B₀ [biopterin] and their association with disease severity have not been assessed in falciparum malaria. We measured pterin metabolites in urine of adults with severe falciparum malaria (SM; n=12, moderately-severe malaria (MSM, n=17, severe sepsis (SS; n=5 and healthy subjects (HC; n=20 as controls. In SM, urinary BH₄ was decreased (median 0.16 ¼mol/mmol creatinine compared to MSM (median 0.27, SS (median 0.54, and HC (median 0.34]; p<0.001. Conversely, BH₂ was increased in SM (median 0.91 ¼mol/mmol creatinine, compared to MSM (median 0.67, SS (median 0.39, and HC (median 0.52; p<0.001, suggesting increased oxidative stress and insufficient recycling of BH2 back to BH4 in severe malaria. Overall, the median BH₄/BH₂ ratio was lowest in SM [0.18 (IQR: 0.04-0.32] compared to MSM (0.45, IQR 0.27-61, SS (1.03; IQR 0.54-2.38 and controls (0.66; IQR 0.43-1.07; p<0.001. In malaria, a lower BH₄/BH₂ ratio correlated with decreased microvascular reactivity (r=0.41; p=0.03 and increased ICAM-1 (r=-0.52; p=0.005. Decreased BH4 and increased BH₂ in severe malaria (but not in severe sepsis uncouples NOS, leading to impaired NO bioavailability and potentially increased oxidative stress. Adjunctive therapy to regenerate BH4 may have a role in improving NO

  7. Temporal comparison of ultrasound vs. auscultation and capnography in verification of endotracheal tube placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, P; Rudolph, S S; Børglum, J; Isbye, D L

    2011-11-01

    This study compared the time consumption of bilateral lung ultrasound with auscultation and capnography for verifying endotracheal intubation. A prospective, paired, and investigator-blinded study carried out in the operating theatre. Twenty-five adult patients requiring endotracheal intubation were included. During intubation, transtracheal ultrasound was performed to visualize passage of the endotracheal tube. During bag ventilation, bilateral lung ultrasound was performed for the detection of lung sliding as a sign of ventilation simultaneous with capnography and auscultation of the epigastrium and chest. Primary outcome measure was time difference to confirmed endotracheal intubation between ultrasound and auscultation alone. Secondary outcome measure was time difference between ultrasound and auscultation combined with capnography. Both methods verified endotracheal tube placement in all patients. In 68% of patients, endotracheal tube placement was visualized by real-time transtracheal ultrasound. Comparing ultrasound with the combination of auscultation and capnography, there was a significant difference between the two methods. Median time for ultrasound was 40 s [interquartile range (IQR) 35-48 s] vs. 48 s (IQR 45-53 s), P auscultation alone. Median time for auscultation alone was 42 s (IQR 37-47 s), P = 0.6, with a mean difference of -0.88 s in favour of ultrasound (95% CI -4.2-2.5 s). Verification of endotracheal tube placement with ultrasound is as fast as auscultation alone and faster than the standard method of auscultation and capnography. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica © 2011 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  8. Radiation exposure of ventilated trauma patients in intensive care: a retrospective study comparing two time periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Micaela V; Barron, Rochelle A; Knobloch, Tom A; Pandey, Umesh; Twyford, Catherine; Freebairn, Ross C

    2012-08-01

    To describe the cumulative effective dose of radiation that was received during the initial Emergency Department assessment and ICU stay of patients admitted with trauma, who required mechanical ventilation, during two time periods. A retrospective analysis of radiological and clinical data, set in a regional nonurban ICU. Two cohorts (starting 1 January 2004 and 1 January 2009), each comprising 45 adult patients admitted with trauma who were mechanically ventilated in intensive care, were studied. Frequency and type of radiological examinations, demographic information, and clinical data were collated from the radiological database, hospital admission record and Australian Outcomes Research Tool for Intensive Care database. Cumulative effective doses were calculated and expressed as a total dose and average daily dose for each cohort. The median cumulative effective dose per patient (in milliSieverts) increased from 34.59 [interquartile range (IQR) 9.08-43.91] in 2004 to 40.51 (IQR 22.01-48.87) in 2009, P=0.045. An increased number of computed tomography examinations per patient was also observed over the same interval from an average of 2.11 (median 2, IQR 1-3) in 2004 to an average of 2.62 (2, 2-4) in 2009, P=0.046. The radiation exposure of mechanically ventilated trauma patients in intensive care has increased over time. Radiation exposure should be prospectively monitored and staff should be aware of the increased risk resulting from this change in practice.

  9. Time to tracheal extubation after coronary artery surgery with isoflurane, sevoflurane, or target-controlled propofol anesthesia: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Francis C; Story, David A; Poustie, Stephanie; Liu, Guoming; McNicol, Larry

    2004-10-01

    To determine if anesthesia with sevoflurane or target-controlled propofol reduced the time to tracheal extubation after coronary artery bypass graft surgery compared with isoflurane anesthesia. A 3-arm (isoflurane, sevoflurane, or propofol), randomized, controlled trial with patients and intensive care staff blinded to the drug allocation. A single, tertiary referral hospital affiliated with the University of Melbourne. Three hundred sixty elective coronary artery surgery patients. Patients received either isoflurane (control group, 0.5%-2% end-tidal concentration), sevoflurane (1%-4% end-tidal concentration), or target-controlled infusion of propofol (1-8 microg/mL plasma target concentration) as part of a balanced, standardized anesthetic technique including 15 microg/kg of fentanyl. The primary outcome was time to tracheal extubation. The median time to tracheal extubation for the propofol group was 10.25 hours (interquartile range [IQR] 8.08-12.75), the sevoflurane group 9.17 hours (IQR 6.25-11.25), and the isoflurane group 7.67 hours (IQR 6.25-9.42). Intraoperatively, the propofol group required less vasopressor (p = 0.002) and more vasodilator therapy (nitroglycerin p = 0.01, nitroprusside p = 0.002). There was no difference among the groups in time to intensive care unit discharge. The median time to tracheal extubation was significantly longer for the target-controlled propofol group. A significantly greater number in this group required the use of a vasodilator to control intraoperative hypertension.

  10. Gestational age and birth weight centiles of singleton babies delivered normally following spontaneous labor, in Southern Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanayake, K; Munasinghe, S; Goonewardene, M; Widanapathirana, P; Sandeepani, I; Sanjeewa, L

    2018-03-31

    To estimate the gestational age and birth weight centiles of babies delivered normally, without any obstetric intervention, in women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies establishing spontaneous onset of labour. Consecutive women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies, attending the Academic Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit of the Teaching Hospital Mahamodara Galle, Sri Lanka, with confirmed dates and establishing spontaneous onset of labor and delivering vaginally between gestational age of 34 - 41 weeks, without any obstetric intervention , during the period September 2013 to February 2014 were studied. The gestational age at spontaneous onset of labor and vaginal delivery and the birth weights of the babies were recorded. There were 3294 consecutive deliveries during this period, and of them 1602 (48.6%) met the inclusion criteria. Median gestational age at delivery was 275 days (range 238-291 days, IQR 269 to 280 days) and the median birth weight was 3000 g (range1700g - 4350g; IQR 2750-3250g). The 10th, 50th and 90th birth weight centiles of the babies delivered at a gestational age of 275 days were approximately 2570g, 3050g and 3550g respectively. The median gestational age among women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies who established spontaneous onset of labor and delivered vaginally, without any obstetric intervention, was approximately five days shorter than the traditionally accepted 280 days. At a gestational age of 275 days, the mean birth weight was approximately 3038g and the 50th centile of the birth weight of the babies delivered was approximately 3050g.

  11. The Global Epidemiology of Impetigo: A Systematic Review of the Population Prevalence of Impetigo and Pyoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Asha C; Mahé, Antoine; Hay, Roderick J; Andrews, Ross M; Steer, Andrew C; Tong, Steven Y C; Carapetis, Jonathan R

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a comprehensive, systematic review of the global childhood population prevalence of impetigo and the broader condition pyoderma. PubMed was systematically searched for impetigo or pyoderma studies published between January 1 1970 and September 30 2014. Two independent reviewers extracted data from each relevant article on the prevalence of impetigo. Sixty-six articles relating to 89 studies met our inclusion criteria. Based on population surveillance, 82 studies included data on 145,028 children assessed for pyoderma or impetigo. Median childhood prevalence was 12·3% (IQR 4·2-19·4%). Fifty-eight (65%) studies were from low or low-middle income countries, where median childhood prevalences were 8·4% (IQR 4·2-16·1%) and 14·5% (IQR 8·3-20·9%), respectively. However, the highest burden was seen in underprivileged children from marginalised communities of high-income countries; median prevalence 19·4%, (IQR 3·9-43·3%). Based on data from studies published since 2000 from low and low-middle income countries, we estimate the global population of children suffering from impetigo at any one time to be in excess of 162 million, predominantly in tropical, resource-poor contexts. Impetigo is an under-recognised disease and in conjunction with scabies, comprises a major childhood dermatological condition with potential lifelong consequences if untreated.

  12. The Global Epidemiology of Impetigo: A Systematic Review of the Population Prevalence of Impetigo and Pyoderma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha C Bowen

    Full Text Available We conducted a comprehensive, systematic review of the global childhood population prevalence of impetigo and the broader condition pyoderma.PubMed was systematically searched for impetigo or pyoderma studies published between January 1 1970 and September 30 2014. Two independent reviewers extracted data from each relevant article on the prevalence of impetigo.Sixty-six articles relating to 89 studies met our inclusion criteria. Based on population surveillance, 82 studies included data on 145,028 children assessed for pyoderma or impetigo. Median childhood prevalence was 12·3% (IQR 4·2-19·4%. Fifty-eight (65% studies were from low or low-middle income countries, where median childhood prevalences were 8·4% (IQR 4·2-16·1% and 14·5% (IQR 8·3-20·9%, respectively. However, the highest burden was seen in underprivileged children from marginalised communities of high-income countries; median prevalence 19·4%, (IQR 3·9-43·3%.Based on data from studies published since 2000 from low and low-middle income countries, we estimate the global population of children suffering from impetigo at any one time to be in excess of 162 million, predominantly in tropical, resource-poor contexts. Impetigo is an under-recognised disease and in conjunction with scabies, comprises a major childhood dermatological condition with potential lifelong consequences if untreated.

  13. MEAN OF MEDIAN ABSOLUTE DERIVATION TECHNIQUE MEAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    development of mean of median absolute derivation technique based on the based on the based on .... of noise mean to estimate the speckle noise variance. Noise mean property ..... Foraging Optimization,” International Journal of. Advanced ...

  14. Electroacupuncture and Acupuncture Promote the Rat’s Transected Median Nerve Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, C. Y.; Yao, C. H.; Chen, W. C.; Shen, W. C.; Bau, D. T.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments of damaged nerves may aid nerve regeneration related to hindlimb function, but the effects on the forelimb-related median nerve were not known. Methods. A gap was made in the median nerve of each rat by suturing the stumps into silicone rubber tubes. The influences of acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments on transected median nerve regeneration were evaluated from morphological, electrophysiological, and functional angles. Resu...

  15. Accuracy and Feasibility of an Android-Based Digital Assessment Tool for Post Stroke Visual Disorders—The StrokeVision App

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence J. Quinn

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundVisual impairment affects up to 70% of stroke survivors. We designed an app (StrokeVision to facilitate screening for common post stroke visual issues (acuity, visual fields, and visual inattention. We sought to describe the test time, feasibility, acceptability, and accuracy of our app-based digital visual assessments against (a current methods used for bedside screening and (b gold standard measures.MethodsPatients were prospectively recruited from acute stroke settings. Index tests were app-based assessments of fields and inattention performed by a trained researcher. We compared against usual clinical screening practice of visual fields to confrontation, including inattention assessment (simultaneous stimuli. We also compared app to gold standard assessments of formal kinetic perimetry (Goldman or Octopus Visual Field Assessment; and pencil and paper-based tests of inattention (Albert’s, Star Cancelation, and Line Bisection. Results of inattention and field tests were adjudicated by a specialist Neuro-ophthalmologist. All assessors were masked to each other’s results. Participants and assessors graded acceptability using a bespoke scale that ranged from 0 (completely unacceptable to 10 (perfect acceptability.ResultsOf 48 stroke survivors recruited, the complete battery of index and reference tests for fields was successfully completed in 45. Similar acceptability scores were observed for app-based [assessor median score 10 (IQR: 9–10; patient 9 (IQR: 8–10] and traditional bedside testing [assessor 10 (IQR: 9–10; patient 10 (IQR: 9–10]. Median test time was longer for app-based testing [combined time to completion of all digital tests 420 s (IQR: 390–588] when compared with conventional bedside testing [70 s, (IQR: 40–70], but shorter than gold standard testing [1,260 s, (IQR: 1005–1,620]. Compared with gold standard assessments, usual screening practice demonstrated 79% sensitivity and 82% specificity for

  16. A randomized clinical trial of therapeutic hypothermia mode during transport for neonatal encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akula, Vishnu Priya; Joe, Priscilla; Thusu, Kajori; Davis, Alexis S; Tamaresis, John S; Kim, Sunhwa; Shimotake, Thomas K; Butler, Stephen; Honold, Jose; Kuzniewicz, Michael; DeSandre, Glenn; Bennett, Mihoko; Gould, Jeffrey; Wallenstein, Matthew B; Van Meurs, Krisa

    2015-04-01

    To determine if temperature regulation is improved during neonatal transport using a servo-regulated cooling device when compared with standard practice. We performed a multicenter, randomized, nonmasked clinical trial in newborns with neonatal encephalopathy cooled during transport to 9 neonatal intensive care units in California. Newborns who met institutional criteria for therapeutic hypothermia were randomly assigned to receive cooling according to usual center practices vs device servo-regulated cooling. The primary outcome was the percentage of temperatures in target range (33°-34°C) during transport. Secondary outcomes included percentage of newborns reaching target temperature any time during transport, time to target temperature, and percentage of newborns in target range 1 hour after cooling initiation. One hundred newborns were enrolled: 49 to control arm and 51 to device arm. Baseline demographics did not differ with the exception of cord pH. For each subject, the percentage of temperatures in the target range was calculated. Infants cooled using the device had a higher percentage of temperatures in target range compared with control infants (median 73% [IQR 17-88] vs 0% [IQR 0-52], P newborns with neonatal encephalopathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of coronary calcification using calibrated mass score with two different multidetector computed tomography scanners in the Copenhagen General Population Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Andreas [Department of Cardiology, The Heart Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Groen, Jaap M. [Department of Radiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Medical Physics, OLVG, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Arnold, Ben A. [Image Analysis, 1380 Burkesville Road, Columbia, KY (United States); Nikolovski, Sasho [Department of Radiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Knudsen, Andreas D., E-mail: dehlbaek@gmail.com [Department of Cardiology, The Heart Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kühl, J. Tobias [Department of Cardiology, The Heart Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Nordestgaard, Børge G. [Department of Clinical Biochemistry and the Copenhagen General Population Study, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Greuter, Marcel J.W. [Department of Radiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Kofoed, Klaus F. [Department of Cardiology, The Heart Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Radiology, The Diagnostic Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2017-03-15

    Objective: Population studies have shown coronary calcium score to improve risk stratification in subjects suspected for cardiovascular disease. The aim of this work was to assess the validity of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for measurement of calibrated mass scores (MS) in a phantom study, and to investigate inter-scanner variability for MS and Agaston score (AS) recorded in a population study on two different high-end MDCT scanners. Materials and methods: A calcium phantom was scanned by a first (A) and second (B) generation 320-MDCT. MS was measured for each calcium deposit from repeated measurements in each scanner and compared to known physical phantom mass. Random samples of human subjects from the Copenhagen General Population Study were scanned with scanner A (N = 254) and scanner B (N = 253) where MS and AS distributions of these two groups were compared. Results: The mean total MS of the phantom was 32.9 ± 0.8 mg and 33.1 ± 0.9 mg (p = 0.43) assessed by scanner A and B respectively – the physical calcium mass was 34.0 mg. Correlation between measured MS and physical calcium mass was R{sup 2} = 0.99 in both scanners. In the population study the median total MS was 16.8 mg (interquartile range (IQR): 3.5–81.1) and 15.8 mg (IQR: 3.8–63.4) in scanner A and B (p = 0.88). The corresponding median total AS were 92 (IQR: 23–471) and 89 (IQR: 40–384) (p = 0.64). Conclusion: Calibrated calcium mass score may be assessed with very high accuracy in a calcium phantom by different generations of 320-MDCT scanners. In population studies, it appears acceptable to pool calcium scores acquired on different 320-MDCT scanners.

  18. An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Spot Assay Measuring Borrelia burgdorferi B31-Specific Interferon Gamma-Secreting T Cells Cannot Discriminate Active Lyme Neuroborreliosis from Past Lyme Borreliosis: a Prospective Study in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gorkom, T; Sankatsing, S U C; Voet, W; Ismail, D M; Muilwijk, R H; Salomons, M; Vlaminckx, B J M; Bossink, A W J; Notermans, D W; Bouwman, J J M; Kremer, K; Thijsen, S F T

    2018-04-01

    Two-tier serology testing is most frequently used for the diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis (LB); however, a positive result is no proof of active disease. To establish a diagnosis of active LB, better diagnostics are needed. Tests investigating the cellular immune system are available, but studies evaluating the utility of these tests on well-defined patient populations are lacking. Therefore, we investigated the utility of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assay to diagnose active Lyme neuroborreliosis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of various study groups were stimulated by using Borrelia burgdorferi strain B31 and various recombinant antigens, and subsequently, the number of Borrelia -specific interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-secreting T cells was measured. We included 33 active and 37 treated Lyme neuroborreliosis patients, 28 healthy individuals treated for an early manifestation of LB in the past, and 145 untreated healthy individuals. The median numbers of B. burgdorferi B31-specific IFN-γ-secreting T cells/2.5 × 10 5 PBMCs did not differ between active Lyme neuroborreliosis patients (6.0; interquartile range [IQR], 0.5 to 14.0), treated Lyme neuroborreliosis patients (4.5; IQR, 2.0 to 18.6), and treated healthy individuals (7.4; IQR, 2.3 to 14.9) ( P = 1.000); however, the median number of B. burgdorferi B31-specific IFN-γ-secreting T cells/2.5 × 10 5 PBMCs among untreated healthy individuals was lower (2.0; IQR, 0.5 to 3.9) ( P ≤ 0.016). We conclude that the Borrelia ELISpot assay, measuring the number of B. burgdorferi B31-specific IFN-γ-secreting T cells/2.5 × 10 5 PBMCs, correlates with exposure to the Borrelia bacterium but cannot be used for the diagnosis of active Lyme neuroborreliosis. Copyright © 2018 van Gorkom et al.

  19. Outcomes of renal replacement therapy in boys with prune belly syndrome: findings from the ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcinkaya, Fatos; Bonthuis, Marjolein; Erdogan, Beyza Doganay; van Stralen, Karlijn J; Baiko, Sergey; Chehade, Hassib; Maxwell, Heather; Montini, Giovanni; Rönnholm, Kai; Sørensen, Søren Schwartz; Ulinski, Tim; Verrina, Enrico; Weber, Stefanie; Harambat, Jérôme; Schaefer, Franz; Jager, Kitty J; Groothoff, Jaap W

    2018-01-01

    As outcome data for prune belly syndrome (PBS) complicated by end-stage renal disease are scarce, we analyzed characteristics and outcomes of children with PBS using the European Society for Pediatric Nephrology/European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ESPN/ERA-EDTA) Registry data. Data were available for 88 male PBS patients aged <20 years who started renal replacement therapy (RRT) between 1990 and 2013 in 35 European countries. Patient characteristics, survival, and transplantation outcomes were compared with those of male patients requiring RRT due to congenital obstructive uropathy (COU) and renal hypoplasia or dysplasia (RHD). Median age at onset of RRT in PBS was lower [7.0; interquartile range (IQR) 0.9-12.2 years] than in COU (9.6; IQR: 3.0-14.1 years) and RHD (9.4; IQR: 2.7-14.2 years). Unadjusted 10-year patient survival was 85% for PBS, 94% for COU, and 91% for RHD. After adjustment for country, period, and age, PBS mortality was similar to that of RHD but higher compared with COU [hazard ratio (HR) 1.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-3.74]. Seventy-four PBS patients (84%) received a first kidney transplant after a median time on dialysis of 8.4 (IQR 0.0-21.1) months. Outcomes with respect to time on dialysis before transplantation, chance of receiving a first transplant within 2 years after commencing RRT, and death-censored, adjusted risk of graft loss were similar for all groups. This study in the largest cohort of male patients with PBS receiving RRT to date demonstrates that outcomes are comparable with other congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract, except for a slightly higher mortality risk compared with patients with COU.

  20. Imbalance between vascular endothelial growth factor and endostatin correlates with the prognosis of operable non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y; Hu, M-m; Shi, G-L; Han, Y; Li, B-L

    2014-09-01

    Angiogenesis is regulated by a balance of pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and endostatin respectively represents a frequent component of inducers and inhibitors in the process of angiogenesis. The ratio of VEGF/endostatin may reflect the balance of angiogenic switch. This study aimed to determine whether an imbalance between VEGF/endostatin exists in operable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and to assess the correlation, if any, between the imbalance and the prognosis. Preoperative serum levels of VEGF and endostatin were simultaneously determined by quantitiative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the ratio of them was calculated among 98 NSCLC patients and 51 healthy controls. The relationship between these factors and clinicopathological features, including prognosis, was examined. The ratio of VEGF/endostatin levels was significantly higher in operable NSCLC patients [median, 10.4; interquartile range (IQR), 5.9-19.8] than in normal controls [median, 5.1; IQR, 3.3-9.7] (P = 0.002). While the ratio in patients who were still alive for more than 60 months was 8.3 (IQR, 4.3-17.9), the ratio in those who died was 12.9 (IQR, 8.0-22.1) (p = 0.017). In subgroup analysis of patients with pathological stage N0, there was a statistically significant increase of the survival time in the group with a lower ratio than in the group with a higher ratio (p = 0.032). Multivariate analysis confirmed that the VEGF/endostatin ratio was an independent prognostic factor (p = 0.018). There was an imbalance between VEGF and endostatin in serum of operable NSCLC patients. The imbalance correlated with the prognosis of operable NSCLC. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Smoking cessation reverses DNA double-strand breaks in human mononuclear cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Ishida

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, which is responsible for a significant proportion of smoking-related deaths. However, the precise mechanism whereby smoking induces this pathology has not been fully delineated. Based on observation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, the most harmful type of DNA damage, in atherosclerotic lesions, we hypothesized that there is a direct association between smoking and DSBs. The goal of this study was to investigate whether smoking induces DSBs and smoking cessation reverses DSBs in vivo through examination of peripheral mononuclear cells (MNCs. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Immunoreactivity of oxidative modification of DNA and DSBs were increased in human atherosclerotic lesions but not in the adjacent normal area. DSBs in human MNCs isolated from the blood of volunteers can be detected as cytologically visible "foci" using an antibody against the phosphorylated form of the histone H2AX (γ-H2AX. Young healthy active smokers (n = 15 showed increased γ-H2AX foci number when compared with non-smokers (n = 12 (foci number/cell: median, 0.37/cell; interquartile range [IQR], 0.31-0.58 vs. 4.36/cell; IQR, 3.09-7.39, p<0.0001. Smoking cessation for 1 month reduced the γ-H2AX foci number (median, 4.44/cell; IQR, 4.36-5.24 to 0.28/cell; IQR, 0.12-0.53, p<0.05. A positive correlation was noted between γ-H2AX foci number and exhaled carbon monoxide levels (r = 0.75, p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking induces DSBs in human MNCs in vivo, and importantly, smoking cessation for 1 month resulted in a decrease in DSBs to a level comparable to that seen in non-smokers. These data reinforce the notion that the cigarette smoking induces DSBs and highlight the importance of smoking cessation.

  2. Reference curves for CD4 T-cell count response to combination antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected treatment-naïve patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouteloup, V; Sabin, C; Mocroft, A; Gras, L; Pantazis, N; Le Moing, V; d'Arminio Monforte, A; Mary-Krause, M; Roca, B; Miro, J M; Battegay, M; Brockmeyer, N; Berenguer, J; Morlat, P; Obel, N; De Wit, S; Fätkenheuer, G; Zangerle, R; Ghosn, J; Pérez-Hoyos, S; Campbell, M; Prins, M; Chêne, G; Meyer, L; Dorrucci, M; Torti, C; Thiébaut, R

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to provide a reference for the CD4 T-cell count response in the early months after the initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-1-infected patients. All patients in the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (COHERE) cohort who were aged ≥ 18 years and started cART for the first time between 1 January 2005 and 1 January 2010 and who had at least one available measurement of CD4 count and a viral load ≤ 50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL at 6 months (± 3 months) after cART initiation were included in the study. Unadjusted and adjusted references curves and predictions were obtained using quantile regressions. A total of 28 992 patients were included in the study. The median CD4 T-cell count at treatment initiation was 249 [interquartile range (IQR) 150, 336] cells/μL. The median observed CD4 counts at 6, 9 and 12 months were 382 (IQR 256, 515), 402 (IQR 274, 543) and 420 (IQR 293, 565) cells/μL. The two main factors explaining the variation of CD4 count at 6 months were AIDS stage and CD4 count at cART initiation. A CD4 count increase of ≥ 100 cells/mL is generally required in order that patients stay 'on track' (i.e. with a CD4 count at the same percentile as when they started), with slightly higher gains required for those starting with CD4 counts in the higher percentiles. Individual predictions adjusted for factors influencing CD4 count were more precise. Reference curves aid the evaluation of the immune response early after antiretroviral therapy initiation that leads to viral control. © 2016 British HIV Association.

  3. Treatment of pneumothoraces at a tertiary centre: are we following the current guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Hany; Kent, Will; McShane, James; Page, Richard; Shackcloth, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) in 2001 and British Thoracic Society (BTS) in 1993 and 2003 published guidelines for the treatment of pneumothorax. Here, we review our experience of managing pneumothorax patients, comparing standards of management before and after the publication of the guidelines in 2003. One hundred and twenty patients were transferred to our care for management of pneumothorax between October 2001 and September 2006. One hundred and one patients underwent pleurectomy [28 by video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS)]. There were 69 males and 32 females with a median age of 47 years (range 15-86 years). 24% (n=24) of patients had evidence of intrapleural infection at time of operation. This was more likely if the time to pleurectomy was >14 days (P=0.03). The median time of referral for patients in the pre-guideline group was 12 days [interquartile range (IQR) 9-12] while post guidelines it was 10 days (IQR 6-13). There was no statistical significance (P=0.09) between these groups in terms of time taken to refer patients. The ACCP and BTS guidelines are not being followed. Pneumothoraces should be managed by chest physicians who are aware of the current guidelines. Impact of delayed referral in the form of increased incidence of morbidity and financial burdens on hospitals needs to be recognized.

  4. Peritonitis before Peritoneal Dialysis Training: Analysis of Causative Organisms, Clinical Outcomes, Risk Factors, and Long-Term Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Terry King-Wing; Chow, Kai Ming; Kwan, Bonnie Ching-Ha; Pang, Wing Fai; Leung, Chi Bon; Li, Philip Kam-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Peritonitis before peritoneal dialysis (PD) training (pretraining peritonitis [PTP]) is an uncommon event. The study aim was to examine the causative organisms, clinical outcomes, risk factors, and long-term consequences of PTP. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In this single–center, retrospective, observational study involving all incident patients on PD who developed PTP between 1998 and 2012, we examined the causative organisms, primary response rate, complete cure rate, risk factors, and associations of PTP with peritoneal equilibration test (PET) and patient survival. For each patient in the PTP group, the patients who underwent catheter insertion immediately before and after the index case were identified as controls. Results Among 1252 incident patients on PD, 52 (4.2%) patients developed PTP, and 104 patients were identified as controls. The two groups were similar in age, sex distribution, comorbidities, and residual renal function, but the PTP group had significantly lower hemoglobin and serum albumin. Patients were followed up for a median of 37.5 months (interquartile range [IQR], 16.3–62.2 months). The most common causative organisms of PTP were Staphylococcus aureus (30.8%) and polymicrobial (21.2%); 25% had negative growth. The primary response and complete cure rates were 82.7% and 78.8%, respectively. In the PTP group, 7.7% of patients died, 9.6% of patients required catheter removal, and PD training was significantly delayed (median =42.0; IQR, 26.0–65.8 days versus 27.5; IQR, 23.0–35.0 days; P=0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that serum albumin was the only predictor of PTP (adjusted odds ratio, 0.89 per 1-g/dl increase; 95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 0.97). There were no differences in PET results and dialysis adequacy (measured around 1 month after PD training). The PTP group had significantly worse patient survival (median =41.2; IQR, 21.8–60.5 months versus 55.8; IQR

  5. Median Filtering Methods for Non-volcanic Tremor Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiao, L. G.; Nadeau, R. M.; Dreger, D. S.; Luna, B.; Zhang, H.

    2016-12-01

    Various properties of median filtering over time and space are used to address challenges posed by the Non-volcanic tremor detection problem. As part of a "Big-Data" effort to characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of ambient tremor throughout the Northern San Andreas Fault system, continuous seismic data from multiple seismic networks with contrasting operational characteristics and distributed over a variety of regions are being used. Automated median filtering methods that are flexible enough to work consistently with these data are required. Tremor is characterized by a low-amplitude, long-duration signal-train whose shape is coherent at multiple stations distributed over a large area. There are no consistent phase arrivals or mechanisms in a given tremor's signal and even the durations and shapes among different tremors vary considerably. A myriad of masquerading noise, anthropogenic and natural-event signals must also be discriminated in order to obtain accurate tremor detections. We present here results of the median methods applied to data from four regions of the San Andreas Fault system in northern California (Geysers Geothermal Field, Napa, Bitterwater and Parkfield) to illustrate the ability of the methods to detect tremor under diverse conditions.

  6. Psychomotor development in infants with Prader-Willi syndrome and associations with sleep-related breathing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festen, Dederieke A M; Wevers, Maaike; de Weerd, Al W; van den Bossche, Renilde A S; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Otten, Barto J; Wit, Jan Maarten; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S

    2007-08-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurogenetic disorder with hypotonia, psychomotor delay, obesity, short stature, and sleep-related breathing disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between psychomotor development and sleep-related breathing disorders in PWS infants. Bayley Scales of Infant Development were performed in 22 PWS infants, with a median (interquartile range, IQR) age of 1.8 (1.1-3.4) y, and a body mass index SD score (BMISDS) of -0.5 (-1.3 to 1.6). We evaluated psychomotor development in relation to results of polysomnography. Median (IQR) mental and motor development was 73.1% (64.3-79.6%) and 55.2% (46.5-63.1%) of normal children, respectively. All infants had sleep-related breathing disorders, mostly of central origin. The apnea hypopnea index was not associated with psychomotor development. Only four infants had obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). They had a significantly delayed mental development of 65.5% (60.0-70.3%) of normal. They had a median BMISDS of 1.4 (0.1-1.6), which tended to be higher than in those without OSAS. Our data indicate that psychomotor development in PWS infants is not related to central sleep-related breathing disorders, but infants with OSAS have more severely delayed mental development, suggesting that PWS infants should be screened for OSAS.

  7. Effect of age on immunological response in the first year of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected adults in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestre, Eric; Eholié, Serge P; Lokossue, Amani; Sow, Papa Salif; Charurat, Man; Minga, Albert; Drabo, Joseph; Dabis, François; Ekouevi, Didier K; Thiébaut, Rodolphe

    2012-05-15

    To assess the effect of aging on the immunological response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the West African context. The change in CD4 T-cell count was analysed according to age at the time of ART initiation among HIV-infected patients enrolled in the International epidemiological Database to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) Collaboration in the West African region. CD4 gain over 12 months of ART was estimated using linear mixed models. Models were adjusted for baseline CD4 cell count, sex, baseline clinical stage, calendar period and ART regimen. The total number of patients included was 24,107, contributing for 50,893 measures of CD4 cell count in the first year of ART. The baseline median CD4 cell count was 144 cells/μl [interquartile range (IQR) 61-235]; median CD4 cell count reached 310 cells/μl (IQR 204-443) after 1 year of ART. The median age at treatment initiation was 36.3 years (10th-90th percentiles = 26.5-50.1). In adjusted analysis, the mean CD4 gain was significantly higher in younger patients (P immunological response after 12 months of ART was significantly poorer in elderly patients. As the population of treated patients is likely to get older, the impact of this age effect on immunological response to ART may increase over time.

  8. Lapset median käyttäjinä

    OpenAIRE

    Jalonen, Taru; Suomela, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    Laurea-ammattikorkeakoulu Tiivistelmä Hyvinkää Sosiaali-, terveys- ja liikunta-ala Hoitotyön koulutusohjelma Terveydenhoitaja AMK Sairaanhoitaja AMK Taru Jalonen, Sonja Suomela Lapset median käyttäjinä Vuosi ‎2010‎ Sivumäärä ‎63‎ Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää lasten tottumuksia ja kokemuksia mediasta sekä ‎niiden herättämiä tunteita. Lisäksi selvitimme lasten käyttämiä mediaympäristöjä sekä median ‎näkymistä lasten leikeissä. Tämä työ on os...

  9. The efficacy of adductor canal blockade after minor arthroscopic knee surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espelund, M; Fomsgaard, J S; Haraszuk, J

    2014-01-01

    for minor knee surgery were enrolled in this placebo-controlled, blinded trial. The patients were randomised to receive an ACB with either 30 ml ropivacaine 7.5 mg/ml (n = 36) or saline (n = 35) in addition to a basic analgesic regimen with paracetamol and ibuprofen. Primary outcome measure was pain during...... standing at 2 h after surgery. Secondary outcomes were pain at rest, while standing and after a 5-m walk; opioid consumption and opioid-related side effects 0-24 h after surgery. RESULTS: Pain scores {median [interquartile range (IQR)]}, regarding primary outcome were 15 (0-26) mm in the ropivacaine vs. 17...... (5-28) mm in the control group, 95% confidence interval (CI) (-10 to 4) mm, P = 0.41. Ketobemidone consumption 0-2 h post-operatively [median (IQR)] was lower in the ropivacaine vs. the control group: 0.0 (0.0-2.5) mg vs. 2.5 (0.0-5.0) mg, 95% CI: -2.5 to 0 mg, P = 0.01. No differences were observed...

  10. Status of Iodine Nutrition among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic of a Secondary Care Hospital: A Cross-sectional Study from Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Shashi; Haldar, Partha; Lohiya, Ayush; Yadav, Kapil; Pandav, Chandrakant S

    2017-01-01

    Daily requirement of iodine increases during pregnancy making pregnant women a high-risk group for iodine deficiency disorders. The limited available literature shows that even in iodine sufficient population, pregnant women are iodine deficient. The objective of this study is to assess the current iodine nutrition status among pregnant women in Ballabgarh, district Faridabad, Haryana. Pregnant women were recruited from antenatal clinic (ANC) of subdistrict hospital (SDH), Ballabgarh, Haryana. Consecutive sampling strategy was followed to recruit pregnant women, and women of all trimesters were included in the study. Urinary iodine estimation was done using simple microplate method, and salt iodine was estimated using iodometric titration. The study was approved by Institute Ethics Committee, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi. Out of the total 1031 pregnant women, 90.9% were using adequately iodized salt. Median (interquartile range [IQR]) salt consumption by the pregnant women was 8.3 (6.7, 11.1) g/day. Median (IQR) urinary iodine concentration (UIC) for the pregnant women was 260 (199, 323) μg/L. Only 13.5% of pregnant women had insufficient iodine intake (UIC 90% adequately iodized salt coverage in the study population.

  11. Analysis of the economic burden of diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis patients in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, H-Q; Bele, S; Feng, Y; Qiu, S-S; Lü, J-Q; Tang, S-W; Shen, H-B; Wang, J-M; Zhu, L-M

    2013-12-01

    A county in Jiangsu Province, China. To estimate the costs of the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) from the patient's perspective and to identify determinants of the patient's financial burden. In a cross-sectional survey, we interviewed 316 patients diagnosed from January 2010 to May 2011 who had already completed their anti-tuberculosis treatment. The financial burden on TB patients included out-of-pocket costs and productivity losses. The average per capita total out-of-pocket cost was 3024.0 Chinese yuan (CNY), with a median cost of 1086 CNY (interquartile range [IQR] 480-2456). Mean out-of-pocket medical and non-medical costs were respectively 2565.7 CNY and 458.3 CNY. Productivity lost by patients and family members was 2615.2 CNY (median 500, IQR 250-2025). Factors associated with out-of-pocket costs and productivity losses included hospitalisation, adverse drug reactions, cost of drugs to 'protect' the liver, cost of second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs and diagnostic delay. Although the government of China has implemented a 'free TB service policy', the economic burden on patients is still heavy. More patient-centred interventions are essential to reduce the financial burden on patients.

  12. Decomposing income-related inequality in cervical screening in 67 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Brittany; Harper, Sam; Moore, Spencer

    2011-04-01

    The development of successful policies to reduce income-related inequalities in cervical cancer screening rates requires an understanding of the reasons why low-income women are less likely to be screened. We sought to identify important determinants contributing to inequality in cervical screening rates. We analyzed data from 92,541 women aged 25-64 years, who participated in the World Health Survey in 2002-2003. Income-related inequality in Pap screening was measured using the concentration index (CI). Using a decomposition method for the CI, we quantified the contribution to inequality of age, education level, marital status, urbanicity and recent health-care need. There was substantial heterogeneity in the contributions of different determinants to inequality among countries. Education generally made the largest contribution (median = 15%, interquartile range [IQR] = 23%), although this varied widely even within regions (e.g., 5% in Austria, 28% in Hungary). The contribution of rural residence was greatest in African countries (median = 10%, IQR = 13%); however, there was again substantial within-region variation (e.g., 26% in Zambia, 2% in Kenya). Considerable heterogeneity in the contributions of screening determinants among countries suggests interventions to reduce screening inequalities may require country-specific approaches.

  13. Is the Ellipsoid Formula the New Standard for 3-Tesla MRI Prostate Volume Calculation without Endorectal Coil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Matthias; Günzel, Karsten; Miller, Kurt; Hamm, Bernd; Cash, Hannes; Asbach, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Prostate volume in multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) is of clinical importance. For 3-Tesla mpMRI without endorectal coil, there is no distinctive standard for volume calculation. We tested the accuracy of the ellipsoid formula with planimetric volume measurements as reference and investigated the correlation of gland volume and cancer detection rate on MRI/ultrasound (MRI/US) fusion-guided biopsy. One hundred forty-three patients with findings on 3-Tesla mpMRI suspicious of cancer and subsequent MRI/US fusion-guided targeted biopsy and additional systematic biopsy were analyzed. T2-weighted images were used for measuring the prostate diameters and for planimetric volume measurement by a segmentation software. Planimetric and calculated prostate volumes were compared with clinical data. The median prostate volume was 48.1 ml (interquartile range (IQR) 36.9-62.1 ml). Volume calculated by the ellipsoid formula showed a strong concordance with planimetric volume, with a tendency to underestimate prostate volume (median volume 43.1 ml (IQR 31.2-58.8 ml); r = 0.903, p Tesla mpMRI without endorectal coil. It allows a fast, valid volume calculation in prostate MRI datasets. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Influences on the start, selection and duration of treatment with antibiotics in long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneman, Nick; Campitelli, Michael A; Giannakeas, Vasily; Morris, Andrew M; Bell, Chaim M; Maxwell, Colleen J; Jeffs, Lianne; Austin, Peter C; Bronskill, Susan E

    2017-06-26

    Understanding the extent to which current antibiotic prescribing behaviour is influenced by clinicians' historical patterns of practice will help target interventions to optimize antibiotic use in long-term care. Our objective was to evaluate whether clinicians' historical prescribing behaviours influence the start, prolongation and class selection for treatment with antibiotics in residents of long-term care facilities. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all physicians who prescribed to residents in long-term care facilities in Ontario between Jan. 1 and Dec. 31, 2014. We examined variability in antibiotic prescribing among physicians for 3 measures: start of treatment with antibiotics, use of prolonged durations exceeding 7 days and selection of fluoroquinolones. Funnel plots with control limits were used to determine the extent of variation and characterize physicians as extreme low, low, average, high and extreme high prescribers for each tendency. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess whether a clinician's prescribing tendency in the previous year predicted current prescribing patterns, after accounting for residents' demographics, comorbidity, functional status and indwelling devices. Among 1695 long-term care physicians, who prescribed for 93 132 residents, there was wide variability in the start of antibiotic treatment (median 45% of patients, interquartile range [IQR] 32%-55%), use of prolonged treatment durations (median 30% of antibiotic prescriptions, IQR 19%-46%) and selection of fluoroquinolones (median 27% of antibiotic prescriptions, IQR 18%-37%). Prescribing tendencies for antibiotics by physicians in 2014 correlated strongly with tendencies in the previous year. After controlling for individual resident characteristics, prior prescribing tendency was a significant predictor of current practice. Physicians prescribing antibiotics exhibited individual, measurable and historical tendencies toward start of antibiotic treatment

  15. Exercise restriction is not associated with increasing body mass index over time in patients with anomalous aortic origin of the coronary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, James M; Elias, Matthew D; Wilder, Travis J; O'Brien, James E; Kim, Richard W; Mavroudis, Constantine; Williams, William G; Brothers, Julie; Cohen, Meryl S; McCrindle, Brian W

    2017-10-01

    Anomalous aortic origin of the coronary arteries is associated with exercise-induced ischaemia, leading some physicians to restrict exercise in patients with this condition. We sought to determine whether exercise restriction was associated with increasing body mass index over time. From 1998 to 2015, 440 patients ⩽30 years old were enrolled into an inception cohort. Exercise-restriction status was documented in 143 patients. Using linear mixed model repeated-measures regression, factors associated with increasing body mass index z-score over time, including exercise restriction and surgical intervention as time-varying covariates, were investigated. The 143 patients attended 558 clinic visits for which exercise-restriction status was recorded. The mean number of clinic visits per patient was 4, and the median duration of follow-up was 1.7 years (interquartile range (IQR) 0.5-4.4). The median age at first clinic visit was 10.3 years (IQR 7.1-13.9), and 71% (101/143) were males. All patients were alive at their most recent follow-up. At the first clinic visit, 54% (78/143) were exercise restricted, and restriction status changed in 34% (48/143) during follow-up. The median baseline body mass index z-score was 0.2 (IQR 0.3-0.9). In repeated-measures analysis, neither time-related exercise restriction nor its interaction with time was associated with increasing body mass index z-score. Surgical intervention and its interaction with time were associated with decreasing body mass index z-score. Although exercise restriction was not associated with increasing body mass index over time, surgical intervention was associated with decreasing body mass index z-score over time in patients with anomalous aortic origin of the coronary arteries.

  16. Cost of surgical intervention for reconstructive therapy of HIV-associated facial lipoatrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massella M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available M Massella¹, J Ivanovic², R Bellagamba², R De Vita³, L Fracasso³, V Tozzi², V Fragola¹, M Rizzica², P Narciso²¹Istituto Superiore Sanità, Rome, Italy; ²National Institute for Infectious Disease – Lazzaro Spallanzani, Rome, Italy; ³Regina Elena National Cancer Institute of Rome, ItalyAbstract: This study aims to assess direct cost of reconstructive interventions with facial fillers for treatment of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus-associated facial lipoatrophy (FLA. Evaluation was performed on data from patients enrolled in one arm of a comparative study of immediate versus delayed reconstructive treatment of facial lipoatrophy. Median costs were standardized for efficacy, estimated using data reported by physicians and patient reported outcomes. The variations of the results were evaluated with a sensitivity analysis. Evaluation was performed on 66 patients characterized by significant differences in terms of severity of FLA. Total cost resulted of €140,416.15, with a median cost per patient of €2126.04 (interquartile range [IQR]: 1599–2822. Taking into consideration severity of disease, median costs were €1641.67 (IQR: 1326.67–2126.04 and 2557.12 (IQR: 1939.34–2872.04 (P = 0.0 respectively for patients with low and high severity scores at baseline. Significant differences in term of cost-effectiveness ratios were also found between patients with different severity of FLA, and sensitivity analysis showed that these ratios increase with higher severity scores at baseline and vary widely depending on the costs of filler. Although these results cannot be considered representative because of important limitations, the present study suggests the severity of disease as an important determinant of costs.Keywords: dermal fillers, antiretroviral therapy, lipodystrophic syndrome, HAART

  17. Association of Low B Cell Count and IgG Levels With Infection, and Poor Vaccine Response With All-Cause Mortality in an Immunosuppressed Vasculitis Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Morgan, Matthew; Richter, Alex; Al-Ali, Samer; Flint, Julia; Yiannakis, Constantina; Drayson, Mark; Goldblatt, David; Harper, Lorraine

    2016-06-01

    Patients with systemic vasculitis (SV) have an increased risk of all-cause mortality, often due to infection, compared to the healthy population. We investigated whether humoral response to vaccination and biomarkers of immune dysfunction were associated with infection and death. Patients with SV in remission were vaccinated with pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine and meningococcal polysaccharide groups A, C, Y, and W135 vaccines. Total IgG and antibody titers against specific antigens and lymphocyte subset analysis were performed before vaccination. Postvaccination antibody titers were measured at 4 weeks and 2 years, from which an antibody response score was calculated. Infections and death following vaccination were collected prospectively following vaccination. A total of 92 patients were safely vaccinated with no increase in disease relapse, median followup 4.6 years (interquartile range [IQR] 3.6-4.8 years). Eighteen patients died at a median of 2 years and the overall infection rate was 0.4 (IQR 0.2-1.3) infections/patient/year. Reduced serum IgG, B cell count, and CD4+ cell counts predicted poor vaccine response and infection but not death. The response rates to individual vaccine antigens was highly variable, with a median response rate of 46% (IQR 39-58%) of patients responding to each individual antigen. Vaccine response, age, and reduced renal function were independent predictors of all-cause mortality in multivariate analysis. Total IgG and B cell counts predict infection and response to vaccination. Vaccination in patients with SV in remission is safe and the response predicts all-cause mortality. Vaccine response is a surrogate marker of immune system health. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  18. Pediatric blood transfusion practices at a regional referral hospital in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegan, Greg; Shavadia, Jay; Denje, Douglas; Mandaliya, Kishor; Bates, Imelda; Maitland, Kathryn; Hassall, Oliver W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Severe anemia in children is a major public health problem in sub‐Saharan Africa. In this study we describe clinical and operational aspects of blood transfusion in children admitted to Coast Provincial General Hospital, Kenya. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS This was an observational study where over a 2‐year period, demographic and laboratory data were collected on all children for whom the hospital blood bank received a transfusion request. Clinical data were obtained by retrospective review of case notes over the first year. RESULTS There were 2789 requests for blood for children (median age, 1.8 years; interquartile range [IQR], 0.6‐6.6 years); 70% (1950) of the samples were crossmatched with 85% (1663/1950) issued. Ninety percent (1505/1663) were presumed transfused. Median time from laboratory receipt of request to collection of blood was 3.6 hours (IQR, 1.4‐12.8 hr). Case notes of 590 children were reviewed and median pretransfusion hemoglobin level was 6.0 g/dL (IQR, 4.2‐9.1 g/dL). Ninety‐four percent (186) were transfused “appropriately” while 52% (120) were transfused “inappropriately.” There was significant disagreement between the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of severe anemia (exact McNemar's test; p blood transfusions but only 41% (106) of these had a positive blood film. CONCLUSION In this setting, clinicians often order blood based on the clinical impression of “severe anemia.” This has implications for laboratory workload and the blood supply itself. However, the majority of children with severe anemia were appropriately transfused. The use of antimalarials with blood transfusions irrespective of blood film results is common practice. PMID:27611471

  19. Is intraoperative real-time dosimetry in prostate seed brachytherapy predictive of biochemical outcome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Taussky

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To analyze intraoperative (IO dosimetry using transrectal ultrasound (TRUS, performed before and after prostate low-dose-rate brachytherapy (LDR-BT, and compare it to dosimetry performed 30 days following the LDR-BT implant (Day 30. Material and methods : A total of 236 patients underwent prostate LDR-BT using 125 I that was performed with a three-dimensional TRUS-guided interactive inverse preplanning system (preimplant dosimetry. After the implant procedure, the TRUS was repeated in the operating room, and the dosimetry was recalculated (postimplant dosimetry and compared to dosimetry on Day 30 computed tomography (CT scans. Area under curve (AUC statistics was used for models predictive of dosimetric parameters at Day 30. Results : The median follow-up for patients without BF was 96 months, the 5-year and 8-year biochemical recurrence (BR-free rate was 96% and 90%, respectively. The postimplant median D 90 was 3.8 Gy lower (interquartile range [IQR], 12.4-0.9, and the V 100 only 1% less (IQR, 2.9-0.2% than the preimplant dosimetry. When comparing the postimplant and the Day 30 dosimetries, the postimplant median D 90 was 9.6 Gy higher (IQR [–] 9.5-30.3 Gy, and the V 100 was 3.2% greater (0.2-8.9% than Day 30 postimplant dosimetry. The variables that best predicted the D 90 of Day 30 was the postimplant D 90 (AUC = 0.62, p = 0.038. None of the analyzed values for IO or Day 30 dosimetry showed any predictive value for BR. Conclusions : Although improving the IO preimplant and postimplant dosimetry improved dosimetry on Day 30, the BR-free rate was not dependent on any dosimetric parameter. Unpredictable factors such as intraprostatic seed migration and IO factors, prevented the accurate prediction of Day 30 dosimetry.

  20. Level and intensity of objectively assessed physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjorth Mads F

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women in low-income countries are generally considered to have a high physical workload which is sustained during pregnancy. Although most previous studies have been based on questionnaires a recent meta-analysis of doubly labeled water data has raised questions about the actual amount of physical activity performed. In this study we report objectively assessed levels of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness among pregnant urban Ethiopian women, and their association with demographic characteristics and anthropometric measures. Methods Physical activity was measured for seven consecutive days in 304 women using a combined uniaxial accelerometer and heart rate sensor. Activity energy expenditure was determined using a group calibration in a branched equation model framework. Type and duration of activities were reported using a 24-hour physical activity recall and grip strength was assessed using a dynamometer. Results Median (interquartile-range, IQR activity energy expenditure was 31.1 (23.7-42.0 kJ/kg/day corresponding to a median (IQR physical activity level of 1.46 (1.39-1.58. Median (IQR time in sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous intensity was 1100 (999–1175, 303 (223–374 and 40 (22–69 min/day, respectively. Mean (standard deviation sleeping heart rate was 73.6 (8.0 beats/min and grip strength was 21.6 (4.5 kg. Activity energy expenditure was 14% higher for every 10 cm2 difference in arm muscle area and 10% lower for every 10 cm2 difference in arm fat area and 10-week difference in gestational age. Conclusion The level and intensity of physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia is low compared to non-pregnant women from other low income countries as well as pregnant European women from high-income countries.

  1. Utility of digital subtraction angiography-based collateral evaluation in medically treated acute symptomatic basilar artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W-J; Jung, K-H; Ryu, Y J; Kim, J-M; Lee, S-T; Chu, K; Kim, M; Lee, S K; Roh, J-K

    2017-09-01

    Although a stroke from atherosclerosis in the basilar artery (BA) often presents with mild initial stroke severity, it has heterogeneous clinical courses. We investigated the efficacy of digital subtraction angiography (DSA)-based collateral perfusion evaluation in association with long-term outcomes of medically treated symptomatic basilar artery stenosis. From a registry database of all consecutive patients with stroke, we included 98 medically treated patients (due to mild initial stroke severity) [National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores ≤ 4; symptomatic basilar artery stenosis, 70-99%] with available initial diagnostic DSA. Basilar collateral scoring was performed via the DSA, using a modified version of the American Society of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology/Society of Interventional Radiology grading system in both the superior cerebellar artery and anterior/posterior-inferior cerebellar artery territories (score 0-8). The outcomes were designated as the 90-day modified Rankin Scale (mRS90) score (poor, 3-6). Student's t-test, chi-square test and logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with a poor outcome. The median initial NIHSS score was 2 [interquartile range (IQR), 0-3], median posterior circulation Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score was 8 (IQR, 7-10), median collateral score was 7 (IQR, 7-8) and 20 (20.4%) had poor mRS90 scores. In multivariate analysis, poorer collateral scores (P = 0.003), higher NIHSS scores (P = 0.005) and lower posterior circulation Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (P = 0.017) were independently associated with a poor mRS90 score. The DSA-based collateral scoring of the BA large branches might predict long-term outcome in medically treated symptomatic basilar artery stenosis with mild initial severity. Evaluation of BA collateral perfusion status might be useful to determine appropriate treatment strategies. © 2017 EAN.

  2. Impact of GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay on triage of respiratory isolation rooms for inpatients with presumed tuberculosis: a hypothetical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisson, Lelia H; Roemer, Marguerite; Cantu, David; Haller, Barbara; Millman, Alexander J; Cattamanchi, Adithya; Davis, J Lucian

    2014-11-15

    Placing inpatients with presumed active pulmonary tuberculosis in respiratory isolation pending results of serial sputum acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy is standard practice in high-income countries. However, this diagnostic strategy is slow and yields few tuberculosis diagnoses. We sought to determine if replacing microscopy with the GeneXpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) nucleic acid amplification assay could reduce testing time and usage of isolation rooms. We prospectively followed inpatients at San Francisco General Hospital undergoing tuberculosis evaluation. We performed smear microscopy and Xpert testing on concentrated sputum, and calculated diagnostic accuracy for both strategies in reference to serial sputum mycobacterial culture. We measured turnaround time for microscopy and estimated hypothetical turnaround times for Xpert on concentrated and unconcentrated sputum. We compared median and total isolation times for microscopy to those estimated for the 2 Xpert strategies. Among 139 patients with 142 admissions, median age was 54 years (interquartile range [IQR], 43-60 years); 32 (23%) patients were female, and 42 (30%) were HIV seropositive. Serial sputum smear microscopy and a single concentrated sputum Xpert had identical sensitivity (89%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 52%-100%) and similar specificity (99% [95% CI, 96%-100%] vs 100% [95% CI, 97%-100%]). A single concentrated sputum Xpert could have saved a median of 35 hours (IQR, 24-36 hours) in unnecessary isolation compared with microscopy, and a single unconcentrated sputum Xpert, 45 hours (IQR, 35-46 hours). Replacing serial sputum smear microscopy with a single sputum Xpert could eliminate most unnecessary isolation for inpatients with presumed tuberculosis, greatly benefiting patients and hospitals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Developing an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills for Laparoscopic Suturing and Intracorporeal Knot Tying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Olivia H; King, Louise P; Modest, Anna M; Hur, Hye-Chun

    2016-01-01

    To develop a teaching and assessment tool for laparoscopic suturing and intracorporeal knot tying. We designed an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) tool that includes a procedure-specific checklist (PSC) and global rating scale (GRS) to assess laparoscopic suturing and intracorporeal knot-tying performance. Obstetrics and Gynecology residents at our institution were videotaped while performing a laparoscopic suturing and intracorporeal knot-tying task at a surgical simulation workshop. A total of 2 expert reviewers assessed resident performance using the OSATS tool during live performance and 1 month later using the videotaped recordings. OSATS scores were analyzed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Data are presented as median scores (interquartile range [IQR]). Intrarater and interrater reliabilities were assessed using a Spearman correlation and are presented as an r correlation coefficient and p value. An r ≥ 0.8 was considered as a high correlation. After testing, we received feedback from residents and faculty to improve the OSATS tool as part of an iterative design process. In all, 14 of 21 residents (66.7%) completed the study, with 9 junior residents and 5 senior residents. Junior residents had a lower score on the PSC than senior residents did; however, this was not statistically significant (median = 6.0 [IQR: 4.0-10.0] and median = 13.0 [IQR: 10.0-13.0]; p = 0.09). There was excellent intrarater reliability with our OSATS tool (for PSC component, r = 0.88 for Rater 1 and 0.93 for Rater 2, both p assessment and teaching tool for laparoscopic suturing and intracorporeal knot-tying skills. Overall, good intrarater reliability was demonstrated, suggesting that this tool may be useful for longitudinal assessment of surgical skills. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Elevated levels of faecal calprotectin in primary Sjögren's syndrome is common and associated with concomitant organic gastrointestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andréasson, Kristofer; Ohlsson, Bodil; Mandl, Thomas

    2016-01-12

    Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a systemic rheumatic disease in which gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are common. Faecal calprotectin (FC) is a non-invasive biomarker that has been suggested to discriminate organic intestinal disease from functional disorders. The purpose of this study was to explore the usefulness of FC testing in patients with pSS. In total, 56 consecutive patients with pSS and 29 healthy control subjects were included in this cross-sectional study. FC was measured with a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. GI symptoms were evaluated with the Rome III questionnaire and the Visual Analogue Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome. In patients with pSS, disease activity was estimated using the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) Sjögren's Syndrome Disease Activity Index (ESSDAI), and patient-reported outcomes were evaluated with the EULAR Sjögren's Syndrome Patient-Reported Index. Patients with pSS had higher levels of FC than healthy control subjects (median 54 μg/g, interquartile range [IQR 20-128]; vs. 20 μg/g [20-43]; p = 0.002). Concomitant organic GI disease was found in 14 patients with pSS and included inflammatory bowel disease (n = 3), colonic adenoma (n = 2) and GI lymphoma (n = 1). Patients with organic GI disease had higher FC levels than the other patients with pSS (median 274 μg/g [IQR 61-363] vs. median 34 μg/g [IQR 20-76]; p organic GI disease or elevated FC levels. FC correlated moderately with ESSDAI. Excluding patients with organic GI disease, we did not identify any significant association between ESSDAI and FC levels. GI symptoms are frequent in pSS. Contrary to patient-reported outcomes, elevated FC levels in pSS indicate possible organic GI disease that warrants further investigation.

  5. Redo coloanal anastomosis for anastomotic leakage after low anterior resection for rectal cancer: an analysis of 59 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerduin, E; Borstlap, W A A; Musters, G D; Westerterp, M; van Geloven, A A W; Tanis, P J; Wolthuis, A M; Bemelman, W A; D'Hoore, A

    2018-01-01

    The construction of a new coloanal anastomosis (CAA) following anastomotic leakage after low anterior resection (LAR) is challenging. The available literature on this topic is scarce. The aim of this two-centre study was to determine the clinical success and morbidity after redo CAA. This retrospective cohort study included all patients with anastomotic leakage after LAR for rectal cancer who underwent a redo CAA between 2010 and 2014 in two tertiary referral centres. Short- and long-term morbidity were analysed, including both anastomotic leakage and permanent stoma rates on completion of follow-up. A total of 59 patients were included, of whom 45 (76%) were men, with a mean age of 59 years (SD ± 9.4). The median interval between index and redo surgery was 14 months [interquartile range (IQR) 8-27]. The median duration of follow-up was 27 months (IQR 17-36). The most frequent complication was anastomotic leakage of the redo CAA occurring in 24 patients (41%), resulting in a median of three reinterventions (IQR 2-4) per patient. At the end of follow-up, bowel continuity was restored in 39/59 (66%) patients. Fourteen (24%) patients received a definitive colostomy and six (10%) still had a diverting ileostomy. In a multivariable model, leakage of the redo CAA was the only risk factor for permanent stoma (OR 0.022; 95% CI 0.004-0.122). Redo CAA is a viable option in selected patients with persisting leakage after LAR for rectal cancer who want their bowel continuity restored. However, patients should be fully informed about the relatively high morbidity and reintervention rates. Colorectal Disease © 2017 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  6. Factors for Predicting Outcomes among Non-HIV Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukahara, Toshinori; Horita, Nobuyuki; Tashiro, Ken; Nagai, Kenjiro; Shinkai, Masaharu; Yamamoto, Masaki; Sato, Takashi; Hara, Yu; Nagakura, Hideyuki; Shibata, Yuji; Watanabe, Hiroki; Nakashima, Kentaro; Ushio, Ryota; Nagashima, Akimichi; Ikeda, Misako; Narita, Atsuya; Sasaki, Katsuhito; Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Kudo, Makoto; Kaneko, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Objective Onodera's Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI), determined as “10× albumin (g/dL) + 0.005× lymphocyte count (/μL),” was originally designed to determine the risk of complications following gastrointestinal surgery. This single-center, retrospective observational study was designed to investigate whether or not the PNI can predict the treatment outcome. Methods We consecutively reviewed HIV-negative pulmonary tuberculosis adults in an isolation ward. Most patients were being treated with standard three- or four-drug regimens. Patients were discharged after consecutive negative smears/cultures were confirmed. The risk of all-cause death was assessed using a multivariable Cox proportional hazard model and a log-rank trend test. Results During the observation period, we observed 371 consecutive patients with a median age of 72 (interquartile range [IQR]: 54-82) years. In our cohort, 295 (79.5%) patients were discharged alive, and 76 (20.5%) died in-hospital. Patients who died in-hospital had a lower PNI [median 21.2 (IQR: 18.5-25.9)] than those who were discharged alive [median 35.1 (IQR: 28.0-43.3); p<0.001]. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.87. After dividing the patients based on the baseline PNI quartile, those patients with a lower PNI showed a poorer survival than those with a higher PNI (log-rank trend p<0.001). After adjusting for other baseline variables, the baseline PNI was still associated with in-hospital death with a hazard ratio of 0.86 (95% confidence interval: 0.82-0.91, p<0.001). Conclusion Our results showed that a low PNI was clearly related to a poor survival prognosis in smear-positive HIV-negative pulmonary tuberculosis inpatients. PMID:29021438

  7. New Media for Educating Urology Residents: An Interview Study in Canada and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Johannes; Borgmann, Hendrik; MacNeily, Andrew; Boehm, Katharina; Schmid, Marianne; Groeben, Christer; Baunacke, Martin; Huber, Johannes

    To investigate the usage and perceived usefulness of new media for educating urology residents in Canada and Germany. We designed an 11-item online survey to assess the use and perceived usefulness of new media for education. We performed a comparative analysis. The survey was distributed via e-mail to 143 Canadian and 721 German urology residents. The survey included 58 urology residents from Canada and 170 from Germany. A total of 58 residents from Canada (41% response rate) and 170 from Germany (24% response rate) responded to this survey. Residents spent 45% of their education time on new media. The Internet was used by 91% (n = 208) of the residents for professional education purposes, with a median time of 270 minutes (interquartile range [IQR]: 114-540) per month. Apps were used by 54% (n = 118) of the residents, with a median time of 101 minutes (IQR: 45-293) per month. A total of 23% (n = 47) of the residents used social media (SoMe) for education, with a median time of 90 minutes (IQR: 53-80) per month. In all, 100% (n = 228) rated the Internet, 76% (n = 173) apps, and 43% (n = 97) SoMe as being useful for professional education purposes. A total of 90% (n = 205) watched medical videos for education, and 89% (n = 203) of these videos were on surgical procedures. Canadian urology residents used more new media sources for professional education than did the Germans (58% vs. 41%, p media was higher among Canadian residents for the Internet (p media play a dominant role in the education of urology residents. The primary source for personal education in urology is the Internet. Future studies and technological developments should investigate and improve new media tools to optimize education during residency. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors Associated With the Increasing Rates of Discharges Directly Home From Intensive Care Units-A Direct From ICU Sent Home Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Vincent I; Priestap, Fran A; Lam, Joyce N H; Ball, Ian M

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the relationship between rates of discharge directly to home (DDH) from the intensive care unit (ICU) and bed availability (ward and ICU). Also to identify patient characteristics that make them candidates for safe DDH and describe transfer delay impact on length of stay (LOS). Retrospective cohort study of all adult patients who survived their stay in our medical-surgical-trauma ICU between April 2003 and March 2015. Median age was 49 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 33.5-60.4), and the majority of the patients were males (54.8%). Median number of preexisting comorbidities was 5 (IQR: 2-7) diagnoses. Discharge directly to home increased from 28 (3.1% of all survivors) patients in 2003 to 120 (12.5%) patients in 2014. The mean annual rate of DDH was between 11% and 12% over the last 6 years. Approximately 62% (n = 397) of patients waited longer than 4 hours for a ward bed, with a median delay of 2.0 days (IQR: 0.5-4.7) before being DDH. There was an inverse correlation between ICU occupancy and DDH rates ( r P = -.55, P < .0001, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.36 to -0.69, R 2 = .29). There was no correlation with ward occupancy and DDH rates ( r s = -.055, P = .64, 95% CI = -0.25 to 0.21). The DDH rates have been increasing over time at our institution and were inversely correlated with ICU bed occupancy but were not associated with ward occupancy. The DDH patients are young, have few comorbidities on admission, and few discharge diagnoses, which are usually reversible single system problems with low disease burden. Transfers to the ward are delayed in a majority of cases, leading to increased ICU LOS and likely increased overall hospital LOS as well.

  9. Colon Transit Time Test in Korean Children with Chronic Functional Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ha Yeong; Kim, Mock Ryeon; Park, Hye Won; Son, Jae Sung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Each ethnic group has a unique life style, including diets. Life style affects bowel movement. The aim of this study is to describe the results of colon transit time (CTT) tests in Korean children who had chronic functional constipation based on highly refined data. Methods One hundred ninety (86 males) out of 415 children who performed a CTT test under the diagnosis of chronic constipation according to Rome III criteria at Konkuk University Medical Center from January 2006 through March 2015 were enrolled in this study. Two hundreds twenty-five children were excluded on the basis of CTT test result, defecation diary, and clinical setting. Shapiro-Wilk and Mann-Whitney U, and chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. Results The median value and interquartile range (IQR) of CTT was 54 (37.5) hours in Encopresis group, and those in non-encopresis group was 40.2 (27.9) hours (pencopresis group and encopresis was statistically significant (p=0.002). The non-encopresis group (n=154, 81.1%) was divided into normal transit subgroup (n=84, 54.5%; median value and IQR of CTT=26.4 [9.6] hours), outlet obstruction subgroup (n=18, 11.7%; 62.4 [15.6] hours), and slow transit subgroup (n=52, 33.8%; 54.6 [21.0] hours]. The encopresis group (n=36, 18.9%) was divided into normal transit subgroup (n=8, 22.2%; median value and IQR of CTT=32.4 [9.9] hours), outlet obstruction subgroup (n=8, 22.2%; 67.8 [34.8] hours), and slow transit subgroup (n=20, 55.6%; 59.4 [62.7]hours). Conclusion This study provided the basic pattern and value of the CTT test in Korean children with chronic constipation. PMID:27064388

  10. Prospective evaluation of an internet-linked handheld computer critical care knowledge access system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinsky, Stephen E; Wax, Randy; Showalter, Randy; Martinez-Motta, J Carlos; Hallett, David; Mehta, Sangeeta; Burry, Lisa; Stewart, Thomas E

    2004-12-01

    Critical care physicians may benefit from immediate access to medical reference material. We evaluated the feasibility and potential benefits of a handheld computer based knowledge access system linking a central academic intensive care unit (ICU) to multiple community-based ICUs. Four community hospital ICUs with 17 physicians participated in this prospective interventional study. Following training in the use of an internet-linked, updateable handheld computer knowledge access system, the physicians used the handheld devices in their clinical environment for a 12-month intervention period. Feasibility of the system was evaluated by tracking use of the handheld computer and by conducting surveys and focus group discussions. Before and after the intervention period, participants underwent simulated patient care scenarios designed to evaluate the information sources they accessed, as well as the speed and quality of their decision making. Participants generated admission orders during each scenario, which were scored by blinded evaluators. Ten physicians (59%) used the system regularly, predominantly for nonmedical applications (median 32.8/month, interquartile range [IQR] 28.3-126.8), with medical software accessed less often (median 9/month, IQR 3.7-13.7). Eight out of 13 physicians (62%) who completed the final scenarios chose to use the handheld computer for information access. The median time to access information on the handheld handheld computer was 19 s (IQR 15-40 s). This group exhibited a significant improvement in admission order score as compared with those who used other resources (P = 0.018). Benefits and barriers to use of this technology were identified. An updateable handheld computer system is feasible as a means of point-of-care access to medical reference material and may improve clinical decision making. However, during the study, acceptance of the system was variable. Improved training and new technology may overcome some of the barriers we

  11. Diffusion tensor imaging of the median nerve: intra-, inter-reader agreement, and agreement between two software packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guggenberger, Roman; Nanz, Daniel; Puippe, Gilbert; Andreisek, Gustav; Rufibach, Kaspar; White, Lawrence M.; Sussman, Marshall S.

    2012-01-01

    To assess intra-, inter-reader agreement, and the agreement between two software packages for magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measurements of the median nerve. Fifteen healthy volunteers (seven men, eight women; mean age, 31.2 years) underwent DTI of both wrists at 1.5 T. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the median nerve were measured by three readers using two commonly used software packages. Measurements were repeated by two readers after 6 weeks. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland-Altman analysis were used for statistical analysis. ICCs for intra-reader agreement ranged from 0.87 to 0.99, for inter-reader agreement from 0.62 to 0.83, and between the two software packages from 0.63 to 0.82. Bland-Altman analysis showed no differences for intra- and inter-reader agreement and agreement between software packages. The intra-, inter-reader, and agreement between software packages for DTI measurements of the median nerve were moderate to substantial suggesting that user- and software-dependent factors contribute little to variance in DTI measurements. (orig.)

  12. Effect of C282Y genotype on self-reported musculoskeletal complications in hereditary hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, António; Funck-Brentano, Thomas; Simão, Márcio; Cancela, Leonor; Ottaviani, Sébastien; Cohen-Solal, Martine; Richette, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Arthropathy that mimics osteoarthritis (OA) and osteoporosis (OP) is considered a complication of hereditary hemochromatosis (HH). We have limited data comparing OA and OP prevalence among HH patients with different hemochromatosis type 1 (HFE) genotypes. We investigated the prevalence of OA and OP in patients with HH by C282Y homozygosity and compound heterozygosity (C282Y/H63D) genotype. A total of 306 patients with HH completed a questionnaire. Clinical and demographic characteristics and presence of OA, OP and related complications were compared by genotype, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), current smoking and menopausal status. In total, 266 of the 306 patients (87%) were homozygous for C282Y, and 40 (13%) were compound heterozygous. The 2 groups did not differ by median age [60 (interquartile range [IQR] 53 to 68) vs. 61 (55 to 67) years, P=0.8], sex (female: 48.8% vs. 37.5%, P=0.18) or current smoking habits (12.4% vs. 10%, P=0.3). As compared with compound heterozygous patients, C282Y homozygous patients had higher median serum ferritin concentration at diagnosis [1090 (IQR 610 to 2210) vs. 603 (362 to 950) µg/L, P<0.001], higher median transferrin saturation [80% (IQR 66 to 91%) vs. 63% (55 to 72%), P<0.001]) and lower median BMI [24.8 (22.1 to 26.9) vs. 26.2 (23.5 to 30.3) kg/m2, P<0.003]. The overall prevalence of self-reported OA was significantly higher with C282Y homozygosity than compound heterozygosity (53.4% vs. 32.5%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.4 [95% confidence interval 1.2-5.0]), as was self-reported OP (25.6% vs. 7.5%; aOR 3.5 [1.1-12.1]). Patients with C282Y homozygosity may be at increased risk of musculoskeletal complications of HH.

  13. Fate of manuscripts rejected by a non-English-language general medical journal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Siri; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether, where and when manuscripts were published following rejection by the Journal of the Danish Medical Association, a general medical journal published in Danish. Similar previous studies have focused on specialty/subspecialty journals...... evaluated. Results Of 198 rejected manuscripts, 21 (10.6%) were eventually published after a median of 685 days (range 209-1463). The majority of these were original research, published in English-language specialty/subspecialty journals. The median number of citations per article was 2-3 (IQR 0...... translation could be a barrier for resubmitting to English-language journals with larger readerships, thus hindering the dissemination of knowledge to the international community....

  14. Optimal design of work zone median crossovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The use of temporary median crossovers in work zones allows for the closure of one side of a multi-lane roadway while : maintaining two-way traffic on the opposite side. This process provides the ability for construction and maintenance crews : to co...

  15. Early application of airway pressure release ventilation may reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongfang; Jin, Xiaodong; Lv, Yinxia; Wang, Peng; Yang, Yunqing; Liang, Guopeng; Wang, Bo; Kang, Yan

    2017-11-01

    Experimental animal models of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have shown that the updated airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) methodologies may significantly improve oxygenation, maximize lung recruitment, and attenuate lung injury, without circulatory depression. This led us to hypothesize that early application of APRV in patients with ARDS would allow pulmonary function to recover faster and would reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation as compared with low tidal volume lung protective ventilation (LTV). A total of 138 patients with ARDS who received mechanical ventilation for mechanical ventilation from enrollment to day 28. The secondary endpoints included oxygenation, P plat , respiratory system compliance, and patient outcomes. Compared with the LTV group, patients in the APRV group had a higher median number of ventilator-free days {19 [interquartile range (IQR) 8-22] vs. 2 (IQR 0-15); P mechanical ventilation and ICU stay.

  16. Healthcare costs in the Danish randomised controlled lung cancer CT-screening trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, J.F.; Siersma, V.; Pedersen, Jesper H.

    2014-01-01

    : This registry study was nested in a randomised controlled trial (DLCST). 4104 participants, current or former heavy smokers, aged 50-70 years were randomised to five annual low dose CT scans or usual care during 2004-2010. Total healthcare costs and healthcare utilisation data for both the primary...... and the secondary healthcare sector were retrieved from public registries from randomisation - September 2011 and compared between (1) the CT-screening group and the control group and, (2) the control group and each of the true-positive, false-positive and true-negative groups. RESULTS: The median annual costs per...... participant were significantly higher in the CT-screening group (Euros [EUR] 1342, interquartile range [IQR] 750-2980) compared with the control group (EUR 1190, IQR 590-2692) (pcost of the CT-screening programme was excluded, there was no longer a statistically significant difference...

  17. Leishmania Antigenuria to Predict Initial Treatment Failure and Relapse in Visceral Leishmaniasis/HIV Coinfected Patients: An Exploratory Study Nested Within a Clinical Trial in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Griensven, Johan; Mengesha, Bewketu; Mekonnen, Tigist; Fikre, Helina; Takele, Yegnasew; Adem, Emebet; Mohammed, Rezika; Ritmeijer, Koert; Vogt, Florian; Adriaensen, Wim; Diro, Ermias

    2018-01-01

    Background: Biomarkers predicting the risk of VL treatment failure and relapse in VL/HIV coinfected patients are needed. Nested within a two-site clinical trial in Ethiopia (2011-2015), we conducted an exploratory study to assess whether (1) levels of Leishmania antigenuria measured at VL diagnosis were associated with initial treatment failure and (2) levels of Leishmania antigenuria at the end of treatment (parasitologically-confirmed cure) were associated with subsequent relapse. Methods: Leishmania antigenuria at VL diagnosis and cure was determined using KAtex urine antigen test and graded as negative (0), weak/moderate (grade 1+/2+) or strongly-positive (3+). Logistic regression and Kaplan-Meier methods were used to assess the association between antigenuria and (1) initial treatment failure, and (2) relapse over the 12 months after cure, respectively. Results: The analysis to predict initial treatment failure included sixty-three coinfected adults [median age: 30 years interquartile range (IQR) 27-35], median CD4 count: 56 cells/μL (IQR 38-113). KAtex results at VL diagnosis were negative in 11 (17%), weak/moderate in 17 (27%) and strongly-positive in 35 (36%). Twenty (32%) patients had parasitologically-confirmed treatment failure, with a risk of failure of 9% (1/11) with KAtex-negative results, 0% (0/17) for KAtex 1+/2+ and 54% (19/35) for KAtex 3+ results. Compared to KAtex-negative patients, KAtex 3+ patients were at increased risk of treatment failure [odds ratio 11.9 (95% CI 1.4-103.0); P : 0.025]. Forty-four patients were included in the analysis to predict relapse [median age: 31 years (IQR 28-35), median CD4 count: 116 cells/μL (IQR 95-181)]. When achieving VL cure, KAtex results were negative in 19 (43%), weak/moderate (1+/2+) in 10 (23%), and strongly positive (3+) in 15 patients (34%). Over the subsequent 12 months, eight out of 44 patients (18%) relapsed. The predicted 1-year relapse risk was 6% for KAtex-negative results, 14% for KAtex 1

  18. Sosiaalisen median markkinointisuunnitelma uudelle hoitoalan konseptoidulle työvaatemallistolle

    OpenAIRE

    Leppälä, Sanna

    2017-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä pohdittiin keinoja saada uuden konseptoidun työvaatemalliston näkyvyyttä esille sosiaalisen median keinoin. Toimeksiantaja-yrityksenä toimi suomalainen Virtually Oy ja kohteena oli sen uusi hoitajille suunnattu työvaatemallisto. Malliston ympärille halutaan luoda kestävä brändi ja sosiaalisen median markkinointi on tukemassa brändin tunnettavuutta ja myyntiä. Sosiaalinen media ei yritysten välisessä liiketoiminnassa toimi ainoana markkinoinnin työkaluna, vaan se on tukemas...

  19. The relationship between estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 expression of breast cancer and the retention index in dual phase {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Woo Chul; Kim, Hyun Ah; Kim, Eun Kyu [Dept.of Surgery, Korea Cancer Center HospitalKorea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2016-09-15

    This study investigates the correlation of retention index (RI) using the dual phase FDG PET/CT scan with the breast cancer biomarkers. A total of 55 patients with breast cancer underwent dual phase FDG PET/CT scans (60 and 120 min after FDG injection) before treatment. SUVmax and SUVmean of the primary breast tumors were measured, then the percent change of SUVmax and SUVmean between the two scans were calculated, and denoted as RImax and RImean, respectively. After the surgical resection of the breast tumor, the status of biomarkers (ER, PR, and HER-2) was evaluated in the postsurgical specimen. RImean was significantly higher in ER (−) (median, 16.2; IQR, 10.8–21.0) or HER-2 (+) (median, 16.1; IQR, 10.7–21.6) tumors than in ER (+) tumors (median, 9.9; IQR, 5.5–15.3) or HER-2 (−) tumors (median, 10.5; IQR, 5.5–16.1). However, there were no significant differences of SUVmax or RImax according to the ER or HER-2 status. There were no significant differences of any PET parameters between PR (+) and PR (−) tumors. Based off ROC curve analyses, RImean predicted the ER (+) tumors (AUC, 0.699; p = 0.006), and HER-2 (+) tumors (AUC, 0.674; p = 0.022), but not the PR (+) tumors. However, neither SUVmax nor RImax predicted ER (+), PR (+), or HER-2 (+) tumors. Retention index of SUVmean can reflect the ER and HER-2 status of breast cancers. Higher retention index of SUVmean might associate with lower ER expression and higher HER-2 expression.

  20. Effect of enzyme replacement therapy with alglucosidase alfa (Myozyme®) in 12 patients with advanced late-onset Pompe disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Constantinos; Orlikowski, David; Prigent, Hélène; Lacour, Arnaud; Tard, Céline; Furby, Alain; Praline, Julien; Solé, Guilhem; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; De Antonio, Marie; Semplicini, Claudio; Deibener-Kaminsky, Joelle; Kaminsky, Pierre; Eymard, Bruno; Taouagh, Nadjib; Perniconi, Barbara; Hamroun, Dalil; Laforêt, Pascal

    2017-09-01

    The efficacy of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in patients at an advanced stage of Pompe disease has only been addressed in a few studies. Our objective was to assess the long term effects of ERT in a cohort of patients with severe Pompe disease. We identified patients from the French Pompe Registry with severe respiratory failure and permanent wheelchair use (assisted walk for a few meters was allowed) when starting ERT. Patients' medical records were collected and reviewed and respiratory and motor functions, before ERT initiation and upon last evaluation were compared. Twelve patients (7 males) were identified. Median age at symptom onset was 24years [IQR=15.5; 36.0]. At baseline ventilation was invasive in 11 patients and noninvasive in one, with a median ventilation time of 24h [IQR=21.88; 24.00] (min 20; max 24). ERT was initiated at a median age of 52.5years [IQR=35.75; 66.50]. Median treatment duration was 55months [IQR=39.5; 81.0]. During observational period no adverse reaction to ERT was recorded, five patients (41.67%) died, three decreased their ventilation time by 30, 60 and 90min and two increased their assisted walking distance, by 80 and 20m. Some patients at a very advanced stage of Pompe disease may show a mild benefit from ERT, in terms of increased time of autonomous ventilation and of enlarged distance in assisted walk. ERT can be initiated in these patients in order to retain their current level of independence and ability to perform daily life activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Occupational hazards of traditional healers: repeated unprotected blood exposures risk infectious disease transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Carolyn M; Salato, José; Blevins, Meridith; Silva, Wilson; González-Calvo, Lázaro; Vermund, Sten H; Gaspar, Felisbela

    2016-11-01

    Healers provide support for acute and chronic illnesses in rural Mozambique, such as socially acceptable traditional 'vaccinations' (subcutaneous cuts in the skin to rub herbs directly into the bloody lesion). We aimed to document the frequency of blood exposure by traditional practitioners in Mozambique. We conducted surveys with a simple random sample of 236 traditional healers in Zambézia province. Chi-square and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used to compare 'injection' behaviours across districts. Healers treated a median of eight patients in the past month (IQR: 4-15). About 75% conducted 'injections'. These healers 'injected' a median of four patients (IQR: 1-8), used a new razor a median of three times (IQR: 1-8), and almost never used gloves. Lifetime blood exposures among those who provided 'injections' during treatments were estimated to be 1758 over a healer's career. The majority of healers are exposed repeatedly to patient blood. Given the high prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B and C virus, and other blood-borne agents, specific healer practices are an occupational hazard and reuse of razors is risky for their clients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Environmental enrichment choices of shelter cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J J; Stryhn, H; Spears, J; Cockram, M S

    2017-08-01

    Choices made by cats between different types of environmental enrichment may help shelters to prioritize how to most effectively enrich cat housing, especially when limited by space or funds. This study investigates the environmental enrichment use of cats in a choice test. Twenty-six shelter cats were kept singularly in choice chambers for 10days. Each chamber had a central area and four centrally-linked compartments containing different types of environmental enrichment: 1) an empty control, 2) a prey-simulating toy, 3) a perching opportunity, and 4) a hiding opportunity. Cat movement between compartments was quantitatively recorded using a data-logger. Enriched compartments were visited significantly more frequently during the light period than during the dark period. Cats spent a significantly greater percentage of time in the hiding compartment (median=55%, IQR=46) than in the toy compartment (median=2%, IQR=9), or in the empty control compartment (median=4%, IQR=4). These results provide additional evidence to support the value of a hiding box to cats housed in a novel environment, in that they choose hiding relative to other types of environmental enrichment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A safe an easy method for building consensus HIV sequences from 454 massively parallel sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Caballero Rico, Jose Ángel; Chueca Porcuna, Natalia; Álvarez Estévez, Marta; Mosquera Gutiérrez, María Del Mar; Marcos Maeso, María Ángeles; García, Federico

    2018-02-01

    To show how to generate a consensus sequence from the information of massive parallel sequences data obtained from routine HIV anti-retroviral resistance studies, and that may be suitable for molecular epidemiology studies. Paired Sanger (Trugene-Siemens) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) (454 GSJunior-Roche) HIV RT and protease sequences from 62 patients were studied. NGS consensus sequences were generated using Mesquite, using 10%, 15%, and 20% thresholds. Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis (MEGA) was used for phylogenetic studies. At a 10% threshold, NGS-Sanger sequences from 17/62 patients were phylogenetically related, with a median bootstrap-value of 88% (IQR83.5-95.5). Association increased to 36/62 sequences, median bootstrap 94% (IQR85.5-98)], using a 15% threshold. Maximum association was at the 20% threshold, with 61/62 sequences associated, and a median bootstrap value of 99% (IQR98-100). A safe method is presented to generate consensus sequences from HIV-NGS data at 20% threshold, which will prove useful for molecular epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  4. Sosiaalisen median rooli mikroyrittäjän ostoprosessissa

    OpenAIRE

    Martikainen, Inkeri

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoite oli selvittää sosiaalisen median rooli mikroyrittäjän ostoprosessissa; miten mikroyrittäjä hakee tietoa sosiaalisesta mediasta ja millainen vaikutus sieltä löytyvillä käyttäjäarvioilla on ostopäätökseen. Opinnäytetyö tehtiin erään finanssialan yrityksen toimeksiantona. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli antaa digitaalisen markkinoinnin ammattilaisille tietoa siitä, miten mikroyrittäjiä voidaan tavoittaa sosiaalisen median kautta, ja saada näin uusia asiakkaita. Tutkimus...

  5. Median forehead flap - beyond classic indication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian R. Jecan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The paramedian forehead flap is one of the best options for reconstruction of the median upper two-thirds of the face due to