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Sample records for median hbsubscript a1c

  1. Is it necessary to use the entire root as a donor when transferring contralateral C7 nerve to repair median nerve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kai-Ming; Lao, Jie; Guan, Wen-Jie; Hu, Jing-Jing

    2018-01-01

    If a partial contralateral C 7 nerve is transferred to a recipient injured nerve, results are not satisfactory. However, if an entire contralateral C 7 nerve is used to repair two nerves, both recipient nerves show good recovery. These findings seem contradictory, as the above two methods use the same donor nerve, only the cutting method of the contralateral C 7 nerve is different. To verify whether this can actually result in different repair effects, we divided rats with right total brachial plexus injury into three groups. In the entire root group, the entire contralateral C 7 root was transected and transferred to the median nerve of the affected limb. In the posterior division group, only the posterior division of the contralateral C 7 root was transected and transferred to the median nerve. In the entire root + posterior division group, the entire contralateral C 7 root was transected but only the posterior division was transferred to the median nerve. After neurectomy, the median nerve was repaired on the affected side in the three groups. At 8, 12, and 16 weeks postoperatively, electrophysiological examination showed that maximum amplitude, latency, muscle tetanic contraction force, and muscle fiber cross-sectional area of the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle were significantly better in the entire root and entire root + posterior division groups than in the posterior division group. No significant difference was found between the entire root and entire root + posterior division groups. Counts of myelinated axons in the median nerve were greater in the entire root group than in the entire root + posterior division group, which were greater than the posterior division group. We conclude that for the same recipient nerve, harvesting of the entire contralateral C 7 root achieved significantly better recovery than partial harvesting, even if only part of the entire root was used for transfer. This result indicates that the entire root should be used as a

  2. Relationship of HbA1c variability, absolute changes in HbA1c, and all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Mette Vinther; Sandbæk, Annelli; Kristensen, Jette Kolding

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We assessed the relationship of mortality with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) variability and with absolute change in HbA1c. DESIGN: A population-based prospective observational study with a median follow-up time of 6 years. METHODS: Based on a validated algorithm, 11 205 Danish individua...

  3. Relationships between the Brook Street Terrane and Median Tectonic Zone (Median Batholith) : evidence from Jurassic conglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulloch, A.J.; Kimbrough, D.L.; Landis, C.A.; Mortimer, N.; Johnston, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    U-Pb zircon ages of 237-180 Ma and c. 280 Ma of seven granitoid clasts from the Rainy River Conglomerate which lies within the eastern Median Tectonic Zone (Median Batholith) in Nelson, and the Barretts Formation of the Brook Street Terrane in Southland, constrain the depositional ages of both units to be no older than c. 180-200 Ma (Early Jurassic). The minimum age of the Rainy River Conglomerate is constrained by the 147 +2 -1 Ma (Latest Jurassic) emplacement age of the One Mile Gabbronorite (new name: previously western Buller Diorite). The ages and chemistry of five of the granitoid clasts are broadly compatible with derivation from rocks that are now represented by Triassic plutons of the Median Tectonic Zone (Median Batholith), although ages as young as 180 Ma are slightly outside the range of the latter as currently exposed in New Zealand. The age (273-290 Ma, 237 +/- 3 Ma) and chemistry of the other two clasts (one each from Rainy River Conglomerate and Barretts Formation) suggest derivation from the Brook Street Terrane. Similarity in stratigraphic age, depositional characteristics, granitoid clast ages and composition between Rainy River Conglomerate and Barretts Formation suggests that they are broadly correlative and collectively overlapped a combined Brook Street Terrane - Median Batholith (MTZ) before the Late Jurassic (147 +2 -1 Ma). Sedimentary overlap may also have continued across to Middle Jurassic conglomeratic strata in the Murihiku Terrane to the east of the Brook Street Terrane. A U-Pb zircon age of 261 +/- 2 Ma is reported for Pourakino Trondhjemite of the Brook Street Terrane. (author). 56 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Structured education using Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) reduces long-term HbA1c and HbA1c variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, G S; Chen, J Y; Hopkinson, H; Sainsbury, C A R; Jones, G C

    2018-06-01

    Previous evidence has demonstrated that participation in the Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) education programme can reduce HbA 1c and severe hypoglycaemia in people with Type 1 diabetes. In a number of studies, increased HbA 1c variability has been associated with higher diabetic morbidity and mortality. No studies have examined the impact of structured education on HbA 1c variability in Type 1 diabetes. People with Type 1 diabetes who had attended DAFNE were identified for inclusion from the Scottish Care Information-Diabetes dataset. HbA 1c median and variability, expressed as coefficient of variation (CV) before and after DAFNE was calculated. Some 1061 individuals participated in DAFNE education and 687 met the inclusion criteria. A significant median reduction in HbA 1c [-3.5 mmol/mol (-0.3%)] was seen at 12 months with a significant reduction [-1.5 mmol/mol (-0.1%)] still seen at 60 months of follow-up. HbA 1c variability as measured by CV was significantly lower during the post-DAFNE period: 0.08 (IQR 0.05-0.12) reduced to 0.07 (IQR 0.05-0.10); P = 0.002. The data confirm that DAFNE participation improves glycaemic control in Type 1 diabetes with benefits being sustained for 5 years. This study is the first to demonstrate reduced HbA 1c variability after completion of structured education. This is new evidence of the beneficial impact of DAFNE on glycaemic profile. © 2018 Diabetes UK.

  5. Study of recurrent branch of median nerve (Thenar's muscular branch in relation to the flexor retinaculum and median in 64 hands (32 Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirsadri R

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Variation of recurred branch of median nerve in relation to the median and flexor retinaculum are significant for both hand surgeons and specialists always. In this study, 64 cadaver hands (32 men have been dissected. The median nerve was identified at the proximal edge of the flexor retinaculum, and in order to expose carpal tunnel the ligament was divided, and the above subjects were studied. The results are: 1 The relation of recurrent nerve to the flexor retinaculum was classified into 4 types: A In (53.1% of subjects, this branch arises from the median after the flexor retinaculum. B In (31.3% of subjects, it arises from the median in the carpal tunnel and the moves around the lower edge of flexor retinaculum and enters the thenar region. C In (14.1% of subjects, it arises from the median in the carpal tunnel and pierces the flexor retinaculum. D In (1.56% of subjects it arises, in the carpal tunnel and it divides into two subbranches here. One follows pattern A and the other pattern C. 2 In this step, the relation of the recurrent branch to the median nerve was studied. The results show that inspite of this image even though most often the recurrent branch arises from the lateral side of median, in (68.75% of subjects it arises from it's anterior surface. The MC Nemar test reveals that there is no relation between manifestation of mentioned patterns with right or left hands.

  6. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    and several natural special cases thereof. The rst special case is known as range median, which arises when k is xed to b(j 􀀀 i + 1)=2c. The second case, denoted prex selection, arises when i is xed to 0. Finally, we also consider the bounded rank prex selection problem and the xed rank range......Range selection is the problem of preprocessing an input array A of n unique integers, such that given a query (i; j; k), one can report the k'th smallest integer in the subarray A[i];A[i+1]; : : : ;A[j]. In this paper we consider static data structures in the word-RAM for range selection...... selection problem. In the former, data structures must support prex selection queries under the assumption that k for some value n given at construction time, while in the latter, data structures must support range selection queries where k is xed beforehand for all queries. We prove cell probe lower bounds...

  7. Thrombosed persistent median artery causing carpal tunnel syndrome associated with bifurcated median nerve: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salter, M.; Sinha, N. R.; Szmigielski, W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome is a sporadically occurring abnormality due to compression of median nerve. It is exceedingly rare for it to be caused by thrombosis of persistent median artery. Case Report: A forty two year old female was referred for ultrasound examination due to ongoing wrist pain, not relived by pain killers and mild paraesthesia on the radial side of the hand. High resolution ultrasound and Doppler revealed a thrombosed persistent median artery and associated bifurcated median nerve. The thrombus resolved on treatment with anticoagulants. Conclusions: Ultrasound examination of the wrist when done for patients with carpal tunnel syndrome should preferably include looking for persistent median artery and its patency. (authors)

  8. Angiotensin converting enzyme 1 in the median preoptic nucleus contributes to chronic intermittent hypoxia hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulk, Katelynn E; Nedungadi, T Prashant; Cunningham, J Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Chronic intermittent hypoxia is used to model the arterial hypoxemia seen in sleep apnea patients and is associated with increased sympathetic nerve activity and a sustained diurnal increase in blood pressure. The renin angiotensin system has been associated with hypertension seen in chronic intermittent hypoxia. Angiotensin converting enzyme 1, which cleaves angiotensin I to the active counterpart angiotensin II, is present within the central nervous system and has been shown to be regulated by AP-1 transcription factors, such as ΔFosB. Our previous study suggested that this transcriptional regulation in the median preoptic nucleus contributes to the sustained blood pressure seen following chronic intermittent hypoxia. Viral mediated delivery of a short hairpin RNA against angiotensin converting enzyme 1 in the median preoptic nucleus was used along with radio-telemetry measurements of blood pressure to test this hypothesis. FosB immunohistochemistry was utilized in order to assess the effects of angiotensin converting enzyme 1 knockdown on the activity of nuclei downstream from median preoptic nucleus. Angiotensin converting enzyme 1 knockdown within median preoptic nucleus significantly attenuated the sustained hypertension seen in chronic intermittent hypoxia. Angiotensin converting enzyme 1 seems to be partly responsible for regulating downstream regions involved in sympathetic and blood pressure control, such as the paraventricular nucleus and the rostral ventrolateral medulla. The data suggest that angiotensin converting enzyme 1 within median preoptic nucleus plays a critical role in the sustained hypertension seen in chronic intermittent hypoxia. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  9. A comparison of freeway median crash frequency, severity, and barrier strike outcomes by median barrier type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Brendan J; Savolainen, Peter T

    2018-08-01

    Median-crossover crashes are among the most hazardous events that can occur on freeways, often resulting in severe or fatal injuries. The primary countermeasure to reduce the occurrence of such crashes is the installation of a median barrier. When installation of a median barrier is warranted, transportation agencies are faced with the decision among various alternatives including concrete barriers, beam guardrail, or high-tension cable barriers. Each barrier type differs in terms of its deflection characteristics upon impact, the required installation and maintenance costs, and the roadway characteristics (e.g., median width) where installation would be feasible. This study involved an investigation of barrier performance through an in-depth analysis of crash frequency and severity data from freeway segments where high-tension cable, thrie-beam, and concrete median barriers were installed. A comprehensive manual review of crash reports was conducted to identify crashes in which a vehicle left the roadway and encroached into the median. This review also involved an examination of crash outcomes when a barrier strike occurred, which included vehicle containment, penetration, or re-direction onto the travel lanes. The manual review of crash reports provided critical supplementary information through narratives and diagrams not normally available through standard fields on police crash report forms. Statistical models were estimated to identify factors that affect the frequency, severity, and outcomes of median-related crashes, with particular emphases on differences between segments with varying median barrier types. Several roadway-, traffic-, and environmental-related characteristics were found to affect these metrics, with results varying across the different barrier types. The results of this study provide transportation agencies with important guidance as to the in-service performance of various types of median barrier. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  10. Benchmarking by HbA1c in a national diabetes quality register--does measurement bias matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Siri; Thue, Geir; Cooper, John Graham; Røraas, Thomas; Gøransson, Lasse Gunnar; Løvaas, Karianne; Sandberg, Sverre

    2015-08-01

    Bias in HbA1c measurement could give a wrong impression of the standard of care when benchmarking diabetes care. The aim of this study was to evaluate how measurement bias in HbA1c results may influence the benchmarking process performed by a national diabetes register. Using data from 2012 from the Norwegian Diabetes Register for Adults, we included HbA1c results from 3584 patients with type 1 diabetes attending 13 hospital clinics, and 1366 patients with type 2 diabetes attending 18 GP offices. Correction factors for HbA1c were obtained by comparing the results of the hospital laboratories'/GP offices' external quality assurance scheme with the target value from a reference method. Compared with the uncorrected yearly median HbA1c values for hospital clinics and GP offices, EQA corrected HbA1c values were within ±0.2% (2 mmol/mol) for all but one hospital clinic whose value was reduced by 0.4% (4 mmol/mol). Three hospital clinics reduced the proportion of patients with poor glycemic control, one by 9% and two by 4%. For most participants in our study, correcting for measurement bias had little effect on the yearly median HbA1c value or the percentage of patients achieving glycemic goals. However, at three hospital clinics correcting for measurement bias had an important effect on HbA1c benchmarking results especially with regard to percentages of patients achieving glycemic targets. The analytical quality of HbA1c should be taken into account when comparing benchmarking results.

  11. The Stricter the Better? The Relationship between Targeted HbA1c Values and Metabolic Control of Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Marcin; Tomasik, Bartlomiej; Wrona, Ewa; Fendler, Wojciech; Jarosz-Chobot, Przemyslawa; Szadkowska, Agnieszka; Zmysłowska, Agnieszka; Wilson, Jayne; Mlynarski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    It remains unclear how HbA1c recommendations influence metabolic control of paediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. To evaluate this we compared reported HbA1c with guideline thresholds. We searched systematically MEDLINE and EMBASE for studies reporting on HbA1c in children with T1DM and grouped them according to targeted HbA1c obtained from regional guidelines. We assessed the discrepancies in the metabolic control between these groups by comparing mean HbA1c extracted from each study and the differences between actual and targeted HbA1c. We included 105 from 1365 searched studies. The median (IQR) HbA1c for the study population was 8.30% (8.00%-8.70%) and was lower in "6.5%" than in "7.5%" as targeted HbA1c level (8.20% (7.85%-8.57%) versus 8.40% (8.20%-8.80%); p = 0.028). Median difference between actual and targeted HbA1c was 1.20% (0.80%-1.70%) and was higher in "6.5%" than in "7.5%" (1.70% (1.30%-2.07%) versus 0.90% (0.70%-1.30%), resp.; p HbA1c levels being closer to the therapeutic goal, but the actual values are still higher than those observed in the "6.5%" group. A meta-analysis of raw data from national registries or a prospective study comparing both approaches is warranted as the next step to examine this subject further.

  12. Functional Median Polish

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying

    2012-08-03

    This article proposes functional median polish, an extension of univariate median polish, for one-way and two-way functional analysis of variance (ANOVA). The functional median polish estimates the functional grand effect and functional main factor effects based on functional medians in an additive functional ANOVA model assuming no interaction among factors. A functional rank test is used to assess whether the functional main factor effects are significant. The robustness of the functional median polish is demonstrated by comparing its performance with the traditional functional ANOVA fitted by means under different outlier models in simulation studies. The functional median polish is illustrated on various applications in climate science, including one-way and two-way ANOVA when functional data are either curves or images. Specifically, Canadian temperature data, U. S. precipitation observations and outputs of global and regional climate models are considered, which can facilitate the research on the close link between local climate and the occurrence or severity of some diseases and other threats to human health. © 2012 International Biometric Society.

  13. GPU Accelerated Vector Median Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Rifat; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-01-01

    Noise reduction is an important step for most image processing tasks. For three channel color images, a widely used technique is vector median filter in which color values of pixels are treated as 3-component vectors. Vector median filters are computationally expensive; for a window size of n x n, each of the n(sup 2) vectors has to be compared with other n(sup 2) - 1 vectors in distances. General purpose computation on graphics processing units (GPUs) is the paradigm of utilizing high-performance many-core GPU architectures for computation tasks that are normally handled by CPUs. In this work. NVIDIA's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) paradigm is used to accelerate vector median filtering. which has to the best of our knowledge never been done before. The performance of GPU accelerated vector median filter is compared to that of the CPU and MPI-based versions for different image and window sizes, Initial findings of the study showed 100x improvement of performance of vector median filter implementation on GPUs over CPU implementations and further speed-up is expected after more extensive optimizations of the GPU algorithm .

  14. The Ultrasonographic Findings of Bifid Median Nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee Jin; Park, Noh Hyuck; Joh, Joon Hee; Lee, Sung Moon

    2009-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the ultrasonographic findings of bifid median nerve and its clinical significance. We retrospectively reviewed five cases (three men and two women, mean age: 54 years) of incidentally found bifid median nerve from 264 cases of clinically suspected carpal-tunnel syndrome that were seen at our hospital during last 6 years. Doppler sonography was performed in all five cases and MR angiography was done in one case for detecting a persistent median artery. The difference (ΔCSA) between the sum of the cross-sectional areas of the bifid median nerve at the pisiform level (CSA2) and the cross-sectional area proximal to the bifurcation(CSA1) was calculated. The incidence of a bifid median nerve was 1.9%. All the patients presented with a tingling sensation on a hand and two patients had nocturnal pain. All the cases showed bifurcation of the nerve bundle proximal to the carpal tunnel. The margins appeared relatively smooth and each bundle showed a characteristic fascicular pattern. A persistent median artery was noted between the bundles in four cases. ΔCSA was more than 2 mm 2 in four cases. Bifid median nerve with a persistent median artery is a relatively rare normal variance and these are very important findings before performing surgical intervention to avoid potential nerve injury and massive bleeding. We highly suggest that radiologists should understand the anatomical characteristics of this anomaly and make efforts to detect it

  15. Estudio del comportamiento de zapatas de medianería con viga centradora mediante modelos de elementos finitos

    OpenAIRE

    Galletero Montero, Pablo; Fernandez Gomez, Jaime Antonio; Perepérez Ventura, Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    Investigación sobre el cálculo de zapatas de medianería utilizando métodos no convencionales. Las dos soluciones más empleadas en edificación para el problema de las cimentaciones de medianería son la utilización de una viga centradora que conecta la zapata de medianería con la zapata del pilar interior más próximo y la colaboración de la viga de la primera planta trabajando como tirante. Los modelos convencionales existentes para el cálculo de este tipo de cimentaciones presentan una serie d...

  16. HbA1c Variability as an Independent Correlate of Nephropathy, but Not Retinopathy, in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penno, Giuseppe; Solini, Anna; Bonora, Enzo; Fondelli, Cecilia; Orsi, Emanuela; Zerbini, Gianpaolo; Morano, Susanna; Cavalot, Franco; Lamacchia, Olga; Laviola, Luigi; Nicolucci, Antonio; Pugliese, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the association of hemoglobin (Hb) A1c variability with microvascular complications in the large cohort of subjects with type 2 diabetes from the Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicenter Study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Serial (3–5) HbA1c values collected in a 2-year period before enrollment were available from 8,260 subjects from 9 centers (of 15,773 patients from 19 centers). HbA1c variability was measured as the intraindividual SD of 4.52 ± 0.76 values. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) was assessed by dilated funduscopy. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was defined based on albuminuria, as measured by immunonephelometry or immunoturbidimetry, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated from serum creatinine. RESULTS Median and interquartile range of average HbA1c (HbA1c-MEAN) and HbA1c-SD were 7.57% (6.86–8.38) and 0.46% (0.29–0.74), respectively. The highest prevalence of microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria, reduced eGFR, albuminuric CKD phenotypes, and advanced DR was observed when both HbA1c parameters were above the median and the lowest when both were below the median. Logistic regression analyses showed that HbA1c-SD adds to HbA1c-MEAN as an independent correlate of microalbuminuria and stages 1–2 CKD and is an independent predictor of macroalbuminuria, reduced eGFR, and stages 3–5 albuminuric CKD, whereas HbA1c-MEAN is not. The opposite was found for DR, whereas neither HbA1c-MEAN nor HbA1c-SD affected nonalbuminuric CKD. CONCLUSIONS In patients with type 2 diabetes, HbA1c variability affects (albuminuric) CKD more than average HbA1c, whereas only the latter parameter affects DR, thus suggesting a variable effect of these measures on microvascular complications. PMID:23491522

  17. K2-EDTA and K3-EDTA Greiner Tubes for HbA1c Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrtaric, Alen; Filipi, Petra; Hemar, Marina; Nikolac, Nora; Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2016-02-01

    To determine whether K2-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and K3-EDTA Greiner tubes could be used interchangeably for glycosylated hemoglobin, type A1C (HbA1c) measurement via the Abbott Laboratories ARCHITECT chemiluminescent microparticle HbA1c assay on the ARCHITECT i2000SR immunoanalyzer at our university hospital. We drew blood from a total of 45 outpatients into plastic Greiner Vacuette tubes, some of which were lined with K2-EDTA and others with K3-EDTA anticoagulant. Data are presented as median and interquartile range values. We used the Wilcoxon test and Passing-Bablok regression for tube comparison. For K2-EDTA tubes median HbA1c concentration was 54 mmol/mol (41 to 71 mmol/mol) and for K3-EDTA tubes 56 mmol/mol (43 to 69 mmol/mol). There was no statistically significant difference between K2-EDTA and K3-EDTA (bias= -1.29 mmol/mol; P = 0.24). Passing-Bablok regression showed that there is no constant and proportional error: y = -0.23 (95% CI[-3.52 to 0.69]) + 1.00( 95% CI[0.98 to 1.06]) x. In this study, we provide evidence for the lack of any clinically and statistically significant bias between K2-EDTA and K3-EDTA HbA1c measurements. Thus, Greiner tubes lined with K2-EDTA and those lined with K3-EDTA can safely be used interchangeably to measure HbA1c via the Abbott Laboratories ARCHITECT assay. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Cumulative carbon emissions budgets consistent with 1.5 °C global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarska, Katarzyna B.; Gillett, Nathan P.

    2018-04-01

    The Paris Agreement1 commits ratifying parties to pursue efforts to limit the global temperature increase to 1.5 °C relative to pre-industrial levels. Carbon budgets2-5 consistent with remaining below 1.5 °C warming, reported in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5)2,6,8, are directly based on Earth system model (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5)7 responses, which, on average, warm more than observations in response to historical CO2 emissions and other forcings8,9. These models indicate a median remaining budget of 55 PgC (ref. 10, base period: year 1870) left to emit from January 2016, the equivalent to approximately five years of emissions at the 2015 rate11,12. Here we calculate warming and carbon budgets relative to the decade 2006-2015, which eliminates model-observation differences in the climate-carbon response over the historical period9, and increases the median remaining carbon budget to 208 PgC (33-66% range of 130-255 PgC) from January 2016 (with mean warming of 0.89 °C for 2006-2015 relative to 1861-188013-18). There is little sensitivity to the observational data set used to infer warming that has occurred, and no significant dependence on the choice of emissions scenario. Thus, although limiting median projected global warming to below 1.5 °C is undoubtedly challenging19-21, our results indicate it is not impossible, as might be inferred from the IPCC AR5 carbon budgets2,8.

  19. A novel image inpainting technique based on median diffusion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    numerical methods such as anisotropic diffusion and multiresolution schemes. Some steps ... Roth & Black (2005) have developed a framework for learning a generic and expressive image priors that ..... This paper presents a new approach for image inpainting by propagating median information .... J. Graphics Tools 9(1):.

  20. Alcohol binding in the C1 (C1A + C1B) domain of protein kinase C epsilon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pany, Satyabrata; Das, Joydip

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol regulates the expression and function of protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε). In a previous study we identified an alcohol binding site in the C1B, one of the twin C1 subdomains of PKCε. Methods In this study, we investigated alcohol binding in the entire C1 domain (combined C1A and C1B) of PKCε. Fluorescent phorbol ester, SAPD and fluorescent diacylglycerol (DAG) analog, dansyl-DAG were used to study the effect of ethanol, butanol, and octanol on the ligand binding using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). To identify alcohol binding site(s), PKCεC1 was photolabeled with 3-azibutanol and 3-azioctanol, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. The effects of alcohols and the azialcohols on PKCε were studied in NG108-15 cells. Results In the presence of alcohol, SAPD and dansyl-DAG showed different extent of FRET, indicating differential effects of alcohol on the C1A and C1B subdomains. Effects of alcohols and azialcohols on PKCε in NG108-15 cells were comparable. Azialcohols labeled Tyr-176 of C1A and Tyr-250 of C1B. Inspection of the model structure of PKCεC1 reveals that these residues are 40 Å apart from each other indicating that these residues form two different alcohol binding sites. Conclusions The present results provide evidence for the presence of multiple alcohol-binding sites on PKCε and underscore the importance of targeting this PKC isoform in developing alcohol antagonists. PMID:26210390

  1. Evaluation of a non-proprietary, high-tension, four-cable median barrier on level terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    During the last decade, the use of cable median barriers has risen dramatically. Cable barriers are often utilized in depressed medians : with widths ranging from 30 to 50 ft (9.1 to 15.2 m) and with fill slopes as steep as 4H:1V. A careful review of...

  2. aThe dyslexia candidate gene DYX1C1 is a potential marker of poor survival in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosin Gustaf

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dyslexia candidate gene, DYX1C1, shown to regulate and interact with estrogen receptors and involved in the regulation of neuronal migration, has recently been proposed as a putative cancer biomarker. This study was undertaken to assess the prognostic value and therapy-predictive potential of DYX1C1 mRNA and protein expression in breast cancer. Methods DYX1C1 mRNA expression was assessed at the mRNA level in three independent population-derived patient cohorts. An association to estrogen/progesterone receptor status, Elston grade, gene expression subtype and lymph node status was analyzed within these cohorts. DYX1C1 protein expression was examined using immunohistochemistry in cancer and normal breast tissue. The statistical analyses were performed using the non-parametric Wilcoxon rank-sum test, ANOVA, Fisher's exact test and a multivariate proportional hazard (Cox model. Results DYX1C1 mRNA is significantly more highly expressed in tumors that have been classified as estrogen receptor α and progesterone receptor-positive. The expression of DYX1C1 among the molecular subtypes shows the lowest median expression within the basal type tumors, which are considered to have the worst prognosis. The expression of DYX1C1 is significantly lower in tumors graded as Elston grade 3 compared with grades 1 and 2. DYX1C1 protein is expressed in 88% of tumors and in all 10 normal breast tissues examined. Positive protein expression was significantly correlated to overall survival (Hazard ratio 3.44 [CI 1.84-6.42] of the patients but not to any of the variables linked with mRNA expression. Conclusion We show that the expression of DYX1C1 in breast cancer is associated with several clinicopathological parameters and that loss of DYX1C1 correlates with a more aggressive disease, in turn indicating that DYX1C1 is a potential prognostic biomarker in breast cancer.

  3. aThe dyslexia candidate gene DYX1C1 is a potential marker of poor survival in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosin, Gustaf; Hannelius, Ulf; Lindström, Linda; Hall, Per; Bergh, Jonas; Hartman, Johan; Kere, Juha

    2012-01-01

    The dyslexia candidate gene, DYX1C1, shown to regulate and interact with estrogen receptors and involved in the regulation of neuronal migration, has recently been proposed as a putative cancer biomarker. This study was undertaken to assess the prognostic value and therapy-predictive potential of DYX1C1 mRNA and protein expression in breast cancer. DYX1C1 mRNA expression was assessed at the mRNA level in three independent population-derived patient cohorts. An association to estrogen/progesterone receptor status, Elston grade, gene expression subtype and lymph node status was analyzed within these cohorts. DYX1C1 protein expression was examined using immunohistochemistry in cancer and normal breast tissue. The statistical analyses were performed using the non-parametric Wilcoxon rank-sum test, ANOVA, Fisher's exact test and a multivariate proportional hazard (Cox) model. DYX1C1 mRNA is significantly more highly expressed in tumors that have been classified as estrogen receptor α and progesterone receptor-positive. The expression of DYX1C1 among the molecular subtypes shows the lowest median expression within the basal type tumors, which are considered to have the worst prognosis. The expression of DYX1C1 is significantly lower in tumors graded as Elston grade 3 compared with grades 1 and 2. DYX1C1 protein is expressed in 88% of tumors and in all 10 normal breast tissues examined. Positive protein expression was significantly correlated to overall survival (Hazard ratio 3.44 [CI 1.84-6.42]) of the patients but not to any of the variables linked with mRNA expression. We show that the expression of DYX1C1 in breast cancer is associated with several clinicopathological parameters and that loss of DYX1C1 correlates with a more aggressive disease, in turn indicating that DYX1C1 is a potential prognostic biomarker in breast cancer

  4. Median nail dystrophy involving the thumb nail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahulkrishna Kota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Median canaliform dystrophy of Heller is a rare entity characterized by a midline or a paramedian ridge or split and canal formation in nail plate of one or both the thumb nails. It is an acquired condition resulting from a temporary defect in the matrix that interferes with nail formation. Habitual picking of the nail base may be responsible for some cases. Histopathology classically shows parakeratosis, accumulation of melanin within and between the nail bed keratinocytes. Treatment of median nail dystrophy includes injectable triamcinalone acetonide, topical 0.1% tacrolimus, and tazarotene 0.05%, which is many a times challenging for a dermatologist. Psychiatric opinion should be taken when associated with the depressive, obsessive-compulsive, or impulse-control disorder. We report a case of 19-year-old male diagnosed as median nail dystrophy.

  5. Median and ulnar neuropathies in university guitarists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Rachel H; Hutcherson, Kimberly J; Kain, Jennifer B; Phillips, Alicia L; Halle, John S; Greathouse, David G

    2006-02-01

    Descriptive study. To determine the presence of median and ulnar neuropathies in both upper extremities of university guitarists. Peripheral nerve entrapment syndromes of the upper extremities are well documented in musicians. Guitarists and plucked-string musicians are at risk for entrapment neuropathies in the upper extremities and are prone to mild neurologic deficits. Twenty-four volunteer male and female guitarists (age range, 18-26 years) were recruited from the Belmont University School of Music and the Vanderbilt University Blair School of Music. Individuals were excluded if they were pregnant or had a history of recent upper extremity or neck injury. Subjects completed a history form, were interviewed, and underwent a physical examination. Nerve conduction status of the median and ulnar nerves of both upper extremities was obtained by performing motor, sensory, and F-wave (central) nerve conduction studies. Descriptive statistics of the nerve conduction study variables were computed using Microsoft Excel. Six subjects had positive findings on provocative testing of the median and ulnar nerves. Otherwise, these guitarists had normal upper extremity neural and musculoskeletal function based on the history and physical examinations. When comparing the subjects' nerve conduction study values with a chart of normal nerve conduction studies values, 2 subjects had prolonged distal motor latencies (DMLs) of the left median nerve of 4.3 and 4.7 milliseconds (normal, DMLs are compatible with median neuropathy at or distal to the wrist. Otherwise, all electrophysiological variables were within normal limits for motor, sensory, and F-wave (central) values. However, comparison studies of median and ulnar motor latencies in the same hand demonstrated prolonged differences of greater than 1.0 milliseconds that affected the median nerve in 2 additional subjects, and identified contralateral limb involvement in a subject with a prolonged distal latency. The other 20

  6. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/hemoglobina1chba1ctest.html Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test? A hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test measures ...

  7. Sosiaalisen median mahdollisuudet Tilastokeskukselle

    OpenAIRE

    Vesterinen, Anu

    2011-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena oli sosiaalisen median mahdollisuudet Tilastokeskuksen viestinnässä. Työn tavoitteena oli kartoittaa sosiaalisen median käyttöön liittyviä mahdollisuuksia ja haasteita sekä selvittää siihen liittyviä odotuksia Tilastokeskuksen henkilöstön keskuudessa. Työn teoriaosuudessa tarkasteltiin sosiaalista mediaa käsitteenä ja esiteltiin sosiaalisen median käyttöä organisaation ulkoisen viestinnän välineenä. Opinnäytetyössä selvitettiin teoriatietoon pohjautuen sekä ca...

  8. Dual pathology proximal median nerve compression of the forearm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Siun M

    2013-12-01

    We report an unusual case of synchronous pathology in the forearm- the coexistence of a large lipoma of the median nerve together with an osteochondroma of the proximal ulna, giving rise to a dual proximal median nerve compression. Proximal median nerve compression neuropathies in the forearm are uncommon compared to the prevalence of distal compression neuropathies (eg Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). Both neural fibrolipomas (Refs. 1,2) and osteochondromas of the proximal ulna (Ref. 3) in isolation are rare but well documented. Unlike that of a distal compression, a proximal compression of the median nerve will often have a definite cause. Neural fibrolipoma, also called fibrolipomatous hamartoma are rare, slow-growing, benign tumours of peripheral nerves, most often occurring in the median nerve of younger patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such dual pathology in the same forearm, giving rise to a severe proximal compression of the median nerve. In this case, the nerve was being pushed anteriorly by the osteochondroma, and was being compressed from within by the intraneural lipoma. This unusual case highlights the advantage of preoperative imaging as part of the workup of proximal median nerve compression.

  9. Sosiaalisen median markkinointistrategia

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    Insinöörityön tavoitteena oli suunnitella toimeksiantajayritykselle sopiva sosiaalisen median markkinointistrategia ja avustaa sen toteutuksessa sekä tuottaen sisältöä sovittuihin kanaviin. Pyrkimyksenä oli myös kouluttaa yrityksen henkilökuntaa käyttämään sosiaalista mediaa yleisellä tasolla ja markkinoinnissa tutustuttamalla heidät sosiaalisen median erilaisiin kanaviin ja mainostyökaluihin. Opinnäytetyössä keskityttiin tutkimaan Facebookissa toimivaa markkinointia ja siinä toimivia mai...

  10. Safety and Usage of C1-Inhibitor in Hereditary Angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedl, Marc A; Bygum, Anette; Lumry, William

    2016-01-01

    , international patient registry documented widespread implementation of pnfC1-INH self-administration outside of a health care setting consistent with current HAE guidelines. These real-world data revealed pnfC1-INH usage for a variety of reasons in patients with HAE and showed a high level of safety regardless...... of this study was to describe safety and usage patterns of pnfC1-INH. METHODS: A multicenter, observational, registry was conducted between 2010 and 2014 at 30 United States and 7 European sites to obtain both prospective (occurring after enrollment) and retrospective (occurring before enrollment) safety...... and usage data on subjects receiving pnfC1-INH for any reason. RESULTS: Of 343 enrolled patients, 318 received 1 or more doses of pnfC1-INH for HAE attacks (11,848 infusions) or for prophylaxis (3142 infusions), comprising the safety population. Median dosages per infusion were 10.8 IU/kg (attack treatment...

  11. A theoretical analysis of the median LMF adaptive algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Tommy Kristensen; Rusu, C.

    1999-01-01

    Higher order adaptive algorithms are sensitive to impulse interference. In the case of the LMF (Least Mean Fourth), an easy and effective way to reduce this is to median filter the instantaneous gradient of the LMF algorithm. Although previous published simulations have indicated that this reduces...... the speed of convergence, no analytical studies have yet been made to prove this. In order to enhance the usability, this paper presents a convergence and steady-state analysis of the median LMF adaptive algorithm. As expected this proves that the median LMF has a slower convergence and a lower steady...

  12. Dual pathology proximal median nerve compression of the forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Siun M; Browne, Katherine; Tuite, David J; O'Shaughnessy, Michael

    2013-12-01

    We report an unusual case of synchronous pathology in the forearm- the coexistence of a large lipoma of the median nerve together with an osteochondroma of the proximal ulna, giving rise to a dual proximal median nerve compression. Proximal median nerve compression neuropathies in the forearm are uncommon compared to the prevalence of distal compression neuropathies (eg Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). Both neural fibrolipomas (Refs. 1,2) and osteochondromas of the proximal ulna (Ref. 3) in isolation are rare but well documented. Unlike that of a distal compression, a proximal compression of the median nerve will often have a definite cause. Neural fibrolipoma, also called fibrolipomatous hamartoma are rare, slow-growing, benign tumours of peripheral nerves, most often occurring in the median nerve of younger patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such dual pathology in the same forearm, giving rise to a severe proximal compression of the median nerve. In this case, the nerve was being pushed anteriorly by the osteochondroma, and was being compressed from within by the intraneural lipoma. This unusual case highlights the advantage of preoperative imaging as part of the workup of proximal median nerve compression. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Switching non-local median filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Jyohei; Koga, Takanori; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a novel image filtering method for removal of random-valued impulse noise superimposed on grayscale images. Generally, it is well known that switching-type median filters are effective for impulse noise removal. In this paper, we propose a more sophisticated switching-type impulse noise removal method in terms of detail-preserving performance. Specifically, the noise detector of the proposed method finds out noise-corrupted pixels by focusing attention on the difference between the value of a pixel of interest (POI) and the median of its neighboring pixel values, and on the POI's isolation tendency from the surrounding pixels. Furthermore, the removal of the detected noise is performed by the newly proposed median filter based on non-local processing, which has superior detail-preservation capability compared to the conventional median filter. The effectiveness and the validity of the proposed method are verified by some experiments using natural grayscale images.

  14. Robust median estimator in logisitc regression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hobza, T.; Pardo, L.; Vajda, Igor

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 138, č. 12 (2008), s. 3822-3840 ISSN 0378-3758 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Grant - others:Instituto Nacional de Estadistica (ES) MPO FI - IM3/136; GA MŠk(CZ) MTM 2006-06872 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Logistic regression * Median * Robustness * Consistency and asymptotic normality * Morgenthaler * Bianco and Yohai * Croux and Hasellbroeck Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.679, year: 2008 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/SI/vajda-robust%20median%20estimator%20in%20logistic%20regression.pdf

  15. Median filters as a tool to determine dark noise thresholds in high resolution smartphone image sensors for scientific imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igoe, Damien P.; Parisi, Alfio V.; Amar, Abdurazaq; Rummenie, Katherine J.

    2018-01-01

    An evaluation of the use of median filters in the reduction of dark noise in smartphone high resolution image sensors is presented. The Sony Xperia Z1 employed has a maximum image sensor resolution of 20.7 Mpixels, with each pixel having a side length of just over 1 μm. Due to the large number of photosites, this provides an image sensor with very high sensitivity but also makes them prone to noise effects such as hot-pixels. Similar to earlier research with older models of smartphone, no appreciable temperature effects were observed in the overall average pixel values for images taken in ambient temperatures between 5 °C and 25 °C. In this research, hot-pixels are defined as pixels with intensities above a specific threshold. The threshold is determined using the distribution of pixel values of a set of images with uniform statistical properties associated with the application of median-filters of increasing size. An image with uniform statistics was employed as a training set from 124 dark images, and the threshold was determined to be 9 digital numbers (DN). The threshold remained constant for multiple resolutions and did not appreciably change even after a year of extensive field use and exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation. Although the temperature effects' uniformity masked an increase in hot-pixel occurrences, the total number of occurrences represented less than 0.1% of the total image. Hot-pixels were removed by applying a median filter, with an optimum filter size of 7 × 7; similar trends were observed for four additional smartphone image sensors used for validation. Hot-pixels were also reduced by decreasing image resolution. The method outlined in this research provides a methodology to characterise the dark noise behavior of high resolution image sensors for use in scientific investigations, especially as pixel sizes decrease.

  16. Keeping global warming within 1.5 °C constrains emergence of aridification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang-Eui; Jeong, Su-Jong; Joshi, Manoj; Osborn, Timothy J.; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Piao, Shilong; Chen, Deliang; Liu, Junguo; Yang, Hong; Park, Hoonyoung; Kim, Baek-Min; Feng, Song

    2018-01-01

    Aridity—the ratio of atmospheric water supply (precipitation; P) to demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET)—is projected to decrease (that is, areas will become drier) as a consequence of anthropogenic climate change, exacerbating land degradation and desertification1-6. However, the timing of significant aridification relative to natural variability—defined here as the time of emergence for aridification (ToEA)—is unknown, despite its importance in designing and implementing mitigation policies7-10. Here we estimate ToEA from projections of 27 global climate models (GCMs) under representative concentration pathways (RCPs) RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, and in doing so, identify where emergence occurs before global mean warming reaches 1.5 °C and 2 °C above the pre-industrial level. On the basis of the ensemble median ToEA for each grid cell, aridification emerges over 32% (RCP4.5) and 24% (RCP8.5) of the total land surface before the ensemble median of global mean temperature change reaches 2 °C in each scenario. Moreover, ToEA is avoided in about two-thirds of the above regions if the maximum global warming level is limited to 1.5 °C. Early action for accomplishing the 1.5 °C temperature goal can therefore markedly reduce the likelihood that large regions will face substantial aridification and related impacts.

  17. Uncertain impacts on economic growth when stabilizing global temperatures at 1.5°C or 2°C warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretis, Felix; Schwarz, Moritz; Tang, Kevin; Haustein, Karsten; Allen, Myles R.

    2018-05-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that variations in climate affect economic growth across countries over time. However, little is known about the relative impacts of climate change on economic outcomes when global mean surface temperature (GMST) is stabilized at 1.5°C or 2°C warming relative to pre-industrial levels. Here we use a new set of climate simulations under 1.5°C and 2°C warming from the `Half a degree Additional warming, Prognosis and Projected Impacts' (HAPPI) project to assess changes in economic growth using empirical estimates of climate impacts in a global panel dataset. Panel estimation results that are robust to outliers and breaks suggest that within-year variability of monthly temperatures and precipitation has little effect on economic growth beyond global nonlinear temperature effects. While expected temperature changes under a GMST increase of 1.5°C lead to proportionally higher warming in the Northern Hemisphere, the projected impact on economic growth is larger in the Tropics and Southern Hemisphere. Accounting for econometric estimation and climate uncertainty, the projected impacts on economic growth of 1.5°C warming are close to indistinguishable from current climate conditions, while 2°C warming suggests statistically lower economic growth for a large set of countries (median projected annual growth up to 2% lower). Level projections of gross domestic product (GDP) per capita exhibit high uncertainties, with median projected global average GDP per capita approximately 5% lower at the end of the century under 2°C warming relative to 1.5°C. The correlation between climate-induced reductions in per capita GDP growth and national income levels is significant at the p economic inequality between countries and is relevant to discussions of loss and damage under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. This article is part of the theme issue `The Paris Agreement: understanding the physical and social challenges for a

  18. Uncertain impacts on economic growth when stabilizing global temperatures at 1.5°C or 2°C warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Moritz; Tang, Kevin; Haustein, Karsten; Allen, Myles R.

    2018-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that variations in climate affect economic growth across countries over time. However, little is known about the relative impacts of climate change on economic outcomes when global mean surface temperature (GMST) is stabilized at 1.5°C or 2°C warming relative to pre-industrial levels. Here we use a new set of climate simulations under 1.5°C and 2°C warming from the ‘Half a degree Additional warming, Prognosis and Projected Impacts' (HAPPI) project to assess changes in economic growth using empirical estimates of climate impacts in a global panel dataset. Panel estimation results that are robust to outliers and breaks suggest that within-year variability of monthly temperatures and precipitation has little effect on economic growth beyond global nonlinear temperature effects. While expected temperature changes under a GMST increase of 1.5°C lead to proportionally higher warming in the Northern Hemisphere, the projected impact on economic growth is larger in the Tropics and Southern Hemisphere. Accounting for econometric estimation and climate uncertainty, the projected impacts on economic growth of 1.5°C warming are close to indistinguishable from current climate conditions, while 2°C warming suggests statistically lower economic growth for a large set of countries (median projected annual growth up to 2% lower). Level projections of gross domestic product (GDP) per capita exhibit high uncertainties, with median projected global average GDP per capita approximately 5% lower at the end of the century under 2°C warming relative to 1.5°C. The correlation between climate-induced reductions in per capita GDP growth and national income levels is significant at the p economic inequality between countries and is relevant to discussions of loss and damage under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. This article is part of the theme issue ‘The Paris Agreement: understanding the physical and social challenges for

  19. Identification of Combined Genetic Determinants of Liver Stiffness within the SREBP1c-PNPLA3 Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Lammert

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The common PNPLA3 (adiponutrin variant, p.I148M, was identified as a genetic determinant of liver fibrosis. Since the expression of PNPLA3 is induced by sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP1c, we investigate two common SREBP1c variants (rs2297508 and rs11868035 for their association with liver stiffness. In 899 individuals (aged 17–83 years, 547 males with chronic liver diseases, hepatic fibrosis was non-invasively phenotyped by transient elastography (TE. The SREBP1c single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped using PCR-based assays with 5'-nuclease and fluorescence detection. The SREBP1c rs11868035 variant affected liver fibrosis significantly (p = 0.029: median TE levels were 7.2, 6.6 and 6.0 kPa in carriers of (TT (n = 421, (CT (n = 384 and (CC (n = 87 genotypes, respectively. Overall, the SREBP1c SNP was associated with low TE levels (5.0–8.0 kPa. Carriers of both PNPLA3 and SREBP1c risk genotypes displayed significantly (p = 0.005 higher median liver stiffness, as compared to patients carrying none of these variants. The common SREBP1c variant may affect early stages of liver fibrosis. Our study supports a role of the SREBP1c-PNPLA3 pathway as a “disease module” that promotes hepatic fibrogenesis.

  20. Use of a C1 Inhibitor Concentrate in Adults ≥65 Years of Age with Hereditary Angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygum, Anette; Martinez-Saguer, Inmaculada; Bas, Murat

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment of hereditary angioedema (HAE) in 'older adults' (those aged ≥65 years) has not been well studied. The international Berinert Patient Registry collected data on the use of intravenous plasma-derived, pasteurized, nanofiltered C1-inhibitor concentrate (pnfC1-INH; Berinert......(®)/CSL Behring) in patients of any age, including many older adults. METHODS: This observational registry, conducted from 2010 to 2014 at 30 US and seven European sites, gathered prospective (post-enrollment) and retrospective (pre-enrollment) usage and adverse event (AE) data on subjects treated with pnfC1-INH....... RESULTS: The registry documented 1701 pnfC1-INH infusions in 27 older adults. A total of 1511 HAE attacks treated with pnfC1-INH administration were reported among 25 of the 27 (92.6 %) older adults. Among the older adults, mean (standard deviation [SD]) (8.8 [4.1] IU/kg) and median (6.4 IU/kg) pnfC1-INH...

  1. Social Security: a financial appraisal for the median voter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galasso, V

    product of the joint employer/employee Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) tax rate and employee earnings. Data on actual contributions are available for median voters in the 1964 to 1976 elections; Social Security Administration (SSA) estimates are used for future tax rates and average wage growth rates. Data on actual old-age, retirement, and survivor benefits, as well as estimates of future benefits, are also available from SSA. Analysis of ex-post returns from "investing" in Social Security and from a buy-and-hold strategy applied to three alternative assets--the Standard & Poor's Composite Index (S&P), the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA), and U.S. government bonds--shows surprising results. In 1964 and 1968, Social Security largely outperformed the other three assets. In 1972, Social Security and the stock market performed almost equally. In 1976, however, the median voter would have been better off in the stock market. The expected returns for median voters in later elections cannot be directly compared with realized returns from alternative assets. However, estimates range from 5.7 percent in 1984 to 7.0 percent in 1996 and thus compare favorably with average returns of 5.6 percent for S&P, 5.3 percent for DJIA, and 2.1 percent for government bonds over the 1964-1996 period. Although these findings must be taken with caution since they compare ex-post returns, they show that, despite a continuous reduction in profitability, Social Security still represents a safe, high-return asset for a majority of families.

  2. Five Roots Pattern of Median Nerve Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Natsis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An unusual combination of median nerve’s variations has been encountered in a male cadaver during routine educational dissection. In particular, the median nerve was formed by five roots; three roots originated from the lateral cord of the brachial plexus joined individually the median nerve’s medial root. The latter (fourth root was united with the lateral (fifth root of the median nerve forming the median nerve distally in the upper arm and not the axilla as usually. In addition, the median nerve was situated medial to the brachial artery. We review comprehensively the relevant variants, their embryologic development and their potential clinical applications.

  3. Safety performance evaluation of cable median barriers on freeways in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alluri, Priyanka; Haleem, Kirolos; Gan, Albert; Mauthner, John

    2016-07-03

    This article aims to evaluate the safety performance of cable median barriers on freeways in Florida. The safety performance evaluation was based on the percentages of barrier and median crossovers by vehicle type, crash severity, and cable median barrier type (Trinity Cable Safety System [CASS] and Gibraltar system). Twenty-three locations with cable median barriers totaling about 101 miles were identified. Police reports of 6,524 crashes from years 2005-2010 at these locations were reviewed to verify and obtain detailed crash information. A total of 549 crashes were determined to be barrier related (i.e., crashes involving vehicles hitting the cable median barrier) and were reviewed in further detail to identify crossover crashes and the manner in which the vehicles crossed the barriers; that is, by either overriding, underriding, or penetrating the barriers. Overall, 2.6% of vehicles that hit the cable median barrier crossed the median and traversed into the opposite travel lane. Overall, 98.1% of cars and 95.5% of light trucks that hit the barrier were prevented from crossing the median. In other words, 1.9% of cars and 4.5% of light trucks that hit the barrier had crossed the median and encroached on the opposite travel lanes. There is no significant difference in the performance of cable median barrier for cars versus light trucks in terms of crossover crashes. In terms of severity, overrides were more severe compared to underrides and penetrations. The statistics showed that the CASS and Gibraltar systems performed similarly in terms of crossover crashes. However, the Gibraltar system experienced a higher proportion of penetrations compared to the CASS system. The CASS system resulted in a slightly higher percentage of moderate and minor injury crashes compared to the Gibraltar system. Cable median barriers are successful in preventing median crossover crashes; 97.4% of the cable median barrier crashes were prevented from crossing over the median. Of all of

  4. Permasalahan P-Hub Median Dengan Lintasan Terpendek

    OpenAIRE

    Pasaribu, Raja David

    2013-01-01

    Hub are facilities that serve as sorting, switching, and transhipment in a transportation network. P-hub median problem is a discrete case location allocation problem which all hub is fully connected. In this paper will be intoduced Mixed Integrer Linear Programming (MILP) formulation models of cost for p-hub median problem allocation for uncapacitaced single allocation p-hub median(USApHMP). In this paper also introduced Floyd-Warshall shortest path algorithm to solve p-hub median problems a...

  5. Sosiaalisen median riskit yritysmaailmassa

    OpenAIRE

    Kilpinen, Joni

    2015-01-01

    Sosiaalisen median palveluista on kirjoitettu lukuisia kirjoja ja artikkeleita, joissa niitä ylistetään varsinkin yritysnäkökulmasta. Vaikka sosiaalinen media on muuttanut olennaisesti tapaa, jolla keskustella, mainostaa, etsiä ja jakaa tietoa, piilee sen palveluiden käytössä kuitenkin erilaisia uhkakuvia. Yritykset ja asiantuntijat pelkäävät sosiaalisen median avoimuuden aiheuttavan suuria tietoturvariskejä. Lisäksi asiantuntijat ovat varoitelleet sosiaalisessa mediassa olevista haittaohjelm...

  6. A comparison of latent class, K-means, and K-median methods for clustering dichotomous data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusco, Michael J; Shireman, Emilie; Steinley, Douglas

    2017-09-01

    The problem of partitioning a collection of objects based on their measurements on a set of dichotomous variables is a well-established problem in psychological research, with applications including clinical diagnosis, educational testing, cognitive categorization, and choice analysis. Latent class analysis and K-means clustering are popular methods for partitioning objects based on dichotomous measures in the psychological literature. The K-median clustering method has recently been touted as a potentially useful tool for psychological data and might be preferable to its close neighbor, K-means, when the variable measures are dichotomous. We conducted simulation-based comparisons of the latent class, K-means, and K-median approaches for partitioning dichotomous data. Although all 3 methods proved capable of recovering cluster structure, K-median clustering yielded the best average performance, followed closely by latent class analysis. We also report results for the 3 methods within the context of an application to transitive reasoning data, in which it was found that the 3 approaches can exhibit profound differences when applied to real data. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Outcomes following attempted en bloc resection of cervical chordomas in the C-1 and C-2 region versus the subaxial region: a multiinstitutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Camilo A; Ames, Christopher P; Chou, Dean; Rhines, Laurence D; Hsieh, Patrick C; Zadnik, Patricia L; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Sciubba, Daniel M

    2014-09-01

    Chordomas involving the mobile spine are ideally managed via en bloc resection with reconstruction to optimize local control and possibly offer cure. In the cervical spine, local anatomy poses unique challenges, limiting the feasibility of aggressive resection. The authors present a multi-institutional series of 16 cases of cervical chordomas removed en bloc. Particular attention was paid to clinical outcome, complications, and recurrence. In addition, outcomes were assessed according to position of tumor at the C1-2 level versus the subaxial (SA) spine (C3-7). The authors reviewed cases involving patients who underwent en bloc resection of cervical chordoma at 4 large spine centers. Patients were included if the lesion epicenter involved the C-1 to C-7 vertebral bodies. Demographic data and details of surgery, follow-up course, exposure to adjuvant therapy, and complications were obtained. Outcome was correlated with presence of tumor in C1-2 versus subaxial spine via a Student t-test. Sixteen patients were identified (mean age at presentation 55 ± 14 years). Seven cases (44%) cases involved C1-2, and 16 involved the subaxial spine. Median survival did not differ significantly different between the C1-2 (72 months) and SA (60 months) groups (p = 0.65). A combined (staged anteroposterior) approach was used in 81% of the cases. Use of the combined approach was significantly more common in treatment of subaxial than C1-2 tumors (100% vs 57%, p = 0.04). En bloc resection was attempted via an anterior approach in 6% of cases (C1-2: 14.3%; SA: 0%; p = 0.17) and a posterior approach in 13% of cases (C1-2: 29%; SA: 0%; p = 0.09). The most commonly reported margin classification was marginal (56% of cases), followed by violated (25%) and wide (19%). En bloc excision of subaxial tumors was significantly more likely to result in marginal margins than excision of C1-2 tumors (C1-2: 29%; SA: 78%; p = 0.03). C1-2 tumors were associated with significantly higher rates of

  8. Uncertain impacts on economic growth when stabilizing global temperatures at 1.5°C or 2°C warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretis, Felix; Schwarz, Moritz; Tang, Kevin; Haustein, Karsten; Allen, Myles R

    2018-05-13

    Empirical evidence suggests that variations in climate affect economic growth across countries over time. However, little is known about the relative impacts of climate change on economic outcomes when global mean surface temperature (GMST) is stabilized at 1.5°C or 2°C warming relative to pre-industrial levels. Here we use a new set of climate simulations under 1.5°C and 2°C warming from the 'Half a degree Additional warming, Prognosis and Projected Impacts' (HAPPI) project to assess changes in economic growth using empirical estimates of climate impacts in a global panel dataset. Panel estimation results that are robust to outliers and breaks suggest that within-year variability of monthly temperatures and precipitation has little effect on economic growth beyond global nonlinear temperature effects. While expected temperature changes under a GMST increase of 1.5°C lead to proportionally higher warming in the Northern Hemisphere, the projected impact on economic growth is larger in the Tropics and Southern Hemisphere. Accounting for econometric estimation and climate uncertainty, the projected impacts on economic growth of 1.5°C warming are close to indistinguishable from current climate conditions, while 2°C warming suggests statistically lower economic growth for a large set of countries (median projected annual growth up to 2% lower). Level projections of gross domestic product (GDP) per capita exhibit high uncertainties, with median projected global average GDP per capita approximately 5% lower at the end of the century under 2°C warming relative to 1.5°C. The correlation between climate-induced reductions in per capita GDP growth and national income levels is significant at the p  < 0.001 level, with lower-income countries experiencing greater losses, which may increase economic inequality between countries and is relevant to discussions of loss and damage under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.This article is part of

  9. Switching non-local vector median filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Jyohei; Koga, Takanori; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes a novel image filtering method that removes random-valued impulse noise superimposed on a natural color image. In impulse noise removal, it is essential to employ a switching-type filtering method, as used in the well-known switching median filter, to preserve the detail of an original image with good quality. In color image filtering, it is generally preferable to deal with the red (R), green (G), and blue (B) components of each pixel of a color image as elements of a vectorized signal, as in the well-known vector median filter, rather than as component-wise signals to prevent a color shift after filtering. By taking these fundamentals into consideration, we propose a switching-type vector median filter with non-local processing that mainly consists of a noise detector and a noise removal filter. Concretely, we propose a noise detector that proactively detects noise-corrupted pixels by focusing attention on the isolation tendencies of pixels of interest not in an input image but in difference images between RGB components. Furthermore, as the noise removal filter, we propose an extended version of the non-local median filter, we proposed previously for grayscale image processing, named the non-local vector median filter, which is designed for color image processing. The proposed method realizes a superior balance between the preservation of detail and impulse noise removal by proactive noise detection and non-local switching vector median filtering, respectively. The effectiveness and validity of the proposed method are verified in a series of experiments using natural color images.

  10. Functional Median Polish

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying; Genton, Marc G.

    2012-01-01

    polish is demonstrated by comparing its performance with the traditional functional ANOVA fitted by means under different outlier models in simulation studies. The functional median polish is illustrated on various applications in climate science

  11. Patients Lacking a KIR-Ligand of HLA Group C1 or C2 Have a Better Outcome after Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Martínez-Losada

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Donor natural killer (NK cells can destroy residual leukemic cells after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This effect is based on the interaction of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR of donor NK cells with ligands of the major histocompatibility complex found on the surface of the target cells. HLA-C1 subtypes provide the ligand for KIR2DL2 and KIR2DL3 and the HLA-C2 subtypes for KIR2DL1. We have studied the probability of relapse (PR after single-unit unrelated cord blood transplantation (UCBT in relation to the potential graft-vs.-leukemia effect mediated by NK cells present in the umbilical cord blood (UCB by analyzing KIR-ligand and HLA-C typing of the receptor. Data from 33 consecutive patients given a single unit UCBT were included. We have considered two groups of patients based on the absence or the presence of one of the C-ligands for inhibitory KIR and the incompatibility HLA-C1/2 between UCB and patients. Group 1 (n = 21: the patient lacks a C-ligand for inhibitory KIR present in UCB NK cells, i.e., patients homozygous C1/C1 or C2/C2. Group 2 (n = 12: patients heterozygous C1/C2 in which KIR-mediated graft-vs.-leukemia effect is not expected (presence of both C ligands for inhibitory KIR in the receptor. With a median follow-up post-UCBT of 93 months, patients with absence of a C-ligand for inhibitory KIRs (Group 1 showed a lower actuarial PR than patients with both C-ligands (group 2: 21 ± 10 vs. 68 ± 18% at 2 year and 36 ± 13 vs. 84 ± 14% at 5 years (p = 0.025, respectively. In patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the 2-year PR was 36 ± 21% for group 1 and 66 ± 26% for 2 (p = 0.038. Furthermore, group 1 had a lower incidence of grades II–IV acute graft-vs.-host disease (p = 0.04. In the setting of UCBT, the absence of a C-ligand (C1 or C2 of inhibitory KIR in the patient is associated with lower PR, which is probably due to the graft

  12. Testing the gravity p-median model empirically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Carling

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the location of a facility, the presumption in the widely used p-median model is that the customer opts for the shortest route to the nearest facility. However, this assumption is problematic on free markets since the customer is presumed to gravitate to a facility by the distance to and the attractiveness of it. The recently introduced gravity p-median model offers an extension to the p-median model that account for this. The model is therefore potentially interesting, although it has not yet been implemented and tested empirically. In this paper, we have implemented the model in an empirical problem of locating vehicle inspections, locksmiths, and retail stores of vehicle spare-parts for the purpose of investigating its superiority to the p-median model. We found, however, the gravity p-median model to be of limited use for the problem of locating facilities as it either gives solutions similar to the p-median model, or it gives unstable solutions due to a non-concave objective function.

  13. A1c Gear: Laboratory quality HbA1c measurement at the point of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejilemele, Adetoun; Unabia, Jamie; Ju, Hyunsu; Petersen, John R

    2015-05-20

    HbA1c is an important part of assessing the diabetic control and since the use of point-of-care devices for monitoring HbA1c is increasing, it is important to determine how these devices compare to the central laboratory. One hundred and twenty patient samples were analyzed on the Bio-Rad Variant™II and one POC analyzer (Sakae A1c Gear). Three patient sample pools containing ~5%, ~7%, and ~10% HbA1c levels were run over 20 days. Three reagent lots and three instruments were evaluated for the A1c Gear. The 120 patient samples showed strong correlation (R(2)>0.989) when compared to the Variant™II with means=8.06% and 7.81%, for Variant IIand A1c Gear, respectively. Changing reagent lots or instruments had no impact for the A1c Gear. The ~5%, ~7%, and ~10% pools within-run and between-run imprecision was between 0.87-1.33% and 1.03-1.32%, and 1.41-2.35% and 1.24-1.89% with total imprecision of 1.67-2.35% and 1.61-2.31% for the A1c Gear and Variant II, respectively. The A1c Gear showed a small negative bias (0.25% HbA1c) across HbA1c measurement ranges of Gear meets the criteria of total CV Gear can give results as precise as the laboratory at the POC. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Extreme sea level implications of 1.5 °C, 2.0 °C, and 2.5 °C temperature stabilization targets in the 21st and 22nd centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, D. J.; Bittermann, Klaus; Buchanan, Maya K.; Kulp, Scott; Strauss, Benjamin H.; Kopp, Robert E.; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Sea-level rise (SLR) is magnifying the frequency and severity of extreme sea levels (ESLs) that can cause coastal flooding. The rate and amount of global mean sea-level (GMSL) rise is a function of the trajectory of global mean surface temperature (GMST). Therefore, temperature stabilization targets (e.g. 1.5 °C and 2.0 °C of warming above pre-industrial levels, as from the Paris Agreement) have important implications for coastal flood risk. Here, we assess, in a global network of tide gauges, the differences in the expected frequencies of ESLs between scenarios that stabilize GMST warming at 1.5 °C, 2.0 °C, and 2.5 °C above pre-industrial levels. We employ probabilistic, localized SLR projections and long-term hourly tide gauge records to estimate the expected frequencies of historical and future ESLs for the 21st and 22nd centuries. By 2100, under 1.5 °C, 2.0 °C, and 2.5 °C GMST stabilization, the median GMSL is projected to rise 48 cm (90% probability of 28-82 cm), 56 cm (28-96 cm), and 58 cm (37-93 cm), respectively. As an independent comparison, a semi-empirical sea level model calibrated to temperature and GMSL over the past two millennia estimates median GMSL rise within 7-8 cm of these projections. By 2150, relative to the 2.0 °C scenario and based on median sea level projections, GMST stabilization of 1.5 °C spares the inundation of lands currently home to about 5 million people, including 60 000 individuals currently residing in Small Island Developing States. We quantify projected changes to the expected frequency of historical 10-, 100-, and 500-year ESL events using frequency amplification factors that incorporate uncertainty in both local SLR and historical return periods of ESLs. By 2150, relative to a 2.0 °C scenario, the reduction in the frequency amplification of the historical 100 year ESL event arising from a 1.5 °C GMST stabilization is greatest in the eastern United States, with ESL event

  15. Pregnancy-induced rise in serum C-peptide concentrations in women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Ringholm; Rehfeld, Jens F; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether pregnancy induces increased insulin production as a marker of improved beta-cell function in women with long-term type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a prospective study of 90 consecutive pregnant women with type 1.......85). Multivariate regression analysis revealed a positive association between the absolute increase in C-peptide concentrations during pregnancy and decreased A1C from 8 to 33 weeks (P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: A pregnancy-induced increase in C-peptide concentrations in women with long-term type 1 diabetes...... in 35 women. RESULTS: C-peptide concentrations gradually increased throughout pregnancy regardless of serum glucose concentrations in the 90 women with a median duration of diabetes of 17 years (range 1-36 years). Among 35 women with paired recordings of stimulated C-peptide, C-peptide production...

  16. Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome: A Single-Center Experience with 23 Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasr, Layla A. [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (Lebanon); Faraj, Walid G. [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Department of Surgery (Lebanon); Al-Kutoubi, Aghiad [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (Lebanon); Hamady, Mohamad [Imperial College-London Faculty of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Khalifeh, Mohamad; Hallal, Ali; Halawani, Hamzeh M. [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Department of Surgery (Lebanon); Wazen, Joelle; Haydar, Ali A., E-mail: ah24@aub.edu.lb [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (Lebanon)

    2017-05-15

    BackgroundMedian arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS) is a rare entity that occurs when the median arcuate ligament of the diaphragm is low-lying, causing a compression to the underlying celiac trunk. We reviewed the vascular changes associated with MALS in an effort to emphasize the seriousness of this disease and the complications that may result.MethodsThis is a retrospective descriptive analysis of 23 consecutive patients diagnosed with MALS between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2015 at a tertiary medical center. Computed tomographic (CT) scans, medical records, and patient follow-up were reviewed.ResultsThe number of patients included herein was 23. The median age was 56 years (17–83). Sixteen patients (69.6%) had a significant arterial collateral circulation. Eleven patients (47.8%) were found to have visceral artery aneurysms; 4 patients (36.4%) bled secondary to aneurysm rupture. All ruptured aneurysms were treated with endovascular approach. The severity of the hemodynamic changes appears to be greater with complete occlusion,ConclusionsMALS causes pathological hemodynamic changes within the abdominal vasculature. Follow-up is advised for patients who develop a collateral circulation. Resulting aneurysms should preferably be treated when the size ratio approaches three. Treatment of these aneurysms can be done via an endovascular approach coupled with possible celiac artery decompression to restore physiologic blood flow.

  17. Electromyogram median power frequency in dynamic exercise at medium exercise intensities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, W; Bonga, GJJ; Hof, AL; Verkerke, GJ

    The electromyogram (EMG) median power Frequency of the calf muscles was investigated during an exhausting treadmill exercise and a 20-min recovery period. The exercise was an uphill run at a speed of 5 km . h(-1) and a gradient of 20%. During exercise there was no decrease of EMG median power

  18. Trimester-specific reference intervals for haemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Catherine

    2011-11-26

    Abstract Background: Diabetes in pregnancy imposes additional risks to both mother and infant. These increased risks are considered to be primarily related to glycaemic control which is monitored by means of glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)). The correlation of HbA(1c) with clinical outcomes emphasises the need to measure HbA(1c) accurately, precisely and for correct interpretation, comparison to appropriately defined reference intervals. Since July 2010, the HbA(1c) assay in Irish laboratories is fully metrologically traceable to the IFCC standard. The objective was to establish trimester-specific reference intervals in pregnancy for IFCC standardised HbA(1c) in non-diabetic Caucasian women. Methods: The authors recruited 311 non-diabetic Caucasian pregnant (n=246) and non-pregnant women (n=65). A selective screening based on risk factors for gestational diabetes was employed. All subjects had a random plasma glucose <7.7 mmol\\/L and normal haemoglobin level. Pregnancy trimester was defined as trimester 1 (T1, n=40) up to 12 weeks +6 days, trimester 2 (T2, n=106) 13-27 weeks +6 days, trimester 3 (T3, n=100) >28 weeks to term. Results: The normal HbA(1c) reference interval for Caucasian non-pregnant women was 29-37 mmol\\/mol (Diabetes Control and Complications Trial; DCCT: 4.8%-5.5%), T1: 24-36 mmol\\/mol (DCCT: 4.3%-5.4%), T2: 25-35 mmol\\/mol (DCCT: 4.4%-5.4%) and T3: 28-39 mmol\\/mol (DCCT: 4.7%-5.7%). HbA(1c) was significantly decreased in trimesters 1 and 2 compared to non-pregnant women. Conclusions: HbA(1c) trimester-specific reference intervals are required to better inform the management of pregnancies complicated by diabetes.

  19. A1C Test and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosis The A1C Test & Diabetes The A1C Test & Diabetes On this page: What is the A1C test? ... the A1C test used to diagnose type 2 diabetes and prediabetes? Health care professionals can use the ...

  20. A GPU-Based Genetic Algorithm for the P-Median Problem

    OpenAIRE

    AlBdaiwi, Bader F.; AboElFotoh, Hosam M. F.

    2016-01-01

    The p-median problem is a well-known NP-hard problem. Many heuristics have been proposed in the literature for this problem. In this paper, we exploit a GPGPU parallel computing platform to present a new genetic algorithm implemented in Cuda and based on a Pseudo Boolean formulation of the p-median problem. We have tested the effectiveness of our algorithm using a Tesla K40 (2880 Cuda cores) on 290 different benchmark instances obtained from OR-Library, discrete location problems benchmark li...

  1. GB Virus C (GBV-C Infection in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV Seropositive Women with or at Risk for HIV Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason T Blackard

    Full Text Available GB virus C (GBV-C may have a beneficial impact on HIV disease progression; however, the epidemiologic characteristics of this virus are not well characterized. Behavioral factors and gender may lead to differential rates of GBV-C infection; yet, studies have rarely addressed GBV-C infections in women or racial/ethnic minorities. Therefore, we evaluated GBV-C RNA prevalence and genotype distribution in a large prospective study of high-risk women in the US.438 hepatitis C virus (HCV seropositive women, including 306 HIV-infected and 132 HIV-uninfected women, from the HIV Epidemiologic Research Study were evaluated for GBV-C RNA. 347 (79.2% women were GBV-C RNA negative, while 91 (20.8% were GBV-C RNA positive. GBV-C positive women were younger than GBV-C negative women. Among 306 HIV-infected women, 70 (22.9% women were HIV/GBV-C co-infected. Among HIV-infected women, the only significant difference between GBV-negative and GBV-positive women was age (mean 38.4 vs. 35.1 years; p<0.001. Median baseline CD4 cell counts and plasma HIV RNA levels were similar. The GBV-C genotypes were 1 (n = 31; 44.3%, 2 (n = 36; 51.4%, and 3 (n = 3; 4.3%. The distribution of GBV-C genotypes in co-infected women differed significantly by race/ethnicity. However, median CD4 cell counts and log10 HIV RNA levels did not differ by GBV-C genotype. GBV-C incidence was 2.7% over a median follow-up of 2.9 (IQR: 1.5, 4.9 years, while GBV-C clearance was 35.7% over a median follow-up of 2.44 (1.4, 3.5 years. 4 women switched genotypes.Age, injection drug use, a history of sex for money or drugs, and number of recent male sex partners were associated with GBV-C infection among all women in this analysis. However, CD4 cell count and HIV viral load of HIV/HCV/GBV-C co-infected women were not different although race was associated with GBV-C genotype.

  2. Temporal HbA1c patterns amongst patients with type 2 diabetes referred for specialist care: Data from the S4S-DINGO-Diabetes Informatics Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Teresa; Hoffman, David M; Cukier, Kimberly; Darnell, David; Greenfield, Jerry R; Harrison, Natalie; Hng, Tien-Ming; Morrow, Anthony F; Cheung, N Wah

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the achievement of HbA1c targets in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in specialist practice. This audit was undertaken by members of the S4S Diabetes Informatics Group (DINGO), a consortium of Australian endocrinologists in private practice who contribute de-identified data from their electronic medical record, Audit 4 (Software 4 Specialists, S4S, Australia & New Zealand) for audit purposes. Data from patients with type 2 diabetes was extracted. Inclusion criteria were: initial ageHbA1c>7% (53mmol/mol), with at least another HbA1c recorded in the next 2years, and a minimum of 2years follow-up. Data was analysed using a linear mixed effects model. Of the 4796 patients in the dataset with type 2 diabetes mellitus, 1379 patients fulfilled inclusion criteria. The median age at initial consultation was 57 (49-64)years. The median baseline HbA1c was 8.7 (7.8-9.8)% (72mmol/mol). There was a 1.0% reduction in HbA1c to 7.7 (7.1-8.6)% (61mmol/mol) (pHbA1c. Referral of patients with type 2 diabetes to an endocrinologist reduces HbA1c, and the effect is sustained over the medium term; however only a minority of patients reach targets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of a point-of-care analyser for the determination of HbA1c with HPLC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, D A; Dunseath, G J; Churm, R; Luzio, S D

    2017-08-01

    As the use of Point of Care Testing (POCT) devices for measurement of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) increases, it is imperative to determine how their performance compares to laboratory methods. This study compared the performance of the automated Quo-Test POCT device (EKF Diagnostics), which uses boronate fluorescence quenching technology, with a laboratory based High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method (Biorad D10) for measurement of HbA1c. Whole blood EDTA samples from subjects (n=100) with and without diabetes were assayed using a BioRad D10 and a Quo-Test analyser. Intra-assay variation was determined by measuring six HbA1c samples in triplicate and inter-assay variation was determined by assaying four samples on 4 days. Stability was determined by assaying three samples stored at -20 °C for 14 and 28 days post collection. Median (IQR) HbA1c was 60 (44.0-71.2) mmol/mol (7.6 (6.17-8.66) %) and 62 (45.0-69.0) mmol/mol (7.8 (6.27-8.46) %) for D10 and Quo-Test, respectively, with very good agreement (R 2 =0.969, Pglucose intolerance (IGT and T2DM) and 100% for diagnosis of T2DM. Good agreement between the D10 and Quo-Test was seen across a wide HbA1c range. The Quo-Test POCT device provided similar performance to a laboratory based HPLC method.

  4. High Virologic Failure Rates with Maraviroc-Based Salvage Regimens Among Indian Patients: A Preliminary Analysis-Maraviroc Effectiveness in HIV-1 Subtype C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujari, Sanjay; Gaikwad, Sunil; Bele, Vivek; Joshi, Kedar; Dabhade, Digamber

    2018-01-01

    There is no information on the clinical effectiveness of Maraviroc (MVC) amongst People Living with HIV (PLHIV) in India infected with HIV-1 Subtype C viruses. We conducted a retrospective chart review of adult PLHIV on MVC based Antiretroviral (ARV) regimens for at least 6 months. Maraviroc was initiated amongst PLHIV with documented R5 tropic viruses (determined by in-house population sequencing of the V3 loop in triplicate and interpreted using the Geno2Pheno algorithm) in combination with an Optimized Background regimen (designed using genotypic resistance testing and past ARV history). Plasma viral loads (PVL) are performed 6 months post-initiation and annually thereafter. Primary outcome d. Median duration on MVC treatment was 1.8 years (range 1-2.9 years) while median duration of ART prior to switching to MVC was 13 years. Maraviroc was combined with Darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) (n=10), Atazanavir/r (ATV/r) (n=2) and Lopinavir/r (LPV/r) (n=1). All PLHIV were infected with HIV-1 Subtype C. Only 23.3% PLHIV achieved virologic suppression at 6 months and sustained it for 2.3 years. Median CD4 count change from baseline was +117 (n=13), +228 (n=10), +253 (n=9), and +331 (n=4) at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months respectively. Repeat tropism among patients with virologic failure demonstrated R5 virus. High rates of virologic failure was seen when MVC was used amongst treatment experienced PLHIV infected with HIV-1 Subtype C in India. was the proportion of PLHIV with virologic success (PVL<50 copies/ml) at last follow up visit. Data on 13 PLHIV were analyze.

  5. Usefulness of ultrasound assessment of median nerve mobility in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gi-Young; Kwon, Dong Rak; Seok, Jung Im; Park, Dong-Soon; Cho, Hee Kyung

    2018-01-01

    Background Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common peripheral compression neuropathy of the upper extremity. Recently, dynamic ultrasound (US) imaging has shown differences in median nerve mobility between the affected and unaffected sides in CTS. Purpose The present study was performed to compare the median nerve mobility between patients with CTS and healthy individuals, and to correlate median nerve mobility with the severity of CTS. Material and Methods A total of 101 patients (128 wrists) with CTS and 43 healthy individuals (70 wrists) were evaluated. Electrodiagnostic studies were initially conducted to determine the neurophysiological grading scale (NGS). The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve and the grade of median nerve mobility were measured using US. Results The mean grade of median nerve mobility in the CTS group (1.9) was significantly lower than that in the control group (2.6; P mobility and distal motor latency of the median nerve (r = -0.218, P = 0.015), NGS (r = -0.207, P = 0.020) and CSA of the median nerve (r = -0.196, P = 0.028). Conclusion The grade of median nerve mobility was negatively correlated with the severity of CTS. US assessment of median nerve mobility may be useful in diagnosing and determining the severity of CTS.

  6. Effects of dapagliflozin on insulin-requirement, glucose excretion and ß-hydroxybutyrate levels are not related to baseline HbA1c in youth with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biester, Torben; Aschemeier, Baerbel; Fath, Maryam; Frey, Marcel; Scheerer, Markus F; Kordonouri, Olga; Danne, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) infrequently achieve HbA1c targets. Therefore, this placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover study was set up to assess the safety, effect and pharmacokinetics of a single dose of 10 mg dapagliflozin (DAPA) as add-on to insulin in relationship to HbA1c in youth. A total of 33 youths (14 males, median age 16 years, diabetes duration 8 years) were included and stratified into 3 baseline HbA1c categories (9.0; n = 11 each). During the study period of 24 hours, intravenous insulin administration and glucose-infusion kept blood glucose levels at 160 to 220 mg/dL. DAPA reduced mean insulin dose by 13.6% ( P  HbA1c. Six independent episodes in 6 patients with plasma ß-hydroxybutyrate levels between ≥0.6 and HbA1c levels, for adjunct SGLT2-inhibitor therapy in the paediatric age group by lowering insulin dose and increasing glucose excretion. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Synthesis of the C1-C28 Portion of Spongistatin 1 (Altohyrtin A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claffey, Michelle M.; Hayes, Christopher J.; Heathcock, Clayton H.

    1999-10-29

    A synthetic approach was developed to the C1-C28 subunit of spongistatin 1 (altohyrtin A, 65). The key step was the coupling of the AB and CD spiroketal moieties via an anti-aldol reaction of aldehyde 62 and ethyl ketone 57. The development of a method for the construction of the AB spiroketal fragment is described and included the desymmetrization of C(2)-symmetric diketone 10 and the differentiation of the two primary alcohols of 16. Further elaboration of this advanced intermediate to the desired aldehyde 62 included an Evans' syn-aldol reaction and Tebbe olefination. The synthesis of the CD spiroketal fragment 56 involved the ketalization of a triol-dione, generated in situ by deprotection of 45, to provide a favorable ratio (6-7:1) of spiroketal isomers 46 and 47, respectively. The overall protecting group strategy, involving many selective manipulations of silyl protecting groups, was successfully developed to provide the desired C1-C28 subunit of spongistatin 1 (altohyrtin A) (65).

  8. A complex of cardiac cytochrome c1 and cytochrome c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Y L; Kaminsky, L S; King, T E

    1976-01-10

    The interactions of cytochrome c1 and cytochrome c from bovine cardiac mitochondria were investigated. Cytochrome c1 and cytochrome c formed a 1:1 molecular complex in aqueous solutions of low ionic strength. The complex was stable to Sephadex G-75 chromatography. The formation and stability of the complex were independent of the oxidation state of the cytochrome components as far as those reactions studied were concerned. The complex was dissociated in solutions of ionic strength higher than 0.07 or pH exceeding 10 and only partially dissociated in 8 M urea. No complexation occurred when cytochrome c was acetylated on 64% of its lysine residues or photooxidized on its 2 methionine residues. Complexes with molecular ratios of less than 1:1 (i.e. more cytochrome c) were obtained when polymerized cytochrome c, or cytochrome c with all lysine residues guanidinated, or a "1-65 heme peptide" from cyanogen bromide cleavage of cytochrome c was used. These results were interpreted to imply that the complex was predominantly maintained by ionic interactions probably involving some of the lysine residues of cytochrome c but with major stabilization dependent on the native conformations of both cytochromes. The reduced complex was autooxidizable with biphasic kinetics with first order rate constants of 6 X 10(-5) and 5 X U0(-5) s-1 but did not react with carbon monoxide. The complex reacted with cyanide and was reduced by ascorbate at about 32% and 40% respectively, of the rates of reaction with cytochrome c alone. The complex was less photoreducible than cytochrome c1 alone. The complex exhibited remarkably different circular dichroic behavior from that of the summation of cytochrome c1 plus cytochrome c. We concluded that when cytochromes c1 and c interacted they underwent dramatic conformational changes resulting in weakening of their heme crevices. All results available would indicate that in the complex cytochrome c1 was bound at the entrance to the heme crevice of

  9. Intraneural hemangioma of the median nerve: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevinç Teoman

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hemangiomas of the median nerve are very rare and, so far, only ten cases of intraneural hemangioma of this nerve have been reported in the literature. We present a case of 14-year-old girl who had a soft tissue mass in the region of the left wrist with signs and symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. Total removal of the mass was achieved using microsurgical epineural and interfasicular dissection. The symptoms were relieved completely, after this procedure, without any neurologic deficit. On follow-up two years later, no recurrence was observed. Whenever a child or young adult patient presents with CTS the possibility of a hemangioma involving the median nerve should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis.

  10. Median nerve fascicular anatomy as a basis for distal neural prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planitzer, Uwe; Steinke, Hanno; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Bechmann, Ingo; Hammer, Niels; Winkler, Dirk

    2014-05-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) serves as a possible therapy to restore missing motor functions of peripheral nerves by means of cuff electrodes. FES is established for improving lower limb function. Transferring this method to the upper extremity is complex, due to a lack of anatomical data on the physiological configuration of nerve fascicles. Our study's aim was to provide an anatomical basis for FES of the median nerve in the distal forearm and hand. We investigated 21 distal median nerves from 12 body donors. The peripheral fascicles were traced back by removing the external and interfascicular epineurium and then assigned to 4 quadrants. A distinct motor and sensory distribution was observed. The fascicles innervating the thenar eminence and the first lumbrical muscle originated from the nerves' radial parts in 82%. The fascicle supplying the second lumbrical muscle originated from the ulnar side in 78%. No macroscopically visible plexus formation was observed for the distal median nerve in the forearm. The findings on the distribution of the motor branches of the median nerve and the missing plexus formation may likely serve as an anatomical basis for FES of the distal forearm. However, due to the considerable variability of the motor branches, cuff electrodes will need to be adapted individually in FES. Taking into account the sensory distribution of the median nerve, FES may also possibly be applied in the treatment of regional pain syndromes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Why Are Hemoglobin A1c Tests Done? When a child has diabetes, hemoglobin A1c levels are followed to see how well medicines are working. If a child with diabetes has a high hemoglobin A1c level, it may ...

  12. MEDIAN: Wireless broadband LAN for multimedia applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, P.J. van

    1998-01-01

    MEDIAN is one of the projects in the mobile domain of the Advanced Communications Technologies and Services (ACTS) programme of the European Commission. The main obiective of the MEDIAN project is to evaluate and implement a high speed Wireless Customer Premises / Local Area Network (WCPN/WLAN)

  13. Median Nerve Conduction in Healthy Nigerians: Normative Data

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of median nerve disease using multiple studies, and rendering ... Aim: To develop normative values for motor and sensory median nerve ..... Table 5: Comparison of median motor nerve conduction study parameters to studies elsewhere. Study.

  14. Elevations in the Fasting Serum Proinsulin–to–C-Peptide Ratio Precede the Onset of Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Emily K.; Chaudhry, Zunaira; Watkins, Renecia; Syed, Farooq; Blum, Janice; Ouyang, Fangqian; Perkins, Susan M.; Mirmira, Raghavendra G.; Sosenko, Jay; DiMeglio, Linda A.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We tested whether an elevation in the serum proinsulin–to–C-peptide ratio (PI:C), a biomarker of β-cell endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dysfunction, was associated with progression to type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Fasting total PI and C levels were measured in banked serum samples obtained from TrialNet Pathway to Prevention (PTP) participants, a cohort of autoantibody-positive relatives without diabetes of individuals with type 1 diabetes. Samples were obtained ∼12 months before diabetes onset from PTP progressors in whom diabetes developed (n = 60), and were compared with age-, sex-, and BMI-matched nonprogressors who remained normoglycemic (n = 58). PI:C ratios were calculated as molar ratios and were multiplied by 100% to obtain PI levels as a percentage of C levels. RESULTS Although absolute PI levels did not differ between groups, PI:C ratios were significantly increased in antibody-positive subjects in whom there was progression to diabetes compared with nonprogressors (median 1.81% vs. 1.17%, P = 0.03). The difference between groups was most pronounced in subjects who were ≤10 years old, where the median progressor PI:C ratio was nearly triple that of nonprogressors; 90.0% of subjects in this age group within the upper PI:C quartile progressed to the development of diabetes. Logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age and BMI, demonstrated increased odds of progression for higher natural log PI:C ratio values (odds ratio 1.44, 95% CI 1.02, 2.05). CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that β-cell ER dysfunction precedes type 1 diabetes onset, especially in younger children. Elevations in the serum PI:C ratio may have utility in predicting the onset of type 1 diabetes in the presymptomatic phase. PMID:27385327

  15. Elevations in the Fasting Serum Proinsulin-to-C-Peptide Ratio Precede the Onset of Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Emily K; Chaudhry, Zunaira; Watkins, Renecia; Syed, Farooq; Blum, Janice; Ouyang, Fangqian; Perkins, Susan M; Mirmira, Raghavendra G; Sosenko, Jay; DiMeglio, Linda A; Evans-Molina, Carmella

    2016-09-01

    We tested whether an elevation in the serum proinsulin-to-C-peptide ratio (PI:C), a biomarker of β-cell endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dysfunction, was associated with progression to type 1 diabetes. Fasting total PI and C levels were measured in banked serum samples obtained from TrialNet Pathway to Prevention (PTP) participants, a cohort of autoantibody-positive relatives without diabetes of individuals with type 1 diabetes. Samples were obtained ∼12 months before diabetes onset from PTP progressors in whom diabetes developed (n = 60), and were compared with age-, sex-, and BMI-matched nonprogressors who remained normoglycemic (n = 58). PI:C ratios were calculated as molar ratios and were multiplied by 100% to obtain PI levels as a percentage of C levels. Although absolute PI levels did not differ between groups, PI:C ratios were significantly increased in antibody-positive subjects in whom there was progression to diabetes compared with nonprogressors (median 1.81% vs. 1.17%, P = 0.03). The difference between groups was most pronounced in subjects who were ≤10 years old, where the median progressor PI:C ratio was nearly triple that of nonprogressors; 90.0% of subjects in this age group within the upper PI:C quartile progressed to the development of diabetes. Logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age and BMI, demonstrated increased odds of progression for higher natural log PI:C ratio values (odds ratio 1.44, 95% CI 1.02, 2.05). These data suggest that β-cell ER dysfunction precedes type 1 diabetes onset, especially in younger children. Elevations in the serum PI:C ratio may have utility in predicting the onset of type 1 diabetes in the presymptomatic phase. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  16. Estimation of in vitro activity of tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurons by measurement of DOPA synthesis in the median eminence of hypothalamic slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, J; Kimura, F

    1984-12-01

    A new method for estimation of in vitro neurosecretory activity of tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons was developed by measuring the rate of synthesis of dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) in the median eminence of hypothalamic slices. Sagittal hypothalamic slices of ovariectomized rats were incubated in a medium containing 3-hydroxybenzylhydrazine (NSD 1015), an inhibitor of DOPA decarboxylase. DOPA accumulated in the median eminence following incubation with NSD 1015 was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electro-chemical detection. The amount of DOPA accumulated in vitro in the median eminence was maximal in a medium containing 10 mM NSD 1015 and linear up to 120 min at 37 degrees C. Increasing the concentration of tyrosine in medium stimulated the synthesis of DOPA in the median eminence. The synthesis of DOPA was blocked by 1 mM alpha-methyltyrosine, an inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase. The rate of in vitro synthesis of DOPA in the median eminence was 33% of that of in vivo synthesis. Incubation in a medium containing 50 mM K+ to depolarize neurons caused a 2.4-fold increase in DOPA synthesis in the median eminence. The high K+-induced increase in DOPA synthesis was blocked by omission of Ca2+ and addition of 1 mM EGTA into the medium, suggesting Ca2+ dependency of depolarization-activated DOPA synthesis. These results indicate that this in vitro assay is a useful means to study the regulatory mechanisms of TIDA neurons.

  17. On Preliminary Test Estimator for Median

    OpenAIRE

    Okazaki, Takeo; 岡崎, 威生

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to discuss about estimation of median with a preliminary test. Two procedures are presented, one uses Median test and the other uses Wilcoxon two-sample test for the preliminary test. Sections 3 and 4 give mathematical formulations of such properties, including mean square errors with one specified case. Section 5 discusses their optimal significance levels of the preliminary test and proposes their numerical values by Monte Carlo method. In addition to mea...

  18. Synthesis of [2-13C, 2-14C] 2-aminoethanol, [1-13C, 1-14C] 2-chloroethylamine, N,N'-bis([1-13C, 1-14C] 2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosourea(BCNU) and N-([1-13C, 1-14C] 2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosourea(CNU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, R.; Chang, C-j.

    1982-01-01

    [2- 13 C, 2- 14 C]2-Aminoethanol hydrochloride was prepared in good yield from Na*CN in a two step sequence by first converting the Na*CN to OHCH 2 *CN and then reducing the nitrile directly with a solution of borane-tetrahydrofuran complex. The reaction procedure was simple and the pure product could be obtained readily. Using this specifically labelled precursor, the synthesis of [1- 13 C, 1- 14 C]2-chloroethylamine hydrochloride, N-([1- 13 C, 1- 14 C]2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosourea(CNU) and N,N'-bis([1- 13 C, 1- 14 C]2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosourea(BCNU) in good yield without isotope scrambling was also reported. (author)

  19. Beyond HbA1c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomgarden, Zachary

    2017-12-01

    It can scarcely be denied that the supreme goal of all theory is to make the irreducible basic elements as simple and as few as possible without having to surrender the adequate representation of a single datum of experience. The diaTribe Foundation convened a meeting on the topic of glycemic outcomes beyond HbA1c on 21 July 2017, in Bethesda (MD, USA), focusing on potential uses of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Understanding patterns of glycemia in people with diabetes has long been a focus of approaches to improving treatment, and over the past few years this has become an available modality for clinical practice. Glucose levels are not the only biologic parameters affecting HbA1c levels; HbA1c changes with anemia or, more subtly, with changes in rates of erythrocyte turnover not reflected in hemoglobin levels outside the normal range. Renal disease often is associated with lower HbA1c than would be predicted based on an individual's glycemic levels. Furthermore, HbA1c levels tend to increase with age and are higher in some ethnic groups; for example, people of African ethnicity have higher HbA1c levels than people of Northern European descent. Indeed, we have argued that even as a measure of mean glycemia HbA1c is inherently imprecise. Overall, for some 20% of people with diabetes, HbA1c levels are substantially higher, or substantially lower, than those that would be predicted from mean blood glucose levels. If one recognizes that HbA1c is, at best, a partial measure of mean glycemic exposure, one must surely accept that HbA1c does not reflect variability within a day, from day to day, and from period to period. Many glucose-lowering medicines, particularly the sulfonylureas and insulin, cause hypoglycemia, with consequent negative effects on quality of life and patient-reported outcomes, as well as association with weight gain and adverse macrovascular outcome; hypoglycemia will, of course, not be captured by HbA1c measurement. Based on these

  20. Ultrahigh-frequency ultrasound of fascicles in the median nerve at the wrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Michael S; Baute, Vanessa; Caress, James B; Walker, Francis O

    2017-10-01

    An ultrahigh-frequency (70 MHZ) ultrasound device has recently been approved for human use. This study seeks to determine whether this device facilitates counting of fascicles within the median nerve at the wrist. Twenty healthy volunteers underwent imaging of the median nerve at the wrist bilaterally. The number of fascicles in each nerve was counted by two independent raters. The mean fascicle number was 22.68. Correlation was strong between the two raters (r = 0.68, P nerve area did not predict fascicle number. Those with bifid median nerves and persistent median arteries had lower fascicle density than those without anatomic anomalies (1.79 vs. 2.29; P = 0.01). Fascicles within the median nerve at the wrist can be readily imaged. Ultrahigh-frequency ultrasound technology may be informative in a variety of disorders affecting the peripheral nervous system. Muscle Nerve 56: 819-822, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Relationship between median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials and spinal cord injury levels in patients with quadriplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arruda Serra Gaspar, M I F; Cliquet, A; Fernandes Lima, V M; de Abreu, D C C

    2009-05-01

    Cross-sectional study. To observe if there is a relationship between the level of injury by the American Spinal Cord Injury Association (ASIA) and cortical somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) recordings of the median nerve in patients with quadriplegia. Rehabilitation Outpatient Clinic at the university hospital in Brazil. Fourteen individuals with quadriplegia and 8 healthy individuals were evaluated. Electrophysiological assessment of the median nerve was performed by evoked potential equipment. The injury level was obtained by ASIA. N(9), N(13) and N(20) were analyzed based on the presence or absence of responses. The parameters used for analyzing these responses were the latency and the amplitude. Data were analyzed using mixed-effect models. N(9) responses were found in all patients with quadriplegia with a similar latency and amplitude observed in healthy individuals; N(13) responses were not found in any patients with quadriplegia. N(20) responses were not found in C5 patients with quadriplegia but it was present in C6 and C7 patients. Their latencies were similar to healthy individuals (P>0.05) but the amplitudes were decreased (P<0.05). This study suggests that the SSEP responses depend on the injury level, considering that the individuals with C6 and C7 injury levels, both complete and incomplete, presented SSEP recordings in the cortical area. It also showed a relationship between the level of spinal cord injury assessed by ASIA and the median nerve SSEP responses, through the latency and amplitude recordings.

  2. Median nerve trauma in a rat model of work-related musculoskeletal disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brian D; Barr, Ann E; Safadi, Fayez F; Beitman, Lisa; Al-Shatti, Talal; Amin, Mamta; Gaughan, John P; Barbe, Mary F

    2003-07-01

    Anatomical and physiological changes were evaluated in the median nerves of rats trained to perform repetitive reaching. Motor degradation was evident after 4 weeks. ED1-immunoreactive macrophages were seen in the transcarpal region of the median nerve of both forelimbs by 5-6 weeks. Fibrosis, characterized by increased immunoexpression of collagen type I by 8 weeks and connective tissue growth factor by 12 weeks, was evident. The conduction velocity (NCV) within the carpal tunnel showed a modest but significant decline after 9-12 weeks. The lowest NCV values were found in animals that refused to participate in the task for the full time available. Thus, both anatomical and physiological signs of progressive tissue damage were present in this model. These results, together with other recent findings indicate that work-related carpal tunnel syndrome develops through mechanisms that include injury, inflammation, fibrosis and subsequent nerve compression.

  3. Early Glycemic Control and Magnitude of HbA1c Reduction Predict Cardiovascular Events and Mortality: Population-Based Cohort Study of 24,752 Metformin Initiators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Elisabeth; Baggesen, Lisbeth M; Johnsen, Søren P; Pedersen, Lars; Nørrelund, Helene; Buhl, Esben S; Haase, Christiane L; Thomsen, Reimar W

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the association of early achieved HbA 1c level and magnitude of HbA 1c reduction with subsequent risk of cardiovascular events or death in patients with type 2 diabetes who initiate metformin. This was a population-based cohort study including all metformin initiators with HbA 1c tests in Northern Denmark, 2000-2012. Six months after metformin initiation, we classified patients by HbA 1c achieved (<6.5% or higher) and by magnitude of HbA 1c change from the pretreatment baseline. We used Cox regression to examine subsequent rates of acute myocardial infarction, stroke, or death, controlling for baseline HbA 1c and other confounding factors. We included 24,752 metformin initiators (median age 62.5 years, 55% males) with a median follow-up of 2.6 years. The risk of a combined outcome event gradually increased with rising levels of HbA 1c achieved compared with a target HbA 1c of <6.5%: adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.18 (95% CI 1.07-1.30) for 6.5-6.99%, HR 1.23 (1.09-1.40) for 7.0-7.49%, HR 1.34 (1.14-1.57) for 7.5-7.99%, and HR 1.59 (1.37-1.84) for ≥8%. Results were consistent for individual outcome events and robust by age-group and other patient characteristics. A large absolute HbA 1c reduction from baseline also predicted outcome: adjusted HR 0.80 (0.65-0.97) for Δ = -4, HR 0.98 (0.80-1.20) for Δ = -3, HR 0.92 (0.78-1.08) for Δ = -2, and HR 0.99 (0.89-1.10) for Δ = -1 compared with no HbA 1c change (Δ = 0). A large initial HbA 1c reduction and achievement of low HbA 1c levels within 6 months after metformin initiation are associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular events and death in patients with type 2 diabetes. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  4. Efficient Scalable Median Filtering Using Histogram-Based Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Oded

    2018-05-01

    Median filtering is a smoothing technique for noise removal in images. While there are various implementations of median filtering for a single-core CPU, there are few implementations for accelerators and multi-core systems. Many parallel implementations of median filtering use a sorting algorithm for rearranging the values within a filtering window and taking the median of the sorted value. While using sorting algorithms allows for simple parallel implementations, the cost of the sorting becomes prohibitive as the filtering windows grow. This makes such algorithms, sequential and parallel alike, inefficient. In this work, we introduce the first software parallel median filtering that is non-sorting-based. The new algorithm uses efficient histogram-based operations. These reduce the computational requirements of the new algorithm while also accessing the image fewer times. We show an implementation of our algorithm for both the CPU and NVIDIA's CUDA supported graphics processing unit (GPU). The new algorithm is compared with several other leading CPU and GPU implementations. The CPU implementation has near perfect linear scaling with a speedup on a quad-core system. The GPU implementation is several orders of magnitude faster than the other GPU implementations for mid-size median filters. For small kernels, and , comparison-based approaches are preferable as fewer operations are required. Lastly, the new algorithm is open-source and can be found in the OpenCV library.

  5. Voimaa visuaalisuudesta : Narratiivinen kirjallisuuskatsaus visuaalisen sosiaalisen median vaikutuksista nuorten aikuisten hyvinvointiin

    OpenAIRE

    Viita, Shir

    2017-01-01

    Viita, Shir. Voimaa visuaalisuudesta – Narratiivinen kirjallisuuskatsaus visuaalisen sosiaalisen median vaikutuksista nuorten aikuisten hyvinvointiin. Kevät 2016. 52 s., 1 liite. Diakonia ammattikorkeakoulu. Sosiaalialan koulutusohjelma, sosionomin suuntautumisvaihtoehto. Sosionomi (AMK). Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on tuottaa tietoa sosiaalialan ammattilaisille visuaalisen sosiaalisen median sivustojen Instagramin ja Snapchatin vaikutuksista nuorten aikuisten hyvinvointiin. Opinnäyte...

  6. Baseline HbA1c to Identify High-Risk Gestational Diabetes: Utility in Early vs Standard Gestational Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeting, Arianne N; Ross, Glynis P; Hyett, Jon; Molyneaux, Lynda; Tan, Kris; Constantino, Maria; Harding, Anna Jane; Wong, Jencia

    2017-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) necessitates risk stratification directing limited antenatal resources to those at greatest risk. Recent evidence demonstrates that an early pregnancy glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c ≥5.9% (41 mmol/mol) predicts adverse pregnancy outcomes. To determine the optimal HbA1c threshold for adverse pregnancy outcomes in GDM in a treated multiethnic cohort and whether this differs in women diagnosed HbA1c (single-laboratory) measurement at the time of GDM diagnosis. Maternal clinical and pregnancy outcome data were collected prospectively. The association between baseline HbA1c and adverse pregnancy outcomes in early vs standard GDM. HbA1c was measured at a median of 17.6 ± 3.3 weeks' gestation in early GDM (n = 844) and 29.4 ± 2.6 weeks' gestation in standard GDM (n = 2254). In standard GDM, HbA1c >5.9% (41 mmol/mol) was associated with the greatest risk of large-for-gestational-age (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 2.7 [1.5-4.9]), macrosomia (3.5 [1.4-8.6]), cesarean section (3.6 [2.1-6.2]), and hypertensive disorders (2.6 [1.1-5.8]). In early GDM, similar HbA1c associations were seen; however, lower HbA1c correlated with the greatest risk of small-for-gestational-age (P trend = 0.004) and prevalence of neonatal hypoglycemia. Baseline HbA1c >5.9% (41 mmol/mol) identifies an increased risk of large-for-gestational-age, macrosomia, cesarean section, and hypertensive disorders in standard GDM. Although similar associations are seen in early GDM, higher HbA1c levels do not adequately capture risk-limiting utility as a triage tool in this cohort. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  7. Variability of pudendal and median nerve sensory perception thresholds in healthy persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaghebeur, Jörgen; Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques

    2015-04-01

    Normative current perception thresholds (CPTs) are used for the evaluation of sensory function in a variety of diseases. To evaluate the reproducibility of CPT measurements with sinusoidal current in healthy volunteers. Neuroselective CPT evaluations of the median and pudendal nerve in healthy volunteers were repeated with 1 week interval (T1 and T2). In the study group (N = 41) no difference between genders for age (MW-U: P = 0.91) and BMI (t-test: P = 0.18) were found. No significant difference between T1 and T2 was found (Paired t-test: all P-values > 0.05), although the intraclass correlation for each person was low. The variability of measures for the pudendal nerve was: ICC 2 kHz: 0.41; 250 Hz: 0.30; 5 Hz: 0.38, and for the median nerve respectively: 0.58; 0.46; 0.40. Normal CPTs were shown for the pudendal nerve: 2 kHz: 51%; 250 Hz: 76%; 5 Hz: 71%, and median nerve respectively: 78%; 98%; 80%. The pudendal nerve showed more deviating values compared to the median nerve. Both nerves showed deviating values. CPT values with sinusoidal current assessed with 1 week interval, showed a weak intraclass correlation. This finding limits the use of CPT values with this current for longitudinal studies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Papillary carcinoma in median aberrant thyroid (ectopic) - case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbar K, Ashwin; K, Shashidhar; Deshmane, Vijaya Laxmi; Kumar, Veerendra; Arjunan, Ravi

    2014-06-01

    Median ectopic thyroid may be encountered anywhere from the foramen caecum to the diaphragm. Non lingual median aberrant thyroid (incomplete descent) usually found in the infrahyoid region and malignant transformation in this ectopic thyroid tissue is very rare. We report an extremely rare case of papillary carcinoma in non lingual median aberrant thyroid in a 25-year-old female. The differentiation between a carcinoma arising in the median ectopic thyroid tissue and a metastatic papillary carcinoma from an occult primary in the main thyroid gland is also discussed.

  9. A case of fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the median nerve with macrodactyly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathish Arakeri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of nerve is a tumor-like lipomatous process principally involving affecting young persons. The median nerve is most commonly affectedinvolved. The lesion is characterized by a soft slowly growing mass, surrounding and infiltrating major nerves and their branches. It may cause symptoms of compression neuropathy and is associated with macrodactyly in one third of cases. Here, we present a case of Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of nerve in the wrist of a young man arising from median nerve. Debulking of the tumour was performed.

  10. Large window median filtering on Clip7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, K N

    1983-07-01

    Median filtering has been found to be a useful operation to perform on images in order to reduce random noise while preserving edges of objects. However, in some cases, as the resolution of the image increases, so too does the required window size of the filter. For parallel array processors, this leads to problems when dealing with the large amount of data involved. That is to say that there tend to be problems over slow access of data from pixels over a large neighbourhood, lack of available storage of this data during the operation and long computational times for finding the median. An algorithm for finding the median, designed for use on byte wide architecture parallel array processors is presented together with its implementation on Clip7, a scanning array of such processors. 6 references.

  11. Led Astray by Hemoglobin A1c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Chen MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin A1c (A1c is used frequently to diagnose and treat diabetes mellitus. Therefore, it is important be aware of factors that may interfere with the accuracy of A1c measurements. This is a case of a rare hemoglobin variant that falsely elevated a nondiabetic patient’s A1c level and led to a misdiagnosis of diabetes. A 67-year-old male presented to endocrine clinic for further management after he was diagnosed with diabetes based on an elevated A1c of 10.7%, which is approximately equivalent to an average blood glucose of 260 mg/dL. Multiple repeat A1c levels remained >10%, but his home fasting and random glucose monitoring ranged from 92 to 130 mg/dL. Hemoglobin electrophoresis and subsequent genetic analysis diagnosed the patient with hemoglobin Wayne, a rare hemoglobin variant. This variant falsely elevates A1c levels when A1c is measured using cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography. When the boronate affinity method was applied instead, the patient’s A1c level was actually 4.7%. Though hemoglobin Wayne is clinically silent, this patient was erroneously diagnosed with diabetes and started on an antiglycemic medication. Due to this misdiagnosis, the patient was at risk of escalation in his “diabetes management” and hypoglycemia. Therefore, it is important that providers are aware of factors that may result in hemoglobin A1c inaccuracy including hemoglobin variants.

  12. A study of retrograde degeneration of median nerve forearm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a disorder of the hand which results from compression of the median nerve within its fibro-osseous tunnel at the wrist. The slowing in the forearm motor conduction velocity suggests the presence of retrograde degeneration. Existing studies conflict regarding a correlation ...

  13. Portfolio optimization using median-variance approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Mohd, Wan Rosanisah; Mohamad, Daud; Mohamed, Zulkifli

    2013-04-01

    Optimization models have been applied in many decision-making problems particularly in portfolio selection. Since the introduction of Markowitz's theory of portfolio selection, various approaches based on mathematical programming have been introduced such as mean-variance, mean-absolute deviation, mean-variance-skewness and conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) mainly to maximize return and minimize risk. However most of the approaches assume that the distribution of data is normal and this is not generally true. As an alternative, in this paper, we employ the median-variance approach to improve the portfolio optimization. This approach has successfully catered both types of normal and non-normal distribution of data. With this actual representation, we analyze and compare the rate of return and risk between the mean-variance and the median-variance based portfolio which consist of 30 stocks from Bursa Malaysia. The results in this study show that the median-variance approach is capable to produce a lower risk for each return earning as compared to the mean-variance approach.

  14. Development of Kinematic Graphs of Median Nerve during Active Finger Motion: Implications of Smartphone Use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoi-Chi Woo

    Full Text Available Certain hand activities cause deformation and displacement of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel due to the gliding motion of tendons surrounding it. As smartphone usage escalates, this raises the public's concern whether hand activities while using smartphones can lead to median nerve problems.The aims of this study were to 1 develop kinematic graphs and 2 investigate the associated deformation and rotational information of median nerve in the carpal tunnel during hand activities.Dominant wrists of 30 young adults were examined with ultrasonography by placing a transducer transversely on their wrist crease. Ultrasound video clips were recorded when the subject performing 1 thumb opposition with the wrist in neutral position, 2 thumb opposition with the wrist in ulnar deviation and 3 pinch grip with the wrist in neutral position. Six still images that were separated by 0.2-second intervals were then captured from the ultrasound video for the determination of 1 cross-sectional area (CSA, 2 flattening ratio (FR, 3 rotational displacement (RD and 4 translational displacement (TD of median nerve in the carpal tunnel, and these collected information of deformation, rotational and displacement of median nerve were compared between 1 two successive time points during a single hand activity and 2 different hand motions at the same time point. Finally, kinematic graphs were constructed to demonstrate the mobility of median nerve during different hand activities.Performing different hand activities during this study led to a gradual reduction in CSA of the median nerve, with thumb opposition together with the wrist in ulnar deviation causing the greatest extent of deformation of the median nerve. Thumb opposition with the wrist in ulnar deviation also led to the largest extent of TD when compared to the other two hand activities of this study. Kinematic graphs showed that the motion pathways of median nerve during different hand activities were complex

  15. A Rare Variation of the Human Median Nerve Direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barfi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The brachial plexus, a complex network of nerves, innervates to the upper limbs. Variation in the course of the nerves in the upper limb is common. Case Presentation This paper describes two cases of upper limb variations in a cadaver dissected at Lorestan University of Medical Sciences. In the first variation, the median nerve in the arm has a different route, so that the median moves deep into the brachialis muscle. In the latter case, after piercing the coracobrachialis muscle a musculocutaneous nerve exists between the brachialis and biceps and goes to the lateral region of the forearm. This is known as the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm nerve, and innervates the skin of the lateral part of the forearm and the dorsal part of the hand. Conclusions Because of the possibility of damage to the brachial plexus branches is high in upper limb injuries and surgeries, full knowledge of normal anatomy and variations of these branches is essential for orthopedic specialists, neurosurgeons, radiologists, and anatomists.

  16. Scenarios towards limiting global mean temperature increase below 1.5 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogelj, Joeri; Popp, Alexander; Calvin, Katherine V.; Luderer, Gunnar; Emmerling, Johannes; Gernaat, David; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Strefler, Jessica; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Marangoni, Giacomo; Krey, Volker; Kriegler, Elmar; Riahi, Keywan; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Doelman, Jonathan; Drouet, Laurent; Edmonds, Jae; Fricko, Oliver; Harmsen, Mathijs; Havlík, Petr; Humpenöder, Florian; Stehfest, Elke; Tavoni, Massimo

    2018-04-01

    The 2015 Paris Agreement calls for countries to pursue efforts to limit global-mean temperature rise to 1.5 °C. The transition pathways that can meet such a target have not, however, been extensively explored. Here we describe scenarios that limit end-of-century radiative forcing to 1.9 W m-2, and consequently restrict median warming in the year 2100 to below 1.5 °C. We use six integrated assessment models and a simple climate model, under different socio-economic, technological and resource assumptions from five Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs). Some, but not all, SSPs are amenable to pathways to 1.5 °C. Successful 1.9 W m-2 scenarios are characterized by a rapid shift away from traditional fossil-fuel use towards large-scale low-carbon energy supplies, reduced energy use, and carbon-dioxide removal. However, 1.9 W m-2 scenarios could not be achieved in several models under SSPs with strong inequalities, high baseline fossil-fuel use, or scattered short-term climate policy. Further research can help policy-makers to understand the real-world implications of these scenarios.

  17. HbA1c Measured in Stored Erythrocytes Is Positively Linearly Associated with Mortality in Individuals with Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluik, Diewertje; Boeing, Heiner; Montonen, Jukka; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Sandbaek, Annelli; Overvad, Kim; Arriola, Larraitz; Ardanaz, Eva; Saieva, Calogero; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; van der A, Daphne L.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; van Dieren, Susan; Nilsson, Peter M.; Groop, Leif C.; Franks, Paul W.; Rolandsson, Olov; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Nöthlings, Ute

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Observational studies have shown that glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is related to mortality, but the shape of the association is less clear. Furthermore, disease duration and medication may modify this association. This observational study explored the association between HbA1c measured in stored erythrocytes and mortality. Secondly, it was assessed whether disease duration and medication use influenced the estimates or were independently associated with mortality. Methods Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition a cohort was analysed of 4,345 individuals with a confirmed diagnosis of diabetes at enrolment. HbA1c was measured in blood samples stored up to 19 years. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models for all-cause mortality investigated HbA1c in quartiles as well as per 1% increment, diabetes medication in seven categories of insulin and oral hypoglycaemic agents, and disease duration in quartiles. Results After a median follow-up of 9.3 years, 460 participants died. Higher HbA1c was associated with higher mortality: Hazard Ratio for 1%-increase was 1.11 (95% CI 1.06, 1.17). This association was linear (P-nonlinearity =0.15) and persistent across categories of medication use, disease duration, and co-morbidities. Compared with metformin, other medication types were not associated with mortality. Longer disease duration was associated with mortality, but not after adjustment for HbA1c and medication. Conclusion This prospective study showed that persons with lower HbA1c had better survival than those with higher HbA1c. The association was linear and independent of disease duration, type of medication use, and presence of co-morbidities. Any improvement of HbA1c appears to be associated with reduced mortality risk. PMID:22719972

  18. A Rank Test on Equality of Population Medians

    OpenAIRE

    Pooi Ah Hin

    2012-01-01

    The Kruskal-Wallis test is a non-parametric test for the equality of K population medians. The test statistic involved is a measure of the overall closeness of the K average ranks in the individual samples to the average rank in the combined sample. The resulting acceptance region of the test however may not be the smallest region with the required acceptance probability under the null hypothesis. Presently an alternative acceptance region is constructed such that it has the smallest size, ap...

  19. Regularization of DT-MR images using a successive Fermat median filtering method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kiwoon; Kim, Dongyoun; Kim, Sunghee; Park, Insung; Jeong, Jaewon; Kim, Taehwan; Hong, Cheolpyo; Han, Bongsoo

    2008-05-21

    Tractography using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) is a method to determine the architecture of axonal fibers in the central nervous system by computing the direction of greatest diffusion in the white matter of the brain. To reduce the noise in DT-MRI measurements, a tensor-valued median filter, which is reported to be denoising and structure preserving in the tractography, is applied. In this paper, we proposed the successive Fermat (SF) method, successively using Fermat point theory for a triangle contained in the two-dimensional plane, as a median filtering method. We discussed the error analysis and numerical study about the SF method for phantom and experimental data. By considering the computing time and the image quality aspects of the numerical study simultaneously, we showed that the SF method is much more efficient than the simple median (SM) and gradient descents (GD) methods.

  20. Regularization of DT-MR images using a successive Fermat median filtering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Kiwoon; Kim, Dongyoun; Kim, Sunghee; Park, Insung; Jeong, Jaewon; Kim, Taehwan; Hong, Cheolpyo; Han, Bongsoo

    2008-01-01

    Tractography using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) is a method to determine the architecture of axonal fibers in the central nervous system by computing the direction of greatest diffusion in the white matter of the brain. To reduce the noise in DT-MRI measurements, a tensor-valued median filter, which is reported to be denoising and structure preserving in the tractography, is applied. In this paper, we proposed the successive Fermat (SF) method, successively using Fermat point theory for a triangle contained in the two-dimensional plane, as a median filtering method. We discussed the error analysis and numerical study about the SF method for phantom and experimental data. By considering the computing time and the image quality aspects of the numerical study simultaneously, we showed that the SF method is much more efficient than the simple median (SM) and gradient descents (GD) methods

  1. Regularization of DT-MR images using a successive Fermat median filtering method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kiwoon; Kim, Dongyoun; Kim, Sunghee; Park, Insung; Jeong, Jaewon; Kim, Taehwan [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yonsei University, Wonju, 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Cheolpyo; Han, Bongsoo [Department of Radiological Science, Yonsei University, Wonju, 220-710 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: bshan@yonsei.ac.kr

    2008-05-21

    Tractography using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) is a method to determine the architecture of axonal fibers in the central nervous system by computing the direction of greatest diffusion in the white matter of the brain. To reduce the noise in DT-MRI measurements, a tensor-valued median filter, which is reported to be denoising and structure preserving in the tractography, is applied. In this paper, we proposed the successive Fermat (SF) method, successively using Fermat point theory for a triangle contained in the two-dimensional plane, as a median filtering method. We discussed the error analysis and numerical study about the SF method for phantom and experimental data. By considering the computing time and the image quality aspects of the numerical study simultaneously, we showed that the SF method is much more efficient than the simple median (SM) and gradient descents (GD) methods.

  2. Resuscitation therapy for traumatic brain injury-induced coma in rats: mechanisms of median nerve electrical stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, rats were put into traumatic brain injury-induced coma and treated with median nerve electrical stimulation. We explored the wake-promoting effect, and possible mechanisms, of median nerve electrical stimulation. Electrical stimulation upregulated the expression levels of orexin-A and its receptor OX1R in the rat prefrontal cortex. Orexin-A expression gradually increased with increasing stimulation, while OX1R expression reached a peak at 12 hours and then decreased. In addition, after the OX1R antagonist, SB334867, was injected into the brain of rats after traumatic brain injury, fewer rats were restored to consciousness, and orexin-A and OXIR expression in the prefrontal cortex was downregulated. Our findings indicate that median nerve electrical stimulation induced an up-regulation of orexin-A and OX1R expression in the prefrontal cortex of traumatic brain injury-induced coma rats, which may be a potential mechanism involved in the wake-promoting effects of median nerve electrical stimulation.

  3. MASH TEST NO. 3-10 OF A NON-PROPRIETARY, HIGH-TENSION CABLE MEDIAN BARRIER FOR USE IN 6H:1V V-DITCH (TEST NO. MWP-8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-10

    The Midwest States Pooled Fund Program has been developing a prototype design for a non-proprietary, high-tension cable median barrier for use in a 6H:1V V-ditch. This system incorporates four evenly spaced cables, Midwest Weak Posts (MWP) spaced at ...

  4. Volatility study of [C1C1im][NTf2] and [C2C3im][NTf2] ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Marisa A.A.; Ribeiro, Filipe M.S.; Schröder, Bernd; Coutinho, João A.P.; Santos, Luís M.N.B.F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Vapor pressures of [C 1 C 1 im][NTf 2 ] and [C 2 C 3 im][NTf 2 ] ionic liquids are reported. • [C 1 C 1 im][NTf 2 ] presents higher enthalpy and entropy of vaporization than expected. • The high volatility of [C 2 C 3 im][NTf 2 ] is a result from its asymmetric character. -- Abstract: Vapor pressures of 1,3-dimethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, ([C 1 C 1 im][NTf 2 ]) and 1-ethyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, ([C 2 C 3 im][NTf 2 ]) ionic liquids were measured as a function of temperature using a Knudsen effusion apparatus combined with a quartz crystal microbalance. Enthalpies and entropies of vaporization were derived from the fitting of vapor pressure and temperature results to the Clarke and Glew equation. [C 1 C 1 im][NTf 2 ] presents a higher enthalpy and entropy of vaporization than the neighboring members of the series. The enthalpy of vaporization of [C 2 C 3 im][NTf 2 ] lies in between the asymmetric and symmetric ionic liquid series, reflecting a decrease in the electrostatic interactions due to a decrease of the charge accessibility between the ionic pairs when the methyl group is replaced by an ethyl group. The obtained higher volatility of [C 2 C 3 im][NTf 2 ] arises from its asymmetric character, leading to an higher entropic contribution that compensates the enthalpic penalty. The border conditions ([C 1 C 1 im][NTf 2 ], [C 2 C 1 im][NTf 2 ] and [C 2 C 2 im][NTf 2 ]), topology ([C 2 C 3 im][NTf 2 ]) and symmetry/asymmetry of the ILs effect were evaluated and rationalized based on a comparative analysis of the thermodynamic properties, enthalpies and entropies of vaporization

  5. Differentiating C8–T1 Radiculopathy from Ulnar Neuropathy: A Survey of 24 Spine Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Geoffrey E.; Kim, Han Jo; Riew, K. Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Questionnaire. Objective To evaluate the ability of spine surgeons to distinguish C8–T1 radiculopathies from ulnar neuropathy. Methods Twenty-four self-rated “experienced” cervical spine surgeons completed a questionnaire with the following items. (1) If the ulnar nerve is cut at the elbow, which of the following would be numb: ulnar forearm, small and ring fingers; only the ulnar forearm; only the small and ring fingers; or none of the above? (2) Which of the following muscles are weak with C8–T1 radiculopathies but intact with ulnar neuropathy at the elbow: flexor digiti minimi brevis, flexor pollicis brevis, abductor digiti minimi, abductor pollicis brevis, adductor pollicis, opponens digiti minimi, opponens pollicis, medial lumbricals, lateral lumbricals, dorsal interossei, palmar interossei? Results Fifteen of 24 surgeons (63%) correctly answered the first question—that severing the ulnar nerve results in numbness of the fifth and fourth fingers. None correctly identified all four nonulnar, C8–T1-innervated options in the second question without naming additional muscles. Conclusion The ulnar nerve provides sensation to the fourth and fifth fingers and medial border of the hand. The medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve provides sensation to the medial forearm. The ulnar nerve innervates all intrinsic hand muscles, except the abductor and flexor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis, and lateral two lumbricals, which are innervated by C8 and T1 via the median nerve. By examining these five muscles, one can clinically differentiate cubital tunnel syndrome from C8–T1 radiculopathies. Although all participants considered themselves to be experienced cervical spine surgeons, this study reveals inadequate knowledge regarding the clinical manifestations of C8–T1 radiculopathies and cubital tunnel syndrome. PMID:24494175

  6. A study of retrograde degeneration of median nerve forearm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mona Mokhtar El Bardawil

    2013-10-22

    Oct 22, 2013 ... tient clinic of the Physical Medicine Rheumatology and Reha- bilitation ... F-wave to calculate axillary F central loop (AFCL) latency of median and ..... amplitude which substantially results from the block of faster ... Postoperative electrophysiological follow up for ... Regional rheumatic pain syndromes. In:.

  7. Comparison of a point-of-care analyser for the determination of HbA1c with HPLC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Grant

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims: As the use of Point of Care Testing (POCT devices for measurement of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c increases, it is imperative to determine how their performance compares to laboratory methods. This study compared the performance of the automated Quo-Test POCT device (EKF Diagnostics, which uses boronate fluorescence quenching technology, with a laboratory based High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC method (Biorad D10 for measurement of HbA1c. Methods: Whole blood EDTA samples from subjects (n=100 with and without diabetes were assayed using a BioRad D10 and a Quo-Test analyser. Intra-assay variation was determined by measuring six HbA1c samples in triplicate and inter-assay variation was determined by assaying four samples on 4 days. Stability was determined by assaying three samples stored at −20 °C for 14 and 28 days post collection. Results: Median (IQR HbA1c was 60 (44.0–71.2 mmol/mol (7.6 (6.17–8.66 % and 62 (45.0–69.0 mmol/mol (7.8 (6.27–8.46 % for D10 and Quo-Test, respectively, with very good agreement (R2=0.969, P<0.0001. Mean (range intra- and inter-assay variation was 1.2% (0.0–2.7% and 1.6% (0.0–2.7% for the D10 and 3.5% (0.0–6.7% and 2.7% (0.7–5.1% for the Quo-Test. Mean change in HbA1c after 28 days storage at −20 °C was −0.7% and +0.3% for D10 and Quo-Test respectively. Compared to the D10, Quo-Test showed 98% agreement for diagnosis of glucose intolerance (IGT and T2DM and 100% for diagnosis of T2DM. Conclusion: Good agreement between the D10 and Quo-Test was seen across a wide HbA1c range. The Quo-Test POCT device provided similar performance to a laboratory based HPLC method. Keywords: Point of care testing, HbA1c measurement

  8. In uncertainty we trust: a median voter model with risk aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel A. Yakovlev

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The principal-agent problem and uncertainty are some of the key factors affecting financial and political markets. Fear of the unknown plays an important role in human decision making, including voting. This article describes a theoretical model where voter risk aversion towards uncertainty gives political incumbents a significant advantage over their challengers, exacerbating the principal-agent problem between voters and legislators. The model presented predicts that a rise in voter uncertainty concerning the challenger allows the incumbent to deviate from the median voter’s policy preference without losing the election. This model reconciles the paradoxical coexistence of ideological shirking and high incumbent reelection rates without abandoning the elegant median voter framework.

  9. Platelet-rich plasma limits the nerve injury caused by 10% dextrose in the rabbit median nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gi-Young; Kwon, Dong Rak

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection in a rabbit model of dextrose-induced median nerve injury. New Zealand white rabbits (n = 15) were divided randomly into 3 groups. Three different regimens (group 1: 0.1 ml saline; group 2: 10% dextrose with PRP; group 3: 10% dextrose with saline) were injected within the carpal tunnel. Electrophysiological and histological findings were evaluated 12 weeks after the injection. The mean median motor latency in group 3 was significantly longer than that in groups 1 and 2. The cross-sectional area of the median nerve and subsynovial connective tissue thickness in group 3 were significantly larger than those in groups 1 and 2. PRP injection may be effective in controlling median nerve injury, as demonstrated by improvement in electrophysiological and histological findings 12 weeks after dextrose injection. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Drugs affecting HbA1c levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjit Unnikrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c is an important indicator of glycemic control in diabetes mellitus, based on which important diagnostic and therapeutic decisions are routinely made. However, there are several situations in which the level of HbA1c may not faithfully reflect the glycemic control in a given patient. Important among these is the use of certain non-diabetic medications, which can affect the HbA1c levels in different ways. This review focuses on the non-diabetic medications which can inappropriately raise or lower the HbA1c levels, and the postulated mechanisms for the same.

  11. C3a Enhances the Formation of Intestinal Organoids through C3aR1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Matsumoto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available C3a is important in the regulation of the immune response as well as in the development of organ inflammation and injury. Furthermore, C3a contributes to liver regeneration but its role in intestinal stem cell function has not been studied. We hypothesized that C3a is important for intestinal repair and regeneration. Intestinal organoid formation, a measure of stem cell capacity, was significantly limited in C3-deficient and C3a receptor (C3aR 1-deficient mice while C3a promoted the growth of organoids from normal mice by supporting Wnt-signaling but not from C3aR1-deficient mice. Similarly, the presence of C3a in media enhanced the expression of the intestinal stem cell marker leucine-rich repeat G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5 and of the cell proliferation marker Ki67 in organoids formed from C3-deficient but not from C3aR1-deficient mice. Using Lgr5.egfp mice we showed significant expression of C3 in Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells whereas C3aR1 was expressed on the surface of various intestinal cells. C3 and C3aR1 expression was induced in intestinal crypts in response to ischemia/reperfusion injury. Finally, C3aR1-deficient mice displayed ischemia/reperfusion injury comparable to control mice. These data suggest that C3a through interaction with C3aR1 enhances stem cell expansion and organoid formation and as such may have a role in intestinal regeneration.

  12. C-Peptide Decline in Type 1 Diabetes Has Two Phases: An Initial Exponential Fall and a Subsequent Stable Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Beverley M; McDonald, Timothy J; Oram, Richard; Hill, Anita; Hudson, Michelle; Leete, Pia; Pearson, Ewan R; Richardson, Sarah J; Morgan, Noel G; Hattersley, Andrew T

    2018-06-07

    The decline in C-peptide in the 5 years after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes has been well studied, but little is known about the longer-term trajectory. We aimed to examine the association between log-transformed C-peptide levels and the duration of diabetes up to 40 years after diagnosis. We assessed the pattern of association between urinary C-peptide/creatinine ratio (UCPCR) and duration of diabetes in cross-sectional data from 1,549 individuals with type 1 diabetes using nonlinear regression approaches. Findings were replicated in longitudinal follow-up data for both UCPCR ( n = 161 individuals, 326 observations) and plasma C-peptide ( n = 93 individuals, 473 observations). We identified two clear phases of C-peptide decline: an initial exponential fall over 7 years (47% decrease/year [95% CI -51%, -43%]) followed by a stable period thereafter (+0.07%/year [-1.3, +1.5]). The two phases had similar durations and slopes in patients above and below the median age at diagnosis (10.8 years), although levels were lower in the younger patients irrespective of duration. Patterns were consistent in both longitudinal UCPCR ( n = 162; ≤7 years duration: -48%/year [-55%, -38%]; >7 years duration -0.1% [-4.1%, +3.9%]) and plasma C-peptide ( n = 93; >7 years duration only: -2.6% [-6.7%, +1.5%]). These data support two clear phases of C-peptide decline: an initial exponential fall over a 7-year period, followed by a prolonged stabilization where C-peptide levels no longer decline. Understanding the pathophysiological and immunological differences between these two phases will give crucial insights into understanding β-cell survival. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  13. Case Report: A true median facial cleft (crano-facial dysraphia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case Report: A true median facial cleft (crano-facial dysraphia, atessier type O) in Bingham University Teaching Hospital, Jos. ... Patient had a multidisciplinary care by the obstetrician, Neonatologist, anesthesiologist and the plastic surgery team who scheduled a soft tissue repair of the upper lip defect, columella and ...

  14. Sosiaalisen median markkinoinnin vuosikello Weecos Oy:lle

    OpenAIRE

    Heinämäki, Lotta; Huuskonen, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoitus oli luoda kokonaisvaltainen ja selkeä suunnitelma Weecos Oy:n markkinointitoimenpiteille valituissa sosiaalisen median kanavissa. Weecos on vuonna 2012 perustettu ekologisia yrityksiä yhteen keräävä verkkokauppa-alusta. Pienestä koostaan johtuen se ei ole pystynyt toteuttamaan sosiaalisen median markkinointia toivomallaan tavalla ja markkinoinnin suunnittelu ja toteutus on ollut epäsäännöllistä. Markkinointisuunnitelman tavoitteena oli helpottaa yrityksen markkinoi...

  15. A study assessing the association of glycated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) associated variants with HbA1C, chronic kidney disease and diabetic retinopathy in populations of Asian ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Tay, Wan-Ting; Sim, Xueling; Ali, Mohammad; Xu, Haiyan; Suo, Chen; Liu, Jianjun; Chia, Kee-Seng; Vithana, Eranga; Young, Terri L; Aung, Tin; Lim, Wei-Yen; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wong, Tien-Yin; Teo, Yik-Ying; Tai, E-Shyong

    2013-01-01

    Glycated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) level is used as a diagnostic marker for diabetes mellitus and a predictor of diabetes associated complications. Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associated with HbA1C level. Most of these studies have been conducted in populations of European ancestry. Here we report the findings from a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of HbA1C levels in 6,682 non-diabetic subjects of Chinese, Malay and South Asian ancestries. We also sought to examine the associations between HbA1C associated SNPs and microvascular complications associated with diabetes mellitus, namely chronic kidney disease and retinopathy. A cluster of 6 SNPs on chromosome 17 showed an association with HbA1C which achieved genome-wide significance in the Malays but not in Chinese and Asian Indians. No other variants achieved genome-wide significance in the individual studies or in the meta-analysis. When we investigated the reproducibility of the findings that emerged from the European studies, six loci out of fifteen were found to be associated with HbA1C with effect sizes similar to those reported in the populations of European ancestry and P-value ≤ 0.05. No convincing associations with chronic kidney disease and retinopathy were identified in this study.

  16. A study assessing the association of glycated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C associated variants with HbA1C, chronic kidney disease and diabetic retinopathy in populations of Asian ancestry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Chen

    Full Text Available Glycated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C level is used as a diagnostic marker for diabetes mellitus and a predictor of diabetes associated complications. Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associated with HbA1C level. Most of these studies have been conducted in populations of European ancestry. Here we report the findings from a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of HbA1C levels in 6,682 non-diabetic subjects of Chinese, Malay and South Asian ancestries. We also sought to examine the associations between HbA1C associated SNPs and microvascular complications associated with diabetes mellitus, namely chronic kidney disease and retinopathy. A cluster of 6 SNPs on chromosome 17 showed an association with HbA1C which achieved genome-wide significance in the Malays but not in Chinese and Asian Indians. No other variants achieved genome-wide significance in the individual studies or in the meta-analysis. When we investigated the reproducibility of the findings that emerged from the European studies, six loci out of fifteen were found to be associated with HbA1C with effect sizes similar to those reported in the populations of European ancestry and P-value ≤ 0.05. No convincing associations with chronic kidney disease and retinopathy were identified in this study.

  17. HbA1c in relation to incident diabetes and diabetes-related complications in non-diabetic adults at baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Patricia Anne; Kyle, Cam; Kenealy, Tim; Jackson, Rod T

    2017-05-01

    We compared the utility of glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1c ) and oral glucose tolerance (oGTT) in non-diabetic patients for identifying incident diabetes; all-cause mortality; cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality; CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD), and ischemic stroke events; and diabetes microvascular complications. Data from a New Zealand community setting were prospectively linked to hospitalization, mortality, pharmaceutical and laboratory test results data. After applying exclusion criteria (prior laboratory diagnosis or history of drug treatment for diabetes or hospitalization for diabetes or CVD event), there were 31,148 adults who had an HbA 1c and 2-h 75g oGTT. HbA 1c was measured by ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography, and glucose using a commercial enzymatic method. We compared glycemic measures and outcomes using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. The median follow-up time was 4years (range 0 to 13). The mean age was 57·6years and 53·0% were male. After adjusting for other glycemic measures (fasting glucose, 2-h glucose and/or HbA 1c where relevant) in addition to age, sex, ethnicity and smoking habit, the hazard ratios for incident diabetes and diabetes complications of retinopathy and nephropathy were highest for 2-h glucose levels, followed by HbA 1c and lastly by fasting glucose. However, all-cause mortality and CHD were significantly associated with HbA 1c concentrations only, and ischemic stroke and CVD events with 2-h glucose only. Circulatory complications showed a stronger association with HbA 1c . Apart from neuropathy, HbA 1c showed stronger associations with outcomes compared to fasting glucose and provides a convenient alternative to an oGTT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) changes over time among adolescent and young adult participants in the T1D exchange clinic registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Mark A; Foster, Nicole C; Maahs, David M; Schatz, Desmond A; Olson, Beth A; Tsalikian, Eva; Lee, Joyce M; Burt-Solorzano, Christine M; Tamborlane, William V; Chen, Vincent; Miller, Kellee M; Beck, Roy W

    2016-08-01

    Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels among individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) influence the longitudinal risk for diabetes-related complications. Few studies have examined HbA1c trends across time in children, adolescents, and young adults with T1D. This study examines changes in glycemic control across the specific transition periods of pre-adolescence-to-adolescence and adolescence-to-young adulthood, and the demographic and clinical factors associated with these changes. Available HbA1c lab results for up to 10 yr were collected from medical records at 67 T1D Exchange clinics. Two retrospective cohorts were evaluated: the pre-adolescent-to-adolescent cohort consisting of 85 016 HbA1c measurements from 6574 participants collected when the participants were 8-18 yr old and the adolescent-to-young adult cohort, 2200 participants who were 16-26 yr old at the time of 17 279 HbA1c measurements. HbA1c in the 8-18 cohort increased over time after age 10 yr until ages 16-17; followed by a plateau. HbA1c levels in the 16-26 cohort remained steady from 16-18, and then gradually declined. For both cohorts, race/ethnicity, income, health insurance, and pump use were all significant in explaining individual variations in age-centered HbA1c (p HbA1c trajectory. Glycemic control among patients 8-18 yr old worsens over time, through age 16. Elevated HbA1c levels observed in 18 yr-olds begin a steady improvement into early adulthood. Focused interventions to prevent deterioration in glucose control in pre-adolescence, adolescence, and early adulthood are needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Intraneural synovial sarcoma of the median nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Kasukurthi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Synovial sarcomas are soft-tissue malignancies with a poor prognosis and propensity for distant metastases. Although originally believed to arise from the synovium, these tumors have been found to occur anywhere in the body. We report a rare case of synovial sarcoma arising from the median nerve. To our knowledge, this is the twelfth reported case of intraneural synovial sarcoma, and only the fourth arising from the median nerve. Because the diagnosis may not be apparent until after pathological examination of the surgical speci­men, synovial sarcoma should be kept in mind when dealing with what may seem like a benign nerve tumor.

  20. Complete cDNA sequence of human complement C1s and close physical linkage of the homologous genes C1s and C1r

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, M.; Duponchel, C.; Meo, T.; Julier, C.

    1987-01-01

    Overlapping molecular clones encoding the complement subcomponent C1s were isolated from a human liver cDNA library. The nucleotide sequence reconstructed from these clones spans about 85% of the length of the liver C1s messenger RNAs, which occur in three distinct size classes around 3 kilobases in length. Comparisons with the sequence of C1r, the other enzymatic subcomponent of C1, reveal 40% amino acid identity and conservation of all the cysteine residues. Beside the serine protease domain, the following sequence motifs, previously described in C1r, were also found in C1s: (a) two repeats of the type found in the Ba fragment of complement factor B and in several other complement but also noncomplement proteins, (b) a cysteine-rich segment homologous to the repeats of epidermal growth factor precursor, and (c) a duplicated segment found only in C1r and C1s. Differences in each of these structural motifs provide significant clues for the interpretation of the functional divergence of these interacting serine protease zymogens. Hybridizations of C1r and C1s probes to restriction endonuclease fragments of genomic DNA demonstrate close physical linkage of the corresponding genes. The implications of this finding are discussed with respect to the evolution of C1r and C1s after their origin by tandem gene duplication and to the previously observed combined hereditary deficiencies of Clr and Cls

  1. Hemoglobin A1C: Past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldasouqi, Saleh A.; Gossain, Ved V.

    2008-01-01

    Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) has been used for decades to monitor the controlof glycemia in diabetes. Although HbA1Cis currently undergoing a reassessmentand major developments have been underway in recent years, HbA1C is notrecommended at present for diabetes screening or diagnosis. The object ofthis review is to summarize the recent developments and to review a potentialdiagnostic role for HbA1C .Implementation of changes in HbA1C results andunits of measurements have been suggested for the purpose of teststandardization. These include lower reference ranges (by about 1.5-2 points)and measurement units expressed in percentage (%), as mg/dL (mmol/L) ormmol/mol (or a combination of these units). In diabetes screening anddiagnosis, the current diagnostic guidelines use measurement of plasmaglucose either fasting or after glucose load. These diagnostic methods haveshortcomings warranting a potential diagnostic role for HbA1C. While recentdevelopments in HbA1C methodologies are acknowledged, it is not yet knownwhich changes will be implemented and how soon. Given the recent literaturesupporting HbA1C diagnostic abilities and given the shortcomings of thecurrent guidelines, globally. Very recently, the first of suchrecommendations has been proposed by an expert panel as announced by the USEndocrine Society. (author)

  2. Regularization of DT-MRI Using 3D Median Filtering Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soondong Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DT-MRI (diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging tractography is a method to determine the architecture of axonal fibers in the central nervous system by computing the direction of the principal eigenvectors obtained from tensor matrix, which is different from the conventional isotropic MRI. Tractography based on DT-MRI is known to need many computations and is highly sensitive to noise. Hence, adequate regularization methods, such as image processing techniques, are in demand. Among many regularization methods we are interested in the median filtering method. In this paper, we extended two-dimensional median filters already developed to three-dimensional median filters. We compared four median filtering methods which are two-dimensional simple median method (SM2D, two-dimensional successive Fermat method (SF2D, three-dimensional simple median method (SM3D, and three-dimensional successive Fermat method (SF3D. Three kinds of synthetic data with different altitude angles from axial slices and one kind of human data from MR scanner are considered for numerical implementation by the four filtering methods.

  3. A median filter approach for correcting errors in a vector field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, H.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques are presented for detecting and correcting errors in a vector field. These methods employ median filters which are frequently used in image processing to enhance edges and remove noise. A detailed example is given for wind field maps produced by a spaceborne scatterometer. The error detection and replacement algorithm was tested with simulation data from the NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) project.

  4. [Safety of repeat median sternotomy in the palliative treatment of patients with a univentricular heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díliz-Nava, Héctor; Meléndez-Sagaón, Isis; Tamaríz-Cruz, Orlando; García-Benítez, Luis; Araujo-Martínez, Aric; Palacios-Macedo, Alexis

    To establish the morbidity and mortality of patients with univentricular hearts who underwent a repeat median sternotomy at the Instituto Nacional de Pediatría. A retrospective review was performed on the clinical charts of all patients who underwent a repeat median sternotomy from 2001 to 2016. Sixty-five patients underwent 76 surgeries by repeat median sternotomy. Fifty-nine patients had a first repeat median sternotomy, with a mean age of 36 months (range: 4-176 months) and a mean weight of 12.2 kg (range: 3.2-21.5 kg). Forty patients had a Glenn procedure, and 19 patients had a Fontan procedure. There were 17 patients with a second repeat median sternotomy, with a mean age of 89 months (range 48-156 months), and a mean weight of 22.7 kg (14.4-41 kg). A Fontan procedure was performed on all these 17 patients. A section of the right coronary artery with electrocardiographic changes and a right atrium tear that caused hypotension occurred during first repeat sternotomy. An aortic tear occurred during a second repeat sternotomy with massive bleeding and subsequent death. This represents 3.9% of re-entry injuries. It is concluded that repeat median sternotomy is a safe procedure. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  5. Pudendal and median nerve sensory perception threshold: a comparison between normative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaghebeur, Jörgen; Wyndaele, Jean Jacques

    2014-12-01

    For the evaluation of sensory innervation, normative data are necessary as a comparison. To compare our current perception thresholds (CPTs) with normative data from other research. Healthy volunteers were assessed for 2000, 250, and 5 Hz CPTs of the median and pudendal nerve and data were compared with other studies. Normative data in the studied group n = 41 (male: 21; female: 20) for the median nerve, 2 kHz, 250 Hz, and 5 Hz were respectively: 241.85 ± 67.72 (140-444); 106.27 ± 39.12 (45-229); 82.05 ± 43.40 (13-271). Pudendal nerve CPTs 250 Hz were: 126.44 ± 69.46 (6-333). For men 2 kHz: 349.95 ± 125.76 (100-588); 5 Hz: 132.67 ± 51.81 (59-249) and women 2 kHz:226.20 ± 119.65 (64-528); 5 Hz: 92.45 ± 44.66 (35-215). For the median nerve no statistical differences for gender were shown. For the pudendal nerve, only 250 Hz showed no difference for gender (t-test: 0.516). Comparison of our data with CPTs of other normative data showed no agreement for the pudendal nerve. For the median nerve only 2 kHz showed agreement in three studies and for 5 Hz with one study. Comparing normative data of multiple studies shows a variety of results and poor agreement. Therefore, referring to normative data of other studies should be handled with caution.

  6. Human genes for complement components C1r and C1s in a close tail-to-tail arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusumoto, H.; Hirosawa, S.; Salier, J.P.; Hagen, F.S.; Kurachi, K.

    1988-01-01

    Complementary DNA clones for human C1s were isolated from cDNA libraries that were prepared with poly(A) + RNAs of human liver and HepG2 cells. A clone with the largest cDNA insert of 2,664 base pairs (bp) was analyzed for its complete nucleotide sequence. It contained 202 bp of a 5' untranslated region, 45 bp of coding for a signal peptide (15 amino acid residues), 2,019 bp for complement component C1s zymogen (673 amino acid residues), 378 bp for a 3' untranslated region, a stop codon, and 17 bp of a poly(A) tail. The amino acid sequence of C1s was 40.5% identical to that of C1r, with excellent matches of tentative disulfide bond locations conserving the overall domain structure of C1r. DNA blotting and sequencing analyses of genomic DNA and of an isolated genomic DNA clone clearly showed that the human genes for C1r and C1s are closely located in a tail-to-tail arrangement at a distance of about 9.5 kilobases. Furthermore, RNA blot analyses showed that both C1r and C1s genes are primarily expressed in liver, whereas most other tissues expressed both C1r and C1s genes at much lower levels (less than 10% of that in liver). Multiple molecular sizes of specific mRNAs were observed in the RNA blot analyses for both C1r and C1s, indicating that alternative RNA processing(s), likely an alternative polyadenylylation, might take place for both genes

  7. Efficient Architecture and Implementation of Vector Median Filter in Co-Design Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Masmoudi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an efficient fast parallel architecture of the Vector Median Filter (VMF using combined hardware/software (HW/SW implementation. The hardware part of the system is implemented using VHDL language, whereas the software part is developed using C/C++ language. The software part of the embedded system uses the NIOS-II softcore processor and the operating system used is μClinux. The comparison between the software and HW/SW solutions shows that adding a hardware part in the design attempts to speed up the filtering process compared to the software solution. This efficient embedded system implementation can perform well in several image processing applications.

  8. Robust non-local median filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Jyohei; Koga, Takanori; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes a novel image filter with superior performance on detail-preserving removal of random-valued impulse noise superimposed on natural gray-scale images. The non-local means filter is in the limelight as a way of Gaussian noise removal with superior performance on detail preservation. By referring the fundamental concept of the non-local means, we had proposed a non-local median filter as a specialized way for random-valued impulse noise removal so far. In the non-local processing, the output of a filter is calculated from pixels in blocks which are similar to the block centered at a pixel of interest. As a result, aggressive noise removal is conducted without destroying the detailed structures in an original image. However, the performance of non-local processing decreases enormously in the case of high noise occurrence probability. A cause of this problem is that the superimposed noise disturbs accurate calculation of the similarity between the blocks. To cope with this problem, we propose an improved non-local median filter which is robust to the high level of corruption by introducing a new similarity measure considering possibility of being the original signal. The effectiveness and validity of the proposed method are verified in a series of experiments using natural gray-scale images.

  9. Metabolic Imaging of Patients with Prostate Cancer Using Hyperpolarized [1-13C]Pyruvate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Sarah J.; Kurhanewicz, John; Vigneron, Daniel B.; Larson, Peder E. Z.; Harzstark, Andrea L.; Ferrone, Marcus; van Criekinge, Mark; Chang, Jose W.; Bok, Robert; Park, Ilwoo; Reed, Galen; Carvajal, Lucas; Small, Eric J.; Munster, Pamela; Weinberg, Vivian K.; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan Henrik; Chen, Albert P.; Hurd, Ralph E.; Odegardstuen, Liv-Ingrid; Robb, Fraser J.; Tropp, James; Murray, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    This first-in-man imaging study evaluated the safety and feasibility of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate as an agent for noninvasively characterizing alterations in tumor metabolism for patients with prostate cancer. Imaging living systems with hyperpolarized agents can result in more than 10,000-fold enhancement in signal relative to conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. When combined with the rapid acquisition of in vivo 13C MR data, it is possible to evaluate the distribution of agents such as [1-13C]pyruvate and its metabolic products lactate, alanine, and bicarbonate in a matter of seconds. Preclinical studies in cancer models have detected elevated levels of hyperpolarized [1-13C]lactate in tumor, with the ratio of [1-13C]lactate/[1-13C]pyruvate being increased in high-grade tumors and decreased after successful treatment. Translation of this technology into humans was achieved by modifying the instrument that generates the hyperpolarized agent, constructing specialized radio frequency coils to detect 13C nuclei, and developing new pulse sequences to efficiently capture the signal. The study population comprised patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer, with 31 subjects being injected with hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate. The median time to deliver the agent was 66 s, and uptake was observed about 20 s after injection. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed, and the highest dose (0.43 ml/kg of 230 mM agent) gave the best signal-to-noise ratio for hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate. The results were extremely promising in not only confirming the safety of the agent but also showing elevated [1-13C]lactate/[1-13C]pyruvate in regions of biopsy-proven cancer. These findings will be valuable for noninvasive cancer diagnosis and treatment monitoring in future clinical trials. PMID:23946197

  10. Green and sustainable median on a divided multilane highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambak, K.; Bajuri, F. A. A.; Yusoff, N. A.; Madun, A.; Prasetijo, J.

    2017-11-01

    The road system in Malaysia showed good growth with increasing number of vehicles on the road. However, statistic of road accident is still at an alarming rate. There are many factor can contribute to the occurrence of an accident. If the accident was caused by road facilities such as street furniture, it is shown that the street furniture was failed to improve the safety of the road users. In this study, a new concept of materials for the construction of road dividers was purpose. The sustainable materials such as laterite soil, Cow Grass, tires and PVC pipes was used to replace the cement and iron guardrails in road divider construction. The main objectives of this study is to design characteristics of a road divider using natural material such as laterite soil, sand, grass and recycle material like used a tyre. A series of experiments such as test liquid limit, plastic limit test, standard proctor test and observations of root growth in 30 days were conducted. The result shows that the plastic index value of 35% was obtained. From the proctor compaction test, the optimum water content was 23% and maximum dry density at 15.3 kN/m3. This value was used to build a prototype of green and sustainable raised road median. The suitability of sand used as the medium in irrigation system was approved. Permeability of sand is 10-2 mm/s to 10 mm/s which is having a high rate of flow. The growth of Cow Grass roots was increased by 4.9 cm in 30 days. This shows that, the grass is suitable to grow in laterite soil and can be used as vegetation material. Through the impact test conducted on a model with a scale of 1:7.5, indicate the initial damage occurred when a force reaches 10N. However, the condition of the model is still stable. From the impact test conducted, the prototype of green and sustainable raised road median has a good potential to be used as existing road divider as it can absorb the impact of an accident.

  11. Normative weight-adjusted models for the median levels of first trimester serum biomarkers for trisomy 21 screening in a specific ethnicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ounjai Kor-Anantakul

    Full Text Available To establish normative weight-adjusted models for the median levels of first trimester serum biomarkers for trisomy 21 screening in southern Thai women, and to compare these reference levels with Caucasian-specific and northern Thai models.A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1,150 normal singleton pregnancy women to determine serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A and free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG concentrations in women from southern Thailand. The predicted median values were compared with published equations for Caucasians and northern Thai women.The best-fitting regression equations for the expected median serum levels of PAPP-A (mIU/L and free β- hCG (ng/mL according to maternal weight (Wt in kg and gestational age (GA in days were: [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] Both equations were selected with a statistically significant contribution (p< 0.05. Compared with the Caucasian model, the median values of PAPP-A were higher and the median values of free β-hCG were lower in the southern Thai women. And compared with the northern Thai models, the median values of both biomarkers were lower in southern Thai women.The study has successfully developed maternal-weight- and gestational-age-adjusted median normative models to convert the PAPP-A and free β-hCG levels into their Multiple of Median equivalents in southern Thai women. These models confirmed ethnic differences.

  12. C1-C2 transarticular screw fixation for atlantoaxial instability due to rheumatoid arthritis: a seven-year analysis of outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nagaria, Jabir

    2009-12-15

    STUDY DESIGN.: Observational study. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. OBJECTIVE.: The purpose of this article was to report long-term (minimum 7 years) clinical and radiologic outcome of our series of patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis who underwent transarticular screw fixation to treat atlantoaxial subluxation. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: The indications for intervention in patients with atlantoaxial instability are pain, myelopathy, and progressive neurologic deficit. The various treatment options available for these patients are isolated C1-C2 fusion, occipitocervical fusion with or without transoral surgery. Review of current literature suggests that C1-C2 transarticular screw fixation has significant functional benefits, although there is discrepancy in this literature regarding improvement in function following surgery. METHODS.: Myelopathy was assessed using Ranawat myelopathy score and Myelopathy Disability Index. Pain scores were assessed using Visual Analogue Scale. The radiologic imaging was assessed and the following data were extracted; atlanto-dens interval, space available for cord, presence of signal change on T2 weighted image, and fusion rates. RESULTS.: Thirty-seven patients, median age 56, were included in the study. Average duration of neck symptoms was 15.8 months. Average duration of rheumatoid arthritis before surgery was 20.6 years. Preoperative symptoms: suboccipital pain in 26 patients; neck pain, 32; myelopathy, 22; and 5 were asymptomatic. After surgery: suboccipital pain, 2; neck pain, 3; and myelopathy, 10. Ninety percent patients with neck and suboccipital pain improved after surgery in their Visual Analogue pain scores, with all of them having >50% improvement in VAS scores (6.94-2.12 [P < 0.05]).Preoperative Ranawat grade was as follows: grade 1 in 15 patients, grade 2 in 7, and grade 3a in 14, grade 3b in 1.After surgery: grade 1 in 27 patients, grade 2 in 7, grade 3a in 1, and grade 3b in 2. The mean

  13. Enhancing global climate policy ambition towards a 1.5 °C stabilization: a short-term multi-model assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrontisi, Zoi; Luderer, Gunnar; Saveyn, Bert; Keramidas, Kimon; Reis Lara, Aleluia; Baumstark, Lavinia; Bertram, Christoph; Sytze de Boer, Harmen; Drouet, Laurent; Fragkiadakis, Kostas; Fricko, Oliver; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Guivarch, Celine; Kitous, Alban; Krey, Volker; Kriegler, Elmar; Broin, Eoin Ó.; Paroussos, Leonidas; van Vuuren, Detlef

    2018-04-01

    The Paris Agreement is a milestone in international climate policy as it establishes a global mitigation framework towards 2030 and sets the ground for a potential 1.5 °C climate stabilization. To provide useful insights for the 2018 UNFCCC Talanoa facilitative dialogue, we use eight state-of-the-art climate-energy-economy models to assess the effectiveness of the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) in meeting high probability 1.5 and 2 °C stabilization goals. We estimate that the implementation of conditional INDCs in 2030 leaves an emissions gap from least cost 2 °C and 1.5 °C pathways for year 2030 equal to 15.6 (9.0–20.3) and 24.6 (18.5–29.0) GtCO2eq respectively. The immediate transition to a more efficient and low-carbon energy system is key to achieving the Paris goals. The decarbonization of the power supply sector delivers half of total CO2 emission reductions in all scenarios, primarily through high penetration of renewables and energy efficiency improvements. In combination with an increased electrification of final energy demand, low-carbon power supply is the main short-term abatement option. We find that the global macroeconomic cost of mitigation efforts does not reduce the 2020–2030 annual GDP growth rates in any model more than 0.1 percentage points in the INDC or 0.3 and 0.5 in the 2 °C and 1.5 °C scenarios respectively even without accounting for potential co-benefits and avoided climate damages. Accordingly, the median GDP reductions across all models in 2030 are 0.4%, 1.2% and 3.3% of reference GDP for each respective scenario. Costs go up with increasing mitigation efforts but a fragmented action, as implied by the INDCs, results in higher costs per unit of abated emissions. On a regional level, the cost distribution is different across scenarios while fossil fuel exporters see the highest GDP reductions in all INDC, 2 °C and 1.5 °C scenarios.

  14. Mycophenolate Mofetil in Combination with Steroids for Treatment of C3 Glomerulopathy: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avasare, Rupali S; Canetta, Pietro A; Bomback, Andrew S; Marasa, Maddalena; Caliskan, Yasar; Ozluk, Yasemin; Li, Yifu; Gharavi, Ali G; Appel, Gerald B

    2018-03-07

    C3 glomerulopathy is a form of complement-mediated GN. Immunosuppressive therapy may be beneficial in the treatment of C3 glomerulopathy. Mycophenolate mofetil is an attractive treatment option given its role in the treatment of other complement-mediated diseases and the results of the Spanish Group for the Study of Glomerular Diseases C3 Study. Here, we study the outcomes of patients with C3 glomerulopathy treated with steroids and mycophenolate mofetil. We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients in the C3 glomerulopathy registry at Columbia University and identified patients treated with mycophenolate mofetil for at least 3 months and follow-up for at least 1 year. We studied clinical, histologic, and genetic data for the whole group and compared data for those who achieved complete or partial remission (responders) with those who did not achieve remission (nonresponders). We compared remission with mycophenolate mofetil with remission with other immunosuppressive regimens. We identified 30 patients who met inclusion criteria. Median age was 25 years old (interquartile range, 18-36), median creatinine was 1.07 mg/dl (interquartile range, 0.79-1.69), and median proteinuria was 3200 mg/g creatinine (interquartile range, 1720-6759). The median follow-up time was 32 months (interquartile range, 21-68). Twenty (67%) patients were classified as responders. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between responders and nonresponders, although initial proteinuria was lower (median 2468 mg/g creatinine) in responders compared with nonresponders (median 5000 mg/g creatinine) and soluble membrane attack complex levels were higher in responders compared with nonresponders. For those tapered off mycophenolate mofetil, relapse rate was 50%. Genome-wide analysis on complement genes was done, and in 12 patients, we found 18 variants predicted to be damaging. None of these variants were previously reported to be pathogenic. Mycophenolate

  15. A Comparison of Ultrasound and MRI Measurements of the Cross-Sectional Area of the Median Nerve at the Wrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, Beverly; D'Auria, Jennifer; Scott, Michael; Fowler, John R

    2018-05-01

    Ultrasound (US) measurement of cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve has emerged as a viable alternative to electromyography/nerve conduction studies (EMG/NCS) for diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The purpose of this study is to compare CSA of the median nerve between US and MRI using current MRI and US technology. The null hypothesis is there is no difference between US and MRI CSA measurements. The study design was an observational cohort, enrolling patients presenting to clinic with MRI of the wrist. Participants with clinical signs and symptoms of CTS were excluded. The CSA measurements of the median nerve on MRI T1-weighted axial images were performed by a hand fellow blinded to results of US measurements, and US measurement of median nerve CSA was performed by a hand fellowship trained surgeon blinded to results of the MRI measurements. Results were analyzed via percent error, Pearson correlation, and t tests. Twenty participants were enrolled with mean age of 29.4 years. Four left wrists and 16 right wrists were measured. The US mean CSA of the median nerve was 6.8 mm 2 (±2.330 mm 2 ). The MRI mean CSA of the median nerve was 6.8 mm 2 (±2.153 mm 2 ), P = .442. Pearson correlation between modalities was 0.93, suggesting near-perfect correlation. Mean percent error was 8.8%. Results of this study suggest that US is an accurate method to measure CSA of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel inlet. The mean difference between US and MRI was unlikely to be clinically significant.

  16. Formation and early hydration characteristics of C2.75B1.25A3$ in binary system of C2.75B1.25A3$-C2S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang, Shoude

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available C2.75B1.25A3$ (2.75CaO•1.25BaO• 3Al2O3• SO3 is one of the important minerals and it govern-directly the early-strength of belite-barium calcium sulphoaluminate cement. In this paper a binary system C2.75B1.25A3$-C2S is selected to investigate the formation of C2.75B1.25A3$. In the range of 1100 °C–1200 °C, the earlier formed C2S hinders the formation of C2.75B1.25A3$. On the contrary, when the temperature is in the range of 1200 °C–1350 °C, the initially formed C2S could provide a surface for the nucleation of C2.75B1.25A3$ and cut down the potential barrier (?Gk* for the heterogeneous nucleation of C2.75B1.25A3$, which contributes to its formation. Moreover, at 1350 °C, the large amount of previously formed C2S benefits the extent of formation of C2.75B1.25A3$. The possible reason was that it could prevent sulfur evaporation. In early hydration age, AFm and AFt originating from C2.75B1.25A3$ hydration are found within 2 h and 12 h under 95% RH at 1 °C, respectively, whereas C2S is unhydrated at this moment.En el cemento de sulfoaluminato de calcio y bario, el C2.75B1.25A3$ (2.75CaO•1.25BaO• 3Al2 O3• SO3 es una de las principales fases, y regula directamente la resistencia inicial del cemento. En este trabajo, se ha seleccionado el sistema binario C2.75B1.25A3$-C2S para investigar la formación de C2.75B1.25A3$. En el rango de 1100 °C-1200 °C, el C2S formado anteriormente impide la formación de C2.75B1.25A3$, mientras que cuando la temperatura está entre 1200 °C-1350 °C, el C2S proporcionaría una superficie de nucleación de C2.75B1.25A3$ reduciendo la barrera de potencial (?Gk* para la nucleación heterogénea de C2.75B1.25A3$, lo que contribuye a su formación. Además, a 1350 °C, la gran cantidad de C2S formado beneficia la formación de C2.75B1.25A3$, ya que podía prevenir la evaporación del azufre. En las primeras etapas de la hidratación (entre 2 y 12h y 95% HR a 1 ºC se pueden encontrar AFM y AFt

  17. HbA1c Outcomes in Patients Treated With Canagliflozin Versus Sitagliptin in US Health Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Sarah; Aguilar, Richard; Korrer, Stephanie; Chow, Wing

    2017-10-01

    Clinical trial evidence supports greater glycemic control with canagliflozin than with sitagliptin. The objective of this study was to provide real-world evidence comparing outcomes in routine clinical practice among patients initiating each medication. With the use of a health care administrative database, patients initiating canagliflozin were compared with patients initiating sitagliptin (first prescription fill as index date). Baseline (6 months before index date) demographic and clinical (eg, comorbidities and diabetes-related complications) characteristics were compared, and propensity score matching was used to control for baseline differences between cohorts. Outcomes included change in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA 1c ) and persistence with medication over a 9-month period after index date. Before matching, the canagliflozin cohort (N = 3993) was younger than the sitagliptin cohort (N = 12,153) and was composed of fewer women and Medicare Advantage enrollees, with lower mean baseline comorbidity scores (all p < 0.001). Before matching, the canagliflozin cohort (valid n = 1482) had a significantly (p < 0.001) higher baseline HbA 1c (8.60) than the sitagliptin cohort (valid n = 3697; HbA 1c , 8.32). After matching (n = 1472 per cohort), patients were well balanced on baseline characteristics, and HbA 1c values were not significantly different (p = 0.634) between the cohorts. Patients initiating canagliflozin had greater reductions in HbA 1c than patients in the sitagliptin cohort (-0.93% versus -0.57%, respectively; p = 0.004), with similar mean (median) time from index date to follow-up HbA 1c of 185.4 (199.0) and 184.3 (190.5) days, respectively (p = 0.802). Only 29.8% of canagliflozin patients discontinued during follow-up compared with 41.5% of sitagliptin patients (p < 0.001); the average days of persistence on index therapy was longer for canagliflozin patients (152 days) than for sitagliptin patients (139 days; p < 0.001). In this observational study

  18. c-C5H5 on a Ni(1 1 1) surface: Theoretical study of the adsorption, electronic structure and bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, E.; Simonetti, S.; Pronsato, E.; Juan, A.; Brizuela, G.

    2008-01-01

    In the present work the ASED-MO method is applied to study the adsorption of cyclopentadienyl anion on a Ni(1 1 1) surface. The adsorption with the centre of the aromatic ring placed above the hollow position has been identified to be energetically the most favourable. The aromatic ring remains almost flat, the H atoms are tilted 17 deg. away from the metal surface. We modelled the metal surface by a two-dimensional slab of finite thickness, with an overlayer of c-C 5 H 5 - , one c-C 5 H 5 - per nine surface Ni atoms. The c-C 5 H 5 - molecule is attached to the surface with its five C atoms bonding mainly with three Ni atoms. The Ni-Ni bond in the underlying surface and the C-C bonds of c-C 5 H 5 - are weakened upon adsorption. We found that the band of Ni 5d z 2 orbitals plays an important role in the bonding between c-C 5 H 5 - and the surface, as do the Ni 6s and 6p z bands

  19. The dlx5a/dlx6a genes play essential roles in the early development of zebrafish median fin and pectoral structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglantine Heude

    Full Text Available The Dlx5 and Dlx6 genes encode homeodomain transcription factors essential for the proper development of limbs in mammalian species. However, the role of their teleost counterparts in fin development has received little attention. Here, we show that dlx5a is an early marker of apical ectodermal cells of the pectoral fin buds and of the median fin fold, but also of cleithrum precursor cells during pectoral girdle development. We propose that early median fin fold establishment results from the medial convergence of dlx5a-expressing cells at the lateral edges of the neural keel. Expression analysis also shows involvement of dlx5a during appendage skeletogenesis. Using morpholino-mediated knock down, we demonstrate that disrupted dlx5a/6a function results in pectoral fin agenesis associated with misexpression of bmp4, fgf8a, and1 and msx genes. In contrast, the median fin fold presents defects in mesenchymal cell migration and actinotrichia formation, whereas the initial specification seems to occur normally. Our results demonstrate that the dlx5a/6a genes are essential for the induction of pectoral fin outgrowth, but are not required during median fin fold specification. The dlx5a/6a knock down also causes a failure of cleithrum formation associated with a drastic loss of runx2b and col10a1 expression. The data indicate distinct requirements for dlx5a/6a during median and pectoral fin development suggesting that initiation of unpaired and paired fin formation are not directed through the same molecular mechanisms. Our results refocus arguments on the mechanistic basis of paired appendage genesis during vertebrate evolution.

  20. The dlx5a/dlx6a Genes Play Essential Roles in the Early Development of Zebrafish Median Fin and Pectoral Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heude, Églantine; Shaikho, Sarah; Ekker, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The Dlx5 and Dlx6 genes encode homeodomain transcription factors essential for the proper development of limbs in mammalian species. However, the role of their teleost counterparts in fin development has received little attention. Here, we show that dlx5a is an early marker of apical ectodermal cells of the pectoral fin buds and of the median fin fold, but also of cleithrum precursor cells during pectoral girdle development. We propose that early median fin fold establishment results from the medial convergence of dlx5a-expressing cells at the lateral edges of the neural keel. Expression analysis also shows involvement of dlx5a during appendage skeletogenesis. Using morpholino-mediated knock down, we demonstrate that disrupted dlx5a/6a function results in pectoral fin agenesis associated with misexpression of bmp4, fgf8a, and1 and msx genes. In contrast, the median fin fold presents defects in mesenchymal cell migration and actinotrichia formation, whereas the initial specification seems to occur normally. Our results demonstrate that the dlx5a/6a genes are essential for the induction of pectoral fin outgrowth, but are not required during median fin fold specification. The dlx5a/6a knock down also causes a failure of cleithrum formation associated with a drastic loss of runx2b and col10a1 expression. The data indicate distinct requirements for dlx5a/6a during median and pectoral fin development suggesting that initiation of unpaired and paired fin formation are not directed through the same molecular mechanisms. Our results refocus arguments on the mechanistic basis of paired appendage genesis during vertebrate evolution. PMID:24858471

  1. Relationship between proguanil metabolic ratio and CYP2C19 genotype in a Caucasian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, J M; Shenfield, G M; Gross, A S

    1998-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between proguanil metabolic ratio (MR, proguanil/cycloguanil) and CYP2C19 genotype in a Caucasian population. Ninety-nine Caucasians (age range: 18-55 years, 54 female, 45 male) were genotyped for CYP2C19 and phenotyped for proguanil oxidation by collecting urine for 8 h after taking 100 mg proguanil hydrochloride. Proguanil and cycloguanil concentrations were measured by h.p.l.c. PCR was employed for CYP2C19 genotyping. The three (3%) individuals who were homozygous for CYP2C19*2 (*2/*2) had the highest proguanil MRs (range: 8.0-134.6). Seventy-three (74%) individuals were homozygous for the wild-type allele (*1/*1) and 23 (23%) were heterozygous (*1/*2). The *1/*1 individuals had lower MRs (median=1.4, range: 0.23-5.9, P=0.003, Mann-Whitney U-test) than the *1/*2 subjects (median=2.5, range: 0.88-7.3). A CYP2C19 gene-dose effect for proguanil oxidation to cycloguanil was observed, confirming a role for CYP2C19 in cycloguanil formation in vivo. However, there was substantial overlap of proguanil MRs in subjects of different CYP2C19 genotypes, due possibly to variability in the activity of other enzymes contributing to the formation of cycloguanil.

  2. Pharmacogenetics of aldo-keto reductase 1C (AKR1C) enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshogran, Osama Y

    2017-10-01

    Genetic variation in metabolizing enzymes contributes to variable drug response and disease risk. Aldo-keto reductase type 1C (AKR1C) comprises a sub-family of reductase enzymes that play critical roles in the biotransformation of various drug substrates and endogenous compounds such as steroids. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms have been reported among AKR1C encoding genes, which may affect the functional expression of the enzymes. Areas covered: This review highlights and comprehensively discusses previous pharmacogenetic reports that have examined genetic variations in AKR1C and their association with disease development, drug disposition, and therapeutic outcomes. The article also provides information about the effect of AKR1C genetic variants on enzyme function in vitro. Expert opinion: The current evidence that links the effect of AKR1C gene polymorphisms to disease progression and development is inconsistent and needs further validation, despite of the tremendous knowledge available. Information about association of AKR1C genetic variants and drug efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics is limited, thus, future studies that advance our understanding about these relationships and their clinical relevance are needed. It is imperative to achieve consistent findings before the potential translation and adoption of AKR1C genetic variants in clinical practice.

  3. Hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein-5A activates sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c through transcription factor Sp1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Zhonghua; Qiao, Ling; Zhou, Yan [Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 5E3 (Canada); Babiuk, Lorne A. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Liu, Qiang, E-mail: qiang.liu@usask.ca [Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 5E3 (Canada)

    2010-11-19

    Research highlights: {yields} A chimeric subgenomic HCV replicon expresses HCV-3a NS5A in an HCV-1b backbone. {yields} HCV-3a NS5A increases mature SREBP-1c protein level. {yields} HCV-3a NS5A activates SREBP-1c transcription. {yields} Domain II of HCV-3a NS5A is more effective in SREBP-1c promoter activation. {yields} Transcription factor Sp1 is required for SREBP-1c activation by HCV-3a NS5A. -- Abstract: Steatosis is an important clinical manifestation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The molecular mechanisms of HCV-associated steatosis are not well understood. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) is a key transcription factor which activates the transcription of lipogenic genes. Here we showed that the nuclear, mature SREBP-1c level increases in the nucleus of replicon cells expressing HCV-3a nonstructural protein-5A (NS5A). We further showed that HCV-3a NS5A up-regulates SREBP-1c transcription. Additional analysis showed that transcriptional factor Sp1 is involved in SREBP-1c activation by HCV-3a NS5A because inhibition of Sp1 activity by mithramycin A or a dominant-negative Sp1 construct abrogated SREBP-1c promoter activation by HCV-3a NS5A. In addition, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay demonstrated enhanced binding of Sp1 on the SREBP-1c promoter in HCV-3a NS5A replicon cells. These results showed that HCV-3a NS5A activates SREBP-1c transcription through Sp1. Taken together, our results suggest that HCV-3a NS5A is a contributing factor for steatosis caused by HCV-3a infection.

  4. Hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein-5A activates sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c through transcription factor Sp1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Zhonghua; Qiao, Ling; Zhou, Yan; Babiuk, Lorne A.; Liu, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → A chimeric subgenomic HCV replicon expresses HCV-3a NS5A in an HCV-1b backbone. → HCV-3a NS5A increases mature SREBP-1c protein level. → HCV-3a NS5A activates SREBP-1c transcription. → Domain II of HCV-3a NS5A is more effective in SREBP-1c promoter activation. → Transcription factor Sp1 is required for SREBP-1c activation by HCV-3a NS5A. -- Abstract: Steatosis is an important clinical manifestation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The molecular mechanisms of HCV-associated steatosis are not well understood. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) is a key transcription factor which activates the transcription of lipogenic genes. Here we showed that the nuclear, mature SREBP-1c level increases in the nucleus of replicon cells expressing HCV-3a nonstructural protein-5A (NS5A). We further showed that HCV-3a NS5A up-regulates SREBP-1c transcription. Additional analysis showed that transcriptional factor Sp1 is involved in SREBP-1c activation by HCV-3a NS5A because inhibition of Sp1 activity by mithramycin A or a dominant-negative Sp1 construct abrogated SREBP-1c promoter activation by HCV-3a NS5A. In addition, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay demonstrated enhanced binding of Sp1 on the SREBP-1c promoter in HCV-3a NS5A replicon cells. These results showed that HCV-3a NS5A activates SREBP-1c transcription through Sp1. Taken together, our results suggest that HCV-3a NS5A is a contributing factor for steatosis caused by HCV-3a infection.

  5. Characterization of insulin-like growth factor I receptors in the median eminence of the brain and their modulation by food restriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohannon, N.J.; Corp, E.S.; Wilcox, B.J.; Figlewicz, D.P.; Dorsa, D.M.; Baskin, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    High affinity binding sites for 125I-labeled [Thr59]insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) were measured in rat median eminence by in vitro autoradiography with slide-mounted sections of frozen rat brain. Specific binding of 0.1 nM iodo-[Thr59]IGF-I to brain slices reached maximum by 12 h at 4 C and was unchanged at 24 h. Densitometry by computer digital image analysis of autoradiographic images indicated that specific binding of iodo-[Thr59]IGF-I to the median eminence was reversible. The specificity of binding was evaluated with competition of iodo-[Thr59]IGF-I with unlabeled [Thr59]IGF-I, rat IGF-II (multiplication-stimulating activity), and porcine insulin. All were recognized by the binding site, but the rank order of potency was [Thr59]IGF-I greater than IGF-II greater than insulin. Somatostatin was completely ineffective. Further, an antibody against the rat IGF-II receptor did not block binding of iodo-[Thr59]IGF-I to the median eminence. Fourteen days of food restriction (75% of food intake of controls) resulted in significant weight loss and reduction of plasma immunoreactive IGF-I in six food-restricted rats (0.9 +/- 0.1 U/ml) compared with values in six controls (2.6 +/- 0.5 U/ml; P less than 0.001). Binding of 125I-labeled [Thr59]IGF-I in the median eminence was significantly increased in the food-restricted rats, primarily due to an increase in the concentration of iodo-[Thr59]IGF-I-binding sites in the median eminence; the affinity (Kd) of binding was unchanged. The results indicate that the median eminence has type I IGF-I receptors, which become more numerous under metabolic conditions associated with decreased caloric intake and lowered plasma IGF-I levels

  6. Cooling modifies mixed median and ulnar palmar studies in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Rogério Gayer Machado de; Kouyoumdjian, João Aris

    2007-09-01

    Temperature is an important and common variable that modifies nerve conduction study parameters in practice. Here we compare the effect of cooling on the mixed palmar median to ulnar negative peak-latency difference (PMU) in electrodiagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Controls were 22 subjects (19 women, mean age 42.1 years, 44 hands). Patients were diagnosed with mild symptomatic CTS (25 women, mean age 46.6 years, 34 hands). PMU was obtained at the usual temperature, >32 degrees C, and after wrist/hand cooling to PMU and mixed ulnar palmar latency in patients versus controls. We concluded that cooling significantly modifies the PMU. We propose that the latencies of compressed nerve overreact to cooling and that this response could be a useful tool for incipient CTS electrodiagnosis. There was a significant latency overreaction of the ulnar nerve to cooling in CTS patients. We hypothesize that subclinical ulnar nerve compression is associated with CTS.

  7. Serum pepsinogen-A, canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity, and C-reactive protein as prognostic markers in dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israeli, I; Steiner, J; Segev, G; Kass, P H; Suchodolski, J S; Sattasathuchana, P; Bruchim, Y; Yudelevitch, S; Aroch, I

    2012-01-01

    Pepsinogens are proenzymes secreted by gastric chief cells. In humans, their serum concentrations reflect gastric mucosal morphological and functional status. To evaluate serum canine pepsinogen-A (cPG-A), C-reactive protein (CRP), and canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) concentrations in dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV). Sixty-six dogs presented with GDV and 79 healthy controls. Blood was collected prospectively, and records retrospectively reviewed. Median cPG-A concentration was higher in GDV dogs (median, 397 μg/L; range, 37-5,410) compared to controls (median, cPG-A 304 μg/L; range, 18-848; P = .07). Mortality rate in GDV dogs was 22.7%. In nonsurvivors of GDV, median cPG-A was higher compared to survivors (median, 746 μg/L; range, 128-5,409 versus median, 346; range, 36-1,575, respectively; P = .003). The proportion of dogs with increased cPG-A increased with gastric wall damage score (P = .007). An ROC analysis of cPG-A as a predictor of death showed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.75, higher than lactate (AUC 0.66), and corresponded to a sensitivity and specificity of 53% and 88%, respectively. CRP was increased in 48 dogs (75%), cPLI was >200 μg/L in 26 dogs (39.4%) and >400 μg/L in 12 dogs (18.2%) but both analytes had no association with outcome. Presurgical cPG-A concentration was positively and significantly associated with gastric wall lesion severity, but, based on ROC analysis, it was only a moderate outcome predictor. CRP and cPLI were commonly increased in dogs with GDV. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Performance evaluation of cable median barrier systems in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Since 2003, the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) has embarked on an aggressive campaign to install : median barriers to prevent cross-median crashes on freeway facilities statewide. In the few years prior to 2003, : virtually all fatalities...

  9. A Comparison among Worker Types Using a Composites Approach and Median Splits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Shahnaz; Wuensch, Karl L.; Brandon, Howard R.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined Spence and Robbins' (1992) worker types in terms of correlates of workaholism (e.g., work-life imbalance, obsessive-compulsive behavior). A survey was administered to professionals, who were then classified into different worker types following the traditional median-split technique. The data were also analyzed with…

  10. Median and Morphological Specialized Processors for a Real-Time Image Data Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Wiatr

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the considerations on selecting a multiprocessor MISD architecture for fast implementation of the vision image processing. Using the author′s earlier experience with real-time systems, implementing of specialized hardware processors based on the programmable FPGA systems has been proposed in the pipeline architecture. In particular, the following processors are presented: median filter and morphological processor. The structure of a universal reconfigurable processor developed has been proposed as well. Experimental results are presented as delays on LCA level implementation for median filter, morphological processor, convolution processor, look-up-table processor, logic processor and histogram processor. These times compare with delays in general purpose processor and DSP processor.

  11. Validity of F-wave minimal latency of median and ulnar nerves for diagnosis and severity assessment of carpal tunnel syndrome in type II diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Habib, S.S.; Omar, S.A.; Drees, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Type II diabetes mellitus is a common problem and is sometimes associated with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) due to compression of median nerve at wrist. Electrophysiological tests are frequently used for its diagnosis. In this work, F-wave minimal latency (FWML) difference between median and ulnar nerve and F-ratio is used to facilitate the diagnosis and severity of CTS in type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Thirty control cases were selected who were physically fit for normal electrophysiological values. Thirty-two patients with a long history of type II diabetes mellitus were studied for electro-diagnostic tests. All patients had clinical evidence of CTS. Among all diabetics about 20 cases had poor glycaemic control (HbA1c>7.5). F-wave minimal latency (FWML) were measured in median and ulnar nerves and F-ratio of median nerve were also noted. The mean values in different groups were compared using t-test and p greater or equal to 0.05 was considered significant. Results: In control group, the ulnar FWML was either equal or slightly longer that the median FWML value. In CTS group with type II diabetes mellitus the FWML value of median nerve were significantly longer than FWML of the ulnar nerve. Moreover, in uncontrolled diabetic patients the FWML values was very much longer than controlled group. Similarly the F-ratio of median nerve was significantly low. Conclusion: In addition to the specific criteria for CTS diagnosis, the parameters like FWML difference in median and ulnar nerve with reduced F-ratio of median nerve can be useful in establishing the diagnosis and severity of CTS in type II diabetes mellitus. (author)

  12. Clinical Outcomes following median to radial nerve transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Wilson Z.; Mackinnon, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose In this study the authors evaluate the clinical outcomes in patients with radial nerve palsy who underwent nerve transfers utilizing redundant fascicles of median nerve (innervating the flexor digitorum superficialis and flexor carpi radialis muscles) to the posterior interosseous nerve and the nerve to the extensor carpi radialis brevis. Methods A retrospective review of the clinical records of 19 patients with radial nerve injuries who underwent nerve transfer procedures using the median nerve as a donor nerve were included. All patients were evaluated using the Medical Research Council (MRC) grading system. Results The mean age of patients was 41 years (range 17 – 78 years). All patients received at least 12 months of follow-up (20.3 ± 5.8 months). Surgery was performed at a mean of 5.7 ± 1.9 months post-injury. Post-operative functional evaluation was graded according to the following scale: grades MRC 0/5 - MRC 2/5 were considered poor outcomes, while MRC of 3/5 was a fair result, MRC grade 4/5 was a good result, and grade 4+/5 was considered an excellent outcome. Seventeen patients (89%) had a complete radial nerve palsy while two patients (11%) had intact wrist extension but no finger or thumb extension. Post-operatively all patients except one had good to excellent recovery of wrist extension. Twelve patients recovered good to excellent finger and thumb extension, two patients had fair recovery, five patients had a poor recovery. Conclusions The radial nerve is a commonly injured nerve, causing significant morbidity in affected patients. The median nerve provides a reliable source of donor nerve fascicles for radial nerve reinnervation. This transfer was first performed in 1999 and evolved over the subsequent decade. The important nuances of both surgical technique and motor re-education critical for to the success of this transfer have been identified and are discussed. PMID:21168979

  13. Identification of human hnRNP C1/C2 as a dengue virus NS1-interacting protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noisakran, Sansanee; Sengsai, Suchada; Thongboonkerd, Visith; Kanlaya, Rattiyaporn; Sinchaikul, Supachok; Chen, Shui-Tein; Puttikhunt, Chunya

    2008-01-01

    Dengue virus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is a key glycoprotein involved in the production of infectious virus and the pathogenesis of dengue diseases. Very little is known how NS1 interacts with host cellular proteins and functions in dengue virus-infected cells. This study aimed at identifying NS1-interacting host cellular proteins in dengue virus-infected cells by employing co-immunoprecipitation, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry. Using lysates of dengue virus-infected human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293T), immunoprecipitation with an anti-NS1 monoclonal antibody revealed eight isoforms of dengue virus NS1 and a 40-kDa protein, which was subsequently identified by quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS/MS) as human heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) C1/C2. Further investigation by co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization confirmed the association of hnRNP C1/C2 and dengue virus NS1 proteins in dengue virus-infected cells. Their interaction may have implications in virus replication and/or cellular responses favorable to survival of the virus in host cells

  14. Percentiles of fasting serum insulin, glucose, HbA1c and HOMA-IR in pre-pubertal normal weight European children from the IDEFICS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplies, J; Jiménez-Pavón, D; Savva, S C; Buck, C; Günther, K; Fraterman, A; Russo, P; Iacoviello, L; Veidebaum, T; Tornaritis, M; De Henauw, S; Mårild, S; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; Ahrens, W

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to present age- and sex-specific reference values of insulin, glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and the homeostasis model assessment to quantify insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for pre-pubertal children. The reference population consists of 7074 normal weight 3- to 10.9-year-old pre-pubertal children from eight European countries who participated in at least one wave of the IDEFICS ('identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants') surveys (2007-2010) and for whom standardised laboratory measurements were obtained. Percentile curves of insulin (measured by an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay), glucose, HbA1c and HOMA-IR were calculated as a function of age stratified by sex using the general additive model for location scale and shape (GAMLSS) method. Levels of insulin, fasting glucose and HOMA-IR continuously show an increasing trend with age, whereas HbA1c shows an upward trend only beyond the age of 8 years. Insulin and HOMA-IR values are higher in girls of all age groups, whereas glucose values are slightly higher in boys. Median serum levels of insulin range from 17.4 and 13.2 pmol l(-1) in 3-HOMA-IR, median values range from 0.5 and 0.4 in 3-<3.5-year-old girls and boys to 1.7 and 1.4 in 10.5-<11-year-old girls and boys, respectively. Our study provides the first standardised reference values for an international European children's population and provides the, up to now, largest data set of healthy pre-pubertal children to model reference percentiles for markers of insulin resistance. Our cohort shows higher values of Hb1Ac as compared with a single Swedish study while our percentiles for the other glucose metabolic markers are in good accordance with previous studies.

  15. Allegheny County Median Age at Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The median age at death is calculated for each municipality in Allegheny County. Data is based on the decedent's residence at the time of death, not the location...

  16. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunoreactivities in the arcuate-median eminence complex and their link to the tubero-infundibular dopamine neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Romero-Fernandez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunohistochemistry and Golgi techniques were used to study the structure of the adult rat arcuate-median eminence complex, and determine the distribution of the dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunoreactivities therein, particularly in relation to the tubero-infundibular dopamine neurons. Punctate dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunoreactivities, likely located on nerve terminals, were enriched in the lateral palisade zone built up of nerve terminals, while the densities were low to modest in the medial palisade zone. A codistribution of dopamine D1 receptor or dopamine D2 receptor immunoreactive puncta with tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive nerve terminals was demonstrated in the external layer. Dopamine D1 receptor but not dopamine D2 receptor immnunoreactivites nerve cell bodies were found in the ventromedial part of the arcuate nucleus and in the lateral part of the internal layer of the median eminence forming a continuous cell mass presumably representing neuropeptide Y immunoreactive nerve cell bodies. The major arcuate dopamine/ tyrosine hydroxylase nerve cell group was found in the dorsomedial part. A large number of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive nerve cell bodies in this region demonstrated punctate dopamine D1 receptor immunoreactivity but only a few presented dopamine D2 receptor immunoreactivity which were mainly found in a substantial number of tyrosine hydroxylase cell bodies of the ventral periventricular hypothalamic nucleus, also belonging to the tubero-infundibular dopamine neurons. Structural evidence for projections of the arcuate nerve cells into the median eminence was also obtained. Distal axons formed horizontal axons in the internal layer issuing a variable number of collaterals classified into single or multiple strands located in the external layer increasing our understanding of the dopamine nerve terminal networks in this region.  Dopamine D1 and D2 receptors may therefore directly

  17. How does CKD affect HbA1c?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomgarden, Zachary; Handelsman, Yehuda

    2018-04-01

    HOW DOES CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE AFFECT HBA1C?: A number of factors determine HbA1c other than the level of glucose exposure alone. In an subset analysis of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study of 941 diabetic people with varying degrees of chronic kidney disease (CKD), as well as 724 who did not have CKD, and mean age in the eighth decade, Jung et al. ask whether HbA1c is reliable as an indicator of glycemia in people with kidney disease (CKD) to the same degree as in those not having kidney disease, and, if not, whether measures of glycated serum proteins may be more useful. The only available measure of glycemia for comparison was a single fasting glucose level, and the authors acknowledge that this gives an incomplete measure, particularly in people with relatively mild diabetes, whose mean HbA1c was 6.4%, with most having levels of 7.5% or lower. In patients of this sort, postprandial glucose levels may better explain variations in mean HbA1c. Recognizing that the dataset may be limited, Jung et al. nevertheless give an intriguingly negative answer to the first question, of the reliability of HbA1c with kidney disease. Using Deming regression analysis, Jung et al. showed that the correlation between HbA1c and fasting glucose weakens as renal function worsens, and, moreover, that this appears particularly to be the case in people with anemia (hemoglobin men and women, respectively), confirming earlier observations. Among those diabetic people with neither anemia nor CKD, the correlation coefficient between HbA1c and fasting glucose was r = 0.70, compared with r = 0.35 among those with both anemia and very severe CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] perform SMBG to more adequately interpret HbA1c results. © 2017 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Possible discrepancy of HbA1c values and its assessment among patients with chronic renal failure, hemodialysis and other diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kaori; Goto, Atsushi; Kishimoto, Miyako; Tsujimoto, Tetsuro; Yamamoto-Honda, Ritsuko; Noto, Hiroshi; Kajio, Hiroshi; Terauchi, Yasuo; Noda, Mitsuhiko

    2015-12-01

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and glycated albumin (GA) are frequently used as glycemic control markers. However, these markers are influenced by alterations in hemoglobin and albumin metabolism. Thus, conditions such as anemia, chronic renal failure, hypersplenism, chronic liver diseases, hyperthyroidism, hypoalbuminemia, and pregnancy need to be considered when interpreting HbA1c or GA values. Using data from patients with normal albumin and hemoglobin metabolism, we previously established a linear regression equation describing the GA value versus the HbA1c value to calculate an extrapolated HbA1c (eHbA1c) value for the accurate evaluation of glycemic control. In this study, we investigated the difference between the measured HbA1c and the eHbA1c values for patients with various conditions. Data sets for a total of 2461 occasions were obtained from 731 patients whose HbA1c and GA values were simultaneously measured. We excluded patients with missing data or changeable HbA1c levels, and patients who had received transfusions or steroids within the previous 3 months. Finally, we included 44 patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), 10 patients who were undergoing hemodialysis (HD), 7 patients with hematological malignancies and a hemoglobin level of less than 10 g/dL (HM), and 12 patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD). In all the groups, the eHbA1c values were significantly higher than the measured HbA1c values. The median difference was 0.75 % (95 % CI 0.40-1.10 %, P for the difference is <0.001) in the CRF group, 0.80 % (95 % CI 0.30-1.65 %, P for the difference is 0.041) in the HD group, 0.90 % (95 % CI 0.90-1.30 %, P for the difference is 0.028) in the HM group, and 0.85 % (95 % CI 0.40-1.50 %, P for the difference is 0.009) in the CLD group. We found that the measured HbA1c values were lower than the eHbA1c values in each of the groups.

  19. Production and characterization of a murine monoclonal IgM antibody to human C1q receptor (C1qR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghebrehiwet, B.

    1986-01-01

    A hybridoma cell line that produces a monoclonal antibody (MAb) to cell surface C1q receptor (C1qr) has been produced by fusion of the P3 x 63-Ag8.653 mouse myeloma cell line with the spleen cells of a CD-1 mouse that had been hyperimmunized with viable Raji cell suspensions (5 x 10 7 cells/inoculum). This MAb, designated II1/D1, is an IgM antibody with lambda-light chain specificity. Radiolabeled or unlabeled, highly purified II1/D1 was used to determine that: a) this antibody competes for C1q binding sites on C1qR-bearing cells; b) the molecule recognized by this MAb is the C1qR; and c) cells that are known to bind C1q also bind II1/D1 in a specific manner. Western blot analysis of solubilized Raji, or U937 cell membranes, showed that the 125 I-MAb detected a major protein band of approximately 85000 m.w. in its unreduced state, indicating that the C1qR is similar, if not identical, in both types of cells. Analyses of 125 I-II/D1 binding experiments revealed that the antibody bound to Raji cells or u937 cells in a specific manner. Uptake of the antibody was saturable, with equilibrium virtually attained within 35 min. Scatchard analysis of the binding data using the intact MAb suggests that the affinity constant K/sub D/ is 2.9 x 10 -10 M, and at apparent saturation, 24.6 ng of the antibody were bound per 2 x 10 6 cells, giving an estimated 7.8 x 10 3 antibody molecules bound per cell. That the II1/D1 antibody is specifically directed to the C1q was further evidenced by an ELISA in which the ability of C1qR-bearing cells to bind the MAb was abrogated by c-C1q in a specific dose-dependent manner

  20. Median Filtering Methods for Non-volcanic Tremor Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiao, L. G.; Nadeau, R. M.; Dreger, D. S.; Luna, B.; Zhang, H.

    2016-12-01

    Various properties of median filtering over time and space are used to address challenges posed by the Non-volcanic tremor detection problem. As part of a "Big-Data" effort to characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of ambient tremor throughout the Northern San Andreas Fault system, continuous seismic data from multiple seismic networks with contrasting operational characteristics and distributed over a variety of regions are being used. Automated median filtering methods that are flexible enough to work consistently with these data are required. Tremor is characterized by a low-amplitude, long-duration signal-train whose shape is coherent at multiple stations distributed over a large area. There are no consistent phase arrivals or mechanisms in a given tremor's signal and even the durations and shapes among different tremors vary considerably. A myriad of masquerading noise, anthropogenic and natural-event signals must also be discriminated in order to obtain accurate tremor detections. We present here results of the median methods applied to data from four regions of the San Andreas Fault system in northern California (Geysers Geothermal Field, Napa, Bitterwater and Parkfield) to illustrate the ability of the methods to detect tremor under diverse conditions.

  1. The Investigation of Median Frequency Changes in Paraspinal Muscles Following Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Talebian

    2009-10-01

    Conclusion: Median frequency shift toward low values following fatigue in global and local paraspinal muscles was seen. However, median frequency values for the local stabilizer muscle were higher than median frequency values for the global muscles.

  2. Erroneous HbA1c results in a patient with elevated HbC and HbF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekanmbi, Joy; Higgins, Trefor; Rodriguez-Capote, Karina; Thomas, Dylan; Winterstein, Jeffrey; Dixon, Tara; Gifford, Jessica L; Krause, Richard; Venner, Allison A; Clarke, Gwen; Estey, Mathew P

    2016-11-01

    HbA1c is used in the diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes mellitus (DM). Interference from hemoglobin variants is a well-described phenomenon, particularly with HPLC-based methods. While immunoassays may generate more reliable HbA1c results in the presence of some variants, these methods are susceptible to negative interference from high concentrations of HbF. We report a case where an accurate HbA1c result could not be obtained by any available method due to the presence of a compound hemoglobinopathy. HbA1c was measured by HPLC, immunoassay, and capillary electrophoresis. Hemoglobinopathy investigation consisted of a CBC, hemoglobin fractionation by HPLC and electrophoresis, and molecular analysis. HbA1c analysis by HPLC and capillary electrophoresis gave no result. Analysis by immunoassay yielded HbA1c results of 5.9% (Siemens DCA 2000+) and 5.1% (Roche Integra), which were inconsistent with other markers of glycemic control. Hemoglobinopathy investigation showed HbC with the hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin-2 Ghana deletion. Reliable HbA1c results may be unobtainable in the presence of some hemoglobinopathies. HPLC and capillary electrophoresis alerted the laboratory to the presence of an unusual hemoglobinopathy. Immunoassays generated falsely low results without warning, which could lead to missed diagnoses and under treatment of patients with DM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Experience of thymectomy by median sternotomy in patients with myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, N.; Ahmed, S.W.; Ahmed, T.; Hafeez, A.B.; Baloch, R.; Ali, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the outcome of thymectomy in patients with myasthenia gravis and safety of median sternotomy approach. Methodology: An observational descriptive study was conducted in the department of thoracic surgery JPMC from February 2005 to January 2009. Twenty two patients having persistent generalized or ocular myasthenia gravis referred to our department by neurologists and general physicians, partially or not responding to medical treatment with or without thymoma, were included in the study. Those who were not fit for anaesthesia were excluded. Preoperatively 2 to 3 sessions of plasmaphaeresis were done and each patient was given anti myasthenia gravis treatment. Clinical staging was done by Modified Osserman classification. Median sternotomy approach was used. Outcome was assessed on the basis of remission of disease in different Osserman groups. All patients were followed for a minimum of 6 months. Results: Out of 22 patients, 16 (72.7%) were females and 6 (27.2%) males. Mean age at presentation was 35.2 +- 14.5 years. Mean duration of symptoms was 1.5 +- 1.2 years. A total of 4 (18.1%) patients with myasthenia gravis had thymoma and histopathology of 18 (81.9%) patients showed thymic hyperplasia. Remission was seen in most grades of Osserman. The best response was seen in Grade I where all patients achieved remission. Most patients in Grade II A and II B were benefited. The only patient in Grade III had no improvement of symptoms. No patient in Grade IV underwent thymectomy. Overall 86.3 % had a positive outcome on basis of remission and improvement. Conclusion: Thymectomy by median sternotomy is safe and effective with more favourable outcomes for patients of myasthenia gravis not responding to medical treatment. (author)

  4. [About the HbA1c in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farcet, Anaïs; Delalande, Géraldine; Oliver, Charles; Retornaz, Frédérique

    2016-03-01

    HbA1c product of non enzymatic glycation of HbA increases in relation with the mean blood glucose level during the former 2-3 months. HbA1c levels are correlated with the development of diabetic complications and HbA1c assessment is now the gold standard for evaluation of diabetes control. HbA1c level should not be higher than 7% to avoid these complications. However, in aged peoples, the objectives of diabetes control vary according to their health status. It must be good with HbA1c lower than 7-7.5% in healthy subjects and more relax in subjects with symptoms of frailty and risks of non perceived and self corrected hypoglycemia. Under these conditions, HbA1c values lower than 8 to 9% are advised. Nevertheless, hypoglycemia episodes may occur in patients with high HbA1c and capillary glucose follow-up is necessary for detection of such complications.

  5. Future emissions pathways consistent with limiting warming to 1.5°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, R.; Fuglestvedt, J. S.; Grubb, M.; Rogelj, J.; Skeie, R. B.; Friedlingstein, P.; Forster, P.; Frame, D. J.; Pierrehumbert, R.; Allen, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    The stated aim of the 2015 UNFCCC Paris Agreement is `holding the increase in global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit temperature increases to 1.5°C'. We show that emissions reductions proportional to those achieved in an ambitious mitigation scenario, RCP2.6, but beginning in 2017, give a median estimated peak warming of 1.5°C, with a likely (66% probability) range of uncertainty of 1.2-2.0°C. Such a scenario would be approximately consistent with the most ambitious interpretation of the 2030 emissions pledges, but requires reduction rates exceeding 0.3GtC/yr/yr after 2030. A steady reduction at less than half this rate would achieve the same temperature outcome if initiated in 2020. Limiting total CO2 emissions after 2015 to 200GtC would limit future warming to likely less than 0.6°C above present, consistent with 1.5°C above pre-industrial, based on the distribution of responses of the CMIP5 Earth System, but the CMIP5 simulations do not correspond to scenarios that aim to limit warming to such low levels. If future CO2 emissions are successfully adapted to the emerging climate response so as to limit warming in 2100 to 0.6°C above present, and non-CO2 emissions follow the ambitious RCP2.6 scenario, then we estimate that resulting CO2 emissions will unlikely be restricted to less than 250GtC given current uncertainties in climate system response, although still-poorly-modelled carbon cycle feedbacks, such as release from permafrost, may encroach on this budget. Even under a perfectly successful adaptive mitigation regime, emissions consistent with limiting warming to 0.6°C above present are unlikely to be greater than 500GtC.These estimates suggest the 1.5°C goal may not yet be geophysically insurmountable but will nevertheless require, at minimum, the full implementation of the most ambitious interpretation of the Paris pledges followed by accelerated and more fundamental changes in our

  6. Evidence of multiple introductions of HIV-1 subtype C in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Joana Morais; Morgado, Mariza G; Bello, Gonzalo

    2012-10-01

    HIV-1 subtype C is the most prevalent group M clade in southern Africa and some eastern African countries. Subtype C is also the most frequent subtype in Angola (southwestern Africa), with an estimated prevalence of 10-20%. In order to better understand the origin of the HIV-1 subtype C strains circulating in Angola, 31 subtype C pol sequences of Angolan origin were compared with 1950 subtype C pol sequences sampled in other African countries. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that the Angolan subtype C sequences were distributed in 16 different lineages that were widely dispersed among other African strains. Ten subtype C Angolan lineages were composed by only one sequence, while the remaining six clades contain between two and seven sequences. Bayesian phylogeographic analysis indicates that most Angolan clades probably originated in different southern African countries with the exception of one lineage that most likely originated in Burundi. Evolutionary analysis suggests that those Angolan subtype C clades composed by ≥ 2 sequences were introduced into the country between the late 1970s and the mid 2000s. The median estimated time frame for the origin of those Angolan lineages coincides with periods of positive migration influx in Angola that were preceded by phases of negative migratory outflow. These results demonstrate that the Angolan subtype C epidemic resulted from multiple introductions of subtype C viruses mainly imported from southern African countries over the last 30years, some of which have been locally disseminated establishing several autochthonous transmission networks. This study also suggests that population mobility between Angola and southern African countries during civil war (1974-2002) may have played a key role in the emergence of the Angolan subtype C epidemic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of median surgeon operative duration on adverse outcomes in bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reames, Bradley N; Bacal, Daniel; Krell, Robert W; Birkmeyer, John D; Birkmeyer, Nancy J O; Finks, Jonathan F

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that prolonged operative time adversely affects surgical outcomes. However, whether faster surgeons have better outcomes is unclear, as a surgeon׳s speed could reflect skill and efficiency, but may alternatively reflect haste. This study evaluates whether median surgeon operative time is associated with adverse surgical outcomes after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. We performed a retrospective cohort study using statewide clinical registry data from the years 2006 to 2012. Surgeons were ranked by their median operative time and grouped into terciles. Multivariable logistic regression with robust standard errors was used to evaluate the influence of median surgeon operative time on 30-day surgical outcomes, adjusting for patient and surgeon characteristics, trainee involvement, concurrent procedures, and the complex interaction between these variables. A total of 16,344 patients underwent surgery during the study period. Compared to surgeons in the fastest tercile, slow surgeons required 53 additional minutes to complete a gastric bypass procedure (median [interquartile range] 139 [133-150] versus 86 [69-91], Ppatient characteristic only, slow surgeons had significantly higher adjusted rates of any complication, prolonged length of stay, emergency department visits or readmissions, and venous thromboembolism (VTE). After further adjustment for surgeon characteristics, resident involvement, and the interaction between these variables, slow surgeons had higher rates of any complication (10.5% versus 7.1%, P=.039), prolonged length of stay (14.0% versus 4.4%, P=.002), and VTE (0.39% versus .22%, P<.001). Median surgeon operative duration is independently associated with adjusted rates of certain adverse outcomes after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Improving surgeon efficiency while operating may reduce operative time and improve the safety of bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by

  8. Electroacupuncture and Acupuncture Promote the Rat’s Transected Median Nerve Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, C. Y.; Yao, C. H.; Chen, W. C.; Shen, W. C.; Bau, D. T.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments of damaged nerves may aid nerve regeneration related to hindlimb function, but the effects on the forelimb-related median nerve were not known. Methods. A gap was made in the median nerve of each rat by suturing the stumps into silicone rubber tubes. The influences of acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments on transected median nerve regeneration were evaluated from morphological, electrophysiological, and functional angles. Resu...

  9. The "p"-Median Model as a Tool for Clustering Psychological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Hans-Friedrich; Steinley, Douglas; Brusco, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The "p"-median clustering model represents a combinatorial approach to partition data sets into disjoint, nonhierarchical groups. Object classes are constructed around "exemplars", that is, manifest objects in the data set, with the remaining instances assigned to their closest cluster centers. Effective, state-of-the-art implementations of…

  10. Body mass index standard deviation score and obesity in children with type 1 diabetes in the Nordic countries. HbA1c and other predictors of increasing BMISDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkebaek, N H; Kahlert, J; Bjarnason, R; Drivvoll, A K; Johansen, A; Konradsdottir, E; Pundziute-Lyckå, A; Samuelsson, U; Skrivarhaug, T; Svensson, J

    2018-05-21

    Intensified insulin therapy may increase body weight and cause obesity. This study compared body mass index standard deviation score (BMISDS) and obesity rate in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, and uncovered predictors for increasing BMISDS. Data registered in the Nordic national childhood diabetes databases during the period 2008-2012 on children below 15 years with T1D for more than 3 months were compiled, including information on gender, age, diabetes duration, hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ), insulin dose, severe hypoglycemia (SH), treatment modality, height and weight. The Swedish reference chart for BMI was used for calculating BMISDS. Totally, 11 025 children (48% females) (30 994 registrations) were included. Medians by the last recorded examination were: age, 13.5 years; diabetes duration, 4.3 years; HbA 1c , 7.9% (63 mmol/mol); insulin dose, 0.8 IU/kg/d and BMISDS, 0.70. Obesity rate was 18.5%. Adjusted mean BMISDS (BMISDS adj) was inversely related to HbA 1c and directly to diabetes duration. Higher BMISDS adj was found in those with an insulin dose above 0.6 IU/kg/d, and in girls above 10 years. Pump users had higher BMISDS adj than pen users, and patients with registered SH had higher BMISDS adj than patients without SH (both P < .001). Obesity rate in children with T1D in the Nordic countries is high, however, with country differences. Low HbA 1c , long diabetes duration, higher insulin dose, pump treatment and experiencing a SH predicted higher BMISDS. Diabetes caregivers should balance the risk of obesity and the benefit of a very low HbA 1c. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Type 1 diabetes mellitus care and education in China: The 3C study of coverage, cost, and care in Beijing and Shantou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Helen C; Ji, Linong; Kissimova-Skarbek, Katarzyna; Whiting, David; Aguirre, Florencia; Zhang, Puhong; Lin, Shaoda; Gong, Chunxiu; Zhao, Weigang; Lu, Juming; Guo, Xiaohui; Ji, Ying; Seuring, Till; Hong, Tianpei; Chen, Lishu; Weng, Jianping; Zhou, Zhiguang

    2017-07-01

    The paucity of data on Type 1 diabetes in China hinders progress in care and policy-making. This study compares Type 1 diabetes care and clinical outcomes in Beijing and Shantou with current clinical guidelines. The 3C Study was a cross-sectional study of the clinical practices and outcomes of people with Type 1 diabetes. The study sequentially enrolled 849 participants from hospital records, inpatient wards, and outpatient clinics. Data were collected via face-to-face interviews with patients and health professionals, the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities, medical records, and venous blood samples. Care was audited using ISPAD/IDF indicators. Data underwent descriptive analysis and tests for association. The median age was 22years (IQR=13-34years), and 48.4% of the sample had diabetes less than six years. The median HbA1c was 8.5% (69mmol/mol) (IQR 7.2-10.5%), with significant regional variance (p=0.002). Insulin treatment was predominantly two injections/day (45% of patients). The highest incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis was 14.4 events/100 patient years among adolescents. Of the 57.3% of patients with LDL-C>2.6mmol/L, only 11.2% received treatment. Of the 10.6% considered hypertensive, 47.1% received treatment. Rates of documented screening for retinopathy, nephropathy, and peripheral neuropathy were 35.2%, 42.3%, and 25.0%, respectively. The median number of days of self-monitoring/week was 3.0 (IQR=1.0-7.0). There were significant differences in care practices across regions. The study documented an overall deficit in care with significant regional differences noted compared to practice guidelines. Modifications to treatment modalities and the structure of care may improve outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Synthesis of 1-13C-1-indanone and 2-13C-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, R.E.; Wysocki, M.A.; Eisenbraun, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    The synthesis of 2- 13 C-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline (5) via 1- 13 C-3-phenylpropanoic acid (1), 1- 13 C-1-indanone (2), 1- 13 C-1-indanone hydrazone (3) and 2- 13 C-3,4-dihydro-2(1H)-quinolinone (4) proceeded in 78, 96, 95, 79, and 85% individual yields respectively for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 61% overall yield of the latter from 1. (author)

  13. Deposition Velocities of C1 - C5 Alkyl Nitrates at a Northern Colorado Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeleira, A.; Sive, B. C.; Farmer, D.; Swarthout, B.

    2017-12-01

    Organic nitrates (RONO2) are ubiquitous in the troposphere and are part of gas-phase oxidized nitrogen (NOy = NOx + HNO3 + HONO + N2O5 + HO2NO2 + PAN + NO3 + RONO2). RONO2 can act as both sinks and sources of HOx (RO + RO2 + OH) and NOx (NO + NO2), contributing to the nonlinearity of ozone (O3) formation. It is thus potentially important to understand sinks of RONO2, and how they change seasonally, in order to predict O3 on local, regional and global scales. We focus here on speciated C1 - C5 monofunctional alkyl nitrates (C1 - C5 ANs). In polluted continental regions the dominant source of C1 - C5 ANs is the OH-initiated oxidation of parent alkanes in the presence of NO, and thus changes seasonally with OH mixing ratios. Direct emissions of C1 - C2 ANs include oceanic sources and biomass burning. The sinks of C1 - C5 ANs include OH oxidation and photolysis, both of which release O3 precursors. Chemical transport models tend to overestimate the mixing ratios of small ANs indicating that a missing sink is not included. Wet deposition of C1 - C5 ANs is typically ignored due to the very low Henry's Law constants of these species. However, dry deposition of total organic nitrogen has been observed to be substantial. The dry deposition velocity of methyl nitrate has previously been estimated from summer observations at a rural New England site with a value of 0.13 cm s-1. Here we report deposition velocities for C1 - C5 ANs from surface observations at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) in Erie, Colorado during winter 2011 and spring 2015. We calculate deposition velocities from the observed decay in C1 - C5 ANs at night during periods with a stable nocturnal boundary layer height of 100 - 200 meters. Ideal meteorological conditions were observed for 5 nights during the 2011 NACHTT campaign (February - March 2011), and for 5 nights during the 2015 SONGNEX campaign (March - May 2015). Deposition velocities increased with alkyl nitrate size, ranging from 0.15 cm

  14. Changes in HIV-1 subtypes B and C genital tract RNA in women and men after initiation of antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiscus, Susan A; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Eshete, Abel Tilahun; Hughes, Michael D; Bao, Yajing; Hosseinipour, Mina; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Badal-Faesen, Sharlaa; Dragavon, Joan; Coombs, Robert W; Braun, Ken; Moran, Laura; Hakim, James; Flanigan, Timothy; Kumarasamy, N; Campbell, Thomas B

    2013-07-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces genital tract human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) load and reduces the risk of sexual transmission, but little is known about the efficacy of cART for decreasing genital tract viral load (GTVL) and differences in sex or HIV-1 subtype. HIV-1 RNA from blood plasma, seminal plasma, or cervical wicks was quantified at baseline and at weeks 48 and 96 after entry in a randomized clinical trial of 3 cART regimens. One hundred fifty-eight men and 170 women from 7 countries were studied (men: 55% subtype B and 45% subtype C; women: 24% subtype B and 76% subtype C). Despite similar baseline CD4(+) cell counts and blood plasma viral loads, women with subtype C had the highest GTVL (median, 5.1 log10 copies/mL) compared to women with subtype B and men with subtype C or B (4.0, 4.0, and 3.8 log10 copies/mL, respectively; P female genital tract may serve as a reservoir of persistent HIV-1 replication during cART and affect the use of cART to prevent sexual and perinatal transmission of HIV-1.

  15. Cold intolerance following median and ulnar nerve injuries : prognosis and predictors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, A.C.J; Jaquet, J-B.; van Riel, W. G.; Daanen, H. A M; Hovius, S.E.R.

    This study describes the predictors for cold intolerance and the relationship to sensory recovery after median and ulnar nerve injuries. The study population consisted of 107 patients 2 to 10 years after median, ulnar or combined median and ulnar nerve injuries. Patients were asked to fill out the

  16. Cold intolerance following median and ulnar nerve injuries : prognosis and predictors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, A.C.J.; Jaquet, J.B.; Riel, W.G. van; Daanen, H.A.M.; Hovius, S.E.R.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the predictors for cold intolerance and the relationship to sensory recovery after median and ulnar nerve injuries. The study population consisted of 107 patients 2 to 10 years after median, ulnar or combined median and ulnar nerve injuries. Patients were asked to fill out the

  17. Longitudinal trends in HbA1c and associations with comorbidity and all-cause mortality in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Miyang; Lim, Wei Yen; Tan, Chuen Seng; Ning, Yilin; Chia, Kee Seng; van Dam, Rob M; Tang, Wern Ee; Tan, Ngiap Chuan; Chen, Richard; Tai, E Shyong; Venkataraman, Kavita

    2017-11-01

    This study examined longitudinal trends in HbA1c in a multi-ethnic Asian cohort of diabetes patients, and the associations of these trends with future risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke, end stage renal failure (ESRD) and all-cause mortality. 6079 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Singapore were included. HbA1c measurements for the five years previous to recruitment were used to identify patterns of HbA1c trends. Outcomes were recorded through linkage with the National Disease Registry. The median follow-up for longitudinal trends in HbA1c was 4.1years and for outcomes was between 7.0 and 8.3years. HbA1c patterns were identified using latent class growth modeling, and associations with outcomes were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models. Four distinct HbA1c patterns were observed; "low-stable" (72·2%), "moderate-stable" (22·0%), "moderate-increase" (2·9%), and "high-decrease" (2·8%). The risk of comorbidities and death was significantly higher in moderate-increase and high-decrease groups compared to the low-stable group; the hazard ratios for stroke, ESRD, and death for moderate increase group were 3.22 (95%CI 1.27-8.15), 4.76 (95%CI 1.92-11.83), and 1.88 (95%CI 1.15-3.07), respectively, and for high-decrease group were 2.16 (95%CI 1.02-4.57), 3.05 (95%CI 1.54-6.07), and 2.79 (95%CI 1.97-3.95), respectively. Individuals in the moderate-increase group were significantly younger, with longer diabetes duration, and greater proportions of Malays and Indians. Deteriorating HbA1c pattern and extremely high initial HbA1c are associated with increased risk of long-term comorbidities and death. Therapeutic interventions to alter longitudinal HbA1c trends may be helpful in reducing this risk. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimal design of work zone median crossovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The use of temporary median crossovers in work zones allows for the closure of one side of a multi-lane roadway while : maintaining two-way traffic on the opposite side. This process provides the ability for construction and maintenance crews : to co...

  19. Synthesis of [5,6-13C2, 1-14C]olivetolic acid, methyl [1'-13C]olivetolate and [5,6-13C2, 1-14C]cannabigerolic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porwoll, J.P.; Leete, E.

    1985-01-01

    Potential advanced intermediates in the biosynthesis of delta 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol, the major psychoactive principle of marijuana, have been synthesized labeled with two contiguous 13 C atoms and 14 C. Methyl [5,6- 13 C 2 , 1- 14 C]olivetolate was prepared from lithium [ 13 C 2 ]acetylide and dimethyl [2- 14 C]malonate. Reaction with geranyl bromide afforded methyl [5,6- 13 C 2 , 1- 14 C]cannabigerolate, and hydrolysis of these methyl esters with lithium propyl mercaptide yielded the corresponding labeled acids. The 13 C- 13 C couplings observable in the 13 C NMR spectra of these 13 C-enriched compounds and their synthetic precursors are recorded. Methyl [1'- 14 C]olivetolate was prepared from 13 CO 2 to confirm assignments of the 13 C chemical shifts in the pentyl side chain of these compounds. (author)

  20. Implementation and evaluation of an ordered subsets reconstruction algorithm for transmission PET studies using median root prior and inter-update median filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettinardi, V.; Gilardi, M.C.; Fazio, F.; Alenius, S.; Ruotsalainen, U.; Numminen, P.; Teraes, M.

    2003-01-01

    An ordered subsets (OS) reconstruction algorithm based on the median root prior (MRP) and inter-update median filtering was implemented for the reconstruction of low count statistics transmission (TR) scans. The OS-MRP-TR algorithm was evaluated using an experimental phantom, simulating positron emission tomography (PET) whole-body (WB) studies, as well as patient data. Various experimental conditions, in terms of TR scan time (from 1 h to 1 min), covering a wide range of TR count statistics were evaluated. The performance of the algorithm was assessed by comparing the mean value of the attenuation coefficient (MVAC) of known tissue types and the coefficient of variation (CV) for low-count TR images, reconstructed with the OS-MRP-TR algorithm, with reference values obtained from high-count TR images reconstructed with a filtered back-projection (FBP) algorithm. The reconstructed OS-MRP-TR images were then used for attenuation correction of the corresponding emission (EM) data. EM images reconstructed with attenuation correction generated by OS-MRP-TR images, of low count statistics, were compared with the EM images corrected for attenuation using reference (high statistics) TR data. In all the experimental situations considered, the OS-MRP-TR algorithm showed: (1) a tendency towards a stable solution in terms of MVAC; (2) a difference in the MVAC of within 5% for a TR scan of 1 min reconstructed with the OS-MRP-TR and a TR scan of 1 h reconstructed with the FBP algorithm; (3) effectiveness in noise reduction, particularly for low count statistics data [using a specific parameter configuration the TR images reconstructed with OS-MRP-TR(1 min) had a lower CV than the corresponding TR images of a 1-h scan reconstructed with the FBP algorithm]; (4) a difference of within 3% between the mean counts in the EM images attenuation corrected using the OS-MRP-TR images of 1 min and the mean counts in the EM images attenuation corrected using the OS-MRP-TR images of 1 h; (5

  1. Spatial-temporal changes in runoff and terrestrial ecosystem water retention under 1.5 and 2 °C warming scenarios across China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Ran; Tao, Fulu; Xu, Zhihui

    2018-06-01

    The Paris Agreement set a long-term temperature goal of holding the global average temperature increase to below 2.0 °C above pre-industrial levels, pursuing efforts to limit this to 1.5 °C; it is therefore important to understand the impacts of climate change under 1.5 and 2.0 °C warming scenarios for climate adaptation and mitigation. Here, climate scenarios from four global circulation models (GCMs) for the baseline (2006-2015), 1.5, and 2.0 °C warming scenarios (2106-2115) were used to drive the validated Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model to investigate the impacts of global warming on runoff and terrestrial ecosystem water retention (TEWR) across China at a spatial resolution of 0.5°. This study applied ensemble projections from multiple GCMs to provide more comprehensive and robust results. The trends in annual mean temperature, precipitation, runoff, and TEWR were analyzed at the grid and basin scale. Results showed that median change in runoff ranged from 3.61 to 13.86 %, 4.20 to 17.89 %, and median change in TEWR ranged from -0.45 to 6.71 and -3.48 to 4.40 % in the 10 main basins in China under 1.5 and 2.0 °C warming scenarios, respectively, across all four GCMs. The interannual variability of runoff increased notably in areas where it was projected to increase, and the interannual variability increased notably from the 1.5 to the 2.0 °C warming scenario. In contrast, TEWR would remain relatively stable, the median change in standard deviation (SD) of TEWR ranged from -10 to 10 % in about 90 % grids under 1.5 and 2.0 °C warming scenarios, across all four GCMs. Both low and high runoff would increase under the two warming scenarios in most areas across China, with high runoff increasing more. The risks of low and high runoff events would be higher under the 2.0 than under the 1.5 °C warming scenario in terms of both extent and intensity. Runoff was significantly positively correlated to precipitation, while increase in maximum

  2. Utility of “11C -methionine PET/CT in neuro-oncology; Utilidad de “11C-metionina PET/CT en neurooncología

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casas Parera, I.; Igirio Gamero, J. L.; Báez, A.; Tafur Canabal, J. G.; Báez, M.; Kuchkaryan, V. [División Neurología, Instituto de Oncología Ángel H. Roffo, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); B lumenkrantz, Y.; Bruno, G., E-mail: neurooncoroffo@yahoo.com [Fundación Centro Diagnóstico Nuclear, Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with “11C-methionine (“11C-methionine PET/CT) is a new technique used to evaluate primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors. We describe our experience regarding the first 4 patients with glial tumors and “11C-methionine PET/CT. This is a descriptive, observational and prospective study of 4 patients between 38-50 years of age, with different gliomas (WHO classification). MRI and “11C-methionine PET/CT were performed in all cases. Case 1, gliomatosis cerebri grade II post-radiotherapy. Case 2, oligodendroglioma grade II diagnosed and treated with radiotherapy in 1993. Case 3, glioblastoma grade IV post-radiotherapy + temozolomide. Case 4, anaplastic oligoastrocytoma grade III post-radiotherapy + temozolomide. The pattern of “11C-methionine uptake compared with MRI showed tumor progression in cases 1, 3 and 4, and in case 2 showed uptake although the final diagnosis was pseudoprogression. Unlike “1”8fluordeoxiglucose PET/TC, “11C-methionine uptake in normal brain tissue and pseudoprogression is low, and gliomas are displayed as metabolically active areas. The “11C-methionine PET/CT provided valuable information on the tumoral behavior and extension, although in one case presented did not differentiate tumor progression from pseudoprogression. “11C-methionine PET/CT could be a useful tool in the study and follow-up to patients with gliomas. (authors) [Spanish] La tomografía por emisión de positrones con metionina carbono 11 (“11C-metionina PET/TC) se utiliza en la evaluación de los tumores primarios del sistema nervioso central. Describimos nuestra expe¬riencia sobre los primeros 4 pacientes con tumores de la serie glial estudiados con “11C-metionina PET/TC. Este es un estudio descriptivo, observacional y prospectivo. Se presentan 4 pacientes entre 38-50 años de edad con diagnóstico de gliomas (clasificación de la OMS). A todos se les realizó RM y “11C

  3. Evaluation of a Diabetes Coach Program Aimed to Improve the Care of Children and Youth With Type 1 Diabetes and With Compromised Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Paola; Haugrud, Bodiel; Husband, Allison; Dawrant, Jonathan; Pacaud, Danièle

    2018-01-31

    To evaluate the impact of the Diabetes Coach Program (DCP) on glycated hemoglobin (A1C) levels in youth with type 1 diabetes. The youth were referred to and participated in the DCP between October 2011 and May 2016. The Diabetes Coach visited families in their homes every 1 to 2 weeks and updated patients' diabetes teams regularly. A1C levels before the DCP were compared with A1C levels during and after discharge from the DCP. Six participating families completed satisfaction surveys via telephone. The DCP included 23 participants (43% male; median age, 11 years; range, 8.8 to 14.5 years); median duration of type 1 diabetes, 1.7 years (range, 0.1 to 6.3 years); median time in the DCP, 1.5 years (range, 0.2 to 2.5 years). During involvement in the program, median A1C levels decreased from baselines of 11.1% (range, 8.9% to 15.3%) to 10.2% (range, 7.6% to 12.4%) (p=0.0028). For 11 of 13 patients discharged from the DCP, the most recent median A1C levels, 11.2% (range, 9.1% to 13.6%), an average of 2.4 years later, were not different from the initial A1C levels (p=0.85). Family feedback was overwhelmingly positive. Participation in the DCP decreased A1C values in pediatric patients; however, the levels were not sustained after visits stopped. Pediatric health coaches may play an important role in the management of type 1 diabetes, but further research is needed to explore their benefits and how positive effects can be sustained. Copyright © 2018 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Recent Progress in Electrochemical HbA1c Sensors: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baozhen Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews recent progress made in the development of electrochemical glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c sensors for the diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus. Electrochemical HbA1c sensors are divided into two categories based on the detection protocol of the sensors. The first type of sensor directly detects HbA1c by binding HbA1c on the surface of an electrode through bio-affinity of antibody and boronic acids, followed by an appropriate mode of signal transduction. In the second type of sensor, HbA1c is indirectly determined by detecting a digestion product of HbA1c, fructosyl valine (FV. Thus, the former sensors rely on the selective binding of HbA1c to the surface of the electrodes followed by electrochemical signaling in amperometric, voltammetric, impedometric, or potentiometric mode. Redox active markers, such as ferrocene derivatives and ferricyanide/ferrocyanide ions, are often used for electrochemical signaling. For the latter sensors, HbA1c must be digested in advance by proteolytic enzymes to produce the FV fragment. FV is electrochemically detected through catalytic oxidation by fructosyl amine oxidase or by selective binding to imprinted polymers. The performance characteristics of HbA1c sensors are discussed in relation to their use in the diagnosis and control of diabetic mellitus.

  5. HbA1c level cannot predict the treatment outcome of smear-positive non-multi-drug-resistant HIV-negative pulmonary tuberculosis inpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Ken; Horita, Nobuyuki; Nagai, Kenjiro; Ikeda, Misako; Shinkai, Masaharu; Yamamoto, Masaki; Sato, Takashi; Hara, Yu; Nagakura, Hideyuki; Shibata, Yuji; Watanabe, Hiroki; Nakashima, Kentaro; Ushio, Ryota; Nagashima, Akimichi; Narita, Atsuya; Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Kudo, Makoto; Kaneko, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a single-center retrospective cohort study to evaluate whether the HbA1c level on admission could predict the in-hospital treatment outcome of smear-positive non-multi-drug-resistant HIV-negative culture-proven pulmonary tuberculosis inpatients. Our standard regimens under the direct observation were HRZE or HRE for the first two months followed by combination therapy with isoniazid and rifampicin. Our cohort consisted of consecutive 239 patients consisted of 147 men and 92 women with a median age of 73 years. The HbA1c level of patients whose HbA1c was above 7.0% on admission showed clear declining trends after admission. HbA1c on admission had no Spearman’s rank correlation with time to discharge alive (r = 0.17) and time to becoming non-infective (r = 0.17). By Kaplan-Meier curves and a log-rank trend test, HbA1c quartile subgroups showed no association with times to discharge alive (p = 0.431), becoming non-infective (p = 0.113), and in-hospital death (p = 0.427). Based on multi-variate Cox analysis, HbA1c on admission had no significant impact on time to discharge alive (hazard ratio = 1.03, 95% CI 0.89–1.20, p = 0.659), becoming non-infective (hazard ratio = 0.93, 95% CI 0.80–1.06, p = 0.277), and in-hospital death (hazard ratio = 0.68, 0.43–1.07, p = 0.097). In conclusion, the HbA1c level on admission did not seem to affect in-hospital tuberculosis treatment outcomes in Japanese cohort. PMID:28406247

  6. Median forehead flap - beyond classic indication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian R. Jecan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The paramedian forehead flap is one of the best options for reconstruction of the median upper two-thirds of the face due to its vascularity, color, texture match and ability to resurface all or part of the reconstructed area. The forehead flap is the gold standard for nasal soft tissue reconstruction and the flap of choice for larger cutaneous nasal defects having a robust pedicle and large amount of tissue. Materials and Methods. We are reporting a clinical series of cutaneous tumors involving the nose, medial canthus, upper and lower eyelid through a retrospective review of 6 patients who underwent surgical excision of the lesion and primary reconstruction using a paramedian forehead flap. Results. The forehead flap was used for total nose reconstruction, eyelids and medial canthal reconstruction. All flaps survived completely and no tumor recurrence was seen in any of the patients. Cosmetic and functional results were favorable. Conclusions. The forehead flap continues to be one of the best options for nose reconstruction and for closure of surgical defects of the nose larger than 2 cm. Even though is not a gold standard, median forehead flap can be an advantageous technique in periorbital defects reconstruction.

  7. Sosiaalisen median rooli kunnan viestinnässä

    OpenAIRE

    Selkämaa, Kati

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selvittää sosiaalisen median roolia kunnan viestinnässä sekä tutkia, miten sosiaalista mediaa hyödynnetään kuntien viestinnässä. Teoriaosuudessa tarkasteltiin sosiaalista mediaa, tutustuttiin sen tunnetuimpiin sovelluksiin sekä perehdyttiin kuntien viestintään yleisesti. Työssä tarkasteltiin myös kuntien viestintään vaikuttavia ja sitä sääteleviä lakeja. Kuntien sosiaalisen median käyttöön tutustuttiin Kuntaliiton tekemän viestintätutkimuksen tulosten pohjalt...

  8. FdC1 and Leaf-Type Ferredoxins Channel Electrons From Photosystem I to Different Downstream Electron Acceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiaoqian; Chen, Shuai; Voon, Chia Pao; Wong, Kam-Bo; Tikkanen, Mikko; Lim, Boon L

    2018-01-01

    Plant-type ferredoxins in Arabidopsis transfer electrons from the photosystem I to multiple redox-driven enzymes involved in the assimilation of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. Leaf-type ferredoxins also modulate the switch between the linear and cyclic electron routes of the photosystems. Recently, two novel ferredoxin homologs with extra C-termini were identified in the Arabidopsis genome (AtFdC1, AT4G14890; AtFdC2, AT1G32550). FdC1 was considered as an alternative electron acceptor of PSI under extreme ferredoxin-deficient conditions. Here, we showed that FdC1 could interact with some, but not all, electron acceptors of leaf-type Fds, including the ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase (FTR), sulfite reductase (SiR), and nitrite reductase (NiR). Photoreduction assay on cytochrome c and enzyme assays confirmed its capability to receive electrons from PSI and donate electrons to the Fd-dependent SiR and NiR but not to the ferredoxin-NADP + oxidoreductase (FNR). Hence, FdC1 and leaf-type Fds may play differential roles by channeling electrons from photosystem I to different downstream electron acceptors in photosynthetic tissues. In addition, the median redox potential of FdC1 may allow it to receive electrons from FNR in non-photosynthetic plastids.

  9. Development of guidelines for cable median barrier systems in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Since 2003, the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) has embarked on an aggressive campaign to install : median barriers to prevent cross-median crashes on freeway facilities statewide. In the few years prior to 2003, : virtually all fatalities...

  10. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1A96C-1VDMG [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1A96C-1VDMG 1A96 1VDM C G -EKYIVTWDMLQIHARKLASRLMPSEQWKGIIAVSRGGL...VPGALLARELGIRHVDTVCISSYDHD--NQRELKVLKRAEGDGEG--FIVIDDLVDTGGTAVAIREMYP-----KAHFVTIFAKPAGRPLVDDYVVDIPQDTWIEQPWDMG...A 145 LEU CA 201 1VDM G 1VDMG... 1VDM G 1VDMG 1VDMG LREYK-PDVII H - EE

  11. Median and ulnar neuropathies in U.S. Army Medical Command Band members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Scott W; Koreerat, Nicholas R; Gordon, Lindsay B; Santillo, Douglas R; Moore, Josef H; Greathouse, David G

    2013-12-01

    Musicians have been reported as having a high prevalence of upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders, including carpal tunnel syndrome. The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of median and ulnar neuropathies in U.S. Army Medical Command (MEDCOM) Band members at Fort Sam Houston, Texas. Thirty-five MEDCOM Band members (30 males, 5 females) volunteered to participate. There were 33 right-handed musicians, and the mean length of time in the MEDCOM Band was 12.2 yrs (range, 1-30 yrs). Subjects completed a history form, were interviewed, and underwent a physical examination of the cervical spine and bilateral upper extremities. Nerve conduction studies of the bilateral median and ulnar nerves were performed. Electrophysiological variables served as the reference standard for median and ulnar neuropathy and included distal sensory latencies, distal motor latencies, amplitudes, conduction velocities, and comparison study latencies. Ten of the 35 subjects (29%) presented with abnormal electrophysiologic values suggestive of an upper extremity mononeuropathy. Nine of the subjects had abnormal median nerve electrophysiologic values at or distal to the wrist; 2 had bilateral abnormal values. One had an abnormal ulnar nerve electrophysiologic assessment at the elbow. Nine of these 10 subjects had clinical examination findings consistent with the electrophysiological findings. The prevalence of mononeuropathies in this sample of band members is similar to that found in previous research involving civilian musicians (20-36%) and far exceeds that reported in the general population. Prospective research investigating screening, examination items, and injury prevention measures in musicians appears to be warranted.

  12. Median Robust Extended Local Binary Pattern for Texture Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Lao, Songyang; Fieguth, Paul W; Guo, Yulan; Wang, Xiaogang; Pietikäinen, Matti

    2016-03-01

    Local binary patterns (LBP) are considered among the most computationally efficient high-performance texture features. However, the LBP method is very sensitive to image noise and is unable to capture macrostructure information. To best address these disadvantages, in this paper, we introduce a novel descriptor for texture classification, the median robust extended LBP (MRELBP). Different from the traditional LBP and many LBP variants, MRELBP compares regional image medians rather than raw image intensities. A multiscale LBP type descriptor is computed by efficiently comparing image medians over a novel sampling scheme, which can capture both microstructure and macrostructure texture information. A comprehensive evaluation on benchmark data sets reveals MRELBP's high performance-robust to gray scale variations, rotation changes and noise-but at a low computational cost. MRELBP produces the best classification scores of 99.82%, 99.38%, and 99.77% on three popular Outex test suites. More importantly, MRELBP is shown to be highly robust to image noise, including Gaussian noise, Gaussian blur, salt-and-pepper noise, and random pixel corruption.

  13. Speckle Reduction and Structure Enhancement by Multichannel Median Boosted Anisotropic Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new approach to reduce speckle noise and enhance structures in speckle-corrupted images. It utilizes a median-anisotropic diffusion compound scheme. The median-filter-based reaction term acts as a guided energy source to boost the structures in the image being processed. In addition, it regularizes the diffusion equation to ensure the existence and uniqueness of a solution. We also introduce a decimation and back reconstruction scheme to further enhance the processing result. Before the iteration of the diffusion process, the image is decimated and a subpixel shifted image set is formed. This allows a multichannel parallel diffusion iteration, and more importantly, the speckle noise is broken into impulsive or salt-pepper noise, which is easy to remove by median filtering. The advantage of the proposed technique is clear when it is compared to other diffusion algorithms and the well-known adaptive weighted median filtering (AWMF scheme in both simulation and real medical ultrasound images.

  14. Bisphenol-A exposures and behavioural aberrations: median and linear spline and meta-regression analyses of 12 toxicity studies in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Marco E M; Munnia, Armelle; Ceppi, Marcello

    2014-11-05

    Exposures to bisphenol-A, a weak estrogenic chemical, largely used for the production of plastic containers, can affect the rodent behaviour. Thus, we examined the relationships between bisphenol-A and the anxiety-like behaviour, spatial skills, and aggressiveness, in 12 toxicity studies of rodent offspring from females orally exposed to bisphenol-A, while pregnant and/or lactating, by median and linear splines analyses. Subsequently, the meta-regression analysis was applied to quantify the behavioural changes. U-shaped, inverted U-shaped and J-shaped dose-response curves were found to describe the relationships between bisphenol-A with the behavioural outcomes. The occurrence of anxiogenic-like effects and spatial skill changes displayed U-shaped and inverted U-shaped curves, respectively, providing examples of effects that are observed at low-doses. Conversely, a J-dose-response relationship was observed for aggressiveness. When the proportion of rodents expressing certain traits or the time that they employed to manifest an attitude was analysed, the meta-regression indicated that a borderline significant increment of anxiogenic-like effects was present at low-doses regardless of sexes (β)=-0.8%, 95% C.I. -1.7/0.1, P=0.076, at ≤120 μg bisphenol-A. Whereas, only bisphenol-A-males exhibited a significant inhibition of spatial skills (β)=0.7%, 95% C.I. 0.2/1.2, P=0.004, at ≤100 μg/day. A significant increment of aggressiveness was observed in both the sexes (β)=67.9,C.I. 3.4, 172.5, P=0.038, at >4.0 μg. Then, bisphenol-A treatments significantly abrogated spatial learning and ability in males (Pbisphenol-A, e.g. ≤120 μg/day, were associated to behavioural aberrations in offspring. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Current Status of HbA1c Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hua; Yi, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is formed via non-enzymatic glycosylation reactions at the α–amino group of βVal1 residues in the tetrameric Hb, and it can reflect the ambient glycemic level over the past two to three months. A variety of HbA1c detection methods, including chromatography, immunoassay, enzymatic measurement, electrochemical sensor and capillary electrophoresis have been developed and used in research laboratories and in clinics as well. In this review, we summarize the current status of HbA1c biosensors based on the recognition of the sugar moiety on the protein and also their applications in the whole blood sample measurements. PMID:28777351

  16. An investigation on the noise reduction performance of profiled rigid median barriers at highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Monazzam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Median barriers as a portion of a divided highway are provided to minimize the cross-median crashes. Moreover, median barriers similar to roadside noise barriers could protect people from transportation noise. Thus, there is a need to investigate various median barrier models to identify changes of insertion loss over a simple rigid barrier. In order to estimate the acoustical influence of median barrier′s profile in the shadow zone, different median barrier models are presented and their insertion losses are calculated over a frequency range from 50 to 4000 Hz using a two-dimensional boundary element method. The present investigation has clearly revealed that among the profiled median barriers, T-shape, Y-shape, and L-shape provide better performance than that of the other shapes. It is also found that among inclined barriers, V-shape barrier significantly presents higher values of attenuation. Based on the calculation of different geometrics, it has been shown that a further 2 dB (A in efficiency could be obtained by a better design of the median barrier which is labeled model "L."

  17. Method of forming an oxide superconducting thin film having an R1A2C3 crystalline phase over an R2A1C1 crystalline phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelental, M.; Romanofsky, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process which comprises forming a mixed rare earth alkaline earth copper oxide layer on a substrate and converting the mixed rare earth alkaline earth copper oxide layer to an electrically conductive layer. It comprises crystalline R 1 A 2 C 3 oxide phase by heating in the presence of oxygen, wherein rare earth and R is in each instance chosen from among yttrium, lanthanum, samarium, europium, gadolinium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, and lutetium and alkaline earth and A is in each instance chosen from among calcium, strontium and barium, characterized in that a crystalline R 2 A 1 C 1 oxide phase is first formed as a layer on the substrate and the crystalline R 1 A 2 C 3 oxide phase is formed over the crystalline R 2 A 1 C 1 oxide phase by coating a mixed rare earth alkaline earth copper oxide on the crystalline R 2 A 1 C 1 oxide phase and heating the mixed rare earth alkaline earth copper oxide to a temperature of at least 1000 degrees C

  18. Spatial–temporal changes in runoff and terrestrial ecosystem water retention under 1.5 and 2 °C warming scenarios across China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zhai

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The Paris Agreement set a long-term temperature goal of holding the global average temperature increase to below 2.0 °C above pre-industrial levels, pursuing efforts to limit this to 1.5 °C; it is therefore important to understand the impacts of climate change under 1.5 and 2.0 °C warming scenarios for climate adaptation and mitigation. Here, climate scenarios from four global circulation models (GCMs for the baseline (2006–2015, 1.5, and 2.0 °C warming scenarios (2106–2115 were used to drive the validated Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC hydrological model to investigate the impacts of global warming on runoff and terrestrial ecosystem water retention (TEWR across China at a spatial resolution of 0.5°. This study applied ensemble projections from multiple GCMs to provide more comprehensive and robust results. The trends in annual mean temperature, precipitation, runoff, and TEWR were analyzed at the grid and basin scale. Results showed that median change in runoff ranged from 3.61 to 13.86 %, 4.20 to 17.89 %, and median change in TEWR ranged from −0.45 to 6.71 and −3.48 to 4.40 % in the 10 main basins in China under 1.5 and 2.0 °C warming scenarios, respectively, across all four GCMs. The interannual variability of runoff increased notably in areas where it was projected to increase, and the interannual variability increased notably from the 1.5 to the 2.0 °C warming scenario. In contrast, TEWR would remain relatively stable, the median change in standard deviation (SD of TEWR ranged from −10 to 10 % in about 90 % grids under 1.5 and 2.0 °C warming scenarios, across all four GCMs. Both low and high runoff would increase under the two warming scenarios in most areas across China, with high runoff increasing more. The risks of low and high runoff events would be higher under the 2.0 than under the 1.5 °C warming scenario in terms of both extent and intensity. Runoff was significantly positively

  19. Experimental concrete coating application on the median barrier of I 65 in Louisville.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    The objectives of this research were to evaluate the experimental protective coating that was applied to approximately 1,200 linear feet of concrete median barrier along the paving project on a section of I 65 between mile points 131.289 and 136.421 ...

  20. MEAN OF MEDIAN ABSOLUTE DERIVATION TECHNIQUE MEAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    development of mean of median absolute derivation technique based on the based on the based on .... of noise mean to estimate the speckle noise variance. Noise mean property ..... Foraging Optimization,” International Journal of. Advanced ...

  1. Functional connectivity of the dorsal and median raphe nuclei at rest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beliveau, Vincent; Svarer, Claus; Frokjaer, Vibe G

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a neurotransmitter critically involved in a broad range of brain functions and implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric illnesses including major depression, anxiety and sleep disorders. Despite being widely distributed throughout the brain, there is limited...... knowledge on the contribution of 5-HT to intrinsic brain activity. The dorsal raphe (DR) and median raphe (MR) nuclei are the source of most serotonergic neurons projecting throughout the brain and thus provide a compelling target for a seed-based probe of resting-state activity related to 5-HT. Here we...... implemented a novel multimodal neuroimaging approach for investigating resting-state functional connectivity (FC) between DR and MR and cortical, subcortical and cerebellar target areas. Using [(11)C]DASB positron emission tomography (PET) images of the brain serotonin transporter (5-HTT) combined...

  2. Direct-acting Antivirals in Kidney Transplant Patients: Successful Hepatitis C Treatment and Short Term Reduction in Urinary Protein/Creatinine Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Goetsch

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The role of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV clearance in long-term kidney graft survival is unknown. In this study, we examined short-term trends of urinary protein/creatinine (P/C ratios in a cohort of HCV-infected kidney transplant recipients with stable graft function and treated with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 19 kidney transplant patients with chronic HCV infection treated with DAAs at the University of Alabama at Birmingham 1917 Viral Hepatitis Clinic between January 2013 and June 2016. Markers of glomerular damage were assessed using average protein/creatinine (P/C ratios measured pre- and post-treatment. We also described treatment efficacy using sustained virologic response at 12 weeks post-HCV treatment (SVR12. Results: The median age of the 19 patients included was 59 years (Q1=58, Q3=64 at completion of treatment. Of these patients, 68% were African American, 32% were White and 63% were male. The median time between kidney transplant and initiation of DAA therapy was 2.25 years (Q1=0.79, Q3=3.79. Post-treatment P/C ratios (median=0.127, Q1=0.090, Q3=0.220 were significantly lower (p=0.01 than pre-treatment ratios (median=0.168, Q1=0.118, Q3=0.385. P/C ratios decreased in 14 of 19 patients (74% with median change of -0.072 (median percent change= -40%. Post-treatment eGFRs (median=58.9, Q1=48.9, Q3=72.3 were not significantly different (p=0.82 than the pre-treatment values (median=57.0, Q1=48.8, Q3=67.8. Conclusions: In this preliminary study, there was a statistically significant decrease in P/C ratios associated with HCV clearance, suggesting a potential role for DAAs in improving kidney graft survival. Larger cohort studies will be needed to assess the clinical and long-term benefits of DAAs in this special population of HCV infected patients.

  3. Median mental sinus in twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, S T; Ngeow, W C

    1999-05-01

    Sinus on the chin can be the result of a chronic apical abscess due to pulp necrosis of a mandibular anterior tooth. The tooth is usually asymptomatic, and a dental cause is therefore not apparent to the patient or the unsuspecting clinician. Not infrequently, the patient may seek treatment from a dermatologist or general surgeon instead of a dentist. Excision and repair of the fistula may be carried out with subsequent breakdown because the dental pathology is not removed. This paper reports the presence of median mental sinus of dental origin in twins. One case healed following root canal therapy while the other required both root canal therapy and surgery to eliminate the infection.

  4. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(5)-1 - Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories. 1.381(c)(5)-1 Section 1.381(c)(5)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(5)-1 Inventories. (a) Carryover requirement—(1...

  5. Accelerated partial breast irradiation using once-daily fractionation: analysis of 312 cases with four years median follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Arif Y

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are limited data on accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI using external beam techniques. Moreover, there are recent reports of increased fibrosis and unacceptable cosmesis with APBI using external beam with BID fractionation. We adopted a once daily regimen of APBI with fractionation similar to that shown to be effective in a Canadian randomized trial of whole breast irradiation. It is unclear whether patients with DCIS or invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC are suitable for APBI. Methods The retrospective cohort included 310 patients with 312 tumors of T1-T2N0-N1micM0 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC, ILC, or Tis (DCIS treated with APBI via external beam. Most patients were treated using IMRT with 16 daily fractions of 270 cGy to a dose of 4320 cGy. The target volume included the lumpectomy cavity plus 1.0 cm to account for microscopic disease and an additional 0.5 to 1.0 cm for setup uncertainty and breathing motion. Ipsilateral breast failure (IBF was pathologically confirmed as a local failure (LF or an elsewhere failure (EF. Results Median follow-up was 49 months. Among the 312 cases, 213 were IDC, 31 ILC, and 68 DCIS. Median tumor size was 1.0 cm. There were 9 IBFs (2.9% including 5 LFs and 4 EFs. The IBF rates among patients with IDC, ILC, and DCIS were 2.4%, 3.2%, and 4.4%, respectively, with no significant difference between histologies. When patients were analyzed by the ASTRO APBI consensus statement risk groups, 32% of treated cases were considered suitable, 50% cautionary, and 18% unsuitable. The IBF rates among suitable, cautionary, and unsuitable patients were 4.0%, 2.6%, and 1.8%, respectively, with no significant difference between risk groups. Acute skin reactions were rare and long-term cosmetic outcome was very good to excellent. Conclusions External beam APBI with once daily fractionation has a low rate of IBF consistent with other published APBI studies. The ASTRO risk stratification did not

  6. Serial recording of median nerve stimulated subcortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) in developing brain death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, H; Ferbert, A; Hacke, W

    1988-01-01

    Subcortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) to median nerve stimulation were recorded serially in 35 patients during the evolution towards brain death and in brain death. Neuropathological alterations of the central nervous system down to the C1/C2 spinal cord segment in brain death are well known. SEP components supposed to be generated above this level should be lost in brain death, while components generated below should not be altered. Erb's point, scalp and neck potentials were recorded at C3/4, or over the spinous process C7, using an Fz reference. In 10 patients additional montages, including spinous process C2-Fz, a non-cephalic reference (Fz-contralateral shoulder) and a posterior to anterior neck montage (spinous process C7-jugulum) were used. The cephalic referenced N9 and N11 peaks remained unchanged until brain death. N9 and N11 decreased in parallel in amplitude and increased in latency after systemic effects like hypoxia or hypothermia occurred. The cephalic referenced 'N14' decreased in amplitude and increased in latency after the clinical brain death syndrome was observed, while N13 in the posterior to anterior neck montage remained unchanged. The alteration of 'N14' went parallel to the decrease of the P14 amplitude. The subcortical SEPs in the cephalic referenced lead are supposed to be a peak composed by a horizontally orientated dorsal horn generated N13 and a rostrally orientated P14 arising at the level of the foramen magnum. The deterioration of the non-cephalic referenced P14 and of its cephalic referenced reflection 'N14' seems to provide an additional objective criterion for the diagnosis of brain death.

  7. Application of median-equation approach for outlier detection in geodetic networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serif Hekimoglu

    Full Text Available In geodetic measurements some outliers may occur sometimes in data sets, depending on different reasons. There are two main approaches to detect outliers as Tests for outliers (Baarda's and Pope's Tests and robust methods (Danish method, Huber method etc.. These methods use the Least Squares Estimation (LSE. The outliers affect the LSE results, especially it smears the effects of the outliers on the good observations and sometimes wrong results may be obtained. To avoid these effects, a method that does not use LSE should be preferred. The median is a high breakdown point estimator and if it is applied for the outlier detection, reliable results can be obtained. In this study, a robust method which uses median with or as a treshould value on median residuals that are obtained from median equations is proposed. If the a priori variance of the observations is known, the reliability of the new approch is greater than the one in the case where the a priori variance is unknown.

  8. COLOUR IMAGE STEGANOGRAPHY USING MEDIAN MAINTENANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Arivazhagan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Steganographic algorithms in the recent past have been producing stego images with perceptual invisibility, better secrecy and certain robustness against attacks like cropping, filtering etc. Recovering a good quality secret from a good quality stego image may not always be possible. The method proposed in this paper works in transform domain and attempts to extract the secret almost as same as the embedded one maintaining minimal changes to the cover image by using techniques like median maintenance, offset and quantization.

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15762-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9 Root cold Pinus taeda cDNA c... 46 6.7 1 ( CO166910 ) FLD1_65_A02.g1_A029 Root flood...ed Pinus taeda cDNA... 46 6.7 1 ( CO161061 ) FLD1_26_H12.b1_A029 Root flooded Pinus taeda cDNA... 46 6.

  10. A Novel Role for C5a in B-1 Cell Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Bröker

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available B-1 cells constitute a unique subpopulation of lymphocytes residing mainly in body cavities like the peritoneal cavity (PerC but are also found in spleen and bone marrow (BM. As innate-like B cells, they mediate first line immune defense through low-affinity natural IgM (nIgM antibodies. PerC B-1 cells can egress to the spleen and differentiate into nIgM antibody-secreting plasma cells that recognize conserved exogenous and endogenous cellular structures. Homing to and homeostasis within the PerC are regulated by the chemokine CXCL13 released by PerC macrophages and stroma cells. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the regulation of CXCL13 and B-1 homeostasis are not fully explored. B-1 cells play important roles in the inflammatory response to infection, autoimmunity, ischemia/reperfusion injury, obesity, and atherosclerosis. Remarkably, this list of inflammatory entities has a strong overlap with diseases that are regulated by complement suggesting a link between B-1 cells and the complement system. Interestingly, up to now, no data exist regarding the role of complement in B-1 cell biology. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that C5a regulates B-1 cell steady-state dynamics within the peritoneum, the spleen, and the BM. We found decreased B-1a cell numbers in the peritoneum and the spleen of C5aR1−/− mice associated with increased B1-a and B1-b numbers in the spleen and high serum titers of nIgM antibodies directed against phosphorylcholine and several pneumococcal polysaccharides. Similarly, peritoneal B-1a cells were decreased in the peritoneum and splenic B-1a and B-1b cells were increased in C5aR2−/− mice. The decrease in peritoneal B-1 cell numbers was associated with decreased peritoneal CXCL13 levels in C5aR1−/− and C5aR2−/− mice. In search for mechanisms, we found that combined TLR2 and IL-10 receptor activation in PerC macrophages induced strong CXCL13 production, which was significantly reduced in cells

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14913-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FLD1_53_G01.g1_A029 Root flooded Pinus taeda cDNA... 50 0.16 1 ( CO165241 ) FLD1_53_G01.b1_A029 Root flooded... Pinus taeda cDNA... 50 0.16 1 ( CO163000 ) FLD1_38_G07.g1_A029 Root flooded Pinus taeda cDNA... 50 0.16 1 (... CO162917 ) FLD1_38_G07.b1_A029 Root flooded Pinus taeda cDNA... 50 0.16 1 ( CO15...9866 ) FLD1_16_B12.g1_A029 Root flooded Pinus taeda cDNA... 50 0.16 1 ( CO158395 ) FLD1_6_D06.g1_A029 Root flood

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03072-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available verselong Onychiurus arcticus d... 38 0.010 2 ( CF439672 ) EST676017 normalized cDNA library of ...ornis cDN... 68 8e-07 1 ( BU884919 ) R017H10 Populus root cDNA library Populus tremula... 68 8e-07 1 ( ...us dormant bud cDNA library Populus ... 60 2e-04 1 ( CK110478 ) N067A08 Populus bark cDNA library Populus tremul...04 1 ( BU887484 ) R062A08 Populus root cDNA library Populus tremula... 60 2e-04 1 ( BU880608 ) UM52TC12 Populus flower cDNA library...us tremula cambium cDNA library Po... 60 2e-04 1 ( BU819297 ) UA42BPA08 Populus tremula cambium cDNA library

  13. Barriers to A1C testing among a managed care population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaronde, Steven

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore reasons adults with diabetes do not receive at least 2 A1C tests per year as recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA). ConnectiCare, a regional managed care company based in Farmington, Connecticut, identified adult members with diabetes who did not have a medical claim for an A1C laboratory test from their physician. A questionnaire was sent to 740 randomly selected members asking them to report the number of A1C tests they received in the past 12 months and reasons for not receiving the number of tests recommended by the ADA. After sending an automated telephone reminder to nonrespondents, a 26% (n = 192) response rate was achieved. Thirty-three percent of respondents (n = 63) reported having diabetes and receiving fewer than 2 A1C tests in the past year. Respondents were equally divided between men and women, with a mean age of 58 years. The primary reasons given for not obtaining at least 2 A1C tests as recommended by the ADA were that respondents were unaware that the test is recommended (49%), not informed of the need for the test by their physician (38%), never heard of the A1C test (33%), and not seen regularly by their physician (19%). Diabetes self-management education remains an important means of encouraging adherence to important ADA recommendations such as regular A1C testing. Barriers to A1C testing can be addressed in multiple settings, including individual and group education, disease management programs, and physician education.

  14. Lapset median käyttäjinä

    OpenAIRE

    Jalonen, Taru; Suomela, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    Laurea-ammattikorkeakoulu Tiivistelmä Hyvinkää Sosiaali-, terveys- ja liikunta-ala Hoitotyön koulutusohjelma Terveydenhoitaja AMK Sairaanhoitaja AMK Taru Jalonen, Sonja Suomela Lapset median käyttäjinä Vuosi ‎2010‎ Sivumäärä ‎63‎ Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää lasten tottumuksia ja kokemuksia mediasta sekä ‎niiden herättämiä tunteita. Lisäksi selvitimme lasten käyttämiä mediaympäristöjä sekä median ‎näkymistä lasten leikeissä. Tämä työ on os...

  15. Entsymaattisen Abbott Architect c8000 HbA1c -menetelmän validointi

    OpenAIRE

    Karjalainen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö suoritettiin THL:n Tautiriskiyksikön analyyttisen biokemian laboratoriossa (TLAB). Työssä validoitiin uusi entsymaattinen Abbott Architect c8000 HbA1c -menetelmä, jota käytetään diabetekseen liittyvissä tutkimuksissa. Validoinnilla haluttiin varmistaa uuden mittaustekniikaltaan erilaisen menetelmän toimivuus. Menetelmävertailussa komparatiivisena menetelmänä oli laboratoriossa rutiinikäytössä ollut Abbottin immunoturbidimetrinen HbA1c-menetelmä. Uusi entsymaattinen menetelmä peru...

  16. Wound infection after median sternotomy during the war in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelić, I; Anić, D; Alfirević, I; Kalinić, S; Ugljen, R; Letica, D; Ante Korda, Z; Vucemilo, I; Bulat, C; Predrijevac, M; Corić, V; Husar, J; Jelic, M; Hulina, D; Depina, I; Dadić, D

    1996-12-01

    From 1990 to 1994 at Clinical Hospital Center, Zagreb, 1904 median sternotomies were performed for cardiac operations. Patients shared the same intensive care unit (ICU) with the wounded persons, admitted to the hospital from battlefield. Infection developed in 124 patients, an incidence of 6.51%. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was isolated from 90, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) from 19, and gram negative bacilli (GNB) from 56 patients, Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 2, and Clostridium pneumoniae in 1 case. Ninety-six patients (5.04%) developed superficial localized infection of subcutaneous tissues and they were treated with frequent dressing changes with antibiotic-soaked gauze in combination with systemic antibiotics. Twenty-eight patients (1.47%) developed mediastinitis and sternal dehiscence. They were treated by operative debridement followed by reclosure of the sternum with continuous antibiotic irrigation. We obtained satisfactory results with our method of closure of sternum which is a modification of Robicsek's technique. Nine of them required further operation. In seven cases we performed muscle flaps and in two omentoplasty. One hundred and twenty patients were discharged in satisfactory condition. The uncontrolled mediastinal sepsis caused death in 4 patients. Higher infection rate after median sternotomy during 1991 and 1992 could be possibly explained with the war circumstances in Croatia, and especially with MRSA strain becoming endemic in surgical ICU.

  17. A 90-day dietary toxicity study of genetically modified rice T1C-1 expressing Cry1C protein in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueming Tang

    Full Text Available In a 90-day study, Sprague Dawley rats were fed transgenic T1C-1 rice expressing Cry1C protein and were compared with rats fed non-transgenic parental rice Minghui 63 and rats fed a basal diet. No adverse effects on animal behavior or weight gain were observed during the study. Blood samples were collected and analyzed, and standard hematological and biochemical parameters were compared. A few of these parameters were found to be significantly different, but were within the normal reference intervals for rats of this breed and age, and were thus not considered to be treatment-related. Following sacrifice, a large number of organs were weighed, and macroscopic and histopathological examinations were performed with no changes reported. The aim of this study was to use a known animal model to determine the safety of the genetically modified (GM rice T1C-1. The results showed no adverse or toxic effects due to T1C-1 rice when tested in this 90-day study.

  18. A 90-day dietary toxicity study of genetically modified rice T1C-1 expressing Cry1C protein in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xueming; Han, Fangting; Zhao, Kai; Xu, Yan; Wu, Xiao; Wang, Jinbin; Jiang, Lingxi; Shi, Wei

    2012-01-01

    In a 90-day study, Sprague Dawley rats were fed transgenic T1C-1 rice expressing Cry1C protein and were compared with rats fed non-transgenic parental rice Minghui 63 and rats fed a basal diet. No adverse effects on animal behavior or weight gain were observed during the study. Blood samples were collected and analyzed, and standard hematological and biochemical parameters were compared. A few of these parameters were found to be significantly different, but were within the normal reference intervals for rats of this breed and age, and were thus not considered to be treatment-related. Following sacrifice, a large number of organs were weighed, and macroscopic and histopathological examinations were performed with no changes reported. The aim of this study was to use a known animal model to determine the safety of the genetically modified (GM) rice T1C-1. The results showed no adverse or toxic effects due to T1C-1 rice when tested in this 90-day study.

  19. Analytical performances of a new enzymatic assay for hemoglobin A1c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaisson, Stéphane; Desmons, Aurore; Renard, Benoît; Chevelle, Benjamin; Leroy, Nathalie; Gillery, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    HbA1c is considered the gold standard for the follow-up of diabetic patients and a new diagnostic tool for diabetes mellitus, which implies the availability of reliable assay methods. We have evaluated a new assay developed by Abbott Laboratories, based on the enzymatic quantification of HbA1c by a fructosyl dipeptide oxidase using Architect analyzers. Precision, linearity, correlation with a HPLC method, accuracy and potential impact interferences on HbA1c measurement have been evaluated. Intra-day and between-day CVs were lower than 1.2% and linearity was excellent from 19 mmol/mol (3.9%) to 163 mmol/mol (17.1%). The results were well correlated with those obtained by the HPLC (Variant II device, kit NU - BioRad): HbA1c [Architect, mmol/mol]=0.986×HbA1c [Variant II, mmol/mol]+0.713 (r=0.998, n=109). This method provided consistent results with IFCC titrated quality control samples. Classical interferences in HbA1c assays (i.e. labile HbA1c, carbamylated hemoglobin, triglycerides or bilirubin) did not have an impact on HbA1c quantification by this method. This new enzymatic assay proved to be a robust and reliable method for HbA1c measurement suitable for routine practice in clinical chemistry laboratories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Anatomic Variation of the Median Nerve Associated with an Anomalous Muscle of the Forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atoni, Atoni Dogood; Oyinbo, Charles Aidemise

    2017-03-01

    Documented anatomical variations are important not only for the study of the subject of anatomy, but also in clinical situation. This knowledge would aid surgeons in planning a preoperative strategy for surgical procedures and reconstructive surgery. The right forearm of a 35-year-old embalmed male cadaver present a splitting of the median nerve in the proximal 1/3 of the forearm to form medial and lateral divisions that accommodate an anomalous muscle. The split median nerve reunites at the distal 1/3 and continues as a single nerve. The anomalous muscle arises by muscle fibers from flexor digitorum superficialis and inserted by tendon into flexor digitorum profundus. There was no such variation in the left forearm. The knowledge of such anatomical variations is important to clinicians and surgeons in interpreting atypical clinical presentations and avoiding unusual injury during surgery.

  1. Anatomic Variation of the Median Nerve Associated with an Anomalous Muscle of the Forearm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atoni Atoni Dogood

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Documented anatomical variations are important not only for the study of the subject of anatomy, but also in clinical situation. This knowledge would aid surgeons in planning a preoperative strategy for surgical procedures and reconstructive surgery. The right forearm of a 35-year-old embalmed male cadaver present a splitting of the median nerve in the proximal 1/3 of the forearm to form medial and lateral divisions that accommodate an anomalous muscle. The split median nerve reunites at the distal 1/3 and continues as a single nerve. The anomalous muscle arises by muscle fibers from flexor digitorum superficialis and inserted by tendon into flexor digitorum profundus. There was no such variation in the left forearm. The knowledge of such anatomical variations is important to clinicians and surgeons in interpreting atypical clinical presentations and avoiding unusual injury during surgery.

  2. SubID, a non-median dichotomization tool for heterogeneous populations, reveals the pan-cancer significance of INPP4B and its regulation by EVI1 in AML.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irakli Dzneladze

    Full Text Available Our previous studies demonstrated that INPP4B, a member of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, is overexpressed in a subset of AML patients and is associated with lower response to chemotherapy and shorter survival. INPP4B expression analysis in AML revealed a right skewed frequency distribution with 25% of patients expressing significantly higher levels than the majority. The 75% low/25% high cut-off revealed the prognostic power of INPP4B expression status in AML, which would not have been apparent with a standard median cut-off approach. Our identification of a clinically relevant non-median cut-off for INPP4B indicated a need for a generalizable non-median dichotomization approach to optimally study clinically relevant genes. To address this need, we developed Subgroup Identifier (SubID, a tool which examines the relationship between a continuous variable (e.g. gene expression, and a test parameter (e.g. CoxPH or Fisher's exact P values. In our study, Fisher's exact SubID was used to reveal EVI1 as a transcriptional regulator of INPP4B in AML; a finding which was validated in vitro. Next, we used CoxPH SubID to conduct a pan-cancer analysis of INPP4B's prognostic significance. Our analysis revealed that INPP4Blow is associated with shorter survival in kidney clear cell, liver hepatocellular, and bladder urothelial carcinomas. Conversely, INPP4Blow was shown to be associated with increased survival in pancreatic adenocarcinoma in three independent datasets. Overall, our study describes the development and application of a novel subgroup identification tool used to identify prognostically significant rare subgroups based upon gene expression, and for investigating the association between a gene with skewed frequency distribution and potentially important upstream and downstream genes that relate to the index gene.

  3. SubID, a non-median dichotomization tool for heterogeneous populations, reveals the pan-cancer significance of INPP4B and its regulation by EVI1 in AML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzneladze, Irakli; Woolley, John F; Rossell, Carla; Han, Youqi; Rashid, Ayesha; Jain, Michael; Reimand, Jüri; Minden, Mark D; Salmena, Leonardo

    2018-01-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that INPP4B, a member of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, is overexpressed in a subset of AML patients and is associated with lower response to chemotherapy and shorter survival. INPP4B expression analysis in AML revealed a right skewed frequency distribution with 25% of patients expressing significantly higher levels than the majority. The 75% low/25% high cut-off revealed the prognostic power of INPP4B expression status in AML, which would not have been apparent with a standard median cut-off approach. Our identification of a clinically relevant non-median cut-off for INPP4B indicated a need for a generalizable non-median dichotomization approach to optimally study clinically relevant genes. To address this need, we developed Subgroup Identifier (SubID), a tool which examines the relationship between a continuous variable (e.g. gene expression), and a test parameter (e.g. CoxPH or Fisher's exact P values). In our study, Fisher's exact SubID was used to reveal EVI1 as a transcriptional regulator of INPP4B in AML; a finding which was validated in vitro. Next, we used CoxPH SubID to conduct a pan-cancer analysis of INPP4B's prognostic significance. Our analysis revealed that INPP4Blow is associated with shorter survival in kidney clear cell, liver hepatocellular, and bladder urothelial carcinomas. Conversely, INPP4Blow was shown to be associated with increased survival in pancreatic adenocarcinoma in three independent datasets. Overall, our study describes the development and application of a novel subgroup identification tool used to identify prognostically significant rare subgroups based upon gene expression, and for investigating the association between a gene with skewed frequency distribution and potentially important upstream and downstream genes that relate to the index gene.

  4. Clinical importance of median mandibular flexure in oral rehabilitation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraman, K; Chopra, A; Venkatesh, S B

    2016-03-01

    The mandible has a property to flex inwards around the mandibular symphysis with change in shape and decrease in mandibular arch width during opening and protrusion of the mandible. The mandibular deformation may range from a few micrometres to more than 1 mm. The movement occurs because of the contraction of lateral pterygoid muscles that pulls mandibular condyles medially and causes a sagittal movement of the posterior segments. This movement of mandible can have a profound influence on prognosis and treatment outcome for various restorative, endodontics, fixed, removable and implant-related prosthesis. The review unfolds the causes, importance and clinical implications of median mandibular flexure in oral rehabilitation. This review also highlights the appropriate preventive measures and techniques that should be adopted by clinicians to minimise the effect of flexural movement of the jaw during oral rehabilitation. This would not only help clinicians to achieve a good prosthesis with accurate fit and longevity but also maintain the health of the surrounding periodontal or periimplant gingival tissues and bone. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Both the frequency of HbA1c testing and the frequency of self-monitoring of blood glucose predict metabolic control: A multicentre analysis of 15 199 adult type 1 diabetes patients from Germany and Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandt, A; Best, F; Biester, T; Grünerbel, A; Kopp, F; Krakow, D; Laimer, M; Wagner, C; Holl, R W

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between metabolic control and frequency of haemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) measurements and of self-monitoring of blood glucose, as well as the interaction of both. Data of 15 199 adult type 1 diabetes patients registered in a standardized electronic health record (DPV) were included. To model the association between metabolic control and frequency of HbA 1c testing or of self-monitoring of blood glucose, multiple hierarchic regression models with adjustment for confounders were fitted. Tukey-Kramer test was used to adjust P values for multiple comparisons. Vuong test was used to compare non-nested models. The baseline variables of the study population were median age 19.9 [Q1; Q3: 18.4; 32.2] years and diabetes duration 10.4 [6.8; 15.7] years. Haemoglobin A 1c was 60.4 [51.5; 72.5] mmol/mol. Frequency of HbA 1c testing was 8.0 [5.0; 9.0] within 2 years, and daily self-monitoring of blood glucose frequency was 5.0 [4.0; 6.0]. After adjustment, a U-shaped association between metabolic control and frequency of HbA 1c testing was observed with lowest HbA 1c levels in the 3-monthly HbA 1c testing group. There was an inverse relationship between self-monitoring of blood glucose and HbA 1c with lower HbA 1c associated with highest frequency of testing (>6 daily measurements). Quarterly HbA 1c testing and frequent self-monitoring of blood glucose were associated with best metabolic control. The adjusted Vuong Z statistic suggests that metabolic control might be better explained by HbA 1c testing compared to self-monitoring of blood glucose (P < .0001). This research reveals the importance of quarterly clinical HbA 1c monitoring together with frequent self-monitoring of blood glucose in diabetes management to reach and maintain target HbA 1c . Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Preparation of no-carrier-added [1-11C]ethylene and [1-11C]1,2-dibromoethane as new labelling agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, F.; Pike, V.W.; Dowsett, K.

    1997-01-01

    A method is described for the preparation of NCA [1- 11 C] ethylene based on the passage of [1- 11 C]ethanol over heated (550 o C) quartz glass in a stainless steel tube (in preference to dehydration by catalysis on γ-alumina or pyrolysis). The [1- 11 C]ethanol is prepared from cyclotron-produced NCA [ 11 C]carbon dioxide by 11 C-carboxylation of methylmagnesium bromide, freshly prepared in dibutyl ether, and reduction of the adduct with lithium aluminium hydride in diglyme. The use of involatile solvents avoids the formation of carrier ethylene and radioactive and stable diethyl ether by cracking processes over the heated catalyst. The preparation takes 21 min from the end of radionuclide production and has a radiochemical yield of 44%, decay-corrected from [ 11 C]carbon dioxide. NCA [1- 11 C] ethylene is converted quantitatively into [1- 11 C]1,2-dibromoethane when collected in a solution of bromine in carbon tetrachloride. The NCA [1- 11 C]ethylene and [1- 11 C]1,2-dibromoethane may serve as new and useful labelling agents. (Author)

  7. Visit-to-Visit Variations in Fasting Plasma Glucose and HbA1c Associated With an Increased Risk of Alzheimer Disease: Taiwan Diabetes Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tsai-Chung; Yang, Chun-Pai; Tseng, Shih-Ting; Li, Chia-Ing; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Lin, Wen-Yuan; Hwang, Kai-Lin; Yang, Sing-Yu; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Lin, Cheng-Chieh

    2017-09-01

    The relationship between glycemic variability and the incidence of Alzheimer disease (AD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine visit-to-visit variations in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1c ) represented by the coefficient of variation (CV) and to determine whether they were independently associated with AD, irrespective of HbA 1c and other traditional risk factors in such patients. Patients with T2DM enrolled in the National Diabetes Care Management Program, age ≥60 years, and without diagnosis of AD ( n = 16,706) were included in the study. Potential risk factors were analyzed using extended Cox proportional hazards regression models for competing risk of mortality on AD incidence. During a median follow-up of 8.88 years, 831 incident cases of AD were identified, with a crude incidence rate of 3.5/1,000 person-years. After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, lifestyle behaviors, diabetes-related variables, FPG and HbA 1c , drug-related variables, and comorbidities, both FPG CV and HbA 1c CV were found to be significant predictors of AD, with corresponding hazard ratios of 1.27 (95% CI 1.06-1.52) for the third tertile in FPG CV and 1.32 (95% CI 1.11-1.58) for the third tertile in HbA 1c CV. FPG CV and HbA 1c CV are independently associated with AD. The associations between glycemic variability and AD demonstrated in this study suggest a linked pathophysiological mechanism, which is worthy of further investigation. Further research is required to confirm our results and to evaluate whether FPG CV and HbA 1c CV can be valuable therapeutic targets for patients with T2DM at risk. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  8. Evaluation of a novel median power spectrogram for seizure detection by non-neurophysiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Peter; Melman, Tamar; Yan, Sherry; Otgonsuren, Munkhzul; Grinspan, Zachary

    2017-08-01

    (1) To evaluate how well resident physicians use a novel EEG spectral analysis tool (the median power spectrogram; MPS) to detect seizures. (2) To assess the capability of the MPS to identify different seizure types. 120 EEG records from children with intractable seizures were converted to MPS by taking the median power across leads and using multi-taper spectral estimation. Twelve blinded neurology residents were trained to interpret the spectrogram with a five-minute video tutorial and post-test. Two residents independently assessed each set for presence of seizures. Their performance was compared to seizures identified using conventional EEG. Two blinded neurologists separately reviewed the EEGs and spectrograms to independently categorize the seizures. Their results were used to determine the spectrogram's capability to reveal seizures and visualize different seizure types for the user. Three key MPS features distinguished seizures from inter-ictal background: power difference relative to background, down-sloping resonance bands, and power in high frequencies. Using these features, residents identified seizures with 77% sensitivity and 72% specificity. 86% (51/59) of focal seizures and 81% (22/27) of generalized seizures were detected by at least one resident. Missed seizures included brief (seizures, tonic seizures, seizures with predominant delta (0-4Hz) activity, and seizures evident primarily in supplementary low temporal leads. The MPS is a novel qEEG modality that requires minimal training to interpret. It enables physicians without extensive neurophysiology training to identify seizures with sensitivity and specificity comparable to more complex multi-modal qEEG displays. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15176-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available m... 52 0.039 1 ( CX098067 ) EHAHG37TR E. histolytica Normalized cDNA library ... 52 0.039 1 ( CX097486 ) EHAH754TR E. histolytic...a Normalized cDNA library ... 52 0.039 1 ( CX097433 ) EHAH676TR E. histolytica Normalized cDNA library... ... 52 0.039 1 ( CX097412 ) EHAH643TR E. histolytica Normalized cDNA library... ... 52 0.039 1 ( CX097231 ) EHAH379TR E. histolytica Normalized cDNA library ... 52 0.039 1 ( CX...096775 ) EHAGX23TR E. histolytica Normalized cDNA library ... 52 0.039 1 ( CX096109 ) EHAGN19TR E. histolytica Normalized cDNA librar

  10. Interaction between estradiol and 5-HT1A receptors in the median raphe nucleus on acquisition of aversive information and association to the context in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Gonçalves Carneiro Spera de Andrade

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The median raphe nucleus (MRN is related to stress resistance and defensive responses, a crucial source of serotonergic neurons that project to prosencephalic structures related to stress and anxiety. Estrogen receptors were identified in this mesencephalic structure. It is possible that the estrogen action is related to serotonin effect on somatodendritic 5-HT1A receptors, inhibiting the function of serotonergic neurons and thus preventing of the stress effect and inducing anxiolysis. So, in order to evaluate these aspects, female Wistar rats were ovariectomized and 21 days later were given a direct microinjection of estradiol benzoate (EB (1200 ng into the MRN, preceded by microinjections of saline or WAY100.635 (100 ng, a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. Immediately after the two microinjections, the ovariectomized rats were conditioned with an aversive event (foot shock session in a Skinner box. Twenty-four hours later, they were exposed to the same context in a test session for 5 min for behavioral assessment: freezing, rearing, locomotion, grooming, and autonomic responses (fecal boluses and micturition. EB microinjection in the MRN prior to the exposure of animals to the foot shocks in the conditioning session did not alter their behavior in this session, but neutralized the association of the aversive experience to the context: there was a decrease in the expression of freezing and an increased rearing activity in the test session. This effect was reversed by prior microinjection of WAY100.635. In conclusion, EB acted on serotonergic neurons in the MRN of the ovariectomized rats, impairing the association of the aversive experience to the context, by co-modulating the functionality of somatodendritic 5-HT1A. Keywords: Contextual conditioning, Median raphe nucleus, Estradiol benzoate, 5-HT1A receptors, WAY100.635, Ovariectomized rats, Anxiety

  11. Relaxation of a strained 3C-SiC(1 1 1) thin film on silicon by He+ and O+ ion beam defect engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Häberlen, M.; Murphy, B.; Stritzker, B.; Lindner, J.K.N.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report on the successful reduction of tensile strain in a thin strained ion-beam synthesized 3C-SiC(1 1 1) layer on silicon. The creation of a near-interface defect structure consisting of nanometric voids and stacking fault type defects by He ion implantation and subsequent annealing yields significant relaxation in the top SiC film. The microstructure of the defect layer is studied by transmission electron microscopy, and the strain state of the 3C-SiC layer was studied by high-resolution X-ray diffraction in a parallel beam configuration. Typical process conditions for the growth of GaN films on the SiC layer were emulated by high temperature treatments in a rapid thermal annealer or a quartz tube furnace. It is found that prolonged annealing at high temperatures leads to ripening of the voids and to a weaker reduction of the tensile strain. It is shown that this problem can be overcome by the co-implantation of oxygen ions to form highly thermally stable void/extended defect structures.

  12. The Median Solution of the Newsvendor Problem and Some Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Pritibhushan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider the median solution of the Newsvendor Problem. Some properties of such a solution are shown through a theoretical analysis and a numerical experiment. Sometimes, though not often, median solution may be better than solutions maximizing expected profit, or maximizing minimum possible, over distribution with the same average and standard deviation, expected profit, according to some criteria. We discuss the practical suitability of the objective function set and the solution derived, for the Newsvendor Problem, and other such random optimization problems.

  13. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(25)-1 - Deficiency dividend of a qualified investment entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deficiency dividend of a qualified investment entity. 1.381(c)(25)-1 Section 1.381(c)(25)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(25...

  14. C1-2 arthrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevrot, A [Service de Radiologie B, Hopital Cochin, 75 - Paris (France); Cermakova, E [Service de Radiologie B, Hopital Cochin, 75 - Paris (France); Vallee, C [Service de Radiologie B, Hopital Cochin, 75 - Paris (France); Chancelier, M D [Service de Radiologie B, Hopital Cochin, 75 - Paris (France); Chemla, N [Service de Radiologie B, Hopital Cochin, 75 - Paris (France); Rousselin, B [Service de Radiologie B, Hopital Cochin, 75 - Paris (France); Langer-Cherbit, A [Service de Radiologie B, Hopital Cochin, 75 - Paris (France)

    1995-08-01

    One hundred patients with the following conditions were studied: cervical pain or neuralgia without radiographic changes, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylarthritis and diverse conditions. The technique consists of lateral puncture of the posterior aspect of the C1-2 joint with a 20-gauge needle under fluoroscopic control, arthrography using 1 ml contrast medium, and a 1-ml long-acting steroid injection subsequently. The articular cavity has an anterior and a posterior recess. Sometimes the posterior recess is large. In 18% of cases the contralateral joint also opacifies. C1-2 arthrography appears to be an efficient and safe technique for the treatment of upper cervical pain due to C1-2 articular disorders. (orig.)

  15. C1-2 arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevrot, A.; Cermakova, E.; Vallee, C.; Chancelier, M.D.; Chemla, N.; Rousselin, B.; Langer-Cherbit, A.

    1995-01-01

    One hundred patients with the following conditions were studied: cervical pain or neuralgia without radiographic changes, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylarthritis and diverse conditions. The technique consists of lateral puncture of the posterior aspect of the C1-2 joint with a 20-gauge needle under fluoroscopic control, arthrography using 1 ml contrast medium, and a 1-ml long-acting steroid injection subsequently. The articular cavity has an anterior and a posterior recess. Sometimes the posterior recess is large. In 18% of cases the contralateral joint also opacifies. C1-2 arthrography appears to be an efficient and safe technique for the treatment of upper cervical pain due to C1-2 articular disorders. (orig.)

  16. Duration of symptomatology and median segmental sensory latency in 993 carpal tunnel syndrome hands (668 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOUYOUMDJIAN JOAO ARIS

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available According to median sensory nerve action potential onset-latency to index finger in a 140 mm fixed distance, 993 carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS hands from 668 patients were grouped into MIld (3.0 to 3.5 ms, 384 hands, MOderate (3.6 to 4.4 ms, 332 hands, SEvere (> 4.4 ms, 135 hands and UNrecordable (142 hands and correlated with CTS symptomatology duration. All patients have sensory antidromic median-radial latency difference (MRD e > or = 1.0 ms without any doubt about CTS diagnosis. Patients with systemic disease, trauma or previous surgery were excluded. There is a remarkable cumulative percentage increase from 1 to 12 months in group UN (3.5% to 38.7%, 11 folds, much less than the group MI (13.8% to 54.6%, 3.9 folds. There is also a remarkable non-cumulative percentage increase in group UN, from 1 to 4-12 months; the group MI had a relatively uniform distribution in all symptomatic duration groups from 1 to > 60 months. The conclusion is that median nerve compression at carpal tunnel can lead to unrecordable potentials in a relatively short period from 1 to 12 months of evolution, suggesting acute/subacute deterioration. Electrophysiological evaluation must be done periodically in patients that underwent clinical treatment, since cumulative 38.7% of group UN was found in 12 months period.

  17. Myofibroma in the Palm Presenting with Median Nerve Compression Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Sarkozy, PA-C, BS

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary: A myofibroma is a benign proliferation of myofibroblasts in the connective tissue. Solitary myofibromas are a rare finding especially in an adult. We report a case of a 23-year-old man presenting with an enlarging mass over his right palm. The patient is an active weight lifter. He reported numbness and tingling in the median nerve distribution. Nerve conduction studies and magnetic resonance imaging scans suggested a tumor involving or compressing the median nerve. The final diagnosis of myofibroma was made only after the histopathological diagnosis.

  18. Effect of alcohol dehydrogenase 1C (ADH1C genotype on vitamin A restriction and marbling in Korean native steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Qiao Peng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective This work was to find the correlation of alcohol dehydrogenase 1C (ADH1C genotype with vitamin A reduction and carcass traits during the vitamin A restriction period. Methods In study 1, 60 Korean native steers were fed a diet (890 IU/kg with 8,000 IU and 0 IU of supplemental premix vitamin A/kg of dry matter (DM for control and treatment group, respectively. The levels of serum vitamin A were analyzed through high preparative performance liquid chromatography, and the ADH1C genotype was analyzed based on polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP; 78.1% TT type, 21.9% TC type; however, CC type was not found. Then, the interaction between ADH1C and carcass traits on the vitamin A restriction was investigated in study 2. A total of 136 Korean native steers were fed a diet that included 930 IU/kg vitamin A of DM. Results Serum vitamin A in treatment was reduced to 112.4 IU/dL in steers with TT type of ADH1C, while for steers with TC type the concentration of serum vitamin A was dropped to 79.5 IU/dL (p<0.1 in study 1. This showed that TC type had the potential to lower serum vitamin A concentration during vitamin A restriction compared to TT type. In study 2 we found that eye muscle area, marbling and carcass weight in Korean native steers with TC type were higher than in steers with TT type (p<0.05. Conclusion The interaction between vitamin A restriction and TC type of ADH1C gene could have the potential of increasing the marbling in Korean native steers. These results indicated that steers with TC type of the ADH1C gene were more sensitive to the change of serum vitamin A than TT types. Furthermore, this finding has the potential to enable a higher marbling score under the condition of vitamin A restriction in Korean native steers.

  19. Gender-partitioned patient medians of serum albumin requested by general practitioners for the assessment of analytical stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Steen Ingemann; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Lund, Flemming; Fraser, Callum G; Sölétormos, György

    2018-04-25

    Recently, the use of separate gender-partitioned patient medians of serum sodium has revealed potential for monitoring analytical stability within the optimum analytical performance specifications for laboratory medicine. The serum albumin concentration depends on whether a patient is sitting or recumbent during phlebotomy. We therefore investigated only examinations requested by general practitioners (GPs) to provide data from sitting patients. Weekly and monthly patient medians of serum albumin requested by GP for both male and female patients were calculated from the raw data obtained from three analysers in the hospital laboratory on examination of samples from those >18 years. The half-range of medians were applied as an estimate of the maximum bias. Further, the ratios between the two medians were calculated (females/males). The medians for male and female patients were closely related despite considerable variation due to the current analytical variation. This relationship was confirmed by the calculated half-range for the monthly ratio between the genders of 0.44%, which surpasses the optimum analytical performance specification for bias of serum albumin (0.72%). The weekly ratio had a half-range of 1.83%, which surpasses the minimum analytical performance specifications of 2.15%. Monthly gender-partitioned patient medians of serum albumin are useful for monitoring of long-term analytical stability, where the gender medians are two independent estimates of changes in (delta) bias: only results requested by GP are of value in this application to ensure that all patients are sitting during phlebotomy.

  20. Median survival time of patients after transcatheter chemo-embolization for hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, Z.; Haq, T.; Munir, K.; Usman, M.U.; Azeemuddin, M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect on survival after trans arterial chemo embolization (TACE) in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Design: Longitudinal cohort study. Place and Duration of Study: Radiology Department, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Stadium Road, Karachi, from December 1997 to September 2005. Patients and Methods: Patients undergoing TACE procedure for HCC were prospectively followed. Forty three patients were enrolled from December 1997 to March 2003 in the study and subjected to chemo embolization therapy. Eight out of 43 patients were excluded from the study, who lost to follow-up. All the patients were followed till their death. Median and mean survival were calculated. Results: The median survival of these 35 patients was 410 days (13.6 months), with 95% confidence interval (236 days lower bound and 536 days upper bound). Mean survival time was 603 days (20.1 months) with 95% confidence interval (394 days lower bound and 812 days upper bound). There was significant difference in mean survival time (in days) by Child's Pugh class (X2 = 12.384; df=2, p-value=0.002). Conclusion: The study showed that TACE is an effective palliative treatment. TACE increases the median survival time. (author)

  1. Trajectories of HbA1c Levels in Children and Youth with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhas-Hamiel, Orit; Hamiel, Uri; Boyko, Valentina; Graph-Barel, Chana; Reichman, Brian; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To illustrate the distribution of Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels according to age and gender among children, adolescents and youth with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Methods Consecutive HbA1c measurements of 349 patients, aged 2 to 30 years with T1DM were obtained from 1995 through 2010. Measurement from patients diagnosed with celiac disease (n = 20), eating disorders (n = 41) and hemoglobinopathy (n = 1) were excluded. The study sample comprised 4815 measurements of HbA1c from 287 patients. Regression percentiles of HbA1c were calculated as a function of age and gender by the quantile regression method using the SAS procedure QUANTREG. Results Crude percentiles of HbA1c as a function of age and gender, and the modeled curves produced using quantile regression showed good concordance. The curves show a decline in HbA1c levels from age 2 to 4 years at each percentile. Thereafter, there is a gradual increase during the prepubertal years with a peak at ages 12 to 14 years. HbA1c levels subsequently decline to the lowest values in the third decade. Curves of females and males followed closely, with females having HbA1c levels about 0.1% (1.1 mmol/mol) higher in the 25th 50th and 75th percentiles. Conclusion We constructed age-specific distribution curves for HbA1c levels for patients with T1DM. These percentiles may be used to demonstrate the individual patient's measurements longitudinally compared with age-matched patients. PMID:25275650

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16006-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne 01 Psig64s-55C regio... 50 0.22 1 ( EU648429 ) Psiguria umbrosa clone 05 Psig6...4s-55C region geno... 50 0.22 1 ( EU648428 ) Psiguria umbrosa clone 04 Psig64s-55C region geno... 50 0.22 1 ( EU648427 ) Psiguri...a umbrosa clone 03 Psig64s-55C region geno... 50 0.22 1 ( EU648426 ) Psiguria umbrosa cl...one 02 Psig64s-55C region geno... 50 0.22 1 ( EU648425 ) Psiguria umbrosa clone 0...1 Psig64s-55C region geno... 50 0.22 1 ( EU648423 ) Psiguria pedata clone 07 Psig64s-55C region genom... 50

  3. Standard restrictive sternal precautions and modified sternal precautions had similar effects in people after cardiac surgery via median sternotomy (‘SMART’ Trial: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Ali Katijjahbe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Question: In people who have undergone cardiac surgery via median sternotomy, does modifying usual sternal precautions to make them less restrictive improve physical function, pain, kinesiophobia and health-related quality of life? Design: Two-centre, randomised, controlled trial with concealed allocation, blinded assessors and intention-to-treat analysis. Participants: Seventy-two adults who had undergone cardiac surgery via a median sternotomy were included. Intervention: Participants were randomly allocated to one of two groups at 4 (SD 1 days after surgery. The control group received the usual advice to restrict their upper limb use for 4 to 6 weeks (ie, restrictive sternal precautions. The experimental group received advice to use pain and discomfort as the safe limits for their upper limb use during daily activities (ie, less restrictive precautions for the same period. Both groups received postoperative individualised education in hospital and via weekly telephone calls for 6 weeks. Outcome measures: The primary outcome was physical function assessed by the Short Physical Performance Battery. Secondary outcomes included upper limb function, pain, kinesophobia, and health-related quality of life. Outcomes were measured before hospital discharge and at 4 and 12 weeks postoperatively. Adherence to sternal precautions was recorded. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in physical function between the groups at 4 weeks (MD 1.0, 95% CI –0.2 to 2.3 and 12 weeks (MD 0.4, 95% CI –0.9 to 1.6 postoperatively. There were no statistically significant between-group differences in secondary outcomes. Conclusion: Modified (ie, less restrictive sternal precautions for people following cardiac surgery had similar effects on physical recovery, pain and health-related quality of life as usual restrictive sternal precautions. Similar outcomes can be anticipated regardless of whether people following cardiac surgery are managed with

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04737-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available se I (COI) gen... 44 5.8 1 ( AY225873 ) Lasius austriacus isolate Laus5COI cytoch...rome c o... 44 5.8 1 ( AY225872 ) Lasius austriacus isolate Laus4COI cytochrome c o... 44 5.8 1 ( AY225871 ) Lasius austria...cus isolate Laus3COI cytochrome c o... 44 5.8 1 ( AY225870 ) Lasius austriacus isolate Laus2C...OI cytochrome c o... 44 5.8 1 ( AY225869 ) Lasius austriacus isolate Laus1COI cytochrome c o... 44 5.8 1 ( A...9 ) Prenolepis imparis mitochondrial COI gene for cyt... 44 5.8 1 ( AB371009 ) Lasius austriacus mitochondri

  5. Bayesian median regression for temporal gene expression data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Keming; Vinciotti, Veronica; Liu, Xiaohui; 't Hoen, Peter A. C.

    2007-09-01

    Most of the existing methods for the identification of biologically interesting genes in a temporal expression profiling dataset do not fully exploit the temporal ordering in the dataset and are based on normality assumptions for the gene expression. In this paper, we introduce a Bayesian median regression model to detect genes whose temporal profile is significantly different across a number of biological conditions. The regression model is defined by a polynomial function where both time and condition effects as well as interactions between the two are included. MCMC-based inference returns the posterior distribution of the polynomial coefficients. From this a simple Bayes factor test is proposed to test for significance. The estimation of the median rather than the mean, and within a Bayesian framework, increases the robustness of the method compared to a Hotelling T2-test previously suggested. This is shown on simulated data and on muscular dystrophy gene expression data.

  6. Sosiaalisen median markkinointisuunnitelma uudelle hoitoalan konseptoidulle työvaatemallistolle

    OpenAIRE

    Leppälä, Sanna

    2017-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä pohdittiin keinoja saada uuden konseptoidun työvaatemalliston näkyvyyttä esille sosiaalisen median keinoin. Toimeksiantaja-yrityksenä toimi suomalainen Virtually Oy ja kohteena oli sen uusi hoitajille suunnattu työvaatemallisto. Malliston ympärille halutaan luoda kestävä brändi ja sosiaalisen median markkinointi on tukemassa brändin tunnettavuutta ja myyntiä. Sosiaalinen media ei yritysten välisessä liiketoiminnassa toimi ainoana markkinoinnin työkaluna, vaan se on tukemas...

  7. Minimum variance and variance of outgoing quality limit MDS-1(c1, c2) plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, C.; Vidya, R.

    2016-06-01

    In this article, the outgoing quality (OQ) and total inspection (TI) of multiple deferred state sampling plans MDS-1(c1,c2) are studied. It is assumed that the inspection is rejection rectification. Procedures for designing MDS-1(c1,c2) sampling plans with minimum variance of OQ and TI are developed. A procedure for obtaining a plan for a designated upper limit for the variance of the OQ (VOQL) is outlined.

  8. Ranking Exponential Trapezoidal Fuzzy Numbers by Median Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rezvani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we want represented a method for ranking of two exponential trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. A median value is proposed for the ranking of exponential trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. For the validation the results of the proposed approach are compared with different existing approaches.

  9. Median sep and blink reflex in thyroid diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oflazoğlu, B; Somay, G; Us, O; Surardamar, A; Tanridağ, T

    2006-11-01

    Pathological disturbances of thyroid hormones is associated with central and peripheral nervous system disturbances. The aim of this study is to evaluate median nerve stimulated somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) and blink reflex of thyroid patients (hypo and hyperthyroidism). Median SEP was performed in 40 patients (21 with hyperthyroidism and 19 with hypothyroidism). We evaluated the latencies of N9, N11, N13, P9, P11, P14, N20 and P25 waves and the N9-N20, N9-N13, N13-N20 and P14-N20 interpeak latencies. We compared the results of patients with the control group (26 persons). We found that the N20 latency was longer in patients with hyperthyroidism than in the control group and the difference was statistically significant. There was not any statistically significant difference regarding the N9, N11, N13, P9, P11, P14, N20 and P25 latencies and the N9-N20, N9-N13, N13-N20 and P14-N20 interpeak latencies between hypothyroid patients and controls. We performed the blink reflex study in 28 of 40 patients (14 patients with hyperthyroidism and 14 patients with hypothyroidism). Comparing the R1, R2, CR2 (contralateral R2) latencies and durations of the patients and controls, we found that R2 and CR2 duration was shorter in patients with hyperthyroidism. This difference was statistically significant.

  10. Variant palmaris profundus enclosed by an unusual loop of the median nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHOU, HSIU-CHU; JENG, HELLEN; KO, TSUI-LING; PAI, MAN-HUI; CHANG, CHIU-YUN; WU, CHING-HSIANG

    2001-01-01

    According to the usual description in most anatomy texts, the median nerve in the forearm passes between the 2 heads of pronator teres. It continues distally between flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus almost to the retinaculum. Muscular branches leave the nerve near the elbow and supply all superficial muscles of the anterior part of the forearm except flexor carpi ulnaris. Many variations of the median nerve in the forearm have been reported (Urban & Krosman, 1992). The palmaris profundus is also a rare anomaly of the forearm (Dyreby & Engber, 1982). It originates from the radial side of the common flexor tendon in the proximal forearm and inserts into the undersurface of the palmar aponeurosis. The origin of palmaris profundus may be close to the median nerve and its branches, and may be involved in compressive neuropathy of the anterior interosseous nerve. Its tendon crossing through the carpal canal has been implicated in the carpal tunnel syndrome (reviewed by Lahey & Aulicino, 1986). In some cases, palmaris profundus was found enclosed in a common fascial sheath with the median nerve (Stark, 1992; Sahinoglu et al. 1994). To indicate its close association with the median nerve, the palmaris profundus was also named ‘musculus comitans nervi mediani’ (Sahinoglu et al. 1994). This article reports an unusual loop of the median nerve encircling an anomalous palmaris profundus in the forearm, which, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously described. PMID:11693311

  11. Expression of CYP1C1 and CYP1A in Fundulus heteroclitus during PAH-induced carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Lu [Pharmacology and Environmental Toxicology, University of Mississippi, University, MS (United States); Camus, Alvin C. [Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Dong, Wu; Thornton, Cammi [Pharmacology and Environmental Toxicology, University of Mississippi, University, MS (United States); Willett, Kristine L., E-mail: kwillett@olemiss.edu [Pharmacology and Environmental Toxicology, University of Mississippi, University, MS (United States)

    2010-09-15

    CYP1C1 is a relatively newly identified member of the cytochrome P450 family 1 in teleost fish. However, CYP1C1's expression and physiological roles relative to the more recognized CYP1A in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) induced toxicities are unclear. Fundulus heteroclitus fry were exposed at 6-8 days post-hatch (dph) and again at 13-15 dph for 6 h to dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) control, 5 mg/L benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), or 5 mg/L dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA). Fry were euthanized at 0, 6, 18, 24 and 30 h after the second exposure. In these groups, both CYP1A and CYP1C1 protein expression were induced within 6 h after the second exposure. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) results from fry revealed strongest CYP1C1 expression in renal tubular and intestinal epithelial cells. Additional fish were examined for liver lesions 8 months after initial exposure. Gross lesions were observed in 20% of the BaP and 35% of the DMBA-treated fish livers. Histopathologic findings included foci of cellular alteration and neoplasms, including hepatocellular adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangioma. Strong CYP1A immunostaining was detected diffusely in altered cell foci and on the invading margin of hepatocelluar carcinomas. Lower CYP1A expression was seen in central regions of the neoplasms. In contrast, CYP1C1 was only detectable and highly expressed in proliferated bile duct epithelial cells. Our CYP1C1 results suggest the potential for tissue specific CYP1C1-mediated PAH metabolism but not a more chronic role in progression to liver hepatocellular carcinoma.

  12. Brain malformation in single median maxillary central incisor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, I; Wagner, Aa; Thomsen, L L

    2009-01-01

    Clinical and radiographic examinations and MR scan of a 12-year-old girl with SMMCI (single median maxillary central incisor) showed impaired growth and a midline defect involving the central incisor, cranium and the midline structures in the brain, falx cerebri and pituitary gland. She had a sev...

  13. Is insulin the preferred treatment for HbA1c >9%?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomgarden, Zachary

    2017-09-01

    The algorithms and guidelines of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American Diabetes Association recommend that insulin administration be strongly considered for people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) with HbA1c levels exceeding 9.0% and 10%, respectively. Although the caveat is given in both sets of recommendations that this is particularly appropriate when patients are "symptomatic," referring to urinary frequency with increased thirst and appetite, weight loss, and ketosis, the clinical definition of such presentations may be ill-defined, and it is noteworthy that both documents consider insulin to offer particular benefit under such circumstances. However, with multiple options for glycemic treatment, it is of interest to reconsider this argument for insulin use. It should be recalled that in the UK Prospective Diabetes Study, diet alone was associated with a reduction in HbA1c from 9% to 7%. Drug-naïve people with T2D do often show surprisingly strong reductions in HbA1c with metformin-based dual-agent oral treatment approaches; a recent report showed that even with baseline HbA1c >11%, the combination of metformin with a sulfonylurea, pioglitazone, or sitagliptin was associated with reduction in HbA1c from 11.6% to 6.0%. A 32-week study of the combination of rosiglitazone with metformin in patients with mean baseline HbA1c 8.9% showed a mean HbA1c reduction of 2.3%, and an open-label cohort with baseline HbA1c 11.8% had a reduction in HbA1c to 7.8%. With metformin plus sitagliptin, a mean placebo-adjusted HbA1c reduction of 2.1% from a baseline of 8.8% was reported, with those patients with baseline HbA1c >9% having a 2.6% reduction in HbA1c, and an open-label cohort with baseline HbA1c 11.2% having a 2.9% reduction in HbA1c. Similar 2% HbA1c reductions from baseline levels of 9.1% were seen with metformin in initial combination with the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor dapagliflozin. Although such dual oral agent

  14. Sosiaalisen median rooli mikroyrittäjän ostoprosessissa

    OpenAIRE

    Martikainen, Inkeri

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoite oli selvittää sosiaalisen median rooli mikroyrittäjän ostoprosessissa; miten mikroyrittäjä hakee tietoa sosiaalisesta mediasta ja millainen vaikutus sieltä löytyvillä käyttäjäarvioilla on ostopäätökseen. Opinnäytetyö tehtiin erään finanssialan yrityksen toimeksiantona. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli antaa digitaalisen markkinoinnin ammattilaisille tietoa siitä, miten mikroyrittäjiä voidaan tavoittaa sosiaalisen median kautta, ja saada näin uusia asiakkaita. Tutkimus...

  15. CYP2C19 and PON1 polymorphisms regulating clopidogrel bioactivation in Chinese, Malay and Indian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Mark Y; Tan, Karen; Tan, Huay-Cheem; Huan, Pei-Tee; Li, Bei; Phua, Qian-Hui; Lee, Hong-Kai; Lee, Chi-Hang; Low, Adrian; Becker, Richard C; Ong, Wen-Chong; Richards, Mark A; Salim, Agus; Tai, E-Shyong; Koay, Evelyn

    2012-04-01

    AIM, MATERIALS & METHODS: We investigated the functional significance of CYP2C19*2, *3, *17 and PON1 Q192R SNPs in 89 consecutive Asian patients on clopidogrel treatment and the prevalence of functionally significant polymorphisms among 300 Chinese, Malays and Asian Indians. Both CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles (*2 or *3) were associated with higher platelet reactivity while the CYP2C19 gain-of-function allele (*17) had lower platelet reactivity. For PON1, the median PRI was not significantly different between the QQ, QR and RR groups. The allele frequencies of CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3 and CYP2C19*17 were 0.280, 0.065 and 0.010 (rare) for Chinese, 0.310, 0.050 and 0.025 for Malays, and 0.375, 0.010 (rare) and 0.165 for Indians, respectively. Our data suggest that genotyping studies to investigate clopidogrel response should include CYP2C19*2 and *3 but not *17 polymorphisms in Chinese, and CYP2C19*2 and *17 polymorphisms but not *3 in Indians. All three polymorphisms should preferably be genotyped in Malays.

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16464-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cl... 50 0.24 1 ( EB271624 ) CNSN27-F-039516-501 Normalized CNS library (adult... 50 0.24 1 ( DV670546 ) Ss_...375 ) EHAHZ40TR E. histolytica Normalized cDNA library ... 50 0.24 1 ( CX099243 ) EHAHX28TR E. histolytica Normalized cDNA library... ... 50 0.24 1 ( CX099239 ) EHAHX24TR E. histolytica Normalized cDNA library ... 50 0....24 1 ( CX099231 ) EHAHX14TR E. histolytica Normalized cDNA library ... 50 0.24 1 ( CX099215 ) EHAHW92TR E. histolytic...a Normalized cDNA library ... 50 0.24 1 ( CX099052 ) EHAHU47TR E. histolytica Normalized cDNA lib

  17. Median artery of the forearm in human fetuses in northeastern Brazil: anatomical study and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, José Aderval; da Silva, Ana Caroline Ferreira; Anunciação, Caio Barretto; Reis, Francisco Prado

    2017-01-01

    A persistent median artery is a rare anomaly. It accompanies the median nerve along its course in the forearm and is of variable origin. It is associated with other local anatomical variations and may contribute significantly towards formation of the superficial palmar arch. In embryos, it is responsible mainly for the blood supply to the hand. The objective of this study was to research the frequency, type (forearm or palmar) and origin of the median artery in fetuses, correlating its presence with sex and body side. Red-colored latex was injected into 32 brachial arteries of human fetuses until its arrival in the hand could be seen. Twenty-four hours after the injection, the median arteries were dissected without the aid of optical instruments. Among the 32 forearms dissected, the median artery was present in 81.25 % (26) of the cases, and it was found more frequently in females and on the left side. Regarding origin, most of the median arteries originated in the common interosseous artery (38.5 %) and anterior interosseous artery (34.6 %). The mean length of the median arteries was 21.1 mm for the palmar type and 19.8 mm for the forearm type. The median artery has a high rate of persistence. It is important to be aware of this anatomical variation, since its presence may give rise to difficulties during routine surgical procedures on the wrist. Its presence may cause serious functional complications in the carpal tunnel, anterior interosseous nerve, round pronator syndromes, and ischemia of the hand.

  18. Early Cretaceous dextral transpressional deformation within the Median Batholith, Stewart Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allibone, A.H.; Tulloch, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The character, timing, and significance of deformation within the Median Batholith has been debated since at least 1967, with allochthonous and autochthonous models proposed to account for internal variations in the character of the batholith. Stewart Island provides excellent exposures of intrabatholithic structures, allowing many aspects of the deformation history within the batholith to be analysed, far removed from the effects of later deformation related to the current plate boundary. Median Batholith rocks in northern and central Stewart Island are deformed by three major structures: the Freshwater Fault System, Escarpment Fault, and Gutter Shear Zone. Lineation orientations, Al in hornblende geobarometry, and Ar-Ar thermochronology indicate up to c. 7 km of NNE-directed uplift of the hanging wall of the Escarpment Fault between c. 110 and 105 Ma. Unlike the Escarpment Fault, a wide range of mineral elongation lineation orientations, including many oblique to the strike and dip of related foliations, characterise both the Gutter Shear Zone and Freshwater Fault System. Lineation and limited sense of shear data indicate dextral-reverse movement on both structures during development of their dominant ductile fabrics. Crosscutting and intrusive relationships indicate movement on the Freshwater Fault System after c. 130 Ma and on the Gutter Shear Zone between 120 and 112 Ma. The amount of movement on the Freshwater Fault System and Gutter Shear Zone remains largely unconstrained. However, the 342 ± 24 Ma age of a granite clast in a Paterson Group lithic tuff horizon at Abrahams Bay overlaps that of Carboniferous plutons in the block immediately south of the Freshwater Fault System, implying that the Paterson Group is little displaced from the basement rocks through which it was erupted. The three structures mapped on Stewart Island form part of a narrow transpressional mobile belt active within the Jurassic-Cretaceous arc on the outboard margin of the Western

  19. Targeting MUC1-C suppresses BCL2A1 in triple-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, Masayuki; Maeda, Takahiro; Mehrotra, Neha; Jin, Caining; Alam, Maroof; Bouillez, Audrey; Hata, Tsuyoshi; Tagde, Ashujit; Keating, Amy; Kharbanda, Surender; Singh, Harpal; Kufe, Donald

    2018-01-01

    B-cell lymphoma 2-related protein A1 (BCL2A1) is a member of the BCL-2 family of anti-apoptotic proteins that confers resistance to treatment with anti-cancer drugs; however, there are presently no agents that target BCL2A1. The MUC1-C oncoprotein is aberrantly expressed in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells, induces the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and promotes anti-cancer drug resistance. The present study demonstrates that targeting MUC1-C genetically and pharmacologically in TNBC cells results in the downregulation of BCL2A1 expression. The results show that MUC1-C activates the BCL2A1 gene by an NF-κB p65-mediated mechanism, linking this pathway with the induction of EMT. The MCL-1 anti-apoptotic protein is also of importance for the survival of TNBC cells and is an attractive target for drug development. We found that inhibiting MCL-1 with the highly specific MS1 peptide results in the activation of the MUC1-C→NF-κB→BCL2A1 pathway. In addition, selection of TNBC cells for resistance to ABT-737, which inhibits BCL-2, BCL-xL and BCL-W but not MCL-1 or BCL2A1, is associated with the upregulation of MUC1-C and BCL2A1 expression. Targeting MUC1-C in ABT-737-resistant TNBC cells suppresses BCL2A1 and induces death, which is of potential therapeutic importance. These findings indicate that MUC1-C is a target for the treatment of TNBCs unresponsive to agents that inhibit anti-apoptotic members of the BCL-2 family.

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05633-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) PUHQF14TD ZM_0.6_1.0_KB Zea mays genomic clone ZM... 46 1.9 1 ( EC770709 ) EST 7205 Guarana fruits cDNA library Paullinia cu...o... 44 7.7 1 ( BM027318 ) GIT0000656 Root-induced cDNA library from Glomus ... 44 7.7 1 ( BJ427410 ) Dic...ble cien cDNA librar... 50 0.12 1 ( EW965375 ) BRHL_03_O01_T7 Headlice composite library... DN564657 ) 90838967 Sea Urchin primary mesenchyme cell cDNA ... 46 1.9 1 ( CN845958 ) PG07006A08 Ginseng cDNA library from MeJA tre... BF648097 ) NF044C02EC1F1017 Elicited cell culture Medicago t... 44 7.7 1 ( BF646377 ) NF071B12EC1F1096 Elicited cell culture Medic

  1. Stable Sheave Moduli of Rank 2 with Chern Classes c 1 = -1; c2 = 2; c3 = 0 on Q3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Uvarov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the scheme MQ( 2;¡1; 2; 0 of stable torsion free sheaves of rank 2 with Chern classes c1 = -1, c2 = 2, c3 = 0 on a smooth 3-dimensional projective quadric Q. The manifold MQ(-1; 2 of moduli bundles of rank 2 with Chern classes c1 = -1, c2 = 2 on Q was studied by Ottaviani and Szurek in 1994. In 2007 the author described the closure MQ (-1; 2 in the scheme MQ(2;¡1; 2; 0. In this paper we prove that in MQ(2;¡1; 2; 0 there exists a unique irreducible component diferent from MQ (¡1; 2 which is a rational variety of dimension 10.

  2. Hemoglobin A1c and Mortality in Older Adults With and Without Diabetes: Results From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1988-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Priya; Huang, Elbert S; Kalyani, Rita R; Golden, Sherita H; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh

    2017-04-01

    Hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) level has been associated with increased mortality in middle-aged populations. The optimal intensity of glucose control in older adults with diabetes remains uncertain. We sought to estimate the risk of mortality by HbA 1c levels among older adults with and without diabetes. We analyzed data from adults aged ≥65 years ( n = 7,333) from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) (1998-1994) and Continuous NHANES (1999-2004) and their linked mortality data (through December 2011). Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the relationship of HbA 1c with the risk of all-cause and cause-specific (cardiovascular disease [CVD], cancer, and non-CVD/noncancer) mortality, separately for adults with diabetes and without diabetes. Over a median follow-up of 8.9 years, 4,729 participants died (1,262 from CVD, 850 from cancer, and 2,617 from non-CVD/noncancer causes). Compared with those with diagnosed diabetes and an HbA 1c 8.0%. HRs were 1.6 (95% CI 1.02, 2.6) and 1.8 (95% CI 1.3, 2.6) for HbA 1c 8.0-8.9% and ≥9.0%, respectively ( P for trend 6.5% had a 1.3 (95% CI 1.03, 1.8) times greater risk of all-cause mortality compared with participants without diabetes and HbA 1c 5.0-5.6%. An HbA 1c >8.0% was associated with increased risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality in older adults with diabetes. Our results support the idea that better glycemic control is important for reducing mortality; however, in light of the conflicting evidence base, there is also a need for individualized glycemic targets for older adults with diabetes depending on their demographics, duration of diabetes, and existing comorbidities. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  3. Laccase-catalyzed C-S and C-C coupling for a one-pot synthesis of 1,4-naphthoquinone sulfides and 1,4-naphthoquinone sulfide dimers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wellington, Kevin W

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative C-S and C-C bond formation with aryl and alkyl thiols was catalyzed under mild conditions in a reaction vessel open to air at pH 4.5 in the presence of a commercial laccase (Novozym 51003 or Suberase) and a cosolvent (DMF) to afford 1...

  4. The MLH1 c.-27C>A and c.85G>T variants are linked to dominantly inherited MLH1 epimutation and are borne on a European ancestral haplotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Chau-To; Vogelaar, Ingrid P; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A; Mensenkamp, Arjen R; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J; Rapkins, Robert W; Ward, Robyn L; Chun, Nicolette; Ford, James M; Ladabaum, Uri; McKinnon, Wendy C; Greenblatt, Marc S; Hitchins, Megan P

    2014-05-01

    Germline mutations of the DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2, and deletions affecting the EPCAM gene adjacent to MSH2, underlie Lynch syndrome by predisposing to early-onset colorectal, endometrial and other cancers. An alternative but rare cause of Lynch syndrome is constitutional epimutation of MLH1, whereby promoter methylation and transcriptional silencing of one allele occurs throughout normal tissues. A dominantly transmitted constitutional MLH1 epimutation has been linked to an MLH1 haplotype bearing two single-nucleotide variants, NM_000249.2: c.-27C>A and c.85G>T, in a Caucasian family with Lynch syndrome from Western Australia. Subsequently, a second seemingly unrelated Caucasian Australian case with the same MLH1 haplotype and concomitant epimutation was reported. We now describe three additional, ostensibly unrelated, cancer-affected families of European heritage with this MLH1 haplotype in association with constitutional epimutation, bringing the number of index cases reported to five. Array-based genotyping in four of these families revealed shared haplotypes between individual families that extended across ≤2.6-≤6.4 megabase regions of chromosome 3p, indicating common ancestry. A minimal ≤2.6 megabase founder haplotype common to all four families was identified, which encompassed MLH1 and additional flanking genes and segregated with the MLH1 epimutation in each family. Our findings indicate that the MLH1 c.-27C>A and c.85G>T variants are borne on a European ancestral haplotype and provide conclusive evidence for its pathogenicity via a mechanism of epigenetic silencing of MLH1 within normal tissues. Additional descendants bearing this founder haplotype may exist who are also at high risk of developing Lynch syndrome-related cancers.

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15349-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available us petioles cDNA library Populus tre... 38 0.58 2 ( AP006852 ) Candida albicans genomic ...CT049626 ) Sus scrofa genomic clone PigE-217H19, genomic sur... 48 0.79 1 ( EG687952 ) RCRBD08TO Castor bean cDNA library...V246458 ) A2FO395TO Aedes aegypti full length cDNA library,... 48 0.79 1 ( DV246174 ) A2FMO77TV Aedes aegypti full length cDNA librar...y,... 48 0.79 1 ( DV231005 ) A1FL491TO Aedes aegypti full length cDNA library,... 4.... 50 0.20 1 ( AZ428968 ) 1M0212M05R Mouse 10kb plasmid UUGC1M library Mus ... 50 0.20 1 ( CR123377 ) Reverse strand re

  6. Ultrasound in the diagnosis of a median neuropathy in the forearm: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Joon-Shik

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electrodiagnostic studies are traditionally used in the diagnosis of focal neuropathies, however they lack anatomical information regarding the nerve and its surrounding structures. The purpose of this case is to show that high-resolution ultrasound used as an adjunct to electrodiagnostic studies may complement this lack of information and give insight to the cause. Case presentation A 60-year-old male patient sustained a forearm traction injury resulting in progressive weakness and functional loss in the first three digits of the right hand. High-resolution ultrasound showed the presence of an enlarged nerve and a homogenous soft-tissue structure appearing to engulf the nerve. The contralateral side was normal. Surgery revealed fibrotic bands emanating from the flexor digitorum profundus muscle compressing the median nerve thus confirming the ultrasound findings. Conclusion A diagnostically challenging case of median neuropathy in the forearm is presented in which high-resolution ultrasound was valuable in establishing an anatomic etiology and directing appropriate management.

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01290-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e-04 1 ( BM029238 ) IpSkn00175 Skin cDNA library Ictalurus punctatus ... 56 7e-04 1 ( BI666490 ) 603288778F1 NCI_CGAP_Mam6 Mus muscul...16950 ) AUF_IpInt_55_a23 Intestine cDNA library Ictalurus... 58 2e-04 1 ( CJ376167 ) Molgula tecti...6460 ) AUF_IpInt_52_l18 Intestine cDNA library Ictalurus... 56 7e-04 1 ( CK414496 ) AUF_IpGil_08_d16 Ictalurus punctatu..... 60 4e-05 1 ( CK425973 ) AUF_IpTes_23_o24 Testis cDNA library Ictalurus pu... 6...us pun... 56 7e-04 1 ( CK418081 ) AUF_IpInt_58_c01 Intestine cDNA library Ictalurus... 56 7e-04 1 ( CK41

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U08256-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ssue Salmo s... 46 1.4 1 ( CK883072 ) SGP147785 Atlantic salmon Heart cDNA library...osome UNKNOWN clone CH276-288O1... 50 0.093 1 ( DV034449 ) XLTCR221 Cornea-lens transdifferentiation library...a strain T4 cDNA library. 34 3.8 2 ( AL111360 ) Botrytis cinerea strain T4 cDNA library. 34 3.8 2 ( AL113092 ) Botryti...s cinerea strain T4 cDNA library. 34 3.8 2 ( AL112940 ) Botrytis cinere...a strain T4 cDNA library. 34 3.8 2 ( AL112382 ) Botrytis cinerea strain T4 cDNA library. 34 3.8 2 (

  9. Haemoglobin A1c : Historical overview and current concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenters-Westra, Erna; Schindhelm, Roger K.; Bilo, Henk J.; Slingerland, Robbert J.

    Since the discovery of the relation between increased concentrations of fast haemoglobin fractions in patients with diabetes mellitus compared to concentrations in subjects without diabetes mellitus by Samuel Rahbar and co-workers in 1969, glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) has become a "gold

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05935-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MOF-029C10, gen... 42 5.6 1 ( CT497775 ) A BAC library has been constructed from cultivar ... 42 5.6 1 ( CC2...... 42 5.6 1 ( CK278923 ) EST725001 potato abiotic stress cDNA library Sola... 42... 5.6 1 ( CK276546 ) EST722624 potato abiotic stress cDNA library Sola... 42 5.6 1 ( CK256717 ) EST740354 potato callus cDNA library...14 ) GR_Sa0007H24.b1 Gossypium raimondii WGS library G... 42 5.6 1 ( DU663768 ) OG_ABa0072K07.r OG_ABa Oryza granulata genomic...) Macropus eugenii clone ME_KBa-598C23, WORKING DRA... 42 5.6 1 ( AY714860 ) Unculture

  11. Ciliated median raphe cyst of perineum presenting as perianal polyp: a case report with immunohistochemical study, review of literature, and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Jayesh; Sagar, Bethani; Patel, Adam F; Shak, D K

    2006-03-05

    Median raphe cyst is a very rare, benign congenital lesion occurring mainly on the ventral aspect of the penis, but can develop anywhere in the midline between the external urethral meatus and anus. We report a case of median raphe cyst in the perineum presenting as a perianal polyp in a 65-year-old, English white male with exceptionally rare ciliated epithelium. According to our knowledge, this is the third such case of ciliated median raphe cyst in the English literature. This case, also the first case of ciliated median raphe cyst in the perineum location, focuses on pathogenesis of median raphe cyst.

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14038-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hophyton rubrum cDNA library 8 Tric... 54 0.006 1 ( DW708366 ) EST031847 Tric...hophyton rubrum cDNA library 8 Tric... 54 0.006 1 ( DW693636 ) EST017117 Trichophyton rubrum cDNA library 3 Tric...... 54 0.006 1 ( DW688891 ) EST012372 Trichophyton rubrum cDNA library 2 Tric... 54 0.006 1 ( DW688872 ) EST012353 Tric...hophyton rubrum cDNA library 2 Tric... 54 0.006 1 ( DW686711 ) EST010192 Tric...hophyton rubrum cDNA library 1 Tric... 54 0.006 1 ( DW685118 ) EST008599 Trichophyton rubrum cDNA library 1 Tric

  13. χ_{c1} and χ_{c2} Resonance Parameters with the Decays χ_{c1,c2}→J/ψμ^{+}μ^{-}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alfonso Albero, A; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Andreassi, G; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Archilli, F; d'Argent, P; Arnau Romeu, J; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Atzeni, M; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Babuschkin, I; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baker, S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Baranov, A; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Baryshnikov, F; Batozskaya, V; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Beiter, A; Bel, L J; Beliy, N; Bellee, V; Belloli, N; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Beranek, S; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Berninghoff, D; Bertholet, E; Bertolin, A; Betancourt, C; Betti, F; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bezshyiko, Ia; Bifani, S; Billoir, P; Birnkraut, A; Bizzeti, A; Bjørn, M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Boettcher, T; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bordyuzhin, I; Borghi, S; Borisyak, M; Borsato, M; Bossu, F; Boubdir, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Braun, S; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Brundu, D; Buchanan, E; Burr, C; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Byczynski, W; Cadeddu, S; Cai, H; Calabrese, R; Calladine, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D H; Capriotti, L; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carniti, P; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Cattaneo, M; Cavallero, G; Cenci, R; Chamont, D; Chapman, M G; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chatzikonstantinidis, G; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S F; Chitic, S-G; Chobanova, V; Chrzaszcz, M; Chubykin, A; Ciambrone, P; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collins, P; Colombo, T; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombs, G; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Costa Sobral, C M; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Crocombe, A; Cruz Torres, M; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Da Cunha Marinho, F; Dall'Occo, E; Dalseno, J; Davis, A; De Aguiar Francisco, O; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Serio, M; De Simone, P; Dean, C T; Decamp, D; Del Buono, L; Dembinski, H-P; Demmer, M; Dendek, A; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dey, B; Di Canto, A; Di Nezza, P; Dijkstra, H; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Douglas, L; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dufour, L; Dujany, G; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziewiecki, M; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Ebert, M; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fazzini, D; Federici, L; Ferguson, D; Fernandez, G; Fernandez Declara, P; Fernandez Prieto, A; Ferrari, F; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fini, R A; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fleuret, F; Fohl, K; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forshaw, D C; Forty, R; Franco Lima, V; Frank, M; Frei, C; Fu, J; Funk, W; Furfaro, E; Färber, C; Gabriel, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garcia Martin, L M; García Pardiñas, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Garsed, P J; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gavardi, L; Gazzoni, G; Gerick, D; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Girard, O G; Giubega, L; Gizdov, K; Gligorov, V V; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorelov, I V; Gotti, C; Govorkova, E; Grabowski, J P; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graverini, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greim, R; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Gruber, L; Gruberg Cazon, B R; Grünberg, O; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Göbel, C; Hadavizadeh, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hamilton, B; Han, X; Hancock, T H; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Hasse, C; Hatch, M; He, J; Hecker, M; Heinicke, K; Heister, A; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P H; Hu, W; Huard, Z C; Hulsbergen, W; Humair, T; Hushchyn, M; Hutchcroft, D; Ibis, P; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jawahery, A; Jiang, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Kariuki, J M; Karodia, S; Kazeev, N; Kecke, M; Keizer, F; Kelsey, M; Kenzie, M; Ketel, T; Khairullin, E; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Kirn, T; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Klimkovich, T; Koliiev, S; Kolpin, M; Kopecna, R; Koppenburg, P; Kosmyntseva, A; Kotriakhova, S; Kozeiha, M; Kravchuk, L; Kreps, M; Kress, F; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Krzemien, W; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kuonen, A K; Kvaratskheliya, T; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Lefèvre, R; Lemaitre, F; Lemos Cid, E; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, P-R; Li, T; Li, Y; Li, Z; Likhomanenko, T; Lindner, R; Lionetto, F; Lisovskyi, V; Liu, X; Loh, D; Loi, A; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lucchesi, D; Luchinsky, A; Lucio Martinez, M; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Lusiani, A; Lyu, X; Machefert, F; Maciuc, F; Macko, V; Mackowiak, P; Maddrell-Mander, S; Maev, O; Maguire, K; Maisuzenko, D; Majewski, M W; Malde, S; Malecki, B; Malinin, A; Maltsev, T; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Marangotto, D; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marinangeli, M; Marino, P; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martin, M; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Massacrier, L M; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathad, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mauri, A; Maurice, E; Maurin, B; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Mead, J V; Meadows, B; Meaux, C; Meier, F; Meinert, N; Melnychuk, D; Merk, M; Merli, A; Michielin, E; Milanes, D A; Millard, E; Minard, M-N; Minzoni, L; Mitzel, D S; Mogini, A; Molina Rodriguez, J; Mombächer, T; Monroy, I A; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morello, M J; Morgunova, O; Moron, J; Morris, A B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Mulder, M; Müller, D; Müller, J; Müller, K; Müller, V; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nandi, A; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nieswand, S; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nogay, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Ogilvy, S; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, C J G; Ossowska, A; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pais, P R; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Parker, W; Parkes, C; Passaleva, G; Pastore, A; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perret, P; Pescatore, L; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Petrov, A; Petruzzo, M; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pikies, M; Pinci, D; Pisani, F; Pistone, A; Piucci, A; Placinta, V; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Poli Lener, M; Poluektov, A; Polyakov, I; Polycarpo, E; Pomery, G J; Ponce, S; Popov, A; Popov, D; Poslavskii, S; Potterat, C; Price, E; Prisciandaro, J; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Pullen, H; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Quagliani, R; Quintana, B; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rama, M; Ramos Pernas, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Ratnikov, F; Raven, G; Ravonel Salzgeber, M; Reboud, M; Redi, F; Reichert, S; Dos Reis, A C; Remon Alepuz, C; Renaudin, V; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Robbe, P; Robert, A; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Lopez, J A; Rogozhnikov, A; Roiser, S; Rollings, A; Romanovskiy, V; Romero Vidal, A; Ronayne, J W; Rotondo, M; Rudolph, M S; Ruf, T; Ruiz Valls, P; Ruiz Vidal, J; Saborido Silva, J J; Sadykhov, E; Sagidova, N; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santimaria, M; Santovetti, E; Sarpis, G; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrina, D; Schael, S; Schellenberg, M; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schmelling, M; Schmelzer, T; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schreiner, H F; Schubiger, M; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Semennikov, A; Sepulveda, E S; Sergi, A; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Siddi, B G; Silva Coutinho, R; Silva de Oliveira, L; Simi, G; Simone, S; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, E; Smith, I T; Smith, J; Smith, M; Soares Lavra, L; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Stefko, P; Stefkova, S; Steinkamp, O; Stemmle, S; Stenyakin, O; Stepanova, M; Stevens, H; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Stramaglia, M E; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Sun, J; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Syropoulos, V; Szumlak, T; Szymanski, M; T'Jampens, S; Tayduganov, A; Tekampe, T; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tilley, M J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Toriello, F; Tourinho Jadallah Aoude, R; Tournefier, E; Traill, M; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Trisovic, A; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tully, A; Tuning, N; Ukleja, A; Usachov, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vacca, C; Vagner, A; Vagnoni, V; Valassi, A; Valat, S; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; van Veghel, M; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Venkateswaran, A; Verlage, T A; Vernet, M; Vesterinen, M; Viana Barbosa, J V; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Viemann, H; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vitti, M; Volkov, V; Vollhardt, A; Voneki, B; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; de Vries, J A; Vázquez Sierra, C; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Wark, H M; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Weiden, A; Weisser, C; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wilkinson, G; Wilkinson, M; Williams, M; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Williams, T; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Winn, M; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wraight, K; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xu, M; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yang, Z; Yao, Y; Yin, H; Yu, J; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zarebski, K A; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zheng, Y; Zhu, X; Zhukov, V; Zonneveld, J B; Zucchelli, S

    2017-12-01

    The decays χ_{c1}→J/ψμ^{+}μ^{-} and χ_{c2}→J/ψμ^{+}μ^{-} are observed and used to study the resonance parameters of the χ_{c1} and χ_{c2} mesons. The masses of these states are measured to be m(χ_{c1})=3510.71±0.04(stat)±0.09(syst)  MeV and m(χ_{c2})=3556.10±0.06(stat)±0.11(syst)  MeV, where the knowledge of the momentum scale for charged particles dominates the systematic uncertainty. The momentum-scale uncertainties largely cancel in the mass difference m(χ_{c2})-m(χ_{c1})=45.39±0.07(stat)±0.03(syst)  MeV. The natural width of the χ_{c2} meson is measured to be Γ(χ_{c2})=2.10±0.20(stat)±0.02(syst)  MeV. These results are in good agreement with and have comparable precision to the current world averages.

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06890-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2 ) CLLX1301.b1_J13.ab1 CLL(XYZ) lettuce saligna Lact... 38 0.056 2 ( CX084866 ) EHABX22TR E. histolytica Normalized cDNA library...4-storage roo... 50 0.071 1 ( CX089593 ) EHAE127TR E. histolytica Normalized cDNA library...09.T7.185889.ab1 non-sporulating culture o... 54 0.005 1 ( EL926280 ) NY4ThAmp1_1...EST2947 Zea mays sperm cell cDNA library Zea mays... 38 0.21 2 ( BG320461 ) Zm03_10d10_A Zm03_AAFC_ECORC_cold_stre... ( AI438501 ) 486006A05.x4 486 - leaf primordia cDNA library fr... 38 0.21 2 ( AI861145 ) 603012G11.x1 603 - stressed root cDNA libra

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12697-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ebrafish DNA sequence from clone BUSM1-21A14 in ... 40 1.7 3 ( AY781284 ) Human rotavirus C strain V460 nons...tructural prote... 46 1.9 1 ( AY781283 ) Human rotavirus C strain V966 nonstructural prote... 46 1.9 1 ( AY770979 ) Human rotavirus... C strain v508 nonstructural prote... 46 1.9 1 ( AJ132205 ) Human rotavirus

  16. Association of prediabetes, defined by fasting glucose, HbA1c only, or combined criteria, with the risk of cardiovascular disease in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong-Kyu; Lee, Jung Bok; Kim, Seon Ha; Jo, Min-Woo; Kim, Eun Hee; Hwang, Jenie Yoonoo; Bae, Sung Jin; Jung, Chang Hee; Lee, Woo Je; Park, Joong-Yeol; Park, Gyung-Min; Kim, Young-Hak; Choe, Jaewon

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the association between cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and prediabetes defined by either fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbA1c, or their combination in a Korean population. In all, 76 434 South Koreans who voluntarily underwent a general health examination in the Health Screening & Promotion Center (Asan Medical Center) were analyzed after excluding patients with a previous history of CVD. Cardiovascular events and death due to CVD during a median follow-up period of 3.1 years (interquartile range 1.9-4.3 years) were identified from the Nationwide Health Insurance Claims Database and death certificates using ICD-10 codes. Age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for overall CVD events were significantly greater for subjects with prediabetes defined by FPG only (HR 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-1.31), HbA1c only (HR 1.28; 95% CI 1.16-1.42), and combined criteria (HR 1.20; 95% CI 1.09-1.32) compared with the normoglycemic group. After adjusting for multiple conventional risk factors (e.g. hypertension, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking status, family history of CVD, and BMI), the HRs for overall CVD were significantly increased only for participants with prediabetes defined by HbA1c. Age- and sex-adjusted HRs for major ischemic heart disease events were significantly increased for subjects with prediabetes defined either by HbA1c or combined criteria. Similarly, age- and sex-adjusted HRs for percutaneous coronary intervention were significantly higher for subjects with prediabetes defined by HbA1c only. For diabetes, the multivariate-adjusted HRs for all outcomes were significantly increased by all three criteria. Adding an HbA1c criterion when defining prediabetes in Koreans can help identify individuals with an increased risk of CVD. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Protective Effect of HLA-B*5701 and HLA-C -35 Genetic Variants in HIV-Positive Caucasians from Northern Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Leszczyszyn-Pynka

    Full Text Available Association of two HLA class I variants with HIV-1 pretreatment viremia, CD4+ T cell count at the care-entry and CD4+ T cell nadir.414 HIV-positive Caucasians (30% women aged 19-73 years were genotyped for HLA-C -35 (rs9264942 and HLA-B*5701 variants. HIV-1 viral load, as well as CD4+ T cell count at care-entry and nadir, were compared across alleles, genotypes and haplotypes.HLA-C -35 C/C genotype was found in 17.6% patients, C/T genotype in 48.1%, and T/T genotype in 34.3% patients. HLA-B*5701 variant was present in 5.8% of studied population. HIV plasma viremia in the group with C allele was significantly lower (p=0.0002 compared to T/T group [mean:4.66 log (SD:1.03 vs. 5.07 (SD:0.85 log HIV-RNA copies/ml, respectively], while CD4+ T cell count at baseline was notably higher among C allele carriers compared to T/T homozygotes [median: 318 (IQR:127-537 cells/μl vs. median: 203 (IQR:55-410 cells/μl, respectively] (p=0.0007. Moreover, CD4+ T cell nadir among patients with C allele [median: 205 (IQR:83.5-390 cells/μl] was significantly higher compared to T/T group [median: 133 (IQR:46-328 cells/μl] (p=0.006. Among cases with HLA-B*5701 allele, significantly lower pretreatment viremia and higher baseline CD4+ T cell count were found (mean: 4.08 [SD: 1.2] vs. mean: 4.84 [SD:0.97] log HIV-RNA copies/ml, p=0.003 and 431 vs. 270 cells/μl, p=0.04, respectively compared to HLA-B*5701 negative individuals. The lowest viremia (mean: 3.85 log [SD:1.3] HIV-RNA copies/ml and the highest baseline and nadir CD4+ T cell [median: 476 (IQR:304-682 vs. median: 361 (IQR: 205-574 cells/μl, respectively were found in individuals with HLA-B*5701(+/HLA-C -35 C/C haplotype.HLA-C -35 C and HLA-B*5701 allele exert a favorable effect on the immunological (higher baseline and nadir CD4+ T cell count and virologic (lower pretreatment HIV viral load variables. This protective effect is additive for the compound HLA-B*5701(+/HLA-C -35 C/C haplotype.

  18. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(8)-1 - Installment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Installment method. 1.381(c)(8)-1 Section 1.381(c)(8)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(8)-1 Installment method. (a) Carryover...

  19. Measurement of HbA1c and HbA2 by Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing HbA1c programme for simultaneous management of diabetes and screening for thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Peifeng; Liu, Jiawei; Chao, Yan; Wu, Xiaobin; Xiong, Yujuan; Lin, Li; Wan, Zemin; Wu, Xinzhong; Xu, Jianhua; Zhuang, Junhua; Huang, Xianzhang

    2017-10-01

    Thalassemia could interfere with some assays for haemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) measurement, therefore, it is useful to be able to screen for thalassemia while measuring HbA 1c . We used Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing (Capillarys 2FP) HbA 1c programme to simultaneously measure HbA 1c and screen for thalassemia. Samples from 498 normal controls and 175 thalassemia patients were analysed by Capillarys 2FP HbA 1c programme (Sebia, France). For method comparison, HbA 1c was quantified by Premier Hb9210 (Trinity Biotech, Ireland) in 98 thalassaemia patients samples. For verification, HbA 1c from eight thalassaemia patients was confirmed by IFCC reference method. Among 98 thalassaemia samples, Capillarys 2FP did not provide an HbA 1c result in three samples with HbH due to the overlapping of HbBart's with HbA 1c fraction; for the remaining 95 thalassaemia samples, Bland-Altman plot showed 0.00 ± 0.35% absolute bias between two systems, and a significant positive bias above 7% was observed only in two HbH samples. The HbA 1c values obtained by Capillarys 2FP were consistent with the IFCC targets (relative bias below ± 6%) in all of the eight samples tested by both methods. For screening samples with alpha (α-) thalassaemia silent/trait or beta (β-) thalassemia trait, the optimal HbA 2 cut-off values were ≤ 2.2% and > 2.8%, respectively. Our results demonstrated the Capillarys 2FP HbA 1c system could report an accurate HbA 1c value in thalassemia silent/trait, and HbA 2 value (≤ 2.2% for α-thalassaemia silent/trait and > 2.8% for β-thalassemia trait) and abnormal bands (HbH and/or HbBart's for HbH disease, HbF for β-thalassemia) may provide valuable information for screening.

  20. Median of patient results as a tool for assessment of analytical stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Lars Mønster; Hansen, Steen Ingemann; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Sölétormos, György

    2015-06-15

    In spite of the well-established external quality assessment and proficiency testing surveys of analytical quality performance in laboratory medicine, a simple tool to monitor the long-term analytical stability as a supplement to the internal control procedures is often needed. Patient data from daily internal control schemes was used for monthly appraisal of the analytical stability. This was accomplished by using the monthly medians of patient results to disclose deviations from analytical stability, and by comparing divergences with the quality specifications for allowable analytical bias based on biological variation. Seventy five percent of the twenty analytes achieved on two COBASs INTEGRA 800 instruments performed in accordance with the optimum and with the desirable specifications for bias. Patient results applied in analytical quality performance control procedures are the most reliable sources of material as they represent the genuine substance of the measurements and therefore circumvent the problems associated with non-commutable materials in external assessment. Patient medians in the monthly monitoring of analytical stability in laboratory medicine are an inexpensive, simple and reliable tool to monitor the steadiness of the analytical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05079-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ideum chromosome 2 map 4559693... 30 1.6 8 ( FG289956 ) 1108793312383 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C...... 32 1.7 3 ( FG282923 ) 1108383360957 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 32 1....... 36 1.7 7 ( FG290085 ) 1108793314272 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 32...osum chromosome 5 clone RH044A21, **... 40 1.7 6 ( FG288205 ) 1108793264454 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 EST...00 com... 46 1.8 1 ( FG291788 ) 1108793372449 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 32 1.8 3 ( FG295040 ) 1108770722162 New World

  2. Unilateral extended suboccipital approach for a C1 dumbbell schwanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgan R.M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Craniovertebral junction tumors represent a complex pathology carrying a high risk of injuring the vertebral artery and the lower cranial nerves. Dumbbell C1- C2 schannomas are very rare tumors in this location. We present a case of a 66 years old male accepted for left laterocervical localized pain, headache and vertigo, with a large C1 dumbbell schwannoma extending in lateral over the C1 arch and displacing the C3 segment of the vertebral artery superiorly and anteriorly. Complete removal of the tumor was achieved using a far lateral approach. The approach is discussed with focus on the vertebral artery anatomy as the approach should give enough space to gain control of the artery without creating instability. Safe removal of C1 nerve root schwanomas can be achieved even if they compress and displace the vertebral artery by entering a fibrous tissue plane between the tumor and the vertebral artery.

  3. Low mother-to-child-transmission rate of Hepatitis C virus in cART treated HIV-1 infected mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijdewind, I J M; Smit, C; Schutten, M; Nellen, F J B; Kroon, F P; Reiss, P; van der Ende, M E

    2015-07-01

    Maternal transmission is the most common cause of HCV infection in children. HIV co-infection and high levels of plasma HCV-RNA have been associated with increased HCV transmission rates. We assessed the vertical HCV transmission rate in the HIV-HCV co-infected group of pregnant women on cART. We conducted a retrospective study in a Dutch cohort of HIV-positive pregnant women and their children. We identified co-infected mothers. Results of the HCV tests of the children were obtained. All 21 women were on cART at the time of delivery. We analyzed data of the 24 live-born children at risk for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HCV between 1996 and 2009. HIV-RNA was cell count was 419 cells/μl (290-768). There was no transmission of HIV. The median plasma HCV-RNA in our cohort of 23 non-transmitting deliveries in 21 women was 3.5×10E5 viral eq/ml (IQR 9.6×104-1.5×106veq/mL). One of 24 live-born children was found to be infected with HCV genotype 1. At the time of delivery the maternal plasma HIV-RNA was cell count was 160 cells/μl and maternal plasma HCV-RNA was 4.6×10E6 veq/ml. This amounted to a prevalence of HCV-MTCT of 4%. In this well-defined cohort of HIV-HCV co-infected pregnant women, all treated with cART during pregnancy, a modest rate of vertical HCV transmission was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Interaction of C1q and mannan-binding lectin (MBL) with C1r, C1s, MBL-associated serine proteases 1 and 2, and the MBL-associated protein MAp19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiel, S; Petersen, Steen Vang; Vorup-Jensen, T

    2000-01-01

    . There is controversy as to whether MBL can utilize C1r and C1s or, inversely, whether C1q can utilize MASP-1 and 2. Serum deficient in C1r produced no complement activation in IgG-coated microwells, whereas activation was seen in mannan-coated microwells. In serum, C1r and C1s were found to be associated only with C1q...

  5. Ciliated Median Raphe Cyst of Perineum Presenting as Perianal Polyp: A Case Report with Immunohistochemical Study, Review of Literature, and Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayesh Sagar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Median raphe cyst is a very rare, benign congenital lesion occurring mainly on the ventral aspect of the penis, but can develop anywhere in the midline between the external urethral meatus and anus. We report a case of median raphe cyst in the perineum presenting as a perianal polyp in a 65-year-old, English white male with exceptionally rare ciliated epithelium. According to our knowledge, this is the third such case of ciliated median raphe cyst in the English literature. This case, also the first case of ciliated median raphe cyst in the perineum location, focuses on pathogenesis of median raphe cyst.

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04547-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XABT132097.b1 Gateway compatible cien cDNA librar... 46 1.5 1 ( FG287351 ) 1108770738534 New World Screwworm... Egg 9261 ESTs C... 46 1.5 1 ( FG282842 ) 1108383360865 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 46 1.5 1 ( FF..... 44 5.8 1 ( BB930387 ) Trifolium pratense cDNA clone:RCC02026. 44 5.8 1 ( FG296422 ) 1108793252569 New World... Screwworm Larvae 9387 EST... 44 5.8 1 ( FG284529 ) 1108770671713 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 4

  7. Area Median Income and Metropolitan Versus Nonmetropolitan Location of Care for Acute Coronary Syndromes: A Complex Interaction of Social Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabreau, Gabriel E; Leung, Alexander A; Southern, Danielle A; James, Matthew T; Knudtson, Merrill L; Ghali, William A; Ayanian, John Z

    2016-02-23

    Metropolitan versus nonmetropolitan status and area median income may independently affect care for and outcomes of acute coronary syndromes. We sought to determine whether location of care modifies the association among area income, receipt of cardiac catheterization, and mortality following an acute coronary syndrome in a universal health care system. We studied a cohort of 14 012 acute coronary syndrome patients admitted to cardiology services between April 18, 2004, and December 31, 2011, in southern Alberta, Canada. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine the odds of cardiac catheterization within 1 day and 7 days of admission and the odds of 30-day and 1-year mortality according to area median household income quintile for patients presenting at metropolitan and nonmetropolitan hospitals. In models adjusting for area income, patients who presented at nonmetropolitan facilities had lower adjusted odds of receiving cardiac catheterization within 1 day of admission (odds ratio 0.22, 95% CI 0.11-0.46, Pcommunities. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  8. Median regression spline modeling of longitudinal FEV1 measurements in cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Douglas J; Bailey, Barbara A; Hardie, Jon A; Bakke, Per S; Eagan, Tomas M L; Aarli, Bernt B

    2017-01-01

    Clinical phenotyping, therapeutic investigations as well as genomic, airway secretion metabolomic and metagenomic investigations can benefit from robust, nonlinear modeling of FEV1 in individual subjects. We demonstrate the utility of measuring FEV1 dynamics in representative cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) populations. Individual FEV1 data from CF and COPD subjects were modeled by estimating median regression splines and their predicted first and second derivatives. Classes were created from variables that capture the dynamics of these curves in both cohorts. Nine FEV1 dynamic variables were identified from the splines and their predicted derivatives in individuals with CF (n = 177) and COPD (n = 374). Three FEV1 dynamic classes (i.e. stable, intermediate and hypervariable) were generated and described using these variables from both cohorts. In the CF cohort, the FEV1 hypervariable class (HV) was associated with a clinically unstable, female-dominated phenotypes while stable FEV1 class (S) individuals were highly associated with the male-dominated milder clinical phenotype. In the COPD cohort, associations were found between the FEV1 dynamic classes, the COPD GOLD grades, with exacerbation frequency and symptoms. Nonlinear modeling of FEV1 with splines provides new insights and is useful in characterizing CF and COPD clinical phenotypes.

  9. SAS-1 Is a C2 Domain Protein Critical for Centriole Integrity in C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delattre, Marie; Balestra, Fernando R.; Blanchoud, Simon; Finger, Susanne; Knott, Graham; Müller-Reichert, Thomas; Gönczy, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Centrioles are microtubule-based organelles important for the formation of cilia, flagella and centrosomes. Despite progress in understanding the underlying assembly mechanisms, how centriole integrity is ensured is incompletely understood, including in sperm cells, where such integrity is particularly critical. We identified C. elegans sas-1 in a genetic screen as a locus required for bipolar spindle assembly in the early embryo. Our analysis reveals that sperm-derived sas-1 mutant centrioles lose their integrity shortly after fertilization, and that a related defect occurs when maternal sas-1 function is lacking. We establish that sas-1 encodes a C2 domain containing protein that localizes to centrioles in C. elegans, and which can bind and stabilize microtubules when expressed in human cells. Moreover, we uncover that SAS-1 is related to C2CD3, a protein required for complete centriole formation in human cells and affected in a type of oral-facial-digital (OFD) syndrome. PMID:25412110

  10. SAS-1 is a C2 domain protein critical for centriole integrity in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas von Tobel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Centrioles are microtubule-based organelles important for the formation of cilia, flagella and centrosomes. Despite progress in understanding the underlying assembly mechanisms, how centriole integrity is ensured is incompletely understood, including in sperm cells, where such integrity is particularly critical. We identified C. elegans sas-1 in a genetic screen as a locus required for bipolar spindle assembly in the early embryo. Our analysis reveals that sperm-derived sas-1 mutant centrioles lose their integrity shortly after fertilization, and that a related defect occurs when maternal sas-1 function is lacking. We establish that sas-1 encodes a C2 domain containing protein that localizes to centrioles in C. elegans, and which can bind and stabilize microtubules when expressed in human cells. Moreover, we uncover that SAS-1 is related to C2CD3, a protein required for complete centriole formation in human cells and affected in a type of oral-facial-digital (OFD syndrome.

  11. Differential climate impacts for policy-relevant limits to global warming: the case of 1.5 °C and 2 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Lissner, Tabea K.; Fischer, Erich M.; Wohland, Jan; Perrette, Mahé; Golly, Antonius; Rogelj, Joeri; Childers, Katelin; Schewe, Jacob; Frieler, Katja; Mengel, Matthias; Hare, William; Schaeffer, Michiel

    2016-04-01

    Robust appraisals of climate impacts at different levels of global-mean temperature increase are vital to guide assessments of dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. The 2015 Paris Agreement includes a two-headed temperature goal: "holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C". Despite the prominence of these two temperature limits, a comprehensive overview of the differences in climate impacts at these levels is still missing. Here we provide an assessment of key impacts of climate change at warming levels of 1.5 °C and 2 °C, including extreme weather events, water availability, agricultural yields, sea-level rise and risk of coral reef loss. Our results reveal substantial differences in impacts between a 1.5 °C and 2 °C warming that are highly relevant for the assessment of dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. For heat-related extremes, the additional 0.5 °C increase in global-mean temperature marks the difference between events at the upper limit of present-day natural variability and a new climate regime, particularly in tropical regions. Similarly, this warming difference is likely to be decisive for the future of tropical coral reefs. In a scenario with an end-of-century warming of 2 °C, virtually all tropical coral reefs are projected to be at risk of severe degradation due to temperature-induced bleaching from 2050 onwards. This fraction is reduced to about 90 % in 2050 and projected to decline to 70 % by 2100 for a 1.5 °C scenario. Analyses of precipitation-related impacts reveal distinct regional differences and hot-spots of change emerge. Regional reduction in median water availability for the Mediterranean is found to nearly double from 9 % to 17 % between 1.5 °C and 2 °C, and the projected lengthening of regional dry spells increases from 7 to 11 %. Projections for

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01505-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available y1 Gm-c1004 Glycine max cDNA clone GENOME... 32 3.7 2 ( DV211690 ) 0089P0160Z_H09_T7 Mimulus guttatus library 2 Mimu...38TG Tetrahymena thermophila EST library str... 38 2.5 2 ( AC177658 ) Strongylocentrotus purpuratus clone R3...6 1.4 1 ( BG041778 ) saa41a04.y1 Gm-c1059 Glycine soja cDNA clone GENO... 46 1.4 1 ( BF645094 ) NF034E10EC1F1082 Elicited cell cultur...e Medicago t... 46 1.4 1 ( BF644741 ) NF014E01EC1F1005 Elicited cell culture Medica...a oleracea var. alboglabra EST, clone AAF... 44 5.4 1 ( CN828044 ) EL2662R Brassica embryo library (EL) Brassic

  13. Gender-partitioned patient medians of serum albumin requested by general practitioners for the assessment of analytical stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steen Ingemann; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Lund, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, the use of separate gender-partitioned patient medians of serum sodium has revealed potential for monitoring analytical stability within the optimum analytical performance specifications for laboratory medicine. The serum albumin concentration depends on whether a patient...... patients were closely related despite considerable variation due to the current analytical variation. This relationship was confirmed by the calculated half-range for the monthly ratio between the genders of 0.44%, which surpasses the optimum analytical performance specification for bias of serum albumin...... (0.72%). The weekly ratio had a half-range of 1.83%, which surpasses the minimum analytical performance specifications of 2.15%. CONCLUSIONS: Monthly gender-partitioned patient medians of serum albumin are useful for monitoring of long-term analytical stability, where the gender medians are two...

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04925-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available RT0512 Chinese cabbage root library Brassica rapa... 46 2.3 1 ( CT736909 ) Danio rerio EST, clone ZF_mu...S30TF EI_10_12_KB Entamoeba invadens genomic ... 44 8.9 1 ( ES277776 ) PQ028A01.XT7 non-sporulating culture ...202 ) 1095462295981 Global-Ocean-Sampling_GS-31-01-01-1... 48 0.57 1 ( CV871352 ) PDUts1090D04 Porcine testis cDNA library...clone:VS... 46 2.3 1 ( CX056831 ) PDUts2007A02 Porcine testis cDNA library II Sus s... 46 2.3 1 ( CV432331 )...a tectiformis cDNA, cleaving embryo clone:m... 40 5.1 2 ( CV874903 ) PDUts1132F08 Porcine testis cDNA library

  15. Separate patient serum sodium medians from males and females provide independent information on analytical bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Steen Ingemann; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Lund, Flemming; Fraser, Callum G; Sölétormos, György

    2017-10-26

    During monitoring of monthly medians of results from patients undertaken to assess analytical stability in routine laboratory performance, the medians for serum sodium for male and female patients were found to be significantly related. Daily, weekly and monthly patient medians of serum sodium for both male and female patients were calculated from results obtained on samples from the population >18 years on three analysers in the hospital laboratory. The half-range of medians was applied as an estimate of the maximum bias. Further, the ratios between the two medians were calculated. The medians of both genders demonstrated dispersions over time, but they were closely connected in like patterns, which were confirmed by the half-range of the ratios of medians for males and females that varied from 0.36% for daily, 0.14% for weekly and 0.036% for monthly ratios over all instruments. The tight relationship between the gender medians for serum sodium is only possible when raw laboratory data are used for calculation. The two patient medians can be used to confirm both and are useful as independent estimates of analytical bias during constant calibration periods. In contrast to the gender combined median, the estimate of analytical bias can be confirmed further by calculation of the ratios of medians for males and females.

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U02054-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0.080 1 ( DT656898 ) pgr1n.UA001.227 Normalized chicken reproductive t... 50 0.080 1 ( AJ454996 ) Gallus gallus EST, clone library...90810 XtSt10-30 Xenopus (Silurana) t... 36 0.17 2 ( DV037739 ) BRS3230 storage root cDNA library Ipomoea bat..... 44 4.9 1 ( BM959958 ) cihA1L9S Ascidian hemocytes cDNA library Ciona in... 44 4.9 1 ( BM230365 ) K0294C12-3 NIA Mouse Unferti...... 36 0.010 3 ( EY189411 ) LLAE1039S Spider Loxosceles laeta cDNA library Lo... ... riken1, clone 4e... 50 0.080 1 ( AJ453299 ) Gallus gallus EST, clone library riken1,

  17. Educational system, income inequality and growth: the median voter's decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joilson Dias

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available I analyze a long run educational policy as a mechanism to close the income gap among low, median and high-income families. If the choice is made endogenous by the use of the median voter theorem, the results are as follow: i public education system guarantees income convergence, however the income growth rate of the median voter is smaller; ii the combination public and private (hybrid educational system allows faster income growth rate, but income inequality is almost the natural outcome. The ending result is that the combination public and private system will prevail, since the income growth rate of the median voter is higher in this system. This might explain the persistence and differences of income inequality among the economies.O objetivo deste artigo é analisar a utilização da política educacional no longo prazo como mecanismo para a redução da desigualdade de renda entre famílias de renda baixa, mediana e alta. Se a decisão sobre a política for endogeneizada, de acordo com o teorema do eleitor mediano, os resultados são os seguintes: i o sistema educacional público para todos, apesar de garantir convergência de renda, produz uma menor taxa de crescimento da renda do eleitor mediano; ii a combinação público-privado (sistema educacional híbrido permite uma maior taxa de crescimento da renda do eleitor mediano, no entanto a desigualdade de renda é inerente a este sistema. Como resultado final, o eleitor mediano irá escolher o sistema público-privado, pois o crescimento da sua renda é maior, o que pode explicar a persistência e as diferenças na desigualdade de renda das economias.

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05261-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DN828913 ) KUCD01_04_F02_T3 WSWR cDNA library Triticum aesti... 48 0.49 1 ( DB872994 ) Lipochromis sp. 'matu...berosum cDNA, ... 50 0.13 1 ( CK261371 ) EST707449 potato abiotic stress cDNA library Sola... 50 0.13 1 ( BQ...pergillus niger mRNA for hypothetical protein, ... 44 7.7 1 ( AL111181 ) Botrytis cinerea strain T4 cDNA library...) Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis strain JAM059 vari... 48 0.49 1 ( AL112706 ) Botrytis cinerea strain T4 cDNA library...3 ) GH_MBb0070I15f GH_MBb Gossypium hirsutum genomic ... 48 0.49 1 ( AL424547 ) T3 end of clone XAZ0AA001A10 of library

  19. The Long and Winding Road to Optimal HbA1c Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Randie R.; Rohlfing, Curt

    2016-01-01

    The importance of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) as an indicator of mean glycemia and risks for complications in patients with diabetes mellitus was established by the results of long-term clinical trials, most notably the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) and United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS), published in 1993 and 1998 respectively. However, clinical application of recommended HbA1c targets that were based on these studies was difficult due to lack of comparability of HbA1c results among assay methods and laboratories. Thus, the National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program (NGSP) was initiated in 1996 with the goal of standardizing HbA1c results to those of the DCCT/UKPDS. HbA1c standardization efforts have been highly successful; however, a number of issues have emerged on the “long and winding road” to better HbA1c, including the development of a higher-order HbA1c reference method by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC), recommendations to use HbA1c to diagnose as well as monitor diabetes, and point-of-care (POC) HbA1c testing. Here, we review the past, present and future of HbA1c standardization and describe the current status of HbA1c testing, including limitations that healthcare providers need to be aware of when interpreting HbA1c results. PMID:23318564

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14319-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ium discoideum cDNA clone:dda24i16, 3' ... 299 2e-77 1 ( DR934252 ) EST1125791 Aquilegia cDNA library Aquile...1.5 1 ( EB527188 ) 301633 Pigtailed macaque ovary library Macaca nem... 44 1.5 1 ( DY755095 ) 177840 Pigtailed macaque ovary library... Macaca nem... 44 1.5 1 ( DY753779 ) 179483 Pigtailed macaque ovary library Macaca n... anubis cDN... 44 1.5 1 ( EY285509 ) 1106514291549 03BABOON-C-01-1-3KB Papio anubis cD... 44 1.5 1 ( EU795295 ) Unculture...ve search space used: 26623730980 Neighboring words threshold: 12 Window for multiple hits: 40

  1. Synergistic activity profile of griffithsin in combination with tenofovir, maraviroc and enfuvirtide against HIV-1 clade C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferir, Geoffrey; Palmer, Kenneth E.; Schols, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Griffithsin (GRFT) is possibly the most potent anti-HIV peptide found in natural sources. Due to its potent and broad-spectrum antiviral activity and unique safety profile it has great potential as topical microbicide component. Here, we evaluated various combinations of GRFT against HIV-1 clade B and clade C isolates in primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and in CD4 + MT-4 cells. In all combinations tested, GRFT showed synergistic activity profile with tenofovir, maraviroc and enfuvirtide based on the median effect principle with combination indices (CI) varying between 0.34 and 0.79 at the calculated EC 95 level. Furthermore, the different glycosylation patterns on the viral envelope of clade B and clade C gp120 had no observable effect on the synergistic interactions. Overall, we can conclude that the evaluated two-drug combination increases their antiviral potency and supports further clinical investigations in pre-exposure prophylaxis for GRFT combinations in the context of HIV-1 clade C infection.

  2. Impact of keyboard typing on the morphological changes of the median nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeap Loh, Ping; Liang Yeoh, Wen; Nakashima, Hiroki; Muraki, Satoshi

    2017-09-28

    The primary objective was to investigate the effects of continuous typing on median nerve changes at the carpal tunnel region at two different keyboard slopes (0° and 20°). The secondary objective was to investigate the differences in wrist kinematics and the changes in wrist anthropometric measurements when typing at the two different keyboard slopes. Fifteen healthy right-handed young men were recruited. A randomized sequence of the conditions (control, typing I, and typing II) was assigned to each participant. Wrist anthropometric measurements, wrist kinematics data collection and ultrasound examination to the median nerve was performed at designated time block. Typing activity and time block do not cause significant changes to the wrist anthropometric measurements. The wrist measurements remained similar across all the time blocks in the three conditions. Subsequently, the wrist extensions and ulnar deviations were significantly higher in both the typing I and typing II conditions than in the control condition for both wrists (ptyping I and typing II conditions after the typing task than before the typing task. The MNCSA significantly decreased in the recovery phase after the typing task. This study demonstrated the immediate changes in the median nerve after continuous keyboard typing. Changes in the median nerve were greater during typing using a keyboard tilted at 20° than during typing using a keyboard tilted at 0°. The main findings suggest wrist posture near to neutral position caused lower changes of the median nerve.

  3. Cystatin C is not a good candidate biomarker for HNF1A-MODY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Natalia; Szopa, Magdalena; Thanabalasingham, Gaya; McDonald, Tim J; Colclough, Kevin; Skupien, Jan; James, Timothy J; Kiec-Wilk, Beata; Kozek, Elzbieta; Mlynarski, Wojciech; Hattersley, Andrew T; Owen, Katharine R; Malecki, Maciej T

    2013-10-01

    Cystatin C is a marker of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Its level is influenced, among the others, by CRP whose concentration is decreased in HNF1A-MODY. We hypothesized that cystatin C level might be altered in HNF1A-MODY. We aimed to evaluate cystatin C in HNF1A-MODY both as a diagnostic marker and as a method of assessing GFR. We initially examined 51 HNF1A-MODY patients, 56 subjects with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), 39 with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and 43 non-diabetic individuals (ND) from Poland. Subjects from two UK centres were used as replication panels: including 215 HNF1A-MODY, 203 T2DM, 39 HNF4A-MODY, 170 GCK-MODY, 17 HNF1B-MODY and 58 T1DM patients. The data were analysed with additive models, adjusting for gender, age, BMI and estimated GFR (creatinine). In the Polish subjects, adjusted cystatin C level in HNF1A-MODY was lower compared with T1DM, T2DM and ND (p MODY, while the two GFR estimates were similar or cystatin C-based lower in the other groups. In the UK subjects, there were no differences in cystatin C between HNF1A-MODY and the other diabetic subgroups, except HNF1B-MODY. In UK HNF1A-MODY, cystatin C-based GFR estimate was higher than the creatinine-based one (p MODY. In HNF1A-MODY, the cystatin C-based GFR estimate is higher than the creatinine-based one.

  4. Separate patient serum sodium medians from males and females provide independent information on analytical bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steen Ingemann; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Lund, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During monitoring of monthly medians of results from patients undertaken to assess analytical stability in routine laboratory performance, the medians for serum sodium for male and female patients were found to be significantly related. METHODS: Daily, weekly and monthly patient medians...... all instruments. CONCLUSIONS: The tight relationship between the gender medians for serum sodium is only possible when raw laboratory data are used for calculation. The two patient medians can be used to confirm both and are useful as independent estimates of analytical bias during constant...... calibration periods. In contrast to the gender combined median, the estimate of analytical bias can be confirmed further by calculation of the ratios of medians for males and females....

  5. Effects of α-Thalassemia on HbA1c Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Anping; Ji, Ling; Chen, Weidong; Xia, Yong; Zhou, Yu

    2016-11-01

    α-Thalassemia is a benign condition that is often present in patients with diabetes mellitus. Here, we evaluated the effects of different genotypes α-thalassemia on HbA 1c measurement. A total of 189 samples from nondiabetic patients were analyzed. HbA 1c analysis was performed by ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography, boronate affinity HPLC, immunoassay, and capillary electrophoresis. Fasting glucose, fructosamin, and HbA 2 were also performed. All samples were confirmed by genotyping for thalassemia. In patients with two or three functional α-genes, HbA 1c values were not significantly different from those of controls (P > 0.05); however, in individuals with α-thalassemia with one functional α-gene (i.e., HbH disease), HbA 1c levels were significantly different from those of controls (P 0.05). In this study, HbA 1c values in samples from individuals with two or three functional α-genes basically reflected the normal mean blood glucose level, while those in samples from individuals with one functional α-gene did not. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Modelling incremental benefits on complications rates when targeting lower HbA1c levels in people with Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, S A; Coleman, R L; Agbaje, O F; Gray, A M; Holman, R R; Bethel, M A

    2018-01-01

    Glucose-lowering interventions in Type 2 diabetes mellitus have demonstrated reductions in microvascular complications and modest reductions in macrovascular complications. However, the degree to which targeting different HbA 1c reductions might reduce risk is unclear. Participant-level data for Trial Evaluating Cardiovascular Outcomes with Sitagliptin (TECOS) participants with established cardiovascular disease were used in a Type 2 diabetes-specific simulation model to quantify the likely impact of different HbA 1c decrements on complication rates. Ten-year micro- and macrovascular rates were estimated with HbA 1c levels fixed at 86, 75, 64, 53 and 42 mmol/mol (10%, 9%, 8%, 7% and 6%) while holding other risk factors constant at their baseline levels. Cumulative relative risk reductions for each outcome were derived for each HbA 1c decrement. Of 5717 participants studied, 72.0% were men and 74.2% White European, with a mean (sd) age of 66.2 (7.9) years, systolic blood pressure 134 (16.9) mmHg, LDL-cholesterol 2.3 (0.9) mmol/l, HDL-cholesterol 1.13 (0.3) mmol/l and median Type 2 diabetes duration 9.6 (5.1-15.6) years. Ten-year cumulative relative risk reductions for modelled HbA 1c values of 75, 64, 53 and 42 mmol/mol, relative to 86 mmol/mol, were 4.6%, 9.3%, 15.1% and 20.2% for myocardial infarction; 6.0%, 12.8%, 19.6% and 25.8% for stroke; 14.4%, 26.6%, 37.1% and 46.4% for diabetes-related ulcer; 21.5%, 39.0%, 52.3% and 63.1% for amputation; and 13.6%, 25.4%, 36.0% and 44.7 for single-eye blindness. These simulated complication rates might help inform the degree to which complications might be reduced by targeting particular HbA 1c reductions in Type 2 diabetes. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03890-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Mouse 10kb plasmid UUGC1M library Mus ... 42 1.9 2 ( CJ499454 ) Triticum aestivum cDNA clone whfl33j15 5', ...8 1 ( CC656540 ) OGWEY73TH ZM_0.7_1.5_KB Zea mays genomic clone ZM... 46 2.8 1 ( DW710040 ) EST033521 Trichophyton rubrum cDNA librar...y 8 Tric... 46 2.8 1 ( DW703138 ) EST026619 Trichophyton rubrum cDNA library... 7 Tric... 46 2.8 1 ( DW697470 ) EST020951 Trichophyton rubrum cDNA library 6 Tric... 46... 2.8 1 ( DW697281 ) EST020762 Trichophyton rubrum cDNA library 6 Tric... 46 2.8 1 ( DW691333 ) EST014814 Trichophyton rubrum cDNA lib

  8. 26 CFR 1.1402(c)-1 - Trade or business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade or business. 1.1402(c)-1 Section 1.1402(c... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(c)-1 Trade or business. In order for an individual to have net earnings from self-employment, he must carry on a trade or business, either as an...

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13418-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cDNA 5', m... 44 1.5 1 ( EU795096 ) Uncultured bacterium ARCTIC31_H_08 genomic sequence. 44 1.5 1 ( CT57298...ited... 44 1.5 1 ( CF450667 ) EST687012 normalized cDNA library of onion Allium... 44 ...1.5 1 ( CF446303 ) EST682648 normalized cDNA library of onion Allium... 44 1.5 1 ( CF442290 ) EST678635 normalized cDNA library... of onion Allium... 44 1.5 1 ( CF441532 ) EST677877 normalized cDNA library..... 46 0.38 1 ( FH288047 ) CHO_OF4201xl16r1.ab1 CHO_OF4 Nicotiana tabacum ge... 46 0.38 1 ( DX581105 ) SBA003_M05.f Sugar beet BAC lib

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15640-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -15 3 ( EX266810 ) 1447411_5_I01_007 PY06 Carica papaya cDNA, mRNA s... 86 4e-15 3 ( EX123475 ) BR107305 mature green leaf cDNA libra....2 1 ( CN487418 ) EST2064 Puccinellia tenuiflora cDNA library Pucci... 48 1.2 1 ( CJ870341 ) Triticu...m cDNA, RIKEN fu... 44 2.2 2 ( CB283146 ) BT1417 Blomia tropicalis cDNA library Blomia trop... 40 2.4 2 ( AB174436 ) Macaca fascicul...malized ... 62 1e-08 2 ( CK265529 ) EST711607 potato abiotic stress cDNA library Sola... 62 1e-08 2 ( DV6022...45C09.g Maize Endosperm cDNA Library Zea ... 56 2e-07 4 ( CK259915 ) EST705993 potato abiotic stress cDNA library

  11. Use of Fructosyl Peptide Oxidase for HbA1c Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonehara, Satoshi; Inamura, Norio; Fukuda, Miho; Sugiyama, Koji

    2015-01-01

    ARKRAY, Inc developed the world’s first automatic glycohemoglobin analyzer based on HPLC (1981). After that, ARKRAY developed enzymatic HbA1c assay “CinQ HbA1c” with the spread and diversification of HbA1c measurement (2007). CinQ HbA1c is the kit of Clinical Chemistry Analyzer, which uses fructosyl peptide oxidase (FPOX) for a measurement reaction. This report mainly indicates the developmental background, measurement principle, and future of the enzymatic method HbA1c reagent. PMID:25633966

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03814-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available G289388 ) 1108793297216 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 48 0.73 1 ( FG288537 ) 1108793272303 New World... Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 48 0.73 1 ( FG286738 ) 1108770726045 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 4...8 0.73 1 ( FG286433 ) 1108770714983 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 48 0.73 1 ( FG285121 ) 1108770693863 New World... Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 48 0.73 1 ( FG284171 ) 1108770658410 New World

  13. Magnetic and structural properties of L1{sub 1} type CoPt-C ordered alloy perpendicular films as a function of C content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimatsu, T; Kataoka, H; Aoi, H [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan); Sato, H; Okamoto, S; Kitakami, O, E-mail: shimatsu@riec.tohoku.ac.j [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan)

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic and structural properties of L1{sub 1} type (Co{sub 0.5}Pt{sub 0.5}){sub 100-X}-C{sub X} ordered alloy perpendicular films, fabricated on 2.5 inch size glass disks by sputter deposition, were examined as a function of C content, X. L1{sub 1} type Co{sub 0.5}Pt{sub 0.5}-C polycrystalline films (10 nm thickness), with <111> axis (the easy axis) perpendicular to the film plane, were successfully fabricated even for a 30 vol% C content. Structural analysis indicated the segregation of C to the grain boundaries. Uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, K{sub u}, of Co{sub 0.5}Pt{sub 0.5} films without C addition was relatively low, about 1.5x10{sup 7} erg/cm{sup 3} under the present deposition conditions. However, the addition of 5 vol.% C to Co-Pt films enhanced the ordering, resulting in an increase in K{sub u} to around 2.5 x10{sup 7} erg/cm{sup 3}. A further increase in C content reduced K{sub u}; however, K{sub u} maintained a relatively large value of about 1.8x10{sup 7} erg/cm{sup 3} even for a 20vol% C content, without degrading the easy axis orientation perpendicular to the film plane. Experimental results demonstrated the potential of the L1{sub 1} type Co{sub 0.5}Pt{sub 0.5}-C films for use in granular media applications, due to their very high K{sub u}, the relatively low fabrication temperature, and good controllability of the grain orientation.

  14. Endocrine and anatomical findings in a case of Solitary Median Maxillary Central Incisor Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szakszon, Katalin; Felszeghy, Enikő; Csízy, István; Józsa, Tamás; Káposzta, Rita; Balogh, Erzsébet; Oláh, Eva; Balogh, István; Berényi, Ervin; Knegt, Alida C.; Ilyés, István

    2012-01-01

    Solitary Median Maxillary Central Incisor Syndrome (SMMCI) is a rare malformation syndrome consisting of multiple, mainly midline defects. Some authors suggest that it is a mild manifestation of the wide spectrum of holoprosencephaly, others classify it rather as a distinct entity. Authors report a

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01201-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DT573931 ) EST1084571 GH_TMO Gossypium hirsutum cDNA, mRNA s... 46 2.3 1 ( DR026249 ) Osmo00116 F. cylindrus osmotic stress library...67 ) Glycine max cDNA clone: GMFL01-28-N10, 3'end. 44 9.0 1 ( BU869818 ) Q004H08 Populus flower cDNA library Populus tric...Lib... 46 2.3 1 ( DU120744 ) KBrH113B12F Brassica rapa BAC library KBrH Brassi......... 46 2.3 1 ( CB285041 ) DF1898 Dermatophagoides farinae cDNA library Derm... 46 2.3 1 ( C25513 ) Dic...rary Ictalurus... 44 9.0 1 ( CF230535 ) PtaC0009E5E0509 Poplar cDNA library from ca

  16. PERBANDINGAN TRANSFORMASI BOX-COX DAN REGRESI KUANTIL MEDIAN DALAM MENGATASI HETEROSKEDASTISITAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NI WAYAN YUNI CAHYANI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ordinary least square (OLS is a method that can be used to estimate the parameter in linear regression analysis. There are some assumption which should be satisfied on OLS, one of this assumption is homoscedasticity, that is the variance of error is constant. If variance of the error is unequal that so-called heteroscedasticity. The presence heteroscedasticity can cause estimation with OLS becomes inefficient. Therefore, heteroscedasticity shall be overcome. There are some method that can used to overcome heteroscedasticity, two among those are Box-Cox power transformation and median quantile regression. This research compared Box-Cox power transformation and median quantile regression to overcome heteroscedasticity. Applied Box-Cox power transformation on OLS result ????2point are greater, smaller RMSE point and confidencen interval more narrow, therefore can be concluded that applied of Box-Cox power transformation on OLS better of median quantile regression to overcome heteroscedasticity.

  17. PERBANDINGAN TRANSFORMASI BOX-COX DAN REGRESI KUANTIL MEDIAN DALAM MENGATASI HETEROSKEDASTISITAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NI WAYAN YUNI CAHYANI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ordinary least square (OLS is a method that can be used to estimate the parameter in linear regression analysis. There are some assumption which should be satisfied on OLS, one of this assumption is homoscedasticity, that is the variance of error is constant. If variance of the error is unequal that so-called heteroscedasticity. The presence heteroscedasticity can cause estimation with OLS becomes inefficient. Therefore, heteroscedasticity shall be overcome. There are some method that can used to overcome heteroscedasticity, two among those are Box-Cox power transformation and median quantile regression. This research compared Box-Cox power transformation and median quantile regression to overcome heteroscedasticity. Applied Box-Cox power transformation on OLS result ????2point are greater, smaller RMSE point and confidencen interval more narrow, therefore can be concluded that applied of Box-Cox power transformation on OLS better of median quantile regression to overcome heteroscedasticity.

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06251-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ary KHOS Bras... 44 6.6 1 ( EX125160 ) BR108990 mature green leaf cDNA library KHLM... Bras... 44 6.6 1 ( EX125065 ) BR108895 mature green leaf cDNA library KHLM Bras...... 44 6.6 1 ( EX124775 ) BR108605 mature green leaf cDNA library KHLM Bras... 44 6.6 1 ( EX124282 ) BR108112 mature gre...en leaf cDNA library KHLM Bras... 44 6.6 1 ( EX124178 ) BR108008 mature green leaf cDNA library K...HLM Bras... 44 6.6 1 ( EX124044 ) BR107874 mature green leaf cDNA library KHLM Br

  19. C1q protein binds to the apoptotic nucleolus and causes C1 protease degradation of nucleolar proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yitian; Teo, Boon Heng Dennis; Yeo, Joo Guan; Lu, Jinhua

    2015-09-11

    In infection, complement C1q recognizes pathogen-congregated antibodies and elicits complement activation. Among endogenous ligands, C1q binds to DNA and apoptotic cells, but whether C1q binds to nuclear DNA in apoptotic cells remains to be investigated. With UV irradiation-induced apoptosis, C1q initially bound to peripheral cellular regions in early apoptotic cells. By 6 h, binding concentrated in the nuclei to the nucleolus but not the chromatins. When nucleoli were isolated from non-apoptotic cells, C1q also bound to these structures. In vivo, C1q exists as the C1 complex (C1qC1r2C1s2), and C1q binding to ligands activates the C1r/C1s proteases. Incubation of nucleoli with C1 caused degradation of the nucleolar proteins nucleolin and nucleophosmin 1. This was inhibited by the C1 inhibitor. The nucleoli are abundant with autoantigens. C1q binding and C1r/C1s degradation of nucleolar antigens during cell apoptosis potentially reduces autoimmunity. These findings help us to understand why genetic C1q and C1r/C1s deficiencies cause systemic lupus erythematosus. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. (Benzyl isocyanide-κC1chlorido(2-chloro-3-dimethylamino-1-phenylprop-1-en-1-yl-κ2C1,Npalladium(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Mafud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Pd(C11H13ClNCl(C8H7N], which crystallized in the chiral space group P212121, the PdII atom is coordinated by two C atoms, a Csp2 atom of the 2-chloro-3-dimethylamino-1-phenylprop-1-en-1-yl ligand and a Csp atom from the benzyl isocyanide ligand, as well as an N atom of the ligand and a Cl atom, in a square-planar geometry. In the complex, there is a short C—H...Cl hydrogen bond and a C—H...π interaction. In the crystal, molecules are linked via C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming chains along the a-axis direction.

  1. A further study of the high incidence of the median artery of the forearm in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberg, M; George, B J

    1992-01-01

    Sixty-two forearms from 36 cadavers of South Africans of European extraction were dissected. The frequency of the median artery per forearm was 27.4%. There was neither bilateral difference nor sexual dimorphism in the incidence of the artery. These findings compare well with a previous study of black South Africans (Henneberg & George, 1992) where frequency per forearm was 27.1%. Our findings are much higher than those of earlier studies. This discrepancy may be explained either by differences in the thoroughness of the observations or regional variation, or by the occurrence of a secular trend in the development of vasculature. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:1294564

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01276-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available developm... 42 0.032 2 ( CX071007 ) UCRCS08_1C07_b Parent Washington Navel Orange Cal... 42 0.032 2 ( CX6381... Citrus reshni cDNA clone... 42 0.032 2 ( CX071008 ) UCRCS08_1C07_g Parent Washington Navel Orange Cal... 42...A09 Developing fruit flavedo at 80 DAF... 42 0.032 2 ( CX075462 ) UCRCS08_45A05_b Parent Washington Navel Or...lla cDNA cl... 42 0.032 2 ( CX075463 ) UCRCS08_45A05_g Parent Washington Navel Orange Ca... 42 0.032 2 ( CX2...30 ) C05811C09SK FerrChloR1 Citrus sinensis x Poncirus... 42 0.032 2 ( DN619505 ) UCRCS11_04A09_r Parent

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01510-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .4 1 ( BE248608 ) NF021H01DT1F1013 Drought Medicago truncatula cDNA... 42 6.4 1 ( BE205651 ) AOB130 Onion seedling leaf cDNA library...-41B2_Sp6.1 CH216 Xenopus (Silurana) tropica... 42 6.4 1 ( CG770475 ) TcB41.2_F05_SP6 Tribolium BAC library ...ed ... 44 1.6 1 ( CK424003 ) AUF_IpSto_10_c04 Stomach cDNA library Ictalurus p........ 42 6.4 1 ( EI465423 ) PV_GBa0071A02.f PV_GBa Phaseolus vulgaris genomic... 42 6.4 1 ( ED568449 ) SBA034_G14.f Sugar beet BAC libra...ago trunca... 42 6.4 1 ( BF650883 ) NF097E12EC1F1097 Elicited cell culture Medicago t... 42 6.4 1 (

  4. Impacts on terrestrial biodiversity of moving from aC to a 1.5°C target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pete; Price, Jeff; Molotoks, Amy; Warren, Rachel; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2018-05-01

    We applied a recently developed tool to examine the reduction in climate risk to biodiversity in moving from aC to a 1.5°C target. We then reviewed the recent literature examining the impact of (a) land-based mitigation options and (b) land-based greenhouse gas removal options on biodiversity. We show that holding warming to 1.5°C versus 2°C can significantly reduce the number of species facing a potential loss of 50% of their climatic range. Further, there would be an increase of 5.5-14% of the globe that could potentially act as climatic refugia for plants and animals, an area equivalent to the current global protected area network. Efforts to meet the 1.5°C target through mitigation could largely be consistent with biodiversity protection/enhancement. For impacts of land-based greenhouse gas removal technologies on biodiversity, some (e.g. soil carbon sequestration) could be neutral or positive, others (e.g. bioenergy with carbon capture and storage) are likely to lead to conflicts, while still others (e.g. afforestation/reforestation) are context-specific, when applied at scales necessary for meaningful greenhouse gas removal. Additional effort to meet the 1.5°C target presents some risks, particularly if inappropriately managed, but it also presents opportunities. This article is part of the theme issue `The Paris Agreement: understanding the physical and social challenges for a warming world of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels'.

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04605-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available . 46 2.2 1 ( DB766622 ) Apis mellifera head cDNA, RIKEN full-length enric... 46 2.2 1 ( FG291142 ) 1108793330728 New World... Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 46 2.2 1 ( FG290464 ) 1108793321772 New World... Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 46 2.2 1 ( FG288754 ) 1108793276247 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs ...C... 46 2.2 1 ( FG285961 ) 1108770710727 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 46 2.2 1 ( CT030663 ) Mouse ..._142_D08_3APR2008_058 BN18DYSC Brassic... 44 8.7 1 ( FG286796 ) 1108770726415 New World

  6. A Divergence Median-based Geometric Detector with A Weighted Averaging Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xiaoqiang; Cheng, Yongqiang; Li, Yubo; Wang, Hongqiang; Qin, Yuliang

    2018-01-01

    To overcome the performance degradation of the classical fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based constant false alarm rate detector with the limited sample data, a divergence median-based geometric detector on the Riemannian manifold of Heimitian positive definite matrices is proposed in this paper. In particular, an autocorrelation matrix is used to model the correlation of sample data. This method of the modeling can avoid the poor Doppler resolution as well as the energy spread of the Doppler filter banks result from the FFT. Moreover, a weighted averaging filter, conceived from the philosophy of the bilateral filtering in image denoising, is proposed and combined within the geometric detection framework. As the weighted averaging filter acts as the clutter suppression, the performance of the geometric detector is improved. Numerical experiments are given to validate the effectiveness of our proposed method.

  7. High prevalence of the c.74A>C SPINK1 variant in miniature and standard Schnauzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furrow, E; Armstrong, P J; Patterson, E E

    2012-01-01

    Variants in the serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 (SPINK1) gene have been associated with pancreatitis in Miniature Schnauzers. Replication of the association in an independent population is necessary to determine if genetic screening for SPINK1 variants should be considered in clinical practice. An association between the SPINK1 exonic variant c.74A > C and pancreatitis exists in Miniature Schnauzers. In addition, the variant is absent or rare in Standard Schnauzers, a related breed that is not reported to have an increased risk for pancreatitis. Case-control study. Seventeen Miniature Schnauzers with pancreatitis (cases), 60 mature Miniature Schnauzers with no substantial history of gastrointestinal signs in their lifetime (controls), and 31 Standard Schnauzers of unknown pancreatitis status. A PCR-RFLP assay was used to genotype dogs for the c.74A > C SPINK1 variant. Allele and genotype frequencies were reported for Schnauzers and compared between case and control Miniature Schnauzers. The c.74A > C variant was the major allele in both Schnauzer breeds with a frequency of 0.77 in Miniatures and 0.55 in Standards. The allele and genotype frequencies were similar between Miniature Schnauzers with and without a history of pancreatitis and did not impart an increased risk for pancreatitis. Genotyping a larger population of the Miniature Schnauzer breed than a previous study, along with a Standard Schnauzer cohort, demonstrated that the SPINK1 c.74A > C variant is a common polymorphism in the Schnauzer lineage. Furthermore, we were unable to confirm a relationship between the variant and clinically detectable pancreatitis in Miniature Schnauzers. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Predictors of HbA1c levels in patients initiating metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martono, Doti P; Hak, Eelko; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo; Wilffert, Bob; Denig, Petra

    2016-12-01

    The aim was to assess demographic and clinical factors as predictors of short (6 months) and long term (18 months) HbA1c levels in diabetes patients initiating metformin treatment. We conducted a cohort study including type 2 diabetes patients who received their first metformin prescription between 2007 and 2013 in the Groningen Initiative to Analyze Type 2 Diabetes Treatment (GIANTT) database. The primary outcome was HbA1c level at follow-up adjusted for baseline HbA1c; the secondary outcome was failing to achieve the target HbA1c level of 53 mmol/mol. Associations were analyzed by linear and logistic regression. Multiple imputation was used for missing data. Additional analyses stratified by dose and adherence level were conducted. The cohort included 6050 patients initiating metformin. Baseline HbA1c at target consistently predicted better HbA1c outcomes. Longer diabetes duration and lower total cholesterol level at baseline were predictors for higher HbA1c levels at 6 months. At 18 months, cholesterol level was not a predictor. Longer diabetes duration was also associated with not achieving the target HbA1c at follow-up. The association for longer diabetes duration was especially seen in patients starting on low dose treatment. No consistent associations were found for comorbidity and comedication. Diabetes duration was a relevant predictor of HbA1c levels after 6 and 18 months of follow-up in patients initiating metformin treatment. Given the study design, no causal inference can be made. Our study suggests that prompt treatment intensification may be needed in patients who have a longer diabetes duration at treatment initiation.

  9. Measurement of sigma chi c2 B(chi c2-->J/psi gamma)/sigma chi c1 B(chi c1 -->J/psi gamma) in pp collisions at square root s=1.96 TeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulencia, A; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arguin, J-F; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Budroni, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carillo, S; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciljak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Cyr, D; DaRonco, S; Datta, M; D'Auria, S; Davies, T; D'Onofrio, M; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; Dell'Orso, M; Delli Paoli, F; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; DiTuro, P; Dörr, C; Donati, S; Donega, M; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garberson, F; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraan, A C; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Manca, G; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ranjan, N; Rappoccio, S; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Sabik, S; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltó, O; Saltzberg, D; Sánchez, C; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyrla, A; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Sjolin, J; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vollrath, I; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, J; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2007-06-08

    We measure the ratio of cross section times branching fraction, Rp=sigma chi c2 B(chi c2-->J/psi gamma)/sigma chi c1 B(chi c1-->J/psi gamma), in 1.1 fb(-1) of pp collisions at square root s=1.96 TeV. This measurement covers the kinematic range pT(J/psi)>4.0 GeV/c, |eta(J/psi)1.0 GeV/c. For events due to prompt processes, we find Rp=0.395+/-0.016(stat)+/-0.015(syst). This result represents a significant improvement in precision over previous measurements of prompt chi c1,2 hadro production.

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04444-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5004 ) sat05c04.y1 Gm-c1036 Glycine max cDNA clone SOYBE... 52 0.025 1 ( BU894001 ) P085G03 Populus petioles cDNA library Popul...s cDNA, RIKEN full-l... 52 0.025 1 ( CF870513 ) tric023xm17.b1 T.reesei mycelial culture, Versio...n... 52 0.025 1 ( CF869757 ) tric020xf11.b1 T.reesei mycelial culture, Version... 52 0.025 1 ( CF867854 ) tric012xm19.b1 T.re...esei mycelial culture, Version... 52 0.025 1 ( CF867232 ) tric010xg18.b1 T.re...esei mycelial culture, Version 3 ... 52 0.025 1 ( CB899903 ) tric020xf11 T.reesei mycelial culture

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16300-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 632 ) 95999.1 Cold Sweetening C Solanum tuberosum cDNA ... 62 2e-14 3 ( CK280013 ) EST726091 potato abiotic stress cDNA library...(Normalize... 72 6e-18 4 ( CK277106 ) EST723184 potato abiotic stress cDNA library Sola... 56 7e-18 4 ( CK25...na cDNA 5', ... 74 5e-14 4 ( CX082679 ) EHAB017TR E. histolytica Normalized cDNA library ... 52...( CX089904 ) EHAE563TR E. histolytica Normalized cDNA library ... 52 7e-14 4 ( EB...a strain T4 cDNA library. 56 1e-12 4 ( AB077052 ) Nicotiana tabacum NtCK2a3 mRNA for casein kina

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03055-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -67 2 ( FG284490 ) 1108770671670 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 143 7e-67... 3 ( FG286862 ) 1108770727001 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 143 9e-67 3 ( FG284489 ) 1108770671669 New World...ld Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 143 1e-66 3 ( FG286245 ) 1108770714398 New World... Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 143 1e-66 3 ( FG290225 ) 1108793315348 New World Screw...T1 Hydractinia echinata cD... 147 1e-64 4 ( FG285211 ) 1108770694495 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C...

  13. Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1/NPC1-like1 Chimeras Define Sequences Critical for NPC1’s Function as a Filovirus Entry Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Ndungo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We recently demonstrated that Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1, a ubiquitous 13-pass cellular membrane protein involved in lysosomal cholesterol transport, is a critical entry receptor for filoviruses. Here we show that Niemann-Pick C1-like1 (NPC1L1, an NPC1 paralog and hepatitis C virus entry factor, lacks filovirus receptor activity. We exploited the structural similarity between NPC1 and NPC1L1 to construct and analyze a panel of chimeras in which NPC1L1 sequences were replaced with cognate sequences from NPC1. Only one chimera, NPC1L1 containing the second luminal domain (C of NPC1 in place of its own, bound to the viral glycoprotein, GP. This engineered protein mediated authentic filovirus infection nearly as well as wild-type NPC1, and more efficiently than did a minimal NPC1 domain C-based receptor recently described by us. A reciprocal chimera, NPC1 containing NPC1L1’s domain C, was completely inactive. Remarkably, an intra-domain NPC1L1-NPC1 chimera bearing only a ~130-amino acid N–terminal region of NPC1 domain C could confer substantial viral receptor activity on NPC1L1. Taken together, these findings account for the failure of NPC1L1 to serve as a filovirus receptor, highlight the central role of the luminal domain C of NPC1 in filovirus entry, and reveal the direct involvement of N–terminal domain C sequences in NPC1’s function as a filovirus receptor.

  14. Whole Blood Donation Affects the Interpretation of Hemoglobin A(1c)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Angelique; Lenters-Westra, Erna; de Kort, Wim; Bokhorst, Arlinke G.; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Slingerland, Robbert J.; Vos, Michel J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Several factors, including changed dynamics of erythrocyte formation and degradation, can influence the degree of hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) formation thereby affecting its use in monitoring diabetes. This study determines the influence of whole blood donation on HbA(1c) in both

  15. Altered brain morphometry in carpal tunnel syndrome is associated with median nerve pathology☆☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yumi; Kettner, Norman; Sheehan, James; Kim, Jieun; Cina, Stephen; Malatesta, Cristina; Gerber, Jessica; McManus, Claire; Mezzacappa, Pia; Morse, Leslie R.; Audette, Joseph; Napadow, Vitaly

    2013-01-01

    Objective Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common median nerve entrapment neuropathy characterized by pain, paresthesias, diminished peripheral nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and maladaptive functional brain neuroplasticity. We evaluated structural reorganization in brain gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) and whether such plasticity is linked to altered median nerve function in CTS. Methods We performed NCV testing, T1-weighted structural MRI, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in 28 CTS and 28 age-matched healthy controls (HC). Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) contrasted regional GM volume for CTS versus HC. Significant clusters were correlated with clinical metrics and served as seeds to define associated WM tracts using DTI data and probabilistic tractography. Within these WM tracts, fractional anisotropy (FA), axial (AD) and radial (RD) diffusivity were evaluated for group differences and correlations with clinical metrics. Results For CTS subjects, GM volume was significantly reduced in contralesional S1 (hand-area), pulvinar and frontal pole. GM volume in contralesional S1 correlated with median NCV. NCV was also correlated with RD and was negatively correlated with FA within U-fiber cortico-cortical association tracts identified from the contralesional S1 VBM seed. Conclusions Our study identified clear morphometric changes in the CTS brain. This central morphometric change is likely secondary to peripheral nerve pathology and altered somatosensory afference. Enhanced axonal coherence and myelination within cortico-cortical tracts connecting primary somatosensory and motor areas may accompany peripheral nerve deafferentation. As structural plasticity was correlated with NCV and not symptomatology, the former may be a better determinant of appropriate clinical intervention for CTS, including surgery. PMID:23799199

  16. A novel stereospecific synthesis of 14C labeled 1-glutamic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurz, R.E.; Kepner, R.E.; Webb, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    A stereospecific synthesis of 4- 14 C-1-glutamic acid was completed in five steps from sodium 2- 14 C-acetate. The morpholine derived enamine of ethyl pyruvate was reacted with ethyl 2- 14 C-bromoacetate to give after hydrolysis diethyl 4- 14 C-2-oxoglutarate. The 2-oxoglutarate was reacted with hydroxylamine hydrochloride to give diethyl 4-14C-2-hydroxyiminoglutarate which was then reduced with a LiAlH4, (-)-N-methylephedrine and 3,5-dimethylphenol mixture to give 4- 14 C-1-glutamic acid. The 4- 14 C-1-glutamic acid was used in investigations into the biosynthesis of gamma-lactones in sherries

  17. CT morphology of benign median nerve tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feyerabend, T.; Schmitt, R.; Lanz, U.; Warmuth-Metz, M.; Wuerzburg Univ.

    1990-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was performed in 3 patients with benign tumors of the median nerve, histologically confirmed as neurilemmoma, fibrolipoma and hemangioma. The neurilemmoma showed a ring-shaped contrast enhancement. The fibrolipoma presented with areas of solid soft tissue and areas of fat. The hemangioma was a solid tumor with a lacunar, vascular contrast enhancement. According to our experience and to the previous literature CT gives useful information regarding the anatomic location, size, and relationship of peripheral nerve sheath tumors to surrounding structures, and may help to differentiate between various tumor types. (orig.)

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16461-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available c... 50 0.22 1 ( FG297572 ) 1108793288739 New World Screwworm Larvae 9387 EST... 50 0.22 1 ( FG296279 ) 1108770747330 New World... Screwworm Larvae 9387 EST... 50 0.22 1 ( FG290052 ) 1108793314234 New World Screwworm Eg...g 9261 ESTs C... 50 0.22 1 ( FG289324 ) 1108793295697 New World Screwworm Egg 926...1 ESTs C... 50 0.22 1 ( FG287245 ) 1108770736013 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 50 0.22 1 ( FG284095 ) 1108770655912 New Worl...JBVS8_S9... 38 4.2 2 ( FG286198 ) 1108770714057 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 40 4.3 2 ( DQ249178 )

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12612-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... 50 2e-14 5 ( DW406140 ) EST000561 Trichophyton rubrum cDNA library Tricho... 50 2e-14 5 ( C... CAPH Naegleria gruberi amoeba stage ... 48 2e-15 6 ( DW703626 ) EST027107 Trichophyton rubrum cDNA library 7 Tric...... 50 7e-15 5 ( DW405704 ) EST000125 Trichophyton rubrum cDNA library Tric...ho... 50 1e-14 5 ( DW683765 ) EST007246 Trichophyton rubrum cDNA library 1 Tric... 50 1e-14 5 ( DW678803 ) EST002284 Tric...hophyton rubrum cDNA library 0 Tric... 50 1e-14 5 ( DW697736 ) EST021217 Trichophyton rubrum cDNA library 6 Tric

  20. Effect of C282Y genotype on self-reported musculoskeletal complications in hereditary hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, António; Funck-Brentano, Thomas; Simão, Márcio; Cancela, Leonor; Ottaviani, Sébastien; Cohen-Solal, Martine; Richette, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Arthropathy that mimics osteoarthritis (OA) and osteoporosis (OP) is considered a complication of hereditary hemochromatosis (HH). We have limited data comparing OA and OP prevalence among HH patients with different hemochromatosis type 1 (HFE) genotypes. We investigated the prevalence of OA and OP in patients with HH by C282Y homozygosity and compound heterozygosity (C282Y/H63D) genotype. A total of 306 patients with HH completed a questionnaire. Clinical and demographic characteristics and presence of OA, OP and related complications were compared by genotype, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), current smoking and menopausal status. In total, 266 of the 306 patients (87%) were homozygous for C282Y, and 40 (13%) were compound heterozygous. The 2 groups did not differ by median age [60 (interquartile range [IQR] 53 to 68) vs. 61 (55 to 67) years, P=0.8], sex (female: 48.8% vs. 37.5%, P=0.18) or current smoking habits (12.4% vs. 10%, P=0.3). As compared with compound heterozygous patients, C282Y homozygous patients had higher median serum ferritin concentration at diagnosis [1090 (IQR 610 to 2210) vs. 603 (362 to 950) µg/L, P<0.001], higher median transferrin saturation [80% (IQR 66 to 91%) vs. 63% (55 to 72%), P<0.001]) and lower median BMI [24.8 (22.1 to 26.9) vs. 26.2 (23.5 to 30.3) kg/m2, P<0.003]. The overall prevalence of self-reported OA was significantly higher with C282Y homozygosity than compound heterozygosity (53.4% vs. 32.5%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.4 [95% confidence interval 1.2-5.0]), as was self-reported OP (25.6% vs. 7.5%; aOR 3.5 [1.1-12.1]). Patients with C282Y homozygosity may be at increased risk of musculoskeletal complications of HH.

  1. Study of the ηc(1 1S0) state of charmonium formed in bar pp annihilations and a search for the ηc'(2 1S0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, T.A.; Bettoni, D.; Bharadwaj, V.; Biino, C.; Blanford, G.; Borreani, G.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Buzzo, A.; Calabrese, R.; Ceccucci, A.; Cester, R.; Church, M.; Dalpiaz, P.; Dalpiaz, P.F.; Dimitroyannis, D.; Fabbri, M.; Fast, J.; Gianoli, A.; Ginsburg, C.M.; Gollwitzer, K.; Govi, G.; Hahn, A.; Hasan, M.; Hsueh, S.; Lewis, R.; Luppi, E.; Macri, M.; Majewska, A.M.; Mandelkern, M.; Marchetto, F.; Marinelli, M.; Marques, J.; Marsh, W.; Martini, M.; Masuzawa, M.; Menichetti, E.; Migliori, A.; Mussa, R.; Palestini, S.; Pallavicini, M.; Passaggio, S.; Pastrone, N.; Patrignani, C.; Peoples, J. Jr.; Petrucci, F.; Pia, M.G.; Pordes, S.; Rapidis, P.; Ray, R.; Reid, J.; Rinaudo, G.; Roccuzzo, B.; Rosen, J.; Santroni, A.; Sarmiento, M.; Savrre, M.; Schultz, J.; Seth, K.K.; Smith, A.; Smith, G.A.; Sozzi, M.; Trokenheim, S.; Weber, M.F.; Werkema, S.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, J.; Zioulas, G.

    1995-01-01

    The E760 Collaboration performed an experiment in the Antiproton Accumulator at Fermilab to study the two photon decay of the η c (1 1 S 0 ) charmonium state formed in bar pp annihilations. This resulted in a new measurement of the mass M ηc =2988.3 -3.1 +3.3 MeV/c 2 and of the product B(η c → bar pp)xΓ(η c →γγ) =(8.1 -2.0 +2.9 ) eV. We performed a search for the process bar pp→η c ' (2 1 S 0 )→γγ over a limited range of center-of-mass energies. Since no signal was observed, we derived upper limits on the product of branching ratios B(η c ' → bar pp)xB(η c ' →γγ) in the center-of-mass energy range 3584≤ √s ≤3624 MeV. We observed no signal for the nonresonant process bar p+p→γ+γ and obtain upper limits

  2. Whole Blood Donation Affects the Interpretation of Hemoglobin A1c

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Angelique; Lenters-Westra, Erna; de Kort, Wim; Bokhorst, Arlinke G.; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Slingerland, Robbert J.; Vos, Michel J.

    2017-01-01

    Several factors, including changed dynamics of erythrocyte formation and degradation, can influence the degree of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) formation thereby affecting its use in monitoring diabetes. This study determines the influence of whole blood donation on HbA1c in both non-diabetic blood donors

  3. Median Hetero-Associative Memories Applied to the Categorization of True-Color Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Roberto A.; Sossa, Humberto

    Median associative memories (MED-AMs) are a special type of associative memory based on the median operator. This type of associative model has been applied to the restoration of gray scale images and provides better performance than other models, such as morphological associative memories, when the patterns are altered with mixed noise. Despite of his power, MED-AMs have not been applied in problems involving true-color patterns. In this paper we describe how a median hetero-associative memory (MED-HAM) could be applied in problems that involve true-color patterns. A complete study of the behavior of this associative model in the restoration of true-color images is performed using a benchmark of 14400 images altered by different type of noises. Furthermore, we describe how this model can be applied to an image categorization problem.

  4. Median Sternotomy or Right Thoracotomy Techniques for Total Artificial Heart Implantation in Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimov, Jamshid H; Moazami, Nader; Sunagawa, Gengo; Kobayashi, Mariko; Byram, Nicole; Sale, Shiva; Such, Kimberly A; Horvath, David J; Golding, Leonard A R; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka

    2016-10-01

    The choice of optimal operative access technique for mechanical circulatory support device implantation ensures successful postoperative outcomes. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated the median sternotomy and lateral thoracotomy incisions for placement of the Cleveland Clinic continuous-flow total artificial heart (CFTAH) in a bovine model. The CFTAH was implanted in 17 calves (Jersey calves; weight range, 77.0-93.9 kg) through a median sternotomy (n = 9) or right thoracotomy (n = 8) for elective chronic implantation periods of 14, 30, or 90 days. Similar preoperative preparation, surgical techniques, and postoperative care were employed. Implantation of the CFTAH was successfully performed in all cases. Both methods provided excellent surgical field visualization. After device connection, however, the median sternotomy approach provided better visualization of the anastomoses and surgical lines for hemostasis confirmation and repair due to easier device displacement, which is severely limited following right thoracotomy. All four animals sacrificed after completion of the planned durations (up to 90 days) were operated through full median sternotomy. Our data demonstrate that both approaches provide excellent initial field visualization. Full median sternotomy provides larger viewing angles at the anastomotic suture line after device connection to inflow and outflow ports. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15146-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available us BAC clone RP24-129G21 from chromosom... 38 1.7 4 ( FG066604 ) dlbw0_003512 cDNA library... of cambium of Betula pl... 40 2.6 2 ( FG065202 ) dlbw0_000186 cDNA library of cambium of Betul...0 2 ( FG065344 ) dlbw0_000454 cDNA library of cambium of Betula pl... 40 3.1 2 ( FG067998 ) dlbw0_005638 cDNA library...vus cDNA 3', mRNA ... 34 3.7 2 ( BU836156 ) T083C10 Populus apical shoot cDNA library Popul... 1 ( BU572652 ) PA__Ea0001H21f Almond developing seed Prunus dulc... 48 0.25 1 ( BQ641167 ) EST290 almond cDNA library Prunus dul

  6. Impacts on terrestrial biodiversity of moving from aC to a 1.5°C target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jeff; Molotoks, Amy; Warren, Rachel

    2018-01-01

    We applied a recently developed tool to examine the reduction in climate risk to biodiversity in moving from aC to a 1.5°C target. We then reviewed the recent literature examining the impact of (a) land-based mitigation options and (b) land-based greenhouse gas removal options on biodiversity. We show that holding warming to 1.5°C versus 2°C can significantly reduce the number of species facing a potential loss of 50% of their climatic range. Further, there would be an increase of 5.5–14% of the globe that could potentially act as climatic refugia for plants and animals, an area equivalent to the current global protected area network. Efforts to meet the 1.5°C target through mitigation could largely be consistent with biodiversity protection/enhancement. For impacts of land-based greenhouse gas removal technologies on biodiversity, some (e.g. soil carbon sequestration) could be neutral or positive, others (e.g. bioenergy with carbon capture and storage) are likely to lead to conflicts, while still others (e.g. afforestation/reforestation) are context-specific, when applied at scales necessary for meaningful greenhouse gas removal. Additional effort to meet the 1.5°C target presents some risks, particularly if inappropriately managed, but it also presents opportunities. This article is part of the theme issue ‘The Paris Agreement: understanding the physical and social challenges for a warming world of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels'. PMID:29610386

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03464-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available alar cDNA c... 46 2.8 1 ( GE530226 ) CCHS17029.b1_J09.ab1 CCHS Espina Barnadesia spino... 46 2.8 1 ( FK723110 ) av02122j19r1.1 Symbio...tic sea anemone (Anemonia vi... 46 2.8 1 ( FG396350 ) 000320KSFA001919HT (KSFA) A.

  8. The synthesis of 5'-[14C1] and 3a, 4-[13C2] labelled panadiplon (U-78875; 3-(5'-cyclopropyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)-5-(1-methylethyl)-imidazo-[1,5a]-quinoxalin-4(5H)-one)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackland, M.J.; Howard, M.R.; Dring, L.G.

    1993-01-01

    5'-[ 14 C 1 ]Panadiplon was prepared in 3 steps starting from [ 14 C 1 ]cyclopropane carboxylic acid and 3-(5'-cyano-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)-5-(1-methylethyl)-imidazo-[1,5a] -quinoxalin-4(5H)-one. 3a, 4-[ 13 C 2 ]Panadiplon was prepared in two steps from 13 C 2 -oxalic acid and N-1-(1-methylethyl)-o-phenylenediamine. The position of labelling was confirmed by the appearance of two coupled resonances (J C-C =80.59 Hz) at 121.95 and 154.39 ppm in the assigned 13 C-NMR spectrum. (Author)

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12014-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4 1 ( CB395139 ) OSTR149E1_1 AD-wrmcDNA Caenorhabditis elegans cDN... 60 3e-04 1 ( DY584025 ) C017-D11 Acropora millepora presettleme...nt library... 58 0.001 1 ( CJ336144 ) Molgula tectiformis cDNA, embryo just before

  10. Years Versus Days Between Successive Surgeries, After an Initial Outpatient Procedure, for the Median Patient Versus the Median Surgeon in the State of Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Jarvie, Craig; Epstein, Richard H

    2018-03-01

    Previously, we studied the relative importance of different institutional interventions that the largest hospital in Iowa could take to grow the anesthesia department's outpatient surgical care. Most (>50%) patients having elective surgery had not previously had surgery at the hospital. Patient perioperative experience was unimportant for influencing total anesthesia workload and numbers of patients. More important was the availability of surgical clinic appointments within several days. These results would be generalizable if the median time from surgery to a patient's next surgical procedure was large (eg, >2 years), among all hospitals in Iowa with outpatient surgery, and without regard to the hospital where the next procedure was performed. There were 37,172 surgical cases at hospital outpatient departments of any of the 117 hospitals in Iowa from July 1, 2013, to September 30, 2013. Data extracted about each case included its intraoperative work relative value units. The 37,172 cases were matched to all inpatient and outpatient records for the next 2 years statewide using patient linkage identifiers; from these were determined whether the patient had surgery again within 2 years. Furthermore, the cases' 1820 surgeons were matched to the surgeon's next outpatient or inpatient case, both including and excluding other cases performed on the date of the original case. By patient, the median time to their next surgical case, either outpatient or inpatient, exceeded 2 years, tested with weighting by intraoperative relative value units and repeated when unweighted (both P 2 years for patients versus 1 day for surgeons. Thus, although patients' experiences are an important attribute of quality of care, surgeons' experiences are orders of magnitude more important from the vantage point of marketing and growth of an anesthesia practice.

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16238-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5I14R Mouse 10kb plasmid UUGC2M library Mus ... 46 2.0 1 ( AZ954756 ) 2M0220N05R Mouse 10kb plasmid UUGC2M library...... 46 2.0 1 ( DT769112 ) EST1202962 Aquilegia cDNA library Aqui...legia formo... 46 2.0 1 ( DT765721 ) EST1199570 Aquilegia cDNA library Aquilegia formo... 46 2.0 1 ( DT76040...9 ) EST1194258 Aquilegia cDNA library Aquilegia formo... 46 2.0 1 ( DT753653 ) EST1187502 Aquilegia cDNA library... Aquilegia formo... 46 2.0 1 ( DR922919 ) EST1114458 Aquilegia cDNA library Aquilegia formo... 46 2.0 1

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05908-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available uilegia formo... 44 4.4 1 ( DR944473 ) EST1136012 Aquilegia cDNA library Aquilegia formo... 44 4.4 1 >( AU261433 ) Dic...i strain CBS... 46 4e-04 AM114193_389( AM114193 |pid:none) Uncultured methanogenic archaeon... 46 5e-04 CP00... SP6 en... 44 4.4 1 ( DT754699 ) EST1188548 Aquilegia cDNA library Aquilegia formo... 44 4.4 1 ( DT748890 ) ...EST1182739 Aquilegia cDNA library Aquilegia formo... 44 4.4 1 ( DT743646 ) EST1177495 Aquilegia cDNA library... Aquilegia formo... 44 4.4 1 ( DT742533 ) EST1176382 Aquilegia cDNA library Aquil

  13. Synthesis of (5,6-/sup 13/C/sub 2/, 1-/sup 14/C)olivetolic acid, methyl (1'-/sup 13/C)olivetolate and (5,6-/sup 13/C/sub 2/, 1-/sup 14/C)cannabigerolic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porwoll, J P; Leete, E [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis (USA). Dept. of Chemistry

    1985-03-01

    Potential advanced intermediates in the biosynthesis of delta/sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol, the major psychoactive principle of marijuana, have been synthesized labeled with two contiguous /sup 13/C atoms and /sup 14/C. Methyl (5,6-/sup 13/C/sub 2/, 1-/sup 14/C)olivetolate was prepared from lithium (/sup 13/C/sub 2/)acetylide and dimethyl (2-/sup 14/C)malonate. Reaction with geranyl bromide afforded methyl (5,6-/sup 13/C/sub 2/, 1-/sup 14/C)cannabigerolate, and hydrolysis of these methyl esters with lithium propyl mercaptide yielded the corresponding labeled acids. The /sup 13/C-/sup 13/C couplings observable in the /sup 13/C NMR spectra of these /sup 13/C-enriched compounds and their synthetic precursors are recorded. Methyl (1'-/sup 14/C)olivetolate was prepared from /sup 13/CO/sub 2/ to confirm assignments of the /sup 13/C chemical shifts in the pentyl side chain of these compounds.

  14. Changing from glucose to HbA1c for diabetes diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Aneta Aleksandra; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Green, Anders

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Denmark, the use of HbA1c in the diagnosis of diabetes was adopted from March 2012. We evaluated the change in the number of diabetes cases diagnosed by haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) versus fasting venous plasma glucose (FPG), and estimated the influence of analytical variation and bias ...

  15. Targeting c-Myc: JQ1 as a promising option for c-Myc-amplified esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyuan; Liu, Zhentao; Wang, Ziqi; Wang, Shubin; Chen, Zuhua; Li, Zhongwu; Zhang, Mengqi; Zou, Jianling; Dong, Bin; Gao, Jing; Shen, Lin

    2018-04-10

    c-Myc amplification-induced cell cycle dysregulation is a common cause for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), but no approved targeted drug is available so far. The bromodomain inhibitor JQ1, which targets c-Myc, exerts anti-tumor activity in multiple cancers. However, the role of JQ1 in ESCC remains unknown. In this study, we reported that JQ1 had potent anti-proliferative effects on ESCC cells in both time- and dose-dependent manners by inducing cell cycle arrest at G1 phase, cell apoptosis, and the mesenchymal-epithelial transition. Follow-up studies revealed that both c-Myc/cyclin/Rb and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways were inactivated by JQ1, as indicated by the downregulation of c-Myc, cyclin A/E, and phosphorylated Rb, AKT and S6. Tumor suppression induced by JQ1 in c-Myc amplified or highly expressed xenografts was higher than that in xenografts with low expression, suggesting its potential role in prediction. In conclusion, targeting c-Myc by JQ1 could cause significant tumor suppression in ESCC both in vitro and in vivo. Also, c-Myc amplification or high expression might serve as a potential biomarker and provide a promising therapeutic option for ESCC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Median nerve cross-sectional area and MRI diffusion characteristics: normative values at the carpal tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Lawrence; Gai, Neville

    2009-01-01

    Enlargement of the median nerve is an objective potential imaging sign of carpal tunnel syndrome. Diffusion tensor MRI (DTI) may provide additional structural information that may prove useful in characterizing median neuropathy. This study further examines normal values for median nerve cross-sectional area (CSA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and fractional anisotropy (FA). Twenty-three wrists in 17 healthy volunteers underwent MRI of the wrist at 3 T. In 13 subjects, DTI was performed at a B value of 600 mm 2 /s. Median nerve CSA, ADC, and FA were analyzed at standardized anatomic levels. Mean (SD) median nerve CSA within the proximal carpal tunnel was 10.0 (3.4) mm 2 . The mean (SD) FA of the median nerve was 0.71 (0.06) and 0.70 (0.13) proximal to and within the carpal tunnel, respectively. There was a significant difference between nerve CSA and ADC, but not FA, at the distal forearm and proximal carpal tunnel. Nerve CSA, ADC, and FA did not differ between men and women or between dominant and non-dominant wrists. Nerve CSA at the proximal carpal tunnel was positively correlated with subject age and body mass index. Our results suggest a 90% upper confidence limit for normal median nerve CSA of 14.4 mm 2 at the proximal carpal tunnel, higher than normal limits reported by many ultrasound studies. We observed a difference between the CSA and ADC, but not the FA, of the median nerve at the distal forearm and proximal carpal tunnel levels. (orig.)

  17. Synthesis of ethanol {sup 14}C-1; Synthese d'ethanol {sup 14}C-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, R E; Pichat, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The direct reduction by LiAlH{sub 4}, of a suspension of anhydrous sodium acetate in tetra-hydro-furfuryl-oxy-tetra-hydro-pyran is described. This study has shown that the ethanol thus obtained is impure and that the yields are erratic. On the contrary the reduction of acetyl chloride 1-{sup 14}C by LiAlH{sub 4}, in 'diethyl carbitol' leads to ethanol 1-{sup 14}C of satisfactory purity with a yield of about 71 percent. (author) [French] Une etude de la reduction directe par LiAlH{sub 4}, de l'acetate de soude anhydre en suspension dans le tetrahydrofurfuryloxytetrahydropyrane est decrite. Cette etude a montre que l'on obtient de l'ethanol souille d'impuretes, avec un rendement variable. Par contre, la reduction du chlorure d'acetyle {sup 14}C-1 par LiAlH{sub 4}, dans le 'diethyl carbitol' conduit a l'ethanol {sup 14}C-1 de purete convenable avec un rendement de l'ordre de 71 pour cent. (auteur)

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05100-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8e04... 44 5.3 1 ( FG291968 ) 1108383360231 New World Screwworm Larvae 9387 EST... 44 5.3 1 ( FG291314 ) 1108793338924 New World... Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 44 5.3 1 ( FG287905 ) 1108793257010 New World Screwworm Eg...g 9261 ESTs C... 44 5.3 1 ( FG287011 ) 1108770728126 New World Screwworm Egg 9261... ESTs C... 44 5.3 1 ( FG284935 ) 1108770687631 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 44 5.3 1 ( FG284257 ) 1108770663787 New World

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06086-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 34 1.9 2 ( CT531391 ) A BAC library has been constructed from cultivar ... 34 1.9 3 ( CT536760 ) A BAC lib...u... 36 2.9 2 ( CT504385 ) A BAC library has been constructed from cultivar ... 38 3.0 2 ( BX005275 ) ...1 ( DH327531 ) Oryzias latipes Fosmid clone:GOLWFno690_k15, forw... 46 3.2 1 ( CT562554 ) A BAC library has been constructed from cul...9 ) 16372 Swollen Stolon Solanum tuberosum cDNA, mRNA... 48 0.81 1 ( CK277118 ) EST723196 potato abiotic stress cDNA library... Sola... 48 0.81 1 ( CK277117 ) EST723195 potato abiotic stress cDNA library Sola... 48 0.81

  20. Effect of once-weekly dulaglutide on glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting blood glucose in patient subpopulations by gender, duration of diabetes and baseline HbA1c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallwitz, Baptist; Dagogo-Jack, Samuel; Thieu, Vivian; Garcia-Perez, Luis-Emilio; Pavo, Imre; Yu, Maria; Robertson, Kenneth E; Zhang, Nan; Giorgino, Francesco

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of dulaglutide 1.5 and 0.75 mg in patients with type 2 diabetes by subgroups of gender, duration of diabetes and baseline glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in the dulaglutide clinical development programme (AWARD-1 to -6 and -8 clinical trials). Change in HbA1c was analysed by gender, duration of diabetes (baseline HbA1c (baseline in weight, hypoglycaemia and gastrointestinal adverse events were evaluated for individual trials. In the pooled analysis of patients treated with dulaglutide 1.5 mg at 6 months, the reductions in HbA1c from baseline were similar across gender (men: least squares [LS] mean -1.26% [95% confidence interval {CI} -1.36, -1.16]; women: LS mean -1.33% [95% CI -1.43, -1.24]) and among duration of diabetes subgroups (baseline HbA1c ≥8.5% had greater HbA1c reductions than patients with baseline HbA1c baseline HbA1c subgroups, respectively; women had a numerically greater weight loss or less weight gain than men with both dulaglutide doses. There was no clinically meaningful difference in hypoglycaemia trends by gender or duration of diabetes. Hypoglycaemia incidence and rate were generally lower in patients with baseline HbA1c ≥8.5% than in those with baseline HbA1c, with greater HbA1c and FBG reductions in patients with a higher baseline HbA1c. Dulaglutide was well tolerated, with a safety profile similar to other glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Fall in C-Peptide During First 4 Years From Diagnosis of Type 1 Diabetes: Variable Relation to Age, HbA1c, and Insulin Dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wei; Gitelman, Steven; DiMeglio, Linda A; Boulware, David; Greenbaum, Carla J

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to describe the natural history of residual insulin secretion in Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet participants over 4 years from diagnosis and relate this to previously reported alternative clinical measures reflecting β-cell secretory function. Data from 407 subjects from 5 TrialNet intervention studies were analyzed. All subjects had baseline stimulated C-peptide values of ≥0.2 nmol/L from mixed-meal tolerance tests (MMTTs). During semiannual visits, C-peptide values from MMTTs, HbA1c, and insulin doses were obtained. The percentage of individuals with stimulated C-peptide of ≥0.2 nmol/L or detectable C-peptide of ≥0.017 nmol/L continued to diminish over 4 years; this was markedly influenced by age. At 4 years, only 5% maintained their baseline C-peptide secretion. The expected inverse relationships between C-peptide and HbA1c or insulin doses varied over time and with age. Combined clinical variables, such as insulin-dose adjusted HbA1c (IDAA1C) and the relationship of IDAA1C to C-peptide, also were influenced by age and time from diagnosis. Models using these clinical measures did not fully predict C-peptide responses. IDAA1C ≤9 underestimated the number of individuals with stimulated C-peptide ≥0.2 nmol/L, especially in children. Current trials of disease-modifying therapy for type 1 diabetes should continue to use C-peptide as a primary end point of β-cell secretory function. Longer duration of follow-up is likely to provide stronger evidence of the effect of disease-modifying therapy on preservation of β-cell function. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  2. C1 neurons: the body's EMTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyenet, Patrice G; Stornetta, Ruth L; Bochorishvili, Genrieta; Depuy, Seth D; Burke, Peter G R; Abbott, Stephen B G

    2013-08-01

    The C1 neurons reside in the rostral and intermediate portions of the ventrolateral medulla (RVLM, IVLM). They use glutamate as a fast transmitter and synthesize catecholamines plus various neuropeptides. These neurons regulate the hypothalamic pituitary axis via direct projections to the paraventricular nucleus and regulate the autonomic nervous system via projections to sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons. The presympathetic C1 cells, located in the RVLM, are probably organized in a roughly viscerotopic manner and most of them regulate the circulation. C1 cells are variously activated by hypoglycemia, infection or inflammation, hypoxia, nociception, and hypotension and contribute to most glucoprivic responses. C1 cells also stimulate breathing and activate brain stem noradrenergic neurons including the locus coeruleus. Based on the various effects attributed to the C1 cells, their axonal projections and what is currently known of their synaptic inputs, subsets of C1 cells appear to be differentially recruited by pain, hypoxia, infection/inflammation, hemorrhage, and hypoglycemia to produce a repertoire of stereotyped autonomic, metabolic, and neuroendocrine responses that help the organism survive physical injury and its associated cohort of acute infection, hypoxia, hypotension, and blood loss. C1 cells may also contribute to glucose and cardiovascular homeostasis in the absence of such physical stresses, and C1 cell hyperactivity may contribute to the increase in sympathetic nerve activity associated with diseases such as hypertension.

  3. C1 neurons: the body's EMTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stornetta, Ruth L.; Bochorishvili, Genrieta; DePuy, Seth D.; Burke, Peter G. R.; Abbott, Stephen B. G.

    2013-01-01

    The C1 neurons reside in the rostral and intermediate portions of the ventrolateral medulla (RVLM, IVLM). They use glutamate as a fast transmitter and synthesize catecholamines plus various neuropeptides. These neurons regulate the hypothalamic pituitary axis via direct projections to the paraventricular nucleus and regulate the autonomic nervous system via projections to sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons. The presympathetic C1 cells, located in the RVLM, are probably organized in a roughly viscerotopic manner and most of them regulate the circulation. C1 cells are variously activated by hypoglycemia, infection or inflammation, hypoxia, nociception, and hypotension and contribute to most glucoprivic responses. C1 cells also stimulate breathing and activate brain stem noradrenergic neurons including the locus coeruleus. Based on the various effects attributed to the C1 cells, their axonal projections and what is currently known of their synaptic inputs, subsets of C1 cells appear to be differentially recruited by pain, hypoxia, infection/inflammation, hemorrhage, and hypoglycemia to produce a repertoire of stereotyped autonomic, metabolic, and neuroendocrine responses that help the organism survive physical injury and its associated cohort of acute infection, hypoxia, hypotension, and blood loss. C1 cells may also contribute to glucose and cardiovascular homeostasis in the absence of such physical stresses, and C1 cell hyperactivity may contribute to the increase in sympathetic nerve activity associated with diseases such as hypertension. PMID:23697799

  4. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(13)-1 - Involuntary conversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Involuntary conversions. 1.381(c)(13)-1 Section 1.381(c)(13)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(13)-1 Involuntary conversions...

  5. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(2)-1 - Earnings and profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Earnings and profits. 1.381(c)(2)-1 Section 1.381(c)(2)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(2)-1 Earnings and profits. (a) In...

  6. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(3)-1 - Capital loss carryovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Capital loss carryovers. 1.381(c)(3)-1 Section 1.381(c)(3)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(3)-1 Capital loss carryovers. (a...

  7. Separation of simultaneous sources using a structural-oriented median filter in the flattened dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Shuwei; Wang, Shoudong; Chen, Yangkang; Chen, Xiaohong; Xiang, Kui

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous-source shooting can help tremendously shorten the acquisition period and improve the quality of seismic data for better subsalt seismic imaging, but at the expense of introducing strong interference (blending noise) to the acquired seismic data. We propose to use a structural-oriented median filter to attenuate the blending noise along the structural direction of seismic profiles. The principle of the proposed approach is to first flatten the seismic record in local spatial windows and then to apply a traditional median filter (MF) to the third flattened dimension. The key component of the proposed approach is the estimation of the local slope, which can be calculated by first scanning the NMO velocity and then transferring the velocity to the local slope. Both synthetic and field data examples show that the proposed approach can successfully separate the simultaneous-source data into individual sources. We provide an open-source toy example to better demonstratethe proposed methodology.

  8. Radiosynthesis of [11C]SB-705498, a selective transient receptor potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor antagonist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolle, F.; Bramoulle, Y.; Deverre, J.R.; Bottlaender, M.; Passchier, J.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows: Objectives: The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor, previously known as the vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1), is a non-selective cation channel activated by a range of noxious stimuli and highly expressed in nociceptive fibres. TRPV1 receptor is involved in pain and sensitisation associated with tissue injury and inflammation and therefore represents a pharmacological target of choice for the development of novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of chronic pain, migraine and gastrointestinal disorders. Among a novel series of pyrrolidinyl ureas recently discovered by GSK, SB-705498 (1, namely 1-(2-bromophenyl)-3-[(R)-1-(5- trifluoromethylpyridin-2-yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl]urea) has been identified as a potent, selective and orally bioavailable TRPV1 antagonist and considered for positron emission tomography studies. SB-705498 (1) has therefore been isotopically labelled with the short-lived positron-emitter carbon-11 (t1/2: 20.38 min) at its urea site using [ 11 C]phosgene in a one-pot two-step process, via the intermediate preparation of 2-bromophenyl [ 11 C]isocyanate. Methods: Carbon-11-labeling of SB-705498 comprises: (A) Trapping of [ 11 C]phosgene (radio-synthesized from cyclotron-produced [ 11 C]methane via [ 11 C]carbon tetrachloride using minor modifications of published processes) at room temperature for 1 to 2 minutes in 250 μL of acetonitrile containing 0.6 μmole of 2-bromoaniline (2) giving 2-bromophenyl [ 11 C]isocyanate ([ 11 C]-3), followed by (B) addition of an excess of chiral (R)-1-(5- trifluoromethylpyridin-2-yl)pyrrolidin-3-ylamine (4, 40 μmoles in 500 μL of acetonitrile) as the second amine and reaction at room temperature for an additional one minute giving the desired urea derivative ([ 11 C]SB-705498 ([ 11 C]-1)), (C) dilution of the crude reaction mixture with water (500 μL) containing 4% (v:v) of DEA, injection and purification on a semi-preparative Waters Symmetry R C18 HPLC

  9. Periodontal inflamed surface area and C-reactive protein as predictors of HbA1c: a study in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, Hendri; Nesse, Willem; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Hoedemaker, Evelien; van Reenen, Yvonne Huijser; Agustina, Dewi; Vissink, Arjan; Abbas, Frank

    2012-08-01

    Periodontitis may exert an infectious and inflammatory burden, evidenced by increased C-reactive protein (CRP). This burden may impair blood glucose control (HbA1c). The aim of our study was to analyze whether periodontitis severity as measured with the periodontal inflamed surface area (PISA) and CRP predict HbA1c levels in a group of healthy Indonesians and a group of Indonesians treated for type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). A full-mouth periodontal examination, including probing pocket depth, gingival recession, clinical attachment loss, plaque index and bleeding on probing, was performed in 132 healthy Indonesians and 101 Indonesians treated for DM2. Using these data, PISA was calculated. In addition, HbA1c and CRP were analyzed. A validated questionnaire was used to assess smoking, body mass index (BMI), education and medical conditions. In regression analyses, it was assessed whether periodontitis severity and CRP predict HbA1c, controlling for confounding and effect modification (i.e., age, sex, BMI, pack years, and education). In healthy Indonesians, PISA and CRP predicted HbA1c as did age, sex, and smoking. In Indonesians treated for DM2, PISA did not predict HbA1c. Periodontitis may impair blood glucose regulation in healthy Indonesians in conjunction with elevated CRP levels. The potential effect of periodontitis on glucose control in DM2 patients may be masked by DM2 treatment. periodontitis may impair blood glucose control through exerting an inflammatory and infectious burden evidenced by increased levels of CRP.

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01127-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ( BJ076721 ) Xenopus laevis cDNA clone:XL058i17, 3' end, singl... 44 5.9 1 ( FG291907 ) 1108800220021 New World... Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 44 5.9 1 ( FG291539 ) 1108793348396 New World Sc...rewworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 44 5.9 1 ( FG286660 ) 1108770723740 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 44 5.9

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15582-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) EST1120673 Aquilegia cDNA library Aquilegia formo... 36 0.36 3 ( AC115612 ) Dictyostelium discoideum chrom... cDNA clone ... 46 4.1 1 ( BX858993 ) AGENAE Rainbow trout normalized testis library (t... 46 4.1 1 ( BF0889...discoideum chromosome 2 map 2567470... 40 0.11 12 ( AL844509 ) Plasmodium falciparum chromosome 13. 38 0.15 17 ( EU016597 ) Unculture...EST1196545 Aquilegia cDNA library Aquilegia formo... 36 0.28 3 ( DT766291 ) EST1200140 Aquilegia cDNA libr...ary Aquilegia formo... 36 0.29 3 ( DT729293 ) EST1163143 Aquilegia cDNA library Aqu

  12. Hb A1c Separation by High Performance Liquid Chromatography in Hemoglobinopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani Chandrashekar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hb A1c measurement is subject to interference by hemoglobin traits and this is dependent on the method used for determination. In this paper we studied the difference between Hb A1c measured by HPLC in hemoglobin traits and normal chromatograms. We also studied the correlation of Hb A1c with age. Hemoglobin analysis was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography. Spearman’s rank correlation was used to study correlation between A1c levels and age. Mann-Whitney U test was used to study the difference in Hb A1c between patients with normal hemoglobin and hemoglobin traits. A total of 431 patients were studied. There was positive correlation with age in patients with normal chromatograms only. No correlation was seen in Hb E trait or beta thalassemia trait. No significant difference in Hb A1c of patients with normal chromatograms and patients with hemoglobin traits was seen. There is no interference by abnormal hemoglobin in the detection of A1c by high performance liquid chromatography. This method cannot be used for detection of A1c in compound heterozygous and homozygous disorders.

  13. Endovascular Treatment of a Vertebral Artery Pseudoaneurysm Following Posterior C1-C2 Transarticular Screw Fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez, Jose C.; Gonzalez-Llanos, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    We present a case of vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm after a posterior C1-C2 transarticular screw fixation procedure that was effectively treated with endovascular coil occlusion. Vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm complicating posterior C1-C2 transarticular fixation is extremely rare, with only one previous case having been reported previously. Endovascular occlusion is better achieved in the subacute phase of the pseudoaneurysm, when the wall of the pseudoaneurysm has matured and stabilized. Further follow-up angiographies are mandatory in order to confirm that there is no recurrence of the lesion

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16287-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available zed ... 46 0.12 2 ( CK269023 ) EST715101 potato abiotic stress cDNA library Sola... 46 0.12 2 ( U54774 ) Nicotiana tabacu...a... 36 0.26 3 ( DV114899 ) CV03010A1H02.f1 CV03-normalized library Euphorbia... 36 0.26 3 ( BT013106 ) Lycopersicon esculentu...mate decarboxylase isozyme... 58 1e-06 2 ( CK273593 ) EST719671 potato abiotic stress cDNA library Sola... 5... from flowers,8... 62 7e-05 1 ( CV516768 ) 0048P0016Z_H01_SP6 Mimulus guttatus library 1 Mim... 62...e-04 1 ( CK278060 ) EST724138 potato abiotic stress cDNA library Sola... 60 3e-04 1 ( AP009552 ) Microcystis

  15. Synthesis of (5,6-/sup 13/C/sub 2/, 1-/sup 14/C)olivetolic acid, methyl (1'-/sup 13/C)olivetolate and (5,6-/sup 13/C/sub 2/, 1-/sup 14/C)cannabigerolic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porwoll, J.P.; Leete, E. (Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis (USA). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1985-03-01

    Potential advanced intermediates in the biosynthesis of delta/sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol, the major psychoactive principle of marijuana, have been synthesized labeled with two contiguous /sup 13/C atoms and /sup 14/C. Methyl (5,6-/sup 13/C/sub 2/, 1-/sup 14/C)olivetolate was prepared from lithium (/sup 13/C/sub 2/)acetylide and dimethyl (2-/sup 14/C)malonate. Reaction with geranyl bromide afforded methyl (5,6-/sup 13/C/sub 2/, 1-/sup 14/C)cannabigerolate, and hydrolysis of these methyl esters with lithium propyl mercaptide yielded the corresponding labeled acids. The /sup 13/C-/sup 13/C couplings observable in the /sup 13/C NMR spectra of these /sup 13/C-enriched compounds and their synthetic precursors are recorded. Methyl (1'-/sup 14/C)olivetolate was prepared from /sup 13/CO/sub 2/ to confirm assignments of the /sup 13/C chemical shifts in the pentyl side chain of these compounds.

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05090-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0 crog_evp Caligus rogercressey... 46 2.0 1 ( FG296496 ) 1108793252963 New World Screwworm Larvae 9387 EST...... 46 2.0 1 ( FG289486 ) 1108793302230 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 46 2.0 1 ( FG288459 ) 1108793271734 New World...tis elegans EST, clone B03_ce5.trans.... 44 7.8 1 ( FG291463 ) 1108793341690 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ES...Ts C... 44 7.8 1 ( FG290886 ) 1108793327637 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C...... 44 7.8 1 ( FG288468 ) 1108793271746 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 44 7.8 1 ( FG286882 ) 1108770727022 New World

  17. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03778-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DY679985 ) TTDA465TO Tetrahymena thermophila EST library str... 62 7e-09 3 ( CJ948566 ) Triticum aestivum cDNA clone:whchul...spotted knapweed Cen... 42 1e-07 4 ( EX126122 ) BR109952 etiolated mature leaf cDNA library KHLW ... 52 1e-0...cDNA cl... 48 2e-07 2 ( EG402891 ) BG01043A2F03.f1 BG01 - normalized library Leymus ... 48 2e-07 2 ( CJ650115 ) Triticum aesti...NA, gonad clone:mtgd004b03,... 60 4e-09 2 ( EX123216 ) BR107046 mature green leaf cDNA library...... 64 3e-21 5 ( CK272276 ) EST718354 potato abiotic stress cDNA library Sola... 44 2e-20 6 ( AM910992

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16177-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M01F05_RP Sugar Beet germination cDNA library Be... 54 1e-04 2 ( EG012316 ) STDB003A10u STDB Solanum tuberos...hytophthor... 52 0.048 1 ( CF858202 ) psMY010iA08r Agriculture Canada Phytophthora soja... 52 0.048 1 ( CF85...8120 ) psMY008iH11r Agriculture Canada Phytophthora soja... 52 0.048 1 ( CF857916 ) psMY006iB06r Agriculture...01618 ) MM10_C09 Young roots probed with 3 week old root ... 54 5e-05 2 ( EG552289 ) MM04F20_RP Sugar Beet germination cDNA library... Be... 54 5e-05 2 ( EG552173 ) MM04F20_XP Sugar Beet germination cDNA library

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06875-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available . 44 3.6 1 ( DW405755 ) EST000176 Trichophyton rubrum cDNA library Tricho... 44 3.6 1 ( AU269367 ) Dictyostelium discoideum vegetati...5aa06.g2 hhd Oryza coarctata genomic clone ... 46 0.91 1 ( EV115075 ) 0120387 Brassica napus Root library Brassic...ES Homo sapiens cDNA 5', mRNA ... 46 0.91 1 ( CF872366 ) tric002xo14.b11 T.reesei mycelial culture...4 3.6 1 ( ES282448 ) PQ037G01.XT7 non-sporulating culture of P. brassi... 44 3.6 1 ( EL772758 ) Plate_11b_G10 Hibernati...ng 13-lined squirrel brain... 44 3.6 1 ( EC618786 ) S_F11_a1_093.ab1 Rabbit heart cDNA library Or

  20. Assessment of interferon-related biomarkers in Aicardi-Goutières syndrome associated with mutations in TREX1, RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, RNASEH2C, SAMHD1, and ADAR: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Gillian I; Forte, Gabriella M A; Szynkiewicz, Marcin; Chase, Diana S; Aeby, Alec; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed S; Ackroyd, Sam; Allcock, Rebecca; Bailey, Kathryn M; Balottin, Umberto; Barnerias, Christine; Bernard, Genevieve; Bodemer, Christine; Botella, Maria P; Cereda, Cristina; Chandler, Kate E; Dabydeen, Lyvia; Dale, Russell C; De Laet, Corinne; De Goede, Christian G E L; Del Toro, Mireia; Effat, Laila; Enamorado, Noemi Nunez; Fazzi, Elisa; Gener, Blanca; Haldre, Madli; Lin, Jean-Pierre S-M; Livingston, John H; Lourenco, Charles Marques; Marques, Wilson; Oades, Patrick; Peterson, Pärt; Rasmussen, Magnhild; Roubertie, Agathe; Schmidt, Johanna Loewenstein; Shalev, Stavit A; Simon, Rogelio; Spiegel, Ronen; Swoboda, Kathryn J; Temtamy, Samia A; Vassallo, Grace; Vilain, Catheline N; Vogt, Julie; Wermenbol, Vanessa; Whitehouse, William P; Soler, Doriette; Olivieri, Ivana; Orcesi, Simona; Aglan, Mona S; Zaki, Maha S; Abdel-Salam, Ghada M H; Vanderver, Adeline; Kisand, Kai; Rozenberg, Flore; Lebon, Pierre; Crow, Yanick J

    2013-12-01

    Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is an inflammatory disorder caused by mutations in any of six genes (TREX1, RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, RNASEH2C, SAMHD1, and ADAR). The disease is severe and effective treatments are urgently needed. We investigated the status of interferon-related biomarkers in patients with AGS with a view to future use in diagnosis and clinical trials. In this case-control study, samples were collected prospectively from patients with mutation-proven AGS. The expression of six interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) was measured by quantitative PCR, and the median fold change, when compared with the median of healthy controls, was used to create an interferon score for each patient. Scores higher than the mean of controls plus two SD (>2·466) were designated as positive. Additionally, we collated historical data for interferon activity, measured with a viral cytopathic assay, in CSF and serum from mutation-positive patients with AGS. We also undertook neutralisation assays of interferon activity in serum, and looked for the presence of autoantibodies against a panel of interferon proteins. 74 (90%) of 82 patients had a positive interferon score (median 12·90, IQR 6·14-20·41) compared with two (7%) of 29 controls (median 0·93, IQR 0·57-1·30). Of the eight patients with a negative interferon score, seven had mutations in RNASEH2B (seven [27%] of all 26 patients with mutations in this gene). Repeat sampling in 16 patients was consistent for the presence or absence of an interferon signature on 39 of 41 occasions. Interferon activity (tested in 147 patients) was negatively correlated with age (CSF, r=-0·604; serum, r=-0·289), and was higher in CSF than in serum in 104 of 136 paired samples. Neutralisation assays suggested that measurable antiviral activity was related to interferon α production. We did not record significantly increased concentrations of autoantibodies to interferon subtypes in patients with AGS, or an association between the presence

  1. Impact of corpulence parameters and haemoglobin A1c on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We assessed the utility of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in metabolic control for type 2 diabetic patients. ... The apoB/apoA-I ratio was more correlated with postprandial TC/HDL and LDL-c/HDL-c ratios in men and with postprandial TG/HDL-c in women.

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05312-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 246 ) PDUts1124F05 Porcine testis cDNA library I Sus sc... 48 0.32 1 ( CT631096 ) Danio rerio EST, clone ZF_mu... 46 1.2 1 ( CV877151 ) PDUts1160G12 Porcine testis cDNA library I Sus sc... 46 1.2 1 ( CT729188 ) Danio rerio EST, clone ZF_mu... 44 4.9 1 ( CV865498 ) PDUts1018G06 Porcine testis cDNA library I Sus sc... 44 4.9 1 ( CT735187 ) Danio rerio EST, clone ZF_mu...774433 ) McClintock41_B07.ab1 Homarus EST library project ... 54 0.005 1 ( AU269391 ) Dictyostelium discoideum vegetati...1 3'. 46 1.2 1 ( CK415565 ) AUF_IpPit_32_p21 Pituitary cDNA library Ictalurus...

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03961-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 11761 ) Cm_mx0_73c09_SP6 Green Shore Crab Multiple Tissue... 44 3.8 1 ( DT748983 ) EST1182832 Aquilegia cDNA library....5 2 ( DT740690 ) EST1174539 Aquilegia cDNA library Aquilegia formo... 32 6.6 2 ( AC179512 ) Strongylocentrotus purpuratu..... 46 0.95 1 ( DT735794 ) EST1169643 Aquilegia cDNA library Aquilegia formo... 46 0.95 1 ( AU060865 ) Dictyo...ne ... 46 0.95 1 ( CN914822 ) 030115ABNB002055HT (ABNB) Braeburn cultured fruit... 46 0.95 1 ( CJ977926 ) Bursaphelenchus mucronatu... Grape Berry pSPORT1 Library Vitis ... 44 3.8 1 ( CF118211 ) fs326.z1 fs 103-105d fetal sheep skin library

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03911-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) lag90e01.y1 Colon epithelia progenitors cDNA Mus ... 64 3e-13 2 ( AV452059 ) Mus musculus cDNA, Abe mouse ES cell cDNA library..... 64 8e-14 2 ( DT212191 ) N124_F10 Non embryogenic SSH library Cichorium in... 46 1e-13 4 ( DJ025875 ) Geno...eatus... 66 7e-12 2 ( AW739394 ) gb41d01.y1 Moss EST library PPN Physcomitrella pa... ...78 1e-11 2 ( BI741051 ) gc93a05.y1 Moss EST library PPN Physcomitrella pa... 78 1...10 2 ( BI741781 ) gc90g06.y1 Moss EST library PPN Physcomitrella pa... 74 2e-10 2 ( BU965247 ) sat08a12.y1 G

  5. Studies on the Total Synthesis of Amphidinolide O (II): A Stereoselective Synthesis of C1-C11 Fragment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Mi Yeon; Kim, Jong Woo; Lee, Duck Hyung [Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-10-15

    Two ketones and, the C1-C11 fragment of Amphidinolide O, were prepared stereoselectively via 14 and 16 step sequences in 8.7% and 2.0% overall yield, respectively. The amphidinolides were isolated from the marine dinoflagellate Amphidinium sp., which produces a host of secondary metabolites endowed with potent cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines. Amphidinolide O displayed potent in vitro cytotoxicity against L1210 marine leukemia cells and human epidermoid carcinoma KB cells with 1.7 and 3.6 μg/mL of IC50s, respectively. In addition to our recent reports regarding to the synthesis of C12-C17 and C3-C11 fragments of amphidinolide O, we describe herein a new route to diastereoselective synthesis of C1-C11 fragment of. The retrosynthetic analysis of led to the C1-C11 fragment and C12-C17 fragment. The hemiketal was expected from acyclic precursor 4 which, in turn, would be derived by diastereoselective aldol reaction between ketone and aldehyde.

  6. Synthesis of dimethyl-1,1 guanylguanidine-{sup 14}C-2,4 (dimethyl-1-1 biguanide) hydrochloride; Synthese du chlorhydrate de dimethyl-1,1 guanylguanidine {sup 14}C-2,4 (dimethyl-1-1 biguanide)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert, M; Pichat, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    A description of the synthesis of dimethyl-1,1 guanylguanidine-{sup 14}C-2,4 hydrochloride passing through the {sup 14}C{sub 2} dicyandiamide. The overall yield with respect to Ba{sup 14}CO{sub 3} is 38 per cent. (author) [French] Description de la synthese du chlorhydrate de dimethyl-1,1 guanylguanidine {sup 14}C-2,4 par l'intermediaire de la dicyandiamide {sup 14}C{sub 2}. Le rendement global par rapport a {sup 14}CO{sub 3}Ba est de 38 pour cent. (auteur)

  7. Cystatin C: a novel predictor of outcome in suspected or confirmed non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernberg, Tomas; Lindahl, Bertil; James, Stefan; Larsson, Anders; Hansson, Lars-Olof; Wallentin, Lars

    2004-10-19

    Patients with suspected or confirmed non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (ACS) constitute a large and heterogeneous group. Measurements of renal function such as serum creatinine and estimation of creatinine clearance carry independent prognostic information in this population. Cystatin C is a new and better marker of renal function than creatinine. The aim was therefore to evaluate the prognostic value of cystatin C in this population. Cystatin C was analyzed on admission in 726 patients admitted because of symptoms suggestive of an acute coronary syndrome and no ST-segment elevations. Patients were followed up with regard to death and myocardial infarction for a median of 40 and 6 months, respectively. The median cystatin C level was 1.00 mg/L (25th to 75th percentile, 0.83 to 1.24 mg/L). The risk of death during follow-up increased with increasing levels of cystatin C. In the group with non-ST-elevation ACS, patients in the second, third, and fourth quartiles had a relative risk of subsequent death of 1.8 (95% CI, 0.6 to 5.3), 3.2 (95% CI, 1.2 to 8.5), and 11.7 (95% CI, 4.7 to 29.3) compared with the lowest quartile. In Cox regression models including well-known predictors of outcome, cystatin C level was independently associated with mortality but not with the risk of subsequent myocardial infarction. In a comparison of the markers of renal function in receiver-operating curve analyses, cystatin C had the best ability to discriminate between survivors and nonsurvivors. A single measurement of cystatin C will substantially improve the early risk stratification of patients with suspected or confirmed non-ST-elevation ACS.

  8. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(6)-1 - Depreciation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Depreciation method. 1.381(c)(6)-1 Section 1.381... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(6)-1 Depreciation method. (a) Carryover... corporation which computes its allowance for the depreciation of the property under section 167(b)(2), (3), or...

  9. Chymotrypsinogen C Genetic Variants, Including c.180TT, Are Strongly Associated With Chronic Pancreatitis in Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabarczyk, Alicja Monika; Oracz, Grzegorz; Wertheim-Tysarowska, Katarzyna; Kujko, Aleksandra Anna; Wejnarska, Karolina; Kolodziejczyk, Elwira; Bal, Jerzy; Koziel, Dorota; Kowalik, Artur; Gluszek, Stanislaw; Rygiel, Agnieszka Magdalena

    2017-12-01

    Genetic studies in adults/adolescent patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) identified chymotrypsinogen C (CTRC) genetic variants but their association with CP risk has been difficult to replicate. To evaluate the risk of CP associated with CTRC variants in CP pediatric patients-control study. The distribution of CTRC variants in CP pediatric cohort (n = 136, median age at CP onset 8 years) with no history of alcohol/smoking abuse was compared with controls (n = 401, median age 45). We showed that p.Arg254Trp (4.6%) and p.Lys247_Arg254del (5.3%) heterozygous mutations are frequent and significantly associated with CP risk in pediatric patients (odds ratio [OR] = 19.1; 95% CI 2.8-160; P = 0.001 and OR = 5.5; 95% CI 1.6-19.4; P = 0.001, respectively). For the first time, we demonstrated that the c.180TT genotype of common p.Gly60Gly variant is strong, an independent CP risk factor (OR = 23; 95% CI 7.7-70; P A variant, both CA and AA genotype, is significantly underrepresented in CP compared with controls (15% vs 35%; OR = 0.33; 95% CI 0.19-0.59; P risk factors. The c.493+51C>A variant may play a protective role against CP development.

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U02963-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3 ( CK246139 ) EST729776 potato callus cDNA library, normalized ... 36 0.066 2 ( CK260957 ) EST707035 potato abiotic stress cDNA libr...ary Sola... 36 0.066 2 ( CK264509 ) EST710587 potato abiotic stress cDNA library So...la... 36 0.066 2 ( CK270438 ) EST716516 potato abiotic stress cDNA library Sola.....e-12 3 ( FD432325 ) Atr01b_127_E02_C010.g1 FGP Male Amborella trichop... 50 4e-09 2 ( CF450348 ) EST686693 normalized cDNA library...GE498851 ) CCFT1427.b1_E22.ab1 CCF(STU) sunflower Helianthus... 42 0.005 2 ( DV105288 ) chiou01187 Subtractive cDNA library

  11. Association of Hemoglobin A1c and Wound Healing in Diabetic Foot Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesseha, Betiel K; Abularrage, Christopher J; Hines, Kathryn F; Sherman, Ronald; Frost, Priscilla; Langan, Susan; Canner, Joseph; Likes, Kendall C; Hosseini, Sayed M; Jack, Gwendolyne; Hicks, Caitlin W; Yalamanchi, Swaytha; Mathioudakis, Nestoras

    2018-04-16

    This study evaluated the association between hemoglobin A 1c (A1C) and wound outcomes in patients with diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). We conducted a retrospective analysis of an ongoing prospective, clinic-based study of patients with DFUs treated at an academic institution during a 4.7-year period. Data from 270 participants and 584 wounds were included in the analysis. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess the incidence of wound healing at any follow-up time in relation to categories of baseline A1C and the incidence of long-term (≥90 days) wound healing in relation to tertiles of nadir A1C change and mean A1C change from baseline, adjusted for potential confounders. Baseline A1C was not associated with wound healing in univariate or fully adjusted models. Compared with a nadir A1C change from baseline of -0.29 to 0.0 (tertile 2), a nadir A1C change of 0.09 to 2.4 (tertile 3) was positively associated with long-term wound healing in the subset of participants with baseline A1C healing was seen with the mean A1C change from baseline in this group. Neither nadir A1C change nor mean A1C change were associated with long-term wound healing in participants with baseline A1C ≥7.5%. There does not appear to be a clinically meaningful association between baseline or prospective A1C and wound healing in patients with DFUs. The paradoxical finding of accelerated wound healing and increase in A1C in participants with better baseline glycemic control requires confirmation in further studies. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04229-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9 ) HAE00002983 Home-made, regular (lib1_ha) Histiona... 44 0.001 2 ( CK888692 ) SGP160684 Atlantic salmon Liver cDNA library...2 ( DE224908 ) Trifolium pratense DNA, clone:RCG16896. 42 4e-04 2 ( CK888010 ) SGP149211 Atlantic salmon Liver cDNA library...A for TCP1 protein. 46 6e-04 2 ( CK887535 ) SGP164401 Atlantic salmon Kidney cDNA library Sal... 44 6e-04 2 ...mo salar cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 0.001 2 ( CK889382 ) SGP161400 Atlantic salmon Liver cDNA library Salm... 4... salmon Liver cDNA library Salm... 44 0.001 2 ( CK888710 ) SGP160704 Atlantic salmon Liver cDNA library

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U00601-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e:dda23b14, 5' ... 452 e-122 1 ( FG289858 ) 1108793308037 New World Screwworm Egg... 9261 ESTs C... 58 6e-14 3 ( FG283439 ) 1108770613896 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 58 7e-14 3 ( FG...290424 ) 1108793318269 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 58 8e-14 3 ( FG284161 ) 1108770655999 New World... Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 58 1e-12 3 ( FG290204 ) 1108793315322 New World Sc...e-05 3 ( FG288148 ) 1108793263397 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 58 1e-04 2 ( EW760907 ) sb_009_12G1

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U02520-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) KBrH001K21F KBrH, Brassica rapa HindIII BAC libra... 46 3.3 1 ( CT538104 ) A BAC library has been constructed from culti...1 ( DR026249 ) Osmo00116 F. cylindrus osmotic stress library Fra... 46 3.3 1 ( DN805411 ) 76947238 Sea Urchi...( CV793140 ) c-030216-1w_E04.abd cDNA library of Tamarix andro... 46 3.3 1 ( CV672849 ) RET7SJ_07D06.T7 Schistosoma japonicum re...012 2 ( CK416159 ) AUF_IpPit_34_o05 Pituitary cDNA library Ictalurus... 54 0.013 1 ( FE840166 ) CCAG48972.g1...99 ) NF075H11EC1F1095 Elicited cell culture Medicago t... 48 0.20 2 ( BF647354 ) NF075A06EC1F1040 Elicited cell culture Medic

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04515-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _L3A_SL1 Nippo... 46 0.008 2 ( FG287049 ) 1108770728167 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 46 0.009 2 ( ...FG294927 ) 1108770721339 New World Screwworm Larvae 9387 EST... 46 0.009 2 ( FG28...9781 ) 1108793305302 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 46 0.009 2 ( CK096156 ) UA48BPF09.3pR Populus do...09 1 ( BU819882 ) UA48BPF09 Populus tremula cambium cDNA library Po... 54 0.009 1 ( FG288449 ) 1108793271723 New World... Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 46 0.010 2 ( FG299008 ) 1108793324740 New World Screwworm Larvae 938

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01649-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... 54 0.009 1 ( FL645158 ) TS48-B12 Reticulitermes flavipes symbiont library...um slug cDNA, clone SSL339. 357 5e-94 1 ( CX086000 ) EHACD50TR E. histolytica Normalized cDNA library... ... 86 5e-21 3 ( CX079571 ) EHAA042TF E. histolytica Normalized cDNA library ... 86 6e-...21 3 ( CX089649 ) EHAE215TR E. histolytica Normalized cDNA library ... 86 6e-21 3 ( CX098388 ) EHAHL09TR E. histolytic...a Normalized cDNA library ... 86 7e-21 3 ( CX095481 ) EHAGE33TR E. histolytic

  17. A biological inspired fuzzy adaptive window median filter (FAWMF) for enhancing DNA signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muneer; Jung, Low Tan; Bhuiyan, Al-Amin

    2017-10-01

    Digital signal processing techniques commonly employ fixed length window filters to process the signal contents. DNA signals differ in characteristics from common digital signals since they carry nucleotides as contents. The nucleotides own genetic code context and fuzzy behaviors due to their special structure and order in DNA strand. Employing conventional fixed length window filters for DNA signal processing produce spectral leakage and hence results in signal noise. A biological context aware adaptive window filter is required to process the DNA signals. This paper introduces a biological inspired fuzzy adaptive window median filter (FAWMF) which computes the fuzzy membership strength of nucleotides in each slide of window and filters nucleotides based on median filtering with a combination of s-shaped and z-shaped filters. Since coding regions cause 3-base periodicity by an unbalanced nucleotides' distribution producing a relatively high bias for nucleotides' usage, such fundamental characteristic of nucleotides has been exploited in FAWMF to suppress the signal noise. Along with adaptive response of FAWMF, a strong correlation between median nucleotides and the Π shaped filter was observed which produced enhanced discrimination between coding and non-coding regions contrary to fixed length conventional window filters. The proposed FAWMF attains a significant enhancement in coding regions identification i.e. 40% to 125% as compared to other conventional window filters tested over more than 250 benchmarked and randomly taken DNA datasets of different organisms. This study proves that conventional fixed length window filters applied to DNA signals do not achieve significant results since the nucleotides carry genetic code context. The proposed FAWMF algorithm is adaptive and outperforms significantly to process DNA signal contents. The algorithm applied to variety of DNA datasets produced noteworthy discrimination between coding and non-coding regions contrary

  18. HbA1c as a predictor of diabetes after gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claesson, Rickard; Ignell, Claes; Shaat, Nael; Berntorp, Kerstin

    2017-02-01

    We wanted to investigate third-trimester HbA1c as a predictor of diabetes after gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Women with GDM were followed up prospectively for five years from pregnancy to detect the development of diabetes. The ability of HbA1c to predict diabetes was evaluated with receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves and logistic regression analysis. By five years, 73 of 196 women had been diagnosed with diabetes. An optimal cut-off point for HbA1c of 36mmol/mol (5.4%) could predict diabetes with 45% sensitivity and 92% specificity. For HbA1c ≥39mmol/mol (≥5.7%), sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value were 30%, 97%, and 91%, respectively. In logistic regression analysis, adjusting for the diagnostic glucose concentration during pregnancy, HbA1c levels in the upper quartile (≥36mmol/mol) were associated with a 5.5-fold increased risk of diabetes. Third-trimester HbA1c levels in the pre-diabetes range revealed women with post-partum diabetes with high specificity and high positive predictive value. HbA1c testing could be used as a strategy to select high-risk women for lifestyle interventions aimed at prevention of diabetes starting during pregnancy. The results should encourage further validation in other populations using new diagnostic criteria for GDM. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Isotopic ages of rocks along the Median Tectonic Line in the Yoshino area, Nara Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Ken; Sugiyama, Yuichi; Uchiumi, Shigeru; Takagi, Hideo.

    1988-01-01

    K-Ar, Rb-Sr and fission-track age determinations were carried out on rocks along the Median Tectonic Line (MTL) in the Yoshino area, Nara Prefecture. K-Ar ages on th Ryoke granitic rocks range from 35.3 to 75.9 Ma. Within about 1000 m of MTL the ages decrease toward MTL, probably caused by the hydrothermal alteration associated with cataclasis. The Takamiyama acidic rocks give a K-Ar age of 12.8 Ma. The cooling rate of the granitic rocks, calculated from K-Ar ages and closure temperatures of minerals, is 23 - 27degC/Ma. K-Ar ages for muscovites from pelitic schists in the Sambagawa belt are 62.3 - 69.4 Ma, whereas K-Ar whole-rock ages for phyllites in the Shimanto belt are 57.1 - 76.7 Ma; decrease in age is not observed even near MTL. Rb-Sr ages for muscovites from the schists are 70.4 and 72.5 Ma, which are assumed to indicate the time of metamorphism. The phyllites give a Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron age of 77.1±6.1 Ma, which is interpreted to represent the time of diagenesis or weak metamorphism. Fission-track ages for zircons from the Ryoke granitic rocks range from 37.0 to 68.2 Ma and decrease toward MTL. Fission-track ages of zircon are generally close to K-Ar ages of K-feldspar for the same rocks. From this fact the closure temperature for zircon is estimated to be lower than 200degC. The fine fractions (<2μm) separated from MTL fault gouges at Michaya and Takamiyama give K-Ar ages of 36.7 and 18.3 Ma, respectively. These ages probably represent the time of hydrothermal alteration following the major fault movement of MTL associated with cataclasis. (author)

  20. Promoter trans-activation of protooncogenes c-fos and c-myc, but not c-Ha-ras, by products of adenovirus early region 1A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sassone-Corsi, P.; Borrelli, E.

    1987-01-01

    The E1A (early region 1A) oncogene products of adenovirus type 2 trans-activate the other early viral transcription units, as well as some cellular promoters. Using a short-term cotransfection assay in murine NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, we show that c-fos and c-myc promoter activities are stimulated by the E1A proteins, whereas c-Ha-ras transcription is not affected. The product of E1A 13S mRNA is responsible for the trans-activation, whereas the 12S mRNA product has no effect. Analysis of the c-fos promoter sequences required for the E1A stimulation shows that responsive sequences are located between positions -402 and -240 upstream of the transcription initiation site. This same region also contains the c-fos serum-responsive element. Furthermore, transcription of the endogenous c-fos gene in HeLa cells is increased after E1A transfection

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03338-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) 486099E06.x1 486 - leaf primordia cDNA library fr... 155 1e-33 1 ( FL885969 ) CCGN6504.b1 CCGN Panicum virgatum eti...( CF272843 ) EST3049 Zea mays sperm cell cDNA library Zea mays... 105 1e-18 1 ( FE623651 ) CBYY4925.g1 CBYY Panicum virgatu...22B2F04.f1 BG01 - normalized library Leymus ... 266 1e-90 2 ( EX580446 ) HDP26H23w HDP Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare... 2 ( EX571824 ) HDP35N10T HDP Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare cDNA... 287 5e-90 2 ( CV056143 ) BNEL14D8 Barley EST endosperm library... rachis EST library... 161 2e-35 1 ( AU173547 ) Oryza sativa Japonica Group cDNA, parti

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05011-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4 1.0 3 ( FG289817 ) 1108793307980 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 38 1.3 3 ( AC176252 ) Strongylocen...trotus purpuratus clone R3-3060I22, W... 40 1.3 4 ( FG290522 ) 1108793323765 New World... Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 38 1.4 3 ( FG286635 ) 1108770723708 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C..

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03161-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1 v1 Meloidog... 44 1.6 1 ( FG284560 ) 1108770677796 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 44 1.6 1 ( FG284...300 ) 1108770663835 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 44 1.6 1 ( CP000123 ) Mycoplasma capricolum subsp

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03977-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available UENCIN... 46 0.54 1 ( EJ262742 ) 1095349052134 Global-Ocean-Sampling_GS-27-01-01-1... 46 0.54 1 ( FG292901 ) 1108770646510 New World... 44 2.1 1 ( FG289260 ) 1108793295624 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 44 2.1 1 ( FG284108 ) 1108770655932 New World... Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 44 2.1 1 ( FG283637 ) 1108770632294 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ...romosome 2 clone T32F12 ma... 38 7.0 2 ( FG284740 ) 1108770680364 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 38

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04201-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ( CN212621 ) 26120 Suspension culture Solanum tuberosum cDNA, ... 58 6e-04 1 ( BU880962 ) UM57TA10 Populus flower cDNA library...m cD... 58 6e-08 2 ( EX067768 ) BR052412 pollen cDNA library KBPL Brassica rapa s... 48 8e-08 3 ( EX122995 ) BR106825 mature gre...2 ( EX137140 ) BR120970 root cDNA library KHRT Brassica rapa sub... 48 1e-07 3 ( EX124319 ) BR108149 matur...5', mRNA ... 48 2e-07 2 ( BU822514 ) UB38BPG02 Populus tremula cambium cDNA library Po... 58 4e-07 2 ( EX032...U359299_1( EU359299 |pid:none) Rickettsia helvetica isolate 73-3-... 171 3e-41 EU543436_1( EU543436 |pid:none) Uncultured Ric

  6. R-1 (C-620-A) and R-2 (C-620-B) air compressor control logic, computer software description. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides an updated computer software description for the software used on the FFTF R-1 (C-620-A) and R-2 (C-620-B) air compressor programmable controllers. Logic software design changes were required to allow automatic starting of a compressor that had not been previously started

  7. A pilot interventional study to evaluate the impact of cholecalciferol treatment on HbA1c in type 1 diabetes (T1D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Perchard

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Higher 25(OHD3 levels are associated with lower HbA1c, but there are limited UK interventional trials assessing the effect of cholecalciferol on HbA1c. Aims: (1 To assess the baseline 25(OHD3 status in a Manchester cohort of children with type 1 diabetes (T1D. (2 To determine the effect of cholecalciferol administration on HbA1c. Methods: Children with T1D attending routine clinic appointments over three months in late winter/early spring had blood samples taken with consent. Participants with a 25(OHD3 level 10 years units. HbA1c levels before and after treatment were recorded. Results: Vitamin D levels were obtained from 51 children. 35 were Caucasian, 11 South Asian and 5 from other ethnic groups. 42 were vitamin D deficient, but 2 were excluded from the analysis. All South Asian children were vitamin D deficient, with mean 25(OHD3 of 28 nmol/L. In Caucasians, there was a negative relationship between baseline 25(OHD3 level and HbA1c (r = −0.484, P < 0.01. In treated participants, there was no significant difference in mean HbA1c at 3 months (t = 1.010, P = 0.328 or at 1 year (t = −1.173, P = 0.248 before and after treatment. One-way ANCOVA, controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, BMI and diabetes duration showed no difference in Δ HbA1c level. Conclusion: We report important findings at baseline, but in children treated with a stat dose of cholecalciferol, there was no effect on HbA1c. Further studies with larger sample sizes and using maintenance therapy are required.

  8. Distinct HbA1c trajectories in a type 2 diabetes cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, I.; Mast, M.R.; Hoekstra, T.; Jansen, A.P.D.; van der Heijden, A.A.W.A.; Rauh, S.P.; Rutters, F.; van 't Riet, E.; Elders, P.J.M.; Moll, A.C.; Polak, B.C.P.; Dekker, J.M.; Nijpels, G.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to identify subgroups of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with distinct hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) trajectories. Subgroup characteristics were determined and the prevalence of microvascular complications over time was investigated. Study design and setting: Data from a

  9. The somatic FAH C.1061C>A change counteracts the frequent FAH c.1062+5G>A mutation and permits U1snRNA-based splicing correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalet, Daniela; Sacchetto, Claudia; Bernardi, Francesco; Pinotti, Mirko; van de Graaf, Stan F J; Balestra, Dario

    2018-05-01

    In tyrosinaemia type 1(HT1), a mosaic pattern of fumarylacetoacetase (FAH) immunopositive or immunonegative nodules in liver tissue has been reported in many patients. This aspect is generally explained by a spontaneous reversion of the mutation into a normal genotype. In one HT1 patient carrying the frequent FAH c.1062+5G>A mutation, a second somatic change (c.1061C>A) has been reported in the same allele, and found in immunopositive nodules. Here, we demonstrated that the c.1062+5G>A prevents usage of the exon 12 5' splice site (ss), even when forced by an engineered U1snRNA specifically designed on the FAH 5'ss to strengthen its recognition. Noticeably the new somatic c.1061C>A change, in linkage with the c.1062+5G>A mutation, partially rescues the defective 5'ss and is associated to trace level (~5%) of correct transcripts. Interestingly, this combined genetic condition strongly favored the rescue by the engineered U1snRNA, with correct transcripts reaching up to 60%. Altogether, these findings elucidate the molecular basis of HT1 caused by the frequent FAH c.1062+5G>A mutation, and demonstrate the compensatory effect of the c.1061C>A change in promoting exon definition, thus unraveling a rare mechanism leading to FAH immune-reactive mosaicism.

  10. Nuorten sosiaalisen median käyttö seurustelusuhteissa : "Onksiul snappii, kikkii tai whatsappii?"

    OpenAIRE

    Pöllänen, Kati

    2016-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin nuorten sosiaalisen median käyttöä seurustelusuhteissa. Seurustelusuhteella tarkoitetaan kahden toisistaan pitävän ihmisen romanttista suhdetta. Työssä tarkasteltiin keskinuorten ja myöhäisnuorten käyttämiä sosiaalisen median sovelluksia, käyttömääriä ja –tapoja. Lisäksi selvitettiin, millainen rooli sosiaalisella medialla on seurustelusuhteen eri vaiheissa. Työssä tutustuttiin nuorten sosiaalisen median käyttöön kenttätutkimuksella, jossa nu...

  11. Adhesion and fracture toughness at α-Ti(0 0 0 1)/TiC(1 1 1): A first-principles investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jian; Yang, Yanqing; Feng, Guanghai; Luo, Xian; Sun, Qing; Jin, Na

    2013-01-01

    The interfacial properties of α-Ti(0 0 0 1)/TiC(1 1 1) interface, such as adhesion, interface energy, interfacial fracture toughness, bonding nature, are investigated using first-principles calculations. Six interface models with different TiC(1 1 1) termination and stacking sites are investigated to clarify their influence on the interfacial stability and adhesion strength. C-terminated-hollow-site and Ti-terminated-center-site models exhibit identical epitaxial stacking style after fully relaxation, and can be regarded as the Ti and TiC sides of the most stable and strongest interface. The possible negative interface energy indicates the interfacial diffusion, and even new phase formation, is likely to happen across the interface. The largest interfacial fracture toughness is estimated about 4.8 MPa m 1/2 . The valence electron density and partial density of states (PDOS) indicate that its interfacial bonding is mainly contributed from C-Ti covalent bonds and Ti-Ti metallic interaction.

  12. Melatonin receptor genes (mel-1a, mel-1b, mel-1c) are differentially expressed in the avian germ line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Takaharu; Stepińska, Urszula; Kuwana, Takashi; Olszańska, Bozenna

    2008-09-01

    The presence of melatonin receptor transcripts (mel-1a, mel-1b and mel-1c) was investigated in primordial germ cells (PGCs), immature and mature oocytes, and sperm of Japanese quail by reverse transcription--polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The mel-1a transcript was detected in as few as in a thousand PGCs. Significant differences in the expression of melatonin receptor genes were found in differentiating germ cells: in PGCs only the mel-1a receptor was expressed, in blastoderms and immature oocytes all three transcripts (mel-1a, mel-1b, mel-1c) were present, while in mature ovulated oocytes the predominant transcript was mel-1c (with sporadic occurrence of mel-1a and mel-1b). In sperm, mel-1a and mel-1c were present but mel-1b was absent. This indicates that the expression of melatonin receptor genes changes throughout the differentiation of PGCs into adult gametes: during oocyte differentiation two additional transcripts, mel-1b and mel-1c, are synthesized in addition to mel-1a, but at oocyte maturation, mel-1a and mel-1b are degraded and only mel-1c remains. During male line (spermatozoa) differentiation mel-1c is transcribed in addition to mel-1a, with mel-1b being completely absent. Since melatonin and the activities of enzymes participating in melatonin synthesis are present in the avian yolk, it is reasonable to suggest a role for this molecule in early avian development and germ line differentiation. We propose that melatonin may act as a signaling molecule regulating some differentiation processes (e.g., cell proliferation, migration, etc.) before the formation of neural and hormonal systems.

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05360-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ent library ... 74 1e-08 1 ( DY584577 ) C014-F9 Acropora millepora presettlement li...-08 1 ( EK287310 ) 1095462317178 Global-Ocean-Sampling_GS-31-01-01-1... 74 1e-08 1 ( DY585529 ) C009-D1 Acropora millepora presettlem

  14. Should Studies of Diabetes Treatment Stratification Correct for Baseline HbA1c?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Angus G.; Lonergan, Mike; Henley, William E.; Pearson, Ewan R.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Shields, Beverley M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Baseline HbA1c is a major predictor of response to glucose lowering therapy and therefore a potential confounder in studies aiming to identify other predictors. However, baseline adjustment may introduce error if the association between baseline HbA1c and response is substantially due to measurement error and regression to the mean. We aimed to determine whether studies of predictors of response should adjust for baseline HbA1c. Methods We assessed the relationship between baseline HbA1c and glycaemic response in 257 participants treated with GLP-1R agonists and assessed whether it reflected measurement error and regression to the mean using duplicate ‘pre-baseline’ HbA1c measurements not included in the response variable. In this cohort and an additional 2659 participants treated with sulfonylureas we assessed the relationship between covariates associated with baseline HbA1c and treatment response with and without baseline adjustment, and with a bias correction using pre-baseline HbA1c to adjust for the effects of error in baseline HbA1c. Results Baseline HbA1c was a major predictor of response (R2 = 0.19,β = -0.44,pHbA1c were associated with response, however these associations were weak or absent after adjustment for baseline HbA1c. Bias correction did not substantially alter associations. Conclusions Adjustment for the baseline HbA1c measurement is a simple and effective way to reduce bias in studies of predictors of response to glucose lowering therapy. PMID:27050911

  15. Median sternotomy for double lung transplantation with cardiopulmonary bypass in seven consecutive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohno, Mitsutomo; Steinbrüchel, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    We describe our technique of using median sternotomy to perform double lung transplantations with cardiopulmonary bypass. By sparing the respiratory muscles, median sternotomy is probably less invasive and preserves lung function. Furthermore, it causes less long-term discomfort than intercostal...

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04975-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6227.fwd CAWX Helobdella robusta Primary Ear... 34 3.5 2 ( DY542495 ) HPO-N-S01-0370-LF Hematopoietic cDNA library...0.95 2 ( DT742604 ) EST1176453 Aquilegia cDNA library Aquilegia formo... 36 0.95 2 ( AC178959 ) Strongylocentrotus purpuratu...43 ) EST1164393 Aquilegia cDNA library Aquilegia formo... 48 0.037 2 ( AC115684 ) Dictyostelium discoideum c...36815 ) MM2_2_4_C09 Sugar beet 10-week GH root cDNA Beta ... 50 0.087 1 ( CF886656 ) tric084xc11.b1 T.reesei mycelial culture..., Version... 50 0.087 1 ( CB907997 ) tric084xc11 T.reesei mycelial culture

  17. A facile synthesis of sodium 3-[1-[sup 14]C]-ethyl-7-isopropyl-1-azulenesulfonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Takeshi; Yanagisawa, Takashi; Tomiyama, Tsuyoshi [Kotobuki Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Nagano (Japan). Research Labs.; Okazaki, Mitsuo [Shinshu Univ., Nagano (Japan). Dept. of Applied Biology

    1994-01-01

    Sodium 3-ethyl-7-isopropyl-1-azulenesulfonate 1, a new therapeutic agent for stomatitis, pharyngitis and ophthalmia was labelled with carbon-14 in the ethyl group attached to the azulene ring for use in metabolic studies. [sup 14]C-labelled 1 with a specific activity of 1.98 GBq/mmol was prepared in four steps in 39.3% overall chemical yield from [1-[sup 14]C]acetic acid sodium salt. (Author).

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U00509-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ajus EST, clone 018_5_01_j09. 46 2.5 1 ( FG297665 ) 1108793291434 New World Screw...worm Larvae 9387 EST... 46 2.5 1 ( FG290520 ) 1108793323763 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 46 2.5 1 ...( FG290010 ) 1108793313314 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 46 2.5 1 ( FG288325 ) 1108793266235 New World... Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 46 2.5 1 ( FG287243 ) 1108770736009 New World Sc

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16031-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available iella... 54 4e-09 2 ( EX122338 ) BR106168 mature green leaf cDNA library KHLM Bra...a napus Root library Brassica napu... 50 7e-08 3 ( DV185277 ) CT047_B04_CT047_3700_91.ab1 C. tentans tissue cul... 3 ( EH423460 ) OL6023R Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra leaf cD... 54 3e-09 3 ( EX128986 ) BR112816 ovule and silique cDNA library..... 44 6e-07 3 ( EC773501 ) EST 9997 Guarana fruits cDNA library Paullinia cu... 58 6e-07 3 ( EV830362 ) TTSA...visiae chromosome IV reading frame ORF YDR025w. 52 1e-09 3 ( EX054146 ) BR038790 floral buds cDNA library

  20. Analysis of HbA1c on an automated multicapillary zone electrophoresis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollborn, Niclas; Åkerfeldt, Torbjörn; Nordin, Gunnar; Xu, Xiao Yan; Mandic-Havelka, Aleksandra; Hansson, Lars-Olof; Larsson, Anders

    2017-02-01

    Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is a frequently requested laboratory test and there is thus a need for high throughput instruments for this assay. We evaluated a new automated multicapillary zone electrophoresis instrument (Capillarys 3 Tera, Sebia, Lisses, France) for analysis of HbA1c in venous samples. Routine requested HbA1c samples were analyzed immunologically on a Roche c6000 instrument (n = 142) and then with the Capillarys 3 Tera instrument. The Capillarys 3 Tera instrument performed approximately 70 HbA1c tests/hour. There was a strong linear correlation between Capillarys 3 Tera and Roche Tina-Quant HbA1c Gen 3 assay (y = 1.003x - 0.3246 R 2  = .996). The total CV for the 12 capillaries varied between 0.8 and 2.2% and there was a good agreement between duplicate samples (R 2  = .997). In conclusion, the Capillarys 3 Tera instrument has a high assay capacity for HbA1c. It has a good precision and agreement with the Roche Tina-Quant HbA1c method and is well suited for high volume testing of HbA1c.

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06794-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available opus laevis N-acetyltransferase... 179 7e-44 ( P41227 ) RecName: Full=N-terminal acetyltransferase compl...P2... 178 1e-43 (Q9QY36) RecName: Full=N-terminal acetyltransferase complex ARD1... 178 1e-43 AK009697_1( AK...3 (Q9UTI3) RecName: Full=N-terminal acetyltransferase A complex ca... 174 2e-42 D...( AL672002 |pid:none) Mouse DNA sequence from clone RP2... 152 6e-36 ( P07347 ) RecName: Full=N-terminal acetyltransferase A compl...867 |pid:none) Methanococcus maripaludis C6, c... 55 2e-06 ( Q03503 ) RecName: Full=N-terminal acetyltransferase C compl

  2. Characterization of methacetin-methoxy-"1"3C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Weijing; Lu Hao; Yang Weicheng; Liu Weixia; Li Shuai; Xu Zhongjie; Guan Liang; Zhu Chengmo; Chen Suyun; Jiang Lei

    2010-01-01

    Methacetin-methoxy-"1"3C was synthesized by using methanol-"1"3C with a novel method, and the characterization of it was performed using HPLC, LC-MS and "1HMNR. The results indicated that the synthetic was right. And the yield of methacetin-methoxy-"1"3C was 70.0% with 99% "1"3C abundance and 99.8% purity. Compared with the classical method, there was more benefit. The methacetin "1"3C-breath test was performed with the synthetic on the live mice, which showed a precise reflection of alteration of liver function in liver injury and functional recovery. (authors)

  3. Integration of C1 and C2 Metabolism in Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Jardine, Kolby J.; Fernandes de Souza, Vinicius; Oikawa, Patty; Higuchi, Niro; Bill, Markus; Porras, Rachel; Niinemets, Ülo; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.

    2017-01-01

    C1 metabolism in plants is known to be involved in photorespiration, nitrogen and amino acid metabolism, as well as methylation and biosynthesis of metabolites and biopolymers. Although the flux of carbon through the C1 pathway is thought to be large, its intermediates are difficult to measure and relatively little is known about this potentially ubiquitous pathway. In this study, we evaluated the C1 pathway and its integration with the central metabolism using aqueous solutions of 13C-labele...

  4. Discordant expression of pro-B-type and pro-C-type natriuretic peptide in newborn infants of mothers with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Nielsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Søren Junge

    2007-01-01

    CNP-derived peptides in newborn infants. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of proCNP-derived peptides were measured in umbilical cord plasma and human placental tissue extracts using sequence-specific radioimmunoassays raised against N-terminal and C-terminal proCNP regions, respectively. RESULTS: The median pro...... in umbilical cord plasma compared to adult plasma (4.6 vs. 1.1), which parallels our earlier findings for proBNP and BNP peptides. CONCLUSIONS: There is a discordant expression of CNP and BNP peptides in newborn infants of mothers with diabetes. Moreover, fetal metabolism of proCNP and CNP appears to differ...

  5. Camel Milk Modulates the Expression of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Regulated Genes, Cyp1a1, Nqo1, and Gsta1, in Murine hepatoma Hepa 1c1c7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham M. Korashy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a traditional belief in the Middle East that camel milk may aid in prevention and treatment of numerous cases of cancer yet, the exact mechanism was not investigated. Therefore, we examined the ability of camel milk to modulate the expression of a well-known cancer-activating gene, Cytochrome P450 1a1 (Cyp1a1, and cancer-protective genes, NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (Nqo1 and glutathione S-transferase a1 (Gsta1, in murine hepatoma Hepa 1c1c7 cell line. Our results showed that camel milk significantly inhibited the induction of Cyp1a1 gene expression by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, the most potent Cyp1a1 inducer and known carcinogenic chemical, at mRNA, protein, and activity levels in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, camel milk significantly decreased the xenobiotic responsive element (XRE-dependent luciferase activity, suggesting a transcriptional mechanism is involved. Furthermore, this inhibitory effect of camel milk was associated with a proportional increase in heme oxygenase 1. On the other hand, camel milk significantly induced Nqo1 and Gsta1 mRNA expression level in a concentration-dependent fashion. The RNA synthesis inhibitor, actinomycin D, completely blocked the induction of Nqo1 mRNA by camel milk suggesting the requirement of de novo RNA synthesis through a transcriptional mechanism. In conclusion, camel milk modulates the expression of Cyp1a1, Nqo1, and Gsta1 at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels.

  6. High incidence of the median artery of the forearm in a sample of recent southern African cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberg, M; George, B J

    1992-01-01

    Observations of the presence of the median artery, providing substantial blood supply to the hand, were conducted on 96 dissected forearms of 15 adult African females and 49 adult males. The artery has a much higher incidence (27.1%) than previously reported by any author. There is no significant difference in its occurrence between sexes, nor between right and left limbs. The artery seems to occur more often bilaterally than unilaterally. The presence of the artery is not related to age. From a theoretical standpoint it is difficult to accept that a structure present in more than 1 in 4 of individuals should be considered an 'anomaly' or a 'variant'. A different approach to description of normal human anatomy is therefore necessary--that of presenting alternative anatomical patterns of equal standing rather than a single 'normal' pattern. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:1452474

  7. Association between alcohol dehydrogenase 1C gene *1/*2 polymorphism and pancreatitis risk: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, F; Pan, J; Su, G H; Xu, L X; Li, G; Li, Z H; Zhao, H; Wang, J

    2015-11-30

    Numerous studies have focused on the relationship be-tween alcohol dehydrogenase 1C gene (ADH1C) *1/*2 polymorphism (Ile350Val, rs698, also known as ADH1C *1/*2) and pancreatitis risk, but the results have been inconsistent. Thus, we conducted a meta-anal-ysis to more precisely estimate this association. Relevant publications were searched in several widely used databases and 9 eligible studies were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the strength of the association. Significant associations between ADH1C *1/*2 poly-morphism and pancreatitis risk were observed in both overall meta-analysis for 12 vs 22 (OR = 1.53, 95%CI = 1.12-2.10) and 11 + 12 vs 22 (OR = 1.44, 95%CI = 1.07-1.95), and the chronic alcoholic pancre-atitis subgroup for 12 vs 22 (OR = 1.64, 95%CI = 1.17-2.29) and 11 + 12 vs 22 (OR = 1.53, 95%CI = 1.11-2.11). Significant pancreatitis risk variation was also detected in Caucasians for 11 + 12 vs 22 (OR = 1.45, 95%CI = 1.07-1.98). In conclusion, the ADH1C *1/*2 polymorphism is likely associated with pancreatitis risk, particularly chronic alcoholic pancreatitis risk, with the *1 allele functioning as a risk factor.

  8. Results of steroid-based therapy for the hepatitis C-autoimmune hepatitis overlap syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiano, T D; Te, H S; Thomas, R M; Hussain, H; Bond, K; Black, M

    2001-10-01

    Overlap syndromes in which persons manifest clinical, histological, or immunological features of both hepatitis C infection and autoimmune hepatitis are well described. The discordant forms of treatment for hepatitis C and autoimmune hepatitis have made medical management of these patients difficult. We report our experience in using corticosteroids as first line therapy for the hepatitis C-autoimmune hepatitis overlap syndrome. Seven patients with this overlap syndrome (diagnosis based on the presence of serum hepatitis C antibody by RIBA and serum hepatitis C RNA by polymerase chain reaction, and serum hypergammaglobulinemia, elevated ANA or ASMA titers, or histological findings consistent with autoimmune hepatitis) were treated with prednisone with or without azathioprine or cyclosporine, and followed for a median duration of 44.5 months. Five patients (71%) showed improvement of median serum ALT level from 162 U/L to 38 U/L (p = 0.04) and median serum gamma-globulin from 2.1 g/dl to 1.4 g/dl (p = 0.04) by 6 months of therapy. The mean modified histological activity index score also decreased from 11.4 +/- 2.5 to 6.6 +/- 2.6 (p = 0.04) by at least 1 yr of therapy. One patient discontinued prednisone while taking azathioprine and experienced a rebound elevation of serum ALT that did not respond to retreatment with prednisone. Antiviral therapy was subsequently administered and resulted in biochemical and virologic response. Hepatitis C virus RNA remained detectable in all other patients. Corticosteroids are beneficial as a first line therapy for some patients with the hepatitis C-autoimmune overlap syndrome, resulting in appreciable biochemical and histological response but without viral eradication.

  9. 2D 1H -13C Heteronuclear Shift Correlation Of 2a - Hydroxy Aiantolactone From Pulicaria Undulata C.A. Mey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rustaiyan

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available We have reported recently the isolation and characterization of several sesquiterpene lactones from Pulicaria undulata (1."nThe lactones were isolated from an Et20 - Petrol (1:3 fraction by different chromatographic techniques including HPLC (RP 8, MeOH - H2O, 13:7."nIn this way three eudesmanolides 1 - 3, a guaianolide 4, a nor -guaianolide 5, as well as the pseudoguaianolide 6 and the xanthanolide 7 were isolated. One of the eudesmanolides (2a - hydroxy aiantolactone, 1, was present as the main component."nSuch lactones being known as biologically active substances, we have decided to describe for the first time a detailed interpretation of proton, 1H -NMR, 13C - NMR and 2D lH -13C - heteronuclear shift correlation spectra of 2a - hydroxy aiantolactone. The stereochemistry of C - 2 , C - 7 and C - 8 was determined by the NOESY experiments, H - 7 and H - 8 are in the a configuration and H - 2 is in the b configuration.

  10. The mean, the median, and the St. Petersburg paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Benjamin Y; Platt, Michael L

    2009-06-01

    The St. Petersburg Paradox is a famous economic and philosophical puzzle that has generated numerous conflicting explanations. To shed empirical light on this phenomenon, we examined subjects' bids for one St. Petersburg gamble with a real monetary payment. We found that bids were typically lower than twice the smallest payoff, and thus much lower than is generally supposed. We also examined bids offered for several hypothetical variants of the St. Petersburg Paradox. We found that bids were weakly affected by truncating the gamble, were strongly affected by repeats of the gamble, and depended linearly on the initial "seed" value of the gamble. One explanation, which we call the median heuristic , strongly predicts these data. Subjects following this strategy evaluate a gamble as if they were taking the median rather than the mean of the payoff distribution. Finally, we argue that the distribution of outcomes embodied in the St. Petersburg paradox is so divergent from the Gaussian form that the statistical mean is a poor estimator of expected value, so that the expected value of the St. Petersburg gamble is undefined. These results suggest that this classic paradox has a straightforward explanation rooted in the use of a statistical heuristic.

  11. Impact on malaria parasite multiplication rates in infected volunteers of the protein-in-adjuvant vaccine AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel+CPG 7909.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J A Duncan

    Full Text Available Inhibition of parasite growth is a major objective of blood-stage malaria vaccines. The in vitro assay of parasite growth inhibitory activity (GIA is widely used as a surrogate marker for malaria vaccine efficacy in the down-selection of candidate blood-stage vaccines. Here we report the first study to examine the relationship between in vivo Plasmodium falciparum growth rates and in vitro GIA in humans experimentally infected with blood-stage malaria.In this phase I/IIa open-label clinical trial five healthy malaria-naive volunteers were immunised with AMA1/C1-Alhydrogel+CPG 7909, and together with three unvaccinated controls were challenged by intravenous inoculation of P. falciparum infected erythrocytes.A significant correlation was observed between parasite multiplication rate in 48 hours (PMR and both vaccine-induced growth-inhibitory activity (Pearson r = -0.93 [95% CI: -1.0, -0.27] P = 0.02 and AMA1 antibody titres in the vaccine group (Pearson r = -0.93 [95% CI: -0.99, -0.25] P = 0.02. However immunisation failed to reduce overall mean PMR in the vaccine group in comparison to the controls (vaccinee 16 fold [95% CI: 12, 22], control 17 fold [CI: 0, 65] P = 0.70. Therefore no impact on pre-patent period was observed (vaccine group median 8.5 days [range 7.5-9], control group median 9 days [range 7-9].Despite the first observation in human experimental malaria infection of a significant association between vaccine-induced in vitro growth inhibitory activity and in vivo parasite multiplication rate, this did not translate into any observable clinically relevant vaccine effect in this small group of volunteers.ClinicalTrials.gov [NCT00984763].

  12. HbA1c levels in individuals heterozygous for hemoglobin variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Ricardo Silva; Souza, Fábio Oliveira de; Francescantonio, Isabel Cristina Carvalho Medeiros; Soares, Weslley Carvalho; Mesquita, Mauro Meira

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in patients heterozygous for hemoglobin variants and compare the results of this test with those of a control group. This was an experimental study based on the comparison of HbA1c tests in two different populations, with a test group represented by individuals heterozygous for hemoglobin variants (AS and AC) and a control group consisting of people with electrophoretic profile AA. The two populations were required to meet the following inclusion criteria: Normal levels of fasting glucose, hemoglobin, urea and triglycerides, bilirubin > 20 mg/dL and non-use of acetylsalicylic acid. 50 heterozygous subjects and 50 controls were evaluated between August 2013 and May 2014. The comparison of HbA1c levels between heterozygous individuals and control subjects was performed based on standard deviation, mean and G-Test. The study assessed a test group and a control group, both with 39 adults and 11 children. The mean among heterozygous adults for HbA1c was 5.0%, while the control group showed a rate of 5.74%. Heterozygous children presented mean HbA1c at 5.11%, while the controls were at 5.78%. G-Test yielded p=0.93 for children and p=0.89 for adults. Our study evaluated HbA1c using ion exchange chromatography resins, and the patients heterozygous for hemoglobin variants showed no significant difference from the control group.

  13. 1-Nitropyrene (1-NP) induces apoptosis and apparently a non-apoptotic programmed cell death (paraptosis) in Hepa1c1c7 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asare, Nana; Landvik, Nina E.; Lagadic-Gossmann, Dominique; Rissel, Mary; Tekpli, Xavier; Ask, Kjetil; Lag, Marit; Holme, Jorn A.

    2008-01-01

    Mechanistic studies of nitro-PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) of interest might help elucidate which chemical characteristics are most important in eliciting toxic effects. 1-Nitropyrene (1-NP) is the predominant nitrated PAH emitted in diesel exhaust. 1-NP-exposed Hepa1c1c7 cells exhibited marked changes in cellular morphology, decreased proliferation and different forms of cell death. A dramatic increase in cytoplasmic vacuolization was observed already after 6 h of exposure and the cells started to round up at 12 h. The rate of cell proliferation was markedly reduced at 24 h and apoptotic as well as propidium iodide (PI)-positive cells appeared. Electron microscopic examination revealed that the vacuolization was partly due to mitochondria swelling. The caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK inhibited only the apoptotic cell death and Nec-1 (an inhibitor of necroptosis) exhibited no inhibitory effects on either cell death or vacuolization. In contrast, cycloheximide markedly reduced both the number of apoptotic and PI-positive cells as well as the cytoplasmic vacuolization, suggesting that 1-NP induced paraptotic cell death. All the MAPKs; ERK1/2, p38 and JNK, appear to be involved in the death process since marked activation was observed upon 1-NP exposure, and their inhibitors partly reduced the induced cell death. The ERK1/2 inhibitor PD 98057 completely blocked the induced vacuolization, whereas the other MAPKs inhibitors only had minor effects on this process. These findings suggest that 1-NP may cause apoptosis and paraptosis. In contrast, the corresponding amine (1-aminopyrene) elicited only minor apoptotic and necrotic cell death, and cells with characteristics typical of paraptosis were absent

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14329-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2 0.41 3 ( DV113252 ) CV03005B1A12.f1 CV03-normalized library Euphorbia... 32 0.42 3 ( CB610770 ) ALBEDO0002_IaF_C05 Mature...NA non acclimated Bluecrop library Vaccin... 34 0.057 3 ( AL645532 ) Mouse DNA sequence from clone RP23-295E...formis cDNA, cleaving embryo clone:m... 38 0.085 2 ( CF811518 ) NA72 cDNA non acclimated Bluecrop library...TTEAF92THC Tetrahymena thermophila EST library, c... 44 0.22 2 ( AC096661 ) Homo sapiens BAC clone RP11-61G2...4425 ) TTEAV71THB Tetrahymena thermophila EST library, c... 44 0.27 2 ( CQ870098 ) Sequence 519 from Patent

  15. Evaluation of (+)-p-[11C]methylvesamicol for mapping sigma1 receptors: a comparison with [11C]SA4503

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiwata, Kiichi; Kawamura, Kazunori; Yajima, Kazuyoshi; QingGeLeTu; Mori, Hirofumi; Shiba, Kazuhiro

    2006-01-01

    Vesamicol is a leading compound for positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tracers for mapping the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). Recently, we found that (+)-p-methylvesamicol ((+)-PMV) has low affinity for VAChT (K i =199 nM), but has moderate to high affinity for sigma receptors: K i =3.0 nM for sigma 1 and K i =40.7 nM for sigma 2 , and that sigma 1 -selective SA4503 (K i =4.4 nM for sigma 1 and K i =242 nM for sigma 2 ) has moderate affinity for VAChT (K i =50.2 nM). In the present study, we examined the potential of (+)-[ 11 C]PMV as a PET radioligand for mapping sigma 1 receptors as compared with [ 11 C]SA4503. In rat brain, similar regional distribution patterns of (+)-[ 11 C]PMV and [ 11 C]SA4503 were shown by tissue dissection and by ex vivo autoradiography. Blocking experiments using (±)-PMV (-)-vesamicol, SA4503, haloperidol and (±)-pentazocine showed that the two tracers specifically bound to sigma 1 receptors, and that [ 11 C]SA4503 exhibited greater specific binding than (+)-[ 11 C]PMV. No sign of VAChT-specific binding by [ 11 C]SA4503 was observed in the striatum, which is rich in VAChT sites. In conclusion, (+)-[ 11 C]PMV specifically bound to sigma 1 receptors in the brain, but to a lesser extent than [ 11 C]SA4503, suggesting that (+)-[ 11 C]PMV is a less preferable PET ligand than [ 11 C]SA4503. On the other hand, the moderate affinity of [ 11 C]SA4503 for VAChT is negligible in vivo

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03328-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aria DNA, clone: DAB1-004E12.F.fa, ... 48 0.16 1 ( EC770709 ) EST 7205 Guarana fruits cDNA library Paul...... 44 2.4 1 ( EI726036 ) 2B421023C20TR BAC library from breast tumor sampl... 44...s sativus) mature stigma l... 44 2.4 1 ( EV118860 ) 0124172 Brassica napus Root lib...rary Brassica napu... 44 2.4 1 ( ES560299 ) B79 Ascochyta rabiei induced library Cicer arieti..... 50 0.040 1 ( BM027318 ) GIT0000656 Root-induced cDNA library from Glomus ... 50 0.040 1 ( BI505723 ) BB17

  17. Metabolomic profiling reveals a role for CPT1c in neuronal oxidative metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jieun; Wolfgang, Michael J

    2012-10-25

    Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase-1c (CPT1c) is a neuron specific homologue of the carnitine acyltransferase family of enzymes. CPT1 isoenzymes transfer long chain acyl groups to carnitine. This constitutes a rate setting step for mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation by facilitating the initial step in acyl transfer to the mitochondrial matrix. In general, neurons do not heavily utilize fatty acids for bioenergetic needs and definitive enzymatic activity has been unable to be demonstrated for CPT1c. Although there are studies suggesting an enzymatic role of CPT1c, its role in neurochemistry remains elusive. In order to better understand how CPT1c functions in neural metabolism, we performed unbiased metabolomic profiling on wild-type (WT) and CPT1c knockout (KO) mouse brains. Consistent with the notion that CPT1c is not involved in fatty acid beta-oxidation, there were no changes in metabolites associated with fatty acid oxidation. Endocannabinoids were suppressed in the CPT1c KO, which may explain the suppression of food intake seen in CPT1c KO mice. Although products of beta-oxidation were unchanged, small changes in carnitine and carnitine metabolites were observed. Finally, we observed changes in redox homeostasis including a greater than 2-fold increase in oxidized glutathione. This indicates that CPT1c may play a role in neural oxidative metabolism. Steady-state metabolomic analysis of CPT1c WT and KO mouse brains identified a small number of metabolites that differed between CPT1c WT and KO mice. The subtle changes in a broad range of metabolites in vivo indicate that CPT1c does not play a significant or required role in fatty acid oxidation; however, it could play an alternative role in neuronal oxidative metabolism.

  18. Metabolomic profiling reveals a role for CPT1c in neuronal oxidative metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jieun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase-1c (CPT1c is a neuron specific homologue of the carnitine acyltransferase family of enzymes. CPT1 isoenzymes transfer long chain acyl groups to carnitine. This constitutes a rate setting step for mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation by facilitating the initial step in acyl transfer to the mitochondrial matrix. In general, neurons do not heavily utilize fatty acids for bioenergetic needs and definitive enzymatic activity has been unable to be demonstrated for CPT1c. Although there are studies suggesting an enzymatic role of CPT1c, its role in neurochemistry remains elusive. Results In order to better understand how CPT1c functions in neural metabolism, we performed unbiased metabolomic profiling on wild-type (WT and CPT1c knockout (KO mouse brains. Consistent with the notion that CPT1c is not involved in fatty acid beta-oxidation, there were no changes in metabolites associated with fatty acid oxidation. Endocannabinoids were suppressed in the CPT1c KO, which may explain the suppression of food intake seen in CPT1c KO mice. Although products of beta-oxidation were unchanged, small changes in carnitine and carnitine metabolites were observed. Finally, we observed changes in redox homeostasis including a greater than 2-fold increase in oxidized glutathione. This indicates that CPT1c may play a role in neural oxidative metabolism. Conclusions Steady-state metabolomic analysis of CPT1c WT and KO mouse brains identified a small number of metabolites that differed between CPT1c WT and KO mice. The subtle changes in a broad range of metabolites in vivo indicate that CPT1c does not play a significant or required role in fatty acid oxidation; however, it could play an alternative role in neuronal oxidative metabolism.

  19. HbA1c for diagnosis and prognosis of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soon Sung; Kwon, Ja-Young; Park, Yong-Won; Kim, Young-Han; Lim, Jong-Baeck

    2015-10-01

    HbA1c is a widely used marker in diagnosing type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), but its clinical utility in diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is not established. Here, we evaluated the clinical usefulness of HbA1c in diagnosing GDM and predicting the risk of future type 2 DM development among GDM patients. This retrospective, cross-sectional study included 321 subjects who underwent 100-g oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) during pregnancy. HbA1c and other variables were analyzed to evaluate their diagnostic performance for GDM. To evaluate the clinical usefulness of HbA1c in predicting future type 2 DM development, we classified GDM subjects who had more than 3 months of follow-up data into two subgroups: those who developed postpartum type 2 DM (PDM) and those who did not. HbA1c was significantly higher in the GDM group than in the normal control group. With the 100-g OGTT as reference, HbA1c showed 91.3% sensitivity and 62% specificity at a cut-off value of 5.05% (32 mmol/mol) for GDM diagnosis. At a cut-off value of 5.25% (34 mmol/mol), sensitivity was 73.6% and specificity was 77.2%. HbA1c levels during pregnancy were higher in those with PDM than in those without PDM (5.91 [41 mmol/mol] vs. 5.44% [36 mmol/mol], p<0.001). The prognostic value of HbA1c for PDM was evaluated by ROC curve analysis, with sensitivity of 78.6% and specificity of 72.5% at a cut-off value of 5.55% (37 mmol/mol). HbA1c showed high sensitivity with relatively low specificity for diagnosis of GDM in pregnant women and was a potential predictor of PDM. HbA1c may be able to be used as a simple and less invasive alternative screening test for OGTT in GDM patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Potentiation of C1-esterase inhibitor by heparin and interactions with C1s protease as assessed by surface plasmon resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Mohsen; Struble, Evi; Zhou, Zhaohua; Karnaukhova, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Human C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) is a multifunctional plasma protein with a wide range of inhibitory and non-inhibitory properties, mainly recognized as a key down-regulator of the complement and contact cascades. The potentiation of C1-INH by heparin and other glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) regulates a broad spectrum of C1-INH activities in vivo both in normal and disease states. SCOPE OF RESEARCH: We have studied the potentiation of human C1-INH by heparin using Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR), circular dichroism (CD) and a functional assay. To advance a SPR for multiple-unit interaction studies of C1-INH we have developed a novel (consecutive double capture) approach exploring different immobilization and layout. Our SPR experiments conducted in three different design versions showed marked acceleration in C1-INH interactions with complement protease C1s as a result of potentiation of C1-INH by heparin (from 5- to 11-fold increase of the association rate). Far-UV CD studies suggested that heparin binding did not alter C1-INH secondary structure. Functional assay using chromogenic substrate confirmed that heparin does not affect the amidolytic activity of C1s, but does accelerate its consumption due to C1-INH potentiation. This is the first report that directly demonstrates a significant acceleration of the C1-INH interactions with C1s due to heparin by using a consecutive double capture SPR approach. The results of this study may be useful for further C-INH therapeutic development, ultimately for the enhancement of current C1-INH replacement therapies. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. A review of variant hemoglobins interfering with hemoglobin A1c measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Randie R; Roberts, William L

    2009-05-01

    Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is used routinely to monitor long-term glycemic control in people with diabetes mellitus, as HbA1c is related directly to risks for diabetic complications. The accuracy of HbA1c methods can be affected adversely by the presence of hemoglobin (Hb) variants or elevated levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF). The effect of each variant or elevated HbF must be examined with each specific method. The most common Hb variants worldwide are HbS, HbE, HbC, and HbD. All of these Hb variants have single amino acid substitutions in the Hb beta chain. HbF is the major hemoglobin during intrauterine life; by the end of the first year, HbF falls to values close to adult levels of approximately 1%. However, elevated HbF levels can occur in certain pathologic conditions or with hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin. In a series of publications over the past several years, the effects of these four most common Hb variants and elevated HbF have been described. There are clinically significant interferences with some methods for each of these variants. A summary is given showing which methods are affected by the presence of the heterozygous variants S, E, C, and D and elevated HbF. Methods are divided by type (immunoassay, ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography, boronate affinity, other) with an indication of whether the result is artificially increased or decreased by the presence of a Hb variant. Laboratorians should be aware of the limitations of their method with respect to these interferences. 2009 Diabetes Technology Society.

  2. Statistical properties of the deviations of f 0 F 2 from monthly medians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tulunay

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The deviations of hourly f 0 F 2 from monthly medians for 20 stations in Europe during the period 1958-1998 are studied. Spectral analysis is used to show that, both for original data (for each hour and for the deviations from monthly medians, the deterministic components are the harmonics of 11 years (solar cycle, 1 year and its harmonics, 27 days and 12 h 50.49 m (2nd harmonic of lunar rotation period L 2 periodicities. Using histograms for one year samples, it is shown that the deviations from monthly medians are nearly zero mean (mean < 0.5 and approximately Gaussian (relative difference range between %10 to %20 and their standard deviations are larger for daylight hours (in the range 5-7. It is shown that the amplitude distribution of the positive and negative deviations is nearly symmetrical at night hours, but asymmetrical for day hours. The positive and negative deviations are then studied separately and it is observed that the positive deviations are nearly independent of R12 except for high latitudes, but negative deviations are modulated by R12 . The 90% confidence interval for negative deviations for each station and each hour is computed as a linear model in terms of R12. After correction for local time, it is shown that for all hours the confidence intervals increase with latitude but decrease above 60N. Long-term trend analysis showed that there is an increase in the amplitude of positive deviations from monthly means irrespective of the solar conditions. Using spectral analysis it is also shown that the seasonal dependency of negative deviations is more accentuated than the seasonal dependency of positive deviations especially at low latitudes. In certain stations, it is also observed that the 4th harmonic of 1 year corresponding to a periodicity of 3 months, which is missing in f 0 F 2 data, appears in the spectra of negative variations.

  3. 17 CFR 270.3c-1 - Definition of beneficial ownership for certain 3(c)(1) funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of beneficial... AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.3c-1 Definition of beneficial ownership for certain 3(c)(1) funds. (a) As used in this section: (1) The term...

  4. Alcohol consumption reduces HbA1c and glycated albumin concentrations but not 1,5-anhydroglucitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Shinya; Koga, Masafumi

    2017-11-01

    Background The effect of alcohol consumption on glycaemic control indicators is not well known. In this study, we studied the effect of alcohol consumption on the plasma glucose and glycaemic control indicators in non-diabetic men. Methods The study enrolled 300 non-diabetic men who received a complete medical checkup (age: 52.8 ± 6.5 years, body mass index: 24.4 ± 2.8 kg/m 2 ). The subjects were divided into four groups by the amount of alcohol consumed, and the plasma glucose, HbA1c, glycated albumin (GA) and 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) concentrations of the groups were compared. Results As the level of alcohol consumption increased, significantly high concentrations of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) were observed, and the oral glucose tolerance test 2-h plasma glucose concentrations tended to rise. While no significant effect of alcohol consumption on HbA1c, 1,5-AG, and the 1,5-AG/FPG ratio was observed, the HbA1c/FPG ratio, GA and the GA/FPG ratio exhibited significantly low values as the level of alcohol consumption increased. In stepwise multivariate regression analysis, alcohol consumption was a significant negative independent variable for HbA1c and GA, but not for 1,5-AG. Conclusions As the level of alcohol consumption increas